WorldWideScience

Sample records for su3 breaking effects

  1. Evidence for SU(3) symmetry breaking from hyperon production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Jianjun

    2002-01-01

    We examine the SU(3) symmetry breaking in hyperon semileptonic decays (HSD) by considering two typical sets of quark contributions to the spin content of the octet baryons: set 1 with SU(3) flavor symmetry and set 2 with SU(3) flavor symmetry breaking in the HSD. The quark distributions of the octet baryons are calculated with a successful statistical model. Using an approximate relation between the quark fragmentation functions and the quark distributions, we predict the polarizations of the octet baryons produced in e + e - annihilation and semi-inclusive deep lepton-nucleon scattering in order to reveal the SU(3) symmetry breaking effect on the spin structure of the octet baryons. We find that the SU(3) symmetry breaking significantly affects the hyperon polarization. The available experimental data on the Λ polarization seem to favor the theoretical predictions with SU(3) symmetry breaking. We conclude that there is a possibility to get collateral evidence for SU(3) symmetry breaking from hyperon production. The theoretical errors for our predictions are discussed

  2. SU(3) flavour symmetry breaking and charmed states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horsley, R. [Edinburgh Univ. (United Kingdom). School of Physics and Astronomy; Najjar, J. [Regensburg Univ. (Germany). Institut fuer Theoretische Physik; Nakamura, Y. [RIKEN Advanced Institute for Computational Science, Hyogo (Japan); Perlt, H.; Schiller, A. [Leipzig Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Pleiter, D. [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (Germany). Juelich Supercomputing Centre (JSC); Regensburg Univ. (Germany). Institut fuer Theoretische Physik; Rakow, P.E.L. [Liverpool Univ. (United Kingdom). Theoretical Physics Div.; Schierholz, G. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Stueben, H. [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). Regionales Rechenzentrum; Zanotti, J.M. [Adelaide Univ. (Australia). CSSM, School of Chemistry and Physics; Collaboration: QCDSF-UKQCD Collaborations

    2013-11-15

    By extending the SU(3) flavour symmetry breaking expansion from up, down and strange sea quark masses to partially quenched valence quark masses we propose a method to determine charmed quark hadron masses including possible QCD isospin breaking effects. Initial results for some open charmed pseudoscalar meson states and singly and doubly charmed baryon states are encouraging and demonstrate the potential of the procedure. Essential for the method is the determination of the scale using singlet quantities, and to this end we also give here a preliminary estimation of the recently introduced Wilson flow scales.

  3. SU(3) flavour breaking and baryon structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooke, A.N.; Horsley, R. [Edinburgh Univ. (United Kingdom). School of Physics and Astronomy; Nakamura, Y. [RIKEN Advanced Institute for Computational Science, Kobe, Hyogo (Japan); Pleiter, D. [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (Germany). Juelich Supercomputing Centre (JSC); Regensburg Univ. (Germany). Institut fuer Theoretische Physik; Rakow, P.E.L. [Liverpool Univ. (United Kingdom). Theoretical Physics Div.; Shanahan, P.; Zanotti, J.M. [Adelaide Univ., SA (Australia). CSSM, School of Chemistry and Physics; Schierholz, G. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Stueben, H. [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). Regionales Rechenzentrum; Collaboration: QCDSF/UKQCD Collaboration

    2013-11-15

    We present results from the QCDSF/UKQCD collaboration for hyperon electromagnetic form factors and axial charges obtained from simulations using N{sub f}=2+1 flavours of O(a)-improved Wilson fermions. We also consider matrix elements relevant for hyperon semileptonic decays. We find flavour-breaking effects in hyperon magnetic moments which are consistent with experiment, while our results for the connected quark spin content indicates that quarks contribute more to the spin of the {Xi} baryon than they do to the proton.

  4. Nucleon spin-flavor structure in the SU(3)-breaking chiral quark model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, X.; McCarthy, J.S.; Weber, H.J.

    1997-01-01

    The SU(3) symmetric chiral quark model, which describes interactions between quarks, gluons, and the Goldstone bosons, explains reasonably well many aspects of the flavor and spin structure of the proton, except for the values of f 3 /f 8 and Δ 3 /Δ 8 . Introducing the SU(3)-breaking effect suggested by the mass difference between the strange and nonstrange quarks, we find that this discrepancy can be removed and better overall agreement obtained. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  5. Quark Yukawa pattern from spontaneous breaking of flavour SU(3) 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nardi, Enrico

    2015-10-01

    A SU(3)Q × SU(3)u × SU(3)d invariant scalar potential breaking spontaneously the quark flavour symmetry can explain the Standard Model flavour puzzle. The approximate alignment in flavour space of the vacuum expectation values of the up and down 'Yukawa fields' results as a dynamical effect. The observed quark mixing angles, the weak CP violating phase, and hierarchical quark masses can be all reproduced at the cost of introducing additional (auxiliary) scalar multiplets, but without the need of introducing hierarchical parameters.

  6. SU(3) breaking in hyperon transition vector form factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shanahan, P.E.; Thomas, A.W.; Young, R.D.; Zanotti, J.M.; Rakow, P.E.L.

    2015-08-01

    We present a calculation of the SU(3)-breaking corrections to the hyperon transition vector form factors to O(p 4 ) in heavy baryon chiral perturbation theory with finite-range regularisation. Both octet and decuplet degrees of freedom are included. We formulate a chiral expansion at the kinematic point Q 2 =-(M B 1 -M B 2 ) 2 , which can be conveniently accessed in lattice QCD. The two unknown low-energy constants at this point are constrained by lattice QCD simulation results for the Σ - →n and Ξ 0 →Σ + transition form factors. Hence we determine lattice-informed values of f 1 at the physical point. This work constitutes progress towards the precise determination of vertical stroke V us vertical stroke from hyperon semileptonic decays.

  7. Leading SU(3)-breaking corrections to the baryon magnetic moments in chiral perturbation theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, L S; Camalich, J Martin; Alvarez-Ruso, L; Vacas, M J Vicente

    2008-11-28

    We calculate the baryon magnetic moments using covariant chiral perturbation theory (chiPT) within the extended-on-mass-shell renormalization scheme. By fitting the two available low-energy constants, we improve the Coleman-Glashow description of the data when we include the leading SU(3)-breaking effects coming from the lowest-order loops. This success is in dramatic contrast with previous attempts at the same order using heavy-baryon chiPT and covariant infrared chiPT. We also analyze the source of this improvement with particular attention to the comparison between the covariant results.

  8. Kink-induced symmetry breaking patterns in brane-world SU(3)^3 trinification models

    OpenAIRE

    Demaria, Alison; Volkas, Raymond R.

    2005-01-01

    The trinification grand unified theory (GUT) has gauge group SU(3)^3 and a discrete symmetry permuting the SU(3) factors. In common with other GUTs, the attractive nature of the fermionic multiplet assignments is obviated by the complicated multi-parameter Higgs potential apparently needed for phenomenological reasons, and also by vacuum expectation value (VEV) hierarchies within a given multiplet. This motivates the rigorous consideration of Higgs potentials, symmetry breaking patterns and a...

  9. SU(3) breaking and the pseudo-scalar spectrum in multi-taste QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Creutz, Michael

    2017-06-18

    Using the Sigma model to explore the lowest order pseudo-scalar spectrum with SU(3) breaking, this talk considers an additional exact "taste" symmetry to mimic species doubling. Rooting replicas of a valid approach such as Wilson fermions reproduces the desired physical spectrum. In contrast, extra symmetries of the rooted staggered approach leave spurious states and a flavor dependent taste multiplicity.

  10. Baryon axial-vector couplings and SU(3)-symmetry breaking in chiral quark models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horvat, D.; Ilakovac, A.; Tadic, D.

    1986-01-01

    SU(3)-symmetry breaking is studied in the framework of the chiral bag models. Comparisons are also made with the MIT bag model and the harmonic-oscillator quark model. An important clue for the nature of the symmetry breaking comes from the isoscalar axial-vector coupling constant g/sub A//sup S/ which can be indirectly estimated from the Bjorken sum rules for deep-inelastic scattering. The chiral bag model with two radii reasonably well accounts for the empirical values of g/sub A//sup S/ and of the axial-vector coupling constants measured in hyperon semileptonic decays

  11. Kink-induced symmetry breaking patterns in brane-world SU(3)3 trinification models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demaria, Alison; Volkas, Raymond R.

    2005-01-01

    The trinification grand unified theory (GUT) has gauge group SU(3) 3 and a discrete symmetry permuting the SU(3) factors. In common with other GUTs, the attractive nature of the fermionic multiplet assignments is obviated by the complicated multiparameter Higgs potential apparently needed for phenomenological reasons, and also by vacuum expectation value (VEV) hierarchies within a given multiplet. This motivates the rigorous consideration of Higgs potentials, symmetry breaking patterns, and alternative symmetry breaking mechanisms in models with this gauge group. Specifically, we study the recently proposed 'clash of symmetries' brane-world mechanism to see if it can help with the symmetry breaking conundrum. This requires a detailed analysis of Higgs potential global minima and kink or domain wall solutions interpolating between the disconnected global minima created through spontaneous discrete symmetry breaking. Sufficiently long-lived metastable kinks can also be considered. We develop what we think is an interesting, albeit speculative, brane-world scheme whereby the hierarchical symmetry breaking cascade, trinification to left-right symmetry to the standard model to color cross electromagnetism, may be induced without an initial hierarchy in vacuum expectation values. Another motivation for this paper is simply to continue the exploration of the rich class of kinks arising in models that are invariant under both discrete and continuous symmetries

  12. The SU(3)xU(1) invariant breaking of gauged N=8 supergravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicolai, H.; Warner, N.P.

    1985-01-01

    The SU(3) x U(1) invariant stationary point of N=8 supergravity is described in some detail. This vacuum has N=2 supersymmetry, and it is shown how the fields of N=8 supergravity may be collected into multiplets of SU(3) x Osp(2, 4). A new kind of shortened massive multiplet is described, and the multiplet shortening conditions for this and other multiplets are used to determine, by the use of group theory alone, the masses of many of the fields in the vacuum. The remaining masses are determined by explicit calculation. The critical point realizes Gell-Mann's scheme for relating the spin-1/2 fermions of the theory to the observed quarks and leptons. (orig.)

  13. Symmetry breaking and asymptotic freedom in colour SU(3) gauge models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, E.

    1976-01-01

    A class of quark models based on the colour gauge group SU(3) is shown to be asymptotically free despite the complete breakdown of local symmetry to guarantee infrared stability. The symmetry breakdown is achieved by the presence of elementary scalar fields either through the Higgs mechanism or dynamically as first proposed by Coleman and Weinberg. Asymptotic freedom is preserved by imposing eigenvalue conditions on the coupling constants as first proposed by Chang. New quark species must be present, but below their production threshold, colour can still be a global symmetry which is approximate under SU(3), but exact under SU(2). Among the many implications of this class of models is the possibility of producing isolated quarks and gluons of non-zero mass without altering the short-distance behaviour of the superstrong interaction which binds them. (Auth.)

  14. Remark on the higher order perturbative studies of flavor breaking in the standard SU(3) skyrmion quantum mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Jinping; Yan Mulin

    1997-01-01

    A quantitative criterion is proposed for testing the rationality of an effective QCD baryon theory. The higher order corrections of the standard SU(3) Skyrme model to the Gell-Mann-Okubo relations for baryons are studied according to the criterion, and some interesting results are presented. A possible prescription is recommended

  15. Final-state rescattering and SU(3) symmetry breaking in B→DK and B→DK* decays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xing, Z.Z.

    2003-01-01

    The first observation of the anti B 0 d →D 0 anti K 0 and anti B 0 d →D 0 anti K *0 transitions by the Belle Collaboration allows us to do a complete isospin analysis of the B→DK (*) decay modes. We find that their respective isospin phase shifts are very likely to lie in the ranges 37 circle ≤(φ 1 -φ 0 ) DK ≤63 circle (or around 50 circle ) and 25 circle ≤(φ 1 -φ 0 ) DK * ≤50 circle (or around 35 circle ), although the possibility (φ 1 -φ 0 ) DK = (φ 1 -φ 0 ) DK * = 0 circle cannot be ruled out at present. Thus significant final-state rescattering effects possibly exist in such exclusive vertical stroke ΔB vertical stroke = vertical stroke ΔC vertical stroke = vertical stroke ΔS vertical stroke =1 processes. We determine the spectator and color-suppressed spectator quark-diagram amplitudes of the B→DK and B→DK * decays, and compare them with the corresponding quark-diagram amplitudes of the B→Dπ and B→Dρ decays. The effects of SU(3) flavor symmetry breaking are in most cases understandable in the factorization approximation, which works for the individual isospin amplitudes. Very instructive predictions are also obtained for the branching fractions of rare anti B 0 d → anti D 0 anti K (*)0 , B - u → anti D 0 K (*)- and B - u →D - anti K (*)0 transitions. (orig.)

  16. Hyperons in nuclear matter from SU(3) chiral effective field theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petschauer, S.; Kaiser, N. [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Physik Department, Garching (Germany); Haidenbauer, J. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Forschungszentrum Juelich, Institute for Advanced Simulation, Juelich Center for Hadron Physics, Juelich (Germany); Meissner, Ulf G. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Forschungszentrum Juelich, Institute for Advanced Simulation, Juelich Center for Hadron Physics, Juelich (Germany); Universitaet Bonn, Helmholtz-Institut fuer Strahlen- und Kernphysik and Bethe Center for Theoretical Physics, Bonn (Germany); Weise, W. [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Physik Department, Garching (Germany); Villa Tambosi, ECT, Villazzano (Trento) (Italy)

    2016-01-15

    Brueckner theory is used to investigate the properties of hyperons in nuclear matter. The hyperon-nucleon interaction is taken from chiral effective field theory at next-to-leading order with SU(3) symmetric low-energy constants. Furthermore, the underlying nucleon-nucleon interaction is also derived within chiral effective field theory. We present the single-particle potentials of Λ and Σ hyperons in symmetric and asymmetric nuclear matter computed with the continuous choice for intermediate spectra. The results are in good agreement with the empirical information. In particular, our calculation gives a repulsive Σ-nuclear potential and a weak Λ-nuclear spin-orbit force. (orig.)

  17. Baryonic forces and hyperons in nuclear matter from SU(3) chiral effective field theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petschauer, Stefan Karl

    2016-02-12

    In this work the baryon-baryon interaction is studied at next-to-leading order in SU(3) chiral effective field theory and applied to hyperon-nucleon scattering. The properties of hyperons in isospin-symmetric as well as asymmetric nuclear matter are calculated within the Bruecker-Hartree-Fock formalism. Moreover, the leading three-baryon interaction is derived and its low-energy constants are estimated from decuplet intermediate states. We conclude, that chiral effective field theory is a well-suited tool to describe the baryonic forces.

  18. Flavour breaking effects in the pseudoscalar meson decay constants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bornyakov, V.G. [Institute for High Energy Physics, Protvino (Russian Federation); Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Moscow (Russian Federation); Far Eastern Federal Univ., Vladivostok (Russian Federation). School of Biomedicine; Horsley, R. [Edinburgh Univ. (United Kingdom). School of Physics and Astronomy; Nakamura, Y. [RIKEN Advanced Institute for Computational Science, Hyogo (Japan); Perlt, H.; Schiller, A. [Leipzig Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Pleiter, D. [Forschungszentrum Juelich (Germany). Juelich Supercomputing Centre; Regensburg Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Rakow, P.E.L. [Liverpool Univ. (United Kingdom). Theoretical Physics Division; Schierholz, G. [DESY Hamburg (Germany); Stueben, H. [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). Regionales Rechenzentrum; Zanotti, J.M. [Adelaide Univ. (Australia). CSSM, Dept. of Physics; Collaboration: QCDSF-UKQCD Collaborations

    2016-12-14

    The SU(3) flavour symmetry breaking expansion in up, down and strange quark masses is extended from hadron masses to meson decay constants. This allows a determination of the ratio of kaon to pion decay constants in QCD. Furthermore when using partially quenched valence quarks the expansion is such that SU(2) isospin breaking effects can also be determined. It is found that the lowest order SU(3) flavour symmetry breaking expansion (or Gell-Mann-Okubo expansion) works very well. Simulations are performed for 2+1 flavours of clover fermions at four lattice spacings.

  19. Hyperons in nuclear matter from SU(3) chiral effective field theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petschauer, Stefan; Kaiser, Norbert [Technische Universitaet Muenchen (Germany); Haidenbauer, Johann [Forschungszentrum Juelich (Germany); Meissner, Ulf G. [Forschungszentrum Juelich (Germany); Universitaet Bonn (Germany); Weise, Wolfram [Technische Universitaet Muenchen (Germany); ECT, Trento (Italy)

    2016-07-01

    Brueckner theory is used to investigate the properties of hyperons in nuclear matter. The hyperon-nucleon interaction is taken from chiral effective field theory at next-to-leading order with SU(3) symmetric low-energy constants. Furthermore, the underlying nucleon-nucleon interaction is also derived within chiral effective field theory. We present the single-particle potentials of Λ and Σ hyperons in symmetric and asymmetric nuclear matter computed with the continuous choice for intermediate spectra. The results are in good agreement with the empirical information. In particular, our calculation gives a repulsive Σ-nuclear potential and a weak Λ-nuclear spin-orbit force. The splittings among the Σ{sup +}, Σ{sup 0} and Σ{sup -} potentials have a non-linear dependence on the isospin asymmetry which goes beyond the usual parametrization in terms of an isovector Lane potential.

  20. Signature effect in the SU(3) limit of SU(6) particle-quadrupole phonon coupling model (PTQM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paar, V.; Brant, S.

    1981-09-01

    Systematic deviations from the J(J + 1) energy rule in the SU(3) limit of PTQM are studied and interpreted in terms of signature from the rotational model. The signature effect, which is in the rotational mode introduced via the Coriolis force, is generated here by the correlation of PTQM. (author)

  1. Static properties of baryons in the SU(3) Skyrme model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sriram, M.S.; Mani, H.S.; Ramachandran, R.

    1984-01-01

    We study the SU(3) x SU(3) Skyrme model with explicit chiral- and flavor-symmetry-breaking terms. We evaluate the SU(3)-symmetric meson-baryon coupling-constant ratio α, SU(3) mass breaking in the octet and decuplet, and the ΔI = 1 part of the electromagnetic mass splitting in baryons. The theoretical numbers are in reasonable agreement with the experimental values

  2. Dark revelations of the [SU(3]3 and [SU(3]4 gauge extensions of the standard model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corey Kownacki

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Two theoretically well-motivated gauge extensions of the standard model are SU(3SU(3SU(3R and SU(3SU(3SU(3SU(3R, where SU(3q is the same as SU(3C and SU(3l is its color leptonic counterpart. Each has three variations, according to how SU(3R is broken. It is shown here for the first time that a built-in dark U(1D gauge symmetry exists in all six versions. However, the corresponding symmetry breaking pattern does not reduce properly to that of the standard model, unless an additional Z2′ symmetry is defined, so that U(1D×Z2′ is broken to Z2 dark parity. The available dark matter candidates in each case include fermions, scalars, as well as vector gauge bosons. This work points to the possible unity of matter with dark matter, the origin of which may not be ad hoc.

  3. Dark revelations of the [SU(3)]3 and [SU(3)]4 gauge extensions of the standard model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kownacki, Corey; Ma, Ernest; Pollard, Nicholas; Popov, Oleg; Zakeri, Mohammadreza

    2018-02-01

    Two theoretically well-motivated gauge extensions of the standard model are SU(3)C × SU(3)L × SU(3)R and SU(3)q × SU(3)L × SU(3)l × SU(3)R, where SU(3)q is the same as SU(3)C and SU(3)l is its color leptonic counterpart. Each has three variations, according to how SU(3)R is broken. It is shown here for the first time that a built-in dark U(1)D gauge symmetry exists in all six versions. However, the corresponding symmetry breaking pattern does not reduce properly to that of the standard model, unless an additional Z2‧ symmetry is defined, so that U(1)D ×Z2‧ is broken to Z2 dark parity. The available dark matter candidates in each case include fermions, scalars, as well as vector gauge bosons. This work points to the possible unity of matter with dark matter, the origin of which may not be ad hoc.

  4. Finite subgroups of SU(3)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bovier, A.; Lueling, M.; Wyler, D.

    1980-12-01

    We present a new class of finite subgroups of SU(3) of the form Zsub(m) s zsub(n) (semidirect product). We also apply the methods used to investigate semidirect products to the known SU(3) subgroups Δ(3n 2 ) and Δ(6n 2 ) and give analytic formulae for representations (characters) and Clebsch-Gordan coefficients. (orig.)

  5. Dimensional Reduction of N=1, E_8 SYM over SU(3)/U(1) x U(1) x Z_3 and its four-dimensional effective action

    CERN Document Server

    Irges, Nikos; Zoupanos, George

    2011-01-01

    We present an extension of the Standard Model inspired by the E_8 x E_8 Heterotic String. In order that a reasonable effective Lagrangian is presented we neglect everything else other than the ten-dimensional N=1 supersymmetric Yang-Mills sector associated with one of the gauge factors and certain couplings necessary for anomaly cancellation. We consider a compactified space-time M_4 x B_0 / Z_3, where B_0 is the nearly-Kaehler manifold SU(3)/U(1) x U(1) and Z_3 is a freely acting discrete group on B_0. Then we reduce dimensionally the E_8 on this manifold and we employ the Wilson flux mechanism leading in four dimensions to an SU(3)^3 gauge theory with the spectrum of a N=1 supersymmetric theory. We compute the effective four-dimensional Lagrangian and demonstrate that an extension of the Standard Model is obtained with interesting features including a conserved baryon number and fixed tree level Yukawa couplings and scalar potential. The spectrum contains new states such as right handed neutrinos and heavy ...

  6. Improving long term driving comfort by taking breaks - how break activity affects effectiveness

    OpenAIRE

    Sammonds, GM; Mansfield, NJ; Fray, M

    2017-01-01

    During long duration journeys, drivers are encouraged to take regular breaks. The benefits of breaks have been documented for safety; breaks may also be beneficial for comfort. The activity undertaken during a break may influence its effectiveness. Volunteers completed 3 journeys on a driving simulator. Each 130 min journey included a 10 min break after the first hour. During the break volunteers either stayed seated, left the simulator and sat in an adjacent room, or took a walk on a treadmi...

  7. Effective potential and chiral symmetry breaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hochberg, David

    2010-01-01

    The nonequilibrium effective potential is calculated for the Frank model of spontaneous mirror-symmetry breaking in chemistry in which external noise is introduced to account for random environmental effects. The well-mixed limit, corresponding to negligible diffusion, and the case of diffusion in two space dimensions are studied in detail. White noise has a disordering effect in the former case, whereas in the latter case a phase transition occurs for external noise exceeding a critical intensity which racemizes the system.

  8. Hyperon decays and spectrum generating SU(3)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teese, R.B.; Boehm, A.

    1976-02-01

    The research program described in this review is aimed at describing the properties of relativistic one-hadron systems by an algebra of observables, in analogy to the nonrelativistic description of atoms. This formalism has recently been applied to the leptonic and semi-leptonic decays of pseudoscalar mesons, and was shown to be capable of predicting both the suppression of strangeness changing decays and the value of the form factor ratio xi in K/sub l 3 / decay. A preliminary description of the leptonic decays of hyperons indicates that second class matrix elements are predicted as a consequence of a precise formulation of SU(3) symmetry breaking. A chi 2 -fit to the experimental data indicates that this preliminary model is an improvement over the usual Cabibbo model, and points the way for further theoretical work. It is hoped that this program will lead to a model for the leptonic decays of hadrons which improves upon the results of the Cabibbo model and which explains some of the assumptions of that model

  9. Colour-symmetry-breaking effects in hard processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Efremov, A.V.

    1982-01-01

    A possibility of colour symmetry U(1)xSU(3)sub(C) spontaneous breaking and integer-charged quarks is considered. It is argued that one-photon processes are sensitive only to the colour-averaged charges of quarks and gluons. The true charges can be observed in rigid processes involving at least two real photons. The available now experimental data on processes #betta#p → #betta#X, #betta##betta# → jet+jet are in better agreement with the integer-charges than with the standard QCD

  10. The effects of flavour symmetry breaking on hadron matrix elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooke, A.N.; Horsley, R.; Pleiter, D.; Zanotti, J.M.

    2012-12-01

    By considering a flavour expansion about the SU(3)-flavour symmetric point, we investigate how flavour-blindness constrains octet baryon matrix elements after SU(3) is broken by the mass difference between the strange and light quarks. We find the expansions to be highly constrained along a mass trajectory where the singlet quark mass is held constant, which proves beneficial for extrapolations of 2+1 flavour lattice data to the physical point. We investigate these effects numerically via a lattice calculation of the flavour-conserving and flavour-changing matrix elements of the vector and axial operators between octet baryon states.

  11. The effects of flavour symmetry breaking on hadron matrix elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooke, A.N.; Horsley, R. [Edinburgh Univ. (United Kingdom). School of Physics and Astronomy; Nakamura, Y. [RIKEN Advanced Institute for Computational Science, Kobe (Japan); Pleiter, D. [Juelich Research Centre (Germany); Regensburg Univ. (Germany). Institut fuer Theoretische Physik; Rakow, P.E.L. [Liverpool Univ. (United Kingdom). Theoretical Physics Division; Schierholz, G. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Zanotti, J.M. [Adelaide Univ. (Australia). School of Chemistry and Physics

    2012-12-15

    By considering a flavour expansion about the SU(3)-flavour symmetric point, we investigate how flavour-blindness constrains octet baryon matrix elements after SU(3) is broken by the mass difference between the strange and light quarks. We find the expansions to be highly constrained along a mass trajectory where the singlet quark mass is held constant, which proves beneficial for extrapolations of 2+1 flavour lattice data to the physical point. We investigate these effects numerically via a lattice calculation of the flavour-conserving and flavour-changing matrix elements of the vector and axial operators between octet baryon states.

  12. Improving long term driving comfort by taking breaks - How break activity affects effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sammonds, George M; Mansfield, Neil J; Fray, Mike

    2017-11-01

    During long duration journeys, drivers are encouraged to take regular breaks. The benefits of breaks have been documented for safety; breaks may also be beneficial for comfort. The activity undertaken during a break may influence its effectiveness. Volunteers completed 3 journeys on a driving simulator. Each 130 min journey included a 10 min break after the first hour. During the break volunteers either stayed seated, left the simulator and sat in an adjacent room, or took a walk on a treadmill. The results show a reduction in driver discomfort during the break for all 3 conditions, but the effectiveness of the break was dependent on activity undertaken. Remaining seated in the vehicle provided some improvement in comfort, but more was experienced after leaving the simulator and sitting in an adjacent room. The most effective break occurred when the driver walked for 10 min on a treadmill. The benefits from taking a break continued until the end of the study (after a further hour of driving), such that comfort remained the best after taking a walk and worst for those who remained seated. It is concluded that taking a break and taking a walk is an effective method for relieving driving discomfort. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Charmless B→VP decays using flavor SU(3) symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiang Chengwei; Gronau, Michael; Luo Zumin; Rosner, Jonathan L.; Suprun, Denis A.

    2004-01-01

    The decays of B mesons to a charmless vector (V) and pseudoscalar (P) meson are analyzed within a framework of flavor SU(3) in which symmetry breaking is taken into account through ratios of decay constants in tree (T) amplitudes but exact SU(3) is assumed for color-suppressed and penguin amplitudes. The magnitudes and relative phases of tree and penguin amplitudes are extracted from data, the symmetry assumption is tested, and predictions are made for rates and CP asymmetries in as-yet-unseen decay modes. A key assumption for which we perform some tests and suggest others is a relation between penguin amplitudes in which the spectator quark is incorporated into either a pseudoscalar meson or a vector meson. Values of γ slightly restricting the range currently allowed by fits to other data are favored, but outside this range there remain acceptable solutions which cannot be excluded solely on the basis of present B→VP experiments

  14. Phenomenology of the SU(3)cxSU(3)LxU(1)X model with exotic charged leptons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salazar, Juan C.; Ponce, William A.; Gutierrez, Diego A.

    2007-01-01

    A phenomenological analysis of the three-family model based on the local gauge group SU(3) c xSU(3) L xU(1) X with exotic charged leptons, is carried out. Instead of using the minimal scalar sector able to break the symmetry in a proper way, we introduce an alternative set of four Higgs scalar triplets, which combined with an anomaly-free discrete symmetry, produce quark and charged lepton mass spectrum without hierarchies in the Yukawa coupling constants. We also embed the structure into a simple gauge group and show some conditions to achieve a low energy gauge coupling unification, avoiding possible conflict with proton decay bounds. By using experimental results from the CERN-LEP, SLAC linear collider, and atomic parity violation data, we update constraints on several parameters of the model

  15. Phenomenology of the SU(3)c x SU(3)L x U(1)X model with right-handed neutrinos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutierrez, D.A.; Ponce, W.A.; Sanchez, L.A.

    2006-01-01

    A phenomenological analysis of the three-family model based on the local gauge group SU(3) c x SU(3) L x U(1) X with right-handed neutrinos is carried out. Instead of using the minimal scalar sector able to break the symmetry in a proper way, we introduce an alternative set of four Higgs scalar triplets, which combined with an anomaly-free discrete symmetry, produces a quark mass spectrum without hierarchies in the Yukawa coupling constants. We also embed the structure into a simple gauge group and show some conditions for achieving a low energy gauge coupling unification, avoiding possible conflict with proton decay bounds. By using experimental results from the CERN-LEP, SLAC linear collider, and atomic parity violation data, we update constraints on several parameters of the model. (orig.)

  16. sdg boson model in the SU(3) scheme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akiyama, Y.

    1985-01-01

    Basic properties of the interacting boson model with s-, d- and g-bosons are investigated in rotational nuclei. An SU(3)-seniority scheme is found for the classification of physically important states according to a group reduction chain U(15)containsSU(3). The capability of describing rotational bands increases enormously in comparison with the ordinary sd interacting boson model. The sdg boson model is shown to be able to describe the so-called anharmonicity effect recently observed in the 168 Er nucleus. (orig.)

  17. sdg boson model in the SU(3) scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akiyama, Yoshimi

    1985-02-01

    Basic properties of the interacting boson model with s-, d- and g-bosons are investigated in rotational nuclei. An SU(3)-seniority scheme is found for the classification of physically important states according to a group reduction chain U(15) ⊃ SU(3). The capability of describing rotational bands increases enormously in comparison with the ordinary sd interacting boson model. The sdg boson model is shown to be able to describe the so-called anharmonicity effect recently observed in the 168Er nucleus.

  18. Sdg boson model in the SU(3) scheme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akiyama, Y.

    1985-02-11

    Basic properties of the interacting boson model with s-, d- and g-bosons are investigated in rotational nuclei. An SU(3)-seniority scheme is found for the classification of physically important states according to a group reduction chain U(15)containsSU(3). The capability of describing rotational bands increases enormously in comparison with the ordinary sd interacting boson model. The sdg boson model is shown to be able to describe the so-called anharmonicity effect recently observed in the /sup 168/Er nucleus.

  19. Semileptonic B-meson decays in SU(3)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Zuohong; Hou Yunzhi

    1994-01-01

    Based on the SU(3) approximate symmetry in the strong interaction three-body and four-body semileptonic B-meson decays are analyzed. Relations between decay rates are derived. Some of these relations may provide information on the nature of various competing dynamical effects that can occur in semileptonic B-meson decays

  20. Breaking of electroweak symmetry: origin and effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delaunay, C.

    2008-10-01

    The Higgs boson appears as the corner stone of high energy physics, it might be the cause of the excess of matter that led to the formation of the structures of the universe and it seems that it drives the breaking of the electroweak symmetry. Moreover, when the stability at low energies of the Higgs boson is assured by an extra space dimension, it appears that this extra dimension can explain most issues in the flavor physics that are not understood by the standard model. The first chapter presents the main tools of effective field theories, the role of experimental data in the construction of theories valid beyond the standard model is discussed. The second chapter focuses on the electroweak baryogenesis that allows the testing of new physics via the electroweak phase transition. We detail the calculation of a Higgs potential at finite temperature. We follow the dynamics of the phase transition including nucleation an supercooling. Finally we investigate the prospects of gravity wave detection to see the effects of a strong electroweak phase transition. The 2 last chapters are dedicated to the physics of extra-dimension. The properties of the dynamics of scalar, vector fields with a 1/2 spin plunged in a 5 d. Anti de Sitter geometry are reviewed. We present a model of lepton masses and mixings based on the A 4 non-Abelian discrete symmetry. It is shown that this model does not contradict the tests of electroweak precision. (A.C.)

  1. Yang-Mills- SU(3) via FORM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa Jorge, Patricia M. da; Peres, Patricia Duarte; Boldo, J.L.

    1997-06-01

    This work uses FORM software aspects for obtaining a series of formal results in the non-Abelian gauge theory, with SU(3) group. The work also studies field transformation, Lagrangian density invariance, field equations, energy distribution and the theory reparametrization in terms of fields associated to particles which are possible to be detected in accelerators

  2. Flavor SU(3) in hadronic B decays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dighe, A.

    1998-11-01

    Here we shall outline a few methods that use the flavor SU(3) symmetry in the decays of B mesons to determine the angles of the unitarity triangle and to identify the decay modes which would display a significant CP violation. (author)

  3. More flavor SU(3) tests for new physics in CP violating B decays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grossman, Yuval [Laboratory for Elementary-Particle Physics, Cornell University,Ithaca, N.Y. (United States); Ligeti, Zoltan [Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, University of California,Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Robinson, Dean J. [Laboratory for Elementary-Particle Physics, Cornell University,Ithaca, N.Y. (United States); Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, University of California,Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Department of Physics, University of California,Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2014-01-15

    The recent LHCb measurements of the B{sub s}→K{sup −}π{sup +} and B{sub s}→K{sup +}K{sup −} rates and CP asymmetries are in agreement with U-spin expectations from B{sub d}→K{sup +}π{sup −} and B{sub d}→π{sup +}π{sup −} results. We derive the complete set of isospin, U-spin, and SU(3) relations among the CP asymmetries in two-body charmless B→PP and B→PV decays, some of which are novel. To go beyond the unbroken SU(3) limit, we present relations which are properly defined and normalized to allow incorporation of SU(3) breaking in the simplest manner. We show that there are no CP relations beyond first order in SU(3) and isospin breaking. We also consider the corresponding relations for charm decays. Comparing parametrizations of the leading order sum rules with data can shed light on the applicability and limitations of both the flavor symmetry and factorization-based descriptions of SU(3) breaking. Two factorization relations can already be tested, and we show they agree with current data.

  4. The SU(3)-Nambu-Jona-Lasinio soliton in the collective quantization formulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blotz, A.; Goeke, K.; Diakonov, D.; Petrov, V.; Pobylitsa, P.V.; Park, N.W.

    1992-01-01

    On grounds of a semibosonized Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model, which has SU(3) R circle-times SU(3) L -symmetry in the chiral limit, mass splittings for spin 1/2 and spin 3/2 baryons are studied in the presence of an explicit chiral symmetry breaking strange quark mass. To this aim these strangeness carrying baryons are understood as SU(3)-rotational excitations of an SU(2)-embedded soliton solution. Therefore, within the framework of collective quantization, the fermion determinant with the strange quark mass is expanded up to the second order in the flavor rotation velocity and up to the first order in this quark mass. Besides the strange and non-strange moments of inertia, which have some counterparts within the Skyrme model, some so-called anomalous moments of inertia are obtained. These call be related to the imaginary part of the effective Euclidian action and contain among others the anomalous baryon current. This is shown in a gradient expansion up to the first non-vanishing order. Together with the Σ-commutator these are the solitonic ingredients of the collective hamiltonian, which is then diagonalized by means of strict perturbation theory in the strange quark mass and by the Yabu-Audo method. Both methods yield very good results for the masses of the spin 1/2 and 3/2 baryons. The former one reproduces some interesting mass formulas of Gell-Mann Okubo and Guadagnini and the latter one is able to describe the mass splittings up to a few MeV

  5. Nuclear collective rotation in the SU3 model, 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinouchi, Shin-ichi; Kishimoto, Teruo; Kammuri, Tetsuo.

    1989-05-01

    The collective rotation of a nuclear system with the SU 3 Hamiltonian is described by the quantal dynamical nuclear field theory. An angular frequency in the Coriolis interaction of the driving Hamiltonian is replaced by a total angular momentum operator divided by the corresponding moment of inertia. We consider here the low spin states for a triaxial intrinsic configuration. The rotational effect is taken into account by using the effective quadrupole and angular momentum operators, whose expressions are different depending on whether they refer to the laboratory frame or the body-fixed one. Effective forms of the total Hamiltonian and the particle angular momentum are compared with the exact SU 3 energy and the rotor's angular momentum, respectively. In order to dissolve the disagreement for the effective operators, the perturbing interaction should be supplemented by a residual part of the quadrupole-quadrupole interaction, which restores the rotational invariance of the intrinsic Hamiltonian. (author)

  6. Relativistic chiral SU(3) symmetry, large Nc sum rules and meson-baryon scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lutz, M.F.M.; Kolomeitsev, E.E.

    2001-05-01

    The relativistic chiral SU(3) Lagrangian is used to describe kaon-nucleon scattering imposing constraints from the pion-nucleon sector and the axial-vector coupling constants of the baryon octet states. We solve the covariant coupled-channel Bethe-Salpeter equation with the interaction kernel truncated at chiral order Q 3 where we include only those terms which are leading in the large N c limit of QCD. The baryon decuplet states are an important explicit ingredient in our scheme, because together with the baryon octet states they form the large N c baryon ground states of QCD. Part of our technical developments is a minimal chiral subtraction scheme within dimensional regularization, which leads to a manifest realization of the covariant chiral counting rules. All SU(3) symmetry-breaking effects are well controlled by the combined chiral and large N c expansion, but still found to play a crucial role in understanding the empirical data. We achieve an excellent description of the data set typically up to laboratory momenta of p lab ≅ 500 MeV. (orig.)

  7. Hyperon resonances in SU(3) soliton models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scoccola, N.N.

    1990-01-01

    Hyperon resonances excited in kaon-nucleon scattering are investigated in the framework of an SU(3) soliton model in which kaon degrees of freedom are treated as small fluctuations around an SU(2) soliton. For partial waves l≥2 the model predicts correctly the quantum numbers and average excitation energies of most of the experimentally observed Λ and Σ resonances. Some disagreements are found for lower partial waves. (orig.)

  8. Laws of trigonometry on SU(3)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aslaksen, H.

    1988-01-01

    In this paper we will study triangles in SU(3). The orbit space of congruence classes of triangles in SU(3) has dimension 8. Each corner is made up of a pair of tangent vectors (X,Y), and we consider the 8 functions trX 2 , i trX 3 , trY 2 , i trY 3 , trXY, i trY 2 Y, i trXY 2 , trX 2 Y 2 which are invariant under the full isometry group of SU(3). We show that these 8 corner invariants determine the isometry class of the triangle. We give relations (laws of trigonometry) between the invariants at the different corners, enabling us to determine the invariants at the remaining corners, including the values of the remaining side and angles, if we know one set of corner invariants. The invariants that only depend on one tangent vector we will call side invariants, while those that depend on two tangent vectors will be called angular invariants. For each triangle we then have 6 side invariants and 12 angular invariants. Hence we need 18 - 8 = 10 laws of trigonometry. The basic tool for deriving these laws is a formula expressing tr(exp X exp Y) in terms of the corner invariants

  9. Self-consistent calculation of the weak constants in the parity nonconserving nuclear forces. Effective PNC hamiltonian in SU(2)sub(L)xU(1)xSU(3)sub(c). PNC in the πNN vertex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubovik, V.M.; Zenkin, S.V.

    1983-01-01

    On the basis of the total effective Hamiltonian of the parity nonconserving (PNC) hadron-hadron interactions found within the standard model SU(2)sUb(L)XU(1)xSU(3)sub(c) in all orders of the leading logarithms allowing for the difference of quark mass scales (msub(c)>>msub(u, d, s)) the PNC πNN vertex generating the long-range part of the PNC nuclear forces is considered. The origin and the methods of calculation of various contributions to this vertex with a special attention to possible artifacts of these methods is anatyzed. Within the self-consistence calculational framework partly including the MIT bag model the total value of the constant hsub(π) determining the PNC πNN vertex is evaluated. Value of hsub(π) (approximately 1.3x10 -7 ) is 2-4 times as small as previous estimates and does not contradict the experimental data

  10. Thermal evolution of massive strange compact objects in a SU(3) chiral Quark Meson model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zacchi, Andreas

    2017-07-04

    In this work, thermodynamical properties of strongly interacting matter within a chiral SU(2)- and SU(3) chiral Quark Meson model have been analysed. Both effective models describe the development of the quark masses in media via the corresponding fields through chiral symmetry, which is expected to be restored at high temperatures and/or high densities, and spontaneously broken at low temperatures and/or densities. Spontaneous and explicit chiral symmetry breaking patterns give rise to massive Goldstone bosons, which are associated with the pions. Their chiral partners, the sigma mesons, are expected to be degenerate in mass, which was what we studied and observed at large temperatures/densities. The derivation and computation of thermodynamical quantities and properties in both cases can for instance be used to study relativistic and hydrodynamic Heavy Ion Collisions and the early universe for vanishing baryon number (SU(2)-case). They are also interesting for extreme astrophysical scenarios, such as Supernova explosions and the thermal evolution of their remnants, which has been among the topics of this thesis (SU(3)-case). Inclusion of the zero point energy in the SU(2) model has been carried out separately for the meson sector and for the quark sector as well as in a combined approach, where we learned, that the quark sector is quite dominant and that the vacuum fluctuations of the meson fields have little influence on the order parameter, but affect the relativistic degrees of freedom. In the SU(3) case, the inclusion of the zero point energy in the quark sector is much more computationally complex, but, as in the SU(2) case, is also not negliable, as its influence also changes the thermodynamical quantities at finite temperatures in a nontrivial manner. Here some features of the Supernova equation of state have been studied, which look promising for further investigations for Supernovae (proto neutron stars) and also for compact star mergers. The final

  11. Modification of the isotope effect due to pair breaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbotte, J.P.; Greeson, M.; Perez-Gonzalez, A.

    1991-01-01

    We have calculated the effect of pair breaking on the isotope-effect coefficient (β) of a superconductor. We find that, as the pair-breaking scattering rate is increased, β also increases in absolute value. Values of β much larger than the canonical value of 1/2 can easily be achieved even in models where the electron-phonon interaction contributes only a very small amount to the value of the intrinsic critical temperature

  12. The Polyakov loop and its correlators in higher representations of SU(3) at finite temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huebner, K.A.

    2006-09-01

    We have calculated the Polyakov loop in representations D=3,6,8,10,15,15',24,27 and diquark and baryonic Polyakov loop correlation functions with fundamental sources in SU(3) pure gauge theory and 2-flavour QCD with staggered quarks and Q anti Q-singlet correlation functions with sources in the fundamental and adjoint representation in SU(3) pure gauge theory. We have tested a new renormalisation procedure for the Polyakov loop and extracted the adjoint Polyakov loop below T c , binding energy of the gluelump and string breaking distances. Moreover, we could show Casimir scaling for the Polyakov loop in different representations in SU(3) pure gauge theory above T c . Diquark antitriplet and baryonic singlet free energies are related to the Q anti Q-singlet free energies by the Casimir as well. (orig.)

  13. The Polyakov loop and its correlators in higher representations of SU(3) at finite temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huebner, K.A.

    2006-09-15

    We have calculated the Polyakov loop in representations D=3,6,8,10,15,15',24,27 and diquark and baryonic Polyakov loop correlation functions with fundamental sources in SU(3) pure gauge theory and 2-flavour QCD with staggered quarks and Q anti Q-singlet correlation functions with sources in the fundamental and adjoint representation in SU(3) pure gauge theory. We have tested a new renormalisation procedure for the Polyakov loop and extracted the adjoint Polyakov loop below T{sub c}, binding energy of the gluelump and string breaking distances. Moreover, we could show Casimir scaling for the Polyakov loop in different representations in SU(3) pure gauge theory above T{sub c}. Diquark antitriplet and baryonic singlet free energies are related to the Q anti Q-singlet free energies by the Casimir as well. (orig.)

  14. Neutrinoless double beta decay in an SU(3)L x U(1)N model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pleitez, V.; Tonasse, M.D.

    1993-01-01

    A model for the electroweak interactions with SU (3) L x U(1) N gauge symmetry is considered. It is shown that, it is the conservation of F = L + B which forbids massive neutrinos and the neutrinoless double beta decay, (β β) On u. Explicit and spontaneous breaking of F imply that the neutrinos have an arbitrary mass and (β β) On u proceeds also with some contributions that do not depend explicitly on the neutrino mass. (author)

  15. The effect of interruptions and breaks on insight and impasses: Do you need a break right now?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beeftink, F.; van Eerde, W.; Rutte, C.G.

    2008-01-01

    Some time away from a problem, or incubation time, is found to be beneficial to creative problem solving. But are interruptions as equally helpful as breaks? An experiment was conducted to gain more insight into the differences between imposed and self-initiated breaks, and their effects on

  16. SU(3) chiral symmetry for baryons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dmitrasinovic, V.

    2011-01-01

    Three-quark nucleon interpolating fields in QCD have well-defined SU L (3)xSU R (3) and U A (1) chiral transformation properties, viz. [(6,3)+(3,6)], [(3,3-bar)+(3-bar,3)], [(8,1)+(1,8)] and their 'mirror' images. It has been shown (phenomenologically) in Ref. [2] that mixing of the [(6,3)+(3,6)] chiral multiplet with one ordinary ('naive') and one 'mirror' field belonging to the [(3,3-bar)+(3-bar,3)], [(8,1)+(1,8)] multiplets can be used to fit the values of the isovector (g A (3) ) and the flavor-singlet (isoscalar) axial coupling (g A (0) ) of the nucleon and then predict the axial F and D coefficients, or vice versa, in reasonable agreement with experiment. In an attempt to derive such mixing from an effective Lagrangian, we construct all SU L (3)xSU R (3) chirally invariant non-derivative one-meson-baryon interactions and then calculate the mixing angles in terms of baryons' masses. It turns out that there are (strong) selection rules: for example, there is only one non-derivative chirally symmetric interaction between J 1/2 fields belonging to the [(6,3)+(3,6)] and the [(3,3-bar)+(3-bar,3)] chiral multiplets, that is also U A (1) symmetric. We also study the chiral interactions of the [(3,3-bar)+(3-bar,3)] and [(8,1)+(1,8)] nucleon fields. Again, there are selection rules that allow only one off-diagonal non-derivative chiral SU L (3)xSU R (3) interaction of this type, that also explicitly breaks the U A (1) symmetry. We use this interaction to calculate the corresponding mixing angles in terms of baryon masses and fit two lowest lying observed nucleon (resonance) masses, thus predicting the third (J = 1/2, I = 3/2)Δ resonance, as well as one or two flavor-singlet Λ hyperon(s), depending on the type of mixing. The effective chiral Lagrangians derived here may be applied to high density matter calculations.

  17. Effect of symmetry breaking on transition strength distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitchell, G.E.; Shriner, J.F. Jr.

    2001-01-01

    The quantum numbers of over 100 states in 30 P have been determined from the ground state to 8 MeV. Previous measurements had provided complete spectroscopy in 26 Al. For these N=Z=odd nuclei, states of isospin T=0 and T=1 coexist at all energies. These spectra provide a unique opportunity to test the effect of symmetry breaking (of the approximate symmetry isospin) on the level statistics and on the transition strength distributions. The level statistics are strongly affected by the small symmetry breaking and the transition strength distributions differ from the Porter-Thomas distribution

  18. SU(2)-breaking effects for meson masses in lattice QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bramon, A.; Casulleras, J.

    1989-01-01

    The quenched approximation of lattice QCD for Wilson fermions is used to calculate isospin breaking effects in the pseudoscalar- and vector-meson nonets. Mass differences inside the K and K * isodoublets and mixing phenomena for π 0 -η and ρ-ω are found to agree with the experimental data. A new and specific method of analysis is proposed and successfully tested. (orig.)

  19. Time-reversal symmetry breaking by ac field: Effect of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    deviate from 2 thus signalling on the time-reversal breaking by the ac field. ... is also the parity effect: the enchancement is only present if either P or Q is even. ... analysis (see figure 1) is possible and the ergodic zero-dimensional approx-.

  20. The algebra and geometry of SU(3) matrices

    OpenAIRE

    Mallesh, KS; Mukunda, N

    1997-01-01

    We give an elementary treatment of the defining representation and Lie algebra of the three-dimensional unitary unimodular group SU(3). The geometrical properties of the Lie algebra, which is an eight dimensional real Linear vector space, are developed in an SU(3) covariant manner. The f and d symbols of SU(3) lead to two ways of 'multiplying' two vectors to produce a third, and several useful geometric and algebraic identities are derived. The axis-angle parametrization of SU(3) is developed...

  1. The algebra and geometry of SU(3) matrices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mallesh, K.S.; Mukunda, N.

    1997-01-01

    We give an elementary treatment of the defining representation and Lie algebra of the three-dimensional unitary unimodular group SU(3). The geometrical properties of the Lie algebra, which is an eight dimensional real linear vector space, are developed in an SU(3) covariant manner. The f and d symbols of SU(3) lead to two ways of multiplying two vectors to produce a third, and several useful geometric and algebraic identities are derived. The axis-angle parametrization of SU(3) is developed as a generalization of that for SU(2), and the specifically new features are brought out. Application to the dynamics of three-level system is outlined. (author)

  2. Modular invariants for affine SU(3) theories at prime heights

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruelle, P.; Thiran, E.; Weyers, J.

    1990-01-01

    A proof is given for the existence of two and only two modular invariant partition functions in affine SU(3) k theories at heights n=k+3 which are prime numbers. Arithmetic properties of the ring of algabraic integers Z(ω) which is related to SU(3) weights are extensively used. (orig.)

  3. Chiral SU(3) dynamics and antikaon-nuclear quasibound states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weise, W.; Haertle, R.

    2008-01-01

    Recent developments are summarised concerning low-energy K-bar N interactions as they relate to the possible existence of antikaon-nuclear quasibound states. An exploratory study of antikaons bound to finite nuclei is performed, with emphasis on the evolution of such states from light to heavy nuclei (A = 16-208). The energy dependent, driving attractive K-bar N interactions are constructed using the s-wave coupled-channel amplitudes involving the Λ(1405) and resulting from chiral SU(3) dynamics, plus p-wave amplitudes dominated by the Σ(1385). Effects of Pauli and short-range correlations are discussed. The decay width induced by K - NN two-body absorption is estimated and found to be substantial. It is concluded that K-bar-nuclear quasibound states can possibly exist with binding energies ranging from 60 to 100 MeV, but with short life times corresponding to decay widths of similar magnitudes

  4. Generalized geometry and partial supersymmetry breaking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Triendl, Hagen Mathias

    2010-08-15

    This thesis consists of two parts. In the first part we use the formalism of (exceptional) generalized geometry to derive the scalar field space of SU(2) x SU(2)-structure compactifications. We show that in contrast to SU(3) x SU(3) structures, there is no dynamical SU(2) x SU(2) structure interpolating between an SU(2) structure and an identity structure. Furthermore, we derive the scalar manifold of the low-energy effective action for consistent Kaluza-Klein truncations as expected from N = 4 supergravity. In the second part we then determine the general conditions for the existence of stable Minkowski and AdS N = 1 vacua in spontaneously broken gauged N = 2 supergravities and construct the general solution under the assumption that two appropriate commuting isometries exist in the hypermultiplet sector. Furthermore, we derive the low-energy effective action below the scale of partial supersymmetry breaking and show that it satisfies the constraints of N = 1 supergravity. We then apply the discussion to special quaternionic-Kaehler geometries which appear in the low-energy limit of SU(3) x SU(3)-structure compactifications and construct Killing vectors with the right properties. Finally we discuss the string theory realizations for these solutions. (orig.)

  5. Generalized geometry and partial supersymmetry breaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Triendl, Hagen Mathias

    2010-08-01

    This thesis consists of two parts. In the first part we use the formalism of (exceptional) generalized geometry to derive the scalar field space of SU(2) x SU(2)-structure compactifications. We show that in contrast to SU(3) x SU(3) structures, there is no dynamical SU(2) x SU(2) structure interpolating between an SU(2) structure and an identity structure. Furthermore, we derive the scalar manifold of the low-energy effective action for consistent Kaluza-Klein truncations as expected from N = 4 supergravity. In the second part we then determine the general conditions for the existence of stable Minkowski and AdS N = 1 vacua in spontaneously broken gauged N = 2 supergravities and construct the general solution under the assumption that two appropriate commuting isometries exist in the hypermultiplet sector. Furthermore, we derive the low-energy effective action below the scale of partial supersymmetry breaking and show that it satisfies the constraints of N = 1 supergravity. We then apply the discussion to special quaternionic-Kaehler geometries which appear in the low-energy limit of SU(3) x SU(3)-structure compactifications and construct Killing vectors with the right properties. Finally we discuss the string theory realizations for these solutions. (orig.)

  6. Scaling effects concerning the analysis of small break experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Austregesilo Filho, H.

    1985-01-01

    Some scaling effects related to the experimental facilities as well as to the analytical models used for the design and safety analysis of nuclear power plants are discussed or the basis of phenomena expected to occur during small-break loss - of - coolant accidents. The results of isolated small-break experiments should not be directly extrapolated to the safety analysis of commercial reactors, due to the scaling distortions inherent to the test facilities. With respect to the analytical models used to simulate thermohydraulic processes in experimental facilities, their eventual dependence relative to the system dimension should be examined in order to assess their applicability to the safety analysis of commercial power plants. (Author) [pt

  7. Effective potential in Lorentz-breaking field theory models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baeta Scarpelli, A.P. [Centro Federal de Educacao Tecnologica, Nova Gameleira Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Setor Tecnico-Cientifico, Departamento de Policia Federal, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Brito, L.C.T. [Universidade Federal de Lavras, Departamento de Fisica, Lavras, MG (Brazil); Felipe, J.C.C. [Universidade Federal de Lavras, Departamento de Fisica, Lavras, MG (Brazil); Universidade Federal dos Vales do Jequitinhonha e Mucuri, Instituto de Engenharia, Ciencia e Tecnologia, Veredas, Janauba, MG (Brazil); Nascimento, J.R.; Petrov, A.Yu. [Universidade Federal da Paraiba, Departamento de Fisica, Joao Pessoa, Paraiba (Brazil)

    2017-12-15

    We calculate explicitly the one-loop effective potential in different Lorentz-breaking field theory models. First, we consider a Yukawa-like theory and some examples of Lorentz-violating extensions of scalar QED. We observe, for the extended QED models, that the resulting effective potential converges to the known result in the limit in which Lorentz symmetry is restored. Besides, the one-loop corrections to the effective potential in all the cases we study depend on the background tensors responsible for the Lorentz-symmetry violation. This has consequences for physical quantities like, for example, in the induced mass due to the Coleman-Weinberg mechanism. (orig.)

  8. Effective potential in Lorentz-breaking field theory models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baeta Scarpelli, A.P.; Brito, L.C.T.; Felipe, J.C.C.; Nascimento, J.R.; Petrov, A.Yu.

    2017-01-01

    We calculate explicitly the one-loop effective potential in different Lorentz-breaking field theory models. First, we consider a Yukawa-like theory and some examples of Lorentz-violating extensions of scalar QED. We observe, for the extended QED models, that the resulting effective potential converges to the known result in the limit in which Lorentz symmetry is restored. Besides, the one-loop corrections to the effective potential in all the cases we study depend on the background tensors responsible for the Lorentz-symmetry violation. This has consequences for physical quantities like, for example, in the induced mass due to the Coleman-Weinberg mechanism. (orig.)

  9. Quasi-SU(3) truncation scheme for even-even sd-shell nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vargas, C.E.; Hirsch, J.G.; Draayer, J.P.

    2001-01-01

    The quasi-SU(3) symmetry was uncovered in full pf and sdg shell-model calculations for both even-even and odd-even nuclei. It manifests itself through a dominance of single-particle and quadrupole-quadrupole terms in a Hamiltonian used to describe well-deformed nuclei. A practical consequence of the quasi-SU(3) symmetry is an efficient basis truncation scheme. In [C.E. Vargas et al., Phys. Rev. C 58 (1998) 1488] it is shown that when this type of Hamiltonian is diagonalized in an SU(3) basis, only a few irreducible representations (irreps) of SU(3) are needed to describe the yrast band, the leading S=0 irrep augmented with the leading S=1 irreps in the proton and neutron subspaces. In the present article the quasi-SU(3) truncation scheme is used, in conjunction with a 'realistic but schematic' Hamiltonian that includes the most important multipole terms, to describe the energy spectra and B(E2) transition strengths of 20,22 Ne, 24 Mg and 28 Si. The effect of the size of the Hilbert space on both sets of observables is discussed, as well as the structure of the yrast band and the importance of the various terms in the Hamiltonian. The limitations of the model are explicitly discussed

  10. Quasi-SU(3) truncation scheme for even-even sd-shell nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vargas, C.E. E-mail: cvargas@fis.cinvestav.mx; Hirsch, J.G. E-mail: hirsch@nuclecu.unam.mx; Draayer, J.P. E-mail: draayer@lsu.edu

    2001-07-30

    The quasi-SU(3) symmetry was uncovered in full pf and sdg shell-model calculations for both even-even and odd-even nuclei. It manifests itself through a dominance of single-particle and quadrupole-quadrupole terms in a Hamiltonian used to describe well-deformed nuclei. A practical consequence of the quasi-SU(3) symmetry is an efficient basis truncation scheme. In [C.E. Vargas et al., Phys. Rev. C 58 (1998) 1488] it is shown that when this type of Hamiltonian is diagonalized in an SU(3) basis, only a few irreducible representations (irreps) of SU(3) are needed to describe the yrast band, the leading S=0 irrep augmented with the leading S=1 irreps in the proton and neutron subspaces. In the present article the quasi-SU(3) truncation scheme is used, in conjunction with a 'realistic but schematic' Hamiltonian that includes the most important multipole terms, to describe the energy spectra and B(E2) transition strengths of {sup 20,22}Ne, {sup 24}Mg and {sup 28}Si. The effect of the size of the Hilbert space on both sets of observables is discussed, as well as the structure of the yrast band and the importance of the various terms in the Hamiltonian. The limitations of the model are explicitly discussed.

  11. More dynamical supersymmetry breaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Csaki, C.; Randall, L.; Skiba, W.

    1996-01-01

    In this paper we introduce a new class of theories which dynamically break supersymmetry based on the gauge group SU(n) x SU(3) x U(1) for even n. These theories are interesting in that no dynamical superpotential is generated in the absence of perturbations. For the example SU(4) x SU(3) x U(1) we explicitly demonstrate that all flat directions can be lifted through a renormalizable superpotential and that supersymmetry is dynamically broken. We derive the exact superpotential for this theory, which exhibits new and interesting dynamical phenomena. For example, modifications to classical constraints can be field dependent. We also consider the generalization to SU(n) x SU(3) x U(1) models (with even n>4). We present a renormalizable superpotential which lifts all flat directions. Because SU(3) is not confining in the absence of perturbations, the analysis of supersymmetry breaking is very different in these theories from the n=4 example. When the SU(n) gauge group confines, the Yukawa couplings drive the SU(3) theory into a regime with a dynamically generated superpotential. By considering a simplified version of these theories we argue that supersymmetry is probably broken. (orig.)

  12. Temporal correlations and structural memory effects in break junction measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magyarkuti, A.; Lauritzen, Kasper Primdal; Balogh, Zoltan Imre

    2017-01-01

    that correlations between the opening and subsequent closing traces may indicate structural memory effects in atomic-sized metallic and molecular junctions. Applying these methods on measured and simulated gold metallic contacts as a test system, we show that the surface diffusion induced flattening of the broken......-molecule junctions, we demonstrate pronounced contact memory effects and recovery of the molecule for junctions breaking before atomic chains are formed. However, if chains are pulled the random relaxation of the chain and molecule after rupture prevents opening-closing correlations....

  13. A SU(3) x U(1) model for electroweak interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pisano, F.; Pleitez, V.

    1992-01-01

    We consider a gauge model based on a SU(3) vector U(1) symmetry in which the lepton number is violated explicitly by charged scalar and gauge boson, including a vector field with double electric charge. (author)

  14. Stop and revive? The effectiveness of nap and active rest breaks for reducing driver sleepiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watling, Christopher N; Smith, Simon S; Horswill, Mark S

    2014-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of two commonly utilized sleepiness countermeasures: a nap break and an active rest break. The effects of the countermeasures were evaluated by physiological (EEG), subjective, and driving performance measures. Participants completed 2 h of simulated driving, followed by a 15-min nap break or a 15-min active rest break, then completed the final hour of simulated driving. The nap break reduced EEG and subjective sleepiness. The active rest break did not reduce EEG sleepiness, with sleepiness levels eventually increasing, and resulted in an immediate reduction of subjective sleepiness. No difference was found between the two breaks for the driving performance measure. The immediate reduction of subjective sleepiness after the active rest break could leave drivers with erroneous perceptions of their sleepiness, particularly with increases of physiological sleepiness after the break. Copyright © 2014 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  15. Gauge fixing conditions for the SU(3) gauge theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ragiadakos, Ch.; Viswanathan, K.S.

    1979-01-01

    SU(3) gauge theory is quantized in the temporal gauge A 0 =0. Gauge fixing conditions are imposed completely on the electric field components, conjugate to the vector potential Ssub(i) that belongs to the subalgebra SO(3) of SU(3). The generating functional in terms of the independent variables is derived. It is ghost-free and may be regarded as a theory of (non-relativistic) spin-0, 1, 2, and 3 fields. (Auth.)

  16. A large mixing effect on eta,eta' and iota

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawai, E.

    1983-01-01

    We quantitatively investigate a possible large mixing effect on eta(549), eta'(958) and iota(1440) in a phenomenological way, taking both SU(3) symmetry breaking and gluon intervention into due account. (orig.)

  17. Unconstrained SU(2) and SU(3) Yang-Mills clasical mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahmen, B.; Raabe, B.

    1992-01-01

    A systematic study of constraints in SU(2) and SU(3) Yang-Mills classical mechanics is performed. Expect for the SU(2) case with vanishing spatial angular momenta they turn out to be non-holonomic. Using Dirac's constraint formalism we achieve a complete elimination of the unphysical gauge and rotational degrees of freedom. This leads to an effective unconstrained formulation both for the full SU(2) Yang-Mills classical mechanics and for the SU(3) case in the subspace of vanishing spatial angular momenta. We believe that our results are well suited for further explicit dynamical investigations. (orig.)

  18. Unconstrained SU(2) and SU(3) Yang-Mills classical mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahmen, B.; Raabe, B.

    1992-01-01

    A systematic study of contraints in SU(2) and SU(3) Yang-Mills classical mechanics is performed. Expect for the SU(2) case with spatial angular momenta they turn out to be nonholonomic. The complete elimination of the unphysical gauge and rotatinal degrees of freedom is achieved using Dirac's constraint formalism. We present an effective unconstrained formulation of the general SU(2) Yang-Mills classical mechanics as well as for SU(3) in the subspace of vanishing spatial angular momenta that is well suited for further explicit dynamical investigations. (orig.)

  19. BOOK REVIEW: Symmetry Breaking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryder, L. H.

    2005-11-01

    One of the most fruitful and enduring advances in theoretical physics during the last half century has been the development of the role played by symmetries. One needs only to consider SU(3) and the classification of elementary particles, the Yang Mills enlargement of Maxwell's electrodynamics to the symmetry group SU(2), and indeed the tremendous activity surrounding the discovery of parity violation in the weak interactions in the late 1950s. This last example is one of a broken symmetry, though the symmetry in question is a discrete one. It was clear to Gell-Mann, who first clarified the role of SU(3) in particle physics, that this symmetry was not exact. If it had been, it would have been much easier to discover; for example, the proton, neutron, Σ, Λ and Ξ particles would all have had the same mass. For many years the SU(3) symmetry breaking was assigned a mathematical form, but the importance of this formulation fell away when the quark model began to be taken seriously; the reason the SU(3) symmetry was not exact was simply that the (three, in those days) quarks had different masses. At the same time, and in a different context, symmetry breaking of a different type was being investigated. This went by the name of `spontaneous symmetry breaking' and its characteristic was that the ground state of a given system was not invariant under the symmetry transformation, though the interactions (the Hamiltonian, in effect) was. A classic example is ferromagnetism. In a ferromagnet the atomic spins are aligned in one direction only—this is the ground state of the system. It is clearly not invariant under a rotation, for that would change the ground state into a (similar but) different one, with the spins aligned in a different direction; this is the phenomenon of a degenerate vacuum. The contribution of the spin interaction, s1.s2, to the Hamiltonian, however, is actually invariant under rotations. As Coleman remarked, a little man living in a ferromagnet would

  20. Effect of different treatments on breaking dormancy of Teucrium polium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    alireza koochaki

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate effects of different treatments on breaking dormancy of Teucrium polium, an experiment was conducted with 3 replications in a completely randomized design. Seeds were subjected to different treatments including various levels of GA3, H2SO4, soaking with water and chilling. Germination of Teucrium polium increased with different concentrations of GA3. Percentage germination Maximum and rate was obtained at concentrations of 250, 1500 ppm (72h GA3 and combination of GA3 (1500ppm and chilling (5 ºC for a period of 14 days. GA3 (500ppm increased germination percentage but not germination rate. Soaking with water broke dormancy and induced 32% seed germination of Teucrium polium, but H2SO4, freezing (-10 ºC and combination of both treatments had no effect on dormancy.

  1. The winding number of three complexes in SU(3)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lasher, G.

    1989-01-01

    The Phillip-Stone algorithm for the topological charge of a lattice gauge field requires the computation of the winding number of certain 3-complexes in the space of the group. The extension of the computational procedure for the SU(2) gauge group to SU(3) requires an understanding of the SU(3) geometry. An important issue is the behavior of a 3-cell in SU(3) as it approaches a critical configuration, i.e., one at which the cell is a discontinuous function of its vertices. A measure of the proximity of a cell to criticality is found and a method for computing its contribution to the winding number is recommended. (orig.)

  2. SU(3) properties of semileptonic and nonleptonic decays of mesons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montvay, I.

    1977-11-01

    The recent discovery of charmed D and F mesons led to an accumulation of a lot of information on the weak decays of these particles. The facts known at present are generally consistent with the Glashow-Iliopoulos-Maiami scheme for the weak currents, which are predicted the fourth flavour of quarks, the charm. The weak decays of the charmed mesons are governed by SU(3) rules analogous to the Okubo-Zweig-Iizuka rule for strong decays. Such Su(3) rules are given for semileptonic and nonleptonic decays of strange and charmed mesons. These relations depend on the colour structure of currents in the nonleptonic case. (D.P.)

  3. Analytic study of SU(3) lattice gauge theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Xite; Xu Yong

    1989-01-01

    The variational-cumulant expansion method has been extended to the case of lattice SU(3) Wilson model. The plaquette energy as an order paramenter has been calculated to the 2nd order expansion. No 1st order phase transition in the D = 4 case is found which is in agreement with the monte Carlo results, and the 1st order phase transition in the d = 5 case is clearly seen. The method can be used in the study of problems in LGT with SU(3) gauge group

  4. Quantum critical spin-2 chain with emergent SU(3) symmetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Pochung; Xue, Zhi-Long; McCulloch, I P; Chung, Ming-Chiang; Huang, Chao-Chun; Yip, S-K

    2015-04-10

    We study the quantum critical phase of an SU(2) symmetric spin-2 chain obtained from spin-2 bosons in a one-dimensional lattice. We obtain the scaling of the finite-size energies and entanglement entropy by exact diagonalization and density-matrix renormalization group methods. From the numerical results of the energy spectra, central charge, and scaling dimension we identify the conformal field theory describing the whole critical phase to be the SU(3)_{1} Wess-Zumino-Witten model. We find that, while the Hamiltonian is only SU(2) invariant, in this critical phase there is an emergent SU(3) symmetry in the thermodynamic limit.

  5. New Bessel-type function associated with SU(3) representation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanimura, N.; Tanimura, O.

    1990-01-01

    A new set of functions that are given by the coefficients of the character expansion of the single-link action in the SU(3) lattice-gauge theory is studied. The function is specified by the indices λ and μ of the SU(3) representation of the Young tableau. From the Schwinger-Dyson variational method the recursion relations among the functions are derived. By combining the recursion relation and the relation of the differentiation, the linear differential equation of the sixth order for the function is derived. The properties of the function are discussed in detail in comparison with the functions in the SU(2) group

  6. Effects of rotational symmetry breaking in polymer-coated nanopores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osmanović, D.; Kerr-Winter, M.; Eccleston, R. C.; Hoogenboom, B. W.; Ford, I. J.

    2015-01-01

    The statistical theory of polymers tethered around the inner surface of a cylindrical channel has traditionally employed the assumption that the equilibrium density of the polymers is independent of the azimuthal coordinate. However, simulations have shown that this rotational symmetry can be broken when there are attractive interactions between the polymers. We investigate the phases that emerge in these circumstances, and we quantify the effect of the symmetry assumption on the phase behavior of the system. In the absence of this assumption, one can observe large differences in the equilibrium densities between the rotationally symmetric case and the non-rotationally symmetric case. A simple analytical model is developed that illustrates the driving thermodynamic forces responsible for this symmetry breaking. Our results have implications for the current understanding of the behavior of polymers in cylindrical nanopores.

  7. Effects of rotational symmetry breaking in polymer-coated nanopores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osmanović, D.; Hoogenboom, B. W.; Ford, I. J. [London Centre for Nanotechnology (LCN) and Department of Physics and Astronomy, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); Kerr-Winter, M.; Eccleston, R. C. [Centre for Mathematics, Physics and Engineering in the Life Sciences and Experimental Biology, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom)

    2015-01-21

    The statistical theory of polymers tethered around the inner surface of a cylindrical channel has traditionally employed the assumption that the equilibrium density of the polymers is independent of the azimuthal coordinate. However, simulations have shown that this rotational symmetry can be broken when there are attractive interactions between the polymers. We investigate the phases that emerge in these circumstances, and we quantify the effect of the symmetry assumption on the phase behavior of the system. In the absence of this assumption, one can observe large differences in the equilibrium densities between the rotationally symmetric case and the non-rotationally symmetric case. A simple analytical model is developed that illustrates the driving thermodynamic forces responsible for this symmetry breaking. Our results have implications for the current understanding of the behavior of polymers in cylindrical nanopores.

  8. Topological susceptibility in the SU(3) gauge theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Del Debbio, Luigi; Giusti, Leonardo; Pica, Claudio

    2004-01-01

    We compute the topological susceptibility for the SU(3) Yang--Mills theory by employing the expression of the topological charge density operator suggested by Neuberger's fermions. In the continuum limit we find r_0^4 chi = 0.059(3), which corresponds to chi=(191 +/- 5 MeV)^4 if F_K is used to set...

  9. W algebra in the SU(3) parafermion model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding, X.; Fan, H.; Shi, K.; Wang, P.; Zhu, C.

    1993-01-01

    A construction of W 3 algebra for the SU(3) parafermion model is proposed, in which a Z algebra technique is used instead of the popular free-field realization. The central charge of the underlying algebra is different from known W algebras

  10. Topological susceptibility for the SU(3) Yang--Mills theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Del Debbio, Luigi; Giusti, Leonardo; Pica, Claudio

    2004-01-01

    We present the results of a computation of the topological susceptibility in the SU(3) Yang--Mills theory performed by employing the expression of the topological charge density operator suggested by Neuberger's fermions. In the continuum limit we find r_0^4 chi = 0.059(3), which corresponds to chi...

  11. The SU(3) beta function from numerical stochastic perturbation theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horsley, R. [Edinburgh Univ. (United Kingdom). School of Physics and Astronomy; Perlt, H. [Leipzig Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Bonn Univ. (Germany). Helmholtz Inst. fuer Strahlen- und Kernphysik; Rakow, P.E.L. [Liverpool Univ. (United Kingdom). Theoretical Physics Div.; Schierholz, G.; Schiller, A. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2013-09-15

    The SU(3) beta function is derived from Wilson loops computed to 20th order in numerical stochastic perturbation theory. An attempt is made to include massless fermions, whose contribution is known analytically to 4th order. The question whether the theory admits an infrared stable fixed point is addressed.

  12. Gluon condensate from lattice caculations: SU(3) pure gauge theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kripfganz, J.

    1981-01-01

    A short distance expansion of Wilson loops is used to define and isolate vacuum expectation values of composite gluon operators. It is applied to available lattice Monte Carlo data for SU(3) pure gauge theory. The value obtained for the gluon condensate is consistent with the ITEP estimate. (author)

  13. Vlasov simulation of the relativistic effect on the breaking of large amplitude plasma waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Hui; Sheng Zhengming; Zhang Jie

    2007-01-01

    The influence of relativistic and thermal effects on plasma wave breaking has been studied by solving the coupled Vlasov-Poisson equations. When the relativistic effect is not considered, the wave breaking will not occur, provided the initial perturbation is less than certain value as predicted previously, and the largest amplitude of the plasma wave will decrease with the increase of the initial temperature. When the relativistic effect is considered, wave breaking always occurs during the time evolution, irrespective of the initial perturbation amplitude. Yet the smaller the initial perturbation amplitude is, the longer is the time for wave breaking to occur. With large initial perturbations, wave breaking can always occur with the without the relativistic effect. However, the results are significantly different in the two cases. The thermal effects of electrons decrease the threshold value to initial amplitude for wave breaking and large phase velocity makes the nonlinear phenomenon occur more easily. (authors)

  14. Denominator function for canonical SU(3) tensor operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biedenharn, L.C.; Lohe, M.A.; Louck, J.D.

    1985-01-01

    The definition of a canonical unit SU(3) tensor operator is given in terms of its characteristic null space as determined by group-theoretic properties of the intertwining number. This definition is shown to imply the canonical splitting conditions used in earlier work for the explicit and unique (up to +- phases) construction of all SU(3) WCG coefficients (Wigner--Clebsch--Gordan). Using this construction, an explicit SU(3)-invariant denominator function characterizing completely the canonically defined WCG coefficients is obtained. It is shown that this denominator function (squared) is a product of linear factors which may be obtained explicitly from the characteristic null space times a ratio of polynomials. These polynomials, denoted G/sup t//sub q/, are defined over three (shift) parameters and three barycentric coordinates. The properties of these polynomials (hence, of the corresponding invariant denominator function) are developed in detail: These include a derivation of their degree, symmetries, and zeros. The symmetries are those induced on the shift parameters and barycentric coordinates by the transformations of a 3 x 3 array under row interchange, column interchange, and transposition (the group of 72 operations leaving a 3 x 3 determinant invariant). Remarkably, the zeros of the general G/sup t//sub q/ polynomial are in position and multiplicity exactly those of the SU(3) weight space associated with irreducible representation [q-1,t-1,0]. The results obtained are an essential step in the derivation of a fully explicit and comprehensible algebraic expression for all SU(3) WCG coefficients

  15. Light-flavor sea-quark distributions in the nucleon in the SU(3) chiral quark soliton model. I. Phenomenological predictions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wakamatsu, M.

    2003-01-01

    Theoretical predictions are given for the light-flavor sea-quark distributions in the nucleon including the strange quark ones on the basis of the flavor SU(3) version of the chiral quark soliton model. Careful account is taken of the SU(3) symmetry breaking effects due to the mass difference Δm s between the strange and nonstrange quarks, which is the only one parameter necessary for the flavor SU(3) generalization of the model. A particular emphasis of study is put on the light-flavor sea-quark asymmetry as exemplified by the observables d-bar(x)-u-bar(x),d-bar(x)/u-bar(x),Δu-bar(x)-Δd-bar(x) as well as on the particle-antiparticle asymmetry of the strange quark distributions represented by s(x)-s-bar(x),s(x)/s-bar(x),Δs(x)-Δs-bar(x) etc. As for the unpolarized sea-quark distributions, the predictions of the model seem qualitatively consistent with the available phenomenological information provided by the NMC data for d-bar(x)-u-bar(x), the E866 data for d-bar(x)/u-bar(x), the CCFR data and the fit of Barone et al. for s(x)/s-bar(x), etc. The model is shown to give several unique predictions also for the spin-dependent sea-quark distribution, such that Δs(x)<<Δs-bar(x) < or approx. 0 and Δd-bar(x)<0<Δu-bar(x), although the verification of these predictions must await more elaborate experimental investigations in the near future

  16. Differential Effects of Music and Video Gaming During Breaks on Auditory and Visual Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shuyan; Kuschpel, Maxim S; Schad, Daniel J; Heinz, Andreas; Rapp, Michael A

    2015-11-01

    The interruption of learning processes by breaks filled with diverse activities is common in everyday life. This study investigated the effects of active computer gaming and passive relaxation (rest and music) breaks on auditory versus visual memory performance. Young adults were exposed to breaks involving (a) open eyes resting, (b) listening to music, and (c) playing a video game, immediately after memorizing auditory versus visual stimuli. To assess learning performance, words were recalled directly after the break (an 8:30 minute delay) and were recalled and recognized again after 7 days. Based on linear mixed-effects modeling, it was found that playing the Angry Birds video game during a short learning break impaired long-term retrieval in auditory learning but enhanced long-term retrieval in visual learning compared with the music and rest conditions. These differential effects of video games on visual versus auditory learning suggest specific interference of common break activities on learning.

  17. Breaking bad news: Effects of forecasting diagnosis and framing prognosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porensky, Emily K; Carpenter, Brian D

    2016-01-01

    Research to support guidelines for breaking bad news is lacking. This study used an experimental paradigm to test two communication strategies, forecasting bad news and framing prognosis, in the context of cancer. In a 2×2 design, 128 participants received bad news in a hypothetical consultation. A videotaped physician presented diagnostic and prognostic information, varying warning (warning shot vs. no warning), and framing (positive vs. negative). Effects on psychological distress, recall accuracy, and subjective interpretations of the news were assessed. Warning was not associated with lower psychological distress or improved recall. Individuals who heard a positively-framed prognosis had significantly less psychological distress, rated their prognosis better, and were more hopeful than those who heard a negatively-framed prognosis. However, they also showed a trend toward reduced accuracy in recalling prognostic statistics. Results contribute to a growing body of literature exploring optimal approaches for communicating bad news in health care. Although research in clinical settings is needed to bolster results, findings suggest that when providers use positive framing to reduce distress about prognosis, they should also consider ways to overcome potential reductions in recall accuracy, such as repeating statistical information or supplementing with written information. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The spontaneous ℤ_2 breaking Twin Higgs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beauchesne, Hugues; Earl, Kevin; Grégoire, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    The Twin Higgs model seeks to address the little hierarchy problem by making the Higgs a pseudo-Goldstone of a global SU(4) symmetry that is spontaneously broken to SU(3). Gauge and Yukawa couplings, which explicitly break SU(4), enjoy a discrete ℤ_2 symmetry that accidentally maintains SU(4) at the quadratic level and therefore keeps the Higgs light. Contrary to most beyond the Standard Model theories, the quadratically divergent corrections to the Higgs mass are cancelled by a mirror sector, which is uncharged under the Standard Model groups. However, the Twin Higgs with an exact ℤ_2 symmetry leads to equal vevs in the Standard Model and mirror sectors, which is phenomenologically unviable. An explicit ℤ_2 breaking potential must then be introduced and tuned against the SU(4) breaking terms to produce a hierarchy of vevs between the two sectors. This leads to a moderate but non-negligible tuning. We propose a model to alleviate this tuning, without the need for an explicit ℤ_2 breaking sector. The model consists of two SU(4) fundamental Higgses, one whose vacuum preserves ℤ_2 and one whose vacuum breaks it. As the interactions between the two Higgses are turned on, the ℤ_2 breaking is transmitted from the broken to the unbroken sector and a small hierarchy of vevs is naturally produced. The presence of an effective tadpole and feedback between the two Higgses lead to a sizable improvement of the tuning. The resulting Higgs boson is naturally very Standard Model like.

  19. Weak decays of doubly heavy baryons. SU(3) analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Wei; Xing, Zhi-Peng; Xu, Ji [Shanghai Jiao Tong University, INPAC, Shanghai Key Laboratory for Particle Physics and Cosmology, School of Physics and Astronomy, Shanghai (China)

    2017-11-15

    Motivated by the recent LHCb observation of doubly charmed baryon Ξ{sub cc}{sup ++} in the Λ{sub c}{sup +}K{sup -}π{sup +}π{sup +} final state, we analyze the weak decays of doubly heavy baryons Ξ{sub cc}, Ω{sub cc}, Ξ{sub bc}, Ω{sub bc}, Ξ{sub bb} and Ω{sub bb} under the flavor SU(3) symmetry. The decay amplitudes for various semileptonic and nonleptonic decays are parametrized in terms of a few SU(3) irreducible amplitudes. We find a number of relations or sum rules between decay widths and CP asymmetries, which can be examined in future measurements at experimental facilities like LHC, Belle II and CEPC. Moreover, once a few decay branching fractions have been measured in the future, some of these relations may provide hints for exploration of new decay modes. (orig.)

  20. Automorphisms of the affine SU(3) fusion rules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruelle, P.

    1994-01-01

    We classify the automorphisms of the (chiral) level-k affine SU(3) fusion rules, for any value of k, by looking for all permutations that commute with the modular matrices S and T. This can be done by using the arithmetic of the cyclotomic extensions where the problem is naturally posed. When k is divisible by 3, the automorphism group ( similar Z 2 ) is generated by the charge conjugation C. If k is not divisible by 3, the automorphism group ( similar Z 2 xZ 2 ) is generated by C and the Altschueler-Lacki-Zaugg automorphism. Although the combinatorial analysis can become more involved, the techniques used here for SU(3) can be applied to other algebras. (orig.)

  1. Implementation and statistical analysis of Metropolis algorithm for SU(3)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katznelson, E.; Nobile, A.

    1984-12-01

    In this paper we study the statistical properties of an implementation of the Metropolis algorithm for SU(3) gauge theory. It is shown that the results have normal distribution. We demonstrate that in this case error analysis can be carried on in a simple way and we show that applying it to both the measurement strategy and the output data analysis has an important influence on the performance and reliability of the simulation. (author)

  2. SU(3) lattice gauge fixing with overrelaxation and Gribov copies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paciello, M.L.; Taglienti, B. (INFN La Sapienza, Rome (Italy)); Parrinello, C. (Physics Dept., New York Univ., NY (United States)); Petrarca, S. (Theory Div., CERN, Geneva (Switzerland)); Vladikas, A. (Dipt. di Fisica, Univ. Tor Vergata, Rome (Italy) INFN Tor Vergata, Rome (Italy))

    1992-02-06

    We report on the phenomenology of SU(3) lattice Landau gauge fixing as obtained by using an overrelaxation algorithm. An interesting result obtained using this very efficient algorithm is that distinct Gribov copies are generated by simply modifying the value {omega} of the overrelaxation parameter for a fixed starting configuration. By generating random gauge equivalent configurations, we study the variation of the number of copies with the lattice volume and gauge coupling. (orig.).

  3. On some properties of SU(3 fusion coefficients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Coquereaux

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Three aspects of the SU(3 fusion coefficients are revisited: the generating polynomials of fusion coefficients are written explicitly; some curious identities generalizing the classical Freudenthal–de Vries formula are derived; and the properties of the fusion coefficients under conjugation of one of the factors, previously analyzed in the classical case, are extended to the affine algebra suˆ(3 at finite level.

  4. Non-perturbative plaquette in 3d pure SU(3)

    CERN Document Server

    Hietanen, A; Laine, Mikko; Rummukainen, K; Schröder, Y

    2005-01-01

    We present a determination of the elementary plaquette and, after the subsequent ultraviolet subtractions, of the finite part of the gluon condensate, in lattice regularization in three-dimensional pure SU(3) gauge theory. Through a change of regularization scheme to MSbar and a matching back to full four-dimensional QCD, this result determines the first non-perturbative contribution in the weak-coupling expansion of hot QCD pressure.

  5. Pseudo SU(3) shell model: Normal parity bands in odd-mass nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vargas, C.E.; Hirsch, J.G.; Draayer, J.P.

    2000-01-01

    A pseudo shell SU(3) model description of normal parity bands in 159 Tb is presented. The Hamiltonian includes spherical Nilsson single-particle energies, the quadrupole-quadrupole and pairing interactions, as well as three rotor terms. A systematic parametrization is introduced, accompanied by a detailed discussion of the effect each term in the Hamiltonian has on the energy spectrum. Yrast and excited band wavefunctions are analyzed together with their B(E2) values

  6. The spin-orbit interaction and SU(3) generators in superdeformation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugawara-Tanabe, K [School of Social Information, Otsuma Women` s University, Tokyo (Japan); Arima, A [Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Physics

    1992-08-01

    The authors found that the effect of spin-orbit coupling becomes smaller for the parity doublet level and for some other levels around superdeformation. This is because of the strongly deformed quadrupole field, which indicates the L-S coupling scheme is recovered for these levels. These levels can be described by an SU-3 group with eight generators and a Casimir operator. 6 refs., 3 figs.

  7. String completion of an SU(3c⊗SU(3L⊗U(1X electroweak model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Addazi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The extended electroweak SU(3c⊗SU(3L⊗U(1X symmetry framework “explaining” the number of fermion families is revisited. While 331-based schemes can not easily be unified within the conventional field theory sense, we show how to do it within an approach based on D-branes and (unoriented open strings, on Calabi–Yau singularities. We show how the theory can be UV-completed in a quiver setup, free of gauge and string anomalies. Lepton and baryon numbers are perturbatively conserved, so neutrinos are Dirac-type, and their lightness results from a novel TeV scale seesaw mechanism. Dynamical violation of baryon number by exotic instantons could induce neutron–antineutron oscillations, with proton decay and other dangerous R-parity violating processes strictly forbidden.

  8. Electric dipole moments from spontaneous CP violation in SU(3)-flavoured SUSY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones Perez, J

    2009-01-01

    The SUSY flavour problem is deeply related to the origin of flavour and hence to the origin of the SM Yukawa couplings themselves. Since all CP-violation in the SM is restricted to the flavour sector, it is possible that the SUSY CP problem is related to the origin of flavour as well. In this work, we present three variations of an SU(3) flavour model with spontaneous CP violation. Such models explain the hierarchy in the fermion masses and mixings, and predict the structure of the flavoured soft SUSY breaking terms. In such a situation, both SUSY flavour and CP problems do not exist. We use electric dipole moments and lepton flavour violation processes to distinguish between these models, and place constraints on the SUSY parameter space.

  9. Heterotic and type II orientifold compactifications on SU(3) structure manifolds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benmachiche, I.

    2006-07-01

    We study the four-dimensional N=1 effective theories of generic SU(3) structure compactifications in the presence of background fluxes. For heterotic and type IIA/B orientifold theories, the N=1 characteristic data are determined by a Kaluza-Klein reduction of the fermionic actions. The Kaehler potentials, superpotentials and the D-terms are entirely encoded by geometrical data of the internal manifold. The background flux and the intrinsic torsion of the SU(3) structure manifold, gives rise to contributions to the four-dimensional F-terms. The corresponding superpotentials generalize the Gukov-Vafa-Witten superpotential. For the heterotic compactification, the four-dimensional fermionic supersymmetry variations, as well as the conditions on supersymmetric vacua, are determined. The Yukawa couplings of the theory turn out to be similar to their Calabi-Yau counterparts. (Orig.)

  10. Particle-hole excitations in the interacting boson model; 4, the U(5)-SU(3) coupling

    CERN Document Server

    De Coster, C; Heyde, Kris L G; Jolie, J; Lehmann, H; Wood, J L

    1999-01-01

    In the extended interacting boson model (EIBM) both particle- and hole-like bosons are incorporated to encompass multi-particle-multi-hole excitations at and near to closed shells.We apply the group theoretical concepts of the EIBM to the particular case of two coexisting systems in the same nucleus exhibiting a U(5) (for the regular configurations) and an SU(3) symmetry (for the intruder configurations).Besides the description of ``global'' symmetry aspects in terms of I-spin , also the very specific local mixing effects characteristic for the U(5)-SU(3) symmetry coupling are studied.The model is applied to the Po isotopes and a comparison with a morerealistic calculation is made.

  11. Effects of different methods of breaking dormancy and seed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Seed dormancy in palms, date palm inclusive have continued to be challenging especially when cultivating through seeds. This study evaluated different methods of breaking dormancy and seed germination rate in P. dactylifera. Using Completely Randomize Design, two varieties of P. dactylifera were treated with three ...

  12. Hyperon interaction in free space and nuclear matter within a SU(3) based meson exchange model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dhar, Madhumita

    2016-06-15

    To establish the connection between free space and in-medium hyperon-nucleon interactions is the central issue of this thesis. The guiding principle is flavor SU(3) symmetry which is exploited at various levels. In first step hyperon-nucleon and hyperon- hyperon interaction boson exchange potential in free space are introduced. A new parameter set applicable for the complete baryon octet has been derived leading to an updated one-boson- exchange model, utilizing SU(3) flavor symmetry, optimizing the number of free parameters involved, and revising the set of mesons included. The scalar, pseudoscalar, and vector SU(3) meson octets are taken into account. T-matrices are calculated by solving numerically coupled linear systems of Lippmann-Schwinger equations obtained from a 3-D reduced Bethe-Salpeter equation. Coupling constants were determined by χ{sup 2} fits to the world set of scattering data. A good description of the few available data is achieved within the imposed SU(3) constraints. Having at hand a consistently derived vacuum interaction we extend the approach next to investigations of the in-medium properties of hyperon interaction, avoiding any further adjustments. Medium effect in infinite nuclear matter are treated microscopically by recalculating T-matrices by an medium-modified system of Lippmann-Schwinger equations. A particular important role is played by the Pauli projector accounting for the exclusion principle. The presence of a background medium induces a weakening of the vacuum interaction amplitudes. Especially coupled channel mixing is found to be affected sensitively by medium. Investigation on scattering lengths and effective range parameters are revealing the density dependence of the interaction on a quantitative level.

  13. Breaking Bad Habits: Teaching Effective PowerPoint Use to Working Graduate Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vik, Gretchen N.

    2004-01-01

    One interesting aspect of teaching students to use PowerPoint and similar graphics packages effectively is that graduate students who are already in the workforce often have bad presentation habits that they need to break. In this article, the author discusses ways of breaking these bad habits. Using storyboards is one way to keep students from…

  14. The SU(3) running coupling from lattice gluons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parrinello, C. [Edinburgh Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Phys. and Astron.; UKQCD Collaboration

    1995-04-01

    We provide numerical results for the running coupling in SU(3) Yang-Mills theory as determined from an analysis of lattice two and three-point gluon correlation functions. The coupling is evaluated directly, from first principles, by defining suitable renormalisation constants from the lattice triple gluon vertex and gluon propagator. For momenta larger than 2GeV, the coupling is found to run according to the 2-loop asymptotic formula. The influence of lattice artifacts on the results appears negligible within the precision of our measurements, although further work on this point is in progress. ((orig.)).

  15. Simulating plasma instabilities in SU(3) gauge theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berges, Juergen; Gelfand, Daniil; Scheffler, Sebastian; Sexty, Denes

    2009-01-01

    We compute nonequilibrium dynamics of plasma instabilities in classical-statistical lattice gauge theory in 3+1 dimensions. The simulations are done for the first time for the SU(3) gauge group relevant for quantum chromodynamics. We find a qualitatively similar behavior as compared to earlier investigations in SU(2) gauge theory. The characteristic growth rates are about 25% lower for given energy density, such that the isotropization process is slower. Measured in units of the characteristic screening mass, the primary growth rate is independent of the number of colors.

  16. On classical solutions of SU(3) gauge field equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chakrabarti, A.

    1975-01-01

    Static classical solutions of SU(3) gauge field equations are studied. The roles of the O(3) subgroup and of the quadrupole generators are discussed systematically. The general form thus obtained leads, through-out, to a high degree of symmetry in the results. This brings in some simplifying features. An octet of scalar mesons is finally added. Certain classes of exact solutions are given that are singular at the origin. A generalized gauge condition is pointed out. The relation of the general form to known particular cases is discussed [fr

  17. SU(3) versus deformed Hartree-Fock state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, Calvin W.; Stetcu, Ionel; Draayer, J.P.

    2002-01-01

    Deformation is fundamental to understanding nuclear structure. We compare two ways to efficiently realize deformation for many-fermion wave functions, the leading SU(3) irreducible representation and the angular-momentum-projected Hartree-Fock state. In the absence of single-particle spin-orbit splitting the two are nearly identical. With realistic forces, however, the difference between the two is nontrivial, with the angular-momentum-projected Hartree-Fock state better approximating an 'exact' wave function calculated in the fully interacting shell model. The difference is driven almost entirely by the single-particle spin-orbit splitting

  18. Nonperturbative SU(3) thermodynamics and the phase transition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agasian, N.O. [Alikhanov Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Moscow (Russian Federation); National Research Nuclear University ' ' MEPhI' ' , Moscow (Russian Federation); Lukashov, M.S. [Alikhanov Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Moscow (Russian Federation); Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology, Dolgoprudny (Russian Federation); Simonov, Yu.A. [Alikhanov Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2017-06-15

    The SU(3) equations of state (P(T),s(T),I(T)) are calculated within the Field Correlator Method both in the confined and the deconfined phases. The basic dynamics in our approach is contained in the vacuum correlators, both of the colorelectric (CE) and colormagnetic (CM) types, which ensure CE and CM confinement below T{sub c} and CM confinement and Polyakov loops above T{sub c}. The resulting values of T{sub c} and P(T),I(T),s(T) are in good agreement with lattice measurements. (orig.)

  19. On the static Casimir effect with parity-breaking mirrors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fosco, C.D. [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Centro Atomico Bariloche and Instituto Balseiro, Bariloche (Argentina); Remaggi, M.L. [Universidad Nacional de Cuyo, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Mendoza (Argentina)

    2017-03-15

    We study the Casimir interaction energy due to the vacuum fluctuations of the electromagnetic (EM) field in the presence of two mirrors, described by 2+1-dimensional, generally nonlocal actions, which may contain both parity-conserving and parity-breaking terms. We compare the results with the ones corresponding to Chern-Simons boundary conditions and evaluate the interaction energy for several particular situations. (orig.)

  20. Weak mixing angle and the SU(3)CxSU(3) model on M4xS1/(Z2xZ'2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Tianjun; Wei Liao

    2002-05-01

    We show that the desirable weak mixing angle sin 2 θ W =0.2312 at m Z scale can be generated naturally in the SU(3) C xSU(3) model on M 4 xS 1 /(Z 2 x Z 2 ') where the gauge symmetry SU(3) is broken down to SU(2) L xU(1) Y by orbifold projection. For a supersymmetric model with a TeV scale extra dimension, the SU(3) unification scale is about hundreds of TeVs at which the gauge couplings for SU(3) C and SU(3) can also be equal in the mean time. For the non-supersymmetric model, SU(2) L xU(1) Y are unified at order of 10 TeV. These models may serve as good candidates for physics beyond the SM or MSSM. (author)

  1. Structural properties of the self-conjugate SU(3) tensor operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lohe, M.A.; Biedenharn, L.C.; Louck, J.D.

    1977-01-01

    Denominator functions for the set of self-conjugate SU(3) tensor operators are explicitly obtained and shown to be uniquely related to SU(3) -invariant structural properties. This relationship becomes manifest through the appearance of zeroes of the denominator functions which thereby express the fundamental null space properties of SU(3) tensor operators. It is demonstrated that there exist characteristic denominator functions whose zeroes, in position and multiplicity, possess the interesting, and unexpected, property of forming SU(3) weight space patterns

  2. Spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking and effective quark masses in quantum chromodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miransky, V.A.

    1982-01-01

    The ultraviolet asymptotics of the dynamical effective quark mass is determined directly from the equation for the fermion mass function. The indications about the character of the dynamics of the spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking in QCD are obtained

  3. Phase-structure of SU(3) lattice gauge-higgs model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerdt, V.P.; Mitrjushkin, V.K.; Zadorozhny, A.M.

    1985-01-01

    Phase structure is investigated of SU(3) symmetric gauge-Higgs theory with a defrost radial mode. The Higgs fields are considered in the fundamental representation of SU(3) group. It is shown that the phase structures of SU(3) and SU(2) symmetric coincide qualitatively

  4. Magnetostrictive effects in ferromagnetic Dy break-junctions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, Marc; Suergers, Christoph; Montbrun, Richard [Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie, Physikalisches Institut, 76131 Karlsruhe (Germany); Loehneysen, Hilbert v. [Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie, Physikalisches Institut, 76131 Karlsruhe (Germany); Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie, Institut fuer Festkoerperphysik, 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    A characteristic property of the rare-earth metals are their large magnetostrictive strains which are related to the magnetocrystalline anisotropy through the elastic energy. We have investigated the electrical conductance G of mechanical break-junctions of a dysprosium wire at 4.2 K where Dy is in the ferromagnetic state. In zero magnetic field we find the usual variation of the conductance G vs. electrode distance x while breaking the wire mechanically, with a sequence of steps and more or less prominent plateaus. The behavior G(x) is modified in magnetic fields {mu}{sub 0} H up to 1 T due to the large magnetostriction of Dy. In addition, the conductance can be changed reproducibly by variation of H. For a number of contacts we observe discrete changes in G(H) in the range of several G{sub 0} = 2 e{sup 2}/h. The behavior of G(H) and its angular dependence can be quantitatively understood by taking into account the magnetostrictive properties of Dy. This first realization of a magnetostrictive atomic switch demonstrates the possibility of reproducibly tuning the conductance of magnetic nanocontacts by a magnetic field.

  5. Fiber break location technique utilizing stimulated Brillouin scattering effects in optical fiber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakar, A A A; Al-Mansoori, M H; Mahdi, M A; Mohd Azau, M A; Zainal Abidin, M S

    2009-01-01

    A new technique of fiber break detection system in optical communication networks is proposed and experimentally demonstrated in this paper. This technique is based-on continuous wave light source rather than pulsed source that is commonly deployed in existing techniques. The nonlinear effect of stimulated Brillouin scattering is manipulated to locate the fiber-break position in optical communication networks. This technique enables the utilization of a less-sensitive photodetector to detect the Brillouin Stokes line since its intensity increases with the fiber length in the detectable region. The fiber break location can be determined with accuracy of more than 98% for fiber length less than 50 km using this technique

  6. Analysis on B → VV with the Flavour SU(3) Symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shao-Min, Liu; Hong-Ying, Jin; Xue-Qian, Li

    2008-01-01

    It is noted that the rescattering and annihilation effects are significant in the penguin-dominant B → VV decays. In this work, we suggest to use a unique operator at the quark level to describe all the rescattering and the penguin-induced annihilation effects in B → φK * , and the coefficient of the operator depends on the polarizations of the produced mesons. By the flavour SU(3) symmetry, we apply the same scenario to all the penguin-dominant B → VV modes. (the physics of elementary particles and fields)

  7. IR fixed points in SU(3 gauge theories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.-I. Ishikawa

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available We propose a novel RG method to specify the location of the IR fixed point in lattice gauge theories and apply it to the SU(3 gauge theories with Nf fundamental fermions. It is based on the scaling behavior of the propagator through the RG analysis with a finite IR cutoff, which we cannot remove in the conformal field theories in sharp contrast to the confining theories. The method also enables us to estimate the anomalous mass dimension in the continuum limit at the IR fixed point. We perform the program for Nf=16,12,8 and Nf=7 and indeed identify the location of the IR fixed points in all cases.

  8. Topological susceptibility near Tc in SU(3 gauge theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guang-Yi Xiong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Topological charge susceptibility χt for pure gauge SU(3 theory at finite temperature is studied using anisotropic lattices. The over-improved stout-link smoothing method is utilized to calculate the topological charge. Near the phase transition point we find a rapid declining behavior for χt with values decreasing from (188(1 MeV4 to (67(3 MeV4 as the temperature increased from zero temperature to 1.9Tc which demonstrates the existence of topological excitations far above Tc. The 4th order cumulant c4 of topological charge, as well as the ratio c4/χt is also investigated. Results of c4 show step-like behavior near Tc while the ratio at high temperature agrees with the value as predicted by the diluted instanton gas model.

  9. Self-interacting dark matter and Higgs bosons in the SU(3)C x SU(3)L x U(1)N model with right-handed neutrinos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoang Ngoc Long; Nguyen Quynh Lan

    2003-05-01

    We show that the SU(3) C x SU(3) L x U(1) N (3-3-1) model with right-handed neutrinos can provide candidates for self-interacting dark matter, namely they are the CP-even and odd Higgs bosons. These dark matters are stable without imposing of new symmetry and should be weak-interacting. (author)

  10. Towards a precise determination of the topological susceptibility in the SU(3) Yang-Mills theory

    CERN Document Server

    Giusti, Leonardo; Petrarca, Silvano

    2009-01-01

    An ongoing effort to compute the topological susceptibility for the SU(3) Yang-Mills theory in the continuum limit with a precison of about 2% is reported. The susceptibility is computed by using the definition of the charge suggested by Neuberger fermions for two values of the negative mass parameter s. Finite volume and discretization effects are estimated to meet this level of precision. The large statistics required has been obtained by using PCs of the INFN-GRID. Simulations with larger lattice volumes are necessary in order to better understanding the continuum limit at small lattice spacing values.

  11. Topology and the eta' mass in SU(3) lattice gauge theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hock, Jaap; Teper, M.; Waterhouse, J.

    1986-06-01

    The topological charge density of the (Monte Carlo generated) SU(3) vacuum is measured. The algorithm is designed to be robust against lattice artifacts. The resulting topological susceptibility is found to vary with g 2 like the string tension (within errors) which allows one to extract a value in physical units: Xsub(t) approx. = (190 +-10 MeV) 4 in good agreement with the Witten-Veneziano mass formula. The topological susceptibility is found to be strongly suppressed as the temperature is raised through the deconfining transition: the quantum Usub(A)(1) symmetry is effectively restored in the deconfined phase. (author)

  12. A massive quasi-particle model of the SU(3) gluon plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peshier, A.; Technische Univ. Dresden; Kaempfer, B.; Technische Univ. Dresden; Pavlenko, O.P.; AN Ukrainskoj SSR, Kiev; Soff, G.

    1995-09-01

    Recent SU(3) gauge field lattice data for the equation of state are interpreted by a quasi-particle model with effective thermal gluon masses. The model is motivated by lowest-order perturbative QCD and describes very well the data. The proposed quasi-particle approach can be applied to study color excitations in the non-perturbative regime. As an example we estimate the temperature dependence of the Debye screening mass and find that it declines sharply when approaching the confinement temperature from above, while the thermal mass continuously rises. (orig.)

  13. Effect of vacuum arc cathode spot distribution on breaking capacity of the arc-extinguishing chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Can; Yuan, Zhao; He, Junjia

    2017-10-01

    A DC circuit breaker performs a key function in breaking an intermediate-frequency (IF) current since breaking a pure IF current is equivalent to breaking a very small DC with a reverse IF current. In this study, it is found that cathode spots show a ring-shaped distribution at 2000 Hz. An arc with an uneven distribution of cathode spots has been simulated. The simulation results show that the distribution of cathode spots significantly affect the microparameter distribution of arc plasma. The current distribution on the anode side differs from that on the cathode side under the total radial electric field. Specifically, the anode current distribution is both uneven and concentrated. The applied axial magnetic field, which cannot reduce the concentrated anode current distribution effectively, might increase the concentration of the anode current. Finally, the uneven distribution of cathode spots reduces the breaking capacity of the arc-extinguishing chamber.

  14. Water level effects on breaking wave setup for Pacific Island fringing reefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, J. M.; Merrifield, M. A.; Ford, M.

    2014-02-01

    The effects of water level variations on breaking wave setup over fringing reefs are assessed using field measurements obtained at three study sites in the Republic of the Marshall Islands and the Mariana Islands in the western tropical Pacific Ocean. At each site, reef flat setup varies over the tidal range with weaker setup at high tide and stronger setup at low tide for a given incident wave height. The observed water level dependence is interpreted in the context of radiation stress gradients specified by an idealized point break model generalized for nonnormally incident waves. The tidally varying setup is due in part to depth-limited wave heights on the reef flat, as anticipated from previous reef studies, but also to tidally dependent breaking on the reef face. The tidal dependence of the breaking is interpreted in the context of the point break model in terms of a tidally varying wave height to water depth ratio at breaking. Implications for predictions of wave-driven setup at reef-fringed island shorelines are discussed.

  15. Higgs as a pseudo-Goldstone boson, the mu problem and gauge-mediated supersymmetry breaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaminska, Anna; Lavignac, Stephane

    2011-01-01

    We study the interplay between the spontaneous breaking of a global symmetry of the Higgs sector and gauge-mediated supersymmetry breaking, in the framework of a supersymmetric model with global SU(3) symmetry. In addition to solving the supersymmetric flavor problem and alleviating the little hierarchy problem, this scenario automatically triggers the breaking of the global symmetry and provides an elegant solution to the μ/Bμ problem of gauge mediation. We study in detail the processes of global symmetry and electroweak symmetry breaking, including the contributions of the top/stop and gauge-Higgs sectors to the one-loop effective potential of the pseudo-Goldstone Higgs boson. While the joint effect of supersymmetry and of the global symmetry allows in principle the electroweak symmetry to be broken with little fine-tuning, the simplest version of the model fails to bring the Higgs mass above the LEP bound due to a suppressed tree-level quartic coupling. To cure this problem, we consider the possibility of additional SU(3)-breaking contributions to the Higgs potential, which results in a moderate fine-tuning. The model predicts a rather low messenger scale, a small tan β value, a light Higgs boson with Standard Model-like properties, and heavy higgsinos. (orig.)

  16. Transport coefficients from SU(3) Polyakov linear-σ model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tawfik, A.; Diab, A.

    2015-01-01

    In the mean field approximation, the grand potential of SU(3) Polyakov linear-σ model (PLSM) is analyzed for the order parameter of the light and strange chiral phase-transitions, σ l and σ s , respectively, and for the deconfinement order parameters φ and φ*. Furthermore, the subtracted condensate Δ l,s and the chiral order-parameters M b are compared with lattice QCD calculations. By using the dynamical quasiparticle model (DQPM), which can be considered as a system of noninteracting massive quasiparticles, we have evaluated the decay width and the relaxation time of quarks and gluons. In the framework of LSM and with Polyakov loop corrections included, the interaction measure Δ/T 4 , the specific heat c v and speed of sound squared c s 2 have been determined, as well as the temperature dependence of the normalized quark number density n q /T 3 and the quark number susceptibilities χ q /T 2 at various values of the baryon chemical potential. The electric and heat conductivity, σ e and κ, and the bulk and shear viscosities normalized to the thermal entropy, ζ/s and η/s, are compared with available results of lattice QCD calculations.

  17. Dyons near the transition temperature in SU(3) lattice gluodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornyakov, V. G.; Ilgenfritz, E.-M.; Martemyanov, B. V.

    2018-05-01

    We study the topological structure of SU(3) lattice gluodynamics by cluster analysis. This methodological study is meant as preparation for full QCD. The topological charge density is becoming visible in the process of over-improved gradient flow, which is monitored by means of the inverse participation ratio. The flow is stopped at the moment when calorons dissociate into dyons due to the over-improved character of the underlying action. This gives the possibility to simultaneously detect all three dyonic constituents of KvBLL calorons in the gluonic field. The behavior of the average Polyakov loop (PL) under (over-improved) gradient flow could also serve as a diagnostics for the actual phase the configuration is belonging to. Time-like Abelian monopole currents and specific patterns of the local PL are correlated with the topological clusters. The spectrum of reconstructed cluster charges Q cl corresponds to the phases. It is scattered around Q cl ≈ ±1/3 in the confined phase, whereas it is Q cl ≈ ±(0.5 ÷ 0.7) for heavy dyons and | {Q}{{cl}}| memory of Michael Müller-Preussker who was a member of our research group for more than twenty years.

  18. Effective potential and spontaneous symmetry breaking in the noncommutative φ6 model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbosa, G.D.

    2004-01-01

    We study the conditions for spontaneous symmetry breaking of the (2+1)-dimensional noncommutative φ 6 model in the small-θ limit. In this regime, considering the model as a cutoff theory, it is reasonable to assume translational invariance as a property of the vacuum state and study the conditions for spontaneous symmetry breaking by an effective potential analysis. An investigation of up to the two-loop level reveals that noncommutative effects can modify drastically the shape of the effective potential. Under reasonable conditions, the nonplanar sector of the theory can become dominant and induce symmetry breaking for values of the mass and coupling constants not reached by the commutative counterpart

  19. A study of charge symmetry breaking effects in elastic π+-d scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rinat, A.S.; Alexander, Y.

    1982-06-01

    We computed external Coulomb and some strong charge symmetry breaking (CSB) effects in π +- d→π +- d. These appear to account for charge asymmetry of differential cross sections, while approximate CSB spoils the agreement. We further report on a critical study of CSB effects extracted from π +- d total cross section differences. (author)

  20. Sum Rules of Charm CP Asymmetries beyond the SU(3)_{F} Limit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Sarah; Nierste, Ulrich; Schacht, Stefan

    2015-12-18

    We find new sum rules between direct CP asymmetries in D meson decays with coefficients that can be determined from a global fit to branching ratio data. Our sum rules eliminate the penguin topologies P and PA, which cannot be determined from branching ratios. In this way, we can make predictions about direct CP asymmetries in the standard model without ad hoc assumptions on the sizes of penguin diagrams. We consistently include first-order SU(3)_{F} breaking in the topological amplitudes extracted from the branching ratios. By confronting our sum rules with future precise data from LHCb and Belle II, one will identify or constrain new-physics contributions to P or PA. The first sum rule correlates the CP asymmetries a_{CP}^{dir} in D^{0}→K^{+}K^{-}, D^{0}→π^{+}π^{-}, and D^{0}→π^{0}π^{0}. We study the region of the a_{CP}^{dir}(D^{0}→π^{+}π^{-})-a_{CP}^{dir}(D^{0}→π^{0}π^{0}) plane allowed by current data and find that our sum rule excludes more than half of the allowed region at 95% C.L. Our second sum rule correlates the direct CP asymmetries in D^{+}→K[over ¯]^{0}K^{+}, D_{s}^{+}→K^{0}π^{+}, and D_{s}^{+}→K^{+}π^{0}.

  1. Exact boson mappings for nuclear neutron (proton) shell-model algebras having SU(3) subalgebras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonatsos, D.; Klein, A.

    1986-01-01

    In this paper the commutation relations of the fermion pair operators of identical nucleons coupled to spin zero are given for the general nuclear major shell in LST coupling. The associated Lie algebras are the unitary symplectic algebras Sp(2M). The corresponding multipole subalgebras are the unitary algebras U(M), which possess SU(3) subalgebras. Number conserving exact boson mappings of both the Dyson and hermitian form are given for the nuclear neutron (proton) s--d, p--f, s--d--g, and p--f--h shells, and their group theoretical structure is emphasized. The results are directly applicable in the case of the s--d shell, while in higher shells the experimentally plausible pseudo-SU(3) symmetry makes them applicable. The final purpose of this work is to provide a link between the shell model and the Interacting Boson Model (IBM) in the deformed limit. As already implied in the work of Draayer and Hecht, it is difficult to associate the boson model developed here with the conventional IBM model. The differences between the two approaches (due mainly to the effects of the Pauli principle) as well as their physical implications are extensively discussed

  2. Multiple multi-orbit fermionic and bosonic pairing and rotational SU(3) algebras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kota, V.K.B.

    2017-01-01

    In nuclei with valence nucleons that are identical nucleons and occupy r number of j-orbits, there will be 2 r-1 number of multiple pairing (quasi-spin) SU(2) algebras with the generalized pair creation operator S + being a sum of single-j pair creation operators with arbitrary phases. Also, for each set of phases there will be a corresponding Sp(2Ω) algebra in U(2Ω) ⊃ Sp(2Ω); Ω = ∑ (2j+1)/2. Using this correspondence, derived is the condition for a general one-body operator of angular momentum rank k to be a quasi-spin scalar or a vector vis-a-vis the phases in S + . These will give special seniority selection rules for electromagnetic transitions. We found that the phase choice advocated by Arvieu and Moszkowski gives pairing Hamiltonians having maximum correlation with well known effective interactions. All the results derived for identical fermion systems are shown to extend to identical boson systems such as sd, sp, sdg and sdpf interacting boson models (IBM's) with SU(2) → SU(1,1) and Sp(2/Omega) → SO(2Ω). Going beyond pairing, for a given set of oscillator orbits, there are multiple rotational SU(3) algebras both in shell model and IBM's. Different SU(3) algebras in IBM's are shown, using sdg IBM as an example, to give different geometric shapes.

  3. Temporary core liquid level depression during cold-leg small-break LOCA effect of break size and power level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koizumi, Y.; Kumamaru, H.; Mimura, Y.; Kukita, Y.; Tasaka, K.

    1989-01-01

    Cold-leg small break LOCA experiments (0.5-10% break) were conducted at the large scale test facility (LSTF), a volumetrically-scaled (1/48) simulator of a PWR, of the ROSA-IV Program. When a break area was less than 2.5% of the scaled cold-leg flow area, the core liquid level was temporarily further depressed to the bottom elevation of the crossover leg during the loop seal clearing early in the transient only by the manometric pressure balance since no coolant remained in the upper portion of the primary system. When the break size was larger than 5%, the core liquid level was temporarily further depressed lower than the bottom elevation of the crossover leg during the loop seal clearing since coolant remained at the upper portion of the primary system; the steam generator (SG) U-tube upflow side and the SG inlet plenum, due to counter current flow limiting by updrafting steam while the coolant drained. The amount of coolant trapped there was dependent on the vapor velocity (core power); the larger the core power, the lower the minimum core liquid level. The RELAP5/MOD2 code reasonable predicted phenomena observed in the experiments. (orig./DG)

  4. Creation and annihilation operators for SU(3) in an SO(6,2) model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bracken, A.J.; MacGibbon, J.H.

    1984-01-01

    Creation and annihilation operators are defined which are Wigner operators (tensor shift operators) for SU(3). While the annihilation operators are simply boson operators, the creation operators are cubic polynomials in boson operators. Together they generate under commutation the Lie algebra of SO(6,2). A model for SU(3) is defined. The different SU(3) irreducible representations appear explicitly as manifestly covariant, irreducible tensors, whose orthogonality and normalisation properties are examined. Other Wigner operators for SU(3) can be constructed simply as products of the new creation and annihilation operators, or sums of such products. (author)

  5. Computational and experimental study of the effect of mass transfer on liquid jet break-up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schetz, J. A.; Situ, M.

    1983-06-01

    A computational method has been developed to predict the effect of mass transfer on liquid jet break-up in coaxial, low velocity gas streams. Two conditions, both with and without the effect of mass transfer on the jet break-up, are calculated, and compared with experimental results and the classical linear theory. Methanol and water were used as the injectants. The numerical solution can predict the instantaneous shape of the jet surface and the break-up time, and it is very close to the experimental results. The numerical solutions and the experimental results both indicate that the wave number of the maximum instability is about 6.9, higher than 4.51 which was predicted by Rayleigh's linear theory. The experimental results and numerical solution show that the growth of the amplitude of the trough is faster than the growth of the amplitude of the crest, especially for a rapidly vaporizing jet. The numerical solutions show that for the small rates of evaporation, the effect of the mass transfer on the interface has a stabilizing effect near the wave number for maximum instability. Inversely, it has a destabilizing effect far from the wave number for maximum instability. For rapid evaporation, the effect of the mass transfer always has a destabilizing effect and decreases the break-up time of the jet.

  6. The Effects of Breaking up Prolonged Sitting Time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benatti, Fabiana Braga; Ried-Larsen, Mathias

    2015-01-01

    on the electronic databases PUBMED and SCOPUS was independently conducted by two researchers. Only prospective intervention studies (controlled and uncontrolled) evaluating the effects of explicitly replacing sitting time with physical activity (including standing) on metabolic parameters as outcomes were included...

  7. Experiment and analyses on intentional secondary-side depressurization during PWR small break LOCA. Effects of depressurization rate and break area on core liquid level behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asaka, Hideaki; Ohtsu, Iwao; Anoda, Yoshinari; Kukita, Yutaka

    1997-01-01

    The effects of the secondary-side depressurization rate and break area on the core liquid level behavior during a PWR small-break LOCA were studied using experimental data from the Large Scale Test Facility (LSTF) and by using analysis results obtained with a JAERI modified version of RELAP5/MOD3 code. The LSTF is a 1/ 48 volumetrically scaled full-height integral model of a Westinghouse-type PWR. The code reproduced the thermal-hydraulic responses, observed in the experiment, for important parameters such as the primary and secondary side pressures and core liquid level behavior. The sensitivity of the core minimum liquid level to the depressurization rate and break area was studied by using the code assessed above. It was found that the core liquid level took a local minimum value for a given break area as a function of secondary side depressurization rate. Further efforts are, however, needed to quantitatively define the maximum core temperature as a function of break area and depressurization rate. (author)

  8. Evaluation of the effects of break nozzle configuration in the Semiscale Mod-1 system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanson, R.G.

    1977-08-01

    The Semiscale Mod-1 Program has utilized two different break nozzle configurations in the test system. An evaluation has been made to determine the effect these break nozzle configurations have on system thermal-hydraulic response during a 200 percent double-ended cold leg break loss-of-coolant accident simulation. The first nozzle was a convergent-divergent nozzle (Henry nozzle) and the second, an elongated constant area throat nozzle. Analysis is confined primarily to system response phenomena observed to be affected by the nozzle configuration and concentrates on the fluid response at the break and the resulting core behavior during subcooled and saturated blowdown. The evaluation shows that considerable difference in system response occurs as a result of the difference in break nozzle configuration. The elongated throat nozzle was scaled from the Loss-of-Fluid Test (LOFT) nozzle geometry and since the LOFT counterpart tests were designed to provide results for the LOFT Program, the elongated throat nozzle was used in the subsequent LOFT counterpart tests

  9. effect of hydrogen peroxide and thiourea on dormancy breaking of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    the hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) (Claassens and. Vreugdenhil, 2000; Suttle, 2004). Hence, the objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of hydrogen peroxide and thiourea on dormancy and sprouting of potato microtubers and field grown tubers is described. MATERIELS AND METHODS. Production of microtubers.

  10. On the linearity of the dose-effect relationship of DNA double strand breaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chadwick, K.H.; Leenhouts, H.P.

    1994-01-01

    Most radiation biologists believe that DNA double-strand breaks are induced linearly with radiation dose for all types of radiation. Since 1985, with the advent of elution and gel electrophoresis techniques which permit the measurement of DNA double-strand breaks induced in mammalian cells at doses having radiobiological relevance, the true nature of the dose-effect relationship has been brought into some doubt. Many investigators measured curvilinear dose-effect relationships and a few found good correlations between the induction of the DNA double-strand breaks and cell survival. We approach the problem pragmatically by assuming that the induction of DNA double-strand breaks by 125 I Auger electron emitters incorporated into the DNA of the cells is a linear function of the number of 125 I decays, and by comparing the dose-effect relationship for sparsely ionizing radiation against this standard. The conclusion drawn that the curvilinear dose-effect relationships and the correlations with survival are real. (Author)

  11. The effects of Vitamin A on tear break-up time of young adults ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of Vitamin A on tear break-up time of young adults. ... healthy young adults; 50 males and 50 females all within the ages of 18 and 30 years were used for this study. Results showed a range of 13-28 seconds and a mean TBUT of

  12. Notes on TQFT wire models and coherence equations for SU(3) triangular cells

    CERN Document Server

    Coquereaux, R.; Schieber, G.

    2010-01-01

    After a summary of the TQFT wire model formalism we bridge the gap from Kuperberg equations for SU(3) spiders to Ocneanu coherence equations for systems of triangular cells on fusion graphs that describe modules associated with the fusion category of SU(3) at level k. We show how to solve these equations in a number of examples.

  13. Isospin breaking in nuclear physics: The Nolen-Schiffer effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adami, C.; Brown, G.E.

    1991-01-01

    Using the QCD sum rules we calculate the neutron-proton mass difference at zero density as a function of the difference in bare quark mass m d -m u . We confirm results of Hatsuda, Hoegaasen and Prakash that the largest term results from the difference in up and down quark condensates, the explicit C (m d -m u ) entering with the opposite sign. The quark condensates are then extended to finite density to estimate the Nolen-Schiffer effect. The neutron-proton mass difference is extremely density dependent, going to zero at roughly nuclear matter density. The Ioffe formula for the nucleon mass is interpreted as a derivation, within the QCD sum rule approach, of the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio formula. This clarifies the N c counting and furthermore provides an alternative interpretation of the Borel mass. We compare calculations in the constituent quark model treated in the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio formalism with ours in the QCD sum rule approach. (orig.)

  14. One-loop divergences in chiral perturbation theory and right-invariant metrics on SU(3)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esposito-Farese, G.

    1991-01-01

    In the framework of chiral perturbation theory, we compute the one-loop divergences of the effective Lagrangian describing strong and non-leptonic weak interactions of pseudoscalar mesons. We use the background field method and the heat-kernel expansion, and underline the geometrical meaning of the different terms, showing how the right-invariance of the metrics on SU(3) allows to clarify and simplify the calculations. Our results are given in terms of a minimal set of independent counterterms, and shorten previous ones of the literature, in the particular case where the electromagnetic field is the only external source which is considered. We also show that a geometrical construction of the effective Lagrangian at order O(p 4 ) allows to derive some relations between the finite parts of the coupling constants. These relations do not depend on the scale μ used to renormalize. (orig.)

  15. Heavy-heavy-light quark potential in SU(3) lattice QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Arata; Suganuma, Hideo; Iida, Hideaki

    2008-01-01

    We perform the first study for the heavy-heavy-light quark (QQq) potential in SU(3) quenched lattice QCD with the Coulomb gauge. The calculations are done with the standard gauge and O(a)-improved Wilson fermion action on the 16 4 lattice at β=6.0. We calculate the energy of QQq systems as the function of the distance R between the two heavy quarks, and find that the QQq potential is well described with a Coulomb plus linear potential form up to the intermediate distance R≤0.8 fm. Compared to the static three-quark case, the effective string tension between the heavy quarks is significantly reduced by the finite-mass valence quark effect. This reduction is considered to be a general property for baryons

  16. Electromagnetic properties in {sup 160-170}Dy nuclei. A microscopic description by the pseudo-SU(3) shell model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vargas, Carlos E.; Bagatella-Flores, Norma [Universidad Veracruzana, Facultad de Fisica, Veracruz (Mexico); Velazquez, Victor [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Facultad de Ciencias, Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Lerma-Hernandez, Sergio [Universidad Veracruzana, Facultad de Fisica, Veracruz (Mexico); Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2017-04-15

    The large collectivity observed in the rare-earth region of the nuclear landscape is well known. The microscopic studies are difficult to perform in this region due to the enormous size of the valence spaces, a problem that can be avoided by means of the use of symmetry-based models. Here we present calculations for electromagnetic properties of {sup 160-170}Dy nuclei within the pseudo-SU(3) scheme. The model Hamiltonian includes the preserving symmetry Q.Q term and the symmetry-breaking Nilsson and pairing terms, systematically parametrized for all members of the chain. The model is used to calculate B(E2) and B(M1) inter-band transition strengths between the ground state, γ and β-bands. In addition, we present results for quadrupole moments and g factors in these rotational bands. The results show that the pseudo-SU(3) shell model is a powerful microscopic theory for a description of electromagnetic properties of states in the normal parity sector in heavy deformed nuclei. (orig.)

  17. Factors affecting fuel break effectiveness in the control of large fires on the Los Padres National Forest, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syphard, Alexandra D.; Keeley, Jon E.; Brennan, Teresa J.

    2011-01-01

    As wildfires have increased in frequency and extent, so have the number of homes developed in the wildland-urban interface. In California, the predominant approach to mitigating fire risk is construction of fuel breaks, but there has been little empirical study of their role in controlling large fires.We constructed a spatial database of fuel breaks on the Los Padres National Forest in southern California to better understand characteristics of fuel breaks that affect the behaviour of large fires and to map where fires and fuel breaks most commonly intersect. We evaluated whether fires stopped or crossed over fuel breaks over a 28-year period and compared the outcomes with physical characteristics of the sites, weather and firefighting activities during the fire event. Many fuel breaks never intersected fires, but others intersected several, primarily in historically fire-prone areas. Fires stopped at fuel breaks 46% of the time, almost invariably owing to fire suppression activities. Firefighter access to treatments, smaller fires and longer fuel breaks were significant direct influences, and younger vegetation and fuel break maintenance indirectly improved the outcome by facilitating firefighter access. This study illustrates the importance of strategic location of fuel breaks because they have been most effective where they provided access for firefighting activities.

  18. Phenomenology of the spontaneous C P violation in SU(3)L x U(1)Y electroweak models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Epele, Luis N.; Gomez Dumm, Daniel A.

    1994-01-01

    This work studies the phenomenological consequence of the spontaneous C P violation in a SU(3) L x U(1) Y model with three Higgs triplets and one sextuplet, which has been recently proposed. Since this C P-violating effects are due to the presence of complex vacuum expectation values in the Higgs sector, our analysis requires a detailed study of the enlarged potential

  19. SU(6) quadrupole phonon model for even and odd nuclei and the SU(3) limit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paar, V; Brant, S [Zagreb Univ. (Yugoslavia). Prirodoslovno Matematicki Fakultet; Canto, L F [Rio de Janeiro Univ. (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica; Leander, G [Lund Inst. of Tech. (Sweden). Dept. of Mathematical Physics; Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA)); Vouk, M [Zagreb Univ. (Yugoslavia). Computing Centre SRCE

    1982-04-05

    Analogous to the equivalence between the SU(6) quadrupole-phonon model (TQM) and the interacting boson model (IBM), the equivalence is pointed out for odd systems between the SU(6) particle quadrupole-phonon coupling model (PTQM) and the interacting boson-fermion model (IBFM). PTQM is formulated starting from the Dyson representation for the odd system. Different aspects of the SU(3) limit of TQM and PTQM are studied; the quadrupole-phonon block structure of rotational bands in even and odd nuclei and analytic expressions based on the coherent state; signature effects generated in PTQM; electromagnetic properties and correction factors for PTQM; overlaps of the PTQM analogs of Nilsson states with Coriolis-coupled Nilsson states and the relation to the rotational model representation.

  20. Heavy quark spin symmetry and SU(3)-flavour partners of the X(3872)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hidalgo-Duque, C., E-mail: carloshd@ific.uv.es [Instituto de Física Corpuscular (IFIC), Centro Mixto CSIC-Universidad de Valencia, Institutos de Investigación de Paterna, Aptd. 22085, E-46071 Valencia (Spain); Nieves, J. [Instituto de Física Corpuscular (IFIC), Centro Mixto CSIC-Universidad de Valencia, Institutos de Investigación de Paterna, Aptd. 22085, E-46071 Valencia (Spain); Pavón Valderrama, M. [Institut de Physique Nucléaire, Université Paris-Sud, IN2P3/CNRS, F-91406 Orsay Cedex (France)

    2013-09-20

    In this work, an Effective Field Theory (EFT) incorporating light SU(3)-flavour and heavy quark spin symmetries is used to describe charmed meson–antimeson bound states. At Lowest Order (LO), this means that only contact range interactions among the heavy meson and antimeson fields are involved. Besides, the isospin violating decays of the X(3872) will be used to constrain the interaction between the D and a D{sup ¯⁎} mesons in the isovector channel. Finally, assuming that the X(3915) and Y(4140) resonances are D{sup ⁎}D{sup ¯⁎} and D{sub s}{sup ⁎}D{sup ¯}{sub s}{sup ⁎} molecular states, we can determine the four Low Energy Constants (LECs) of the EFT that appear at LO and, therefore, the full spectrum of molecular states with isospin I=0, 1/2 and 1.

  1. Effects of hyperthermia on repair of radiation-induced DNA strand breaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mills, M.D.; Meyn, R.E.

    1981-01-01

    Previous reports have suggested a relationship between the heat-induced changes in nucleoprotein and the hyperthermic enhancement of radiation sensitivity. In an effort to further understand these relationships, we measured the level of initial DNA strand break damage and the DNA strand break rejoining kinetics in Chinese hamster ovary cells following combined hyperthermia and ionizing radiation treatments. The amount of protein associated with DNA measured as the ratio of [ 3 H)leucine to [ 14 C]thymidine was also compared in chromatin isolated from both heated and unheated cells. The results of these experiments show that the initial level of radiation-induced DNA strand breaks is significantly enhanced by a prior hyperthermia treatment of 43 0 C for 30 min. Treatments at higher temperatures and longer treatments at the same temperature magnified this effect. Hyperthermia was also shown to cause a substantial inhibition of the DNA strand break rejoining after irradiation. Both the initial level of DNA damage and the rejoining kinetics recovered to normal levels with incubation at 37 0 C between the hyperthermia and radiation treatments. Recovery of these parameters coincided with the return of the amount of protein associated with DNA to normal values, further suggesting a relationship between the changes in nucleoprotein and the hyperthermic enhancement of radiation sensivivity

  2. The SU(3) structure of rotational states in heavy deformed nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jarrio, M.; Wood, J.L.; Rowe, D.J.

    1991-01-01

    The SU(3) coupling scheme provides an informative basis for the expansion of shell-model wave functions and their interpretation in collective-model terms. We show in this paper that it is possible, using the coupled-rotor-vibrator model, to infer averages of the distributions of SU(3) representation labels in heavy rotational nuclei by direct interpretation of physically observed E2 transition rates and quadrupole moments. We find that the distributions of SU(3) representation labels have nearly constant average values for states belonging to some well-defined rotational bands. These are bands of states having B(E2) values and quadrupole moments that follow the predictions of the rotor model. Such bands are interpreted as soft SU(3) bands in parallel with the concept of a soft rotor band with vibrational-shape fluctuations. The concept of a soft SU(3) band and its implications for beta-vibrational excited bands is developed. The average SU(3) representation labels inferred from experiment are interpreted by calculating those implied by the Nilsson model. An analysis of the SU(3) content of Nilsson wave functions also leads to two remarkable predictions. The first is that, in the asymptotic limit, the Nilsson model implies intrinsic states for a rotor band that are beta rigid. The second is that, although the intrinsic Nilsson state is axially symmetric, it generates a sequence of K=0, 2, 4,...bands. (orig.)

  3. Strong coupling and quasispinor representations of the SU(3) rotor model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rowe, D.J.; De Guise, H.

    1992-01-01

    We define a coupling scheme, in close parallel to the coupling scheme of Elliott and Wilsdon, in which nucleonic intrinsic spins are strongly coupled to SU(3) spatial wave functions. The scheme is proposed for shell-model calculations in strongly deformed nuclei and for semimicroscopic analyses of rotations in odd-mass nuclei and other nuclei for which the spin-orbit interaction is believed to play an important role. The coupling scheme extends the domain of utility of the SU(3) model, and the symplectic model, to heavy nuclei and odd-mass nuclei. It is based on the observation that the low angular-momentum states of an SU(3) irrep have properties that mimic those of a corresponding irrep of the rotor algebra. Thus, we show that strongly coupled spin-SU(3) bands behave like strongly coupled rotor bands with properties that approach those of irreducible representations of the rigid-rotor algebra in the limit of large SU(3) quantum numbers. Moreover, we determine that the low angular-momentum states of a strongly coupled band of states of half-odd integer angular momentum behave to a high degree of accuracy as if they belonged to an SU(3) irrep. These are the quasispinor SU(3) irreps referred to in the title. (orig.)

  4. Dynamical symmetry breaking of λφ4 theory in the two loop effective potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Jifeng; Ruan Jianhong

    2002-01-01

    The two loop effective potential of massless λφ 4 theory is presented in several regularization and renormalization prescriptions and the dynamical symmetry breaking solution is obtained in the strong-coupling situation in several prescriptions except the Coleman-Weinberg prescription. The beta function in the broken phase becomes negative and the UV fixed point turns out to be a strong-coupling one, and its numeric value varies with the renormalization prescriptions, a detail which is different from the asymptotic-free solution in the one loop case. The symmetry-breaking phase is shown to be an entirely strong-coupling phase. The reason for the relevance of the renormalization prescriptions is shown to be due to the nonperturbative nature of the effective potential. We also reanalyze the two loop effective potential by adopting a differential equation approach based on the understanding that all the quantum field theories are ill-defined formulations of the 'low-energy' effective theories of a complete underlying theory. The relevance of the prescriptions of fixing the local ambiguities to physical properties such as symmetry breaking is further emphasized. We also tentatively propose a rescaling insensitivity argument for fixing the quadratic ambiguities. Some detailed properties of the strongly coupled broken phase and related issues are discussed

  5. Modified Dynamical Supergravity Breaking and Off-Diagonal Super-Higgs Effects

    CERN Document Server

    Gheorghiu, Tamara; Vacaru, Sergiu

    2015-01-01

    We argue that generic off-diagonal vacuum and nonvacuum solutions for Einstein manifolds mimic physical effects in modified gravity theories (MGTs) and encode certain models of $f(R,T,...)$, Ho\\vrava type with dynamical Lorentz symmetry breaking, induced effective mass for graviton etc. Our main goal is to investigate the dynamical breaking of local supersymmetry determined by off--diagonal solutions in MGTs encoded as effective Einstein spaces. This includes the Deser-Zumino super--Higgs effect, for instance, for an one--loop potential in a (simple but representative) model of $\\mathcal{N}=1, D=4$ supergravity. We develop and apply a new geometric techniques which allows us to decouple the gravitational field equations and integrate them in very general forms with metrics and vierbein fields depending on all spacetime coordinates via various generating and integration functions and parameters. We study how solutions in MGTs may be related to dynamical generation of a gravitino mass and supergravity breaking.

  6. Pair-breaking effects by parallel magnetic field in electric-field-induced surface superconductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nabeta, Masahiro; Tanaka, Kenta K.; Onari, Seiichiro; Ichioka, Masanori

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Zeeman effect shifts superconducting gaps of sub-band system, towards pair-breaking. • Higher-level sub-bands become normal-state-like electronic states by magnetic fields. • Magnetic field dependence of zero-energy DOS reflects multi-gap superconductivity. - Abstract: We study paramagnetic pair-breaking in electric-field-induced surface superconductivity, when magnetic field is applied parallel to the surface. The calculation is performed by Bogoliubov-de Gennes theory with s-wave pairing, including the screening effect of electric fields by the induced carriers near the surface. Due to the Zeeman shift by applied fields, electronic states at higher-level sub-bands become normal-state-like. Therefore, the magnetic field dependence of Fermi-energy density of states reflects the multi-gap structure in the surface superconductivity.

  7. sdg interacting-boson model in the SU(3) scheme and its application to 168Er

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshinaga, N.; Akiyama, Y.; Arima, A.

    1988-07-01

    The sdg interacting-boson model is presented in the SU(3) tensor formalism. The interactions are decomposed according to their SU(3) tensor character. The existence of the SU(3)-seniority preserving operator is found to be important. The model is applied to 168Er. Energy levels and electromagnetic transitions are calculated. This model is shown to solve the problem of anharmonicity regarding the excitation energy of the first Kπ=4+ band relative to that of the first Kπ=2+ one. E4 transitions are calculated to give different predictions from those by the quasiparticle-phonon nuclear model.

  8. Quantifying the effects of the break up of Pangaea on global terrestrial diversification with neutral theory

    OpenAIRE

    Jordan, S; Barraclough, T; Rosindell, JL

    2016-01-01

    The historic richness of most taxonomic groups increases substantially over geological time. Explanations for this fall broadly into two categories: bias in the fossil record and elevated net rates of diversification in recent periods. For example, the break up of Pangaea and isolation between continents might have increased net diversification rates. In this study, we investigate the effect on terrestrial diversification rates of the increased isolation between land masses brought about by c...

  9. Dynamical Symmetry Breaking of Extended Gauge Symmetries

    OpenAIRE

    Appelquist, Thomas; Shrock, Robert

    2003-01-01

    We construct asymptotically free gauge theories exhibiting dynamical breaking of the left-right, strong-electroweak gauge group $G_{LR} = {\\rm SU}(3)_c \\times {\\rm SU}(2)_L \\times {\\rm SU}(2)_R \\times {\\rm U}(1)_{B-L}$, and its extension to the Pati-Salam gauge group $G_{422}={\\rm SU}(4)_{PS} \\times {\\rm SU}(2)_L \\times {\\rm SU}(2)_R$. The models incorporate technicolor for electroweak breaking, and extended technicolor for the breaking of $G_{LR}$ and $G_{422}$ and the generation of fermion ...

  10. Effective field theory of emergent symmetry breaking in deformed atomic nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papenbrock, T; Weidenmüller, H A

    2015-01-01

    Spontaneous symmetry breaking in non-relativistic quantum systems has previously been addressed in the framework of effective field theory. Low-lying excitations are constructed from Nambu–Goldstone modes using symmetry arguments only. We extend that approach to finite systems. The approach is very general. To be specific, however, we consider atomic nuclei with intrinsically deformed ground states. The emergent symmetry breaking in such systems requires the introduction of additional degrees of freedom on top of the Nambu–Goldstone modes. Symmetry arguments suffice to construct the low-lying states of the system. In deformed nuclei these are vibrational modes each of which serves as band head of a rotational band. (paper)

  11. Poincare group, SU(3) and V-A in leptonic decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boehm, A.

    1975-07-01

    From as few assumptions as possible about the relations between the Poincare group, the particle classifying SU(3) and V-A we derive properties of the K/sub l 3 / and K/sub L 2 / decays. From the assumed relation between SU(3) and the Poincare group and the first class condition it follows that the formfactor ratio Xi of K/sub l 3 / decay is Xi = --0.57, and that a value of Xi = 0 is in disagreement with very general and well accepted theoretical assumptions. Assuming universality of V-A, the Cabibbo suppression is derived from the relations between SU(3) and V-A as a consequence of the brokenness of SU(3). (U.S.)

  12. Identity of the SU(3) model phenomenological hamiltonian and the hamiltonian of nonaxial rotator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filippov, G.F.; Avramenko, V.I.; Sokolov, A.M.

    1984-01-01

    Interpretation of nonspheric atomic nuclei spectra on the basis of phenomenological hamiltonians of SU(3) model showed satisfactory agreement of simulation calculations with experimental data. Meanwhile physical sense of phenomenological hamiltonians was not yet discussed. It is shown that phenomenological hamiltonians of SU(3) model are reduced to hamiltonian of nonaxial rotator but with additional items of the third and fourth powers angular momentum operator of rotator

  13. Investigation of break location effects on thermal-hydraulics during intermediate break loss-of-coolant accident experiments at ROSA-III

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koizumi, Yasuo; Tasaka, Kanji

    1986-01-01

    The rig of safety assessment (ROSA)-III facility is a volumetrically scaled (1/424) boiling water reactor (BWR/6) system with an electrically heated core designed for integral loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) and emergency core cooling system (ECCS) tests. Break location effects on thermal-hydraulics during intermediate LOCAs were investigated by using four experiments at the ROSA-III, the 15 and 25 % main recirculation pump suction line break (MRPS-B) experiments, the 21 % single-ended jet pump drive line break (JPD-B) experiment and the 15 % main steam line break (MSL-B) experiment. Water injection from the high pressure core spray (HPCS) was not used in any of the experiments. Failure of ECCS actuation by the high containment pressure was also assumed in the tests. In the MRPS-B experiments, the discharge flow turned from low quality fluid to high quality fluid when the downcomer water level dropped to the main recirculation line outlet elevation, which suppressed coolant loss from the vessel and the core. In the JPD-B experiment, the jet pump drive nozzle was covered with low quality fluid and low quality fluid discharge continued even after the downcomer water level reached the jet pump suction elevation. Low quality fluid discharge ceased after the ADS actuation. It suggestes that the JPD-B LOCA has the possibility of causing larger and more severe core dryout and cladding temperature excursion than the MRPS-B LOCA. The MSL-B LOCA was characterized by mixture level swell in the downcomer and the core. The core mixture level swell resulted in the much later core dryout initiation than that in the MRPS-B LOCA, however, ECCS actuation was also delayed because of slow downcomer water level drop. (author)

  14. Effects of the Pressurized Water Reactor Main Steam Line Break Location on the Blowdown Loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jo, Jong Chull; Kang, Soon Ho; Chan, Won Joon

    2016-01-01

    The thermal hydraulic analysis has been performed generally using a simple lumped model or one dimensional numerical model. However, those models have limitations in predicting the transient variations of the steam velocity, pressure and hydrodynamic load at a local point and the most conservative condition. Furthermore, it cannot be confirmed if the blowdown loads predicted by either of the models are conservative to evaluate every part of the SG internal structures. In this study, the transient hydraulic response of the SG secondary side to the MSLB case where the pipe break is assumed to occur at the SG outlet nozzle end, another weld point on the MSL, was numerically simulated using a CFD code. The present CFD calculation results was compared with those in ref. to investigate the effect of break location (friction loss) on the blowdown load in the SG secondary side. The result shows that the friction loss along the steam line span between the SG nozzle end and the MSIV would cause reduction in steam velocity disturbance or dynamic pressure. It implies that the consequence of the MSLB at the SG nozzle end would be much severer that those of other MSLB cases where the break locations are far from the SG. Therefore, to assure a conservative safety evaluation of the SG structural integrity, the blowdown loading on the SG internal structures including tubes during a MSLB accident in terms of the transient steam velocity, dynamic pressure and decompression wave fluctuations should be assessed for the MSLB case where the break is assumed to occur at the SG nozzle end.

  15. Effects of the Pressurized Water Reactor Main Steam Line Break Location on the Blowdown Loading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jo, Jong Chull; Kang, Soon Ho; Chan, Won Joon [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    The thermal hydraulic analysis has been performed generally using a simple lumped model or one dimensional numerical model. However, those models have limitations in predicting the transient variations of the steam velocity, pressure and hydrodynamic load at a local point and the most conservative condition. Furthermore, it cannot be confirmed if the blowdown loads predicted by either of the models are conservative to evaluate every part of the SG internal structures. In this study, the transient hydraulic response of the SG secondary side to the MSLB case where the pipe break is assumed to occur at the SG outlet nozzle end, another weld point on the MSL, was numerically simulated using a CFD code. The present CFD calculation results was compared with those in ref. to investigate the effect of break location (friction loss) on the blowdown load in the SG secondary side. The result shows that the friction loss along the steam line span between the SG nozzle end and the MSIV would cause reduction in steam velocity disturbance or dynamic pressure. It implies that the consequence of the MSLB at the SG nozzle end would be much severer that those of other MSLB cases where the break locations are far from the SG. Therefore, to assure a conservative safety evaluation of the SG structural integrity, the blowdown loading on the SG internal structures including tubes during a MSLB accident in terms of the transient steam velocity, dynamic pressure and decompression wave fluctuations should be assessed for the MSLB case where the break is assumed to occur at the SG nozzle end.

  16. Effect of screening current induced pair breaking on magnetization of superconducting lead nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yashwant, G.; Prajapat, C.L. [Technical Physics and Prototype Engineering Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai, Maharashtra 400 085 (India); Jayakumar, O.D. [Chemistry Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai, Maharashtra 400 085 (India); Singh, M.R.; Gupta, S.K. [Technical Physics and Prototype Engineering Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai, Maharashtra 400 085 (India); Tyagi, A.K. [Chemistry Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai, Maharashtra 400 085 (India); Ravikumar, G. [Technical Physics and Prototype Engineering Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai, Maharashtra 400 085 (India)], E-mail: gurazada@barc.gov.in

    2008-06-15

    Magnetization measurements on lead nanoparticles in the size range 35-45 nm are presented. It is shown that the critical fields in these nanoparticles are enhanced significantly above their bulk values with temperature dependence also distinct from that of bulk. The observed 'type II' like shape of the magnetization curves is explained on the basis of the Ginzburg-Landau phenomenology by invoking the pair breaking effect of the London screening currents, which makes the effective penetration depth an increasing function of the field. The temperature dependence of critical field is found to be consistent with our explanation.

  17. Effects of blast wave to main steam piping under high energy line break condition by TNT model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Seung Hyun; Lee, Eung Seok; Chang, Yoon Suk [Kyung Hee University, Yongin (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    The aim of this study is to examine effect of the blast wave according to pipe break position through FE (Finite Element) analyses. If HELB (High Energy Line Break) accident occurs in nuclear power plants, not only environmental effect such as release of radioactive material but also secondary structural defects should be considered. Sudden pipe rupture causes ejection of high temperature and pressure fluid, which acts as a blast wave around the break location. The blast wave caused by the HELB has a possibility to induce structural defects around the components such as safe-related injection pipes and other structures.

  18. SU(3)味极限附近色味连锁型超导体中的束缚双夸克态%Bound Diquark States in Color-Flavor-Locked Type Superconductor near the SU(3) Flavor Limit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任春福; 张一; 张小兵

    2011-01-01

    Starting from the ideal color-flavor locked phase, an approximate description for three-flavor quark superconductor is proposed near the SU (3) flavor limit. Under the physical influence from explicitly chiral-symmetry-breaking, we investigate the behaviors for two species of diquark states and the formations of bound diquark states at the mean-field level. In strongly coupling density regime, a theoretical possibility is pointed out at the first time,that Bose-Einstein condensation of light-flavor diquark states occur in the environment where all three-flavor and three-color quarks participate the Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer pairing.%从理想的色味连锁相出发,在SU(3)味极限附近,给出了一个3味夸克超导体的近似描述.在手征对称性明显破缺的物理影响下,运用Nambu-Jona-Lasinio(NJL)模型在平均场层次上研究了两种双夸克态和束缚双夸克态的形成.当夸克之间的相互作用非常强时,首次指出了在3色和3味夸克参与Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer配对的环境下,轻味双夸克态发生玻色-爱因斯坦凝聚的可能性.

  19. Lie-algebra approach to symmetry breaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, J.T.

    1981-01-01

    A formal Lie-algebra approach to symmetry breaking is studied in an attempt to reduce the arbitrariness of Lagrangian (Hamiltonian) models which include several free parameters and/or ad hoc symmetry groups. From Lie algebra it is shown that the unbroken Lagrangian vacuum symmetry can be identified from a linear function of integers which are Cartan matrix elements. In broken symmetry if the breaking operators form an algebra then the breaking symmetry (or symmetries) can be identified from linear functions of integers characteristic of the breaking symmetries. The results are applied to the Dirac Hamiltonian of a sum of flavored fermions and colored bosons in the absence of dynamical symmetry breaking. In the partially reduced quadratic Hamiltonian the breaking-operator functions are shown to consist of terms of order g 2 , g, and g 0 in the color coupling constants and identified with strong (boson-boson), medium strong (boson-fermion), and fine-structure (fermion-fermion) interactions. The breaking operators include a boson helicity operator in addition to the familiar fermion helicity and ''spin-orbit'' terms. Within the broken vacuum defined by the conventional formalism, the field divergence yields a gauge which is a linear function of Cartan matrix integers and which specifies the vacuum symmetry. We find that the vacuum symmetry is chiral SU(3) x SU(3) and the axial-vector-current divergence gives a PCAC -like function of the Cartan matrix integers which reduces to PCAC for SU(2) x SU(2) breaking. For the mass spectra of the nonets J/sup P/ = 0 - ,1/2 + ,1 - the integer runs through the sequence 3,0,-1,-2, which indicates that the breaking subgroups are the simple Lie groups. Exact axial-vector-current conservation indicates a breaking sum rule which generates octet enhancement. Finally, the second-order breaking terms are obtained from the second-order spin tensor sum of the completely reduced quartic Hamiltonian

  20. Evaluation of physical constants and operators in the SU(2) and SU(3) lattice gauge theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuchida, R.H.

    1987-01-01

    Wilson loops and Wilson lines in the fundamental and the adjoint representations of SU(2) on the lattice are measured using the icosahedral subgroup and a noise reduction technique. The string tension was evaluated by fitting the expectation value of loops of all sizes to a 6-parameter curve. From the Wilson lines in the adjoint representation of SU(2), two kinds of gluon potentials were measured: the gluon-gluon interaction potential and the gluon-image interaction potential. The effective mass of the gluon was evaluated on each of those potentials and compared. In SU(3), the contribution of s anti σ/sub μnu/F/sub μnu/d operator to the correction of effective weak four-quark operator in the measurement of ΔI = 1/2 amplitude of kaon decay is examined. The renormalization of the critical hopping parameter is calculated perturbatively and compared with the Monte Carlo results. The VEV of psi anti psi operator is measured on the lattice. In the hopping parameter renormalization calculation and the psi anti psi measurements, the effects of expanding of Feynman diagrams in power of a, the lattice spacing, are examined

  1. Breaking Bat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar, Isaac-Cesar; Kagan, David

    2013-01-01

    The sight of a broken bat in Major League Baseball can produce anything from a humorous dribbler in the infield to a frightening pointed projectile headed for the stands. Bats usually break at the weakest point, typically in the handle. Breaking happens because the wood gets bent beyond the breaking point due to the wave sent down the bat created…

  2. Isospin breaking in octet baryon mass splittings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horsley, R. [Edinburgh Univ. (United Kingdom). School of Physics and Astronomy; Najjar, J. [Regensburg Univ. (Germany). Institut fuer Theoretische Physik; Nakamura, Y. [RIKEN Advanced Institute for Computational Science, Kobe, Hyogo (Japan); Pleiter, D. [Forschungszentrum Juelich (Germany). Juelich Supercomputer Centre; Rakow, P.E.L. [Liverpool Univ. (United Kingdom). Theoretical Physics Division; Schierholz, G. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Zanotti, J.M. [Adelaide Univ., SA (Australia). CSSM, School of Chemistry and Physics

    2012-06-15

    Using an SU(3) flavour symmetry breaking expansion in the quark mass, we determine the QCD component of the nucleon, Sigma and Xi mass splittings of the baryon octet due to up-down (and strange) quark mass differences in terms of the kaon mass splitting. Provided the average quark mass is kept constant, the expansion coefficients in our procedure can be determined from computationally cheaper simulations with mass degenerate sea quarks and partially quenched valence quarks. Both the linear and quadratic terms in the SU(3) flavour symmetry breaking expansion are considered; it is found that the quadratic terms only change the result by a few percent, indicating that the expansion is highly convergent.

  3. Energy farming in Dutch desiccation abatement areas. Effects on break-even biomass price

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Londo, M.; Dekker, J.; Vleeshouwers, L.; De Graaf, H.

    1999-09-01

    Measures in Dutch nature areas to combat desiccation of nature areas often have effects on surrounding agricultural lands, or buffer areas. Generally, these soils become moister, which can lead to lower yields for most common crops. Cultivation of the flooding-tolerant energy crop willow may be an alternative. In this study, the performance of willow production is compared to that of grass for roughage, in buffer areas as well as in a hydrologically optimal situation. Financial consequences are evaluated by calculating the biomass price that makes willow equally competitive to grass (break-even). The effect of high groundwater tables on yields of both crops is estimated using the agro-hydrological model SWAP. The calculated price that gives break-even between willow and grass is lower on wet soils than in a hydrologically optimal situation. At a groundwater table class of II, a groundwater situation quite common in buffer areas, this break-even price is 20% lower. The physical yield of willow is lower than its optimum, but grass yields decrease stronger, making willow more competitive. The biomass price in a hydrologically optimal situation, as calculated in this study, is comparable to values found in other studies. However, this comparison is complicated by differences in assumptions in the cost calculations, and by the fact that grass as roughage has less value added than food crops such as potatoes and wheat. This study contains considerable uncertainties with respect to the data used and the methodology. A sensitivity analysis shows that several parameters with a strong influence on the biomass price have low uncertainties. An uncertain value with strong influence is the optimal willow yield, which could not be estimated on practical data. Methodological limitations of the study, both in the economic comparison between willow and grass and in the yield estimations, are also discussed. 50 refs

  4. Non-Gaussianities in the topological charge distribution of the SU(3) Yang-Mills theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cè, Marco; Consonni, Cristian; Engel, Georg P.; Giusti, Leonardo

    2015-10-01

    We study the topological charge distribution of the SU(3) Yang-Mills theory with high precision in order to be able to detect deviations from Gaussianity. The computation is carried out on the lattice with high statistics Monte Carlo simulations by implementing a naive discretization of the topological charge evolved with the Yang-Mills gradient flow. This definition is far less demanding than the one suggested from Neuberger's fermions and, as shown in this paper, in the continuum limit its cumulants coincide with those of the universal definition appearing in the chiral Ward identities. Thanks to the range of lattice volumes and spacings considered, we can extrapolate the results for the second and fourth cumulant of the topological charge distribution to the continuum limit with confidence by keeping finite volume effects negligible with respect to the statistical errors. Our best results for the topological susceptibility is t02χ =6.67 (7 )×1 0-4 , where t0 is a standard reference scale, while for the ratio of the fourth cumulant over the second, we obtain R =0.233 (45 ). The latter is compatible with the expectations from the large Nc expansion, while it rules out the θ behavior of the vacuum energy predicted by the dilute instanton model. Its large distance from 1 implies that, in the ensemble of gauge configurations that dominate the path integral, the fluctuations of the topological charge are of quantum nonperturbative nature.

  5. Developing and testing the density of states FFA method in the SU(3) spin model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giuliani, Mario; Gattringer, Christof, E-mail: christof.gattringer@uni-graz.at; Törek, Pascal

    2016-12-15

    The Density of States Functional Fit Approach (DoS FFA) is a recently proposed modern density of states technique suitable for calculations in lattice field theories with a complex action problem. In this article we present an exploratory implementation of DoS FFA for the SU(3) spin system at finite chemical potential μ – an effective theory for the Polyakov loop. This model has a complex action problem similar to the one of QCD but also allows for a dual simulation in terms of worldlines where the complex action problem is solved. Thus we can compare the DoS FFA results to the reference data from the dual simulation and assess the performance of the new approach. We find that the method reproduces the observables from the dual simulation for a large range of μ values, including also phase transitions, illustrating that DoS FFA is an interesting approach for exploring phase diagrams of lattice field theories with a complex action problem.

  6. γ-ray dose rate effect in DNA double-strand break repair deficient murine cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Liya; Li Peiwen

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To analyze the dose rate effect and potentially lethal damage repair in DNA double-strand break repair deficient murine cells (SCID) irradiated by γ-ray. Methods: The wild type (CB.17+/+) and SCID cells were exposed to γ-ray at high and low dose rates. The high dose rate exposure was fractionated into two equal doses at 24 h intervals. The survival rates of irradiated cells were calculated by clone-forming analysis. Results: When γ-ray was given to wild type (CB.17+/+) cells in two fractions at 24 h intervals, the survival rate was significantly higher than that when the same total dose was given singly. In contrast, there was no difference in the survival rates between the single and fractionated exposure in SCID cells. SCID cells were more sensitive than CB.17+/+ cells to both low and high dose rates γ-ray exposure for cell killing. The survival rate by low dose rate exposure was significantly higher than that by high dose rate exposure, not only in CB.17+/+ cells but also in SCID cells. Conclusions: SCID cells are deficient in repairing γ-ray induced double-strand breaks. There is dose rate effect in both SCID and CB.17+/+ cells

  7. Break Differed Induced by Hydrides (BDIH) in Zr-2,5Nb: Microstructure effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mieza, J. Ignacio; Domizzi, Gladys; Vigna, Gustavo L

    2006-01-01

    The alloys of Zr-2,5%Nb are susceptible to be degraded for the incorporation of hydrogen in their matrix. One of the mechanisms of the damage by hydrogen known as Break Differed Induced by Hydrides (BDIH) consists of the evolution, in discreet steps, of a crack inside the matrix by the fragile break of the hydride phase. The parameter utilized to characterize the severity of the process of BDIH is the velocity of advance of the crack. The variables that affect to the velocity are the solicitations of external load, the thermal cycles, the content of hydrogen and the microstructure of the material. The Zr-2, 5% Nb of nuclear use is a two-phase alloy (α-β) constituted by the phase alpha (rich in Zr) and β-Zr (rich in Nb) retained since high temperature. In service, the phase metastable evolves toward the stable phase depending on the time and the temperature of operation. In this work the effects of the evolution of the phase β-Zr on the velocity of BDIH are studied, measure with emission acoustics. The microstructural characterization was done by means of obtained dust X-rays diffraction by anodic dissolution of the material. The results obtained show the decrease of the velocity of propagation of the crack with the degree of advance of the transformation toward the phase β-Nb, consistent effect with the differences observed in the coefficients of diffusion of each phase (AG)

  8. The effect of fire on the dormancy break of annual legume seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Gresta

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Fire is a common phenomenon in the Mediterranean environment and strongly influences vegetal population dynamics through its impact on vegetation and the soil seed bank. Fire is able to break down the seed coat of hard-seeded legumes within the soil and trigger germination. To evaluate the effect of fire on the dormancy break in Medicago ciliaris, Medicago rugosa and Scorpiurus muricatus subsp. subvillosus, the seeds were placed at three different depths (surface, 25 mm and 50 mm and subjected to fires at two different intensities (high and low. As a control sample, a batch of seeds was buried at 25 mm for the duration of the trial and not subjected to fire. Soil temperatures during the fire were compared directly to stubble quantity and indirectly related to soil depth. The two Medicago species survived exposure to 90°C for a few minutes and displayed a significant increase in germination with exposure to high temperatures (over 70°C for several minutes. On the other hand, no germination occurred in Scorpiurus, irrespective of treatment. In conclusion, fire had a significant and positive effect in triggering germination of the Medicago species, but the dispersal strategies of these hard-seeded legumes are only partially interrupted by fire as a large number of seeds (>50% remained non-germinated in the soil.

  9. The effect of fire on the dormancy break of three annual legume seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Gresta

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Fire is a common phenomenon in the Mediterranean environment and strongly influences vegetal population dynamics through its impact on vegetation and the soil seed bank. Fire is able to break down the seed coat of hard-seeded legumes within the soil and trigger germination. To evaluate the effect of fire on the dormancy break in Medicago ciliaris, Medicago rugosa and Scorpiurus muricatus subsp. subvillosus, the seeds were placed at three different depths (surface, 25 mm and 50 mm and subjected to fires at two different intensities (high and low. As a control sample, a batch of seeds was buried at 25 mm for the duration of the trial and not subjected to fire. Soil temperatures during the fire were compared directly to stubble quantity and indirectly related to soil depth. The two Medicago species survived exposure to 90°C for a few minutes and displayed a significant increase in germination with exposure to high temperatures (over 70°C for several minutes. On the other hand, no germination occurred in Scorpiurus, irrespective of treatment. In conclusion, fire had a significant and positive effect in triggering germination of the Medicago species, but the dispersal strategies of these hard-seeded legumes are only partially interrupted by fire as a large number of seeds (>50% remained non-germinated in the soil.

  10. A representation basis for the quantum integrable spin chain associated with the su(3) algebra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hao, Kun [Institute of Modern Physics, Northwest University, Xian 710069 (China); Cao, Junpeng [Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics, Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center of Quantum Matter, Beijing (China); Li, Guang-Liang [Department of Applied Physics, Xian Jiaotong University, Xian 710049 (China); Yang, Wen-Li [Institute of Modern Physics, Northwest University, Xian 710069 (China); Beijing Center for Mathematics and Information Interdisciplinary Sciences, Beijing 100048 (China); Shi, Kangjie [Institute of Modern Physics, Northwest University, Xian 710069 (China); Wang, Yupeng [Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics, Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center of Quantum Matter, Beijing (China)

    2016-05-20

    An orthogonal basis of the Hilbert space for the quantum spin chain associated with the su(3) algebra is introduced. Such kind of basis could be treated as a nested generalization of separation of variables (SoV) basis for high-rank quantum integrable models. It is found that all the monodromy-matrix elements acting on a basis vector take simple forms. With the help of the basis, we construct eigenstates of the su(3) inhomogeneous spin torus (the trigonometric su(3) spin chain with antiperiodic boundary condition) from its spectrum obtained via the off-diagonal Bethe Ansatz (ODBA). Based on small sites (i.e. N=2) check, it is conjectured that the homogeneous limit of the eigenstates exists, which gives rise to the corresponding eigenstates of the homogenous model.

  11. Alternative [SU(3]4 model of leptonic color and dark matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corey Kownacki

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The alternative [SU(3]4 model of leptonic color and dark matter is discussed. It unifies at MU∼1014 GeV and has the low-energy subgroup SU(3q×SU(2l×SU(2L×SU(2R×U(1X with (u,hR instead of (u,dR as doublets under SU(2R. It has the built-in global U(1 dark symmetry which is generalized B–L. In analogy to SU(3q quark triplets, it has SU(2l hemion doublets which have half-integral charges and are confined by SU(2l gauge bosons (stickons. In analogy to quarkonia, their vector bound states (hemionia are uniquely suited for exploration at a future e−e+ collider.

  12. Alternative [SU(3)]4 model of leptonic color and dark matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kownacki, Corey; Ma, Ernest; Pollard, Nicholas; Popov, Oleg; Zakeri, Mohammadreza

    2018-03-01

    The alternative [ SU (3) ] 4 model of leptonic color and dark matter is discussed. It unifies at MU ∼1014 GeV and has the low-energy subgroup SU(3)q × SU(2)l × SU(2)L × SU(2)R × U(1)X with (u , h) R instead of (u , d) R as doublets under SU(2)R. It has the built-in global U (1) dark symmetry which is generalized B- L. In analogy to SU(3)q quark triplets, it has SU(2)l hemion doublets which have half-integral charges and are confined by SU(2)l gauge bosons (stickons). In analogy to quarkonia, their vector bound states (hemionia) are uniquely suited for exploration at a future e-e+ collider.

  13. The cost effectiveness of vancomycin for preventing infections after shoulder arthroplasty: a break-even analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatch, M Daniel; Daniels, Stephen D; Glerum, Kimberly M; Higgins, Laurence D

    2017-03-01

    Increasing methicillin resistance and recognition of Propionibacterium acnes as a cause of infection in shoulder arthroplasty has led to the adoption of local vancomycin powder application as a more effective method to prevent expensive periprosthetic infections. However, no study has analyzed the cost effectiveness of vancomycin powder for preventing infection after shoulder replacement. Cost data for infection-related care of 16 patients treated for deep periprosthetic shoulder infection was collected from our institution for the break-even analysis. An equation was developed and applied to the data to determine how effective vancomycin powder would need to be at reducing a baseline infection rate to make prophylactic use cost effective. The efficacy of vancomycin (absolute risk reduction [ARR]) was evaluated at different unit costs, baseline infection rates, and average costs of treating infection. We determined vancomycin to be cost effective if the initial infection rate decreased by 0.04% (ARR). Using the current costs of vancomycin reported in the literature (range: $2.50/1000 mg to $44/1000 mg), we determined vancomycin to be cost effective with an ARR range of 0.01% at a cost of $2.50/1000 mg to 0.19% at $44/1000 mg. Baseline infection rate does not influence the ARR obtained at any specific cost of vancomycin or the cost of treating infection. We have derived and used a break-even equation to assess efficacy of prophylactic antibiotics during shoulder surgery. We further demonstrated the prophylactic administration of local vancomycin powder during shoulder arthroplasty to be a highly cost-effective practice. Copyright © 2017 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Planning to break unwanted habits: habit strength moderates implementation intention effects on behaviour change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Thomas L; Sheeran, Paschal; Luszczynska, Aleksandra

    2009-09-01

    Implementation intention formation promotes effective goal striving and goal attainment. However, little research has investigated whether implementation intentions promote behaviour change when people possess strong antagonistic habits. Experiment 1 developed relatively habitual responses that, after a task switch, had a detrimental impact on task performance. Forming an if-then plan reduced the negative impact of habit on performance. However, the effect of forming implementation intentions was smaller among participants who possessed strong habits as compared to participants who had weaker habits. Experiment 2 provided a field test of the role of habit strength in moderating the relationship between implementation intentions and behaviour in the context of smoking. Implementation intentions reduced smoking among participants with weak or moderate smoking habits, but not among participants with strong smoking habits. In summary, habit strength moderates the effectiveness of if-then plan formation in breaking unwanted habits.

  15. Hierarchical supersymmetry breaking and dynamical determination of compactification parameters by non-perturbative effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casas, J.A.; Lalak, Z.; Munoz, C.; Ross, G.G.

    1990-01-01

    The characteristics of the effective potentials coming from phenomenologically promising compactified superstring theories are examined, playing special attention to the supersymmetry breaking issue. We find a mechanism for generating the large gauge hierarchy by gaugino condensation effect in the case that the hidden sector possesses more than one condensate. We construct an explicit example based on orbifold compactification in which this is realized. Minimization of the effective potential not only determines the gauge hierarchy but also fixes other important parameters of the theory, in particular the gauge coupling constant at the unification point and the expectation values of the moduli which give the size and shape of the compactified space. These get reasonable values which may, in turn, lead to a determination of the family mass hierarchy. (orig.)

  16. SU(3) limit of the IBM as a 1/N expansion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuyucak, S.; Morrison, I.

    1990-01-01

    The SU(3) limit of the interacting boson model is considered from the perspective of the 1/N expansion. It is shown that truncation of the E2 matrix elements in the spirit of the 1/N expansion and the Mikhailov plots greatly simplifies the complicated exact results and leads to some new insights. A list of E2 transitions among the ground, β and γ bands, both in the SU(3) limit and in more general cases, is given, and some errors in the previous literature are pointed out. 13 refs

  17. Bosonization of the generalized SU(3) Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model in the 1/N expansion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campos, Francisco Antonio Pena

    1995-01-01

    The present work consists in a 1/N expansion of extended version of the SU(3) Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model in the context of the Functional Integral. The gap equations, meson propagators, triangle diagram, etc, appear quite naturally as different orders in the expansion. The new features of this approach is the inclusion of high order corrections in the 1/N leading orders, which have never included in the previous one. The method also allows for the construction of a chiral Lagrangian of interacting mesons based on the SU(3) NJL model, here obtained for the first time. (author)

  18. SU(3) techniques for angular momentum projected matrix elements in multi-cluster problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hecht, K.T.; Zahn, W.

    1978-01-01

    In the theory of integral transforms for the evaluation of the resonating group kernels needed for cluster model calculations, the evaluation of matrix elements in an angular momentum coupled basis has proved to be difficult for cluster problems involving more than two fragments. For multi-cluster wave functions SU(3) coupling and recoupling techniques can furnish a tool for the practical evaluation matrix elements in an angular momentum coupled basis if the several relative motion harmonic oscillator functions in Bargmann space have simple SU(3) coupling properties. The method is illustrated by a three-cluster problem, such as 12 C = α + α + α, involving three 1 S clusters. 2 references

  19. Isospin-symmetry-breaking effects in A∼70 nuclei within beyond-mean-field approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrovici, A.; Andrei, O. [National Institute for Physics and Nuclear Engineering, R-077125 Bucharest (Romania)

    2015-02-24

    Particular isospin-symmetry-breaking probes including Coulomb energy differences (CED), mirror energy differences (MED), and triplet energy differences (TED) manifest anomalies in the A∼70 isovector triplets of nuclei. The structure of proton-rich nuclei in the A∼70 mass region suggests shape coexistence and competition between pairing correlations in different channels. Recent results concerning the interplay between isospin-mixing and shape-coexistence effects on exotic phenomena in A∼70 nuclei obtained within the beyond-mean-field complex Excited Vampir variational model with symmetry projection before variation using a realistic effective interaction in a relatively large model space are presented. Excited Vampir predictions concerning the Gamow-Teller β decay to the odd-odd N=Z {sup 66}As and {sup 70}Br nuclei correlated with the pair structure analysis in the T=1 and T=0 channel of the involved wave functions are discussed.

  20. Two- and four-quasiparticle states in the interacting boson model: Strong-coupling and decoupled band patterns in the SU(3) limit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vretenar, D.; Paar, V.; Bonsignori, G.; Savoia, M.

    1990-01-01

    An extension of the interacting boson approximation model is proposed by allowing for two- and four-quasiparticle excitations out of the boson space. The formation of band patterns based on two- and four-quasiparticle states is investigated in the SU(3) limit of the model. For hole-type (particle-type) fermions coupled to the SU(3) prolate (oblate) core, it is shown that the algebraic K-representation basis, which is the analog of the strong-coupling basis of the geometrical model, provides an appropriate description of the low-lying two-quasiparticle bands. In the case of particle-type (hole-type) fermions coupled to the SU(3) prolate (oblate) core, a new algebraic decoupling basis is derived that is equivalent in the geometrical limit to Stephens' rotation-aligned basis. Comparing the wave functions that are obtained by diagonalization of the model Hamiltonian to the decoupling basis, several low-lying two-quasiparticle bands are identified. The effects of an interaction that conserves only the total nucleon number, mixing states with different number of fermions, are investigated in both the strong-coupling and decoupling limits. All calculations are performed for an SU(3) boson core and the h11/2 fermion orbital

  1. Determinants of the effectiveness of fast break actions in elite and sub-elite Italian men’s basketball games

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Conte

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine the determinants of successful and unsuccessful fast-break (FB actions in elite and sub-elite basketball games. Fifteen 1st-division (elite and fifteen 3rd-division (sub-elite Italian men’s championship games were analysed across two seasons (2012/2013 and 2013/2014. A binary logistic regression analysis was performed, and the fast-break outcome (successful vs. unsuccessful was adopted as the dependent variable separately in both elite and sub-elite games. FB execution (initiation, advance and completion phases, typology (primary and secondary break and the number of players involved (equal number or superiority were used as independent variables. The results showed that the rate of success of FB actions was 63.5% and 59.7% in elite and sub-elite games, respectively. Moreover, successful FBs were more likely to be completed in the lane in relation to unsuccessful ones in both elite and sub-elite games (p<0.05. Finally, descriptive statistics showed that both elite and sub-elite teams executed FBs similarly. This study highlighted that completion zone was the only predictor of a successful fast break in basketball, while the typology and number of players involved did not predict fast break effectiveness. Moreover, elite and sub-elite teams executed fast break actions similarly. These findings might be useful for basketball coaches to optimize the training of FB actions.

  2. Determinants of the effectiveness of fast break actions in elite and sub-elite Italian men's basketball games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conte, D; Favero, T G; Niederhausen, M; Capranica, L; Tessitore, A

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the determinants of successful and unsuccessful fast-break (FB) actions in elite and sub-elite basketball games. Fifteen 1 st -division (elite) and fifteen 3 rd -division (sub-elite) Italian men's championship games were analysed across two seasons (2012/2013 and 2013/2014). A binary logistic regression analysis was performed, and the fast-break outcome (successful vs. unsuccessful) was adopted as the dependent variable separately in both elite and sub-elite games. FB execution (initiation, advance and completion phases), typology (primary and secondary break) and the number of players involved (equal number or superiority) were used as independent variables. The results showed that the rate of success of FB actions was 63.5% and 59.7% in elite and sub-elite games, respectively. Moreover, successful FBs were more likely to be completed in the lane in relation to unsuccessful ones in both elite and sub-elite games (p<0.05). Finally, descriptive statistics showed that both elite and sub-elite teams executed FBs similarly. This study highlighted that completion zone was the only predictor of a successful fast break in basketball, while the typology and number of players involved did not predict fast break effectiveness. Moreover, elite and sub-elite teams executed fast break actions similarly. These findings might be useful for basketball coaches to optimize the training of FB actions.

  3. Strong UA(1) breaking in radiative η decays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takizawa, M.; Nemoto, Y.; Oka, M.

    1996-08-01

    We study the η → γγ, η → γμ - μ + and η → π 0 γγ decays using an extended three-flavor Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model that includes the 't Hooft instanton induced interaction. We find that the η-meson mass, the η → γγ, η → γμ - μ + and η → π 0 γγ decay widths are in good agreement with the experimental values when the U A (1) breaking is strong and the flavor SU(3) singlet-octet mixing angle θ is about zero. The calculated ηγγ * transition form factor has somewhat weaker dependence on the squared four-momentum of the virtual photon. The effects of the U A (1) anomaly on the scalar quark contents in the nucleon, the Σ πN and Σ KN terms and the baryon number one and two systems are also studied. (author)

  4. On integral representation of the Clebsh-Gordan coefficients of SU(3) group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mal'tsev, V.M.

    1985-01-01

    The projection of arbitrary quark-gluon state on a singlet representation of SU(3) group is considered. It is given by an integral on the group. In this case the square of a Clebsch-Gordan coefficient is evaluated as the eight-fold integral over corresponding Eulerian angles

  5. Computation of hybrid static potentials in SU(3 lattice gauge theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reisinger Christian

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available We compute hybrid static potentials in SU(3 lattice gauge theory. We present a method to automatically generate a large set of suitable creation operators with defined quantum numbers from elementary building blocks. We show preliminary results for several channels and discuss, which structures of the gluonic flux tube seem to be realized by the ground states in these channels.

  6. Electromagnetic mass differences in the SU(3) x U(1) gauge model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maharana, K.; Sastry, C.V.

    1975-01-01

    In this note we point out that the electromagnetic mass differences of the pion and kaon in the SU(3) times U(1) model are the same as in Weinberg's model except for the differences in the masses of the gauge bosons

  7. Splitting the spectral flow and the SU(3) Casson invariant for spliced sums

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boden, Hans U.; Himpel, Benjamin

    2009-01-01

    We show that the SU(3) Casson invariant for spliced sums along certain torus knots equals 16 times the product of their SU(2) Casson knot invariants. The key step is a splitting formula for su(n) spectral flow for closed 3–manifolds split along a torus....

  8. Deep-inelastic lepton scattering in an SU(3) x U(1) gauge model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maharana, K.; Sastry, C.V.

    1976-01-01

    Linear relations and sum rules for deep-inelastic lepton scattering are derived in the light-cone algebra approach from a set of weak, neutral, and electromagnetic currents based on an SU(3) x U(1) gauge model proposed by Schechter and Ueda

  9. Phase structure of lattice gauge theories for non-abelian subgroups of SU(3)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grosse, H.; Kuehnelt, H.

    1981-01-01

    The authors study the phase structure of Euclidean lattice gauge theories in four dimensions for certain non-abelian subgroups of SU(3) by using Monte-Carlo simulations and strong coupling expansions. As the order of the group increases a splitting of one phase transition into two is observed. (Auth.)

  10. Static, self-dual, finite action SU(3) gauge fields in the de Sitter space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chakrabarti, A.; Comtet, A.; Viswanathan, K.S.; Simon Fraser Univ., Burnaby, British Columbia

    1980-01-01

    Static, self-dual, finite action SU(3) gauge fields are constructed on the euclidean section of the positive curvature de Sitter metric with periodic time. Their relation to known time dependent flat space solutions is pointed out. Their significances and possible applications are indicated. (orig.)

  11. Closing the SU(3)LxU(1)X symmetry at the electroweak scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dias, Alex G.; Montero, J. C.; Pleitez, V.

    2006-01-01

    We show that some models with SU(3) C xSU(3) L xU(1) X gauge symmetry can be realized at the electroweak scale and that this is a consequence of an approximate global SU(2) L+R symmetry. This symmetry implies a condition among the vacuum expectation value of one of the neutral Higgs scalars, the U(1) X 's coupling constant, g X , the sine of the weak mixing angle sinθ W , and the mass of the W boson, M W . In the limit in which this symmetry is valid it avoids the tree level mixing of the Z boson of the standard model with the extra Z ' boson. We have verified that the oblique T parameter is within the allowed range indicating that the radiative corrections that induce such a mixing at the 1-loop level are small. We also show that a SU(3) L+R custodial symmetry implies that in some of the models we have to include sterile (singlets of the 3-3-1 symmetry) right-handed neutrinos with Majorana masses, since the seesaw mechanism is mandatory to obtain light active neutrinos. Moreover, the approximate SU(2) L+R subset of SU(3) L+R symmetry implies that the extra nonstandard particles of these 3-3-1 models can be considerably lighter than it had been thought before so that new physics can be really just around the corner

  12. Relativistic Anandan quantum phase and the Aharonov–Casher effect under Lorentz symmetry breaking effects in the cosmic string spacetime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bakke, K., E-mail: kbakke@fisica.ufpb.br [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal da Paraíba, Caixa Postal 5008, 58051-900, João Pessoa-PB (Brazil); Furtado, C., E-mail: furtado@fisica.ufpb.br [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal da Paraíba, Caixa Postal 5008, 58051-900, João Pessoa-PB (Brazil); Belich, H., E-mail: belichjr@gmail.com [Departamento de Física e Química, Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo, Av. Fernando Ferrari, 514, Goiabeiras, 29060-900, Vitória, ES (Brazil)

    2016-09-15

    From the modified Maxwell theory coupled to gravity, we establish a possible scenario of the violation of the Lorentz symmetry and write an effective metric for the cosmic string spacetime. Then, we investigate the arising of an analogue of the Anandan quantum phase for a relativistic Dirac neutral particle with a permanent magnetic dipole moment in the cosmic string spacetime under Lorentz symmetry breaking effects. Besides, we analyse the influence of the effects of the Lorentz symmetry violation and the topology of the defect on the Aharonov–Casher geometric quantum phase in the nonrelativistic limit.

  13. Violent breaking wave impacts. Part 3. Effects of scale and aeration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bredmose, Henrik; Bullock, G. N.; Hogg, A. J.

    2015-01-01

    . The Bagnold-Mitsuyasu scaling law for the compression of an air pocket by a piston of incompressible water is rederived and generalised to 3D air pockets of arbitrary shape. Numerical results for wall pressure, force and impulse are then presented for a flip-through impact, a low-aeration impact and a high......The effects of scale and aeration on violent breaking wave impacts with trapped and entrained air are investigated both analytically and numerically. By dimensional analysis we show that the impact pressures for Froude scaled conditions prior to the impact depend on the scale and aeration level......-aeration impact, for nine scales and five levels of initial aeration. Two of these impact types trap a pocket of air at the wall. Among the findings of the paper is that for fixed initial aeration, impact pressures from the flip-through impact broadly follow Froude scaling. This is also the case for the two...

  14. Projective multifragments break-up and the electromagnetic field effect of target nucleus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nabil Yasin, M.

    1994-12-01

    This work presents a special type of interactions produced in emulsion targets exposed to different incident beams of light ions at a few GeV per nucleon. The events characterised by multifragment break-up of the projectile nucleus which are produced via peripheral collisions or due to the effect of the Coulomb field of the target nucleus have been selected. The size of impact parameter must be considered for determining the type of the interaction. The results are compared with other collected data at energies (up to 200 GeV/nucleon). The dependence of electromagnetic dissociation cross section on the incident projectile energy is investigated. Also, a comparison of the experimental data with the assumed virtual photon spectrum using Weizsaecker-Williams (WW) method is made. (author). 34 refs, 3 figs, 4 tabs

  15. Evidence chain of custody break and its effects in the Brazilian criminal proceeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabela Aparecida de Menezes

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to address the evidence’s custody chain breaks and its effects in the Brazilian criminal proceedings. Every day the theme has become more important to the point of deserving a deeper examination of its meaning and relevance as a way of guaranteeing the reliability of the evidence produced in the criminal process, from its inception until the moment of its evaluation by the court, allowing the verification of its existential chronology. Moreover, the legal basis governing the institute at a national level should be explored in order to verify the consequences of its disregarding in the light of the constitutional principles. Finally, the article seeks to point out the consequences of the disregard or violation of the evidence’s custody chain, including the implications thereof, specially regarding the incidence of unlawfulness in the evidence’s source and its repercussion in the derived evidences.

  16. Symmetry breaking, and the effect of matter density on neutrino oscillation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohseni Sadjadi, H.; Khosravi Karchi, A. P.

    2018-04-01

    A proposal for the neutrino mass, based on neutrino-scalar field interaction, is introduced. The scalar field is also non-minimally coupled to the Ricci scalar, and hence relates the neutrino mass to the matter density. In a dense region, the scalar field obeys the Z2 symmetry, and the neutrino is massless. In a dilute region, the Z2 symmetry breaks and neutrino acquires mass from the non-vanishing expectation value of the scalar field. We consider this scenario in the framework of a spherical dense object whose outside is a dilute region. In this background, we study the neutrino flavors oscillation, along with the consequences of the theory on oscillation length and MSW effect. This preliminary model may shed some lights on the existing anomalies within the neutrino data, concerning the different oscillating behavior of the neutrinos in regions with different densities.

  17. Effect of Time and Burial Depth on Breaking Seed dormancy and Germination of Weed Seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    marzie mazhari

    2016-02-01

    order to evaluate the effects of time and burial depth on breaking seed dormancy and percentage of germination of 27 dominants weed in Shahrekord region, an experiment was conducted at the research field at Shahrekord University in 2013. The experimental design set as factorial based on completely randomized design with three replications. Treatments consisted of three burial time levels (1, 2 and 3 months and 4 burial depth (0, 5, 15 and 25 cm from surface soil layer after 1, 2 and 3 months of burial. Results and Discussion: Results showed that the time and the depth of burial treatments had significant effect on breaking seed dormancy and germination percentage. Seeds retrieved from the soil surface showed highest dormancy percentage and breaking dormancy with increasing the depth and time of seed burial. The results showed that the effects of three burial times, burial depth and interaction of burial time and burial depth had significant effects on dormancy breaking and germination of weed seeds. The bitter herbs of expression and parsnip, the highest percentage of seed dormancy breaking. Germination of Geobelia alopecuoides and Anthriscus sylvestris was observed from seed burial depth of 15 cm. However, the germination percentage, between two and three seed burial months, did not show any significant difference. In this study, Convolvulus arvensies, Rumex acetisella and, Avena fatua in the highest depth (25 cm had the maximum seed germination. Tillage would bury weed seeds and may help to preserve some seeds, because the seeds on the soil surface or near it, are prone to hunting or decay that eventually, their number is reduced in the soil seed bank. Weed seeds of Centurea cyanus, Geobelia alopecuoides, Turgeniala tifolia, Tragopogon collinus, Bromus dantoniae and Anthriscus sylvestris had more germination percentage with increasing depth to 15 cm, but beyond this depth due to the negative impacts of increased depth, seed germination declined sharply. In fact, the

  18. Effects of dormancy-breaking chemicals on ABA levels in barley grain embryos

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, M.; Meulen, R.M. van der; Visser, K.; Schalk, H.P. van; Duijn, B. van; Boer, A.H. de

    1998-01-01

    The endogenous ABA contents of dormant and nondormant barley grains were determined following application of different compounds to break dormancy. The chemicals used for breaking of dormancy in intact dormant grains were weak and strong acids, alcohols,. hydrogen peroxide, cyanide, nitrate,

  19. Dynamical chiral symmetry breaking and confinement : its interrelation and effects on the hadron mass spectrum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schröck, M.

    2013-01-01

    Within the framework of this thesis, the interrelation between the two characteristic phenomena of quantum chromodynamics (QCD), i.e., dynamical chiral symmetry breaking and confinement, is investigated. To this end, we apply lattice gauge field theory techniques and adopt a method to artificially restore the dynamically broken chiral symmetry. The low-mode part of the Dirac eigenspectrum is tied to the dynamical breaking of the chiral symmetry according to the Banks--Casher relation. Utilizing two-flavor dynamical lattice gauge field configurations, we construct valence quark propagators that exclude a variable sized part of the low-mode Dirac spectrum, with the aim of using these as an input for meson and baryon interpolating fields. Subsequently, we explore the behavior of ground and excited states of the low-mode truncated hadrons using the variational analysis method. We look for the existence of confined hadron states and extract effective masses where applicable. Moreover, we explore the evolution of the quark wavefunction renormalization function and the renormalization point invariant mass function of the quark propagator under Dirac low-mode truncation in a gauge fixed setting. Motivated by the necessity of fixing the gauge in the aforementioned study of the quark propagator, we also developed a flexible high performance code for lattice gauge fixing, accelerated by graphic processing units (GPUs) using NVIDIA CUDA (Compute Unified Device Architecture). Lastly, more related but unpublished work on the topic is presented. This includes a study of the locality violation of low-mode truncated Dirac operators, a discussion of the possible extension of the low-mode truncation method to the sea quark sector based on a reweighting scheme, as well as the presentation of an alternative way to restore the dynamically broken chiral symmetry. (author) [de

  20. Break size effect on the transient thermal-hydraulic behavior during the steam generator tube rupture accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, K.H.; Park, H.S.; Cho, S.; Choi, N.H.; Chu, I.C.; Yun, B.J.; Kim, K.D.; Kim, Y.S.; Baek, W.P.; Choi, K.Y.

    2011-01-01

    In order to simulate the SGTR accident of the APR1400, integral effect tests were performed by simulating a double-ended rupture of a single and five U-tubes. Following the reactor trip, the primary system pressure decreased and the secondary system pressure increased until the MSSVs was opened to reduce the secondary system pressure. Break area affected the timings of the major events observed in the tests. Less heat transfer to the secondary side caused by earlier actuation of the safety injection pumps had more influence on the secondary pressure of the affected steam generator than the break flow. (author)

  1. The effect of mitotic inhibitors on DNA strand size and radiation-associated break repair in Down syndrome fibroblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woods, W.G.; Steiner, M.E.; Kalvonjian, S.L.

    1985-01-01

    The effect of mitotic inhibitors on formation and repair of DNA breaks was studied in cultured fibroblasts from patients with Down syndrome in order to investigate the hypothesis that the karyotyping procedure itself may play a role in the increased chromosome breakage seen in these cells after gamma radiation exposure. Using the nondenaturing elution and alkaline elution techniques to examine fibroblasts from Down syndrome patients and from controls, no specific abnormalities in Down syndrome cells could be detected after exposure to mitotic inhibitors, including rate and extent of elution of DNA from filters as well as repair of radiation-induced DNA breaks. In both normal and Down syndrome cell strains, however, exposure to mitotic inhibitors was associated with a decrease in cellular DNA strand size, suggesting the presence of drug-induced DNA strand breaks. The mechanism of increased chromosome sensitivity of Down syndrome cells to gamma radiation remains unknown. (orig.)

  2. Entanglement properties of the two-dimensional SU(3) Affleck-Kennedy-Lieb-Tasaki state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauthé, Olivier; Poilblanc, Didier

    2017-09-01

    Two-dimensional (spin-2) Affleck-Kennedy-Lieb-Tasaki (AKLT) type valence bond solids on a square lattice are known to be symmetry-protected topological (SPT) gapped spin liquids [S. Takayoshi, P. Pujol, and A. Tanaka Phys. Rev. B 94, 235159 (2016), 10.1103/PhysRevB.94.235159]. Using the projected entangled pair state framework, we extend the construction of the AKLT state to the case of SU(3 ) , relevant for cold atom systems. The entanglement spectrum is shown to be described by an alternating SU(3 ) chain of "quarks" and "antiquarks", subject to exponentially decaying (with distance) Heisenberg interactions, in close similarity with its SU(2 ) analog. We discuss the SPT feature of the state.

  3. Broken SU(3) antidecuplet for Θ+ and Ξ3/2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pakvasa, Sandip; Suzuki, Mahiko

    2004-01-01

    If the narrow exotic baryon resonances Θ + (1540) and Ξ 3/2 are members of the J P = 1/2 + antidecuplet with N*(1710), the octet-antidecuplet mixing is required not only by the mass spectrum but also by the decay pattern of N*(1710). This casts doubt on validity of the Θ + mass prediction by the chiral soliton model. While all pieces of the existing experimental information point to a small octet-decuplet mixing, the magnitude of mixing required by the mass spectrum is not consistent with the value needed to account for the hadronic decay rates. The discrepancy is not resolved even after the large experimental uncertainty is taken into consideration. We fail to find an alternative SU(3) assignment even with different spin-parity assignment. When we extend the analysis to mixing with a higher SU(3) multiplet, we find one experimentally testable scenario in the case of mixing with a 27-plet

  4. Quantifying the effects of the break up of Pangaea on global terrestrial diversification with neutral theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Sean M R; Barraclough, Timothy G; Rosindell, James

    2016-04-05

    The historic richness of most taxonomic groups increases substantially over geological time. Explanations for this fall broadly into two categories: bias in the fossil record and elevated net rates of diversification in recent periods. For example, the break up of Pangaea and isolation between continents might have increased net diversification rates. In this study, we investigate the effect on terrestrial diversification rates of the increased isolation between land masses brought about by continental drift. We use ecological neutral theory as a means to study geologically complex scenarios tractably. Our models show the effects of simulated geological events that affect all species equally, without the added complexity of further ecological processes. We find that continental drift leads to an increase in diversity only where isolation between continents leads to additional speciation through vicariance, and where higher taxa with very low global diversity are considered. We conclude that continental drift by itself is not sufficient to account for the increase in terrestrial species richness observed in the fossil record. © 2016 The Authors.

  5. Breaking of electroweak symmetry: origin and effects; Brisure de symetrie electrobaible: origine et consequence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delaunay, C

    2008-10-15

    The Higgs boson appears as the corner stone of high energy physics, it might be the cause of the excess of matter that led to the formation of the structures of the universe and it seems that it drives the breaking of the electroweak symmetry. Moreover, when the stability at low energies of the Higgs boson is assured by an extra space dimension, it appears that this extra dimension can explain most issues in the flavor physics that are not understood by the standard model. The first chapter presents the main tools of effective field theories, the role of experimental data in the construction of theories valid beyond the standard model is discussed. The second chapter focuses on the electroweak baryogenesis that allows the testing of new physics via the electroweak phase transition. We detail the calculation of a Higgs potential at finite temperature. We follow the dynamics of the phase transition including nucleation an supercooling. Finally we investigate the prospects of gravity wave detection to see the effects of a strong electroweak phase transition. The 2 last chapters are dedicated to the physics of extra-dimension. The properties of the dynamics of scalar, vector fields with a 1/2 spin plunged in a 5 d. Anti de Sitter geometry are reviewed. We present a model of lepton masses and mixings based on the A{sub 4} non-Abelian discrete symmetry. It is shown that this model does not contradict the tests of electroweak precision. (A.C.)

  6. Polar Kerr effect studies of time reversal symmetry breaking states in heavy fermion superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schemm, E.R., E-mail: eschemm@alumni.stanford.edu [Geballe Laboratory for Advanced Materials, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Levenson-Falk, E.M. [Geballe Laboratory for Advanced Materials, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Department of Physics, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Kapitulnik, A. [Geballe Laboratory for Advanced Materials, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Department of Physics, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Department of Applied Physics, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Stanford Institute of Energy and Materials Science, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, 2575 Sand Hill Road, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States)

    2017-04-15

    Highlights: • Polar Kerr effect (PKE) probes broken time-reversal symmetry (TRS) in superconductors. • Absence of PKE below Tc in CeCoIn{sub 5} is consistent with dx2-y2 order parameter symmetry. • PKE in the B phase of the multiphase superconductor UPt3 agrees with an E2u model. • Data on URu2Si2 show broken TRS and additional structure in the superconducting state. - Abstract: The connection between chiral superconductivity and topological order has emerged as an active direction in research as more instances of both have been identified in condensed matter systems. With the notable exception of {sup 3}He-B, all of the known or suspected chiral – that is to say time-reversal symmetry-breaking (TRSB) – superfluids arise in heavy fermion superconductors, although the vast majority of heavy fermion superconductors preserve time-reversal symmetry. Here we review recent experimental efforts to identify TRSB states in heavy fermion systems via measurement of polar Kerr effect, which is a direct consequence of TRSB.

  7. Finite size effects and symmetry breaking in the evolution of networks of competing Boolean nodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, M; Bassler, K E

    2011-01-01

    Finite size effects on the evolutionary dynamics of Boolean networks are analyzed. In the model considered, Boolean networks evolve via a competition between nodes that punishes those in the majority. Previous studies have found that large networks evolve to a statistical steady state that is both critical and highly canalized, and that the evolution of canalization, which is a form of robustness found in genetic regulatory networks, is associated with a particular symmetry of the evolutionary dynamics. Here, it is found that finite size networks evolve in a fundamentally different way than infinitely large networks do. The symmetry of the evolutionary dynamics of infinitely large networks that selects for canalizing Boolean functions is broken in the evolutionary dynamics of finite size networks. In finite size networks, there is an additional selection for input-inverting Boolean functions that output a value opposite to the majority of input values. The reason for the symmetry breaking in the evolutionary dynamics is found to be due to the need for nodes in finite size networks to behave differently in order to cooperate so that the system collectively performs as efficiently as possible. The results suggest that both finite size effects and symmetry are fundamental for understanding the evolution of real-world complex networks, including genetic regulatory networks.

  8. Spontaneous CP breaking in QCD and the axion potential: an effective Lagrangian approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Vecchia, Paolo; Rossi, Giancarlo; Veneziano, Gabriele; Yankielowicz, Shimon

    2017-12-01

    Using the well-known low-energy effective Lagrangian of QCD — valid for small (non-vanishing) quark masses and a large number of colors — we study in detail the regions of parameter space where CP is spontaneously broken/unbroken for a vacuum angle θ = π. In the CP broken region there are first order phase transitions as one crosses θ = π, while on the (hyper)surface separating the two regions, there are second order phase transitions signalled by the vanishing of the mass of a pseudo Nambu-Goldstone boson and by a divergent QCD topological susceptibility. The second order point sits at the end of a first order line associated with the CP spontaneous breaking, in the appropriate complex parameter plane. When the effective Lagrangian is extended by the inclusion of an axion these features of QCD imply that standard calculations of the axion potential have to be revised if the QCD parameters fall in the above mentioned CP broken region, in spite of the fact that the axion solves the strong- CP problem. These last results could be of interest for axionic dark matter calculations if the topological susceptibility of pure Yang-Mills theory falls off sufficiently fast when temperature is increased towards the QCD deconfining transition.

  9. Effects of 32 P incorporated in plasmid DNA: strand breaks and mutagenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fonseca, Adenilson de S. da; Felzenszwalb, Israel

    1996-01-01

    In order to study the 32 P decay effects in DNA, bacterial plasmid were labeled with different activities of the radioisotope in vivo: 1,2 and 6 x 10 5 Bk/ml of bacterial culture, leading to 1,2 and 6 x 10 3 Bk/μg of nucleic acid or in vitro: 0.7, 1.5 and 3.5 x 10 3 Bk/μg of nucleic acid, stored at -20 deg C and its electroforetic profiles, transformation capacity of wild type and DNA repair. E. coli mutants cells and mutagenesis, were followed during three months. The results achieved in this work suggest that: the decay of the incorporated 32 P in vivo is able to change the pBR322 electroforetic profile, we detected a decrease on the form III (super coiled) and increase on the form II (circular), indicating single strands breaks; the decay incorporated 32 in vitro does not modify the electrophoretic profile of pBR322, suggesting that in some way the effects of the radioactive decay of incorporated 32 P is dependent of the DNA topology, the damages induced by 32 P decay increase mutation frequency in pAC189 plasmids. MRF is increased by a factor of three after 6 t 1/2 of storage, indicating direct or indirect action through mismatch DNA repair pathway. (author)

  10. Root temperature effects on growth and bud break of Rosa hybrida in relation to cytokinin concentrations in xylem sap.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dieleman, J.A.; Verstappen, F.W.A.; Kuiper, D.

    1998-01-01

    The effects of three divergent root temperatures (11°C, 20°C and 26°C) on growth and bud break of Rosa hybrida were studied. Root morphology was changed considerably with root temperature. Roots at 11°C were white, succulent, short and sparsely branched, whereas at 26°C roots were long, brown, thin

  11. A preliminary study of the Gribov ambiguity in lattice SU(3) Coulomb gauge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parrinello, C. (Physics Dept., New York Univ., NY (United States)); Petrarca, S. (Dipt. di Fisica, Rome-1 Univ. (Italy) INFN, Rome (Italy)); Vladikas, A. (Dipt. di Fisica, Rome-2 Univ. (Italy) INFN, Rome (Italy))

    1991-10-10

    We report on simulations of pure SU(3) gauge theory on a 10{sup 3}x20 lattice at {beta}=6.0 in the Coulomb gauge, from which the Gribov ambiguity appears to be maximal, in the sense that the gauge-fixing process is highly unstable with respect to variations of the starting configuration via random gauge transformations. We give a heuristic explanation of the larger number of Gribov copies in such a gauge with respect to the Landau gauge. (orig.).

  12. Heavy charged leptons in an SU(3)L x U(1)N model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pleitez, V.; Tonasse, M.D.

    1992-12-01

    An SU(3) L x U(1) N model for the electroweak interactions which includes additional heavy charged leptons is considered. These leptons have not strong constraints on their masses since they do not couple in the same way as the lightest leptons to the neutral-currents and also because new contributions to the muon g-2 factor already suppressed because of the massive new vector boson present in this model. (author)

  13. Vacuum structure of the SU(3) gauge field theory in the Coulomb gauge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yee, J.H.; Viswanathan, K.S.

    1978-01-01

    The SU(3) gauge field is studied in the Coulomb gauge. The Gribov ambiguities arising in the Coulomb gauge are analysed. Restricting to a class of spherically symmetric vacua it is shown that there exist non-trivial vacua characterized by a topological number eta=0, +-1/2, and +-2. This must be contrasted with the spherically symmetric SU(2) vacua which are characterized by eta=0, +-1/2. (Auth.)

  14. Isospin Mass Splittings and the $\\ms$ Corrections in the Semibosonized SU(3)-NJL-Model

    OpenAIRE

    Blotz, Andree; Goeke, K.; Praszalowicz, M.

    1994-01-01

    The mass splittings of hyperons including the isospin splittings are calculated with $O(\\ms^2)$ and $O(\\ms \\dm)$ accuracy respectively within the semibosonized SU(3)-NJL model. The pattern of the isospin splittings is not spoiled by the terms of the order $O(\\ms \\dm)$, and both splittings between the different isospin multiplets and within the same multiplet are well reproduced for acceptable values of $\\ms$ and $\\dm$.

  15. Radiation-chemical discussion on inverse dose-rate effect observed in radiation-induced strand breaks of plasmid DNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masuda, Takahiro

    1994-01-01

    Experimental results of inverse dose-rate effect, so-called Kada Effects, which was published by Takakura and her coworkers on radiation-induced strand breaks of plasmid DNA in aerated aqueous solution, have been kinetically analyzed and discussed on the basis of radiation chemistry. the kinetic analysis indicates that there are two possible mechanisms; 1) equilibrium mixture of O 2 - and HO 2 is responsible for strand breaks of DNA, and 2) peroxyl radical produced from citrate is effective for the strand breaks. However, the detailed kinetic analysis revealed that the latter is improbable because unimolecular decay of the peroxyl radical must be assumed to be negligible for its participation despite fast decay of analogous organic peroxyl radicals. The analysis has also given 9.93±0.10 dm 3 mol -1 s -1 per nucleotide unit, which corresponds to 7.62 x 10 4 dm 3 mol -1 s -1 per DNA molecule, as the rate constant for the reaction of the equilibrium mixture with plasmid pBR 322 DNA. Furthermore the probability that the reaction of the mixture with a nucleotide unit of DNA leads to strand breaks was obtained to be 3.36 x 10 -3 for gamma-irradiated system and 1.98 x 10 -3 for beta-irradiated system, respectively. (author)

  16. Acute Effect of Intermittent Exercise and Action-Based Video Game Breaks on Math Performance in Preadolescent Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Block, Shannon S; Tooley, Trevor R; Nagy, Matthew R; O'Sullivan, Molly P; Robinson, Leah E; Colabianchi, Natalie; Hasson, Rebecca E

    2018-02-27

    The purpose of this study was to compare the acute effects of video game breaks and intermittent exercise breaks, performed at varying intensities, on math performance in preadolescent children. A total of 39 children (18 males and 21 females; aged 7-11 y) completed 4 experimental conditions in random order: 8 hours of sitting interrupted with 20 two-minute low-, moderate-, or high-intensity exercise breaks or 20 two-minute sedentary computer game breaks. The intensity of exercise breaks for the low-, moderate-, and high-intensity conditions corresponded with 25%, 50%, and 75% of heart rate reserve, respectively. Math performance was assessed 3 times throughout each condition day using a 90-second math test consisting of 40 single-digit addition and subtraction questions. There were no significant differences in percent change in math scores (correct answers out of attempted) by condition [low: -1.3 (0.8), moderate: 0.1 (1.3), high: -1.8 (0.7), and computer: -2.5 (0.8); P > .05]. There were significant differences in percent change in math scores over the course of the condition days with lower math scores reported at end-of-day test compared with midday test [-2.4 (0.5) vs -0.4 (0.3); P = .01]. There were no significant condition × time, time × age, condition × age, or condition × time × age interactions (all Ps > .05). Action-based video game and exercise breaks elicit the same level of math performance in children; however, time of day may impact this relationship. These findings may have important implications for instructional time in elementary classrooms.

  17. Supersymmetry breaking from superstrings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaillard, M.K.; Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA; California Univ., Berkeley

    1990-01-01

    The gauge hierarchy problem is briefly reviewed and a class of effective field theories obtained from superstrings is described. These are characterized by a clasical symmetry, related to the space-time duality of string theory, that is responsible for the suppression of observable supersymmetry breaking effects. At the quantum level, the symmetry is broken by anomalies that provide the seed of observable supersymmetry breaking, and an acceptably large gauge hierarchy may be generated

  18. Supersymmetry breaking from superstrings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaillard, M.K.

    1990-05-01

    The gauge hierarchy problem is briefly reviewed and a class of effective field theories obtained from superstrings is described. These are characterized by a classical symmetry, related to the space-time duality of string theory, that is responsible for the suppression of observable supersymmetry breaking effects. At the quantum level, the symmetry is broken by anomalies that provide the seed of observable supersymmetry breaking, and an acceptably large gauge hierarchy may be generated. 26 refs

  19. Comprehending isospin breaking effects of X (3872 ) in a Friedrichs-model-like scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zhi-Yong; Xiao, Zhiguang

    2018-02-01

    Recently, we have shown that the X (3872 ) state can be naturally generated as a bound state by incorporating the hadron interactions into the Godfrey-Isgur quark model using a Friedrichs-like model combined with the quark pair creation model, in which the wave function for the X (3872 ) as a combination of the bare c c ¯ state and the continuum states can also be obtained. Under this scheme, we now investigate the isospin-breaking effect of X (3872 ) in its decays to J /ψ π+π- and J /ψ π+π-π0. By coupling its dominant continuum parts to J /ψ ρ and J /ψ ω through the quark rearrangement process, one could obtain the reasonable ratio of B (X (3872 )→J /ψ π+π-π0)/B (X (3872 )→J /ψ π+π-)≃ (0.58 - 0.92 ) . It is also shown that the D ¯D* invariant mass distributions in the B →D ¯D*K decays could be understood qualitatively at the same time. This scheme may provide more insight into the enigmatic nature of the X (3872 ) state.

  20. Effect of contact lens wear and a near task on tear film break-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Meredith E; Begley, Carolyn G; Himebaugh, Nikole H; Port, Nicholas L

    2010-05-01

    To study the effect of extrinsic controls on blinking by examining blink parameters and tear stability among adapted soft contact lens (CL) wearers performing tasks that require varying amounts of visual concentration. The Demographic Questionnaire, Contact Lens Dry Eye Questionnaire, and Current Symptoms Questionnaire were completed by 15 adapted soft CL wearers (nine females). Three 55 s simultaneous measurements of tear film stability via retroillumination and blinking were obtained with a slit-lamp biomicroscope and 200 Hz video camera while subjects listened to music and played a video game with and without their habitual CLs. Interblink interval (IBI) and blink amplitude (BA) were calculated. The area of break-up (AB) was calculated for the retroillumination image before each blink. The Current Symptoms Questionnaire was completed four times throughout testing. With the game compared to music, IBI was significantly longer and BA significantly decreased without CLs (p or = 0.5579, p or = 0.6262, p or = 0.5064, p film instability increased. Blinking frequency also increased, but it remained high when subjects played the game, and symptoms of ocular irritation increased. This suggests that wearing soft CLs, even when fully adapted, provides enough extrinsic ocular surface stimulation to override internal controls and affect blink parameters.

  1. Spectral sum for the color-Coulomb potential in SU(3) Coulomb gauge lattice Yang-Mills theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakagawa, Y.; Nakamura, A.; Saito, T.; Toki, H.

    2010-01-01

    We discuss the essential role of the low-lying eigenmodes of the Faddeev-Popov (FP) ghost operator on the confining color-Coulomb potential using SU(3) quenched lattice simulations in the Coulomb gauge. The color-Coulomb potential is expressed as a spectral sum of the FP ghost operator and has been explored by partially summing the FP eigenmodes. We take into account the Gribov copy effects that have a great impact on the FP eigenvalues and the color-Coulomb potential. We observe that the lowest eigenvalue vanishes in the thermodynamic limit much faster than that in the Landau gauge. The color-Coulomb potential at large distances is governed by the near-zero FP eigenmodes; in particular, the lowest one accounts for a substantial portion of the color-Coulomb string tension comparable to the Wilson string tension.

  2. Adjusting for the Confounding Effects of Treatment Switching—The BREAK-3 Trial: Dabrafenib Versus Dacarbazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrams, Keith R.; Amonkar, Mayur M.; Stapelkamp, Ceilidh; Swann, R. Suzanne

    2015-01-01

    Background. Patients with previously untreated BRAF V600E mutation-positive melanoma in BREAK-3 showed a median overall survival (OS) of 18.2 months for dabrafenib versus 15.6 months for dacarbazine (hazard ratio [HR], 0.76; 95% confidence interval, 0.48–1.21). Because patients receiving dacarbazine were allowed to switch to dabrafenib at disease progression, we attempted to adjust for the confounding effects on OS. Materials and Methods. Rank preserving structural failure time models (RPSFTMs) and the iterative parameter estimation (IPE) algorithm were used. Two analyses, “treatment group” (assumes treatment effect could continue until death) and “on-treatment observed” (assumes treatment effect disappears with discontinuation), were used to test the assumptions around the durability of the treatment effect. Results. A total of 36 of 63 patients (57%) receiving dacarbazine switched to dabrafenib. The adjusted OS HRs ranged from 0.50 to 0.55, depending on the analysis. The RPSFTM and IPE “treatment group” and “on-treatment observed” analyses performed similarly well. Conclusion. RPSFTM and IPE analyses resulted in point estimates for the OS HR that indicate a substantial increase in the treatment effect compared with the unadjusted OS HR of 0.76. The results are uncertain because of the assumptions associated with the adjustment methods. The confidence intervals continued to cross 1.00; thus, the adjusted estimates did not provide statistically significant evidence of a treatment benefit on survival. However, it is clear that a standard intention-to-treat analysis will be confounded in the presence of treatment switching—a reliance on unadjusted analyses could lead to inappropriate practice. Adjustment analyses provide useful additional information on the estimated treatment effects to inform decision making. Implications for Practice: Treatment switching is common in oncology trials, and the implications of this for the interpretation of the

  3. Adjusting for the Confounding Effects of Treatment Switching-The BREAK-3 Trial: Dabrafenib Versus Dacarbazine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latimer, Nicholas R; Abrams, Keith R; Amonkar, Mayur M; Stapelkamp, Ceilidh; Swann, R Suzanne

    2015-07-01

    Patients with previously untreated BRAF V600E mutation-positive melanoma in BREAK-3 showed a median overall survival (OS) of 18.2 months for dabrafenib versus 15.6 months for dacarbazine (hazard ratio [HR], 0.76; 95% confidence interval, 0.48-1.21). Because patients receiving dacarbazine were allowed to switch to dabrafenib at disease progression, we attempted to adjust for the confounding effects on OS. Rank preserving structural failure time models (RPSFTMs) and the iterative parameter estimation (IPE) algorithm were used. Two analyses, "treatment group" (assumes treatment effect could continue until death) and "on-treatment observed" (assumes treatment effect disappears with discontinuation), were used to test the assumptions around the durability of the treatment effect. A total of 36 of 63 patients (57%) receiving dacarbazine switched to dabrafenib. The adjusted OS HRs ranged from 0.50 to 0.55, depending on the analysis. The RPSFTM and IPE "treatment group" and "on-treatment observed" analyses performed similarly well. RPSFTM and IPE analyses resulted in point estimates for the OS HR that indicate a substantial increase in the treatment effect compared with the unadjusted OS HR of 0.76. The results are uncertain because of the assumptions associated with the adjustment methods. The confidence intervals continued to cross 1.00; thus, the adjusted estimates did not provide statistically significant evidence of a treatment benefit on survival. However, it is clear that a standard intention-to-treat analysis will be confounded in the presence of treatment switching-a reliance on unadjusted analyses could lead to inappropriate practice. Adjustment analyses provide useful additional information on the estimated treatment effects to inform decision making. Treatment switching is common in oncology trials, and the implications of this for the interpretation of the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of the novel treatment are important to consider. If

  4. Effective quantum field theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Georgi, H.M.

    1989-01-01

    Certain dimensional parameters play a crucial role in the understanding of weak and strong interactions based on SU(2) x U(1) and SU(3) symmetry group theories and of grand unified theories (GUT's) based on SU(5). These parameters are the confinement scale of quantum chromodynamics and the breaking scales of SU(2) x U(1) and SU(5). The concepts of effective quantum field theories and renormalisability are discussed with reference to the economics and ethics of research. (U.K.)

  5. The Break

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strand, Anete Mikkala Camille

    2018-01-01

    storytelling to enact fruitful breakings of patterns unbecoming. The claim being, that the hamster wheel of Work-life anno 2016 needs reconfiguration and the simple yet fruitful manner by which this is done is through acknowledging the benefits of bodies, spaces and artifacts – and the benefits of actually...... taking a break, discontinuing for a moment in order to continue better, wiser and more at ease. Both within and as part of the daily routines, and – now and then – outside these routines in the majesty of nature with time to explore and redirect the course of life in companionships with fellow man...

  6. Symmetry breaking of SO(10) and constraints on Higgs potential, (1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasue, Masaki.

    1980-08-01

    The symmetry breaking of SO(10) is studied in the tree approximation of the potential for an adjoint (45) representation and a spinorial (16) representation. The potential can break SO(10) down to SU(3)sub(c) x SU(2)sub(L) x U(1). It is not allowed to break SO(10) down to SU(3)sub(c) x U(1)sub(em) via SU(3)sub(c) x SU(2)sub(L) x U(1) even in the presence of a cubic (16) (16*) (45) coupling. Instead, SU(3) x U(1) comes from SU(4) x U(1). The masses for the physical Higgs scalars are calculated in SU(3)sub(c) x SU(2)sub(L) x U(1). The dynamically allowed region of the vacuum expectation values of the (45) is found to be strongly restricted. As a result, SO(6) and SO(4) cannot show up in the course of the breaking. (author)

  7. Investigation on the effect of atomic defects on the breaking behaviors of gold nanowires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Fenying; Sun Wei; Wang Hongbo; Zhao Jianwei; Kiguchi, Manabu; Sun Changqing

    2012-01-01

    The mechanical properties and breaking behaviors of the [100]-oriented single-crystal gold nanowires containing a set of defect ratios have been studied at different temperatures using molecular dynamics simulations. The size of the nanowire is 10a × 10a × 30a (a stands for lattice constant, 0.408 nm for gold). The mechanical strengths of the nanowires decrease with the increasing temperature. However, the defects that enhance the local thermal energy have improved the nanowire mechanical strength under a wide range of temperature. Comparing to the single-crystal nanowire, the existence of the atomic defects extends the elastic deformation showing a larger yield strain. By summarizing 300 samples at each temperature, the statistical breaking position distribution shows that the nanowire breaking behavior is sensitive to the atomic defects when the defect ratio is 5 % at 100 K, whereas the ratio is 1 % when temperatures are 300 and 500 K.

  8. Effects of the reactor coolant pumps following a small break in a Westinghouse PWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koenig, J.E.

    1983-10-01

    Numerical simulations of the thermal-hydraulic events following a small cold-leg break in a Westinghouse pressurized water reactor were performed to address the pumps-on/off issue. The mode of pump operation was varied in each calculation to ascertain the optimum mode. It was found that pump operation was not critical for this break size and location because the fuel rods remained cool in all accidents analyzed. In terms of system mass, however, it was preferable to leave the pumps in operation

  9. Sdg interacting-boson model in the SU(3) scheme and its application to /sup 168/Er

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshinaga, N.; Akiyama, Y.; Arima, A.

    1988-01-01

    The sdg interacting-boson model is presented in the SU(3) tensor formalism. The interactions are decomposed according to their SU(3) tensor character. The existence of the SU(3)-seniority preserving operator is found to be important. The model is applied to /sup 168/Er. Energy levels and electromagnetic transitions are calculated. This model is shown to solve the problem of anharmonicity regarding the excitation energy of the first K/sup π/ = 4 + band relative to that of the first K/sup π/ = 2 + one. E4 transitions are calculated to give different predictions from those by the quasiparticle-phonon nuclear model

  10. Qq(Q-bar)(q-bar)' states in chiral SU(3) quark model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Haixia; Zhang Min; Zhang Zongye

    2007-01-01

    We study the masses of Qq(Q-bar)(q-bar)' states with J PC =0 ++ , 1 ++ , 1 +- and 2 ++ in the chiral SU(3) quark model, where Q is the heavy quark (c or b) and q(q') is the light quark (u,d or s). According to our numerical results, it is improbable to make the interpretation of [cn(c-bar)(n-bar)] 1 ++ and [cn(c-bar)(n-bar)] 2 ++ (n=u,d) states as X(3872) and Y(3940), respectively. However, it is interesting to find the tetraquarks in the bq(b-bar)(q-bar)' system. (authors)

  11. Bethe states of the trigonometric SU(3) spin chain with generic open boundaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Pei; Xin, Zhirong; Qiao, Yi; Wen, Fakai; Hao, Kun; Cao, Junpeng; Li, Guang-Liang; Yang, Tao; Yang, Wen-Li; Shi, Kangjie

    2018-06-01

    By combining the algebraic Bethe ansatz and the off-diagonal Bethe ansatz, we investigate the trigonometric SU (3) model with generic open boundaries. The eigenvalues of the transfer matrix are given in terms of an inhomogeneous T - Q relation, and the corresponding eigenstates are expressed in terms of nested Bethe-type eigenstates which have well-defined homogeneous limit. This exact solution provides a basis for further analyzing the thermodynamic properties and correlation functions of the anisotropic models associated with higher rank algebras.

  12. On the topological structure of the vacuum in SU(2) and SU(3) lattice gauge theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishikawa, K.; Schierholz, G.; Schneider, H.; Teper, M.

    1983-01-01

    We present Monte Carlo measurements of the net topological charge of the vacuum in SU(2) and SU(3) lattice gauge theories. In both cases there is no evidence of any topological structure, and the values obtained are a factor of 0(100) smaller than expectations based on analyses of the U(1) problem. Moreover we find a strong sensitivity to the lattice size and to the boundary conditions imposed on the lattice. We comment on the physical significance of these results, establish criteria for the reliable performance of such calculations, and remark on the possibly detrimental impact of these findings on the calculation of hadron spectra

  13. Efficient multitasking of the SU(3) lattice gauge theory algorithm on the CRAY X-MP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuba, D.W.; Moriarty, K.J.M.

    1985-01-01

    The Monte Carlo lattice gauge theory algorithm with the Metropolis et.al. updating procedure is vectorized and multitasked on the four processor CRAY X-MP and results in a code with a link-update-time, in 64-bit arithmetic and 10 hits-per-link, of 11.0 μs on a 16 4 lattice, the fastest link-update-time so far achieved. The program calculates the Wilson loops of size up to L/2.L/2 for an L 4 lattice for SU(3) gauge theory. (orig./HSI)

  14. Three particle Poincare states and SU(6) x SU(3) as a classification group for baryons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buccella, F.; Sciarrino, A.; Sorba, P.

    1975-05-01

    A complete set of democratic quantum numbers is introduced to classify the states of an irreducible unitary representation (IUR) of the Poincare group obtained from the decomposition of the direct products of three I.U.R. Such states are identified with the baryon states constituted of three free relativistic quarks. The transformation from current to constituent quarks is then easily reobtained. Moreover, the group SU(6) x SU(3) appears naturally as a collinear classification group for baryons. Results similar to those of the symmetric harmonic oscillator quark model are obtained [fr

  15. Screening masses in the SU(3) pure gauge theory and universality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Falcone, R.; Fiore, R.; Gravina, M.; Papa, A.

    2007-01-01

    We determine from Polyakov loop correlators the screening masses in the deconfined phase of the (3+1)d SU(3) pure gauge theory at finite temperature near the transition, for two different channels of angular momentum and parity. Their ratio is compared with that of the massive excitations with the same quantum numbers in the 3d 3-state Potts model in the broken phase near the transition point at zero magnetic field. Moreover we study the inverse decay length of the correlation between the real parts and between the imaginary parts of the Polyakov loop and compare the results with expectations from perturbation theory and mean-field Polyakov loop models

  16. Generalization of trinification to theories with 3N SU(3) gauge groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carone, Christopher D.

    2005-01-01

    We consider a natural generalization of trinification to theories with 3N SU(3) gauge groups. These theories have a simple moose representation and a gauge boson spectrum that can be interpreted via the deconstruction of a 5D theory with unified symmetry broken on a boundary. Although the matter and Higgs sectors of the theory have no simple extra-dimensional analog, gauge unification retains features characteristic of the 5D theory. We determine possible assignments of the matter and Higgs fields to unified multiplets and present theories that are viable alternatives to minimal trinified GUTs

  17. Experimental consequences of SU(3) symmetry in an sdg boson model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akiyama, Y.; Brentano, P. von; Gelberg, A.

    1987-01-01

    Energies of collective levels in 178 Hf and 234 U are compared wth predictions of the SU(3) limiz of the sdg interacting boson model. All known positive parity states of 178 Hf below 1.8 MeV (with the expection of a 0 + band) have been satisfactorily reproduced. Most of the bands in 234 U are also described by the model. However, a few predicted states have no experimental counterpart. The introduction of the g-basons strongly reduces the previously observed discrepancies between experimental B(E2)'s in 238 U and the sd-IBM calculation. (orig.)

  18. Experimental consequences of SU(3) symmetry in an sdg boson model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akiyama, Y.; Brentano, P. von; Gelberg, A.

    1987-05-01

    Energies of collective levels in /sup 178/Hf and /sup 234/U are compared wth predictions of the SU(3) limiz of the sdg interacting boson model. All known positive parity states of /sup 178/Hf below 1.8 MeV (with the expection of a 0/sup +/ band) have been satisfactorily reproduced. Most of the bands in /sup 234/U are also described by the model. However, a few predicted states have no experimental counterpart. The introduction of the g-basons strongly reduces the previously observed discrepancies between experimental B(E2)'s in /sup 238/U and the sd-IBM calculation.

  19. Zero of the discrete beta function in SU(3) lattice gauge theory with color sextet fermions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shamir, Yigal; Svetitsky, Benjamin; DeGrand, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    We have carried out a Schrodinger functional calculation for the SU(3) lattice gauge theory with two flavors of Wilson fermions in the sextet representation of the gauge group. We find that the discrete beta function, which governs the change in the running coupling under a discrete change of spatial scale, changes sign when the Schrodinger functional renormalized coupling is in the neighborhood of g 2 =2.0. The simplest explanation is that the theory has an infrared-attractive fixed point, but more complicated possibilities are allowed by the data. While we compare rescalings by factors of 2 and 4/3, we work at a single lattice spacing.

  20. Effective applied moment in circumferential through-wall cracked pipes for leak-before-break evaluation considering pipe restraint effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yeji; Hwang, Il-Soon [Seoul National University, Seoul 08826 (Korea, Republic of); Oh, Young-Jin, E-mail: yjoh2@kepco-enc.com [KEPCO Engineering and Construction Co. Inc., Gimcheon 39660 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    Highlights: • Effective applied moment at pipe cracked section considering the pipe restraint effect. • Verification of the proposed evaluation methods using finite element analyses. • Applicability for distributed external load of the proposed methods. - Abstract: In the leak-before-break (LBB) design of nuclear power plants, crack opening displacement (COD) is an essential element for determining the length of the leakage size crack. Recent researches regarding the evaluation of COD have indicated that the current practice of the LBB evaluation without consideration of the pressure induced bending (PIB) restraint overestimates COD, which in turn gives non-conservative results. Under a free-ended boundary condition, however, the applied moment at cracked section also can be overestimated, which has conservative effects on LBB evaluation. Therefore, it is necessary to evaluate pipe restraint effects on the applied moment as well as on COD to keep the constancy. In this paper, an evaluation method for the effect of the PIB restraint on COD and an effective applied moment (=crack driving force) at cracked section was developed. Both the linear elastic and elastic–plastic behaviors of the crack were considered. By comparing the behaviors with 3-D finite element analysis results from earlier studies, it was confirmed that the proposed methods make accurate estimations of the PIB restraint effect on COD. Next, the applicability of the proposed method to other types of external loading conditions was examined.

  1. The Break - Even Point and the Leverage Effect – Instruments for Assessing the Economic and Financial Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoleta Constandache

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The establishing by any company, depending on the domain of activity, of anminimumobjective to be attained, so that the business should become profitable, is the aim principle of thisarticle. In order to attain this goal, the assumed risk is considered, which implies the use of certainassessing instruments, as the break-evenpoint and the leverage effect. This approach stands for asignificant step in making strategic decisions, being a way to evaluating company security in case inwhich market conditions become unfavourable.

  2. Analysis of correlation functions in Toda theory and the Alday-Gaiotto-Tachikawa-Wyllard relation for SU(3) quiver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanno, Shoichi; Matsuo, Yutaka; Shiba, Shotaro

    2010-01-01

    We give some evidences of the Alday-Gaiotto-Tachikawa-Wyllard relation between SU(3) quiver gauge theories and A 2 Toda theory. In particular, we derive the explicit form of 5-point correlation functions in the lower orders and confirm the agreement with Nekrasov's partition function for SU(3)xSU(3) quiver gauge theory. The algorithm to derive the correlation functions can be applied to a general n-point function in A 2 Toda theory, which will be useful to establish the relation for more generic quivers. Partial analysis is also given for the SU(3)xSU(2) case, and we comment on some technical issues that need clarification before establishing the relation.

  3. Coupled SU(3) models of rotational states in nuclei and quasi-dynamical symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thiamova, G.; Rowe, D. J.

    2007-01-01

    This contribution reports a first step towards the development of a model of low-lying nuclear collective states based on the progression from weak to strong coupling of a combination of systems in multiple SU(3) irreps. The motivation for such a model comes partly from the remarkable persistence of rotational structure observed experimentally and in many model calculations. This work considers the spectra obtainable by coupling just two SU(3) irreps by means of a quadrupole-quadrupole interaction. For a particular value of this interaction, the two irreps combine to form strongly-coupled irreps while for zero interaction the weakly-coupled results are mixtures of many such strongly-coupled irreps. A notable result is the persistence of the rotor character of the low-energy states for a wide range of the interaction strength. Also notable is the fact that, for very weak interaction strengths, the energy levels of the yrast band resemble those of a vibrational sequence while the B(E2) transition strengths remain close to those of an axially symmetric rotor, as observed in many nuclei. (Author)

  4. Temperature dependence of shear viscosity of SU(3)-gluodynamics within lattice simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Astrakhantsev, N.Yu. [Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics,25 B. Cheremushkinskaya St., 117218, Moscow (Russian Federation); Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology,9 Institutskii per., 141700, Dolgoprudny (Russian Federation); Braguta, V.V. [Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics,25 B. Cheremushkinskaya St., 117218, Moscow (Russian Federation); Institute for High Energy Physics NRC “Kurchatov Institute”,1 Pobedy St., Protvino, 142281 (Russian Federation); School of Biomedicine, Far Eastern Federal University,8 Sukhanova St., 690950, Vladivostok (Russian Federation); Kotov, A.Yu. [Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics,25 B. Cheremushkinskaya St., 117218, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2017-04-18

    In this paper we study the SU(3)-gluodynamics shear viscosity temperature dependence on the lattice. To do so, we measure the correlation functions of the energy-momentum tensor in the range of temperatures T/T{sub c}∈[0.9,1.5]. To extract the shear viscosity we used two approaches. The first one is to fit the lattice data with a physically motivated ansatz for the spectral function with unknown parameters and then determine the shear viscosity. The second approach is to apply the Backus-Gilbert method allowing to extract the shear viscosity from the lattice data nonparametrically. The results obtained within both approaches agree with each other. Our results allow us to conclude that within the range T/T{sub c}∈[0.9,1.5] the SU(3)-gluodynamics reveals the properties of a strongly interacting system, which cannot be described perturbatively, and has the ratio η/s close to the value 1/4π of the N=4 Supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory.

  5. 'BREAKS' Protocol for Breaking Bad News.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, Vijayakumar; Bista, Bibek; Koshy, Cheriyan

    2010-05-01

    Information that drastically alters the life world of the patient is termed as bad news. Conveying bad news is a skilled communication, and not at all easy. The amount of truth to be disclosed is subjective. A properly structured and well-orchestrated communication has a positive therapeutic effect. This is a process of negotiation between patient and physician, but physicians often find it difficult due to many reasons. They feel incompetent and are afraid of unleashing a negative reaction from the patient or their relatives. The physician is reminded of his or her own vulnerability to terminal illness, and find themselves powerless over emotional distress. Lack of sufficient training in breaking bad news is a handicap to most physicians and health care workers. Adherence to the principles of client-centered counseling is helpful in attaining this skill. Fundamental insight of the patient is exploited and the bad news is delivered in a structured manner, because the patient is the one who knows what is hurting him most and he is the one who knows how to move forward. Six-step SPIKES protocol is widely used for breaking bad news. In this paper, we put forward another six-step protocol, the BREAKS protocol as a systematic and easy communication strategy for breaking bad news. Development of competence in dealing with difficult situations has positive therapeutic outcome and is a professionally satisfying one.

  6. Effect of primary and secondary radicals on chain breaks in ribosomal RNA in E. coli ribosomes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, H.; Bishop, J.

    1984-01-01

    It has been shown previously that, in dilute aerated solutions, ribosomes are inactivated by OH radicals and by secondary radicals produced from added alcohols (Singh and Vadasz 1983 a). In de-aerated solutions, both radicalH and e - sub(aq) also inactivate ribosomes (Singh and Vadasz 1983 b). The results of these studies and other on different systems (Adams et al. 1973, Aldrich and Cundall 1969, Dewey and Stein 1970, Masuda et al. 1971, Nabben et al. 1982, 1983, Samuni et al. 1980, Singh and Singh 1982) have shown that damage to biological systems occurs by diverse mechanisms. One of these mechanisms involves chain breaks in RNA (Pollard and Weller 1967). The purpose of this study was to determine which of the primary and secondary radicals cause chain breaks in ribosomal RNA (rRNA) within the ribosomes. (author)

  7. THE INFLUENCE OF ARAB SPRING EFFECT ON ECONOMIC GROWTH IN THE MIDDLE EAST COUNTRIES: STRUCTURAL BREAK PANEL DATA ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Beser

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Civil commotions that are started in December, 2010 and named as “Arab Spring” had been spread to Middle East countries and had also brought with it economic and political crises. Many economic, social and political factors that are mostly structural had been effective on starting this process. In this research, influence of Arab Spring on economic growth had been investigated with the help of cross-sectional dependency and structural break unit root test in five Middle East countries by using annual data in between 1990-2014. While cross-sectional dependency has been determined for the overall of panel, it had been reached to the conclusion that there is not structural break unit root.

  8. Effects of heavy ions on inactivation and DNA double strand breaks in Deinococcus radiodurans R1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, H; Schafer, M; Schmitz, C; Bucker, H

    1994-10-01

    Inactivation and double strand break (dsb) induction after heavy ion irradiation were studied in stationary phase cells of the highly radiation resistant bacterium Deinococcus radiodurans R1. There is evidence that the radiation sensitivity of this bacterium is nearly independent on energy in the range of up to 15 MeV/u for lighter ions (Ar). The responses to dsb induction for charged particles show direct relationship between increasing radiation dose and residual intact DNA.

  9. Fortran code for SU(3) lattice gauge theory with and without MPI checkerboard parallelization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Bernd A.; Wu, Hao

    2012-10-01

    We document plain Fortran and Fortran MPI checkerboard code for Markov chain Monte Carlo simulations of pure SU(3) lattice gauge theory with the Wilson action in D dimensions. The Fortran code uses periodic boundary conditions and is suitable for pedagogical purposes and small scale simulations. For the Fortran MPI code two geometries are covered: the usual torus with periodic boundary conditions and the double-layered torus as defined in the paper. Parallel computing is performed on checkerboards of sublattices, which partition the full lattice in one, two, and so on, up to D directions (depending on the parameters set). For updating, the Cabibbo-Marinari heatbath algorithm is used. We present validations and test runs of the code. Performance is reported for a number of currently used Fortran compilers and, when applicable, MPI versions. For the parallelized code, performance is studied as a function of the number of processors. Program summary Program title: STMC2LSU3MPI Catalogue identifier: AEMJ_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEMJ_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 26666 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 233126 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: Fortran 77 compatible with the use of Fortran 90/95 compilers, in part with MPI extensions. Computer: Any capable of compiling and executing Fortran 77 or Fortran 90/95, when needed with MPI extensions. Operating system: Red Hat Enterprise Linux Server 6.1 with OpenMPI + pgf77 11.8-0, Centos 5.3 with OpenMPI + gfortran 4.1.2, Cray XT4 with MPICH2 + pgf90 11.2-0. Has the code been vectorised or parallelized?: Yes, parallelized using MPI extensions. Number of processors used: 2 to 11664 RAM: 200 Mega bytes per process. Classification: 11

  10. Breaking away.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Innes, G M; Sosnow, P L

    1995-05-01

    While life as hospital employees was comfortable, the lure of independence won out for these two emergency department physicians. Breaking away to develop a new company was not easy, but it's paid off for the entrepreneurs of the Capital Region Emergency Medicine, P.C. Developing an emergency medicine business meant learning all aspects of business: billing services, evaluating legal services, raising capital, and becoming employers. The advantage has been an ability to use profits to improve the moral of staff, an increase in salary, and an overall sense of satisfaction.

  11. Comparative Experiments to Assess the Effects of Accumulator Nitrogen Injection on Passive Core Cooling During Small Break LOCA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Yuquan

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The accumulator is a passive safety injection device for emergency core cooling systems. As an important safety feature for providing a high-speed injection flow to the core by compressed nitrogen gas pressure during a loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA, the accumulator injects its precharged nitrogen into the system after its coolant has been emptied. Attention has been drawn to the possible negative effects caused by such a nitrogen injection in passive safety nuclear power plants. Although some experimental work on the nitrogen injection has been done, there have been no comparative tests in which the effects on the system responses and the core safety have been clearly assessed. In this study, a new thermal hydraulic integral test facility—the advanced core-cooling mechanism experiment (ACME—was designed and constructed to support the CAP1400 safety review. The ACME test facility was used to study the nitrogen injection effects on the system responses to the small break loss-of-coolant accident LOCA (SBLOCA transient. Two comparison test groups—a 2-inch cold leg break and a double-ended direct-vessel-injection (DEDVI line break—were conducted. Each group consists of a nitrogen injection test and a nitrogen isolation comparison test with the same break conditions. To assess the nitrogen injection effects, the experimental data that are representative of the system responses and the core safety were compared and analyzed. The results of the comparison show that the effects of nitrogen injection on system responses and core safety are significantly different between the 2-inch and DEDVI breaks. The mechanisms of the different effects on the transient were also investigated. The amount of nitrogen injected, along with its heat absorption, was likewise evaluated in order to assess its effect on the system depressurization process. The results of the comparison and analyses in this study are important for recognizing and understanding the

  12. Comparative experiments to assess the effects of accumulator nitrogen injection on passive core cooling during small break LOCA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, YuQuan; Hao, Botao; Zhong, Jia; Wan Nam [State Nuclear Power Technology R and D Center, South Park, Beijing Future Science and Technology City, Beijing (China)

    2017-02-15

    The accumulator is a passive safety injection device for emergency core cooling systems. As an important safety feature for providing a high-speed injection flow to the core by compressed nitrogen gas pressure during a loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA), the accumulator injects its precharged nitrogen into the system after its coolant has been emptied. Attention has been drawn to the possible negative effects caused by such a nitrogen injection in passive safety nuclear power plants. Although some experimental work on the nitrogen injection has been done, there have been no comparative tests in which the effects on the system responses and the core safety have been clearly assessed. In this study, a new thermal hydraulic integral test facility—the advanced core-cooling mechanism experiment (ACME)—was designed and constructed to support the CAP1400 safety review. The ACME test facility was used to study the nitrogen injection effects on the system responses to the small break loss-of-coolant accident LOCA (SBLOCA) transient. Two comparison test groups—a 2-inch cold leg break and a double-ended direct-vessel-injection (DEDVI) line break—were conducted. Each group consists of a nitrogen injection test and a nitrogen isolation comparison test with the same break conditions. To assess the nitrogen injection effects, the experimental data that are representative of the system responses and the core safety were compared and analyzed. The results of the comparison show that the effects of nitrogen injection on system responses and core safety are significantly different between the 2-inch and DEDVI breaks. The mechanisms of the different effects on the transient were also investigated. The amount of nitrogen injected, along with its heat absorption, was likewise evaluated in order to assess its effect on the system depressurization process. The results of the comparison and analyses in this study are important for recognizing and understanding the potential negative

  13. Nonperturbative β function of eight-flavor SU(3) gauge theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasenfratz, Anna; Schaich, David; Veernala, Aarti

    2015-06-01

    We present a new lattice study of the discrete β function for SU(3) gauge theory with N f = 8 massless flavors of fermions in the fundamental representation. Using the gradient flow running coupling, and comparing two different nHYP-smeared staggered lattice actions, we calculate the 8-flavor step-scaling function at significantly stronger couplings than were previously accessible. Our continuum-extrapolated results for the discrete β function show no sign of an IR fixed point up to couplings of g 2 ≈ 14. At the same time, we find that the gradient flow coupling runs much more slowly than predicted by two-loop perturbation theory, reinforcing previous indications that the 8-flavor system possesses nontrivial strongly coupled IR dynamics with relevance to BSM phenomenology.

  14. Reconstructing ATLAS SU3 in the CMSSM and relaxed phenomenological supersymmetry models

    CERN Document Server

    Fowlie, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    Assuming that the LHC makes a positive end-point measurement indicative of low-energy supersymmetry, we examine the prospects of reconstructing the parameter values of a typical low-mass point in the framework of the Constrained MSSM and in several other supersymmetry models that have more free parameters and fewer assumptions than the CMSSM. As a case study, we consider the ATLAS SU3 benchmark point with a Bayesian approach and with a Gaussian approximation to the likelihood for the measured masses and mass differences. First we investigate the impact of the hypothetical ATLAS measurement alone and show that it significantly narrows the confidence intervals of relevant, otherwise fairly unrestricted, model parameters. Next we add information about the relic density of neutralino dark matter to the likelihood and show that this further narrows the confidence intervals. We confirm that the CMSSM has the best prospects for parameter reconstruction; its results had little dependence on our choice of prior, in co...

  15. Magnetic polarizabilities of light mesons in SU(3 lattice gauge theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.V. Luschevskaya

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the ground state energies of neutral pseudoscalar and vector meson in SU(3 lattice gauge theory in the strong abelian magnetic field. The energy of ρ0 meson with zero spin projection sz=0 on the axis of the external magnetic field decreases, while the energies with non-zero spins sz=−1 and +1 increase with the field. The energy of π0 meson decreases as a function of the magnetic field. We calculate the magnetic polarizabilities of pseudoscalar and vector mesons for lattice volume 184. For ρ0 with spin |sz|=1 and π0 meson the polarizabilities in the continuum limit have been evaluated. We do not observe any evidence in favour of tachyonic mode existence.

  16. Color fields of the static pentaquark system computed in SU(3) lattice QCD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Nuno; Bicudo, Pedro

    2013-02-01

    We compute the color fields of SU(3) lattice QCD created by static pentaquark systems, in a 243×48 lattice at β=6.2 corresponding to a lattice spacing a=0.07261(85)fm. We find that the pentaquark color fields are well described by a multi-Y-type shaped flux tube. The flux tube junction points are compatible with Fermat-Steiner points minimizing the total flux tube length. We also compare the pentaquark flux tube profile with the diquark-diantiquark central flux tube profile in the tetraquark and the quark-antiquark fundamental flux tube profile in the meson, and they match, thus showing that the pentaquark flux tubes are composed of fundamental flux tubes.

  17. Color fields computed in SU(3) lattice QCD for the static tetraquark system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardoso, Nuno; Cardoso, Marco; Bicudo, Pedro

    2011-01-01

    The color fields created by the static tetraquark system are computed in quenched SU(3) lattice QCD, in a 24 3 x48 lattice at β=6.2 corresponding to a lattice spacing a=0.07261(85) fm. We find that the tetraquark color fields are well described by a double-Y, or butterfly, shaped flux tube. The two flux-tube junction points are compatible with Fermat points minimizing the total flux-tube length. We also compare the diquark-diantiquark central flux-tube profile in the tetraquark with the quark-antiquark fundamental flux-tube profile in the meson, and they match, thus showing that the tetraquark flux tubes are composed of fundamental flux tubes.

  18. Effect of pipe rupture loads inside containment in the break exclusionary piping outside containment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiss, G.

    1987-01-01

    The plant design for protection against piping failures outside containment should make sure that fluid system piping in containment penetration areas are designed to meet the break exclusionary provisions contained in the BTP MEB 3-1. According to these provisions, following a piping failure (main steam line) inside containment, the part of the flued head connected to the piping outside containment, should not exceed the ASME Code stress limits for the appropriate load combinations. A finite element analysis has been performed to evaluate the stress level in this area. (orig./HP)

  19. Symmetry breaking effect on determination of polarized and unpolarized parton distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arbabifar, F.; Khorramian, Ali N.; Khanpour, H.; Atashbar Tehrani, S.

    2013-01-01

    We perform a new extraction for unpolarized and polarized parton distribution functions considering a flavor decompositions for sea quarks and applying very recent deep inelastic scattering (DIS) and semi inclusive deep inelastic scattering (SIDIS) data in the fixed flavor number scheme (FFNS) framework. In the new symmetry breaking scenario the light quark and antiquark densities are extracted separately and new parametrization forms are determined for them. The heavy flavors contribution, including charm and bottom quarks, are also taken to be account for unpolarized distributions

  20. Effects of physical activity and breaks on mathematics engagement in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, Katherine B; Parker, Philip D; Astell-Burt, Thomas; Lonsdale, Chris

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether physical activity has a positive relationship with school engagement regardless of the presence or absence of a recess or lunch break before the classroom lesson. Data were collected over three ten-week periods: January-April 2014 (Time 1), October-December 2014 (Time 2), and April-June 2015 (Time 3). A cohort of 2194 adolescents (mean age=13.40years, SD=.73) wore an accelerometer during the hour before a mathematics lesson and completed a questionnaire following the mathematics lesson to assess school engagement in that lesson. Linear mixed models indicated that moderate-intensity activity before a mathematics lesson had a positive linear relationship with cognitive engagement (β=.40, pmathematics lesson had a negative relationship with overall, behavioural, emotional, and cognitive engagement (β=-.18, pmathematics lessons could improve students' cognitive engagement. Educators should be aware that students tend to demonstrate the lowest levels of school engagement after recess breaks. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Flux breaking of E6 in the generalised Hosotani model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLachlan, A.

    1989-01-01

    To break gauge symmetries in the Hosotani model, it is necessary to include periodic (Dirac) fermions and/or antiperiodic scalars which transform as single-valued faithful representations of the adjoint group. With this in mind, an E 6 Yang-Mills theory minimally coupled to periodic adjoint and antiperiodic fundamental fermions is examined. On breaking, even though the full rank six residual group depends on the numbers of spacetime dimensions and fermion families, the fundamental fermions surviving compactification only transform non-trivially under the omnipresent [SU(3)] 2 or SU(6) subgroup factors. (orig.)

  2. Effect of cellular glutathione content on the induction of DNA double strand breaks by 25 MeV electrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frankenberg, D.; Kistler, M.; Eckhardt-Schupp, F.

    1987-08-01

    The effect of endogenous glutathione (GSH) on the induction of DNA double strand breaks (dsb) by 25 MeV electrons was investigated using stationary haploid yeast cells defective in ..gamma..-glutamyl-cysteine-synthetase (gsh 1) containing less than 5 per cent of the normal GSH content. In gsh 1 cells the induction of dsb is increased by a factor of 1.5 under oxic and 1.8 under anoxic irradiation conditions whereas the oxygen enhancement ratio was only slightly decreased (1.9) compared to wild-type cells (2.4).

  3. Effect of cellular glutathione content on the induction of DNA double strand breaks by 25 MeV electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frankenberg, D.; Kistler, M.; Eckhardt-Schupp, F.

    1987-01-01

    The effect of endogenous glutathione (GSH) on the induction of DNA double strand breaks (dsb) by 25 MeV electrons was investigated using stationary haploid yeast cells defective in γ-glutamyl-cysteine-synthetase (gsh 1) containing less than 5 per cent of the normal GSH content. In gsh 1 cells the induction of dsb is increased by a factor of 1.5 under oxic and 1.8 under anoxic irradiation conditions whereas the oxygen enhancement ratio was only slightly decreased (1.9) compared to wild-type cells (2.4). (author)

  4. Spontaneous compactification of D=10 Maxwell-Einstein theory leads to SU(3) X SU(2) X U(1) gauge symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watamura, S.

    1983-01-01

    Solutions of ten-dimensional Maxwell-Einstein theory and a bosonic part of N = 2, D = 10 supergravity theory are examined. It is shown that there is a solution for which six-dimensional internal space is compactified into CP 2 x S 2 . The gauge symmetry of the effective four-dimensional theory is SU(3) x SU(2) x U(1). The introduction of fermions is also considered. The requirement of consistency in introducing a spinsup(C) structure on CP 2 results in a U(1) charge quantization condition. (orig.)

  5. Bosonization of the generalized SU(3) Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model in the 1/N expansion; Bosonizacao do modelo de Nambu-Jona-Lasinio SU(3) generalizado na expansao 1/N

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campos, Francisco Antonio Pena

    1995-12-31

    The present work consists in a 1/N expansion of extended version of the SU(3) Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model in the context of the Functional Integral. The gap equations, meson propagators, triangle diagram, etc, appear quite naturally as different orders in the expansion. The new features of this approach is the inclusion of high order corrections in the 1/N leading orders, which have never included in the previous one. The method also allows for the construction of a chiral Lagrangian of interacting mesons based on the SU(3) NJL model, here obtained for the first time. (author) 32 refs., 11 figs., 5 tabs.

  6. Truncation effects in the functional renormalization group study of spontaneous symmetry breaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Defenu, N.; Mati, P.; Márián, I.G.; Nándori, I.; Trombettoni, A.

    2015-01-01

    We study the occurrence of spontaneous symmetry breaking (SSB) for O(N) models using functional renormalization group techniques. We show that even the local potential approximation (LPA) when treated exactly is sufficient to give qualitatively correct results for systems with continuous symmetry, in agreement with the Mermin-Wagner theorem and its extension to systems with fractional dimensions. For general N (including the Ising model N=1) we study the solutions of the LPA equations for various truncations around the zero field using a finite number of terms (and different regulators), showing that SSB always occurs even where it should not. The SSB is signalled by Wilson-Fisher fixed points which for any truncation are shown to stay on the line defined by vanishing mass beta functions.

  7. The effects of radioprotective agents on the radiation-induced DNA single strand breaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rhiu, Sung Ryul; Ko, Kyung Hwan; Jung, In Yong; Cho, Chul Ku; Kim, Tae Hwan; Park, Woo Wiun; Kim, Sung Ho; Ji, Young Hoon; Kim, Kyung Jung; Bang, Hio Chang; Jung, Young Suk; Choi, Moon Sik

    1992-04-01

    With the increased use of atomic energy in science, industry, medicine and public power production, the probability of nuclear accidents certainly appears to be on the increase. Therefore, early medical diagnosis and first-aid are needed urgently to establish an efficient treatment. We carried out the studies of radiation protector such as DDC, MEA, WR-2721 and variety of decontaminator with a view to establishing the protective measure and diagnostic standards for safety of worker and neighbors living around the radiation area in case of occurring the accidental contamination. In this experiment, we examined radiation-induced DNA single strand breaks as one of the study on molecular biology of the response of cells to radiation because an understanding of the radiation-induced damage in molecular level would add to our knowledge of radiation protection and treatment. (Author)

  8. q-deformed charged fermion coherent states and SU(3) charged, Hyper-charged fermion coherent states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hao Sanru; Li Guanghua; Long Junyan

    1994-01-01

    By virtue of the algebra of the q-deformed fermion oscillators, the q-deformed charged fermion coherent states and SU(3) charged, hyper-charged fermion coherent states are discussed. The explicit forms of the two kinds of coherent states mentioned above are obtained by making use of the completeness of base vectors in the q-fermion Fock space. By comparing the q-deformed results with the ordinary results, it is found that the q-deformed charged fermion coherent states and SU(3) charged, hyper-charged fermion coherent states are automatically reduced to the ordinary charged fermion coherent states and SU(3) charged hyper-charged fermion coherent states if the deformed parameter q→1

  9. Confining strings in the Abelian-projected SU(3)-gluodynamics. Pt. 2. 4D case with θ-term

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antonov, D.

    2001-01-01

    The generalization of 4D confining string theory to the SU(3)-inspired case is derived. It describes string representation of the Wilson loop in the SU(3) analogue of compact QED extended by the θ-term. It is shown that although the obtained theory of confining strings differs from that of compact QED, their low-energy limits have the same functional form. This fact leads to the appearance of the string θ-term in the low-energy limit of the SU(3)-inspired confining string theory. In particular, it is shown that in the extreme strong-coupling regime, the crumpling of string world sheets could disappear owing to the string θ-term at θ = π/12. Finally, some characteristic features of the SU(N) case are pointed out. (orig.)

  10. Parental Break-Ups and Stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dissing, Agnete S.; Dich, Nadya; Nybo Andersen, Anne-Marie

    2017-01-01

    Background: Parental break-up is wide spread, and the effects of parental break-up on children’s well-being are known. The evidence regarding child age at break-up and subsequent family arrangements is inconclusive. Aim: to estimate the effects of parental break-up on stress in pre-adolescent chi......Background: Parental break-up is wide spread, and the effects of parental break-up on children’s well-being are known. The evidence regarding child age at break-up and subsequent family arrangements is inconclusive. Aim: to estimate the effects of parental break-up on stress in pre......-adolescent children with a specific focus on age at break-up and post-breakup family arrangements. Methods: We used data from the Danish National Birth Cohort. Participants included 44 509 children followed from birth to age 11. Stress was self-reported by children at age 11, when the children also reported...... on parental break-up and post break-up family arrangements. Results: Twenty-one percent of the children had experienced a parental break-up at age 11, and those who had experienced parental break-up showed a higher risk of stress (OR:1.72, 95%CI:1.55;1.91) regardless of the child’s age at break-up. Children...

  11. Minimal Regge model for meson--baryon scattering: duality, SU(3) and phase-modified absorptive cuts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egli, S.E.

    1975-10-01

    A model is presented which incorporates economically all of the modifications to simple SU(3)-symmetric dual Regge pole theory which are required by existing data on 0 -1 / 2 + → -1 / 2 + processes. The basic assumptions are no-exotics duality, minimally broken SU(3) symmetry, and absorptive Regge cuts phase-modified by the Ringland prescription. First it is described qualitatively how these assumptions suffice for the description of all measured reactions, and then the results of a detailed fit to 1987 data points are presented for 18 different reactions. (auth)

  12. The Break

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strand, Anete Mikkala Camille; Larsen, Jens

    2015-01-01

    the challenges of the million-dollar question is stemming from the ‘bets on the future’ – or what David Boje coins as ‘antenarratives’, (Boje, 2008) that emerged through various reconfiguring story actions, on two different occasions. The paper thus elaborates on two cases of restorying events; One taking place...... that language and the social has been granted too much power on the dispense of the bodily, physical and biological – or in short, in dispense of the material. The break To be or not to be poses the theoretical notion of dis-/continuity (Barad, 2007, 2010) from the quantum approach to storytelling (Strand 2012...... in their use of the communicative platform of Object theatre from the methodology of Material Storytelling (Strand 2012). The Bets on the Future piece discusses the extend to which the cases of using this kind of technologies may provide fruitful ‘bets on the future’ in regard to the million-dollar question...

  13. Thermal-Hydraulic Integral Effect Test with ATLAS for an Intermediate Break Loss of Coolant Accident at a Pressurizer Surge Line

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Kyoung Ho; Seok Cho; Park, Hyun Sik; Choi, Nam Hyun; Park, Yu Sun; Kim, Jong Rok; Bae, Byoung Uhn; Kim, Yeon Sik; Kim, Kyung Doo; Choi, Ki Yong; Song, Chul Hwa [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    The main objectives of this test were not only to provide physical insight into the system response of the APR1400 during the pressurizer surge line break accident but also to produce an integral effect test data to validate the SPACE code. In order to simulate a double-ended guillotine break of a pressurizer surge line in the APR1400, the IB-SUR-01R test was performed with ATLAS. The major thermal-hydraulic phenomena such as the system pressures, the collapsed water levels, and the break flow rate were presented and discussed. Despite the core was uncovered, no excursion in the cladding temperature was observed. The pressurizer surge line break can be classified as a hot leg break from a break location point of view. Compared with a cold leg break, coolability in the core may be better in case of a hot leg break due to the enhanced flow in the core region. This integral effect test data will be used to evaluate the prediction capability of existing safety analysis codes of the MARS and the RELAP5 as well as the SPACE code. Furthermore, this data can be utilized to identify any code deficiency for an IBLOCA simulation, especially for DVI-adapted plants. Redefinition of break size for design basis accident (DBA) based on risk information is being extensively investigated due to the potential for safety benefits and unnecessary burden reduction from current LBLOCA (large break loss of coolant accident)-based ECC (Emergency Core Cooling) Acceptance Criteria. As a transition break size (TBS), the rupture of medium-size pipe is considered to be more important than ever in risk-informed regulation (RIR)-relevant safety analysis. As plants age, are up-rated, and continue to seek improved operating efficiencies, the small break and intermediate break LOCA (IBLOCA) can become a concern. In particular, IBLOCA with DVI (Direct Vessel Injection) features will be addressed to support redefinition of a design-basis LOCA. With an aim of expanding code validation to address small

  14. Spontaneous symmetry breaking and fermion chirality in higher-dimensional gauge theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wetterich, C.

    1985-01-01

    The number of chiral fermions may change in the course of spontaneous symmetry breaking. We discuss solutions of a six-dimensional Einstein-Yang-Mills theory based on SO(12). In the resulting effective four-dimensional theory they can be interpreted as spontaneous breaking of a gauge group SO(10) to H=SU(3)sub(C)xSU(2)sub(L)xU(1)sub(R)xU(1)sub(B-L). For all solutions, the fermions which are chiral with respect to H form standard generations. However, the number of generations for the solutions with broken SO(10) may be different compared to the symmetric solutions. All solutions considered here exhibit a local generation group SU(2)sub(G)xU(1)sub(G). For the solutions with broken SO(10) symmetry, the leptons and quarks within one generation transform differently with respect to SU(2)sub(G)xU(1)sub(G). Spontaneous symmetry breaking also modifies the SO(10) relations among Yukawa couplings. All this has important consequences for possible fermion mass relations obtained from higher-dimensional theories. (orig.)

  15. Particle aerosolisation and break-up in dry powder inhalers 1: evaluation and modelling of venturi effects for agglomerated systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, William; Fletcher, David F; Traini, Daniela; Chan, Hak-Kim; Crapper, John; Young, Paul M

    2010-07-01

    -up ( approximately 0.4 m.s(-1)). While this study focussed on the effect of turbulence on agglomerate break-up, the small amount of impaction, which inevitably occurs in the venturi assembly, appeared to dominate agglomerate break-up in this dry powder system.

  16. Investigation of the scalar spectrum in SU (3) with eight degenerate flavors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinaldi, E.

    2017-12-01

    The Lattice Strong Dynamics collaboration is investigating the properties of a SU(3) gauge theory with Nf = 8 light fermions on the lattice. We measure the masses of the lightest pseudoscalar, scalar and vector states using simulations with the nHYP staggered-fermion action on large volumes and at small fermion masses, reaching Mρ/Mπ ≈ 2.2. The axial-vector meson and the nucleon are also studied for the same range of fermion masses. One of the interesting features of this theory is the dynamical presence of a light flavor-singlet scalar state with 0++ quantum numbers that is lighter than the vector resonance and has a mass consistent with the one of the pseudoscalar state for the whole fermion mass range explored. We comment on the existence of such state emerging from our lattice simulations and on the challenges of its analysis. Moreover we highlight the difficulties in pursuing simulations in the chiral regime of this theory using large volumes.

  17. The effect of steam separataor efficiency on transient following a steam line break

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, J.H.; Ohn, M.Y.; Lee, N.H.; Hwang, S.T.; Lee, S.K.

    1996-01-01

    Detailed thermalhydraulic simulations for CANDU 6 steam line break inside containment are performed to predict the response of the primary and secondary circuits. The analysis is performed using the thermalhydraulic computer code, CATHENA, with a coupled primary and secondary circuit model. A two-loop representation of the primary and secondary circuits is modelled. The secondary circuit model includes the feedwater line from the deaerator storage tank, multi-node steam generators and the steam line up to the turbine. Two cases were carried out using different assumptions for the efficiency of the steam separators. Case 1 assumes the efficiency of the steam separators becomes zero when the water level in the steam drum increases to the elevation of primary cyclones, or the outlet flow from the steam generator becomes higher than 150 % of normal flow. Case 2 assumes the efficiency becomes zero only when the water level in the steam drum reaches the elevation of primary cyclones. The simulation results show that system responses are sensitive to the assumption for the efficiency of the steam separators and case 1 gives higher discharge energy. Fuel cooling is assured, since primary circuit is cooled down sufficiently by the steam generators for both cases. (author)

  18. DNA double-strand breaks induced by cavitational mechanical effects of ultrasound in cancer cell lines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yukihiro Furusawa

    Full Text Available Ultrasonic technologies pervade the medical field: as a long established imaging modality in clinical diagnostics; and, with the emergence of targeted high intensity focused ultrasound, as a means of thermally ablating tumours. In parallel, the potential of [non-thermal] intermediate intensity ultrasound as a minimally invasive therapy is also being rigorously assessed. Here, induction of apoptosis in cancer cells has been observed, although definitive identification of the underlying mechanism has thus far remained elusive. A likely candidate process has been suggested to involve sonochemical activity, where reactive oxygen species (ROS mediate the generation of DNA single-strand breaks. Here however, we provide compelling new evidence that strongly supports a purely mechanical mechanism. Moreover, by a combination of specific assays (neutral comet tail and staining for γH2AX foci formation we demonstrate for the first time that US exposure at even moderate intensities exhibits genotoxic potential, through its facility to generate DNA damage across multiple cancer lines. Notably, colocalization assays highlight that ionizing radiation and ultrasound have distinctly different signatures to their respective γH2AX foci formation patterns, likely reflecting the different stress distributions that initiated damage formation. Furthermore, parallel immuno-blotting suggests that DNA-PKcs have a preferential role in the repair of ultrasound-induced damage.

  19. Effects of valence nucleon orbits and charge symmetry breaking interaction on the Nolen-Schiffer anomaly of mirror nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, T.; Sagawa, H.; Arima, A.

    1992-01-01

    Coulomb energy differences (Nolen-Schiffer anomalies) of mirror nuclei 17 O- 17 F and 41 Ca- 41 Sc are studied by using realistic Hartree-Fock and Woods-Saxon single-particle wave functions which are determined precisely through the analysis of the magnetic form factors of electron scattering. These single-particle wave functions are used to evaluate the Coulomb energy differences due to charge symmetry breaking forces, with new coupling constants determined by the analysis of the scattering lengths of pp and nn system which have been successfully applied to the Coulomb energy difference of 3 He- 3 H. We also evaluated the effects of the charge symmetry breaking forces using Hartree-Fock wave functions. Together with various other contributions, our calculated values of the Coulomb energy differences, which showed deviations of 3-9% from the experimental values in the previous analysis of Nolen and Schiffer, agree with the experimental values within 1% (2%) accuracy for A=17 (41). (orig.)

  20. Quark diquark symmetry breaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, M.M. de

    1980-01-01

    Assuming the baryons are made of quark-diquark pairs, the wave functions for the 126 allowed ground states are written. The quark creation and annihilations operators are generalized to describe the quark-diquark structure in terms of a parameter σ. Assuming that all quark-quark interactions are mediated by gluons transforming like an octet of vector mesons, the effective Hamiltonian and the baryon masses as constraint equations for the elements of the mass matrix is written. The symmetry is the SU(6) sub(quark)x SU(21) sub(diquark) broken by quark-quark interactions respectively invariant under U(6), U(2) sub(spin), U(3) and also interactions transforming like the eighth and the third components of SU(3). In the limit of no quark-diquark structure (σ = 0), the ground state masses is titted to within 1% of the experimental data, except for the Δ(1232), where the error is almost 2%. Expanding the decuplet mass equations in terms of σ and keeping terms only up to the second order, this error is reduced to 67%. (Author) [pt

  1. DNA double-strand breaks as potential indicators for the biological effects of ionising radiation exposure from cardiac CT and conventional coronary angiography: a randomised, controlled study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geisel, Dominik; Zimmermann, Elke; Rief, Matthias; Greupner, Johannes; Hamm, Bernd [Charite Medical School, Department of Radiology, Berlin (Germany); Laule, Michael; Knebel, Fabian [Charite Medical School, Department of Cardiology, Berlin (Germany); Dewey, Marc [Charite Medical School, Department of Radiology, Berlin (Germany); Charite, Institut fuer Radiologie, Berlin (Germany)

    2012-08-15

    To prospectively compare induced DNA double-strand breaks by cardiac computed tomography (CT) and conventional coronary angiography (CCA). 56 patients with suspected coronary artery disease were randomised to undergo either CCA or cardiac CT. DNA double-strand breaks were assessed in fluorescence microscopy of blood lymphocytes as indicators of the biological effects of radiation exposure. Radiation doses were estimated using dose-length product (DLP) and dose-area product (DAP) with conversion factors for CT and CCA, respectively. On average there were 0.12 {+-} 0.06 induced double-strand breaks per lymphocyte for CT and 0.29 {+-} 0.18 for diagnostic CCA (P < 0.001). This relative biological effect of ionising radiation from CCA was 1.9 times higher (P < 0.001) than the effective dose estimated by conversion factors would have suggested. The correlation between the biological effects and the estimated radiation doses was excellent for CT (r = 0.951, P < 0.001) and moderate to good for CCA (r = 0.862, P < 0.001). One day after radiation, a complete repair of double-strand breaks to background levels was found in both groups. Conversion factors may underestimate the relative biological effects of ionising radiation from CCA. DNA double-strand break assessment may provide a strategy for individualised assessments of radiation. (orig.)

  2. Correlation analysis of quantum fluctuations and repulsion effects of classical dynamics in SU(3) model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujiwara, Shigeyasu; Sakata, Fumihiko

    2003-01-01

    In many quantum systems, random matrix theory has been used to characterize quantum level fluctuations, which is known to be a quantum correspondent to a regular-to-chaos transition in classical systems. We present a new qualitative analysis of quantum and classical fluctuation properties by exploiting correlation coefficients and variances. It is shown that the correlation coefficient of the quantum level density is roughly inversely proportional relation to the variance of consecutive phase-space point spacings on the Poincare section plane. (author)

  3. Phenomenological analysis of quantum level correlations and classical repulsion effects in SU(3) model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujiwara, Shigeyasu; Sakata, Fumihiko

    2003-01-01

    The quantum level fluctuation in various systems has been shown to be characterized by the random matrix theory, and to be related to a regular-to-chaos transition in classical system. We present a new qualitative analysis of quantum and classical fluctuation properties by exploiting correlation coefficients and variances. It is shown that the correlation coefficient of quantum level density is inversely proportional to the variance of consecutive phase-space point spacings on the Poincare section plane. (author)

  4. The effects of a mid-task break on the brain connectome in healthy participants: A resting-state functional MRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yu; Lim, Julian; Dai, Zhongxiang; Wong, KianFoong; Taya, Fumihiko; Chen, Yu; Li, Junhua; Thakor, Nitish; Bezerianos, Anastasios

    2017-05-15

    Although rest breaks are commonly administered as a countermeasure to reduce mental fatigue and boost cognitive performance, the effects of taking a break on behavior are not consistent. Moreover, our understanding of the underlying neural mechanisms of rest breaks and how they modulate mental fatigue is still rudimentary. In this study, we investigated the effects of receiving a rest break on the topological properties of brain connectivity networks via a two-session experimental paradigm, in which one session comprised four successive blocks of a mentally demanding visual selective attention task (No-rest session), whereas the other contained a rest break between the second and third task blocks (Rest session). Functional brain networks were constructed using resting-state functional MRI data recorded from 20 healthy adults before and after the performance of the task blocks. Behaviorally, subjects displayed robust time-on-task (TOT) declines, as reflected by increasingly slower reaction time as the test progressed and lower post-task self-reported ratings of engagement. However, we did not find a significant effect on task performance due to administering a mid-task break. Compared to pre-task measurements, post-task functional brain networks demonstrated an overall decrease of optimal small-world properties together with lower global efficiency. Specifically, we found TOT-related reduced nodal efficiency in brain regions that mainly resided in the subcortical areas. More interestingly, a significant block-by-session interaction was revealed in local efficiency, attributing to a significant post-task decline in No-rest session and a preserved local efficiency when a mid-task break opportunity was introduced in the Rest session. Taken together, these findings augment our understanding of how the resting brain reorganizes following the accumulation of prolonged task, suggest dissociable processes between the neural mechanisms of fatigue and recovery, and provide

  5. Consistency tests of Ampcalculator and chiral amplitudes in SU(3) Chiral Perturbation Theory: A tutorial-based approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ananthanarayan, B.; Sentitemsu Imsong, I.; Das, Diganta

    2012-01-01

    Ampcalculator (AMPC) is a Mathematica copyright based program that was made publicly available some time ago by Unterdorfer and Ecker. It enables the user to compute several processes at one loop (upto O(p 4 )) in SU(3) chiral perturbation theory. They include computing matrix elements and form factors for strong and non-leptonic weak processes with at most six external states. It was used to compute some novel processes and was tested against well-known results by the original authors. Here we present the results of several thorough checks of the package. Exhaustive checks performed by the original authors are not publicly available, and hence the present effort. Some new results are obtained from the software especially in the kaon odd-intrinsic parity non-leptonic decay sector involving the coupling G 27 . Another illustrative set of amplitudes at tree level we provide is in the context of τ-decays with several mesons including quark mass effects, of use to the BELLE experiment. All eight meson-meson scattering amplitudes have been checked. The Kaon-Compton amplitude has been checked and a minor error in the published results has been pointed out. This exercise is a tutorial-based one, wherein several input and output notebooks are also being made available as ancillary files on the arXiv. Some of the additional notebooks we provide contain explicit expressions that we have used for comparison with established results. The purpose is to encourage users to apply the software to suit their specific needs. An automatic amplitude generator of this type can provide error-free outputs that could be used as inputs for further simplification, and in varied scenarios such as applications of chiral perturbation theory at finite temperature, density and volume. This can also be used by students as a learning aid in low-energy hadron dynamics. (orig.)

  6. Formulation of the low-energy effective theory of electroweak symmetry-breaking without a Higgs particle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirn, J.

    2004-07-01

    The low-energy effective theory of electroweak symmetry-breaking without a Higgs particle is constructed using the methods of Chiral Perturbation Theory. Weinberg's power-counting formula demonstrates the consistency of the loop expansion, with the corresponding renormalization. We find that the suppression of effective operators by a mass scale, which was automatic in the case of the Standard Model, no longer holds in the Higgs-less case. Moreover, the incriminated operators appear at leading order in the chiral expansion, at variance with experiments. To account for their suppression, invariance under a larger symmetry is required, corresponding to the composite sector (which produces the three Goldstone modes) being decoupled from the elementary sector (quarks, leptons and Yang-Mills fields). The couplings are introduced via spurions: this reduces the symmetry to SU(2) x U(1). In the simultaneous expansion in powers of momenta and spurions, the aforementioned operators are relegated to higher orders. In addition, the method allows for a systematic treatment of weak isospin breaking. The Weinberg power-counting formula can be recovered, and small neutrino masses accounted for. The three right-handed neutrinos (lighter than the TeV), which are introduced in connection with the custodial symmetry, are quasi-sterile and stable. A constraint on the underlying theory is obtained by studying the anomaly-matching in the composite sector and generalizing the Wess-Zumino construction. The spurion formalism is also applied to open linear moose models, for which generalized Weinberg sum rules are derived. (author)

  7. Age at voice break in Danish boys: effects of pre-pubertal body mass index and secular trend

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, Anders; Magnusdottir, Steinunn; Scheike, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    with increasing BMI standard deviation scores. Thus boys in the heaviest quartile at 8 years of age had an increased risk of early voice break (RR of 1.74 [1.14-2.65]) approximately 6 years later, compared with boys in the thinnest quartile. The earlier voice break seen during the 10-year observation period could...

  8. Effects of park walks and relaxation exercises during lunch breaks on recovery from job stress : Two randomized controlled trials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Bloom, Jessica; Sianoja, Marjaana; Korpela, Kalevi; Tuomisto, Martti; Lilja, Ansa; Geurts, Sabine; Kinnunen, Ulla

    Lunch breaks constitute the longest within-workday rest period, but it is unclear how they affect recovery from job stress. We conducted two randomized controlled trials with 153 Finnish knowledge workers who engaged for 15 min daily in prescribed lunch break activities for ten consecutive working

  9. Effect of low dose {gamma} radiation on the dormancy breaking and physiological activity of 'Dejima' seed potato

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, J. S.; Kim, D. H.; Baek, M. H.; Lee, Y. K. [KAERI, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Y. B. [Chungnam National Univ., Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-05-01

    To observe the stimulating effects of low dose {gamma}-radiation on the dormancy breaking and physiological activity, potato (Solanum tuberosum L. cv. Dejima) were irradiated at the dose of 0.5 {approx} 30 Gy. Low dose {gamma}-radiation had promoting effects on the srouting rate the optimum dose of 1 Gy and 2 Gy and on the sprout length at the optimum dose of 2 Gy and 4 Gy. In case of number of sprouts, there were increased in all of the low dose irradiation groups and period storages, which showed very significant promoting effects at 4,8,16 Gy of 15 DAP. The field growth of 45 DAP were increased at all of the low dose irradiation group, which particularly were very significant promoting effect at 4 Gy irradiation group. Irradiation didn't have significant effects on the antioxidant enzyme activity of potato plantlet, but the peroxidase activity of 45 DAP plantlet increased at 4 Gy irradiation group.

  10. Finite size effects and chiral symmetry breaking in quenched three-dimensional QED

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hands, S.; Kogut, J.B.

    1990-01-01

    Finite size effects and the chiral condensate are studied in three-dimensional QED by the Lanczos and the conjugate-gradient algorithms. Very substantial finite size effects are observed, but studies on L 3 lattices with L ranging from 8 to 80 indicate the development of a non-vanishing chiral condensate in the continuum limit of the theory. The systematics of the finite size effects and the fermion mass dependence in the conjugate-gradient algorithm are clarified in this extensive study. (orig.)

  11. Symmetry breaking by Wilson loops in gauge field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dowker, J.S.; Jadhav, S.P.

    1989-01-01

    An analysis is presented of the gauge symmetry breaking caused by Wilson loops on a space-time whose spatial section is openR/sup d/ x S 3 /Γ, for all those fundamental groups Γ that give a homogeneous space. We concentrate on pure SU(3) and SU(5) gauge field theories and find that symmetry breaking can occur when d = 0, for all Γ. If d = 3, the extra minimal scalars prevent any breaking and one must include other fields to achieve this. Explicit forms for the vacuum energies are exhibited in the case of lens and prism spaces, the former for SU(n). For Γ = Z/sub m/, when m and the radius of the sphere become infinite, we recover the results on the space-time openR/sup d//sup +3/ x S 1

  12. What Light through Yonder Window Breaks?--The Greenhouse Effect Revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohren, Craig F.

    1992-01-01

    Presents three experiments exploring aspects of the greenhouse effect. Topics and discussion includes radiation in energy transfer, emissivity and absorptivity, the irrelevance of reflectivity, a digression on insulators and convection, climate change, and radiative energy balance. (MCO)

  13. Comparison of mechanisms for DNA strand break formation by the direct and indirect effect of radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulte-Frohlinde, D.

    1986-01-01

    Irradiation of cells may lead to mutations, reproductive cell death and the disappearance of some or all cell activities. These effects, especially reproductive cell death, are believed to be the result of damage to DNA. Two kinds of formation of DNA damage are often distinguished, the so-called ''direct'' and the ''indirect'' effect of irradiation. The direct effect is due to ionization or electronic excitation of the DNA, and the indirect effect is caused by reactive species, in most cases free radicals, which are produced in the vicinity of the DNA. These radicals may be primary radicals produced by energy absorption in water, i.e., the solvated electron, the H-atom and the OH radical, or organic radicals produced from organic material other than DNA either by interaction with radiation or by reaction with the primary radicals generated from water. 36 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs

  14. Semidirect product gauge group [SU(3)cxSU(2)L]xU(1)Y and quantization of hypercharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hattori, Chuichiro; Matsunaga, Mamoru; Matsuoka, Takeo

    2011-01-01

    In the standard model the hypercharges of quarks and leptons are not determined by the gauge group SU(3) c xSU(2) L xU(1) Y alone. We show that, if we choose the semidirect product group [SU(3) c xSU(2) L ]xU(1) Y as its gauge group, the hyperchages are settled to be n/6 mod Z(n=0,1,3,4). In addition, the conditions for gauge-anomaly cancellation give strong constraints. As a result, the ratios of the hypercharges are uniquely determined and the gravitational anomaly is automatically canceled. The standard charge assignment to quarks and leptons can be properly reproduced. For exotic matter fields their hypercharges are also discussed.

  15. Effect of the corn breaking method on oil distribution between stillage phases of dry-grind corn ethanol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, H; Wang, T; Johnson, L A; Pometto, A L

    2008-11-12

    The majority of fuel ethanol in the United States is produced by using the dry-grind corn ethanol process. The corn oil that is contained in the coproduct, distillers' dried grains with solubles (DDGS), can be recovered for use as a biodiesel feedstock. Oil removal will also improve the feed quality of DDGS. The most economical way to remove oil is considered to be at the centrifugation step for separating thin stillage (liquid) from coarse solids after distilling the ethanol. The more oil there is in the liquid, the more it can be recovered by centrifugation. Therefore, we studied the effects of corn preparation and grinding methods on oil distribution between liquid and solid phases. Grinding the corn to three different particle sizes, flaking, flaking and grinding, and flaking and extruding were used to break up the corn kernel before fermentation, and their effects on oil distribution between the liquid and solid phases were examined by simulating an industrial decanter centrifuge. Total oil contents were measured in the liquid and solids after centrifugation. Dry matter yield and oil partitioning in the thin stillage were highly positively correlated. Flaking slightly reduced bound fat. The flaked and then extruded corn meal released the highest amount of free oil, about 25% compared to 7% for the average of the other treatments. The freed oil from flaking, however, became nonextractable after the flaked corn was ground. Fine grinding alone had little effect on oil partitioning.

  16. Few-layer and symmetry-breaking effects on the electrical properties of ordered CF3Cl phases on graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales-Cifuentes, Josue; Wang, Yilin; Reutt-Robey, Janice; Einstein, T. L.

    2014-03-01

    An effective pseudopotential mechanism for breaking the inherent sub-lattice symmetry of graphene has been studied using DFT calculations on hexagonal boron nitride. Electrical detection of CF3Cl phase transitions on graphene shows the existence of a commensurate ordered phase in which this can be tested. We study the electronic properties of this phase using VASP ver 5.3.3, with ab initio van der Waals density functionals (vdW-DF1 and vdW-DF2). Consistent with a physisorbed phase, binding energies and charge transfer per CF3Cl molecule are calculated to be on the order of 280meV and 0.01e, respectively. By exploring different coverages and orientations of this ordered phase we are able to open a band gap in some configurations; said gap is in the range of 8 to 80meV depending on the strength of the effective pseudopotential. Furthermore, we calculate the screening of these effects in bi-layer and tri-layer graphene. Work supported by NSF-MRSEC at UMD, grant DMR 05-20471 and NSF-CHE 13-05892.

  17. Effectiveness of a multi-strategy intervention in increasing the implementation of vegetable and fruit breaks by Australian primary schools: a non-randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathan, Nicole; Wolfenden, Luke; Bell, Andrew C; Wyse, Rebecca; Morgan, Philip J; Butler, Michelle; Sutherland, Rachel; Milat, Andrew J; Hector, Debra; Wiggers, John

    2012-08-13

    Limited evidence exists describing the effectiveness of strategies in facilitating the implementation of vegetable and fruit programs by schools on a population wide basis. The aim of this study was to examine the effectiveness of a multi-strategy intervention in increasing the population-wide implementation of vegetable and fruit breaks by primary schools and to determine if intervention effectiveness varied by school characteristics. A quasi-experimental study was conducted in primary schools in the state of New South Wales, Australia. All primary schools in one region of the state (n = 422) received a multi-strategy intervention. A random sample of schools (n = 406) in the remainder of the state served as comparison schools. The multi-strategy intervention to increase vegetable and fruit breaks involved the development and provision of: program consensus and leadership; staff training; program materials; incentives; follow-up support; and implementation feedback. Comparison schools had access to routine information-based Government support. Data to assess the prevalence of vegetable and fruit breaks were collected by telephone from Principals of the intervention and comparison schools at baseline (2006-2007) and 11 to 15 months following the commencement of the intervention (2009-2010). GEE analysis was used to examine the change in the prevalence of vegetable and fruit breaks in intervention schools compared to comparison schools. At follow-up, prevalence of vegetable and fruit breaks increased significantly in both intervention (50.3% to 82.0%, p strategy intervention can significantly increase the implementation of vegetable and fruit breaks by a large number of Australian primary schools.

  18. The Effect of Retardation on the Spontaneous Breaking of Chiral Symmetry in GCM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Sheng-Dong; ZHAI Chen-Yang; ZHOU Zhi-Ning; YANG Ze-Sen

    2001-01-01

    An effective Hamiltonian including current-current coupling from the global color symmetry model is -R2 2derived.Retardation effects are introduced by the factor ( R/ ) e ,instead of δ (r) in the correlation kernel,from which the retardation gap equation with α-α coupling in the 3po vacuum is obtained,qq condensations of different retardation parameters R with or without the α-α term are calculated.The results show the effects of retardation,and indicate that the typical value of R is about 2 fm-1 at reasonable value of qq condensation.And while taking typical value 1 fm-1 of R,the condensation 1/3 is about 13% larger than that with no retardation effect.With the α-αterms,the condensation (qq) 1/3 is about 17%o larger than that without it for all values of the parameter R.This shows that the retardation effects and the α-α terms are important for further studying in the Iow-energy region.``

  19. The light bound states of N=1 supersymmetric SU(3) Yang-Mills theory on the lattice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Sajid; Bergner, Georg; Gerber, Henning; Giudice, Pietro; Montvay, Istvan; Münster, Gernot; Piemonte, Stefano; Scior, Philipp

    2018-03-01

    In this article we summarise our results from numerical simulations of N=1 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory with gauge group SU(3). We use the formulation of Curci and Veneziano with clover-improved Wilson fermions. The masses of various bound states have been obtained at different values of the gluino mass and gauge coupling. Extrapolations to the limit of vanishing gluino mass indicate that the bound states form mass-degenerate supermultiplets.

  20. Pushing the pseudo-SU(3) model towards its limits: Excited bands in even-even Dy isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vargas, Carlos E.; Hirsch, Jorge G.

    2004-01-01

    The energetics of states belonging to normal parity bands in even-even dysprosium isotopes, and their B(E2) transition strengths, are studied using an extended pseudo-SU(3) shell model. States with pseudospin 1 are added to the standard pseudospin 0 space, allowing for a proper description of known excited normal parity bands. A realistic Hamiltonian is employed. Both the success of model and its limitations are discussed

  1. Dynamical effects of exchange symmetry breaking in mixtures of interacting bosons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tichy, Malte C.; Sherson, Jacob; Mølmer, Klaus

    2012-01-01

    of two distinguishable species with identical physical properties, that is, which are governed by an isospecific interaction and external potential. In the mean-field limit, the spatial population imbalance of the mixture can be described by the dynamics of a single species in an effective potential...... approximates the full counting statistics well also outside the realm of spin-coherent states. The method is extended to general Bose-Hubbard systems and to their classical mean-field limits, which suggests an effective single-species description of multicomponent Bose gases with weakly an...... with modified properties or, equivalently, with an effective total particle number. The oscillation behavior can be tuned by populating the second species while maintaining the spatial population imbalance and all other parameters constant. In the corresponding many-body approach, the single-species description...

  2. Limit the effects of secondary circuit water or steam piping breaks in the reactor building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nachev, N.

    2001-01-01

    The existing design of the WWER-1000 Model 320 does not include provisions against the local mechanical effects of pipe ruptures of the secondary system piping. This situation may lead to accidental effects beyond the design basis of the plant in case of a postulated secondary pipe rupture event. The aim of the present safety enhancement measure is to overcome this safety deficit, that means to carry out some analyses and to suggest protection measures, by which the specified design basis of the plant concerning secondary circuit design basis accidents will be assured. The systems to be considered include the main steam lines (MSL) and the main feedwater lines (MFWL) in the safety related system areas. These areas are the system portions, which are located in the reactor building (containment and room A820 outside the containment). The pipe rupture effects to be considered include the local effects, that means pipe whip impact and jet forces on the adjacent equipment and structures, as well as reaction forces due to blowdown thrust forces and pressure waves in the broken piping system. (author)

  3. Breaking Habits: The Effect of The French Vending Machine Ban on School Snacking and Sugar Intakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capacci, Sara; Mazzocchi, Mario; Shankar, Bhavani

    2018-01-01

    This paper estimates the effect of the 2005 vending machine ban in French secondary schools on nutrient intakes and on the frequency of morning snacking at school. Using data before and after the ban, and exploiting the discontinuity associated with the age-dependent exposure to the ban, we specify a difference-in-differences regression…

  4. The breaking in of new employees: Effectiveness of socialization tactics and personnel instruments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ardts, J.C.A.; van der Velde, E.G.; Jansen, P.G.W.

    2001-01-01

    In the last couple of years, attention to organisation socialisation has increased greatly; this is the learning process by which newcomers develop attitudes and behaviour that are necessary to function as a fully-fledged member of the organisation. After all, the more effective and efficient the

  5. Effective medium approximation for deeply subwavelength all-dielectric multilayers: when does it break down?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lavrinenko, Andrei; Zhukovsky, Sergei; Andryieuski, Andrei

    2016-01-01

    with different layers ordering and different but still deeply subwavelength thicknesses. Such big reflectance difference values resulted from the special geometrical configuration with an additional resonator layer underneath the multilayers employed for the enhancement of the effect. Our results are important...

  6. 3-D Effects Force Reduction of Short-Crested Non-Breaking Waves on Caissons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burcharth, H. F.; Liu, Z.

    1998-01-01

    The effect of wave short-crestedness on the horizontal wave force on a caisson is twofold. The one is the force reduction due to the reduction of point pressure on the caisson, named point-pressure reduction. The other is the force reduction due to the fact that the peak pressures do not occur si...

  7. Age and gender effects on DNA strand break repair in peripheral blood mononuclear cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garm, Christian; Moreno-Villanueva, Maria; Bürkle, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    Exogenous and endogenous damage to DNA is constantly challenging the stability of our genome. This DNA damage increase the frequency of errors in DNA replication, thus causing point mutations or chromosomal rearrangements and has been implicated in aging, cancer, and neurodegenerative diseases...... in a study population consisting of 216 individuals from a population-based sample of twins aged 40-77 years. Age in this range did not seem to have any effect on the SSB parameters. However, γ-H2AX response and DSB repair capacity decreased with increasing age, although the associations did not reach...... statistical significance after adjustment for batch effect across multiple experiments. No gender differences were observed for any of the parameters analyzed. Our findings suggest that in PBMCs, the repair of SSBs is maintained until old age, whereas the response to and the repair of DSBs decrease....

  8. Fits of the baryon magnetic moments to the quark model and spectrum-generating SU(3)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohm, A.; Teese, R.B.

    1982-01-01

    We show that for theoretical as well as phenomenological reasons the baryon magnetic moments that fulfill simple group transformation properties should be taken in intrinsic rather than nuclear magnetons. A fit of the recent experimental data to the reduced matrix elements of the usual octet electromagnetic current is still not good, and in order to obtain acceptable agreement, one has to add correction terms to the octet current. We have texted two kinds of corrections: U-spin-scalar terms, which are singles out by the model-independent algebraic properties of the hadron electromagnetic current, and octet U-spin vectors, which could come from quark-mass breaking in a nonrelativistic quark model. We find that the U-spin-scalar terms are more important than the U-spin vectors for various levels of demanded theoretical accuracy

  9. Effectiveness of Integrating Simulation with Art-Based Teaching Strategies on Oncology Fellows' Performance Regarding Breaking Bad News.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakhforoshha, Afsaneh; Emami, Seyed Amir Hossein; Shahi, Farhad; Shahsavari, Saeed; Cheraghi, Mohammadali; Mojtahedzadeh, Rita; Mahmoodi-Bakhtiari, Behrooz; Shirazi, Mandana

    2018-02-21

    The task of breaking bad news (BBN) may be improved by incorporating simulation with art-based teaching methods. The aim of the present study was to assess the effect of an integrating simulation with art-based teaching strategies, on fellows' performance regarding BBN, in Iran. The study was carried out using quasi-experimental methods, interrupted time series. The participants were selected from medical oncology fellows at two teaching hospitals of Tehran University of Medical Sciences (TUMS), Iran. Participants were trained through workshop, followed by engaging participants with different types of art-based teaching methods. In order to assess the effectiveness of the integrating model, fellows' performance was rated by two independent raters (standardized patients (SPs) and faculty members) using the BBN assessment checklist. This assessment tool measured seven different domains of BBN skill. Segmented regression was used to analyze the results of study. Performance of all oncology fellows (n = 19) was assessed for 228 time points during the study, by rating three time points before and three time points after the intervention by two raters. Based on SP ratings, fellows' performance scores in post-training showed significant level changes in three domains of BBN checklist (B = 1.126, F = 3.221, G = 2.241; p art-based teaching strategies may help oncology fellows to improve their communication skills in different facets of BBN performance. Iranian Registry of Clinical Trials ID: IRCT2016011626039N1.

  10. The effect of altitude on breaking seed dormancy and stimulation of seed germination of Persian hogweed (Heracleum persicum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salehani, M Khajavi; Mahmoudi, J; Mahdavi, S Kh; Habibzadeh, R

    2013-01-01

    Persian hogweed is a perennial herb and aromatic plant which has pharmaceutical and fodder values, and the main propagation method of this species is seed. The goal of this study was to investigate the effect of altitude on breaking dormancy and stimulate seed germination of this species. The study was designed and carried out using the test of seed analysis. For our purpose, seeds were collected from three different altitudes (1700, 2200, 2700 masl) in Kojoor area. After initial purification, germination percent (GP) and speed (GS) of each elevation were determined by cold stratification compared to control. According to results, control seeds did not germinate, showing that the seeds of this species need to be treated. Statistical analysis of results showed that there are significant differences between GP and GS of each elevation, as seeds of higher elevation had slower and less germination in longer periods. So, changes in elevation are an effective factor on seed germination characteristics of this species and this factor has to be considered in seed preparation and restoration with this species.

  11. Effect of magnetism and light sp-dopants on chain creation in Ir and Pt break junctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Napoli, S; Thiess, A; Blügel, S; Mokrousov, Y

    2014-01-01

    Applying the generalization of the model for chain formation in break-junctions (Di Napoli et al 2012 J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 24 135501), we study the effect of light impurities on the energetics and elongation properties of Pt and Ir chains. Our model enables us to develop a tool ideal for detailed analysis of impurity-assisted chain formation, in which zigzag bonds play an important role. In particular we focus on H (s-like) and O (p-like) impurities and assume, for simplicity, that the presence of impurity atoms in experiments results in a ..M-X-M-X-... (M: metal, X: impurity) chain structure in between the metallic leads. Feeding our model with material-specific parameters from systematic full-potential first-principles calculations, we find that the presence of such impurities strongly affects the binding properties of the chains. We find that, while both types of impurities enhance the probability of chains being elongated, the s-like impurities lower the chain's stability. We also analyze the effect of magnetism and spin-orbit interaction on the growth properties of the chains. (paper)

  12. [Effects of fluridone, gibberellin acid and germination temperature on dormancy-breaking for Epimedium wushanense].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, He; Wang, Yue; Yang, Yang; Dong, Xue-Hui

    2016-07-01

    We introduced Epimedium wushanense seed which has been stratified for 90 days at 10/20 ℃ as experimental materials, with which we studied the effects of fluridone, gibberellin acid and temperature on E. wushanense germination. The results were suggested as shown below. ①Temperature, fluridone and gibberellin acid can both solely or jointly affect germination energy, germination rate significantly. Among those factors, fluridone affect germination rate and germination energy the most, followed by gibberellin acid and temperature. The highest germination rate under 4 ℃ and 10/20 ℃ stratification are 79.3%, 72.0% respectively, which resulted from treatment of F10GA300 and F20GA200 respectively. The highest germination energy under 4 ℃ and 10/20 ℃ stratification are 52.7%, 52.0%, respectively, which both resulted from F20GA200. ②Compared with 4 ℃ germination, seed could not germinate at 10/20 ℃ germination. Nontheless, application of fluridone can lead E. wushanense seeds to germinating.③The effects of gibberellin acid and interaction between gibberellin acid and fluridone significantly affect seed rotten rate during germination. In addition, soaking is another remarkable factor which increased seed rotten rate. As a result, it is feasible to promote E. wushanense dormancy releasing with gibberellin acid and fluridone associating with a proper germination temperature. Further, it is necessary taking actions to avoid seed rotten rate for saving E. wushanense nurseries'cost. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  13. Targeting DNA double strand break repair with hyperthermia and DNA-PKcs inhibition to enhance the effect of radiation treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Oorschot, Bregje; Granata, Giovanna; Di Franco, Simone; Ten Cate, Rosemarie; Rodermond, Hans M; Todaro, Matilde; Medema, Jan Paul; Franken, Nicolaas A P

    2016-10-04

    Radiotherapy is based on the induction of lethal DNA damage, primarily DNA double-strand breaks (DSB). Efficient DSB repair via Non-Homologous End Joining or Homologous Recombination can therefore undermine the efficacy of radiotherapy. By suppressing DNA-DSB repair with hyperthermia (HT) and DNA-PKcs inhibitor NU7441 (DNA-PKcsi), we aim to enhance the effect of radiation.The sensitizing effect of HT for 1 hour at 42°C and DNA-PKcsi [1 μM] to radiation treatment was investigated in cervical and breast cancer cells, primary breast cancer sphere cells (BCSCs) enriched for cancer stem cells, and in an in vivo human tumor model. A significant radio-enhancement effect was observed for all cell types when DNA-PKcsi and HT were applied separately, and when both were combined, HT and DNA-PKcsi enhanced radio-sensitivity to an even greater extent. Strikingly, combined treatment resulted in significantly lower survival rates, 2 to 2.5 fold increase in apoptosis, more residual DNA-DSB 6 h post treatment and a G2-phase arrest. In addition, tumor growth analysis in vivo showed significant reduction in tumor growth and elevated caspase-3 activity when radiation was combined with HT and DNA-PKcsi compared to radiation alone. Importantly, no toxic side effects of HT or DNA-PKcsi were found.In conclusion, inhibiting DNA-DSB repair using HT and DNA-PKcsi before radiotherapy leads to enhanced cytotoxicity in cancer cells. This effect was even noticed in the more radio-resistant BCSCs, which are clearly sensitized by combined treatment. Therefore, the addition of HT and DNA-PKcsi to conventional radiotherapy is promising and might contribute to more efficient tumor control and patient outcome.

  14. Unification of SUSY breaking and GUT breaking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobayashi, Tatsuo [Department of Physics, Hokkaido University,Sapporo 060-0810 (Japan); Omura, Yuji [Department of Physics, Nagoya University,Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan)

    2015-02-18

    We build explicit supersymmetric unification models where grand unified gauge symmetry breaking and supersymmetry (SUSY) breaking are caused by the same sector. Besides, the SM-charged particles are also predicted by the symmetry breaking sector, and they give the soft SUSY breaking terms through the so-called gauge mediation. We investigate the mass spectrums in an explicit model with SU(5) and additional gauge groups, and discuss its phenomenological aspects. Especially, nonzero A-term and B-term are generated at one-loop level according to the mediation via the vector superfields, so that the electro-weak symmetry breaking and 125 GeV Higgs mass may be achieved by the large B-term and A-term even if the stop mass is around 1 TeV.

  15. Mobile phone radiofrequency exposure has no effect on DNA double strand breaks (DSB) in human lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danese, Elisa; Lippi, Giuseppe; Buonocore, Ruggero; Benati, Marco; Bovo, Chiara; Bonaguri, Chiara; Salvagno, Gian Luca; Brocco, Giorgio; Roggenbuck, Dirk; Montagnana, Martina

    2017-07-01

    The use of mobile phones has been associated with an increased risk of developing certain type of cancer, especially in long term users. Therefore, this study was aimed to investigate the potential genotoxic effect of mobile phone radiofrequency exposure on human peripheral blood mononuclear cells in vitro. The study population consisted in 14 healthy volunteers. After collection of two whole blood samples, the former was placed in a plastic rack, 1 cm from the chassis of a commercial mobile phone (900 MHz carrier frequency), which was activated by a 30-min call. The second blood sample was instead maintained far from mobile phones or other RF sources. The influence of mobile phone RF on DNA integrity was assessed by analyzing γ-H2AX foci in lymphocytes using immunofluorescence staining kit on AKLIDES. No measure of γ-H2AX foci was significantly influenced by mobile phone RF exposure, nor mobile phone exposure was associated with significant risk of genetic damages in vitro (odds ratio comprised between 0.27 and 1.00). The results of this experimental study demonstrate that exposure of human lymphocytes to a conventional 900 MHz RF emitted by a commercial mobile phone for 30 min does not significantly impact DNA integrity.

  16. Chiral and parity symmetry breaking for planar fermions: Effects of a heat bath and uniform external magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayala, Alejandro; Bashir, Adnan; Gutierrez, Enif; Raya, Alfredo; Sanchez, Angel

    2010-01-01

    We study chiral symmetry breaking for relativistic fermions, described by a parity-violating Lagrangian in 2+1-dimensions, in the presence of a heat bath and a uniform external magnetic field. Working within their four-component formalism allows for the inclusion of both parity-even and -odd mass terms. Therefore, we can define two types of fermion antifermion condensates. For a given value of the magnetic field, there exist two different critical temperatures which would render one of these condensates identically zero, while the other would survive. Our analysis is completely general: it requires no particular simplifying hierarchy among the energy scales involved, namely, bare masses, field strength, and temperature. However, we do reproduce some earlier results, obtained or anticipated in literature, corresponding to special kinematical regimes for the parity conserving case. Relating the chiral condensate to the one-loop effective Lagrangian, we also obtain the magnetization and the pair production rate for different fermion species in a uniform electric field through the replacement B→-iE.

  17. Breaking out or breaking down.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, L R; Halweil, B

    1999-01-01

    A new kind of challenge looms in several regions of the world, where the historic trend toward longer life expectancy has been sharply reversed. There are three clearly identifiable trends that are causing death rates to increase. The first is the spread of the HIV virus, which causes AIDS. As illustrated by the case of sub-Saharan Africa, the growth of the HIV epidemic damages a nation's social infrastructure, producing lingering demographic and economic effects. It reinforces conditions like poverty, illiteracy, and malnutrition. Second, the depletion of aquifers has become a major threat, particularly in India, where water tables are falling in almost every region. Water shortage leads to such problems as infectious diseases, waterborne microbes, and weakened water irrigation for farmers, which in turn leads to a diminishment of the food supply. The third threat that hangs over the future of nearly all countries where rapid population growth continues is the decline in the amount of cropland per person; this is a threat arising as a consequence of population growth and of the conversion of cropland to other uses. Land scarcity readily translates into malnutrition, hunger, rising mortality, and migration. In order to face all of these threats, leaders all over the world will need to understand that universal access to family planning is not only important for coping with resource scarcity and the spread of HIV/AIDS but is also likely to improve the quality of life for citizens of their countries.

  18. Chiral symmetry breaking parameters from QCD sum rules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mallik, S [Karlsruhe Univ. (T.H.) (Germany, F.R.). Inst. fuer Theoretische Kernphysik; Bern Univ. (Switzerland). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik)

    1982-10-04

    We obtain new QCD sum rules by considering vacuum expectation values of two-point functions, taking all the five quark bilinears into account. These sum rules are employed to extract values of different chiral symmetry breaking parameters in QCD theory. We find masses of light quarks, m=1/2msub(u)+msub(d)=8.4+-1.2 MeV, msub(s)=205+-65 MeV. Further, we obtain corrections to certain soft pion (kaon) PCAC relations and the violation of SU(3) flavour symmetry by the non-strange and strange quark-antiquark vacuum condensate.

  19. Radiative electroweak breaking with pseudo Goldstone Higgs doublets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ananthanarayan, B.; Shafi, Q.

    1996-01-01

    We consider a realistic example of supersymmetric grand unification based on SU(3) c xSU(3) L xSU(3) R in which the electroweak (EW) Higgs doublets are open-quote open-quote light close-quote close-quote as a consequence of the open-quote open-quote pseudo Goldstone close-quote close-quote mechanism. We discuss radiative EW breaking in this model, exploring in particular the open-quote open-quote small close-quote close-quote (order unity) and open-quote open-quote large close-quote close-quote (≅m t /m b ) tanβ regions by studying the variations of r 2 (≡μ 1,2 2 /μ 2 3 ), where μ 1,2,3 2 are the well-known MSSM parameters evaluated at the GUT scale. For |r| sufficiently close to unity the quantity tanβ can be of order unity, but the converse is not always true. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  20. Formation of plasmid DNA strand breaks induced by low-energy ion beam: indication of nuclear stopping effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Yu; Jiang Bingyao; Chen Youshan; Ding Xingzhao; Liu Xianghuai; Chen Ceshi; Guo Xinyou; Yin Guanglin

    1998-01-01

    Plasmid pGEM 3zf(+) was irradiated by nitrogen ion beam with energies between 20 and 100 keV and the fluence kept as 1 x 10 12 ions/cm 2 . The irradiated plasmid was assayed by neutral electrophoresis and quantified by densitometry. The yields of DNA with single-strand and double-strand breaks first increased then decreased with increasing ion energy. There was a maximal yield value in the range of 20-100 keV. The relationship between DNA double-strand breaks (DSB) cross-section and linear energy transfer (LET) also showed a peak-shaped distribution. To understand the physical process during DNA strand breaks, a Monte Carlo calculation code known as TRIM (Transport of Ions in Matter) was used to simulate energy losses due to nuclear stopping and to electronic stopping. It can be assumed that nuclear stopping plays a more important role in DNA strand breaks than electronic stopping in this energy range. The physical mechanisms of DNA strand breaks induced by a low-energy ion beam are also discussed. (orig.)

  1. The Effect of Different Treatments on Seed Dormancy Breaking of Weed Stalked Bur Grass Tragus racemosus (L. AlI.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholam reza doraki

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Stalked Bur Grass (Tragus racemosus L. is an angiosperm annual plant with C4 photosynthesis pathway and stolon. It grows in hot and dry summers. This plant spreaded throughout the world from hot regions of Africa. It is regularly seen in barren lands or in between the generations with sequential initial stages with light-texture soils. Seed dormancy is in fact a physiological phenomenon which is observed in the seeds of most crops, pasture plants, medicinal herbs and weeds. Dormancy allows the plant to guarantee its germination and survival for long years and to survive through adverse environmental conditions through its spatial and temporal spread. Materials and Methods: In order to evaluation dormancy break of Tragus racemosus L. seeds, an experiment was carried out based a Randomized Complete Block Design with four replications in research laboratory of Department of Agriculture, Birjand University during 2013. The initial experiments showed that the seeds of Stalked Bur Grass had initial dormancy and were unable to germinate at normal conditions, so that less than 5% of the seeds germinated. The studied treatments for breaking seeds dormancy included control (seeds disinfection by distilled water, wet chilling at 4°C for 1, 2, 3 and 4 weeds, treatment with H2SO4 at 97% for 20, 40, 60 and 80 seconds, treatment with KNO3 at 0.2, 0.4, 0.6 and 0.8% for 24 hours and treatment with Gibberellic acid (GA3 at 50, 100, 200 and 400 ppm. In this study, 25 seeds of Stalked Bur Grass were uniformly placed in petri dishes with the diameters of 9 cm on Watmann filter papers and were applied with 5 mL distilled water. The number of germinated seeds was counted on a daily basis for 21 days. In the end, germination percentage and rate was determined. Results and Discussion: The results revealed that the effect of all studied levels of all treatments were significant on germination percentage and rate. The highest germination percentage (76% was

  2. A low energy dynamical SUSY breaking scenario motivated from superstring derived unification

    CERN Document Server

    Faraggi, Alon E.

    1996-01-01

    Recently there has been a resurgence of interest in gauge mediated dynamical supersymmetry breaking scenarios. I investigate how low energy dynamical SUSY breaking may arise from superstring models. In a three generation string derived model I propose that the unbroken hidden non--Abelian gauge group at the string scale is SU(3)_H with matter multiplets. Due to the small gauge content of the hidden gauge group the supersymmetry breaking scale may be consistent with the dynamical SUSY breaking scenarios. The messenger states are obtained in the superstring model from sectors which arise due to the ``Wilson--line'' breaking of the unifying non--Abelian gauge symmetry. An important property of the string motivated messenger states is the absence of superpotential terms with the Standard Model states. The stringy symmetries therefore forbid the flavor changing processes which may arise due to couplings between the messenger sector states and the Standard Model states. Motivated from the problem of string gauge co...

  3. Properties of the twisted Polyakov loop coupling and the infrared fixed point in the SU(3) gauge theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itou, Etsuko

    2013-08-01

    We report the nonperturbative behavior of the twisted Polyakov loop (TPL) coupling constant for the SU(3) gauge theories defined by the ratio of Polyakov loop correlators in finite volume with twisted boundary condition. We reveal the vacuum structures and the phase structure for the lattice gauge theory with the twisted boundary condition. Carrying out the numerical simulations, we determine the nonperturbative running coupling constant in this renormalization scheme for the quenched QCD and N_f=12 SU(3) gauge theories. First, we study the quenched QCD theory using the plaquette gauge action. The TPL coupling constant has a fake fixed point in the confinement phase. We discuss this fake fixed point of the TPL scheme and obtain the nonperturbative running coupling constant in the deconfinement phase, where the magnitude of the Polyakov loop shows the nonzero values. We also investigate the system coupled to fundamental fermions. Since we use the naive staggered fermion with the twisted boundary condition in our simulation, only multiples of 12 are allowed for the number of flavors. According to the perturbative two-loop analysis, the N_f=12 SU(3) gauge theory might have a conformal fixed point in the infrared region. However, recent lattice studies show controversial results for the existence of the fixed point. We point out possible problems in previous work, and present our careful study. Finally, we find the infrared fixed point (IRFP) and discuss the robustness of the nontrivial IRFP of a many-flavor system under the change of the analysis method. Some preliminary results were reported in the proceedings [E. Bilgici et al., PoS(Lattice 2009), 063 (2009); Itou et al., PoS(Lattice 2010), 054 (2010)] and the letter paper [T. Aoyama et al., arXiv:1109.5806 [hep-lat

  4. Duality after supersymmetry breaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shadmi, Yael; Cheng, Hsin-Chia

    1998-05-01

    Starting with two supersymmetric dual theories, we imagine adding a chiral perturbation that breaks supersymmetry dynamically. At low energy we then get two theories with soft supersymmetry-breaking terms that are generated dynamically. With a canonical Kaehler potential, some of the scalars of the ''magnetic'' theory typically have negative mass-squared, and the vector-like symmetry is broken. Since for large supersymmetry breaking the ''electric'' theory becomes ordinary QCD, the two theories are then incompatible. For small supersymmetry breaking, if duality still holds, the magnetic theory analysis implies specific patterns of chiral symmetry breaking in supersymmetric QCD with small soft masses

  5. Coulomb effects in three-nucleon scattering versus charge-symmetry breaking in the 3P nucleon-nucleon interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tornow, W.; Howell, C.R.; Walter, R.L.; Slaus, I.

    1992-01-01

    Comparison of data for neutron-deuteron and proton-deuteron analyzing power A y for elastic scattering has become crucial for investigating charge-symmetry breaking in the 3 P nucleon-nucleon interactions. We extended this comparison down to 5 MeV and find that the relative difference between n-d and p-d scattering at the A y maximum near 120 degree increases with decreasing energy. By applying a straightforward Coulomb ''correction'' to the p-d data, we account for most of the difference, suggesting that the Coulomb force, rather than charge-symmetry breaking, is responsible for most of the observed difference

  6. Classical local SU(3 gauge invariance in Weyl 2-spinor language and quark–gluon plasma equations of motion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Buitrago

    Full Text Available In a new classical Weyl 2-spinor approach to non abelian gauge theories, starting with the U(1 gauge group in a previous work, we study now the SU(3 case corresponding to quarks (antiquarks interacting with color fields. The principal difference with the conventional approach is that particle-field interactions are not described by means of potentials but by the field strength magnitudes. Some analytical expressions showing similarities with electrodynamics are obtained. Classical equations that describe the behavior of quarks under gluon fields might be in principle applied to the quark–gluon plasma phase existing during the first instants of the Universe.

  7. Quasiparticle conductance-voltage characteristics for break junctions involving d-wave superconductors: charge-density-wave effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekino, T; Gabovich, A M; Suan Li, Mai; Szymczak, H; Voitenko, A I

    2017-12-20

    Quasiparticle tunnel conductance-voltage characteristics (CVCs), [Formula: see text], were calculated for break junctions (BJs) made up of layered d-wave superconductors partially gapped by charge-density waves (CDWs). The current is assumed to flow in the ab-plane of electrodes. The influence of CDWs is analyzed by comparing the resulting CVCs with CVCs calculated for BJs made up of pure d-wave superconductors with relevant parameters. The main CDW-effects were found to be the appearance of new CVC peculiarities and the loss of CVC symmetry with respect to the V-sign. Tunnel directionality was shown to be one of the key factors in the formation of [Formula: see text] dependences. In particular, the orientation of electrodes with respect to the current channel becomes very important. As a result, [Formula: see text] can acquire a large variety of forms similar to those for tunnel junctions between superconductors with s-wave, d-wave, and mixed symmetry of their order parameters. The diversity of peculiarities is especially striking at finite temperatures. In the case of BJs made up of pure d-wave superconductors, the resulting CVC can include a two-peak gap-driven structure. The results were compared with the experimental BJ data for a number of high-T c oxides. It was shown that the large variety of the observed current-voltage characteristics can be interpreted in the framework of our approach. Thus, quasiparticle tunnel currents in the ab-plane can be used as an additional mean to detect CDWs competing with superconductivity in cuprates or other layered superconductors.

  8. An Analysis of Effect of Break-up Timing on the Necessity of a Feed-and-Bleed Operation in the case of TLOFW with Local

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Bo Gyung; Kim, Sang Ho; Kang, Hyun Gook; Yoon, Ho Joon

    2014-01-01

    A Feed-and-bleed (F and B) operation is a process to cool the reactor by the primary side directly. If adequate residual heat removal through the secondary side is not available, the heat can be removed from the RCS by F and B operation. A total loss of feedwater (TLOFW) accident is used to represent an accident involving the failure of cooling by the secondary cooling system. Even if the secondary cooling system fails, the RCS can be cooled by F and B transients when a loss of coolant accident (LOCA) with a TLOFW accident occurs. During an F and B transient, the RCS has a residual heat removal mechanism. If the break size is large, an F and B transient continuously occurs if the SIS is available. If the break size is small to sufficiently decrease the RCS pressure, the SIS cannot inject the coolant, causing the F and B transient to terminate. After the termination of the F and B transient, the residual heat cannot be removed, and the necessity of an F and B operation increases. The operators may hesitate to initiate F and B operation if a clear cue is not provided, since its initiation implies the radioactive coolant releases into the containment. Therefore, the necessity of F and B operation is needed to be identified. The factors affected the necessity of F and B operation are the availability of the safety injection system and safety depressurization system, water inventory in the primary and secondary cooling systems, break size in a loss-of-coolant accident, and time of accident occurrence. The necessity of F and B operation can be changed according to different timing of break-up despite same break size. Moreover, different timing of break-up makes the operators more complicated. To identify effect of timing of break-up, a thermohydraulic analysis was performed using the MARS code. This study is expected to provide a useful guideline to identify the necessity of an F and B operation under combined accident

  9. The effect of enterprise break-ups on performance: the case of the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Domadenik, P.; Lízal, Lubomír; Pahor, M.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 63, č. 5 (2012), s. 849-866 ISSN 0035-2764 Institutional support: RVO:67985998 Keywords : enterprise break-ups * Macedonia * performance Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://www.cairn.info/resume.php?ID_ARTICLE=RECO_635_0849

  10. Effect of diclofenac on cyclooxygenase-2 levels and early breaking strength of experimental colonic anastomoses and skin incisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klein, M; Krarup, P-M; Burcharth, Jakob

    2011-01-01

    of diclofenac 4 mg/kg/day on the cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) enzyme in the anastomotic tissue and on the breaking strength of anastomotic and incisional wounds. The operation was performed with colonic resection and hand-sewn anastomosis. After 3 days, the rats were sacrificed and the breaking strength and the COX......-2 content of the anastomosis were measured. Results: There was a significantly reduced level of COX-2 in the rats treated with diclofenac (p = 0.001); no significant differences in any of the breaking strength measurements and no significant correlation between COX-2 levels and breaking strength...... of the anastomotic or incisional wounds could be found (p = 0.073 and p = 0.727). Conclusion: This study for the first time showed that a diclofenac dose of 4 mg/kg/24 h was sufficient to reduce the level of COX-2 enzymes in the anastomotic tissue in rats. This inhibition of the inflammatory response did not lead...

  11. Experimental study on size effect of siphon-breaking hole in the real-scaled reactor pool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Soon Ho; Ahn, Ho Seon; Kim, Ji Min; Kim, Moo Hwan; Lee, Kwon Yeong; Seo, Kyoung Woo; Chi, Dae Young

    2012-01-01

    A rupture in the primary piping of a cooling system with a heat source or in a research reactor could lead to a loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA). However, if the water level of the reactor pool could be sustained and a reactor scram follows, the heat source could be cooled by natural convection, and significant accidents could be avoided. When a piping-system rupture accident occurs, the coolant starts to siphon out of the reactor pool until the pressure head between the inlet and outlet is removed or the siphon flow is interrupted. Therefore, a siphon-breaker mechanism can be adopted as a passive safety device to maintain the reactor water level. The gas entrainment is used to block the continuous loss of coolant by interrupting the siphon flow. Siphon breaking is complicated due to the transient, turbulent, two-phase flow mode, so suitable models or correlations that describe this phenomenon do not exist, and no general analysis been developed. Previous researchers have conducted experiments and numerical simulations to design a siphon breaker to meet their needs. Previous research on siphon breaking has not been conducted systemically, and no literature exists, even though the topic is greatly concerned with hydraulic safety. In this study, siphon-breaking holes were used as siphon breakers, and their performance was evaluated by the residual water quantity. Flow visualization was conducted to interpret the siphon-breaking phenomenon

  12. Rapid MCNP simulation of DNA double strand break (DSB) relative biological effectiveness (RBE) for photons, neutrons, and light ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Robert D; Streitmatter, Seth W; Argento, David C; Kirkby, Charles; Goorley, John T; Moffitt, Greg; Jevremovic, Tatjana; Sandison, George A

    2015-11-07

    To account for particle interactions in the extracellular (physical) environment, information from the cell-level Monte Carlo damage simulation (MCDS) for DNA double strand break (DSB) induction has been integrated into the general purpose Monte Carlo N-particle (MCNP) radiation transport code system. The effort to integrate these models is motivated by the need for a computationally efficient model to accurately predict particle relative biological effectiveness (RBE) in cell cultures and in vivo. To illustrate the approach and highlight the impact of the larger scale physical environment (e.g. establishing charged particle equilibrium), we examined the RBE for DSB induction (RBEDSB) of x-rays, (137)Cs γ-rays, neutrons and light ions relative to γ-rays from (60)Co in monolayer cell cultures at various depths in water. Under normoxic conditions, we found that (137)Cs γ-rays are about 1.7% more effective at creating DSB than γ-rays from (60)Co (RBEDSB  =  1.017) whereas 60-250 kV x-rays are 1.1 to 1.25 times more efficient at creating DSB than (60)Co. Under anoxic conditions, kV x-rays may have an RBEDSB up to 1.51 times as large as (60)Co γ-rays. Fission neutrons passing through monolayer cell cultures have an RBEDSB that ranges from 2.6 to 3.0 in normoxic cells, but may be as large as 9.93 for anoxic cells. For proton pencil beams, Monte Carlo simulations suggest an RBEDSB of about 1.2 at the tip of the Bragg peak and up to 1.6 a few mm beyond the Bragg peak. Bragg peak RBEDSB increases with decreasing oxygen concentration, which may create opportunities to apply proton dose painting to help address tumor hypoxia. Modeling of the particle RBE for DSB induction across multiple physical and biological scales has the potential to aid in the interpretation of laboratory experiments and provide useful information to advance the safety and effectiveness of hadron therapy in the treatment of cancer.

  13. TiO2 effect on break-down of low-grade tantalum-niobium concentrates in the process of sulphatization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrova, N.V.; Popov, A.D.; Mulenko, V.N.

    1982-01-01

    The effect of TiO 2 additive or materials containing it on tantalum-niobate decomposition in the process of sulphatization is investigated. It is shown that favourable effect of titanium dioxide in the process of sulphatization is especially noticeable in reprocessing of hard-brokening down tantalum-niobium concentrates with low Nb:Ta ratio etc. Chemical composition and type of tantalum-niobium mineralization of enrichment products used in the given investigation is presented. It is stated that the degree of concentrate break-down under similar sulphatization conditions (t=230 deg C; tau=2 h) essentially depends on the quantity of the introduced titanium dioxide. It is shown that sulphatization in the presence of titanium dioxide additive or materials containing it permits to exercise practically complete break-down of lean tantalum-niobium raw material, to avoid application of complexers in leaching of sulphatization products

  14. Effect of wind waves on air-sea gas exchange: proposal of an overall CO2 transfer velocity formula as a function of breaking-wave parameter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, D.; Suzuki, Y.; Komori, S.

    2003-01-01

    A new formula for gas transfer velocity as a function of the breaking-wave parameter is proposed based on correlating gas transfer with whitecap coverage. The new formula for gas transfer across an air-sea interface depends not only on wind speed but also on wind-wave state. At the same wind speed, a higher gas transfer velocity will be obtained for a more developed wind-sea, which is represented by a smaller spectral peak frequency of wind waves. We suggest that the large uncertainties in the traditional relationship of gas transfer velocity with wind speed be ascribed to the neglect of the effect of wind waves. The breaking-wave parameter can be regarded as a Reynolds number that characterizes the intensity of turbulence associated with wind waves in the downward-bursting boundary layer (DBBL). DBBL provides an effective way to exchange gas across the air-sea interface, which might be related to the surface renewal

  15. Effects of high temperature ECC injection on small and large break BWR LOCA simulation tests in ROSA-III program (RUNs 940 and 941)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Mitsuhiro; Nakamura, Hideo; Kumamaru, Hiroshige; Anoda, Yoshinari; Yonomoto, Taisuke; Murata, Hideo; Tasaka, Kanji

    1990-03-01

    The ROSA-III program, of which principal results are summarized in a report of JAERI 1307, conducted small and large-break loss-of-coolant experiments (RUNs 940 and 941) with high water temperature of the emergency core cooling system (ECCS) are one of the parametric study with respect to the ECCS effect on core cooling. This report presents all the experiment results of these two tests and describes additional finding with respect to the hot ECC effects on core cooling phenomena. By comparing these two tests (water temperature of 393 K) with the standard ECC tests of RUNs 922 and 926 (water temperature of 313 K), it was found that the ECC subcooling variation had a small influence on the core cooling phenomena in 5 % small break tests but had larger influence on them in 200 % break tests. The ECC subcooling effects described in the previous report are reviewed and the temperature distribution in the pressure vessel is investigated for these four tests. (author)

  16. Implementation of Brain Breaks® in the Classroom and Effects on Attitudes toward Physical Activity in a Macedonian School Setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biljana Popeska

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to explore the effects of Brain Break® activities on interest and motivation for physical activity among schoolchildren and the contribution of such activities on learning for health and holistic development. The study sample was comprised of 283 participants, primary school students from 3rd to 5th grades from two public schools in the Republic of Macedonia. Six experimental and six control groups were included in the study. Interventions in classroom settings—based Brain Break® video exercises were introduced in the experimental group during a period of three months. Students’ attitudes toward physical activity were tested using a self-report survey instrument entitled “Attitudes toward Physical Activity Scale (APAS” before and after intervention. Applied factor analyses were completed and the results of these analysis support APAS validity and the successful use of this application in the measurement of the learning experience, self-awareness, self-efficacy, and self-confidence in developing physical fitness. Learning was enhanced by using video exercises. Information presented in this paper is meaningful for the promotion of better exercise habits and the holistic approach to better health by using personal motivation and motivation provided by others. The results from repeated ANCOVA suggest positive effects of the applied Brain Break® video exercises as an interventional program. The study confirms the effect of application of Brain Break® video exercises on children’s attitudes for physical activity, motivation for PA, internalization of movement habits as personal good.

  17. Bubbles and breaking waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorpe, S. A.

    1980-01-01

    The physical processes which control the transfer of gases between the atmosphere and oceans or lakes are poorly understood. Clouds of micro-bubbles have been detected below the surface of Loch Ness when the wind is strong enough to cause the waves to break. The rate of transfer of gas into solution from these bubbles is estimated to be significant if repeated on a global scale. We present here further evidence that the bubbles are caused by breaking waves, and discuss the relationship between the mean frequency of wave breaking at a fixed point and the average distance between breaking waves, as might be estimated from an aerial photograph.

  18. A CFD Investigation on the Effect of the Air Entrainment in Breaking Wave Impacts on a Mono-Pile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tomaselli, Pietro; Christensen, Erik Damgaard

    2017-01-01

    In impacts of breaking waves on offshore structures, it is still not well-known how the air entrainment phenomenon affects the exerted loads. In this paper, a developed CFD solver capable of simulating the air entrainment process was employed to repro-duce an experimental investigation on the imp......In impacts of breaking waves on offshore structures, it is still not well-known how the air entrainment phenomenon affects the exerted loads. In this paper, a developed CFD solver capable of simulating the air entrainment process was employed to repro-duce an experimental investigation...... on the impact of a spilling wave against a circular cylinder. The exerted in-line force was computed with and without the inclusion of dispersed bubbles. Results showed that the magnitude of the computed force was affected when the entrainment of bubbles was simulated....

  19. Genetic effects and reparation of single-stranded DNA breaks in Arabidopsis thaliana populations growing in the vicinity of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abramov, V.I.; Sergeeva, S.A.; Ptitsyna, S.N.; Semov, A.B.; Shevchenko, V.A.

    1992-01-01

    The genetic effects and efficiency of repair of single-stranded DNA breaks in natural populations of Arabidopsis growing within a thirty-kilometer zone of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Station were studied. A direct relationship was found between the level of radioactive contamination and the frequency of embryonal lethal mutations in the Arabidopsis populations studied. A decrease in the efficiency of reparation of single-stranded DNA breaks was found in Arabidopsis plants growing in the contaminated sites. The level of efficiency of DNA reparation was dependent on the duration for which the Arabidopsis population had been growing in the contaminated sites and on the degree of radioactive contamination of the sites. 9 refs., 4 tabs

  20. Radiation-induced DNA double strand breaks in Ehrlich ascites tumour cells and their possible effects on cell survival

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bloecher, D.

    1981-01-01

    A method to prepare high-molecular, pure DNA with the aid of enzymes, detergents, and heat treatment is presented. A sedimentation technique with neutral density gradients has been introduced which permits mass separation and molecular mass analysis of high-molecular DNA (msub(r) 10 ). Using this method, the induction of DNA double strand breaks (DSB) in the dose range between 10 Gy [de

  1. The Effect of Educational Approaches on Knowledge and Attitude of Midwifery Students in Breaking bad News to Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasrin Baghdari

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective: Breaking bad news is a very stressful task for both health professionals and patients. Teaching how to break bad news appropriately is one of the important concerns in medical education. So, this study aimed to compare role play and multimedia methods based on SPIKES strategy on midwifery students’ knowledge and attitude in breaking bad news to patients. Materials and Methods: A clinical trial study was done in three groups on 90 midwifery students in Mashhad University of Medical Sciences who were selected randomly. Students were trained by role play and multimedia methods. Control group had not received any intervention. Knowledge and attitude questionnaires were filled out before and two weeks after intervention. Results: Knowledge and attitude mean scores after intervention in the 3 groups had significant difference (P< 0.05. Moreover, attitude score in multimedia group was higher than role play group and there was a significant difference between them (P=0.045. Conclusion: Multimedia as an independent and non-attendance program can increase students’ knowledge as same as the role play while, it can change students’ attitude more than the role play method.

  2. Appointment breaking: causes and solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bean, A G; Talaga, J

    1992-12-01

    From a review of research on health care appointment breaking, the authors find that patient demographic characteristics, psychosocial problems, previous appointment keeping, health beliefs, and situational factors predict no-show behavior. Suggestions are offered for designing the marketing mix to increase patient appointment keeping. Methods for mitigating the negative effects of no-shows on health care providers are described.

  3. Aluminum break-point contacts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heinemann, Martina; Groot, R.A. de

    1997-01-01

    Ab initio molecular dynamics is used to study the contribution of a single Al atom to an aluminum breakpoint contact during the final stages of breaking and the initial stages of the formation of such a contact. A hysteresis effect is found in excellent agreement with experiment and the form of the

  4. Breaking Carbon Lock-in

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Driscoll, Patrick Arthur

    2014-01-01

    This central focus of this paper is to highlight the ways in which path dependencies and increasing returns (network effects) serve to reinforce carbon lock-in in large-scale road transportation infrastructure projects. Breaking carbon lock-in requires drastic changes in the way we plan future...

  5. Scheme-Independent Calculation of $γ_{\\barψψ,IR}$ for an SU(3) Gauge Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryttov, Thomas A.; Shrock, Robert

    2016-01-01

    We present a scheme-independent calculation of the infrared value of the anomalous dimension of the fermion bilinear, $\\gamma_{\\bar\\psi\\psi,IR}$ in an SU(3) gauge theory as a function of the number of fermions, $N_f$, via a series expansion in powers of $\\Delta_f$, where $\\Delta_f=(16.5-N......_f)$, to order $\\Delta_f^4$. We perform an extrapolation to obtain the first determination of the exact $\\gamma_{\\bar\\psi\\psi,IR}$ from continuum field theory. The results are compared with calculations of the $n$-loop values of this anomalous dimension from series in powers of the coupling and from lattice...

  6. Efficacy of the SU(3) scheme for ab initio large-scale calculations beyond the lightest nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dytrych, T. [Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic (ASCR), Prague (Czech Republic); Louisiana State Univ., Baton Rouge, LA (United States); Maris, Pieter [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States); Launey, K. D. [Louisiana State Univ., Baton Rouge, LA (United States); Draayer, J. P. [Louisiana State Univ., Baton Rouge, LA (United States); Vary, James [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States); Langr, D. [Czech Technical Univ., Prague (Czech Republic); Aerospace Research and Test Establishment, Prague (Czech Republic); Saule, E. [Univ. of North Carolina, Charlotte, NC (United States); Caprio, M. A. [Univ. of Notre Dame, IN (United States); Catalyurek, U. [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States). Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering; Sosonkina, M. [Old Dominion Univ., Norfolk, VA (United States)

    2016-06-09

    We report on the computational characteristics of ab initio nuclear structure calculations in a symmetry-adapted no-core shell model (SA-NCSM) framework. We examine the computational complexity of the current implementation of the SA-NCSM approach, dubbed LSU3shell, by analyzing ab initio results for 6Li and 12C in large harmonic oscillator model spaces and SU(3)-selected subspaces. We demonstrate LSU3shell's strong-scaling properties achieved with highly-parallel methods for computing the many-body matrix elements. Results compare favorably with complete model space calculations and signi cant memory savings are achieved in physically important applications. In particular, a well-chosen symmetry-adapted basis a ords memory savings in calculations of states with a fixed total angular momentum in large model spaces while exactly preserving translational invariance.

  7. Four-loop result in SU(3) lattice gauge theory by a stochastic method: lattice correction to the condensate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Renzo, F.; Onofri, E.; Marchesini, G.; Marenzoni, P.

    1994-01-01

    We describe a stochastic technique which allows one to compute numerically the coefficients of the weak-coupling perturbative expansion of any observable in Lattice Gauge Theory. The idea is to insert the exponential representation of the link variables U μ (x) →exp {A μ (x)/√(β)} into the Langevin algorithm and the observables and to perform the expansion in β -1/2 . The Langevin algorithm is converted into an infinite hierarchy of maps which can be exactly truncated at any order. We give the result for the simple plaquette of SU(3) up to fourth loop order (β -4 ) which extends by one loop the previously known series. ((orig.))

  8. Short-term music-induced hearing loss after sound exposure to discotheque music: the effectiveness of a break in reducing temporary threshold shift.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helleman, Hiske W; Dreschler, Wouter A

    2015-02-01

    To investigate the effect of a break in music exposure on temporary threshold shifts. A cross-over design where subjects are exposed to dance music for either two hours consecutively, or exposed to two hours of dance music with a one-hour break in between. Outcome measure was the change in hearing threshold, measured in 1-dB steps at different time points after ending the music. Eighteen normal-hearing subjects participated in this study. Changes in pure-tone threshold were observed in both conditions and were similar, regardless of the break. Threshold shifts could be averaged for 1000, 2000, and 4000 Hz. The shift immediately after the ending of the music was 1.7 dB for right ears, and 3.4 dB for left ears. The difference between left and right ears was significant. One hour after the exposure, right ears were recovered to baseline conditions whereas left ears showed a small but clinically irrelevant remaining shift of approximately 1 dB. The advice to use chill-out zones is still valid, because this helps to reduce the duration to the exposure. This study does not provide evidence that a rest period gives an additional reduction of temporary threshold shifts.

  9. Effects of breaking up sitting on adolescents' postprandial glucose after consuming meals varying in energy: a cross-over randomised trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Elly A; Salmon, Jo; McNaughton, Sarah A; Orellana, Liliana; Wadley, Glenn D; Bruce, Clinton; Dempsey, Paddy C; Lacy, Kathleen E; Dunstan, David W

    2018-03-01

    To explore the impact of uninterrupted sitting versus sitting with resistance-type activity breaks on adolescents' postprandial glucose responses while consuming a diet varying in energy. Cross-over randomised trial. Thirteen healthy participants (16.4±1.3years) completed a four-treatment cross-over trial: (1) uninterrupted sitting+high-energy diet; (2) sitting with breaks+high-energy diet; (3) uninterrupted sitting+standard-energy diet; and (4) sitting with breaks+standard-energy diet. For all four conditions, two identical meals were consumed; at 0h and 3h. A continuous glucose monitoring system (CGM) recorded interstitial glucose concentrations every five minutes. Linear mixed models examined differences in glucose positive incremental area under the curve (iAUC) and total AUC between the sitting and diet conditions for the first meal, second meal and entire trial period. Compared to the uninterrupted sitting conditions, the breaks condition elicited a 36.0mmol/L/h (95%CI 6.6-65.5) and 35.9mmol/L/h (95%CI 6.6-65.5) lower iAUC response after the first and second meal, respectively, but not for the entire trial period or for total AUC. Compared to the standard-energy diet, the high-energy diet elicited a 55.0mmol/L/h (95%CI 25.8-84.2) and 75.7mmol/L/h (95%CI 8.6-142.7) higher iAUC response after the first meal and entire trial, respectively. Similar response to the high-energy diet were observed for total AUC. According to iAUC, interrupting sitting had a significant effect on lowering postprandial glucose for both dietary conditions, however, it was not significant when examining total AUC. Larger studies are needed to confirm these findings. ACTRN12615001145594. Copyright © 2017 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Gauge symmetry breaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weinberg, S.

    1976-01-01

    The problem of how gauge symmetries of the weak interactions get broken is discussed. Some reasons why such a heirarchy of gauge symmetry breaking is needed, the reason gauge heirarchies do not seem to arise in theories of a given and related type, and the implications of theories with dynamical symmetry breaking, which can exhibit a gauge hierarchy

  11. Dynamical supersymmetry breaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Affleck, I.

    1985-03-01

    Supersymmetry, and in particular, dynamical supersymmetry breaking, offers the hope of a natural solution of the gauge hierarchy problem in grand unification. I briefly review recent work on dynamical supersymmetry breaking in four-dimensional Higgs theories and its application to grand unified model building

  12. Effect of Different Dormancy Breaking Treatments on Seed Germination of Salsifis (Teragopogon collinus and Flixweed ( Descurainia Sophia as Two Weed Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    marzie mazhari

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Weeds limit crops growth, development and yield through adjacency and competing and seed dormancy is a problem in controlling of weeds. Man has been always tried to optimize crop yield through weeds controlling. Weeds seed bank in the soil can affected weed management and their control methods. So identifying seed bank characters has important role in choice of management methods in seeds of many plant species which cannot germinate despite favorable environmental conditions. Main reasons for this problem, which is termed as seed dormancy, are hard and impermeable seed coat and presence of immature or dormant embryo. To break dormancy, a variety of methods are in vogue worldwide these days. Of all different methods of breaking dormancy, treatment of seed with certain chemicals including different types of plant growth regulators (PGRs is contemplated as the most effective one. Gibberellic acid (GA3 is the most widely used PGR to improve seed germination in different plant species. Also, nitrate (such as KNO3 clearly stimulates the germination of dormant seeds. KNO3 is the most widely used chemical for promoting germination. Solutions of KNO3 are common in routine germination testing and are recommended by the Association of Official Seed Analysts and the International Seed Testing Association (ISTA for germination tests of many species.Stratification refers to the method of placing seeds in layers alternating with layers of a moisture retaining medium, such as sand, peat or vermiculite, and keeping them at a cool temperature for a certain period, but it varies considerably from species to species. The combination of high moisture and low temperature appears to trigger off biochemical changes which transform complex food substances into simpler forms utilized by the embryo when it renews growth at germination. The use of the word “stratification” has recently been extended to include all forms of cold, moist treatment whether or

  13. The dipion mass spectrum in e+e- annihilation and tau decay: Isospin symmetry breaking effects from the (rho, omega, phi) mixing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benayoun, M.; David, P.; Del Buono, L.; O'Connell, H.B.; Leitner, O.

    2008-01-01

    A way to explain the puzzling difference between the pion form factor as measured in e + e - annihilations and in τ decays is discussed. We show that isospin symmetry breaking, beside the already identified effects, produces also a full mixing between the ρ 0 , ω and φ mesons which generates an isospin 0 component inside the ρ 0 meson. This effect, not accounted for in current treatments of the problem, seems able to account for the apparent mismatch between e + e - and τ data below the φ mass

  14. ⁹⁹mTc pyrene derivative complex causes double-strand breaks in dsDNA mainly through cluster-mediated indirect effect in aqueous solution.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Ju Chung

    Full Text Available Radiation therapy for cancer patients works by ionizing damage to nuclear DNA, primarily by creating double-strand breaks (DSB. A major shortcoming of traditional radiation therapy is the set of side effect associated with its long-range interaction with nearby tissues. Low-energy Auger electrons have the advantage of an extremely short effective range, minimizing damage to healthy tissue. Consequently, the isotope ⁹⁹mTc, an Auger electron source, is currently being studied for its beneficial potential in cancer treatment. We examined the dose effect of a pyrene derivative ⁹⁹mTc complex on plasmid DNA by using gel electrophoresis in both aqueous and methanol solutions. In aqueous solutions, the average yield per decay for double-strand breaks is 0.011±0.005 at low dose range, decreasing to 0.0005±0.0003 in the presence of 1 M dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO. The apparent yield per decay for single-strand breaks (SSB is 0.04±0.02, decreasing to approximately a fifth with 1 M DMSO. In methanol, the average yield per decay of DSB is 0.54±0.06 and drops to undetectable levels in 2 M DMSO. The SSB yield per decay is 7.2±0.2, changing to 0.4±0.2 in the presence of 2 M DMSO. The 95% decrease in the yield of DSB in DMSO indicates that the main mechanism for DSB formation is through indirect effect, possibly by cooperative binding or clustering of intercalators. In the presence of non-radioactive ligands at a near saturation concentration, where radioactive Tc compounds do not form large clusters, the yield of SSB stays the same while the yield of DSB decreases to the value in DMSO. DSBs generated by ⁹⁹mTc conjugated to intercalators are primarily caused by indirect effects through clustering.

  15. ⁹⁹mTc pyrene derivative complex causes double-strand breaks in dsDNA mainly through cluster-mediated indirect effect in aqueous solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Wei-Ju; Cui, Yujia; Huang, Feng-Yun J; Tu, Tzu-Hui; Yang, Tzu-Sen; Lo, Jem-Mau; Chiang, Chi-Shiun; Hsu, Ian C

    2014-01-01

    Radiation therapy for cancer patients works by ionizing damage to nuclear DNA, primarily by creating double-strand breaks (DSB). A major shortcoming of traditional radiation therapy is the set of side effect associated with its long-range interaction with nearby tissues. Low-energy Auger electrons have the advantage of an extremely short effective range, minimizing damage to healthy tissue. Consequently, the isotope ⁹⁹mTc, an Auger electron source, is currently being studied for its beneficial potential in cancer treatment. We examined the dose effect of a pyrene derivative ⁹⁹mTc complex on plasmid DNA by using gel electrophoresis in both aqueous and methanol solutions. In aqueous solutions, the average yield per decay for double-strand breaks is 0.011±0.005 at low dose range, decreasing to 0.0005±0.0003 in the presence of 1 M dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). The apparent yield per decay for single-strand breaks (SSB) is 0.04±0.02, decreasing to approximately a fifth with 1 M DMSO. In methanol, the average yield per decay of DSB is 0.54±0.06 and drops to undetectable levels in 2 M DMSO. The SSB yield per decay is 7.2±0.2, changing to 0.4±0.2 in the presence of 2 M DMSO. The 95% decrease in the yield of DSB in DMSO indicates that the main mechanism for DSB formation is through indirect effect, possibly by cooperative binding or clustering of intercalators. In the presence of non-radioactive ligands at a near saturation concentration, where radioactive Tc compounds do not form large clusters, the yield of SSB stays the same while the yield of DSB decreases to the value in DMSO. DSBs generated by ⁹⁹mTc conjugated to intercalators are primarily caused by indirect effects through clustering.

  16. Symmetry breaking patterns of the 3-3-1 model at finite temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borges, J.S. [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Departamento de Fisica de Altas Energias, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Ramos, Rudnei O. [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Departamento de Fisica Teorica, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2016-06-15

    We consider the minimal version of an extension of the standard electroweak model based on the SU(3){sub c} x SU(3){sub L} x U(1){sub X} gauge symmetry (the 3-3-1 model). We analyze the most general potential constructed from three scalars in the triplet representation of SU(3){sub L}, whose neutral components develop nonzero vacuum expectation values, giving mass for all the model's massive particles. For different choices of parameters, we obtain the particle spectrum for the two symmetry breaking scales: one where the SU(3){sub L} x U(1){sub X} group is broken down to SU(2){sub L} x U(1){sub Y} and a lower scale similar to the standard model one. Within the considerations used, we show that the model encodes two first-order phase transitions, respecting the pattern of symmetry restoration. The last transition, corresponding to the standard electroweak one, is found to be very weak first-order, most likely turning second-order or a crossover in practice. However, the first transition in this model can be strongly first-order, which might happen at a temperature not too high above the second one. We determine the respective critical temperatures for symmetry restoration for the model. (orig.)

  17. Numerical renormalization group studies of the partially brogen SU(3) Kondo model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuh Chuo, Evaristus

    2013-04-15

    The two-channel Kondo (2CK) effect with its exotic ground state properties has remained difficult to realize in physical systems. At low energies, a quantum impurity with orbital degree of freedom, like a proton bound in an interstitial lattice space, comprises a 3-level system with a unique ground state and (at least) doubly degenerate rotational excitations with excitation energy {Delta}{sub 0}. When immersed in a metal, electronic angular momentum scattering induces transitions between any two of these levels (couplings J), while the electron spin is conserved. We show by extensive numerical renormalization group (NRG) calculations that without fi ne-tuning of parameters this system exhibits a 2CK fixed point, due to Kondo correlations in the excited-state doublet whose degeneracy is stabilized by the host lattice parity, while the channel symmetry (electron spin) is guaranteed by time reversal symmetry. We find a pronounced plateau in the entropy at S(T{sub K}>{Delta}{sub 0})=k{sub B} ln 3, and the 2CK ground state value, S(0)=k{sub B} ln {radical}(2). This indicates a downward renormalization of the doublet below the non-interacting ground state, thus realizing the 2CK fixed point, in agreement with earlier conjectures. We mapped out the phase diagram of the model in the J-{Delta}{sub 0} plane. The Kondo temperature T{sub K} shows non-monotonic J-dependence, characteristic for 2CK systems. Beside the two-channel Kondo effect of the model, we also study the single-channel version, which is realized by applying a strong magnetic fi eld to the conduction band electrons so that their degeneracy is lifted and consequently having only one kind of electrons scattering off the impurity. This single-channel case is easier to analyze since the Hilbert space is not as large as that of the 2CK. We equally find a downward renormalization of the excited state energy by the Kondo correlations in the SU(2) doublet

  18. Numerical renormalization group studies of the partially brogen SU(3) Kondo model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuh Chuo, Evaristus

    2013-04-01

    The two-channel Kondo (2CK) effect with its exotic ground state properties has remained difficult to realize in physical systems. At low energies, a quantum impurity with orbital degree of freedom, like a proton bound in an interstitial lattice space, comprises a 3-level system with a unique ground state and (at least) doubly degenerate rotational excitations with excitation energy Δ 0 . When immersed in a metal, electronic angular momentum scattering induces transitions between any two of these levels (couplings J), while the electron spin is conserved. We show by extensive numerical renormalization group (NRG) calculations that without fi ne-tuning of parameters this system exhibits a 2CK fixed point, due to Kondo correlations in the excited-state doublet whose degeneracy is stabilized by the host lattice parity, while the channel symmetry (electron spin) is guaranteed by time reversal symmetry. We find a pronounced plateau in the entropy at S(T K 0 )=k B ln 2 between the high-T value, S(T>>Δ 0 )=k B ln 3, and the 2CK ground state value, S(0)=k B ln √(2). This indicates a downward renormalization of the doublet below the non-interacting ground state, thus realizing the 2CK fixed point, in agreement with earlier conjectures. We mapped out the phase diagram of the model in the J-Δ 0 plane. The Kondo temperature T K shows non-monotonic J-dependence, characteristic for 2CK systems. Beside the two-channel Kondo effect of the model, we also study the single-channel version, which is realized by applying a strong magnetic fi eld to the conduction band electrons so that their degeneracy is lifted and consequently having only one kind of electrons scattering off the impurity. This single-channel case is easier to analyze since the Hilbert space is not as large as that of the 2CK. We equally find a downward renormalization of the excited state energy by the Kondo correlations in the SU(2) doublet. In a wide range of parameter values this stabilizes the single

  19. Consistency of Trend Break Point Estimator with Underspecified Break Number

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingjing Yang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the consistency of trend break point estimators when the number of breaks is underspecified. The consistency of break point estimators in a simple location model with level shifts has been well documented by researchers under various settings, including extensions such as allowing a time trend in the model. Despite the consistency of break point estimators of level shifts, there are few papers on the consistency of trend shift break point estimators in the presence of an underspecified break number. The simulation study and asymptotic analysis in this paper show that the trend shift break point estimator does not converge to the true break points when the break number is underspecified. In the case of two trend shifts, the inconsistency problem worsens if the magnitudes of the breaks are similar and the breaks are either both positive or both negative. The limiting distribution for the trend break point estimator is developed and closely approximates the finite sample performance.

  20. Effect of Oil Application, Age, Diet, and Pigmentation on the Tensile Strength and Breaking Point of Hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavitha, S; Natarajan, Karthika; Thilagavathi, G; Srinivas, C R

    2016-01-01

    Hair strength depends on various factors such as nutrition, environmental factors, sunlight, oiling, aging, conditioner, etc. To compare the tensile strength and breaking point of the hair shaft between (1) vegetarian and nonvegetarian. (2) Those who regularly apply and those who do not apply oil. (3) Pigmented and nonpigmented hair, (4) childhood and elderly. Hair fibers were mounted in tensile strength testing machine Zwick/Roell Z010 and gradual force was administered. The elongation of hair fiber in mm and the maximum force required to break the hair strand were recorded for each fiber. Elasticity of the children's hair was more than the elasticity of adult ( P = 0.05) although tensile strength in children hair was not statistically significant (>0.05). Similarly, the tensile strength was more among those who regularly consumed nonvegetarian food but the difference was not statistically significant ( P > 0.05). There was no statistically significant difference in other groups ( P > 0.05). Elasticity in children hair is statistically more than elderly hair although there is no significant change in tensile strength.

  1. The effect of breaking gravity waves on the dynamics and chemistry of the mesosphere and lower thermosphere (invited review)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, R. R.

    1986-01-01

    The influence of breaking gravity waves on the dynamics and chemical composition of the 60 to 110 km region is investigated with a two dimensional model that includes a parameterization of gravity wave momentum deposition and diffusion. The dynamical model is described by Garcia and Solomon (1983) and Solomon and Garcia (1983) and includes a complete chemical scheme for the mesosphere and lower thermosphere. The parameterization of Lindzen (1981) is used to calculate the momentum deposited and the turbulent diffusion produced by the gravity waves. It is found that wave momentum deposition drives a very vigorous mean meridional circulation, produces a very cold summer mesopause and reverse the zonal wind jets above about 85 km. The seasonal variation of the turbulent diffusion coefficient is consistent with the behavior of mesospheric turbulences inferred from MST radar echoes. The large degree of consistency between model results and various types of dynamical and chemical data supports very strongly the hypothesis that breaking gravity waves play a major role in determining the zonally-averaged dynamical and chemical structure of the 60 to 110 km region of the atmosphere.

  2. Effect of nalidixic acid on repair of single-strand breaks in DNA induced by ionizing irradiation in Escherichia coli

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francia, I [Debreceni Orvostudomanyi Egyetem (Hungary); Okos, A; Hernadi, F J [Institute of Pharmacology, Debrecen (Hungary)

    1978-09-30

    The incidence of DNA single-strand breaks induced by /sup 60/Co irradiation and their repair in E.coli K12 (AB 1157) rec/sup +/ cells were studied by the alkaline sucrose gradient sedimentation method described by McGrath and Williams. For the quantitative analysis of sedimentation profiles we used the s 1/2 values described by Veatch and Okada. The s 1/2 value of non-irradiated controls was 22.4, and after 20 krads irradiation it was found to be 11.7. A postirradiation incubation at 37 /sup 0/C for 60 min increasedthe s 1/2 value from 11.7 to 22.1. Nalidixic acid at low concentration (20-50 ..mu..g/ml) did not block, but at 100 ..mu..g/ml extensively inhibited the above repair process, exhibiting an s 1/2 value of 14.4.

  3. Research progress on dam-break floods

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Jiansong; Bao, Kai; Zhang, Hui

    2011-01-01

    Because of the catastrophic effects downstream of dam-break failure, more and more researchers around the world have been working on the study of dam-break flows to accurately forecast the downstream inundation mapping. With the rapid development of computer hardware and computing techniques, numerical study on dam-break flows has been a popular research subject. In the paper, the numerical methodologies used to solve the governing partial differential equations of dam-break flows are classified and summarized, and their characteristics and applications are discussed respectively. Furthermore, the fully-developed mathematical models developed in recent decades are reviewed, and also introduced the authors' on-going work. Finally, some possible future developments on modeling the dam-break flows and some solutions are presented and discussed. © 2011 IEEE.

  4. Research progress on dam-break floods

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Jiansong

    2011-08-01

    Because of the catastrophic effects downstream of dam-break failure, more and more researchers around the world have been working on the study of dam-break flows to accurately forecast the downstream inundation mapping. With the rapid development of computer hardware and computing techniques, numerical study on dam-break flows has been a popular research subject. In the paper, the numerical methodologies used to solve the governing partial differential equations of dam-break flows are classified and summarized, and their characteristics and applications are discussed respectively. Furthermore, the fully-developed mathematical models developed in recent decades are reviewed, and also introduced the authors\\' on-going work. Finally, some possible future developments on modeling the dam-break flows and some solutions are presented and discussed. © 2011 IEEE.

  5. The effect of stellar evolution uncertainties on the rest-frame ultraviolet stellar lines of C IV and He II in high-redshift Lyman-break galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eldridge, John J.; Stanway, Elizabeth R.

    2012-01-01

    Young, massive stars dominate the rest-frame ultraviolet (UV) spectra of star-forming galaxies. At high redshifts (z > 2), these rest-frame UV features are shifted into the observed-frame optical and a combination of gravitational lensing, deep spectroscopy and spectral stacking analysis allows the stellar population characteristics of these sources to be investigated. We use our stellar population synthesis code Binary Population and Spectral Synthesis (BPASS) to fit two strong rest-frame UV spectral features in published Lyman-break galaxy spectra, taking into account the effects of binary evolution on the stellar spectrum. In particular, we consider the effects of quasi-homogeneous evolution (arising from the rotational mixing of rapidly rotating stars), metallicity and the relative abundance of carbon and oxygen on the observed strengths of He IIλ1640 Å and C IVλ1548, 1551 Å spectral lines. We find that Lyman-break galaxy spectra at z ˜ 2-3 are best fitted with moderately sub-solar metallicities, and with a depleted carbon-to-oxygen ratio. We also find that the spectra of the lowest metallicity sources are best fitted with model spectra in which the He II emission line is boosted by the inclusion of the effect of massive stars being spun-up during binary mass transfer so these rapidly rotating stars experience quasi-homogeneous evolution.

  6. An experimental study on effective depressurization actions for PWR vessel bottom small break LOCA with HPI failure and gas inflow (ROSA-V test SB-PV-04)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Mitsuhiro; Takeda, Takeshi; Asaka, Hideaki; Nakamura, Hideo

    2006-03-01

    A small break loss-of-coolant accident (SBLOCA) experiment was conducted at the Large Scale Test Facility (LSTF) of ROSA-V program to study effects of accident management (AM) measures on core cooling, which are important in case of total failure of high pressure injection (HPI) system during an SBLOCA at a pressurized water reactor (PWR). The LSTF is a full-height and 1/48 volume-scaled facility simulating a 4-loop Westing-house-type PWR (3423 MWt). The experiment, SB-PV-04, simulated a PWR vessel bottom SBLOCA with a rupture of ten instrument-tubes which is equivalent to 0.2% cold leg break. It is clarified that AM actions with steam generator (SG) rapid depressurization by fully opening relief valves and auxiliary feedwater supply are effective to avoid core uncovery by actuating the low pressure injection (LPI) system though the primary depressurization is degraded by non-condensable gas inflow to the primary loops from the accumulator injection system. The effective core cooling was established by the rapid depressurization which contributed to preserve larger primary coolant mass than in the previous experiment (SB-PV-03) which was conducted with smaller primary cooling rate of -55 K/h as AM actions. (author)

  7. Cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of a monazite component: lanthanum effects on the viability and induction of breaks in the DNA of human lymphocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paiva, Amanda Valle de Almeida

    2007-01-01

    The Monazite is a mineral extracted from open mines. It is constituted by lanthanum element aggregated with cerium, yttrium and thorium [(Ce, La, Y, Th)PO 4 ]. Lanthanum (La) is a rare-earth metal with applications in agriculture, industry and medicine. Since lanthanides and their compounds show a broad spectrum of applications there is an increased risk of incorporation in human. Inhalation of aerosols containing La is the main route of incorporation in workers exposed to several chemical forms of La. Herein, we examined the effect of lanthanum nitrate - La(NO 3 ) 3 in human lymphocytes. JURKAT cells and human peripheral lymphocytes (HPL) were used to evaluate the effect of La(NO 3 ) 3 on viability (apoptosis or necrosis) and DNA strand breaks induction or/and alkali-labile sites (ALS). We demonstrate that La has a cytotoxic and genotoxic effect on both cell lines. The results indicate that necrosis is the pathway by which La(NO 3 ) 3 induces cytotoxicity. The vitamin E is able to diminish DNA strand breaks induced by La(NO 3 ) 3 suggesting that reactive oxygen species (ROS) may be involved in the genotoxic process. (author)

  8. Effective meson lagrangian with chiral and heavy quark symmetries from quark flavor dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebert, D.; Feldmann, T.; Friedrich, R.; Reinhardt, H.

    1994-06-01

    By bosonization of an extended NJL model we derive an effective meson theory which describes the interplay between chiral symmetry and heavy quark dynamics. This effective theory is worked out in the low-energy regime using the gradient expansion. The resulting effective lagrangian describes strong and weak interactions of heavy B and D mesons with pseudoscalar Goldstone bosons and light vector and axial-vector mesons. Heavy meson weak decay constants, coupling constants and the Isgur-Wise function are predicted in terms of the model parameters partially fixed from the light quark sector. Explicit SU(3) F symmetry breaking effects are estimated and, if possible, confronted with experiment. (orig.)

  9. Supersymmetry breaking by gaugino condensation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casas, J.A.

    1991-01-01

    We briefly review the status and some of the recent work on supersymmetry breaking by gaugino condensation effects in the context of superstring theories. This issue is intimately related to the structure of the effective potential coming from superstrings. Minimization of this not only allows to find the scale of supersymmetry breaking, but also to determine dynamically other fundamental parameters of the theory, in particular the gauge coupling constant at the unification point and the expectation values of the moduli which give the size and shape of the compactified space. In a multiple condensate scenario these get reasonable values which may, in turn, lead to a determination of the family mass hierarchy. Some directions for future work are examined too. (author). 23 refs

  10. Non-linear effective Lagrangian treatment of 'Penguin' interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pham, T.N.

    1984-01-01

    Using the non-linear effective lagrangian technique, we show explicitly that only derivative coupling is allowed for the K - π, K -> 2 π and K -> 3 π transitions induced by the ΔS = 1 Penguin operator of SVZ in agreement with chiral symmetry requirements. From a derivative coupling (3, anti 3) mass term and the SU(3) breaking effect for fsub(K)/fsub(π), we estimate the strength of the Penguin interactions and find it too small to account for the ΔI = 1/2 amplitude. (orig.)

  11. An SU(3)xU(1) theory of weak-electromagnetic interactions with charged boson mixing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singer, M.

    1978-01-01

    An SU(3)xU(1) gauge theory of weak electromagnetic interactions is proposed in which the charged bosons mix with each other. The model naturally ensures e-μ and quark-lepton universality in couplings, and the charged boson mixing permits an equal number of leptons and quark flavours. There are no new stable leptons. All the fermions are placed in triplets and singlets and the theory is vector-like and hence free of anomalies. In addition one of the charged bosons can have a mass less than 43 GeV. Discrete symmetries and specific choices for Higgs fields are postulated to obtain the appropriate boson and fermion masses. Calculations for the decay of the tau particle, which is described as a heavy electron, are given. Multimuon events are discussed as are neutrino neutral currents. Calculations are also given for testing asymmetries in e-hadron scattering due to weak electron neutral currents along with other phenomenology of the model

  12. Self consistent propagation of hyperons and antikaons in nuclear matter based on relativistic chiral SU(3) dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lutz, M.F.M.; Korpa, C.L.

    2001-05-01

    We evaluate the antikaon spectral density in isospin symmetric nuclear matter. The in-medium antikaon-nucleon scattering process and the antikaon propagation is treated in a self consistent and relativistic manner where a maximally scheme-independent formulation is derived by performing a partial density resummation in terms of the free-space antikaon-nucleon scattering amplitudes. The latter amplitudes are taken from a relativistic and chiral coupled-channel SU(3) approach which includes s-, p- and d-waves systematically. Particular care is taken on the proper evaluation of the in-medium mixing of the partial waves. Our analysis establishes a rich structure of the antikaon spectral function with considerable strength at small energies. At nuclear saturation density we predict attractive mass shifts for the Λ(1405), Σ(1385) and Λ(1520) of about 130 MeV, 60 MeV and 100 MeV respectively. The hyperon states are found to exhibit at the same time an increased decay width of about 150 MeV for the s-wave Λ(1405), 70 MeV for the p-wave Σ(1385) and 100 MeV for the d-wave Λ(1520) resonance. (orig.)

  13. On the harmonic-type and linear-type confinement of a relativistic scalar particle yielded by Lorentz symmetry breaking effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bakke, K., E-mail: kbakke@fisica.ufpb.br [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal da Paraíba, Caixa Postal 5008, 58051-900, João Pessoa-PB (Brazil); Belich, H., E-mail: belichjr@gmail.com [Departamento de Física e Química, Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo, Av. Fernando Ferrari, 514, Goiabeiras, 29060-900, Vitória, ES (Brazil)

    2016-10-15

    Based on the Standard Model Extension, we investigate relativistic quantum effects on a scalar particle in backgrounds of the Lorentz symmetry violation defined by a tensor field. We show that harmonic-type and linear-type confining potentials can stem from Lorentz symmetry breaking effects, and thus, relativistic bound state solutions can be achieved. We first analyse a possible scenario of the violation of the Lorentz symmetry that gives rise to a harmonic-type potential. In the following, we analyse another possible scenario of the breaking of the Lorentz symmetry that induces both harmonic-type and linear-type confining potentials. In this second case, we also show that not all values of the parameter associated with the intensity of the electric field are permitted in the search for polynomial solutions to the radial equation, where the possible values of this parameter are determined by the quantum numbers of the system and the parameters associated with the violation of the Lorentz symmetry.

  14. Strong U{sub A}(1) breaking in radiative {eta} decays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takizawa, M.; Nemoto, Y.; Oka, M.

    1996-08-01

    We study the {eta} {yields} {gamma}{gamma}, {eta} {yields} {gamma}{mu}{sup -}{mu}{sup +} and {eta} {yields} {pi}{sup 0}{gamma}{gamma} decays using an extended three-flavor Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model that includes the `t Hooft instanton induced interaction. We find that the {eta}-meson mass, the {eta} {yields} {gamma}{gamma}, {eta} {yields} {gamma}{mu}{sup -}{mu}{sup +} and {eta} {yields} {pi}{sup 0}{gamma}{gamma} decay widths are in good agreement with the experimental values when the U{sub A}(1) breaking is strong and the flavor SU(3) singlet-octet mixing angle {theta} is about zero. The calculated {eta}{gamma}{gamma}{sup *} transition form factor has somewhat weaker dependence on the squared four-momentum of the virtual photon. The effects of the U{sub A}(1) anomaly on the scalar quark contents in the nucleon, the {Sigma}{sub {pi}N} and {Sigma}{sub KN} terms and the baryon number one and two systems are also studied. (author)

  15. Noncommutative gauge theory and symmetry breaking in matrix models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grosse, Harald; Steinacker, Harold; Lizzi, Fedele

    2010-01-01

    We show how the fields and particles of the standard model can be naturally realized in noncommutative gauge theory. Starting with a Yang-Mills matrix model in more than four dimensions, an SU(n) gauge theory on a Moyal-Weyl space arises with all matter and fields in the adjoint of the gauge group. We show how this gauge symmetry can be broken spontaneously down to SU(3) c xSU(2) L xU(1) Q [resp. SU(3) c xU(1) Q ], which couples appropriately to all fields in the standard model. An additional U(1) B gauge group arises which is anomalous at low energies, while the trace-U(1) sector is understood in terms of emergent gravity. A number of additional fields arise, which we assume to be massive, in a pattern that is reminiscent of supersymmetry. The symmetry breaking might arise via spontaneously generated fuzzy spheres, in which case the mechanism is similar to brane constructions in string theory.

  16. Effect of vitamin E on cytotoxicity, DNA single strand breaks, chromosomal aberrations, and mutation in Chinese hamster V-79 cells exposed to ultraviolet-B light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugiyama, M.; Tsuzuki, K.; Matsumoto, K.; Ogura, R.

    1992-01-01

    The effect of pretreatment with vitamin E on cytotoxicity, DNA single strand breaks, and chromosomal aberrations as well as on mutation induced by ultraviolet-B light (UV-B) was investigated in Chinese hamster V-79 cells. Cellular pretreatment with non-toxic levels of 25 μM α-tocopherol succinate (vitamin E) for 24h prior to exposure resulted in a 10-fold increase in cellular levels of α-tocopherol. Using a colony-forming assay, this pretreatment decreased the cytotoxicity of UV-B light. However, alkaline elution assays demonstrated that pretreatment with vitamin E did not affect the number of DNA single strand breaks caused by UV-B light. UV-B exposure produced a dose-dependent induction of chromosomal aberrations and mutations at the HGPRT locus, and neither of these actions of UV-B was influenced by pretreatment with the vitamin. These results suggest that vitamin E protects cells from UV-B-induced cytotoxicity, possibly through its ability to scavenge free radicals. The genotoxicity induced by UV-B light may not correlate directly with the cytotoxic action of this wavelength region in sunlight. (author)

  17. The oxygen enhancement ratio for single- and double-strand breaks induced by tritium incorporated in DNA of cultured human T1 cells. Impact of the transmutation effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tisljar-Lentulis, G; Henneberg, P; Feinendegen, L E; Commerford, S L

    1983-04-01

    The effect of oxygen, expressed as the oxygen enhancement ratio (OER), on the number of single-strand breaks (SSB) and double-strand breaks (DSB) induced in DNA by the radioactive decay of tritium was measured in human T1 cells whose DNA had been labeled with tritium at carbon atom number 6 of thymidine. Decays were accumulated in vivo under aerobic conditions at 0-1 degrees C and at -196 degrees C and in a nitrogen atmosphere at 0-1 degrees C. The number of SSB and DSB produced was analyzed by sucrose gradient centrifugation. For each tritium decay there were 0.25 DSB in cells exposed to air at 0-1 degrees C and 0.07 in cells kept under nitrogen, indicating an OER of 3.6, a value expected for such low-LET radiation. However, for each tritium decay there were 1.25 SSB in cells exposed to air at 0-1 degrees C and 0.76 in cells kept under nitrogen indicating an OER of only 1.7. The corresponding values for 60Co gamma radiation, expressed as SSB per 100 eV absorbed energy, were 4.5 and 1.0, giving an OER of 4.5. The low OER value found for SSB induced by tritium decay can be explained if 31% of the total SSB produced in air result from transmutation by a mechanism which does not produce DSB and is unaffected by oxygen.

  18. Physics of chiral symmetry breaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shuryak, E.V.

    1991-01-01

    This subsection of the 'Modeling QCD' Workshop has included five talks. E. Shuryak spoke on 'Recent Progress in Understanding Chiral Symmetry Breaking'; below it is split into two parts: (i) a mini-review of the field and (ii) a brief presentation of the status of the theory of interacting instantons. The next sections correspond to the following talks: (iii) K. Goeke et al., 'Chiral Restoration and Medium Corrections to Nucleon in the NJL Model'; (iv) M. Takizawa and K. Kubodera, 'Study of Meson Properties and Quark Condensates in the NJL Model with Instanton Effects'; (v) G. Klein and A. G. Williams, 'Dynamical Chiral Symmetry Breaking in Dual QCD'; and (vi) R. D. Ball, 'Skyrmions and Baryons.' (orig.)

  19. Post accidental small breaks analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Depond, G.; Gandrille, J.

    1980-04-01

    EDF ordered to FRAMATOME by 1977 to complete post accidental long term studies on 'First Contrat-Programme' reactors, in order to demonstrate the safety criteria long term compliance, to get information on NSSS behaviour and to improve the post accidental procedures. Convenient analytical models were needed and EDF and FRAMATOME respectively developped the AXEL and FRARELAP codes. The main results of these studies is that for the smallest breaks, it is possible to manually undertake cooling and pressure reducing actions by dumping the steam generators secondary side in order to meet the RHR operating specifications and perform long term cooling through this system. A specific small breaks procedure was written on this basis. The EDF and FRAMATOME codes are continuously improved; the results of a French set of separate effects experiments will be incorporated as well as integral system verification

  20. Strong Electroweak Symmetry Breaking

    CERN Document Server

    Grinstein, Benjamin

    2011-01-01

    Models of spontaneous breaking of electroweak symmetry by a strong interaction do not have fine tuning/hierarchy problem. They are conceptually elegant and use the only mechanism of spontaneous breaking of a gauge symmetry that is known to occur in nature. The simplest model, minimal technicolor with extended technicolor interactions, is appealing because one can calculate by scaling up from QCD. But it is ruled out on many counts: inappropriately low quark and lepton masses (or excessive FCNC), bad electroweak data fits, light scalar and vector states, etc. However, nature may not choose the minimal model and then we are stuck: except possibly through lattice simulations, we are unable to compute and test the models. In the LHC era it therefore makes sense to abandon specific models (of strong EW breaking) and concentrate on generic features that may indicate discovery. The Technicolor Straw Man is not a model but a parametrized search strategy inspired by a remarkable generic feature of walking technicolor,...

  1. Integral effect test and code analysis on the cooling performance of the PAFS (passive auxiliary feedwater system) during an FLB (feedwater line break) accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bae, Byoung-Uhn; Kim, Seok; Park, Yu-Sun; Kang, Kyoung-Ho

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • This study focuses on the experimental validation of the operational performance of the PAFS (passive auxiliary feedwater system). • A transient simulation of the FLB (feedwater line break) in the integral effect test facility, ATLAS-PAFS, was performed to investigate thermal hydraulic behavior during the PAFS actuation. • The test result confirmed that the APR+ has the capability of coping with the FLB scenario by adopting the PAFS and proper set-points for its operation. • The experimental result was utilized to evaluate the prediction capability of a thermal hydraulic system analysis code, MARS-KS. - Abstract: APR+ (Advanced Power Reactor Plus), which is a GEN-III+ nuclear power plant developed in Korea, adopts PAFS (passive auxiliary feedwater system) as an advanced safety feature. The PAFS can completely replace an active auxiliary feedwater system by cooling down the secondary side of steam generators with a natural convection mechanism. This study focuses on experimental and analytical investigation for cooling and operational performance of the PAFS during an FLB (feedwater line break) transient with an integral effect test facility, ATLAS-PAFS. To realistically simulate the FLB accident of the APR+, the three-level scaling methodology was taken into account to design the test facility and determine the test condition. From the test result, the PAFS was actuated to successfully cool down the decay heat of the reactor core by the condensation heat transfer at the PCHX (passive condensation heat exchanger), and thus it could be confirmed that the APR+ has the capability of coping with a FLB scenario by adopting the PAFS and proper set-points for its operation. This integral effect test data were used to evaluate the prediction capability of a thermal hydraulic system analysis code, MARS-KS. The code analysis result proved that it could reasonably predict the FLB transient including the actuation of the PAFS and the natural convection

  2. Effects of 3-Deoxyadenosine (Cordycepin) on the repair of X-ray-induced DNA single- and double-strand breaks in chinese hamster V79 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiraoka, Wakako; Kuwabara, Mikinori; Sato, Fumiaki

    1990-01-01

    The ability of cordycepin to inhibit the repair of DNA strand breaks was examined with X-irradiated Chinese hamster V79 cells in log-phase culture. A filter elution technique revealed that 70 μM cordycepin did not inhibit the repair of single-strand breaks but inhibited the repair of double-strand breaks. These findings confirmed the fact that the increase in the lethality of cordycepin in X-irradiated cultured mammalian cells was attributable to unrepaired DNA double-strand breaks. (author)

  3. Spontaneous symmetry breaking in N=3 supergravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zinov'ev, Yu.M.

    1986-01-01

    The possibility of the spontaneous symmetry breaking without a cosmological term in N=3 supergravity is investigated. A new, dual version of N=3 supergravity - U(3)-supergravity is constructed. Such a theory is shown to admit a spontaneous supersymmetry breaking without a cosmological term and with three arbitrary scales, including partial super-Higgs effect N=3 → N=2 and N=3 → N=1

  4. Breaking the silence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Konradsen, Hanne; Kirkevold, Marit; McCallin, Antoinette

    2012-01-01

    and individual interviews were analyzed using the grounded theory method. The findings revealed that the main concern of the patients was feeling isolated, which was resolved using a process of interactional integration. Interactional integration begins by breaking the silence to enable the progression from...

  5. Violent breaking wave impacts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bredmose, Henrik; Peregrine, D.H.; Bullock, G.N.

    2009-01-01

    When an ocean wave breaks against a steep-fronted breakwater, sea wall or a similar marine structure, its impact on the structure can be very violent. This paper describes the theoretical studies that, together with field and laboratory investigations, have been carried out in order to gain a bet...

  6. Computational simulation of chromosome breaks in human liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Jianshe; Li Wenjian; Jin Xiaodong

    2006-01-01

    An easy method was established for computing chromosome breaks in cells exposed to heavily charged particles. The cell chromosome break value by 12 C +6 ions was theoretically calculated, and was tested with experimental data of chromosome breaks by using a premature chromosome condensation technique. The theoretical chromosome break value agreed well with the experimental data. The higher relative biological effectiveness of the heavy ions was closely correlated to its physical characteristics. In addition, the chromosome break value can be predicted off line. (authors)

  7. Dirac neutrino masses from generalized supersymmetry breaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demir, D.A.; Everett, L.L.; Langacker, P.

    2007-12-01

    We demonstrate that Dirac neutrino masses in the experimentally preferred range are generated within supersymmetric gauge extensions of the Standard Model with a generalized supersymmetry breaking sector. If the usual superpotential Yukawa couplings are forbidden by the additional gauge symmetry (such as a U(1) ' ), effective Dirac mass terms involving the ''wrong Higgs'' field can arise either at tree level due to hard supersymmetry breaking fermion Yukawa couplings, or at one-loop due to nonanalytic or ''nonholomorphic'' soft supersymmetry breaking trilinear scalar couplings. As both of these operators are naturally suppressed in generic models of supersymmetry breaking, the resulting neutrino masses are naturally in the sub-eV range. The neutrino magnetic and electric dipole moments resulting from the radiative mechanism also vanish at one-loop order. (orig.)

  8. Higgsless grand unified theory breaking and trinification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carone, Christopher D.; Conroy, Justin M.

    2004-01-01

    Boundary conditions on an extra dimensional interval can be chosen to break bulk gauge symmetries and to reduce the rank of the gauge group. We consider this mechanism in models with gauge trinification. We determine the boundary conditions necessary to break the trinified gauge group directly down to that of the standard model. Working in an effective theory for the gauge-symmetry-breaking parameters on a boundary, we examine the limit in which the grand-unified theory-breaking-sector is Higgsless and show how one may obtain the low-energy particle content of the minimal supersymmetric standard model. We find that gauge unification is preserved in this scenario, and that the differential gauge coupling running is logarithmic above the scale of compactification. We compare the phenomenology of our model to that of four dimensional 'trinified' theories

  9. The structure of GUT breaking by orbifolding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hebecker, Arthur; March-Russell, John

    2002-01-01

    Recently, an attractive model of GUT breaking has been proposed in which a 5-dimensional supersymmetric SU(5) gauge theory on an S 1 /(Z 2 xZ 2 ') orbifold is broken down to the 4d MSSM by SU(5)-violating boundary conditions. Motivated by this construction and several related realistic models, we investigate the general structure of orbifolds in the effective field theory context, and of this orbifold symmetry breaking mechanism in particular. An analysis of the group theoretic structure of orbifold breaking is performed. This depends upon the existence of appropriate inner and outer automorphisms of the Lie algebra, and we show that a reduction of the rank of the GUT group is possible. Some aspects of larger GUT theories based on SO(10) and E 6 are discussed. We explore the possibilities of defining the theory directly on a space with boundaries and breaking the gauge symmetry by more general consistently chosen boundary conditions for the fields. Furthermore, we derive the relation of orbifold breaking with the familiar mechanism of Wilson line breaking, finding a one-to-one correspondence, both conceptually and technically. Finally, we analyse the consistency of orbifold models in the effective field theory context, emphasizing the necessity for self-adjoint extensions of the Hamiltonian and other conserved operators, and especially the highly restrictive anomaly cancellation conditions that apply if the bulk theory lives in more than 5 dimensions

  10. Effects of DNA double-strand and single-strand breaks on intrachromosomal recombination events in cell-cycle-arrested yeast cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galli, A.; Schiestl, R.H.

    1998-01-01

    Intrachromosomal recombination between repeated elements can result in deletion (DEL recombination) events. We investigated the inducibility of such intrachromosomal recombination events at different stages of the cell cycle and the nature of the primary DNA lesions capable of initiating these events. Two genetic systems were constructed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae that select for DEL recombination events between duplicated alleles of CDC28 and TUB2. We determined effects of double-strand breaks (DSBs) and single-strand breaks (SSBs) between the duplicated alleles on DEL recombination when induced in dividing cells or cells arrested in G1 or G2. Site-specific DSBs and SSBs were produced by overexpression of the I-Sce I endonuclease and the gene II protein (gIIp), respectively. I-Sce I-induced DSBs caused an increase in DEL recombination frequencies in both dividing and cell-cycle-arrested cells, indicating that G1- and G2-arrested cells are capable of completing DSB repair. In contrast, gIIp-induced SSBs caused an increase in DEL recombination frequency only in dividing cells. To further examine these phenomena we used both γ-irradiation, inducing DSBs as its most relevant lesion, and UV, inducing other forms of DNA damage. UV irradiation did not increase DEL recombination frequencies in G1 or G2, whereas γ-rays increased DEL recombination frequencies in both phases. Both forms of radiation, however, induced DEL recombination in dividing cells. The results suggest that DSBsbut not SSBs induce DEL recombination, probably via the single-strand annealing pathway. Further, DSBs in dividing cells may result from the replication of a UV or SSB-damaged template. Alternatively, UV induced events may occur by replication slippage after DNA polymerase pausing in front of the damage. (author)

  11. Routinizing Breaking News

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartley, Jannie Møller

    2011-01-01

    This chapter revisits seminal theoretical categorizations of news proposed three decades earlier by US sociologist Gaye Tuchman. By exploring the definition of ”breaking news” in the contemporary online newsrooms of three Danish news organisations, the author offers us a long overdue re-theorizat......-theorization of journalistic practice in the online context and helpfully explores well-evidenced limitations to online news production, such as the relationship between original reporting and the use of ”shovelware.”......This chapter revisits seminal theoretical categorizations of news proposed three decades earlier by US sociologist Gaye Tuchman. By exploring the definition of ”breaking news” in the contemporary online newsrooms of three Danish news organisations, the author offers us a long overdue re...

  12. Breaking News as Radicalisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartley, Jannie Møller

    The aim of the paper is to make explicit how the different categories are applied in the online newsroom and thus how new categories can be seen as positioning strategies in the form of radicalisations of already existing categories. Thus field theory provides us with tools to analyse how online...... journalists are using the categorisations to create hierarchies within the journalistic field in order to position themselves as specialists in what Tuchman has called developing news, aiming and striving for what today is know as breaking news and the “exclusive scoop,” as the trademark of online journalism...... in a media environment where immediacy rules (Domingo 2008a). Following this research the primary focus of this paper is the category breaking news and Tuchmans developing news, but as they are all connected the analysis will also draw upon the other categories in Tuchmans typology. The theoretical framework...

  13. Predicting appointment breaking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bean, A G; Talaga, J

    1995-01-01

    The goal of physician referral services is to schedule appointments, but if too many patients fail to show up, the value of the service will be compromised. The authors found that appointment breaking can be predicted by the number of days to the scheduled appointment, the doctor's specialty, and the patient's age and gender. They also offer specific suggestions for modifying the marketing mix to reduce the incidence of no-shows.

  14. Single sector supersymmetry breaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luty, Markus A.; Terning, John

    1999-01-01

    We review recent work on realistic models that break supersymmetry dynamically and give rise to composite quarks and leptons, all in a single sector. These models have a completely natural suppression of flavor-changing neutral currents, and the hierarchy of Yukawa couplings is explained by the dimensionality of composite states. The generic signatures are unification of scalar masses with different quantum numbers at the compositeness scale, and lighter gaugino, Higgsino, and third-generation sfermion masses

  15. Give Young Scientists a Break

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiley, H. S.

    2009-11-01

    There has been much concern about the impact of tight funding on the careers of young scientists. When only a small percentage of grants are approved, even the smallest problem or error with an application can push it out of the funding range. Unfortunately, the relative lack of grant writing skills by new investigators often has this effect. To avoid a situation where only experienced investigators with polished writing skills are funded, the National Institutes of Health has instituted a more generous ranking scale for new investigators. Not surprisingly, some senior investigators have protested, calling it reverse discrimination. I say that their anger is misplaced. New investigators do deserve a break.

  16. The Effects of Varying Quality and Duration of Reinforcement on Mands to Work, Mands for Break, and Problem Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Stephanie M.; Frieder, Jessica E.; Smith, Shilo L.; Quigley, Shawn P.; Van Norman, Renee K.

    2009-01-01

    Research on the effects of concurrent schedules of reinforcement during treatment of problem behavior has shown that response allocation can be biased in favor of adaptive responses by providing increased reinforcement for these responses. However, this research has focused on the effects of only two concurrently available response options. In…

  17. The effect of 111In radionuclide distance and auger electron energy on direct induction of DNA double-strand breaks: a Monte Carlo study using Geant4 toolkit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piroozfar, Behnaz; Raisali, Gholamreza; Alirezapour, Behrouz; Mirzaii, Mohammad

    2018-04-01

    In this study, the effect of 111 In position and Auger electron energy on direct induction of DSBs was investigated. The Geant4-DNA simulation toolkit was applied using a simple B-DNA form extracted from PDBlib library. First, the simulation was performed for electrons with energies of 111 In and equal emission probabilities to find the most effective electron energies. Then, 111 In Auger electrons' actual spectrum was considered and their contribution in DSB induction analysed. The results showed that the most effective electron energy is 183 eV, but due to the higher emission probability of 350 eV electrons, most of the DSBs were induced by the latter electrons. Also, it was observed that most of the DSBs are induced by electrons emitted within 4 nm of the central axis of the DNA and were mainly due to breaks with <4 base pairs distance in opposing strands. Whilst, when 111 In atoms are very close to the DNA, 1.3 DSBs have been obtained per decay of 111 In atoms. The results show that the most effective Auger electrons are the 350 eV electrons from 111 In atoms with <4 nm distance from the central axis of the DNA which induce ∼1.3 DSBs per decay when bound to the DNA. This value seems reasonable when compared with the reported experimental data.

  18. Climate and floods still govern California levee breaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florsheim, J.L.; Dettinger, M.D.

    2007-01-01

    Even in heavily engineered river systems, climate still governs flood variability and thus still drives many levee breaks and geomorphic changes. We assemble a 155-year record of levee breaks for a major California river system to find that breaks occurred in 25% of years during the 20th Century. A relation between levee breaks and river discharge is present that sets a discharge threshold above which most levee breaks occurred. That threshold corresponds to small floods with recurrence intervals of ???2-3 years. Statistical analysis illustrates that levee breaks and peak discharges cycle (broadly) on a 12-15 year time scale, in time with warm-wet storm patterns in California, but more slowly or more quickly than ENSO and PDO climate phenomena, respectively. Notably, these variations and thresholds persist through the 20th Century, suggesting that historical flood-control effects have not reduced the occurrence or frequency of levee breaks. Copyright 2007 by the American Geophysical Union.

  19. Modelling oil price volatility with structural breaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salisu, Afees A.; Fasanya, Ismail O.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we provide two main innovations: (i) we analyze oil prices of two prominent markets namely West Texas Intermediate (WTI) and Brent using the two recently developed tests by Narayan and Popp (2010) and Liu and Narayan, 2010 both of which allow for two structural breaks in the data series; and (ii) the latter method is modified to include both symmetric and asymmetric volatility models. We identify two structural breaks that occur in 1990 and 2008 which coincidentally correspond to the Iraqi/Kuwait conflict and the global financial crisis, respectively. We find evidence of persistence and leverage effects in the oil price volatility. While further extensions can be pursued, the consideration of asymmetric effects as well as structural breaks should not be jettisoned when modelling oil price volatility. - Highlights: ► We analyze oil price volatility using NP (2010) and LN (2010) tests. ► We modify the LN (2010) to account for leverage effects in oil price. ► We find two structural breaks that reflect major global crisis in the oil market. ► We find evidence of persistence and leverage effects in oil price volatility. ► Leverage effects and structural breaks are fundamental in oil price modelling.

  20. Dual descriptions of supersymmetry breaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Intrilligator, K.; Thomas, S.

    1996-08-01

    Dynamical supersymmetry breaking is considered in models which admit descriptions in terms of electric, confined, or magnetic degrees of freedom in various limits. In this way, a variety of seemingly different theories which break supersymmetry are actually interrelated by confinement or duality. Specific examples are given in which there are two dual descriptions of the supersymmetry breaking ground state

  1. Effect of cold storage, heat, smoke and charcoal on breaking seed dormancy of Arctostaphylos pungens HBK (Ericaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Jurado, E; Márquez-Linares, M; Flores, J

    2011-01-01

    We evaluated the effect of cold storage and fire-related cues on seed germination of Arctostaphylos pungens HBK (Mexican Manzanita), a common shrub in poorly managed pine-oak forests in Durango, Mexico. Because this shrub has a high density in previously burnt forests, we investigated the effect that high temperatures, smoke and charcoal might have on seed germination of this species. Seeds were collected fresh from the shrubs. The highest germination was 30% for seeds that had been cold stor...

  2. The effect of defective DNA double-strand break repair on mutations and chromosome aberrations in the Chinese hamster cell mutant XR-V15B

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helbig, R.; Speit, G.; Zdzienicka, M.Z.

    1995-01-01

    The radiosensitive Chinese hamster cell line XR-V15B was used to study the effect of decreased rejoining of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) on gene mutations and chromosome aberrations. XR-V15B cells are hypersensitive to the cytotoxic effects of neocarzinostatin (NCS) and methyl methanesulfonate (MMS). Both mutagens induced more chromosome aberrations in XR-V15B cells than in the parental cell strain. The clastogenic action of NCS was characterized by the induction of predominantly chromosome-type aberrations in cells of both strains, whereas MMS induced mainly chromatid aberrations. The frequency of induced gene mutations at the hprt locus was not increased compared to the parental V79 cells when considering the same survival level. Molecular analysis by multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of mutants induced by NCS revealed a high frequency of deletions in cells of both cell lines. Methyl methane-sulfonate induced mainly mutations without visible change in the PCR pattern, which probably represent point mutations. Our findings suggest a link between a defect in DNA DSB repair and increased cytotoxic and clastogenic effects. However, a decreased ability to rejoin DNA DSBs does not seem to influence the incidence and types of gene mutations at the hprt locus induced by NCS and MMS. 28 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs

  3. Will initiatives to promote hydroelectricity consumption be effective? Evidence from univariate and panel LM unit root tests with structural breaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lean, Hooi Hooi; Smyth, Russell

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines whether initiatives to promote hydroelectricity consumption are likely to be effective by applying univariate and panel Lagrange Multiplier (LM) unit root tests to hydroelectricity consumption in 55 countries over the period 1965–2011. We find that for the panel, as well as about four-fifths of individual countries, that hydroelectricity consumption is stationary. This result implies that shocks to hydroelectricity consumption in most countries will only result in temporary deviations from the long-run growth path. An important consequence of this finding is that initiatives designed to have permanent positive effects on hydroelectricity consumption, such as large-scale dam construction, are unlikely to be effective in increasing the share of hydroelectricity, relative to consumption of fossil fuels. - Highlights: • Applies unit root tests to hydroelectricity consumption. • Hydroelectricity consumption is stationary. • Shocks to hydroelectricity consumption result in temporary deviations from the long-run growth path

  4. Matrix effects break the LC behavior rule for analytes in LC-MS/MS analysis of biological samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Nianbai; Yu, Shanggong; Ronis, Martin Jj; Badger, Thomas M

    2015-04-01

    High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) are generally accepted as the preferred techniques for detecting and quantitating analytes of interest in biological matrices on the basis of the rule that one chemical compound yields one LC-peak with reliable retention time (Rt.). However, in the current study, we have found that under the same LC-MS conditions, the Rt. and shape of LC-peaks of bile acids in urine samples from animals fed dissimilar diets differed significantly among each other. To verify this matrix effect, 17 authentic bile acid standards were dissolved in pure methanol or in methanol containing extracts of urine from pigs consuming either breast milk or infant formula and analyzed by LC-MS/MS. The matrix components in urine from piglets fed formula significantly reduced the LC-peak Rt. and areas of bile acids. This is the first characterization of this matrix effect on Rt. in the literature. Moreover, the matrix effect resulted in an unexpected LC behavior: one single compound yielded two LC-peaks, which broke the rule of one LC-peak for one compound. The three bile acid standards which exhibited this unconventional LC behavior were chenodeoxycholic acid, deoxycholic acid, and glycocholic acid. One possible explanation for this effect is that some matrix components may have loosely bonded to analytes, which changed the time analytes were retained on a chromatography column and interfered with the ionization of analytes in the MS ion source to alter the peak area. This study indicates that a comprehensive understanding of matrix effects is needed towards improving the use of HPLC and LC-MS/MS techniques for qualitative and quantitative analyses of analytes in pharmacokinetics, proteomics/metabolomics, drug development, and sports drug testing, especially when LC-MS/MS data are analyzed by automation software where identification of an analyte is based on its exact molecular weight and Rt

  5. Effect of emergency core cooling system flow reduction on channel temperature during recirculation phase of large break loss-of-coolant accident at Wolsong unit 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Seon Oh; Cho, Yong Jin [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sung Joong [Dept. of Nuclear Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-08-15

    The feasibility of cooling in a pressurized heavy water reactor after a large break loss-of-coolant accident has been analyzed using Multidimensional Analysis of Reactor Safety-KINS Standard code during the recirculation phase. Through evaluation of sensitivity of the fuel channel temperature to various effective recirculation flow areas, it is determined that proper cooling of the fuel channels in the broken loop is feasible if the effective flow area remains above approximately 70% of the nominal flow area. When the flow area is reduced by more than approximately 25% of the nominal value, however, incipience of boiling is expected, after which the thermal integrity of the fuel channel can be threatened. In addition, if a dramatic reduction of the recirculation flow occurs, excursions and frequent fluctuations of temperature in the fuel channels are likely to be unavoidable, and thus damage to the fuel channels would be anticipated. To resolve this, emergency coolant supply through the newly installed external injection path can be used as one alternative means of cooling, enabling fuel channel integrity to be maintained and permanently preventing severe accident conditions. Thus, the external injection flow required to guarantee fuel channel coolability has been estimated.

  6. Effect of elevated postirradiation pH on the yield of double-strand breaks in DNA from irradiated bacterial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tilby, M.J.; Loverock, P.S.; Fielden, E.M.

    1984-01-01

    Exposure of DNA isolated from irradiated cells of Escherichia coli to a pH of 9.6 caused a marked increase in the yield of double-strand breaks (dsb). After incubation for 4 hr at 37 0 C and pH 9.6 the dsb yields were 95% and 71% higher than when incubation was at pH 7.0 for irradiation under oxic and anoxic conditions, respectively. This effect was not apparent when dsb were induced enzymatically and it was linearly related to radiation dose. After oxic irradiation, the increase in dsb at pH 9.6 was consistent with first-order kinetics over >2 half-lives (t/sub 1/2/ = 1.6 hr at 37 0 C). It is propsoed that the effects of elevated pH revealed the presence in intracellularly irradiated DNA of previously unidentified sites where both strands of the DNA were damaged as a result of single radiation events. The possible nature of the proposed sites and the relevance of these findings to the ''neutral'' elution technique are discussed

  7. Effect of emergency core cooling system flow reduction on channel temperature during recirculation phase of large break loss-of-coolant accident at Wolsong unit 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seon Oh Yu

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The feasibility of cooling in a pressurized heavy water reactor after a large break loss-of-coolant accident has been analyzed using Multidimensional Analysis of Reactor Safety-KINS Standard code during the recirculation phase. Through evaluation of sensitivity of the fuel channel temperature to various effective recirculation flow areas, it is determined that proper cooling of the fuel channels in the broken loop is feasible if the effective flow area remains above approximately 70% of the nominal flow area. When the flow area is reduced by more than approximately 25% of the nominal value, however, incipience of boiling is expected, after which the thermal integrity of the fuel channel can be threatened. In addition, if a dramatic reduction of the recirculation flow occurs, excursions and frequent fluctuations of temperature in the fuel channels are likely to be unavoidable, and thus damage to the fuel channels would be anticipated. To resolve this, emergency coolant supply through the newly installed external injection path can be used as one alternative means of cooling, enabling fuel channel integrity to be maintained and permanently preventing severe accident conditions. Thus, the external injection flow required to guarantee fuel channel coolability has been estimated.

  8. Randomized Controlled Study to Investigate the Effect of Topical Diquafosol Tetrasodium on Corneal Sensitivity in Short Tear Break-Up Time Dry Eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaido, Minako; Kawashima, Motoko; Shigeno, Yuta; Yamada, Yoshiaki; Tsubota, Kazuo

    2018-05-01

    Complex mechanisms underlie dry eye (DE) symptom provocation. In particular, corneal hypersensitivity may provoke symptoms in short tear break-up time (BUT) DE characterized by tear film instability. We hypothesized that improved tear film stability may alleviate corneal sensitivity in patients with short tear BUT DE. Therefore, we investigated the effect of topical diquafosol tetrasodium (DQS) on corneal sensitivity in unstable tear film DE. This prospective, randomized study included 27 subjects (age: 39.1 ± 8.4 years; range: 25-59 years) with short tear BUT DE, defined based on the presence of DE symptoms and tear film instability. Subjects were randomly divided into DQS (3% DQS, 12 subjects) and artificial tear (AT; preservative-free AT, 15 subjects) groups. Subjects applied the medication 6 times a day for 5 weeks. The perception of touch (S-touch) and pain (S-pain) sensitivity was measured using a Cochet-Bonnet esthesiometer. Tear evaluation, corneal sensitivity, and DE symptoms were compared before and after DQS or AT administration. The correlation between the improvement degrees of corneal sensitivity and DE symptoms following medication was analyzed. DQS significantly improved tear BUT and tear meniscus height (TMH) scores (p short tear BUT DE. However, DQS seems to be more effective to adjust tear environment, leading to the normalization of corneal sensitivity and DE symptoms. UMIN Clinical Trials Registry Identifier, UMIN000014536.

  9. Effect of the long-term memory on the beam break-up instability of a single bunch in storage rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pestrikov, D.V.

    2009-01-01

    We study modifications of the beam break-up instability of transverse coherent oscillations of a single bunch which occur in storage rings due to weak wakefields decaying longer than the revolution period of particles. The long-term part of the wake results in the eigenmode spectra of coherent oscillations. Both stable and unstable modes are found for coherent oscillations of a monochromatic bunch. The single turn wakefields result in the beam break-up coherent oscillations of the bunch. The found eigenmode spectrum does not contain a leading unstable mode. Despite the exponential increase in time of the eigenmodes, both self-consistent and the beam break-up parts of the coherent oscillations indicate similar and non-exponential time dependencies. The beam break-up behavior dominates, if the wake memory is weak.

  10. Flavour Geometry and Effective Yukawa Couplings in the MSSM

    CERN Document Server

    Ellis, John; Lee, Jae Sik; Pilaftsis, Apostolos

    2010-01-01

    We present a new geometric approach to the flavour decomposition of an arbitrary soft supersymmetry-breaking sector in the MSSM. Our approach is based on the geometry that results from the quark and lepton Yukawa couplings, and enables us to derive the necessary and sufficient conditions for a linearly-independent basis of matrices related to the completeness of the internal [SU(3) x U(1)]^5 flavour space. In a second step, we calculate the effective Yukawa couplings that are enhanced at large values of tan(beta) for general soft supersymmetry-breaking mass parameters. We highlight the contributions due to non-universal terms in the flavour decompositions of the sfermion mass matrices. We present numerical examples illustrating how such terms are induced by renormalization-group evolution starting from universal input boundary conditions, and demonstrate their importance for the flavour-violating effective Yukawa couplings of quarks.

  11. Inertial Symmetry Breaking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hill, Christopher T.

    2018-03-19

    We review and expand upon recent work demonstrating that Weyl invariant theories can be broken "inertially," which does not depend upon a potential. This can be understood in a general way by the "current algebra" of these theories, independently of specific Lagrangians. Maintaining the exact Weyl invariance in a renormalized quantum theory can be accomplished by renormalization conditions that refer back to the VEV's of fields in the action. We illustrate the computation of a Weyl invariant Coleman-Weinberg potential that breaks a U(1) symmetry together,with scale invariance.

  12. Break the Pattern!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasse, Cathrine; Trentemøller, Stine

    Break the Pattern! A critical enquiry into three scientific workplace cultures: Hercules, Caretakers and Worker Bees is the third publication of the international three year long project "Understanding Puzzles in the Gendered European Map" (UPGEM). By contrasting empirical findings from academic ...... (physics in culture) and discuss how physics as and in culture influence the perception of science, of work and family life, of the interplay between religion and science as well as how physics as culture can either hinder or promote the career of female scientists....

  13. Breaking the Waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Poul Rind; Kirketerp, Anne

    2006-01-01

    The paper shortly reveals the history of a small school - the KaosPilots - dedicated to educate young people to carriers as entrepreneurs. In this contribution we want to explore how the KaosPilots managed to break the waves of institutionalised concepts and practices of teaching entrepreneurship....... Following the so-called 'Dogma' concept developed by Danish filmmakers, this contribution aim to explore the key elements making up the recipes guiding the entrepreneurship training program exercised by the school. Key factors forming a community of learning practice are outlined as well as the critical...... pedagogical elements on which the education in entrepreneurship rests....

  14. Effect of Wortmannin on the repair profiles of DNA double-strand breaks in the whole genome and in interstitial telomeric sequences of Chinese hamster cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Losada, Raquel; Rivero, Maria Teresa; Slijepcevic, Predrag; Goyanes, Vicente; Fernandez, Jose Luis

    2005-01-01

    The DNA breakage detection-fluorescence in situ hybridization (DBD-FISH) procedure was applied to analyze the effect of Wortmannin (WM) in the rejoining kinetics of ionizing radiation-induced DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) in the whole genome and in the long interstitial telomeric repeat sequence (ITRS) blocks from Chinese hamster cell lines. The results indicate that the ITRS blocks from wild-type Chinese hamster cell lines, CHO9 and V79B, exhibit a slower initial rejoining rate of ionizing radiation-induced DSBs than the genome overall. Neither Rad51C nor the catalytic subunit of DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PKcs) activities, involved in homologous recombination (HR) and in non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ) pathways of DSB repair respectively, influenced the rejoining kinetics within ITRS in contrast to DNA sequences in the whole genome. Nevertheless, DSB removal rate within ITRS was decreased in the absence of Ku86 activity, though at a lower affectation level than in the whole genome, thus homogenizing both rejoining kinetics rates. WM treatment slowed down the DSB rejoining kinetics rate in ITRS, this effect being more pronounced in the whole genome, resulting in a similar pattern to that of the Ku86 deficient cells. In fact, no WM effect was detected in the Ku86 deficient Chinese hamster cells, so probably WM does not add further impairment in DSB rejoining than that resulted as a consequence of absence of Ku activity. The same slowing effect was also observed after treatment of Rad51C and DNA-PKcs defective hamster cells by WM, suggesting that: (1) there is no potentiation of the HR when the NHEJ is impaired by WM, either in the whole genome or in the ITRS, and (2) that this impairment may probably involve more targets than DNA-PKcs. These results suggest that there is an intragenomic heterogeneity in DSB repair, as well as in the effect of WM on this process

  15. Cellular and subcellular effect of heavy ions: A comparison of the induction of strand breaks and chromosomal aberration with the incidence of inactivation and mutation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraft, G.; Kraft-Weyrather, W.; Ritter, S.; Scholz, M.; Stanton, J.

    1988-10-01

    Radiobiological effects of heavy charged particles are compared for a large variety of ions from Helium to Uranium and energies between 1 and 1000 MeV/u which correspond to LET values between 10 and 16000 keV/μm. The different cross section for the induction of strand breaks and chromosomal aberrations as well as for inactivation and mutation induction exhibit striking similarities when compared as function of the linear energy transfer (LET). At LET values below 100 keV/μm all data points of one specific effect form one single curve as a function of LET, independent of the atomic number of the ion. In this LET range, the biological effects are independent from the particle energy or track structure and depend only on the energy transfer. Therefore, LET is a good parameter in tis regime. For LET values greater than 100 keV/μm, the curves for the different ions separate from the common curve in order of increasing atomic numbers. In this regime LET is no longer a good parameter and the physical parameters of the formation of particle tracks are important. The similarity of the σ-LET curves for different endpoints indicates that the 'hook-structure' is produced by physical and chemical effects which occur before the biologically relevant lesions are formed. However, from the existing data of biological effects, it can be concluded that the efficiencies for cell killing are always smaller than those extrapolated from X-ray data on the basis of the energy deposition only. Therefore, cells which are directly hit by an HZE particle are not killed and undergo a finite risk of mutation and transformation. (orig.)

  16. Bootstrap Dynamical Symmetry Breaking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Shu Hou

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the emergence of a 125 GeV Higgs-like particle at the LHC, we explore the possibility of dynamical electroweak symmetry breaking by strong Yukawa coupling of very heavy new chiral quarks Q . Taking the 125 GeV object to be a dilaton with suppressed couplings, we note that the Goldstone bosons G exist as longitudinal modes V L of the weak bosons and would couple to Q with Yukawa coupling λ Q . With m Q ≳ 700  GeV from LHC, the strong λ Q ≳ 4 could lead to deeply bound Q Q ¯ states. We postulate that the leading “collapsed state,” the color-singlet (heavy isotriplet, pseudoscalar Q Q ¯ meson π 1 , is G itself, and a gap equation without Higgs is constructed. Dynamical symmetry breaking is affected via strong λ Q , generating m Q while self-consistently justifying treating G as massless in the loop, hence, “bootstrap,” Solving such a gap equation, we find that m Q should be several TeV, or λ Q ≳ 4 π , and would become much heavier if there is a light Higgs boson. For such heavy chiral quarks, we find analogy with the π − N system, by which we conjecture the possible annihilation phenomena of Q Q ¯ → n V L with high multiplicity, the search of which might be aided by Yukawa-bound Q Q ¯ resonances.

  17. Breaking of ocean surface waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babanin, A.V.

    2009-01-01

    Wind-generated waves are the most prominent feature of the ocean surface, and so are breaking waves manifested by the appearance of sporadic whitecaps. Such breaking represents one of the most interesting and most challenging problems for both fluid mechanics and physical oceanography. It is an intermittent random process, very fast by comparison with other processes in the wave breaking on the water surface is not continuous, but its role in maintaining the energy balance within the continuous wind-wave field is critical. Ocean wave breaking also plays the primary role in the air-sea exchange of momentum, mass and heat, and it is of significant importance for ocean remote sensing, coastal and maritime engineering, navigation and other practical applications. Understanding the wave breaking its occurrence, the breaking rates and even ability to describe its onset has been hindered for decades by the strong non-linearity of the process, together with its irregular and ferocious nature. Recently, this knowledge has significantly advanced, and the review paper is an attempt to summarise the facts into a consistent, albeit still incomplete picture of the phenomenon. In the paper, variety of definitions related to the were breaking are discussed and formulated and methods for breaking detection and measurements are examined. Most of attention is dedicated to the research of wave breaking probability and severity. Experimental, observational, numerical and statistical approaches and their outcomes are reviewed. Present state of the wave-breaking research and knowledge is analysed and main outstanding problems are outlined (Authors)

  18. Effect of Chromatin Structure on the Extent and Distribution of DNA Double Strand Breaks Produced by Ionizing Radiation; Comparative Study of hESC and Differentiated Cells Lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatesh, Priyanka; Panyutin, Irina V; Remeeva, Evgenia; Neumann, Ronald D; Panyutin, Igor G

    2016-01-02

    Chromatin structure affects the extent of DNA damage and repair. Thus, it has been shown that heterochromatin is more protective against DNA double strand breaks (DSB) formation by ionizing radiation (IR); and that DNA DSB repair may proceed differently in hetero- and euchromatin regions. Human embryonic stem cells (hESC) have a more open chromatin structure than differentiated cells. Here, we study the effect of chromatin structure in hESC on initial DSB formation and subsequent DSB repair. DSB were scored by comet assay; and DSB repair was assessed by repair foci formation via 53BP1 antibody staining. We found that in hESC, heterochromatin is confined to distinct regions, while in differentiated cells it is distributed more evenly within the nuclei. The same dose of ionizing radiation produced considerably more DSB in hESC than in differentiated derivatives, normal human fibroblasts; and one cancer cell line. At the same time, the number of DNA repair foci were not statistically different among these cells. We showed that in hESC, DNA repair foci localized almost exclusively outside the heterochromatin regions. We also noticed that exposure to ionizing radiation resulted in an increase in heterochromatin marker H3K9me3 in cancer HT1080 cells, and to a lesser extent in IMR90 normal fibroblasts, but not in hESCs. These results demonstrate the importance of chromatin conformation for DNA protection and DNA damage repair; and indicate the difference of these processes in hESC.

  19. Effects of caffeine upon material repair systems involved in the rejoining of x-ray-induced chromosome breaks in the paternal genome of Drosophila melanogaster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osgood, C.J.

    1977-01-01

    Experiments were carried out in which ring-X/B/sup s/Yy + males were x-irradiated and mated with females which had been fed on either 1.0% caffeine in 10% sucrose, 0.2% caffeine in 10% sucrose, or on 10% sucrose alone. F1 progeny were scored for dominant lethals and sex chromosome losses, while in the F2 generation the frequency of translocations was monitored. In line with previous reports it was found that at a concentration of 0.2% caffeine the frequencies of dominant lethals and sex chromosome losses were increased while the frequency of translocations was depressed. At the higher concentration of 1.0% caffeine the frequencies of dominant lethals and sex chromosome losses were depressed. With respect to translocations, while the formation of translocations between autosomes was enhanced in the presence of 1.0% caffeine, the frequency of translocations between the Y and the autosomes was depressed relative to sucrose controls. The proposal is made that at high effective concentrations, caffeine promotes the rejoining of breaks induced in sperm, supported by evidence of an enhancement in the frequency of autosomal translocations in the 1.0% caffeine series and consistent with the depression in the frequencies of dominant lethals and sex chromosome losses in the 1.0% series as compared to sucrose controls

  20. Effect of vanillin on methylene blue plus light-induced single-strand breaks in plasmid pBR322 DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, S S; Ghosh, A; Devasagayam, T P; Chauhan, P S

    2000-09-20

    The ability of vanillin (4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzaldehyde), a naturally occurring food flavouring agent, in inhibiting photosensitization-induced single-strand breaks (ssbs) in plasmid pBR322 DNA has been examined in an in vitro system, independent of DNA repair/replication processes. Photosensitization of DNA with methylene blue, visible light and oxygen, induced ssbs resulting in the production of open circular form (OC form) in a concentration-dependent manner. The yield of OC form induced by photosensitization was increased several-fold by deuteration of the buffer and was found to be inhibited by sodium azide, a scavenger of singlet oxygen (1O(2)). Vanillin, per se, did not induce but inhibited photosensitization-induced ssbs in plasmid DNA, at millimolar concentrations. The inhibitory effect of vanillin was both concentration- and time-dependent. On a molar basis, vanillin was, however, less effective than trolox, a water-soluble analogue of alpha-tocopherol. Photosensitization by methylene blue system generates singlet oxygen, as one of the major components of ROS. Therefore, interaction of singlet oxygen with vanillin was investigated. The rate constant of vanillin with 1O(2) was estimated to be 5.93x10(7)M(-1)s(-1) and that of sodium azide as 2. 7x10(8)M(-1)s(-1). The present investigations show that vanillin can protect against photosensitization-induced ssbs in the plasmid pBR322 DNA, and this effect may partly be due to its ability to scavenge 1O(2).

  1. Mechanisms of strand break formation in DNA due to the direct effect of ionizing radiation: the dependency of free base release on the length of alternating CG oligodeoxynucleotides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Kiran K; Razskazovskiy, Yuriy; Purkayastha, Shubhadeep; Bernhard, William A

    2009-06-11

    The question of how NA base sequence influences the yield of DNA strand breaks produced by the direct effect of ionizing radiation was investigated in a series of oligodeoxynucleotides of the form (d(CG)(n))(2) and (d(GC)(n))(2). The yields of free base release from X-irradiated DNA films containing 2.5 waters/nucleotide were measured by HPLC as a function of oligomer length. For (d(CG)(n))(2), the ratio of the Gua yield to Cyt yield, R, was relatively constant at 2.4-2.5 for n = 2-4 and it decreased to 1.2 as n increased from 5 to 10. When Gua was moved to the 5' end, for example going from d(CG)(5) to d(GC)(5), R dropped from 1.9 +/- 0.1 to 1.1 +/- 0.1. These effects are poorly described if the chemistry at the oligomer ends is assumed to be independent of the remainder of the oligomer. A mathematical model incorporating charge transfer through the base stack was derived to explain these effects. In addition, EPR was used to measure the yield of trapped-deoxyribose radicals at 4 K following X-irradiation at 4 K. The yield of free base release was substantially greater, by 50-100 nmol/J, than the yield of trapped-deoxyribose radicals. Therefore, a large fraction of free base release stems from a nonradical intermediate. For this intermediate, a deoxyribose carbocation formed by two one-electron oxidations is proposed. This reaction pathway requires that the hole (electron loss site) transfers through the base stack and, upon encountering a deoxyribose hole, oxidizes that site to form a deoxyribose carbocation. This reaction mechanism provides a consistent way of explaining both the absence of trapped radical intermediates and the unusual dependence of free base release on oligomer length.

  2. Critical endline of the finite temperature phase transition for 2+1 flavor QCD away from the SU(3-flavor symmetric point

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nakamura Yoshifumi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the critical end line of the finite temperature phase transition of QCD away from the SU(3-flavor symmetric point at zero chemical potential. We employ the renormalization-group improved Iwasaki gauge action and non-perturbatively O(a- improved Wilson-clover fermion action. The critical end line is determined by using the intersection point of kurtosis, employing the multi-parameter, multi-ensemble reweighting method at the temporal size NT = 6 and lattice spacing as low as a ≈0.19 fm.

  3. Spin dependence of intra-ground-state-band E2 transitions in the SU(3) limit of the sdg interacting boson model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, G. L.; Ji, H. Y.

    1998-04-01

    B(E2, L+2-->L) transitions in the sdg interacting boson model SU(3) limit are studied with a general E2 transition operator. Analytical expressions are obtained using a group theoretic method. It is found that when using transition operators of the form (d†g~+g†d~)2 or (g†g~)2, the B(E2, L+2-->L) values in the ground-state band have an L(L+3) dependent term. As L increases, the B(E2) values can be larger than the rigid rotor model value. Application to 236,238U is discussed.

  4. Small break loss of coolant accidents: Bottom and side break

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hardy, P.G.; Richter, H.J.

    1987-01-01

    A LOCA can be caused, e.g. by a small break in the primary cooling system. The rate of fluid escaping through such a break will define the time until the core will be uncovered. Therefore the prediction of fluid loss and pressure transient is of major importance to plan for timely action in response to such an event. Stratification of the two phases might be present upstream of the break, thus, the location of the break relative to the vapor-liquid interface and the overall upstream fluid conditions are relevant for the calculation of fluid loss. Experimental results and analyses are presented here for small breaks at the bottom or at the side of a small pressure vessel. It was found that in such a case the onset of the so-called ''vapor pull through'' is important but swelling at sufficient depressurization rates of the liquid due to flashing is also of significance. It was also discovered that in the bottom break the flow rate is strongly dependent on the break entrance quality of the vapour-liquid mixture. The side break can be treated similarly to the bottom break if the interface level is above the break. The analyses developed on the basis of experimental observations showed reasonable agreement of predicted and measured pressure transients. It was possible to calculate the changing interface level and mixture void fraction history in a way compatible with the behavior observed during the experiments. Even though the experiments were performed at low pressures, this work should help to get a better understanding of physical phenomena occurring in a full scale small break LOCA. (orig./HP)

  5. PWR cold-leg small break loca with faulty HPI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumamaru, H.; Kukita, Y.

    1991-01-01

    The ROSA-IV Large Scale Test Facility (LSTF) is a 1/48 volumetrically-scaled model of a pressurized water reactor (PWR). At the LSTF are performed cold-leg small-break loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) tests with faulty high pressure injection (HPI) system for break areas from 0.5% to 10% and an intentional primary system depressurization test following a small-break LOCA test. A simple prediction model is proposed for prediction of times of major events. Test data and calculations show that intentional primary system depressurization with use of the pressurizer power-operated relief valves (PORVs) is effective for break areas of approximately 0.5% or less, is unnecessary for breaks of 5% or more, and is insufficient for intermediate break areas to maintain adequate core cooling. (author)

  6. Break the "wall" and become creative: Enacting embodied metaphors in virtual reality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xinyue; Lu, Kelong; Runco, Mark A; Hao, Ning

    2018-07-01

    This study investigated whether the experience of "breaking the walls", the embodiment of the metaphor "breaking the rules", could enhance creative performance. The virtual reality technology was used to simulate the scenario where participants could "break the walls" while walking in a corridor. Participants were asked to solve the creativity-demanding problems (ie., alternative uses tasks, AUT) in either the "break" condition in which they had to break the walls to move forward in VR, or the "no-break" condition where no barrier walls would appear. Results showed higher AUT originality and AUT fluency in the "break" condition than in the "no-break" condition. Moreover, the effects of "breaking the walls" on AUT originality were fully mediated by cognitive flexibility and persistence. These findings may indicate that enacting metaphors such as "breaking the rules" contribute to creative performance. The enhanced cognitive flexibility and persistence may account for the benefits. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Electroweak breaking in supersymmetric models

    CERN Document Server

    Ibáñez, L E

    1992-01-01

    We discuss the mechanism for electroweak symmetry breaking in supersymmetric versions of the standard model. After briefly reviewing the possible sources of supersymmetry breaking, we show how the required pattern of symmetry breaking can automatically result from the structure of quantum corrections in the theory. We demonstrate that this radiative breaking mechanism works well for a heavy top quark and can be combined in unified versions of the theory with excellent predictions for the running couplings of the model. (To be published in ``Perspectives in Higgs Physics'', G. Kane editor.)

  8. U(1) mediation of flux supersymmetry breaking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimm, Thomas W.; Klemm, Albrecht

    2008-10-01

    We study the mediation of supersymmetry breaking triggered by background fluxes in Type II string compactifications with Script N = 1 supersymmetry. The mediation arises due to an U(1) vector multiplet coupling to both a hidden supersymmetry breaking flux sector and a visible D-brane sector. The required internal manifolds can be constructed by non-Kähler resolutions of singular Calabi-Yau manifolds. The effective action encoding the U(1) coupling is then determined in terms of the global topological properties of the internal space. We investigate suitable local geometries for the hidden and visible sector in detail. This includes a systematic study of orientifold symmetries of del Pezzo surfaces realized in compact geometries after geometric transition. We construct compact examples admitting the key properties to realize flux supersymmetry breaking and U(1) mediation. Their toric realization allows us to analyze the geometry of curve classes and confirm the topological connection between the hidden and visible sector.

  9. Report of Break Out Group 1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alward, Randy; Carley, Kathleen M.; Madsen, Fredrik Huitfeldt

    2006-01-01

    , action" (OODA) loop. The break out group discussed vulnerability presentation needs common across various application domains, particularly in support of network discovery and network analysis tasks in those domains. Finally, the break out group wished to determine whether there is a means...... of characterizing a vulnerability. This would take into account the potential for the vulnerability to be exploited as well as the potential impact on the operations supported by the network, and on the network structure itself, of a successful exploit of that vulnerability.......To help understand a network and its ability to continue operating when under attack, the break out group discussed issues that need to be considered when presenting network vulnerability information to an analyst, manager or commander in effective support of that person's "observe, orient, decide...

  10. U(1) mediation of flux supersymmetry breaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grimm, Thomas W.; Klemm, Albrecht

    2008-01-01

    We study the mediation of supersymmetry breaking triggered by background fluxes in Type II string compactifications with N = 1 supersymmetry. The mediation arises due to an U(1) vector multiplet coupling to both a hidden supersymmetry breaking flux sector and a visible D-brane sector. The required internal manifolds can be constructed by non-Kaehler resolutions of singular Calabi-Yau manifolds. The effective action encoding the U(1) coupling is then determined in terms of the global topological properties of the internal space. We investigate suitable local geometries for the hidden and visible sector in detail. This includes a systematic study of orientifold symmetries of del Pezzo surfaces realized in compact geometries after geometric transition. We construct compact examples admitting the key properties to realize flux supersymmetry breaking and U(1) mediation. Their toric realization allows us to analyze the geometry of curve classes and confirm the topological connection between the hidden and visible sector.

  11. The donor line break cannula: effect on the donation process, blood component quality and transfusion microbiology testing of an important new blood bag safety feature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nightingale, M J; Beard, M J; Bennett, J; Hambleton, R; Ramskill, S; Thomas, S

    2013-08-01

    The use of blood packs with an integral sampling system can result in anti-coagulant from the main bag reaching the sample pouch via the donor line, causing delayed coagulation of blood samples. In NHS Blood and Transplant, this has prevented the use of serum, the preferred matrix for transfusion microbiology (TM) testing, which has led to an increased false positive rate with ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) plasma. There is also a remote possibility of false negative results owing to sample dilution. Manufacturers have responded by offering packs with a donor line break cannula (DLBC) to prevent these adverse effects. The aims of this study were to assess the impact of DLBC packs on donation, blood component quality and of the potential return to serum for TM testing. DLBC packs from three manufacturers were assessed against control packs of the same dimensions and configuration. Donation duration, flow rate, platelet factor 4, prothrombin fragment 1+2, haemolysis and collection and processing incidents were compared. Results indicated no clinically significant adverse effect from the DLBC on the activation state of platelets, the coagulation cascade or increased haemolysis. Donation duration and blood collection and processing incident rates for DLBC packs were not significantly different to controls. The use of DLBC packs would reduce the complexity of manipulations during blood collection and therefore the likelihood of microbially contaminated donations (incorrect skin core diversion) and false negative TM tests. DLBC packs would enable the use of serum for TM testing with a significant reduction in false positive tests compared to EDTA plasma. © 2013 The Authors. Transfusion Medicine © 2013 British Blood Transfusion Society.

  12. Effects of Secondary Circuit Modeling on Results of Pressurized Water Reactor Main Steam Line Break Benchmark Calculations with New Coupled Code TRAB-3D/SMABRE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daavittila, Antti; Haemaelaeinen, Anitta; Kyrki-Rajamaeki, Riitta

    2003-01-01

    All of the three exercises of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development/Nuclear Regulatory Commission pressurized water reactor main steam line break (PWR MSLB) benchmark were calculated at VTT, the Technical Research Centre of Finland. For the first exercise, the plant simulation with point-kinetic neutronics, the thermal-hydraulics code SMABRE was used. The second exercise was calculated with the three-dimensional reactor dynamics code TRAB-3D, and the third exercise with the combination TRAB-3D/SMABRE. VTT has over ten years' experience of coupling neutronic and thermal-hydraulic codes, but this benchmark was the first time these two codes, both developed at VTT, were coupled together. The coupled code system is fast and efficient; the total computation time of the 100-s transient in the third exercise was 16 min on a modern UNIX workstation. The results of all the exercises are similar to those of the other participants. In order to demonstrate the effect of secondary circuit modeling on the results, three different cases were calculated. In case 1 there is no phase separation in the steam lines and no flow reversal in the aspirator. In case 2 the flow reversal in the aspirator is allowed, but there is no phase separation in the steam lines. Finally, in case 3 the drift-flux model is used for the phase separation in the steam lines, but the aspirator flow reversal is not allowed. With these two modeling variations, it is possible to cover a remarkably broad range of results. The maximum power level reached after the reactor trip varies from 534 to 904 MW, the range of the time of the power maximum being close to 30 s. Compared to the total calculated transient time of 100 s, the effect of the secondary side modeling is extremely important

  13. Effects of non-aqueous fluids-associated drill cuttings discharge on shelf break macrobenthic communities in the Campos Basin, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Maria Fernanda L; Silva, Janete; Fachel, Jandyra M G; Pulgati, Fernando H

    2010-08-01

    This paper assesses the effects of non-aqueous fluids (NAF)-associated drill cuttings discharge on shelf break macrobenthic communities in the Campos Basin, off the southeast Brazilian coast, Rio de Janeiro State. Samples were taken with a 0.25-m2 box corer from surrounding two oil and gas wells on three monitoring cruises: before drilling, three months after drilling, and 22 months after drilling. Statistical methodologies used Bayesian geostatistical and analysis of variance models to evaluate the effects of the NAF-associated drill cuttings discharge and to define the impact area. The results indicated that marked variations were not observed in the number of families between cruises, though there were changes in the fauna composition. The changes seen in biological descriptors in both control and background situation areas were not considered significant, showing a temporal homogeneity in means. The impact area presented changes in biological descriptors of communities and trophic structure during the three cruises and such changes were correlated to chemical and physical variables related to the drilling activities, as a result of the mix of drill cuttings and sediment and the anoxic conditions established in the substrate. In that area, three months after drilling, a decrease in diversity and an increase in density, motile deposit-feeders and Pol/Crp ratio, and dominance of opportunistic organisms, such as the capitellid Capitella sp., were observed and, 22 months after drilling, an increase of diversity, reduction of dominance of capitellid polychaete, changes in the fauna composition, and a dominance of opportunistic burrowing and tube-building organisms were observed, indicating an ecological succession process.

  14. Dynamical Symmetry Breaking in RN Quantum Gravity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. T. Kotvytskiy

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We show that in the RN gravitation model, there is no dynamical symmetry breaking effect in the formalism of the Schwinger-Dyson equation (in flat background space-time. A general formula for the second variation of the gravitational action is obtained from the quantum corrections hμν (in arbitrary background metrics.

  15. Spontaneous symmetry breaking in N = 2 supergravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zinov'ev, Y.M.

    1987-01-01

    A model describing the interaction of N = 2 supergravity with a vector and a linear multiplet is constructed. The model admits the introduction of spontaneous supersymmetry breaking with two arbitrary scales, one of which can be equal to zero, corresponding to the partial super-Higgs effect (N = 2→N = 1). The cosmological term is automatically equal to zero

  16. SU(3)_C× SU(2)_L× U(1)_Y( × U(1)_X ) as a symmetry of division algebraic ladder operators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furey, C.

    2018-05-01

    We demonstrate a model which captures certain attractive features of SU(5) theory, while providing a possible escape from proton decay. In this paper we show how ladder operators arise from the division algebras R, C, H, and O. From the SU( n) symmetry of these ladder operators, we then demonstrate a model which has much structural similarity to Georgi and Glashow's SU(5) grand unified theory. However, in this case, the transitions leading to proton decay are expected to be blocked, given that they coincide with presumably forbidden transformations which would incorrectly mix distinct algebraic actions. As a result, we find that we are left with G_{sm} = SU(3)_C× SU(2)_L× U(1)_Y / Z_6. Finally, we point out that if U( n) ladder symmetries are used in place of SU( n), it may then be possible to find this same G_{sm}=SU(3)_C× SU(2)_L× U(1)_Y / Z_6, together with an extra U(1)_X symmetry, related to B-L.

  17. Comparison of the effect of radiation exposure from dual-energy CT versus single-energy CT on double-strand breaks at CT pulmonary angiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Shu Min; Li, Xie; Schoepf, U Joseph; Nance, John W; Jacobs, Brian E; Zhou, Chang Sheng; Gu, Hai Feng; Lu, Meng Jie; Lu, Guang Ming; Zhang, Long Jiang

    2018-04-01

    To compare the effect of dual-source dual-energy CT versus single-energy CT on DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) in blood lymphocytes at CT pulmonary angiography (CTPA). Sixty-two patients underwent either dual-energy CTPA (Group 1: n = 21, 80/Sn140 kVp, 89/38 mAs; Group 2: n = 20, 100/Sn140 kVp, 89/76 mAs) or single-energy CTPA (Group 3: n = 21, 120 kVp, 110 mAs). Blood samples were obtained before and 5 min after CTPA. DSBs were assessed with fluorescence microscopy and Kruskal-Walls tests were used to compare DSBs levels among groups. Volume CT dose index (CTDIvol), dose length product (DLP) and organ radiation dose were compared using ANOVA. There were increased excess DSB foci per lymphocyte 5 min after CTPA examinations in three groups (Group 1: P = .001; Group 2: P = .001; Group 3: P = .006). There were no differences among groups regarding excess DSB foci/cell and percentage of excess DSBs (Group 1, 23%; Group 2, 24%; Group 3, 20%; P = .932). CTDIvol, DLP and organ radiation dose in Group 1 were the lowest among the groups (all P dual-source and single-source CTPA, while dual-source dual-energy CT protocols do not increase the estimated radiation dose and also do not result in a higher incidence of DNA DSBs in patients undergoing CTPA. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. R-parity breaking phenomenology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vissani, F.

    1996-02-01

    We review various features of the R-parity breaking phenomenology, with particular attention to the low energy observables, and to the patterns of the R-parity breaking interactions that arise in Grand Unified models. (author). 22 refs, 1 fig., 3 tabs

  19. The Relation between Popularity and Aggressive, Destructive, and Norm-Breaking Behaviors: Moderating Effects of Athletic Abilities, Physical Attractiveness, and Prosociality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dijkstra, Jan Kornelis; Lindenberg, Siegwart; Verhulst, Frank C.; Ormel, Johan; Veenstra, Rene

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the relations between popularity and different types of aggressive, destructive, and norm-breaking behaviors in a large cross-sectional sample of adolescents (N=3,312, M age=13.60). We were interested in the extent to which the relations of these behaviors with popularity were moderated by positive features…

  20. Pulmonary exposure to carbon black by inhalation or instillation in pregnant mice: Effects on liver DNA strand breaks in dams and offspring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jackson, Petra; Hougaard, Karin Sørig; Boisen, Anne Mette Zenner

    2011-01-01

    cells and liver, and in offspring liver. Persistent lung inflammation was observed in exposed mothers. Inhalation exposure induced more DNA strand breaks in the liver of mothers and their offspring, whereas intratracheal instillation did not. Neither inhalation nor instillation affected gestation...... and lactation. Maternal inhalation exposure to Printex 90-induced liver DNA damage in the mothers and the in utero exposed offspring....

  1. Chiral symmetry breaking in QED for weak coupling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, J.C. (Missouri Univ., Columbia, MO (USA). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy); Shen, T.C. (Illinois Univ., Urbana, IL (USA). Beckman Inst.)

    1991-05-01

    We examine the procedure for studying chiral symmetry breaking for weak coupling in QED. We note that while the lowest non-trivial order calculations using numerical solutions to the Schwinger-Dyson equation indicate a breaking of chiral symmetry, the neglected higher-order contributions to the effective potential have imaginary values which can indicate possible instabilities in the theory. (author).

  2. Chiral symmetry breaking in QED for weak coupling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, J.C.; Shen, T.C.

    1991-01-01

    We examine the procedure for studying chiral symmetry breaking for weak coupling in QED. We note that while the lowest non-trivial order calculations using numerical solutions to the Schwinger-Dyson equation indicate a breaking of chiral symmetry, the neglected higher-order contributions to the effective potential have imaginary values which can indicate possible instabilities in the theory. (author)

  3. Dynamics of symmetry breaking in strongly coupled QED

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bardeen, W.A.

    1988-10-01

    I review the dynamical structure of strong coupled QED in the quenched planar limit. The symmetry structure of this theory is examined with reference to the nature of both chiral and scale symmetry breaking. The renormalization structure of the strong coupled phase is analysed. The compatibility of spontaneous scale and chiral symmetry breaking is studied using effective lagrangian methods. 14 refs., 3 figs

  4. The thermodynamic Casimir effect with symmetry-preserving and symmetry-breaking boundary conditions; Der thermodynamische Casimir-Effekt mit symmetrieerhaltenden und symmetriebrechenden Randbedingungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, Felix

    2014-07-16

    When macroscopic bodies are immersed in fluctuating media, long-range forces between these bodies may occur. The fluctuation's spectrum is modified resulting in a dependence of the system's energy on the separation between the objects, straightforwardly leading to the existence of a force between the bodies. This work is dedicated to the analysis of how boundary conditions affect the thermodynamic Casimir effect where thermal fluctuations near a critical point induce these forces. O(n) symmetric φ 4 theories in d-dimensional slab geometries of thickness L are considered. When symmetry breaking external fields are present as well, the generic boundary conditions of these theories read ∂{sub n}φ-c{sub j}φ=-h{sub j} where the coefficients c{sub j} are surface couplings, serving as linearly extrapolated penetration depths into the surfaces in Landau theory, and h{sub j} are surface fields. The influence of the surface couplings c{sub j} on the Casimir force is investigated by means of the renormalization-group-improved perturbation theory in d=4-ε dimensions to two-loop order at the bulk critical point. Special attention is paid to the case of critical enhancement of the surface interactions which results in the existence of a zero mode leading to a breakdown of the usual loop expansion of the free energy and implicating the emergence of non-integer powers of ε in the ε expansion. These perturbative methods are restricted to the disordered phase with T≥T{sub c,∞}, c{sub j}≥c{sub sp}, and h{sub j}=0. In order to extend the analysis to the whole temperature axis, the exactly treatable limit n → ∞ of the three-dimensional φ 4 model is investigated. A set of self-consistent equations for the free energy is derived that can be solved numerically exact. Considering Dirichlet boundary conditions and vanishing external fields, one finds a temperature dependence of the Casimir force that exhibits the qualitative features of the experimentally

  5. Inflation from supersymmetry breaking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antoniadis, I. [UMR CNRS 7589 Sorbonne Universites, UPMC Paris 6, LPTHE, Paris (France); University of Bern, Albert Einstein Center, Institute for Theoretical Physics, Bern (Switzerland); Chatrabhuti, A.; Isono, H.; Knoops, R. [Chulalongkorn University, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Pathumwan, Bangkok (Thailand)

    2017-11-15

    We explore the possibility that inflation is driven by supersymmetry breaking with the superpartner of the goldstino (sgoldstino) playing the role of the inflaton. Moreover, we impose an R-symmetry that allows one to satisfy easily the slow-roll conditions, avoiding the so-called η-problem, and leads to two different classes of small-field inflation models; they are characterised by an inflationary plateau around the maximum of the scalar potential, where R-symmetry is either restored or spontaneously broken, with the inflaton rolling down to a minimum describing the present phase of our Universe. To avoid the Goldstone boson and be left with a single (real) scalar field (the inflaton), R-symmetry is gauged with the corresponding gauge boson becoming massive. This framework generalises a model studied recently by the present authors, with the inflaton identified by the string dilaton and R-symmetry together with supersymmetry restored at weak coupling, at infinity of the dilaton potential. The presence of the D-term allows a tuning of the vacuum energy at the minimum. The proposed models agree with cosmological observations and predict a tensor-to-scalar ratio of primordial perturbations 10{sup -9}

  6. Symmetry breaking by bifundamentals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schellekens, A. N.

    2018-03-01

    We derive all possible symmetry breaking patterns for all possible Higgs fields that can occur in intersecting brane models: bifundamentals and rank-2 tensors. This is a field-theoretic problem that was already partially solved in 1973 by Ling-Fong Li [1]. In that paper the solution was given for rank-2 tensors of orthogonal and unitary group, and U (N )×U (M ) and O (N )×O (M ) bifundamentals. We extend this first of all to symplectic groups. When formulated correctly, this turns out to be straightforward generalization of the previous results from real and complex numbers to quaternions. The extension to mixed bifundamentals is more challenging and interesting. The scalar potential has up to six real parameters. Its minima or saddle points are described by block-diagonal matrices built out of K blocks of size p ×q . Here p =q =1 for the solutions of Ling-Fong Li, and the number of possibilities for p ×q is equal to the number of real parameters in the potential, minus 1. The maximum block size is p ×q =2 ×4 . Different blocks cannot be combined, and the true minimum occurs for one choice of basic block, and for either K =1 or K maximal, depending on the parameter values.

  7. Symmetry and symmetry breaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balian, R.; Lambert, D.; Brack, A.; Lachieze-Rey, M.; Emery, E.; Cohen-Tannoudji, G.; Sacquin, Y.

    1999-01-01

    The symmetry concept is a powerful tool for our understanding of the world. It allows a reduction of the volume of information needed to apprehend a subject thoroughly. Moreover this concept does not belong to a particular field, it is involved in the exact sciences but also in artistic matters. Living beings are characterized by a particular asymmetry: the chiral asymmetry. Although this asymmetry is visible in whole organisms, it seems it comes from some molecules that life always produce in one chirality. The weak interaction presents also the chiral asymmetry. The mass of particles comes from the breaking of a fundamental symmetry and the void could be defined as the medium showing as many symmetries as possible. The texts put together in this book show to a great extent how symmetry goes far beyond purely geometrical considerations. Different aspects of symmetry ideas are considered in the following fields: the states of matter, mathematics, biology, the laws of Nature, quantum physics, the universe, and the art of music. (A.C.)

  8. Immediate Effects of 3% Diquafosol and 0.1% Hyaluronic Acid Ophthalmic Solution on Tear Break-Up Time in Normal Human Eyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Ki Tae; Ahn, So Min; Eom, Youngsub; Kim, Hyo Myung; Song, Jong Suk

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the immediate effect of 3% diquafosol ophthalmic solution on tear break-up time (TBUT) in normal human eyes, and to compare it with that of saline and 0.1% hyaluronate ophthalmic solution. Cross sectional comparative study in the first study, 10 healthy volunteers underwent topical application of 2 different ophthalmic solutions in each eye. Saline was randomly applied to one eye and 3% diquafosol ophthalmic solution was added to the fellow eye. TBUT was measured and video recorded before application and at 5, 10, 15, and 20 min after. The TBUT in each eye was compared at each time point with regard to the 2 different ophthalmic solutions. In the second study, another 10 healthy volunteers were included. The same methods were used to compare the immediate effects of 0.1% hyaluronate and 3% diquafosol ophthalmic solution application on TBUT. In the first study, topical instillation of saline did not increase TBUT. However, 3% diquafosol significantly increased TBUT for up to 15 min after application. At every time point, the TBUT increased more significantly from baseline in the diquafosol group than it did in the saline group. In the second study, 0.1% hyaluronate increased TBUT for up to 5 min after application, while 3% diquafosol increased TBUT for up to 15 min. Although the TBUT changes after 5 min were not significantly different between the 2 groups, the TBUT changes at 10, 15, and 20 min were significantly greater in the 3% diquafosol group than they were in the 0.1% hyaluronic acid group (+1.58 ± 0.82 vs. +0.53 ± 1.36 at 10 min, +0.67 ± 0.91 vs. -0.04 ± 1.29 at 15 min, and -0.06 ± 0.96 vs. -0.59 ± 0.90, diquafosol group vs. hyaluronic acid group). One drop of 3% diquafosol increased TBUT for up to 15 min after application. The immediate effect of 3% diquafosol on TBUT was greater than that of saline and even that of 1% hyaluronate ophthalmic solution.

  9. The effect of dietary phosphorus level and phytase supplementation on growth performance, bone-breaking strength, and litter phosphorus concentration in broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, S; Johnston, S; Gaston, L; Southern, L L

    2008-05-01

    This research was conducted to determine the effects of feeding different P levels with and without phytase supplementation on broiler growth performance, bone-breaking strength (BBS), and litter P concentration. An experiment with 4 trials was conducted with 7,840 Ross x Ross straight-run broilers. For each trial, 1,960 broilers were allotted on d 0 to treatments, with 7 replications each and with 70 broilers per replication. The broilers were fed a 4-period feeding program consisting of starter (0 to 14 d), grower (14 to 32 d), finisher (32 to 41 d), and withdrawal (41 to 50 d) periods. For each trial, the same pen was used continuously for each treatment-replication combination, and the litter was not removed between trials. Broilers were fed a control diet [0.43, 0.40, 0.36, or 0.32% nonphytate P (nPP)] in the starter, grower, finisher, and withdrawal periods, respectively, a low Ca and P (LCaP) diet with a 0.05% reduction in nPP in each period, and these 2 diets supplemented with phytase at 600 phytase units/kg (nPP and Ca were reduced by 0.094% in diets with phytase). Diet did not affect (P > 0.10) broiler performance in the starter or withdrawal periods. Generally, both phytase addition and the LCaP diet decreased some aspects of growth performance during the grower and finisher periods. There was no main effect of phytase on BBS, but BBS was decreased in the broilers fed the LCaP diet with phytase addition (nPP x phytase, P broilers fed the LCaP diet. Total P, soluble P (SP), and reactive soluble P (RSP) were decreased (P litter of broilers fed the LCaP diets. Total P, SP, and RSP were decreased (P litter of broilers fed phytase. These data indicate that phytase supplementation at 600 phytase units/kg reduces growth in some periods, has no effect on BBS, and reduces total P, SP, and RSP in the litter.

  10. Exponential Increase in Relative Biological Effectiveness Along Distal Edge of a Proton Bragg Peak as Measured by Deoxyribonucleic Acid Double-Strand Breaks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cuaron, John J., E-mail: cuaronj@mskcc.org [Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Chang, Chang [Texas Center for Proton Therapy, Irving, Texas (United States); Lovelock, Michael; Higginson, Daniel S. [Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Mah, Dennis [Procure Proton Therapy Center, Somerset, New Jersey (United States); Cahlon, Oren; Powell, Simon [Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States)

    2016-05-01

    Purpose: To quantify the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of the distal edge of the proton Bragg peak, using an in vitro assay of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). Methods and Materials: U2OS cells were irradiated within the plateau of a spread-out Bragg peak and at each millimeter position along the distal edge using a custom slide holder, allowing for simultaneous measurement of physical dose. A reference radiation signal was generated using photons. The DNA DSBs at 3 hours (to assess for early damage) and at 24 hours (to assess for residual damage and repair) after irradiation were measured using the γH2AX assay and quantified via flow cytometry. Results were confirmed with clonogenic survival assays. A detailed map of the RBE as a function of depth along the Bragg peak was generated using γH2AX measurements as a biological endpoint. Results: At 3 hours after irradiation, DNA DSBs were higher with protons at every point along the distal edge compared with samples irradiated with photons to similar doses. This effect was even more pronounced after 24 hours, indicating that the impact of DNA repair is less after proton irradiation relative to photons. The RBE demonstrated an exponential increase as a function of depth and was measured to be as high as 4.0 after 3 hours and as high as 6.0 after 24 hours. When the RBE-corrected dose was plotted as a function of depth, the peak effective dose was extended 2-3 mm beyond what would be expected with physical measurement. Conclusions: We generated a highly comprehensive map of the RBE of the distal edge of the Bragg peak, using a direct assay of DNA DSBs in vitro. Our data show that the RBE of the distal edge increases with depth and is significantly higher than previously reported estimates.

  11. SUSY breaking mediation by throat fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruemmer, F.; Hebecker, A.; Trapletti, M.

    2006-01-01

    We investigate, in the general framework of KKLT, the mediation of supersymmetry breaking by fields propagating in the strongly warped region of the compactification manifold ('throat fields'). Such fields can couple both to the supersymmetry breaking sector at the IR end of the throat and to the visible sector at the UV end. We model the supersymmetry breaking sector by a chiral superfield which develops an F term vacuum expectation value (also responsible for the uplift). It turns out that the mediation effect of vector multiplets propagating in the throat can compete with modulus-anomaly mediation. Moreover, such vector fields are naturally present as the gauge fields arising from isometries of the throat (most notably the SO(4) isometry of the Klebanov-Strassler solution). Their mediation effect is important in spite of their large 4d mass. The latter is due to the breaking of the throat isometry by the compact manifold at the UV end of the throat. The contribution from heavy chiral superfields is found to be subdominant

  12. Effects of T cell depletion in radiation bone marrow chimeras. II. Requirement for allogeneic T cells in the reconstituting bone marrow inoculum for subsequent resistance to breaking of tolerance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sykes, M.; Sheard, M.A.; Sachs, D.H.

    1988-01-01

    The ability of normal recipient-type lymphocytes to break tolerance in long-term allogenic radiation chimeras has been investigated. Reconstitution of lethally irradiated mice with a mixture of syngeneic and allogeneic T cell-depleted (TCD) bone marrow (BM) has previously been shown to lead to mixed chimerism and permanent, specific tolerance to donor and host alloantigen (3-5). If allogeneic T cells are not depleted from the reconstituting inoculum, complete allogeneic chimerism results; however, no clinical evidence for GVHD is observed, presumably due to the protective effect provided by syngeneic TCD BM. This model has now been used to study the effects of allogenic T cells administered in reconstituting BM inocula on stability of long-term tolerance. We have attempted to break tolerance in long-term chimeras originally reconstituted with TCD or non-TCD BM by challenging them with inocula containing normal, nontolerant recipient strain lymphocytes. tolerance was broken with remarkable ease in recipients of mixed marrow inocula in which both original BM components were TCD. In contrast, tolerance in chimeras originally reconstituted with non-TCD allogeneic BM was not affected by such inocula. Susceptibility to loss of chimerism and tolerance was not related to initial levels of chimerism per se, but rather to T cell depletion of allogeneic BM, since chimeras reconstituted with TCD allogeneic BM alone (mean level of allogeneic chimerism 98%) were as susceptible as mixed chimeras to the tolerance-breaking effects of such inocula. The possible contribution of GVH reactivity to this resistance was investigated using an F1 into parent strain combination. In these animals, the use of non-TCD F1 BM inocula for reconstitution did not lead to resistance to the tolerance-breaking effects of recipient strain splenocytes

  13. Big break for charge symmetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, G.A. [Department of Physics, University of Washington, Seattle (United States); Kolck, U. van [Department of Physics, University of Arizona, Tucson (United States)

    2003-06-01

    Two new experiments have detected charge-symmetry breaking, the mechanism responsible for protons and neutrons having different masses. Symmetry is a crucial concept in the theories that describe the subatomic world because it has an intimate connection with the laws of conservation. The theory of the strong interaction between quarks - quantum chromodynamics - is approximately invariant under what is called charge symmetry. In other words, if we swap an up quark for a down quark, then the strong interaction will look almost the same. This symmetry is related to the concept of {sup i}sospin{sup ,} and is not the same as charge conjugation (in which a particle is replaced by its antiparticle). Charge symmetry is broken by the competition between two different effects. The first is the small difference in mass between up and down quarks, which is about 200 times less than the mass of the proton. The second is their different electric charges. The up quark has a charge of +2/3 in units of the proton charge, while the down quark has a negative charge of -1/3. If charge symmetry was exact, the proton and the neutron would have the same mass and they would both be electrically neutral. This is because the proton is made of two up quarks and a down quark, while the neutron comprises two downs and an up. Replacing up quarks with down quarks, and vice versa, therefore transforms a proton into a neutron. Charge-symmetry breaking causes the neutron to be about 0.1% heavier than the proton because the down quark is slightly heavier than the up quark. Physicists had already elucidated certain aspects of charge-symmetry breaking, but our spirits were raised greatly when we heard of the recent work of Allena Opper of Ohio University in the US and co-workers at the TRIUMF laboratory in British Columbia, Canada. Her team has been trying to observe a small charge-symmetry-breaking effect for several years, using neutron beams at the TRIUMF accelerator. The researchers studied the

  14. Single and repeated moderate consumption of native or dealcoholized red wine show different effects on antioxidant parameters in blood and DNA strand breaks in peripheral leukocytes in healthy volunteers: a randomized controlled trial [ISRCTN68505294

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spengler Ulrich

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Red wine (RW is rich in antioxidant polyphenols that might protect from oxidative stress related diseases, such as cardiovascular disease and cancer. Antioxidant effects after single ingestion of RW or dealcoholized RW (DRW have been observed in several studies, but results after regular consumption are contradictory. Thus, we examined if single or repeated consumption of moderate amounts of RW or DRW exert antioxidant activity in vivo. Methods Total phenolic content and concentration of other antioxidants in plasma/serum, total antioxidant capacity (TEAC in plasma as well as DNA strand breaks in peripheral leukocytes were measured in healthy non-smokers A before, 90 and 360 min after ingestion of one glass of RW, DRW or water; B before and after consumption of one glass of RW or DRW daily for 6 weeks. DNA strand breaks (SB were determined by single cell gel electrophoresis (Comet Assay in untreated cells and after induction of oxidative stress ex vivo with H2O2 (300 μM, 20 min. Results Both RW and DRW transiently increased total phenolic content in plasma after single consumption, but only RW lead to a sustained increase if consumed regularly. Plasma antioxidant capacity was not affected by single or regular consumption of RW or DRW. Effects of RW and DRW on DNA SB were conflicting. DNA strand breaks in untreated cells increased after a single dose of RW and DRW, whereas H2O2 induced SB were reduced after DRW. In contrast, regular RW consumption reduced SB in untreated cells but did not affect H2O2 induced SB. Conclusion The results suggest that consumption of both RW and DRW leads to an accumulation of phenolic compounds in plasma without increasing plasma antioxidant capacity. Red wine and DRW seem to affect the occurrence of DNA strand breaks, but this cannot be referred to antioxidant effects.

  15. Supersymmetry breaking with extra dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zwirner, Fabio

    2004-01-01

    This talk reviews some aspects of supersymmetry breaking in the presence of extra dimensions. The first part is a general introduction, recalling the motivations for supersymmetry and extra dimensions, as well as some unsolved problems of four-dimensional models of supersymmetry breaking. The central part is a more focused introduction to a mechanism for (super)symmetry breaking, proposed first by Scherk and Schwarz, where extra dimensions play a crucial role. The last part is devoted to the description of some recent results and of some open problems. (author)

  16. Charge-independence-breaking in the triton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gloeckle, W.; Lee, T.S.H.; Wiringa, R.B.

    1990-01-01

    We find the effect of the observed charge-independence-breaking in 1 S 0 nucleon-nucleon scattering on the binding energy of the triton to be of order 80 keV. When corrections for this effect are made in an 18-channel momentum-space Faddeev calculation, we find the Paris and Argonne v 14 potentials triton binding energies that differ by only 20 keV

  17. Evaluation of ATLAS 100% DVI Line Break Using TRACE Code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huh, Byung Gil; Bang, Young Seok; Cheong, Ae Ju; Woo, Sweng Woong

    2011-01-01

    ATLAS (Advanced Thermal-Hydraulic Test Loop for Accident Simulation) is an integral effect test facility in KAERI. It had installed completely to simulate the accident for the OPR1000 and the APR1400 in 2005. After then, several tests for LBLOCA, DVI line break have been performed successfully to resolve the safety issues of the APR1400. Especially, a DVI line break is considered as another spectrum among the SBLOCAs in APR1400 because the DVI line is directly connected to the reactor vessel and the thermal hydraulic behaviors are expected to be different from those for the cold leg injection. However, there are not enough experimental data for the DVI line break. Therefore, integral effect data for the DVI line break of ATLAS is very useful and available for an improvement and validation of safety codes. For the DVI line break in ATLAS, several analyses using MARS and RELAP codes were performed in the ATLAS DSP (Domestic Standard Problem) meetings. However, TRACE code has still not used to simulate a DVI line break. TRACE code has developed as the unified code for the reactor thermal hydraulic analyses in USNRC. In this study, the 100% DVI line break in ATLAS was evaluated by TRACE code. The objectives of this study are to identify the prediction capability of TRACE code for the major thermal hydraulic phenomena of a DVI line break in ATLAS

  18. Hierarchy of symmetry-breaking scales in SO(10) grand unification and particle masses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asatryan, G.M.; Ioannisyan, A.N.

    1987-01-01

    An SO(10) grand unification model is proposed in which the introduction of an additional discrete symmetry solves the problem of the quark mass spectrum arising in SO(10) breaking schemes with intermediate SU(4) x SU(2)/sub L/ x SU(2)/sub R/ or SU(3)/sub C/ x U(1)/sub B//sub -//sub L/ x SU(2)/sub L/ x SU(2)/sub R/ symmetry. When the breaking of this discrete symmetry is taken into account the condition that there exist only a single light Higgs boson leads to a relation between the b- and t-quark masses which makes it possible to fix the ratio of the grand unification scale M/sub X/ and the quark--lepton symmetry-breaking scale M/sub C/. The specific values of M/sub X/ and M/sub C/ and also the scale of the SU(2)/sub R/ symmetry breaking M/sub R/ depend on the experimental value of the Weinberg angle and are in agreement with the experimental data on proton decay

  19. Numerical Simulation of a Seaway with Breaking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dommermuth, Douglas; O'Shea, Thomas; Brucker, Kyle; Wyatt, Donald

    2012-11-01

    The focus of this presentation is to describe the recent efforts to simulate a fully non-linear seaway with breaking by using a high-order spectral (HOS) solution of the free-surface boundary value problem to drive a three-dimensional Volume of Fluid (VOF) solution. Historically, the two main types of simulations to simulate free-surface flows are the boundary integral equations method (BIEM) and high-order spectral (HOS) methods. BIEM calculations fail at the point at which the surface impacts upon itself, if not sooner, and HOS methods can only simulate a single valued free-surface. Both also employ a single-phase approximation in which the effects of the air on the water are neglected. Due to these limitations they are unable to simulate breaking waves and air entrainment. The Volume of Fluid (VOF) method on the other hand is suitable for modeling breaking waves and air entrainment. However it is computationally intractable to generate a realistic non-linear sea-state. Here, we use the HOS solution to quickly drive, or nudge, the VOF solution into a non-linear state. The computational strategies, mathematical formulation, and numerical implementation will be discussed. The results of the VOF simulation of a seaway with breaking will also be presented, and compared to the single phase, single valued HOS results.

  20. Pair breaking and charge relaxation in superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nielson, J.B.; Pethick, C.J.; Rammer, J.; Smith, H.

    1982-01-01

    We present a general formalism based on the quasiclassical Green's function for calculating charge imbalance in nonequilibrium superconductors. Our discussion is sufficiently general that it applies at arbitrary temperatures, and under conditions when the width of quasiparticle states are appreciable due to pair breaking processes, and when strong coupling effects are significant. As a first application we demonstrate in detail how in the limit of smallpair breaking and for a weak coupling superconductor the collision term in the formalism reduces to the one in the quasiparticle Boltzmann equation. We next treat the case of charge imbalance generated by tunnel injection, with pair breaking by phonons and magnetic impurities. Over the range of temperatures investigated exerimentally to date, the calculated charge imbalance is rather close to that evaluated using the Boltzmann equation, even if pair braeking is so strong as almost to destroy superconductivity. Finally we consider charge imbalance generated by the combined influence of a supercurrent and a temperature gradient. We give calculations for a dirty superconductor with scattering by phonons as the pair breaking mechanism, and the results give a reasonable account of the experimental data of Clarke, Fjordboge, and Lindelof. We carry out calculations for the case of impurity scattering along which are valid not only in the clean and dirty limits, but also for intermediate situations. These enable us to see how the large contribution to the charge imbalance found for energies close to the gap edge in the clean case is reduced with increasing impurity scattering

  1. A study on the effect of fluidic device installed in a safety injection tank on thermal-hydraulic phenomena of large break loss of coolant accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Young Jong; Bae, Kyoo Hwan; Song, Jin Ho; Sim, Suk Ku; Park, Jong Kyun

    1999-03-01

    The performance of the Safety Injection Tank (SIT) with fluidic device (advanced SIT) is analyzed for the large break loss of coolant accident (LBLOCA) using RELAP5/MOD3.1-KREM. First the case is analyzed using the conventional SIT. Among various cases the case with 4-split downcomer, discharge coefficient Cd=0.6, MCP trip with reactor trip and break location of cold leg discharge side with the pressurizer is found to be the most limiting case. For the same condition, the advanced SIT results the similar PCT, however it can maintain adequately the liquid level in the downcomer. By changing the ECCS location from the current injection to the cold leg elevations, PCT is improved by 75 K. (Author). 6 refs., 4 tabs., 54 figs

  2. 8x8 and 10x10 Hyperspace Representations of SU(3) and 10-fold Point-Symmetry Group of Quasicrystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Animalu, Alexander

    2012-02-01

    In order to further elucidate the unexpected 10-fold point-symmetry group structure of quasi-crystals for which the 2011 Nobel Prize in chemistry was awarded to Daniel Shechtman, we explore a correspondence principle between the number of (projective) geometric elements (points[vertices] + lines[edges] + planes[faces]) of primitive cells of periodic or quasi-periodic arrangement of hard or deformable spheres in 3-dimensional space of crystallography and elements of quantum field theory of particle physics [points ( particles, lines ( particles, planes ( currents] and hence construct 8x8 =64 = 28+36 = 26 + 38, and 10x10 =100= 64 + 36 = 74 + 26 hyperspace representations of the SU(3) symmetry of elementary particle physics and quasicrystals of condensed matter (solid state) physics respectively, As a result, we predict the Cabibbo-like angles in leptonic decay of hadrons in elementary-particle physics and the observed 10-fold symmetric diffraction pattern of quasi-crystals.

  3. A novel setup for the determination of absolute cross sections for low-energy electron induced strand breaks in oligonucleotides - The effect of the radiosensitizer 5-fluorouracil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rackwitz, J.; Rankovic, M.L.; Milosavljevic, A.R.; Bald, I.

    2017-01-01

    Low-energy electrons (LEEs) play an important role in DNA radiation damage. Here we present a method to quantify LEE induced strand breakage in well-defined oligonucleotide single strands in terms of absolute cross sections. An LEE irradiation setup covering electron energies <500 eV is constructed and optimized to irradiate DNA origami triangles carrying well-defined oligonucleotide target strands. Measurements are presented for 10.0 and 5.5 eV for different oligonucleotide targets. The determination of absolute strand break cross sections is performed by atomic force microscopy analysis. An accurate fluence determination ensures small margins of error of the determined absolute single strand break cross sections σ SSB . In this way, the influence of sequence modification with the radiosensitive 5-Fluorouracil ( 5F U) is studied using an absolute and relative data analysis. We demonstrate an increase in the strand break yields of 5F U containing oligonucleotides by a factor of 1.5 to 1.6 compared with non-modified oligonucleotide sequences when irradiated with 10 eV electrons. (authors)

  4. Stochastic mechanism of symmetry breaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baseyan, H.Z.

    1983-01-01

    A new symmetry breaking mechanism conditioned by presence of random fields in vacuum is proposed. Massive Yang-Mills fields finally arise, that may be interpreted as ''macroscopic'' manifestation of the ''microscopic'' Yang-Mills massless theory

  5. Dynamic breaking of a single gold bond

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pobelov, Ilya V.; Lauritzen, Kasper Primdal; Yoshida, Koji

    2017-01-01

    While one might assume that the force to break a chemical bond gives a measure of the bond strength, this intuition is misleading. If the force is loaded slowly, thermal fluctuations may break the bond before it is maximally stretched, and the breaking force will be less than the bond can sustain...... of a single Au-Au bond and show that the breaking force is dependent on the loading rate. We probe the temperature and structural dependencies of breaking and suggest that the paradox can be explained by fast breaking of atomic wires and slow breaking of point contacts giving very similar breaking forces....

  6. Electroweak symmetry breaking in supersymmetric gauge-Higgs unification models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Kiwoon; Jeong, Kwang-Sik; Okumura, Ken-ichi; Haba, Naoyuki; Shimizu, Yasuhiro; Yamaguchi, Masahiro

    2004-01-01

    We examine the Higgs mass parameters and electroweak symmetry breaking in supersymmetric orbifold field theories in which the 4-dimensional Higgs fields originate from higher-dimensional gauge supermultiplets. It is noted that such gauge-Higgs unification leads to a specific boundary condition on the Higgs mass parameters at the compactification scale, which is independent of the details of supersymmetry breaking mechanism. With this boundary condition, phenomenologically viable parameter space of the model is severely constrained by the condition of electroweak symmetry breaking for supersymmetry breaking scenarios which can be realized naturally in orbifold field theories. For instance, if it is assumed that the 4-dimensional effective theory is the minimal supersymmetric standard model with supersymmetry breaking parameters induced by the Scherk-Schwarz mechanism, a correct electroweak symmetry breaking can not be achieved for reasonable range of parameters of the model, even when one includes additional contributions to the Higgs mass parameters from the auxiliary component of 4-dimensional conformal compensator. However if there exists a supersymmetry breaking mediated by brane superfields, sizable portion of the parameter space can give a correct electroweak symmetry breaking. (author)

  7. Delocalized SYZ mirrors and confronting top-down SU(3)-structure holographic meson masses at finite g and N{sub c} with P(article) D(ata) G(roup) values

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yadav, Vikas; Sil, Karunava [Indian Institute of Technology, Department of Physics, Roorkee, Uttarakhand (India); Misra, Aalok [Indian Institute of Technology, Department of Physics, Roorkee, Uttarakhand (India); McGill University, Physics Department, Montreal, QC (Canada)

    2017-10-15

    Meson spectroscopy at finite gauge coupling - whereat any perturbative QCD computation would break down - and finite number of colors, from a top-down holographic string model, has thus far been entirely missing in the literature. This paper fills this gap. Using the delocalized type IIA SYZ mirror (with SU(3) structure) of the holographic type IIB dual of large-N thermal QCD of Mia et al. (Nucl Phys B 839:187. arXiv:0902.1540 [hep-th], 2010) as constructed in Dhuria and Misra (JHEP 1311:001. arXiv:1306.4339 [hep-th], 2013) at finite coupling and number of colors (N{sub c} = number of D5(D5)-branes wrapping a vanishing two-cycle in the top-down holographic construct of Mia et al. (Nucl Phys B 839:187. arXiv:0902.1540 [hep-th], 2010) = O(1) in the IR in the MQGP limit of Dhuria and Misra (JHEP 1311:001. arXiv:1306.4339 [hep-th], 2013) at the end of a Seiberg-duality cascade), we obtain analytical (not just numerical) expressions for the vector and scalar meson spectra and compare our results with previous calculations of Sakai and Sugimoto (Prog Theor Phys 113:843. doi:10.1143/PTP.113.843 arXiv:hep-th/0412141, 2005) and Dasgupta et al. (JHEP 1507:122. doi:10.1007/JHEP07(2015)122 arXiv:1409.0559 [hep-th], 2015), and we obtain a closer match with the Particle Data Group (PDG) results of Olive et al. (Particle Data Group) (Chin Phys C 38:090001, 2014). Through explicit computations, we verify that the vector and scalar meson spectra obtained by the gravity dual with a black hole for all temperatures (small and large) are nearly isospectral with the spectra obtained by a thermal gravity dual valid for only low temperatures; the isospectrality is much closer for vector mesons than scalar mesons. The black-hole gravity dual (with a horizon radius smaller than the deconfinement scale) also provides the expected large-N suppressed decrease in vector meson mass with increase of temperature. (orig.)

  8. Delocalized SYZ mirrors and confronting top-down SU(3)-structure holographic meson masses at finite g and N_c with P(article) D(ata) G(roup) values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Vikas; Misra, Aalok; Sil, Karunava

    2017-10-01

    Meson spectroscopy at finite gauge coupling - whereat any perturbative QCD computation would break down - and finite number of colors, from a top-down holographic string model, has thus far been entirely missing in the literature. This paper fills this gap. Using the delocalized type IIA SYZ mirror (with SU(3) structure) of the holographic type IIB dual of large- N thermal QCD of Mia et al. (Nucl Phys B 839:187. arXiv:0902.1540 [hep-th], 2010) as constructed in Dhuria and Misra (JHEP 1311:001. arXiv:1306.4339 [hep-th], 2013) at finite coupling and number of colors (N_c = number of D5(\\overline{D5})-branes wrapping a vanishing two-cycle in the top-down holographic construct of Mia et al. (Nucl Phys B 839:187. arXiv:0902.1540 [hep-th], 2010) = O(1) in the IR in the MQGP limit of Dhuria and Misra (JHEP 1311:001. arXiv:1306.4339 [hep-th], 2013) at the end of a Seiberg-duality cascade), we obtain analytical (not just numerical) expressions for the vector and scalar meson spectra and compare our results with previous calculations of Sakai and Sugimoto (Prog Theor Phys 113:843. doi: 10.1143/PTP.113.843 arXiv:hep-th/0412141, 2005) and Dasgupta et al. (JHEP 1507:122. doi: 10.1007/JHEP07(2015)122 arXiv:1409.0559 [hep-th], 2015), and we obtain a closer match with the Particle Data Group (PDG) results of Olive et al. (Particle Data Group) (Chin Phys C 38:090001, 2014). Through explicit computations, we verify that the vector and scalar meson spectra obtained by the gravity dual with a black hole for all temperatures (small and large) are nearly isospectral with the spectra obtained by a thermal gravity dual valid for only low temperatures; the isospectrality is much closer for vector mesons than scalar mesons. The black-hole gravity dual (with a horizon radius smaller than the deconfinement scale) also provides the expected large- N suppressed decrease in vector meson mass with increase of temperature.

  9. Delocalized SYZ mirrors and confronting top-down SU(3)-structure holographic meson masses at finite g and Nc with P(article) D(ata) G(roup) values

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yadav, Vikas; Sil, Karunava; Misra, Aalok

    2017-01-01

    Meson spectroscopy at finite gauge coupling - whereat any perturbative QCD computation would break down - and finite number of colors, from a top-down holographic string model, has thus far been entirely missing in the literature. This paper fills this gap. Using the delocalized type IIA SYZ mirror (with SU(3) structure) of the holographic type IIB dual of large-N thermal QCD of Mia et al. (Nucl Phys B 839:187. arXiv:0902.1540 [hep-th], 2010) as constructed in Dhuria and Misra (JHEP 1311:001. arXiv:1306.4339 [hep-th], 2013) at finite coupling and number of colors (N c = number of D5(D5)-branes wrapping a vanishing two-cycle in the top-down holographic construct of Mia et al. (Nucl Phys B 839:187. arXiv:0902.1540 [hep-th], 2010) = O(1) in the IR in the MQGP limit of Dhuria and Misra (JHEP 1311:001. arXiv:1306.4339 [hep-th], 2013) at the end of a Seiberg-duality cascade), we obtain analytical (not just numerical) expressions for the vector and scalar meson spectra and compare our results with previous calculations of Sakai and Sugimoto (Prog Theor Phys 113:843. doi:10.1143/PTP.113.843 arXiv:hep-th/0412141, 2005) and Dasgupta et al. (JHEP 1507:122. doi:10.1007/JHEP07(2015)122 arXiv:1409.0559 [hep-th], 2015), and we obtain a closer match with the Particle Data Group (PDG) results of Olive et al. (Particle Data Group) (Chin Phys C 38:090001, 2014). Through explicit computations, we verify that the vector and scalar meson spectra obtained by the gravity dual with a black hole for all temperatures (small and large) are nearly isospectral with the spectra obtained by a thermal gravity dual valid for only low temperatures; the isospectrality is much closer for vector mesons than scalar mesons. The black-hole gravity dual (with a horizon radius smaller than the deconfinement scale) also provides the expected large-N suppressed decrease in vector meson mass with increase of temperature. (orig.)

  10. Quantum break-time of de Sitter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dvali, Gia; Gómez, César; Zell, Sebastian, E-mail: georgi.dvali@physik.uni-muenchen.de, E-mail: cesar.gomez@uam.es, E-mail: sebastian.zell@campus.lmu.de [Arnold Sommerfeld Center, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität, Theresienstraße 37, 80333 München (Germany)

    2017-06-01

    The quantum break-time of a system is the time-scale after which its true quantum evolution departs from the classical mean field evolution. For capturing it, a quantum resolution of the classical background—e.g., in terms of a coherent state—is required. In this paper, we first consider a simple scalar model with anharmonic oscillations and derive its quantum break-time. Next, following [1], we apply these ideas to de Sitter space. We formulate a simple model of a spin-2 field, which for some time reproduces the de Sitter metric and simultaneously allows for its well-defined representation as quantum coherent state of gravitons. The mean occupation number N of background gravitons turns out to be equal to the de Sitter horizon area in Planck units, while their frequency is given by the de Sitter Hubble parameter. In the semi-classical limit, we show that the model reproduces all the known properties of de Sitter, such as the redshift of probe particles and thermal Gibbons-Hawking radiation, all in the language of quantum S -matrix scatterings and decays of coherent state gravitons. Most importantly, this framework allows to capture the 1/ N -effects to which the usual semi-classical treatment is blind. They violate the de Sitter symmetry and lead to a finite quantum break-time of the de Sitter state equal to the de Sitter radius times N . We also point out that the quantum-break time is inversely proportional to the number of particle species in the theory. Thus, the quantum break-time imposes the following consistency condition: older and species-richer universes must have smaller cosmological constants. For the maximal, phenomenologically acceptable number of species, the observed cosmological constant would saturate this bound if our Universe were 10{sup 100} years old in its entire classical history.

  11. Quantum break-time of de Sitter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dvali, Gia; Gómez, César; Zell, Sebastian

    2017-06-01

    The quantum break-time of a system is the time-scale after which its true quantum evolution departs from the classical mean field evolution. For capturing it, a quantum resolution of the classical background—e.g., in terms of a coherent state—is required. In this paper, we first consider a simple scalar model with anharmonic oscillations and derive its quantum break-time. Next, following [1], we apply these ideas to de Sitter space. We formulate a simple model of a spin-2 field, which for some time reproduces the de Sitter metric and simultaneously allows for its well-defined representation as quantum coherent state of gravitons. The mean occupation number N of background gravitons turns out to be equal to the de Sitter horizon area in Planck units, while their frequency is given by the de Sitter Hubble parameter. In the semi-classical limit, we show that the model reproduces all the known properties of de Sitter, such as the redshift of probe particles and thermal Gibbons-Hawking radiation, all in the language of quantum S-matrix scatterings and decays of coherent state gravitons. Most importantly, this framework allows to capture the 1/N-effects to which the usual semi-classical treatment is blind. They violate the de Sitter symmetry and lead to a finite quantum break-time of the de Sitter state equal to the de Sitter radius times N. We also point out that the quantum-break time is inversely proportional to the number of particle species in the theory. Thus, the quantum break-time imposes the following consistency condition: older and species-richer universes must have smaller cosmological constants. For the maximal, phenomenologically acceptable number of species, the observed cosmological constant would saturate this bound if our Universe were 10100 years old in its entire classical history.

  12. The Effect of Egg Yolk Chicken Utilization In Fat Liquoring Process to Tensile Strength, Elongation at Break, Water Absorption and Shank Skin Leather Stitch Tear Strength of Combination Tanning (Chrome – Tannine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustakim Mustakim

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research were to examine level of egg yolk chicken utilization that effective in fat liquoring process to tensile strength, elongation at break, watter absorptin and stitchtear strength of combination tann (Chrome – tannine of shank skin. The material used were fresh shank skin which seven week old, fresh egg with prserved for not more seven days. Data analyse used  in this study was complete randomice desaign (CRD. The research treatment was level of egg yolk utilization that are 5 % (P1, 7,5 % (P2, 10,0 % (P3 and 12,5 % (P4. Each treatment repeated four times, and the control using 6,0 % paradol HISN oil (%age calculated from the weight of wet blue. The result shown that rates of tensile strength of P1, P2, P3, P4 respectively were 67,93, 88,09, 89,31, 70,00 kg/cm2. Elongation at break by 24,5, 29,5, 30,0, 28,0 %. Watter absorption by 181,54, 146,20, 132,81, 132,56 %, and stritchtear strength by 43,00, 63,80, 69,50, 60,98 kg/cm. The utilization level of egg yolk 10 % could produce a better tensile strength and elongation at break, watter absorption and stitchtearstrength. It was suggested for used as fat liquoring agent in tanning process shsnk., skin leather. Keywords : Fat liquoring, Tensile strength, Elongation at break, Watter absorbtion,Stitchtear strength

  13. Formulation of the low-energy effective theory of electroweak symmetry-breaking without a Higgs particle; Formulation de la theorie effective a basse energie du secteur electrofaible sans particule de Higgs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirn, J

    2004-07-01

    The low-energy effective theory of electroweak symmetry-breaking without a Higgs particle is constructed using the methods of Chiral Perturbation Theory. Weinberg's power-counting formula demonstrates the consistency of the loop expansion, with the corresponding renormalization. We find that the suppression of effective operators by a mass scale, which was automatic in the case of the Standard Model, no longer holds in the Higgs-less case. Moreover, the incriminated operators appear at leading order in the chiral expansion, at variance with experiments. To account for their suppression, invariance under a larger symmetry is required, corresponding to the composite sector (which produces the three Goldstone modes) being decoupled from the elementary sector (quarks, leptons and Yang-Mills fields). The couplings are introduced via spurions: this reduces the symmetry to SU(2) x U(1). In the simultaneous expansion in powers of momenta and spurions, the aforementioned operators are relegated to higher orders. In addition, the method allows for a systematic treatment of weak isospin breaking. The Weinberg power-counting formula can be recovered, and small neutrino masses accounted for. The three right-handed neutrinos (lighter than the TeV), which are introduced in connection with the custodial symmetry, are quasi-sterile and stable. A constraint on the underlying theory is obtained by studying the anomaly-matching in the composite sector and generalizing the Wess-Zumino construction. The spurion formalism is also applied to open linear moose models, for which generalized Weinberg sum rules are derived. (author)

  14. Boost breaking in the EFT of inflation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delacrétaz, Luca V.; Senatore, Leonardo [Stanford Institute for Theoretical Physics, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Noumi, Toshifumi, E-mail: lvd@stanford.edu, E-mail: tnoumi@phys.sci.kobe-u.ac.jp, E-mail: senatore@stanford.edu [Jockey Club Institute for Advanced Study, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology (Hong Kong)

    2017-02-01

    If time-translations are spontaneously broken, so are boosts. This symmetry breaking pattern can be non-linearly realized by either just the Goldstone boson of time translations, or by four Goldstone bosons associated with time translations and boosts. In this paper we extend the Effective Field Theory of Multifield Inflation to consider the case in which the additional Goldstone bosons associated with boosts are light and coupled to the Goldstone boson of time translations. The symmetry breaking pattern forces a coupling to curvature so that the mass of the additional Goldstone bosons is predicted to be equal to √2 H in the vast majority of the parameter space where they are light. This pattern therefore offers a natural way of generating self-interacting particles with Hubble mass during inflation. After constructing the general effective Lagrangian, we study how these particles mix and interact with the curvature fluctuations, generating potentially detectable non-Gaussian signals.

  15. Radiative breaking of the minimal supersymmetric left–right model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobuchika Okada

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available We study a variation to the SUSY Left–Right symmetric model based on the gauge group SU(3c×SU(2L×SU(2R×U(1BL. Beyond the quark and lepton superfields we only introduce a second Higgs bidoublet to produce realistic fermion mass matrices. This model does not include any SU(2R triplets. We calculate renormalization group evolutions of soft SUSY parameters at the one-loop level down to low energy. We find that an SU(2R slepton doublet acquires a negative mass squared at low energies, so that the breaking of SU(2R×U(1BL→U(1Y is realized by a non-zero vacuum expectation value of a right-handed sneutrino. Small neutrino masses are produced through neutrino mixings with gauginos. Mass limits on the SU(2R×U(1BL sector are obtained by direct search results at the LHC as well as lepton-gaugino mixing bounds from the LEP precision data.

  16. Communication skills training on how to break bad news for Japanese nurses in oncology: effects of training on nurses' confidence and perceived effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukui, Sakiko; Ogawa, Keiko; Fukui, Naoshi

    2010-03-01

    Delivering bad news is an important communication skill for oncology nurses. No Asian study has developed a communication skills training program. We investigated the effect of such a program on the confidence and practical competence of Japanese oncology nurses. Thirty-one nurses participated, based on Western work in a 6-h workshop; the effect was assessed for 3 months. We evaluated the program effect by measuring nurse-rated confidence regarding communication with patients three times (before, immediately after, and 3 months after the program), in addition to interviewing them on the perception of the program at T3. On nurse-rated confidence in communication, 16/21 items were significantly increased 3 months after the program, and almost all nurses were positive about the course effectiveness. Communication skills training increased Japanese nurses' confidence as well as being perceived as effective.

  17. Comparison of the DVI line break LOCA with the equivalent cold leg break with the ATLAS facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, K. Y.; Cho, S.; Kang, K. H.; Park, H. S.; Kim, Y. S.; Baek, W. P.

    2010-01-01

    The APR1400 (Advanced Power Reactor, 1400 MWe) adopts a DVI (Direct Vessel Injection) method for ECC (Emergency Core Cooling) water delivery rather than a conventional CLI (Cold Leg Injection) method as an advanced safety feature. The break scenario of one DVI nozzle is taken into account in the small break LOCA analysis. Transient behavior during the DVI line breaks needs to be investigated and compared with the equivalent break on the cold leg. An 8.5-inch double-ended break of one DVI nozzle was simulated with the ATLAS, and a counterpart test for the DVI break was performed at the cold leg with the equivalent break size for comparison. This comparison will contribute to enhancing a comprehensive understanding of the thermal hydraulic behavior during transients. A constructed integral effect database is also used to validate the existing conservative safety analysis methodology and to develop a best-estimate safety analysis methodology for small-break LOCAs. A post-test calculation was performed with a best-estimate safety analysis code, MARS 3.1, in order to examine its prediction capability and to identify any code deficiencies for thermal hydraulic phenomena occurring during the transient. (authors)

  18. Big break for charge symmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Miller, G A

    2003-01-01

    Two new experiments have detected charge-symmetry breaking, the mechanism responsible for protons and neutrons having different masses. Symmetry is a crucial concept in the theories that describe the subatomic world because it has an intimate connection with the laws of conservation. The theory of the strong interaction between quarks - quantum chromodynamics - is approximately invariant under what is called charge symmetry. In other words, if we swap an up quark for a down quark, then the strong interaction will look almost the same. This symmetry is related to the concept of sup i sospin sup , and is not the same as charge conjugation (in which a particle is replaced by its antiparticle). Charge symmetry is broken by the competition between two different effects. The first is the small difference in mass between up and down quarks, which is about 200 times less than the mass of the proton. The second is their different electric charges. The up quark has a charge of +2/3 in units of the proton charge, while ...

  19. CP-violation in K0(K-bar0) → 3π decays from chiral Lagrangians with fourth-order derivative terms, including isospin-breaking and rescattering effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bel'kov, A.A.; Lanyov, A.V.; Ebert, D.

    1990-08-01

    In the framework of recently proposed effective Lagrangians for weak nonleptonic meson interactions the amplitudes of the decays K 0 → 3π have been calculated with inclusion of isospin breaking and meson rescattering effects. The imaginary part of the penguin diagram contribution, which determines direct CP-violation in nonleptonic kaon decays, has been fixed with the help of the measured ratio ε'/ε of CP-violation parameters. The modification of the Li-Wolfenstein relation for the direct CP-violation parameter in K 0 (K-bar 0 ) → π + π - π 0 decays is discussed. (author). 27 refs, 3 figs, 1 tab

  20. Density-dependent coupling constants and charge symmetry breaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barreiro, L.A.

    2001-01-01

    The effect of the medium in the coupling constants implicate in a charge symmetry breaking on nuclear interactions. The amount of energy due to this modification can explain the Nolen-Schiffer anomaly. (author)