Infrared behaviors of SU(2 gauge theory
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Tuominen Kimmo
2017-01-01
Full Text Available We will discuss some recent results in the determination of the location of the conformal window in SU(2 gauge theory with Nf fermions in the fundamental representation of the gauge group. In particular, we will demonstrate that the long distance behavior of the continuum theory with Nf = 6 is governed by an infrared stable fixed point.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Guillermo García Fernández
2017-02-01
The result follows from strong antiscreening of the running coupling for those larger groups (with an appropriately small number of flavors together with scaling properties of the Dyson–Schwinger equation for the fermion mass.
Polyakov loop percolation and deconfinement in SU(2) gauge theory
Fortunato, S.; Satz, H.
2000-03-01
The deconfinement transition in /SU(2) gauge theory and the magnetization transition in the Ising model belong to the same universality class. The critical behaviour of the Ising model can be characterized either as spontaneous breaking of the Z2 symmetry of spin states or as percolation of appropriately defined spin clusters. We show that deconfinement in /SU(2) gauge theory can be specified as percolation of Polyakov loop clusters with Fortuin-Kasteleyn bond weights, leading to the same (Onsager) critical exponents as the conventional order-disorder description based on the Polykov loop expectation value.
Running coupling in SU(2) gauge theory with two adjoint fermions
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Rantaharju, Jarno; Rantalaiho, Teemu; Rummukainen, Kari
2016-01-01
We study SU(2) gauge theory with two Dirac fermions in the adjoint representation of the gauge group on the lattice. Using clover improved Wilson fermion action with hypercubic truncated stout smearing we perform simulations at larger coupling than before. We measure the evolution of the coupling...
Gravitational leptogenesis in axion inflation with SU(2) gauge field
Maleknejad, Azadeh
2016-12-01
We present an intrinsic leptogenesis mechanism in models of axion inflation with a classical SU(2) gauge field. The gauge field is coupled to the axion with a Chern-Simons interaction and comprises a tiny fraction of the total energy, ρYM/ρtot lesssim epsilon2. However, it has spin-2 fluctuations which breaks the parity and leads to the generation of chiral gravitational waves during inflation. By the gravitational anomaly in SM, it naturally creates a net lepton number density, sufficient to explain the matter asymmetry. We show that this mechanism can generate the observed value of baryon to photon number density in a natural range of parameters and yet has a small chiral tensor power spectrum on large scales.
SU(2) Gauge Theory with Two Fundamental Flavours
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Arthur, Rudy; Drach, Vincent; Hansen, Martin
2016-01-01
(Goldstone) Higgs theories to several intriguing types of dark matter candidates, such as the SIMPs. We improve our previous lattice analysis [1] by adding more data at light quark masses, at two additional lattice spacings, by determining the lattice cutoff via a Wilson flow measure of the $w_0$ parameter......We investigate the continuum spectrum of the SU(2) gauge theory with $N_f=2$ flavours of fermions in the fundamental representation. This model provides a minimal template which is ideal for a wide class of Standard Model extensions featuring novel strong dynamics that range from composite......, and by measuring the relevant renormalisation constants non-perturbatively in the RI'-MOM scheme. Our results for the lightest isovector states in the vector and axial channels, in units of the pseudoscalar decay constant, are $m_V/F_{\\rm{PS}}\\sim 13.1(2.2)$ and $m_A/F_{\\rm{PS}}\\sim 14.5(3.6)$ (combining...
Confinement from semiclassical gluon fields in SU(2) gauge theory
Langfeld, Kurt
2010-01-01
The infrared structure of SU(2) Yang-Mills theory is studied by means of lattice gauge simulations using a new constrained cooling technique. This method reduces the action while all Polyakov lines on the lattice remain unchanged. In contrast to unconstrained cooling, quark confinement is still intact. A study of the Hessian of the Yang-Mills action shows that low action (semi-) classical configurations can be achieved, with a characteristic splitting between collective modes and higher momentum modes. Besides confinement, the semiclassical configurations also support the topological susceptibility and generate spontaneous breakdown of chiral symmetry.We show that they possess a cluster structure of locally mainly (anti-) selfdual objects. By contrast to an instanton or a meron medium, the topological charge of individual clusters is smoothly distributed.
SU (2) lattice gauge theory simulations on Fermi GPUs
Cardoso, Nuno; Bicudo, Pedro
2011-05-01
In this work we explore the performance of CUDA in quenched lattice SU (2) simulations. CUDA, NVIDIA Compute Unified Device Architecture, is a hardware and software architecture developed by NVIDIA for computing on the GPU. We present an analysis and performance comparison between the GPU and CPU in single and double precision. Analyses with multiple GPUs and two different architectures (G200 and Fermi architectures) are also presented. In order to obtain a high performance, the code must be optimized for the GPU architecture, i.e., an implementation that exploits the memory hierarchy of the CUDA programming model. We produce codes for the Monte Carlo generation of SU (2) lattice gauge configurations, for the mean plaquette, for the Polyakov Loop at finite T and for the Wilson loop. We also present results for the potential using many configurations (50,000) without smearing and almost 2000 configurations with APE smearing. With two Fermi GPUs we have achieved an excellent performance of 200× the speed over one CPU, in single precision, around 110 Gflops/s. We also find that, using the Fermi architecture, double precision computations for the static quark-antiquark potential are not much slower (less than 2× slower) than single precision computations.
Dynamical Generation of the Gauged SU(2) Linear Sigma Model
Delbourgo, R.; Scadron, M. D.
The fermion and meson sectors of the quark-level SU(2) linear sigma model are dynamically generated from a meson-quark Lagrangian, with the quark (q) and meson (σ, π) fields all treated as elementary, having neither bare masses nor expectation values. In the chiral limit, the masses are predicted to be mq = fπg, mπ = 0, mσ = 2mq, and we also find that the quark-meson coupling is g =2π /√ {Nc}, the three-meson coupling is g' =mσ 2 /2fπ =2gmq and the four-meson coupling is λ = 2g2 = g‧/fπ, where fπ ≃ 90 MeV is the pion decay constant and Nc = 3 is the color number. By gauging this model one can generate the couplings to the vector mesons ρ and A1, including the quark-vector coupling constant gρ = 2π, gρππ, gA1ρπ and the masses mρ 700 MeV, mA1˜= √ {3} mρ ; of course the vector and axial currents remain conserved throughout.
Progress gauge symmetry breaking in SU(6) x SU(2) sub R model
Hayashi, T; Matsuda, M; Matsuoka, T
2003-01-01
In the SU(6) x SU(2) sub R string-inspired model, we describe the evolution of the couplings and the masses down from the string scale M sub s using the renormalization group equations and minimize the effective potential. This model possesses the flavor symmetry, including the binary dihedral group D tilde sub 4. We show that the scalar mass squared of the gauge non-singlet matter field possibly becomes negative slightly below the string scale. As a consequence, the precocious radiative breaking of the gauge symmetry down to the standard model gauge group can be realized. In the present model, the large Yukawa coupling, which plays an important role in the symmetry breaking, is identical to the colored Higgs coupling related to the longevity of the proton. (author)
Projected Entangled Pair States with non-Abelian gauge symmetries: An SU(2) study
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Zohar, Erez; Wahl, Thorsten B.; Burrello, Michele
2016-01-01
limited to global symmetries, but has also been extended and applied for local symmetries, allowing to use them for the description of states in lattice gauge theories. In this paper we discuss PEPS with a local, SU(2) gauge symmetry, and demonstrate the use of PEPS features and techniques for the study...... of a simple family of many body states with a non-Abelian gauge symmetry. We present, in particular, the construction of fermionic PEPS able to describe both two-color fermionic matter and the degrees of freedom of an SU(2) gauge field with a suitable truncation....
New Geometric Framework for SU(2) Gauge Theory
Turakulov, Z Ya
1997-01-01
An explicit model of fiber bundle with local fibers being disinct copies of vector 3-space is introduced. They are endowed with frames which are used as local isotopic ones. The field local of isotopic frames is considered as gauge field itself while the form of gauge connections is derived from it. A covariant equation for the field of local frames is found. It is shown that Yang-Mills equation follows from it, but variety of solutions of the new equation is highly reduced in such that no ambiguities (Yang-Wu and vacuum ones) arise. It is shown that Lagrangian for the field gives non-zero trace for the stress-energy tensor and zero value for spin of the field of plane wave. Some new solutions for the fields of punctual source and spherical wave are found.
Projected Entangled Pair States with non-Abelian gauge symmetries: An SU(2) study
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zohar, Erez, E-mail: erez.zohar@mpq.mpg.de [Max-Planck-Institut für Quantenoptik, Hans-Kopfermann-Straße 1, 85748 Garching (Germany); Wahl, Thorsten B. [Rudolf Peierls Centre for Theoretical Physics, Oxford, 1 Keble Road, OX1 3NP (United Kingdom); Burrello, Michele, E-mail: michele.burrello@mpq.mpg.de [Max-Planck-Institut für Quantenoptik, Hans-Kopfermann-Straße 1, 85748 Garching (Germany); Cirac, J. Ignacio [Max-Planck-Institut für Quantenoptik, Hans-Kopfermann-Straße 1, 85748 Garching (Germany)
2016-11-15
Over the last years, Projected Entangled Pair States have demonstrated great power for the study of many body systems, as they naturally describe ground states of gapped many body Hamiltonians, and suggest a constructive way to encode and classify their symmetries. The PEPS study is not only limited to global symmetries, but has also been extended and applied for local symmetries, allowing to use them for the description of states in lattice gauge theories. In this paper we discuss PEPS with a local, SU(2) gauge symmetry, and demonstrate the use of PEPS features and techniques for the study of a simple family of many body states with a non-Abelian gauge symmetry. We present, in particular, the construction of fermionic PEPS able to describe both two-color fermionic matter and the degrees of freedom of an SU(2) gauge field with a suitable truncation.
Fundamental fermion interactions via vector bosons of unified SU(2 x SU(4 gauge fields
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Eckart eMarsch
2016-02-01
Full Text Available Employing the fermion unification model based on the intrinsic SU(8 symmetry of a generalized Dirac equation, we discuss the fundamental interactions under the SU(8=SU(2$otimes$SU(4 symmetry group. The physics involved can describe all fermions, the leptons (electron and neutrino, and the coloured up and down quarks of the first generation in the standard model (SM by a complex SU(8 octet of Dirac spinor fields. The fermion interactions are found to be mediated by the unified SU(4 and SU(2 vector gauge boson fields, which include the photon, the gluons, and the bosons $Z$ and $W$ as well known from the SM, but also comprise new ones, namely three coloured $X$ bosons carrying a fractional hypercharge of $pm4/3$ and transmuting leptons into quarks and vice versa. The full covariant derivative of the model is derived and discussed. The Higgs mechanism gives mass to the $Z$ and $W$ bosons, but also permits one to derive the mass of the coloured $X$ boson, for which depending on the choice of the values of the coupling constant, the estimates are 35~GeV or 156~GeV, values that are well within reach of the LHC. The scalar Higgs field can also lend masses to the fermions and fix their physical values for given appropriate coupling constants to that field.
Scattering lengths in SU(2) gauge theory with two fundamental fermions
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Arthur, R.; Drach, V.; Hansen, Martin Rasmus Lundquist
2014-01-01
We investigate non perturbatively scattering properties of Goldstone Bosons in an SU(2) gauge theory with two Wilson fermions in the fundamental representation. Such a theory can be used to build extensions of the Standard Model that unifies Technicolor and pseudo Goldstone composite Higgs models...
Topology in SU(2) lattice gauge theory and parallelization of functional magnetic resonance imaging
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Solbrig, Stefan
2008-07-01
In this thesis, I discuss topological properties of quenched SU(2) lattice gauge fields. In particular, clusters of topological charge density exhibit a power-law. The exponent of that power-law can be used to validate models for lattice gauge fields. Instead of working with fixed cutoffs of the topological charge density, using the notion of a ''watermark'' is more convenient. Furthermore, I discuss how a parallel computer, originally designed for lattice gauge field simulations, can be used for functional magnetic resonance imaging. Multi parameter fits can be parallelized to achieve almost real-time evaluation of fMRI data. (orig.)
Supersymmetric solutions of SU(2-Fayet–Iliopoulos-gauged N=2, d=4 supergravity
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Tomás Ortín
2017-03-01
Full Text Available We explore the construction of supersymmetric solutions of theories of N=2,d=4 supergravity with a SU(2 gauging and SU(2 Fayet–Iliopoulos terms. In these theories an SU(2 isometry subgroup of the Special-Kähler manifold is gauged together with a SU(2 R-symmetry subgroup. We construct several solutions of the CP‾3 quadratic model directly in four dimensions and of the ST[2,6] model by dimensional reduction of the solutions found by Cariglia and Mac Conamhna in N=(1,0,d=6 supergravity with the same kind of gauging. In the CP‾3 model, we construct an AdS2×S2 solution which is only 1/8 BPS and an R×H3 solutions that also preserves 1 of the 8 possible supersymmetries. We show how to use dimensional reduction as in the ungauged case to obtain Rn×Sm and also AdSn×Sm-type solutions (with different radii in 5- and 4-dimensions from the 6-dimensional AdS3×S3 solution.
Axion inflation with an SU(2) gauge field: detectable chiral gravity waves
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Maleknejad, Azadeh [School of Physics, Institute for Research in Fundamental Sciences (IPM), P. Code. 19538-33511, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)
2016-07-20
We study a single field axion inflation model in the presence of an SU(2) gauge field with a small vev. In order to make the analysis as model-independent as possible, we consider an arbitrary potential for the axion that is able to support the slow-roll inflation. The gauge field is coupled to the axion with a Chern-Simons interaction (λ/f)F{sub μν}{sup a}F̃{sub a}{sup μν} where (λ/f)∼((O(10))/(M{sub pl})). It has a negligible effect on the background evolution, ((ρ{sub YM})/(M{sub pl}{sup 2}H{sup 2}))≲ϵ{sup 2}. However, its quantum fluctuations make a significant contribution to the cosmic perturbation. In particular, the gauge field has a spin-2 fluctuation which explicitly breaks the parity between the left- and right-handed polarization states. The chiral tensor modes are linearly coupled to the gravitational waves and lead to a circularly polarized tensor power spectrum comparable to the unpolarized vacuum power spectrum. Moreover, the scalar sector is modified by the linear scalar fluctuations of the gauge field. Since the spin-0 and spin-2 fluctuations of the SU(2) gauge field are independent, the gauge field can, at the same time, generate a detectable chiral gravitational wave signal and have a negligible contribution to the scalar fluctuations, in agreement with the current CMB observations.
Spherically symmetric classical solutions in SU(2) gauge theory with a Higgs field
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ratra, B.; Yaffe, L.G.
1988-04-21
A consistent ansatz for time dependent classical solutions in an SU(2) gauge theory with a doublet Higgs field is presented. The (3+1)-dimensional field equations are reduced to those of an effective (1+1)-dimensional theory. This ansatz describes solutions which travel between topologically distinct classical vacua of the non-abelian gauge theory. The real time version of these solutions describes the creation and decay of the unstable static 'sphaleron', the imaginary time version describes a euclidean instanton. (orig.)
Monopoles in the Plaquette Formulation of the 3D SU(2) Lattice Gauge Theory
Borisenko, O; Boháčik, J
2011-01-01
Using a plaquette formulation for lattice gauge models we describe monopoles of the three dimensional SU(2) theory which appear as configurations in the complete axial gauge and violate the continuum Bianchi identity. Furthemore we derive a dual formulation for the Wilson loop in arbitrary representation and calculate the form of the interaction between generated electric flux and monopoles in the region of a weak coupling relevant for the continuum limit. The effective theory which controls the interaction is of the sine-Gordon type model. The string tension is calculated within the semiclassical approximation.
Template Composite Dark Matter : SU(2) gauge theory with 2 fundamental flavours
Drach, Vincent; Pica, Claudio; Rantaharju, Jarno; Sannino, Francesco
2015-11-13
We present a non perturbative study of SU(2) gauge theory with two fundamental Dirac flavours. We discuss how the model can be used as a template for composite Dark Matter (DM). We estimate one particular interaction of the DM candidate with the Standard Model : the interaction through photon exchange computing the electric polarizability of the DM candidate. Finally, we briefly discuss the viability of the model given the present experimental constraints.
Scaling properties of SU(2) gauge theory with mixed fundamental-adjoint action
Rinaldi, Enrico; Lucini, Biagio; Patella, Agostino; Rago, Antonio
2012-01-01
We study the phase diagram of the SU(2) lattice gauge theory with fundamental-adjoint Wilson plaquette action. We confirm the presence of a first order bulk phase transition and we estimate the location of its end-point in the bare parameter space. If this point is second order, the theory is one of the simplest realizations of a lattice gauge theory admitting a continuum limit at finite bare couplings. All the relevant gauge observables are monitored in the vicinity of the fixed point with very good control over finite-size effects. The scaling properties of the low-lying glueball spectrum are studied while approaching the end-point in a controlled manner.
Equivariant spectral triples on the quantum SU(2) group
Chakraborty, Partha Sarathi; Pal, Arupkumar
2002-01-01
We characterize all equivariant odd spectral triples for the quantum SU(2) group acting on its L_2-space and having a nontrivial Chern character. It is shown that the dimension of an equivariant spectral triple is at least three, and given any element of the K-homology group of SU_q(2), there is an equivariant odd spectral triple of dimension 3 inducing that element. The method employed to get equivariant spectral triples in the quantum case is then used for classical SU(2), and we prove that...
Machine learning of explicit order parameters: From the Ising model to SU(2) lattice gauge theory
Wetzel, Sebastian J.; Scherzer, Manuel
2017-11-01
We present a solution to the problem of interpreting neural networks classifying phases of matter. We devise a procedure for reconstructing the decision function of an artificial neural network as a simple function of the input, provided the decision function is sufficiently symmetric. In this case one can easily deduce the quantity by which the neural network classifies the input. The method is applied to the Ising model and SU(2) lattice gauge theory. In both systems we deduce the explicit expressions of the order parameters from the decision functions of the neural networks. We assume no prior knowledge about the Hamiltonian or the order parameters except Monte Carlo-sampled configurations.
Correlation functions of the energy-momentum tensor in SU(2) gauge theory at finite temperature
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Huebner, K.; Karsch, F.; Pica, Claudio
2008-01-01
We calculate correlation functions of the energy-momentum tensor in the vicinity of the deconfinement phase transition of (3+1)-dimensional SU(2) gauge theory and discuss their critical behavior in the vicinity of the second order deconfinement transition. We show that correlation functions...... of the trace of the energy momentum tensor diverge uniformly at the critical point in proportion to the specific heat singularity. Correlation functions of the pressure, on the other hand, stay finite at the critical point. We discuss the consequences of these findings for the analysis of transport...
Rho meson decay width in SU(2) gauge theories with 2 fundamental flavours
Janowski, Tadeusz; Pica, Claudio
2016-01-01
SU(2) gauge theories with two quark flavours in the fundamental representation are among the most promising theories of composite dynamics describing the electroweak sector. Three out of five Goldstone bosons in these models become the longitudinal components of the W and Z bosons giving them mass. Like in QCD, we expect a spectrum of excitations which appear as resonances in vector boson scattering, in particular the vector resonance corresponding to the rho-meson in QCD. In this talk I will present the preliminary results of the first calculation of the rho-meson decay width in this theory, which is analogous to rho to two pions decay calculation in QCD. The results presented were calculated in a moving frame with total momentum (0,0,1) on two ensembles. Future plans include using 3 moving frames on a larger set of ensembles to extract the resonance parameters more reliably and also take the chiral and continuum limits.
$SU(2)$ gauge theory with two fundamental flavours: scalar and pseudoscalar spectrum
Arthur, Rudy; Hietanen, Ari; Pica, Claudio; Sannino, Francesco
2016-01-01
We investigate the scalar and pseudoscalar spectrum of the $SU(2)$ gauge theory with $N_f=2$ flavours of fermions in the fundamental representation using non perturbative lattice simulations. We provide first benchmark estimates of the mass of the lightest $0(0^{+})$ ($\\sigma$), $0(0^{-})$ ($\\eta'$) and $1(0^+)$ ($a_0$) states, including estimates of the relevant disconnected contributions. We find $m_{a_0}/F_{\\rm{PS}}= 16.7(4.9)$, $m_\\sigma/F_{\\rm{PS}}=19.2(10.8)$ and $m_{\\eta'}/F_{\\rm{PS}} = 12.8(4.7)$. These values for the masses of light scalar states provide crucial information for composite extensions of the Standard Model from the unified Fundamental Composi te Higgs-Technicolor theory \\cite{Cacciapaglia:2014uja} to models of composite dark matter.
SU(2) Gauge Theory with Two Fundamental Flavours: a Minimal Template for Model Building
Arthur, Rudy; Hansen, Martin; Hietanen, Ari; Pica, Claudio; Sannino, Francesco
2016-01-01
We investigate the continuum spectrum of the SU(2) gauge theory with $N_f=2$ flavours of fermions in the fundamental representation. This model provides a minimal template which is ideal for a wide class of Standard Model extensions featuring novel strong dynamics that range from composite (Goldstone) Higgs theories to several intriguing types of dark matter candidates, such as the SIMPs. We improve our previous lattice analysis [1] by adding more data at light quark masses, at two additional lattice spacings, by determining the lattice cutoff via a Wilson flow measure of the $w_0$ parameter, and by measuring the relevant renormalisation constants non-perturbatively in the RI'-MOM scheme. Our results for the lightest isovector states in the vector and axial channels, in units of the pseudoscalar decay constant, are $m_V/F_{\\rm{PS}}\\sim 13.1(2.2)$ and $m_A/F_{\\rm{PS}}\\sim 14.5(3.6)$ (combining statistical and systematic errors). In the context of the composite (Goldstone) Higgs models, our result for the spin-...
Anatomy of isolated monopole in Abelian projection od SU(2) lattice gauge theory
Belavin, V A; Veselov, A I
2001-01-01
The structure of the isolated static monopolies in the maximum Abelian projection of the SU(2) gluodynamics on the lattice studied. The standard parametrization of the coupling matrix was used by determining the maximum Abelian projection of the R functional maximization relative to all scale transformations. The monopole radius R approx = 0.06 fm is evaluated
Renormalisation group flows for gauge theories in axial gauges
Litim, Daniel F; Litim, Daniel F.; Pawlowski, Jan M.
2002-01-01
Gauge theories in axial gauges are studied using Exact Renormalisation Group flows. We introduce a background field in the infrared regulator, but not in the gauge fixing, in contrast to the usual background field gauge. It is shown how heat-kernel methods can be used to obtain approximate solutions to the flow and the corresponding Ward identities. Expansion schemes are discussed, which are not applicable in covariant gauges. As an application, we derive the one-loop effective action for covariantly constant field strength, and the one-loop beta-function for arbitrary regulator.
Domain walls and perturbation theory in high temperature gauge theory SU(2) in 2+1 dimensions
Korthals-Altes, C P; Stephanov, M A; Teper, M; Altes, C Korthals
1997-01-01
We study the detailed properties of Z_2 domain walls in the deconfined high temperature phase of the d=2+1 SU(2) gauge theory. These walls are studied both by computer simulations of the lattice theory and by one-loop perturbative calculations. The latter are carried out both in the continuum and on the lattice. We find that leading order perturbation theory reproduces the detailed properties of these domain walls remarkably accurately even at temperatures where the effective dimensionless expansion parameter, g^2/T, is close to unity. The quantities studied include the surface tension, the action density profiles, roughening and the electric screening mass. It is only for the last quantity that we find an exception to the precocious success of perturbation theory. All this shows that, despite the presence of infrared divergences at higher orders, high-T perturbation theory can be an accurate calculational tool.
Gauge coupling running in minimal SU(3) x SU(2) x U(1) superstring unification
Ibáñez, L E; Ross, Graham G
1991-01-01
We study the evolution of the gauge coupling constants in string unification schemes in which the light spectrum below the compactification scale is exactly that of the minimal supersymmetric standard model. In the absence of string threshold corrections the predicted values $\\sin^2\\theta _W=0.218$ and $\\alpha _s=0.20$ are in gross conflict with experiment, but these corrections are generically important. One can express the string threshold corrections to $\\sin^2\\theta _W$ and $\\alpha_s$ in terms of certain $modular$ $weights$ of quark, lepton and Higgs superfields as well as the $moduli$ of the string model. We find that in order to get agreement with the experimental measurements within the context of this $minimal$ scheme, certain constraints on the $modular$ $weights$ of the quark, lepton and Higgs superfields should be obeyed. Our analysis indicates that this $minimal$ $string$ $unification$
SU(2)×U(1) gauge invariance and the shape of new physics in rare B decays.
Alonso, R; Grinstein, B; Martin Camalich, J
2014-12-12
New physics effects in B decays are routinely modeled through operators invariant under the strong and electromagnetic gauge symmetries. Assuming the scale for new physics is well above the electroweak scale, we further require invariance under the full standard model gauge symmetry group. Retaining up to dimension-six operators, we unveil new constraints between different new physics operators that are assumed to be independent in the standard phenomenological analyses. We illustrate this approach by analyzing the constraints on new physics from rare B(q) (semi-)leptonic decays.
Exact partition functions for the Ω-deformed N=2{sup ∗}SU(2) gauge theory
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Beccaria, Matteo; Macorini, Guido [Dipartimento di Matematica e Fisica “Ennio De Giorgi”, Università del Salento,Via Arnesano, 73100 Lecce (Italy); INFN,Via Arnesano, 73100 Lecce (Italy)
2016-07-12
We study the low energy effective action of the Ω-deformed N=2{sup ∗}SU(2) gauge theory. It depends on the deformation parameters ϵ{sub 1},ϵ{sub 2}, the scalar field expectation value a, and the hypermultiplet mass m. We explore the plane ((m/(ϵ{sub 1})),((ϵ{sub 2})/(ϵ{sub 1}))) looking for special features in the multi-instanton contributions to the prepotential, motivated by what happens in the Nekrasov-Shatashvili limit ϵ{sub 2}→0. We propose a simple condition on the structure of poles of the k-instanton prepotential and show that it is admissible at a finite set of points in the above plane. At these special points, the prepotential has poles at fixed positions independent on the instanton number. Besides and remarkably, both the instanton partition function and the full prepotential, including the perturbative contribution, may be given in closed form as functions of the scalar expectation value a and the modular parameter q appearing in special combinations of Eisenstein series and Dedekind η function. As a byproduct, the modular anomaly equation can be tested at all orders at these points. We discuss these special features from the point of view of the AGT correspondence and provide explicit toroidal 1-blocks in non-trivial closed form. The full list of solutions with 1, 2, 3, and 4 poles is determined and described in details.
Width and string tension of the flux tube in SU(2) lattice gauge theory at high temperature
Chagdaa, S.; Galsandorj, E.; Laermann, E.; Purev, B.
2018-02-01
We study the profiles of the flux tube between a static quark and an antiquark in quenched SU(2) lattice gauge theory at temperatures around the deconfinement phase transition. The physical width of the flux tube and the string tension have been determined from the transverse profiles and the q\\bar{q} potential, respectively. Exploiting the computational power of a GPU accelerator in our flux tube investigation, we achieve much higher statistics through which we can increase the signal to noise ratio of our observables in the simulation. This has allowed the investigation of larger lattices as well as larger separations between the quarks than in our previous work. The improved accuracy gives us better results for the width and the string tension. The physical width of the flux tube increases with the temperature up to around T c while keeping its increasing dependence on the q\\bar{q} separation. The string tension results are compared for two different sizes of the lattice. As the lattice becomes larger and finer together with the improved precision, the temperature dependent string tension tends to have a smaller value than the previous one.
Gauging the Full R-Symmetry Group in Five-dimensional, N = 2 Yang-Mills/Einstein/tensor Supergravity
Günaydin, M; Gunaydin, Murat; Zagermann, Marco
2001-01-01
We show that certain 5d, N=2 Yang-Mills/Einstein supergravity theories admit the gauging of the \\emph{full} R-symmetry group, $SU(2)_{R}$, of the underlying $\\mathcal{N}=2$ Poincar\\'{e} superalgebra. This generalizes the previously studied Abelian gaugings of $U(1)_{R}\\subset SU(2)_{R}$, and completes the construction of the most general vector and tensor field coupled $5d$, $\\mathcal{N}=2$ supergravity theories with gauge interactions. The gauging of $SU(2)_{R}$ turns out to be possible only in special cases, and leads to a new type of scalar potential. For a large class of these theories the potential does not have any critical points.
Massive Axial Gauge in the Exact Renormalization Group Approach
Panza, P.; Soldati, R.
The Exact Renormalization Group (ERG) approach to massive gauge theories in the axial gauge is studied and the smoothness of the massless limit is analysed for a formally gauge invariant quantity such as the Euclidean Wilson loop.
Drinfeld Doubles for Finite Subgroups of SU(2 and SU(3 Lie Groups
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Robert Coquereaux
2013-05-01
Full Text Available Drinfeld doubles of finite subgroups of SU(2 and SU(3 are investigated in detail. Their modular data – S, T and fusion matrices – are computed explicitly, and illustrated by means of fusion graphs. This allows us to reexamine certain identities on these tensor product or fusion multiplicities under conjugation of representations that had been discussed in our recent paper [J. Phys. A: Math. Theor. 44 (2011, 295208, 26 pages], proved to hold for simple and affine Lie algebras, and found to be generally wrong for finite groups. It is shown here that these identities fail also in general for Drinfeld doubles, indicating that modularity of the fusion category is not the decisive feature. Along the way, we collect many data on these Drinfeld doubles which are interesting for their own sake and maybe also in a relation with the theory of orbifolds in conformal field theory.
Fermion Masses and Mixing in SUSY Grand Unified Gauge Models with Extended Gut Gauge Groups
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chou, Chih-Lung
2005-04-05
The authors discuss a class of supersymmetric (SUSY) grand unified gauge (GUT) models based on the GUT symmetry G x G or G x G x G, where G denotes the GUT group that has the Standard Model symmetry (SU(3){sub c} x SU(2){sub L} x U(1){sub Y}) embedded as a subgroup. As motivated from string theory, these models are constructed without introducing any Higgs field of rani two or higher. Thus all the Higgs fields are in the fundamental representations of the extended GUT symmetry or, when G = SO(10), in the spinorial representation. These Higgs fields, when acquiring their vacuum expectation values, would break the extended GUT symmetry down to the Standard Model symmetry. In this dissertation, they argue that the features required of unified models, such as the Higgs doublet-triplet splitting, proton stability, and the hierarchy of fermion masses and mixing angles, could have natural explanations in the framework of the extended SUSY GUTs. Furthermore, they argue that the frameworks used previously to construct SO(10) GUT models using adjoint Higgs fields can naturally arise from the SO(10) x SO(10) and SO(10) x SO(10) x SO(10) models by integrating out heavy fermions. This observation thus suggests that the traditional SUSY GUT SO(10) theories can be viewed as the low energy effective theories generated by breaking the extended GUT symmetry down to the SO(10) symmetry.
Diagrammatics of braided group gauge theory
Majid, S
1996-01-01
We develop a gauge theory or theory of bundles and connections on them at the level of braids and tangles. Extending recent algebraic work, we provide now a fully diagrammatic treatment of principal bundles, a theory of global gauge transformations, associated braided fiber bundles and covariant derivatives on them. We describe the local structure for a concrete Z_3-graded or `anyonic' realization of the theory.
Non-connected gauge groups and the plethystic program
Bourget, Antoine; Pini, Alessandro
2017-10-01
We present in the context of supersymmetric gauge theories an extension of the Weyl integration formula, first discovered by Robert Wendt [1], which applies to a class of non-connected Lie groups. This allows to count in a systematic way gauge-invariant chiral operators for these non-connected gauge groups. Applying this technique to O( n), we obtain, via the ADHM construction, the Hilbert series for certain instanton moduli spaces. We validate our general method and check our results via a Coulomb branch computation, using three-dimensional mirror symmetry.
Gauge theory of gravity and supergravity on a group manifold
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ne' eman, Y.; Regge, T.
1977-12-01
The natural arena for the physics of gravity, supergravity and their enlargements appears to be the group manifold of the Poincare group P, the graded Poincare group GP of supersymmetry, and the corresponding enlargements. The dynamics of these theories correspond to geometrical algorithms in P and GP. Differential geometry on Lie groups is reviewed and results applied to P and GP. Curvature, gauge transformations and factorization are introduced. Also reviewed is the general coordinate transformation group and a hybrid gauge transformation, the anholonomized G.C.T. gauge. A study is made of the construction of an action, including the introduction of a set of special 2 forms, the ''pseudo curvatures.'' The possibilities of factorization in supersymmetry are analyzed. The version of supergravity is present which has now become a completely geometrical theory.
Focus point gauge mediation in product group unification
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bruemmer, Felix [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Ibe, Masahiro [Tokyo Univ., Kashiwa (Japan). Kavli IPMU, TODIAS; Tokyo Univ., Kashiwa (Japan). ICRR; Yanagida, Tsutomu T. [Tokyo Univ., Kashiwa (Japan). Kavli IPMU, TODIAS
2013-03-15
In certain models of gauge-mediated supersymmetry breaking with messenger fields in incomplete GUT multiplets, the radiative corrections to the Higgs potential cancel out during renormalization group running. This allows for relatively heavy superpartners and for a 125 GeV Higgs while the ne-tuning remains modest. In this paper, we show that such gauge mediation models with ''focus point'' behaviour can be naturally embedded into a model of SU(5) x U(3) product group unification.
Tensor renormalization group methods for spin and gauge models
Zou, Haiyuan
The analysis of the error of perturbative series by comparing it to the exact solution is an important tool to understand the non-perturbative physics of statistical models. For some toy models, a new method can be used to calculate higher order weak coupling expansion and modified perturbation theory can be constructed. However, it is nontrivial to generalize the new method to understand the critical behavior of high dimensional spin and gauge models. Actually, it is a big challenge in both high energy physics and condensed matter physics to develop accurate and efficient numerical algorithms to solve these problems. In this thesis, one systematic way named tensor renormalization group method is discussed. The applications of the method to several spin and gauge models on a lattice are investigated. theoretically, the new method allows one to write an exact representation of the partition function of models with local interactions. E.g. O(N) models, Z2 gauge models and U(1) gauge models. Practically, by using controllable approximations, results in both finite volume and the thermodynamic limit can be obtained. Another advantage of the new method is that it is insensitive to sign problems for models with complex coupling and chemical potential. Through the new approach, the Fisher's zeros of the 2D O(2) model in the complex coupling plane can be calculated and the finite size scaling of the results agrees well with the Kosterlitz-Thouless assumption. Applying the method to the O(2) model with a chemical potential, new phase diagram of the models can be obtained. The structure of the tensor language may provide a new tool to understand phase transition properties in general.
Renormalization group and phase transitions in spin, gauge, and QCD like theories
Liu, Yuzhi
In this thesis, we study several different renormalization group (RG) methods, including the conventional Wilson renormalization group, Monte Carlo renormalization group (MCRG), exact renormalization group (ERG, or sometimes called functional RG), and tensor renormalization group (TRG). We use the two dimensional nearest neighbor Ising model to introduce many conventional yet important concepts. We then generalize the model to Dyson's hierarchical model (HM), which has rich phase properties depending on the strength of the interaction. The partition function zeros (Fisher zeros) of the HM model in the complex temperature plane is calculated and their connection with the complex RG flows is discussed. The two lattice matching method is used to construct both the complex RG flows and calculate the discrete beta functions. The motivation of calculating the discrete beta functions for various HM models is to test the matching method and to show how physically relevant fixed points emerge from the complex domain. We notice that the critical exponents calculated from the HM depend on the blocking parameter b. This motivated us to analyze the connection between the discrete and continuous RG transformation. We demonstrate numerical calculations of the ERG equations. We discuss the relation between Litim and Wilson-Polchinski equation and the effect of the cut-off functions in the ERG calculation. We then apply methods developed in the spin models to more complicated and more physically relevant lattice gauge theories and lattice quantum chromodynamics (QCD) like theories. Finite size scaling (FSS) technique is used to analyze the Binder cumulant of the SU(2) lattice gauge model. We calculate the critical exponent nu and omega of the model and show that it is in the same universality class as the three dimensional Ising model. Motivated by the walking technicolor theory, we study the strongly coupled gauge theories with conformal or near conformal properties. We compare
Duality, Gauge Symmetries, Renormalization Groups and the BKT Transition
José, Jorge V.
2017-03-01
In this chapter, I will briefly review, from my own perspective, the situation within theoretical physics at the beginning of the 1970s, and the advances that played an important role in providing a solid theoretical and experimental foundation for the Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless theory (BKT). Over this period, it became clear that the Abelian gauge symmetry of the 2D-XY model had to be preserved to get the right phase structure of the model. In previous analyses, this symmetry was broken when using low order calculational approximations. Duality transformations at that time for two-dimensional models with compact gauge symmetries were introduced by José, Kadanoff, Nelson and Kirkpatrick (JKKN). Their goal was to analyze the phase structure and excitations of XY and related models, including symmetry breaking fields which are experimentally important. In a separate context, Migdal had earlier developed an approximate Renormalization Group (RG) algorithm to implement Wilson’s RG for lattice gauge theories. Although Migdal’s RG approach, later extended by Kadanoff, did not produce a true phase transition for the XY model, it almost did asymptotically in terms of a non-perturbative expansion in the coupling constant with an essential singularity. Using these advances, including work done on instantons (vortices), JKKN analyzed the behavior of the spin-spin correlation functions of the 2D XY-model in terms of an expansion in temperature and vortex-pair fugacity. Their analysis led to a perturbative derivation of RG equations for the XY model which are the same as those first derived by Kosterlitz for the two-dimensional Coulomb gas. JKKN’s results gave a theoretical formulation foundation and justification for BKT’s sound physical assumptions and for the validity of their calculational approximations that were, in principle, strictly valid only at very low temperatures, away from the critical TBKT temperature. The theoretical predictions were soon tested
Confining vs. conformal scenario for SU(2) with 2 adjoint fermions. Mesonic spectrum
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pica, Claudio; Del Debbio, Luigi; Lucini, Biagio
2010-01-01
The Minimal Walking Technicolor (MWT) model, based on the SU(2) gauge group with two Dirac adjoint fermions, is expected to lie close to the lower boundary of the conformal window. As such, it is believed to possess a dynamics different enough from QCD to be a viable candidate for a Technicolor t...
Weinberg Angle Derivation from Discrete Subgroups of SU(2 and All That
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Potter F.
2015-01-01
Full Text Available The Weinberg angle W of the Standard Model of leptons and quarks is derived from specific discrete (i.e., finite subgroups of the electroweak local gauge group SU(2 L U(1 Y . In addition, the cancellation of the triangle anomaly is achieved even when there are four quark families and three lepton families!
Tensor Networks for Lattice Gauge Theories with Continuous Groups
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
L. Tagliacozzo
2014-11-01
Full Text Available We discuss how to formulate lattice gauge theories in the tensor-network language. In this way, we obtain both a consistent-truncation scheme of the Kogut-Susskind lattice gauge theories and a tensor-network variational ansatz for gauge-invariant states that can be used in actual numerical computations. Our construction is also applied to the simplest realization of the quantum link models or gauge magnets and provides a clear way to understand their microscopic relation with the Kogut-Susskind lattice gauge theories. We also introduce a new set of gauge-invariant operators that modify continuously Rokhsar-Kivelson wave functions and can be used to extend the phase diagrams of known models. As an example, we characterize the transition between the deconfined phase of the Z_{2} lattice gauge theory and the Rokhsar-Kivelson point of the U(1 gauge magnet in 2D in terms of entanglement entropy. The topological entropy serves as an order parameter for the transition but not the Schmidt gap.
Five-loop quark mass and field anomalous dimensions for a general gauge group
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Luthe, Thomas [Bielefeld Univ. (Germany). Faculty of Physics; Maier, Andreas [Durham Univ. (United Kingdom). Inst. for Particle Physics Phenomenology; Marquard, Peter [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany); Schroeder, York [Univ. del Bio-Bio, Chillan (Chile). Grupo de Fisica de Altas Energias
2016-12-15
We present analytical five-loop results for the quark mass and quark field anomalous dimensions, for a general gauge group and in the MS scheme. We confirm the values known for the gauge group SU(3) from an independent calculation, and find full agreement with results available from large-N{sub f} studies.
Güngör, Özenç; Starkman, Glenn D.; Stora, Raymond
This work is dedicated to the memory of Raymond Stora (1930-2015). $SU(2)_L$ is the simplest spontaneous symmetry breaking (SSB) non-Abelian gauge theory: a complex scalar doublet $\\phi =\\frac{1}{\\sqrt{2}}\\begin{bmatrix}H+i\\pi_3 -\\pi_2 + i\\pi_1\\end{bmatrix}\\equiv \\frac{1}{\\sqrt{2}}\\tilde{H}e^{2i\\tilde{t}\\cdot\\tilde{\\vec{\\pi}}/}\\begin{bmatrix}1 0\\end{bmatrix}$ and a vector $\\vec{W}^\\mu$. In Landau gauge, $\\vec{W}^\\mu$ is transverse, $\\vec{\\tilde{\\pi}}$ are massless derivatively coupled Nambu-Goldstone bosons (NGB). A global shift symmetry enforces $m^{2}_{\\tilde{\\pi}}=0$. We observe that on-shell T-matrix elements of physical states ${\\vec W}^\\mu$,$\\phi$ are independent of global $SU(2)_{L}$ transformations, and that the associated global current is exactly conserved for amplitudes of physical states. We identify two towers of "1-soft-pion" global Ward-Takahashi Identities (WTI), which govern the $\\phi$-sector, and represent a new global symmetry which we call $SU(2)_L\\otimes$BRST, a symmetry not of the Lagran...
Gauge origin of discrete flavor symmetries in heterotic orbifolds
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Florian Beye
2014-09-01
Full Text Available We show that non-Abelian discrete symmetries in orbifold string models have a gauge origin. This can be understood when looking at the vicinity of a symmetry enhanced point in moduli space. At such an enhanced point, orbifold fixed points are characterized by an enhanced gauge symmetry. This gauge symmetry can be broken to a discrete subgroup by a nontrivial vacuum expectation value of the Kähler modulus T. Using this mechanism it is shown that the Δ(54 non-Abelian discrete symmetry group originates from a SU(3 gauge symmetry, whereas the D4 symmetry group is obtained from a SU(2 gauge symmetry.
Existence of non-Abelian vortices with product gauge groups
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Han, Xiaosen, E-mail: xiaosenhan@gmail.com [Institute of Contemporary Mathematics, School of Mathematics, Henan University, Kaifeng, Henan 475004 (China); Taida Institute for Mathematical Sciences, Center for Advanced Study in Theoretical Science, National Taiwan University, Taipei, 10617, Taiwan (China); Lin, Chang-Shou [Taida Institute for Mathematical Sciences, Center for Advanced Study in Theoretical Science, National Taiwan University, Taipei, 10617, Taiwan (China)
2014-01-15
In this paper we establish several sharp existence and uniqueness theorems for some non-Abelian vortex models arising in supersymmetric gauge field theories. We prove these results by studying a family of systems of elliptic equations with exponential nonlinear terms in both doubly periodic-domain and planar cases. In the doubly periodic-domain case we obtain some necessary and sufficient conditions, each explicitly expressed in terms of a single inequality interestingly relating the vortex numbers, to coupling parameters and size of the domain, for the existence of solutions to these systems. In the planar case we establish the existence results for any vortex numbers and coupling parameters. Sharp decay estimates for the planar solutions are also obtained. Furthermore, the solutions are unique, which give rise to the quantized integrals in all cases.
On Flux Quantization in F-Theory II: Unitary and Symplectic Gauge Groups
Collinucci, Andres
2012-01-01
We study the quantization of the M-theory G-flux on elliptically fibered Calabi-Yau fourfolds with singularities giving rise to unitary and symplectic gauge groups. We seek and find its relation to the Freed-Witten quantization of worldvolume fluxes on 7-branes in type IIB orientifold compactifications on Calabi-Yau threefolds. By explicitly constructing the appropriate four-cycles on which to calculate the periods of the second Chern class of the fourfolds, we find that there is a half-integral shift in the quantization of G-flux whenever the corresponding dual 7-brane is wrapped on a non-spin submanifold. This correspondence of quantizations holds for all unitary and symplectic gauge groups, except for SU(3), which behaves mysteriously. We also perform our analysis in the case where, in addition to the aforementioned gauge groups, there is also a 'flavor' U(1)-gauge group.
Klevers, Denis
2016-01-01
We give an explicit construction of a class of F-theory models with matter in the three-index symmetric (4) representation of SU(2). This matter is realized at codimension two loci in the F-theory base where the divisor carrying the gauge group is singular; the associated Weierstrass model does not have the form associated with a generic SU(2) Tate model. For 6D theories, the matter is localized at a triple point singularity of arithmetic genus g=3 in the curve supporting the SU(2) group. This is the first explicit realization of matter in F-theory in a representation corresponding to a genus contribution greater than one. The construction is realized by "unHiggsing" a model with a U(1) gauge factor under which there is matter with charge q=3. The resulting SU(2) models can be further unHiggsed to realize non-Abelian G_2xSU(2) models with more conventional matter content or SU(2)^3 models with trifundamental matter. The U(1) models used as the basis for this construction do not seem to have a Weierstrass real...
A correction to the Immirzi parameter of SU(2 spin networks
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. Sadiq
2015-02-01
Full Text Available The elegant predictions of loop quantum gravity are obscured by the free Immirzi parameter (γ. Dreyer (2003, considering the asymptotic quasinormal modes spectrum of a black hole, proposed that γ may be fixed by letting the j=1 transitions of spin networks as the dominant processes contributing to the black hole area, as opposed to the expected j=1/2 transitions. This suggested that the gauge group of the theory might be SO(3 rather than SU(2. Corichi (2003, maintaining SU(2 as the underlying gauge group, and invoking the principle of local fermion-number conservation, reported the same value of γ for j=1 processes as obtained by Dreyer. In this note, preserving the SU(2 structure of the theory, and considering j=1 transitions as the dominant processes, we point out that the value of γ is in fact twice the value reported by these authors. We arrive at this result by assuming the asymptotic quasinormal modes themselves as dynamical systems obeying SU(2 symmetry.
Anomaly cancellation and gauge group of the standard model in NCG
Alvarez, Enrique; Martín, C P; Alvarez, Enrique
1995-01-01
It is well known that anomaly cancellation {\\it almost} determines the hypercharges in the standard model. A related (and somewhat more stronger) phenomenon takes place in Connes' NCG framework: unimodularity (a technical condition on elements of the algebra) is {\\it strictly} equivalent to anomaly cancellation (in the absence of right-handed neutrinos); and this in turn reduces the symmetry group of the theory to the standard SU(3)\\times SU(2) \\times U(1).
The geometry and physics of Abelian gauge groups in F-theory
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Keitel, Jan
2015-07-14
In this thesis we study the geometry and the low-energy effective physics associated with Abelian gauge groups in F-theory compactifications. To construct suitable torus-fibered Calabi-Yau manifolds, we employ the framework of toric geometry. By identifying appropriate building blocks of Calabi-Yau manifolds that can be studied independently, we devise a method to engineer large numbers of manifolds that give rise to a specified gauge group and achieve a partial classification of toric gauge groups. Extending our analysis from gauge groups to matter spectra, we prove that the matter content of the most commonly studied F-theory set-ups is rather constrained. To circumvent such limitations, we introduce an algorithm to analyze torus-fibrations defined as complete intersections and present several novel kinds of F-theory compactifications. Finally, we show how torus-fibrations without section are linked to fibrations with multiple sections through a network of successive geometric transitions. In order to investigate the low-energy effective physics resulting from our compactifications, we apply M- to F-theory duality. After determining the effective action of F-theory with Abelian gauge groups in six dimensions, we compare the loop-corrected Chern-Simons terms to topological quantities of the compactification manifold to read off the massless matter content. Under certain assumptions, we show that all gravitational and mixed anomalies are automatically canceled in F-theory. Furthermore, we compute the low-energy effective action of F-theory compactifications without section and suggest that the absence of a section signals the presence of an additional massive Abelian gauge field. Adjusting our analysis to four dimensions, we show that remnants of this massive gauge field survive as discrete symmetries that impose selection rules on the Yukawa couplings of the effective theory.
Gauge-independent Higgs mechanism and the implications for quark confinement
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kondo Kei-Ichi
2017-01-01
Full Text Available We propose a gauge-invariant description for the Higgs mechanism by which a gauge boson acquires the mass. We do not need to assume spontaneous breakdown of gauge symmetry signaled by a non-vanishing vacuum expectation value of the scalar field. In fact, we give a manifestly gauge-invariant description of the Higgs mechanism in the operator level, which does not rely on spontaneous symmetry breaking. For concreteness, we discuss the gauge-Higgs models with U(1 and SU(2 gauge groups explicitly. This enables us to discuss the confinement-Higgs complementarity from a new perspective.
Compactifications of IIA supergravity on SU(2)-structure manifolds
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Spanjaard, B.
2008-07-15
In this thesis, we study compactifications of type IIA supergravity on six-dimensional manifolds with an SU(2)-structure. A general study of six-dimensional manifolds with SU(2)-structure shows that IIA supergravity compactified on such a manifold should yield a four-dimensional gauged N=4 supergravity. We explicitly derive the bosonic spectrum, gauge transformations and action for IIA supergravity compactified on two different manifolds with SU(2)-structure, one of which also has an H{sup (3)}{sub 10}-flux, and confirm that the resulting four-dimensional theories are indeed N=4 gauged supergravities. In the second chapter, we study an explicit construction of a set of SU(2)-structure manifolds. This construction involves a Scherk-Schwarz duality twist reduction of the half-maximal six-dimensional supergravity obtained by compactifying IIA supergravity on a K3. This reduction results in a gauged N=4 four-dimensional supergravity, where the gaugings can be divided into three classes of parameters. We relate two of the classes to parameters we found before, and argue that the third class of parameters could be interpreted as a mirror flux. (orig.)
Family replicated gauge groups and large mixing angle solar neutrino solution
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Froggatt, C.D. E-mail: c.froggatt@physics.gla.ac.uk; Nielsen, H.B. E-mail: hbech@mail.desy.dehbech@nbi.dk; Takanishi, Y. E-mail: yasutaka@mail.desy.deyasutaka@nbi.dk
2002-06-03
We present a modification of our previous family replicated gauge group model, which now generates the Large Mixing Angle MSW solution rather than the experimentally disfavoured Small Mixing Angle MSW solution to the solar neutrino oscillation problem. The model is based on each family of quarks and leptons having its own set of gauge fields, each containing a replica of the Standard Model gauge fields plus a (B-L)-coupled gauge field. By a careful choice of the Higgs field gauge quantum numbers, we avoid our previous prediction that the solar neutrino mixing angle is equal order of magnitudewise to the Cabibbo angle, replacing it and the well-known Fritzsch relation with the relation {theta}{sub c}{approx}({theta}{sub [odot]}){sup -1/3} (m{sub d}/m{sub s}){sup 2/3}. At the same time we retain a phenomenologically successful structure for the charged quark and lepton mass matrices. A fit of all the seventeen quark-lepton mass and mixing angle observables, using just six new Higgs field vacuum expectation values, agrees with the experimental data within the theoretically expected uncertainty of about 64%, i.e., it fits perfectly order of magnitudewise.
't Hooft loop and the phases of SU(2) LGT
Burgio, Giuseppe
2013-01-01
We analyze the vacuum structure of SU(2) lattice gauge theories in D=2,3,4, concentrating on the stability of 't Hooft loops. High precision calculations have been performed in D=3; similar results hold also for D=4 and D=2. We discuss the impact of our findings on the continuum limit of Yang-Mills theories.
Mass anomalous dimension in SU(2) with six fundamental fermions
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bursa, Francis; Del Debbio, Luigi; Keegan, Liam
2010-01-01
We simulate SU(2) gauge theory with six massless fundamental Dirac fermions. We measure the running of the coupling and the mass in the Schroedinger Functional scheme. We observe very slow running of the coupling constant. We measure the mass anomalous dimension gamma, and find it is between 0.13...
The SU(2)-Higgs model on asymmetric lattices
Csikor, Ferenc
1996-01-01
We calculate the {\\cal O}(g^2,\\lambda) corrections to the coupling anisotropies of the SU(2)-Higgs model on lattices with asymmetric lattice spacings. These corrections are obtained by a one-loop calculation requiring the rotational invariance of the gauge- and Higgs-boson propagators in the continuum limit.
Large-volume results in SU(2) with adjoint fermions
Del Debbio, Luigi; Pica, Claudio; Patella, Agostino; Rago, Antonio; Roman, Sabin
2014-01-01
Taming finite-volume effects is a crucial ingredient in order to identify the existence of IR fixed points. We present the latest results from our numerical simulations of SU(2) gauge theory with 2 Dirac fermions in the adjoint representation on large volumes. We compare with previous results, and extrapolate to thermodynamic limit when possible.
Large-volume results in SU(2) with adjoint fermions
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Del Debbio, Luigi; Lucini, Biagio; Pica, Claudio
2013-01-01
Taming finite-volume effects is a crucial ingredient in order to identify the existence of IR fixed points. We present the latest results from our numerical simulations of SU(2) gauge theory with 2 Dirac fermions in the adjoint representation on large volumes. We compare with previous results, an...
SU(2|2) supersymmetric mechanics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ivanov, Evgeny [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research,Dubna, Moscow Region, 141980 (Russian Federation); Lechtenfeld, Olaf [Institut für Theoretische Physik and Riemann Center for Geometry and Physics,Leibniz Universität Hannover,Appelstraße 2, 30167 Hannover (Germany); Sidorov, Stepan [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research,Dubna, Moscow Region, 141980 (Russian Federation)
2016-11-07
We introduce a new kind of non-relativistic N= 8 supersymmetric mechanics, associated with worldline realizations of the supergroup SU(2|2) treated as a deformation of flat N= 8, d=1 supersymmetry. Various worldline SU(2|2) superspaces are constructed as coset manifolds of this supergroup, and the corresponding superfield techniques are developed. For the off-shell SU(2|2) multiplets (3,8,5), (4,8,4) and (5,8,3), we construct and analyze the most general superfield and component actions. Common features are mass oscillator-type terms proportional to the deformation parameter and a trigonometric realization of the superconformal group OSp(4{sup ∗}|4) in the conformal cases. For the simplest (5,8,3) model the quantization is performed.
Constraints on dark matter particles charged under a hidden gauge group from primordial black holes
Dai, De-Chang; Freese, Katherine; Stojkovic, Dejan
2009-06-01
In order to accommodate increasingly tighter observational constraints on dark matter, several models have been proposed recently in which dark matter particles are charged under some hidden gauge group. Hidden gauge charges are invisible for the standard model particles, hence such scenarios are very difficult to constrain directly. However black holes are sensitive to all gauge charges, whether they belong to the standard model or not. Here, we examine the constraints on the possible values of the dark matter particle mass and hidden gauge charge from the evolution of primordial black holes. We find that the existence of the primordial black holes with reasonable mass is incompatible with dark matter particles whose charge to mass ratio is of the order of one. For dark matter particles whose charge to mass ratio is much less than one, we are able to exclude only heavy dark matter in the mass range of 1011 GeV-1016 GeV. Finally, for dark matter particles whose charge to mass ratio is much greater than one, there are no useful limits coming from primordial black holes.
Constraints on dark matter particles charged under a hidden gauge group from primordial black holes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dai, De-Chang; Stojkovic, Dejan [HEPCOS, Department of Physics, SUNY at Buffalo, 239 Fronczak Hall, Buffalo, NY 14260-1500 (United States); Freese, Katherine, E-mail: ddai@buffalo.edu, E-mail: ktfreese@umich.edu, E-mail: dss7@buffalo.edu [MCTP, Department of Physics, University of Michigan, 3444 Randall Lab, 450 Church Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States)
2009-06-01
In order to accommodate increasingly tighter observational constraints on dark matter, several models have been proposed recently in which dark matter particles are charged under some hidden gauge group. Hidden gauge charges are invisible for the standard model particles, hence such scenarios are very difficult to constrain directly. However black holes are sensitive to all gauge charges, whether they belong to the standard model or not. Here, we examine the constraints on the possible values of the dark matter particle mass and hidden gauge charge from the evolution of primordial black holes. We find that the existence of the primordial black holes with reasonable mass is incompatible with dark matter particles whose charge to mass ratio is of the order of one. For dark matter particles whose charge to mass ratio is much less than one, we are able to exclude only heavy dark matter in the mass range of 10{sup 11} GeV–10{sup 16} GeV. Finally, for dark matter particles whose charge to mass ratio is much greater than one, there are no useful limits coming from primordial black holes.
Simplicial gauge theory and quantum gauge theory simulation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Halvorsen, Tore Gunnar, E-mail: toregha@gmail.com [Department of Mathematical Sciences, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, NO-7491 Trondheim (Norway); Sorensen, Torquil Macdonald, E-mail: t.m.sorensen@matnat.uio.no [Centre of Mathematics for Applications, University of Oslo, NO-0316 Oslo (Norway)
2012-01-01
We propose a general formulation of simplicial lattice gauge theory inspired by the finite element method. Numerical tests of convergence towards continuum results are performed for several SU(2) gauge fields. Additionally, we perform simplicial Monte Carlo quantum gauge field simulations involving measurements of the action as well as differently sized Wilson loops as functions of {beta}.
Quantum groups as generalized gauge symmetries in WZNW models. Part I. The classical model
Hadjiivanov, L.; Furlan, P.
2017-07-01
Wess-Zumino-Novikov-Witten (WZNW) models over compact Lie groups G constitute the best studied class of (two dimensional, 2 D) rational conformal field theories (RCFTs). A WZNW chiral state space is a finite direct sum of integrable representations of the corresponding affine (current) algebra, and the correlation functions of primary fields are monodromy invariant combinations of left times right sector conformal blocks solving the Knizhnik-Zamolodchikov equation. However, even in this very well understood case of 2 D RCFT, the "internal" (gauge) symmetry that governs the ensuing fusion rules remains unclear. On the other hand, the canonical approach to the classical chiral WZNW theory developed by Faddeev, Alekseev, Shatashvili, Gawedzki and Falceto reveals its Poisson-Lie symmetry. After a covariant quantization, the latter gives rise to an associated quantum group symmetry which naturally requires an extension of the state space. This paper contains a review of earlier work on the subject with a special emphasis, in the case G = SU( n), on the emerging chiral "WZNW zero modes" which provide an adequate algebraic description of the internal symmetry structure of the model. Combining further left and right zero modes, one obtains a specific dynamical quantum group, the structure of its Fock representation resembling the axiomatic approach to gauge theories in which a "restricted" quantum group plays the role of a generalized gauge symmetry.
Gauge- and Renormalization-Group-Invariant Formulation of the Higgs-Boson Resonance
Papavassiliou, J; Papavassiliou, Joannis; Pilaftsis, Apostolos
1998-01-01
A gauge- and renormalization-group- invariant approach implemented by the pinch technique is formulated for resonant transitions involving the Higgs boson. The lineshape of the Higgs boson is shown to consist of two distinct and physically meaningful contributions: a process-independent resonant part and a process-dependent non-resonant background, which are separately gauge independent, invariant under the renormalization group, satisfy naive, tree-level Ward identities, and respect the optical and equivalence theorem individually. The former process-independent quantity serves as the natural extension of the concept of the effective charge to the case of the Higgs scalar, and constitutes a common ingredient of every Born-improved amplitude. The difference in the phenomenological predictions obtained within our approach and those found with other methods is briefly discussed.
Doubled Lattice Chern-Simons-Yang-Mills Theories with Discrete Gauge Group
Caspar, Stephan; Olesen, Therkel Z; Vlasii, Nadiia D; Wiese, Uwe-Jens
2016-01-01
We construct doubled lattice Chern-Simons-Yang-Mills theories with discrete gauge group $G$ in the Hamiltonian formulation. Here, these theories are considered on a square spatial lattice and the fundamental degrees of freedom are defined on pairs of links from the direct lattice and its dual, respectively. This provides a natural lattice construction for topologically-massive gauge theories, which are invariant under parity and time-reversal symmetry. After defining the building blocks of the doubled theories, paying special attention to the realization of gauge transformations on quantum states, we examine the dynamics in the group space of a single cross, which is spanned by a single link and its dual. The dynamics is governed by the single-cross electric Hamiltonian and admits a simple quantum mechanical analogy to the problem of a charged particle moving on a discrete space affected by an abstract electromagnetic potential. Such a particle might accumulate a phase shift equivalent to an Aharonov-Bohm pha...
Gauge Group Contraction of Electroweak Model and its Natural Energy Limits
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Nikolai A. Gromov
2015-09-01
Full Text Available The low and higher energy limits of the Electroweak Model are obtained from first principles of gauge theory. Both limits are given by the same contraction of the gauge group, but for the different consistent rescalings of the field space. Mathematical contraction parameter in both cases is interpreted as energy. The very weak neutrino-matter interaction is explained by zero tending contraction parameter, which depends on neutrino energy. The second consistent rescaling corresponds to the higher energy limit of the Electroweak Model. At the infinite energy all particles lose masses, electroweak interactions become long-range and are mediated by the neutral currents. The limit model represents the development of the early Universe from the Big Bang up to the end of the first second.
Natural Limits of Electroweak Model as Contraction of its Gauge Group
Gromov, Nikolay A
2014-01-01
The low and higher energy limits of the Electroweak Model are obtained from first principles of gauge theory. Both limits are given by the same contraction of the gauge group, but for the different consistent rescalings of the field space. Mathematical contraction parameter in both cases is interpreted as energy. The very weak neutrino-matter interactions is explained by zero tending contraction parameter, which depend on neutrino energy. The second consistent rescaling corresponds to the higher energy limit of the Electroweak Model. At the infinite energy all particles lose masses, electroweak interactions become long-range and are mediated by the neutral currents. The limit model represents the development of the early Universe from the Big Bang up to the end of the first second.
Natural limits of electroweak model as contraction of its gauge group
Gromov, N. A.
2015-06-01
The low and higher energy limits of the electroweak model are obtained from the first principles of gauge theory. Both limits are given by the same contraction of the gauge group, but for the different consistent rescalings of the field space. Mathematical contraction parameter in both cases is interpreted as energy. Very weak neutrino-matter interactions are explained by zero tending contraction parameter, which depends on neutrino energy. The second consistent rescaling corresponds to the higher energy limit of the electroweak model. At the infinite energy all particles lose mass, electroweak interactions become long-range and are mediated by neutral currents. The limit model represents the development of the early Universe from the big bang up to the end of the first second.
Early LHC bound on the W{sup Prime} boson mass in the nonuniversal gauge interaction model
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kim, Yeong Gyun [Department of Science Education, Gwangju National University of Education, Gwangju 500-703 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Kang Young, E-mail: kylee14214@gmail.com [Division of Quantum Phases and Devices, School of Physics, Konkuk University, Seoul 143-701 (Korea, Republic of)
2012-01-05
We study the phenomenology of the heavy charged gauge boson and obtain the lower bounds on its mass with the early LHC data at 7 TeV center-of-mass energy in the nonuniversal gauge interaction model, in which the electroweak SU(2) gauge group depends upon the fermion family. We found that the direct bound with the early data of the LHC is already better than the indirect bound on the mass of the W{sup Prime} boson.
Phase diagram of SU(2) with 2 flavors of dynamical adjoint quarks
Catterall, Simon; Sannino, Francesco; Schneible, Joe
2008-01-01
We report on numerical simulations of SU(2) lattice gauge theory with two flavors of light dynamical quarks in the adjoint of the gauge group. The dynamics of this theory is thought to be very different from QCD -- the theory exhibiting conformal or near conformal behavior in the infrared. We make a high resolution survey of the phase diagram of this model in the plane of the bare coupling and quark mass on lattices of size 8^3 \\times 16. Our simulations reveal a line of first order phase transitions extending from beta=0 to beta=beta_c \\sim 2.0. For beta > beta_c the line is no longer first order but continues as the locus of minimum meson mass. For beta > 2.0 we observe the critical pion and rho masses to be light, independent of bare coupling and approximately degenerate. We discuss possible interpretations of these observations and corresponding continuum limits.
Mass anomalous dimension in SU(2) with six fundamental fermions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bursa, Francis, E-mail: fwb22@cam.ac.u [Jesus College, Cambridge, CB5 8BL (United Kingdom); Del Debbio, Luigi; Keegan, Liam [SUPA, School of Astrophysics and Astronomy, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, EH9 3JZ (United Kingdom); Pica, Claudio [CP3-Origins, University of Southern Denmark Odense, 5230 M (Denmark); Pickup, Thomas [Rudolf Peierls Centre for Theoretical Physics, University of Oxford, Oxford, OX1 3NP (United Kingdom)
2011-02-07
We simulate SU(2) gauge theory with six massless fundamental Dirac fermions. We measure the running of the coupling and the mass in the Schroedinger Functional scheme. We observe very slow running of the coupling constant. We measure the mass anomalous dimension {gamma}, and find it is between 0.135 and 1.03 in the range of couplings consistent with the existence of an IR fixed point.
PyR@TE. Renormalization group equations for general gauge theories
Lyonnet, F.; Schienbein, I.; Staub, F.; Wingerter, A.
2014-03-01
Although the two-loop renormalization group equations for a general gauge field theory have been known for quite some time, deriving them for specific models has often been difficult in practice. This is mainly due to the fact that, albeit straightforward, the involved calculations are quite long, tedious and prone to error. The present work is an attempt to facilitate the practical use of the renormalization group equations in model building. To that end, we have developed two completely independent sets of programs written in Python and Mathematica, respectively. The Mathematica scripts will be part of an upcoming release of SARAH 4. The present article describes the collection of Python routines that we dubbed PyR@TE which is an acronym for “Python Renormalization group equations At Two-loop for Everyone”. In PyR@TE, once the user specifies the gauge group and the particle content of the model, the routines automatically generate the full two-loop renormalization group equations for all (dimensionless and dimensionful) parameters. The results can optionally be exported to LaTeX and Mathematica, or stored in a Python data structure for further processing by other programs. For ease of use, we have implemented an interactive mode for PyR@TE in form of an IPython Notebook. As a first application, we have generated with PyR@TE the renormalization group equations for several non-supersymmetric extensions of the Standard Model and found some discrepancies with the existing literature. Catalogue identifier: AERV_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AERV_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen’s University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 924959 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 495197 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: Python. Computer
Geometric phase and gauge connection in polyatomic molecules.
Wittig, Curt
2012-05-14
Geometric phase is an interesting topic that is germane to numerous and varied research areas: molecules, optics, quantum computing, quantum Hall effect, graphene, and so on. It exists only when the system of interest interacts with something it perceives as exterior. An isolated system cannot display geometric phase. This article addresses geometric phase in polyatomic molecules from a gauge field theory perspective. Gauge field theory was introduced in electrodynamics by Fock and examined assiduously by Weyl. It yields the gauge field A(μ), particle-field couplings, and the Aharonov-Bohm phase, while Yang-Mills theory, the cornerstone of the standard model of physics, is a template for non-Abelian gauge symmetries. Electronic structure theory, including nonadiabaticity, is a non-Abelian gauge field theory with matrix-valued covariant derivative. Because the wave function of an isolated molecule must be single-valued, its global U(1) symmetry cannot be gauged, i.e., products of nuclear and electron functions such as χ(n)ψ(n) are forbidden from undergoing local phase transformation on R, where R denotes nuclear degrees of freedom. On the other hand, the synchronous transformations (first noted by Mead and Truhlar): ψ(n)→ψ(n)e(iζ) and simultaneously χ(n)→χ(n)e(-iζ), preserve single-valuedness and enable wave functions in each subspace to undergo phase transformation on R. Thus, each subspace is compatible with a U(1) gauge field theory. The central mathematical object is Berry's adiabatic connection i, which serves as a communication link between the two subsystems. It is shown that additions to the connection according to the gauge principle are, in fact, manifestations of the synchronous (e(iζ)/e(-iζ)) nature of the ψ(n) and χ(n) phase transformations. Two important U(1) connections are reviewed: qA(μ) from electrodynamics and Berry's connection. The gauging of SU(2) and SU(3) is reviewed and then used with molecules. The largest gauge group
Gattringer, Christof
2016-01-01
We propose a new approach to strong coupling series and dual representations for non-abelian lattice gauge theories using the SU(2) case as an example. The Wilson gauge action is written as a sum over "abelian color cycles" (ACC) which correspond to loops in color space around plaquettes. The ACCs are complex numbers which can be commuted freely such that the strong coupling series and the dual representation can be obtained as in the abelian case. Using a suitable representation of the SU(2) gauge variables we integrate out all original gauge links and identify the constraints for the dual variables in the SU(2) case. We show that the construction can be generalized to the case of SU(2) gauge fields with staggered fermions. The result is a strong coupling series where all gauge integrals are known in closed form and we discuss its applicability for possible dual simulations. The abelian color cycle concept can be generalized to other non-abelian gauge groups such as SU(3).
Gattringer, Christof; Marchis, Carlotta
2017-03-01
We propose a new approach to strong coupling series and dual representations for non-abelian lattice gauge theories using the SU(2) case as an example. The Wilson gauge action is written as a sum over ;abelian color cycles; (ACC) which correspond to loops in color space around plaquettes. The ACCs are complex numbers which can be commuted freely such that the strong coupling series and the dual representation can be obtained as in the abelian case. Using a suitable representation of the SU(2) gauge variables we integrate out all original gauge links and identify the constraints for the dual variables in the SU(2) case. We show that the construction can be generalized to the case of SU(2) gauge fields with staggered fermions. The result is a strong coupling series where all gauge integrals are known in closed form and we discuss its applicability for possible dual simulations. The abelian color cycle concept can be generalized to other non-abelian gauge groups such as SU(3).
Cabrera, Santiago; Hanany, Amihay; Zhong, Zhenghao
2017-11-01
Coulomb branches of a set of 3 d N = 4 supersymmetric gauge theories are closures of nilpotent orbits of the algebra so(n) . From the point of view of string theory, these quantum field theories can be understood as effective gauge theories describing the low energy dynamics of a brane configuration with the presence of orientifold planes [1]. The presence of the orientifold planes raises the question to whether the orthogonal factors of a the gauge group are indeed orthogonal O( N ) or special orthogonal SO( N ). In order to investigate this problem, we compute the Hilbert series for the Coulomb branch of T σ (SO( n)∨) theories, utilizing the monopole formula. The results for all nilpotent orbits from so(3) to so(10) which are special and normal are presented. A new relationship between the choice of SO/O( N ) factors in the gauge group and the Lusztig's Canonical Quotient \\overline{A}(O_{λ}) of the corresponding nilpotent orbit is observed. We also provide a new way of projecting several magnetic lattices of different SO( N ) gauge group factors by the diagonal action of a Z_2 group.
Instanton effects in three-dimensional supersymmetric gauge theories with matter
Dorey, N.; Tong, D.; Vandoren, S.
1998-01-01
Using standard field theory techniques we compute perturbative and instanton contributions to the Coulomb branch of three-dimensional supersymmetric QCD with N = 2 and N = 4 supersymmetry and gauge group SU(2). For the N = 4 theory with one massless flavor, we confirm the proposal of Seiberg and
A novel functional renormalization group framework for gauge theories and gravity
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Codello, Alessandro
2010-07-01
In this thesis we develop further the functional renormalization group (RG) approach to quantum field theory (QFT) based on the effective average action (EAA) and on the exact flow equation that it satisfies. The EAA is a generalization of the standard effective action that interpolates smoothly between the bare action for k{yields}{infinity} and the standard effective action for k{yields}0. In this way, the problem of performing the functional integral is converted into the problem of integrating the exact flow of the EAA from the UV to the IR. The EAA formalism deals naturally with several different aspects of a QFT. One aspect is related to the discovery of non-Gaussian fixed points of the RG flow that can be used to construct continuum limits. In particular, the EAA framework is a useful setting to search for Asymptotically Safe theories, i.e. theories valid up to arbitrarily high energies. A second aspect in which the EAA reveals its usefulness are non-perturbative calculations. In fact, the exact flow that it satisfies is a valuable starting point for devising new approximation schemes. In the first part of this thesis we review and extend the formalism, in particular we derive the exact RG flow equation for the EAA and the related hierarchy of coupled flow equations for the proper-vertices. We show how standard perturbation theory emerges as a particular way to iteratively solve the flow equation, if the starting point is the bare action. Next, we explore both technical and conceptual issues by means of three different applications of the formalism, to QED, to general non-linear sigma models (NL{sigma}M) and to matter fields on curved spacetimes. In the main part of this thesis we construct the EAA for non-abelian gauge theories and for quantum Einstein gravity (QEG), using the background field method to implement the coarse-graining procedure in a gauge invariant way. We propose a new truncation scheme where the EAA is expanded in powers of the curvature or
Wang, Juven C; Gu, Zheng-Cheng; Wen, Xiao-Gang
2015-01-23
The challenge of identifying symmetry-protected topological states (SPTs) is due to their lack of symmetry-breaking order parameters and intrinsic topological orders. For this reason, it is impossible to formulate SPTs under Ginzburg-Landau theory or probe SPTs via fractionalized bulk excitations and topology-dependent ground state degeneracy. However, the partition functions from path integrals with various symmetry twists are universal SPT invariants, fully characterizing SPTs. In this work, we use gauge fields to represent those symmetry twists in closed spacetimes of any dimensionality and arbitrary topology. This allows us to express the SPT invariants in terms of continuum field theory. We show that SPT invariants of pure gauge actions describe the SPTs predicted by group cohomology, while the mixed gauge-gravity actions describe the beyond-group-cohomology SPTs. We find new examples of mixed gauge-gravity actions for U(1) SPTs in (4+1)D via the gravitational Chern-Simons term. Field theory representations of SPT invariants not only serve as tools for classifying SPTs, but also guide us in designing physical probes for them. In addition, our field theory representations are independently powerful for studying group cohomology within the mathematical context.
The finite temperature phase transition in the lattice SU(2)-Higgs model
Farakos, K; Rummukainen, K; Shaposhnikov, Mikhail E
1994-01-01
We study the finite temperature transition of SU(2)-Higgs model with lattice Monte Carlo techniques. We use dimensional reduction to transform the original 4-dimensional SU(2)-gauge + fundamental Higgs theory to an effective 3-dimensional SU(2) + adjoint Higgs + fundamental Higgs model. The simulations were performed with Higgs masses of 35 and 80 GeV; in both cases we observe a stronger first order transition than the perturbation theory predicts, indicating that the dynamics of the transition strongly depend on non-perturbative effects.
Fractal dimension of the topological charge density distribution in SU(2) lattice gluodynamics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Buividovich, P.V. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation); Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics ITEP, Moscow (Russian Federation); Kalaydzhyan, T. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics ITEP, Moscow (Russian Federation); Polikarpov, M.I. [Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics ITEP, Moscow (Russian Federation)
2011-11-15
We study the effect of cooling on the spatial distribution of the topological charge density in quenched SU(2) lattice gauge theory with overlap fermions. We show that as the gauge field configurations are cooled, the Hausdorff dimension of regions where the topological charge is localized gradually changes from d=2/3 towards the total space dimension. Hence the cooling procedure destroys some of the essential properties of the topological charge distribution. (orig.)
Type IIA orientifolds on SU(2)-structure manifolds
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Danckaert, Thomas
2010-11-15
We investigate the possible supersymmetry-preserving orientifold projections of type IIA string theory on a six-dimensional background with SU(2)-structure. We find two categories of projections which preserve half of the low-energy supersymmetry, reducing the effective theory from an N=4 supergravity theory, to an N=2 supergravity. For these two cases, we impose the projection on the low-energy spectrum and reduce the effective N=4 supergravity action accordingly. We can identify the resulting gauged N=2 supergravity theory and bring the action into canonical form. We compute the scalar moduli spaces and characterize the gauged symmetries in terms of the geometry of these moduli spaces. Due to their origin in N=4 supergravity, which is a highly constrained theory, the moduli spaces are of a very simple form. We find that, for suitable background manifolds, isometries in all scalar sectors can become gauged. The obtained gaugings share many features with those of N=2 supergravities obtained previously from other G-structure compactifications. (orig.)
The relationship of the Laplacian gauge to the Landau gauge
Mandula, Jeffrey E.
2002-03-01
The Laplacian gauge for gauge group SU( N) is discussed in perturbation theory. It is shown that to the lowest non-trivial order ( O( g1), configurations in the Laplacian automatically satisfy the (finite difference) Landau gauge condition. Laplacian gauge fixed configurations are examined numerically and it is seen that to O( g2) they do not remain in the Landau gauge.
The Infrared behaviour of the gluon propagator in SU(2) and SU(3) without lattice Gribov copies
Alexandrou, C; Follana, E; De Forcrand, Ph
2000-01-01
We present lattice results for the gluon propagator for SU(2) and SU(3) in the Laplacian gauge which avoids lattice Gribov copies. In SU(3) we compare with the most recent lattice calculation in Landau gauge and with various approximate solutions of the Dyson Schwinger equations (DSE).
Temme, F P
2004-03-01
The physics of dual group scalar invariants (SIs) as (Lie algebraic) group measures (L-GMs) and its significance to non-Abelian NMR spin systems motivates this overview of uniform general-2n [AX](2n) spin evolution, which represents an extensive addendum to Corio's earlier (essentially restricted) view of Abelian spin system SU(2)-based SI-cardinalities. The [Formula: see text] values in [J. Magn. Reson., 134 (1998) 131] arise from strictly linear recoupled time-reversal invariance (TRI) models. In contrast, here we discuss the physical significance of an alternative polyhedral combinatorics approach to democratic recoupling (DR), a property inherent in both the TRI and statistical sampling. Recognition of spin ensemble SIs as being L-GMs over isomorphic algebras is invaluable in many DR-based NMR problems. Various [AX]n model spin systems, including the [AX]3 bis odd-odd parity spin system, are examined as direct applications of these L-GM- and combinatorial-based SI ideas. Hence in place of /SI/=15 (implied by Corio's [Formula: see text] approach), the bis 3-fold spin system cardinality is seen now as constrained to a single invariant on an isomorphic product algebra under L-GMs, in accord with the subspectral analysis of Jones et al. [Canad. J. Chem., 43 (1965) 683]. The group projective ideas cited here for DR (as cf. to graph theoretic views) apply to highly degenerate non-Abelian problems. Over dual tensorial bases, they define models of spin dynamical evolution whose (SR) quasiparticle superboson carrier (sub)spaces are characterised by SIs acting as explicit auxiliary labels [Physica, A198 (1993) 245; J. Math. Chem., 31 (2002) 281]. A deeper [Formula: see text] network-based view of spin-alone space developed in Balasubramanian's work [J. Chem. Phys., 78 (1983) 6358] is especially important, (e.g.) in the study of spin waves [J. Math. Chem., 31 (2002) 363]. Beyond the specific NMR SIs derived here, there are DR applications where a sporadic, still higher, 2
Günaydin, M; Gunaydin, Murat; Zagermann, Marco
2000-01-01
We study the general gaugings of N=2 Maxwell-Einstein supergravity theories (MESGT) in five dimensions, extending and generalizing previous work. The global symmetries of these theories are of the form SU(2)_R X G, where SU(2)_R is the R-symmetry group of the N=2 Poincare superalgebra and G is the group of isometries of the scalar manifold that extend to symmetries of the full action. We first gauge a subgroup K of G by turning some of the vector fields into gauge fields of K while dualizing the remaining vector fields into tensor fields transforming in a non-trivial representation of K. Surprisingly, we find that the presence of tensor fields transforming non-trivially under the Yang-Mills gauge group leads to the introduction of a potential which does not admit an AdS ground state. Next we give the simultaneous gauging of the U(1)_R subgroup of SU(2)_R and a subgroup K of G in the presence of K-charged tensor multiplets. The potential introduced by the simultaneous gauging is the sum of the potentials intro...
Numerical Results for SU(4) and SU(2) Kondo Effect in Carbon Nanotubes
Martins, George; Busser, Carlos
2006-03-01
New numerical results are presented for the Kondo effect in Carbon Nanotube (CNT) quantum dots (QDs). As recently reported by P. Jarillo-Herrero et al. (Nature 434, 484 (2005)), the Kondo effect in CNTs presents an SU(4) symmetry, which arises from the entanglement of orbital and spin degrees of freedom. As the number of co-tunneling processes increases, thanks to the extra (orbital) degree of freedom, the Kondo temperature reaches a high value of TK=7.7K. Interesting considerations can be drawn regarding the change from SU(4) to SU(2) symmetries depending on the hopping matrix elements between the leads and the CNT QD. Our results will analyze the transition between the SU(4) and the so-called two-level SU(2) (2LSU(2)) Kondo regimes induced by the variation of the coupling of the QD to the leads. The effect of an external magnetic field along the tube direction will also be analyzed. Our results will be compared with available Numerical Renormalization Group (NRG) results by M-S Choi et al. (Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 067204 (2005)). A comparison with the experimental results will be made to gauge the adequacy of the model and approximations made.
Mass anomalous dimension and running of the coupling in SU(2) with six fundamental fermions
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bursa, Francis; Del Debbio, Luigi; Keegan, Liam
2010-01-01
We simulate SU(2) gauge theory with six massless fundamental Dirac fermions. By using the Schr\\"odinger Functional method we measure the running of the coupling and the fermion mass over a wide range of length scales. We observe very slow running of the coupling and construct an estimator for the...
Light Asymmetric Dark Matter on the Lattice: SU(2) Technicolor with Two Fundamental Flavors
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lewis, Randy; Pica, Claudio; Sannino, Francesco
2012-01-01
The SU(2) gauge theory with two massless Dirac flavors constitutes the building block of several models of Technicolor. Furthermore it has also been used as a template for the construction of a natural light asymmetric, or mixed type, dark matter candidate. We use explicit lattice simulations to ...
Gradient flow and IR fixed point in SU(2) with Nf=8 flavors
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Leino, Viljami; Karavirta, Tuomas; Rantaharju, Jarno
2015-01-01
We study the running of the coupling in SU(2) gauge theory with 8 massless fundamental representation fermion flavours, using the gradient flow method with the Schr\\"odinger functional boundary conditions. Gradient flow allows us to measure robust continuum limit for the step scaling function...
The gradient flow running coupling in SU2 with 8 flavors
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Rantaharju, Jarno; Karavirta, Tuomas; Leino, Viljami
2014-01-01
We present preliminary results of the gradient flow running coupling with Dirichlet boundary condition in the SU(2) gauge theory with 8 fermion flavours. Improvements to the gradient flow measurement allow us to obtain a robust continuum limit. The results are consistent with perturbative running...
Aspects of finite field-dependent symmetry in SU(2) Cho–Faddeev–Niemi decomposition
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Upadhyay, Sudhaker, E-mail: sudhakerupadhyay@gmail.com
2013-11-25
In this Letter we consider SU(2) Yang–Mills theory analyzed in Cho–Faddeev–Niemi variables which remains invariant under local gauge transformations. The BRST symmetries of this theory are generalized by making the infinitesimal parameter finite and field-dependent. Further, we show that under appropriate choices of finite and field-dependent parameter, the gauge-fixing and ghost terms corresponding to Landau as well as maximal Abelian gauge for such Cho–Faddeev–Niemi decomposed theory appear naturally within functional integral through Jacobian calculation.
de Wild Propitius, M.; Bais, F.A.; Semenoff, G.; Vinet, L.
1999-01-01
In these lectures, we present a self-contained treatment of planar gauge theories broken down to some finite residual gauge group $H$ via the Higgs mechanism. The main focus is on the discrete $H$ gauge theory describing the long distance physics of such a model. The spectrum features global $H$
Renormalization Group and Phase Transitions in Spin, Gauge, and QCD Like Theories
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Liu, Yuzhi [Univ. of Iowa, Iowa City, IA (United States)
2013-08-01
In this thesis, we study several different renormalization group (RG) methods, including the conventional Wilson renormalization group, Monte Carlo renormalization group (MCRG), exact renormalization group (ERG, or sometimes called functional RG), and tensor renormalization group (TRG).
Dynamic SU(2) structure from seven-branes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Heidenreich, Ben; McAllister, Liam; /Cornell U., Phys. Dept.; Torroba, Gonzalo; /SLAC /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.
2010-12-16
We obtain a family of supersymmetric solutions of type IIB supergravity with dynamic SU(2) structure, which describe the local geometry near a stack of four D7-branes and one O7-plane wrapping a rigid four-cycle. The deformation to a generalized complex geometry is interpreted as a consequence of nonperturbative effects in the seven-brane gauge theory. We formulate the problem for seven-branes wrapping the base of an appropriate del Pezzo cone, and in the near-stack limit in which the four-cycle is flat, we obtain an exact solution in closed form. Our solutions serve to characterize the local geometry of nonperturbatively-stabilized flux compactifications.
Canonical transformations and loop formulation of SU(N) lattice gauge theories
Mathur, Manu; Sreeraj, T. P.
2015-12-01
We construct canonical transformations to reformulate SU(N) Kogut-Susskind lattice gauge theory in terms of a set of fundamental loop and string flux operators along with their canonically conjugate loop and string electric fields. The canonical relations between the initial SU(N) link operators and the final SU(N) loop and string operators, consistent with SU(N) gauge transformations, are explicitly constructed over the entire lattice. We show that as a consequence of SU(N) Gauss laws all SU(N) string degrees of freedom become cyclic and decouple from the physical Hilbert space Hp. The Kogut-Susskind Hamiltonian rewritten in terms of the fundamental physical loop operators has global SU(N) invariance. There are no gauge fields. We further show that the (1 /g2 ) magnetic field terms on plaquettes create and annihilate the fundamental plaquette loop fluxes while the (g2 ) electric field terms describe all their interactions. In the weak coupling (g2→0 ) continuum limit the SU(N) loop dynamics is described by SU(N) spin Hamiltonian with nearest neighbor interactions. In the simplest SU(2) case, where the canonical transformations map the SU(2) loop Hilbert space into the Hilbert spaces of hydrogen atoms, we analyze the special role of the hydrogen atom dynamical symmetry group S O (4 ,2 ) in the loop dynamics and the spectrum. A simple tensor network ansatz in the SU(2) gauge invariant hydrogen atom loop basis is discussed.
The relationship of the Laplacian gauge to the Landau gauge
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mandula, Jeffrey E
2002-03-01
The Laplacian gauge for gauge group SU(N) is discussed in perturbation theory. It is shown that to the lowest non-trivial order O(g{sup 1}), configurations in the Laplacian automatically satisfy the (finite difference) Landau gauge condition. Laplacian gauge fixed configurations are examined numerically and it is seen that to O(g{sup 2}) they do not remain in the Landau gauge.
The small-volume expansion of gauge theories coupled to massless fermions
van Baal, Pierre
1988-09-01
The small-volume expansion of the low-lying glueball states for SU(2) and SU(3) gauge theory, coupled to massless fermions with periodic and antiperiodic boundary conditions, is determined. For SU(3) with periodic boundary conditions the vacuum is eightfold degenerate and breaks part of the cubic group spontaneously. In all cases the scalar-to-tensor mass ratio mA1++/ mE++ is 1.1 to 1.3 as in the pure-gauge case. We also discuss chiral symmetry.
First results for SU(2) Yang-Mills with one adjoint Dirac Fermion
Athenodorou, Andreas; Bergner, Georg; Lucini, Biagio; Patella, Agostino
2013-01-01
We present a first exploratory study of SU(2) gauge theory with one Dirac flavour in the adjoint representation. We provide initial results for the spectroscopy and the anomalous dimension for the chiral condensate. Our investigation indicates that the theory is conformal or near-conformal, with an anomalous dimension of order one. A discussion of the relevance of these findings in relation to walking technicolor scenarios is also presented.
Infrared conformality and bulk critical points: SU(2) with heavy adjoint quarks
Lucini, Biagio; Rago, Antonio; Rinaldi, Enrico
2013-01-01
The lattice phase structure of a gauge theory can be a serious obstruction to Monte Carlo studies of its continuum behaviour. This issue is particularly delicate when numerical studies are performed to determine whether a theory is in a (near-)conformal phase. In this work we investigate the heavy mass limit of the SU(2) gauge theory with Nf=2 adjoint fermions and its lattice phase diagram, showing the presence of a critical point ending a line of first order bulk phase transition. The relevant gauge observables and the low-lying spectrum are monitored in the vicinity of the critical point with very good control over different systematic effects. The scaling properties of masses and susceptibilities open the possibility that the effective theory at criticality is a scalar theory in the universality class of the four-dimensional Gaussian model. This behaviour is clearly different from what is observed for SU(2) gauge theory with two dynamical adjoint fermions, whose (near-)conformal numerical signature is henc...
Path integrals and coherent states of SU(2) and SU(1,1)
Inomata, Akira; Kuratsuji, Hiroshi
1992-01-01
The authors examine several topical subjects, commencing with a general introduction to path integrals in quantum mechanics and the group theoretical backgrounds for path integrals. Applications of harmonic analysis, polar coordinate formulation, various techniques and path integrals on SU(2) and SU(1, 1) are discussed. Soluble examples presented include particle-flux system, a pulsed oscillator, magnetic monopole, the Coulomb problem in curved space and others.The second part deals with the SU(2) coherent states and their applications. Construction and generalization of the SU(2) coherent sta
Wu, Xiang-Yao; Liu, Xiao-Jing; Li, Hong; Zhang, Si-Qi; Ma, Ji; Liu, Ji-Ping; Liang, Yu
2017-10-01
In this paper, we have proposed S U(2) non-Abelian electromagnetism gauge theory. In the theory, photon has self-interaction and interaction between them, which can explain photon entanglement phenomenon in quantum information. Otherwise, we find there are three kinds photons γ +, γ - and γ 0, they have electric charge + e γ , - e γ and 0, respectively, these prediction are accordance with some experiment results.
Static solutions of SU(2)-Higgs theory
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yaffe, L.G. (Department of Physics, FM-15, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 (US))
1989-11-15
The structure and stability of static spherically symmetric solutions in the SU(2)-Higgs theory are examined using both analytic and numerical methods. Accurate results are presented for the energy and instability growth rates of the sphaleron'' solution as a function of the Higgs-boson mass. The sphaleron is shown to undergo an infinite sequence of bifurcations as the Higgs-boson mass is increased, starting at {ital M}{sub {ital H}}=12M{sub W}. New deformed sphaleron'' solutions emerge from each of these bifurcations. These deformed sphalerons are not charge-conjugation invariant, have non-half-integral winding numbers, and are lower in energy than the original sphaleron. Hence, for sufficiently large Higgs-boson mass, minimal-energy paths connecting inequivalent vacuum states do not pass through the original sphaleron configuration.
Light Kaluza Klein States in Randall-Sundrum Models with Custodial SU(2)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Carena, Marcela; /Fermilab; Ponton, Eduardo; /Columbia U.; Santiago, Jose; /Fermilab; Wagner, Carlos E.M.; /Argonne /Chicago U., EFI /KICP, Chicago
2006-07-01
We consider Randall-Sundrum scenarios based on SU(2){sub L} x SU(2){sub R} and a discrete parity exchanging L with R. The custodial and parity symmetries can be used to make the tree level contribution to the T parameter and the anomalous couplings of the bottom quark to the Z very small. We show that the resulting quantum numbers typically induce a negative T parameter at one loop that, together with the positive value of the S parameter, restrict considerably these models. There are nevertheless regions of parameter space that successfully reproduce the fit to electroweak precision observables with light Kaluza-Klein excitations accessible at colliders. We consider models of gauge-Higgs unification that implement the custodial and parity symmetries and find that the electroweak data singles out a very well defined region in parameter space. In this region one typically finds light gauge boson Kaluza-Klein excitations as well as light SU(2){sub L} singlet, and sometimes also doublet, fermionic states, that mix with the top quark, and that may yield interesting signatures at future colliders.
Ideal walking dynamics via a gauged NJL model
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Rantaharju, Jarno; Pica, Claudio; Sannino, Francesco
2017-01-01
According to the ideal walking technicolor paradigm, large mass anomalous dimensions arise in gauged Nambu-Jona-Lasinio (NJL) models when the four-fermion coupling is sufficiently strong to induce spontaneous symmetry breaking in an otherwise conformal gauge theory. We therefore study the SU(2) g...
Entangled SU(2) and SU(1,1) coherent states
Wang, Xiao-Guang; Sanders, Barry C.; Pan, Shao-Hua
2000-01-01
Entangled SU(2) and SU(1,1) coherent states are developed as superpositions of multiparticle SU(2) and SU(1,1) coherent states. In certain cases, these are coherent states with respect to generalized su(2) and su(1,1) generators, and multiparticle parity states arise as a special case. As a special example of entangled SU(2) coherent states, entangled binomial states are introduced and these entangled binomial states enable the contraction from entangled SU(2) coherent states to entangled har...
Loop calculus for lattice gauge theories
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gambini, R.; Leal, L.; Trias, A.
1989-05-15
Hamiltonian calculations are performed using a loop-labeled basis where the full set of identities for the SU(/ital N/) gauge models has been incorporated. The loops are classified as clusterlike structures and the eigenvalue problem leads to a linear set of finite-difference equations easily amenable to numerical treatment. Encouraging results are reported for SU(2) at spatial dimension 2.
Itzykson, C
1978-01-01
Some background on the theory of gauge fields, a subject of increasing popularity among particle physicists, is provided. The aim will be to stress those aspects which suggest that gauge fields may play some role in a future theory of strong interactions. (8 refs).
A non-perturbative study of massive gauge theories
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Della Morte, Michele; Hernandez, Pilar
2013-01-01
We consider a non-perturbative formulation of an SU(2) massive gauge theory on a space-time lattice, which is also a discretised gauged non-linear chiral model. The lattice model is shown to have an exactly conserved global SU(2) symmetry. If a scaling region for the lattice model exists...... and the lightest degrees of freedom are spin one vector particles with the same quantum numbers as the conserved current, we argue that the most general effective theory describing their low-energy dynamics must be a massive gauge theory. We present results of a exploratory numerical simulation of the model...
The Vacua of 5d, N=2 Gauged Yang-Mills/Einstein/Tensor Supergravity Abelian Case
Günaydin, M; Gunaydin, Murat; Zagermann, Marco
2000-01-01
We give a detailed study of the critical points of the potentials of thesimplest non-trivial N=2 gauged Yang-Mills/Einstein supergravity theories withtensor multiplets. The scalar field target space of these examples isSO(1,1)XSO(2,1)/SO(2). The possible gauge groups are SO(2)XU(1)_R andSO(1,1)XU(1)_R, where U(1)_R is a subgroup of the R-symmetry group SU(2)_R, andSO(2) and SO(1,1) are subgroups of the isometry group of the scalar manifold.The scalar potentials of these theories consist of a contribution from theU(1)_R gauging and a contribution that is due to the presence of the tensorfields. We find that the latter contribution can change the form of thesupersymmetric extrema from maxima to saddle points. In addition, it leads tonovel critical points not present in the corresponding gaugedYang-Mills/Einstein supergravity theories without the tensor multiplets. Forthe SO(2)XU(1)_R gauged theory these novel critical points correspond toanti-de Sitter ground states. For the non-compact SO(1,1)XU(1)_R gauging, ...
Maximal Abelian gauge and a generalized BRST transformation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Shinichi Deguchi
2016-05-01
Full Text Available We apply a generalized Becchi–Rouet–Stora–Tyutin (BRST formulation to establish a connection between the gauge-fixed SU(2 Yang–Mills (YM theories formulated in the Lorenz gauge and in the Maximal Abelian (MA gauge. It is shown that the generating functional corresponding to the Faddeev–Popov (FP effective action in the MA gauge can be obtained from that in the Lorenz gauge by carrying out an appropriate finite and field-dependent BRST (FFBRST transformation. In this procedure, the FP effective action in the MA gauge is found from that in the Lorenz gauge by incorporating the contribution of non-trivial Jacobian due to the FFBRST transformation of the path integral measure. The present FFBRST formulation might be useful to see how Abelian dominance in the MA gauge is realized in the Lorenz gauge.
Lattice gauge theories and spin models
Mathur, Manu; Sreeraj, T. P.
2016-10-01
The Wegner Z2 gauge theory-Z2 Ising spin model duality in (2 +1 ) dimensions is revisited and derived through a series of canonical transformations. The Kramers-Wannier duality is similarly obtained. The Wegner Z2 gauge-spin duality is directly generalized to SU(N) lattice gauge theory in (2 +1 ) dimensions to obtain the SU(N) spin model in terms of the SU(N) magnetic fields and their conjugate SU(N) electric scalar potentials. The exact and complete solutions of the Z2, U(1), SU(N) Gauss law constraints in terms of the corresponding spin or dual potential operators are given. The gauge-spin duality naturally leads to a new gauge invariant magnetic disorder operator for SU(N) lattice gauge theory which produces a magnetic vortex on the plaquette. A variational ground state of the SU(2) spin model with nearest neighbor interactions is constructed to analyze SU(2) gauge theory.
Thermodynamics of SU(2 quantum Yang-Mills theory and CMB anomalies
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hofmann Ralf
2014-04-01
Full Text Available A brief review of effective SU(2 Yang-Mills thermodynamics in the deconfining phase is given, including the construction of the thermal ground-state estimate in terms of an inert, adjoint scalar field φ, based on non-propagating (antiselfdual field configurations of topological charge unity. We also discuss kinematic constraints on interacting propagating gauge fields implied by the according spatial coarse-graining, and we explain why the screening physics of an SU(2 photon is subject to an electric-magnetically dual interpretation. This argument relies on the fact that only (anticalorons of scale parameter ρ ∼ |φ|−1 contribute to the coarse-graining required for thermal-ground-state emergence at temperature T. Thus, use of the effective gauge coupling e in the (anticaloron action is justified, yielding the value ħ for the latter at almost all temperatures. As a consequence, the indeterministic transition of initial to final plane waves caused by an effective, pointlike vertex is fundamentally mediated in Euclidean time by a single (anticaloron being part of the thermal ground state. Next, we elucidate how a low-frequency excess of line temperature in the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB determines the value of the critical temperature of the deconfining-preconfining phase transition of an SU(2 Yang-Mills theory postulated to describe photon propagation, and we describe how, starting at a redshift of about unity, SU(2 photons collectively work 3D temperature depressions into the CMB. Upon projection along a line of sight, a given depression influences the present CMB sky in a cosmologically local way, possibly explaining the large-angle anomalies confirmed recently by the Planck collaboration. Finally, six relativistic polarisations residing in the SU(2 vector modes roughly match the number of degrees of freedom in cosmic neutrinos (Planck which would disqualify the latter as radiation. Indeed, if interpreted as single center
Leontaris, George K
1999-01-01
In the context of the free-fermionic formulation of the heterotic superstring, we construct a three generation N=1 supersymmetric SU(4)xSU(2)LxSU(2)R model supplemented by an SU(8) hidden gauge symmetry and five Abelian factors. The symmetry breaking to the standard model is achieved using vacuum expectation values of a Higgs pair in (4bar,2R)+(4,2R) at a high scale. One linear combination of the Abelian symmetries is anomalous and is broken by vacuum expectation values of singlet fields along the flat directions of the superpotential. All consistent string vacua of the model are completely classified by solving the corresponding system of F- and D-flatness equations including non-renormalizable terms up to sixth order. The requirement of existence of electroweak massless doublets further restricts the phenomenologically viable vacua. The third generation fermions receive masses from the tree-level superpotential. Further, a complete calculation of all non-renormalizable fermion mass terms up to fifth order s...
Leontaris, George K
1999-01-01
In the context of the free-fermionic formulation of the heterotic superstring, we construct a three-generation N = 1 supersymmetric SU(4) x SU(2) sub L x SU(2) sub R model supplemented by an SU(8) hidden gauge symmetry and five Abelian factors. The symmetry breaking to the standard model is achieved using vacuum expectation values of a Higgs pair in (4,2 sub R) + (4-bar,2 sub R) at a high scale. One linear combination of the Abelian symmetries is anomalous and is broken by vacuum expectation values of singlet fields along the flat directions of the superpotential. All consistent string vacua of the model are completely classified by solving the corresponding system of F- and D-flatness equations including non-renormalizable terms up to sixth order. The requirement of existence of electroweak massless doublets imposes further restrictions to the phenomenologically viable vacua. The third generation fermions receive masses from the tree-level superpotential. Further, a complete calculation of all non-renormaliz...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hue, L.T. [Duy Tan University, Institute of Research and Development, Da Nang City (Viet Nam); Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology, Institute of Physics, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Arbuzov, A.B. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Researches, Bogoliubov Laboratory for Theoretical Physics, Dubna (Russian Federation); Ngan, N.T.K. [Cantho University, Department of Physics, Cantho (Viet Nam); Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology, Graduate University of Science and Technology, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Long, H.N. [Ton Duc Thang University, Theoretical Particle Physics and Cosmology Research Group, Ho Chi Minh City (Viet Nam); Ton Duc Thang University, Faculty of Applied Sciences, Ho Chi Minh City (Viet Nam)
2017-05-15
The neutrino and Higgs sectors in the SU(2){sub 1} x SU(2){sub 2} x U(1){sub Y} model with lepton-flavor non-universality are discussed. We show that active neutrinos can get Majorana masses from radiative corrections, after adding only new singly charged Higgs bosons. The mechanism for the generation of neutrino masses is the same as in the Zee models. This also gives a hint to solving the dark matter problem based on similar ways discussed recently in many radiative neutrino mass models with dark matter. Except the active neutrinos, the appearance of singly charged Higgs bosons and dark matter does not affect significantly the physical spectrum of all particles in the original model. We indicate this point by investigating the Higgs sector in both cases before and after singly charged scalars are added into it. Many interesting properties of physical Higgs bosons, which were not shown previously, are explored. In particular, the mass matrices of charged and CP-odd Higgs fields are proportional to the coefficient of triple Higgs coupling μ. The mass eigenstates and eigenvalues in the CP-even Higgs sector are also presented. All couplings of the SM-like Higgs boson to normal fermions and gauge bosons are different from the SM predictions by a factor c{sub h}, which must satisfy the recent global fit of experimental data, namely 0.995 < vertical stroke c{sub h} vertical stroke < 1. We have analyzed a more general diagonalization of gauge boson mass matrices, then we show that the ratio of the tangents of the W-W{sup '} and Z-Z{sup '} mixing angles is exactly the cosine of the Weinberg angle, implying that number of parameters is reduced by 1. Signals of new physics from decays of new heavy fermions and Higgs bosons at LHC and constraints of their masses are also discussed. (orig.)
Quantum Critical Behaviour of Semisimple Gauge Theories
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kamuk Esbensen, Jacob; Ryttov, Thomas A.; Sannino, Francesco
2016-01-01
We study the perturbative phase diagram of semi-simple fermionic gauge theories resembling the Standard Model. We investigate an $SU(N)$ gauge theory with $M$ Dirac flavors where we gauge first an $SU(M)_L$ and then an $SU(2)_L \\subset SU(M)_L$ of the original global symmetry $SU(M)_L\\times SU......(M)_R \\times U(1) $ of the theory. To avoid gauge anomalies we add lepton-like particles. At the two-loops level an intriguing phase diagram appears. We uncover phases in which one, two or three fixed points exist and discuss the associated flows of the coupling constants. We discover a phase featuring...
Integrability in N=2 superconformal gauge theorie
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pomoni, Elli [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, Hamburg (Germany). Theory Group; National Technical Univ. of Athens (Greece). Physics Div.
2013-10-15
Any N=2 superconformal gauge theory (including N=4 SYM) contains a set of local operators made only out of fields in the N=2 vector multiplet that is closed under renormalization to all loops, namely the SU(2,1 vertical stroke 2) sector. For planar N=4 SYM the spectrum of local operators can be obtained by mapping the problem to an integrable model (a spin chain in perturbation theory), in principle for any value of the coupling constant. We present a diagrammatic argument that for any planar N=2 superconformal gauge theory the SU(2,1 vertical stroke 2) Hamiltonian acting on infinite spin chains is identical to all loops to that of N=4 SYM, up to a redefinition of the coupling constant. Thus, this sector is integrable and anomalous dimensions can be, in principle, read off from the N=4 ones up to this redefinition.
Gauge-Higgs Unification Models in Six Dimensions with S2/Z2 Extra Space and GUT Gauge Symmetry
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Cheng-Wei Chiang
2012-01-01
Full Text Available We review gauge-Higgs unification models based on gauge theories defined on six-dimensional spacetime with S2/Z2 topology in the extra spatial dimensions. Nontrivial boundary conditions are imposed on the extra S2/Z2 space. This review considers two scenarios for constructing a four-dimensional theory from the six-dimensional model. One scheme utilizes the SO(12 gauge symmetry with a special symmetry condition imposed on the gauge field, whereas the other employs the E6 gauge symmetry without requiring the additional symmetry condition. Both models lead to a standard model-like gauge theory with the SU(3×SU(2L×U(1Y(×U(12 symmetry and SM fermions in four dimensions. The Higgs sector of the model is also analyzed. The electroweak symmetry breaking can be realized, and the weak gauge boson and Higgs boson masses are obtained.
Effective SU(2) theory for the pseudogap state
Montiel, X.; Kloss, T.; Pépin, C.
2017-03-01
This paper exposes in a detailed manner the recent findings about the SU(2) scenario for the underdoped phase of the cuprate superconductors. The SU(2) symmetry is formulated as a rotation between the d -wave superconducting (SC) phase and a d -wave charge order. We define the operators responsible for the SU(2) rotations and we derive the nonlinear σ model associated with it. In this framework, we demonstrate that SU(2) fluctuations are massless in finite portions of the Brillouin zone corresponding to the antinodal regions (0 ,π ) and (π ,0 ). We argue that the presence of SU(2) fluctuations in the antinodal region leads to the opening of Fermi arcs around the Fermi surface and to the formation of the pseudogap. Moreover, we show that SU(2) fluctuations lead, in turn, to the emergence of a finite momentum SC order—or pair density wave (PDW)—and more importantly to a new kind of excitonic particle-hole pairs liquid, the resonant excitonic state (RES), which is made of patches of preformed particle-hole pairs with multiple momenta. When the RES liquid becomes critical, we demonstrate that electronic scattering through the critical modes leads to anomalous transport properties. This new finding can account for the strange metal (SM) phase at finite temperature, on the right-hand side of the SC dome, shedding light on another notoriously mysterious part of the phase diagram of the cuprates.
Lattice simulation of a center symmetric three dimensional effective theory for SU(2) Yang-Mills
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Smith, Dominik
2010-11-17
We present lattice simulations of a center symmetric dimensionally reduced effective field theory for SU(2) Yang Mills which employ thermal Wilson lines and three-dimensional magnetic fields as fundamental degrees of freedom. The action is composed of a gauge invariant kinetic term, spatial gauge fields and a potential for theWilson line which includes a ''fuzzy'' bag term to generate non-perturbative fluctuations between Z(2) degenerate ground states. The model is studied in the limit where the gauge fields are set to zero as well as the full model with gauge fields. We confirm that, at moderately weak coupling, the ''fuzzy'' bag term leads to eigenvalue repulsion in a finite region above the deconfining phase transition which shrinks in the extreme weak-coupling limit. A non-trivial Z(N) symmetric vacuum arises in the confined phase. The effective potential for the Polyakov loop in the theory with gauge fields is extracted from the simulations including all modes of the loop as well as for cooled configurations where the hard modes have been averaged out. The former is found to exhibit a non-analytic contribution while the latter can be described by a mean-field like ansatz with quadratic and quartic terms, plus a Vandermonde potential which depends upon the location within the phase diagram. Other results include the exact location of the phase boundary in the plane spanned by the coupling parameters, correlation lengths of several operators in the magnetic and electric sectors and the spatial string tension. We also present results from simulations of the full 4D Yang-Mills theory and attempt to make a qualitative comparison to the 3D effective theory. (orig.)
Relativistic gauge invariant potentials
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gonzalez, J.J. (Valladolid Univ. (Spain). Dept. de Fisica Teorica); Negro, J. (Valladolid Univ. (Spain). Dept. de Fisica Teorica); Olmo, M.A. del (Valladolid Univ. (Spain). Dept. de Fisica Teorica)
1995-01-01
A global method characterizing the invariant connections on an abelian principal bundle under a group of transformations is applied in order to get gauge invariant electromagnetic (elm.) potentials in a systematic way. So, we have classified all the elm. gauge invariant potentials under the Poincare subgroups of dimensions 4, 5, and 6, up to conjugation. It is paid attention in particular to the situation where these subgroups do not act transitively on the space-time manifold. We have used the same procedure for some galilean subgroups to get nonrelativistic potentials and study the way they are related to their relativistic partners by means of contractions. Some conformal gauge invariant potentials have also been derived and considered when they are seen as consequence of an enlargement of the Poincare symmetries. (orig.)
Supersymmetry Breaking Threshold Corrections in the $SU(4)\\times SU(2)_L\\times SU(2)_R$ Model
Korakianitis, O.; Tracas, N. D.
1993-01-01
We evaluate the SUSY and top threshold effects in the context of the MSSM and the string derived model based on SU(4)$\\times$SU(2)$_L\\times$SU(2)$_R$. In both cases we run the two loop RGEs and determine the lower bounds of the supersymmetric particle masses, dictated by the experimentally accepted regions of the values of the low energy parameters.
Gauge invariants and correlators in flavoured quiver gauge theories
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mattioli, Paolo, E-mail: p.mattioli@qmul.ac.uk; Ramgoolam, Sanjaye, E-mail: s.ramgoolam@qmul.ac.uk
2016-10-15
In this paper we study the construction of holomorphic gauge invariant operators for general quiver gauge theories with flavour symmetries. Using a characterisation of the gauge invariants in terms of equivalence classes generated by permutation actions, along with representation theory results in symmetric groups and unitary groups, we give a diagonal basis for the 2-point functions of holomorphic and anti-holomorphic operators. This involves a generalisation of the previously constructed Quiver Restricted Schur operators to the flavoured case. The 3-point functions are derived and shown to be given in terms of networks of symmetric group branching coefficients. The networks are constructed through cutting and gluing operations on the quivers.
SU(3)-Equivariant Quiver Gauge Theories and Nonabelian Vortices
Lechtenfeld, Olaf; Szabo, Richard J
2008-01-01
We consider SU(3)-equivariant dimensional reduction of Yang-Mills theory on Kaehler manifolds of the form M x SU(3)/H, with H = SU(2) x U(1) or H = U(1) x U(1). The induced rank two quiver gauge theories on M are worked out in detail for representations of H which descend from a generic irreducible SU(3)-representation. The reduction of the Donaldson-Uhlenbeck-Yau equations on these spaces induces nonabelian quiver vortex equations on M, which we write down explicitly. When M is a noncommutative deformation of the space C^d, we construct explicit BPS and non-BPS solutions of finite energy for all cases. We compute their topological charges in three different ways and propose a novel interpretation of the configurations as states of D-branes. Our methods and results generalize from SU(3) to any compact Lie group.
Mangiarotti, L
1998-01-01
This book presents in a unified way modern geometric methods in analytical mechanics based on the application of fibre bundles, jet manifold formalism and the related concept of connection. Non-relativistic mechanics is seen as a particular field theory over a one-dimensional base. In fact, the concept of connection is the major link throughout the book. In the gauge scheme of mechanics, connections appear as reference frames, dynamic equations, and in Lagrangian and Hamiltonian formalisms. Inertial forces, energy conservation laws and other phenomena related to reference frames are analyzed;
A precise determination of the psibar-psi anomalous dimension in conformal gauge theories
Patella, Agostino
2012-01-01
A strategy for computing the psibar-psi anomalous dimension at the fixed point in infrared-conformal gauge theories from lattice simulations is discussed. The method is based on the scaling of the spectral density of the Dirac operator or rather its integral, the mode number. It is relatively cheap, mainly for two reasons: (a) the mode number can be determined with quite high accuracy, (b) the psibar-psi anomalous dimension is extracted from a fit of several observables on the same set of configurations (no scaling in the Lagrangian parameters is needed). As an example the psibar-psi anomalous dimension has been computed in the SU(2) theory with 2 Dirac fermions in the adjoint representation of the gauge group, and has been found to be 0.371(20). In this particular case, the proposed strategy has proved to be very robust and effective.
More on the SU(2) deconfinement transition in the mixed action
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gavai, R.V. [Theoretical Physics Group, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Homi Bhabha Road, Mumbai 400005 (India); Mathur, M. [Dipartimento di Fisica dell Universita and INFN, Piazza Torricelli 2 Pisa-56100 (Italy)
1997-07-01
We examine certain issues related to the universality of the SU(2) lattice gauge theory at nonzero temperatures. Using Monte Carlo simulations and strong coupling expansions, we study the behavior of the deconfinement transition in an extended coupling plane ({beta},{beta}{sub A}) around the tricritical point where the deconfinement transition changes from second to first order. Our numerical results on N{sub {tau}}=2,4,6,8 lattices show that the tricritical point first moves down towards the Wilson axis and then moves slowly upwards, if at all, as the lattice spacing is reduced. Lattices with very large N{sub {tau}} seem to be, therefore, necessary for the mixed action to exhibit the critical exponents of the three-dimensional Ising model for positive values of the adjoint coupling. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}
Confining vs. conformal scenario for SU(2) with adjoint fermions. Gluonic observables
Patella, Agostino; Lucini, Biagio; Pica, Claudio; Rago, Antonio
2010-01-01
Walking technicolor is a mechanism for electroweak symmetry breaking without Higgs field. The Higgs mechanism is provided by chiral symmetry breaking in the technicolor theory. An essential ingredient is the vicinity to an IR fixed point, which could reconcile technicolor with the electroweak precision tests. SU(2) gauge theory with two Dirac adjoint fermions has been proposed as a candidate for walking technicolor. Understanding whether this theory is confining or IR-conformal is a challenging problem, which can be addressed by means of numerical simulations. We have pointed out that a clean signal for the existence of an IR fixed point in this theory can be obtained by comparing the mesonic and gluonic sectors. We review some technical details of our calculations. Possible systematic errors are discussed.
Noncontractible hyperloops in gauge models with Higgs fields in the fundamental representation
Burzlaff, Jürgen
1984-11-01
We study finite-energy configurations in SO( N) gauge theories with Higgs fields in the fundamental representation. For all winding numbers, noncontractible hyperloops are constructed. The corresponding energy density is spherically symmetric, and the configuration with maximal energy on each hyperloop can be determined. Noncontractible hyperloops with an arbitrary winding number for SU(2) gauge theory are also given.
Noncontractible hyperloops in gauge models with Higgs fields in the fundamental representation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Burzlaff, J. (Dublin Inst. for Advanced Studies (Ireland). School of Theoretical Physics)
1984-11-01
We study finite-energy configurations in SO(N) gauge theories with Higgs fields in the fundamental representation. For all winding numbers, noncontractible hyperloops are constructed. The corresponding energy density is spherically symmetric, and the configuration with maximal energy on each hyperloop can be determined. Noncontractible hyperloops with an arbitrary winding number for SU(2) gauge theory are also given.
Phase diagram of the lattice SU(2) Higgs model
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bonati, C., E-mail: bonati@df.unipi.i [Dipartimento di Fisica and INFN, Pisa (Italy); Cossu, G., E-mail: cossu@post.kek.j [Scuola Normale Superiore and INFN, Pisa (Italy); D' Elia, M., E-mail: Massimo.Delia@ge.infn.i [Dipartimento di Fisica and INFN, Genova (Italy); Di Giacomo, A., E-mail: digiaco@df.unipi.i [Dipartimento di Fisica and INFN, Pisa (Italy)
2010-03-21
We perform a detailed study of the phase diagram of the lattice Higgs SU(2) model with fixed Higgs field length. Consistently with previsions based on the Fradkin-Shenker theorem we find a first order transition line with an endpoint whose position we determined. The diagram also shows cross-over lines: the cross-over corresponding to the pure SU(2) bulk is also present at nonzero coupling with the Higgs field and merges with the one that continues the line of first order transition beyond the critical endpoint. At high temperature the first order line becomes a crossover, whose position moves by varying the temperature.
Hue, L. T.; Arbuzov, A. B.; Ngan, N. T. K.; Long, H. N.
2017-05-01
The neutrino and Higgs sectors in the { SU(2) }_1 × { SU(2) }_2 × { U(1) }_Y model with lepton-flavor non-universality are discussed. We show that active neutrinos can get Majorana masses from radiative corrections, after adding only new singly charged Higgs bosons. The mechanism for the generation of neutrino masses is the same as in the Zee models. This also gives a hint to solving the dark matter problem based on similar ways discussed recently in many radiative neutrino mass models with dark matter. Except the active neutrinos, the appearance of singly charged Higgs bosons and dark matter does not affect significantly the physical spectrum of all particles in the original model. We indicate this point by investigating the Higgs sector in both cases before and after singly charged scalars are added into it. Many interesting properties of physical Higgs bosons, which were not shown previously, are explored. In particular, the mass matrices of charged and CP-odd Higgs fields are proportional to the coefficient of triple Higgs coupling μ . The mass eigenstates and eigenvalues in the CP-even Higgs sector are also presented. All couplings of the SM-like Higgs boson to normal fermions and gauge bosons are different from the SM predictions by a factor c_h, which must satisfy the recent global fit of experimental data, namely 0.995Z-Z' mixing angles is exactly the cosine of the Weinberg angle, implying that number of parameters is reduced by 1. Signals of new physics from decays of new heavy fermions and Higgs bosons at LHC and constraints of their masses are also discussed.
A Propellant Mass Gauge Project
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Advanced Technologies Group, Inc. proposes the development of a Liquid-Oxygen Mass Gauge, (LMG) for In-Space cryogenic storage capable of continuous monitoring of...
Topological Objects And Confinement In Non-abelian Lattice Gauge Theory
Tucker, W W
2005-01-01
We use lattice methods to study the connection between topological objects and the confining potential in SU(2) and SU(3) Yang-Mills theories. We use Monte Carlo techniques, generating and performing measurements on sample configurations of SU(2) and SU(3) gauge fields. We isolate topological objects, specifically Abelian monopoles and center vortices, in these configurations. We then measure the contribution to the string tension from these objects, and compare the results to “full” measurements made on the original configurations. In addition we investigate the effects of gauge ambiguities (Gribov effects) and cooling on these sets of measurements. For the case of SU(2) lattice gauge theory, our results from monopoles agree with full values but are somewhat lower when gauge ambiguities are taken into account. The situation is not stable under cooling. When we carry out analogous procedures on sample SU(3) lattice configurations, we find disagreement between full SU(3) values and those fr...
Finite volume effects in SU(2) with two adjoint fermions
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Del Debbio, Luigi; Lucini, Biagio; Patella, Agostino
2011-01-01
Many evidences from lattice simulations support the idea that SU(2) with two Dirac flavors in the adjoint representation (also called Minimal Walking Technicolor) is IR conformal. A possible way to see this is through the behavior of the spectrum of the mass-deformed theory. When fermions are mas...
Gounaris, George J; Zeppenfeld, Dieter; Ajaltouni, Ziad J; Arhrib, A; Bella, G; Berends, F A; Bilenky, S M; Blondel, A; Busenitz, J K; Choudhury, D; Clarke, P; Conboy, J E; Diehl, M; Fassouliotis, D; Frère, J M; Georgiopoulos, C H; Gibbs, M; Grünewald, M W; Hansen, J B; Hartmann, C; Jin, B N; Jousset, J; Kalinowski, Jan; Kocian, M L; Lahanas, Athanasios B; Layssac, J; Lieb, E H; Markou, C; Matteuzzi, C; Mättig, P; Moreno, J M; Moultaka, G; Nippe, A; Orloff, J; Papadopoulos, C G; Paschalis, J; Petridou, C; Phillips, H; Podlyski, F; Pohl, M; Renard, F M; Rossignol, J M; Rylko, R; Sekulin, R L; Van Sighem, A; Simopoulou, Errietta; Skillman, A; Spanos, V C; Tonazzo, A; Tytgat, M H G; Tzamarias, S; Verzegnassi, Claudio; Vlachos, N D; Zevgolatakos, E
1996-01-01
We present the results obtained by the "Triple Gauge Couplings" working group during the LEP2 Workshop (1994-1995). The report concentrates on the measurement of WW\\gamma and WWZ couplings in e^-e^+\\to W^-W^+ or, more generally, four-fermion production at LEP2. In addition the detection of new interactions in the bosonic sector via other production channels is discussed.
Non-Local effective SU(2) Polyakov-loop models from inverse Monte-Carlo methods
Bahrampour, Bardiya; von Smekal, Lorenz
2016-01-01
The strong-coupling expansion of the lattice gauge action leads to Polyakov-loop models that effectively describe gluodynamics at low temperatures, and together with the hopping expansion of the fermion determinant provides insight into the QCD phase diagram at finite density and low temperatures, although for rather heavy quarks. At higher temperatures the strong-coupling expansion breaks down and it is expected that the interactions between Polyakov loops become non-local. Here, we therefore test how well pure SU(2) gluodynamics can be mapped onto different non-local Polyakov models with inverse Monte-Carlo methods. We take into account Polyakov loops in higher representations and gradually add interaction terms at larger distances. We are particularly interested in extrapolating the range of non-local terms in sufficiently large volumes and higher representations. We study the characteristic fall-off in strength of the non-local couplings with the interaction distance, and its dependence on the gauge coupl...
Bloch Waves in Minimal Landau Gauge and the Infinite-Volume Limit of Lattice Gauge Theory.
Cucchieri, Attilio; Mendes, Tereza
2017-05-12
By exploiting the similarity between Bloch's theorem for electrons in crystalline solids and the problem of Landau gauge fixing in Yang-Mills theory on a "replicated" lattice, we show that large-volume results can be reproduced by simulations performed on much smaller lattices. This approach, proposed by Zwanziger [Nucl. Phys. B412, 657 (1994)NUPBBO0550-321310.1016/0550-3213(94)90396-4], corresponds to taking the infinite-volume limit for Landau-gauge field configurations in two steps: first for the gauge transformation alone, while keeping the lattice volume finite, and second for the gauge-field configuration itself. The solutions to the gauge-fixing condition are then given in terms of Bloch waves. Applying the method to data from Monte Carlo simulations of pure SU(2) gauge theory in two and three space-time dimensions, we are able to evaluate the Landau-gauge gluon propagator for lattices of linear extent up to 16 times larger than that of the simulated lattice. This approach is reminiscent of the Fisher-Ruelle construction of the thermodynamic limit in classical statistical mechanics.
Bloch Waves in Minimal Landau Gauge and the Infinite-Volume Limit of Lattice Gauge Theory
Cucchieri, Attilio; Mendes, Tereza
2017-05-01
By exploiting the similarity between Bloch's theorem for electrons in crystalline solids and the problem of Landau gauge fixing in Yang-Mills theory on a "replicated" lattice, we show that large-volume results can be reproduced by simulations performed on much smaller lattices. This approach, proposed by Zwanziger [Nucl. Phys. B412, 657 (1994), 10.1016/0550-3213(94)90396-4], corresponds to taking the infinite-volume limit for Landau-gauge field configurations in two steps: first for the gauge transformation alone, while keeping the lattice volume finite, and second for the gauge-field configuration itself. The solutions to the gauge-fixing condition are then given in terms of Bloch waves. Applying the method to data from Monte Carlo simulations of pure SU(2) gauge theory in two and three space-time dimensions, we are able to evaluate the Landau-gauge gluon propagator for lattices of linear extent up to 16 times larger than that of the simulated lattice. This approach is reminiscent of the Fisher-Ruelle construction of the thermodynamic limit in classical statistical mechanics.
Plasma instabilities and turbulence in non-Abelian gauge theories
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Scheffler, Sebastian Herwig Juergen
2010-02-17
Several aspects of the thermalisation process in non-Abelian gauge theories are investigated. Both numerical simulations in the classical statistical approximation and analytical computations in the framework of the two-particle-irreducible effective action are carried out and their results are compared to each other. The physical quantities of central importance are the correlation functions of the gauge field in Coulomb and temporal axial gauge as well as the gauge invariant energy-momentum tensor. Following a general introduction, the theoretical framework of the ensuing investigations is outlined. In doing so, the range of validity of the employed approximation schemes is discussed as well. The first main part of the thesis is concerned with the early stage of the thermalisation process where particular emphasis is on the role of plasma instabilities. These investigations are relevant to the phenomenological understanding of present heavy ion collision experiments. First, an ensemble of initial conditions motivated by the ''colour glass condensate'' is developed which captures characteristic properties of the plasma created in heavy ion collisions. Here, the strong anisotropy and the large occupation numbers of low-momentum degrees of freedom are to be highlighted. Numerical calculations demonstrate the occurrence of two kinds of instabilities. Primary instabilities result from the specific initial conditions. Secondary instabilities are caused by nonlinear fluctuation effects of the preceding primary instabilities. The time scale associated with the instabilities is of order 1 fm/c. It is shown that the plasma instabilities isotropize the initially strongly anisotropic ensemble in the domain of low momenta (
Gauge Theories in the Twentieth Century
2001-01-01
By the end of the 1970s, it was clear that all the known forces of nature (including, in a sense, gravity) were examples of gauge theories , characterized by invariance under symmetry transformations chosen independently at each position and each time. These ideas culminated with the finding of the W and Z gauge bosons (and perhaps also the Higgs boson). This important book brings together the key papers in the history of gauge theories, including the discoveries of: the role of gauge transformations in the quantum theory of electrically charged particles in the 1920s; nonabelian gauge groups
Mambrini, Matthieu; Poilblanc, Didier
2016-01-01
We elaborate a simple classification scheme of all rank-5 SU(2)-spin rotational symmetric tensors according to i) the on-site physical spin-$S$, (ii) the local Hilbert space $V^{\\otimes 4}$ of the four virtual (composite) spins attached to each site and (iii) the irreducible representations of the $C_{4v}$ point group of the square lattice. We apply our scheme to draw a complete list of all SU(2)-symmetric translationally and rotationally-invariant Projected Entangled Pair States (PEPS) with bond dimension $D\\leqslant 6$. All known SU(2)-symmetric PEPS on the square lattice are recovered and simple generalizations are provided in some cases. More generally, to each of our symmetry class can be associated a $({\\cal D}-1)$-dimensional manifold of spin liquids (potentially) preserving lattice symmetries and defined in terms of ${\\cal D}$ independent tensors of a given bond dimension $D$. In addition, generic (low-dimensional) families of PEPS explicitly breaking either (i) particular point-group lattice symmetri...
SU(2)-monopoles, curves with symmetries and Ramanujan's heritage
Braden, Harry W.; Ènol'skii, Viktor Z.
2010-08-01
We develop the Ercolani-Sinha construction of SU(2) monopoles for a five-parameter family of centred charge 3 monopoles. In particular we show how to solve the transcendental constraints arising on the spectral curve. For a class of symmetric curves the transcendental constraints become a number-theoretic problem and a recently proven identity of Ramanujan provides a solution. Bibliography: 36 titles.
Entanglement entropy in lattice gauge theories
Buividovich, . P. V.
We report on the recent progress in theoretical and numerical studies of entanglement entropy in lattice gauge theories. It is shown that the concept of quantum entanglement between gauge fields in two complementary regions of space can only be introduced if the Hilbert space of physical states is extended in a certain way. In the extended Hilbert space, the entanglement entropy can be partially interpreted as the classical Shannon entropy of the flux of the gauge fields through the boundary between the two regions. Such an extension leads to a reduction procedure which can be easily implemented in lattice simulations by constructing lattices with special topology. This enables us to measure the entanglement entropy in lattice Monte-Carlo simulations. On the simplest example of Z2 lattice gauge theory in (2 + 1) dimensions we demonstrate the relation between entanglement entropy and the classical entropy of the field flux. For SU (2) lattice gauge theory in four dimensions, we find a signature of non-analytic dependence of the entanglement entropy on the size of the region. We also comment on the holographic interpretation of the entanglement entropy.
A gauge-theoretic approach to gravity
Krasnov, Kirill
2012-01-01
Einstein's general relativity (GR) is a dynamical theory of the space–time metric. We describe an approach in which GR becomes an SU(2) gauge theory. We start at the linearized level and show how a gauge-theoretic Lagrangian for non-interacting massless spin two particles (gravitons) takes a much more simple and compact form than in the standard metric description. Moreover, in contrast to the GR situation, the gauge theory Lagrangian is convex. We then proceed with a formulation of the full nonlinear theory. The equivalence to the metric-based GR holds only at the level of solutions of the field equations, that is, on-shell. The gauge-theoretic approach also makes it clear that GR is not the only interacting theory of massless spin two particles, in spite of the GR uniqueness theorems available in the metric description. Thus, there is an infinite-parameter class of gravity theories all describing just two propagating polarizations of the graviton. We describe how matter can be coupled to gravity in this formulation and, in particular, how both the gravity and Yang–Mills arise as sectors of a general diffeomorphism-invariant gauge theory. We finish by outlining a possible scenario of the ultraviolet completion of quantum gravity within this approach. PMID:22792040
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Enríquez, Marco; Rosas-Ortiz, Oscar, E-mail: orosas@fis.cinvestav.mx
2013-12-15
We review the properties of the Kronecker (direct, or tensor) product of square matrices A⊗B⊗C⋯ in terms of Hubbard operators. In its simplest form, a Hubbard operator X{sub n}{sup i,j} can be expressed as the n-square matrix which has entry 1 in position (i,j) and zero in all other entries. The algebra and group properties of the observables that define a multipartite quantum system are notably straightforward in such a framework. In particular, we use the Kronecker product in Hubbard notation to get the Clebsch–Gordan decomposition of the product group SU(2)×SU(2). Finally, the n-dimensional irreducible representations so obtained are used to derive closed forms of the Clebsch–Gordan coefficients that rule the addition of angular momenta. Our results can be further developed in many different directions. -- Highlights: •The Kronecker product is studied in terms of Hubbard operators. •Complicated calculations involving large matrices are reduced to simple relations of subscripts. •The algebraic properties of the quantum observables of multipartite systems are studied. •The Clebsch–Gordan coefficients are given in terms of hypergeometric {sub 3}F{sub 2} functions. •The results can be further developed in many different directions.
A lattice formulation of chiral gauge theories
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bodwin, G.T. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). High Energy Physics Div.
1995-12-01
The authors present a method for formulating gauge theories of chiral fermions in lattice field theory. The method makes use of a Wilson mass to remove doublers. Gauge invariance is then restored by modifying the theory in two ways: the magnitude of the fermion determinant is replaced with the square root of the determinant for a fermion with vector-like couplings to the gauge field; a double limit is taken in which the lattice spacing associated with the fermion field is taken to zero before the lattice spacing associated with the gauge field. The method applies only to theories whose fermions are in an anomaly-free representation of the gauge group. They also present a related technique for computing matrix elements of operators involving fermion fields. Although the analyses of these methods are couched in weak-coupling perturbation theory, it is argued that computational prescriptions are gauge invariant in the presence of a nonperturbative gauge-field configuration.
Local gauge symmetry on optical lattices?
Liu, Yuzhi; Tsai, Shan-Wen
2012-01-01
The versatile technology of cold atoms confined in optical lattices allows the creation of a vast number of lattice geometries and interactions, providing a promising platform for emulating various lattice models. This opens the possibility of letting nature take care of sign problems and real time evolution in carefully prepared situations. Up to now, experimentalists have succeeded to implement several types of Hubbard models considered by condensed matter theorists. In this proceeding, we discuss the possibility of extending this effort to lattice gauge theory. We report recent efforts to establish the strong coupling equivalence between the Fermi Hubbard model and SU(2) pure gauge theory in 2+1 dimensions by standard determinantal methods developed by Robert Sugar and collaborators. We discuss the possibility of using dipolar molecules and external fields to build models where the equivalence holds beyond the leading order in the strong coupling expansion.
Periodic Euclidean solutions of SU(2)-Higgs theory
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Frost, K.L.; Yaffe, L.G. [University of Washington, Department of Physics, Seattle, Washington 98105-1560 (United States)
1999-03-01
We examine periodic, spherically symmetric, classical solutions of SU(2)-Higgs theory in four-dimensional Euclidean space. Classical perturbation theory is used to construct periodic time-dependent solutions in the neighborhood of the static sphaleron. The behavior of the action, as a function of period, changes character depending on the value of the Higgs boson mass. The required pattern of bifurcations of solutions as a function of the Higgs boson mass is examined, and implications for the temperature dependence of the baryon number violation rate in the standard model are discussed. {copyright} {ital 1999} {ital The American Physical Society}
Higher representations on the lattice: numerical simulations. SU(2) with adjoint fermions
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Del Debbio, Luigi; Patella, Agostino; Pica, Claudio
2008-01-01
We discuss the lattice formulation of gauge theories with fermions in arbitrary representations of the color group, and present in detail the implementation of the HMC/RHMC algorithm for simulating dynamical fermions. We discuss the validation of the implementation through an extensive set of tes...
Dualization of non-abelian lattice gauge theory with Abelian Color Cycles (ACC)
Marchis, Carlotta
2016-01-01
We discuss a new approach to strong coupling expansion and dual representations for non-abelian lattice gauge theories. The Wilson gauge action is decomposed into a sum over "abelian color cycles" (ACC), which are loops around plaquettes visiting different colors at the corners. ACCs are complex numbers and thus commute such that a dual representation of a non-abelian theory can be obtained as in the abelian case. We apply the ACC approach to SU(2) and SU(3) lattice gauge theory and exactly rewrite the two partition sums in a strong coupling series where all gauge integrals are known in closed form.
Thermistor Pressure Gauge Design
Flanick, A. P.; Ainsworth, J. E.
1961-01-01
Thermistor pressure gauges are characterized by large pressure range, good accuracy and stability, fast measurement, insensitivity to over-pressure, negligible out-gassing, ease in cleaning, and physical and electrical simplicity and ruggedness. A number of excellent papers have been published describing these gauges. However, a detailed account of design procedure and characteristics for a specific gauge would eliminate much of the trial and error encountered in designing a gauge having prescribed range, sensitivity, and stability.
Two-color gauge theory with novel infrared behavior.
Appelquist, T; Brower, R C; Buchoff, M I; Cheng, M; Fleming, G T; Kiskis, J; Lin, M F; Neil, E T; Osborn, J C; Rebbi, C; Schaich, D; Schroeder, C; Syritsyn, S; Voronov, G; Vranas, P; Witzel, O
2014-03-21
Using lattice simulations, we study the infrared behavior of a particularly interesting SU(2) gauge theory, with six massless Dirac fermions in the fundamental representation. We compute the running gauge coupling derived nonperturbatively from the Schrödinger functional of the theory, finding no evidence for an infrared fixed point up through gauge couplings g(2) of order 20. This implies that the theory either is governed in the infrared by a fixed point of considerable strength, unseen so far in nonsupersymmetric gauge theories, or breaks its global chiral symmetries producing a large number of composite Nambu-Goldstone bosons relative to the number of underlying degrees of freedom. Thus either of these phases exhibits novel behavior.
Applications of Jarzynski's relation in lattice gauge theories
Nada, Alessandro; Costagliola, Gianluca; Panero, Marco; Toniato, Arianna
2016-01-01
Jarzynski's equality is a well-known result in statistical mechanics, relating free-energy differences between equilibrium ensembles with fluctuations in the work performed during non-equilibrium transformations from one ensemble to the other. In this work, an extension of this relation to lattice gauge theory will be presented, along with numerical results for the $\\mathbb{Z}_2$ gauge model in three dimensions and for the equation of state in $\\mathrm{SU}(2)$ Yang-Mills theory in four dimensions. Then, further applications will be discussed, in particular for the Schr\\"odinger functional and for the study of QCD in strong magnetic fields.
From lattice gauge theories to hydrogen atoms
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Manu Mathur
2015-10-01
Full Text Available We construct canonical transformations to obtain a complete and most economical realization of the physical Hilbert space Hp of pure SU(22+1 lattice gauge theory in terms of Wigner coupled Hilbert spaces of hydrogen atoms. One hydrogen atom is assigned to every plaquette of the lattice. A complete orthonormal description of the Wilson loop basis in Hp is obtained by all possible angular momentum Wigner couplings of hydrogen atom energy eigenstates |n l m〉 describing electric fluxes on the loops. The SU(2 gauge invariance implies that the total angular momenta of all hydrogen atoms vanish. The canonical transformations also enable us to rewrite the Kogut–Susskind Hamiltonian in terms of fundamental Wilson loop operators and their conjugate electric fields. The resulting loop Hamiltonian has a global SU(2 invariance and a simple weak coupling (g2→0 continuum limit. The canonical transformations leading to the loop Hamiltonian are valid for any SU(N. The ideas and techniques can also be extended to higher dimension.
Universal consistent truncation for 6d/7d gauge/gravity duals
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Passias, Achilleas; Rota, Andrea; Tomasiello, Alessandro [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Milano-Bicocca,Piazza della Scienza 3, Milano, I-20126 (Italy); INFN, sezione di Milano-Bicocca,Via Celoria 16, Milano, I-20133 (Italy)
2015-10-28
Recently, AdS{sub 7} solutions of IIA supergravity have been classified; there are infinitely many of them, whose expression is known analytically, and with internal space of S{sup 3} topology. Their field theory duals are six-dimensional (1,0) SCFT’s. In this paper we show that for each of these AdS{sub 7} solutions there exists a consistent truncation from massive IIA supergravity to minimal gauged supergravity in seven dimensions. This theory has an SU(2) gauge group, and a single scalar, whose value is related to a certain distortion of the internal S{sup 3}. This explains the universality observed in recent work on AdS{sub 5} and AdS{sub 4} solutions dual to compactifications of the (1,0) SCFT{sub 6}’s. Thanks to previous work on the minimal gauged supergravity, the truncation also implies the existence of holographic RG-flows connecting those solutions to the AdS{sub 7} vacuum, as well as new classes of IIA AdS{sub 3} solutions.
Motion-to-Motion Gauge for the Electroweak Interaction of Leptons
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Tselnik F.
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Comprised of rods and clocks, a reference system is a mere intermediary between the motion that is of interest in the problem and the motions of auxiliary test bodies the reference system is to be gauged with. However, a theory base d on such reference sys- tems might hide some features of this actual motion-to-motion correspondence, thus leaving these features incomprehensible. It is therefore d esirable to consider this corre- spondence explicitly, if only to substantiate a particular scheme. To this end, the very existence of a (local top-speed signal is shown to be sufficient to explain some peculiar- ities of the weak interaction using symmetrical configurations of auxiliary trajectories as a means for the gauge. In particular, the unification of the electromagnetic and weak interactions, parity violation, SU(2 L × U(1 group structure with the values of its cou- pling constants, and the intermediate vector boson are found to be a direct consequence of this gauge procedure.
AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00355153; Kobel, Michael; Petridou, Chariclia; Kobel, Michael; Zur Nedden, Martin
The Standard Model of particle physics is a very well tested gauge theory describing the strong, weak and electromagnetic interactions between elementary particles through the exchange of force carriers called gauge bosons. Its high predictive power stems from its ability to derive the properties of the interactions it describes from fundamental symmetries of nature. Yet, it is not a final theory as there are several phenomena it cannot explain. Furthermore, not all of its predictions have been studied with sufficient precision, e.g. the properties of the newly discovered Higgs boson. Therefore, further probing of the Standard Model is necessary and may result in finding possible indications for new physics. The non-abelian SU(2)L×U(1)Y symmetry group determines the properties of the electromagnetic and weak interactions giving rise to self-couplings between the electroweak gauge bosons, i.e. the massive W and Z boson, and the massless photon, via triple and quartic gauge couplings. Studies carried out over ...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sawayanagi, H. (Kushiro National College of Technology, Kushiro, 084 (Japan))
1992-05-15
SU(2) gauge theory without fermions is studied at high temperature. The possibility that the temporal component of the gauge field {ital A}{sub 4} acquires a vacuum expectation value is considered. It is shown that in order to avoid tachyonic poles in a new vacuum, the magnitude of the vacuum expectation value {l angle}{ital gA}{sub 4}{r angle} is of order {ital g}{sup 2}{ital T}. We also consider an effective potential under the assumption that the effect of magneto- static gluons converges. We show that it is difficult to generate a vacuum expectation value of that order.
Finite volume effects in SU(2) with two adjoint fermions
Patella, Agostino; Lucini, Biagio; Pica, Claudio; Rago, Antonio
2011-01-01
Many evidences from lattice simulations support the idea that SU(2) with two Dirac flavors in the adjoint representation (also called Minimal Walking Technicolor) is IR conformal. A possible way to see this is through the behavior of the spectrum of the mass-deformed theory. When fermions are massive, a mass-gap is generated and the theory is confined. IR-conformality is recovered in the chiral limit: masses of particles vanish in the chiral limit, while their ratios stay finite. In order to trust this analysis one has to relay on the infinite volume extrapolation. We will discuss the finite volume effects on the mesonic spectrum, investigated by varying the size of the lattice and by changing the boundary conditions for the fields.
Alonso, R.; Gavela, M.B.; Grinstein, B.; Merlo, L.; Quilez, P.
2016-12-22
The gauging of the lepton flavour group is considered in the Standard Model context and in its extension with three right-handed neutrinos. The anomaly cancellation conditions lead to a Seesaw mechanism as underlying dynamics for all leptons; requiring in addition a phenomenologically viable setup leads to Majorana masses for the neutral sector: the type I Seesaw Lagrangian in the Standard Model case and the inverse Seesaw in the extended model. Within the minimal extension of the scalar sector, the Yukawa couplings are promoted to scalar fields in the bifundamental of the flavour group. The resulting low-energy Yukawa couplings are proportional to inverse powers of the vacuum expectation values of those scalars; the protection against flavour changing neutral currents differs from that of Minimal Flavor Violation. In all cases, the $\\mu-\\tau$ flavour sector exhibits rich and promising phenomenological signals.
An introduction to gauge theories
Cabibbo, Nicola; Benhar, Omar
2017-01-01
Written by three of the world's leading experts on particle physics and the standard model, including an award-winning former director general of CERN, this book provides a completely up-to-date account of gauge theories. Starting from Feynman’s path integrals, Feynman rules are derived, gauge fixing and Faddeev-Popov ghosts are discussed, and renormalization group equations are derived. Several important applications to quantum electrodynamics and quantum chromodynamics (QCD) are discussed, including the one-loop derivation of asymptotic freedom for QCD.
Spacetime Metrics from Gauge Potentials
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ettore Minguzzi
2014-03-01
Full Text Available I present an approach to gravity in which the spacetime metric is constructed from a non-Abelian gauge potential with values in the Lie algebra of the group U(2 (or the Lie algebra of quaternions. If the curvature of this potential vanishes, the metric reduces to a canonical curved background form reminiscent of the Friedmann S3 cosmological metric.
Gauge Theories of Vector Particles
Glashow, S. L.; Gell-Mann, M.
1961-04-24
The possibility of generalizing the Yang-Mills trick is examined. Thus we seek theories of vector bosons invariant under continuous groups of coordinate-dependent linear transformations. All such theories may be expressed as superpositions of certain "simple" theories; we show that each "simple theory is associated with a simple Lie algebra. We may introduce mass terms for the vector bosons at the price of destroying the gauge-invariance for coordinate-dependent gauge functions. The theories corresponding to three particular simple Lie algebras - those which admit precisely two commuting quantum numbers - are examined in some detail as examples. One of them might play a role in the physics of the strong interactions if there is an underlying super-symmetry, transcending charge independence, that is badly broken. The intermediate vector boson theory of weak interactions is discussed also. The so-called "schizon" model cannot be made to conform to the requirements of partial gauge-invariance.
Gauge symmetry from decoupling
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
C. Wetterich
2017-02-01
Full Text Available Gauge symmetries emerge from a redundant description of the effective action for light degrees of freedom after the decoupling of heavy modes. This redundant description avoids the use of explicit constraints in configuration space. For non-linear constraints the gauge symmetries are non-linear. In a quantum field theory setting the gauge symmetries are local and can describe Yang–Mills theories or quantum gravity. We formulate gauge invariant fields that correspond to the non-linear light degrees of freedom. In the context of functional renormalization gauge symmetries can emerge if the flow generates or preserves large mass-like terms for the heavy degrees of freedom. They correspond to a particular form of gauge fixing terms in quantum field theories.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
2016-01-01
The invention relates to a strain gauge of a carrier layer and a meandering measurement grid positioned on the carrier layer, wherein the strain gauge comprises two reinforcement members positioned on the carrier layer at opposite ends of the measurement grid in the axial direction. The reinforce......The invention relates to a strain gauge of a carrier layer and a meandering measurement grid positioned on the carrier layer, wherein the strain gauge comprises two reinforcement members positioned on the carrier layer at opposite ends of the measurement grid in the axial direction....... The reinforcement members are each placed within a certain axial distance to the measurement grid with the axial distance being equal to or smaller than a factor times the grid spacing. The invention further relates to a multi-axial strain gauge such as a bi-axial strain gauge or a strain gauge rosette where each...... of the strain gauges comprises reinforcement members. The invention further relates to a method for manufacturing a strain gauge as mentioned above....
An Improved Single-Plaquette Gauge Action
Banerjee, Debasish; Holland, Kieran; Niedermayer, Ferenc; Pepe, Michele; Wenger, Urs; Wiese, Uwe-Jens
2015-01-01
We describe and test a nonperturbatively improved single-plaquette lattice action for 4-d SU(2) and SU(3) pure gauge theory, which suppresses large fluctuations of the plaquette, without requiring the naive continuum limit for smooth fields. We tune the action parameters based on torelon masses in moderate cubic physical volumes, and investigate the size of cut-off effects in other physical quantities, including torelon masses in asymmetric spatial volumes, the static quark potential, and gradient flow observables. In 2-d O(N) models similarly constructed nearest-neighbor actions have led to a drastic reduction of cut-off effects, down to the permille level, in a wide variety of physical quantities. In the gauge theories, we find significant reduction of lattice artifacts, and for some observables, the coarsest lattice result is very close to the continuum value. We estimate an improvement factor of 40 compared to using the Wilson gauge action to achieve the same statistical accuracy and suppression of cut-of...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bartholomew, M. J. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)
2016-01-01
To improve the quantitative description of precipitation processes in climate models, the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility deployed rain gauges located near disdrometers (DISD and VDIS data streams). This handbook deals specifically with the rain gauges that make the observations for the RAIN data stream. Other precipitation observations are made by the surface meteorology instrument suite (i.e., MET data stream).
Four Fermion Interactions in Non-Abelian Gauge Theory
Catterall, Simon
2013-01-01
We continue our earlier study of the phase structure of a SU(2) gauge theory whose action contains additional chirally invariant four fermion interactions. Our lattice theory uses a reduced staggered fermion formalism to generate two Dirac flavors in the continuum limit. In the current study we have tried to reduce lattice spacing and taste breaking effects by using an improved fermion action incorporating stout smeared links. As in our earlier study we observe two regimes; for weak gauge coupling the chiral condensate behaves as an order parameter differentiating a phase at small four fermi coupling where the condensate vanishes from a phase at strong four fermi coupling in which chiral symmetry is spontaneously broken. This picture changes qualitatively when the gauge coupling is strong enough to cause confinement; in this case we observe a first order phase transition for some critical value of the four fermi coupling associated with a strong enhancement of the chiral condensate. We observe that this criti...
MS-on-shell quark mass relation up to four loops in QCD and a general SU(N) gauge group
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Marquard, Peter [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany); Smirnov, Alexander V. [Moscow State Univ. (Russian Federation). Research Computing Center; Smirnov, Vladimir A. [Moscow State Univ. (Russian Federation). Skobeltsyn Inst. of Nuclear Physics; Steinhauser, Matthias; Wellmann, David [Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Teilchenphysik
2016-06-15
In this paper we compute the relation between heavy quark masses defined in the modified minimal subtraction and on-shell scheme. Detailed results are presented for all coefficients of the SU(N{sub c}) colour factors. The reduction of the four-loop on-shell integrals is performed for a general QCD gauge parameter. Some of the about 380 master integrals are computed analytically, others with high numerical precision based on Mellin-Barnes representations, and the rest numerically with the help of FIESTA. We discuss in detail the precise numerical evaluation of the four-loop master integrals. Updated relations between various short-distance masses and the MS quark mass to next-to-next-to-next-to-leading order accuracy are provided for the charm, bottom and top quark. We discuss the dependence on the renormalization and factorization scale.
Spectral triples and associated Connes-de Rham complex for the quantum SU(2) and the quantum sphere
Chakraborty, Partha Sarathi; Pal, Arupkumar
2002-01-01
We construct spectral triples for the C^*-algebra of continuous functions on the quantum SU(2) group and the quantum sphere. There has been various approaches towards building a calculus on quantum spaces, but there seems to be very few instances of computations outlined in chapter~6 of Connes' book. We give detailed computations of the associated Connes-de Rham complex and the space of L_2-forms.
$b \\to s \\gamma$ Decay in $SU(2)_L \\times SU(2)_R \\times U(1)$ Extensions of the Standard Model
Cho, Peter; Misiak, Mikolaj
1993-01-01
The rare radiative decay $b \\to s \\gamma$ is studied in $SU(2)_L \\times SU(2)_R \\times U(1)$ extensions of the Standard Model. Matching conditions for coefficients of operators appearing in the low energy effective Hamiltonian for this process are derived, and QCD corrections to these coefficients are analyzed. The $b \\to s \\gamma$ decay rate is then calculated and compared with the corresponding Standard Model result. We find that observable deviations from Standard Model predictions can occ...
Extended Soliton Solutions in an Effective Action for SU(2 Yang-Mills Theory
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Nobuyuki Sawado
2006-01-01
Full Text Available The Skyrme-Faddeev-Niemi (SFN model which is an O(3 σ model in three dimensional space up to fourth-order in the first derivative is regarded as a low-energy effective theory of SU(2 Yang-Mills theory. One can show from the Wilsonian renormalization group argument that the effective action of Yang-Mills theory recovers the SFN in the infrared region. However, the theory contains an additional fourth-order term which destabilizes the soliton solution. We apply the perturbative treatment to the second derivative term in order to exclude (or reduce the ill behavior of the original action and show that the SFN model with the second derivative term possesses soliton solutions.
Couplings in D(2,1;α) superconformal mechanics from the SU(2) perspective
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Galajinsky, Anton [Laboratory of Mathematical Physics, Tomsk Polytechnic University,Lenin Ave. 30, 634050 Tomsk (Russian Federation)
2017-03-09
Dynamical realizations of the most general N=4 superconformal group in one dimension D(2,1;α) are reconsidered from the perspective of the R-symmetry subgroup SU(2). It is shown that any realization of the R-symmetry subalgebra in some phase space can be extended to a representation of the Lie superalgebra corresponding to D(2,1;α). Novel couplings of arbitrary number of supermultiplets of the type (1,4,3) and (0,4,4) to a single supermultiplet of either the type (3,4,1), or (4,4,0) are constructed. D(2,1;α) superconformal mechanics describing superparticles propagating near the horizon of the extreme Reissner-Nordström-AdS-dS black hole in four and five dimensions is considered. The parameter α is linked to the cosmological constant.
Asymptotically Free Gauge Theories. I
Wilczek, Frank; Gross, David J.
1973-07-01
Asymptotically free gauge theories of the strong interactions are constructed and analyzed. The reasons for doing this are recounted, including a review of renormalization group techniques and their application to scaling phenomena. The renormalization group equations are derived for Yang-Mills theories. The parameters that enter into the equations are calculated to lowest order and it is shown that these theories are asymptotically free. More specifically the effective coupling constant, which determines the ultraviolet behavior of the theory, vanishes for large space-like momenta. Fermions are incorporated and the construction of realistic models is discussed. We propose that the strong interactions be mediated by a "color" gauge group which commutes with SU(3)xSU(3). The problem of symmetry breaking is discussed. It appears likely that this would have a dynamical origin. It is suggested that the gauge symmetry might not be broken, and that the severe infrared singularities prevent the occurrence of non-color singlet physical states. The deep inelastic structure functions, as well as the electron position total annihilation cross section are analyzed. Scaling obtains up to calculable logarithmic corrections, and the naive lightcone or parton model results follow. The problems of incorporating scalar mesons and breaking the symmetry by the Higgs mechanism are explained in detail.
Gauge theory by canonical transformations
Koenigstein, Adrian; Kirsch, Johannes; Stoecker, Horst; Struckmeier, Juergen; Vasak, David; Hanauske, Matthias
2016-06-01
Electromagnetism, the strong and the weak interactions are commonly formulated as gauge theories in a Lagrangian description. In this paper, we present an alternative formal derivation of U(1)-gauge theory in a manifestly covariant Hamilton formalism. We make use of canonical transformations as our guiding tool to formalize the gauging procedure. The introduction of the gauge field, its transformation behavior and a dynamical gauge field Lagrangian/Hamiltonian are unavoidable consequences of this formalism, whereas the form of the free gauge Lagrangian/Hamiltonian depends on the selection of the gauge dependence of the canonically conjugate gauge fields.
Gauge Fields as Composite Boundary Excitations
Ferrara, Sergio; Ferrara, Sergio; Fronsdal, Christian
1998-01-01
We investigate representations of the conformal group that describe "massless" particles in the interior and at the boundary of anti-de Sitter space. It turns out that massless gauge excitations in anti-de Sitter are gauge "current" operators at the boundary. Conversely, massless excitations at the boundary are topological singletons in the interior. These representations lie at the threshold of two "unitary bounds" that apply to any conformally invariant field theory. Gravity and Yang-Mills gauge symmetry in anti-De Sitter is translated to global translational symmetry and continuous R-symmetry of the boundary superconformal field theory.
Gauge/gravity duality applied to condensed matter systems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ammon, Martin Matthias
2010-07-07
DE024486693In the present thesis by means of the AdS/CFT correspondence phenomena of strongly coupled quantum critical systems are studied. Hereby the assumption developed 1997 by Maldacena puts four-dimensional N=4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory and type IIB supergravity in the five-dimensional anti-de Sitter space in relation. This assumption can be generalized in different ways. So on the gauge-theory side states with finite temperature and density can be considered or degrees of freedom added, which transform in the fundamental representation of the gauge group, the so-called flavor degrees of freedom. These deformations of the correspondence are applied in the present thesis in order to understand better strongly coupled systems in the neighbourhood of quantum-critical points. We approximate hereby the field theory at the quantum-critical point by N=4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory. The charge carriers of the system are introduced by supersymmetric flavor fields. For instance in the present thesis in the case of two flavor fields, which have the same mass, a chemical potential for the isospin is considered and the phase diagram studied. The isospin-chemical potential breaks hereby the non-Abelian part of the flavor symmetry SU(2) to U(1). If a critical value of the isospin-chemical potential is exceeded, so shows our calculation, that the strongly coupled system becomes unstable against fluctuations. A new thermodynamically favorized state is formed. This state breaks the residual U(1) flavor symmetry spontaneously and can therefore be considered as a superfluid. If U(1) is gauged, by this way a superconductor is obtained. The AC conductivity goes in the superconducting phase for small frequencies to zero. The DC conductivity however is infinite. Furthermore we calculate the Fermi surface in the superconducting phase. Furthermore a holographic method for the calculation of the DC conductivity in arbitrarily constant electric and magnetic fields is further
Geometrical origin of supersymmetric gauge theories
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Caicedo, S.; Gambini, R.
1989-01-15
We show that the kinematical properties of any supersymmetric gauge theory may be obtained by mapping a geometric group structure of loops in superspace into some particular Lie group. The underlying group structure of the usual constrained supergauge theories turns out to be the group of even (bosonic) loops.
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Cog-Gauge is a portable hand-held game that can be used by astronauts and crew members during space exploration missions to assess their cognitive workload...
Viscous conformal gauge theories
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Toniato, Arianna; Sannino, Francesco; Rischke, Dirk H.
2017-01-01
We present the conformal behavior of the shear viscosity-to-entropy density ratio and the fermion-number diffusion coefficient within the perturbative regime of the conformal window for gauge-fermion theories.......We present the conformal behavior of the shear viscosity-to-entropy density ratio and the fermion-number diffusion coefficient within the perturbative regime of the conformal window for gauge-fermion theories....
A Gauge Invariant Regulator for the ERG
Arnone, S.; Kubyshin, Yu. A.; Morris, T. R.; Tighe, J. F.
A gauge invariant regularisation for dealing with pure Yang-Mills theories within the exact renormalization group approach is proposed. It is based on the regularisation via covariant higher derivatives and includes auxiliary Pauli-Villars fields which amounts to a spontaneously broken SU(N|N) super-gauge theory. We demonstrate perturbatively that the extended theory is ultra-violet finite in four dimensions and argue that it has a sensible limit when the regularization cutoff is removed.
Formulation of lattice gauge theories for quantum simulations
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Zohar, Erez; Burrello, Michele
2015-01-01
. This formulation allows for a natural scheme to achieve a consistent truncation of the Hilbert space for continuous groups, and provides helpful tools to study the connections of gauge theories with topological quantum double and string-net models for discrete groups. Several examples, including the case......We examine the Kogut-Susskind formulation of lattice gauge theories under the light of fermionic and bosonic degrees of freedom that provide a description useful to the development of quantum simulators of gauge-invariant models. We consider both discrete and continuous gauge groups and adopt...... a realistic multicomponent Fock space for the definition of matter degrees of freedom. In particular, we express the Hamiltonian of the gauge theory and the Gauss law in terms of Fock operators. The gauge fields are described in two different bases based on either group elements or group representations...
Gauge theory and the topology of four-manifolds
Friedman, Robert Marc
1998-01-01
The lectures in this volume provide a perspective on how 4-manifold theory was studied before the discovery of modern-day Seiberg-Witten theory. One reason the progress using the Seiberg-Witten invariants was so spectacular was that those studying SU(2)-gauge theory had more than ten years' experience with the subject. The tools had been honed, the correct questions formulated, and the basic strategies well understood. The knowledge immediately bore fruit in the technically simpler environment of the Seiberg-Witten theory. Gauge theory long predates Donaldson's applications of the subject to 4-manifold topology, where the central concern was the geometry of the moduli space. One reason for the interest in this study is the connection between the gauge theory moduli spaces of a Kähler manifold and the algebro-geometric moduli space of stable holomorphic bundles over the manifold. The extra geometric richness of the SU(2)-moduli spaces may one day be important for purposes beyond the algebraic invariants that ...
Enhanced gauge symmetry and winding modes in double field theory
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Aldazabal, G. [Centro Atómico Bariloche,8400 S.C. de Bariloche (Argentina); Instituto Balseiro (CNEA-UNC) and CONICET,8400 S.C. de Bariloche (Argentina); Graña, M. [Institut de Physique Théorique, CEA/ Saclay,91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Iguri, S. [Instituto de Astronomía y Física del Espacio (CONICET-UBA), Universidad de Buenos Aires,1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina); Mayo, M. [Centro Atómico Bariloche,8400 S.C. de Bariloche (Argentina); Instituto Balseiro (CNEA-UNC) and CONICET,8400 S.C. de Bariloche (Argentina); Nuñez, C. [Instituto de Astronomía y Física del Espacio (CONICET-UBA), Universidad de Buenos Aires,1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina); Departamento de Física, FCEN, Universidad de Buenos Aires,C.C. 67 - Suc. 28, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina); Rosabal, J.A. [Departamento de Física, FCEN, Universidad de Buenos Aires,C.C. 67 - Suc. 28, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina)
2016-03-15
We provide an explicit example of how the string winding modes can be incorporated in double field theory. Our guiding case is the closed bosonic string compactified on a circle of radius close to the self-dual point, where some modes with non-zero winding or discrete momentum number become massless and enhance the U(1)×U(1) symmetry to SU(2)×SU(2). We compute three-point string scattering amplitudes of massless and slightly massive states, and extract the corresponding effective low energy gauge field theory. The enhanced gauge symmetry at the self-dual point and the Higgs-like mechanism arising when changing the compactification radius are examined in detail. The extra massless fields associated to the enhancement are incorporated into a generalized frame with ((O(d+3,d+3))/(O(d+3)×O(d+3))) structure, where d is the number of non-compact dimensions. We devise a consistent double field theory action that reproduces the low energy string effective action with enhanced gauge symmetry. The construction requires a truly non-geometric frame which explicitly depends on both the compact coordinate along the circle and its dual.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Socher, Felix
2016-07-15
The Standard Model of particle physics is a very well tested gauge theory describing the strong, weak and electromagnetic interactions between elementary particles through the exchange of force carriers called gauge bosons. Its high predictive power stems from its ability to derive the properties of the interactions it describes from fundamental symmetries of nature. Yet, it is not a final theory as there are several phenomena it cannot explain. Furthermore, not all of its predictions have been studied with sufficient precision, e.g. the properties of the newly discovered Higgs boson. Therefore, further probing of the Standard Model is necessary and may result in finding possible indications for new physics. The non-abelian SU(2){sub L} x U(1){sub Y} symmetry group determines the properties of the electromagnetic and weak interactions giving rise to self-couplings between the electroweak gauge bosons, i.e. the massive W and Z boson, and the massless photon, via triple and quartic gauge couplings. Studies carried out over the past 20 years at various particle accelerator experiments have shed light on the structure of the triple gauge couplings but few results on quartic gauge couplings are available. The electroweak self-couplings are intertwined with the electroweak symmetry breaking and thus the Higgs boson through the scattering of massive electroweak gauge bosons. Both the W and Z boson couple to the Higgs boson and may interact with each other by exchanging it. Theory predictions yield physical results at high energies only if either both the self-couplings and Higgs boson properties are as described by the Standard Model or if they deviate from its predictions and contributions from new physics are present to render the calculations finite. This makes electroweak gauge boson scattering a powerful tool to probe the Standard Model and search for possible effects of new physics. The small cross section of massive electroweak gauge boson scattering necessitates
Gauge invariance for a whole Abelian model
Chauca, J.; Doria, R.; Soares, W.
2012-10-01
Light invariance is a fundamental principle for physics be done. It generates Maxwell equations, relativity, Lorentz group. However there is still space for a fourth picture be developed which is to include fields with same Lorentz nature. It brings a new room for field theory. It says that light invariance does not work just to connect space and time but it also associates different fields with same nature. Thus for the (1/2,1/2) representation there is a fields family {AμI} to be studied. This means that given such fields association one should derive its corresponding gauge theory. This is the effort at this work. Show that there is a whole gauge theory to cover these fields relationships. Considering the abelian case, prove its gauge invariance. It yields the kinetic, massive, trilinear and quadrilinear gauge invariant terms.
Gauge invariance for a whole Abelian model
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chauca, J.; Doria, R.; Soares, W. [CBPF, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Aprendanet, Petropolis, 25600 (Brazil)
2012-09-24
Light invariance is a fundamental principle for physics be done. It generates Maxwell equations, relativity, Lorentz group. However there is still space for a fourth picture be developed which is to include fields with same Lorentz nature. It brings a new room for field theory. It says that light invariance does not work just to connect space and time but it also associates different fields with same nature. Thus for the ((1/2),(1/2)) representation there is a fields family {l_brace}A{sub {mu}I}{r_brace} to be studied. This means that given such fields association one should derive its corresponding gauge theory. This is the effort at this work. Show that there is a whole gauge theory to cover these fields relationships. Considering the abelian case, prove its gauge invariance. It yields the kinetic, massive, trilinear and quadrilinear gauge invariant terms.
Non-linear Abelian gauge model
Chauca, J.; Doria, R.; Soares, W.
2012-10-01
Based on the principle that nature acts together one proposes the presence of N-potential fields rotating under a same group. It introduces a new performance for the gauge approach. It yields a set of N-fields where each one is associated to a proper polynomial gauge transformation. As consequence, a non-linear abelian gauge model is obtained. It derives an abelian Lagrangian that beyond the usual case contains a longitudinal kinetic sector plus massive and interactive terms. This work establishes their gauge invariant conditions and writes the so-called Global Maxwell's equations and associated Global Lorentz force. Beyond Faraday lines, it yields physical lines of force in terms of potential fields.
Instantons, vortices and confinement in SU(2) Yang-Mills theory
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lemos, A.L.L. de [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil); Oxman, L.E.; Teixeira, B.F.I. [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil)
2012-07-01
Full text: In this work, we derive a recently proposed Abelian model to describe the interaction of correlated instantons, center vortices, and dual fields in three dimensional SU(2) Yang-Mills theory. Correlated monopoles and center vortices are believed to play a relevant role in accommodating the different properties of the confining string in Yang-Mills theories, receiving support from lattice simulations. In fact, scenarios based on either monopoles or closed center vortices are only partially successful to describe the expected behavior of the potential between quarks. At asymptotic distances, this potential should be linear and depend on the representation of the subgroup Z(N) of SU(N) (N-ality). At intermediate scales, it should posses Casimir scaling. The Cho-Faddeev- Niemi representation (CFN) can be used to associate monopoles with defects of the local color frame used to decompose the gauge fields. This possible frame defects can be extended to describe not only monopoles but also center vortices, correlated or not. In these scenarios, one of the difficulties is how to deal with the integration over an ensemble of extended objects, after considering a phenomenological parametrization of their properties, such as stiffness, interactions with dual fields, and interactions between them. This is particularly severe in four dimensional theories where center vortices generate two dimensional extended world surfaces. However, in three dimensions center vortices are stringlike and an ensemble of world lines is naturally associated with a second quantized field theory. The aim of this work is presenting a careful derivation of an effective model, considering instantons and center vortices in D=3 SU(3) theory, after parameterizing some intrinsic physical properties that these objects could present. One of the fundamental ingredients will be the adoption of recent techniques borrowed from polymer physics, where the extended objects are also one dimensional. This
Henneaux, Marc; Vasiliev, Mikhail A
2017-01-01
Symmetries play a fundamental role in physics. Non-Abelian gauge symmetries are the symmetries behind theories for massless spin-1 particles, while the reparametrization symmetry is behind Einstein's gravity theory for massless spin-2 particles. In supersymmetric theories these particles can be connected also to massless fermionic particles. Does Nature stop at spin-2 or can there also be massless higher spin theories. In the past strong indications have been given that such theories do not exist. However, in recent times ways to evade those constraints have been found and higher spin gauge theories have been constructed. With the advent of the AdS/CFT duality correspondence even stronger indications have been given that higher spin gauge theories play an important role in fundamental physics. All these issues were discussed at an international workshop in Singapore in November 2015 where the leading scientists in the field participated. This volume presents an up-to-date, detailed overview of the theories i...
Gerbier, Fabrice; Goldman, Nathan; Lewenstein, Maciej; Sengstock, Klaus
2013-07-01
-orbit coupling (Rashba and Dresselhaus couplings), familiar from AMO and condensed matter physics. They lead to yet another variety of fascinating phenomena such as the quantum spin Hall effect, three-dimensional topological insulators, topological superconductors and superfluids of various kinds. One also expects here the appearance of excitations in a form of topological edge states that can support robust transport, or entangled Majorana fermions in the case of topological superconductors or superfluids. Again, while many kinds of topological insulators have been realized in condensed matter systems, a controlled way of creating them in AMO systems and studying quantum phase transitions between various kinds of them is obviously very appealing and challenging. The various systems listed so far correspond to static gauge fields, which are externally imposed by the experimentalists. Even more fascinating is the possibility of generating synthetically dynamical gauge fields, i.e. gauge fields that evolve in time according to an interacting gauge theory, e.g., a full lattice gauge theory (LGT). These dynamical gauge fields can also couple to matter fields, allowing the quantum simulation of such complex systems (notoriously hard to simulate using 'traditional' computers), which are particularly relevant for modern high-energy physics. So far, most of the theoretical proposals concern the simulation of Abelian gauge theories, however, several groups have recently proposed extensions to the non-Abelian scenarios. The scope of the present focused issue of Journal of Physics B is to cover all of these developments, with particular emphasis on the non-Abelian gauge fields. The 14 papers in this issue include contributions from the leading theory groups working in this field; we believe that this collection will provide the reference set for quantum simulations of gauge fields. Although the special issue contains exclusively theoretical proposals and studies, it should be stressed that
Accelerating abelian gauge dynamics
Adler, Stephen Louis
1991-01-01
In this paper, we suggest a new acceleration method for Abelian gauge theories based on linear transformations to variables which weight all length scales equally. We measure the autocorrelation time for the Polyakov loop and the plaquette at β=1.0 in the U(1) gauge theory in four dimensions, for the new method and for standard Metropolis updates. We find a dramatic improvement for the new method over the Metropolis method. Computing the critical exponent z for the new method remains an important open issue.
SU(2) Flat Connection on Riemann Surface and Twisted Geometry with Cosmological Constant
Han, Muxin
2016-01-01
SU(2) flat connection on 2D Riemann surface is shown to relate to the generalized twisted geometry in 3D space with cosmological constant. Various flat connection quantities on Riemann surface are mapped to the geometrical quantities in discrete 3D space. We propose that the moduli space of SU(2) flat connections on Riemann surface generalizes the phase space of twisted geometry or Loop Quantum Gravity to include the cosmological constant.
Gauge invariant gluon spin operator for spinless nonlinear wave solutions
Lee, Bum-Hoon; Kim, Youngman; Pak, D. G.; Tsukioka, Takuya; Zhang, P. M.
2017-04-01
We consider nonlinear wave type solutions with intrinsic mass scale parameter and zero spin in a pure SU(2) quantum chromodynamics (QCD). A new stationary solution which can be treated as a system of static Wu-Yang monopole dressed in off-diagonal gluon field is proposed. A remarkable feature of such a solution is that it possesses a finite energy density everywhere. All considered nonlinear wave type solutions have common features: presence of the mass scale parameter, nonvanishing projection of the color fields along the propagation direction and zero spin. The last property requires revision of the gauge invariant definition of the spin density operator which is supposed to produce spin one states for the massless vector gluon field. We construct a gauge invariant definition of the classical gluon spin density operator which is unique and Lorentz frame independent.
Numerical results for gauge theories near the conformal window
Lucini, Biagio
2015-01-01
A novel strong interaction beyond the standard model could provide a dynamical explanation of electroweak symmetry breaking. Experimental results strongly constrain properties of models that realise this mechanism. Whether these constraints are obeyed by any strongly interacting quantum field theory is a non-perturbative problem that needs to be addressed by first-principle calculations. Monte Carlo simulations of lattice regularised gauge theories is a powerful tool that enables us to address this question. Recently various lattice investigations have appeared that have studied candidate models of strongly interacting dynamics beyond the standard model. After a brief review of the main methods and of some recent results, we focus on the analysis of SU(2) gauge theory with one adjoint Dirac fermion flavour, which is shown to have a near-conformal behaviour with an anomalous dimension of order one. The implications of our findings are also discussed.
Gauge theory and renormalization
Hooft, G. 't
1996-01-01
Early developments leading to renormalizable non-Abelian gauge theories for the weak, electromagnetic and strong interactions, are discussed from a personal viewpoint. They drastically improved our view of the role of field theory, symmetry and topology, as well as other branches of mathematics, in
Modesto, Leonardo; Piva, Marco; Rachwał, Lesław
2016-07-01
We explicitly compute the one-loop exact beta function for a nonlocal extension of the standard gauge theory, in particular, Yang-Mills and QED. The theory, made of a weakly nonlocal kinetic term and a local potential of the gauge field, is unitary (ghost-free) and perturbatively super-renormalizable. Moreover, in the action we can always choose the potential (consisting of one "killer operator") to make zero the beta function of the running gauge coupling constant. The outcome is a UV finite theory for any gauge interaction. Our calculations are done in D =4 , but the results can be generalized to even or odd spacetime dimensions. We compute the contribution to the beta function from two different killer operators by using two independent techniques, namely, the Feynman diagrams and the Barvinsky-Vilkovisky traces. By making the theories finite, we are able to solve also the Landau pole problems, in particular, in QED. Without any potential, the beta function of the one-loop super-renormalizable theory shows a universal Landau pole in the running coupling constant in the ultraviolet regime (UV), regardless of the specific higher-derivative structure. However, the dressed propagator shows neither the Landau pole in the UV nor the singularities in the infrared regime (IR).
SU(3) gauge theory of nuclear rotations
Rosensteel, G.; Sparks, N.
2017-09-01
The legacy Bohr-Mottelson model of collective rotational modes has a hidden differential geometric structure that enables its natural generalization to a nuclear model that has the mathematical structure of Yang-Mills theory. The essential differential geometry ingredients for Yang-Mills are a base manifold, a gauge group, and a connection or covariant derivative. In this letter, the base manifold is the space of nuclear orientations and quadrupole-monopole deformations, the gauge group is either SO(3) or SU(3), and the covariant derivative determines a new gauge-invariant “magnetic-type” interaction. The high-lying energy states of the legacy irrotational flow model enter, as a direct result of gauge coupling, the domain of low-energy yrast rotational bands, as observed by experiment. Although the relevant SU(3) representation for a deformed nucleus is the same as the Elliott model, the non-Abelian SU(3) gauge group's physical interpretation is very different and concerns the Kelvin circulation.
Gauge symmetry breaking in gauge theories -- in search of clarification
Friederich, Simon
2013-01-01
The paper investigates the spontaneous breaking of gauge symmetries in gauge theories from a philosophical angle, taking into account the fact that the notion of a spontaneously broken local gauge symmetry, though widely employed in textbook expositions of the Higgs mechanism, is not supported by
Weighing Rain Gauge Recording Charts
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Weighing rain gauge charts record the amount of precipitation that falls at a given location. The vast majority of the Weighing Rain Gauge Recording Charts...
Isomonodromic deformations and SU 2-invariant instantons on S4
Manasliski, Richard Muñiz
2009-07-01
Anti-self-dual (ASD) solutions to the Yang-Mills equation (or instantons) over an anti-self-dual 4-manifold, which are invariant under an appropriate action of a three-dimensional Lie group, give rise, via twistor construction, to isomonodromic deformations of connections on CP having four simple singularities. As is well known, such deformations are governed by the sixth Painlevé equation P VI(α,β,γ,δ). We work out the particular case of the SU-action on S4, obtained from the irreducible representation on R5. In particular, we express the parameters (α,β,γ,δ) in terms of the instanton number. The present paper contains the proof of the result announced in [Richard Muñiz Manasliski, Painlevé VI equation from invariant instantons, in: Geometric and Topological Methods for Quantum field theory, Contemp. Math., vol. 434, Amer. Math. Soc., Providence, RI, 2007, pp. 215-222].
Safety of hydrogen pressure gauges.
Voth, R. O.
1972-01-01
Study of the relative safety afforded an operator by various hydrogen-pressure gauge case designs. It is shown that assurance of personnel safety, should a failure occur, requires careful selection of available gauge designs, together with proper mounting. Specific gauge case features and mounting requirements are recommended.
Electrically charged black branes in N=4{sup +}, D=5 gauged supergravity
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Brihaye, Yves, E-mail: Yves.Brihaye@umh.ac.be [Physique-Mathématique, Universite de Mons-Hainaut, Mons (Belgium); Manvelyan, Ruben [Yerevan Physics Institute, Alikhanian Br. St. 2, 0036 Yerevan (Armenia); Radu, Eugen [Institut für Physik, Universität Oldenburg, Postfach 2503, D-26111 Oldenburg (Germany); Tchrakian, D.H. [School of Theoretical Physics – DIAS, 10 Burlington Road, Dublin 4 (Ireland); Department of Computer Science, National University of Ireland Maynooth, Maynooth (Ireland)
2013-03-13
We analyze the properties of asymptotically AdS electrically charged black brane solutions in a consistent truncation of the N=4{sup +}, D=5 Romans' gauged supergravity which contains gravity, SU(2) and U(1) gauge fields, and a dilaton possessing a nontrivial potential approaching a constant negative value at infinity. We find that the U(1)×U(1) solutions become unstable to forming non-Abelian hair. These configurations emerge as zero modes of the Abelian solutions at critical temperature and a critical (non-vanishing) ratio of the electric charges and can be viewed as holographic p-wave superfluids.
Weisz, Peter; Majumdar, Pushan
2012-03-01
Lattice gauge theory is a formulation of quantum field theory with gauge symmetries on a space-time lattice. This formulation is particularly suitable for describing hadronic phenomena. In this article we review the present status of lattice QCD. We outline some of the computational methods, discuss some phenomenological applications and a variety of non-perturbative topics. The list of references is severely incomplete, the ones we have included are text books or reviews and a few subjectively selected papers. Kronfeld and Quigg (2010) supply a reasonably comprehensive set of QCD references. We apologize for the fact that have not covered many important topics such as QCD at finite density and heavy quark effective theory adequately, and mention some of them only in the last section "In Brief". These topics should be considered in further Scholarpedia articles.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chertkov, Michael [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Ahn, Sungsoo [Korea Advanced Inst. Science and Technology (KAIST), Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Jinwoo [Korea Advanced Inst. Science and Technology (KAIST), Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)
2017-05-25
Computing partition function is the most important statistical inference task arising in applications of Graphical Models (GM). Since it is computationally intractable, approximate methods have been used to resolve the issue in practice, where meanfield (MF) and belief propagation (BP) are arguably the most popular and successful approaches of a variational type. In this paper, we propose two new variational schemes, coined Gauged-MF (G-MF) and Gauged-BP (G-BP), improving MF and BP, respectively. Both provide lower bounds for the partition function by utilizing the so-called gauge transformation which modifies factors of GM while keeping the partition function invariant. Moreover, we prove that both G-MF and G-BP are exact for GMs with a single loop of a special structure, even though the bare MF and BP perform badly in this case. Our extensive experiments, on complete GMs of relatively small size and on large GM (up-to 300 variables) confirm that the newly proposed algorithms outperform and generalize MF and BP.
SO(N) gauge theories in 2 + 1 dimensions: glueball spectra and confinement
Lau, Richard; Teper, Michael
2017-10-01
We calculate the spectrum of light glueballs and the string tension in a number of SO( N) lattice gauge theories in 2+1 dimensions, with N in the range 3 ≤ N ≤ 16. After extrapolating to the continuum limit and then to N = ∞ we compare to the spectrum and string tension of the SU( N → ∞) gauge theory and find that the most reliably and precisely calculated physical quantities are consistent in that limit. We also compare the glueball spectra of those pairs of SO( N) and SU( N') theories that possess the same Lie algebra, i.e. SO(3) and SU(2), SO(4) and SU(2)×SU(2), SO(6) and SU(4), and find that for the very lightest glueballs the spectra are consistent within each such pair, as are the string tensions and the couplings. Where there are apparent discrepancies they are typically for heavier glueballs, where the systematic errors are much harder to control. We calculate the SO( N) string tensions with a particular focus on the confining properties of SO(2 N + 1) theories which, unlike SO(2 N) theories, possess a trivial centre. We find that for both the light glueballs and for the string tension SO(2 N) and SO(2 N + 1) gauge theories appear to form a single smooth sequence.
Dirac Gauginos, Gauge Mediation and Unification
Benakli, K
2010-01-01
We investigate the building of models with Dirac gauginos and perturbative gauge coupling unification. Here, in contrast to the MSSM, additional fields are required for unification, and these can naturally play the role of the messengers of supersymmetry breaking. We present a framework within which such models can be constructed, including the constraints that the messenger sector must satisfy; and the renormalisation group equations for the soft parameters, which differ from those of the MSSM. For illustration, we provide the spectrum at the electroweak scale for explicit models whose gauge couplings unify at the scale predicted by heterotic strings.
Evolution of Hall resistivity and spectral function with doping in the SU(2) theory of cuprates
Morice, C.; Montiel, X.; Pépin, C.
2017-10-01
Recent transport experiments in the cuprate superconductors linked the opening of the pseudogap to a change in electronic dispersion [S. Badoux et al., Nature (London) 531, 210 (2015), 10.1038/nature16983]. Transport measurements showed that the carrier density sharply changes from x to 1 +x at the pseudogap critical doping, in accordance with the change from Fermi arcs at low doping to a large hole Fermi surface at high doping. The SU(2) theory of cuprates shows that short-range antiferromagnetic correlations cause the arising of both charge and superconducting orders, which are related by an SU(2) symmetry. The fluctuations associated with this symmetry form a pseudogap phase. Here we derive the renormalized electronic propagator under the SU(2) dome, and calculate the spectral functions and transport quantities of the renormalized bands. We show that their evolution with doping matches both spectral and transport measurements.
Potential and mass-matrix in gauged N = 4 supergravity
Roo, Mess de; Westra, Dennis B.; Panda, Sudhakar; Trigiante, Mario
2003-01-01
We discuss the potential and mass-matrix of gauged N = 4 matter coupled supergravity for the case of six matter multiplets, extending previous work by considering the dependence on all scalars. We consider all semi-simple gauge groups and analyse the potential and its first and second derivatives in
Confinement criterion for gauge theories with matter fields
Greensite, Jeff; Matsuyama, Kazue
2017-11-01
A generalization of the Wilson loop area-law criterion, which is applicable to gauge theories with matter in the fundamental representation of the gauge group, is proposed. This new criterion, like the area law, is stronger than the statement that asymptotic particle states are massive color singlets, which holds even for theories described by the Brout-Englert-Higgs mechanism.
Lattice Gauge Field Theory and Prismatic Sets
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Akyar, Bedia; Dupont, Johan Louis
as and in particular the latter we use to study lattice gauge theory in the sense of Phillips and Stone. Thus for a Lie group and a set of parallel transport functions defining the transition over faces of the simplices, we define a classifying map from the prismatic star to a prismatic version of the classifying...
Gauge fields and infinite chains of dualities
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Boulanger, Nicolas [Service de Mécanique et Gravitation, Université de Mons - UMONS,20 place du Parc, B-7000 Mons (Belgium); Sundell, Per [Departamento de Ciencias Físicas, Universidad Andres Bello - UNAB,Av. República 252, Santiago (Chile); West, Peter [Department of Mathematics, King’s College,London WC2R 2LS (United Kingdom)
2015-09-28
We show that the particle states of Maxwell’s theory, in D dimensions, can be represented in an infinite number of ways by using different gauge fields. Using this result we formulate the dynamics in terms of an infinite set of duality relations which are first order in space-time derivatives. We derive a similar result for the three form in eleven dimensions where such a possibility was first observed in the context of E{sub 11}. We also give an action formulation for some of the gauge fields. In this paper we give a pedagogical account of the Lorentz and gauge covariant formulation of the irreducible representations of the Poincaré group, used previously in higher spin theories, as this plays a key role in our constructions. It is clear that our results can be generalised to any particle.
Topological gauge theory, Cartan geometry, and gravity
Wise, Derek Keith
2007-12-01
We investigate the geometry of general relativity, and of related topological gauge theories, using Cartan geometry. Cartan geometry---an 'infinitesimal' version of Klein's Erlanger Programm---allows us to view physical spacetime as tangentially approximated by a homogeneous 'model spacetime', such as de Sitter or anti de Sitter spacetime. This idea leads to a common geometric foundation for 3d Chern-Simons gravity, as studied by Witten, and 4d MacDowell-Mansouri gravity. We describe certain topological gauge theories, including BF theory---a natural generalization of 3d gravity to higher dimensions---as 'Cartan gauge theories' in which the gauge field is replaced by a 'Cartan connection' modeled on some Klein geometry G/H. Cartan-type BF theory has solutions that say spacetime is locally isometric to G/H itself; in this case Cartan geometry reduces to the theory of 'geometric structures'. This leads to generalizations of 3d gravity based on other 3d Klein geometries, including those in Thurston's classification of 3d Riemannian model geometries. In 4d gravity, we generalize MacDowell-Mansouri gravity to other Cartan geometries. For BF theory in n-dimensional spacetime, we also describe codimension-2 'branes' as topological defects. These branes---particles in 3d spacetime, strings in 4d, and so on---are shown to be classified by conjugacy classes in the gauge group G of the theory. They also obey 'exotic statistics' which are neither Bose-Einstein nor Fermi-Dirac, but are governed by representations of generalizations of the braid group known as 'motion groups'. These representations come from a natural action of the motion group on the moduli space of flat G-bundles on space. We study this in particular detail in the case of strings in 4d BF theory, where Lin has called the motion group the 'loop braid group', LBn. This makes 4d BF theory with strings into a 'loop braided quantum field theory'. We also use ideas from 'higher gauge theory' to study particles as
Gauging the Commitment of Clandestine Group Members
2006-03-01
than continue to use the family business as their only source of income, a few members have elected to only support the family business part-time and...human intelligence, or by national technical means. For example, the individual that remains in the family business even though it is obviously not
On the SU(2 vertical stroke 1) WZNW model and its statistical mechanics applications
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Saleur, H. [CEA Centre d' Etudes de Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France). Service de Physique Theorique]|[University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States). Dept. of Physics; Schomerus, V. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)
2006-11-15
Motivated by a careful analysis of the Laplacian on the supergroup SU(2 vertical stroke 1) we formulate a proposal for the state space of the SU(2 vertical stroke 1) WZNW model. We then use properties of sl(2 vertical stroke 1) characters to compute the partition function of the theory. In the special case of level k=1 the latter is found to agree with the properly regularized partition function for the continuum limit of the integrable sl(2 vertical stroke 1)3- anti 3 super-spin chain. Some general conclusions applicable to other WZNW models (in particular the case k=-1/2) are also drawn. (orig.)
Local gauge coupling running in supersymmetric gauge theories on orbifolds
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hillenbach, M.
2007-11-21
By extending Feynman's path integral calculus to fields which respect orbifold boundary conditions we provide a straightforward and convenient framework for loop calculations on orbifolds. We take advantage of this general method to investigate supersymmetric Abelian and non-Abelian gauge theories in five, six and ten dimensions where the extra dimensions are compactified on an orbifold. We consider hyper and gauge multiplets in the bulk and calculate the renormalization of the gauge kinetic term which in particular allows us to determine the gauge coupling running. The renormalization of the higher dimensional theories in orbifold spacetimes exhibits a rich structure with three principal effects: Besides the ordinary renormalization of the bulk gauge kinetic term the loop effects may require the introduction of both localized gauge kinetic terms at the fixed points/planes of the orbifold and higher dimensional operators. (orig.)
Anomalous Gauge Boson Interactions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Barklow, Timothy L
2003-06-16
We discuss the direct measurement of the trilinear vector boson couplings in present and future collider experiments. The major goals of such experiments will be the confirmation of the Standard Model (SM) predictions and the search for signals of new physics. We review our current theoretical understanding of anomalous trilinear gauge-boson self interactions. If the energy scale of the new physics is {approx} 1 TeV, these low energy anomalous couplings are expected to be no larger than {Omicron}(10{sup -2}). Constraints from high precision measurements at LEP and low energy charged and neutral current processes are critically reviewed.
Anomalous gauge boson interactions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Aihara, H. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); Barklow, T. [Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Baur, U. [State Univ. of New York, Buffalo, NY (United States). Dept. of Physics]|[Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States). Dept. of Physics] [and others
1995-03-01
We discuss the direct measurement of the trilinear vector boson couplings in present and future collider experiments. The major goals of such experiments will be the confirmation of the Standard Model (SM) predictions and the search for signals of new physics. We review our current theoretical understanding of anomalous trilinear gauge-boson self interactions. If the energy scale of the new physics is {approximately} 1 TeV, these low energy anomalous couplings are expected to be no larger than {Omicron}(10{sup {minus}2}). Constraints from high precision measurements at LEP and low energy charged and neutral current processes are critically reviewed.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
2017-01-01
The invention relates to a strain gauge of a carrier layer and a meandering measurement grid (101) positioned on the carrier layer, wherein the measurement grid comprises a number of measurement grid sections placed side by side with gaps in between, and a number of end loops (106) interconnecting...... the measurement grid sections at their ends. The end loops at both ends of the measurement grid extend a length (L, 500) in the axial direction in millimetres of a factor times a ratio between a width of a grid section and the gap distance, wherein the factor is larger or equal to 1.5. The invention further...
Ward identities and gauge independence in general chiral gauge theories
Anselmi, Damiano
2015-07-01
Using the Batalin-Vilkovisky formalism, we study the Ward identities and the equations of gauge dependence in potentially anomalous general gauge theories, renormalizable or not. A crucial new term, absent in manifestly nonanomalous theories, is responsible for interesting effects. We prove that gauge invariance always implies gauge independence, which in turn ensures perturbative unitarity. Precisely, we consider potentially anomalous theories that are actually free of gauge anomalies thanks to the Adler-Bardeen theorem. We show that when we make a canonical transformation on the tree-level action, it is always possible to re-renormalize the divergences and re-fine-tune the finite local counterterms, so that the renormalized Γ functional of the transformed theory is also free of gauge anomalies, and is related to the renormalized Γ functional of the starting theory by a canonical transformation. An unexpected consequence of our results is that the beta functions of the couplings may depend on the gauge-fixing parameters, although the physical quantities remain gauge independent. We discuss nontrivial checks of high-order calculations based on gauge independence and determine how powerful they are.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Almeida DRP
2016-01-01
Full Text Available David RP Almeida,1 Eric K Chin,2,3 Shaival S Shah,3 Benjamin Bakall,3 Karen M Gehrs,3 H Culver Boldt,3 Stephen R Russell,3 James C Folk,3 Vinit B Mahajan3,41VitreoRetinal Surgery PA, Minneapolis, MN, 2Retina Consultants of Southern California, Riverside, CA, 3Vitreoretinal Service, Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, 4Omics Laboratory, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA, USABackground: The role of pars plana vitrectomy (PPV for endophthalmitis has evolved over recent decades but the literature is lacking on comparisons between small-gauge and 20-gauge vitrectomy.Objective: To evaluate evolving etiological and microbiological trends in patients undergoing vitrectomy for endophthalmitis and to compare culture-positive rates and visual outcomes between small-gauge (23- and 25-gauge and 20-gauge instrumentation during vitrectomy for endophthalmitis.Methods: Ten-year retrospective comparative case series and prospective laboratory in vitro testing. Tertiary care academic referral center. Patients who underwent PPV for endophthalmitis between 2003 and 2013. Vitreous biopsies were obtained in all cases. The effect of vitrectomy gauge (20-, 23-, and 25-gauge and vitreous cutting rate (1,500 and 5,000 cuts per minute on the viability of bacterial culture was evaluated in an in vitro prospective laboratory investigation.Main outcome measures: Comparison of etiology, microbiology culture-positive rates, and visual outcomes between small-gauge and 20-gauge instrumentation in patients undergoing PPV for infectious endophthalmitis.Results: A total of 61 cases of vitrectomy for endophthalmitis were identified over a 10-year period; of these, 34 were treated with small-gauge (23- and 25-gauge vitrectomy and 27 were treated with 20-gauge vitrectomy. In the small-gauge group, 12 cases (35.3% yielded culture-positive results versus 20 cases (74.1% with culture positivity in the 20-gauge cohort (P=0.002. The most common cause of endophthalmitis was
Alternate Gauge Electroweak Model
Dalton, Bill
2010-01-01
We describe an alternate gauge electroweak model that permits neutrinos with mass, and at the same time explains why right-handed neutrinos do not appear in weak interactions. This is a local gauge theory involving a space [V ] of three scalar functions. The standard Lagrangian density for the Yang-Mills field part and Higgs doublet remain invariant. A ma jor change is made in the transformation and corresponding Lagrangian density parts involving the right-handed leptons. A picture involving two types of right-handed leptons emerges. A dichotomy of matter on the [V ] space corresponds to coupled and uncoupled right-handed Leptons. Here, we describe a covariant dipole-mode solution in which the neutral bosons A{\\mu} and Z{\\mu} produce precessions on [V ]. The W {\\pm} {\\mu} bosons provide nutations on [V ], and consequently, provide transitions between the coupled and uncoupled regions. To elucidate the [V ] space matter dichotomy, and to generate the boson masses, we also provide an alternate potential Lagran...
Gravitation and Gauge Symmetries
Stewart, J
2002-01-01
The purpose of this book (I quote verbatim from the back cover) is to 'shed light upon the intrinsic structure of gravity and the principle of gauge invariance, which may lead to a consistent unified field theory', a very laudable aim. The content divides fairly clearly into four sections (and origins). After a brief introduction, chapters 2-6 review the 'Structure of gravity as a theory based on spacetime gauge symmetries'. This is fairly straightforward material, apparently based on a one-semester graduate course taught at the University of Belgrade for about two decades, and, by implication, this is a reasonably accurate description of its level and assumed knowledge. There follow two chapters of new material entitled 'Gravity in flat spacetime' and 'Nonlinear effects in gravity'. The final three chapters, entitled 'Supersymmetry and supergravity', 'Kaluza-Klein theory' and 'String theory' have been used for the basis of a one-semester graduate course on the unification of fundamental interactions. The boo...
More about discrete gauge anomalies
Ibáñez, L E
1993-01-01
I discuss and extend several results concerning the cancellation of discrete gauge anomalies. I show how heavy fermions do not decouple in the presence of discrete gauge anomalies. As a consequence, in general, cancellation of discrete gauge anomalies cannot be described merely in terms of low energy operators involving only the light fermions. I also discuss cancellation of discrete gauge anomalies through a discrete version of the Green-Schwarz (GS) mechanism as well as the possibility of discrete gauge R-symmetries and their anomalies. Finally, some phenomenological applications are discussed. This includes symmetries guaranteeing absence of FCNC in two-Higgs models and generalized matter parities stabilizing the proton in the supersymmetric standard model. In the presence of a discrete GS mechanism or/and gauge R-symmetries, new possibilities for anomaly free such symmetries are found.
Thermodynamics of SU(2) quantum Yang-Mills theory and CMB anomalies
Hofmann, Ralf
2013-01-01
A brief review of effective SU(2) Yang-Mills thermodynamics in the deconfining phase is given, including the construction of the thermal ground-state estimate in terms of an inert, adjoint scalar field $\\phi$, based on non-propagating (anti)selfdual field configurations of topological charge unity. We explain why the screening physics of an SU(2) photon is subject to an electric-magnetically dual interpretation. Next, we elucidate how a low-frequency excess of line temperature in the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) determines the value of the critical temperature of the deconfining-preconfining phase transition of an SU(2) Yang-Mills theory postulated to describe photon propagation, and we describe how, starting at a redshift of about unity, SU(2) photons collectively work 3D temperature depressions into the CMB. Upon projection along a line of sight, a given depression influences the present CMB sky in a cosmologically local way, possibly explaining the large-angle anomalies confirmed recently by the Planc...
SU(2)$_{\\tiny\\mbox{CMB}}$ at high redshifts and the value of $H_0$
Hahn, Steffen
2016-01-01
We investigate a high-$z$ cosmological model to compute the co-moving sound horizon $r_s$ at baryon freeze-out following hydrogen recombination. This model assumes a replacement of the conventional CMB photon gas by SU(2) Yang-Mills thermodynamics, three flavors of massless neutrinos ($N_\
Mass anomalous dimension of SU(2) using the spectral density method
Suorsa, Joni M; Rantaharju, Jarno; Rantalaiho, Teemu; Rummukainen, Kari; Tuominen, Kimmo; Tähtinen, Sara
2016-01-01
SU(2) with N_f = 6 and N_f = 8 are believed to have an infrared conformal fixed point. We use the spectral density method cross referenced with the mass step scaling method to evaluate the coupling constant dependence of the mass anomalous dimension for massless HEX smeared, clover improved Wilson fermions with Schr\\"odinger functional boundary conditions.
On 2D and 3D solitons in SU(2) gluo-dynamics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bogolubskaya, Alla; Bogolubsky, Igor [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research - JINR, Joliot-Curie st., 6, Moskovskaya obl., 141980, Dubna (Russian Federation)
2010-07-01
We plan to indicate the possibility of soliton existence in 2D and 3D SU(2) gluo-dynamics. Hamiltonians in terms of radial functions will be presented. Localized in space field distributions which provide local minima to these Hamiltonians are studied. Their physical implications are discussed. (author)
An SU(2) symmetry of the one-dimensional spin-1 XY model
Kitazawa, A; Nomura, K
2003-01-01
We show that the one-dimensional spin-1 XY model has an additional SU(2) symmetry for the open boundary condition and for an artificial one. We can explain some degeneracies of excitation states which were reported in previous numerical studies. (letter to the editor)
Operator Gauge Symmetry in QED
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Siamak Khademi
2006-01-01
Full Text Available In this paper, operator gauge transformation, first introduced by Kobe, is applied to Maxwell's equations and continuity equation in QED. The gauge invariance is satisfied after quantization of electromagnetic fields. Inherent nonlinearity in Maxwell's equations is obtained as a direct result due to the nonlinearity of the operator gauge transformations. The operator gauge invariant Maxwell's equations and corresponding charge conservation are obtained by defining the generalized derivatives of the first and second kinds. Conservation laws for the real and virtual charges are obtained too. The additional terms in the field strength tensor are interpreted as electric and magnetic polarization of the vacuum.
Gauges for fine and high vacuum
Jousten, K
2007-01-01
Vacuum gauges for use in accelerators have to cover about 17 decades of pressure, from 10–12 Pa to 105 Pa. In this article we describe the history, measurement mode, design, accuracy and calibration of the gauges used down to 10–5 Pa. We focus on commercially available types of gauges, i.e., mechanical gauges, piezoresistive and capacitance diaphragm gauges, thermal conductivity gauges, and spinning rotor gauges.
2d Affine XY-Spin Model/4d Gauge Theory Duality and Deconfinement
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Anber, Mohamed M.; Poppitz, Erich; /Toronto U.; Unsal, Mithat; /SLAC /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /San Francisco State U.
2012-08-16
We introduce a duality between two-dimensional XY-spin models with symmetry-breaking perturbations and certain four-dimensional SU(2) and SU(2) = Z{sub 2} gauge theories, compactified on a small spatial circle R{sup 1,2} x S{sup 1}, and considered at temperatures near the deconfinement transition. In a Euclidean set up, the theory is defined on R{sup 2} x T{sup 2}. Similarly, thermal gauge theories of higher rank are dual to new families of 'affine' XY-spin models with perturbations. For rank two, these are related to models used to describe the melting of a 2d crystal with a triangular lattice. The connection is made through a multi-component electric-magnetic Coulomb gas representation for both systems. Perturbations in the spin system map to topological defects in the gauge theory, such as monopole-instantons or magnetic bions, and the vortices in the spin system map to the electrically charged W-bosons in field theory (or vice versa, depending on the duality frame). The duality permits one to use the two-dimensional technology of spin systems to study the thermal deconfinement and discrete chiral transitions in four-dimensional SU(N{sub c}) gauge theories with n{sub f} {ge} 1 adjoint Weyl fermions.
Implications of Gauge Invariance on a Heavy Diphoton Resonance
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Low, Ian [Northwestern U.; Lykken, Joseph [Fermilab
2015-12-30
Assuming a heavy electroweak singlet scalar, which couples to the Standard Model gauge bosons only through loop-induced couplings, SU(2)_L x U(1)_Y gauge invariance imposes interesting patterns on its decays into electroweak gauge bosons, which are dictated by only two free parameters. Therefore experimental measurements on any two of the four possible electroweak channels would determine the remaining two decay channels completely. Furthermore, searches in the WW/ZZ channels probe a complimentary region of parameter space from searches in the gamma-gamma/Z-gamma channels. We derive a model-independent upper bound on the branching fraction in each decay channel, which for the diphoton channel turns out to be about 61%. Including the coupling to gluons, the upper bound on the diphoton branching fraction implies an upper bound on the mass scale of additional colored particles mediating the gluon-fusion production. Using an event rate of about 5 fb for the reported 750 GeV diphoton excess, we find the new colored particle must be lighter than O(1.7 TeV) and O(2.6 TeV) for a pure CP-even and a pure CP-odd singlet scalar, respectively.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Mojaza, Matin; Pica, Claudio; Sannino, Francesco
2010-01-01
in such a way that the theory develops a perturbative stable infrared fixed point at zero temperature. Due to large distance conformality we trade the coupling constant with its fixed point value and define a reduced free energy which depends only on the number of flavors, colors and matter representation. We...... show that the reduced free energy changes sign, at the second, fifth and sixth order in the coupling, when decreasing the number of flavors from the upper end of the conformal window. If the change in sign is interpreted as signal of an instability of the system then we infer a critical number...... of flavors. Surprisingly this number, if computed to the order g^2, agrees with previous predictions for the lower boundary of the conformal window for nonsupersymmetric gauge theories. The higher order results tend to predict a higher number of critical flavors. These are universal properties, i...
A property of electric and magnetic flux in non-abelian gauge theories
Hooft, G. 't
1979-01-01
Pure non-Abelian gauge models with gauge group SU(N) are considered in a box with periodic boundary conditions at various temperatures −1. Electric and magnetic flux are defined in a gauge-invariant way. The free energy of the system satisfies an exact duality equation, following from Euclidean
Unification of gauge couplings in radiative neutrino mass models
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hagedorn, Claudia; Ohlsson, Tommy; Riad, Stella
2016-01-01
), none of the models leads to gauge coupling unification. Regarding the scale of unification, we find values between 1014 GeV and 1016 GeV for models belonging to class (I) without dark matter, whereas models in class (I) with dark matter as well as models of class (II) prefer values in the range 5......We investigate the possibility of gauge coupling unification in various radiative neutrino mass models, which generate neutrino masses at one- and/or two-loop level. Renormalization group running of gauge couplings is performed analytically and numerically at one- and two-loop order, respectively...... masses at one-loop level and (III) models with particles in the adjoint representation of SU(3). In class (I), gauge couplings unify in a few models and adding dark matter amplifies the chances for unification. In class (II), about a quarter of the models admits gauge coupling unification. In class (III...
Krishnan, Chethan; Raju, Avinash
2017-08-01
We argue that in the tensionless phase of string theory where the stringy gauge symmetries are unbroken, (at least some) cosmological singularities can be understood as gauge artefacts. We present two conceptually related, but distinct, pieces of evidence: one relying on spacetime and the other on worldsheet.
Non-Abelian gauge field localization on walls and geometric Higgs mechanism
Arai, Masato; Blaschke, Filip; Eto, Minoru; Sakai, Norisuke
2017-05-01
Combining the semiclassical localization mechanism for gauge fields with N domain wall background in a simple SU(N) gauge theory in 5 space-time dimensions, we investigate the geometric Higgs mechanism, where a spontaneous breakdown of the gauge symmetry comes from splitting of domain walls. The mass spectra are investigated in detail for the phenomenologically interesting case SU(5) \\to SU(3)× SU(2)× U(1), which is realized on a split configuration of coincident triplet and doublet of domain walls. We derive a low-energy effective theory in a generic background using the moduli approximation, where all nonlinear interactions between effective fields are captured up to 2 derivatives. We observe novel similarities between domain walls in our model and D-branes in superstring theories.
Gauge field theory approach to spin transport in a 2D electron gas
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
B. Berche
2009-01-01
Full Text Available We discuss the Pauli Hamiltonian including the spin-orbit interaction within an U(1×SU(2 gauge theory interpretation, where the gauge symmetry appears to be broken. This interpretation offers new insight into the problem of spin currents in the condensed matter environment, and can be extended to Rashba and Dresselhaus spin-orbit interactions. We present a few outcomes of the present formulation: i it automatically leads to zero spin conductivity, in contrast to predictions of Gauge symmetric treatments, ii a topological quantization condition leading to voltage quantization follows, and iii spin interferometers can be conceived in which, starting from an arbitrary incoming unpolarized spinor, it is always possible to construct a perfect spin filtering condition.
Optical Abelian lattice gauge theories
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tagliacozzo, L., E-mail: luca.tagliacozzo@icfo.es [ICFO The Institute of Photonic Sciences, Av. Carl Friedrich Gauss, num. 3, E-08860 Castelldefels (Barcelona) (Spain); Celi, A., E-mail: alessio.celi@gmail.com [ICFO The Institute of Photonic Sciences, Av. Carl Friedrich Gauss, num. 3, E-08860 Castelldefels (Barcelona) (Spain); Zamora, A. [ICFO The Institute of Photonic Sciences, Av. Carl Friedrich Gauss, num. 3, E-08860 Castelldefels (Barcelona) (Spain); Lewenstein, M. [ICFO The Institute of Photonic Sciences, Av. Carl Friedrich Gauss, num. 3, E-08860 Castelldefels (Barcelona) (Spain); ICREA-Institucio Catalana de Recerca i Estudis Avancats, 08010 Barcelona (Spain)
2013-03-15
We discuss a general framework for the realization of a family of Abelian lattice gauge theories, i.e., link models or gauge magnets, in optical lattices. We analyze the properties of these models that make them suitable for quantum simulations. Within this class, we study in detail the phases of a U(1)-invariant lattice gauge theory in 2+1 dimensions, originally proposed by P. Orland. By using exact diagonalization, we extract the low-energy states for small lattices, up to 4 Multiplication-Sign 4. We confirm that the model has two phases, with the confined entangled one characterized by strings wrapping around the whole lattice. We explain how to study larger lattices by using either tensor network techniques or digital quantum simulations with Rydberg atoms loaded in optical lattices, where we discuss in detail a protocol for the preparation of the ground-state. We propose two key experimental tests that can be used as smoking gun of the proper implementation of a gauge theory in optical lattices. These tests consist in verifying the absence of spontaneous (gauge) symmetry breaking of the ground-state and the presence of charge confinement. We also comment on the relation between standard compact U(1) lattice gauge theory and the model considered in this paper. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We study the quantum simulation of dynamical gauge theories in optical lattices. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We focus on digital simulation of abelian lattice gauge theory. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We rediscover and discuss the puzzling phase diagram of gauge magnets. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We detail the protocol for time evolution and ground-state preparation in any phase. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We provide two experimental tests to validate gauge theory quantum simulators.
From instantons to sphalerons: Time-dependent periodic solutions of SU(2)-Higgs theory
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Frost, K.L.; Yaffe, L.G. [Department of Physics, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98105-1560 (United States)
1999-11-01
We solve numerically for periodic, spherically symmetric, classical solutions of SU(2)-Higgs theory in four-dimensional Euclidean space. In the limit of short periods the solutions approach tiny instanton{endash}anti-instanton superpositions while, for longer periods, the solutions merge with the static sphaleron. A previously predicted bifurcation point, where two branches of periodic solutions meet, appears for Higgs boson masses larger than 3.091M{sub W}. {copyright} {ital 1999} {ital The American Physical Society}
Quantum entanglement in the one-dimensional spin-orbital SU (2 )⊗XXZ model
You, Wen-Long; Horsch, Peter; Oleś, Andrzej M.
2015-08-01
We investigate the phase diagram and the spin-orbital entanglement of a one-dimensional SU (2 )⊗XXZ model with SU(2) spin exchange and anisotropic XXZ orbital exchange interactions and negative exchange coupling constant. As a unique feature, the spin-orbital entanglement entropy in the entangled ground states increases here linearly with system size. In the case of Ising orbital interactions, we identify an emergent phase with long-range spin-singlet dimer correlations triggered by a quadrupling of correlations in the orbital sector. The peculiar translational-invariant spin-singlet dimer phase has finite von Neumann entanglement entropy and survives when orbital quantum fluctuations are included. It even persists in the isotropic SU (2 )⊗SU (2) limit. Surprisingly, for finite transverse orbital coupling, the long-range spin-singlet correlations also coexist in the antiferromagnetic spin and alternating orbital phase making this phase also unconventional. Moreover, we also find a complementary orbital singlet phase that exists in the isotropic case but does not extend to the Ising limit. The nature of entanglement appears essentially different from that found in the frequently discussed model with positive coupling. Furthermore, we investigate the collective spin and orbital wave excitations of the disentangled ferromagnetic-spin/ferro-orbital ground state and explore the continuum of spin-orbital excitations. Interestingly, one finds among the latter excitations two modes of exciton bound states. Their spin-orbital correlations differ from the remaining continuum states and exhibit logarithmic scaling of the von Neumann entropy with increasing system size. We demonstrate that spin-orbital excitons can be experimentally explored using resonant inelastic x-ray scattering, where the strongly entangled exciton states can be easily distinguished from the spin-orbital continuum.
Dark Matter and Gauged Flavor Symmetries
Bishara, Fady; Kamenik, Jernej F; Stamou, Emmanuel; Zupan, Jure
2015-01-01
We investigate the phenomenology of flavored dark matter (DM). DM stability is guaranteed by an accidental ${\\mathcal Z}_3$ symmetry, a subgroup of the standard model (SM) flavor group that is not broken by the SM Yukawa interactions. We consider an explicit realization where the quark part of the SM flavor group is fully gauged. If the dominant interactions between DM and visible sector are through flavor gauge bosons, as we show for Dirac fermion flavored DM, then the DM mass is bounded between roughly $0.5$ TeV and $5$ TeV if the DM multiplet mass is split only radiatively. In general, however, no such relation exists. We demonstrate this using scalar flavored DM where the main interaction with the SM is through the Higgs portal. For both cases we derive constraints from flavor, cosmology, direct and indirect DM detection, and collider searches.
NAMMA SENEGAL RAIN GAUGE NETWORK V1
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The NAMMA Senegal Rain Gauge Network consisted of 40 rain gauge sites (AMMA 1-40) located in various places throughout Senegal, West Africa. The Rain Gauge Network...
Effect of SU(2) symmetry on many-body localization and thermalization
Protopopov, Ivan V.; Ho, Wen Wei; Abanin, Dmitry A.
2017-07-01
The many-body localized (MBL) phase is characterized by a complete set of quasilocal integrals of motion and area-law entanglement of excited eigenstates. We study the effect of non-Abelian continuous symmetries on MBL, considering the case of SU(2 ) symmetric disordered spin chains. The SU(2 ) symmetry imposes strong constraints on the entanglement structure of the eigenstates, precluding conventional MBL. We construct a fixed-point Hamiltonian, which realizes a nonergodic (but non-MBL) phase characterized by eigenstates having logarithmic scaling of entanglement with the system size, as well as an incomplete set of quasilocal integrals of motion. We study the response of such a phase to local symmetric perturbations, finding that even weak perturbations induce multispin resonances. We conclude that the nonergodic phase is generally unstable and that SU(2 ) symmetry implies thermalization. The approach introduced in this Rapid Communication can be used to study dynamics in disordered systems with non-Abelian symmetries, and provides a starting point for searching nonergodic phases beyond conventional MBL.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bharucha, Aoife [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). II. Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Technische Univ. Muenchen, Garching (Germany). Physik-Dept. T31; Goudelis, Andreas [Savoie Univ., CNRS, Annecy-le-Vieux (France). LAPTh; McGarrie, Moritz [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)
2013-10-15
The discovery of a 125.5 GeV Higgs with standard model-like couplings and naturalness considerations motivate gauge extensions of the MSSM. We analyse two variants of such an extension and carry out a phenomenological study of regions of the parameter space statisfying current direct and indirect constraints, employing state-of-the-art two-loop RGE evolution and GMSB boundary conditions. We find that due to the appearance of non-decoupled D-terms it is possible to obtain a 125.5 GeV Higgs with stops below 2 TeV, while the uncolored sparticles could still lie within reach of the LHC. We compare the contributions of the stop sector and the non-decoupled D-terms to the Higgs mass, and study their effect on the Higgs couplings. We further investigate the nature of the next-to lightest supersymmetric particle, in light of the GMSB motivated searches currently being pursued by ATLAS and CMS.
Dynamical Messengers for Gauge Mediation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hook, Anson; Torroba, Gonzalo; /SLAC /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.
2011-08-17
We construct models of indirect gauge mediation where the dynamics responsible for breaking supersymmetry simultaneously generates a weakly coupled subsector of messengers. This provides a microscopic realization of messenger gauge mediation where the messenger and hidden sector fields are unified into a single sector. The UV theory is SQCD with massless and massive quarks plus singlets, and at low energies it flows to a weakly coupled quiver gauge theory. One node provides the primary source of supersymmetry breaking, which is then transmitted to the node giving rise to the messenger fields. These models break R-symmetry spontaneously, produce realistic gaugino and sfermion masses, and give a heavy gravitino.
Covariant gauges at finite temperature
Landshoff, P V; Rebhan, A
1992-01-01
A prescription is presented for real-time finite-temperature perturbation theory in covariant gauges, in which only the two physical degrees of freedom of the gauge-field propagator acquire thermal parts. The propagators for the unphysical degrees of freedom of the gauge field, and for the Faddeev-Popov ghost field, are independent of temperature. This prescription is applied to the calculation of the one-loop gluon self-energy and the two-loop interaction pressure, and is found to be simpler...
The phenomenoogy of extended gauge and higgs sectors at the LHC
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Peterson, Andrea Dawn [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)
2008-01-01
We consider prospects for detecting and measuring the properties of Z', W' and heavy Higgs bosons at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). These particles are all well-motivated heavier counterparts to known SM particles. Z' and W0 bosons arise when the SM gauge group is extended with additional U(1) or SU(2) factors. Heavy Higgs bosons are a feature of many models, including the Two Higgs Doublet Model (2HDM), supersymmetric (SUSY) models, and W' and Z' models. First, we consider a number of common Z' models and present next-to-leading (NLO) and next-to-next-to-leading order (NNLO) predictions for the cross section, forwardbackward asymmetry, and rapidity distributions. We discuss methods for measuring the couplings of the Z' and distinguishing among models. Z' bosons with masses around 5 TeV should be detectable at the LHC, and the couplings of a 2.5 TeV Z' could be measured within 0.1π with a luminosity of 1 ab^{-1}. We also consider a hidden sector Z' that couples to standard model fermions via kinetic and mass mixing and serves as a mediator of isospin-violating interactions with dark matter. We combine the results of LHC Z' searches and dark matter direct detection experiments with global electroweak data to obtain mass-dependent constraints on the model parameters. Next, we consider the fact that extra broken gauge symmetries are often accompanied by extended scalar sectors. If the masses of new Higgs particles are not too large, the W' bosons may decay into heavy Higgs particles, providing new possibilities for W' detection. We consider a simple scenario where the W' couplings to fermions are suppressed, making decays to scalar pairs the dominant decay mode. Potential final states include one or two gauge bosons plus missing energy. Finally, we turn our attention to Higgs pair production in the 2HDM. Higgs pair production is a valuable tool for measuring the triscalar couplings of the
Gauge Freedom in Astrodynamics
Efroimsky, Michael
2006-11-01
incompatible. Similarly, in spin dynamics the Andoyer elements come out non-osculating under angularvelocity-dependent perturbation (a switch to a noninertial frame being one such case). Amendment of the dynamical equations only with extra terms in the Hamiltonian makes the equations render nonosculating Andoyer elements. To make them osculating, more terms must enter the equations (and the equations will no longer be canonical). It is often convenient to deliberately deviate from osculation by substituting the Lagrange constraint with an arbitrary condition that gives birth to a family of nonosculating elements. The freedom in choosing this condition is analogous to the gauge freedom. Calculations in nonosculating variables are mathematically valid and sometimes highly advantageous, but their physical interpretation is nontrivial. For example, nonosculating orbital elements parameterise instantaneous conics not tangent to the orbit, so the nonosculating inclination will be different from the real inclination of the physical orbit. We present examples of situations in which ignoring of the gauge freedom (and of the unwanted loss of osculation) leads to oversights.
A Model of Direct Gauge Mediation of Supersymmetry Breaking
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Murayama, H. [Theoretical Physics Group, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)]|[Department of Physics, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)
1997-07-01
We present the first phenomenologically viable model of gauge meditation of supersymmetry breaking without a messenger sector or gauge singlet fields. The standard model gauge groups couple directly to the sector which breaks supersymmetry dynamically. Despite the direct coupling, it can preserve perturbative gauge unification thanks to the inverted hierarchy mechanism. There is no dangerous negative contribution to m{sup 2}{sub {tilde q}} , m{sup 2}{sub {tilde l}} due to two-loop renormalization group equation. The potentially nonuniversal supergravity contribution to m{sup 2}{sub {tilde q}} and m{sup 2}{sub {tilde l}} can be suppressed enough. The model is completely chiral, and one does not need to forbid mass terms for the messenger fields by hand. Cosmology of the model is briefly discussed. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}
Programs for generating Clebsch-Gordan coefficients of SU(3) in SU(2) and SO(3) bases
Bahri, C.; Rowe, D. J.; Draayer, J. P.
2004-05-01
Computer codes are developed to calculate Clebsch-Gordan coefficients of SU(3) in both SU(2)- and SO(3)-coupled bases. The efficiency of this code derives from the use of vector coherent state theory to evaluate the required coefficients directly without recursion relations. The approach extends to other compact semi-simple Lie groups. The codes are given in subroutine form so that users can incorporate the codes into other programs. Program summaryTitle of program: SU3CGVCS Catalogue identifier: ADTN Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/ADTN Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University of Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Persons requesting the program must sign the standard CPC non-profit use license Computers for which the program is designed and others on which it is operable: SGI Origin 2000, HP Apollo 9000, Sun, IBM SP, Pentium Operating systems under which the program has been tested: IRIX 6.5, HP UX 10.01, SunOS, AIX, Linux Programming language used: FORTRAN 77 Memory required to execute with typical data: On the HP system, it requires about 732 KBytes. Disk space used for output: 2100+2460 bytes No. of bits in a word: 32 bit integer and 64 bit floating point numbers. No. of processors used: 1 Has the code been vectorized: No No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 26 309 No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 3969 Distribution format: tar gzip file Nature of physical problem: The group SU(3) and its Lie algebra su(3) have important applications, for example, in elementary particle physics, nuclear physics, and quantum optics [1-3]. The code presented is particularly relevant for the last two fields. Clebsch-Gordan (CG) coefficients are required whenever the symmetries of many-body systems are used for the evaluation of matrix elements of tensor operators. Moreover, the construction of CG coefficients for SU(3) serves as a nontrivial prototype for larger compact
Optical Rain Gauge Instrument Handbook
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bartholomew, Mary Jane [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)
2016-04-01
To improve the quantitative description of precipitation processes in climate models, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)’s Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility deploys several types of rain gauges (MET, RAIN, and optical rain gauge [ORG] datastreams) as well as disdrometers (DISD and VDIS datastreams) at the Southern Great Plains (SGP) Site. This handbook deals specifically with the independent analog ORG (i.e., the ORG datastream).
General Aspects of Tree Level Gauge Mediation
Nardecchia, Marco; Ziegler, Robert
2009-01-01
Tree level gauge mediation (TGM) may be considered as the simplest way to communicate supersymmetry breaking: through the tree level renormalizable exchange of heavy gauge messengers. We study its general structure, in particular the general form of tree level sfermion masses and of one loop, but enhanced, gaugino masses. This allows us to set up general guidelines for model building and to identify the hypotheses underlying the phenomenological predictions. In the context of models based on the "minimal" gauge group SO(10), we show that only two "pure" embeddings of the MSSM fields are possible using $d< 120$ representations, each of them leading to specific predictions for the ratios of family universal sfermion masses at the GUT scale, $m^2_{\\bar{5}} = 2 m^2_{10}$ or $m^2_{\\bar{5}} = (3/4) m^2_{10}$ (in SU(5) notation). These ratios are determined by group factors and are peculiar enough to make this scheme testable at the LHC. We also discuss three possible approaches to the $\\mu$-problem, one of them ...
Renormalizations in softly broken SUSY gauge theories
Avdeev, L. V.; Kazakov, D. I.; Kondrashuk, I. N.
1998-01-01
The supergraph technique for calculations in supersymmetric gauge theories where supersymmetry is broken in a "soft" way (without introducing quadratic divergencies) is reviewed. By introducing an external spurion field the set of Feynman rules is formulated and explicit connections between the UV counterterms of a softly broken and rigid SUSY theories are found. It is shown that the renormalization constants of softly broken SUSY gauge theory also become external superfields depending on the spurion field. Their explicit form repeats that of the constants of a rigid theory with the redefinition of the couplings. The method allows us to reproduce all known results on the renormalization of soft couplings and masses in a softly broken theory. As an example the renormalization group functions for soft couplings and masses in the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model up to the three-loop level are calculated.
Renormalizations in softly broken SUSY gauge theories
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Avdeev, L.V.; Kazakov, D.I.; Kondrashuk, I.N. [Joint Inst. for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation). Lab. of Theoretical Physics
1998-01-19
The supergraph technique for calculations in supersymmetric gauge theories where supersymmetry is broken in a ``soft`` way (without introducing quadratic divergencies) is reviewed. By introducing an external spurion field the set of Feynman rules is formulated and explicit connections between the UV counterterms of a softly broken and rigid SUSY theories are found. It is shown that the renormalization constants of softly broken SUSY gauge theory also become external superfields depending on the spurion field. Their explicit form repeats that of the constants of a rigid theory with the redefinition of the couplings. The method allows us to reproduce all known results on the renormalization of soft couplings and masses in a softly broken theory. As an example the renormalization group functions for soft couplings and masses in the minimal supersymmetric standard model up to the three-loop level are calculated. (orig.). 16 refs.
Proof of long range order in 4-d SU(N) lattice gauge theory
Grady, Michael
2013-01-01
An extended version of 4-d SU(2) lattice gauge theory is considered in which different inverse coupling parameters are used, $\\beta_H=4/g_{H}^2$ for plaquettes which are purely spacelike, and $\\beta_V$ for those which involve the Euclidean timelike direction. It is shown that when $\\beta_H = \\infty$ the partition function becomes, in the Coulomb Gauge, exactly that of a set of non-interacting 3-d O(4) classical Heisenberg models. Long range order at low temperatures (weak coupling) has been rigorously proven for this model. It is shown that the correlation function demonstrating spontaneous magnetization in the ferromagnetic phase is a continuous function of $g_H$ at $g_H =0$ and therefore that the spontaneously broken phase enters the ($\\beta_H$, $\\beta_V$) phase plane (no step discontinuity at the edge). Once the phase transition line has entered, it can only exit at another identified edge, which requires the SU(2) gauge theory within also to have a phase transition at finite $\\beta$. A phase exhibiting sp...
Search for new heavy charged gauge bosons
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Magass, Carsten Martin
2007-11-02
The TEVATRON proton-antiproton collider at FERMILAB (near Chicago/USA) is operating at a center-of-mass energy of {radical}(s)=1.96 TeV since March 2001. This analysis uses data taken with the DOe detector until February 2006 corresponding to an integrated luminosity of about {integral}Ldt=1 fb{sup -1}. Using this dataset, a search for a new heavy charged gauge boson W{sup '} and its subsequent decay into an electron and a neutrino is performed: p anti p{yields}W{sup '}+X{yields}e{nu}+X. Additional gauge bosons (including the equivalent to the Z, the Z{sup '}) are introduced in many extensions to the Standard Model of particle physics. Assuming the most general case, the new gauge group can comprise a new mixing angle and new couplings. Here, the Altarelli Reference Model is considered which represents a generalization of the Manifest Left-Right Symmetric Model with light right-handed neutrinos. This model makes the assumptions that the new gauge boson W{sup '} has the same couplings as the Standard Model W boson and that there is no mixing. Hence, the W{sup '} is a heavy copy of the Standard Model W boson. The clear decay signature (in analogy to the decay of the W) contains an isolated electron with extreme high energy which is important for triggering. The neutrino can not be detected, but it gives rise to missing energy in the detector. The Jacobian peak in the transverse mass distribution stemming from the W decay is used for calibration, whereas the tail of the transverse mass distribution is searched for a possible W{sup '} signal. The data agrees with the expectation from background processes. For instance, in the data 37 events are reconstructed with transverse masses above 300 GeV compared to a prediction of 37.1{+-}2.1(stat){sup +6.0}{sub -3.7}(sys) background events. Since no significant excess is found in the data, an upper limit is set on the production cross section for heavy charged gauge bosons decaying into electron
Tosi, Gian Marco; Malandrini, Alex; Cevenini, Gabriele; Neri, Giovanni; Marigliani, Davide; Cerruto, Arianna; Virgili, Gianni
2017-10-01
To study the patterns of vitreous incarceration at sclerotomy sites by ultrasound biomicroscopy in patients subjected to valved or nonvalved small-gauge pars plana vitrectomy. A prospective comparative study of 88 eyes affected by epiretinal membrane and macular hole. Patients were divided into four groups: valved or nonvalved 23-gauge (16 eyes each) and valved or nonvalved 25-gauge (20 eyes each); their vitreal disposition was compared by ultrasound biomicroscopy. Vitreal disposition was also assessed in 16 eyes of 16 patients subjected to valved 27-gauge pars plana vitrectomy. Three vitreal patterns were identified: P0 (vitreous not visible or vitreous strand distant from the sclerotomy site), P1 (vitreous strand parallel to and in contact with the sclerotomy site), and P2 (vitreous strand entrapped in the sclerotomy site). The effect of valved trocar use on vitreous incarceration seemed to be somewhat beneficial, but no statistically significant effect could be shown (odds ratio: 0.85, 95% confidence interval: 0.42-1.74, P = 0.657). Similarly, no differences in vitreous incarceration were shown among vitrectomy gauges (23, 25, or 27) both in a model including valved trocars only (P = 0.858) and in a model with all available data (P = 0.935). In 23- and 25-gauge macular surgeries, postoperative vitreous incarceration does not seem to be reduced using valved cannulas and was similar to that observed in 27-gauge surgery.
2010-10-01
... TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Boilers and Appurtenances Steam Gauges § 230.43 Gauge siphon. The steam gauge supply pipe shall have a siphon on it of ample capacity to prevent steam from entering the gauge. The supply pipe shall directly enter the boiler and be maintained steam...
Thermodynamics of SU(2) mathcal{N} =2 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory
Paik, Steve; Yaffe, Laurence G.
2010-01-01
The thermodynamics of four-dimensional SU(2) mathcal{N} =2 super-Yang-Mills theory is examined in both high and low temperature regimes. At low temperatures, compelling evidence is found for two distinct equilibrium states related by a spontaneously broken discrete R-symmetry. These equilibrium states exist because the quantum moduli space of the theory has two singular points where extra massless states appear. At high temperature, a unique R-symmetry-preserving equilibrium state is found. Discrepancies with previous results in the literature are explained.
Representations of the deformed U(su(2)) and U(osp(1,2)) algebras
Bonatsos, Dennis; Kolokotronis, P; Lenis, D; Bonatsos, Dennis
1996-01-01
The polynomial deformations of the Witten extensions of the U(su(2)) and U(osp(1,2)) algebras are three generator algebras with normal ordering, admitting a two generator subalgebra. The modules and the representations of these algebras are based on the construction of Verma modules, which are quotient modules, generated by ideals of the original algebra. This construction unifies a large number of the known algebras under the same scheme. The finite dimensional representations show new features such as the multiplicity of representations of the same dimensionality, or the existence of finite dimensional representations only for some dimensions.
From decay to complete breaking: pulling the strings in SU(2) Yang-Mills theory.
Pepe, M; Wiese, U-J
2009-05-15
We study {2Q+1} strings connecting two static charges Q in (2+1)D SU(2) Yang-Mills theory. While the fundamental {2} string between two charges Q=1/2 is unbreakable, the adjoint {3} string connecting two charges Q=1 can break. When a {4} string is stretched beyond a critical length, it decays into a {2} string by gluon pair creation. When a {5} string is stretched, it first decays into a {3} string, which eventually breaks completely. The energy of the screened charges at the ends of a string is well described by a phenomenological constituent gluon model.
Hagedorn spectrum and thermodynamics of SU(2) and SU(3) Yang-Mills theories
Caselle, Michele; Panero, Marco
2015-01-01
We present a high-precision lattice calculation of the equation of state in the confining phase of SU(2) Yang-Mills theory. We show that the results are described very well by a gas of massive, non-interacting glueballs, provided one assumes an exponentially growing Hagedorn spectrum. The latter can be derived within an effective bosonic closed-string model, leading to a parameter-free theoretical prediction, which is in perfect agreement with our lattice results. Furthermore, when applied to SU(3) Yang-Mills theory, this effective model accurately describes the lattice results reported by Bors\\'anyi et al. in JHEP 07 (2012) 056.
An Exact SU(2) Symmetry and Persistent Spin Helix in a Spin-Orbit Coupled System
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bernevig, Andrei
2010-02-10
Spin-orbit coupled systems generally break the spin rotation symmetry. However, for a model with equal Rashba and Dresselhauss coupling constant (the ReD model), and for the [110] Dresselhauss model, a new type of SU(2) spin rotation symmetry is discovered. This symmetry is robust against spin-independent disorder and interactions, and is generated by operators whose wavevector depends on the coupling strength. It renders the spin lifetime infinite at this wavevector, giving rise to a Persistent Spin Helix (PSH). We obtain the spin fluctuation dynamics at, and away, from the symmetry point, and suggest experiments to observe the PSH.
An Exact SU(2) Symmetry and Persistent Spin Helix ina Spin-orbit Coupled System
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bernevig, B.A.; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /Santa Barbara, KITP; Orenstein, J.; /LBL, Berkeley /UC, Berkeley; Zhang, Shou-Cheng; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.
2007-01-22
Spin-orbit coupled systems generally break the spin rotation symmetry. However, for a model with equal Rashba and Dresselhauss coupling constant (the ReD model), and for the [110] Dresselhauss model, a new type of SU(2) spin rotation symmetry is discovered. This symmetry is robust against spin-independent disorder and interactions, and is generated by operators whose wavevector depends on the coupling strength. It renders the spin lifetime infinite at this wavevector, giving rise to a Persistent Spin Helix (PSH). We obtain the spin fluctuation dynamics at, and away, from the symmetry point, and suggest experiments to observe the PSH.
Implementation of the SU(2) Hamiltonian symmetry for the DMRG algorithm
Alvarez, Gonzalo
2012-10-01
In the Density Matrix Renormalization Group (DMRG) algorithm (White, 1992, 1993) [1,2], Hamiltonian symmetries play an important rôle. Using symmetries, the matrix representation of the Hamiltonian can be blocked. Diagonalizing each matrix block is more efficient than diagonalizing the original matrix. This paper explains how the the DMRG++ code (Alvarez, 2009) [3] has been extended to handle the non-local SU(2) symmetry in a model independent way. Improvements in CPU times compared to runs with only local symmetries are discussed for the one-orbital Hubbard model, and for a two-orbital Hubbard model for iron-based superconductors. The computational bottleneck of the algorithm and the use of shared memory parallelization are also addressed. Program summary Program title: DMRG++ Catalog identifier: AEDJ_v2_0 Program summary URL: http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEDJ_v2_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Special license. See http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/AEDJ_v2_0.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 211560 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 10572185 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: C++. Computer: PC. Operating system: Multiplatform, tested on Linux. Has the code been vectorized or parallelized?: Yes. 1 to 8 processors with MPI, 2 to 4 cores with pthreads. RAM: 1GB (256MB is enough to run the included test) Classification: 23. Catalog identifier of previous version: AEDJ_v1_0 Journal reference of previous version: Comput. Phys. Comm. 180(2009)1572 External routines: BLAS and LAPACK Nature of problem: Strongly correlated electrons systems, display a broad range of important phenomena, and their study is a major area of research in condensed matter physics. In this context, model Hamiltonians are used to simulate the relevant interactions of a given compound, and the relevant degrees of freedom. These studies
Cosmology from a gauge induced gravity
Falciano, F. T.; Sadovski, G.; Sobreiro, R. F.; Tomaz, A. A.
2017-09-01
The main goal of the present work is to analyze the cosmological scenario of the induced gravity theory developed in previous works. Such a theory consists on a Yang-Mills theory in a four-dimensional Euclidian spacetime with { SO}(m,n) such that m+n=5 and m\\in {0,1,2} as its gauge group. This theory undergoes a dynamical gauge symmetry breaking via an Inönü-Wigner contraction in its infrared sector. As a consequence, the { SO}(m,n) algebra is deformed into a Lorentz algebra with the emergency of the local Lorentz symmetries and the gauge fields being identified with a vierbein and a spin connection. As a result, gravity is described as an effective Einstein-Cartan-like theory with ultraviolet correction terms and a propagating torsion field. We show that the cosmological model associated with this effective theory has three different regimes. In particular, the high curvature regime presents a de Sitter phase which tends towards a Λ CDM model. We argue that { SO}(m,n) induced gravities are promising effective theories to describe the early phase of the universe.
Cosmology from a gauge induced gravity
Falciano, F T; Sobreiro, R F; Tomaz, A A
2015-01-01
The main goal of the present work is to analyze the cosmological scenario of the induced gravity theory developed in previous works. Such a theory consists on a Yang-Mills theory in a four-dimensional Euclidian spacetime with $SO(m,n)$ such that $m+n=5$ and $m\\in\\{0,1,2\\}$ as its gauge group. This theory undergoes a dynamical gauge symmetry breaking via an In\\"on\\"u-Wigner contraction in its infrared sector. As a consequence, the $SO(m,n)$ algebra is deformed into a Lorentz algebra with the emergency of the local Lorentz symmetries and the gauge fields being identified with a vierbein and a spin connection. As a result, gravity is described as an effective Einstein-Cartan-like theory with ultraviolet correction terms and a propagating torsion field. We show that the cosmological model associated with this effective theory has three different regimes. In particular, the high curvature regime presents a de Sitter phase which tends towards a $\\Lambda$CDM model. We argue that $SO(m,n)$ induced gravities are promi...
Gauge coupling unification with hidden photon, and minicharged dark matter
Daido, Ryuji; Takahashi, Fuminobu; Yokozaki, Norimi
2017-05-01
We show that gauge coupling unification is realized with a greater accuracy in the presence of a massless hidden photon which has a large kinetic mixing with hypercharge. We solve the renormalization group equations at two-loop level and find that the GUT unification scale is around 1016.5GeV which sufficiently suppresses the proton decay rate, and that the unification is essentially determined by the kinetic mixing only, and it is rather insensitive to the hidden gauge coupling or the presence of vector-like matter fields charged under U(1)H and/or SU(5). Matter fields charged under the unbroken hidden U(1)H are stable and they contribute to dark matter. Interestingly, they become minicharged dark matter which carries a small but non-zero electric charge, if the hidden gauge coupling is tiny. The minicharged dark matter is a natural outcome of the gauge coupling unification with a hidden photon.
Green-Schwarz superstring on doubled-yet-gauged spacetime
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Park, Jeong-Hyuck [Department of Physics, Sogang University,35 Baekbeom-ro, Mapo-gu, Seoul 04107 (Korea, Republic of); B.W. Lee Center for Fields, Gravity and Strings, Institute for Basic Science,Daejeon 34047 (Korea, Republic of)
2016-11-02
We construct a world-sheet action for Green-Schwarz superstring in terms of doubled-yet-gauged spacetime coordinates. For an arbitrarily curved NS-NS background, the action possesses O(10,10) T-duality, Spin(1,9)×Spin(9,1) Lorentz symmetry, coordinate gauge symmetry, spacetime doubled-yet-gauged diffeomorphisms, world-sheet diffeomorphisms and Weyl symmetry. Further, restricted to flat backgrounds, it enjoys maximal spacetime supersymmetry and kappa-symmetry. After the auxiliary coordinate gauge symmetry potential being integrated out, our action can consistently reduce to the original undoubled Green-Schwarz action. Thanks to the twofold spin groups, the action is unique: it is specific choices of the NS-NS backgrounds that distinguish IIA or IIB, as well as lead to non-Riemannian or non-relativistic superstring a la Gomis-Ooguri which might deserve the nomenclature, type IIC.
String field theory in the Siegel gauge
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bochicchio, M.
1987-04-16
We specialize the gauge-fixing procedure for the Witten action of the open bosonic string, given in a preceding paper, choosing the Siegel gauge. We find that the BRST-invariant gauge-fixed action is the gauge invariant one with ghost number unrestricted plus a gauge-fixing term. The BRST invariance of the measure in the functional integral is briefly discussed. As a technical tool the Hodge dual of a string functional is defined.
Mirror Symmetry in Three Dimensions via Gauged Linear Quivers
Dey, Anindya; Koroteev, Peter; Mekareeya, Noppadol
2014-01-01
Starting from mirror pairs consisting only of linear (framed A-type) quivers, we demonstrate that a wide class of three-dimensional quiver gauge theories with N=4 supersymmetry and their mirror duals can be obtained by suitably gauging flavor symmetries. Infinite families of mirror pairs including various quivers of D and E-type and their affine extensions, star-shaped quivers, and quivers with symplectic gauge groups may be generated in this fashion. We present two different computational strategies to perform the aforementioned gauging procedure - one of them involves N=2* classical parameter space description, while the other one uses partition functions of the N=4 theories on S^3. The partition function, in particular, turns out to be an extremely efficient tool for implementing this gauging procedure as it readily generalizes to arbitrary size of the quiver and arbitrary rank of the gauge group at each node. For most examples of mirror pairs obtained via this procedure, we perform additional checks of mi...
Supersymmetry, quantum gauge anomalies and generalized Chern-Simons terms in chiral gauge theory
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Schmidt, Torsten
2009-05-13
The purpose of this thesis is to investigate the interplay of anomaly cancellation and generalized Chern-Simons terms in four-dimensional chiral gauge theory. We start with a detailed discussion of generalized Chern-Simons terms with the canellation of anomalies via the Green-Schwarz mechanism. With this at hand, we investigate the situation in general N=1 supersymmetric field theories with generalized Chern-Simons terms. Two simple consistency conditions are shown to encode strong constraints on the allowed anomalies for different types of gauge groups. In one major part of this thesis we are going to display to what extent one has to modify the existing formalism in order to allow for the cancellation of quantum gauge anomalies via the Green-Schwarz mechanism. At the end of this thesis we comment on a puzzle in the literature on supersymmetric field theories with massive tensor fields. The potential contains a term that does not arise from eliminating an auxiliary field. We clarify the origin of this term and display the relation to standard D-term potential. In an appendix it is explicitly shown how these low energy effective actions might be connected to the formulation of four-dimensional gauge theories discussed at earlier stages of this thesis. (orig.)
The M-theory origin of global properties of gauge theories
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Antonio Amariti
2015-12-01
Full Text Available We show that global properties of gauge groups can be understood as geometric properties in M-theory. Different wrappings of a system of N M5-branes on a torus reduce to four-dimensional theories with AN−1 gauge algebra and different unitary groups. The classical properties of the wrappings determine the global properties of the gauge theories without the need to impose any quantum conditions. We count the inequivalent wrappings as they fall into orbits of the modular group of the torus, which correspond to the S-duality orbits of the gauge theories.
Phase diagrams of exceptional and supersymmetric lattice gauge theories
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wellegehausen, Bjoern-Hendrik
2012-07-10
In this work different strongly-coupled gauge theories with and without fundamental matter have been studied on the lattice with an emphasis on the confinement problem and the QCD phase diagram at nonvanishing net baryon density as well as on possible supersymmetric extensions of the standard model of particle physics. In gauge theories with a non-trivial centre symmetry, as for instance SU(3)-Yang-Mills theory, confinement is intimately related to the centre of the gauge group, and the Polyakov loop serves as an order parameter for confinement. In QCD, this centre symmetry is explicitly broken by quarks in the fundamental representation of the gauge group. But still quarks and gluons are confined in mesons, baryons and glueballs at low temperatures and small densities, suggesting that centre symmetry is not responsible for the phenomenon of confinement. Therefore it is interesting to study pure gauge theories without centre symmetry. In this work this has been done by replacing the gauge group SU(3) of the strong interaction with the exceptional Lie group G{sub 2}, that has a trivial centre. To investigate G{sub 2} gauge theory on the lattice, a new and highly efficient update algorithm has been developed, based on a local HMC algorithm. Employing this algorithm, the proposed and already investigated first order phase transition from a confined to a deconfined phase has been confirmed, showing that indeed a first order phase transition without symmetry breaking or an order parameter is possible. In this context, also the deconfinement phase transition of the exceptional Lie groups F4 and E6 in three spacetime dimensions has been studied. It has been shown that both theories also possess a first order phase transition.
Measurement of charged current triple gauge boson couplings using W pairs at LEP
Abbiendi, G.; Akesson, P.F.; Alexander, G.; Allison, John; Amaral, P.; Anagnostou, G.; Anderson, K.J.; Arcelli, S.; Asai, S.; Axen, D.; Azuelos, G.; Bailey, I.; Barberio, E.; Barlow, R.J.; Batley, R.J.; Bechtle, P.; Behnke, T.; Bell, Kenneth Watson; Bell, P.J.; Bella, G.; Bellerive, A.; Benelli, G.; Bethke, S.; Biebel, O.; Boeriu, O.; Bock, P.; Boutemeur, M.; Braibant, S.; Brigliadori, L.; Brown, Robert M.; Buesser, K.; Burckhart, H.J.; Campana, S.; Carnegie, R.K.; Caron, B.; Carter, A.A.; Carter, J.R.; Chang, C.Y.; Charlton, David G.; Csilling, A.; Cuffiani, M.; Dado, S.; De Roeck, A.; De Wolf, E.A.; Desch, K.; Dienes, B.; Donkers, M.; Dubbert, J.; Duchovni, E.; Duckeck, G.; Duerdoth, I.P.; Etzion, E.; Fabbri, F.; Feld, L.; Ferrari, P.; Fiedler, F.; Fleck, I.; Ford, M.; Frey, A.; Furtjes, A.; Gagnon, P.; Gary, John William; Gaycken, G.; Geich-Gimbel, C.; Giacomelli, G.; Giacomelli, P.; Giunta, Marina; Goldberg, J.; Groll, M.; Gross, E.; Grunhaus, J.; Gruwe, M.; Gunther, P.O.; Gupta, A.; Hajdu, C.; Hamann, M.; Hanson, G.G.; Harder, K.; Harel, A.; Harin-Dirac, M.; Hauschild, M.; Hawkes, C.M.; Hawkings, R.; Hemingway, R.J.; Hensel, C.; Herten, G.; Heuer, R.D.; Hill, J.C.; Hoffman, Kara Dion; Horvath, D.; Igo-Kemenes, P.; Ishii, K.; Jeremie, H.; Jovanovic, P.; Junk, T.R.; Kanaya, N.; Kanzaki, J.; Karapetian, G.; Karlen, D.; Kawagoe, K.; Kawamoto, T.; Keeler, R.K.; Kellogg, R.G.; Kennedy, B.W.; Kim, D.H.; Klein, K.; Klier, A.; Kluth, S.; Kobayashi, T.; Kobel, M.; Komamiya, S.; Kormos, Laura L.; Kramer, T.; Krieger, P.; von Krogh, J.; Kruger, K.; Kuhl, T.; Kupper, M.; Lafferty, G.D.; Landsman, H.; Lanske, D.; Layter, J.G.; Leins, A.; Lellouch, D.; Lettso, J.; Levinson, L.; Lillich, J.; Lloyd, S.L.; Loebinger, F.K.; Lu, J.; Ludwig, J.; Macpherson, A.; Mader, W.; Marcellini, S.; Martin, A.J.; Masetti, G.; Mashimo, T.; Mattig, Peter; McDonald, W.J.; McKenna, J.; McMahon, T.J.; McPherson, R.A.; Meijers, F.; Menges, W.; Merritt, F.S.; Mes, H.; Michelini, A.; Mihara, S.; Mikenberg, G.; Miller, D.J.; Moed, S.; Mohr, W.; Mori, T.; Mutter, A.; Nagai, K.; Nakamura, I.; Nanjo, H.; Neal, H.A.; Nisius, R.; O'Neale, S.W.; Oh, A.; Okpara, A.; Oreglia, M.J.; Orito, S.; Pahl, C.; Pasztor, G.; Pater, J.R.; Patrick, G.N.; Pilcher, J.E.; Pinfold, J.; Plane, David E.; Poli, B.; Polok, J.; Pooth, O.; Przybycien, M.; Quadt, A.; Rabbertz, K.; Rembser, C.; Renkel, P.; Roney, J.M.; Rosati, S.; Rozen, Y.; Runge, K.; Sachs, K.; Saeki, T.; Sarkisyan, E.K.G.; Schaile, A.D.; Schaile, O.; Scharff-Hansen, P.; Schieck, J.; Schoerner-Sadenius, Thomas; Schroder, Matthias; Schumacher, M.; Schwick, C.; Scott, W.G.; Seuster, R.; Shears, T.G.; Shen, B.C.; Sherwood, P.; Siroli, G.; Skuja, A.; Smith, A.M.; Sobie, R.; Soldner-Rembold, S.; Spano, F.; Stahl, A.; Stephens, K.; Strom, David M.; Strohmer, R.; Tarem, S.; Tasevsky, M.; Taylor, R.J.; Teuscher, R.; Thomson, M.A.; Torrence, E.; Toya, D.; Tran, P.; Trigger, I.; Trocsanyi, Z.; Tsur, E.; Turner-Watson, M.F.; Ueda, I.; Ujvari, B.; Vollmer, C.F.; Vannerem, P.; Vertesi, R.; Verzocchi, M.; Voss, H.; Vossebeld, J.; Waller, D.; Ward, C.P.; Ward, D.R.; Watkins, P.M.; Watson, A.T.; Watson, N.K.; Wells, P.S.; Wengler, T.; Wermes, N.; Wetterling, G.W.; Wilson, D.; Wilson, J.A.; Wolf, G.; Wyatt, T.R.; Yamashita, S.; Zer-Zion, D.; Zivkovic, Lidija
2004-01-01
Triple gauge boson couplings are measured from W-pair and single photon events recorded by the OPAL detector at LEP at center-of-mass energies between 183 - 209 GeV with a total integrated luminosity of 680 inverse picobarns. Only CP-conserving couplings are considered and SU(2)xU(1) relations between the WWZ and the WWgamma couolings are used, resulting in four independent couplings. Each coupling is determined in a separate fit, assuming the other couplings to take their Standard Model values. Fits are also done allowing some of the couplings to vary simultaneously. The results are compared with the Standard Model predictions.
Braguta, V V; Chernodub, M N; Polikarpov, M I
2011-01-01
Using numerical simulations of SU(2) lattice gauge theory we demonstrate from first principles that an external magnetic field leads to spontaneous generation of quark condensates with quantum numbers of electrically charged rho mesons if the strength of the magnetic field exceeds the critical value eB_c = 0.927(77) GeV^2 or B_c =(1.56 \\pm 0.13) 10^{16} Tesla. The condensation of the charged $\\rho$ mesons in strong magnetic field is a key feature of the recently proposed electromagnetic superconductivity of the vacuum.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Braguta, V.V. [IHEP, Protvino, Moscow region, 142284 (Russian Federation); ITEP, B. Cheremushkinskaya str. 25, Moscow, 117218 (Russian Federation); Buividovich, P.V. [ITEP, B. Cheremushkinskaya str. 25, Moscow, 117218 (Russian Federation); JINR, Joliot-Curie str. 6, Dubna, Moscow region, 141980 (Russian Federation); Institute of Theoretical Physics, University of Regensburg, Universitaetsstrasse 31, D-93053 Regensburg (Germany); Chernodub, M.N., E-mail: maxim.chernodub@lmpt.univ-tours.fr [CNRS, Laboratoire de Mathematiques et Physique Theorique, Universite Francois-Rabelais Tours, Parc de Grandmont, 37200 Tours (France); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Gent, Krijgslaan 281, S9, B-9000 Gent (Belgium); Kotov, A.Yu.; Polikarpov, M.I. [ITEP, B. Cheremushkinskaya str. 25, Moscow, 117218 (Russian Federation); MIPT, Institutskii per. 9, Dolgoprudny, Moscow region, 141700 (Russian Federation)
2012-12-05
Using numerical simulations of quenched SU(2) gauge theory we demonstrate that an external magnetic field leads to spontaneous generation of quark condensates with quantum numbers of electrically charged {rho} mesons if the strength of the magnetic field exceeds the critical value eB{sub c}=0.927(77) GeV{sup 2} or B{sub c}=(1.56{+-}0.13) Dot-Operator 10{sup 16} Tesla. The condensation of the charged {rho} mesons in strong magnetic field is a key feature of the magnetic-field-induced electromagnetic superconductivity of the vacuum.
Universality and the approach to the continuum limit in lattice gauge theory
De Divitiis, G M; Guagnelli, M; Lüscher, Martin; Petronzio, Roberto; Sommer, Rainer; Weisz, P; Wolff, U; de Divitiis, G; Frezzotti, R; Guagnelli, M; Luescher, M; Petronzio, R; Sommer, R; Weisz, P; Wolff, U
1995-01-01
The universality of the continuum limit and the applicability of renormalized perturbation theory are tested in the SU(2) lattice gauge theory by computing two different non-perturbatively defined running couplings over a large range of energies. The lattice data (which were generated on the powerful APE computers at Rome II and DESY) are extrapolated to the continuum limit by simulating sequences of lattices with decreasing spacings. Our results confirm the expected universality at all energies to a precision of a few percent. We find, however, that perturbation theory must be used with care when matching different renormalized couplings at high energies.
Universality and the approach to the continuum limit in lattice gauge theory
de Divitiis, Giulia; Frezzotti, Roberto; Guagnelli, Marco; Lüscher, Martin; Petronzio, Roberto; Sommer, Rainer; Weisz, Peter; Wolff, Ulli
1995-02-01
The universality of the continuum limit and the applicability of renormalized perturbation theory are tested in the SU(2) lattice gauge theory by computing two different non-perturbatively defined running couplings over a large range of energies. The lattice data (which were generated on the powerful APE computers at Rome II and DESY) are extrapolated to the continuum limit by simulating sequences of lattices with decreasing spacings. Our results confirm the expected universality at all energies to a precision of a few percent. We find, however, that perturbation theory must be used with care when matching different renormalized couplings at high energies.
Gauge bosons production and properties
Rebassoo, Finn O'neill
2015-01-01
Studies of the production and decay of gauge bosons are an important probe of the electroweak sector of the standard model. Anomalies in these processes could be a sign of new physics, and are an indirect search for physics beyond the scale that can be directly measured at accelerators. The sensitivity to new physics depends on both the experimental uncertainty and standard model theoretical uncertainty, so reducing both of these is important for any discovery of new physics. This article will focus on the experimental measurements of these processes and specifically on results from the last year at the Tevatron and LHC, though relevant earlier measurements will be referenced. In addition to being sensitive to new physics, gauge boson production is a background to a lot of new physics models and Higgs measurements. Thus, measuring these processes precisely is of the utmost importance. Gauge boson production is also an important way to constrain parton distribution functions (pdfs), and test perturbative and n...
Introduzione alle teorie di gauge
Cabibbo, Nicola; Benhar, Omar
2016-01-01
"Introduzione alle Teorie di Gauge" completa la serie di tre volumi basati sulle lezioni dei corsi di Meccanica Quantistica Relativistica, Interazioni Elettrodeboli e Teorie di Gauge, impartite dagli autori agli studenti delle Lauree Magistrali in Fisica e Astronomia & Astrofisica dell'Universita "La Sapienza" di Roma, nell'arco di qualche decennio. L'obiettivo principale del volume è di introdurre i concetti di base della rinormalizzazione nella teoria quantistica dei campi e i fondamenti delle moderne teorie di Gauge. Anche se collegato ai volumi precedenti, il libro si presta ad una lettura indipendente, che presume solo conoscenze generali di relativita speciale, della seconda quantizzazione e della fenomenologia delle interazioni elettrodeboli. Lo strumento di base è l'integrale sui cammini di Feynman, introdotto nei capitoli iniziali e sistematicamente impiegato nel seguito. L'esposizione segue un percorso pedagogico, che parte dal caso semplice dell'ampiezza di transizione in meccanica quantistic...
Carbon nanotubes based vacuum gauge
Rudyk, N. N.; Il’in, O. I.; Il’ina, M. V.; Fedotov, A. A.; Klimin, V. S.; Ageev, O. A.
2017-11-01
We have created an ionization type Vacuum gauge with sensor element based on an array of vertically aligned carbon nanotubes. Obtained asymmetrical current-voltage characteristics at different voltage polarity on the electrode with the CNTs. It was found that when applying a negative potential on an electrode with the CNTs, the current in the gap is higher than at a positive potential. In the pressure range of 1 ÷ 103 Torr vacuum gauge sensitivity was 6 mV/Torr (at a current of 4.5·10-5 A) and in the range of 10-5 ÷ 1 Torr was 10 mV/Torr (at a current of 1.3·10-5 A). It is shown that the energy efficiency of vacuum gauge can be increased in the case where electrode with CNT operates as an emitter of electrons.
Air Gauge Characteristics Linearity Improvement
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Cz. J. Jermak
2016-01-01
Full Text Available This paper discusses calibration uncertainty and linearity issues of the typical back-pressure air gauge. In this sort of air gauge, the correlation between the measured dimension (represented by the slot width and the air pressure in the measuring chamber is used in a proportional range. However, when high linearity is required (e.g., nonlinearity less than 1%, the measuring range should be shortened. In the proposed method, based on knowledge of the static characteristics of air gauges, the measuring range is kept unchanged but the nonlinearity is decreased. The static characteristics may be separated into two sections, each of them approximated with a different linear function. As a result, the nonlinearity is reduced from 5% down to 1% and even below.
Gauge theory and variational principles
Bleecker, David
2005-01-01
This text provides a framework for describing and organizing the basic forces of nature and the interactions of subatomic particles. A detailed and self-contained mathematical account of gauge theory, it is geared toward beginning graduate students and advanced undergraduates in mathematics and physics. This well-organized treatment supplements its rigor with intuitive ideas.Starting with an examination of principal fiber bundles and connections, the text explores curvature; particle fields, Lagrangians, and gauge invariance; Lagrange's equation for particle fields; and the inhomogeneous field
Dynamics of gauge field inflation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Alexander, Stephon; Jyoti, Dhrubo [Center for Cosmic Origins and Department of Physics and Astronomy, 6127 Wilder Laboratory, Dartmouth College, Hanover, NH 03755 (United States); Kosowsky, Arthur [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pittsburgh, 3941 O' Hara Street, Pittsburgh, PA 15260 (United States); Marcianò, Antonino, E-mail: stephon.alexander@dartmouth.edu, E-mail: dhrubo.jyoti@dartmouth.edu, E-mail: kosowsky@pitt.edu, E-mail: marciano@fudan.edu.cn [Center for Field Theory and Particle Physics and Department of Physics, Fudan University, 220 Handan Road, Shanghai (China)
2015-05-01
We analyze the existence and stability of dynamical attractor solutions for cosmological inflation driven by the coupling between fermions and a gauge field. Assuming a spatially homogeneous and isotropic gauge field and fermion current, the interacting fermion equation of motion reduces to that of a free fermion up to a phase shift. Consistency of the model is ensured via the Stückelberg mechanism. We prove the existence of exactly one stable solution, and demonstrate the stability numerically. Inflation arises without fine tuning, and does not require postulating any effective potential or non-standard coupling.
Dynamics of gauge field inflation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Alexander, Stephon; Jyoti, Dhrubo [Center for Cosmic Origins and Department of Physics and Astronomy, 6127 Wilder Laboratory, Dartmouth College, Hanover, NH 03755 (United States); Kosowsky, Arthur [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pittsburgh, 3941 O’Hara Street, Pittsburgh, PA 15260 (United States); Pittsburgh Particle Physics, Astrophysics, and Cosmology Center (Pitt-PACC), 420 Allen Hall, 3941 O’Hara Street, Pittsburgh, PA 15260 (United States); Marcianò, Antonino [Center for Field Theory and Particle Physics & Department of Physics, Fudan University, 220 Handan Road, Shanghai (China)
2015-05-05
We analyze the existence and stability of dynamical attractor solutions for cosmological inflation driven by the coupling between fermions and a gauge field. Assuming a spatially homogeneous and isotropic gauge field and fermion current, the interacting fermion equation of motion reduces to that of a free fermion up to a phase shift. Consistency of the model is ensured via the Stückelberg mechanism. We prove the existence of exactly one stable solution, and demonstrate the stability numerically. Inflation arises without fine tuning, and does not require postulating any effective potential or non-standard coupling.
Dark Coupling and Gauge Invariance
Gavela, M B; Mena, O; Rigolin, S
2010-01-01
We study a coupled dark energy-dark matter model in which the energy-momentum exchange is proportional to the Hubble expansion rate. The inclusion of its perturbation is required by gauge invariance. We derive the linear perturbation equations for the gauge invariant energy density contrast and velocity of the coupled fluids, and we determine the initial conditions. The latter turn out to be adiabatic for dark energy, when assuming adiabatic initial conditions for all the standard fluids. We perform a full Monte Carlo Markov Chain likelihood analysis of the model, using WMAP 7-year data.
Stream Gauges and Satellite Measurements
Alsdorf, D. E.
2010-12-01
Satellite measurements should not be viewed as a replacement for stream gauges. However, occasionally it is suggested that because satellite-based measurements can provide river discharge, a motivation for satellite approaches is an increasing lack of stream gauges. This is an argument for more stream gauges, but not necessarily for satellite measurements. Rather, in-situ and spaceborne methods of estimating discharge are complementary. Stream gauges provide frequent measurements at one point in the river reach whereas satellites have the potential to measure throughout all reaches but at orbital repeat intervals of days to weeks. The Surface Water and Ocean Topography satellite mission (SWOT) is an opportunity to further develop these complements. The motivation for SWOT, and indeed for any satellite based method of estimating discharge, should not be as a replacement for stream gauges. Scientific and application uses should motivate the measurements. For example, understanding floods with their dynamic water surfaces are best sampled from remote platforms that provide water surface elevations throughout the floodwave. As another example, today’s water and energy balance models are giving outputs at increasing spatial resolution and are making use of water surface elevations throughout the modeled basin. These models require a similar resolution in the calibrating and validating observations. We should also be aware of practical limitations. In addition to providing spatially distributed hydrodynamic measurements on rivers, SWOT will be able to measure storage changes in the estimated 30 million lakes in the world that are larger than a hectare. Knowing the storage changes in these lakes is especially important in certain regions such as the Arctic but gauging even a small fraction of these is impractical. Another motivator for satellite methods is that even in the presence of stream gauges, discharge data is not always well shared throughout all countries
Some observations on interpolating gauges and non-covariant gauges
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
tion that are not normally taken into account in the BRST formalism that ignores the ε-term, and that they are characteristic of the way the singularities in propagators are handled. We argue that a prescription, in general, will require renormalization; if at all it is to be viable. Keywords. Non-covariant gauges; interpolating ...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bombin Palomo, Hector
2015-01-01
Color codes are topological stabilizer codes with unusual transversality properties. Here I show that their group of transversal gates is optimal and only depends on the spatial dimension, not the local geometry. I also introduce a generalized, subsystem version of color codes. In 3D they allow...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Steffen Hahn
2017-01-01
Full Text Available Presently, we are facing a 3σ tension in the most basic cosmological parameter, the Hubble constant H0. This tension arises when fitting the Lambda-cold-dark-matter model (ΛCDM to the high-precision temperature-temperature (TT power spectrum of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB and to local cosmological observations. We propose a resolution of this problem by postulating that the thermal photon gas of the CMB obeys an SU(2 rather than U(1 gauge principle, suggesting a high-z cosmological model which is void of dark-matter. Observationally, we rely on precise low-frequency intensity measurements in the CMB spectrum and on a recent model independent (low-z extraction of the relation between the comoving sound horizon rs at the end of the baryon drag epoch and H0 (rsH0=const. We point out that the commonly employed condition for baryon-velocity freeze-out is imprecise, judged by a careful inspection of the formal solution to the associated Euler equation. As a consequence, the above-mentioned 3σ tension actually transforms into a 5σ discrepancy. To make contact with successful low-z ΛCDM cosmology we propose an interpolation based on percolated/depercolated vortices of a Planck-scale axion condensate. For a first consistency test of such an all-z model we compute the angular scale of the sound horizon at photon decoupling.
SU(4)-SU(2) crossover and spin-filter properties of a double quantum dot nanosystem
Lopes, V.; Padilla, R. A.; Martins, G. B.; Anda, E. V.
2017-06-01
The SU(4)-SU(2) crossover, driven by an external magnetic field h , is analyzed in a capacitively coupled double quantum dot device connected to independent leads. As one continuously charges the dots from empty to quarter filled, by varying the gate potential Vg, the crossover starts when the magnitude of the spin polarization of the double quantum dot, as measured by - , becomes finite. Although the external magnetic field breaks the SU(4) symmetry of the Hamiltonian, the ground state preserves it in a region of Vg, where - =0 . Once the spin polarization becomes finite, it initially increases slowly until a sudden change occurs, in which (polarization direction opposite to the magnetic field) reaches a maximum and then decreases to negligible values abruptly, at which point an orbital SU(2) ground state is fully established. This crossover from one Kondo state, with emergent SU(4) symmetry, where spin and orbital degrees of freedom all play a role, to another, with SU(2) symmetry, where only orbital degrees of freedom participate, is triggered by a competition between g μBh , the energy gain by the Zeeman-split polarized state and the Kondo temperature TKS U (4 ), the gain provided by the SU(4) unpolarized Kondo-singlet state. At fixed magnetic field, the knob that controls the crossover is the gate potential, which changes the quantum dots occupancies. If one characterizes the occurrence of the crossover by Vgmax, the value of Vg where reaches a maximum, one finds that the function f relating the Zeeman splitting, Bmax, which corresponds to Vgmax, i.e., Bmax=f (Vgmax) , has a similar universal behavior to that of the function relating the Kondo temperature to Vg. In addition, our numerical results show that near the SU(4) Kondo temperature and for relatively small magnetic fields the device has a ground state that restricts the electronic population at the dots to be spin polarized along the magnetic field. These two facts introduce very efficient spin
Search for gauge extensions of the MSSM at the LHC
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ali, Ahmed [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Demir, Durmus A. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Izmir Institute of Technology, IZTECH, Izmir (Turkey). Dept. of Physics; Frank, Mariana; Turan, Ismail [Montreal Univ., PQ (Canada). Dept. of Physics
2009-02-15
The extensions of the minimal supersymmetric model (MSSM), driving mainly from the need to solve the {mu} problem, involve novel matter species and gauge groups. These extended MSSM models can be searched for at the LHC via the effects of the gauge and Higgs bosons or their fermionic partners. Traditionally, the focus has been on the study of the extra forces induced by the new gauge and Higgs bosons present in such models. An alternative way of studying such effects is through the superpartners of matter species and the gauge forces. We thus consider a U(1)' gauge extension of the MSSM, and perform an extensive study of the signatures of the model through the production and decays of the scalar quarks and gluino, which are expected to be produced copiously at the LHC. After a detailed study of the distinctive features of such models with regard to the signatures at the LHC, we carry out a detailed Monte Carlo analysis of the signals from the process pp{yields}n leptons+m jets+E{sub T}, and compare the resulting distributions with those predicted by the MSSM. Our results show that the searches for the extra gauge interactions in the supersymmetric framework can proceed not only through the forces mediated by the gauge and Higgs bosons but also through the superpartner forces mediated by the gauge and Higgs fermions. Analysis of the events induced by the squark/gluino decays presented here is complementary to the direct Z' searches at the LHC. (orig.)
Closed flux tubes in D=2+1SU(N) gauge theories: dynamics and effective string description
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Athenodorou, Andreas [Department of Physics, University of Cyprus,POB 20537, 1678 Nicosia (Cyprus); Computation-based Science and Technology Research Center, The Cyprus Institute,20 Kavafi Str., Nicosia 2121 (Cyprus); Teper, Michael [Rudolf Peierls Centre for Theoretical Physics, University of Oxford,1 Keble Road, Oxford OX1 3NP (United Kingdom)
2016-10-18
We extend our earlier calculations of the spectrum of closed flux tubes in SU(N) gauge theories in 2+1 dimensions, with a focus on questions raised by recent theoretical progress on the effective string action of long flux tubes and the world-sheet action for flux tubes of moderate lengths. Our new calculations in SU(4) and SU(8) provide evidence that the leading O(1/l{sup γ}) non-universal correction to the flux tube ground state energy does indeed have a power γ≥7. We perform a study in SU(2), where we can traverse the length at which the Nambu-Goto ground state becomes tachyonic, to obtain an all-N view of the spectrum. Our comparison of the k=2 flux tube excitation energies in SU(4) and SU(6) suggests that the massive world sheet excitation associated with the k=2 binding has a scale that knows about the group and hence the theory in the bulk, and we comment on the potential implications of world sheet massive modes for the bulk spectrum. We provide a quantitative analysis of the surprising (near-)orthogonality of flux tubes carrying flux in different SU(N) representations, which implies that their screening by gluons is highly suppressed even at small N.
On Wilsonian Flows in Gauge Theories
Pawlowski, Jan M.
An Exact Renormalisation Group (ERG) approach to non-Abelian gauge theories is discussed. We focus on the derivation of universal beta-functions and the choice of the initial effective action, the latter being a key input in the approach. To that end we establish the map between Gell-Mann-Low scaling of the full theory and the scaling in an ERG approach. Then this map is used to derive the 2-loop β-function within a simple straightforward calculation. The implications for the choice of the initial effective action are discussed.
On Painlevé/gauge theory correspondence
Bonelli, Giulio; Lisovyy, Oleg; Maruyoshi, Kazunobu; Sciarappa, Antonio; Tanzini, Alessandro
2017-09-01
We elucidate the relation between Painlevé equations and four-dimensional rank one N = 2 theories by identifying the connection associated with Painlevé isomonodromic problems with the oper limit of the flat connection of the Hitchin system associated with gauge theories and by studying the corresponding renormalization group flow. Based on this correspondence, we provide long-distance expansions at various canonical rays for all Painlevé τ -functions in terms of magnetic and dyonic Nekrasov partition functions for N = 2 SQCD and Argyres-Douglas theories at self-dual Omega background ɛ _1 + ɛ _2 = 0 or equivalently in terms of c=1 irregular conformal blocks.
Spontaneous symmetry breaking in gauge theories.
Kibble, T W B
2015-01-13
The aim of this historical article is to describe the development of the idea of spontaneous symmetry breaking in gauge theories as seen from my perspective as a member of Abdus Salam's group at Imperial College London, UK. Beginning with an account of particle physics in the years after the Second World War, I describe early attempts at constructing a unified theory of weak and electromagnetic interactions, the obstacles encountered and how they were eventually overcome with the mass-generating mechanism incorporating the idea of spontaneous symmetry breaking, one of whose features is the now-famous Higgs boson.
Probing anomalous quartic gauge-boson couplings via $e^{+}e^{-} \\to$ 4 fermions+ $\\gamma$
Denner, A; Roth, M; Wackeroth, D
2001-01-01
All lowest-order amplitudes for e+e- --> 4f+gamma are calculated including five anomalous quartic gauge-boson couplings that are allowed by electromagnetic gauge invariance and the custodial SU(2)_c symmetry. Three of these anomalous couplings correspond to the operators L_0, L_c, and L_n that have been constrained by the LEP collaborations in WWgamma production. The anomalous couplings are incorporated in the Monte Carlo generator RACOONWW. Moreover, for the processes e+e- --> 4f+gamma RACOONWW is improved upon including leading universal electroweak corrections such as initial-state radiation. The discussion of numerical results illustrates the size of the leading corrections as well as the impact of the anomalous quartic couplings for LEP2 energies and at 500GeV.
Quantum gauge freedom in very special relativity
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sudhaker Upadhyay
2017-02-01
Full Text Available We demonstrate Yokoyama gaugeon formalism for the Abelian one-form gauge (Maxwell as well as for Abelian two-form gauge theory in the very special relativity (VSR framework. In VSR scenario, the extended action due to introduction of gaugeon fields also possesses form invariance under quantum gauge transformations. It is observed that the gaugeon field together with gauge field naturally acquire mass, which is different from the conventional Higgs mechanism. The quantum gauge transformation implements a shift in gauge parameter. Further, we analyze the BRST symmetric gaugeon formalism in VSR which embeds only one subsidiary condition rather than two.
Quantum gauge freedom in very special relativity
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Upadhyay, Sudhaker, E-mail: sudhakerupadhyay@gmail.com [Centre for Theoretical Studies, Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur, Kharagpur-721302, West Bengal (India); Panigrahi, Prasanta K., E-mail: pprasanta@iiserkol.ac.in [Indian Institute of Science Education and Research Kolkata, Mohanpur 741246, West Bengal (India)
2017-02-15
We demonstrate Yokoyama gaugeon formalism for the Abelian one-form gauge (Maxwell) as well as for Abelian two-form gauge theory in the very special relativity (VSR) framework. In VSR scenario, the extended action due to introduction of gaugeon fields also possesses form invariance under quantum gauge transformations. It is observed that the gaugeon field together with gauge field naturally acquire mass, which is different from the conventional Higgs mechanism. The quantum gauge transformation implements a shift in gauge parameter. Further, we analyze the BRST symmetric gaugeon formalism in VSR which embeds only one subsidiary condition rather than two.
2011-01-01
Background Ultrasound-guided diagnostic breast biopsy technology represents the current standard of care for the evaluation of indeterminate and suspicious lesions seen on diagnostic breast ultrasound. Yet, there remains much debate as to which particular method of ultrasound-guided diagnostic breast biopsy provides the most accurate and optimal diagnostic information. The aim of the current study was to compare and contrast the 8-gauge vacuum-assisted biopsy approach and the spring-loaded 14-gauge core biopsy approach. Methods A retrospective analysis was done of all ultrasound-guided diagnostic breast biopsy procedures performed by either the 8-gauge vacuum-assisted biopsy approach or the spring-loaded 14-gauge core biopsy approach by a single surgeon from July 2001 through June 2009. Results Among 1443 ultrasound-guided diagnostic breast biopsy procedures performed, 724 (50.2%) were by the 8-gauge vacuum-assisted biopsy technique and 719 (49.8%) were by the spring-loaded 14-gauge core biopsy technique. The total number of false negative cases (i.e., benign findings instead of invasive breast carcinoma) was significantly greater (P = 0.008) in the spring-loaded 14-gauge core biopsy group (8/681, 1.2%) as compared to in the 8-gauge vacuum-assisted biopsy group (0/652, 0%), with an overall false negative rate of 2.1% (8/386) for the spring-loaded 14-gauge core biopsy group as compared to 0% (0/148) for the 8-gauge vacuum-assisted biopsy group. Significantly more (P biopsy group (81/719, 11.3%) than in the 8-gauge vacuum-assisted biopsy group (18/724, 2.5%) were recommended for further diagnostic surgical removal of additional tissue from the same anatomical site of the affected breast in an immediate fashion for indeterminate/inconclusive findings seen on the original ultrasound-guided diagnostic breast biopsy procedure. Significantly more (P biopsy group (54/719, 7.5%) than in the 8-gauge vacuum-assisted biopsy group (9/724, 1.2%) personally requested further
Kramers-Wannier duality and worldline representation for the SU(2) principal chiral model
Gattringer, Christof; Göschl, Daniel; Marchis, Carlotta
2018-03-01
In this letter we explore different representations of the SU(2) principal chiral model on the lattice. We couple chemical potentials to two of the conserved charges to induce finite density. This leads to a complex action such that the conventional field representation cannot be used for a Monte Carlo simulation. Using the recently developed Abelian color flux approach we derive a new worldline representation where the partition sum has only real and positive weights, such that a Monte Carlo simulation is possible. In a second step we transform the model to new dual variables in the Kramers-Wannier (KW) sense, such that the constraints are automatically fulfilled, and we obtain a second representation free of the complex action problem. We implement exploratory Monte Carlo simulations for both, the worldline, as well as the KW-dual form, for cross-checking the two dualizations and a first assessment of their potential for dual simulations.
Study of shear viscosity of SU(2)-gluodynamics within lattice simulation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Astrakhantsev, N.Yu. [Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics,Moscow, 117218 (Russian Federation); Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology,Dolgoprudny, 141700 (Russian Federation); Braguta, V.V. [Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics,Moscow, 117218 (Russian Federation); Institute for High Energy Physics NRC “Kurchatov Institute”,Protvino, 142281 Russian Federation (Russian Federation); Far Eastern Federal University, School of Biomedicine,Vladivostok, 690950 (Russian Federation); National Research Nuclear University MEPhI (Moscow Engineering Physics Institute),Kashirskoe highway, 31, Moscow, 115409 (Russian Federation); Kotov, A.Yu. [Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics,Moscow, 117218 (Russian Federation); National Research Nuclear University MEPhI (Moscow Engineering Physics Institute),Kashirskoe highway, 31, Moscow, 115409 (Russian Federation)
2015-09-14
This paper is devoted to the study of two-point correlation function of the energy-momentum tensor 〈T{sub 12}T{sub 12}〉 for SU(2)-gluodynamics within lattice simulation of QCD. Using multilevel algorithm we carried out the measurement of the correlation function at the temperature T/T{sub c}≃1.2. It is shown that lattice data can be described by spectral functions which interpolate between hydrodynamics at low frequencies and asymptotic freedom at high frequencies. The results of the study of spectral functions allowed us to estimate the ratio of shear viscosity to the entropy density η/s=0.134±0.057.
Effective geometric phases and topological transitions in SO(3) and SU(2) rotations.
Saarikoski, Henri; Baltanás, José Pablo; Vázquez-Lozano, J Enrique; Nitta, Junsaku; Frustaglia, Diego
2016-04-27
We address the development of geometric phases in classical and quantum magnetic moments (spin-1/2) precessing in an external magnetic field. We show that nonadiabatic dynamics lead to a topological phase transition determined by a change in the driving field topology. The transition is associated with an effective geometric phase which is identified from the paths of the magnetic moments in a spherical geometry. The topological transition presents close similarities between SO(3) and SU(2) cases but features differences in, e.g. the adiabatic limits of the geometric phases, being 2π and π in the classical and the quantum case, respectively. We discuss possible experiments where the effective geometric phase would be observable.
Supersymmetric Extension of Non-Hermitian su(2 Hamiltonian and Supercoherent States
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Omar Cherbal
2010-12-01
Full Text Available A new class of non-Hermitian Hamiltonians with real spectrum, which are written as a real linear combination of su(2 generators in the form H=ωJ_3+αJ_−+βJ_+, α≠β, is analyzed. The metrics which allows the transition to the equivalent Hermitian Hamiltonian is established. A pseudo-Hermitian supersymmetic extension of such Hamiltonians is performed. They correspond to the pseudo-Hermitian supersymmetric systems of the boson-phermion oscillators. We extend the supercoherent states formalism to such supersymmetic systems via the pseudo-unitary supersymmetric displacement operator method. The constructed family of these supercoherent states consists of two dual subfamilies that form a bi-overcomplete and bi-normal system in the boson-phermion Fock space. The states of each subfamily are eigenvectors of the boson annihilation operator and of one of the two phermion lowering operators.
Hagedorn spectrum and thermodynamics of SU(2) and SU(3) Yang-Mills theories
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Caselle, Michele; Nada, Alessandro; Panero, Marco [Department of Physics, University of Turin & INFN,Via Pietro Giuria 1, I-10125 Turin (Italy)
2015-07-27
We present a high-precision lattice calculation of the equation of state in the confining phase of SU(2) Yang-Mills theory. We show that the results are described very well by a gas of massive, non-interacting glueballs, provided one assumes an exponentially growing Hagedorn spectrum. The latter can be derived within an effective bosonic closed-string model, leading to a parameter-free theoretical prediction, which is in perfect agreement with our lattice results. Furthermore, when applied to SU(3) Yang-Mills theory, this effective model accurately describes the lattice results reported by Borsányi et al. in http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/JHEP07(2012)056.
Gauged multisoliton baby Skyrme model
Samoilenka, A.; Shnir, Ya.
2016-03-01
We present a study of U (1 ) gauged modification of the 2 +1 -dimensional planar Skyrme model with a particular choice of the symmetry breaking potential term which combines a short-range repulsion and a long-range attraction. In the absence of the gauge interaction, the multisolitons of the model are aloof, as they consist of the individual constituents which are well separated. A peculiar feature of the model is that there are usually several different stable static multisoliton solutions of rather similar energy in a topological sector of given degree. We investigate the pattern of the solutions and find new previously unknown local minima. It is shown that coupling of the aloof planar multi-Skyrmions to the magnetic field strongly affects the pattern of interaction between the constituents. We analyze the dependency of the structure of the solutions, their energies, and magnetic fluxes on the strength of the gauge coupling. It is found that, generically, in the strong coupling limit, the coupling to the gauge field results in effective recovery of the rotational invariance of the configuration.
SU(2)CMB at high redshifts and the value of H0
Hahn, Steffen; Hofmann, Ralf
2017-07-01
We investigate a high-z cosmological model to compute the comoving sound horizon rs at baryon-velocity freeze-out towards the end of hydrogen recombination. This model assumes a replacement of the conventional cosmic microwave background (CMB) photon gas by deconfining SU(2) Yang-Mills thermodynamics, three flavours of massless neutrinos (Nν = 3) and a purely baryonic matter sector [no cold dark-matter (CDM)]. The according SU(2) temperature-redshift relation of the CMB is contrasted with recent measurements appealing to the thermal Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect and CMB-photon absorption by molecular rotation bands or atomic hyperfine levels. Relying on a realistic simulation of the ionization history throughout recombination, we obtain z* = 1693.55 ± 6.98 and zdrag = 1812.66 ± 7.01. Due to considerable widths of the visibility functions in the solutions to the associated Boltzmann hierarchy and Euler equation, we conclude that z* and zdrag overestimate the redshifts for the respective photon and baryon-velocity freeze-out. Realistic decoupling values turn out to be zlf,* = 1554.89 ± 5.18 and zlf, drag = 1659.30 ± 5.48. With rs(zlf, drag) = (137.19 ± 0.45) Mpc and the essentially model independent extraction of rsH0 = constant from low-z data in Bernal, Verde & Riess, we obtain a good match with the value H0 = (73.24 ± 1.74) km s-1 Mpc-1 extracted in Riess et al. by appealing to Cepheid-calibrated Type Ia supernovae, new parallax measurements, stronger constraints on the Hubble flow and a refined computation of distance to NGC 4258 from maser data. We briefly comment on a possible interpolation of our high-z model, invoking percolated and unpercolated U(1) topological solitons of a Planck-scale axion field, to the phenomenologically successful low-z ΛCDM cosmology.
On magnetohydrodynamic gauge field theory
Webb, G. M.; Anco, S. C.
2017-06-01
Clebsch potential gauge field theory for magnetohydrodynamics is developed based in part on the theory of Calkin (1963 Can. J. Phys. 41 2241-51). It is shown how the polarization vector {P} in Calkin’s approach naturally arises from the Lagrange multiplier constraint equation for Faraday’s equation for the magnetic induction {B} , or alternatively from the magnetic vector potential form of Faraday’s equation. Gauss’s equation, (divergence of {B} is zero) is incorporated in the variational principle by means of a Lagrange multiplier constraint. Noether’s theorem coupled with the gauge symmetries is used to derive the conservation laws for (a) magnetic helicity, (b) cross helicity, (c) fluid helicity for non-magnetized fluids, and (d) a class of conservation laws associated with curl and divergence equations which applies to Faraday’s equation and Gauss’s equation. The magnetic helicity conservation law is due to a gauge symmetry in MHD and not due to a fluid relabelling symmetry. The analysis is carried out for the general case of a non-barotropic gas in which the gas pressure and internal energy density depend on both the entropy S and the gas density ρ. The cross helicity and fluid helicity conservation laws in the non-barotropic case are nonlocal conservation laws that reduce to local conservation laws for the case of a barotropic gas. The connections between gauge symmetries, Clebsch potentials and Casimirs are developed. It is shown that the gauge symmetry functionals in the work of Henyey (1982 Phys. Rev. A 26 480-3) satisfy the Casimir determining equations.
Gauge fluxes in F-theory compactifications
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lin, Ling
2016-07-13
In this thesis, we study the geometry and physics of gauge fluxes in F-theory compactifications to four dimensions. Motivated by the phenomenological requirement of chiral matter in realistic model building scenarios, we develop methods for a systematic analysis of primary vertical G{sub 4}-fluxes on torus-fibred Calabi-Yau fourfolds. In particular, we extend the well-known description of fluxes on elliptic fibrations with sections to the more general set-up of genus-one fibrations with multi-sections. The latter are known to give rise to discrete abelian symmetries in F-theory. We test our proposal for constructing fluxes in such geometries on an explicit model with SU(5) x Z{sub 2} symmetry, which is connected to an ordinary elliptic fibration with SU(5) x U(1) symmetry by a conifold transition. With our methods we systematically verify anomaly cancellation and tadpole matching in both models. Along the way, we find a novel way of understanding anomaly cancellation in 4D F-theory in purely geometric terms. This observation is further strengthened by a similar analysis of an SU(3) x SU(2) x U(1){sup 2} model. The obvious connection of this particular model with the Standard Model is then investigated in a more phenomenologically motivated survey. There, we will first provide possible matchings of the geometric spectrum with the Standard Model states, which highlights the role of the additional U(1) factor as a selection rule. In a second step, we then utilise our novel methods on flux computations to set up a search algorithm for semi-realistic chiral spectra in our Standard- Model-like fibrations over specific base manifolds B. As a demonstration, we scan over three choices P{sup 3}, Bl{sub 1}P{sup 3} and Bl{sub 2}P{sup 3} for the base. As a result we find a consistent flux that gives the chiral Standard Model spectrum with a vector-like triplet exotic, which may be lifted by a Higgs mechanism.
Type-IIA flux compactifications and N=4 gauged supergravities
Dall'Agata, Gianguido; Zwirner, Fabio
2009-01-01
We establish the precise correspondence between Type-IIA flux compactifications preserving an exact or spontaneously broken N=4 supersymmetry in four dimensions, and gaugings of their effective N=4 supergravities. We exhibit the explicit map between fluxes and Bianchi identities in the higher-dimensional theory and generalized structure constants and Jacobi identities in the reduced theory, also detailing the origin of gauge groups embedded at angles in the duality group. We present AdS4 solutions of the massive Type-IIA theory with spontaneous breaking to N=1, at small string coupling and large volume, and discuss their dual CFT3.
NAMMA SENEGAL RAIN GAUGE NETWORK V1
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The NAMMA Senegal Rain Gauge Network consisted of 40 rain gauge sites (AMMA 1-40) located in various places throughout Senegal, West Africa. These data files were...
Calibration of pressure gauge for Cherenkov detector
Saponjic, Nevena
2013-01-01
Solartron/Hamilton pressure gauges are used to monitor the gas pressure in the particle beam detectors installed in the experimental areas. Here is description of the test bench for the calibration of these gauges in Labview.
Gauge theory: form Physics to Geometry
Bruzzo, Ugo
2010-01-01
Maxwell theory may be regarded as a prototype of gauge theory and generalized to nonabelian gauge theory. We briefly sketch the history of gauge theories, from Maxwell to Yang-Mills theory, and the identification of gauge fields with connections on fibre bundles. We introduce the notion of instanton and consider the moduli spaces of such objects. Finally, we discuss some modern techniques for studying the topology of these moduli spaces.
Theorems for asymptotic safety of gauge theories
Bond, Andrew D.; Litim, Daniel F.
2017-06-01
We classify the weakly interacting fixed points of general gauge theories coupled to matter and explain how the competition between gauge and matter fluctuations gives rise to a rich spectrum of high- and low-energy fixed points. The pivotal role played by Yukawa couplings is emphasised. Necessary and sufficient conditions for asymptotic safety of gauge theories are also derived, in conjunction with strict no go theorems. Implications for phase diagrams of gauge theories and physics beyond the Standard Model are indicated.
Split Dimensional Regularization for the Temporal Gauge
Chen, Yaw-Hwang; Hsieh, Ron-Jou; Lin, Chilong
1996-01-01
A split dimensional regularization, which was introduced for the Coulomb gauge by Leibbrandt and Williams, is used to regularize the spurious singularities of Yang-Mills theory in the temporal gauge. Typical one-loop split dimensionally regularized temporal gauge integrals, and hence the renormalization structure of the theory are shown to be the same as those calculated with some nonprincipal-value prescriptions.
Chiral gauge theories with domain wall fermions
Golterman, M.; Jansen, K.; Petcher, D.; Vink, J.
1993-01-01
We have investigated a proposal to construct chiral gauge theories on the lattice using domain wall fermions. The model contains two opposite chirality zeromodes, which live on two domain walls. We couple only one of them to a gauge field, but find that mirror fermions which also couple to the gauge field always seem to exist.
The fate of unstable gauge flux compactifications
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Burgess, C.P. [McMaster Univ., Hamilton, ON (Canada). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy]|[Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics, Waterloo, ON (Canada); Parameswaran, S.L. [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). 2. Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Zavala, I. [Bonn Univ. (Germany). Bethe Center for Theoretical Physics and Physikalisches Inst.
2008-12-15
Fluxes are widely used to stabilise extra dimensions, but the supporting monopolelike configurations are often unstable, particularly if they arise as gauge flux within a non-abelian gauge sector. We here seek the endpoint geometries to which this instability leads, focussing on the simplest concrete examples: sphere-monopole compactifications in six dimensions. Without gravity most monopoles in non-abelian gauge groups are unstable, decaying into the unique stable monopole in the same topological class. We show that the same is true in Einstein-YM systems, with the new twist that the decay leads to a shrinkage in the size of the extra dimensions and curves the non-compact directions: in D dimensions a Mink{sub D-2} x S{sub 2} geometry supported by an unstable monopole relaxes to AdS{sub D-2} x S{sub 2}, with the endpoint sphere smaller than the initial one. For supergravity the situation is more complicated because the dilaton obstructs such a simple evolution. The endpoint instead acquires a dilaton gradient, thereby breaking some of the spacetime symmetries. For 6D supergravity we argue that it is the 4D symmetries that break, and examine several candidates for the endpoint geometry. By using the trick of dimensional oxidation it is possible to recast the supergravity system as a higher-dimensional Einstein-YM monopole, allowing understanding of this system to guide us to the corresponding endpoint. The result is a Kasner-like geometry conformal to Mink{sub 4} times S{sub 2}, with nontrivial conformal factor and dilaton breaking the maximal 4D symmetry and generating a singularity. Yet the resulting configuration has a lower potential energy than did the initial one, and is perturbatively stable, making it a sensible candidate endpoint for the evolution. (orig.)
Scattering amplitudes in gauge theories
Henn, Johannes M
2014-01-01
At the fundamental level, the interactions of elementary particles are described by quantum gauge field theory. The quantitative implications of these interactions are captured by scattering amplitudes, traditionally computed using Feynman diagrams. In the past decade tremendous progress has been made in our understanding of and computational abilities with regard to scattering amplitudes in gauge theories, going beyond the traditional textbook approach. These advances build upon on-shell methods that focus on the analytic structure of the amplitudes, as well as on their recently discovered hidden symmetries. In fact, when expressed in suitable variables the amplitudes are much simpler than anticipated and hidden patterns emerge. These modern methods are of increasing importance in phenomenological applications arising from the need for high-precision predictions for the experiments carried out at the Large Hadron Collider, as well as in foundational mathematical physics studies on the S-matrix in quantum ...
Differential renormalization of gauge theories
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Aguila, F. del; Perez-Victoria, M. [Dept. de Fisica Teorica y del Cosmos, Universidad de Granada, Granada (Spain)
1998-10-01
The scope of constrained differential renormalization is to provide renormalized expressions for Feynman graphs, preserving at the same time the Ward identities of the theory. It has been shown recently that this can be done consistently at least to one loop for Abelian and non-Abelian gauge theories. We briefly review these results, evaluate as an example the gluon self energy in both coordinate and momentum space, and comment on anomalies. (author) 9 refs, 1 fig., 1 tab
On Magnetohydrodynamic Gauge Field Theory
Webb, G. M.; Anco, S. C.
2017-01-01
Clebsch potential gauge field theory for magnetohydrodynamics is developed based in part on the theory of Calkin (1963). It is shown how the polarization vector ${\\bf P}$ in Calkin's approach, naturally arises from the Lagrange multiplier constraint equation for Faraday's equation for the magnetic induction ${\\bf B}$, or alternatively from the magnetic vector potential form of Faraday's equation. Gauss's equation, (divergence of ${\\bf B}$ is zero), is incorporated in the variational principle...
Navarro, Rodrigo M.; Machado, Leonardo M.; Maia, Ossires; Wu, Lihteh; Farah, Michel E.; Magalhaes, Octaviano; Arevalo, J. Fernando; Maia, Mauricio
2015-01-01
Purpose. To determine the efficacy of 23-gauge pars plana vitrectomy (PPV) for symptomatic posterior vitreous detachment (PVD) on visual acuity (VA) and quality after multifocal intraocular lenses (IOLs). Methods. In this prospective case series, patients who developed symptomatic PVD and were not satisfied with visual quality due to floaters and halos after multifocal IOL implantation underwent PPV. Examinations included LogMAR uncorrected visual acuity (UCVA), intraocular pressure, biomicroscopy, and indirect ophthalmoscopy at baseline and 1, 7, 30, and 180 days postoperatively. Ultrasonography and aberrometry were performed. The Visual Functioning Questionnaire 25 (VFQ-25) was administered preoperatively and at 30 days postoperatively. Both the postoperative UCVA and questionnaire results were compared to preoperative findings using the Wilcoxon test. Results. Sixteen eyes of 8 patients were included. VA significantly improved from 0.17 to 0.09 postoperatively (P = 0.017). All patients reported improvement of halos, glare, and floaters. VFQ-25 scores significantly improved in general vision (P = 0.023), near activities (P = 0.043), distance activities (P = 0.041), mental health (P = 0.011), role difficulties (P = 0.042), and driving (P = 0.016). Conclusion. PPV may increase UCVA and quality of vision in patients with bilateral multifocal IOLs and symptomatic PVD. Larger studies are advised. PMID:26504590
Gauge fixing and the gibbs phenomenon
Mandula, Jeffrey E.
1999-03-01
We address the question of why global gauge fixing, specifically to the lattice Landau gauge, becomes an extremely lengthy process for large lattices. We construct an artificial "gauge-fixing" problem which has the essential features encountered in actuality. In the limit in which the size of the system to be gauge fixed becomes infinite, the problem becomes equivalent to finding a series expansion in functions which are related to the Jacobi polynomials. The series converges slowly, as expected. It also converges non-uniformly, which is an observed characteristic of gauge fixing. In the limiting example, the non-uniformity arises through the Gibbs phenomenon.
Gauge fixing and the gibbs phenomenon
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mandula, Jeffrey E
1999-03-01
We address the question of why global gauge fixing, specifically to the lattice Landau gauge, becomes an extremely lengthy process for large lattices. We construct an artificial 'gauge-fixing' problem which has the essential features encountered in actuality. In the limit in which the size of the system to be gauge fixed becomes infinite, the problem becomes equivalent to finding a series expansion in functions which are related to the Jacobi polynomials. The series converges slowly, as expected. It also converges non-uniformly, which is an observed characteristic of gauge fixing. In the limiting example, the non-uniformity arises through the Gibbs phenomenon.
The Gribov problem in presence of background field for SU(2) Yang–Mills theory
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Canfora, Fabrizio, E-mail: canfora@cecs.cl [Centro de Estudios Científicos (CECS), Casilla 1469, Valdivia (Chile); Hidalgo, Diego, E-mail: dhidalgo@cecs.cl [Centro de Estudios Científicos (CECS), Casilla 1469, Valdivia (Chile); Departamento de Física, Universidad de Concepción, Casilla 160, Concepción (Chile); Pais, Pablo, E-mail: pais@cecs.cl [Centro de Estudios Científicos (CECS), Casilla 1469, Valdivia (Chile); Physique Théorique et Mathématique, Univérsite de Bruxelles and International Solvay Institutes, Campus Plaine C.P. 231, B-1050 Bruxelles (Belgium)
2016-12-10
The Gribov problem in the presence of a background field is analyzed: in particular, we study the Gribov copies equation in the Landau–De Witt gauge as well as the semi-classical Gribov gap equation. As background field, we choose the simplest non-trivial one which corresponds to a constant gauge potential with non-vanishing component along the Euclidean time direction. This kind of constant non-Abelian background fields is very relevant in relation with (the computation of) the Polyakov loop but it also appears when one considers the non-Abelian Schwinger effect. We show that the Gribov copies equation is affected directly by the presence of the background field, constructing an explicit example. The analysis of the Gribov gap equation shows that the larger the background field, the smaller the Gribov mass parameter. These results strongly suggest that the relevance of the Gribov copies (from the path integral point of view) decreases as the size of the background field increases.
Strong Coupling Gauge Theories in LHC ERA
Fukaya, H.; Harada, M.; Tanabashi, M.; Yamawaki, K.
2011-01-01
conformal Higgs / Kazumoto Haba, Shinya Matsuzaki and Koichi Yamawaki -- Phase structure of topologically massive gauge theory with fermion / Yuichi Hoshino -- New regularization in extra dimensional model and renormalization group flow of the cosmological constant / Shoichi Ichinose -- Spectral analysis of dense two-color QCD / T. Kanazawa, T. Wettig and N. Yamamoto -- NJL model with dimensional regularization at finite temperature / T. Fujihara ... [et al.] -- A new method of evaluating the dynamical chiral symmetry breaking scale and the chiral restoration temperature in general gauge theories by using the non-perturbative renormalization group analyses with general 4-Fermi effective interaction space / Ken-Ichi Aoki, Daisuke Sato and Kazuhiro Miyashita -- The effective chiral Lagrangian with vector mesons and hadronic [symbol] decays / D. Kimura ... [et al.] -- Spontaneous SUSY breaking with anomalous U(1) symmetry in metastable vacua and moduli stabilization / Hiroyuki Nishino -- A new description of the lattice Yang-Mills theory and non-abelian magnetic monopole dominance in the string tension / Akihiro Shibata -- Thermodynamics with unbroken center symmetry in two-flavor QCD / S. Takemoto, M. Harada and C. Sasaki -- Masses of vector bosons in two-color QCD based on the hidden local symmetry / T. Yamaoka, M. Harada and C. Nonaka -- Walking dynamics from string duals / Maurizio Piai -- The quark mass dependence of the nucleon mass in AdS/QCD / Hyo Chul Ahn -- Structure of thermal quasi-fermion in QED/QCD from the Dyson-Schwinger equation / Hisao Nakkagawa -- Critical behaviors of sigma-mode and pion in holographic superconductors / Cheonsoo Park.
On the composition of an arbitrary collection of SU(2) spins: an enumerative combinatoric approach
Gyamfi, J. A.; Barone, V.
2018-03-01
The whole enterprise of spin compositions can be recast as simple enumerative combinatoric problems. We show here that enumerative combinatorics (Stanley 2011 Enumerative Combinatorics (Cambridge Studies in Advanced Mathematics vol 1) (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press)) is a natural setting for spin composition, and easily leads to very general analytic formulae—many of which hitherto not present in the literature. Based on it, we propose three general methods for computing spin multiplicities; namely, (1) the multi-restricted composition, (2) the generalized binomial and (3) the generating function methods. Symmetric and anti-symmetric compositions of SU(2) spins are also discussed, using generating functions. Of particular importance is the observation that while the common Clebsch–Gordan decomposition—which considers the spins as distinguishable—is related to integer compositions, the symmetric and anti-symmetric compositions (where one considers the spins as indistinguishable) are obtained considering integer partitions. The integers in question here are none other than the occupation numbers of the Holstein–Primakoff bosons. The pervasiveness of q-analogues in our approach is a testament to the fundamental role they play in spin compositions. In the appendix, some new results in the power series representation of Gaussian polynomials (or q-binomial coefficients)—relevant to symmetric and antisymmetric compositions—are presented.
A nonlinear deformed su(2) algebra with a two-colour quasitriangular Hopf structure
Bonatsos, Dennis; Kolokotronis, P; Ludu, A; Quesne, C
1996-01-01
Nonlinear deformations of the enveloping algebra of su(2), involving two arbitrary functions of J_0 and generalizing the Witten algebra, were introduced some time ago by Delbecq and Quesne. In the present paper, the problem of endowing some of them with a Hopf algebraic structure is addressed by studying in detail a specific example, referred to as ${\\cal A}^+_q(1)$. This algebra is shown to possess two series of (N+1)-dimensional unitary irreducible representations, where N=0, 1, 2, .... To allow the coupling of any two such representations, a generalization of the standard Hopf axioms is proposed by proceeding in two steps. In the first one, a variant and extension of the deforming functional technique is introduced: variant because a map between two deformed algebras, su_q(2) and ${\\cal A}^+_q(1)$, is considered instead of a map between a Lie algebra and a deformed one, and extension because use is made of a two-valued functional, whose inverse is singular. As a result, the Hopf structure of su_q(2) is car...
CKM and PMNS Mixing Matrices from Discrete Subgroups of SU(2
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Potter F.
2014-07-01
Full Text Available One of the greatest challenges in particle physics is to determine the first principles origin of the quark and lepton mixing matrices CKM and PMNS that relate the flavor states to the mass states. This first principles derivation of both the PMNS and CKM matrices utilizes quaternion generators of the three discrete (i.e., finite binary rotational subgroups of SU(2 called [3,3,2], [4,3,2], and [5,3,2] for three lepton families in R 3 and four related discrete binary rotational subgroups [3,3,3], [4,3,3], [3,4,3], and [5,3,3] represented by four quark families in R 4 . The traditional 3 3 CKM matrix is extracted as a submatrix of the 4 4 CKM4 matrix. The predicted fourth family of quarks has not been discovered yet. If these two additional quarks exist, there is the possibility that the Standard Model lagrangian may apply all the way down to the Planck scale.
A gauge-invariant reorganization of thermal gauge theory
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Su, Nan
2010-07-01
This dissertation is devoted to the study of thermodynamics for quantum gauge theories. The poor convergence of quantum field theory at finite temperature has been the main obstacle in the practical applications of thermal QCD for decades. In this dissertation I apply hard-thermal-loop perturbation theory, which is a gauge-invariant reorganization of the conventional perturbative expansion for quantum gauge theories to the thermodynamics of QED and Yang-Mills theory to three-loop order. For the Abelian case, I present a calculation of the free energy of a hot gas of electrons and photons by expanding in a power series in m{sub D}/T, m{sub f}/T and e{sup 2}, where m{sub D} and m{sub f} are the photon and electron thermal masses, respectively, and e is the coupling constant. I demonstrate that the hard-thermal-loop perturbation reorganization improves the convergence of the successive approximations to the QED free energy at large coupling, e {proportional_to} 2. For the non-Abelian case, I present a calculation of the free energy of a hot gas of gluons by expanding in a power series in m{sub D}/T and g{sup 2}, where m{sub D} is the gluon thermal mass and g is the coupling constant. I show that at three-loop order hard-thermal-loop perturbation theory is compatible with lattice results for the pressure, energy density, and entropy down to temperatures T {proportional_to} 2 - 3 T{sub c}. The results suggest that HTLpt provides a systematic framework that can be used to calculate static and dynamic quantities for temperatures relevant at LHC. (orig.)
Linear sigma model for multiflavor gauge theories
Meurice, Y.
2017-12-01
We consider a linear sigma model describing 2 Nf2 bosons (σ , a0 , η' and π ) as an approximate effective theory for a S U (3 ) local gauge theory with Nf Dirac fermions in the fundamental representation. The model has a renormalizable U (Nf)L⊗U (Nf)R invariant part, which has an approximate O (2 Nf2) symmetry, and two additional terms, one describing the effects of a S U (Nf)V invariant mass term and the other the effects of the axial anomaly. We calculate the spectrum for arbitrary Nf. Using preliminary and published lattice results from the LatKMI collaboration, we found combinations of the masses that vary slowly with the explicit chiral symmetry breaking and Nf. This suggests that the anomaly term plays a leading role in the mass spectrum and that simple formulas such as Mσ2≃(2 /Nf-Cσ)Mη' 2 should apply in the chiral limit. Lattice measurements of Mη'2 and of approximate constants such as Cσ could help in locating the boundary of the conformal window. We show that our calculation can be adapted for arbitrary representations of the gauge group and in particular to the minimal model with two sextets, where similar patterns are likely to apply.
On gaugino condensation with field-dependent gauge couplings
Burgess, C P; Quevedo, Fernando; Quirós, Mariano
1996-01-01
We study in detail gaugino condensation in globally and locally supersymmetric Yang-Mills theories. We focus on models for which gauge-neutral matter couples to the gauge bosons only through nonminimal gauge kinetic terms, for the cases of one and several condensing gauge groups. Using only symmetry arguments, the low-energy expansion, and general properties of supersymmetry, we compute the low energy Wilson action, as well as the (2PI) effective action for the composite {\\it classical} superfield U\\equiv\\langle \\Tr\\WW \\rangle, with W_\\alpha the supersymmetric gauge field strength. The 2PI effective action provides a firmer foundation for the approach of Veneziano and Yankielowicz, who treated the composite superfield, U, as a quantum degree of freedom. We show how to rederive the Wilson action by minimizing the 2PI action with respect to U. We determine, in both formulations and for global and local supersymmetry, the effective superpotential, W, the non-perturbative contributions to the low-energy K\\"ahler ...
Bubuianu, Laurenţiu; Irwin, Klee; Vacaru, Sergiu I.
2017-04-01
Heterotic supergravity with (1 + 3)-dimensional domain wall configurations and (warped) internal, six dimensional, almost-Kähler manifolds {{}6}\\text{X} are studied. Considering ten dimensional spacetimes with nonholonomic distributions and conventional double fibrations, 2 + 2 + ... = 2 + 2 + 3 + 3, and associated SU(3) structures on internal space, we generalize for real, internal, almost symplectic gravitational structures the constructions with gravitational and gauge instantons of tanh-kink type [1, 2]. They include the first {α\\prime} corrections to the heterotic supergravity action, parameterized in a form to imply nonholonomic deformations of the Yang-Mills sector and corresponding Bianchi identities. We show how it is possible to construct a variety of solutions depending on the type of nonholonomic distributions and deformations of ‘prime’ instanton configurations characterized by two real supercharges. This corresponds to N=1/2 supersymmetric, nonholonomic manifolds from the four dimensional point of view. Our method provides a unified description of embedding nonholonomically deformed tanh-kink-type instantons into half-BPS solutions of heterotic supergravity. This allows us to elaborate new geometric methods of constructing exact solutions of motion equations, with first order {α\\prime} corrections to the heterotic supergravity. Such a formalism is applied for general and/or warped almost-Kähler configurations, which allows us to generate nontrivial (1 + 3)-d domain walls and black hole deformations determined by quasiperiodic internal space structures. This formalism is utilized in our associated publication [3] in order to construct and study generic off-diagonal nonholonomic deformations of the Kerr metric, encoding contributions from heterotic supergravity.
GMOR-like relation in IR-conformal gauge theories
Patella, Agostino
2011-01-01
A generalization of the GMOR relation to the case of infrared-conformal gauge theories is discussed. The starting point is the chiral Ward identity connecting the isovector pseudoscalar susceptibility to the chiral condensate, in a mass-deformed theory. A renormalization-group analysis shows that the pseudoscalar susceptibility is not saturated by the lightest state, but a contribution from the continuum part of the spectrum survives in the chiral limit. The computation also shows how infrared-conformal gauge theories behave differently, depending on whether the anomalous dimension of the chiral condensate be smaller or larger than 1.
UV and IR Zeros of Gauge Theories at The Four Loop Order and Beyond
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pica, Claudio; Sannino, Francesco
2010-01-01
We unveil the general features of the phase diagram for any gauge theory with fermions transforming according to distinct representations of the underlying gauge group, at the four-loop order. We classify and analyze the zeros of the perturbative beta function and discover the existence of a rich...
Higher Loop Corrections to the Infrared Evolution of Fermionic Gauge Theories in the RI' Scheme
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ryttov, Thomas
2014-01-01
We study the evolution of the gauge coupling and the anomalous dimension of the mass towards an infrared fixed point for non-supersymmetric gauge theories in the modified regularization invariant, RI', scheme. This is done at the three loop level where all the renormalization group functions have...
The basis of the physical Hilbert space of lattice gauge theories
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Burgio, G. E-mail: burgio@parma.infn.it; De Pietri, R.; Morales-Tecotl, H.A.; Urrutia, L.F.; Vergara, J.D
2000-02-07
Non-linear Fourier analysis on compact groups is used to construct an orthonormal basis of the physical (gauge invariant) Hilbert space of Hamiltonian lattice gauge theories. In particular, the matrix elements of the Hamiltonian operator involved are explicitly computed. Finally, some applications and possible developments of the formalism are discussed.
Generalised Scherk-Schwarz reductions from gauged supergravity
Inverso, Gianluca
2017-12-01
A procedure is described to construct generalised Scherk-Schwarz uplifts of gauged supergravities. The internal manifold, fluxes, and consistent truncation Ansatz are all derived from the embedding tensor of the lower-dimensional theory. We first describe the procedure to construct generalised Leibniz parallelisable spaces where the vector components of the frame are embedded in the adjoint representation of the gauge group, as specified by the embedding tensor. This allows us to recover the generalised Scherk-Schwarz reductions known in the literature and to prove a no-go result for the uplift of ω-deformed SO( p, q) gauged maximal supergravities. We then extend the construction to arbitrary generalised Leibniz parallelisable spaces, which turn out to be torus fibrations over manifolds in the class above.
Knot operators in Chern-Simons gauge theory
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Labastida, J.M.F.; Llatas, P.M. (European Organization for Nuclear Research, Geneva (Switzerland). Theory Div.); Ramallo, A.V. (Universidad de Santiago de Compostela (Spain). Dept. de Particulas Elementales)
1991-01-21
The operator formalism for Chern-Simons gauge theory with gauge group SU(N) is presented. The connection with rational conformal field theory is shown explicitly by identifying a basis for the Hilbert space of the theory with the set of characters corresponding to a Wess-Zumino-Witten model for SU(N). Knot operators are constructed performing the calculation of matrix elements of Wilson line operators on this Hilbert space. Using these operators a representation of the Verlinde operators in the context of Chern-Simons gauge theory is obtained. As an application of the use of these operators to knot theory, the Jones polynomial for toral knots is explicitly computed. (orig.).
A generalization of gauge invariance
Grigore, Dan-Radu
2017-08-01
We consider perturbative quantum field theory in the causal framework. Gauge invariance is, in this framework, an identity involving chronological products of the interaction Lagrangian; it expresses the fact that the scattering matrix must leave invariant the sub-space of physical states. We are interested in generalizations of such identity involving Wick sub-monomials of the interaction Lagrangian. The analysis can be performed by direct computation in the lower orders of perturbation theory; guided by these computations, we conjecture a generalization for arbitrary orders.
Unification of gauge and gravity Chern-Simons theories in 3-D space-time
Saghir, Chireen A.; Shamseddine, Laurence W.
2017-11-01
Chamseddine and Mukhanov showed that gravity and gauge theories could be unified in one geometric construction provided that a metricity condition is imposed on the vielbein. In this paper we are going to show that by enlarging the gauge group we are able to unify Chern-Simons gauge theory and Chern-Simons gravity in 3-D space-time. Such a unification leads to the quantization of the coefficients for both Chern-Simons terms for compact groups but not for non-compact groups. Moreover, it leads to a topological invariant quantity of the 3-dimensional space-time manifold on which they are defined.
Scattering amplitudes in gauge theories
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Henn, Johannes M. [Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton, NJ (United States). School of Natural Sciences; Plefka, Jan C. [Humboldt-Universitaet, Berlin (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik
2014-03-01
First monographical text on this fundamental topic. Course-tested, pedagogical and self-contained exposition. Includes exercises and solutions. At the fundamental level, the interactions of elementary particles are described by quantum gauge field theory. The quantitative implications of these interactions are captured by scattering amplitudes, traditionally computed using Feynman diagrams. In the past decade tremendous progress has been made in our understanding of and computational abilities with regard to scattering amplitudes in gauge theories, going beyond the traditional textbook approach. These advances build upon on-shell methods that focus on the analytic structure of the amplitudes, as well as on their recently discovered hidden symmetries. In fact, when expressed in suitable variables the amplitudes are much simpler than anticipated and hidden patterns emerge. These modern methods are of increasing importance in phenomenological applications arising from the need for high-precision predictions for the experiments carried out at the Large Hadron Collider, as well as in foundational mathematical physics studies on the S-matrix in quantum field theory. Bridging the gap between introductory courses on quantum field theory and state-of-the-art research, these concise yet self-contained and course-tested lecture notes are well-suited for a one-semester graduate level course or as a self-study guide for anyone interested in fundamental aspects of quantum field theory and its applications. The numerous exercises and solutions included will help readers to embrace and apply the material presented in the main text.
Altered Maxwell equations in the length gauge
Reiss, H R
2013-01-01
The length gauge uses a scalar potential to describe a laser field, thus treating it as a longitudinal field rather than as a transverse field. This distinction is revealed in the fact that the Maxwell equations that relate to the length gauge are not the same as those for transverse fields. In particular, a source term is necessary in the length-gauge Maxwell equations, whereas the Coulomb-gauge description of plane waves possesses the basic property of transverse fields that they propagate with no source terms at all. This difference is shown to be importantly consequential in some previously unremarked circumstances; and it explains why the G\\"oppert-Mayer gauge transformation does not provide the security that might be expected of full gauge equivalence.
Entanglement of Distillation for Lattice Gauge Theories.
Van Acoleyen, Karel; Bultinck, Nick; Haegeman, Jutho; Marien, Michael; Scholz, Volkher B; Verstraete, Frank
2016-09-23
We study the entanglement structure of lattice gauge theories from the local operational point of view, and, similar to Soni and Trivedi [J. High Energy Phys. 1 (2016) 1], we show that the usual entanglement entropy for a spatial bipartition can be written as the sum of an undistillable gauge part and of another part corresponding to the local operations and classical communication distillable entanglement, which is obtained by depolarizing the local superselection sectors. We demonstrate that the distillable entanglement is zero for pure Abelian gauge theories at zero gauge coupling, while it is in general nonzero for the non-Abelian case. We also consider gauge theories with matter, and show in a perturbative approach how area laws-including a topological correction-emerge for the distillable entanglement. Finally, we also discuss the entanglement entropy of gauge fixed states and show that it has no relation to the physical distillable entropy.
Electroweak Measurements with Multiple Gauge Boson Interactions
Sood, A; The ATLAS collaboration
2014-01-01
This talk presents measurements from ATLAS and CMS that are sensitive interactions between EW gauge bosons. Included analyses sensitive to triple gauge couplings are EW $Z$ production, and $VV^{\\prime}$ cross sections where $V=W/Z$ and $V^{\\prime}=W/Z/\\gamma$, while $\\gamma\\gamma\\rightarrow WW$, $WV\\gamma$ where $V=W/Z$, and $W^{\\pm}W^{\\pm}jj$ production are present as probes of quartic gauge couplings.
Alpha-particle Gas Pressure Gauge
Buehler, M. G.; Bell, L. D.; Hecht, M. H.
1995-01-01
Described are preliminary results obtained on a novel gas pressure gauge that operates between 0.1 and 1000 mb. This gauge uses a 1- micron Ci alpha particle source to ionize the gas in a small chamber with an electric field imposed between anode and cathode electrodes that drives positive ions to the cathode where they are collected electronically. This gauge could make Martian pressure measurements.
Microminiature temperature-compensated magnetoelastic strain gauge
Arms, Steven W.; Townsend, Christopher P.
2002-07-01
Our objective was to demonstrate a microminiature magnetoelastic strain gauge that provides both strain and temperature signals without additional sensors. Iron based magnetoelastic materials were embedded within superelastic nickel/titanium (NiTi) tubing. NiTi stress was transferred to the ferrite, causing a permeability change sensed by a tiny coil. The coil/bridge was excited (70 KHz AC), synchronously demodulated, and amplified to produce a voltage output proportional to coil/ferrite impedance. A DC voltage was also applied and separately conditioned to provide an output proportional to coil resistance; this signal was used to provide thermal compensation. Controlled strains were applied and 6 Hz cyclic outputs recorded simultaneously from the magnetoelastic strain gauge and conventional foil strain gauges. The magnetoelastic strain gauge tracked the foil gauge with minimal hysteresis and good linearity over 600 microstrain; repeatability was approximately 1.5 microstrain. The magnetoelastic strain gauge's gauge factor was computed from delta inductance/original inductance under static strain conditions. Temperatures of 25-140 deg C resulted in an uncompensated shift of 15 microstrain/deg C, and compensated shift of 1.0 microstrain/deg C. A sensitive micro-magnetoelastic strain gauge was demonstrated using the same sensor to detect stress and temperature with no moving parts, high gauge factor, and good thermal stability.
Reducible gauge theories in very special relativity
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Upadhyay, Sudhaker, E-mail: sudhakerupadhyay@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur, 208016, Kanpur (India)
2015-12-14
In this paper we analyze the tensor field (reducible gauge) theories in the context of very special relativity (VSR). Particularly, we study the VSR gauge symmetry as well as VSR BRST symmetry of Kalb–Ramond and Abelian 3-form fields involving a fixed null vector. We observe that the Kalb–Ramond and Abelian 3-form fields and corresponding ghosts get masses in the VSR framework. The effective action in VSR-type axial gauge is greatly simplified compared with the VSR-type Lorenz gauge. Further, we quantize these models using a Batalin–Vilkovisy (BV) formulation in VSR.
Reducible gauge theories in very special relativity
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Upadhyay, Sudhaker [Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur, Department of Physics, Kanpur (India)
2015-12-15
In this paper we analyze the tensor field (reducible gauge) theories in the context of very special relativity (VSR). Particularly, we study the VSR gauge symmetry as well as VSR BRST symmetry of Kalb-Ramond and Abelian 3-form fields involving a fixed null vector. We observe that the Kalb-Ramond and Abelian 3-form fields and corresponding ghosts get masses in the VSR framework. The effective action in VSR-type axial gauge is greatly simplified compared with the VSR-type Lorenz gauge. Further, we quantize these models using a Batalin-Vilkovisy (BV) formulation in VSR. (orig.)
Gauge invariance and equations of motion for closed string modes
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
B. Sathiapalan
2014-12-01
Full Text Available We continue earlier discussions on loop variables and the exact renormalization group on the string world sheet for closed and open string backgrounds. The world sheet action with a UV regulator is written in a generally background covariant way by introducing a background metric. It is shown that the renormalization group gives background covariant equations of motion – this is the gauge invariance of the graviton. Interaction is written in terms of gauge invariant and generally covariant field strength tensors. The basic idea is to work in Riemann normal coordinates and covariantize the final equation. It turns out that the equations for massive modes are gauge invariant only if the space–time curvature of the (arbitrary background is zero. The exact RG equations give quadratic equations of motion for all the modes including the physical graviton. The level (2,2¯ massive field equations are used to illustrate the techniques. At this level there are mixed symmetry tensors. Gauge invariant interacting equations can be written down. In flat space an action can also be written for the free theory.
Review of non-nuclear density gauges as possible replacements for ITD's nuclear density gauges.
2015-01-01
This report examines the possibility of replacing nuclear density gauges (NDGs) with non-nuclear density gauges (NNDGs) to : measure density of hot mix asphalt (HMA) and unbound pavement layers in the field. The research team evaluated the : effectiv...
Deformations, moduli stabilisation and gauge couplings at one-loop
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Honecker, Gabriele; Koltermann, Isabel [PRISMA Cluster of Excellence, MITP & Institut für Physik (WA THEP),Johannes Gutenberg-Universität,Staudingerweg 9, 55128 Mainz (Germany); Staessens, Wieland [Instituto de Física Teórica UAM-CSIC, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid Cantoblanco,Calle de Nicolás Cabrera 13-15, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Departamento de Física Teórica, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid Cantoblanco,Calle de Nicolás Cabrera 13-15, 28049 Madrid (Spain)
2017-04-05
We investigate deformations of ℤ{sub 2} orbifold singularities on the toroidal orbifold T{sup 6}/(ℤ{sub 2}×ℤ{sub 6}) with discrete torsion in the framework of Type IIA orientifold model building with intersecting D6-branes wrapping special Lagrangian cycles. To this aim, we employ the hypersurface formalism developed previously for the orbifold T{sup 6}/(ℤ{sub 2}×ℤ{sub 2}) with discrete torsion and adapt it to the (ℤ{sub 2}×ℤ{sub 6}×ΩR) point group by modding out the remaining ℤ{sub 3} subsymmetry and the orientifold projection ΩR. We first study the local behaviour of the ℤ{sub 3}×ΩR invariant deformation orbits under non-zero deformation and then develop methods to assess the deformation effects on the fractional three-cycle volumes globally. We confirm that D6-branes supporting USp(2N) or SO(2N) gauge groups do not constrain any deformation, while deformation parameters associated to cycles wrapped by D6-branes with U(N) gauge groups are constrained by D-term supersymmetry breaking. These features are exposed in global prototype MSSM, Left-Right symmetric and Pati-Salam models first constructed in (DOI: 10.1016/j.nuclphysb.2015.10.009; 10.1002/prop.201400066), for which we here count the number of stabilised moduli and study flat directions changing the values of some gauge couplings. Finally, we confront the behaviour of tree-level gauge couplings under non-vanishing deformations along flat directions with the one-loop gauge threshold corrections at the orbifold point and discuss phenomenological implications, in particular on possible LARGE volume scenarios and the corresponding value of the string scale M{sub string}, for the same global D6-brane models.
Ghost sector and geometry in minimal Landau gauge: further constraining the infinite-volume limit
Cucchieri, Attilio
2013-01-01
We present improved upper and lower bounds for the momentum-space ghost propagator of Yang-Mills theories in terms of the two smallest nonzero eigenvalues (and their corresponding eigenvectors) of the Faddeev-Popov matrix. These results are verified using data from four-dimensional numerical simulations of SU(2) lattice gauge theory in minimal Landau gauge at beta = 2.2, for lattice sides N = 16, 32, 48 and 64. Gribov-copy effects are discussed by considering four different sets of numerical minima. We then present a lower bound for the smallest nonzero eigenvalue of the Faddeev-Popov matrix in terms of the smallest nonzero momentum on the lattice and of a parameter characterizing the geometry of the first Gribov region Omega. This allows a simple and intuitive description of the infinite-volume limit in the ghost sector. In particular, we show how nonperturbative effects may be quantified by the rate at which typical thermalized and gauge-fixed configurations approach the boundary of Omega, known as the firs...
Gauge Trimming of Neutrino Masses
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chen, Mu-Chun; /Fermilab /UC, Irvine; de Gouvea, Andre; /Northwestern U. /Fermilab; Dobrescu, Bogdan A.; /Fermilab
2006-12-01
We show that under a new U(1) gauge symmetry, which is non-anomalous in the presence of one ''right-handed neutrino'' per generation and consistent with the standard model Yukawa couplings, the most general fermion charges are determined in terms of four rational parameters. This generalization of the B-L symmetry with generation-dependent lepton charges leads to neutrino masses induced by operators of high dimensionality. Neutrino masses are thus naturally small without invoking physics at energies above the TeV scale, whether neutrinos are Majorana or Dirac fermions. This ''Leptocratic'' Model predicts the existence of light quasi-sterile neutrinos with consequences for cosmology, and implies that collider experiments may reveal the origin of neutrino masses.
Gauge choice in conformal gravity
Sultana, Joseph; Kazanas, Demosthenes
2017-04-01
In a recent paper, K. Horne examined the effect of a conformally coupled scalar field (referred to as Higgs field) on the Mannheim-Kazanas metric gμν, i.e. the static spherically symmetric metric within the context of conformal gravity, and studied its effect on the rotation curves of galaxies. He showed that for a Higgs field of the form S(r) = S0a/(r + a), where a is a radial length-scale, the equivalent Higgs-frame Mannheim-Kazanas metric \\tilde{g}_{μ ν } = Ω ^2 g_{μ ν }, with Ω = S(r)/S0, lacks the linear γr term, which has been employed in the fitting of the galactic rotation curves without the need to invoke dark matter. In this brief note, we point out that the representation of the Mannheim-Kazanas metric in a gauge, where it lacks the linear term, has already been presented by others, including Mannheim and Kazanas themselves, without the need to introduce a conformally coupled Higgs field. Furthermore, Horne argues that the absence of the linear term resolves the issue of light bending in the wrong direction, i.e. away from the gravitating mass, if γr > 0 in the Mannheim-Kazanas metric, a condition necessary to resolve the galactic dynamics in the absence of dark matter. In this case, we also point out that the elimination of the linear term is not even required because the sign of the γr term in the metric can be easily reversed by a simple gauge transformation, and also that the effects of this term are indeed too small to be observed.
Gauge symmetry, T-duality and doubled geometry
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hull, C.M. [Imperial College London (United Kingdom). Inst. for Mathematical Sciences]|[Imperial College London (United Kingdom). Blackett Laboratory; Reid-Edwards, R.A. [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). 2. Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik]|[Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)
2007-11-15
String compactifications with T-duality twists are revisited and the gauge algebra of the dimensionally reduced theories calculated. These reductions can be viewed as string theory on T-fold backgrounds, and can be formulated in a 'doubled space' in which each circle is supplemented by a T-dual circle to construct a geometry which is a doubled torus bundle over a circle. We discuss a conjectured extension to include T-duality on the base circle, and propose the introduction of a dual base coordinate, to give a doubled space which is locally the group manifold of the gauge group. Special cases include those in which the doubled group is a Drinfel'd double. This gives a framework to discuss backgrounds that are not even locally geometric. (orig.)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Shnirman, A., E-mail: alexander.shnirman@kit.edu [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institut fur Theorie der Kondensierten Materie (Germany); Saha, A. [Institute of Physics (India); Burmistrov, I. S. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Landau Institute for Theoretical Physics (Russian Federation); Kiselev, M. N. [International Center for Theoretical Physics (Italy); Altland, A. [Universität zu Köln, Institut für Theoretische Physik (Germany); Gefen, Y. [Weizmann Institute of Science, Department of Condensed Matter Physics (Israel)
2016-03-15
There are two paradigmatic frameworks for treating quantum systems coupled to a dissipative environment: the Caldeira–Leggett and Ambegaokar–Eckern–Schön approaches. Here, we recall the differences between them and explain the consequences of applying each to a zero-dimensional spin (having an SU(2) symmetry) in a dissipative environment (a dissipative quantum dot near or beyond the Stoner instability point).
27 CFR 19.319 - Production gauge.
2010-04-01
... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Production gauge. 19.319... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Production § 19.319 Production gauge. (a) General... production is completed. Except as otherwise specifically provided in this section, quantities may be...
Gauged matter coupling in N = 4 supergravity
Roo, M. de; Wagemans, P.
1985-01-01
Gauged N = 4 supergravity with an arbitrary number of matter multiplets is constructed from a superconformal starting point. It includes both the SO(4) and SU(4) symmetric N = 4 supergravity theories, and all their gaugings. Noncompact Yang-Mills symmetries may mix the matter and supergravity vector
Measuring Fluctuating Pressures With Recessed Gauges
Parrott, Tony L.; Jones, Michael G.
1993-01-01
Report discusses use of pressure gauges mounted in recesses in interior wall of model scramjet engine. Consists of brief memorandum plus excerpts from NASA Technical Paper 3189, "Unsteady Pressure Loads In A Generic High-Speed Engine Model." Focuses mainly on factors affecting accuracy of gauge readings.
SU(2 Yang–Mills Theory: Waves, Particles, and Quantum Thermodynamics
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ralf Hofmann
2016-08-01
Full Text Available We elucidate how Quantum Thermodynamics at temperature T emerges from pure and classical S U ( 2 Yang–Mills theory on a four-dimensional Euclidean spacetime slice S 1 × R 3 . The concept of a (deconfining thermal ground state, composed of certain solutions to the fundamental, classical Yang–Mills equation, allows for a unified addressation of both (classical wave- and (quantum particle-like excitations thereof. More definitely, the thermal ground state represents the interplay between nonpropagating, periodic configurations which are electric-magnetically (antiselfdual in a non-trivial way and possess topological charge modulus unity. Their trivial-holonomy versions—Harrington–Shepard (HS (anticalorons—yield an accurate a priori estimate of the thermal ground state in terms of spatially coarse-grained centers, each containing one quantum of action ℏ localized at its inmost spacetime point, which induce an inert adjoint scalar field ϕ ( | ϕ | spatio-temporally constant. The field ϕ , in turn, implies an effective pure-gauge configuration, a μ gs , accurately describing HS (anticaloron overlap. Spatial homogeneity of the thermal ground-state estimate ϕ , a μ gs demands that (anticaloron centers are densely packed, thus representing a collective departure from (antiselfduality. Effectively, such a “nervous” microscopic situation gives rise to two static phenomena: finite ground-state energy density ρ gs and pressure P gs with ρ gs = − P gs as well as the (adjoint Higgs mechanism. The peripheries of HS (anticalorons are static and resemble (antiselfdual dipole fields whose apparent dipole moments are determined by | ϕ | and T, protecting them against deformation potentially caused by overlap. Such a protection extends to the spatial density of HS (anticaloron centers. Thus the vacuum electric permittivity ϵ 0 and magnetic permeability μ 0 , supporting the propagation of wave-like disturbances in the U ( 1 Cartan
Remarks on a gauge theory for continuous spin particles
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rivelles, Victor O. [Universidade de Sao Paulo, Instituto de Fisica, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)
2017-07-15
We discuss in a systematic way the gauge theory for a continuous spin particle proposed by Schuster and Toro. We show that it is naturally formulated in a cotangent bundle over Minkowski spacetime where the gauge field depends on the spacetime coordinate x{sup μ} and on a covector η{sub μ}. We discuss how fields can be expanded in η{sub μ} in different ways and how these expansions are related to each other. The field equation has a derivative of a Dirac delta function with support on the η-hyperboloid η{sup 2} + 1 = 0 and we show how it restricts the dynamics of the gauge field to the η-hyperboloid and its first neighbourhood. We then show that on-shell the field carries one single irreducible unitary representation of the Poincare group for a continuous spin particle. We also show how the field can be used to build a set of covariant equations found by Wigner describing the wave function of one-particle states for a continuous spin particle. Finally we show that it is not possible to couple minimally a continuous spin particle to a background abelian gauge field, and we make some comments about the coupling to gravity. (orig.)
Gauge-Invariant Formulation of Circular Dichroism.
Raimbault, Nathaniel; de Boeij, Paul L; Romaniello, Pina; Berger, J A
2016-07-12
Standard formulations of magnetic response properties, such as circular dichroism spectra, are plagued by gauge dependencies, which can lead to unphysical results. In this work, we present a general gauge-invariant and numerically efficient approach for the calculation of circular dichroism spectra from the current density. First we show that in this formulation the optical rotation tensor, the response function from which circular dichroism spectra can be obtained, is independent of the origin of the coordinate system. We then demonstrate that its trace is independent of the gauge origin of the vector potential. We also show how gauge invariance can be retained in practical calculations with finite basis sets. As an example, we explain how our method can be applied to time-dependent current-density-functional theory. Finally, we report gauge-invariant circular dichroism spectra obtained using the adiabatic local-density approximation. The circular dichroism spectra we thus obtain are in good agreement with experiment.
GEANT simulation of the $\\gamma$ nuclear gauge
Ouardi, A; Benchekroun, D; Hoummada, A
2003-01-01
The gamma nuclear gauging technique used for monitoring the sediment load suspended in water, is based on the detection of gamma rays emitted by a radioactive source. The GEANT321 Monte Carlo simulation tool, originally developed at CERN for high energy physics experiments, is used for the evaluation and calibration of gamma nuclear gauges. A set of parameters, principally the source energy, the source-detector separation, the lead block thickness and the energy threshold below which the sediments elemental composition affects the measurement or the energy corresponding to the Compton and photoelectric windows separation, are discussed and evaluated in the case of the gamma scattering gauge. For the gamma transmission gauge, the GEANT321 code has been used to define the optimal source detector distance interval, particularly for the Moroccan sediment samplers, and to check the influence of the radionuclide existing in the suspension, on the gauge response accuracy. Experimental calibration was also carried ou...
Electrically tunable artificial gauge potential for polaritons
Lim, Hyang-Tag; Togan, Emre; Kroner, Martin; Miguel-Sanchez, Javier; Imamoğlu, Atac
2017-02-01
Neutral particles subject to artificial gauge potentials can behave as charged particles in magnetic fields. This fascinating premise has led to demonstrations of one-way waveguides, topologically protected edge states and Landau levels for photons. In ultracold neutral atoms, effective gauge fields have allowed the emulation of matter under strong magnetic fields leading to realization of Harper-Hofstadter and Haldane models. Here we show that application of perpendicular electric and magnetic fields effects a tunable artificial gauge potential for two-dimensional microcavity exciton polaritons. For verification, we perform interferometric measurements of the associated phase accumulated during coherent polariton transport. Since the gauge potential originates from the magnetoelectric Stark effect, it can be realized for photons strongly coupled to excitations in any polarizable medium. Together with strong polariton-polariton interactions and engineered polariton lattices, artificial gauge fields could play a key role in investigation of non-equilibrium dynamics of strongly correlated photons.
Symmetries and groups in particle physics; Symmetrien und Gruppen in der Teilchenphysik
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Scherer, Stefan [Mainz Univ. (Germany)
2016-07-01
The aim of this book consists of a didactic introduction to the group-theoretical considerations and methods, which have led to an ever deeper understanding of the interactions of the elementary particles. The first three chapters deal primarily with the foundations of the representation theory of primarily finite groups, whereby many results are also transferable to compact Lie groups. In the third chapter we discuss the concept of Lie groups and their connection with Lie algebras. In the remaining chapter it is mainly about the application of group theory in physics. Chapter 4 deals with the groups SO(3) and SU(2), which occur in connection with the description of the angular momentum in quantum mechanics. We discuss the Wigner-Eckar theorem together with some applications. In chapter 5 we are employed to the composition properties of strongly interacting systems, so called hadrons, and discuss extensively the transformation properties of quarks with relation to the special unitary groups. The Noether theorem is generally treated in connection to the conservation laws belonging to the Galilei group and the Poincare group. We confine us in chapter 6 to internal symmetries, but explain for that extensively the application to quantum field theory. Especially an outlook on the effect of symmetries in form of so called Ward identities is granted. In chapter 7 we turn towards the gauge principle and discuss first the construction of quantum electrodynamics. In the following we generalize the gauge principle to non-Abelian groups (Yang-Mills theories) and formulate the quantum chromodynamics (QCD). Especially we take a view of ''random'' global symmetries of QCD, especially the chiral symmetry. In chapter 8 we illuminate the phenomenon of spontaneous symmetry breaking both for global and for local symmetries. In the final chapter we work out the group-theoretical structure of the Standard Model. Finally by means of the group SU(5) we take a view to
49 CFR 230.42 - Location of gauges.
2010-10-01
..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Boilers and Appurtenances Steam Gauges § 230.42 Location of gauges. Every boiler shall have at least one steam gauge which will...
GPM GROUND VALIDATION RAIN GAUGES NASA ACHIEVE IPHEX V1
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The GPM Ground Validation Rain Gauges NASA ACHIEVE IPHEx dataset includes data from the OSi Optical Rain Gauge (ORG815), and a standard tipping bucket rain gauge....
2010-10-01
... connections, gauge cocks, and pressure gauges (modifies PG-60). 52.01-110 Section 52.01-110 Shipping COAST... § 52.01-110 Water-level indicators, water columns, gauge-glass connections, gauge cocks, and pressure.... (Modifies PG-60.3.) Gage glasses and gage cocks shall be connected directly to the head or shell of a boiler...
Fusion basis for lattice gauge theory and loop quantum gravity
Delcamp, Clement; Dittrich, Bianca; Riello, Aldo
2017-02-01
We introduce a new basis for the gauge-invariant Hilbert space of lattice gauge theory and loop quantum gravity in (2 + 1) dimensions, the fusion basis. In doing so, we shift the focus from the original lattice (or spin-network) structure directly to that of the magnetic (curvature) and electric (torsion) excitations themselves. These excitations are classified by the irreducible representations of the Drinfel'd double of the gauge group, and can be readily "fused" together by studying the tensor product of such representations. We will also describe in detail the ribbon operators that create and measure these excitations and make the quasi-local structure of the observable algebra explicit. Since the fusion basis allows for both magnetic and electric excitations from the onset, it turns out to be a precious tool for studying the large scale structure and coarse-graining flow of lattice gauge theories and loop quantum gravity. This is in neat contrast with the widely used spin-network basis, in which it is much more complicated to account for electric excitations, i.e. for Gauß constraint violations, emerging at larger scales. Moreover, since the fusion basis comes equipped with a hierarchical structure, it readily provides the language to design states with sophisticated multi-scale structures. Another way to employ this hierarchical structure is to encode a notion of subsystems for lattice gauge theories and (2 + 1) gravity coupled to point particles. In a follow-up work, we have exploited this notion to provide a new definition of entanglement entropy for these theories.
Fusion basis for lattice gauge theory and loop quantum gravity
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Delcamp, Clement [Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics,31 Caroline Street North, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 2Y5 (Canada); Department of Physics Astronomy and Guelph-Waterloo Physics Institute, University of Waterloo,Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3G1 (Canada); Dittrich, Bianca; Riello, Aldo [Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics,31 Caroline Street North, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 2Y5 (Canada)
2017-02-10
We introduce a new basis for the gauge-invariant Hilbert space of lattice gauge theory and loop quantum gravity in (2+1) dimensions, the fusion basis. In doing so, we shift the focus from the original lattice (or spin-network) structure directly to that of the magnetic (curvature) and electric (torsion) excitations themselves. These excitations are classified by the irreducible representations of the Drinfel’d double of the gauge group, and can be readily “fused” together by studying the tensor product of such representations. We will also describe in detail the ribbon operators that create and measure these excitations and make the quasi-local structure of the observable algebra explicit. Since the fusion basis allows for both magnetic and electric excitations from the onset, it turns out to be a precious tool for studying the large scale structure and coarse-graining flow of lattice gauge theories and loop quantum gravity. This is in neat contrast with the widely used spin-network basis, in which it is much more complicated to account for electric excitations, i.e. for Gauß constraint violations, emerging at larger scales. Moreover, since the fusion basis comes equipped with a hierarchical structure, it readily provides the language to design states with sophisticated multi-scale structures. Another way to employ this hierarchical structure is to encode a notion of subsystems for lattice gauge theories and (2+1) gravity coupled to point particles. In a follow-up work, we have exploited this notion to provide a new definition of entanglement entropy for these theories.
Conformal Gauge Transformations in Thermodynamics
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Alessandro Bravetti
2015-09-01
Full Text Available In this work, we show that the thermodynamic phase space is naturally endowed with a non-integrable connection, defined by all of those processes that annihilate the Gibbs one-form, i.e., reversible processes. We argue that such a connection is invariant under re-scalings of the connection one-form, whilst, as a consequence of the non-integrability of the connection, its curvature is not and, therefore, neither is the associated pseudo-Riemannian geometry. We claim that this is not surprising, since these two objects are associated with irreversible processes. Moreover, we provide the explicit form in which all of the elements of the geometric structure of the thermodynamic phase space change under a re-scaling of the connection one-form. We call this transformation of the geometric structure a conformal gauge transformation. As an example, we revisit the change of the thermodynamic representation and consider the resulting change between the two metrics on the thermodynamic phase space, which induce Weinhold’s energy metric and Ruppeiner’s entropy metric. As a by-product, we obtain a proof of the well-known conformal relation between Weinhold’s and Ruppeiner’s metrics along the equilibrium directions. Finally, we find interesting properties of the almost para-contact structure and of its eigenvectors, which may be of physical interest.
Gauge field entanglement in Kitaev's honeycomb model
Dóra, Balázs; Moessner, Roderich
2018-01-01
A spin fractionalizes into matter and gauge fermions in Kitaev's spin liquid on the honeycomb lattice. This follows from a Jordan-Wigner mapping to fermions, allowing for the construction of a minimal entropy ground-state wave function on the cylinder. We use this to calculate the entanglement entropy by choosing several distinct partitionings. First, by partitioning an infinite cylinder into two, the -ln2 topological entanglement entropy is reconfirmed. Second, the reduced density matrix of the gauge sector on the full cylinder is obtained after tracing out the matter degrees of freedom. This allows for evaluating the gauge entanglement Hamiltonian, which contains infinitely long-range correlations along the symmetry axis of the cylinder. The matter-gauge entanglement entropy is (Ny-1 )ln2 , with Ny the circumference of the cylinder. Third, the rules for calculating the gauge sector entanglement of any partition are determined. Rather small correctly chosen gauge partitions can still account for the topological entanglement entropy in spite of long-range correlations in the gauge entanglement Hamiltonian.
Perturbative unitarity constraints on gauge portals
El Hedri, Sonia; Shepherd, William; Walker, Devin G. E.
2017-12-01
Dark matter that was once in thermal equilibrium with the Standard Model is generally prohibited from obtaining all of its mass from the electroweak phase transition. This implies a new scale of physics and mediator particles to facilitate dark matter annihilation. In this work, we focus on dark matter that annihilates through a generic gauge boson portal. We show how partial wave unitarity places upper bounds on the dark gauge boson, dark Higgs and dark matter masses. Outside of well-defined fine-tuned regions, we find an upper bound of 9 TeV for the dark matter mass when the dark Higgs and dark gauge bosons both facilitate the dark matter annihilations. In this scenario, the upper bound on the dark Higgs and dark gauge boson masses are 10 TeV and 16 TeV, respectively. When only the dark gauge boson facilitates dark matter annihilations, we find an upper bound of 3 TeV and 6 TeV for the dark matter and dark gauge boson, respectively. Overall, using the gauge portal as a template, we describe a method to not only place upper bounds on the dark matter mass but also on the new particles with Standard Model quantum numbers. We briefly discuss the reach of future accelerator, direct and indirect detection experiments for this class of models.
Two species of vortices in massive gauged non-linear sigma models
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Alonso-Izquierdo, A. [Departamento de Matemática Aplicada, Universidad de Salamanca,Facultad de Ciencias Agrarias y Ambientales, Av. Filiberto Villalobos 119, E-37008 Salamanca (Spain); Fuertes, W. García [Departamento de Física, Universidad de Oviedo, Facultad de Ciencias, Calle Calvo Sotelo s/n, E-33007 Oviedo (Spain); Guilarte, J. Mateos [Departamento de Física Fundamental, Universidad de Salamanca, Facultad de Ciencias, Plaza de la Merced, E-37008 Salamanca (Spain)
2015-02-23
Non-linear sigma models with scalar fields taking values on ℂℙ{sup n} complex manifolds are addressed. In the simplest n=1 case, where the target manifold is the S{sup 2} sphere, we describe the scalar fields by means of stereographic maps. In this case when the U(1) symmetry is gauged and Maxwell and mass terms are allowed, the model accommodates stable self-dual vortices of two kinds with different energies per unit length and where the Higgs field winds at the cores around the two opposite poles of the sphere. Allowing for dielectric functions in the magnetic field, similar and richer self-dual vortices of different species in the south and north charts can be found by slightly modifying the potential. Two different situations are envisaged: either the vacuum orbit lies on a parallel in the sphere, or one pole and the same parallel form the vacuum orbit. Besides the self-dual vortices of two species, there exist BPS domain walls in the second case. Replacing the Maxwell contribution of the gauge field to the action by the second Chern-Simons secondary class, only possible in (2+1)-dimensional Minkowski space-time, new BPS topological defects of two species appear. Namely, both BPS vortices and domain ribbons in the south and the north charts exist because the vacuum orbit consits of the two poles and one parallel. Formulation of the gauged ℂℙ{sup 2} model in a reference chart shows a self-dual structure such that BPS semi-local vortices exist. The transition functions to the second or third charts break the U(1)×SU(2) semi-local symmetry, but there is still room for standard self-dual vortices of the second species. The same structures encompassing N complex scalar fields are easily generalized to gauged ℂℙ{sup N} models.
Expanding the Bethe/Gauge dictionary
Bullimore, Mathew; Kim, Hee-Cheol; Lukowski, Tomasz
2017-11-01
We expand the Bethe/Gauge dictionary between the XXX Heisenberg spin chain and 2d N = (2, 2) supersymmetric gauge theories to include aspects of the algebraic Bethe ansatz. We construct the wave functions of off-shell Bethe states as orbifold defects in the A-twisted supersymmetric gauge theory and study their correlation functions. We also present an alternative description of off-shell Bethe states as boundary conditions in an effective N = 4 supersymmetric quantum mechanics. Finally, we interpret spin chain R-matrices as correlation functions of Janus interfaces for mass parameters in the supersymmetric quantum mechanics.
Constraints on Gauge Field Production during Inflation
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nurmi, Sami; Sloth, Martin Snoager
2014-01-01
In order to gain new insights into the gauge field couplings in the early universe, we consider the constraints on gauge field production during inflation imposed by requiring that their effect on the CMB anisotropies are subdominant. In particular, we calculate systematically the bispectrum...... of the primordial curvature perturbation induced by the presence of vector gauge fields during inflation. Using a model independent parametrization in terms of magnetic non-linearity parameters, we calculate for the first time the contribution to the bispectrum from the cross correlation between the inflaton...
Origin of gauge invariance in string theory
Horowitz, G. T.; Strominger, A.
1986-01-01
A first quantization of the space-time embedding Chi exp mu and the world-sheet metric rho of the open bosonic string. The world-sheet metric rho decouples from S-matrix elements in 26 dimensions. This formulation of the theory naturally includes 26-dimensional gauge transformations. The gauge invariance of S-matrix elements is a direct consequence of the decoupling of rho. Second quantization leads to a string field Phi(Chi exp mu, rho) with a gauge-covariant equation of motion.
Electroweak Measurements with Multiple Gauge Boson Interactions
Sood, Alexander; The ATLAS collaboration
2014-01-01
These proceedings present measurements from ATLAS and CMS using proton-proton collisions with center-of-mass energies of 7 TeV and 8 TeV at the LHC that are sensitive to interactions between EW gauge bosons. Included analyses sensitive to triple gauge couplings are EW Z production, and $VV^{\\prime}$ cross sections where $V=W,Z$ and $V^{\\prime}=W,Z,γ$, while $\\gamma\\gamma \\rightarrow WW$, $WV\\gamma$ where $V=W,Z$, and $W^{\\pm}W^{\\pm}jj$ production are presented as probes of quartic gauge couplings.
Spin-k/2-spin-k/2 SU(2) two-point functions on the torus
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kirsch, Ingo [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany). Gruppe Theorie; Kucharski, Piotr [Warsaw Univ. (Poland). Inst. of Theoretical Physics
2012-11-15
We discuss a class of two-point functions on the torus of primary operators in the SU(2) Wess-Zumino-Witten model at integer level k. In particular, we construct an explicit expression for the current blocks of the spin-(k)/(2)-spin-(k)/(2) torus two-point functions for all k. We first examine the factorization limits of the proposed current blocks and test their monodromy properties. We then prove that the current blocks solve the corresponding Knizhnik-Zamolodchikov-like differential equations using the method of Mathur, Mukhi and Sen.
SU(2 color NJL model and EOS of quark-hadron matter at finite temperature and density
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Weise Wolfram
2012-02-01
Full Text Available We study the NJL model with the Polyakov loop in the SU(2-color case for the EOS of quark-hadron matter at finite temperature and density. We consider the spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking and the diquark condensation together with the behavior of the Polyakov loop for the phase diagram of quark-hadron matter. We discuss the spectrum of mesons and diquark baryons (boson at finite temperature and density.We derive also the linear sigma model Lagrangian for diquark baryon and mesons.
A note on open-chain transfer matrices from q-deformed su(2 vertical stroke 2)S-matrices
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Murgan, R. [Physics Department, Gustavus Adolphus College, St. Peter, MN (United States)
2009-09-15
In this note, we perform Sklyanin's construction of commuting open-chain/boundary transfer matrices to the q-deformed SU(2 vertical stroke 2) bulk S-matrix of Beisert and Koroteev and a corresponding boundary S-matrix. This also includes a corresponding commuting transfer matrix using the graded version of the q-deformed bulk S-matrix. Utilizing the crossing property for the bulk S-matrix, we argue that the transfer matrix for both graded and non-graded versions contains a crucial factor which is essential for commutativity. (Abstract Copyright [2009], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)
Gauge invariance and Weyl-polymer quantization
Strocchi, Franco
2016-01-01
The book gives an introduction to Weyl non-regular quantization suitable for the description of physically interesting quantum systems, where the traditional Dirac-Heisenberg quantization is not applicable. The latter implicitly assumes that the canonical variables describe observables, entailing necessarily the regularity of their exponentials (Weyl operators). However, in physically interesting cases -- typically in the presence of a gauge symmetry -- non-observable canonical variables are introduced for the description of the states, namely of the relevant representations of the observable algebra. In general, a gauge invariant ground state defines a non-regular representation of the gauge dependent Weyl operators, providing a mathematically consistent treatment of familiar quantum systems -- such as the electron in a periodic potential (Bloch electron), the Quantum Hall electron, or the quantum particle on a circle -- where the gauge transformations are, respectively, the lattice translations, the magne...
77 FR 31894 - Portable Gauge Licenses
2012-05-30
... Gauge Licenses.'' The document has been updated to include safety culture, security of radioactive... and Environmental Management Programs; U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC 20555-0001... Materials and Environmental Management Programs. BILLING CODE 7590-01-P ...
Toward a gauge field theory of gravity.
Yilmaz, H.
Joint use of two differential identities (Bianchi and Freud) permits a gauge field theory of gravity in which the gravitational energy is localizable. The theory is compatible with quantum mechanics and is experimentally viable.
Algebraic formulation of higher gauge theory
Zucchini, Roberto
2017-06-01
In this paper, we present a purely algebraic formulation of higher gauge theory and gauged sigma models based on the abstract theory of graded commutative algebras and their morphisms. The formulation incorporates naturally Becchi - Rouet -Stora - Tyutin (BRST) symmetry and is also suitable for Alexandrov - Kontsevich - Schwartz-Zaboronsky (AKSZ) type constructions. It is also shown that for a full-fledged Batalin-Vilkovisky formulation including ghost degrees of freedom, higher gauge and gauged sigma model fields must be viewed as internal smooth functions on the shifted tangent bundle of a space-time manifold valued in a shifted L∞-algebroid encoding symmetry. The relationship to other formulations where the L∞-algebroid arises from a higher Lie groupoid by Lie differentiation is highlighted.
Bethe/gauge correspondence on curved spaces
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nekrasov, Nikita [Simons Center for Geometry and Physics,Stony Brook, NY 11794-3636 (United States); Shatashvili, Samson [Simons Center for Geometry and Physics,Stony Brook, NY 11794-3636 (United States); Hamilton Mathematical Institute, Trinity College,Dublin 2 (Ireland); School of Mathematics, Trinity College,Dublin 2 (Ireland)
2015-01-20
Bethe/gauge correspondence identifies supersymmetric vacua of massive gauge theories invariant under the two dimensional N=2 Poincare supersymmetry with the stationary states of some quantum integrable system. The supersymmetric theory can be twisted in a number of ways, producing a topological field theory. For these theories we compute the handle gluing operator H. We also discuss the Gaudin conjecture on the norm of Bethe states and its connection to H.
Gauge anomalies in Lorentz-violating QED
Santos, Tiago R. S.; Sobreiro, Rodrigo F.
2016-12-01
In this work we study the issue of gauge anomalies in Lorentz-violating QED. To do so, we opt to use the Becchi-Rouet-Stora-Tyutin formalism within the algebraic renormalization approach, reducing our study to a cohomology problem. Since this approach is independent of the renormalization scheme, the results obtained here are expected to be general. We find that the Lorentz-violating QED is free of gauge anomalies to all orders in perturbation theory.
Supersymmetry of Bianchi attractors in gauged supergravity
Chakrabarty, Bidisha; Inbasekar, Karthik; Samanta, Rickmoy
2017-09-01
Bianchi attractors are near horizon geometries with homogeneous symmetries in spatial directions. We construct supersymmetric Bianchi attractors in N =2 ,d =4 , 5 gauged supergravity. In d =4 , we consider gauged supergravity coupled to vector and hypermultiplets. In d =5 , we consider gauged supergravity coupled to vector multiplets with a generic gauging of symmetries of the scalar manifold and the U (1 )R gauging of the R -symmetry. Analyzing the gaugino conditions, we show that when the fermionic shifts do not vanish, there are no supersymmetric Bianchi attractors. This is analogous to the known condition that for maximally supersymmetric solutions, all of the fermionic shifts must vanish. When the central charge satisfies an extremization condition, some of the fermionic shifts vanish and supersymmetry requires that the symmetries of the scalar manifold are not gauged. This allows supersymmetric Bianchi attractors sourced by massless gauge fields and a cosmological constant. In five dimensions in the Bianchi I class, we show that the anisotropic AdS3×R2 solution is 1 /2 BPS (Bogomol'nyi-Prasad-Sommerfield). We also construct a new class of 1 /2 BPS Bianchi III geometries labeled by the central charge. When the central charge takes a special value, the Bianchi III geometry reduces to the known AdS3×H2 solution. For the Bianchi V and VII classes, the radial spinor breaks all of supersymmetry. We briefly discuss the conditions for possible massive supersymmetric Bianchi solutions by generalizing the matter content to include tensor, hypermultiplets, and a generic gauging on the R -symmetry.
Nernst branes with Lifshitz asymptotics in N=2 gauged supergravity
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cardoso, G.L. [Center for Mathematical Analysis, Geometry and Dynamical Systems,Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa,Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Haack, M. [Arnold Sommerfeld Center for Theoretical Physics,Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München,Theresienstrasse 37, 80333 München (Germany); Nampuri, S. [Center for Mathematical Analysis, Geometry and Dynamical Systems,Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa,Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal)
2016-06-23
We discuss two classes of non-supersymmetric interpolating solutions in N=2, D=4 gauged supergravity, that flow from either a z=2 Lifshitz geometry or a conformal AdS background to the near-horizon geometry of a Nernst brane. We obtain these solutions by constructing a z=2 supersymmetric Lifshitz solution in the STU model from a first-order rewriting of the action, then lifting it up to a five-dimensional background and subsequently modifying this five-dimensional solution by a two-parameter family of deformations. Under reduction, these give four-dimensional non-supersymmetric Nernst brane solutions. This is a step towards resolving the Lifshitz tidal force singularity in the context of N=2 gauged supergravity and suggests an approach to encoding the Nernst brane in terms of the Schrödinger symmetry group of the holographically dual field theory.
Three Instanton Computations In Gauge Theory And String Theory
Beasley, C E
2005-01-01
We employ a variety of ideas from geometry and topology to perform three new instanton computations in gauge theory and string theory. First, we consider supersymmetric QCD with gauge group SU( Nc) and with Nf flavors. In this theory, it is well known that instantons generate a superpotential if Nf = Nc − 1 and deform the moduli space of supersymmetric vacua if Nf = Nc. We extend these results to supersymmetric QCD with Nf > Nc flavors, for which we show that instantons generate a hierarchy of new, multi- fermion F-terms in the effective action. Second, we revisit the question of which Calabi-Yau compactifications of the heterotic string are stable under worldsheet instanton corrections to the effective space-time superpotential. For instance, compactifications described by (0, 2) linear sigma models are believed to be stable, suggesting a remarkable cancellation among the instanton effects in these theories. We show that this cancellation follows directly from a residue theorem, whose proof relie...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lee, Kanghoon [Quantum Universe Center, Korea Institute for Advanced Study, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Strickland-Constable, Charles [Institut de Physique Theorique, Universite Paris Saclay, CEA, CNRS, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Waldram, Daniel [Department of Physics, Imperial College London (United Kingdom); Berkeley Center for Theoretical Physics, University of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)
2017-10-15
We discuss the possible realisation in string/M theory of the recently discovered family of four-dimensional maximal SO(8) gauged supergravities, and of an analogous family of seven-dimensional half-maximal SO(4) gauged supergravities. We first prove a no-go theorem that neither class of gaugings can be realised via a compactification that is locally described by ten- or eleven-dimensional supergravity. In the language of Double Field Theory and its M theory analogue, this implies that the section condition must be violated. Introducing the minimal number of additional coordinates possible, we then show that the standard S{sup 3} and S{sup 7} compactifications of ten- and eleven-dimensional supergravity admit a new class of section-violating generalised frames with a generalised Lie derivative algebra that reproduces the embedding tensor of the SO(4) and SO(8) gaugings respectively. The physical meaning, if any, of these constructions is unclear. They highlight a number of the issues that arise when attempting to apply the formalism of Double Field Theory to non-toroidal backgrounds. Using a naive brane charge quantisation to determine the periodicities of the additional coordinates restricts the SO(4) gaugings to an infinite discrete set and excludes all the SO(8) gaugings other than the standard one. (copyright 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
Gauge theory loop operators and Liouville theory
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Drukker, Nadav [Humboldt Univ. Berlin (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik; Gomis, Jaume; Okuda, Takuda [Perimeter Inst. for Theoretical Physics, Waterloo, ON (Canada); Teschner, Joerg [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)
2009-10-15
We propose a correspondence between loop operators in a family of four dimensional N=2 gauge theories on S{sup 4} - including Wilson, 't Hooft and dyonic operators - and Liouville theory loop operators on a Riemann surface. This extends the beautiful relation between the partition function of these N=2 gauge theories and Liouville correlators found by Alday, Gaiotto and Tachikawa. We show that the computation of these Liouville correlators with the insertion of a Liouville loop operator reproduces Pestun's formula capturing the expectation value of a Wilson loop operator in the corresponding gauge theory. We prove that our definition of Liouville loop operators is invariant under modular transformations, which given our correspondence, implies the conjectured action of S-duality on the gauge theory loop operators. Our computations in Liouville theory make an explicit prediction for the exact expectation value of 't Hooft and dyonic loop operators in these N=2 gauge theories. The Liouville loop operators are also found to admit a simple geometric interpretation within quantum Teichmueller theory as the quantum operators representing the length of geodesics. We study the algebra of Liouville loop operators and show that it gives evidence for our proposal as well as providing definite predictions for the operator product expansion of loop operators in gauge theory. (orig.)
Novel circuits for energizing manganin stress gauges
Tasker, Douglas G.
2017-01-01
This paper describes the design of a novel MOSFET pulsed constant current supplies for low impedance Manganin stress gauges. The design emphasis has been on high accuracy, low noise, simple, low cost, disposable supplies that can be used to energize multiple gauges in explosive or shock experiments. The Manganin gauges used to measure stresses in detonating explosive experiments have typical resistances of 50 mΩ and are energized with pulsed currents of 50 A. Conventional pulsed, constant current supplies for these gauges are high voltage devices with outputs as high as 500 V. Common problems with the use of high voltage supplies at explosive firing sites are: erroneous signals caused by ground loops; overdrive of oscilloscopes on gauge failure; gauge signal crosstalk; cost; and errors due to changing load impedances. The new circuit corrects these issues. It is an 18-V circuit, powered by 9-V alkaline batteries, and features an optically isolated trigger, and single-point grounding. These circuits have been successfully tested at the Los Alamos National Laboratory in explosive experiments. [LA-UR-15-24819
A new antisymmetric bilinear map for type-I gauge theories
Esposito, Giampiero; Stornaiolo, Cosimo
2007-01-01
In the case of gauge theories, which are ruled by an infinite-dimensional invariance group, various choices of antisymmetric bilinear maps on field functionals are indeed available. This paper proves first that, within this broad framework, the Peierls map (not yet the bracket) is a member of a larger family. At that stage, restriction to gauge-invariant functionals of the fields, with the associated Ward identities and geometric structure of the space of histories, make it possible to prove ...
Infrared Fixed Point Physics in ${\\rm SO}(N_c)$ and ${\\rm Sp}(N_c)$ Gauge Theories
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ryttov, Thomas A.; Shrock, Robert
2017-01-01
We study properties of asymptotically free vectorial gauge theories with gauge groups $G={\\rm SO}(N_c)$ and $G={\\rm Sp}(N_c)$ and $N_f$ fermions in a representation $R$ of $G$, at an infrared (IR) zero of the beta function, $\\alpha_{IR}$, in the non-Abelian Coulomb phase. The fundamental, adjoint...
Non-perturbatively gauge-fixed compact U(1) lattice gauge theory
De, Asit K.; Sarkar, Mugdha
2017-10-01
An extensive study of the compact U(1) lattice gauge theory with a higher derivative gauge-fixing term and a suitable counter-term has been undertaken to determine the nature of the possible continuum limits for a wide range of the parameters, especially at strong gauge couplings ( g > 1), adding to our previous study at a single gauge coupling g = 1 .3 [1]. Our major conclusion is that a continuum limit of free massless photons(with the redundant pure gauge degrees of freedom decoupled) is achieved at any gauge coupling, not necessarily small, provided the coefficient \\tilde{κ} of the gauge-fixing term is sufficiently large. In fact, the region of continuous phase transition leading to the above physics in the strong gauge coupling region is found to be analytically connected to the point g = 0 and \\tilde{κ}\\to ∞ where the classical action has a global unique minimum, around which weak coupling perturbation theory in bare parameters is defined, controlling the physics of the whole region. A second major conclusion is that, local algorithms like Multihit Metropolis fail to produce faithful field configurations with large values of the coefficient \\tilde{κ} of the higher derivative gauge-fixing term and at large lattice volumes. A global algorithm like Hybrid Monte Carlo, although at times slow to move out of metastabilities, generally is able to produce faithful configurations and has been used extensively in the current study.
Comparing the Rξ gauge and the unitary gauge for the standard model: An example
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Tai Tsun Wu
2017-01-01
Full Text Available For gauge theory, the matrix element for any physical process is independent of the gauge used. However, since this is a formal statement, it does not guarantee this gauge independence in every case. An example is given here where, for a physical process in the standard model, the matrix elements calculated with two different gauge – the Rξ gauge and the unitary gauge – are explicitly verified to be different. This is accomplished by subtracting one matrix element from the other. This non-zero difference turns out to have a subtle origin. Two simple operators are found not to commute with each other: in one gauge these two operations are carried out in one order, while in the other gauge these same two operations are carried out in the opposite order. Because of this result, a series of question are raised such that the answers to these question may lead to a deeper understanding of the Yang–Mills non-Abelian gauge theory in general and the standard model in particular.
de Andrés, J; Bellver, J; Bolinches, R
1994-12-01
One hundred and twenty-eight ASA I-III patients less than 40 yr of age, undergoing orthopaedic or trauma lower limb surgery, were allocated randomly to receive either continuous spinal anaesthesia (CSA) using a 32-gauge polyimide microcatheter with a permanent stylet (Rusch/TFX Medical, Duluth, GA, USA) or single-dose spinal anaesthesia (SDSA) with a 24-gauge x 103-mm Sprotte spinal needle (Pajunk, Germany). Plain bupivacaine (0.5%) was used as the local anaesthetic. The initial doses were 1 ml (5 mg) of CSA and 3 ml (15 mg) of SDSA, while the re-injection doses were 1 ml (5 mg) in the CSA group. SDSA was quicker to perform: mean 4.4 (SD 1.6) min compared with 6.2 (2.6) min for CSA (P SDSA group (P SDSA group (T9 (T11-T5)) (P SDSA with a small gauge atraumatic needle.
Aspects of AdS, CFT. Black solutions in gauged supergravity and holographic conductivities
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Barisch-Dick, Susanne
2013-04-26
We have met some interesting results within the wide subject of the AdS/CFT correspondence. We have seen how to apply AdS/CFT techniques to calculate the frequency dependent conductivity tensor for field theories dual to a black hole in Einstein-Yang-Mills theory with SU(2) gauge group. Further, we have constructed several new black solutions in N=2 U(1) gauged supergravity in four and five dimensions. The larger part of these solutions behave asymptotically like AdS which makes them interesting within the AdS/CFT context. In addition we found extremal black branes with zero entropy density - the Nernst branes. Nonetheless we are left with some yet unsolved problems. It is very interesting to see what causes the negative entropy production rate we found in chapter 4 for the normal state of the field theory. The next task is to see whether we can find an instability on the gravity side looking at the full Einstein-Yang-Mills equations. Also our work on supergravity solutions in four and five dimension exhibits some ''loose ends''. Since all our four-dimensional Nernst solutions were axion-free it would be nice to find one with axions excited. Moreover, it would be interesting to see whether the singular solutions with flowing γ could be cured by taking into account higher derivative corrections or whether there exist non-singular solutions with non-constant γ. In five dimensions we met problems when adding electric charge. At present we could not find a dyonic solution and we had the impression that having electric charges and having magnetic fields seemed to be somehow complementary to each other. We saw these difficulties even at the beginning when we performed the first-order rewriting since the first-order rewriting in chapter 6 leads to flow equations for the scalars X{sup A} which only contain magnetic fields and fluxes but no electric charges. The latter only influence the equations of motion for the X{sup A} in an indirect way. However
27 CFR 19.454 - Gauge for denaturation.
2010-04-01
... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Gauge for denaturation. 19... Denaturation § 19.454 Gauge for denaturation. The proprietor shall gauge spirits before denaturation and after denaturation and record each gauge on the record of denaturation as prescribed in § 19.752(b). However, spirits...
Two-Dimensional Exactly Solvable Quantum Model Obtained from SU(3)/SU(2) Homogenous Space
Panahi, H.; Nemati, M.
2017-07-01
In this paper by using of the Euler-angle parametrization of SU(3) Lie group and its symmetry space on S 5≅ S U(3) / S U(2), we obtain one two-dimensional Hamiltonian defined on S 2sphere. We show that the quantum system can be interpreted as the motion of a charged particle in presence of an external electric field. We solve the model and obtain its spectrum.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Nikos Irges
2017-11-01
Full Text Available We perform an old school, one-loop renormalization of the Abelian–Higgs model in the Unitary and Rξ gauges, focused on the scalar potential and the gauge boson mass. Our goal is to demonstrate in this simple context the validity of the Unitary gauge at the quantum level, which could open the way for an until now (mostly avoided framework for loop computations. We indeed find that the Unitary gauge is consistent and equivalent to the Rξ gauge at the level of β-functions. Then we compare the renormalized, finite, one-loop Higgs potential in the two gauges and we again find equivalence. This equivalence needs not only a complete cancellation of the gauge fixing parameter ξ from the Rξ gauge potential but also requires its ξ-independent part to be equal to the Unitary gauge result. We follow the quantum behavior of the system by plotting Renormalization Group trajectories and Lines of Constant Physics, with the former the well known curves and with the latter, determined by the finite parts of the counter-terms, particularly well suited for a comparison with non-perturbative studies.
Gauge invariance of color confinement due to the dual Meissner effect caused by Abelian monopoles
Suzuki, T; Ishiguro, K; Koma, Y; Sekido, T
2009-01-01
The mechanism of non-Abelian color confinement is studied in SU(2) lattice gauge theory in terms of the Abelian fields and monopoles extracted from non-Abelian link variables without adopting gauge fixing. Firstly, the static quark-antiquark potential and force are computed with the Abelian and monopole Polyakov loop correlators, and the resulting string tensions are found to be identical to the non-Abelian string tension. These potentials also show the scaling behavior with respect to the change of lattice spacing. Secondly, the profile of the color-electric field between a quark and an antiquark is investigated with the Abelian and monopole Wilson loops. The color-electric field is squeezed into a flux tube due to monopole supercurrent with the same Abelian color direction. The parameters corresponding to the penetration and coherence lengths show the scaling behavior, and the ratio of these lengths, i.e, the Ginzburg-Landau parameter, indicates that the vacuum type is near the border of the type1 and type2...
Gravity as an SU(1, 1) gauge theory in four dimensions
Liu, Hongguang; Noui, Karim
2017-07-01
We start with the Hamiltonian formulation of the first order action of pure gravity with a full sl(2, C) internal gauge symmetry. We make a partial gauge-fixing which reduces sl(2, C) to its sub-algebra su(1, 1) . This case corresponds to a splitting of the space-time { M}=Σ × R where Σ inherits an arbitrary Lorentzian metric of signature (-, +, +). Then, we find a parametrization of the phase space in terms of an su(1, 1) commutative connection and its associated conjugate electric field. Following the techniques of loop quantum gravity, we start the quantization of the theory and we consider the kinematical Hilbert space on a given fixed graph Γ whose edges are colored with unitary representations of su(1, 1) . We compute the spectrum of area operators acting on the kinematical Hilbert space: we show that space-like areas have discrete spectra, in agreement with usual su(2) loop quantum gravity, whereas time-like areas have continuous spectra. We conclude on the possibility to make use of this formulation of gravity to construct a holographic description of black holes in the framework of loop quantum gravity.
Confinement in Polyakov gauge and the QCD phase diagram
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Marhauser, Marc Florian
2009-10-14
We investigate Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) in the framework of the functional renormalisation group (fRG). Thereby describing the phase transition from the phase with confined quarks into the quark-gluon-plasma phase. We focus on a physical gauge in which the mechanism driving the phase transition is discernible. We find results compatible with lattice QCD data, as well as with functional methods applied in different gauges. The phase transition is of the expected order and we computed critical exponents. Extensions of the model are discussed. When investigating the QCD phase diagram, we compute the effects of dynamical quarks at finite density on the running of the gauge coupling. Additionally, we calculate how these affect the deconfinement phase transition, also, dynamical quarks allow for the inclusion of a finite chemical potential. Concluding the investigation of the phase diagram, we establish a relation between confinement and chiral symmetry breaking, which is tied to the dynamical generation of hadron masses. In the investigations, we often encounter scale dependent fields. We investigate a footing on which these can be dealt with in a uniform way. (orig.)
Buyens, Boye; Montangero, Simone; Haegeman, Jutho; Verstraete, Frank; Van Acoleyen, Karel
2017-05-01
It has been established that matrix product states can be used to compute the ground state and single-particle excitations and their properties of lattice gauge theories at the continuum limit. However, by construction, in this formalism the Hilbert space of the gauge fields is truncated to a finite number of irreducible representations of the gauge group. We investigate quantitatively the influence of the truncation of the infinite number of representations in the Schwinger model, one-flavor QED2 , with a uniform electric background field. We compute the two-site reduced density matrix of the ground state and the weight of each of the representations. We find that this weight decays exponentially with the quadratic Casimir invariant of the representation which justifies the approach of truncating the Hilbert space of the gauge fields. Finally, we compute the single-particle spectrum of the model as a function of the electric background field.
Evaluation of 25-gauge Quincke and 24 — gauge Gertie Marx ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Objective: To compare the insertion characteristics and rate of complications between 25-gauge Quincke and 24-gauge Gertie Marx needles. Design: Prospective, randomized. Setting: University of Benin Teaching Hospital; a university-affiliated tertiary centre. Subjects: Parturients (ASA 1 and 2) scheduled for elective ...
Family gauge boson production at the LHC
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yoshio Koide
2015-11-01
Full Text Available Family gauge boson production at the LHC is investigated according to a U(3 family gauge model with twisted family number assignment. In the model we study, a family gauge boson with the lowest mass, A11, interacts only with the first generation leptons and the third generation quarks. (The family numbers are assigned, for example, as (e1,e2,e3=(e−,μ−,τ− and (d1,d2,d3=(b,d,s [or (d1,d2,d3=(b,s,d]. In the model, the family gauge coupling constant is fixed by relating to the electroweak gauge coupling constant. Thus measurements of production cross sections and branching ratios of A11 clearly confirm or rule out the model. We calculate the cross sections of inclusive A11 production and bb¯(tt¯ associated A11 production at s=14 TeV and 100 TeV. With the dielectron production cross section, we discuss the determination of diagonalizing matrix of quark mass matrix, Uu and Ud, respectively.
Gauge theories in anti-selfdual variables
Bochicchio, Marco; Pilloni, Alessandro
2013-09-01
Some years ago the Nicolai map, viewed as a change of variables from the gauge connection in a fixed gauge to the anti-selfdual part of the curvature, has been extended by the first named author to pure Yang-Mills from its original definition in = 1 supersymmetric Yang-Mills. We study here the perturbative one-particle irreducible effective action in the anti-selfdual variables of any gauge theory, in particular pure Yang-Mills, QCD and = 1 supersymmetric Yang-Mills. We prove that the one-loop one-particle irreducible effective action of a gauge theory mapped to the anti-selfdual variables in any gauge is identical to the one of the original theory. This is due to the conspiracy between the Jacobian of the change to the anti-selfdual variables and an extra functional determinant that arises from the non-linearity of the coupling of the anti-selfdual curvature to an external source in the Legendre transform that defines the one-particle irreducible effective action. Hence we establish the one-loop perturbative equivalence of the mapped and original theories on the basis of the identity of the one-loop one-particle irreducible effective actions. Besides, we argue that the identity of the perturbative one-particle irreducible effective actions extends order by order in perturbation theory.
MHD Gauge Fields: Helicities and Casimirs
Hu, Q.; Webb, G. M.; Zank, G. P.; Anco, S.
2016-12-01
Clebsch potential gauge field theory for magnetohydrodynamics is developed based in part on the theory of Calkin (1963). It is shown how the polarization vector P in Calkin's approach, naturally arises from the Lagrange multiplier constraint equation for Faraday's equation for the magnetic induction B, or alternatively from the magnetic vector potential form of Faraday's equation. Gauss's equation, (divergence of Bis zero), is incorporated in the variational principle by means of a Lagrange multiplier constraint. Noether's theorem, and gauge symmetries are used to derive the conservation laws for (a) magnetic helicity (b) cross helicity, (c) fluid helicity for non-magnetized fluids, and (d) a class of conservation laws associated with curl and divergence equations, which applies to Faraday's equation and Gauss's equation. The magnetic helicity conservation law is due to a gauge symmetry in MHD and not due to a fluid relabelling symmetry. The analysis is carried out for a non-barotropic gas. The cross helicity and fluid helicity conservation are nonlocal conservation laws, that reduce to local conservation laws for the case of a barotropic gas. The connections between gauge symmetries, Clebsch potentials and Casimirs are developed. It is shown that the gauge symmetry functionals in the work of Henyey (1982) satisfy the Casimir equations.
Lattice Gauge Theories Have Gravitational Duals
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hellerman, Simeon
2002-09-05
In this paper we examine a certain threebrane solution of type IIB string theory whose long-wavelength dynamics are those of a supersymmetric gauge theory in 2+1 continuous and 1 discrete dimension, all of infinite extent. Low-energy processes in this background are described by dimensional deconstruction, a strict limit in which gravity decouples but the lattice spacing stays finite. Relating this limit to the near-horizon limit of our solution we obtain an exact, continuum gravitational dual of a lattice gauge theory with nonzero lattice spacing. H-flux in this translationally invariant background encodes the spatial discreteness of the gauge theory, and we relate the cutoff on allowed momenta to a giant graviton effect in the bulk.
Renormalization of gauge theories without cohomology
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Anselmi, Damiano [Universita di Pisa, Dipartimento di Fisica ' ' Enrico Fermi' ' , Pisa (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Pisa (Italy)
2013-07-15
We investigate the renormalization of gauge theories without assuming cohomological properties. We define a renormalization algorithm that preserves the Batalin-Vilkovisky master equation at each step and automatically extends the classical action till it contains sufficiently many independent parameters to reabsorb all divergences into parameter-redefinitions and canonical transformations. The construction is then generalized to the master functional and the field-covariant proper formalism for gauge theories. Our results hold in all manifestly anomaly-free gauge theories, power-counting renormalizable or not. The extension algorithm allows us to solve a quadratic problem, such as finding a sufficiently general solution of the master equation, even when it is not possible to reduce it to a linear (cohomological) problem. (orig.)
Gauge field theories an introduction with applications
Guidry, Mike
1991-01-01
Acquaints readers with the main concepts and literature of elementary particle physics and quantum field theory. In particular, the book is concerned with the elaboration of gauge field theories in nuclear physics; the possibility of creating fundamental new states of matter such as an extended quark-gluon plasma in ultra-relativistic heavy ion collisions; and the relation of gauge theories to the creation and evolution of the universe. Divided into three parts, it opens with an introduction to the general principles of relativistic quantum field theory followed by the essential ingredients of gauge fields for weak and electromagnetic interactions, quantum chromodynamics and strong interactions. The third part is concerned with the interface between modern elementary particle physics and "applied disciplines" such as nuclear physics, astrophysics and cosmology. Includes references and numerous exercises
Light higgsino for gauge coupling unification
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jeong, Kwang Sik, E-mail: ksjeong@pusan.ac.kr
2017-06-10
We explore gauge coupling unification and dark matter in high scale supersymmetry where the scale of supersymmetry breaking is much above the weak scale. The gauge couplings unify as precisely as in low energy supersymmetry if the higgsinos, whose mass does not break supersymmetry, are much lighter than those obtaining masses from supersymmetry breaking. The dark matter of the universe can then be explained by the neutral higgsino or the gravitino. High scale supersymmetry with light higgsinos requires a large Higgs mixing parameter for electroweak symmetry breaking to take place. It is thus naturally realized in models where superparticle masses are generated at loop level while the Higgs mixing parameter is induced at tree level, like in anomaly and gauge mediation of supersymmetry breaking.
Light higgsino for gauge coupling unification
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kwang Sik Jeong
2017-06-01
Full Text Available We explore gauge coupling unification and dark matter in high scale supersymmetry where the scale of supersymmetry breaking is much above the weak scale. The gauge couplings unify as precisely as in low energy supersymmetry if the higgsinos, whose mass does not break supersymmetry, are much lighter than those obtaining masses from supersymmetry breaking. The dark matter of the universe can then be explained by the neutral higgsino or the gravitino. High scale supersymmetry with light higgsinos requires a large Higgs mixing parameter for electroweak symmetry breaking to take place. It is thus naturally realized in models where superparticle masses are generated at loop level while the Higgs mixing parameter is induced at tree level, like in anomaly and gauge mediation of supersymmetry breaking.
Gauge symmetries and structure of proteins
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Molochkov Alexander
2017-01-01
Full Text Available We discuss the gauge field theory approach to protein structure study, which allows a natural way to introduce collective degrees of freedom and nonlinear topological structures. Local symmetry of proteins and its breaking in the medium is considered, what allows to derive Abelian Higgs model of protein backbone, correct folding of which is defined by gauge symmetry breaking due hydrophobic forces. Within this model structure of protein backbone is defined by superposition of one-dimensional topological solitons (kinks, what allows to reproduce the three-dimensional structure of the protein backbone with precision up to 1A and to predict its dynamics.
Uplifting non-compact gauged supergravities
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Baron, Walter H.; Dall’Agata, Gianguido [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia “Galileo Galilei”,Università di Padova, Via Marzolo 8, 35131 Padova (Italy); INFN - Sezione di Padova Via Marzolo 8, 35131 Padova (Italy)
2015-02-02
We provide the M-theory uplift of de Sitter vacua of SO(5,3) and SO(4,4) gaugings of maximal supergravity in 4 dimensions. We find new non-compact backgrounds that are squashed hyperboloids with non-trivial flux for the 3-form potential. The uplift requires a new non-linear ansatz for the 11-dimensional metric and for the 3-form potential that reduces to the known one leading to the 7-sphere solution in the case of the SO(8) gauging.
Jarzynski's theorem for lattice gauge theory
Caselle, Michele; Nada, Alessandro; Panero, Marco; Toniato, Arianna
2016-01-01
Jarzynski's theorem is a well-known equality in statistical mechanics, which relates fluctuations in the work performed during a non-equilibrium transformation of a system, to the free-energy difference between two equilibrium states. In this article, we extend Jarzynski's theorem to lattice gauge theory, and present examples of applications for two challenging computational problems, namely the calculation of interface free energies and the determination of the equation of state. We conclude with a discussion of further applications of interest in QCD and in other strongly coupled gauge theories, in particular for the Schroedinger functional and for simulations at finite density using reweighting techniques.
Schael, S; Brunelière, R; De Bonis, I; Décamp, D; Goy, C; Jézéquel, S; Lees, J P; Martin, F; Merle, E; Minard, M N; Pietrzyk, B; Trocmé, B; Bravo, S; Casado, M P; Chmeissani, M; Crespo, J M; Fernández, E; Fernández-Bosman, M; Garrido, L; Martínez, M; Pacheco, A; Ruiz, H; Colaleo, A; Creanza, D; De Filippis, N; De Palma, M; Iaselli, G; Maggi, G; Maggi, M; Nuzzo, S; Ranieri, A; Raso, G; Ruggieri, F; Selvaggi, G; Silvestris, L; Tempesta, P; Tricomi, A; Zito, G; Huang, X; Lin, J; Ouyang, Q; Wang, T; Xie, Y; Xu, R; Xue, S; Zhang, J; Zhang, L; Zhao, W; Abbaneo, D; Barklow, T; Buchmüller, O L; Cattaneo, M; Clerbaux, B; Drevermann, H; Forty, R W; Frank, M; Gianotti, F; Hansen, J B; Harvey, J; Hutchcroft, D E; Janot, P; Jost, B; Kado, M; Mato, P; Moutoussi, A; Ranjard, F; Rolandi, Luigi; Schlatter, W D; Teubert, F; Valassi, A; Videau, I; Badaud, F; Dessagne, S; Falvard, A; Fayolle, D; Gay, P; Jousset, J; Michel, B; Monteil, S; Pallin, D; Pascolo, J M; Perret, P; Hansen, J D; Hansen, J R; Hansen, P H; Kraan, A C; Nilsson, B S; Kyriakis, A; Markou, C; Simopoulou, E; Vayaki, A; Zachariadou, K; Blondel, A; Brient, J C; Machefert, F P; Rougé, A; Videau, H L; Ciulli, V; Focardi, E; Parrini, G; Antonelli, A; Antonelli, M; Bencivenni, G; Bossi, F; Capon, G; Cerutti, F; Chiarella, V; Laurelli, P; Mannocchi, G; Murtas, G P; Passalacqua, L; Kennedy, J; Lynch, J G; Negus, P; O'Shea, V; Thompson, A S; Wasserbaech, S R; Cavanaugh, R J; Dhamotharan, S; Geweniger, C; Hanke, P; Hepp, V; Kluge, E E; Putzer, A; Stenzel, H; Tittel, K; Wunsch, M; Beuselinck, R; Cameron, W; Davies, G; Dornan, P J; Girone, M; Marinelli, N; Nowell, J; Rutherford, S A; Sedgbeer, J K; Thompson, J C; White, R; Ghete, V M; Girtler, P; Kneringer, E; Kuhn, D; Rudolph, G; Bouhova-Thacker, E; Bowdery, C K; Clarke, D P; Ellis, G; Finch, A J; Foster, F; Hughes, G; Jones, R W L; Pearson, M R; Robertson, N A; Smizanska, M; van der Aa, O; Delaere, C; Leibenguth, G; Lemaître, V; Blumenschein, U; Hölldorfer, F; Jakobs, K; Kayser, F; Müller, A S; Renk, B; Sander, H G; Schmeling, S; Wachsmuth, H W; Zeitnitz, C; Ziegler, T; Bonissent, A; Coyle, P; Curtil, C; Ealet, A; Fouchez, D; Payre, P; Tilquin, A; Ragusa, F; David, A; Dietl, H; Ganis, G; Hüttmann, K; Lütjens, G; Männer, W; Moser, H G; Settles, R; Villegas, M; Wolf, G; Boucrot, J; Callot, O; Davier, M; Duflot, L; Grivaz, J F; Heusse, P; Jacholkowska, A; Serin, L; Veillet, J J; Azzurri, P; Bagliesi, G; Boccali, T; Foà, L; Giammanco, A; Giassi, A; Ligabue, F; Messineo, A; Palla, F; Sanguinetti, G; Sciabà, A; Sguazzoni, G; Spagnolo, P; Tenchini, R; Venturi, A; Verdini, P G; Awunor, O; Blair, G A; Cowan, G; García-Bellido, A; Green, M G; Medcalf, T; Misiejuk, A; Strong, J A; Teixeira-Dias, P; Clifft, R W; Edgecock, T R; Norton, P R; Tomalin, I R; Ward, J J; Bloch-Devaux, B; Boumediene, D E; Colas, P; Fabbro, B; Lançon, E; Lemaire, M C; Locci, E; Pérez, P; Rander, J; Tuchming, B; Vallage, B; Litke, A M; Taylor, G; Booth, C N; Cartwright, S; Combley, F; Hodgson, P N; Lehto, M H; Thompson, L F; Böhrer, A; Brandt, S; Grupen, C; Hess, J; Ngac, A; Prange, G; Borean, C; Giannini, G; He, H; Pütz, J; Rothberg, J E; Armstrong, S R; Berkelman, K; Cranmer, K; Ferguson, D P S; Gao, Y; González, S; Hayes, O J; Hu, H; Jin, S; Kile, J; McNamara, P A; Nielsen, J; Pan Yi Bin; Von Wimmersperg-Töller, J H; Wiedenmann, W; Wu, J; Wu, S L; Wu, X; Zobernig, G; Dissertori, G
2005-01-01
Triple gauge-boson couplings WWgamma and WWZ involving single-photon, single-W and W-pair production are determined using data samples collected at LEP with the ALEPH detector at centre-of-mass energies between 183 and 209 GeV. The integrated luminosity used is 700 pb-1 for the single-photon measurement and 683 pb-1 for the W channels. Restricting the measurement to C- and P- conserving terms and applying local SU(2)xU(1) gauge invariance, the measured values of the parameters g1z, kappa_gamma and lambda_gamma are: g1z = 1.001 +/- 0.027(stat.) +/- 0.013(syst.) kappa_gamma = 0.971 +/- 0.055(stat.) +/- 0.030(syst.) lambda_gamma = -0.012 +/- 0.027(stat.) +/- 0.011(syst.) for single-parameter fits, where the two other parameters are fixed to their Standard Model values. Results are also presented for the cases where two or all three couplings are allowed to vary. An additional analysis using W-pair events is performed to measure the unconstrained real and imaginary parts of all 14 triple gauge-boson couplings and...
F-theory vacua with Z3 gauge symmetry
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mirjam Cvetič
2015-09-01
Full Text Available Discrete gauge groups naturally arise in F-theory compactifications on genus-one fibered Calabi–Yau manifolds. Such geometries appear in families that are parameterized by the Tate–Shafarevich group of the genus-one fibration. While the F-theory compactification on any element of this family gives rise to the same physics, the corresponding M-theory compactifications on these geometries differ and are obtained by a fluxed circle reduction of the former. In this note, we focus on an element of order three in the Tate–Shafarevich group of the general cubic. We discuss how the different M-theory vacua and the associated discrete gauge groups can be obtained by Higgsing of a pair of five-dimensional U(1 symmetries. The Higgs fields arise from vanishing cycles in I2-fibers that appear at certain codimension two loci in the base. We explicitly identify all three curves that give rise to the corresponding Higgs fields. In this analysis the investigation of different resolved phases of the underlying geometry plays a crucial rôle.
F-theory vacua with $\\mathbb Z_3$ gauge symmetry
Cvetič, Mirjam; Klevers, Denis; Piragua, Hernan; Poretschkin, Maximilian
2015-01-01
Discrete gauge groups naturally arise in F-theory compactifications on genus-one fibered Calabi-Yau manifolds. Such geometries appear in families that are parameterized by the Tate-Shafarevich group of the genus-one fibration. While the F-theory compactification on any element of this family gives rise to the same physics, the corresponding M-theory compactifications on these geometries differ and are obtained by a fluxed circle reduction of the former. In this note, we focus on an element of order three in the Tate-Shafarevich group of the general cubic. We discuss how the different M-theory vacua and the associated discrete gauge groups can be obtained by Higgsing of a pair of five-dimensional U(1) symmetries. The Higgs fields arise from vanishing cycles in $I_2$-fibers that appear at certain codimension two loci in the base. We explicitly identify all three curves that give rise to the corresponding Higgs fields. In this analysis the investigation of different resolved phases of the underlying geometry pla...
Renormalization in the gauge theories with spontaneously broken supersymmetry
Kazakov, D I; Velizhanin, V N; Kondrashuk, I N
2001-01-01
A review of recent results on renormalizations in gauge theories with spontaneously broken supersymmetry is given. It is shown that the renormalizations in a broken theory are completely defined by those in a rigid theory and may be obtained with the help of expansion over the Grassmannian variables. New exact as well as suitable approximate analytic solutions of the renormalization group equations are obtained in some particular models: the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model, supersymmetric Grand Unified Theories, softly broken finite theories, and N=2 supersymmetric Seiberg-Witten theory
Performance of stem flow gauges in greenhouse and desert environments
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Levitt, D.G. [Reynolds Electrical and Engineering Co., Inc., Las Vegas, NV (United States); Simpson, J.R. [California Univ., Davis, CA (United States). Dept. of Environmental Horticulture; Tipton, J.L. [Arizona Univ., Tucson, AZ (United States). Dept. of Plant Sciences
1995-06-01
This study was conducted to evaluate the accuracy and general performance of a heat balance method for estimating transpirational sap flow through plant stems on two tree species in greenhouse and field experiments in Tucson, Arizona. Sap flow through 20-mm diameter stems of oak (Quercus virginiana `Heritage`) and mesquite (Prosopis alba `Colorado`.) trees in containers was measured using stem flow gauges and a precision balance, from January to October, 1991. Overall gauge accuracy, and the effects of gauge location on the tree stem, gauge ventilation, gauge insulation, sheath conductance factor (Ksh) selection method, and increased numbers of vertical thermocouple pairs on gauge performance were evaluated.
Cellular-based sea level gauge
Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)
Desai, R.G.P.; Joseph, A.
, is mounted within a cylindrical protective housing, which in turn is rigidly held within a mechanical structure. This structure is secured to a jetty. The gauge is powered by a battery, which is charged by solar panels. Battery, electronics, solar panels...
Н(1) Gauge theory as quantum hydrodynamics
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
January 2004 physics pp. 101-114. Н(1) Gauge theory as quantum hydrodynamics. GIRIsH s sETLUR ... there is work by Ceperley [4] using quantum Monte Carlo. The main point of this article is to highlight the ..... Fermi liquid theory break down in two or three dimensions?' In two dimensions, for the interaction νХ = const.
National Computational Infrastructure for Lattice Gauge Theory
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Brower, Richard C.
2014-04-15
SciDAC-2 Project The Secret Life of Quarks: National Computational Infrastructure for Lattice Gauge Theory, from March 15, 2011 through March 14, 2012. The objective of this project is to construct the software needed to study quantum chromodynamics (QCD), the theory of the strong interactions of sub-atomic physics, and other strongly coupled gauge field theories anticipated to be of importance in the energy regime made accessible by the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). It builds upon the successful efforts of the SciDAC-1 project National Computational Infrastructure for Lattice Gauge Theory, in which a QCD Applications Programming Interface (QCD API) was developed that enables lattice gauge theorists to make effective use of a wide variety of massively parallel computers. This project serves the entire USQCD Collaboration, which consists of nearly all the high energy and nuclear physicists in the United States engaged in the numerical study of QCD and related strongly interacting quantum field theories. All software developed in it is publicly available, and can be downloaded from a link on the USQCD Collaboration web site, or directly from the github repositories with entrance linke http://usqcd-software.github.io
Hydrodynamic Gradient Expansion in Gauge Theory Plasmas,
Heller, M.P.; Janik, R.A.; Witaszczyk, P
2013-01-01
We utilize the fluid-gravity duality to investigate the large order behavior of hydrodynamic gradient expansion of the dynamics of a gauge theory plasma system. This corresponds to the inclusion of dissipative terms and transport coefficients of very high order. Using the dual gravity description,
Recent advances in lattice gauge theories
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Recent progress in the ﬁeld of lattice gauge theories is brieﬂy reviewed for a nonspecialist audience. While the emphasis is on the latest and more deﬁnitive results that have emerged prior to this symposium, an effort has been made to provide them with minimal technicalities.
Supersymmetry search via gauge boson fusion
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Abstract. We propose a novel method for the search of supersymmetry, especially for the elec- troweak gauginos at the large hadron collider (LHC). Gauge boson fusion technique was shown to be useful for heavy and intermediate mass Higgs bosons. In this article, we have shown that this method can also be applied to ...
Gauge concepts in theoretical applied physics
Tan, Seng Ghee; Jalil, Mansoor B. A.
2016-01-01
Gauge concept evolves in the course of nearly one century from Faraday’s rather obscure electrotonic state of matter to the physically significant Yang-Mills that underpin today’s standard model. As gauge theories improve, links are established with modern observations, e.g. in the Aharonov-Bohm effect, the Pancharatnam-Berry’s phase, superconductivity, and quantum Hall effects. In this century, emergent gauge theory is formulated in numerous fields of applied physics like topological insulators, spintronics, and graphene. We will show in this paper the application of gauge theory in two particularly useful spin-based phenomena, namely the spin orbit spin torque and the spin Hall effect. These are important fields of study in the engineering community due to great commercial interest in the technology of magnetic memory (MRAM), and magnetic field sensors. Both spin orbit torque and spin Hall perform magnetic switching at low power and high speed. Furthermore, spin Hall is also a promising source of pure spin current, as well as a reliable form of detection mechanism for the magnetic state of a material.
Gauge coupling renormalization in Ads5
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
diverges depending linearly on cut-off A and 1 g20a and 1 g2πa diverges logarithmically. One-loop correction to the low energy gauge coupling also contains conventional logarithmic running in 4D effective theory and calculable threshold corrections from matching 5D theory to 4D effective theory. We parametrize them by.
Supersymmetry search via gauge boson fusion
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
We propose a novel method for the search of supersymmetry, especially for the electroweak gauginos at the large hadron collider (LHC). Gauge boson fusion technique was shown to be useful for heavy and intermediate mass Higgs bosons. In this article, we have shown that this method can also be applied to ﬁnd the ...
Gauge Physics of Finance: simple introduction
Ilinski, Kirill N
1998-01-01
In this paper we state the fundamental principles of the gauge approach to financial economics and demonstrate the ways of its application. In particular, modelling of realistic price processes is considered for an example of S&P500 market index. Derivative pricing and portfolio theory are also briefly discussed.
Nanocomposite Strain Gauges Having Small TCRs
Gregory, Otto; Chen, Ximing
2009-01-01
Ceramic strain gauges in which the strain-sensitive electrically conductive strips made from nanocomposites of noble metal and indium tin oxide (ITO) are being developed for use in gas turbine engines and other power-generation systems in which gas temperatures can exceed 1,500 F (about 816 C). In general, strain gauges exhibit spurious thermally induced components of response denoted apparent strain. When temperature varies, a strain-gauge material that has a nonzero temperature coefficient of resistance (TCR) exhibits an undesired change in electrical resistance that can be mistaken for the change in resistance caused by a change in strain. It would be desirable to formulate straingauge materials having TCRs as small as possible so as to minimize apparent strain. Most metals exhibit positive TCRs, while most semiconductors, including ITO, exhibit negative TCRs. The present development is based on the idea of using the negative TCR of ITO to counter the positive TCRs of noble metals and of obtaining the benefit of the ability of both ITO and noble metals to endure high temperatures. The noble metal used in this development thus far has been platinum. Combinatorial libraries of many ceramic strain gauges containing nanocomposites of various proportions of ITO and platinum were fabricated by reactive co-sputtering from ITO and platinum targets onto alumina- and zirconia-based substrates mounted at various positions between the targets.
QCD perturbation theory in the temporal gauge
Leroy, J. P.; Micheli, J.; Rossi, G. C.; Yoshida, K.
1990-12-01
In this paper we present a non-trivial check of the consistency of the quantization of a gauge theory with fermions (QCD) in the temporal gauge. We use the approach based on the finite time Feynman propagation kernel, in which the Gauss law is imposed as a constraint on the states by means of a functional integration over all the time independent gauge transformations acting on the boundary values of the fields. We spell out in detail the “Feynman rules” when fermions are present and we compute, as an example, the gauge invariant correlation function 10052_2005_Article_BF01614701_TeX2GIFE1.gif begin{gathered} G(t) = left< {bar ψ (0,t)(γ _5 γ _0 ){1 - γ _0 }/2P} right. \\ left. { \\cdot exp left( {igintlimits_0^t {A_0 (0,t')dt'} } right)(γ _5 γ _0 )^ + (0,0)} rightrangle \\ up to order g 2, obtaining the expected result.
Gauge theory and renormalization (Erice, August 1994)
Hooft, G. 't
1994-01-01
Early developments leading to renormalizable non-Abelian gauge theories for the weak, electromagnetic and strong interactions, are discussed from a personal viewpoint. They drastically improved our view of the role of field theory, symmetry and topology, as well as other branches of mathematics, in the world of elementary particles.
Pure gauge spin-orbit couplings
Shikakhwa, M. S.
2017-01-01
Planar systems with a general linear spin-orbit interaction (SOI) that can be cast in the form of a non-Abelian pure gauge field are investigated using the language of non-Abelian gauge field theory. A special class of these fields that, though a 2×2 matrix, are Abelian are seen to emerge and their general form is given. It is shown that the unitary transformation that gauges away these fields induces at the same time a rotation on the wave function about a fixed axis but with a space-dependent angle, both of which being characteristics of the SOI involved. The experimentally important case of equal-strength Rashba and Dresselhaus SOI (R+D SOI) is shown to fall within this special class of Abelian gauge fields, and the phenomenon of persistent spin helix (PSH) that emerges in the presence of this latter SOI in a plane is shown to fit naturally within the general formalism developed. The general formalism is also extended to the case of a particle confined to a ring. It is shown that the Hamiltonian on a ring in the presence of equal-strength R+D SOI is unitarily equivalent to that of a particle subject to only a spin-independent but θ-dependent potential with the unitary transformation relating the two being again the space-dependent rotation operator characteristic of R+D SOI.
2010-04-01
... storage or processing account at the plant where produced; (2) Packaging of spirits or wine filled from a... formula number of denatured spirits; (f) Proof of distillation (not required for denatured spirits... gauge details, proof, and wine gallons; (2) Cooperage identification (“C” for charred, “REC” for...
Flavor Gauge Models Below the Fermi Scale
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Babu, K. S. [Oklahoma State U.; Friedland, A. [SLAC; Machado, P. A.N. [Madrid, IFT; Mocioiu, I. [Penn State U.
2017-05-04
The mass and weak interaction eigenstates for the quarks of the third generation are very well aligned, an empirical fact for which the Standard Model offers no explanation. We explore the possibility that this alignment is due to an additional gauge symmetry in the third generation. Specifically, we construct and analyze an explicit, renormalizable model with a gauge boson, $X$, corresponding to the $B-L$ symmetry of the third family. Having a relatively light (in the MeV to multi-GeV range), flavor-nonuniversal gauge boson results in a variety of constraints from different sources. By systematically analyzing 20 different constraints, we identify the most sensitive probes: kaon, $D^+$ and Upsilon decays, $D-\\bar{D}^0$ mixing, atomic parity violation, and neutrino scattering and oscillations. For the new gauge coupling $g_X$ in the range $(10^{-2} - 10^{-4})$ the model is shown to be consistent with the data. Possible ways of testing the model in $b$ physics, top and $Z$ decays, direct collider production and neutrino oscillation experiments, where one can observe nonstandard matter effects, are outlined. The choice of leptons to carry the new force is ambiguous, resulting in additional phenomenological implications, such as non-universality in semileptonic bottom decays. The proposed framework provides interesting connections between neutrino oscillations, flavor and collider physics.
Rastogi, Anju; Mishra, Manisha; Goel, Yashpal; Thacker, Prolima; Kamlesh
2017-01-06
To compare 25- and 20-gauge pars plana vitrectomy (PPV) for the management of pediatric cataract. 20 eyes of 15 patients were randomly divided into two groups to undergo pars plana capsulotomy and vitrectomy by either 25-gauge (group A) or 20-gauge (group B) PPV after lens aspiration and IOL implantation. The two groups were compared for total surgical time, time taken in doing pars plana capsulotomy and vitrectomy, and the size of posterior capsulotomy. Post-operative astigmatism was compared at 3 months. The mean total surgical time in group A was 49.2 ± 6.7 min, while mean total surgical time in group B was 62.5 + 5.48 min (p = 0.001). The mean time taken for pars plana capsulotomy and vitrectomy was 4.1 ± 1.19 min in group A and 5.0 ± 0.73 min (p = 0.03) in group B. The mean size of the PCCC in group A was 3.3 ± 0.34 mm, while in group B it was 4.0 ± 0.33 mm (p = 0.001). The mean astigmatism at 3 months in group A was 0.65 ± 0.31 diopters, while in group B it was 1.45 ± 0.92 diopters (p = 0.019). 25-gauge transconjunctival sutureless PPV can be an attractive alternative to 20-gauge system in the management of pediatric cataracts.
Wu, Yue-Liang
2017-10-01
The relativistic Dirac equation in four-dimensional spacetime reveals a coherent relation between the dimensions of spacetime and the degrees of freedom of fermionic spinors. A massless Dirac fermion generates new symmetries corresponding to chirality spin and charge spin as well as conformal scaling transformations. With the introduction of intrinsic W-parity, a massless Dirac fermion can be treated as a Majorana-type or Weyl-type spinor in a six-dimensional spacetime that reflects the intrinsic quantum numbers of chirality spin. A generalized Dirac equation is obtained in the six-dimensional spacetime with a maximal symmetry. Based on the framework of gravitational quantum field theory proposed in Ref. [1] with the postulate of gauge invariance and coordinate independence, we arrive at a maximally symmetric gravitational gauge field theory for the massless Dirac fermion in six-dimensional spacetime. Such a theory is governed by the local spin gauge symmetry SP(1,5) and the global Poincaré symmetry P(1,5)=SO(1,5)⋉P 1,5 as well as the charge spin gauge symmetry SU(2). The theory leads to the prediction of doubly electrically charged bosons. A scalar field and conformal scaling gauge field are introduced to maintain both global and local conformal scaling symmetries. A generalized gravitational Dirac equation for the massless Dirac fermion is derived in the six-dimensional spacetime. The equations of motion for gauge fields are obtained with conserved currents in the presence of gravitational effects. The dynamics of the gauge-type gravifield as a Goldstone-like boson is shown to be governed by a conserved energy-momentum tensor, and its symmetric part provides a generalized Einstein equation of gravity. An alternative geometrical symmetry breaking mechanism for the mass generation of Dirac fermions is demonstrated. Supported by National Science Foundation of China (NSFC) (11690022, 11475237, 11121064) and Strategic Priority Research Program of the Chinese
CogGauge (A Cognitive Assessment Tool) Project
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Cognitive Gauge (CogGauge) tool aims to develop a portable gaming application that assesses cognitive state of astronaut crew members with the goal of...
Gauge Fixing on the Lattice and the Gibbs Phenomenon
Mandula, Jeffrey E.
1999-01-01
We discuss global gauge fixing on the lattice, specifically to the lattice Landau gauge, with the goal of understanding the question of why the process becomes extremely slow for large lattices. We construct an artificial "gauge-fixing" problem which has the essential features encountered in actuality. In the limit in which the size of the system to be gauge fixed becomes infinite, the problem becomes equivalent to finding a series expansion in functions which are related to the Jacobi polyno...
New Methods in Supersymmetric Theories and Emergent Gauge Symmetry
CERN. Geneva
2014-01-01
It is remarkable that light or even massless spin 1 particles can be composite. Consequently, gauge invariance is not fundamental but emergent. This idea can be realized in detail in supersymmetric gauge theories. We will describe the recent development of non-perturbative methods that allow to test this idea. One finds that the emergence of gauge symmetry is linked to some results in contemporary mathematics. We speculate on the possible applications of the idea of emergent gauge symmetry to realistic models.
A gauge field theory of fermionic continuous-spin particles
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
X. Bekaert
2016-09-01
Full Text Available In this letter, we suggest a local covariant action for a gauge field theory of fermionic Continuous-Spin Particles (CSPs. The action is invariant under gauge transformations without any constraint on both the gauge field and the gauge transformation parameter. The Fang–Fronsdal equations for a tower of massless fields with all half-integer spins arise as a particular limit of the equation of motion of fermionic CSPs.
Low-temperature strain gauges based on silicon whiskers
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Druzhinin A. A.
2008-08-01
Full Text Available To create low-temperature strain gauges based on p-type silicon whiskers tensoresistive characteristics of these crystals in 4,2—300 K temperature range were studied. On the basis of p-type Si whiskers with different resistivity the strain gauges for different materials operating at cryogenic temperatures with extremely high gauge factor at 4,2 K were developed, as well as strain gauges operating at liquid helium temperatures in high magnetic fields.
Duality in two-dimensional (2,2) supersymmetric non-Abelian gauge theories
Hori, Kentaro
2013-10-01
We study the low energy behaviour of supersymmetric gauge theories in 1 + 1 dimensions, with orthogonal and symplectic gauge groups and matters in the fundamental representation. We observe supersymmetry breaking in super-Yang-Mills theory and in theories with small numbers of flavors. For larger numbers of flavors, we discover duality between regular theories with different gauge groups and matter contents, where regularity refers to absence of quantum Coulomb branch. The result is applied to study families of superconformal field theories that can be used for superstring compactifications, with corners corresponding to three-dimensional Calabi-Yau manifolds. This work is motivated by recent development in mathematics concerning equivalences of derived categories.
The ADHM-like constructions for instantons on CP2 and three-dimensional gauge theories
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Noppadol Mekareeya
2015-02-01
Full Text Available We study the moduli spaces of self-dual instantons on CP2 in a simple group G. When G is a classical group, these instanton solutions can be realized using ADHM-like constructions which can be naturally embedded into certain three-dimensional quiver gauge theories with four supercharges. The topological data for such instanton bundles and their relations to the quiver gauge theories are described. Based on such gauge theory constructions, we compute the Hilbert series of the moduli spaces of instantons that correspond to various configurations. The results turn out to be equal to the Hilbert series of their counterparts on C2 upon an appropriate mapping. We check the former against the Hilbert series derived from the blowup formula for the Hirzebruch surface F1 and find an agreement. The connection between the moduli spaces of instantons on such two spaces is explained in detail.
Symmetry restoration at high-temperature in two-color and two-flavor lattice gauge theories
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lee, Jong-Wan [Department of Physics, College of Science, Swansea University,Singleton Park, SA2 8PP, Swansea, Wales (United Kingdom); Department of Physics, Pusan National University,Busan 46241 (Korea, Republic of); Extreme Physics Institute, Pusan National University,Busan 46241 (Korea, Republic of); Lucini, Biagio; Piai, Maurizio [Department of Physics, College of Science, Swansea University,Singleton Park, SA2 8PP, Swansea, Wales (United Kingdom)
2017-04-07
We consider the SU(2) gauge theory with N{sub f}=2 flavors of Dirac fundamental fermions. We study the high-temperature behavior of the spectra of mesons, discretizing the theory on anisotropic lattices, and measuring the two-point correlation functions in the temporal direction as well as screening masses in various channels. We identify the (pseudo-)critical temperature as the temperature at which the susceptibility associated with the Polyakov loop has a maximum. At high temperature both the spin-1 and spin-0 sectors of the light meson spectra exhibit enhanced symmetry properties, indicating the restoration of both the global SU(4) and the axial U(1){sub A} symmetries of the model.
46 CFR 153.979 - Gauging with a sounding tube.
2010-10-01
... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Gauging with a sounding tube. 153.979 Section 153.979... Procedures § 153.979 Gauging with a sounding tube. (a) No person may remove the cover of a sounding tube... cargo transfer may not authorize removal of the cover from a sounding tube gauge unless all tank...
46 CFR 151.15-10 - Cargo gauging devices.
2010-10-01
..., sonic depth gauge (without penetration of tank shell), pipe flow meter. (e) All gauging devices and... devices. (h) For pressure-vessel type tanks, each automatic float, continuous reading tape or similar type... tank, is used, a fixed tube gauge set in the range of 85 percent to 90 percent of the water capacity of...
21 CFR 870.4310 - Cardiopulmonary bypass coronary pressure gauge.
2010-04-01
... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cardiopulmonary bypass coronary pressure gauge... Cardiopulmonary bypass coronary pressure gauge. (a) Identification. A cardiopulmonary bypass coronary pressure gauge is a device used in cardiopulmonary bypass surgery to measure the pressure of the blood perfusing...
Approximate Noether gauge symmetries of the Bardeen model
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Camci, U. [Akdeniz University, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Antalya (Turkey)
2014-12-01
We investigate the approximate Noether gauge symmetries of the geodesic Lagrangian for the Bardeen spacetime model. This is accommodated by a set of new approximate Noether gauge symmetry relations for the perturbed geodesic Lagrangian in the spacetime. A detailed analysis of the spacetime of the Bardeen model up to third-order approximate Noether gauge symmetries is presented. (orig.)
Conserved currents and gauge invariance in Yang-Mills theory
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Barnich, G. [Universite Libre de Bruxelles (Belgium). Faculte des Sciences; Brandt, F. [Nationaal Inst. voor Kernfysica en Hoge-Energiefysica (NIKHEF), Amsterdam (Netherlands). Sectie H; Henneaux, M. [Universite Libre de Bruxelles (Belgium). Faculte des Sciences
1994-12-31
It is shown that in the absence of free abelian gauge fields, the conserved currents of (classical) Yang-Mills gauge models coupled to matter fields can be always redefined so as to be gauge invariant. This is a direct consequence of the general analysis of the Wess-Zumino consistency condition for Yang-Mills theory that we have provided recently. (orig.).
Generalized Attractor Points in Gauged Supergravity
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kachru, Shamit; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /SLAC; Kallosh, Renata; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Shmakova, Marina; /KIPAC, Menlo Park /SLAC /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.
2011-08-15
The attractor mechanism governs the near-horizon geometry of extremal black holes in ungauged 4D N=2 supergravity theories and in Calabi-Yau compactifications of string theory. In this paper, we study a natural generalization of this mechanism to solutions of arbitrary 4D N=2 gauged supergravities. We define generalized attractor points as solutions of an ansatz which reduces the Einstein, gauge field, and scalar equations of motion to algebraic equations. The simplest generalized attractor geometries are characterized by non-vanishing constant anholonomy coefficients in an orthonormal frame. Basic examples include Lifshitz and Schroedinger solutions, as well as AdS and dS vacua. There is a generalized attractor potential whose critical points are the attractor points, and its extremization explains the algebraic nature of the equations governing both supersymmetric and non-supersymmetric attractors.
Conceptual Aspects of Gauge/Gravity Duality
De Haro, Sebastian; Mayerson, Daniel R.; Butterfield, Jeremy N.
2016-11-01
We give an introductory review of gauge/gravity duality, and associated ideas of holography, emphasising the conceptual aspects. The opening sections gather the ingredients, viz. anti-de Sitter spacetime, conformal field theory and string theory, that we need for presenting, in Sect. 5, the central and original example: Maldacena's AdS/CFT correspondence. Sections 6 and 7 develop the ideas of this example, also in applications to condensed matter systems, QCD, and hydrodynamics. Sections 8 and 9 discuss the possible extensions of holographic ideas to de Sitter spacetime and to black holes. Section 10 discusses the bearing of gauge/gravity duality on two philosophical topics: the equivalence of physical theories, and the idea that spacetime, or some features of it, are emergent.
Search for new heavy charged gauge bosons
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Magass, Carsten Martin [RWTH Aachen Univ. (Germany)
2007-11-02
Additional gauge bosons are introduced in many theoretical extensions to the Standard Model. A search for a new heavy charged gauge boson W' decaying into an electron and a neutrino is presented. The data used in this analysis was taken with the D0 detector at the Fermilab proton-antiproton collider at a center-of-mass energy of 1.96 TeV and corresponds to an integrated luminosity of about 1 fb^{-1}. Since no significant excess is observed in the data, an upper limit is set on the production cross section times branching fraction σ_{W'}xBr (W' → ev). Using this limit, a W' boson with mass below ~1 TeV can be excluded at the 95% confidence level assuming that the new boson has the same couplings to fermions as the Standard Model W boson.
Topological resolution of gauge theory singularities
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Saracco, Fabio; Tomasiello, Alessandro; Torroba, Gonzalo
2013-08-21
Some gauge theories with Coulomb branches exhibit singularities in perturbation theory, which are usually resolved by nonperturbative physics. In string theory this corresponds to the resolution of timelike singularities near the core of orientifold planes by effects from F or M theory. We propose a new mechanism for resolving Coulomb branch singularities in three-dimensional gauge theories, based on Chern-Simons interactions. This is illustrated in a supersymmetric S U ( 2 ) Yang-Mills-Chern-Simons theory. We calculate the one-loop corrections to the Coulomb branch of this theory and find a result that interpolates smoothly between the high-energy metric (that would exhibit the singularity) and a regular singularity-free low-energy result. We suggest possible applications to singularity resolution in string theory and speculate a relationship to a similar phenomenon for the orientifold six-plane in massive IIA supergravity.
Supersymmetry Breaking, Gauge Mediation, and the LHC
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Shih, David [Rutgers Univ., New Brunswick, NJ (United States)
2015-04-14
Gauge mediated SUSY breaking (GMSB) is a promising class of supersymmetric models that automatically satisfies the precision constraints. Prior work of Meade, Seiberg and Shih in 2008 established the full, model-independent parameter space of GMSB, which they called "General Gauge Mediation" (GGM). During the first half of 2010-2015, Shih and his collaborators thoroughly explored the parameter space of GGM and established many well-motivated benchmark models for use by the experimentalists at the LHC. Through their work, the current constraints on GGM from LEP, the Tevatron and the LHC were fully elucidated, together with the possible collider signatures of GMSB at the LHC. This ensured that the full discovery potential for GGM could be completely realized at the LHC.
Constrained Gauge Fields from Spontaneous Lorentz Violation
Chkareuli, J L; Jejelava, J G; Nielsen, H B
2008-01-01
Spontaneous Lorentz violation realized through a nonlinear vector field constraint of the type $A_{\\mu}^{2}=M^{2}$ ($M$ is the proposed scale for Lorentz violation) is shown to generate massless vector Goldstone bosons, gauging the starting global internal symmetries in arbitrary relativistically invariant theories. The gauge invariance appears in essence as a necessary condition for these bosons not to be superfluously restricted in degrees of freedom, apart from the constraint due to which the true vacuum in a theory is chosen by the Lorentz violation. In the Abelian symmetry case the only possible theory proves to be QED with a massless vector Goldstone boson naturally associated with the photon, while the non-Abelian symmetry case results in a conventional Yang-Mills theory. These theories, both Abelian and non-Abelian, look essentially nonlinear and contain particular Lorentz (and $CPT$) violating couplings when expressed in terms of the pure Goldstone vector modes. However, they do not lead to physical ...
Approximate gauge symemtry of composite vector bosons
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Suzuki, Mahiko
2010-06-01
It can be shown in a solvable field theory model that the couplings of the composite vector mesons made of a fermion pair approach the gauge couplings in the limit of strong binding. Although this phenomenon may appear accidental and special to the vector bosons made of a fermion pair, we extend it to the case of bosons being constituents and find that the same phenomenon occurs in more an intriguing way. The functional formalism not only facilitates computation but also provides us with a better insight into the generating mechanism of approximate gauge symmetry, in particular, how the strong binding and global current conservation conspire to generate such an approximate symmetry. Remarks are made on its possible relevance or irrelevance to electroweak and higher symmetries.
Constrained gauge fields from spontaneous Lorentz violation
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Chkareuli, J. L.; Froggatt, C. D.; Jejelava, J. G.
2008-01-01
Spontaneous Lorentz violation realized through a nonlinear vector field constraint of the type AµAµ=M2 (M is the proposed scale for Lorentz violation) is shown to generate massless vector Goldstone bosons, gauging the starting global internal symmetries in arbitrary relativistically invariant...... theories. The gauge invariance appears in essence as a necessary condition for these bosons not to be superfluously restricted in degrees of freedom, apart from the constraint due to which the true vacuum in a theory is chosen by the Lorentz violation. In the Abelian symmetry case the only possible theory...... proves to be QED with a massless vector Goldstone boson naturally associated with the photon, while the non-Abelian symmetry case results in a conventional Yang-Mills theory. These theories, both Abelian and non-Abelian, look essentially nonlinear and contain particular Lorentz (and CPT) violating...
Cosmic Gauge-Field Dark Energy
Devulder, Christopher; Caldwell, Robert
2017-01-01
We present a cosmological model in which dark energy consists of a cosmic gauge field. At early times it behaves like radiation; at late times it drives cosmic acceleration. By varying the number of fields, their coupling strength and handedness, a wide range of behavior is shown to emerge. Joint constraints on the model from SNe, BAO and CMB data are presented. We discuss the possibility that the gauge field may seed a spectrum of primordial gravitational waves with a distinct imprint on the power spectrum, as well as act like a dissipative medium for high frequency gravitational waves. We show that this model could have an impact on the B-mode polarization pattern in the CMB, as well as future probes that use standard sirens to constrain the energy budget of the Universe.
On-shell gauge-parameter independence of
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ahmady, M.R.; Elias, V.; Mendel, R.R.; Scadron, M.D.; Steele, T.
1989-05-01
We allow an external
A better gauge of corporate performance.
Weber, D O
2001-01-01
Traditional methods of measuring organizational value aren't working very well. Instead, an organization's viability should be gauged from four perspectives, according to Robert S. Kaplan and David P. Norton, co-creators of the Balanced Scorecard. These perspectives--financial strength, customer service and satisfaction, internal operating efficiency, and learning and growth--become the underpinnings of a "balanced" tool with which leaders can assess corporate performance in the knowledge-based marketplace.
Holographic complexity in gauge/string superconductors
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Davood Momeni
2016-05-01
Full Text Available Following a methodology similar to [1], we derive a holographic complexity for two dimensional holographic superconductors (gauge/string superconductors with backreactions. Applying a perturbation method proposed by Kanno in Ref. [2], we study behaviors of the complexity for a dual quantum system near critical points. We show that when a system moves from the normal phase (T>Tc to the superconductor phase (T
Neutrino and Z gauge boson physics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Larios, F. [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada, CINVESTAV-Merida, A.P. 73, 97310 Merida, Yucatan (Mexico); Perez, M. A. [Departamento de Fisica, CINVESTAV, A.P. 14-740, 07000, Mexico D.F (Mexico)
2013-06-12
We present a short review of the physics of neutrino-photon interactions and the rare decays of the Z and Z Prime gauge bosons. In particular, we emphasize on processes induced by the anomalous trilinear and quartic vertices VVV and VVVV, where V=Z,Z Prime or a photon, within the Standard Model (SM), the 331 model and some extensions of the SM. We also include the phenomenological and experimental limits reported for these couplings.
The Dyon Charge in Noncommutative Gauge Theories
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
L. Cieri
2008-01-01
Full Text Available We construct a dyon solution for the noncommutative version of the Yang-Mills-Higgs model with a ϑ-term. Extending the Noether method to the case of a noncommutative gauge theory, we analyze the effect of CP violation induced both by the ϑ-term and by noncommutativity proving that the Witten effect formula for the dyon charge remains the same as in ordinary space.
Lattice Gauge Fields and Noncommutative Geometry
Balachandran, A. P.; Bimonte, G.; Landi, G.; Lizzi, F.; Teotonio-Sobrinho, P.
1996-01-01
Conventional approaches to lattice gauge theories do not properly consider the topology of spacetime or of its fields. In this paper, we develop a formulation which tries to remedy this defect. It starts from a cubical decomposition of the supporting manifold (compactified spacetime or spatial slice) interpreting it as a finite topological approximation in the sense of Sorkin. This finite space is entirely described by the algebra of cochains with the cup product. The methods of Connes and Lo...
Subleading soft photons and large gauge transformations
Campiglia, Miguel; Laddha, Alok
2016-01-01
Lysov, Pasterski and Strominger have shown how Low's subleading soft photon theorem can be understood as Ward identities of new symmetries of massless QED. In this paper we offer a different perspective and show that there exists a class of large $U(1)$ gauge transformations such that (i) the associated (electric and magnetic) charges can be computed from first principles (ii) their Ward identities are equivalent to Low's theorem. Our framework paves the way to analyze the sub-subleading theo...
The. delta. expansion and local gauge invariance
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bender, C.M. (Department of Physics, Washington University, St. Louis, Missouri 63130 (US)); Cooper, F. (Department of Physics, Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island 02912 Theoretical Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexic o 87545); Milton, K.A. (Department of Physics, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210 Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Oklahoma, Norman, Oklaho ma 73019)
1989-08-15
A recently proposed approximation method, called the {delta} expansion, was introduced in the context of a self-interacting scalar field theory. This approximation method offers the hope of obtaining nonperturbative information about a quantum field theory using perturbative techniques. In this paper we extend formally the {delta}-expansion methods to field theories having local gauge symmetry. We then compute the anomaly in the Schwinger model.
Noncommutative Geometric Gauge Theory from Superconnections
Lee, Chang-Yeong
1996-01-01
Noncommutative geometric gauge theory is reconstructed based on the superconnection concept. The bosonic action of the Connes-Lott model including the symmetry breaking Higgs sector is obtained by using a new generalized derivative, which consists of the usual 1-form exterior derivative plus an extra element called the matrix derivative, for the curvatures. We first derive the matrix derivative based on superconnections and then show how the matrix derivative can give rise to spontaneous symm...
From physical symmetries to emergent gauge symmetries
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Barceló, Carlos [Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía (IAA-CSIC),Glorieta de la Astronomía, 18008 Granada (Spain); Carballo-Rubio, Raúl [Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía (IAA-CSIC), Glorieta de la Astronomía, 18008 Granada (Spain); Laboratory for Quantum Gravity & Strings,Department of Mathematics & Applied Mathematics, University of Cape Town,Private Bag, Rondebosch 7701 (South Africa); Di Filippo, Francesco [Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía (IAA-CSIC), Glorieta de la Astronomía, 18008 Granada (Spain); Dipartamento di Scienze Fisiche “E.R. Caianiello”, Università di Salerno,I-84081 Fisciano (Italy); Garay, Luis J. [Departamento de Física Teórica II, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Instituto de Estructura de la Materia (IEM-CSIC), Serrano 121, 28006 Madrid (Spain)
2016-10-17
Gauge symmetries indicate redundancies in the description of the relevant degrees of freedom of a given field theory and restrict the nature of observable quantities. One of the problems faced by emergent theories of relativistic fields is to understand how gauge symmetries can show up in systems that contain no trace of these symmetries at a more fundamental level. In this paper we start a systematic study aimed to establish a satisfactory mathematical and physical picture of this issue, dealing first with abelian field theories. We discuss how the trivialization, due to the decoupling and lack of excitation of some degrees of freedom, of the Noether currents associated with physical symmetries leads to emergent gauge symmetries in specific situations. An example of a relativistic field theory of a vector field is worked out in detail in order to make explicit how this mechanism works and to clarify the physics behind it. The interplay of these ideas with well-known results of importance to the emergent gravity program, such as the Weinberg-Witten theorem, are discussed.
The electromagnetic potentials without the gauge transformations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Espinoza, Augusto; Chubykalo, Andrey; Rodriguez, Alejandro Gutierrez; Hernandez, Maria de los Angeles [Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas (Mexico). Unidad Academica de Fisica
2011-07-01
In this note we show that the use of the Helmholtz theorem lead to derivation of uniquely determined electromagnetic potentials without making use of the gauge transformation. These potentials correspond to the potentials obtained by imposing so-called Coulomb condition (gauge) in the traditional approach. We show that the electromagnetic field comprises two components, one of which is characterized by its instantaneous action at a distance, whereas another one propagates in the retarded form with the velocity of light. One of the theoretical consequences of this new definition is that the electromagnetic potentials are real physical quantities as well as the electric and magnetic fields. We show that the reality of the electromagnetic potentials in quantum-mechanics is also a property of these potentials in the classical electrodynamics. Equations for potentials obtained in our approach are already separated with respect to vector and scalar potentials, so there is no necessity in using the gauge transformations and, accordingly, in making use of either Lorentz or Coulomb condition. The vector potential and scalar potential introduced thus are uniquely defined. The scalar potential is a generator of the so called instantaneous action at a distance, whereas the solenoidal vector potential can propagate with the velocity of light and it is responsible for the retarded action of the electromagnetic field. (author)
The Light-Cone Gauge without Prescriptions
Suzuki, A. T.; Schmidt, A. G. M.
2000-05-01
Feynman integrals in the physical light-cone gauge are more difficult to solve than their covariant counterparts. The difficulty is associated with the presence of unphysical singularities due to the inherent residual gauge freedom in the intermediate boson propagators constrained within this gauge choice. In order to circumvent these non-physical singularities, the headlong approach has always been to call for mathematical devices --- prescriptions --- some successful and others not. A more elegant approach is to consider the propagator from its physical point of view, that is, an object obeying basic principles such as causality. Once this fact is realized and carefully taken into account, the crutch of prescriptions can be avoided altogether. An alternative, third approach, which for practical computations could dispense with prescriptions as well as avoiding the necessity of careful stepwise consideration of causality, would be of great advantage. And this third option is realizable within the context of negative dimensions, or as it has been coined, the negative dimensional integration method (NDIM).
Effects of non-Abelian gauge potentials
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jacob, Andreas; Santos, Luis [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Leibniz Universitaet, Hannover (Germany); Merkl, Michael; Zimmer, Frank; Oehberg, Patrik [SUPA, School of Engineering and Physical Sciences, Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh (United Kingdom)
2009-07-01
Artificial electromagnetism may be created for neutral atoms, e.g. by rotating the gas. Other forms of inducing artificial electromagnetism are possible, including ways of generating non-Abelian vector potentials. In this talk, we first discuss simple laser setups that allow the creation of non-Abelian gauge potentials for atoms with a tripod level scheme. We comment on specific experimental implementations in e.g. {sup 4}He{sup *} and {sup 87}Rb. In particular we discuss a simple laser arrangement that generates a non-Abelian vector potential proportional to the Pauli matrices. This gauge potential induces a quasi-relativistic physics for cold gases similar to that in graphene, including the possibility of observation of metamaterial phenomena as Veselago lensing. We shall discuss in particular the effects of this gauge potential in the linear and nonlinear atom optics of condensates, including the possibility of creating regions of negative mass in the dispersion relation which allow for bright solitons in the presence of repulsive interactions.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ralf Hofmann
2017-10-01
Full Text Available Based on a recent numerical simulation of the temporal evolution of a spherically perturbed BPS monopole, SU(2 Yang-Mills thermodynamics, Louis de Broglie’s deliberations on the disparate Lorentz transformations of the frequency of an internal “clock” on one hand and the associated quantum energy on the other hand, and postulating that the electron is represented by a figure-eight shaped, self-intersecting center vortex loop in SU(2 Quantum Yang-Mills theory we estimate the spatial radius R 0 of this self-intersection region in terms of the electron’s Compton wave length λ C . This region, which is immersed into the confining phase, constitutes a blob of deconfining phase of temperature T 0 mildly above the critical temperature T c carrying a frequently perturbed BPS monopole (with a magnetic-electric dual interpretation of its charge w.r.t. U(1⊂SU(2. We also establish a quantitative relation between rest mass m 0 of the electron and SU(2 Yang-Mills scale Λ , which in turn is defined via T c . Surprisingly, R 0 turns out to be comparable to the Bohr radius while the core size of the monopole matches λ C , and the correction to the mass of the electron due to Coulomb energy is about 2%.
Gauge invariance properties and singularity cancellations in a modified PQCD
Cabo-Montes de Oca, Alejandro; Cabo, Alejandro; Rigol, Marcos
2006-01-01
The gauge-invariance properties and singularity elimination of the modified perturbation theory for QCD introduced in previous works, are investigated. The construction of the modified free propagators is generalized to include the dependence on the gauge parameter $\\alpha $. Further, a functional proof of the independence of the theory under the changes of the quantum and classical gauges is given. The singularities appearing in the perturbative expansion are eliminated by properly combining dimensional regularization with the Nakanishi infrared regularization for the invariant functions in the operator quantization of the $\\alpha$-dependent gauge theory. First-order evaluations of various quantities are presented, illustrating the gauge invariance-properties.
Development of the full range vange vacuum gauge
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Oh, B. H.; In, S. R.; Jung, K. S.; Jeong, S. H
2001-01-01
The pirani, enning end full range gauges developed during this study had made good characteristics compared with the measured results of customized other gauges, and this results show the possibility of developing the gauges by ourselves in Korea. In order to make a competition with the customized gauges of other countries, it is necessary to upgrade several points to have good characteristics over the large range of the pressure. The new effort will be made in developing the full scale gauge in the next year.
Development of the Pirani and penning vacuum gauges
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Oh, B. H.; In, S. R.; Yoon, B. J.; Yoon, J. S
2000-02-01
The Pirani and penning gauges developed during this study had made good characteristics compared with the measured results of customized other gauges, and this results show the possibility of developing the gauges by ourselves in Korea. In order to make a competition with the customized gauges of other countries, it is necessary to upgrade several points to have good characteristics over the large range of the pressure. The new efforts will be made in developing the full scale gauge in the next year. (author)
Regionalization of patterns of flow intermittence from gauging station records
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
T. H. Snelder
2013-07-01
Full Text Available Understanding large-scale patterns in flow intermittence is important for effective river management. The duration and frequency of zero-flow periods are associated with the ecological characteristics of rivers and have important implications for water resources management. We used daily flow records from 628 gauging stations on rivers with minimally modified flows distributed throughout France to predict regional patterns of flow intermittence. For each station we calculated two annual times series describing flow intermittence; the frequency of zero-flow periods (consecutive days of zero flow in each year of record (FREQ; yr−1, and the total number of zero-flow days in each year of record (DUR; days. These time series were used to calculate two indices for each station, the mean annual frequency of zero-flow periods (mFREQ; yr−1, and the mean duration of zero-flow periods (mDUR; days. Approximately 20% of stations had recorded at least one zero-flow period in their record. Dissimilarities between pairs of gauges calculated from the annual times series (FREQ and DUR and geographic distances were weakly correlated, indicating that there was little spatial synchronization of zero flow. A flow-regime classification for the gauging stations discriminated intermittent and perennial stations, and an intermittence classification grouped intermittent stations into three classes based on the values of mFREQ and mDUR. We used random forest (RF models to relate the flow-regime and intermittence classifications to several environmental characteristics of the gauging station catchments. The RF model of the flow-regime classification had a cross-validated Cohen's kappa of 0.47, indicating fair performance and the intermittence classification had poor performance (cross-validated Cohen's kappa of 0.35. Both classification models identified significant environment-intermittence associations, in particular with regional-scale climate patterns and also
Three instanton computations in gauge theory and string theory
Beasley, Christopher Edward
We employ a variety of ideas from geometry and topology to perform three new instanton computations in gauge theory and string theory. First, we consider supersymmetric QCD with gauge group SU( Nc) and with Nf flavors. In this theory, it is well known that instantons generate a superpotential if Nf = Nc - 1 and deform the moduli space of supersymmetric vacua if Nf = Nc. We extend these results to supersymmetric QCD with Nf > Nc flavors, for which we show that instantons generate a hierarchy of new, multi-fermion F-terms in the effective action. Second, we revisit the question of which Calabi-Yau compactifications of the heterotic string are stable under worldsheet instanton corrections to the effective space-time superpotential. For instance, compactifications described by (0, 2) linear sigma models are believed to be stable, suggesting a remarkable cancellation among the instanton effects in these theories. We show that this cancellation follows directly from a residue theorem, whose proof relies only upon the right-moving worldsheet supersymmetries and suitable compactness properties of the (0, 2) linear sigma model. We also extend this residue theorem to a new class of "half-linear" sigma models. Using these half-linear models, we show that heterotic compactifications on the quintic hypersurface in CP4 for which the gauge bundle pulls back from a bundle on CP4 are stable. Third, we study Chern-Simons gauge theory on a Seifert manifold M (the total space of a nontrivial circle bundle over a Riemann surface). When M is a Seifert manifold, Lawrence and Rozansky have shown from the exact solution of Chern-Simons theory that the partition function has a remarkably simple structure and can be rewritten entirely as a sum of local "instanton" contributions from the flat connections on M. We explain how this empirical fact follows from the technique of non-abelian localization as applied to the Chern-Simons path integral. In the process, we show that the partition
Non-abelian higher gauge theory and categorical bundle
Viennot, David
2016-12-01
A gauge theory is associated with a principal bundle endowed with a connection permitting to define horizontal lifts of paths. The horizontal lifts of surfaces cannot be defined into a principal bundle structure. An higher gauge theory is an attempt to generalize the bundle structure in order to describe horizontal lifts of surfaces. A such attempt is particularly difficult for the non-abelian case. Some structures have been proposed to realize this goal (twisted bundle, gerbes with connection, bundle gerbe, 2-bundle). Each of them uses a category in place of the total space manifold of the usual principal bundle structure. Some of them replace also the structure group by a category (more precisely a Lie crossed module viewed as a category). But the base space remains still a simple manifold (possibly viewed as a trivial category with only identity arrows). We propose a new principal categorical bundle structure, with a Lie crossed module as structure groupoid, but with a base space belonging to a bigger class of categories (which includes non-trivial categories), that we called affine 2-spaces. We study the geometric structure of the categorical bundles built on these categories (which are a more complicated structure than the 2-bundles) and the connective structures on these bundles. Finally we treat an example interesting for quantum dynamics which is associated with the Bloch wave operator theory.
Gauge coupling unification, the GUT scale, and magic fields
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Calibbi, L. [SISSA/ISAS and INFN, I-34013 Trieste (Italy)], E-mail: calibbi@sissa.it; Ferretti, L.; Romanino, A.; Ziegler, R. [SISSA/ISAS and INFN, I-34013 Trieste (Italy)
2009-02-16
We consider field sets that do not form complete SU(5) multiplets, but exactly preserve the one-loop MSSM prediction for {alpha}{sub 3}(M{sub Z}) independently of the value of their mass. Such fields can raise the unification scale in different ways, through a delayed convergence of the gauge couplings, a fake unified running below the GUT scale, or a postponed unification after a hoax crossing at a lower scale. The {alpha}{sub 3}(M{sub Z}) prediction is independent of the mass of the new fields, while the GUT scale often is not, which allows to vary the GUT scale. Such 'magic' fields represent a useful tool in GUT model building. For example, they can be used to fix gauge coupling unification in certain two step breakings of the unified group, to suppress large KK thresholds in models with extra dimensions, or they can be interpreted as messengers of supersymmetry breaking in GMSB models.
Z2 gauge theory for valence bond solids on the kagome lattice
Hwang, Kyusung; Huh, Yejin; Kim, Yong Baek
We present an effective Z2 gauge theory that captures various competing phases in spin-1/2 kagome lattice antiferromagnets: the topological Z2 spin liquid (SL) phase, and the 12-site and 36- site valence bond solid (VBS) phases. Our effective theory is a generalization of the recent Z2 gauge theory proposed for SL phases by Wan and Tchernyshyov. In particular, we investigate possible VBS phases that arise from vison condensations in the SL. In addition to the 12-site and 36-site VBS phases, there exists 6-site VBS that is closely related to the symmetry-breaking valence bond modulation patterns observed in the recent density matrix renormalization group simulations. We find that our results have remarkable consistency with a previous study using a different Z2 gauge theory. Motivated by the lattice geometry in the recently reported vanadium oxyfluoride kagome antiferromagnet, our gauge theory is extended to incorporate lowered symmetry by inequivalent up- and down-triangles. We investigate effects of this anisotropy on the 12-site, 36-site, and 6-site VBS phases. Particularly, interesting dimer melting effects are found in the 36-site VBS. We discuss the implications of our findings and also compare the results with a different type of Z2 gauge theory used in previous studies.
Gauge symmetries and holographic anomalies of Chern-Simons and transgression AdS gravity
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mora, Pablo [Centro Universitario Regional Este (CURE), Universidad de la República, Uruguay,Ruta 9 Km 207, Rocha (Uruguay)
2015-04-20
We review the issue of gauge and gravitational anomalies with backgrounds, offering a new outlook on some aspects of these questions. We compute the holographic anomalies of hypothetical theories dual, in the sense of the AdS-CFT correspondence, to Chern-Simons AdS gravity. Those anomalies are either gauge anomalies, associated to the AdS gauge group of the theory, or diffeomorphism anomalies, with each kind related to the other. AdS gauge anomalies include Weyl, Lorentz (gravitational) and gauge translations while diffeomorphism anomalies include gravitational and Weyl (or scale) anomalies. Our results therefore go beyond previous investigations on Chern-Simons AdS gravity holograpic anomalies, that dealt only with Weyl anomalies. Furthermore, our calculations were done allowing a non vanishing torsion, unlike previous works that considered only the zero torsion, or metric, case. As a result of using suitable action principles for Chern-Simons AdS gravity, coming from Transgression forms, we obtain finite results without the need for further regularization. Our results are of potential interest for Lovelock gravity theories, as it has been shown that the boundary terms dictated by the transgressions for Chern-Simons gravity are also suitable to regularize Lovelock theories. The Wess-Zumino consistency condition ensures that anomalies of the generic form computed here should appear for these and other theories.
Is scale-invariance in gauge-Yukawa systems compatible with the graviton?
Christiansen, Nicolai; Eichhorn, Astrid; Held, Aaron
2017-10-01
We explore whether perturbative interacting fixed points in matter systems can persist under the impact of quantum gravity. We first focus on semisimple gauge theories and show that the leading order gravity contribution evaluated within the functional Renormalization Group framework preserves the perturbative fixed-point structure in these models discovered in [J. K. Esbensen, T. A. Ryttov, and F. Sannino, Phys. Rev. D 93, 045009 (2016)., 10.1103/PhysRevD.93.045009]. We highlight that the quantum-gravity contribution alters the scaling dimension of the gauge coupling, such that the system exhibits an effective dimensional reduction. We secondly explore the effect of metric fluctuations on asymptotically safe gauge-Yukawa systems which feature an asymptotically safe fixed point [D. F. Litim and F. Sannino, J. High Energy Phys. 12 (2014) 178., 10.1007/JHEP12(2014)178]. The same effective dimensional reduction that takes effect in pure gauge theories also impacts gauge-Yukawa systems. There, it appears to lead to a split of the degenerate free fixed point into an interacting infrared attractive fixed point and a partially ultraviolet attractive free fixed point. The quantum-gravity induced infrared fixed point moves towards the asymptotically safe fixed point of the matter system, and annihilates it at a critical value of the gravity coupling. Even after that fixed-point annihilation, graviton effects leave behind new partially interacting fixed points for the matter sector.