WorldWideScience

Sample records for su2 chiral symmetry

  1. Chiral symmetry and chiral-symmetry breaking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peskin, M.E.

    1982-12-01

    These lectures concern the dynamics of fermions in strong interaction with gauge fields. Systems of fermions coupled by gauge forces have a very rich structure of global symmetries, which are called chiral symmetries. These lectures will focus on the realization of chiral symmetries and the causes and consequences of thier spontaneous breaking. A brief introduction to the basic formalism and concepts of chiral symmetry breaking is given, then some explicit calculations of chiral symmetry breaking in gauge theories are given, treating first parity-invariant and then chiral models. These calculations are meant to be illustrative rather than accurate; they make use of unjustified mathematical approximations which serve to make the physics more clear. Some formal constraints on chiral symmetry breaking are discussed which illuminate and extend the results of our more explicit analysis. Finally, a brief review of the phenomenological theory of chiral symmetry breaking is presented, and some applications of this theory to problems in weak-interaction physics are discussed. (WHK)

  2. Introduction to chiral symmetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koch, V.

    1996-01-08

    These lectures are an attempt to a pedagogical introduction into the elementary concepts of chiral symmetry in nuclear physics. Effective chiral models such as the linear and nonlinear sigma model will be discussed as well as the essential ideas of chiral perturbation theory. Some applications to the physics of ultrarelativistic heavy ion collisions will be presented.

  3. Introduction to Chiral Symmetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koch, Volker [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2017-05-09

    These lectures are an attempt to a pedagogical introduction into the elementary concepts of chiral symmetry in nuclear physics. We will also discuss some effective chiral models such as the linear and nonlinear sigma model as well as the essential ideas of chiral perturbation theory. We will present some applications to the physics of ultrarelativistic heavy ion collisionsd.

  4. Applications of chiral symmetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pisarski, R.D.

    1995-03-01

    The author discusses several topics in the applications of chiral symmetry at nonzero temperature. First, where does the rho go? The answer: up. The restoration of chiral symmetry at a temperature T{sub {chi}} implies that the {rho} and a{sub 1} vector mesons are degenerate in mass. In a gauged linear sigma model the {rho} mass increases with temperature, m{sub {rho}}(T{sub {chi}}) > m{sub {rho}}(0). The author conjectures that at T{sub {chi}} the thermal {rho} - a{sub 1}, peak is relatively high, at about {approximately}1 GeV, with a width approximately that at zero temperature (up to standard kinematic factors). The {omega} meson also increases in mass, nearly degenerate with the {rho}, but its width grows dramatically with temperature, increasing to at least {approximately}100 MeV by T{sub {chi}}. The author also stresses how utterly remarkable the principle of vector meson dominance is, when viewed from the modern perspective of the renormalization group. Secondly, he discusses the possible appearance of disoriented chiral condensates from {open_quotes}quenched{close_quotes} heavy ion collisions. It appears difficult to obtain large domains of disoriented chiral condensates in the standard two flavor model. This leads to the last topic, which is the phase diagram for QCD with three flavors, and its proximity to the chiral critical point. QCD may be very near this chiral critical point, and one might thereby generated large domains of disoriented chiral condensates.

  5. Quarks, baryons and chiral symmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Hosaka, Atsushi

    2001-01-01

    This book describes baryon models constructed from quarks, mesons and chiral symmetry. The role of chiral symmetry and of quark model structure with SU(6) spin-flavor symmetry are discussed in detail, starting from a pedagogic introduction. Emphasis is placed on symmetry aspects of the theories. As an application, the chiral bag model is studied for nucleon structure, where important methods of theoretical physics, mostly related to the semiclassical approach for a system of strong interactions, are demonstrated. The text is more practical than formal; tools and ideas are explained in detail w

  6. Dynamical Local Chirality and Chiral Symmetry Breaking

    CERN Document Server

    Alexandru, Andrei

    2013-01-01

    We present some of the reasoning and results substantiating the notion that spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking (SChSB) in QCD is encoded in local chiral properties of Dirac eigenmodes. Such association is possible when viewing chirality as a dynamical effect, measured with respect to the benchmark of statistically independent left-right components. Following this rationale leads to describing local chiral behavior by a taylor-made correlation, namely the recently introduced correlation coefficient of polarization C_A. In this language, correlated modes (C_A>0) show dynamical preference for local chirality while anti-correlated modes (C_A<0) favor anti-chirality. Our conclusion is that SChSB in QCD can be viewed as dominance of low-energy correlation (chirality) over anti-correlation (anti-chirality) of Dirac sea. The spectral range of local chirality, chiral polarization scale Lambda_ch, is a dynamically generated scale in the theory associated with SChSB. One implication of these findings is briefly dis...

  7. Baryon and chiral symmetry breaking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorsky, A. [Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics (ITEP), Moscow, Russia and Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology (MIPT), Dolgoprudny (Russian Federation); Krikun, A. [NORDITA, KTH Royal Institute of Technology and Stockholm University Stockholm, Sweden and Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics (ITEP), Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2014-07-23

    We briefly review the generalized Skyrmion model for the baryon recently suggested by us. It takes into account the tower of vector and axial mesons as well as the chiral symmetry breaking. The generalized Skyrmion model provides the qualitative explanation of the Ioffe’s formula for the baryon mass.

  8. Symmetries of Ginsparg-Wilson Chiral Fermions

    OpenAIRE

    Mandula, Jeffrey E.

    2009-01-01

    The group structure of the variant chiral symmetry discovered by Luscher in the Ginsparg-Wilson description of lattice chiral fermions is analyzed. It is shown that the group contains an infinite number of linearly independent symmetry generators, and the Lie algebra is given explicitly. CP is an automorphism of this extended chiral group, and the CP transformation properties of the symmetry generators are found. The group has an infinite-parameter invariant subgroup, and the factor group, wh...

  9. Introduction to chiral symmetry in QCD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sazdjian H.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The main aspects of chiral symmetry in QCD are presented. The necessity of its spontaneous breakdown is explained. Some low-energy theorems are reviewed. The role of chiral effective Lagrangians in the formulation and realization of chiral perturbation theory is emphasized. The consequences of the presence of anomalies are sketched.

  10. Chiral symmetry in light-front QCD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Menh-Hsiu; Zhang, Wei-Min

    2004-04-01

    The definition of chiral transformations in light-front field theory is very different from the conventional form in equal-time formalism. We study the consistency of chiral transformations and chiral symmetry in light-front QCD and derive a complete new light-front axial-vector current for QCD. The breaking of chiral symmetry in light-front QCD is only associated with helicity flip interaction between quarks and gluons. Remarkably, the new axial-vector current does not contain the pion pole part so that the associate chiral charge smoothly describes pion transitions for various hadronic processes.

  11. Chlorophylls, Symmetry, Chirality, and Photosynthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathias O. Senge

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Chlorophylls are a fundamental class of tetrapyrroles and function as the central reaction center, accessory and photoprotective pigments in photosynthesis. Their unique individual photochemical properties are a consequence of the tetrapyrrole macrocycle, the structural chemistry and coordination behavior of the phytochlorin system, and specific substituent pattern. They achieve their full potential in solar energy conversion by working in concert in highly complex, supramolecular structures such as the reaction centers and light-harvesting complexes of photobiology. The biochemical function of these structures depends on the controlled interplay of structural and functional principles of the apoprotein and pigment cofactors. Chlorophylls and bacteriochlorophylls are optically active molecules with several chiral centers, which are necessary for their natural biological function and the assembly of their supramolecular complexes. However, in many cases the exact role of chromophore stereochemistry in the biological context is unknown. This review gives an overview of chlorophyll research in terms of basic function, biosynthesis and their functional and structural role in photosynthesis. It highlights aspects of chirality and symmetry of chlorophylls to elicit further interest in their role in nature.

  12. Centre vortex removal restores chiral symmetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trewartha, Daniel; Kamleh, Waseem; Leinweber, Derek B.

    2017-12-01

    The influence of centre vortices on dynamical chiral symmetry breaking is investigated through the light hadron spectrum on the lattice. Recent studies of the quark propagator and other quantities have provided evidence that centre vortices are the fundamental objects underpinning dynamical chiral symmetry breaking in {SU}(3) gauge theory. For the first time, we use the chiral overlap fermion action to study the low-lying hadron spectrum on lattice ensembles consisting of Monte Carlo, vortex-removed, and vortex-projected gauge fields. We find that gauge field configurations consisting solely of smoothed centre vortices are capable of reproducing all the salient features of the hadron spectrum, including dynamical chiral symmetry breaking. The hadron spectrum on vortex-removed fields shows clear signals of chiral symmetry restoration at light values of the bare quark mass, while at heavy masses the spectrum is consistent with a theory of weakly interacting constituent quarks.

  13. Chiral Symmetry, Heavy Quark Symmetry and Bound States

    OpenAIRE

    Yoshida, Yuhsuke

    1995-01-01

    I investigate the bound state problems of lowest-lying mesons and heavy mesons. Chiral symmetry is essential when one consider lowest-lying mesons. Heavy quark symmetry plays an central role in considering the semi-leptonic form factors of heavy mesons. Various properties based on the symmetries are revealed using Bethe-Salpeter equations.

  14. Chiral Symmetry in Light-front QCD

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Meng-Hsiu; Zhang, Wei-Min

    2003-01-01

    The definition of chiral transformations in light-front field theory is very different from the conventional form in equal-time formalism. We study the consistency of chiral transformations and chiral symmetry in light-front QCD and derive a complete new light-front axial-vector current for QCD. The breaking of chiral symmetry in light-front QCD is only associated with helicity flip interaction between quarks and gluons. Remarkably, the new axial-vector current does not contain the pion pole ...

  15. Model for chiral symmetry breaking in QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Govaerts, J.; Weyers, J.; Mandula, J.E.

    1984-04-30

    A recently proposed model for dynamical breaking of chiral symmetry in QCD is extended and developed for the calculation of pion and chiral symmetry breaking parameters. The pion is explicitly realized as a massless Goldstone boson and as a bound state of the constituent quarks. We compute, in the limit of exact chiral symmetry, Msub(Q), the constituent quark mass, fsub(..pi..), the pion decay coupling, , the constituent quark loop density, ..mu..sub(..pi..)/sup 2//msub(q), the ratio of the Goldstone boson mass squared to the bare quark mass, and sub(..pi..), the pion electromagnetic charge radius squared.

  16. Symmetries of Ginsparg-Wilson chiral fermions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandula, Jeffrey E.

    2009-10-01

    The group structure of the variant chiral symmetry discovered by Lüscher in the Ginsparg-Wilson description of lattice chiral fermions is analyzed. It is shown that the group contains an infinite number of linearly independent symmetry generators, and the Lie algebra is given explicitly. CP is an automorphism of this extended chiral group, and the CP transformation properties of the symmetry generators are found. The group has an infinite-parameter invariant subgroup, and the factor group, whose elements are its cosets, is isomorphic to the continuum chiral symmetry group. Features of the currents associated with these symmetries are discussed, including the fact that some different, noncommuting symmetry generators lead to the same Noether current. These are universal features of lattice chiral fermions based on the Ginsparg-Wilson relation; they occur in the overlap, domain-wall, and perfect-action formulations. In a solvable example, free overlap fermions, these noncanonical elements of lattice chiral symmetry are related to complex energy singularities that violate reflection positivity and impede continuation to Minkowski space.

  17. Duality and symmetry in chiral Potts model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roan, Shi-shyr

    2009-08-01

    We discover an Ising-type duality in the general N-state chiral Potts model, which is the Kramers-Wannier duality of a planar Ising model when N = 2. This duality relates the spectrum and eigenvectors of one chiral Potts model at a low temperature (of small k') to those of another chiral Potts model at a high temperature (of k'-1). The τ(2) model and chiral Potts model on the dual lattice are established alongside of the dual chiral Potts models. With the aid of this duality relation, we exact a precise relationship between the Onsager-algebra symmetry of a homogeneous superintegrable chiral Potts model and the sl2-loop-algebra symmetry of its associated spin- (N-1)/2 XXZ chain through the identification of their eigenstates.

  18. Partial restoration of chiral symmetry inside hadrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iritani, Takumi [Yukawa Institute for Theoretical Physics (YITP) (Japan); Cossu, Guido [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK) (Japan); Hashimoto, Shoji [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK) (Japan); School of High Energy Accelerator Science, The Graduate University for Advanced Studies (Sokendai) (Japan)

    2016-01-22

    We investigate the spatial distribution of the chiral condensate around static color sources for both quark-antiquark and three-quark systems. In the QCD vacuum a tube-like structure of chromo fields appears between color sources, which leads to a linearly confining potential. We show that the magnitude of the condensate is reduced inside the flux-tube, which suggests that chiral symmetry is partially restored inside the hadrons. By using a static baryon source in a periodic box as a model of the nuclear matter, we estimate the restoration of chiral symmetry with finite baryon number density.

  19. Partial restoration of chiral symmetry inside hadrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iritani, Takumi; Cossu, Guido; Hashimoto, Shoji

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the spatial distribution of the chiral condensate around static color sources for both quark-antiquark and three-quark systems. In the QCD vacuum a tube-like structure of chromo fields appears between color sources, which leads to a linearly confining potential. We show that the magnitude of the condensate is reduced inside the flux-tube, which suggests that chiral symmetry is partially restored inside the hadrons. By using a static baryon source in a periodic box as a model of the nuclear matter, we estimate the restoration of chiral symmetry with finite baryon number density.

  20. Projected Entangled Pair States with non-Abelian gauge symmetries: An SU(2) study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zohar, Erez; Wahl, Thorsten B.; Burrello, Michele

    2016-01-01

    limited to global symmetries, but has also been extended and applied for local symmetries, allowing to use them for the description of states in lattice gauge theories. In this paper we discuss PEPS with a local, SU(2) gauge symmetry, and demonstrate the use of PEPS features and techniques for the study...... of a simple family of many body states with a non-Abelian gauge symmetry. We present, in particular, the construction of fermionic PEPS able to describe both two-color fermionic matter and the degrees of freedom of an SU(2) gauge field with a suitable truncation....

  1. SU(2)-monopoles, curves with symmetries and Ramanujan's heritage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braden, Harry W.; Ènol'skii, Viktor Z.

    2010-08-01

    We develop the Ercolani-Sinha construction of SU(2) monopoles for a five-parameter family of centred charge 3 monopoles. In particular we show how to solve the transcendental constraints arising on the spectral curve. For a class of symmetric curves the transcendental constraints become a number-theoretic problem and a recently proven identity of Ramanujan provides a solution. Bibliography: 36 titles.

  2. Projected Entangled Pair States with non-Abelian gauge symmetries: An SU(2) study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zohar, Erez, E-mail: erez.zohar@mpq.mpg.de [Max-Planck-Institut für Quantenoptik, Hans-Kopfermann-Straße 1, 85748 Garching (Germany); Wahl, Thorsten B. [Rudolf Peierls Centre for Theoretical Physics, Oxford, 1 Keble Road, OX1 3NP (United Kingdom); Burrello, Michele, E-mail: michele.burrello@mpq.mpg.de [Max-Planck-Institut für Quantenoptik, Hans-Kopfermann-Straße 1, 85748 Garching (Germany); Cirac, J. Ignacio [Max-Planck-Institut für Quantenoptik, Hans-Kopfermann-Straße 1, 85748 Garching (Germany)

    2016-11-15

    Over the last years, Projected Entangled Pair States have demonstrated great power for the study of many body systems, as they naturally describe ground states of gapped many body Hamiltonians, and suggest a constructive way to encode and classify their symmetries. The PEPS study is not only limited to global symmetries, but has also been extended and applied for local symmetries, allowing to use them for the description of states in lattice gauge theories. In this paper we discuss PEPS with a local, SU(2) gauge symmetry, and demonstrate the use of PEPS features and techniques for the study of a simple family of many body states with a non-Abelian gauge symmetry. We present, in particular, the construction of fermionic PEPS able to describe both two-color fermionic matter and the degrees of freedom of an SU(2) gauge field with a suitable truncation.

  3. Rotating optical microcavities with broken chiral symmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Sarma, Raktim; Wiersig, Jan; Cao, Hui

    2014-01-01

    We demonstrate in open microcavities with broken chiral symmetry, quasi-degenerate pairs of co-propagating modes in a non-rotating cavity evolve to counter-propagating modes with rotation. The emission patterns change dramatically by rotation, due to distinct output directions of CW and CCW waves. By tuning the degree of spatial chirality, we maximize the sensitivity of microcavity emission to rotation. The rotation-induced change of emission is orders of magnitude larger than the Sagnac effect, pointing to a promising direction for ultrasmall optical gyroscopes.

  4. An Exact SU(2) Symmetry and Persistent Spin Helix in a Spin-Orbit Coupled System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernevig, Andrei

    2010-02-10

    Spin-orbit coupled systems generally break the spin rotation symmetry. However, for a model with equal Rashba and Dresselhauss coupling constant (the ReD model), and for the [110] Dresselhauss model, a new type of SU(2) spin rotation symmetry is discovered. This symmetry is robust against spin-independent disorder and interactions, and is generated by operators whose wavevector depends on the coupling strength. It renders the spin lifetime infinite at this wavevector, giving rise to a Persistent Spin Helix (PSH). We obtain the spin fluctuation dynamics at, and away, from the symmetry point, and suggest experiments to observe the PSH.

  5. An Exact SU(2) Symmetry and Persistent Spin Helix ina Spin-orbit Coupled System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernevig, B.A.; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /Santa Barbara, KITP; Orenstein, J.; /LBL, Berkeley /UC, Berkeley; Zhang, Shou-Cheng; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.

    2007-01-22

    Spin-orbit coupled systems generally break the spin rotation symmetry. However, for a model with equal Rashba and Dresselhauss coupling constant (the ReD model), and for the [110] Dresselhauss model, a new type of SU(2) spin rotation symmetry is discovered. This symmetry is robust against spin-independent disorder and interactions, and is generated by operators whose wavevector depends on the coupling strength. It renders the spin lifetime infinite at this wavevector, giving rise to a Persistent Spin Helix (PSH). We obtain the spin fluctuation dynamics at, and away, from the symmetry point, and suggest experiments to observe the PSH.

  6. Note on the Lattice Fermion Chiral Symmetry Group

    OpenAIRE

    Mandula, Jeffrey E.

    2007-01-01

    The group structure of the variant chiral symmetry discovered by Luscher in the Ginsparg-Wilson description of lattice chiral fermions is analyzed. It is shown that the group contains an infinite number of linearly independent symmetry generators, and the Lie algebra is given explicitly. CP is an automorphism of the chiral group, and the CP transformation properties of the symmetry generators is found. Features of the currents associated with these symmetries are discussed, including the fact...

  7. An SU(2) symmetry of the one-dimensional spin-1 XY model

    CERN Document Server

    Kitazawa, A; Nomura, K

    2003-01-01

    We show that the one-dimensional spin-1 XY model has an additional SU(2) symmetry for the open boundary condition and for an artificial one. We can explain some degeneracies of excitation states which were reported in previous numerical studies. (letter to the editor)

  8. Chiral symmetry breaking in unstirred crystallization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szurgot, M. [Center of Mathematics and Physics, Technical University of Lodz (Poland)

    2012-01-15

    Statistics of nucleation of chiral forms of sodium bromate from unstirred aqueous solutions was studied. It was established that bimodal, trimodal and unimodal distributions of enantiomers are obtained in unstirred crystallization. It was also found out that probabilities of the creation of L or D crystals and racemates R, as well as the presence of D, L, and R peaks in distributions depend on crystallizer size, supersaturation and temperature. Nucleation at low supersaturations in small, closed crystallizers leads to the formation of pure enantiomers, and to bimodal distributions with D and L peaks at any temperature. At high supersaturations in large, open crystallizers the formation of racemates and unimodal distributions with racemate R peaks results. In open crystallizers at the lowest temperatures and at the highest temperatures used in crystallization from aqueous solution racemates of sodium bromate are preferentially formed, but in a wide range of intermediate-temperatures apart from racemates, pure enantiomers are efficiently formed which leads to trimodal distributions. The spontaneous formation of pure enantiomers in crystallization from unstirred, unseeded solutions is caused by the chiral symmetry breaking phenomenon, the same as that discovered in stirred crystallization. The conservation of chiral symmetry is, in unstirred crystallization, one of the two possibilities, and the other one is the breakage of symmetry. Both of them occur in nature. (copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  9. Effect of SU(2) symmetry on many-body localization and thermalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Protopopov, Ivan V.; Ho, Wen Wei; Abanin, Dmitry A.

    2017-07-01

    The many-body localized (MBL) phase is characterized by a complete set of quasilocal integrals of motion and area-law entanglement of excited eigenstates. We study the effect of non-Abelian continuous symmetries on MBL, considering the case of SU(2 ) symmetric disordered spin chains. The SU(2 ) symmetry imposes strong constraints on the entanglement structure of the eigenstates, precluding conventional MBL. We construct a fixed-point Hamiltonian, which realizes a nonergodic (but non-MBL) phase characterized by eigenstates having logarithmic scaling of entanglement with the system size, as well as an incomplete set of quasilocal integrals of motion. We study the response of such a phase to local symmetric perturbations, finding that even weak perturbations induce multispin resonances. We conclude that the nonergodic phase is generally unstable and that SU(2 ) symmetry implies thermalization. The approach introduced in this Rapid Communication can be used to study dynamics in disordered systems with non-Abelian symmetries, and provides a starting point for searching nonergodic phases beyond conventional MBL.

  10. Axion inflation with an SU(2) gauge field: detectable chiral gravity waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maleknejad, Azadeh [School of Physics, Institute for Research in Fundamental Sciences (IPM), P. Code. 19538-33511, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-07-20

    We study a single field axion inflation model in the presence of an SU(2) gauge field with a small vev. In order to make the analysis as model-independent as possible, we consider an arbitrary potential for the axion that is able to support the slow-roll inflation. The gauge field is coupled to the axion with a Chern-Simons interaction (λ/f)F{sub μν}{sup a}F̃{sub a}{sup μν} where (λ/f)∼((O(10))/(M{sub pl})). It has a negligible effect on the background evolution, ((ρ{sub YM})/(M{sub pl}{sup 2}H{sup 2}))≲ϵ{sup 2}. However, its quantum fluctuations make a significant contribution to the cosmic perturbation. In particular, the gauge field has a spin-2 fluctuation which explicitly breaks the parity between the left- and right-handed polarization states. The chiral tensor modes are linearly coupled to the gravitational waves and lead to a circularly polarized tensor power spectrum comparable to the unpolarized vacuum power spectrum. Moreover, the scalar sector is modified by the linear scalar fluctuations of the gauge field. Since the spin-0 and spin-2 fluctuations of the SU(2) gauge field are independent, the gauge field can, at the same time, generate a detectable chiral gravitational wave signal and have a negligible contribution to the scalar fluctuations, in agreement with the current CMB observations.

  11. Systematic construction of spin liquids on the square lattice from tensor networks with SU(2) symmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Mambrini, Matthieu; Poilblanc, Didier

    2016-01-01

    We elaborate a simple classification scheme of all rank-5 SU(2)-spin rotational symmetric tensors according to i) the on-site physical spin-$S$, (ii) the local Hilbert space $V^{\\otimes 4}$ of the four virtual (composite) spins attached to each site and (iii) the irreducible representations of the $C_{4v}$ point group of the square lattice. We apply our scheme to draw a complete list of all SU(2)-symmetric translationally and rotationally-invariant Projected Entangled Pair States (PEPS) with bond dimension $D\\leqslant 6$. All known SU(2)-symmetric PEPS on the square lattice are recovered and simple generalizations are provided in some cases. More generally, to each of our symmetry class can be associated a $({\\cal D}-1)$-dimensional manifold of spin liquids (potentially) preserving lattice symmetries and defined in terms of ${\\cal D}$ independent tensors of a given bond dimension $D$. In addition, generic (low-dimensional) families of PEPS explicitly breaking either (i) particular point-group lattice symmetri...

  12. Chiral symmetry and nuclear matter equation of state

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    chiral symmetry. To get the EOS, we have used Brueckner–Bethe–Golstone formalism with Bonn-B potential as two-body interaction and QCD sum rule and ... The spontaneous breaking of the chiral symmetry is signaled by the ... pairs observed in the invariant mass region around 400 MeV in the 200A GeV central col-.

  13. Stochastic chiral symmetry breaking process besides the deterministic one.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva-Dias, L; López-Castillo, A

    2017-11-08

    In chiral symmetry breaking, populations with initial enantiomeric excess (EE) are probabilistically favored if statistical fluctuation is present, as in nature. Stochastic methods correctly describe chiral symmetry breaking by taking into account the quantitative enantiomeric difference (excess or deficiency) and the statistical fluctuation amplitude, which is inversely proportional to the absolute size of the populations involved. From this, we obtain a law, which indicates that such a favoring probability decreases exponentially [P(EE) = 1/(e(αEE) + 1)] with an initial enantiomeric deficiency mediated by statistical fluctuation. Obviously, chiral symmetry breaking equally favors populations without enantiomeric excess [P(0) = 1/2]. However, if deterministic methods are considered, chiral symmetry breaking will strictly favor the population with an initial enantiomeric excess (EE). To study these stochastic chiral symmetry breaking processes the autocatalytic Frank model was considered. Summarizing, our results show that the initial enantiomeric excesses are not entirely responsible for the final state configuration of autocatalytic finite systems.

  14. Progress gauge symmetry breaking in SU(6) x SU(2) sub R model

    CERN Document Server

    Hayashi, T; Matsuda, M; Matsuoka, T

    2003-01-01

    In the SU(6) x SU(2) sub R string-inspired model, we describe the evolution of the couplings and the masses down from the string scale M sub s using the renormalization group equations and minimize the effective potential. This model possesses the flavor symmetry, including the binary dihedral group D tilde sub 4. We show that the scalar mass squared of the gauge non-singlet matter field possibly becomes negative slightly below the string scale. As a consequence, the precocious radiative breaking of the gauge symmetry down to the standard model gauge group can be realized. In the present model, the large Yukawa coupling, which plays an important role in the symmetry breaking, is identical to the colored Higgs coupling related to the longevity of the proton. (author)

  15. Kramers-Wannier duality and worldline representation for the SU(2) principal chiral model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gattringer, Christof; Göschl, Daniel; Marchis, Carlotta

    2018-03-01

    In this letter we explore different representations of the SU(2) principal chiral model on the lattice. We couple chemical potentials to two of the conserved charges to induce finite density. This leads to a complex action such that the conventional field representation cannot be used for a Monte Carlo simulation. Using the recently developed Abelian color flux approach we derive a new worldline representation where the partition sum has only real and positive weights, such that a Monte Carlo simulation is possible. In a second step we transform the model to new dual variables in the Kramers-Wannier (KW) sense, such that the constraints are automatically fulfilled, and we obtain a second representation free of the complex action problem. We implement exploratory Monte Carlo simulations for both, the worldline, as well as the KW-dual form, for cross-checking the two dualizations and a first assessment of their potential for dual simulations.

  16. Aspects of finite field-dependent symmetry in SU(2) Cho–Faddeev–Niemi decomposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Upadhyay, Sudhaker, E-mail: sudhakerupadhyay@gmail.com

    2013-11-25

    In this Letter we consider SU(2) Yang–Mills theory analyzed in Cho–Faddeev–Niemi variables which remains invariant under local gauge transformations. The BRST symmetries of this theory are generalized by making the infinitesimal parameter finite and field-dependent. Further, we show that under appropriate choices of finite and field-dependent parameter, the gauge-fixing and ghost terms corresponding to Landau as well as maximal Abelian gauge for such Cho–Faddeev–Niemi decomposed theory appear naturally within functional integral through Jacobian calculation.

  17. Partial restoration of chiral symmetry in the color flux tube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iritani, Takumi; Cossu, Guido; Hashimoto, Shoji

    2015-05-01

    Using the quark eigenmodes computed on the lattice with the overlap-Dirac operator, we investigate the spatial distribution of the chiral condensate around static color sources corresponding to quark-antiquark and three-quark systems. A flux structure of chromo fields appears in the presence of such color charges. The magnitude of the chiral condensate is reduced inside the color flux, which implies partial restoration of chiral symmetry inside hadrons. Taking a static baryon source in a periodic box as a toy model of nuclear matter, we estimate the magnitude of the chiral symmetry restoration as a function of baryon matter density.

  18. Chiral symmetry breakings in supersymmetric QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shinmura, Mamoru; Yamawaki, Koichi (Nagoya Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Physics)

    1984-05-01

    It is argued that spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking in supersymmetric QCD is due to the boson pair condensation instead of the fermion pair condensation in sharp contrast to the ordinary QCD. We further construct a low energy effective Lagrangian for supersymmetric QCD, which realizes the symmetry breaking, SU(N) sub(L) x SU(N) sub(R) x U(1) sub(V) x U(1) sub(X) down to SU(N) sub(V) x U(1) sub(V), in the massless limit. Our Lagrangian has no singular behaviour in the massless limit, supersymmetry being preserved independently of the quark mass m. It is shown that linear masses (instead of quadratic masses) of the pseudo-Nambu-Goldstone bosons are proportional to the quark mass and supersymmetric variants of Dashen's formulae are all saturated by the condensations -- O(m..lambda../sup 2/) and -- O (..lambda../sup 2/) for m -- 0.

  19. A model for chiral symmetry breaking in QCD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govaerts, J.; Mandula, J. E.; Weyers, J.

    1984-04-01

    A recently proposed model for dynamical breaking of chiral symmetry in QCD is extended and developed for the calculation of pion and chiral symmetry breaking parameters. The pion is explicitly realized as a massless Goldstone boson and as a bound state of the constituent quarks. We compute, in the limit of exact chiral symmetry, MQ, the constituent quark mass ƒ π the pion decay coupling, , the constituent quark loop density, μπ2/ mq, the ratio of the Goldstone boson mass squared to the bare quark mass, and π, the pion electromagnetic charge radius squared.

  20. Packing of Helices: Is Chirality the Highest Crystallographic Symmetry?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romain Gautier

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Chiral structures resulting from the packing of helices are common in biological and synthetic materials. Herein, we analyze the noncentrosymmetry (NCS in such systems using crystallographic considerations. A comparison of the chiral structures built from helices shows that the chirality can be expected for specific building units such as 31/32 or 61/65 helices which, in hexagonal arrangement, will more likely lead to a chiral resolution. In these two systems, we show that the highest crystallographic symmetry (i.e., the symmetry which can describe the crystal structure from the smallest assymetric unit is chiral. As an illustration, we present the synthesis of two materials ([Zn(2,2’-bpy3](NbF62 and [Zn(2,2’-bpy3](TaF62 in which the 3n helices pack into a chiral structure.

  1. Chiral symmetry on the lattice with Wilson fermions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bochicchio, M.; Maiani, L.; Martinelli, G.; Rossi, G.; Testa, M.

    1985-12-16

    The chiral properties of the continuum limit of lattice QCD with Wilson fermions are studied. We show that a partially conserved axial current can be defined, satisfying the usual current algebra requirements. A proper definition of the chiral symmetry order parameter, <0 vertical stroke anti psi psi vertical stroke 0>, is given, and the chiral properties of composite operators are investigated. The implications of our analysis to the lattice determination of non-leptonic weak amplitudes are also discussed. (orig.).

  2. Chiral symmetry and changes of properties in nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, G.E. [State Univ. of New York, Stony Brook, NY (United States). Dept. of Physics

    1995-12-31

    The decrease with density of the nucleon effective mass m{sub n}{sup *} as a movement towards chiral restoration, connecting m{sub n}{sup *} with the density dependent quark condensate (q-barq){sup *} is described. Roughly, m{sub n}{sup *} can be used as the order parameter for the phase of broken chiral symmetry. (author). 22 refs., 1 fig.

  3. Chiral Lagrangian with Heavy Quark-Diquark Symmetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jie Hu; Thomas Mehen

    2005-11-29

    We construct a chiral Lagrangian for doubly heavy baryons and heavy mesons that is invariant under heavy quark-diquark symmetry at leading order and includes the leading O(1/m{sub Q}) symmetry violating operators. The theory is used to predict the electromagnetic decay width of the J=3/2 member of the ground state doubly heavy baryon doublet. Numerical estimates are provided for doubly charm baryons. We also calculate chiral corrections to doubly heavy baryon masses and strong decay widths of low lying excited doubly heavy baryons.

  4. Is chiral symmetry restored in the excited meson spectrum?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segovia, J.; Entem, D. R.; Fernández, F.

    2008-04-01

    The large degeneracy observed in the excited meson spectrum by the Cristal Barrel Collaboration in the experimental data on proton-antiproton annihilation in flight into mesons in the range 1.9-2.4 GeV has been interpreted as a signal of chiral symmetry restoration. In this work we suggest that such degeneracy may be an indication of the confinement potential modification by color screening. The experimental data can be fairly well reproduced in a constituent quark model with a screened linear confinement potential without changing the dynamical quark mass. Observables that could discriminate our model from those which explicitly restore the chiral symmetry are proposed.

  5. Chiral symmetry in pion-quark interactions: a first study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maekawa, C.M.; Robilotta, M.R. [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica

    1995-12-31

    In the study of nuclear processes we learn that chiral symmetry is an important symmetry for systems with pions. The works of Weinberg have shown that effective Lagrangians can be used to reproduce current algebra results, with advantage of allowing simpler calculations for processes with several pions. In the case of nucleon-nucleon interactions processes with range less than 1 fm require the use of phenomenological models with quark degrees of freedom. This approach avoids in hadron physics, the problem of the very strong effective coupling constant of QCD in this region. One believes that chiral symmetry plays an important role in hadron physics. The purpose of this work is to study how this symmetry works when one connects pions with constituents quarks. (author) 3 refs., 1 fig.

  6. Light meson electromagnetic form factors from three-flavor lattice QCD with exact chiral symmetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoki, S.; Cossu, G.; Feng, X.; Hashimoto, S.; Kaneko, T.; Noaki, J.; Onogi, T.

    2016-02-01

    We study the chiral behavior of the electromagnetic (EM) form factors of pions and kaons in three-flavor lattice QCD. In order to make a direct comparison of the lattice data with chiral perturbation theory (ChPT), we employ the overlap quark action that has exact chiral symmetry. Gauge ensembles are generated at a lattice spacing of 0.11 fm with four pion masses ranging between Mπ≃290 MeV and 540 MeV and with a strange quark mass ms close to its physical value. We utilize the all-to-all quark propagator technique to calculate the EM form factors with high precision. Their dependence on ms and on the momentum transfer is studied by using the reweighting technique and the twisted boundary conditions for the quark fields, respectively. A detailed comparison with SU(2) and SU(3) ChPT reveals that the next-to-next-to-leading order terms in the chiral expansion are important to describe the chiral behavior of the form factors in the pion mass range studied in this work. We estimate the relevant low-energy constants and the charge radii, and find reasonable agreement with phenomenological and experimental results.

  7. Spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking in early molecular networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markovitch Omer

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An important facet of early biological evolution is the selection of chiral enantiomers for molecules such as amino acids and sugars. The origin of this symmetry breaking is a long-standing question in molecular evolution. Previous models addressing this question include particular kinetic properties such as autocatalysis or negative cross catalysis. Results We propose here a more general kinetic formalism for early enantioselection, based on our previously described Graded Autocatalysis Replication Domain (GARD model for prebiotic evolution in molecular assemblies. This model is adapted here to the case of chiral molecules by applying symmetry constraints to mutual molecular recognition within the assembly. The ensuing dynamics shows spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking, with transitions towards stationary compositional states (composomes enriched with one of the two enantiomers for some of the constituent molecule types. Furthermore, one or the other of the two antipodal compositional states of the assembly also shows time-dependent selection. Conclusion It follows that chiral selection may be an emergent consequence of early catalytic molecular networks rather than a prerequisite for the initiation of primeval life processes. Elaborations of this model could help explain the prevalent chiral homogeneity in present-day living cells. Reviewers This article was reviewed by Boris Rubinstein (nominated by Arcady Mushegian, Arcady Mushegian, Meir Lahav (nominated by Yitzhak Pilpel and Sergei Maslov.

  8. Dynamical chiral symmetry breaking and Bethe-Salpeter equation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naito, Kenichi [Tokyo Inst. of Tech. (Japan)

    1998-08-01

    {pi} meson, (pseudo) Nambu-Goldstone particle caused by a spontaneous breaking of chiral symmetry, was studied by use of Bethe-Salpeter (BS) equation in the limits of effective model as a bound state of quark and antiquark. The effective model has nonlocal interaction and proved to satisfy the Gell-Mann-Oaks-Renner (GMOR) mass formula by treating correct Noether current in spite of loss of local chiral invariance of interaction term. GMOR mass formula: M{sub {pi}}{sup 2}f{sub {pi}}{sup 2}{approx_equal}-2m{sub 0} was realized as the result of the dynamical breaking and the clear breaking of chiral symmetry. M{sub {pi}}, f{sub {pi}}, m{sub 0}, and indicate mass of pseudo scalar meson, decay constant, mass of quark and vacuum condensation of quark and antiquark. (S.Y.)

  9. Implementation of the SU(2) Hamiltonian symmetry for the DMRG algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Gonzalo

    2012-10-01

    In the Density Matrix Renormalization Group (DMRG) algorithm (White, 1992, 1993) [1,2], Hamiltonian symmetries play an important rôle. Using symmetries, the matrix representation of the Hamiltonian can be blocked. Diagonalizing each matrix block is more efficient than diagonalizing the original matrix. This paper explains how the the DMRG++ code (Alvarez, 2009) [3] has been extended to handle the non-local SU(2) symmetry in a model independent way. Improvements in CPU times compared to runs with only local symmetries are discussed for the one-orbital Hubbard model, and for a two-orbital Hubbard model for iron-based superconductors. The computational bottleneck of the algorithm and the use of shared memory parallelization are also addressed. Program summary Program title: DMRG++ Catalog identifier: AEDJ_v2_0 Program summary URL: http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEDJ_v2_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Special license. See http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/AEDJ_v2_0.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 211560 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 10572185 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: C++. Computer: PC. Operating system: Multiplatform, tested on Linux. Has the code been vectorized or parallelized?: Yes. 1 to 8 processors with MPI, 2 to 4 cores with pthreads. RAM: 1GB (256MB is enough to run the included test) Classification: 23. Catalog identifier of previous version: AEDJ_v1_0 Journal reference of previous version: Comput. Phys. Comm. 180(2009)1572 External routines: BLAS and LAPACK Nature of problem: Strongly correlated electrons systems, display a broad range of important phenomena, and their study is a major area of research in condensed matter physics. In this context, model Hamiltonians are used to simulate the relevant interactions of a given compound, and the relevant degrees of freedom. These studies

  10. Chiral geometry in symmetry-restored states: Chiral doublet bands in 128Cs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, F. Q.; Chen, Q. B.; Luo, Y. A.; Meng, J.; Zhang, S. Q.

    2017-11-01

    The pairing-plus-quadrupole Hamiltonian is diagonalized in a symmetry-restored basis, i.e., the triaxial quasiparticle states with angular momentum and particle number projections, and applied for chiral doublet bands in 128Cs. The observed energy spectra and electromagnetic transition probabilities are reproduced well without introducing any parameters. The orientation of the angular momentum in the intrinsic frame is investigated by the distributions of its components on the three principle axes (K plot) and those of its tilted angles (azimuthal plot). The evolution of the chirality with spin is illustrated, and the chiral geometry is demonstrated in the angular momentum projected model for the first time.

  11. Chiral symmetry breaking and chiral polarization: Tests for finite temperature and many flavors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei Alexandru

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available It was recently conjectured that, in SU(3 gauge theories with fundamental quarks, valence spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking is equivalent to condensation of local dynamical chirality and appearance of chiral polarization scale Λch. Here we consider more general association involving the low-energy layer of chirally polarized modes which, in addition to its width (Λch, is also characterized by volume density of participating modes (Ω and the volume density of total chirality (Ωch. Few possible forms of the correspondence are discussed, paying particular attention to singular cases where Ω emerges as the most versatile characteristic. The notion of finite-volume “order parameter”, capturing the nature of these connections, is proposed. We study the effects of temperature (in Nf=0 QCD and light quarks (in Nf=12, both in the regime of possible symmetry restoration, and find agreement with these ideas. In Nf=0 QCD, results from several volumes indicate that, at the lattice cutoff studied, the deconfinement temperature Tc is strictly smaller than the overlap–valence chiral transition temperature Tch in real Polyakov line vacuum. Somewhat similar intermediate phase (in quark mass is also seen in Nf=12. It is suggested that deconfinement in Nf=0 is related to indefinite convexity of absolute X-distributions.

  12. Universality in random matrix theory and chiral symmetry breaking in QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akemann, G.

    2000-05-01

    In this work we review the topic of random matrix model universality with particular stress on its application to the study of chiral symmetry breaking in QCD. We highlight the role of microscopic and macroscopic matrix model correlation functions played in the description of the deep infrared eigenvalue spectrum of the Dirac operator. The universal microscopic correlation functions are presented for all three chiral symmetry breaking patterns, and the corresponding random matrix universality proofs are given for massless and massive fermions in a unified way. These analytic results have been widely confirmed from QCD lattice data and we present a comparison with the most recent analytic calculations describing data for dynamical SU(2) staggered fermions. The microscopic matrix model results are then re-expressed in terms of the finite-volume partition functions of Leutwyler and Smilga, where some of these expressions have been recently obtained using field theory only. The macroscopic random matrix universality is reviewed for the most simplest examples of bosonic and supersymmetric models. We also give an example for a non-universal deformation of a random matrix model - the restricted trace ensemble. (orig.)

  13. Chiral Symmetry Restoration, Naturalness and the Absence of Fine-Tuning I: Global Theories

    CERN Document Server

    Lynn, Bryan W.

    2013-01-01

    The Standard Model (SM), and the scalar sector of its zero-gauge-coupling limit -- the chiral-symmetric limit of the Gell Mann-Levy Model (GML) -- have been shown not to suffer from a Higgs Fine-Tuning (FT) problem. All ultraviolet quadratic divergences (UVQD) are absorbed into the mass-squared of pseudo Nambu-Goldstone (pNGB) bosons, in GML. Since chiral SU(2)_{L-R} symmetry is restored as the pNGB mass-squared or as the Higgs vacuum expectation value (VEV) are taken to 0, small values of these quantities and of the Higgs mass are natural, and therefore not Fine-Tuned. In this letter, we extend our results on the absence of FT to a wide class of high-mass-scale (M_{Heavy}>>m_{Higgs}) extensions to a simplified SO(2) version of GML. We explicitly demonstrate naturalness and no-FT for two examples of heavy physics, both SO(2) singlets: a heavy (M_S >> m_{Higgs}) real scalar field (with or without a VEV); and a right-handed Type 1 See-Saw Majorana neutrino with M_R >> m_{Higgs}. We prove that for |q^2| <<...

  14. Quark pair condensation and chiral symmetry breaking in QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finger, J.R. (Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge (USA)); Mandula, J.E. (Washington Univ., St. Louis, MO (USA))

    1982-05-17

    If the effective qanti q interaction strength due to gluon exchange becomes at least moderately strong beyond some distance g/sup 2//4..pi.. > 9/8, the perturbative vacuum becomes unstable to the creation of color singlet qanti q pairs, which indicates that the true vacuum contains a condensate of such pairs. We analyze the condensation by a coherent state variational procedure modeled after the BCS superconductor, and show that this method is equivalent to a self-consistent Hartree-Fock approximation to the Schwinger-Dyson equation for the quark propagator. The condensate leads to a spontaneous breakdown of chiral symmetry in the manner discussed by Nambu and Jona-Lasinio. The massive pseudoparticles with quark quantum numbers are identified with the 'constituent' quarks.

  15. Quark pair condensation and chiral symmetry breaking in QCD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finger, Jonathan R.; Mandula, Jeffrey E.

    1982-05-01

    If the effective qoverlineq interaction strength due to gluon exchange becomes at least moderately strong beyond some distance g 2/4π > {9}/{8}, the perturbative vacuum becomes unstable to the creation of color singlet qoverlineq pairs, which indicates that the true vacuum contains a condensate of such pairs. We analyze the condensation by a coherent state variational procedure modeled after the BCS superconductor, and show that this method is equivalent to a self-consistent Hartree-Fock approximation to the Schwinger-Dyson equation for the quark propagator. The condensate leads to a spontaneous breakdown of chiral symmetry in the manner discussed by Nambu and Jona-Lasinio. The massive pseudoparticles with quark quantum numbers are identified with the "constituent" quarks.

  16. Symmetry of chiral nanotubes: Natural torsion and diffraction evidence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vukovic, Tatjana; Lazic, Natasa; Milosevic, Ivanka; Damnjanovic, Milan [NanoLab, Faculty of Physics, University of Belgrade, Studentski trg 12, Belgrade 11001 (Serbia)

    2012-12-15

    Optimizations performed with geometrical, molecular mechanics, and density functional models show that chiral carbon nanotube configuration is slightly twisted with respect to the rolled-up geometry. The torsion angle is small, <1 Aa{sup -1} for ultrathin tubes, and decreases with tube diameter. The effect can be explained through breaking of local symmetry of the equally distant neighbors in graphene, which is diminished by the torsion. Although, the twist is small, still, we single out features in diffraction patterns which can distinguish between twisted and non-twisted configurations, at least for narrow single-walled carbon nanotubes. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  17. Eta photoproduction as a test of the extended chiral symmetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez-Ramirez, C. [Instituto de Estructura de la Materia, CSIC, Serrano 123, E-28006 Madrid (Spain)]. E-mail: cesar@nuc2.fis.ucm.es; Moya de Guerra, E. [Instituto de Estructura de la Materia, CSIC, Serrano 123, E-28006 Madrid (Spain); Departamento de Fisica Atomica, Molecular y Nuclear, Facultad de Ciencias Fisicas, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Avda. Complutense s/n, E-28040 Madrid (Spain); Udias, J.M. [Departamento de Fisica Atomica, Molecular y Nuclear, Facultad de Ciencias Fisicas, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Avda. Complutense s/n, E-28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2007-08-09

    We analyze the {gamma}p->{eta}p process from threshold up to 1.2 GeV, employing an effective Lagrangian approach that allows for a mixing of eta couplings of pseudoscalar and pseudovector nature. The mixing ratio of the couplings may serve as a quantitative estimation of the SU{sub L}(3)xSU{sub R}(3) extended chiral symmetry violation in this energy regime. The data analyzed (differential cross sections and asymmetries) show a preference for the pseudoscalar coupling-91% of pseudoscalar coupling component for the best fit. We stress that a more conclusive answer to this question requires a more complete electromagnetic multipole database than the presently available one.

  18. Chiral-symmetry breaking and confinement in Minkowski space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biernat, Elmar P. [Centro de Física Teórica de Partículas (CFTP), Instituto Superior Técnico (IST), Universidade de Lisboa, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Peña, M. T. [Centro de Física Teórica de Partículas (CFTP), Instituto Superior Técnico (IST), Universidade de Lisboa, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Departamento de Física, Instituto Superior Técnico (IST), Universidadede Lisboa, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Ribeiro, J. E. [Centro de Física das Interações Fundamentais (CFIF), Instituto Superior Técnico (IST), Universidade de Lisboa, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Stadler, Alfred [Departamento de Física, Universidade de Évora, 7000-671 Évora (Portugal); Centro de Física Teórica de Partículas (CFTP), Instituto Superior Técnico (IST), Universidade de Lisboa, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Gross, Franz [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (JLab), Newport News, Virginia 23606 (United States)

    2016-01-22

    We present a model for the quark-antiquark interaction formulated in Minkowski space using the Covariant Spectator Theory. The quark propagators are dressed with the same kernel that describes the interaction between different quarks. By applying the axial-vector Ward-Takahashi identity we show that our model satisfies the Adler-zero constraint imposed by chiral symmetry. For this model, our Minkowski-space results of the dressed quark mass function are compared to lattice QCD data obtained in Euclidean space. The mass function is then used in the calculation of the electromagnetic pion form factor in relativistic impulse approximation, and the results are presented and compared with the experimental data from JLab.

  19. Chiral-symmetry breaking and confinement in Minkowski space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biernat, Elmer P. [Unibersidade de Lisboa, 104-001, Lisboa, Portugal; Pena, M. T. [Universidade de Lisboa, 1049-001, Lisboa, Portugal; Ribiero, J. E. [Universidade de Lisboa, 1049-001 Lisboa, Portugal; Stadler, Alfred [Universidade de Évora, 7000-671 Évora, Portugal; Universidade de Lisboa, 1049-001 Lisboa, Portugal; Gross, Franz [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States)

    2016-01-01

    We present a model for the quark-antiquark interaction formulated in Minkowski space using the Covariant Spectator Theory. The quark propagators are dressed with the same kernel that describes the interaction between different quarks. By applying the axial-vector Ward-Takahashi identity we show that our model satisfies the Adler-zero constraint imposed by chiral symmetry. For this model, our Minkowski-space results of the dressed quark mass function are compared to lattice QCD data obtained in Euclidean space. The mass function is then used in the calculation of the electromagnetic pion form factor in relativistic impulse approximation, and the results are presented and compared with the experimental data from JLab.

  20. Domain wall network as QCD vacuum: confinement, chiral symmetry, hadronization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nedelko Sergei N.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available An approach to QCD vacuum as a medium describable in terms of statistical ensemble of almost everywhere homogeneous Abelian (anti-self-dual gluon fields is reviewed. These fields play the role of the confining medium for color charged fields as well as underline the mechanism of realization of chiral SUL(Nf × SUR(Nf and UA(1 symmetries. Hadronization formalism based on this ensemble leads to manifestly defined quantum effective meson action. Strong, electromagnetic and weak interactions of mesons are represented in the action in terms of nonlocal n-point interaction vertices given by the quark-gluon loops averaged over the background ensemble. Systematic results for the mass spectrum and decay constants of radially excited light, heavy-light mesons and heavy quarkonia are presented. Relationship of this approach to the results of functional renormalization group and Dyson-Schwinger equations, and the picture of harmonic confinement is briefly outlined.

  1. Chiral symmetry breaking in QCD with two light flavors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, Georg P; Giusti, Leonardo; Lottini, Stefano; Sommer, Rainer

    2015-03-20

    A distinctive feature of the presence of spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking in QCD is the condensation of low modes of the Dirac operator near the origin. The rate of condensation must be equal to the slope of M(π)(2)F(π)(2)/2 with respect to the quark mass m in the chiral limit, where M(π) and F(π) are the mass and the decay constant of the Nambu-Goldstone bosons. We compute the spectral density of the (Hermitian) Dirac operator, the quark mass, the pseudoscalar meson mass, and decay constant by numerical simulations of lattice QCD with two light degenerate Wilson quarks. We use lattices generated by the Coordinated Lattice Simulation (CLS) group at three values of the lattice spacing in the range 0.05-0.08 fm, and for several quark masses corresponding to pseudoscalar mesons masses down to 190 MeV. Thanks to this coverage of parameters space, we can extrapolate all quantities to the chiral and continuum limits with confidence. The results show that the low quark modes do condense in the continuum as expected by the Banks-Casher mechanism, and the rate of condensation agrees with the Gell-Mann-Oakes-Renner relation. For the renormalization-group-invariant ratios we obtain [Σ(RGI)](1/3)/F=2.77(2)(4) and Λ(M̅S)/F=3.6(2), which correspond to [Σ(M̅S)(2  GeV)](1/3)=263(3)(4)  MeV and F=85.8(7)(20)  MeV if F(K) is used to set the scale by supplementing the theory with a quenched strange quark.

  2. Scalar response of the nucleon chiral symmetry and nuclear matter properties

    CERN Document Server

    Chanfray, G

    2010-01-01

    In this talk we present a description of nuclear binding in a chiral approach based on the existence of a chiral invariant scalar field associated with the generation of the masses through spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking. We discuss the emergence of such a field on the example of the NJL model. We also incorporate the effect of confinement at the level of the nucleon substructure to stabilize nuclear matter. In a particular quark-diquark model we illustrate the simutaneous influences of spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking and confinement on the nucleon mass and on the nuclear matter description.

  3. Dynamical time-reversal symmetry breaking and photo-induced chiral spin liquids in frustrated Mott insulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claassen, Martin; Jiang, Hong-Chen; Moritz, Brian; Devereaux, Thomas P

    2017-10-30

    The search for quantum spin liquids in frustrated quantum magnets recently has enjoyed a surge of interest, with various candidate materials under intense scrutiny. However, an experimental confirmation of a gapped topological spin liquid remains an open question. Here, we show that circularly polarized light can provide a knob to drive frustrated Mott insulators into a chiral spin liquid, realizing an elusive quantum spin liquid with topological order. We find that the dynamics of a driven Kagome Mott insulator is well-captured by an effective Floquet spin model, with heating strongly suppressed, inducing a scalar spin chirality S i · (S j  × S k ) term which dynamically breaks time-reversal while preserving SU(2) spin symmetry. We fingerprint the transient phase diagram and find a stable photo-induced chiral spin liquid near the equilibrium state. The results presented suggest employing dynamical symmetry breaking to engineer quantum spin liquids and access elusive phase transitions that are not readily accessible in equilibrium.

  4. The third parafermionic chiral algebra with the symmetry Z{sub 3}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dotsenko, Vladimir S. [LPTHE, Laboratoire associe No. 280 au CNRS. Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris VI, BoIte 126, Tour 16, 1er etage, 4 place Jussieu, F-75252 Paris cedex 05 (France); Santachiara, Raoul [ITFA, Instituut voor Theoretische Fysica, Valckenierstraat 65, 1018 XE Amsterdam (Netherlands)]. E-mail: rsantach@science.uva.nl

    2005-03-31

    We have constructed the parafermionic chiral algebra with the principal parafermionic fields {psi},{psi}{sup +} having the conformal dimension {delta}{sub {psi}}=8/3 and realizing the symmetry Z{sub 3}.

  5. Chiral Symmetry Breaking in Peptide Systems During Formation of Life on Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konstantinov, Konstantin K.; Konstantinova, Alisa F.

    2017-11-01

    Chiral symmetry breaking in complex chemical systems with a large number of amino acids and a large number of similar reactions was considered. It was shown that effective averaging over similar reaction channels may result in very weak effective enantioselectivity of forward reactions, which does not allow most of the known models to result in chiral symmetry breaking during formation of life on Earth. Models with simple and catalytic synthesis of a single amino acid, formation of peptides up to length five, and sedimentation of insoluble pair of substances were considered. It was shown that depending on the model and the values of the parameters, chiral symmetry breaking may occur in up to about 10% out of all possible unique insoluble pair combinations even in the absence of any catalytic synthesis and that minimum total number of amino acids in the pair is 5. If weak enantioselective forward catalytic synthesis of amino acids is present, then the number of possible variants, in which chiral symmetry breaking may occur, increases substantially. It was shown that that the most interesting catalysts have zero or one amino acid of "incorrect" chirality. If the parameters of the model are adjusted in such a way to result in an increase of concentration of longer peptides, then catalysts with two amino acids of incorrect chirality start to appear at peptides of length five. Models of chiral symmetry breaking in the presence of epimerization were considered for peptides up to length three. It was shown that the range of parameters in which chiral symmetry breaking could occur significantly shrinks in comparison to previously considered models with peptides up to length two. An experiment of chiral symmetry breaking was proposed. The experiment consists of a three-step cycle: reversible catalytic synthesis of amino acids, reversible synthesis of peptides, and irreversible sedimentation of insoluble substances.

  6. Correlator mixing and mass reduction as signals of chiral symmetry restoration

    CERN Document Server

    Delorme, J; Guichon, P A M; Thomas, A W

    2000-01-01

    Chiral symmetry restoration in a dense medium is to some extent a consequence of the nuclear pion cloud. These pions induce a mixing of the axial and vector current contributions in the axial and vector correlators. We discuss their influence on hadron masses and investigate the signal produced by the remaining contribution associated with chiral symmetry restoration. Using the quark-meson coupling model we find that the latter is associated with the reduction of hadron masses.

  7. X(3872) in lattice QCD with exact chiral symmetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiu, T.-W. [Department of Physics, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China)]. E-mail: twchiu@phys.ntu.edu.tw; Hsieh, T.-H. [Physics Section, Commission of General Education, National United University, Miao-Li 36003, Taiwan (China)

    2007-03-08

    We investigate the mass spectrum of 1{sup ++} exotic mesons with quark content (cqc-barq-bar), using molecular and diquark-antidiquark operators, in quenched lattice QCD with exact chiral symmetry. For the molecular operator {l_brace}(q-bar{gamma}{sub i}c)(c-bar{gamma}{sub 5}q)-(c-bar{gamma}{sub i}q)(q-bar{gamma}{sub 5}c){r_brace} and the diquark-antidiquark operator {l_brace}(q{sup T}C{gamma}{sub i}c)(q-barC{gamma}{sub 5}c-bar{sup T})-(q-barC{gamma}{sub i}{sup T}c-bar{sup T})(q{sup T}C= {gamma}{sub 5}c){r_brace}, both detect a resonance with mass around 3890+/-30 MeV in the limit m{sub q}->m{sub u}, which is naturally identified with X(3872). Further, heavier exotic meson resonances with J{sup PC}=1{sup ++} are also detected, with quark content (csc-bar s-bar) around 4100+/-50 MeV.

  8. Sea quark transverse momentum distributions and dynamical chiral symmetry breaking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schweitzer, Peter [Univ. of Connecticut, Storrs, CT (United States); Strikman, Mark [Penn State Univ., State College, PA (United States); Weiss, Christian [JLAB Newport News, VA (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Recent theoretical studies have provided new insight into the intrinsic transverse momentum distributions of valence and sea quarks in the nucleon at a low scale. The valence quark transverse momentum distributions (q - qbar) are governed by the nucleon's inverse hadronic size R{sup -1} ~ 0.2 GeV and drop steeply at large p{sub T}. The sea quark distributions (qbar) are in large part generated by non-perturbative chiral-symmetry breaking interactions and extend up to the scale rho{sup -1} ~ 0.6 GeV. These findings have many implications for modeling the initial conditions of perturbative QCD evolution of TMD distributions (starting scale, shape of p{sub T}. distributions, coordinate-space correlation functions). The qualitative difference between valence and sea quark intrinsic p{sub T}. distributions could be observed experimentally, by comparing the transverse momentum distributions of selected hadrons in semi-inclusive deep-inelastic scattering, or those of dileptons produced in pp and pbar-p scattering.

  9. Explicit chiral symmetry breaking in Gross-Neveu type models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boehmer, Christian

    2011-07-25

    This thesis is devoted to the study of a 1+1-dimensional, fermionic quantum field theory with Lagrangian L= anti {psi}i{gamma}{sup {mu}}{partial_derivative}{sub {mu}}{psi}-m{sub 0} anti {psi}{psi}+(g{sup 2})/(2)(anti {psi}{psi}){sup 2}+(G{sup 2})/(2)(anti {psi}i{gamma}{sub 5}{psi}){sup 2} in the limit of an infinite number of flavors, using semiclassical methods. The main goal of the present work was to see what changes if we allow for explicit chiral symmetry breaking, either by a bare mass term, or a splitting of the scalar and pseudo-scalar coupling constants, or both. In the first case, this becomes the massive NJL{sub 2} model. In the 2nd and 3rd cases we are dealing with a model largely unexplored so far. The first half of this thesis deals with the massive NJL{sub 2} model. Before attacking the phase diagram, it was necessary to determine the baryons of the model. We have carried out full numerical Hartree-Fock calculations including the Dirac sea. The most important result is the first complete phase diagram of the massive NJL{sub 2} model in ({mu},T,{gamma}) space, where {gamma} arises from m{sub 0} through mass renormalization. In the 2nd half of the thesis we have studied a generalization of the massless NJL{sub 2} model with two different (scalar and pseudoscalar) coupling constants, first in the massless version. Renormalization of the 2 coupling constants leads to the usual dynamical mass by dynamical transmutation, but in addition to a novel {xi} parameter interpreted as chiral quenching parameter. As far as baryon structure is concerned, the most interesting result is the fact that the new baryons interpolate between the kink of the GN model and the massless baryon of the NJL{sub 2} model, always carrying fractional baryon number 1/2. The phase diagram of the massless model with 2 coupling constants has again been determined numerically. At zero temperature we have also investigated the massive, generalized GN model with 3 parameters. It is well

  10. Chiral symmetry and effective field theories for hadronic, nuclear and stellar matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holt, Jeremy W., E-mail: jwholt.phys@gmail.com [Department of Physics, University of Washington, Seattle, 98195 (United States); Rho, Mannque [Department of Physics, Hanyang University, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Institut de Physique Théorique, CEA Saclay, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Weise, Wolfram [Physik Department, Technische Universität München, D-85747 Garching (Germany); ECT*, Villa Tambosi, I-38123 Villazzano (Italy)

    2016-03-21

    Chiral symmetry, first entering in nuclear physics in the 1970s for which Gerry Brown played a seminal role, has led to a stunningly successful framework for describing strongly-correlated nuclear dynamics both in finite and infinite systems. We review how the early, germinal idea conceived with the soft-pion theorems in the pre-QCD era has evolved into a highly predictive theoretical framework for nuclear physics, aptly assessed by Steven Weinberg: “it (chiral effective field theory) allows one to show in a fairly convincing way that what they (nuclear physicists) have been doing all along... is the correct first step in a consistent approximation scheme”. Our review recounts both how the theory presently fares in confronting Nature and how one can understand its extremely intricate workings in terms of the multifaceted aspects of chiral symmetry, namely, chiral perturbation theory, skyrmions, Landau Fermi-liquid theory, the Cheshire cat phenomenon, and hidden local and mended symmetries.

  11. Master formula approach to broken chiral U(3)xU(3) symmetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hiroyuki Kamano

    2010-04-01

    The master formula approach to chiral symmetry breaking proposed by Yamagishi and Zahed is extended to the U_R(3)xU_L(3) group, in which effects of the U_A(1) anomaly and the flavor symmetry breaking m_u \

  12. Chiral symmetry breaking from Ginsparg-Wilson fermions

    CERN Document Server

    Hernández, Pilar; Lellouch, L P; Hernandez, Pilar; Jansen, Karl; Lellouch, Laurent

    2000-01-01

    We calculate the large-volume and small-mass dependences of the quark condensate in quenched QCD using Neuberger's operator. We find good agreement with the predictions of quenched chiral perturbation theory, enabling a determination of the chiral lagrangian parameter \\Sigma, up to a multiplicative renormalization.

  13. Some Relations for Quark Confinement and Chiral Symmetry Breaking in QCD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suganuma Hideo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We analytically study the relation between quark confinement and spontaneous chiral-symmetry breaking in QCD. In terms of the Dirac eigenmodes, we derive some formulae for the Polyakov loop, its fluctuations, and the string tension from the Wilson loop. We also investigate the Polyakov loop in terms of the eigenmodes of theWilson, the clover and the domain wall fermion kernels, respectively. For the confinement quantities, the low-lying Dirac/fermion eigenmodes are found to give negligible contribution, while they are essential for chiral symmetry breaking. These relations indicate no direct one-to-one correspondence between confinement and chiral symmetry breaking in QCD, which seems to be natural because confinement is realized independently of the quark mass.

  14. Comments on the Chiral Symmetry Breaking in Soft Wall Holographic QCD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bechi, Jacopo

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we describe qualitatively some aspects of the holographic QCD. Inspired by a successfull 4D description, we try to separate the Confinement and the Chiral Symmetry Breaking dynamics. We also discuss the realization of the baryons as skyrmions in Soft Wall Holographic QCD, and the is......In this paper we describe qualitatively some aspects of the holographic QCD. Inspired by a successfull 4D description, we try to separate the Confinement and the Chiral Symmetry Breaking dynamics. We also discuss the realization of the baryons as skyrmions in Soft Wall Holographic QCD...

  15. Chiral symmetry, constituent quarks and quasi-elastic electron-nucleus scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henley, E. M.; Krein, G.

    1989-11-01

    The effects of chiral symmetry breaking are examined for quasi-elastic electron scattering on nuclei. Nucleons are assumed to be composed of constituent quarks with masses that depend on density. This density dependence is determined on the basis of the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model. It is found that the effects of chiral symmetry breaking are in the right direction and the right order of magnitude to explain the discrepancies between theory and experiment. On leave from Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, 97100 Santa Maria, R.S., Brazil.

  16. Composite-meson--quark interactions under the condition of dynamical breaking of chiral symmetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirata, M.

    1989-03-01

    Starting from the QCD-inspired model Hamiltonian which can lead to the dynamical breakdown of chiral symmetry, we describe a vacuum consisting of a condensate of q-barq pairs and furthermore meson states and composite-meson field operators within the new Tamm-Dancoff approximation. Using these fields operators and the Hamiltonian we construct composite-meson--quark interactions.

  17. Chiral symmetry breaking and the Banks-Casher relation in lattice QCD with Wilson quarks

    CERN Document Server

    Giusti, Leonardo

    2009-01-01

    The Banks--Casher relation links the spontaneous breaking of chiral symmetry in QCD to the presence of a non-zero density of quark modes at the low end of the spectrum of the Dirac operator. Spectral observables like the number of modes in a given energy interval are renormalizable and can therefore be computed using the Wilson formulation of lattice QCD even though the latter violates chiral symmetry at energies on the order of the inverse lattice spacing. Using numerical simulations, we find (in two-flavour QCD) that the low quark modes do condense in the expected way. In particular, the chiral condensate can be accurately calculated simply by counting the low modes on large lattices. Other spectral observables can be considered as well and have a potentially wide range of uses.

  18. Symmetry in Cascade Chirality-Transfer Processes: A Catalytic Atroposelective Direct Arylation Approach to BINOL Derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jin-Zheng; Zhou, Jin; Xu, Chang; Sun, Hongbin; Kürti, László; Xu, Qing-Long

    2016-04-27

    Herein we disclose a scalable organocatalytic direct arylation approach for the regio- and atroposelective synthesis of non-C2-symmetric 2,2'-dihydroxy-1,1'-binaphthalenes (BINOLs). In the presence of catalytic amounts of axially chiral phosphoric acids, phenols and naphthols are coupled with iminoquinones via a cascade process that involves sequential aminal formation, sigmatropic rearrangement, and rearomatization to afford enantiomerically enriched BINOL derivatives in good to excellent yields. Our studies suggest that the (local) symmetry of the initially formed aminal intermediate has a dramatic impact on the level of enantioinduction in the final product. Aminals with a plane of symmetry give rise to BINOL derivatives with significantly lower enantiomeric excess than unsymmetrical ones featuring a stereogenic center. Presumably asymmetric induction in the sigmatropic rearrangement step is significantly more challenging than during aminal formation. Sigmatropic rearrangement of the enantiomerically enriched aminal and subsequent rearomatization transfers the central chirality into axial chirality with high fidelity.

  19. Chiral Rings, Mirror Symmetry and the Fate of Localized Tachyons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sin, Sang-Jin

    2003-03-20

    We study the localized tachyon condensation of non-supersymmetric orbifold backgrounds in their mirror Landau-Ginzburg picture. We first show that the R-charges of chiral primaries increase under the process of condensing the tachyon in the same chiral ring. Then, utilizing the existence of four copies of (2,2) worldsheet supersymmetry, we show that the minimal tachyon mass in twisted sectors increases in CFT and type 0 string and it plays the role of the c-function of the twisted sectors. We also study the GSO projection in detail and show that type II decays to only to type II while type 0 can mix with type 0 and II under the RG-flow.

  20. Evaluating chiral symmetry restoration through the use of sum rules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rapp Ralf

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available We pursue the idea of assessing chiral restoration via in-medium modifications of hadronic spectral functions of chiral partners. The usefulness of sum rules in this endeavor is illustrated, focusing on the vector/axial-vector channel. We first present an update on obtaining quantitative results for pertinent vacuum spectral functions. These serve as a basis upon which the in-medium spectral functions can be constructed. A novel feature of our analysis of the vacuum spectral functions is the need to include excited resonances, dictated by satisfying the Weinberg-type sum rules. This includes excited states in both the vector and axial-vector channels.We also analyze the QCD sum rule for the finite temperature vector spectral function, based on a ρ spectral function tested in dilepton data which develops a shoulder at low energies.We find that the ρ′ peak flattens off which may be a sign of chiral restoration, though a study of the finite temperature axial-vector spectral function remains to be carried out.

  1. Chiral behavior of K →π l ν decay form factors in lattice QCD with exact chiral symmetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoki, S.; Cossu, G.; Feng, X.; Fukaya, H.; Hashimoto, S.; Kaneko, T.; Noaki, J.; Onogi, T.; Jlqcd Collaboration

    2017-08-01

    We calculate the form factors of the K →π l ν semileptonic decays in three-flavor lattice QCD and study their chiral behavior as a function of the momentum transfer and the Nambu-Goldstone boson masses. Chiral symmetry is exactly preserved by using the overlap quark action, which enables us to directly compare the lattice data with chiral perturbation theory (ChPT). We generate gauge ensembles at a lattice spacing of 0.11 fm with four pion masses covering 290-540 MeV and a strange quark mass ms close to its physical value. By using the all-to-all quark propagator, we calculate the vector and scalar form factors with high precision. Their dependence on ms and the momentum transfer is studied by using the reweighting technique and the twisted boundary conditions for the quark fields. We compare the results for the semileptonic form factors with ChPT at next-to-next-to-leading order in detail. While many low-energy constants appear at this order, we make use of our data of the light meson electromagnetic form factors in order to control the chiral extrapolation. We determine the normalization of the form factors as f+(0 )=0.9636 (36 )(-35+57) and observe reasonable agreement of their shape with experiment.

  2. Chiral symmetry breaking by spatial confinement in tactoidal droplets of lyotropic chromonic liquid crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tortora, Luana; Lavrentovich, Oleg D

    2011-03-29

    In many colloidal systems, an orientationally ordered nematic (N) phase emerges from the isotropic (I) melt in the form of spindle-like birefringent tactoids. In cases studied so far, the tactoids always reveal a mirror-symmetric nonchiral structure, sometimes even when the building units are chiral. We report on chiral symmetry breaking in the nematic tactoids formed in molecularly nonchiral polymer-crowded aqueous solutions of low-molecular weight disodium cromoglycate. The parity is broken by twisted packing of self-assembled molecular aggregates within the tactoids as manifested by the observed optical activity. Fluorescent confocal microscopy reveals that the chiral N tactoids are located at the boundaries of cells. We explain the chirality induction as a replacement of energetically costly splay packing of the aggregates within the curved bipolar tactoidal shape with twisted packing. The effect represents a simple pathway of macroscopic chirality induction in an organic system with no molecular chirality, as the only requirements are orientational order and curved shape of confinement.

  3. Chiral symmetry and dispersion relations: from $\\pi \\pi$ scattering to hadronic light-by-light.

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2018-01-01

    Chiral symmetry provides strong constraints on hadronic matrix elements at low energy, which are most efficiently derived with chiral perturbation theory. As an effective quantum field theory the latter also accounts for rescattering or unitarity effects, albeit only perturbatively, via the loop expansion. In cases where rescattering effects are important it becomes necessary to go beyond the perturbative expansion, e.g. by using dispersion relations. A matching between the chiral and the dispersive representation provides in several cases results of high precision. I will discuss this approach with the help of a few examples, like $\\pi \\pi$ scattering (which has been tested successfully by CERN experiments like NA48/2 and DIRAC), $\\eta \\to 3 \\pi$ and the hadronic light-by-light contribution to $(g-2)_\\mu$. For the latter quantity the implementation of the dispersive approach has opened up the way to a model-independent calculation and the concrete possibility to significantly reduce the theoretical uncertain...

  4. A Clifford algebra approach to chiral symmetry breaking and fermion mass hierarchies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Wei

    2017-09-01

    We propose a Clifford algebra approach to chiral symmetry breaking and fermion mass hierarchies in the context of composite Higgs bosons. Standard model fermions are represented by algebraic spinors of six-dimensional binary Clifford algebra, while ternary Clifford algebra-related flavor projection operators control allowable flavor-mixing interactions. There are three composite electroweak Higgs bosons resulted from top quark, tau neutrino, and tau lepton condensations. Each of the three condensations gives rise to masses of four different fermions. The fermion mass hierarchies within these three groups are determined by four-fermion condensations, which break two global chiral symmetries. The four-fermion condensations induce axion-like pseudo-Nambu-Goldstone bosons and can be dark matter candidates. In addition to the 125 GeV Higgs boson observed at the Large Hadron Collider, we anticipate detection of tau neutrino composite Higgs boson via the charm quark decay channel.

  5. Spectra of massive QCD Dirac operators from random matrix theory: all three chiral symmetry breaking patterns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akemann, G.; Kanzieper, E

    2001-03-01

    The microscopic spectral eigenvalue correlations of QCD Dirac operators in the presence of dynamical fermions are calculated within the framework of Random Matrix Theory (RMT). Our approach treats the low-energy correlation functions of all three chiral symmetry breaking patterns (labeled by the Dyson index {beta} = 1, 2 and 4) on the same footing, offering a unifying description of massive QCD Dirac spectra. RMT universality is explicitly proven for all three symmetry classes and the results are compared to the available lattice data for {beta} = 4.

  6. Modeling finite-volume effects and chiral symmetry breaking in two-flavor QCD thermodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Bertram

    2017-11-01

    Finite-volume effects in Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) have been a subject of much theoretical interest for more than two decades. They are in particular important for the analysis and interpretation of QCD simulations on a finite, discrete space-time lattice. Most of these effects are closely related to the phenomenon of spontaneous breaking of the chiral flavor symmetry and the emergence of pions as light Goldstone bosons. These long-range fluctuations are strongly affected by putting the system into a finite box, and an analysis with different methods can be organized according to the interplay between pion mass and box size. The finite volume also affects critical behavior at the chiral phase transition in QCD. In the present review, I will be mainly concerned with modeling such finite volume effects as they affect the thermodynamics of the chiral phase transition for two quark flavors. I review recent work on the analysis of finite-volume effects which makes use of the quark-meson model for dynamical chiral symmetry breaking. To account for the effects of critical long-range fluctuations close to the phase transition, most of the calculations have been performed using non-perturbative Renormalization Group (RG) methods. I give an overview over the application of these methods to a finite volume. The method, the model and the results are put into the context of related work in random matrix theory for very small volumes, chiral perturbation theory for larger volumes, and related methods and approaches. They are applied towards the analysis of finite-volume effects in lattice QCD simulations and their interpretation, mainly in the context of the chiral phase transition for two quark flavors.

  7. Quark model with chiral-symmetry breaking and confinement in the Covariant Spectator Theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biernat, Elmer P. [CFTP, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, 1049-001 Lisboa, Portugal; Pena, Maria Teresa [CFTP, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, 1049-001 Lisboa, Portugal; Departamento de Física, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, 1049-001 Lisboa, Portugal; Ribiero, Jose' Emilio F. [CeFEMA, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, 1049-001 Lisboa, Portugal; Stadler, Alfred [Departamento de Física, Universidade de Évora, 7000-671 Évora, Portugal; Gross, Franz L. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States)

    2016-03-01

    We propose a model for the quark-antiquark interaction in Minkowski space using the Covariant Spectator Theory. We show that with an equal-weighted scalar-pseudoscalar structure for the confining part of our interaction kernel the axial-vector Ward-Takahashi identity is preserved and our model complies with the Adler-zero constraint for pi-pi-scattering imposed by chiral symmetry.

  8. Chiral symmetry restoration and quark deconfinement beyond mean field in a magnetized PNJL model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Shijun

    2018-01-01

    We study chiral symmetry restoration and quark deconfinement beyond the mean field approximation in a magnetized PNJL model. The feedback from mesons to quarks modifies the quark coupling constant and Polyakov potential. As a result, the separate critical temperatures for the two phase transitions at the mean field level coincide, and the magnetic catalysis becomes an inverse magnetic catalysis when the meson contribution is included.

  9. Four-Fermion Theories with Exact Chiral Symmetry in Three Dimensions

    CERN Document Server

    Schmidt, Daniel; Wipf, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    We investigate a class of four-fermion theories which includes well-known models like the Gross-Neveu model and the Thirring model. In three spacetime dimensions, they are used to model interesting solid state systems like high temperature superconductors and graphene. Additionally, they serve as toy models to study chiral symmetry breaking (CSB). For any number of fermion flavours the Gross-Neveu model has a broken and a symmetric phase, while the existence of a broken phase in the Thirring model depends on the number of flavours. The critical number of fermion flavours beyond which there exists no CSB is still subject of ongoing discussions. Using SLAC fermions we simulate the Thirring model with exact chiral symmetry. To obtain a chiral condensate one can introduce a symmetry-breaking mass term and carefully study the limits of infinite lattice and zero-mass. So far, we did not see CSB within this approach for the Thirring model with 2 or more (reducible) flavours. The talk presents alternative approaches ...

  10. Spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking in QCD:a finite-size scaling study on the lattice

    CERN Document Server

    Giusti, Leonardo; Giusti, Leonardo; Necco, Silvia

    2007-01-01

    Spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking in QCD with massless quarks at infinite volume can be seen in a finite box by studying, for instance, the dependence of the chiral condensate from the volume and the quark mass. We perform a feasibility study of this program by computing the quark condensate on the lattice in the quenched approximation of QCD at small quark masses. We carry out simulations in various topological sectors of the theory at several volumes, quark masses and lattice spacings by employing fermions with an exact chiral symmetry, and we focus on observables which are infrared stable and free from mass-dependent ultraviolet divergences. The numerical calculation is carried out with an exact variance-reduction technique, which is designed to be particularly efficient when spontaneous symmetry breaking is at work in generating a few very small low-lying eigenvalues of the Dirac operator. The finite-size scaling behaviour of the condensate in the topological sectors considered agrees, within our stati...

  11. Integrable hydrodynamic equations for initial chiral currents and infinite hydrodynamic chains from WZNW model and string model of WZNW type with SU(2), SO(3), SP(2), SU(∞), SO(∞), SP(∞) constant torsions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cirilo-Lombardo, D. J.; Gershun, V. D.

    2014-09-01

    The WZNW and string models are considered in terms of the initial and invariant chiral currents assuming that the internal and external torsions coincide (anticoincide) and they are the structure constants of the SU(n), SO(n), SP(n) Lie algebras. These models are the auxiliary problems in order to construct integrable equations of hydrodynamic type. It was shown that the WZNW and string models in terms of invariant chiral currents are integrable for the constant torsion associated with the structure constants of the SU(2), SO(3), SP(2) and SU(3) algebras only. The equation of motion for the density of the first Casimir operator was obtained in the form of the inviscid Burgers equation. The solution of this equation is presented through the Lambert function. Also, a new equation of motion for the initial chiral current was found. The integrable infinite hydrodynamic chains obtained from the WZNW and string models are given in terms of invariant chiral currents with the SU(2), SO(3), SP(2) and with SU(∞), SO(∞), SP(∞) constant torsions. Also, the equations of motion for the density of any Casimir operator and new infinite-dimensional equations of hydrodynamic type for the initial chiral currents through the symmetric structure constant of SU(∞), SO(∞), SP(∞) algebras are obtained.

  12. Mixing of vector and axial mesons at finite temperature: an indication towards chiral symmetry restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, M.; Eletsky, V. L.; Ioffe, B. L.

    1990-12-01

    Correlators of vector and axial currents are considered at low temperatures T≪ Tc, T2/6 F2π≪1. Only the lowest states, pions, are taken into account in the sum over excited states in the Gibbs averages. Using the PCAC, current algebra and saturating the correlators by ϱ and a 1 mesons it is shown that mϱ increases and ma1 decreases with the increase of temperature indicating towards the chiral symmetry restoration. At T ≠ 0 a massless scalar meson contributes to the longitudinal part of the vector correlator with the residue proportional to T2.

  13. Features of electron-phonon interactions in nanotubes with chiral symmetry in magnetic field

    CERN Document Server

    Kibis, O V

    2001-01-01

    Interaction of the electrons with acoustic phonons in the nanotube with chiral symmetry by availability of the magnetic field, parallel to the nanotube axis, is considered. It is shown that the electron energy spectrum is asymmetric relative to the electron wave vector inversion and for that reason the electron-phonon interaction appears to be different for similar phonons with mutually contrary directions of the wave vector. This phenomenon leads to origination of the electromotive force by the spatially uniform electron gas heating and to appearance of the quadrupole component in the nanotube volt-ampere characteristics

  14. Imaging dynamical chiral-symmetry breaking: pion wave function on the light front.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Lei; Cloët, I C; Cobos-Martinez, J J; Roberts, C D; Schmidt, S M; Tandy, P C

    2013-03-29

    We project onto the light front the pion's Poincaré-covariant Bethe-Salpeter wave function obtained using two different approximations to the kernels of quantum chromodynamics' Dyson-Schwinger equations. At an hadronic scale, both computed results are concave and significantly broader than the asymptotic distribution amplitude, φ(π)(asy)(x)=6x(1-x); e.g., the integral of φ(π)(x)/φ(π)(asy)(x) is 1.8 using the simplest kernel and 1.5 with the more sophisticated kernel. Independent of the kernels, the emergent phenomenon of dynamical chiral-symmetry breaking is responsible for hardening the amplitude.

  15. Entropic chiral symmetry breaking in self-organized two-dimensional colloidal crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayoral, Kenny; Mason, Thomas G

    2014-07-07

    Long-range chiral symmetry breaking (CSB) has been recently observed in 2D self-organized rhombic crystals of hard, achiral, 72 degree rhombic microparticles. However, purely entropic selection of a CSB crystal in an idealized system of hard achiral shapes, in which attractions are entirely absent and the shape does not dictate a chiral tiling, has not yet been quantitatively predicted. Overcoming limitations of a purely rotational cage model, we investigate a translational-rotational cage model (TRCM) of dense systems of hard achiral rhombs and quantitatively demonstrate that entropy can spontaneously drive the preferential self-organization of a chiral crystal composed of achiral shapes that also tile into an achiral crystal. At different particle area fractions, ϕA, we calculate the number of accessible translational-rotational microstates, Ω, of a mobile central rhomb in a static cage of neighboring rhombs, which can have different orientation angles, γ, relative to the bisector of the crystalline axes. As we raise ϕA, two maxima emerge in Ω(γ) at non-zero cage orientation angles, ±γmax. These maxima correspond to additional translational microstates that become accessible in the CSB crystalline polymorph through reduced translational tip-tip interference. Thus, entropy, often associated with structural disorder, can drive CSB in condensed phase systems of non-attractive achiral objects that do not tile into chiral structures. The success of the TRCM in explaining the entropic origin of CSB in systems of hard rhombs indicates that the TRCM will have significant utility in predicting the self-organized behavior of dense systems of other hard shapes in 2D.

  16. The phi-meson and Chiral-mass-meson production in heavy-ion collisions as potential probes of quark-gluon-plasma and Chiral symmetry transitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Y.; Eby, P. B.

    1985-01-01

    Possibilities of observing abundances of phi mesons and narrow hadronic pairs, as results of QGP and Chiral transitions, are considered for nucleus-nucleus interactions. Kinematical requirements in forming close pairs are satisfied in K+K decays of S(975) and delta (980) mesons with small phi, and phi (91020) mesons with large PT, and in pi-pi decays of familiar resonance mesons only in a partially restored chiral symmetry. Gluon-gluon dominance in QGP can enhance phi meson production. High hadronization rates of primordial resonance mesons which form narrow hadronic pairs are not implausible. Past cosmic ray evidences of anomalous phi production and narrow pair abundances are considered.

  17. Chiral symmetry breaking during the self-assembly of monolayers from achiral purine molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sowerby, S J; Heckl, W M; Petersen, G B

    1996-11-01

    Scanning tunneling microscopy was used to investigate the structure of the two-dimensional adsorbate formed by molecular self-assembly of the purine base, adenine, on the surfaces of the naturally occurring mineral molybdenite and the synthetic crystal highly oriented pyrolytic graphite. Although formed from adenine, which is achiral, the observed adsorbate surface structures were enantiomorphic on molybdenite. This phenomenon suggests a mechanism for the introduction of a localized chiral symmetry break by the spontaneous crystallization of these prebiotically available molecules on inorganic surfaces and may have some role in the origin of biomolecular optical asymmetry. The possibility that purine-pyrimidine arrays assembled on naturally occurring mineral surfaces might act as possible templates for biomolecular assembly is discussed.

  18. Localization and chiral symmetry in 2+1 flavor domain wall QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David J. Antonio; Kenneth C. Bowler; Peter A. Boyle; Norman H. Christ; Michael A. Clark; Saul D. Cohen; Chris Dawson; Alistair Hart; Balint Joó; Chulwoo Jung; Richard D. Kenway; Shu Li; Meifeng Lin; Robert D. Mawhinney; Christopher M. Maynard; Shigemi Ohta; Robert J. Tweedie; Azusa Yamaguchi

    2008-01-01

    We present results for the dependence of the residual mass of domain wall fermions (DWF) on the size of the fifth dimension and its relation to the density and localization properties of low-lying eigenvectors of the corresponding hermitian Wilson Dirac operator relevant to simulations of 2+1 flavor domain wall QCD. Using the DBW2 and Iwasaki gauge actions, we generate ensembles of configurations with a $16^3\\times 32$ space-time volume and an extent of 8 in the fifth dimension for the sea quarks. We demonstrate the existence of a regime where the degree of locality, the size of chiral symmetry breaking and the rate of topology change can be acceptable for inverse lattice spacings $a^{-1} \\ge 1.6$ GeV.

  19. Mass limits for the chiral color symmetry G‧-boson from LHC dijet data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frolov, I. V.; Smirnov, A. D.

    2016-07-01

    The contributions of G‧-boson predicted by the chiral color symmetry of quarks to the differential dijet cross-sections in pp-collisions at the large hadron collider (LHC) are calculated and analyzed in dependence on two free parameters of the model, the G‧ mass mG‧ and mixing angle 𝜃G. The exclusion and consistency mG‧- 𝜃G regions imposed by the ATLAS and CMS data on dijet cross-sections are found. Using the CT10 (MSTW2008) parton distribution function (PDF) set we show that the G‧-boson for 𝜃G = 45∘, i.e. the axigluon, with the masses mG‧ limits are more stringent. The mG‧- 𝜃G regions consistent with these data at CL = 68% and CL = 90% are also found.

  20. (Antichiral Superfield Approach to Nilpotent Symmetries: Self-Dual Chiral Bosonic Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Srinivas

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We exploit the beauty and strength of the symmetry invariant restrictions on the (antichiral superfields to derive the Becchi-Rouet-Stora-Tyutin (BRST, anti-BRST, and (anti-co-BRST symmetry transformations in the case of a two (1+1-dimensional (2D self-dual chiral bosonic field theory within the framework of augmented (antichiral superfield formalism. Our 2D ordinary theory is generalized onto a (2,2-dimensional supermanifold which is parameterized by the superspace variable ZM=xμ,θ,θ¯, where xμ (with μ=0,1 are the ordinary 2D bosonic coordinates and (θ,θ¯ are a pair of Grassmannian variables with their standard relationships: θ2=θ¯2=0, θθ¯+θ¯θ=0. We impose the (anti-BRST and (anti-co-BRST invariant restrictions on the (antichiral superfields (defined on the (antichiral (2,1-dimensional supersubmanifolds of the above general (2,2-dimensional supermanifold to derive the above nilpotent symmetries. We do not exploit the mathematical strength of the (dual-horizontality conditions anywhere in our present investigation. We also discuss the properties of nilpotency, absolute anticommutativity, and (anti-BRST and (anti-co-BRST symmetry invariance of the Lagrangian density within the framework of our augmented (antichiral superfield formalism. Our observation of the absolute anticommutativity property is a completely novel result in view of the fact that we have considered only the (antichiral superfields in our present endeavor.

  1. Sum rules for the spontaneous-chiral-symmetry-breaking parameters of quantum chromodynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Craigie, N.S.; Stern, J.

    1982-11-01

    We discuss in the spirit of the work of Shifman, Vainshtein, and Zakharov (SVZ), sum rules involving current-current vacuum correlation functions, whose Wilson expansion start off with the operators q-barq or (q-barq)/sup 2/, and thus provide information about the chiral-symmetry-breaking parameters of QCD. We point out that under the type of crude approximations made by SVZ, a value of /sub vac/ = (250 MeV)/sup 3/ is obtained from one of these sum rules, in agreement with current expectations. Further, we show that a Borel-transformed version of the Weinberg sum rule for VV-AA current products seems only to make sense for an A/sub 1/ mass close to 1.3 GeV and it makes little sense with the current-algebra mass M/sub A/ = 2M. We also give an estimate for the chiral-symmetry-breaking parameters ..mu../sub 1/ /sup 6/ = 2/sub vac/, entering in the Weinberg sum rules, and ..mu../sub 2/ /sup 6/ = g/sup 2/<(q-bar/sub R/lambda/sup a/sigma/sub munu/q/sub L/) (q-bar/sub R/lambda/sup a/sigma/sup munu/q/sub L/)>/sub vac/, entering in a new sum rule we propose, involving antisymmetric tensor currents J = q-barsigma/sub munu/q.

  2. Chiral symmetry restoration versus deconfinement in heavy-ion collisions at high baryon density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bratkovskaya, E. L.; Palmese, A.; Cassing, W.; Seifert, E.; Steinert, T.; Moreau, P.

    2017-07-01

    The effect of the chiral symmetry restoration (CSR) on observables from heavy-ion collisions is studied in the energy range \\sqrt{{s}NN}=3-20 {GeV} within the Parton-Hadron-String Dynamics (PHSD) transport approach. The PHSD includes the deconfinement phase transition as well as essential aspects of CSR in the dense and hot hadronic medium, which are incorporated in the Schwinger mechanism for the hadronic particle production. We adopt different parametrizations of the nuclear equation of state from the non-linear σ - ω model, which enter in the computation of the quark scalar density for the CSR mechanism, in order to estimate the uncertainty in our calculations. For the pion-nucleon Σ-term we adopt Σ π ≈ 45 MeV which corresponds to some ‘world average’. Our systematic studies show that chiral symmetry restoration plays a crucial role in the description of heavy-ion collisions at \\sqrt{{s}NN}=3-20 {GeV}, realizing an increase of the hadronic particle production in the strangeness sector with respect to the non-strange one. We identify particle abundances and rapidity spectra to be suitable probes in order to extract information about CSR, while transverse mass spectra are less sensitive. Our results provide a microscopic explanation for the “horn” structure in the excitation function of the K +/π + ratio: the CSR in the hadronic phase produces the steep increase of this particle ratio up to \\sqrt{{s}NN}≈ 7 {GeV}, while the drop at higher energies is associated to the appearance of a deconfined partonic medium.

  3. Fermion guides: A mechanism for spontaneous breakdown of chiral symmetry in QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiktopoulos, G.

    1987-01-15

    It is suggested that spontaneous breakdown of chiral symmetry in QCD takes place because a special class of gauge-field configurations (''fermion guides'') allow massless quarks to propagate to arbitrarily large distance with an undiminished amplitude. By functional averaging over fermion guide fields an estimate of the pseudoscalar correlation functions reveals the formation of light pseudoscalar q-barq bound states with mass proportional to (m/sub 1/+m/sub 2/)/sup 1/2/..lambda.. for quark masses m/sub 1/,m/sub 2/ much smaller than the QCD mass scale ..lambda... It is shown that unwanted light scalar, vector, or axial-vector states are not produced by this mechanism. The dynamical scheme by which the would-be axial-U(1) Goldstone particle acquires a mass is also discussed.

  4. Chiral symmetry breaking and surface faceting in chromonic liquid crystal droplets with giant elastic anisotropy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Joonwoo; Davidson, Zoey S; Collings, Peter J; Lubensky, Tom C; Yodh, A G

    2014-02-04

    Confined liquid crystals (LC) provide a unique platform for technological applications and for the study of LC properties, such as bulk elasticity, surface anchoring, and topological defects. In this work, lyotropic chromonic liquid crystals (LCLCs) are confined in spherical droplets, and their director configurations are investigated as a function of mesogen concentration using bright-field and polarized optical microscopy. Because of the unusually small twist elastic modulus of the nematic phase of LCLCs, droplets of this phase exhibit a twisted bipolar configuration with remarkably large chiral symmetry breaking. Further, the hexagonal ordering of columns and the resultant strong suppression of twist and splay but not bend deformation in the columnar phase, cause droplets of this phase to adopt a concentric director configuration around a central bend disclination line and, at sufficiently high mesogen concentration, to exhibit surface faceting. Observations of director configurations are consistent with Jones matrix calculations and are understood theoretically to be a result of the giant elastic anisotropy of LCLCs.

  5. Partial chiral symmetry-breaking as a route to spectrally isolated topological defect states in two-dimensional artificial materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poli, Charles; Schomerus, Henning; Bellec, Matthieu; Kuhl, Ulrich; Mortessagne, Fabrice

    2017-06-01

    Bipartite quantum systems from the chiral universality classes admit topologically protected zero modes at point defects. However, in two-dimensional systems these states can be difficult to separate from compacton-like localized states that arise from flat bands, formed if the two sublattices support a different number of sites within a unit cell. Here we identify a natural reduction of chiral symmetry, obtained by coupling sites on the majority sublattice, which gives rise to spectrally isolated point-defect states, topologically characterized as zero modes supported by the complementary minority sublattice. We observe these states in a microwave realization of a dimerized Lieb lattice with next-nearest neighbour coupling, and also demonstrate topological mode selection via sublattice-staggered absorption.

  6. Confinement from semiclassical gluon fields in SU(2) gauge theory

    CERN Document Server

    Langfeld, Kurt

    2010-01-01

    The infrared structure of SU(2) Yang-Mills theory is studied by means of lattice gauge simulations using a new constrained cooling technique. This method reduces the action while all Polyakov lines on the lattice remain unchanged. In contrast to unconstrained cooling, quark confinement is still intact. A study of the Hessian of the Yang-Mills action shows that low action (semi-) classical configurations can be achieved, with a characteristic splitting between collective modes and higher momentum modes. Besides confinement, the semiclassical configurations also support the topological susceptibility and generate spontaneous breakdown of chiral symmetry.We show that they possess a cluster structure of locally mainly (anti-) selfdual objects. By contrast to an instanton or a meron medium, the topological charge of individual clusters is smoothly distributed.

  7. Light quark masses, chiral condensate and quark-gluon condensate in quenched lattice QCD With exact chiral symmetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiu, T.-W.; Hsieh, T.-H

    2004-03-01

    We determine several quantities in quenched lattice QCD with optimal domain-wall fermion. On the 16{sup 3} x 3{sup 2} lattice at {beta} = 6.0, we determine the parameters (C, {delta}, B) in the pseudoscalar meson mass in quenched chiral perturbation theory (g{sub X}PT). Using these parameters, as well as our lattice spacing a and the experimental inputs of m{sub {pi}} and m{sub K} we determine the light quark masses: M{sub u,d} = 4.4 {+-} 0.3 MeV, and m{sub s} = 98 {+-} 7 MeV, in MSbar at {mu} = 2 GeV. Also, we determine the quark condensate q-barq {<=} -(250 {+-} 3 MeV){sup 3}, and the quark-gluon condensate ggbar{sigma}{sub {mu}}{sub v}q< = -(434 {+-} 4 McV){sup 5}, in MSbar at scale 2 GeV.

  8. Complete chiral symmetry breaking of an amino acid derivative directed by circularly polarized light

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noorduin, Wim L.; Bode, Arno A.C.; Meijden, Maarten van der; Meekes, Hugo; Etteger, Albert F. van; Enckevort, Willem J.P. van; Christianen, Peter C.M.; Kaptein, Bernard; Kellogg, Richard M.; Rasing, Theo; Vlieg, Elias

    2009-01-01

    Circularly polarized light (CPL) emitted from star-forming regions is an attractive candidate as a cause of single chirality in nature. It has remained difficult, however, to translate the relatively small chemical effects observed on irradiation of molecular systems with CPL into high enantiomeric

  9. Medium modifications of mesons. Chiral symmetry restoration, in-medium QCD sum rules for D and ρ mesons, and Bethe-Salpeter equations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hilger, Thomas Uwe

    2012-04-11

    The interplay of hadron properties and their modification in an ambient nuclear medium on the one hand and spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking and its restoration on the other hand is investigated. QCD sum rules for D and B mesons embedded in cold nuclear matter are evaluated. We quantify the mass splitting of D- anti D and B- anti B mesons as a function of the nuclear matter density and investigate the impact of various condensates in linear density approximation. The analysis also includes D{sub s} and D{sup *}{sub 0} mesons. QCD sum rules for chiral partners in the open-charm meson sector are presented at nonzero baryon net density or temperature. We focus on the differences between pseudo-scalar and scalar as well as vector and axial-vector D mesons and derive the corresponding Weinberg type sum rules. Based on QCD sum rules we explore the consequences of a scenario for the ρ meson, where the chiral symmetry breaking condensates are set to zero whereas the chirally symmetric condensates remain at their vacuum values. The complementarity of mass shift and broadening is discussed. An alternative approach which utilizes coupled Dyson-Schwinger and Bethe-Salpeter equations for quark-antiquark bound states is investigated. For this purpose we analyze the analytic structure of the quark propagators in the complex plane numerically and test the possibility to widen the applicability of the method to the sector of heavy-light mesons in the scalar and pseudo-scalar channels, such as the D mesons, by varying the momentum partitioning parameter. The solutions of the Dyson-Schwinger equation in the Wigner-Weyl phase of chiral symmetry at nonzero bare quark masses are used to investigate a scenario with explicit but without dynamical chiral symmetry breaking.

  10. Confining vs. conformal scenario for SU(2) with adjoint fermions. Gluonic observables

    CERN Document Server

    Patella, Agostino; Lucini, Biagio; Pica, Claudio; Rago, Antonio

    2010-01-01

    Walking technicolor is a mechanism for electroweak symmetry breaking without Higgs field. The Higgs mechanism is provided by chiral symmetry breaking in the technicolor theory. An essential ingredient is the vicinity to an IR fixed point, which could reconcile technicolor with the electroweak precision tests. SU(2) gauge theory with two Dirac adjoint fermions has been proposed as a candidate for walking technicolor. Understanding whether this theory is confining or IR-conformal is a challenging problem, which can be addressed by means of numerical simulations. We have pointed out that a clean signal for the existence of an IR fixed point in this theory can be obtained by comparing the mesonic and gluonic sectors. We review some technical details of our calculations. Possible systematic errors are discussed.

  11. arXiv Global $SU(2)_L \\otimes$BRST symmetry and its LSS theorem: Ward-Takahashi identities governing Green's functions, on-shell T-Matrix elements, and $V_{eff}$, in the scalar-sector of certain spontaneously broken non-Abelian gauge theories

    CERN Document Server

    Güngör, Özenç; Starkman, Glenn D.; Stora, Raymond

    This work is dedicated to the memory of Raymond Stora (1930-2015). $SU(2)_L$ is the simplest spontaneous symmetry breaking (SSB) non-Abelian gauge theory: a complex scalar doublet $\\phi =\\frac{1}{\\sqrt{2}}\\begin{bmatrix}H+i\\pi_3 -\\pi_2 + i\\pi_1\\end{bmatrix}\\equiv \\frac{1}{\\sqrt{2}}\\tilde{H}e^{2i\\tilde{t}\\cdot\\tilde{\\vec{\\pi}}/}\\begin{bmatrix}1 0\\end{bmatrix}$ and a vector $\\vec{W}^\\mu$. In Landau gauge, $\\vec{W}^\\mu$ is transverse, $\\vec{\\tilde{\\pi}}$ are massless derivatively coupled Nambu-Goldstone bosons (NGB). A global shift symmetry enforces $m^{2}_{\\tilde{\\pi}}=0$. We observe that on-shell T-matrix elements of physical states ${\\vec W}^\\mu$,$\\phi$ are independent of global $SU(2)_{L}$ transformations, and that the associated global current is exactly conserved for amplitudes of physical states. We identify two towers of "1-soft-pion" global Ward-Takahashi Identities (WTI), which govern the $\\phi$-sector, and represent a new global symmetry which we call $SU(2)_L\\otimes$BRST, a symmetry not of the Lagran...

  12. SU(2 color NJL model and EOS of quark-hadron matter at finite temperature and density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weise Wolfram

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available We study the NJL model with the Polyakov loop in the SU(2-color case for the EOS of quark-hadron matter at finite temperature and density. We consider the spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking and the diquark condensation together with the behavior of the Polyakov loop for the phase diagram of quark-hadron matter. We discuss the spectrum of mesons and diquark baryons (boson at finite temperature and density.We derive also the linear sigma model Lagrangian for diquark baryon and mesons.

  13. Chiral algebras

    CERN Document Server

    Beilinson, Alexander

    2004-01-01

    Chiral algebras form the primary algebraic structure of modern conformal field theory. Each chiral algebra lives on an algebraic curve, and in the special case where this curve is the affine line, chiral algebras invariant under translations are the same as well-known and widely used vertex algebras. The exposition of this book covers the following topics: the "classical" counterpart of the theory, which is an algebraic theory of non-linear differential equations and their symmetries; the local aspects of the theory of chiral algebras, including the study of some basic examples, such as the ch

  14. Chiral Random Matrix Theory and Chiral Perturbation Theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Damgaard, Poul H, E-mail: phdamg@nbi.dk [Niels Bohr International Academy and Discovery Center, The Niels Bohr Institute, Blegdamsvej 17, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark)

    2011-04-01

    Spontaneous breaking of chiral symmetry in QCD has traditionally been inferred indirectly through low-energy theorems and comparison with experiments. Thanks to the understanding of an unexpected connection between chiral Random Matrix Theory and chiral Perturbation Theory, the spontaneous breaking of chiral symmetry in QCD can now be shown unequivocally from first principles and lattice simulations. In these lectures I give an introduction to the subject, starting with an elementary discussion of spontaneous breaking of global symmetries.

  15. Gedanken Worlds without Higgs: QCD-Induced Electroweak Symmetry Breaking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quigg, Chris; /Fermilab /Karlsruhe U., TTP; Shrock, Robert; /YITP, Stony Brook

    2009-01-01

    To illuminate how electroweak symmetry breaking shapes the physical world, we investigate toy models in which no Higgs fields or other constructs are introduced to induce spontaneous symmetry breaking. Two models incorporate the standard SU(3){sub c} {circle_times} SU(2){sub L} {circle_times} U(1){sub Y} gauge symmetry and fermion content similar to that of the standard model. The first class--like the standard electroweak theory--contains no bare mass terms, so the spontaneous breaking of chiral symmetry within quantum chromodynamics is the only source of electroweak symmetry breaking. The second class adds bare fermion masses sufficiently small that QCD remains the dominant source of electroweak symmetry breaking and the model can serve as a well-behaved low-energy effective field theory to energies somewhat above the hadronic scale. A third class of models is based on the left-right-symmetric SU(3){sub c} {circle_times} SU(2){sub L} {circle_times} SU(2){sub R} {circle_times} U(1)B?L gauge group. In a fourth class of models, built on SU(4){sub PS} {circle_times} SU(2){sub L} {circle_times} SU(2){sub R} gauge symmetry, lepton number is treated as a fourth color. Many interesting characteristics of the models stem from the fact that the effective strength of the weak interactions is much closer to that of the residual strong interactions than in the real world. The Higgs-free models not only provide informative contrasts to the real world, but also lead us to consider intriguing issues in the application of field theory to the real world.

  16. QCD phase transition with chiral quarks and physical quark masses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Tanmoy; Buchoff, Michael I; Christ, Norman H; Ding, H-T; Gupta, Rajan; Jung, Chulwoo; Karsch, F; Lin, Zhongjie; Mawhinney, R D; McGlynn, Greg; Mukherjee, Swagato; Murphy, David; Petreczky, P; Renfrew, Dwight; Schroeder, Chris; Soltz, R A; Vranas, P M; Yin, Hantao

    2014-08-22

    We report on the first lattice calculation of the QCD phase transition using chiral fermions with physical quark masses. This calculation uses 2+1 quark flavors, spatial volumes between (4 fm)(3) and (11 fm)(3) and temperatures between 139 and 196 MeV. Each temperature is calculated at a single lattice spacing corresponding to a temporal Euclidean extent of N(t) = 8. The disconnected chiral susceptibility, χ(disc) shows a pronounced peak whose position and height depend sensitively on the quark mass. We find no metastability near the peak and a peak height which does not change when a 5 fm spatial extent is increased to 10 fm. Each result is strong evidence that the QCD "phase transition" is not first order but a continuous crossover for m(π) = 135 MeV. The peak location determines a pseudocritical temperature T(c) = 155(1)(8) MeV, in agreement with earlier staggered fermion results. However, the peak height is 50% greater than that suggested by previous staggered results. Chiral SU(2)(L) × SU(2)(R) symmetry is fully restored above 164 MeV, but anomalous U(1)(A) symmetry breaking is nonzero above T(c) and vanishes as T is increased to 196 MeV.

  17. First results from 2+1-Flavor Domain Wall QCD: Mass Spectrum, Topology Change and Chiral Symmetry with $L_s=8$

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. J. Antonio; T. Blum; K. C. Bowler; P. A. Boyle; N. H. Christ; S. D. Cohen; M. A. Clark; C. Dawson; A. Hart; K. Hashimoto; T. Izubuchi; B. Joó; C. Jung; A. D. Kennedy; R. D. Kenway; S. Li; H. W. Lin; M.F. Lin; R. D. Mawhinney; C.M. Maynard; J. Noaki; S. Ohta; S. Sasaki; A. Soni; R. J. Tweedie; A. Yamaguchi

    2007-06-01

    We present results for the static interquark potential, light meson and baryon masses, and light pseudoscalar meson decay constants obtained from simulations of domain wall QCD with one dynamical flavour approximating the $s$ quark, and two degenerate dynamical flavours with input bare masses ranging from $m_s$ to $m_s/4$ approximating the $u$ and $d$ quarks. We compare these quantities obtained using the Iwasaki and DBW2 improved gauge actions, and actions with larger rectangle coefficients, on $16^3\\times32$ lattices. We seek parameter values at which both the chiral symmetry breaking residual mass due to the finite lattice extent in the fifth dimension and the Monte Carlo time history for topological charge are acceptable for this set of quark masses at lattice spacings above 0.1 fm. We find that the Iwasaki gauge action is best, demonstrating the feasibility of using QCDOC to generate ensembles which are good representations of the QCD path integral on lattices of up to 3 fm in spatial extent with lattice spacings in the range 0.09-0.13 fm. Despite large residual masses and a limited number of sea quark mass values with which to perform chiral extrapolations, our results for light hadronic physics scale and agree with experimental measurements within our statistical uncertainties.

  18. Crystal symmetry lowering in chiral multiferroic Ba3TaFe3Si2O14 observed by x-ray magnetic scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramakrishnan, M.; Joly, Y.; Windsor, Y. W.; Rettig, L.; Alberca, A.; Bothschafter, E. M.; Lejay, P.; Ballou, R.; Simonet, V.; Scagnoli, V.; Staub, U.

    2017-05-01

    Chiral multiferroic langasites have attracted attention due to their doubly chiral magnetic ground state within an enantiomorphic crystal. We report on a detailed resonant soft x-ray diffraction study of the multiferroic Ba3TaFe3Si2O14 at the Fe L2 ,3 and oxygen K edges. Below TN (≈27 K ) we observe the satellite reflections (0 ,0 ,τ ) , (0 ,0 ,2 τ ) , (0 ,0 ,3 τ ) , and (0 ,0 ,1 -3 τ ) where τ ≈0.140 ±0.001 . The dependence of the scattering intensity on x-ray polarization and azimuthal angle indicate that the odd harmonics are dominated by the out-of-plane (c ̂ axis) magnetic dipole while the (0 ,0 ,2 τ ) originates from the electron density distortions accompanying magnetic order. We observe dissimilar energy dependencies of the diffraction intensity of the purely magnetic odd-harmonic satellites at the Fe L3 edge. Utilizing first-principles calculations, we show that this is a consequence of the loss of threefold crystal symmetry in the multiferroic phase.

  19. Optical chirality breaking in a bilayered chiral metamaterial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jianxing; Fu, Yuegang; Liu, Zhiying; Zhou, Jianhong

    2017-09-18

    We propose a planar optical bilayered chiral metamaterial, which consists of periodic metallic arrays of two L-shaped structures and a nanorod twisted on both sides of a dielectric slab, to investigate the optical chirality breaking effect by using finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method. Even the metamaterial is with chiral symmetry, an optical chirality breaking window in the asymmetric transmission pass band is obtained in chiral metamaterial structure. We analyze the plasmonic mode properties and attribute the mechanism of the optical chirality breaking effect to the plasmonic analogue of EIT. The optical chirality breaking window can be modulated by changing the geometric parameters of the nanorods in the structure.

  20. Lorentz-like force emerging from kinematic interactions between electrons and nuclei in molecules: A quantum mechanical origin of symmetry breaking that can trigger molecular chirality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takatsuka, Kazuo

    2017-02-01

    The Longuet-Higgins (Berry) phase arising from nonadiabatic dynamics and the Aharonov-Bohm phase associated with the dynamics of a charged particle in the electromagnetic vector potential are well known to be individually a manifestation of a class of the so-called geometrical phase. We herein discuss another similarity between the force working on a charged particle moving in a magnetic field, the Lorentz force, and a force working on nuclei while passing across a region where they have a strong quantum mechanical kinematic (nonadiabatic) coupling with electrons in a molecule. This kinematic force is indeed akin to the Lorentz force in that its magnitude is proportional to the velocity of the relevant nuclei and works in the direction perpendicular to its translational motion. Therefore this Lorentz-like nonadiabatic force is realized only in space of more or equal to three dimensions, thereby highlighting a truly multi-dimensional effect of nonadiabatic interaction. We investigate its physical significance qualitatively in the context of breaking of molecular spatial symmetry, which is not seen otherwise without this force. This particular symmetry breaking is demonstrated in application to a coplanar collision between a planar molecule and an atom sharing the same plane. We show that the atom is guided by this force to the direction out from the plane, resulting in a configuration that distinguishes one side of the mirror plane from the other. This can serve as a trigger for the dynamics towards molecular chirality.

  1. Chiral symmetry breaking and monopole dynamics in non-compact QED3 coupled to a four-fermi interaction

    CERN Document Server

    Armour, Wesley; Strouthos, Costas

    2010-01-01

    We present results from the first lattice simulations of three dimensional non-compact quantum electrodynamics (QED3) with N_f four-component fermion flavors coupled to a weak Z(2) chirally invariant four-fermi interaction. Results with $N_f \\ge 4$ show that the scaling near the strong coupling chiral transition or sharp crossover is determined by the 3d Gross Neveu ultraviolet-stable renormalization group fixed point. Small deviations of the N_f=4 critical exponents from the respective Gross Neveu ones, hint at evidence for non-zero fermion mass generated by the gauge fields dynamics that might have been enhanced by the four-fermi coupling. It is also shown that the scaling region is suppressed at weak four-fermi couplings and large N_f values. Measurements of i) a monopole susceptibility which is the polarizability of the monopole configurations, and ii) the density of isolated monopoles, imply that for $N_f \\ge 1$ and weak gauge couplings the monopoles do not affect the theory's confining properties, becau...

  2. Polyakov loop percolation and deconfinement in SU(2) gauge theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortunato, S.; Satz, H.

    2000-03-01

    The deconfinement transition in /SU(2) gauge theory and the magnetization transition in the Ising model belong to the same universality class. The critical behaviour of the Ising model can be characterized either as spontaneous breaking of the Z2 symmetry of spin states or as percolation of appropriately defined spin clusters. We show that deconfinement in /SU(2) gauge theory can be specified as percolation of Polyakov loop clusters with Fortuin-Kasteleyn bond weights, leading to the same (Onsager) critical exponents as the conventional order-disorder description based on the Polykov loop expectation value.

  3. Effective SU(2) theory for the pseudogap state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montiel, X.; Kloss, T.; Pépin, C.

    2017-03-01

    This paper exposes in a detailed manner the recent findings about the SU(2) scenario for the underdoped phase of the cuprate superconductors. The SU(2) symmetry is formulated as a rotation between the d -wave superconducting (SC) phase and a d -wave charge order. We define the operators responsible for the SU(2) rotations and we derive the nonlinear σ model associated with it. In this framework, we demonstrate that SU(2) fluctuations are massless in finite portions of the Brillouin zone corresponding to the antinodal regions (0 ,π ) and (π ,0 ). We argue that the presence of SU(2) fluctuations in the antinodal region leads to the opening of Fermi arcs around the Fermi surface and to the formation of the pseudogap. Moreover, we show that SU(2) fluctuations lead, in turn, to the emergence of a finite momentum SC order—or pair density wave (PDW)—and more importantly to a new kind of excitonic particle-hole pairs liquid, the resonant excitonic state (RES), which is made of patches of preformed particle-hole pairs with multiple momenta. When the RES liquid becomes critical, we demonstrate that electronic scattering through the critical modes leads to anomalous transport properties. This new finding can account for the strange metal (SM) phase at finite temperature, on the right-hand side of the SC dome, shedding light on another notoriously mysterious part of the phase diagram of the cuprates.

  4. Chiral symmetry effect on the pion-nucleon coupling constant; O efeito da simetria quiral na constante de acoplamento pion-nucleon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araujo, Vanilse da Silva

    1997-12-31

    In this work we study the effects of chiral symmetry in the pion-nucleon coupling constant in the context of the linear {sigma}- model. First, we introduce the linear {sigma}-model and we discuss the phenomenological hypothesis of CVC and PCAC. Next, we calculate the coupling constant g+{pi}{sub NN}(q{sup 2}) and the nucleon pionic mean square radius considering the contribution of all the diagrams up to one-loop in the framework of the linear {sigma}-model for different values of the mass of the sigma meson and we compare them with the phenomenological form factors. Finally we make an extension of the linear {sigma}-model that consists of taking into account the mass differences of ions and nucleons into the Lagrangian of the model, to study the change dependence of g{sub {pi}nn} (q{sup 2}) and of the mean square radius. (author) 21 refs., 17 figs., 4 tabs.

  5. Lowest-lying even-parity anti B{sub s} mesons: heavy-quark spin-flavor symmetry, chiral dynamics, and constituent quark-model bare masses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albaladejo, M.; Fernandez-Soler, P.; Nieves, J.; Ortega, P.G. [Centro Mixto CSIC-Universidad de Valencia, Instituto de Fisica Corpuscular (IFIC), Institutos de Investigacion de Paterna, Aptd. 22085, Valencia (Spain)

    2017-03-15

    The discovery of the D{sup *}{sub s0}(2317) and D{sub s1}(2460) resonances in the charmed-strange meson spectra revealed that formerly successful constituent quark models lose predictability in the vicinity of two-meson thresholds. The emergence of non-negligible effects due to meson loops requires an explicit evaluation of the interplay between Q anti q and (Q anti q)(q anti q) Fock components. In contrast to the c anti s sector, there is no experimental evidence of J{sup P} = 0{sup +}, 1{sup +} bottom-strange states yet. Motivated by recent lattice studies, in this work the heavy-quark partners of the D{sub s0}{sup *}(2317) and D{sub s1}(2460) states are analyzed within a heavy meson chiral unitary scheme. As a novelty, the coupling between the constituent quark-model P-wave anti B{sub s} scalar and axial mesons and the anti B{sup (*)}K channels is incorporated employing an effective interaction, consistent with heavy-quark spin symmetry, constrained by the lattice energy levels. (orig.)

  6. Confronting generalized hidden local symmetry chiral model with the ALEPH data on the decay τ-→π+π-π-ντ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achasov, N. N.; Kozhevnikov, A. A.

    2010-10-01

    The generalized hidden local symmetry (GHLS) model is the chiral model of pseudoscalar, vector, and axial vector mesons and their interactions. It contains also the couplings of strongly interacting particles with electroweak gauge bosons. Here, GHLS model is confronted with the ALEPH data on the decay τ-→π-π-π+ντ. It is shown that the invariant mass spectrum of final pions in this decay calculated in GHLS framework with the single a1(1260) resonance disagrees with the experimental data at any reasonable number of free GHLS parameters. Two modifications of GHLS model based on inclusion of two additional heavier axial vector mesons are studied. One of them, which gives a good description of the ALEPH data with all the parameters kept free, is shown to result in very large Γa1±→π±γ partial width. The other scheme with the GHLS parameters fixed in a way that the universality is preserved and the observed central value of Γa1±→π±γ is reached, which results in a good description of the three pion spectrum in τ-→π+π-π-ντ decay.

  7. Gravitational leptogenesis in axion inflation with SU(2) gauge field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maleknejad, Azadeh

    2016-12-01

    We present an intrinsic leptogenesis mechanism in models of axion inflation with a classical SU(2) gauge field. The gauge field is coupled to the axion with a Chern-Simons interaction and comprises a tiny fraction of the total energy, ρYM/ρtot lesssim epsilon2. However, it has spin-2 fluctuations which breaks the parity and leads to the generation of chiral gravitational waves during inflation. By the gravitational anomaly in SM, it naturally creates a net lepton number density, sufficient to explain the matter asymmetry. We show that this mechanism can generate the observed value of baryon to photon number density in a natural range of parameters and yet has a small chiral tensor power spectrum on large scales.

  8. Finite volume effects in SU(2) with two adjoint fermions

    CERN Document Server

    Patella, Agostino; Lucini, Biagio; Pica, Claudio; Rago, Antonio

    2011-01-01

    Many evidences from lattice simulations support the idea that SU(2) with two Dirac flavors in the adjoint representation (also called Minimal Walking Technicolor) is IR conformal. A possible way to see this is through the behavior of the spectrum of the mass-deformed theory. When fermions are massive, a mass-gap is generated and the theory is confined. IR-conformality is recovered in the chiral limit: masses of particles vanish in the chiral limit, while their ratios stay finite. In order to trust this analysis one has to relay on the infinite volume extrapolation. We will discuss the finite volume effects on the mesonic spectrum, investigated by varying the size of the lattice and by changing the boundary conditions for the fields.

  9. Mirror-Symmetry-Breaking in Poly[(9,9-di-n-octylfluorenyl-2,7-diyl-alt-biphenyl] (PF8P2 is Susceptible to Terpene Chirality, Achiral Solvents, and Mechanical Stirring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayako Nakao

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Solvent chirality transfer of (S-/(R-limonenes allows the instant generation of optically active PF8P2 aggregates with distinct circular dichroism (CD/circularly polarized luminescence (CPL amplitudes with a high quantum yield of 16–20%. The present paper also reports subtle mirror-symmetry-breaking effects in CD-/CPL-amplitude and sign, CD/UV-vis spectral wavelengths, and photodynamics of the aggregates, though the reasons for the anomaly are unsolved. However, these photophysical properties depend on (i the chemical natures of chiral and achiral molecules when used in solvent quantity, (ii clockwise and counterclockwise stirring operations, and (iii the order of addition of limonene and methanol to the chloroform solution.

  10. Superconductivity in a chiral nanotube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, F.; Shi, W.; Ideue, T.; Yoshida, M.; Zak, A.; Tenne, R.; Kikitsu, T.; Inoue, D.; Hashizume, D.; Iwasa, Y.

    2017-02-01

    Chirality of materials are known to affect optical, magnetic and electric properties, causing a variety of nontrivial phenomena such as circular dichiroism for chiral molecules, magnetic Skyrmions in chiral magnets and nonreciprocal carrier transport in chiral conductors. On the other hand, effect of chirality on superconducting transport has not been known. Here we report the nonreciprocity of superconductivity--unambiguous evidence of superconductivity reflecting chiral structure in which the forward and backward supercurrent flows are not equivalent because of inversion symmetry breaking. Such superconductivity is realized via ionic gating in individual chiral nanotubes of tungsten disulfide. The nonreciprocal signal is significantly enhanced in the superconducting state, being associated with unprecedented quantum Little-Parks oscillations originating from the interference of supercurrent along the circumference of the nanotube. The present results indicate that the nonreciprocity is a viable approach toward the superconductors with chiral or noncentrosymmetric structures.

  11. Confining vs. conformal scenario for SU(2) with 2 adjoint fermions. Gluonic observables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Del Debbio, Luigi; Lucini, Biagio; Patella, Agostino

    2010-01-01

    Walking technicolor is a mechanism for electroweak symmetry breaking without Higgs field. The Higgs mechanism is provided by chiral symmetry breaking in the technicolor theory. An essential ingredient is the vicinity to an IR fixed point, which could reconcile technicolor with the electroweak...

  12. Chlorophylls, Symmetry, Chirality, and Photosynthesis.

    OpenAIRE

    Senge, Mathias O.; Aoife A. Ryan; Kristie A. Letchford; MacGowan, Stuart A.; Tamara Mielke

    2014-01-01

    PUBLISHED Chlorophylls are a fundamental class of tetrapyrroles and function as the central reaction center, accessory and photoprotective pigments in photosynthesis. Their unique individual photochemical properties are a consequence of the tetrapyrrole macrocycle, the structural chemistry and coordination behavior of the phytochlorin system, and specific substituent pattern. They achieve their full potential in solar energy conversion by working in concert in highly complex, supramolecula...

  13. Thermal evolution of massive strange compact objects in a SU(3) chiral Quark Meson model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zacchi, Andreas

    2017-07-04

    In this work, thermodynamical properties of strongly interacting matter within a chiral SU(2)- and SU(3) chiral Quark Meson model have been analysed. Both effective models describe the development of the quark masses in media via the corresponding fields through chiral symmetry, which is expected to be restored at high temperatures and/or high densities, and spontaneously broken at low temperatures and/or densities. Spontaneous and explicit chiral symmetry breaking patterns give rise to massive Goldstone bosons, which are associated with the pions. Their chiral partners, the sigma mesons, are expected to be degenerate in mass, which was what we studied and observed at large temperatures/densities. The derivation and computation of thermodynamical quantities and properties in both cases can for instance be used to study relativistic and hydrodynamic Heavy Ion Collisions and the early universe for vanishing baryon number (SU(2)-case). They are also interesting for extreme astrophysical scenarios, such as Supernova explosions and the thermal evolution of their remnants, which has been among the topics of this thesis (SU(3)-case). Inclusion of the zero point energy in the SU(2) model has been carried out separately for the meson sector and for the quark sector as well as in a combined approach, where we learned, that the quark sector is quite dominant and that the vacuum fluctuations of the meson fields have little influence on the order parameter, but affect the relativistic degrees of freedom. In the SU(3) case, the inclusion of the zero point energy in the quark sector is much more computationally complex, but, as in the SU(2) case, is also not negliable, as its influence also changes the thermodynamical quantities at finite temperatures in a nontrivial manner. Here some features of the Supernova equation of state have been studied, which look promising for further investigations for Supernovae (proto neutron stars) and also for compact star mergers. The final

  14. Quark structure of chiral solitons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dmitri Diakonov

    2004-05-01

    There is a prejudice that the chiral soliton model of baryons is something orthogonal to the good old constituent quark models. In fact, it is the opposite: the spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking in strong interactions explains the appearance of massive constituent quarks of small size thus justifying the constituent quark models, in the first place. Chiral symmetry ensures that constituent quarks interact very strongly with the pseudoscalar fields. The ''chiral soliton'' is another word for the chiral field binding constituent quarks. We show how the old SU(6) quark wave functions follow from the ''soliton'', however, with computable relativistic corrections and additional quark-antiquark pairs. We also find the 5-quark wave function of the exotic baryon Theta+.

  15. Meta-Chirality: Fundamentals, Construction and Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoliang Ma

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Chiral metamaterials represent a special type of artificial structures that cannot be superposed to their mirror images. Due to the lack of mirror symmetry, cross-coupling between electric and magnetic fields exist in chiral mediums and present unique electromagnetic characters of circular dichroism and optical activity, which provide a new opportunity to tune polarization and realize negative refractive index. Chiral metamaterials have attracted great attentions in recent years and have given rise to a series of applications in polarization manipulation, imaging, chemical and biological detection, and nonlinear optics. Here we review the fundamental theory of chiral media and analyze the construction principles of some typical chiral metamaterials. Then, the progress in extrinsic chiral metamaterials, absorbing chiral metamaterials, and reconfigurable chiral metamaterials are summarized. In the last section, future trends in chiral metamaterials and application in nonlinear optics are introduced.

  16. Chiral flat bands: Existence, engineering, and stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandran, Ajith; Andreanov, Alexei; Flach, Sergej

    2017-10-01

    We study flat bands in bipartite tight-binding networks with discrete translational invariance. Chiral flat bands with chiral symmetry eigenenergy E =0 and host compact localized eigenstates for finite range hopping. For a bipartite network with a majority sublattice chiral flat bands emerge. We present a simple generating principle of chiral flat-band networks and as a showcase add to the previously observed cases a number of new potentially realizable chiral flat bands in various lattice dimensions. Chiral symmetry respecting network perturbations—including disorder and synthetic magnetic fields—preserve both the flat band and the modified compact localized states. Chiral flat bands are spectrally protected by gaps and pseudogaps in the presence of disorder due to Griffiths effects.

  17. Evolution of Hall resistivity and spectral function with doping in the SU(2) theory of cuprates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morice, C.; Montiel, X.; Pépin, C.

    2017-10-01

    Recent transport experiments in the cuprate superconductors linked the opening of the pseudogap to a change in electronic dispersion [S. Badoux et al., Nature (London) 531, 210 (2015), 10.1038/nature16983]. Transport measurements showed that the carrier density sharply changes from x to 1 +x at the pseudogap critical doping, in accordance with the change from Fermi arcs at low doping to a large hole Fermi surface at high doping. The SU(2) theory of cuprates shows that short-range antiferromagnetic correlations cause the arising of both charge and superconducting orders, which are related by an SU(2) symmetry. The fluctuations associated with this symmetry form a pseudogap phase. Here we derive the renormalized electronic propagator under the SU(2) dome, and calculate the spectral functions and transport quantities of the renormalized bands. We show that their evolution with doping matches both spectral and transport measurements.

  18. First results for SU(2) Yang-Mills with one adjoint Dirac Fermion

    CERN Document Server

    Athenodorou, Andreas; Bergner, Georg; Lucini, Biagio; Patella, Agostino

    2013-01-01

    We present a first exploratory study of SU(2) gauge theory with one Dirac flavour in the adjoint representation. We provide initial results for the spectroscopy and the anomalous dimension for the chiral condensate. Our investigation indicates that the theory is conformal or near-conformal, with an anomalous dimension of order one. A discussion of the relevance of these findings in relation to walking technicolor scenarios is also presented.

  19. SU(2|2) supersymmetric mechanics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivanov, Evgeny [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research,Dubna, Moscow Region, 141980 (Russian Federation); Lechtenfeld, Olaf [Institut für Theoretische Physik and Riemann Center for Geometry and Physics,Leibniz Universität Hannover,Appelstraße 2, 30167 Hannover (Germany); Sidorov, Stepan [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research,Dubna, Moscow Region, 141980 (Russian Federation)

    2016-11-07

    We introduce a new kind of non-relativistic N= 8 supersymmetric mechanics, associated with worldline realizations of the supergroup SU(2|2) treated as a deformation of flat N= 8, d=1 supersymmetry. Various worldline SU(2|2) superspaces are constructed as coset manifolds of this supergroup, and the corresponding superfield techniques are developed. For the off-shell SU(2|2) multiplets (3,8,5), (4,8,4) and (5,8,3), we construct and analyze the most general superfield and component actions. Common features are mass oscillator-type terms proportional to the deformation parameter and a trigonometric realization of the superconformal group OSp(4{sup ∗}|4) in the conformal cases. For the simplest (5,8,3) model the quantization is performed.

  20. Applications Of Chiral Perturbation Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Mohta, V

    2005-01-01

    Effective field theory techniques are used to describe the spectrum and interactions of hadrons. The mathematics of classical field theory and perturbative quantum field theory are reviewed. The physics of effective field theory and, in particular, of chiral perturbation theory and heavy baryon chiral perturbation theory are also reviewed. The geometry underlying heavy baryon chiral perturbation theory is described in detail. Results by Coleman et. al. in the physics literature are stated precisely and proven. A chiral perturbation theory is developed for a multiplet containing the recently- observed exotic baryons. A small coupling expansion is identified that allows the calculation of self-energy corrections to the exotic baryon masses. Opportunities in lattice calculations are discussed. Chiral perturbation theory is used to study the possibility of two multiplets of exotic baryons mixed by quark masses. A new symmetry constraint on reduced partial widths is identified. Predictions in the literature based ...

  1. Infrared behaviors of SU(2 gauge theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuominen Kimmo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We will discuss some recent results in the determination of the location of the conformal window in SU(2 gauge theory with Nf fermions in the fundamental representation of the gauge group. In particular, we will demonstrate that the long distance behavior of the continuum theory with Nf = 6 is governed by an infrared stable fixed point.

  2. Heavy–light mesons in chiral AdS/QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Yizhuang, E-mail: yizhuang.liu@stonybrook.edu; Zahed, Ismail, E-mail: ismail.zahed@stonybrook.edu

    2017-06-10

    We discuss a minimal holographic model for the description of heavy–light and light mesons with chiral symmetry, defined in a slab of AdS space. The model consists of a pair of chiral Yang–Mills and tachyon fields with specific boundary conditions that break spontaneously chiral symmetry in the infrared. The heavy–light spectrum and decay constants are evaluated explicitly. In the heavy mass limit the model exhibits both heavy-quark and chiral symmetry and allows for the explicit derivation of the one-pion axial couplings to the heavy–light mesons.

  3. Symmetry structure and phase transitions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2 µ2(σ2 +π2) + 1. 4λ(σ2 +π2)2. (2). For µ2. 0 chiral symmetry is spontaneously broken. Theσ field can be used to represent the quark condensate, the order parameter for chiral phase transition and the pions are the. Goldstone bosons. At the tree level the sigma, pion and the quark masses are given by m2 σ =3λσ2 cl µ2; m2.

  4. Dynamical Generation of the Gauged SU(2) Linear Sigma Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delbourgo, R.; Scadron, M. D.

    The fermion and meson sectors of the quark-level SU(2) linear sigma model are dynamically generated from a meson-quark Lagrangian, with the quark (q) and meson (σ, π) fields all treated as elementary, having neither bare masses nor expectation values. In the chiral limit, the masses are predicted to be mq = fπg, mπ = 0, mσ = 2mq, and we also find that the quark-meson coupling is g =2π /√ {Nc}, the three-meson coupling is g' =mσ 2 /2fπ =2gmq and the four-meson coupling is λ = 2g2 = g‧/fπ, where fπ ≃ 90 MeV is the pion decay constant and Nc = 3 is the color number. By gauging this model one can generate the couplings to the vector mesons ρ and A1, including the quark-vector coupling constant gρ = 2π, gρππ, gA1ρπ and the masses mρ 700 MeV, mA1˜= √ {3} mρ ; of course the vector and axial currents remain conserved throughout.

  5. Hidden local symmetry and beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamawaki, Koichi

    Gerry Brown was a godfather of our hidden local symmetry (HLS) for the vector meson from the birth of the theory throughout his life. The HLS is originated from very nature of the nonlinear realization of the symmetry G based on the manifold G/H, and thus is universal to any physics based on the nonlinear realization. Here, I focus on the Higgs Lagrangian of the Standard Model (SM), which is shown to be equivalent to the nonlinear sigma model based on G/H = SU(2)L × SU(2)R/SU(2)V with additional symmetry, the nonlinearly-realized scale symmetry. Then, the SM does have a dynamical gauge boson of the SU(2)V HLS, "SM ρ meson", in addition to the Higgs as a pseudo-dilaton as well as the NG bosons to be absorbed in to the W and Z. Based on the recent work done with Matsuzaki and Ohki, I discuss a novel possibility that the SM ρ meson acquires kinetic term by the SM dynamics itself, which then stabilizes the skyrmion dormant in the SM as a viable candidate for the dark matter, what we call "dark SM skyrmion (DSMS)".

  6. Thermodynamics of SU(2) mathcal{N} =2 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paik, Steve; Yaffe, Laurence G.

    2010-01-01

    The thermodynamics of four-dimensional SU(2) mathcal{N} =2 super-Yang-Mills theory is examined in both high and low temperature regimes. At low temperatures, compelling evidence is found for two distinct equilibrium states related by a spontaneously broken discrete R-symmetry. These equilibrium states exist because the quantum moduli space of the theory has two singular points where extra massless states appear. At high temperature, a unique R-symmetry-preserving equilibrium state is found. Discrepancies with previous results in the literature are explained.

  7. Chiral photochemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Inoue, Yoshihisa

    2004-01-01

    Direct Asymmetric Photochemistry with Circularly Polarized Light, H. RauCoherent Laser Control of the Handedness of Chiral Molecules, P. Brumer and M. ShapiroMagnetochiral Anisotropy in Asymmetric Photochemistry, G.L.J.A.RikkenEnantiodifferentiating Photosensitized Reactions, Y. InoueDiastereodifferentiating Photoreactions, N. Hoffmann and J.-P. PeteChirality in Photochromism, Y. Yokoyama and M. SaitoChiral Photochemistry with Transition Metal Complexes, S. Sakaki and T. HamadaTemplate-Induced Enantioselective Photochemical Reactions in S

  8. Switching chiral solitons for algebraic operation of topological quaternary digits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae-Hwan; Cheon, Sangmo; Yeom, Han Woong

    2017-02-01

    Chiral objects can be found throughout nature; in condensed matter chiral objects are often excited states protected by a system's topology. The use of chiral topological excitations to carry information has been demonstrated, where the information is robust against external perturbations. For instance, reading, writing, and transfer of binary information have been demonstrated with chiral topological excitations in magnetic systems, skyrmions, for spintronic devices. The next step is logic or algebraic operations of such topological bits. Here, we show experimentally the switching between chiral topological excitations or chiral solitons of different chirality in a one-dimensional electronic system with Z4 topological symmetry. We found that a fast-moving achiral soliton merges with chiral solitons to switch their handedness. This can lead to the realization of algebraic operation of Z4 topological charges. Chiral solitons could be a platform for storage and operation of robust topological multi-digit information.

  9. N=1 supersymmetric $SU(4) x SU(2)_{L} x SU(2)_{R}$ effective theory from the weakly coupled heterotic superstring

    CERN Document Server

    Leontaris, George K

    1999-01-01

    In the context of the free-fermionic formulation of the heterotic superstring, we construct a three generation N=1 supersymmetric SU(4)xSU(2)LxSU(2)R model supplemented by an SU(8) hidden gauge symmetry and five Abelian factors. The symmetry breaking to the standard model is achieved using vacuum expectation values of a Higgs pair in (4bar,2R)+(4,2R) at a high scale. One linear combination of the Abelian symmetries is anomalous and is broken by vacuum expectation values of singlet fields along the flat directions of the superpotential. All consistent string vacua of the model are completely classified by solving the corresponding system of F- and D-flatness equations including non-renormalizable terms up to sixth order. The requirement of existence of electroweak massless doublets further restricts the phenomenologically viable vacua. The third generation fermions receive masses from the tree-level superpotential. Further, a complete calculation of all non-renormalizable fermion mass terms up to fifth order s...

  10. N = 1 supersymmetric SU(4) x SU(2) sub L x SU (2) sub R effective theory from the weakly coupled heterotic superstring

    CERN Document Server

    Leontaris, George K

    1999-01-01

    In the context of the free-fermionic formulation of the heterotic superstring, we construct a three-generation N = 1 supersymmetric SU(4) x SU(2) sub L x SU(2) sub R model supplemented by an SU(8) hidden gauge symmetry and five Abelian factors. The symmetry breaking to the standard model is achieved using vacuum expectation values of a Higgs pair in (4,2 sub R) + (4-bar,2 sub R) at a high scale. One linear combination of the Abelian symmetries is anomalous and is broken by vacuum expectation values of singlet fields along the flat directions of the superpotential. All consistent string vacua of the model are completely classified by solving the corresponding system of F- and D-flatness equations including non-renormalizable terms up to sixth order. The requirement of existence of electroweak massless doublets imposes further restrictions to the phenomenologically viable vacua. The third generation fermions receive masses from the tree-level superpotential. Further, a complete calculation of all non-renormaliz...

  11. Gauge origin of discrete flavor symmetries in heterotic orbifolds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Beye

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available We show that non-Abelian discrete symmetries in orbifold string models have a gauge origin. This can be understood when looking at the vicinity of a symmetry enhanced point in moduli space. At such an enhanced point, orbifold fixed points are characterized by an enhanced gauge symmetry. This gauge symmetry can be broken to a discrete subgroup by a nontrivial vacuum expectation value of the Kähler modulus T. Using this mechanism it is shown that the Δ(54 non-Abelian discrete symmetry group originates from a SU(3 gauge symmetry, whereas the D4 symmetry group is obtained from a SU(2 gauge symmetry.

  12. Static hyperon properties in a linearized SU(3)-chiral bag model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klimt, S.; Weise, W.

    1988-12-01

    We use a linearized Chiral Bag model to describe the strange octet and decuplet baryons. The approach is canonically extended to spontaneously broken chiral SU(3)/sub L/xSU(3)/sub R/, and the corresponding Goldstone Bosons are identified with the pseudoscalar meson octet. We include explicit symmetry breaking corrections both for baryons and mesons. The linearized quark-meson intraction is applied in a self-consistent calculation of the masses and, for ..delta.., ..sigma../sup */ and ..gamma../sup */, of the decay widths. Our special interest is in the influence of the K- and eta-cloud (in addition to the ..pi..) on hyperon static properties. We show results for radii, masses, decay widths and renormalization constants as obtained by a fit to the experimental hyperon spectra. The effects of the K- and eta-mesons are found to be non-negligible, although supressed by symmetry breaking effects. The effective gluon coupling ..cap alpha.. is reduced in comparison to the SU(2)/sub L/xSU(2)/sub R/ case. In addition, we discuss the dependence on the bag constant B. It turns out that the lightest hyperon states, ..lambda.. and ..sigma.. are well described and stable for B/sup 1/4/ < 130 MeV. The heavier strange baryons have stable solutions also for larger values of B. The bag radii determined at the minimal energies are R/sub 0/ approx. = 1.15 fm for the octet and R/sub 0/ approx. = 1.25 fm for the decuplet baryons.

  13. Static solutions of SU(2)-Higgs theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yaffe, L.G. (Department of Physics, FM-15, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 (US))

    1989-11-15

    The structure and stability of static spherically symmetric solutions in the SU(2)-Higgs theory are examined using both analytic and numerical methods. Accurate results are presented for the energy and instability growth rates of the sphaleron'' solution as a function of the Higgs-boson mass. The sphaleron is shown to undergo an infinite sequence of bifurcations as the Higgs-boson mass is increased, starting at {ital M}{sub {ital H}}=12M{sub W}. New deformed sphaleron'' solutions emerge from each of these bifurcations. These deformed sphalerons are not charge-conjugation invariant, have non-half-integral winding numbers, and are lower in energy than the original sphaleron. Hence, for sufficiently large Higgs-boson mass, minimal-energy paths connecting inequivalent vacuum states do not pass through the original sphaleron configuration.

  14. The Three Dimensional Dual of 4D Chirality

    CERN Document Server

    Porrati, M

    2009-01-01

    Chiral gauge theories can be defined in four-dimensional Anti de Sitter space, but AdS boundary conditions explicitly break the chiral symmetry in a specific, well defined manner, which in turns results in an anomalous Ward identity. When the 4D theory admits a dual description in terms of a 3D CFT, the 3D dual of the broken chiral symmetry is a certain double-trace deformation of the CFT, which produces the same anomalous chiral Ward identities that obtains in the 4D bulk theory.

  15. Entangled SU(2) and SU(1,1) coherent states

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Xiao-Guang; Sanders, Barry C.; Pan, Shao-Hua

    2000-01-01

    Entangled SU(2) and SU(1,1) coherent states are developed as superpositions of multiparticle SU(2) and SU(1,1) coherent states. In certain cases, these are coherent states with respect to generalized su(2) and su(1,1) generators, and multiparticle parity states arise as a special case. As a special example of entangled SU(2) coherent states, entangled binomial states are introduced and these entangled binomial states enable the contraction from entangled SU(2) coherent states to entangled har...

  16. Type IIA orientifolds on SU(2)-structure manifolds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Danckaert, Thomas

    2010-11-15

    We investigate the possible supersymmetry-preserving orientifold projections of type IIA string theory on a six-dimensional background with SU(2)-structure. We find two categories of projections which preserve half of the low-energy supersymmetry, reducing the effective theory from an N=4 supergravity theory, to an N=2 supergravity. For these two cases, we impose the projection on the low-energy spectrum and reduce the effective N=4 supergravity action accordingly. We can identify the resulting gauged N=2 supergravity theory and bring the action into canonical form. We compute the scalar moduli spaces and characterize the gauged symmetries in terms of the geometry of these moduli spaces. Due to their origin in N=4 supergravity, which is a highly constrained theory, the moduli spaces are of a very simple form. We find that, for suitable background manifolds, isometries in all scalar sectors can become gauged. The obtained gaugings share many features with those of N=2 supergravities obtained previously from other G-structure compactifications. (orig.)

  17. Chiral Nuclear Dynamics II

    CERN Document Server

    Rho, Mannque

    2008-01-01

    This is the sequel to the first volume to treat in one effective field theory framework the physics of strongly interacting matter under extreme conditions. This is vital for understanding the high temperature phenomena taking place in relativistic heavy ion collisions and in the early Universe, as well as the high-density matter predicted to be present in compact stars. The underlying thesis is that what governs hadronic properties in a heat bath and/or a dense medium is hidden local symmetry which emerges from chiral dynamics of light quark systems and from the duality between QCD in 4D and

  18. Orientation-Dependent Handedness and Chiral Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Efi Efrati

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Chirality occupies a central role in fields ranging from biological self-assembly to the design of optical metamaterials. The definition of chirality, as given by Lord Kelvin, associates chirality with the lack of mirror symmetry: the inability to superpose an object on its mirror image. While this definition has guided the classification of chiral objects for over a century, the quantification of handed phenomena based on this definition has proven elusive, if not impossible, as manifest in the paradox of chiral connectedness. In this work, we put forward a quantification scheme in which the handedness of an object depends on the direction in which it is viewed. While consistent with familiar chiral notions, such as the right-hand rule, this framework allows objects to be simultaneously right and left handed. We demonstrate this orientation dependence in three different systems—a biomimetic elastic bilayer, a chiral propeller, and optical metamaterial—and find quantitative agreement with chirality pseudotensors whose form we explicitly compute. The use of this approach resolves the existing paradoxes and naturally enables the design of handed metamaterials from symmetry principles.

  19. Symmetry and symmetry breaking; Symetrie et brisure de symetrie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balian, R. [CEA/Saclay, Direction des Sciences de la Matiere (DSM), 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Lambert, D. [Facultes Universitaires Notre-Dame de la Paix, Namur (Belgium); Brack, A. [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), 45 - Orleans-la-Source (France). Centre de Biophysique Moleculaire; Englert, F. [Universite Libre de Bruxelles (Belgium). Laboratoire de Physique Theorique; Chomaz, Ph. [Grand Accelerateur National d`Ions Lourds (GANIL), 14 - Caen (France); Lachieze-Rey, M. [CEA/Saclay, Dept. d`Astrophysique, de la Physique des Particules, de la Physique Nucleaire et de l`Instrumentation Associee (DAPNIA), 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Emery, E. [Ecole Polytechnique Federale, Lausanne (Switzerland); Cohen-Tannoudji, G.; Sacquin, Y

    1999-11-01

    The symmetry concept is a powerful tool for our understanding of the world. It allows a reduction of the volume of information needed to apprehend a subject thoroughly. Moreover this concept does not belong to a particular field, it is involved in the exact sciences but also in artistic matters. Living beings are characterized by a particular asymmetry: the chiral asymmetry. Although this asymmetry is visible in whole organisms, it seems it comes from some molecules that life always produce in one chirality. The weak interaction presents also the chiral asymmetry. The mass of particles comes from the breaking of a fundamental symmetry and the void could be defined as the medium showing as many symmetries as possible. The texts put together in this book show to a great extent how symmetry goes far beyond purely geometrical considerations. Different aspects of symmetry ideas are considered in the following fields: the states of matter, mathematics, biology, the laws of Nature, quantum physics, the universe, and the art of music. (A.C.) 103 refs.

  20. Symmetry and symmetry breaking. Symetrie et brisure de symetrie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balian, R. (CEA/Saclay, Direction des Sciences de la Matiere (DSM), 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France)); Lambert, D. (Facultes Universitaires Notre-Dame de la Paix, Namur (Belgium)); Brack, A. (Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), 45 - Orleans-la-Source (France). Centre de Biophysique Moleculaire); Englert, F. (Universite Libre de Bruxelles (Belgium). Laboratoire de Physique Theorique)

    1999-01-01

    The symmetry concept is a powerful tool for our understanding of the world. It allows a reduction of the volume of information needed to apprehend a subject thoroughly. Moreover this concept does not belong to a particular field, it is involved in the exact sciences but also in artistic matters. Living beings are characterized by a particular asymmetry: the chiral asymmetry. Although this asymmetry is visible in whole organisms, it seems it comes from some molecules that life always produce in one chirality. The weak interaction presents also the chiral asymmetry. The mass of particles comes from the breaking of a fundamental symmetry and the void could be defined as the medium showing as many symmetries as possible. The texts put together in this book show to a great extent how symmetry goes far beyond purely geometrical considerations. Different aspects of symmetry ideas are considered in the following fields: the states of matter, mathematics, biology, the laws of Nature, quantum physics, the universe, and the art of music. (A.C.) 103 refs.

  1. Covalent bond symmetry breaking and protein secondary structure

    OpenAIRE

    Lundgren, Martin; Niemi, Antti J.

    2011-01-01

    Both symmetry and organized breaking of symmetry have a pivotal r\\^ole in our understanding of structure and pattern formation in physical systems, including the origin of mass in the Universe and the chiral structure of biological macromolecules. Here we report on a new symmetry breaking phenomenon that takes place in all biologically active proteins, thus this symmetry breaking relates to the inception of life. The unbroken symmetry determines the covalent bond geometry of a sp3 hybridized ...

  2. Light Kaluza Klein States in Randall-Sundrum Models with Custodial SU(2)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carena, Marcela; /Fermilab; Ponton, Eduardo; /Columbia U.; Santiago, Jose; /Fermilab; Wagner, Carlos E.M.; /Argonne /Chicago U., EFI /KICP, Chicago

    2006-07-01

    We consider Randall-Sundrum scenarios based on SU(2){sub L} x SU(2){sub R} and a discrete parity exchanging L with R. The custodial and parity symmetries can be used to make the tree level contribution to the T parameter and the anomalous couplings of the bottom quark to the Z very small. We show that the resulting quantum numbers typically induce a negative T parameter at one loop that, together with the positive value of the S parameter, restrict considerably these models. There are nevertheless regions of parameter space that successfully reproduce the fit to electroweak precision observables with light Kaluza-Klein excitations accessible at colliders. We consider models of gauge-Higgs unification that implement the custodial and parity symmetries and find that the electroweak data singles out a very well defined region in parameter space. In this region one typically finds light gauge boson Kaluza-Klein excitations as well as light SU(2){sub L} singlet, and sometimes also doublet, fermionic states, that mix with the top quark, and that may yield interesting signatures at future colliders.

  3. Supersymmetric solutions of SU(2-Fayet–Iliopoulos-gauged N=2, d=4 supergravity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomás Ortín

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available We explore the construction of supersymmetric solutions of theories of N=2,d=4 supergravity with a SU(2 gauging and SU(2 Fayet–Iliopoulos terms. In these theories an SU(2 isometry subgroup of the Special-Kähler manifold is gauged together with a SU(2 R-symmetry subgroup. We construct several solutions of the CP‾3 quadratic model directly in four dimensions and of the ST[2,6] model by dimensional reduction of the solutions found by Cariglia and Mac Conamhna in N=(1,0,d=6 supergravity with the same kind of gauging. In the CP‾3 model, we construct an AdS2×S2 solution which is only 1/8 BPS and an R×H3 solutions that also preserves 1 of the 8 possible supersymmetries. We show how to use dimensional reduction as in the ungauged case to obtain Rn×Sm and also AdSn×Sm-type solutions (with different radii in 5- and 4-dimensions from the 6-dimensional AdS3×S3 solution.

  4. A correction to the Immirzi parameter of SU(2 spin networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sadiq

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The elegant predictions of loop quantum gravity are obscured by the free Immirzi parameter (γ. Dreyer (2003, considering the asymptotic quasinormal modes spectrum of a black hole, proposed that γ may be fixed by letting the j=1 transitions of spin networks as the dominant processes contributing to the black hole area, as opposed to the expected j=1/2 transitions. This suggested that the gauge group of the theory might be SO(3 rather than SU(2. Corichi (2003, maintaining SU(2 as the underlying gauge group, and invoking the principle of local fermion-number conservation, reported the same value of γ for j=1 processes as obtained by Dreyer. In this note, preserving the SU(2 structure of the theory, and considering j=1 transitions as the dominant processes, we point out that the value of γ is in fact twice the value reported by these authors. We arrive at this result by assuming the asymptotic quasinormal modes themselves as dynamical systems obeying SU(2 symmetry.

  5. Chiral plasmonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hentschel, Mario; Schäferling, Martin; Duan, Xiaoyang; Giessen, Harald; Liu, Na

    2017-01-01

    We present a comprehensive overview of chirality and its optical manifestation in plasmonic nanosystems and nanostructures. We discuss top-down fabricated structures that range from solid metallic nanostructures to groupings of metallic nanoparticles arranged in three dimensions. We also present the large variety of bottom-up synthesized structures. Using DNA, peptides, or other scaffolds, complex nanoparticle arrangements of up to hundreds of individual nanoparticles have been realized. Beyond this static picture, we also give an overview of recent demonstrations of active chiral plasmonic systems, where the chiral optical response can be controlled by an external stimulus. We discuss the prospect of using the unique properties of complex chiral plasmonic systems for enantiomeric sensing schemes. PMID:28560336

  6. Symmetries and groups in particle physics; Symmetrien und Gruppen in der Teilchenphysik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scherer, Stefan [Mainz Univ. (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this book consists of a didactic introduction to the group-theoretical considerations and methods, which have led to an ever deeper understanding of the interactions of the elementary particles. The first three chapters deal primarily with the foundations of the representation theory of primarily finite groups, whereby many results are also transferable to compact Lie groups. In the third chapter we discuss the concept of Lie groups and their connection with Lie algebras. In the remaining chapter it is mainly about the application of group theory in physics. Chapter 4 deals with the groups SO(3) and SU(2), which occur in connection with the description of the angular momentum in quantum mechanics. We discuss the Wigner-Eckar theorem together with some applications. In chapter 5 we are employed to the composition properties of strongly interacting systems, so called hadrons, and discuss extensively the transformation properties of quarks with relation to the special unitary groups. The Noether theorem is generally treated in connection to the conservation laws belonging to the Galilei group and the Poincare group. We confine us in chapter 6 to internal symmetries, but explain for that extensively the application to quantum field theory. Especially an outlook on the effect of symmetries in form of so called Ward identities is granted. In chapter 7 we turn towards the gauge principle and discuss first the construction of quantum electrodynamics. In the following we generalize the gauge principle to non-Abelian groups (Yang-Mills theories) and formulate the quantum chromodynamics (QCD). Especially we take a view of ''random'' global symmetries of QCD, especially the chiral symmetry. In chapter 8 we illuminate the phenomenon of spontaneous symmetry breaking both for global and for local symmetries. In the final chapter we work out the group-theoretical structure of the Standard Model. Finally by means of the group SU(5) we take a view to

  7. Exploring chiral dynamics with overlap fermions

    CERN Document Server

    Fukaya, Hidenori

    2010-01-01

    This talk presents a lattice study of spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking performed by the JLQCD and TWQCD collaborations with dynamical overlap fermions. Our lattice configurations are generated in a fixed topological sector. Since finite volume effects, partly due to the fixed global topology, are mainly induced by pion fields, the dependence on the lattice volume, topological charge and quark masses can be analytically predicted using chiral perturbation theory (ChPT). We find a good agreement of Dirac operator spectrum calculated on the lattice with the ChPT prediction including its finite size scalings, through which the chiral condensate is determined with good accuracy.

  8. Chiral discrimination in nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazzeretti, Paolo

    2017-11-01

    Chirality is a fundamental property of molecules whose spatial symmetry is characterized by the absence of improper rotations, making them not superimposable to their mirror image. Chiral molecules constitute the elementary building blocks of living species and one enantiomer is favoured in general (e.g. L-aminoacids and D-sugars pervade terrestrial homochiral biochemistry) because most chemical reactions producing natural substances are enantioselective. Since the effect of chiral chemicals and drugs on living beings can be markedly different between enantiomers, the quest for practical spectroscopical methods to scrutinize chirality is an issue of great importance and interest. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) is a topmost analytical technique, but spectrometers currently used are ‘blind’ to chirality, i.e. unable to discriminate the two mirror-image forms of a chiral molecule, because, in the absence of a chiral solvent, the spectral parameters, chemical shifts and spin-spin coupling constants are identical for enantiomers. Therefore, the development of new procedures for routine chiral recognition would offer basic support to scientists. However, in the presence of magnetic fields, a distinction between true and false chirality is mandatory. The former epitomizes natural optical activity, which is rationalized by a time-even pseudoscalar, i.e. the trace of a second-rank tensor, the mixed electric dipole/magnetic dipole polarizability. The Faraday effect, magnetic circular dichroism and magnetic optical activity are instead related to a time-odd axial vector. The present review summarizes recent theoretical and experimental efforts to discriminate enantiomers via NMR spectroscopy, with the focus on the deep connection between chirality and symmetry properties under the combined set of fundamental discrete operations, namely charge conjugation, parity (space inversion) and time (motion) reversal.

  9. Spectrum of the QCD Dirac operator and chiral random matrix theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verbaarschot, J. (Department of Physics, State University of New York at Stony Brook, Stony Brook, New York 11794 (United States))

    1994-04-18

    We argue that the spectrum of the QCD Dirac operator near zero virtuality can be described by random matrix theory. As in the case of the classical random matrix ensembles of Dyson we have three different cases: the chiral orthogonal ensemble, the chiral unitary ensemble, and the chiral symplectic ensemble. They correspond to gauge groups SU(2) in the fundamental representation, SU([ital N][sub [ital c

  10. Chiral effective field theories of the strong interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schindler, M.R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC 29208 (United States); Scherer, S. [Institut fur Kernphysik, Johannes Gutenberg-Universitat, 55099 Mainz (Germany)

    2011-09-15

    Effective field theories of the strong interactions based on the approximate chiral symmetry of QCD provide a model-independent approach to low-energy hadron physics. We give a brief introduction to mesonic and baryonic chiral perturbation theory and discuss a number of applications. We also consider the effective field theory including vector and axial-vector mesons. (authors)

  11. Strange two-baryon interactions using chiral effective field theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Polinder, H.

    2008-01-01

    We have constructed the leading order strangeness S = −1,−2 baryon-baryon potential in a chiral effective field theory approach. The chiral potential consists of one-pseudoscalar-meson exchanges and non-derivative four-baryon contact terms. The potential, derived using SU(3)f symmetry constraints,

  12. Deconfined quantum critical points: symmetries and dualities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chong; Nahum, Adam; Metlitski, Max; Xu, Cenke; Senthil, T.

    The deconfined quantum critical point (QCP) between the Neel and the valence bond solid (VBS) phases was proposed as an example of (2 + 1) d conformal field theories that are fundamentally different from all the standard Landau-Ginzburg-Wilson-Fisher fixed points. In this work we demonstrate that the deconfined QCP, both the easy-plane version and the version with an explicit SU(2) spin symmetry, have multiple equivalent descriptions. In particular, the easy-plane deconfined QCP, besides its self-duality that was discussed before, is also dual to the Nf = 2 fermionic quantum electrodynamics (QED), which has its own self-duality and hence has an O(4) ×Z2T symmetry; the deconfined QCP with the explicit SU(2) spin symmetry is dual to the Nf = 2 QED-Gross-Neveu fixed point, and could have an emergent SO(5) symmetry, as was conjectured before.

  13. Chiral Dynamics 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Mohammad W.; Gao, Haiyan; Weller, Henry R.; Holstein, Barry

    2007-10-01

    pt. A. Plenary session. Opening remarks: experimental tests of chiral symmetry breaking / A. M. Bernstein. [Double pie symbols] scattering / H. Leutwyler. Chiral effective field theory in a [Triangle]-resonance region / V. Pascalutsa. Some recent developments in chiral perturbation theory / Ulf-G. Mei ner. Chiral extrapolation and nucleon structure from the lattice / R.D. Young. Recent results from HAPPEX / R. Michaels. Chiral symmetries and low energy searches for new physics / M.J. Ramsey-Musolf. Kaon physics: recent experimental progress / M. Moulson. Status of the Cabibbo angle / V. Cirigliano. Lattice QCD and nucleon spin structure / J.W. Negele. Spin sum rules and polarizabilities: results from Jefferson lab / J-P Chen. Compton scattering and nucleon polarisabilities / Judith A. McGovern. Virtual compton scattering at MIT-bates / R. Miskimen. Physics results from the BLAST detector at the BATES accelerator / R.P. Redwine. The [Pie sympbol]NN system, recent progress / C. Hanhart. Application of chiral nuclear forces to light nuclei / A. Nogga. New results on few-body experiments at low energy / Y. Nagai. Few-body lattice calculations / M.J. Savage. Research opportunities at the upgraded HI?S facility / H.R. Weller -- pt. B. Goldstone boson dynamics. Working group summary: Goldstone Boson dynamics / G. Colangelo and S. Giovannella. Recent results on radiative Kaon decays from NA48 and NA48/2 / S.G. López. Cusps in K-->3 [Pie symbol] decays / B. Kubis. Recent KTeV results on radiative Kaon decays / M.C. Ronquest. The [Double pie symbols] scattering amplitude / J.R. Peláez. Determination of the Regge parameters in the [Double pie symbols] scattering amplitude / I. Caprini. e+e- Hadronic cross section measurement at DA[symbol]NE with the KLOE detector / P. Beltrame. Measurement of the form factors of e+e- -->2([Pie symbol]+[Pie symbol]-), pp and the resonant parameters of the heavy charmonia at BES / H. Hu. Measurement of e+e- multihadronic cross section below 4

  14. Couplings in D(2,1;α) superconformal mechanics from the SU(2) perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galajinsky, Anton [Laboratory of Mathematical Physics, Tomsk Polytechnic University,Lenin Ave. 30, 634050 Tomsk (Russian Federation)

    2017-03-09

    Dynamical realizations of the most general N=4 superconformal group in one dimension D(2,1;α) are reconsidered from the perspective of the R-symmetry subgroup SU(2). It is shown that any realization of the R-symmetry subalgebra in some phase space can be extended to a representation of the Lie superalgebra corresponding to D(2,1;α). Novel couplings of arbitrary number of supermultiplets of the type (1,4,3) and (0,4,4) to a single supermultiplet of either the type (3,4,1), or (4,4,0) are constructed. D(2,1;α) superconformal mechanics describing superparticles propagating near the horizon of the extreme Reissner-Nordström-AdS-dS black hole in four and five dimensions is considered. The parameter α is linked to the cosmological constant.

  15. U(1) and SU(2) quantum dissipative systems: the Caldeira–Leggett Versus Ambegaokar–Eckern–Schön approaches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shnirman, A., E-mail: alexander.shnirman@kit.edu [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institut fur Theorie der Kondensierten Materie (Germany); Saha, A. [Institute of Physics (India); Burmistrov, I. S. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Landau Institute for Theoretical Physics (Russian Federation); Kiselev, M. N. [International Center for Theoretical Physics (Italy); Altland, A. [Universität zu Köln, Institut für Theoretische Physik (Germany); Gefen, Y. [Weizmann Institute of Science, Department of Condensed Matter Physics (Israel)

    2016-03-15

    There are two paradigmatic frameworks for treating quantum systems coupled to a dissipative environment: the Caldeira–Leggett and Ambegaokar–Eckern–Schön approaches. Here, we recall the differences between them and explain the consequences of applying each to a zero-dimensional spin (having an SU(2) symmetry) in a dissipative environment (a dissipative quantum dot near or beyond the Stoner instability point).

  16. Chiral liquid phase of simple quantum magnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhentao; Feiguin, Adrian E.; Zhu, Wei; Starykh, Oleg A.; Chubukov, Andrey V.; Batista, Cristian D.

    2017-11-01

    We study a T =0 quantum phase transition between a quantum paramagnetic state and a magnetically ordered state for a spin S =1 XXZ Heisenberg antiferromagnet on a two-dimensional triangular lattice. The transition is induced by an easy-plane single-ion anisotropy D . At the mean-field level, the system undergoes a direct transition at a critical D =Dc between a paramagnetic state at D >Dc and an ordered state with broken U(1 ) symmetry at D field the phase diagram is very different and includes an intermediate, partially ordered chiral liquid phase. Specifically, we find that inside the paramagnetic phase the Ising (Jz) component of the Heisenberg exchange binds magnons into a two-particle bound state with zero total momentum and spin. This bound state condenses at D >Dc , before single-particle excitations become unstable, and gives rise to a chiral liquid phase, which spontaneously breaks spatial inversion symmetry, but leaves the spin-rotational U(1 ) and time-reversal symmetries intact. This chiral liquid phase is characterized by a finite vector chirality without long-range dipolar magnetic order. In our analytical treatment, the chiral phase appears for arbitrarily small Jz because the magnon-magnon attraction becomes singular near the single-magnon condensation transition. This phase exists in a finite range of D and transforms into the magnetically ordered state at some D calculations.

  17. Study of QCD Phase Diagram with Non-Zero Chiral Chemical Potential

    CERN Document Server

    Braguta, V V; Kotov, A Yu; Petersson, B; Skinderev, S A

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we report on lattice simulations of SU(3)-QCD with non-zero chiral chemical potential. We focus on the influence of the chiral chemical potential on the confinement/deconfinement phase transition and the breaking/restoration of chiral symmetry. The simulation is carried out with dynamical Wilson fermions. We find that the critical temperature rises as the chiral chemical potential grows.

  18. Rho meson decay width in SU(2) gauge theories with 2 fundamental flavours

    CERN Document Server

    Janowski, Tadeusz; Pica, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    SU(2) gauge theories with two quark flavours in the fundamental representation are among the most promising theories of composite dynamics describing the electroweak sector. Three out of five Goldstone bosons in these models become the longitudinal components of the W and Z bosons giving them mass. Like in QCD, we expect a spectrum of excitations which appear as resonances in vector boson scattering, in particular the vector resonance corresponding to the rho-meson in QCD. In this talk I will present the preliminary results of the first calculation of the rho-meson decay width in this theory, which is analogous to rho to two pions decay calculation in QCD. The results presented were calculated in a moving frame with total momentum (0,0,1) on two ensembles. Future plans include using 3 moving frames on a larger set of ensembles to extract the resonance parameters more reliably and also take the chiral and continuum limits.

  19. Bootstrap Dynamical Symmetry Breaking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Shu Hou

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the emergence of a 125 GeV Higgs-like particle at the LHC, we explore the possibility of dynamical electroweak symmetry breaking by strong Yukawa coupling of very heavy new chiral quarks Q . Taking the 125 GeV object to be a dilaton with suppressed couplings, we note that the Goldstone bosons G exist as longitudinal modes V L of the weak bosons and would couple to Q with Yukawa coupling λ Q . With m Q ≳ 700  GeV from LHC, the strong λ Q ≳ 4 could lead to deeply bound Q Q ¯ states. We postulate that the leading “collapsed state,” the color-singlet (heavy isotriplet, pseudoscalar Q Q ¯ meson π 1 , is G itself, and a gap equation without Higgs is constructed. Dynamical symmetry breaking is affected via strong λ Q , generating m Q while self-consistently justifying treating G as massless in the loop, hence, “bootstrap,” Solving such a gap equation, we find that m Q should be several TeV, or λ Q ≳ 4 π , and would become much heavier if there is a light Higgs boson. For such heavy chiral quarks, we find analogy with the π − N system, by which we conjecture the possible annihilation phenomena of Q Q ¯ → n V L with high multiplicity, the search of which might be aided by Yukawa-bound Q Q ¯ resonances.

  20. Numerical Results for SU(4) and SU(2) Kondo Effect in Carbon Nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, George; Busser, Carlos

    2006-03-01

    New numerical results are presented for the Kondo effect in Carbon Nanotube (CNT) quantum dots (QDs). As recently reported by P. Jarillo-Herrero et al. (Nature 434, 484 (2005)), the Kondo effect in CNTs presents an SU(4) symmetry, which arises from the entanglement of orbital and spin degrees of freedom. As the number of co-tunneling processes increases, thanks to the extra (orbital) degree of freedom, the Kondo temperature reaches a high value of TK=7.7K. Interesting considerations can be drawn regarding the change from SU(4) to SU(2) symmetries depending on the hopping matrix elements between the leads and the CNT QD. Our results will analyze the transition between the SU(4) and the so-called two-level SU(2) (2LSU(2)) Kondo regimes induced by the variation of the coupling of the QD to the leads. The effect of an external magnetic field along the tube direction will also be analyzed. Our results will be compared with available Numerical Renormalization Group (NRG) results by M-S Choi et al. (Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 067204 (2005)). A comparison with the experimental results will be made to gauge the adequacy of the model and approximations made.

  1. Fundamental fermion interactions via vector bosons of unified SU(2 x SU(4 gauge fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eckart eMarsch

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Employing the fermion unification model based on the intrinsic SU(8 symmetry of a generalized Dirac equation, we discuss the fundamental interactions under the SU(8=SU(2$otimes$SU(4 symmetry group. The physics involved can describe all fermions, the leptons (electron and neutrino, and the coloured up and down quarks of the first generation in the standard model (SM by a complex SU(8 octet of Dirac spinor fields. The fermion interactions are found to be mediated by the unified SU(4 and SU(2 vector gauge boson fields, which include the photon, the gluons, and the bosons $Z$ and $W$ as well known from the SM, but also comprise new ones, namely three coloured $X$ bosons carrying a fractional hypercharge of $pm4/3$ and transmuting leptons into quarks and vice versa. The full covariant derivative of the model is derived and discussed. The Higgs mechanism gives mass to the $Z$ and $W$ bosons, but also permits one to derive the mass of the coloured $X$ boson, for which depending on the choice of the values of the coupling constant, the estimates are 35~GeV or 156~GeV, values that are well within reach of the LHC. The scalar Higgs field can also lend masses to the fermions and fix their physical values for given appropriate coupling constants to that field.

  2. Description of Majorana Properties of Neutral Particles in the Framework of Pauli Symmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Gaponov, Yu V

    2005-01-01

    A mathematical model based on Pauli transformations consisting of $U(1)$ chiral group as well as Pauli $SU(2)$ group, which mixes particle and antiparticle components of wave functions, is developed for description of Majorana properties of a system incorporating left-handed and right-handed free neutral fermions of one type. For massless fermions Pauli symmetry is exact and leads to conserved charges: chiral and generalized lepton one. The latter is a vector in Pauli isospace, different directions of which are coordinated with Dirac or generalized Majorana properties. For nonzero mass particles the scheme describes combined Dirac-Majorana properties of particles of inversion A-B and C-D classes ($\\eta^{2}_{P} = \\mp 1$ consequently) with constraint conditions $M_{L} = \\pm M_{R}$ on their Majorana masses. For C-D-classes particles the Lagrangian mass term and Pauli charge can be described in terms of the operator of generalized lepton charge; however, for A-B-classes particles these characteristics are complem...

  3. Chiral pinwheel clusters lacking local point chirality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Kai; Shao, Ting-Na; Xie, Jia-Le; Lan, Meng; Yuan, Hong-Kuan; Xiong, Zu-Hong; Wang, Jun-Zhong; Liu, Ying; Xue, Qi-Kun

    2012-07-09

    The supramolecular pinwheel cluster is a unique chiral structure with evident handedness. Previous studies reveal that the chiral pinwheels are composed of chiral or achiral molecules with polar groups, which result in strong intermolecular interactions such as hydrogen-bonding or dipole interactions. Herein, it is shown that the simple linear aromatic molecule, pentacene, can be self-assembled into large chiral pinwheel clusters on the semimetal Bi(111) surface, due to enhanced intermolecular interactions. The pentacene pinwheels reveal two levels of organizational chirality: the chiral hexamers resulting from asymmetric shifting along the long molecular axis, and chiral arrangement of six hexamers with a rotor motif. Furthermore, a new relation between the local point chirality and organizational chirality is identified from the pinwheels: the former is not essential for the latter in 2D pinwheel clusters of the pentacene molecule. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Chiral higher spin gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Chethan; Raju, Avinash

    2017-06-01

    We construct a candidate for the most general chiral higher spin theory with AdS3 boundary conditions. In the Chern-Simons language, on the left it has the Drinfeld-Sokolov reduced form, but on the right all charges and chemical potentials are turned on. Altogether (for the spin-3 case) these are 19 functions. Despite this, we show that the resulting metric has the form of the "most general" AdS3 boundary conditions discussed by Grumiller and Riegler. The asymptotic symmetry algebra is a product of a W3 algebra on the left and an affine s l (3 )k current algebra on the right, as desired. The metric and higher spin fields depend on all the 19 functions. We compare our work with previous results in the literature.

  5. SU(2) Flavor Asymmetry of the Proton Sea in Chiral Effective Theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKenney, J. R. [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States); Sato Gonzalez, Nobuo [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Melnitchouk, Wally [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Ji, Cheung-Ryong [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States)

    2016-07-01

    We refine the computation of the $\\bar{d}$ - $\\bar{u}$ flavor asymmetry in the proton sea with a complementary effort to reveal the dynamics of pion exchange in high-energy processes. In particular, we discuss the efficacy of pion exchange models to simultaneously describe leading neutron electroproduction at HERA along with the $\\bar{d}$ - $\\bar{u}$ flavor asymmetry in the proton. A detailed χ2 analysis of the ZEUS and H1 data, when combined with constraints on the pion flux from Drell-Yan data, allows regions of applicability of one-pion exchange to be delineated. Based on the fit results, we also address a possible estimate for leading proton structure functions in upcoming tagged deep-inelastic scattering experiments at Jefferson Lab on the deuteron with forward protons.

  6. Punctuated Chirality

    OpenAIRE

    Gleiser, Marcelo; Thorarinson, Joel; Walker, Sara Imari

    2008-01-01

    Most biomolecules occur in mirror, or chiral, images of each other. However, life is homochiral: proteins contain almost exclusively levorotatory (L) amino acids, while only dextrorotatory (R) sugars appear in RNA and DNA. The mechanism behind this fundamental asymmetry of life remains an open problem. Coupling the spatiotemporal evolution of a general autocatalytic polymerization reaction network to external environmental effects, we show through a detailed statistical analysis that high int...

  7. Odd viscosity in chiral active fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Debarghya; Souslov, Anton; Abanov, Alexander G; Vitelli, Vincenzo

    2017-11-17

    We study the hydrodynamics of fluids composed of self-spinning objects such as chiral grains or colloidal particles subject to torques. These chiral active fluids break both parity and time-reversal symmetries in their non-equilibrium steady states. As a result, the constitutive relations of chiral active media display a dissipationless linear-response coefficient called odd (or equivalently, Hall) viscosity. This odd viscosity does not lead to energy dissipation, but gives rise to a flow perpendicular to applied pressure. We show how odd viscosity arises from non-linear equations of hydrodynamics with rotational degrees of freedom, once linearized around a non-equilibrium steady state characterized by large spinning speeds. Next, we explore odd viscosity in compressible fluids and suggest how our findings can be tested in the context of shock propagation experiments. Finally, we show how odd viscosity in weakly compressible chiral active fluids can lead to density and pressure excess within vortex cores.

  8. Chiral Spin Pairing in Helical Magnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onoda, Shigeki; Nagaosa, Naoto

    2007-07-01

    A concept of chiral spin pairing is introduced to describe a vector-chiral liquid-crystal order in frustrated spin systems. It is found that the chiral spin pairing is induced by the coupling to phonons through the Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction and the four-spin exchange interaction of the Coulomb origin under the edge-sharing network of magnetic and ligand ions. This produces two successive second-order phase transitions upon cooling: an O(2) chiral spin nematic, i.e., spin cholesteric, order appears with an either parity, and then the O(2) symmetry is broken to yield a helical magnetic order. Possible candidate materials are also discussed as new multiferroic systems.

  9. Chiral streamers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zou, Dandan; Cao, Xin [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Electromagnetic Engineering and Technology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei 430074 (China); Lu, Xinpei, E-mail: luxinpei@hotmail.com [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Electromagnetic Engineering and Technology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei 430074 (China); IFSA Collaborative Innovation Center, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Ostrikov, Kostya [School of Chemistry, Physics and Mechanical Engineering, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, Queensland 4000 (Australia); Comonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization, P.O. Box 218, Sydney, New South Wales 2070 (Australia)

    2015-10-15

    The interaction of time-varying electromagnetic fields and solid, liquid, and gaseous matter may lead to electrical breakdown phenomena through the excitation of ionization waves or streamers that control the dynamics of localized plasma propagation through the media. The streamers usually propagate along straight lines, either between random points in space or along a certain direction in a guided mode. Here, we report on a new type of plasma discharges with the regular helical propagation pattern driven by a pulsed dc voltage in nitrogen at sub-atmospheric-pressure conditions. The helical guided streamers, named chiral streamers or chi-streamers, are excited without any external magnetic fields, which commonly cause helical plasma motions. We also demonstrate a hybrid propagation mode involving the interchangeable chiral streamers and the straight-line propagating plasmas. High-speed, time-resolved optical imaging reveals that the chiral streamers and the hybrid patterns are made of spatially localized discrete plasma bullets, similar to the straight-line guided streamers. These results may enable effective control of propagation of confined plasmas and electromagnetic energy along pre-determined, potentially deterministic paths, which have important implications for the development of next-generation plasma-based radiation sources, communication devices, and medical treatments.

  10. Chiral Nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Nitti

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Organic nanotubes, as assembled nanospaces, in which to carry out host–guest chemistry, reversible binding of smaller species for transport, sensing, storage or chemical transformation purposes, are currently attracting substantial interest, both as biological ion channel mimics, or for addressing tailored material properties. Nature’s materials and machinery are universally asymmetric, and, for chemical entities, controlled asymmetry comes from chirality. Together with carbon nanotubes, conformationally stable molecular building blocks and macrocycles have been used for the realization of organic nanotubes, by means of their assembly in the third dimension. In both cases, chiral properties have started to be fully exploited to date. In this paper, we review recent exciting developments in the synthesis and assembly of chiral nanotubes, and of their functional properties. This review will include examples of either molecule-based or macrocycle-based systems, and will try and rationalize the supramolecular interactions at play for the three-dimensional (3D assembly of the nanoscale architectures.

  11. Detection and characterization of symmetry-broken long-range orders in the spin-1/2 triangular Heisenberg model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saadatmand, S. N.; McCulloch, I. P.

    2017-08-01

    We present new numerical tools to analyze symmetry-broken phases in the context of SU (2 ) -symmetric translation-invariant matrix product states (MPS) and density-matrix renormalization-group (DMRG) methods for infinite cylinders, and determine the phase diagram of the geometrically frustrated triangular Heisenberg model with nearest- and next-nearest-neighbor (NN and NNN) interactions. The appearance of Nambu-Goldstone modes in the excitation spectrum is characterized by "tower of states" levels in the momentum-resolved entanglement spectrum. Symmetry-breaking phase transitions are detected by a combination of the correlation lengths and second and fourth cumulants of the magnetic order parameters (which we call the Binder ratio), even though symmetry implies that the order parameter itself is strictly zero. Using this approach, we have identified a 120∘ order, a columnar order, and an algebraic spin liquid (specific to width-6 systems), alongside the previously studied topological spin liquid phase. For the latter, we also demonstrate robustness against chiral perturbations.

  12. Supersymmetry Breaking Threshold Corrections in the $SU(4)\\times SU(2)_L\\times SU(2)_R$ Model

    OpenAIRE

    Korakianitis, O.; Tracas, N. D.

    1993-01-01

    We evaluate the SUSY and top threshold effects in the context of the MSSM and the string derived model based on SU(4)$\\times$SU(2)$_L\\times$SU(2)$_R$. In both cases we run the two loop RGEs and determine the lower bounds of the supersymmetric particle masses, dictated by the experimentally accepted regions of the values of the low energy parameters.

  13. Chiral dynamics of baryons in the perturbative chiral quark model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pumsa-ard, K.

    2006-07-01

    In this work we develop and apply variants of a perturbative chiral quark model (PCQM) to the study of baryonic properties dominantly in the low-energy region. In a first step we consider a noncovariant form of the PCQM, where confinement is modelled by a static, effective potential and chiral corrections are treated to second order, in line with similar chiral quark models. We apply the PCQM to the study of the electromagnetic form factors of the baryon octet. We focus in particular on the low-energy observables such as the magnetic moments, the charge and magnetic radii. In addition, the electromagnetic N-delta transition is also studied in the framework of the PCQM. In the chiral loop calculations we consider a quark propagator, which is restricted to the quark ground state, or in hadronic language to nucleon and delta intermediate states, for simplicity. We furthermore include the low-lying excited states to the quark propagator. In particular, the charge radius of the neutron and the transverse helicity amplitudes of the N-delta transition are considerably improved by this additional effect. In a next step we develop a manifestly Lorentz covariant version of the PCQM, where in addition higher order chiral corrections are included. The full chiral quark Lagrangian is motivated by and in analogy to the one of Chiral Perturbation Theory (ChPT). This Lagrangian contains a set of low energy constants (LECs), which are parameters encoding short distance effects and heavy degrees of freedom. We evaluate the chiral Lagrangian to order O(p{sup 4}) and to one loop to generate the dressing of the bare quark operators by pseudoscalar mesons. In addition we include the vector meson degrees of freedom in our study. Projection of the dressed quark operators on the baryonic level serves to calculate the relevant matrix elements. In a first application of this scheme, we resort to a parameterization of the valence quark form factors in the electromagnetic sector. Constraints

  14. Generation of Supramolecular Chirality around Twofold Rotational or Helical Axes in Crystalline Assemblies of Achiral Components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikiji Miyata

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available A multi-point approximation method clarifies supramolecular chirality of twofold rotational or helical assemblies as well as bundles of the one-dimensional (1D assemblies. While one-point approximation of materials claims no chirality generation of such assemblies, multi-point approximations do claim possible generation in the 1D assemblies of bars and plates. Such chirality derives from deformations toward three-axial directions around the helical axes. The chiral columns are bundled in chiral ways through symmetry operations. The preferable right- or left-handed columns are bundled together to yield chiral crystals with right- or left-handedness, respectively, indicating that twofold helix symmetry operations cause chiral crystals composed of achiral components via a three-stepwise and three-directional process.

  15. Maximal symmetry and mass generation of Dirac fermions and gravitational gauge field theory in six-dimensional spacetime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yue-Liang

    2017-10-01

    The relativistic Dirac equation in four-dimensional spacetime reveals a coherent relation between the dimensions of spacetime and the degrees of freedom of fermionic spinors. A massless Dirac fermion generates new symmetries corresponding to chirality spin and charge spin as well as conformal scaling transformations. With the introduction of intrinsic W-parity, a massless Dirac fermion can be treated as a Majorana-type or Weyl-type spinor in a six-dimensional spacetime that reflects the intrinsic quantum numbers of chirality spin. A generalized Dirac equation is obtained in the six-dimensional spacetime with a maximal symmetry. Based on the framework of gravitational quantum field theory proposed in Ref. [1] with the postulate of gauge invariance and coordinate independence, we arrive at a maximally symmetric gravitational gauge field theory for the massless Dirac fermion in six-dimensional spacetime. Such a theory is governed by the local spin gauge symmetry SP(1,5) and the global Poincaré symmetry P(1,5)=SO(1,5)⋉P 1,5 as well as the charge spin gauge symmetry SU(2). The theory leads to the prediction of doubly electrically charged bosons. A scalar field and conformal scaling gauge field are introduced to maintain both global and local conformal scaling symmetries. A generalized gravitational Dirac equation for the massless Dirac fermion is derived in the six-dimensional spacetime. The equations of motion for gauge fields are obtained with conserved currents in the presence of gravitational effects. The dynamics of the gauge-type gravifield as a Goldstone-like boson is shown to be governed by a conserved energy-momentum tensor, and its symmetric part provides a generalized Einstein equation of gravity. An alternative geometrical symmetry breaking mechanism for the mass generation of Dirac fermions is demonstrated. Supported by National Science Foundation of China (NSFC) (11690022, 11475237, 11121064) and Strategic Priority Research Program of the Chinese

  16. Objects of maximum electromagnetic chirality

    CERN Document Server

    Fernandez-Corbaton, Ivan

    2015-01-01

    We introduce a definition of the electromagnetic chirality of an object and show that it has an upper bound. The upper bound is attained if and only if the object is transparent for fields of one handedness (helicity). Additionally, electromagnetic duality symmetry, i.e. helicity preservation upon scattering, turns out to be a necessary condition for reciprocal scatterers to attain the upper bound. We use these results to provide requirements for the design of such extremal scatterers. The requirements can be formulated as constraints on the polarizability tensors for dipolar scatterers or as material constitutive relations. We also outline two applications for objects of maximum electromagnetic chirality: A twofold resonantly enhanced and background free circular dichroism measurement setup, and angle independent helicity filtering glasses.

  17. Anomalous transport effects and possible environmental symmetry ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2015-05-06

    May 6, 2015 ... The heavy-ion collision provides a unique many-body environment where local domains of strongly interacting chiral medium may occur and in a sense allow environmental symmetry 'violation' phenomena. For example, certain anomalous transport processes, forbidden in usual medium, become possible ...

  18. Coleman-Weinberg symmetry breaking in SU(8) induced by a third rank antisymmetric tensor scalar field II: the fermion spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, Stephen L.

    2017-07-01

    We continue our study of Coleman-Weinberg symmetry breaking induced by a third rank antisymmetric tensor scalar, in the context of the SU(8) model (Adler 2014 Int. J. Mod. Phys. A 29 1450130) we proposed earlier. We focus in this paper on qualitative features that will determine whether the model can make contact with the observed particle spectrum. We discuss the mechanism for giving the spin \\frac{3}{2} field a mass by the BEH mechanism, and analyze the remaining massless spin \\frac{1}{2} fermions, the global chiral symmetries, and the running couplings after symmetry breaking. We note that the smallest gluon mass matrix eigenvalue has an eigenvector suggestive of U(1) B-L , and conjecture that the theory runs to an infrared fixed point at which there is a massless gluon with 3 to  -1 ratios in generator components. Assuming this, we discuss a mechanism for making contact with the standard model, based on a conjectured asymmetric breaking of Sp(4) to SU(2) subgroups, one of which is the electroweak SU(2), and the other of which is a ‘technicolor’ group that binds the original SU(8) model fermions, which play the role of ‘preons’, into composites. Quarks can emerge as 5 preon composites and leptons as 3 preon composites, with consequent stability of the proton against decay to a single lepton plus a meson. A composite Higgs boson can emerge as a two preon composite. Since anomaly matching for the relevant conserved global symmetry current is not obeyed by three fermion families, emergence of three composite families requires formation of a Goldstone boson with quantum numbers matching this current, which can be a light dark matter candidate.

  19. SU(4)-SU(2) crossover and spin-filter properties of a double quantum dot nanosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, V.; Padilla, R. A.; Martins, G. B.; Anda, E. V.

    2017-06-01

    The SU(4)-SU(2) crossover, driven by an external magnetic field h , is analyzed in a capacitively coupled double quantum dot device connected to independent leads. As one continuously charges the dots from empty to quarter filled, by varying the gate potential Vg, the crossover starts when the magnitude of the spin polarization of the double quantum dot, as measured by - , becomes finite. Although the external magnetic field breaks the SU(4) symmetry of the Hamiltonian, the ground state preserves it in a region of Vg, where - =0 . Once the spin polarization becomes finite, it initially increases slowly until a sudden change occurs, in which (polarization direction opposite to the magnetic field) reaches a maximum and then decreases to negligible values abruptly, at which point an orbital SU(2) ground state is fully established. This crossover from one Kondo state, with emergent SU(4) symmetry, where spin and orbital degrees of freedom all play a role, to another, with SU(2) symmetry, where only orbital degrees of freedom participate, is triggered by a competition between g μBh , the energy gain by the Zeeman-split polarized state and the Kondo temperature TKS U (4 ), the gain provided by the SU(4) unpolarized Kondo-singlet state. At fixed magnetic field, the knob that controls the crossover is the gate potential, which changes the quantum dots occupancies. If one characterizes the occurrence of the crossover by Vgmax, the value of Vg where reaches a maximum, one finds that the function f relating the Zeeman splitting, Bmax, which corresponds to Vgmax, i.e., Bmax=f (Vgmax) , has a similar universal behavior to that of the function relating the Kondo temperature to Vg. In addition, our numerical results show that near the SU(4) Kondo temperature and for relatively small magnetic fields the device has a ground state that restricts the electronic population at the dots to be spin polarized along the magnetic field. These two facts introduce very efficient spin

  20. Phase diagram of the lattice SU(2) Higgs model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonati, C., E-mail: bonati@df.unipi.i [Dipartimento di Fisica and INFN, Pisa (Italy); Cossu, G., E-mail: cossu@post.kek.j [Scuola Normale Superiore and INFN, Pisa (Italy); D' Elia, M., E-mail: Massimo.Delia@ge.infn.i [Dipartimento di Fisica and INFN, Genova (Italy); Di Giacomo, A., E-mail: digiaco@df.unipi.i [Dipartimento di Fisica and INFN, Pisa (Italy)

    2010-03-21

    We perform a detailed study of the phase diagram of the lattice Higgs SU(2) model with fixed Higgs field length. Consistently with previsions based on the Fradkin-Shenker theorem we find a first order transition line with an endpoint whose position we determined. The diagram also shows cross-over lines: the cross-over corresponding to the pure SU(2) bulk is also present at nonzero coupling with the Higgs field and merges with the one that continues the line of first order transition beyond the critical endpoint. At high temperature the first order line becomes a crossover, whose position moves by varying the temperature.

  1. Equivariant spectral triples on the quantum SU(2) group

    OpenAIRE

    Chakraborty, Partha Sarathi; Pal, Arupkumar

    2002-01-01

    We characterize all equivariant odd spectral triples for the quantum SU(2) group acting on its L_2-space and having a nontrivial Chern character. It is shown that the dimension of an equivariant spectral triple is at least three, and given any element of the K-homology group of SU_q(2), there is an equivariant odd spectral triple of dimension 3 inducing that element. The method employed to get equivariant spectral triples in the quantum case is then used for classical SU(2), and we prove that...

  2. Heavy-tailed chiral random matrix theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanazawa, Takuya [iTHES Research Group and Quantum Hadron Physics Laboratory, RIKEN,Wako, Saitama, 351-0198 (Japan)

    2016-05-27

    We study an unconventional chiral random matrix model with a heavy-tailed probabilistic weight. The model is shown to exhibit chiral symmetry breaking with no bilinear condensate, in analogy to the Stern phase of QCD. We solve the model analytically and obtain the microscopic spectral density and the smallest eigenvalue distribution for an arbitrary number of flavors and arbitrary quark masses. Exotic behaviors such as non-decoupling of heavy flavors and a power-law tail of the smallest eigenvalue distribution are illustrated.

  3. Heavy-tailed chiral random matrix theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanazawa, Takuya

    2016-05-01

    We study an unconventional chiral random matrix model with a heavy-tailed probabilistic weight. The model is shown to exhibit chiral symmetry breaking with no bilinear condensate, in analogy to the Stern phase of QCD. We solve the model analytically and obtain the microscopic spectral density and the smallest eigenvalue distribution for an arbitrary number of flavors and arbitrary quark masses. Exotic behaviors such as non-decoupling of heavy flavors and a power-law tail of the smallest eigenvalue distribution are illustrated.

  4. Phenomenology of chiral damping in noncentrosymmetric magnets

    KAUST Repository

    Akosa, Collins Ashu

    2016-06-21

    A phenomenology of magnetic chiral damping is proposed in the context of magnetic materials lacking inversion symmetry. We show that the magnetic damping tensor acquires a component linear in magnetization gradient in the form of Lifshitz invariants. We propose different microscopic mechanisms that can produce such a damping in ferromagnetic metals, among which local spin pumping in the presence of an anomalous Hall effect and an effective “s-d” Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya antisymmetric exchange. The implication of this chiral damping in terms of domain-wall motion is investigated in the flow and creep regimes.

  5. Mirror symmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Voisin, Claire

    1999-01-01

    This is the English translation of Professor Voisin's book reflecting the discovery of the mirror symmetry phenomenon. The first chapter is devoted to the geometry of Calabi-Yau manifolds, and the second describes, as motivation, the ideas from quantum field theory that led to the discovery of mirror symmetry. The other chapters deal with more specialized aspects of the subject: the work of Candelas, de la Ossa, Greene, and Parkes, based on the fact that under the mirror symmetry hypothesis, the variation of Hodge structure of a Calabi-Yau threefold determines the Gromov-Witten invariants of its mirror; Batyrev's construction, which exhibits the mirror symmetry phenomenon between hypersurfaces of toric Fano varieties, after a combinatorial classification of the latter; the mathematical construction of the Gromov-Witten potential, and the proof of its crucial property (that it satisfies the WDVV equation), which makes it possible to construct a flat connection underlying a variation of Hodge structure in the ...

  6. Review on Polarization Selective Terahertz Metamaterials: from Chiral Metamaterials to Stereometamaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philip, Elizabath; Zeki Güngördü, M.; Pal, Sharmistha; Kung, Patrick; Kim, Seongsin Margaret

    2017-09-01

    In this article, recent progress and development of terahertz chiral metamaterials including stereometamaterials are thoroughly reviewed. This review mainly focuses on the fundamental principles of design and arrangement of meta-atoms in metamaterials exhibiting chirality with various asymmetry and symmetry and 2D and 3D configuration. Related optical and propagation properties in chiral metamaterials, such as optical activity, circular dichroism, and negative refraction for each different chiral metamaterials, are compared and investigated. Finally, comparison between chiral metamaterials with stereometamaterials in terms of the polarization selective operation along with the similarity and the distinction is addressed as well.

  7. 't Hooft loop and the phases of SU(2) LGT

    OpenAIRE

    Burgio, Giuseppe

    2013-01-01

    We analyze the vacuum structure of SU(2) lattice gauge theories in D=2,3,4, concentrating on the stability of 't Hooft loops. High precision calculations have been performed in D=3; similar results hold also for D=4 and D=2. We discuss the impact of our findings on the continuum limit of Yang-Mills theories.

  8. Mass anomalous dimension in SU(2) with six fundamental fermions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bursa, Francis; Del Debbio, Luigi; Keegan, Liam

    2010-01-01

    We simulate SU(2) gauge theory with six massless fundamental Dirac fermions. We measure the running of the coupling and the mass in the Schroedinger Functional scheme. We observe very slow running of the coupling constant. We measure the mass anomalous dimension gamma, and find it is between 0.13...

  9. The SU(2)-Higgs model on asymmetric lattices

    CERN Document Server

    Csikor, Ferenc

    1996-01-01

    We calculate the {\\cal O}(g^2,\\lambda) corrections to the coupling anisotropies of the SU(2)-Higgs model on lattices with asymmetric lattice spacings. These corrections are obtained by a one-loop calculation requiring the rotational invariance of the gauge- and Higgs-boson propagators in the continuum limit.

  10. Large-volume results in SU(2) with adjoint fermions

    CERN Document Server

    Del Debbio, Luigi; Pica, Claudio; Patella, Agostino; Rago, Antonio; Roman, Sabin

    2014-01-01

    Taming finite-volume effects is a crucial ingredient in order to identify the existence of IR fixed points. We present the latest results from our numerical simulations of SU(2) gauge theory with 2 Dirac fermions in the adjoint representation on large volumes. We compare with previous results, and extrapolate to thermodynamic limit when possible.

  11. Finite volume effects in SU(2) with two adjoint fermions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Del Debbio, Luigi; Lucini, Biagio; Patella, Agostino

    2011-01-01

    Many evidences from lattice simulations support the idea that SU(2) with two Dirac flavors in the adjoint representation (also called Minimal Walking Technicolor) is IR conformal. A possible way to see this is through the behavior of the spectrum of the mass-deformed theory. When fermions are mas...

  12. Large-volume results in SU(2) with adjoint fermions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Del Debbio, Luigi; Lucini, Biagio; Pica, Claudio

    2013-01-01

    Taming finite-volume effects is a crucial ingredient in order to identify the existence of IR fixed points. We present the latest results from our numerical simulations of SU(2) gauge theory with 2 Dirac fermions in the adjoint representation on large volumes. We compare with previous results, an...

  13. Compactifications of IIA supergravity on SU(2)-structure manifolds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spanjaard, B.

    2008-07-15

    In this thesis, we study compactifications of type IIA supergravity on six-dimensional manifolds with an SU(2)-structure. A general study of six-dimensional manifolds with SU(2)-structure shows that IIA supergravity compactified on such a manifold should yield a four-dimensional gauged N=4 supergravity. We explicitly derive the bosonic spectrum, gauge transformations and action for IIA supergravity compactified on two different manifolds with SU(2)-structure, one of which also has an H{sup (3)}{sub 10}-flux, and confirm that the resulting four-dimensional theories are indeed N=4 gauged supergravities. In the second chapter, we study an explicit construction of a set of SU(2)-structure manifolds. This construction involves a Scherk-Schwarz duality twist reduction of the half-maximal six-dimensional supergravity obtained by compactifying IIA supergravity on a K3. This reduction results in a gauged N=4 four-dimensional supergravity, where the gaugings can be divided into three classes of parameters. We relate two of the classes to parameters we found before, and argue that the third class of parameters could be interpreted as a mirror flux. (orig.)

  14. Experimental demonstration of spontaneous chirality in a nonlinear microresonator

    CERN Document Server

    Cao, Qi-Tao; Dong, Chun-Hua; Jing, Hui; Liu, Rui-Shan; Chen, Xi; Ge, Li; Gong, Qihuang; Xiao, Yun-Feng

    2016-01-01

    Chirality is an important concept that describes the asymmetry property of a system, which usually emerges spontaneously due to mirror symmetry breaking. Such spontaneous chirality manifests predominantly as parity breaking in modern physics, which has been studied extensively, for instance, in Higgs physics, double-well Bose-Einstein condensates, topological insulators and superconductors. In the optical domain, spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking has been elusive experimentally, especially for micro- and nano-photonics which demands multiple identical subsystems, such as photonic nanocavities, meta-molecules and other dual-core settings. Here, for the first time, we observe spontaneous emergence of a chiral field in a single ultrahigh-Q whispering- gallery microresonator. This counter-intuitive effect arises due to the inherent Kerr nonlinearity-modulated coupling between clockwise (CW) and counterclockwise (CCW) propagating waves. At an ultra-weak input threshold of a few hundred microwatts, the initial c...

  15. Active chiral control of GHz acoustic whispering-gallery modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezil, Sylvain; Fujita, Kentaro; Otsuka, Paul H.; Tomoda, Motonobu; Clark, Matt; Wright, Oliver B.; Matsuda, Osamu

    2017-10-01

    We selectively generate chiral surface-acoustic whispering-gallery modes in the gigahertz range on a microscopic disk by means of an ultrafast time-domain technique incorporating a spatial light modulator. Active chiral control is achieved by making use of an optical pump spatial profile in the form of a semicircular arc, positioned on the sample to break the symmetry of clockwise- and counterclockwise-propagating modes. Spatiotemporal Fourier transforms of the interferometrically monitored two-dimensional acoustic fields measured to micron resolution allow individual chiral modes and their azimuthal mode order, both positive and negative, to be distinguished. In particular, for modes with 15-fold rotational symmetry, we demonstrate ultrafast chiral control of surface acoustic waves in a micro-acoustic system with picosecond temporal resolution. Applications include nondestructive testing and surface acoustic wave devices.

  16. Polarization Control by Using Anisotropic 3D Chiral Structures

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Menglin L N; Sha, Wei E I; Choy, Wallace C H; Itoh, Tatsuo

    2016-01-01

    Due to the mirror symmetry breaking, chiral structures show fantastic electromagnetic (EM) properties involving negative refraction, giant optical activity, and asymmetric transmission. Aligned electric and magnetic dipoles excited in chiral structures contribute to extraordinary properties. However, the chiral structures that exhibit n-fold rotational symmetry show limited tuning capability. In this paper, we proposed a compact, light, and highly tunable anisotropic chiral structure to overcome this limitation and realize a linear-to-circular polarization conversion. The anisotropy is due to simultaneous excitations of two different pairs of aligned electric and magnetic dipoles. The 3D omega-like structure, etched on two sides of one PCB board and connected by metallic vias, achieves 60% of linearto- circular conversion (transmission) efficiency at the operating frequency of 9.2 GHz. The desired 90-degree phase shift between the two orthogonal linear polarization components is not only from the finite-thick...

  17. Symmetry-protected quantum spin Hall phases in two dimensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zheng-Xin; Wen, Xiao-Gang

    2013-02-08

    Symmetry-protected topological (SPT) states are short-range entangled states with symmetry. Nontrivial SPT states have symmetry-protected gapless edge excitations. In 2 dimension (2D), there are an infinite number of nontrivial SPT phases with SU(2) or SO(3) symmetry. These phases can be described by SU(2) or SO(3) nonlinear-sigma models with a quantized topological θ term. At an open boundary, the θ term becomes the Wess-Zumino-Witten term and consequently the boundary excitations are decoupled gapless left movers and right movers. Only the left movers (if θ>0) carry the SU(2) or SO(3) quantum numbers. As a result, the SU(2) SPT phases have a half-integer quantized spin Hall conductance and the SO(3) SPT phases have an even-integer quantized spin Hall conductance. Both the SU(2) and SO(3) SPT phases are symmetric under their U(1) subgroup and can be viewed as U(1) SPT phases with even-integer quantized Hall conductance.

  18. Circular dichroism induced by Fano resonances in planar chiral oligomers

    CERN Document Server

    Hopkins, Ben; Miroshnichenko, Andrey E; Kivshar, Yuri S

    2016-01-01

    We present a general theory of circular dichroism induced in planar chiral nanostructures with rotational symmetry. It is demonstrated, analytically, that the handedness of the incident field's polarization can control whether a nanostructure induces either absorption or scattering losses, even when the total loss (extinction) is polarization-independent. We then show that this effect is a consequence of modal interference so that strong circular dichroism in absorption and scattering can be engineered by combining Fano resonances with chiral nanoparticle clusters.

  19. Extending Chiral Perturbation Theory with an Isosinglet Scalar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Martin; Langaeble, Kasper; Sannino, Francesco

    2017-01-01

    We augment the chiral Lagrangian by an isosinglet scalar and compute the one-loop radiative corrections to the pion mass and decay constant, as well as the scalar mass. The calculations are carried out for different patterns of chiral symmetry breaking of immediate relevance for phenomenology and...... and lattice investigations. By construction our results encompass several interesting limits, ranging from the dilaton to the linear sigma model....

  20. Incommensurate Chirality Density Wave Transition in a Hybrid Molecular Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Joshua A.; Christensen, Kirsten E.; Goodwin, Andrew L.

    2017-09-01

    Using single-crystal x-ray diffraction we characterize the 235 K incommensurate phase transition in the hybrid molecular framework tetraethylammonium silver(I) dicyanoargentate, [NEt4]Ag3(CN )4 . We demonstrate the transition to involve spontaneous resolution of chiral [NEt4]+ conformations, giving rise to a state in which molecular chirality is incommensurately modulated throughout the crystal lattice. We refer to this state as an incommensurate chirality density wave (XDW) phase, which represents a fundamentally new type of chiral symmetry breaking in the solid state. Drawing on parallels to the incommensurate ferroelectric transition of NaNO2 , we suggest the XDW state arises through coupling between acoustic (shear) and molecular rotoinversion modes. Such coupling is symmetry forbidden at the Brillouin zone center but symmetry allowed for small but finite modulation vectors q =[0 ,0 ,qz]* . The importance of long-wavelength chirality modulations in the physics of this hybrid framework may have implications for the generation of mesoscale chiral textures, as required for advanced photonic materials.

  1. Chiral light by symmetric optical antennas

    CERN Document Server

    Mekonnen, Addis; Zubritskaya, Irina; Jönsson, Gustav Edman; Dmitriev, Alexandre

    2014-01-01

    Chirality is at the origin of life and is ubiquitous in nature. An object is deemed chiral if it is non-superimposable with its own mirror image. This relates to how circularly polarized light interacts with such object, a circular dichroism, the differential absorption of right and left circularly polarized light. According to the common understanding in biology, chemistry and physics, the circular dichroism results from an internal chiral structure or external symmetry breaking by illumination. We show that circular dichroism is possible with simple symmetric optical nanoantennas at symmetric illumination. We experimentally and theoretically demonstrate that two electromagnetic dipole-like modes with a phase lag, in principle, suffice to produce circular dichroism in achiral structure. Examples of the latter are all visible spectrum optical nanoantennas, symmetric nanoellipses and nanodimers. The simplicity and generality of this finding reveal a whole new significance of the electromagnetic design at a nan...

  2. Chiral spin liquid and emergent anyons in a Kagome lattice Mott insulator

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bauer, B; Cincio, L; Keller, B P; Dolfi, M; Vidal, G; Trebst, S; Ludwig, A W W

    2014-01-01

    .... Here we take an important step towards the goal of finding a chiral spin liquid in nature by examining a physically motivated model for a Mott insulator on the Kagome lattice with broken time-reversal symmetry...

  3. Chiral gold nanowires with boerdijk-coxeter-bernal structure

    KAUST Repository

    Zhu, Yihan

    2014-09-10

    A Boerdijk-Coxeter-Bernal (BCB) helix is made of linearly stacked regular tetrahedra (tetrahelix). As such, it is chiral without nontrivial translational or rotational symmetries. We demonstrate here an example of the chiral BCB structure made of totally symmetrical gold atoms, created in nanowires by direct chemical synthesis. Detailed study by high-resolution electron microscopy illustrates their elegant chiral structure and the unique one-dimensional "pseudo-periodicity". The BCB-type atomic packing mode is proposed to be a result of the competition and compromise between the lattice and surface energy.

  4. Chiral liquid crystals: the vestigial chiral phases of T, O, I matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nissinen, Jaakko; Liu, Ke; Slager, Robert-Jan; Wu, Kai; Zaanen, Jan

    We show how chiral order develops in vestigial isotropic phases of T , O and I liquid crystalline systems in three dimensions. The liquid crystal phases are realized in a lattice model of orientational degrees of freedom with point group symmetries G ⊂ O (3) , represented as O (3) -rotors coupled to G gauge fields. The model incorporates also disclinations via the gauge fields, features an ordered nematic phase with unbroken G rotations at low temperatures and a high temperature isotropic liquid phase. We observe an intermediate phase with spontaneous chirality but isotropic SO (3) symmetry (a liquid) for the gauge groups T, O, and I, the proper symmetry groups of the tetrahedron, cube and icosahedron, respectively. For the other subgroups of SO (3) , Cn <= ∞ and Dn <= ∞, there is generically only a single phase transition from the nematic phase to the isotropic liquid. We discuss the nature of the phase transitions and conditions under which the chiral phase is stabilized by the nematic order parameter fluctuations. The nature of the vestigial chiral phase is reminiscent of the so-called Ising nematic phase in iron based superconductors. Research supported by the Netherlands foundation for Fundamental Research of Matter (FOM).

  5. Sum-Frequency Generation from Chiral Media and Interfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ji, Na [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2006-02-13

    Sum frequency generation (SFG), a second-order nonlinear optical process, is electric-dipole forbidden in systems with inversion symmetry. As a result, it has been used to study chiral media and interfaces, systems intrinsically lacking inversion symmetry. This thesis describes recent progresses in the applications of and new insights into SFG from chiral media and interfaces. SFG from solutions of chiral amino acids is investigated, and a theoretical model explaining the origin and the strength of the chiral signal in electronic-resonance SFG spectroscopy is discussed. An interference scheme that allows us to distinguish enantiomers by measuring both the magnitude and the phase of the chiral SFG response is described, as well as a chiral SFG microscope producing chirality-sensitive images with sub-micron resolution. Exploiting atomic and molecular parity nonconservation, the SFG process is also used to solve the Ozma problems. Sum frequency vibrational spectroscopy is used to obtain the adsorption behavior of leucine molecules at air-water interfaces. With poly(tetrafluoroethylene) as a model system, we extend the application of this surface-sensitive vibrational spectroscopy to fluorine-containing polymers.

  6. Chiral hedgehog textures in 2D XY-like ordered domains

    OpenAIRE

    Loh, Kok-Kiong; Kraus, Isabelle; Meyer, Robert B.

    1999-01-01

    The textures associated with a point defect centered in a circular domain of a thin film with XY-like ordering have been analyzed. The family of equilibrium textures, both stable and metastable, can be classified by a new radial topological number in addition to the winding number of the defect. Chiral textures are supported in an achiral system as a result of spontaneously broken chiral symmetry. Among these chiral textures, our theoretical analysis accurately describes two categories of rec...

  7. Chiral damping of magnetic domain walls

    KAUST Repository

    Jué, Emilie

    2015-12-21

    Structural symmetry breaking in magnetic materials is responsible for the existence of multiferroics1, current-induced spin–orbit torques2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 and some topological magnetic structures8, 9, 10, 11, 12. In this Letter we report that the structural inversion asymmetry (SIA) gives rise to a chiral damping mechanism, which is evidenced by measuring the field-driven domain-wall (DW) motion in perpendicularly magnetized asymmetric Pt/Co/Pt trilayers. The DW dynamics associated with the chiral damping and those with Dzyaloshinskii–Moriya interaction (DMI) exhibit identical spatial symmetry13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19. However, both scenarios are differentiated by their time reversal properties: whereas DMI is a conservative effect that can be modelled by an effective field, the chiral damping is purely dissipative and has no influence on the equilibrium magnetic texture. When the DW motion is modulated by an in-plane magnetic field, it reveals the structure of the internal fields experienced by the DWs, allowing one to distinguish the physical mechanism. The chiral damping enriches the spectrum of physical phenomena engendered by the SIA, and is essential for conceiving DW and skyrmion devices owing to its coexistence with DMI (ref. 20).

  8. Yukawa Textures from Family Symmetry and Unification

    CERN Document Server

    Allanach, Benjamin C; Leontaris, George K; Lola, S

    1997-01-01

    In this letter, we show how the combination of both a gauged U(1)_X family symmetry and an extended vertical gauge symmetry in a single model, allows for the presence of additional Clebsch texture zeroes in the fermion mass matrices. This leads to new structures for the textures, with increased predictivity, as compared to schemes with enhanced family symmetries only. We illustrate these ideas in the context of the Pati-Salam gauge group SU(4)xSU(2)_LxSU(2)_R$ supplemented by a U(1)_X gauged family symmetry. In the case of symmetric mass matrices, two of the solutions of Ramond, Roberts and Ross that may not be obtained by family symmetries only, are accurately reproduced. For non-symmetric textures, new structures arise in models of this type. To distinguish between the solutions in this latter case, we performed a numerical fit to the charged fermion mass and mixing data. The best solution we found allows a fit with a total chi^2 of 0.39, for three degrees of freedom.

  9. Mass anomalous dimension in SU(2) with six fundamental fermions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bursa, Francis, E-mail: fwb22@cam.ac.u [Jesus College, Cambridge, CB5 8BL (United Kingdom); Del Debbio, Luigi; Keegan, Liam [SUPA, School of Astrophysics and Astronomy, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, EH9 3JZ (United Kingdom); Pica, Claudio [CP3-Origins, University of Southern Denmark Odense, 5230 M (Denmark); Pickup, Thomas [Rudolf Peierls Centre for Theoretical Physics, University of Oxford, Oxford, OX1 3NP (United Kingdom)

    2011-02-07

    We simulate SU(2) gauge theory with six massless fundamental Dirac fermions. We measure the running of the coupling and the mass in the Schroedinger Functional scheme. We observe very slow running of the coupling constant. We measure the mass anomalous dimension {gamma}, and find it is between 0.135 and 1.03 in the range of couplings consistent with the existence of an IR fixed point.

  10. Chiral Inorganic Nanostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Wei; Xu, Liguang; de Moura, André F; Wu, Xiaoling; Kuang, Hua; Xu, Chuanlai; Kotov, Nicholas A

    2017-06-28

    The field of chiral inorganic nanostructures is rapidly expanding. It started from the observation of strong circular dichroism during the synthesis of individual nanoparticles (NPs) and their assemblies and expanded to sophisticated synthetic protocols involving nanostructures from metals, semiconductors, ceramics, and nanocarbons. Besides the well-established chirality transfer from bioorganic molecules, other methods to impart handedness to nanoscale matter specific to inorganic materials were discovered, including three-dimentional lithography, multiphoton chirality transfer, polarization effects in nanoscale assemblies, and others. Multiple chiral geometries were observed with characteristic scales from ångströms to microns. Uniquely high values of chiral anisotropy factors that spurred the development of the field and differentiate it from chiral structures studied before, are now well understood; they originate from strong resonances of incident electromagnetic waves with plasmonic and excitonic states typical for metals and semiconductors. At the same time, distinct similarities with chiral supramolecular and biological systems also emerged. They can be seen in the synthesis and separation methods, chemical properties of individual NPs, geometries of the nanoparticle assemblies, and interactions with biological membranes. Their analysis can help us understand in greater depth the role of chiral asymmetry in nature inclusive of both earth and space. Consideration of both differences and similarities between chiral inorganic, organic, and biological nanostructures will also accelerate the development of technologies based on chiroplasmonic and chiroexcitonic effects. This review will cover both experiment and theory of chiral nanostructures starting with the origin and multiple components of mirror asymmetry of individual NPs and their assemblies. We shall consider four different types of chirality in nanostructures and related physical, chemical, and

  11. Stability of racemic and chiral steady states in open and closed chemical systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribo, Josep M. [Departament de Quimica Organica, Universitat de Barcelona, c. Marti i Franques 1, Barcelona (Spain); Hochberg, David [Centro de Astrobiologia (CSIC-INTA), Ctra. Ajalvir Km. 4, 28850 Torrejon de Ardoz, Madrid (Spain)], E-mail: hochbergd@inta.es

    2008-12-22

    The stability properties of models of spontaneous mirror symmetry breaking in chemistry are characterized algebraically. The models considered here all derive either from the Frank model or from autocatalysis with limited enantioselectivity. Emphasis is given to identifying the critical parameter controlling the chiral symmetry breaking transition from racemic to chiral steady-state solutions. This parameter is identified in each case, and the constraints on the chemical rate constants determined from dynamic stability are derived.

  12. Inherited Symmetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attanucci, Frank J.; Losse, John

    2008-01-01

    In a first calculus course, it is not unusual for students to encounter the theorems which state: If f is an even (odd) differentiable function, then its derivative is odd (even). In our paper, we prove some theorems which show how the symmetry of a continuous function f with respect to (i) the vertical line: x = a or (ii) with respect to the…

  13. Transport properties of chiral fermions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puhr, Matthias

    2017-04-26

    Anomalous transport phenomena have their origin in the chiral anomaly, the anomalous non-conservation of the axial charge, and can arise in systems with chiral fermions. The anomalous transport properties of free fermions are well understood, but little is known about possible corrections to the anomalous transport coefficients that can occur if the fermions are strongly interacting. The main goal of this thesis is to study anomalous transport effects in media with strongly interacting fermions. In particular, we investigate the Chiral Magnetic Effect (CME) in a Weyl Semimetal (WSM) and the Chiral Separation Effect (CSE) in finite-density Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD). The recently discovered WSMs are solid state crystals with low-energy excitations that behave like Weyl fermions. The inter-electron interaction in WSMs is typically very strong and non-perturbative calculations are needed to connect theory and experiment. To realistically model an interacting, parity-breaking WSM we use a tight-binding lattice Hamiltonian with Wilson-Dirac fermions. This model features a non-trivial phase diagram and has a phase (Aoki phase/axionic insulator phase) with spontaneously broken CP symmetry, corresponding to the phase with spontaneously broken chiral symmetry for interacting continuum Dirac fermions. We use a mean-field ansatz to study the CME in spatially modulated magnetic fields and find that it vanishes in the Aoki phase. Moreover, our calculations show that outside of the Aoki phase the electron interaction has only a minor influence on the CME. We observe no enhancement of the magnitude of the CME current. For our non-perturbative study of the CSE in QCD we use the framework of lattice QCD with overlap fermions. We work in the quenched approximation to avoid the sign problem that comes with introducing a finite chemical potential on the lattice. The overlap operator calls for the evaluation of the sign function of a matrix with a dimension proportional to the volume

  14. Orbifolds, fuzzy spheres and chiral fermions

    CERN Document Server

    Chatzistavrakidis, Athanasios; Zoupanos, George

    2010-01-01

    Starting with a N=4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory in four dimensions with gauge group SU(3N) we perform an orbifold projection leading to a N=1 supersymmetric SU(N)^3 Yang-Mills theory with matter supermultiplets in bifundamental representations of the gauge group, which is chiral and anomaly free. Subsequently, we search for vacua of the projected theory which can be interpreted as spontaneously generated twisted fuzzy spheres. We show that by adding the appropriate soft supersymmetry breaking terms we can indeed reveal such vacua. Three cases are studied, where the gauge group is spontaneously broken further to the low-energy gauge groups SU(4)xSU(2)xSU(2), SU(4)^3 and SU(3)^3. Such models behave in intermediate scales as higher-dimensional theories with a finite Kaluza-Klein tower, while their low-energy physics is governed by the corresponding zero-modes and exhibit chirality in the fermionic sector. The most interesting case from the phenomenological point of view turns out to be the SU(3)^3 unified t...

  15. Formulation of the low-energy effective theory of electroweak symmetry-breaking without a Higgs particle; Formulation de la theorie effective a basse energie du secteur electrofaible sans particule de Higgs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirn, J

    2004-07-01

    The low-energy effective theory of electroweak symmetry-breaking without a Higgs particle is constructed using the methods of Chiral Perturbation Theory. Weinberg's power-counting formula demonstrates the consistency of the loop expansion, with the corresponding renormalization. We find that the suppression of effective operators by a mass scale, which was automatic in the case of the Standard Model, no longer holds in the Higgs-less case. Moreover, the incriminated operators appear at leading order in the chiral expansion, at variance with experiments. To account for their suppression, invariance under a larger symmetry is required, corresponding to the composite sector (which produces the three Goldstone modes) being decoupled from the elementary sector (quarks, leptons and Yang-Mills fields). The couplings are introduced via spurions: this reduces the symmetry to SU(2) x U(1). In the simultaneous expansion in powers of momenta and spurions, the aforementioned operators are relegated to higher orders. In addition, the method allows for a systematic treatment of weak isospin breaking. The Weinberg power-counting formula can be recovered, and small neutrino masses accounted for. The three right-handed neutrinos (lighter than the TeV), which are introduced in connection with the custodial symmetry, are quasi-sterile and stable. A constraint on the underlying theory is obtained by studying the anomaly-matching in the composite sector and generalizing the Wess-Zumino construction. The spurion formalism is also applied to open linear moose models, for which generalized Weinberg sum rules are derived. (author)

  16. Long Range Chiral Imprinting of Cu(110) by Tartaric Acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawton, T J; Pushkarev, V; Wei, D; Lucci, F R; Sholl, D S; Gellman, A J; Sykes, E C. H.

    2013-10-31

    Restructuring of metals by chiral molecules represents an important route to inducing and controlling enantioselective surface chemistry. Tartaric acid adsorption on Cu(110) has served as a useful system for understanding many aspects of chiral molecule adsorption and ordering on a metal surface, and a number of chiral and achiral unit cells have been reported. Herein, we show that given the appropriate annealing treatment, singly deprotonated tartaric acid monolayers can restructure the Cu metal itself, and that the resulting structure is both highly ordered and chiral. Molecular resolution scanning tunneling microscopy reveals that singly deprotonated tartaric acid extracts Cu atoms from the Cu(110) surface layer and incorporates them into highly ordered, chiral adatom arrays capped by a continuous molecular layer. Further evidence for surface restructuring comes from images of atom-deep trenches formed in the Cu(110) surface during the process. These trenches also run in low symmetry directions and are themselves chiral. Simulated scanning tunneling microscopy images are consistent with the appearance of the added atom rows and etched trenches. The chiral imprinting results in a long-range, highly ordered unit cell covering the whole surface as confirmed by low energy electron diffraction. Details of the restructuring mechanism were further investigated via time-lapse imaging at elevated temperature. This work reveals the stages of nanoscale surface restructuring and offers an interesting method for chiral modification of an achiral metal surface.

  17. On chiral and non chiral 1D supermultiplets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toppan, Francesco, E-mail: toppan@cbpf.b [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas (TEO/CBPF), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao de Fisica Teorica

    2011-07-01

    In this talk I discuss and clarify some issues concerning chiral and non chiral properties of the one-dimensional supermultiplets of the N-extended supersymmetry. Quaternionic chirality can be defined for N = 4, 5, 6, 7, 8. Octonionic chirality for N = 8 and beyond. Inequivalent chiralities only arise when considering several copies of N = 4 or N = 8 supermultiplets. (author)

  18. Masses, mixings, Yukawa couplings and their symmetries

    CERN Document Server

    Santamaría, A

    1993-01-01

    We present a method to find the number of real and imaginary observable parameters coming from the Yukawa sector in an arbitrary gauge theory. The method leads naturally to a classification of Yukawa couplings according to their symmetries and suggests a new parametrization of masses and mixings that is useful to study the behaviour of Yukawa couplings under the renormalization group. We apply it to some examples based on the Standard Model with Yukawa couplings obeying various chiral symmetries. We also show how our method of parameter counting can be used in some models with an enlarged leptonic sector.

  19. Periodic Euclidean solutions of SU(2)-Higgs theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frost, K.L.; Yaffe, L.G. [University of Washington, Department of Physics, Seattle, Washington 98105-1560 (United States)

    1999-03-01

    We examine periodic, spherically symmetric, classical solutions of SU(2)-Higgs theory in four-dimensional Euclidean space. Classical perturbation theory is used to construct periodic time-dependent solutions in the neighborhood of the static sphaleron. The behavior of the action, as a function of period, changes character depending on the value of the Higgs boson mass. The required pattern of bifurcations of solutions as a function of the Higgs boson mass is examined, and implications for the temperature dependence of the baryon number violation rate in the standard model are discussed. {copyright} {ital 1999} {ital The American Physical Society}

  20. Parity-Broken Chiral Spin Dynamics in Ba3NbFe3Si2O14

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loire, M.; Simonet, V.; Petit, S.; Marty, K.; Bordet, P.; Lejay, P.; Ollivier, J.; Enderle, M.; Steffens, P.; Ressouche, E.; Zorko, A.; Ballou, R.

    2011-05-01

    The spin-wave excitations emerging from the chiral helically modulated 120° magnetic order in a langasite Ba3NbFe3Si2O14 enantiopure crystal were investigated by unpolarized and polarized inelastic neutron scattering. A dynamical fingerprint of the chiral ground state is obtained, singularized by (i) spectral weight asymmetries answerable to the structural chirality and (ii) a full chirality of the spin correlations observed over the whole energy spectrum. The intrinsic chiral nature of the spin waves’ elementary excitations is shown in the absence of macroscopic time-reversal symmetry breaking.

  1. Theoretical model of chirality-induced helical self-propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Takaki; Sano, Masaki

    2018-01-01

    We recently reported the experimental realization of a chiral artificial microswimmer exhibiting helical self-propulsion [T. Yamamoto and M. Sano, Soft Matter 13, 3328 (2017), 10.1039/C7SM00337D]. In the experiment, cholesteric liquid crystal (CLC) droplets dispersed in surfactant solutions swam spontaneously, driven by the Marangoni flow, in helical paths whose handedness is determined by the chirality of the component molecules of CLC. To study the mechanism of the emergence of the helical self-propelled motion, we propose a phenomenological model of the self-propelled helical motion of the CLC droplets. Our model is constructed by symmetry argument in chiral systems, and it describes the dynamics of CLC droplets with coupled time-evolution equations in terms of a velocity, an angular velocity, and a tensor variable representing the symmetry of the helical director field of the droplet. We found that helical motions as well as other chiral motions appear in our model. By investigating bifurcation behaviors between each chiral motion, we found that the chiral coupling terms between the velocity and the angular velocity, the structural anisotropy of the CLC droplet, and the nonlinearity of model equations play a crucial role in the emergence of the helical motion of the CLC droplet.

  2. SU (2) lattice gauge theory simulations on Fermi GPUs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Nuno; Bicudo, Pedro

    2011-05-01

    In this work we explore the performance of CUDA in quenched lattice SU (2) simulations. CUDA, NVIDIA Compute Unified Device Architecture, is a hardware and software architecture developed by NVIDIA for computing on the GPU. We present an analysis and performance comparison between the GPU and CPU in single and double precision. Analyses with multiple GPUs and two different architectures (G200 and Fermi architectures) are also presented. In order to obtain a high performance, the code must be optimized for the GPU architecture, i.e., an implementation that exploits the memory hierarchy of the CUDA programming model. We produce codes for the Monte Carlo generation of SU (2) lattice gauge configurations, for the mean plaquette, for the Polyakov Loop at finite T and for the Wilson loop. We also present results for the potential using many configurations (50,000) without smearing and almost 2000 configurations with APE smearing. With two Fermi GPUs we have achieved an excellent performance of 200× the speed over one CPU, in single precision, around 110 Gflops/s. We also find that, using the Fermi architecture, double precision computations for the static quark-antiquark potential are not much slower (less than 2× slower) than single precision computations.

  3. Phenomenological dynamics: From Navier–Stokes to chiral granular ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    discusses the dynamics of a driven nonequilibrium system: a two-dimensional gas of chiral. 'rattlebacks' on a vibrating ... Systems with conservation laws and/or continuous broken symmetry have a spe- cial kind of slow ..... Poisson brackets such as {li(x),lj(x )} contribute to the full nonlinear equations but do not contribute to ...

  4. Screw split ring resonator as building block of three-dimensional chiral metamaterials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liao, Yong, E-mail: liaoy@cqu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Aerocraft Tracking Telemetering and Command and Communication, Ministry of Education, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); State Key Laboratory of Integrated Services Networks, Xidian University, Xian 710071 (China); Yang, Shizhong [Key Laboratory of Aerocraft Tracking Telemetering and Command and Communication, Ministry of Education, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); Shi, Lina [Key Laboratory of Microelectronics Devices and Integrated Technology, Institute of Microelectronics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100029 (China)

    2014-01-17

    We proposed and numerically investigated the influence of spatial topology on the infrared frequency region response of chiral metamaterials based on discrete deformed split ring resonators. Compared with the well studied continuous helix, the proposed metamaterials with discrete topology exhibit broad band chiral electromagnetic response. It is shown that the conversion between left and right circular polarization waves for our model is much broader than the continuous helix model. The observed cross-coupling between electric and magnetic fields results from the chiral electric currents on the resonators due to the broken mirror symmetry. The findings are useful for the design of future real three-dimensional chiral metamaterials with tunable optical response.

  5. Mechanical separation of chiral dipoles by chiral light

    CERN Document Server

    Canaguier-Durand, Antoine; Genet, Cyriaque; Ebbesen, Thomas W

    2013-01-01

    Optical forces take on a specific form when involving chiral light fields interacting with chiral objects. We show that optical chirality density and flow can have mechanical effects through reactive and dissipative components of chiral forces exerted on chiral dipoles. Remarkably, these force components are directly related to standard observables: optical rotation and circular dichroism, respectively. As a consequence, resulting forces and torques are dependent on the enantiomeric form of the chiral dipole. This leads to promising strategies for the mechanical separation of chiral objects using chiral light forces.

  6. On the nature of an emergent symmetry in QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Cohen, Thomas D

    2015-01-01

    Remarkable symmetry properties appear to arise in lattice calculations of correlation functions in which the lowest-lying eigenmodes of the Dirac operator in quark propagators are removed by hand. The Banks-Casher relation ties the chiral condensate to the density of low lying modes; thus, it is plausible that removal of such modes could lead to a regime where spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking does not occur. Surprising, a pattern of identical correlation functions was observed that is larger than can be explained by a restoration of chiral symmetry. This suggests that a larger symmetry---one that is not present in the QCD lagrangian---emerges when these modes are removed. Previously it was argued that this emergent symmetry was SU(4). However, when the low-lying modes are removed, the correlation functions of sources in the SU(4) 15-plet of spin-1 mesons appear to coincide with the correlation function of the SU(4) singlet. A natural explanation for this is an emergent symmetry larger than SU(4). In this ...

  7. Doped Chiral Polymer Metamaterials Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Doped Chiral Polymer Metamaterials (DCPM) with tunable resonance frequencies have been developed by adding plasmonic inclusions into chiral polymers with variable...

  8. SU(2) Gauge Theory with Two Fundamental Flavours

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arthur, Rudy; Drach, Vincent; Hansen, Martin

    2016-01-01

    (Goldstone) Higgs theories to several intriguing types of dark matter candidates, such as the SIMPs. We improve our previous lattice analysis [1] by adding more data at light quark masses, at two additional lattice spacings, by determining the lattice cutoff via a Wilson flow measure of the $w_0$ parameter......We investigate the continuum spectrum of the SU(2) gauge theory with $N_f=2$ flavours of fermions in the fundamental representation. This model provides a minimal template which is ideal for a wide class of Standard Model extensions featuring novel strong dynamics that range from composite......, and by measuring the relevant renormalisation constants non-perturbatively in the RI'-MOM scheme. Our results for the lightest isovector states in the vector and axial channels, in units of the pseudoscalar decay constant, are $m_V/F_{\\rm{PS}}\\sim 13.1(2.2)$ and $m_A/F_{\\rm{PS}}\\sim 14.5(3.6)$ (combining...

  9. Dynamic SU(2) structure from seven-branes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heidenreich, Ben; McAllister, Liam; /Cornell U., Phys. Dept.; Torroba, Gonzalo; /SLAC /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.

    2010-12-16

    We obtain a family of supersymmetric solutions of type IIB supergravity with dynamic SU(2) structure, which describe the local geometry near a stack of four D7-branes and one O7-plane wrapping a rigid four-cycle. The deformation to a generalized complex geometry is interpreted as a consequence of nonperturbative effects in the seven-brane gauge theory. We formulate the problem for seven-branes wrapping the base of an appropriate del Pezzo cone, and in the near-stack limit in which the four-cycle is flat, we obtain an exact solution in closed form. Our solutions serve to characterize the local geometry of nonperturbatively-stabilized flux compactifications.

  10. Anomalous Symmetry Fractionalization and Surface Topological Order

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xie Chen

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In addition to possessing fractional statistics, anyon excitations of a 2D topologically ordered state can realize symmetry in distinct ways, leading to a variety of symmetry-enriched topological (SET phases. While the symmetry fractionalization must be consistent with the fusion and braiding rules of the anyons, not all ostensibly consistent symmetry fractionalizations can be realized in 2D systems. Instead, certain “anomalous” SETs can only occur on the surface of a 3D symmetry-protected topological (SPT phase. In this paper, we describe a procedure for determining whether a SET of a discrete, on-site, unitary symmetry group G is anomalous or not. The basic idea is to gauge the symmetry and expose the anomaly as an obstruction to a consistent topological theory combining both the original anyons and the gauge fluxes. Utilizing a result of Etingof, Nikshych, and Ostrik, we point out that a class of obstructions is captured by the fourth cohomology group H^{4}(G,U(1, which also precisely labels the set of 3D SPT phases, with symmetry group G. An explicit procedure for calculating the cohomology data from a SET is given, with the corresponding physical intuition explained. We thus establish a general bulk-boundary correspondence between the anomalous SET and the 3D bulk SPT whose surface termination realizes it. We illustrate this idea using the chiral spin liquid [U(1_{2}] topological order with a reduced symmetry Z_{2}×Z_{2}⊂SO(3, which can act on the semion quasiparticle in an anomalous way. We construct exactly solved 3D SPT models realizing the anomalous surface terminations and demonstrate that they are nontrivial by computing three-loop braiding statistics. Possible extensions to antiunitary symmetries are also discussed.

  11. Chiral d-wave superconductivity in doped graphene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black-Schaffer, Annica M; Honerkamp, Carsten

    2014-10-22

    A highly unconventional superconducting state with a spin-singlet dx2-y2+/-idxy-wave, or chiral d-wave symmetry has recently been suggested to emerge from electron-electron interactions in doped graphene. It has been argued that graphene doped to the van Hove singularity at 1/4 doping, where the density of states diverge, is particularly likely to be a chiral d-wave superconductor. In this review we summarize the currently mounting theoretical evidence for the existence of a chiral d-wave superconducting state in graphene, obtained with methods ranging from mean-field studies of effective Hamiltonians to angle-resolved renormalization group calculations. We further discuss the multiple distinctive properties of the chiral d-wave superconducting state in graphene, as well as its stability in the presence of disorder. We also review the means of enhancing the chiral d-wave state using proximity-induced superconductivity. The appearance of chiral d-wave superconductivity is intimately linked to the hexagonal crystal lattice and we also offer a brief overview of other materials which have also been proposed to be chiral d-wave superconductors.

  12. Spontaneous transmission of chirality through multiple length scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iski, Erin V; Tierney, Heather L; Jewell, April D; Sykes, E Charles H

    2011-06-20

    naphtho[2,3-a]pyrene molecules adsorbed in the second layer. Given its simplicity, reversibility, and rich degree of order, this system represents an ideal test bed for the investigation of symmetry breaking and the hierarchical transmission of chirality through multiple length scales. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Competitive chiral induction in a 2D molecular assembly: Intrinsic chirality versus coadsorber-induced chirality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ting; Li, Shu-Ying; Wang, Dong; Wan, Li-Jun

    2017-01-01

    Noncovalently introducing stereogenic information is a promising approach to embed chirality in achiral molecular systems. However, the interplay of the noncovalently introduced chirality with the intrinsic chirality of molecules or molecular aggregations has rarely been addressed. We report a competitive chiral expression of the noncovalent interaction–mediated chirality induction and the intrinsic stereogenic center–controlled chirality induction in a two-dimensional (2D) molecular assembly at the liquid/solid interface. Two enantiomorphous honeycomb networks are formed by the coassembly of an achiral 5-(benzyloxy)isophthalic acid (BIC) derivative and 1-octanol at the liquid/solid interface. The preferential formation of the globally homochiral assembly can be achieved either by using the chiral analog of 1-octanol, (S)-6-methyl-1-octanol, as a chiral coadsorber to induce chirality to the BIC assembly via noncovalent hydrogen bonding or by covalently linking a chiral center in the side chain of BIC. Both the chiral coadsorber and the intrinsically chiral BIC derivative can act as a chiral seeds to induce a preferred handedness in the assembly of the achiral BIC derivatives. Furthermore, the noncovalent interaction–mediated chirality induction can restrain or even overrule the manifestation of the intrinsic chirality of the BIC molecule and dominate the handedness of the 2D molecular coassembly. This study provides insight into the interplay of intrinsically chiral centers and external chiral coadsorbers in the chiral induction, transfer, and amplification processes of 2D molecular assembly.

  14. A primer for Chiral Perturbative Theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scherer, Stefan [Mainz Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Kernphysik; Schindler, Matthias R. [South Carolina Univ., Columbia, SC (United States). Dept. of Physics; George Washington Univ., Washington, DC (United States). Dept. of Physics

    2012-07-01

    Chiral Perturbation Theory, as effective field theory, is a commonly accepted and well established working tool, approximating quantum chromodynamics at energies well below typical hadron masses. This volume, based on a number of lectures and supplemented with additional material, provides a pedagogical introduction for graduate students and newcomers entering the field from related areas of nuclear and particle physics. Starting with the the Lagrangian of the strong interactions and general symmetry principles, the basic concepts of Chiral Perturbation Theory in the mesonic and baryonic sectors are developed. The application of these concepts is then illustrated with a number of examples. A large number of exercises (81, with complete solutions) are included to familiarize the reader with helpful calculational techniques. (orig.)

  15. A primer for chiral perturbation theory

    CERN Document Server

    Scherer, Stefan

    2012-01-01

    Chiral Perturbation Theory, as effective field theory, is a commonly accepted and well established working tool, approximating quantum chromodynamics at energies well below typical hadron masses. This volume, based on a number of lectures and supplemented with additional material, provides a pedagogical introduction for graduate students and newcomers entering the field from related areas of nuclear and particle physics. Starting with the the Lagrangian of the strong interactions and general symmetry principles, the basic concepts of Chiral Perturbation Theory in the mesonic and baryonic sectors are developed. The application of these concepts is then illustrated with a number of examples. A large number of exercises (81, with complete solutions) are included to familiarize the reader with helpful calculational techniques.

  16. Chiral magnetic superconductivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kharzeev Dmitri E.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Materials with charged chiral quasiparticles in external parallel electric and magnetic fields can support an electric current that grows linearly in time, corresponding to diverging DC conductivity. From experimental viewpoint, this “Chiral Magnetic Superconductivity” (CMS is thus analogous to conventional superconductivity. However the underlying physics is entirely different – the CMS does not require a condensate of Cooper pairs breaking the gauge degeneracy, and is thus not accompanied by Meissner effect. Instead, it owes its existence to the (temperature-independent quantum chiral anomaly and the conservation of chirality. As a result, this phenomenon can be expected to survive to much higher temperatures. Even though the chirality of quasiparticles is not strictly conserved in real materials, the chiral magnetic superconductivity should still exhibit itself in AC measurements at frequencies larger than the chirality-flipping rate, and in microstructures of Dirac and Weyl semimetals with thickness below the mean chirality-flipping length that is about 1 – 100 μm. In nuclear physics, the CMS should contribute to the charge-dependent elliptic flow in heavy ion collisions.

  17. Chiral quark model

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this talk I review studies of hadron properties in bosonized chiral quark models for the quark flavor dynamics. Mesons are constructed from Bethe–Salpeter equations and baryons emerge as chiral solitons. Such models require regularization and I show that the two-fold Pauli–Villars regularization scheme not only fully ...

  18. Emergent Electroweak Symmetry Breaking with Composite W, Z Bosons

    CERN Document Server

    Cui, Yanou; Wells, James D

    2009-01-01

    We present a model of electroweak symmetry breaking in a warped extra dimension where electroweak symmetry is broken at the UV (or Planck) scale. An underlying conformal symmetry is broken at the IR (or TeV) scale generating masses for the electroweak gauge bosons without invoking a Higgs mechanism. By the AdS/CFT correspondence the W,Z bosons are identified as composite states of a strongly-coupled gauge theory, suggesting that electroweak symmetry breaking is an emergent phenomenon at the IR scale. The model satisfies electroweak precision tests with reasonable fits to the S and T parameter. In particular the T parameter is sufficiently suppressed since the model naturally admits a custodial SU(2) symmetry. The composite nature of the W,Z-bosons provide a novel possibility of unitarizing WW scattering via form factor suppression. Constraints from LEP and the Tevatron as well as discovery opportunities at the LHC are discussed for these composite electroweak gauge bosons.

  19. Intertwining symmetry algebras of quantum superintegrable systems on the hyperboloid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calzada, J A [Departamento de Matematica Aplicada, Escuela Superior de Ingenieros Industriales, Universidad de Valladolid, 47011 Valladolid (Spain); Kuru, S [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Ankara University, 06100 Ankara (Turkey); Negro, J; Olmo, M A del [Departamento de Fisica Teorica, Atomica y Optica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Valladolid, 47011 Valladolid (Spain)], E-mail: juacal@eis.uva.es, E-mail: kuru@science.ankara.edu.tr, E-mail: jnegro@fta.uva.es, E-mail: olmo@fta.uva.es

    2008-06-27

    A class of quantum superintegrable Hamiltonians defined on a two-dimensional hyperboloid is considered together with a set of intertwining operators connecting them. It is shown that such intertwining operators close a su(2, 1) Lie algebra and determine the Hamiltonians through the Casimir operators. By means of discrete symmetries a broader set of operators is obtained closing a so(4, 2) algebra. The physical states corresponding to the discrete spectrum of bound states as well as the degeneration are characterized in terms of unitary representations of su(2, 1) and so(4, 2)

  20. Quantum Critical Spin-2 Chain with Emergent SU(3) Symmetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Pochung; Xue, Zhi-Long; McCulloch, I. P.; Chung, Ming-Chiang; Huang, Chao-Chun; Yip, S.-K.

    2015-04-01

    We study the quantum critical phase of an SU(2) symmetric spin-2 chain obtained from spin-2 bosons in a one-dimensional lattice. We obtain the scaling of the finite-size energies and entanglement entropy by exact diagonalization and density-matrix renormalization group methods. From the numerical results of the energy spectra, central charge, and scaling dimension we identify the conformal field theory describing the whole critical phase to be the SU (3 )1 Wess-Zumino-Witten model. We find that, while the Hamiltonian is only SU(2) invariant, in this critical phase there is an emergent SU(3) symmetry in the thermodynamic limit.

  1. Quantum critical spin-2 chain with emergent SU(3) symmetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Pochung; Xue, Zhi-Long; McCulloch, I P; Chung, Ming-Chiang; Huang, Chao-Chun; Yip, S-K

    2015-04-10

    We study the quantum critical phase of an SU(2) symmetric spin-2 chain obtained from spin-2 bosons in a one-dimensional lattice. We obtain the scaling of the finite-size energies and entanglement entropy by exact diagonalization and density-matrix renormalization group methods. From the numerical results of the energy spectra, central charge, and scaling dimension we identify the conformal field theory describing the whole critical phase to be the SU(3)_{1} Wess-Zumino-Witten model. We find that, while the Hamiltonian is only SU(2) invariant, in this critical phase there is an emergent SU(3) symmetry in the thermodynamic limit.

  2. The magnetic equation of state in effective chiral models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almasi, Gabor; Friman, Bengt [Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung (GSI), 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Tarnowski, Wojciech [Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung (GSI), 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Jagiellonian University, PL-30-059 Cracow (Poland); Redlich, Krzysztof [University of Wroclaw, Faculty of Physics and Astronomy, PL-50-204 Wroclaw (Poland); Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung (GSI), ExtreMe Matter Institute (EMMI), 64291 Darmstadt (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    The chiral properties of QCD are often studied using effective models like the Quark-Meson model. In these models the gauge sector of QCD is integrated out and the models do not show confinement, but they are significantly easier to deal with. Concerning chiral properties they are constructed to be in the same universality class as QCD, so sufficiently close to the chiral phase transition they have the same universal properties (e.g. critical exponents). A finite current quark mass however breaks chiral symmetry explicitly rendering it an approximate symmetry both in QCD and in effective models. This causes violation of the scaling laws at the chiral phase transition. The measure of the violation in QCD and the effective model is in general different. However the better the model is, the closer the deviations from the scaling should be to the deviations in QCD. In this talk the scaling violations in effective models of QCD are discussed, and the results are compared with lattice data on the magnetic equation of state.

  3. Chiral separation by capillary electrochromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gübitz, G; Schmid, M G

    2000-01-01

    The state of art in chiral capillary electrochromatography is reviewed. Chiral separations by capillary electrochromatography were carried out using capillaries packed with chiral stationary phases or achiral stationary phases in combination with a chiral selector added to the mobile phase. Furthermore, the use of open tubular capillaries containing the chiral selector coated to the capillary wall was also reported. Among other separation principles moleculary imprinted polymers represent a challenging approach for chiral capillary electrochromatography. A recent trend is the use of polymeric continuous beds with a chiral selector incorporated.

  4. Chiral phase transition from string theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parnachev, Andrei; Sahakyan, David A

    2006-09-15

    The low energy dynamics of a certain D-brane configuration in string theory is described at weak t'Hooft coupling by a nonlocal version of the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model. We study this system at finite temperature and strong t'Hooft coupling, using the string theory dual. We show that for sufficiently low temperatures chiral symmetry is broken, while for temperatures larger then the critical value, it gets restored. We compute the latent heat and observe that the phase transition is of the first order.

  5. Nuclear chirality, a model and the data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starosta, K.; Koike, T.

    2017-09-01

    In the last decade, the manifestation of chirality in atomic nuclei has become the subject of numerous experimental and theoretical studies. The common feature of current model calculations is that the chiral geometry of angular momentum coupling is extracted from expectation values of orientation operators, rather than being a starting point in construction of a model. However, using the particle-hole coupling model for triaxial odd-odd nuclei it is possible to construct a basis which contains right-handed, left-handed and planar states of angular momentum coupling. If this basis is used, the chirality is an explicit rather than an extracted feature as in any other models with non-chiral bases. The time-reversal symmetry, which relates the basis states of opposite handedness, can be used to reduce the dimension of matrices for diagonalization of the model Hamiltonian, proving the effectiveness of this approach. Moreover, the final model eigenstate wave functions show a concentration of amplitudes among a relatively small number (˜1%) of components compared to the full model space. In that sense, the ‘chiral’ basis provides a useful tool to examine model predictions providing direct insight into the structure of doublet states. In this work, similarities and differences between the rotational behaviour of an axial and triaxial body provide a starting point for derivation of the basis optimal for valence nucleon coupling to an axial and a triaxial core. The derived ‘chiral’ basis is optimal for coupling of a valence particle and hole to the triaxial core. Model predictions are presented and discussed. A comprehensive review of current experimental data on observed chiral band candidates is also provided.

  6. Structure and thermal stability of AgCu chiral nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bochicchio, D.; Ferrando, R.

    2012-05-01

    The structure and thermal stability of AgCu core-shell chiral nanoparticles is investigated by means of global optimization searches and molecular-dynamics simulations within an atomistic model. The most energetically stable structures are searched for depending on the number N Ag of Ag atoms in the outer shell. Both icosahedral and C5 symmetry structures are considered. The thermal stability of the structures is studied for magic sizes and compositions by analyzing the melting transition. It is found that chiral shells are the most favourable in a wide range of N Ag and that the structures present a notable thermal stability.

  7. Dynamical symmetries of the shell model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Isacker, P

    2000-07-01

    The applications of spectrum generating algebras and of dynamical symmetries in the nuclear shell model are many and varied. They stretch back to Wigner's early work on the supermultiplet model and encompass important landmarks in our understanding of the structure of the atomic nucleus such as Racah's SU(2) pairing model and Elliot's SU(3) rotational model. One of the aims of this contribution has been to show the historical importance of the idea of dynamical symmetry in nuclear physics. Another has been to indicate that, in spite of being old, this idea continues to inspire developments that are at the forefront of today's research in nuclear physics. It has been argued in this contribution that the main driving features of nuclear structure can be represented algebraically but at the same time the limitations of the symmetry approach must be recognised. It should be clear that such approach can only account for gross properties and that any detailed description requires more involved numerical calculations of which we have seen many fine examples during this symposium. In this way symmetry techniques can be used as an appropriate starting point for detailed calculations. A noteworthy example of this approach is the pseudo-SU(3) model which starting from its initial symmetry Ansatz has grown into an adequate and powerful description of the nucleus in terms of a truncated shell model. (author)

  8. Spectral signatures of chirality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jesper Goor; Mortensen, Asger

    2009-01-01

    We present a new way of measuring chirality, via the spectral shift of photonic band gaps in one-dimensional structures. We derive an explicit mapping of the problem of oblique incidence of circularly polarized light on a chiral one-dimensional photonic crystal with negligible index contrast...... to the formally equivalent problem of linearly polarized light incident on-axis on a non-chiral structure with index contrast. We derive analytical expressions for the first-order shifts of the band gaps for negligible index contrast. These are modified to give good approximations to the band gap shifts also...

  9. Discovering Chiral Higgsinos at the LHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arvanitaki, Asimina; /Stanford U., ITP /SLAC

    2006-11-10

    The concept of chirality is extended to the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (MSSM) and the {micro} term is forbidden by a gauged U(1){prime} symmetry. R-parity automatically emerges after symmetry breaking, suppressing proton decay and protecting the LSP. Exotics charged under the SM pose a challenge to traditional SU(5) unification, but unification is still implemented in deconstructed GUTs. Because of the multitude of additional states to the MSSM, the Z{prime} has a large width, and the SM background, neglected in previous theoretical studies, becomes important for Z{prime} discovery. As a result, the LHC reach is reduced from 3.2 TeV, for a Z{prime} with SM decays, to 1.5 TeV, when additional decay channels are included. This model also predicts possibly long-lived colored and electroweak exotics.

  10. Spontaneous mirror left-right symmetry breaking for leptogenesis parametrized by Majorana neutrino mass matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Pei-Hong

    2017-10-01

    We introduce a mirror copy of the ordinary fermions and Higgs scalars for embedding the SU(2) L × U(1) Y electroweak gauge symmetry into an SU(2) L × SU(2) R × U(1) B-L left-right gauge symmetry. We then show the spontaneous left-right symmetry breaking can automatically break the parity symmetry motivated by solving the strong CP problem. Through the SU(2) R gauge interactions, a mirror Majorana neutrino can decay into a mirror charged lepton and two mirror quarks. Consequently we can obtain a lepton asymmetry stored in the mirror charged leptons. The Yukawa couplings of the mirror and ordinary charged fermions to a dark matter scalar then can transfer the mirror lepton asymmetry to an ordinary lepton asymmetry which provides a solution to the cosmic baryon asymmetry in association with the SU(2) L sphaleron processes. In this scenario, the baryon asymmetry can be well described by the neutrino mass matrix up to an overall factor.

  11. $b \\to s \\gamma$ Decay in $SU(2)_L \\times SU(2)_R \\times U(1)$ Extensions of the Standard Model

    OpenAIRE

    Cho, Peter; Misiak, Mikolaj

    1993-01-01

    The rare radiative decay $b \\to s \\gamma$ is studied in $SU(2)_L \\times SU(2)_R \\times U(1)$ extensions of the Standard Model. Matching conditions for coefficients of operators appearing in the low energy effective Hamiltonian for this process are derived, and QCD corrections to these coefficients are analyzed. The $b \\to s \\gamma$ decay rate is then calculated and compared with the corresponding Standard Model result. We find that observable deviations from Standard Model predictions can occ...

  12. String constraints on discrete symmetries in MSSM type II quivers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anastasopoulos, Pascal [Technische Univ. Wien (Austria). Inst. fur Theor. Phys.; Cvetic, Mirjam [Univ. of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia PA (United States). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy; Univ. of Maribor (Slovenia). Center for Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics; Richter, Robert [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). 2. Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Vaudrevange, Patrick K.S. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2012-11-15

    We study the presence of discrete gauge symmetries in D-brane semirealistic compactifications. After establishing the constraints on the transformation behaviour of the chiral matter for the presence of a discrete gauge symmetry we perform a systematic search for discrete gauge symmetries within semi-realistic D-brane realizations, based on four D-brane stacks, of the MSSM and the MSSM with three right-handed neutrinos. The systematic search reveals that Proton hexality, a discrete symmetry which ensures the absence of R-parity violating terms as well as the absence of dangerous dimension 5 proton decay operators, is only rarely realized. Moreover, none of the semi-realistic local D-brane configurations exhibit any family dependent discrete gauge symmetry.

  13. Symmetry in chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Jaffé, Hans H

    1977-01-01

    This book, devoted exclusively to symmetry in chemistry and developed in an essentially nonmathematical way, is a must for students and researchers. Topics include symmetry elements and operations, multiple symmetry operations, multiplication tables and point groups, group theory applications, and crystal symmetry. Extensive appendices provide useful tables.

  14. Chiral Brownian heat pump

    OpenAIRE

    van den Broek, Martijn; Van den Broeck, Christian

    2008-01-01

    We present the exact analysis of a chiral Brownian motor and heat pump. Optimization of the construction predicts, for a nanoscale device, frequencies of the order of kHz and cooling rates of the order of femtojoule per second.

  15. Chiral brownian heat pump.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Broek, M; Van den Broeck, C

    2008-04-04

    We present the exact analysis of a chiral Brownian motor and heat pump. Optimization of the construction predicts, for a nanoscale device, frequencies of the order of kHz and cooling rates of the order of femtojoule per second.

  16. Chiral Brownian heat pump

    OpenAIRE

    Broek, M. van den; Broeck, C. Van Den

    2007-01-01

    We present the exact analysis of a chiral Brownian motor and heat pump. Optimization of the construction predicts, for a nanoscale device, frequencies of the order of kHz and cooling rates of the order of femtojoule per second.

  17. Chiral phase transition in the SU (3) Nambu and Jona-Lasinio model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klimt, S.; Lutz, M.; Weise, W. (Regensburg Univ. (Germany, F.R.). Inst. fuer Physik 1 - Theoretische Physik)

    1990-10-25

    We calculate the thermodynamical potential of the SU(3) Nambu and Jona-Lasinio model in the mean field approximation and discuss the nature of the chiral phase transition, i.e. the mechanisms which govern chiral symmetry restoration at large temperature and/or quark densities. No evidence is found for a first order transition once realistic coupling strengths are used in the model. (orig.).

  18. Is Sr{sub 2}RuO{sub 4} a chiral p-wave superconductor?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kallin, C; Berlinsky, A J [Department of Physics and Astronomy, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, L8S 4M1 (Canada)], E-mail: kallin@mcmaster.ca

    2009-04-22

    Much excitement surrounds the possibility that strontium ruthenate exhibits chiral p-wave superconducting order. Such order would be a solid state analogue of the A phase of He-3, with the potential for leading to exotic physics relevant to quantum computing. We take a critical look at the evidence for such time reversal symmetry breaking order. The possible superconducting order parameter symmetries and the evidence for and against chiral p-wave order are reviewed, with an emphasis on the most recent theoretical predictions and experimental observations. In particular, attempts to reconcile experimental observations and theoretical predictions for the spontaneous supercurrents expected at sample edges and domain walls of a chiral p-wave superconductor and for the polar Kerr effect, a key signature of broken time reversal symmetry, are discussed.

  19. Discrete symmetries with neutral mesons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernabéu, José

    2018-01-01

    Symmetries, and Symmetry Breakings, in the Laws of Physics play a crucial role in Fundamental Science. Parity and Charge Conjugation Violations prompted the consideration of Chiral Fields in the construction of the Standard Model, whereas CP-Violation needed at least three families of Quarks leading to Flavour Physics. In this Lecture I discuss the Conceptual Basis and the present experimental results for a Direct Evidence of Separate Reversal-in-Time T, CP and CPT Genuine Asymmetries in Decaying Particles like Neutral Meson Transitions, using Quantum Entanglement and the Decay as a Filtering Measurement. The eight transitions associated to the Flavour-CP eigenstate decay products of entangled neutral mesons have demonstrated with impressive significance a separate evidence of TRV and CPV in Bd-physics, whereas a CPTV asymmetry shows a 2σ effect interpreted as an upper limit. Novel CPTV observables are discussed for K physics at KLOE-2, including the difference between the semileptonic asymmetries from KL and KS, the ratios of double decay rate Intensities to Flavour-CP eigenstate decay products and the ω-effect. Their observation would lead to a change of paradigm beyond Quantum Field Theory, however there is nothing in Quantum Mechanics forbidding CPTV.

  20. Chiral cavity ring down polarimetry: Chirality and magnetometry measurements using signal reversals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bougas, Lykourgos; Sofikitis, Dimitris; Katsoprinakis, Georgios E; Spiliotis, Alexandros K; Tzallas, Paraskevas; Loppinet, Benoit; Rakitzis, T Peter

    2015-09-14

    We present the theory and experimental details for chiral-cavity-ring-down polarimetry and magnetometry, based on ring cavities supporting counterpropagating laser beams. The optical-rotation symmetry is broken by the presence of both chiral and Faraday birefringence, giving rise to signal reversals which allow rapid background subtractions. We present the measurement of the specific rotation at 800 nm of vapors of α-pinene, 2-butanol, and α-phellandrene, the measurement of optical rotation of sucrose solutions in a flow cell, the measurement of the Verdet constant of fused silica, and measurements and theoretical treatment of evanescent-wave optical rotation at a prism surface. Therefore, these signal-enhancing and signal-reversing methods open the way for ultrasensitive polarimetry measurements in gases, liquids and solids, and at surfaces.

  1. Chiral topological insulator on Nambu 3-algebraic geometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuki Hasebe

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Chiral topological insulator (AIII-class with Landau levels is constructed based on the Nambu 3-algebraic geometry. We clarify the geometric origin of the chiral symmetry of the AIII-class topological insulator in the context of non-commutative geometry of 4D quantum Hall effect. The many-body groundstate wavefunction is explicitly derived as a (l,l,l−1 Laughlin–Halperin type wavefunction with unique K-matrix structure. Fundamental excitation is identified with anyonic string-like object with fractional charge 1/(2(l−12+1. The Hall effect of the chiral topological insulators turns out be a color version of Hall effect, which exhibits a dual property of the Hall and spin-Hall effects.

  2. Symmetries of the refined D1/D5 BPS spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin, Nathan; Harrison, Sarah M.

    2017-11-01

    We examine the large N 1/4-BPS spectrum of the symmetric orbifold CFT Sym N ( M ) deformed to the supergravity point in moduli space for M = K3 and T 4. We consider refinement under both left- and right-moving SU(2) R symmetries of the superconformal algebra, and decompose the spectrum into characters of the algebra. We find that at large N the character decomposition satisfies an unusual property, in which the degeneracy only depends on a certain linear combination of left- and right-moving quantum numbers, suggesting deeper symmetry structure. Furthermore, we consider the action of discrete symmetry groups on these degeneracies, where certain subgroups of the Conway group are known to play a role. We also comment on the potential for larger discrete symmetry groups to appear in the large N limit.

  3. Broadband angle- and permittivity-insensitive nondispersive optical activity based on chiral metamaterials

    CERN Document Server

    Song, Kun; Su, Zhaoxian; Ding, Changlin; Liu, Yahong; Luo, Chunrong; Zhao, Xiaopeng; Bhattarai, Khagendra; Zhou, Jiangfeng

    2016-01-01

    Because of the strong inherent resonances, the giant optical activity obtained via chiral metamaterials generally suffers from high dispersion, which has been a big stumbling block to broadband applications. In this paper, we propose a type of chiral metamaterial consisting of interconnected metal helix structures with four-fold symmetry, which exhibits nonresonant Drude-like response and can therefore avoid the highly dispersive optical activity resulting from resonances. It shows that the well-designed chiral metamaterial can achieve nondispersive and pure optical activity with high transmittance in a broadband frequency range. And the optical activity of multi-layer chiral metamaterials is proportional to the layer numbers of single-layer chiral metamaterial. Most remarkably, the broadband behaviors of nondispersive optical activity and high transmission are insensitive to the incident angles of electromagnetic waves and permittivity of dielectric substrate, thereby enabling more flexibility in polarizatio...

  4. Dynamically induced robust phonon transport and chiral cooling in an optomechanical system

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Seunghwi; Taylor, Jacob M; Bahl, Gaurav

    2016-01-01

    The transport of sound and heat, in the form of phonons, has a fundamental material limit: disorder-induced scattering. In electronic and optical settings, introduction of chiral transport - in which carrier propagation exhibits broken parity symmetry - provides robustness against such disorder by preventing elastic backscattering. Here we experimentally demonstrate a path for achieving robust phonon transport even in the presence of material disorder, by dynamically inducing chirality through traveling-wave optomechanical coupling. Using this approach, we demonstrate dramatic optically-induced chiral transport for clockwise and counterclockwise phonons in a symmetric resonator. This induced chirality also enhances isolation from the thermal bath and leads to gain-free reduction of the intrinsic damping of the phonons. Surprisingly, this passive mechanism is also accompanied by a chiral reduction in heat load leading to a novel optical cooling of the mechanics. This technique has the potential to improve upon...

  5. Two-dimensional chiral asymmetry in unidirectional magnetic anisotropy structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perna, P., E-mail: paolo.perna@imdea.org; Guerrero, R.; Niño, M. A. [IMDEA-Nanoscience, c/ Faraday, 9 Campus de Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Ajejas, F.; Maccariello, D.; Cuñado, J. L. [IMDEA-Nanoscience, c/ Faraday, 9 Campus de Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain); DFMC and Instituto “Nicolás Cabrera”, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Muñoz, M. [IMM-CSIC, Isaac Newton 8, PTM, 28760 Tres Cantos, Madrid (Spain); ISOM, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Prieto, J. L. [ISOM, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Miranda, R.; Camarero, J. [IMDEA-Nanoscience, c/ Faraday, 9 Campus de Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain); DFMC and Instituto “Nicolás Cabrera”, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Condensed Matter Physics Center (IFIMAC), Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, 28049 Madrid (Spain)

    2016-05-15

    We investigate the symmetry-breaking effects of magnetic nanostructures that present unidirectional (one-fold) magnetic anisotropy. Angular and field dependent transport and magnetic properties have been studied in two different exchange-biased systems, i.e. ferromagnetic (FM)/ antiferromagnetic (AFM) bilayer and spin-valve structures. We experimentally show the direct relationships between the magnetoresistance (MR) response and the magnetization reversal pathways for any field value and direction. We demonstrate that even though the MR signals are related to different transport phenomena, namely anisotropic magnetoresistance (AMR) and giant magnetoresistance (GMR), chiral asymmetries are found around the magnetization hard-axis direction, in both cases originated from the one-fold symmetry of the interfacial exchange coupling. Our results indicate that the chiral asymmetry of transport and magnetic behaviors are intrinsic of systems with an unidirectional contribution.

  6. Two-dimensional chiral asymmetry in unidirectional magnetic anisotropy structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Perna

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the symmetry-breaking effects of magnetic nanostructures that present unidirectional (one-fold magnetic anisotropy. Angular and field dependent transport and magnetic properties have been studied in two different exchange-biased systems, i.e. ferromagnetic (FM/ antiferromagnetic (AFM bilayer and spin-valve structures. We experimentally show the direct relationships between the magnetoresistance (MR response and the magnetization reversal pathways for any field value and direction. We demonstrate that even though the MR signals are related to different transport phenomena, namely anisotropic magnetoresistance (AMR and giant magnetoresistance (GMR, chiral asymmetries are found around the magnetization hard-axis direction, in both cases originated from the one-fold symmetry of the interfacial exchange coupling. Our results indicate that the chiral asymmetry of transport and magnetic behaviors are intrinsic of systems with an unidirectional contribution.

  7. A novel probe of chiral restoration in nuclear medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philipp Gubler

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available We propose measuring the mass shift and width broadening of the f1(1285 meson together with those of the ω from a nuclear target as a means to experimentally probe the partial restoration of chiral symmetry inside the nuclear matter. The relation between the order parameter of chiral symmetry and the difference in the correlation functions of the f1(1285 current and the ω current is discussed in the limit where the disconnected diagrams are neglected. A QCD sum rule analysis of the f1(1285 meson mass leads to about 100 MeV attraction in nuclear matter, which can be probed in future experiments.

  8. Chiral Dynamics in Pion-Photon Reactions Habilitation

    CERN Document Server

    Friedrich, Jan Michael

    As the lightest particle of the strong force, the pion plays a central role in the field of strong interactions, and understanding its properties is of prime relevance for understanding the strong interaction in general. The low-energy behaviour of pions is of particular interest. Although the quark-gluon substructure and their quantum chromodynamics is not apparent then, this specific inner structure causes the presence of approximate symmetries in pion-pion interactions and in pion decays, which gives rise to the systematic description of processes involving pions in terms of few low-energy constants. Specifically, the chiral symmetry and its spontaneous and explicit breaking, treated in chiral perturbation theory (ChPT), leads to firm predictions for low-energy properties of the pion. To those belong the electromagnetic polarisabilities of the pion, describing the leading-order structure effect in pion Compton scattering. The research presented in this work is concerned with the interaction of pions and ph...

  9. Left-Right Symmetry at LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Maiezza, Alessio; Nesti, Fabrizio; Senjanovic, Goran

    2010-01-01

    We revisit the issue of the limit on the scale of Left-Right symmetry breaking. We focus on the minimal SU(2)_L x SU(2)_R x U(1)_B-L gauge theory with the seesaw mechanism and discuss the two possibilities of defining Left-Right symmetry as parity or charge conjugation. In the commonly adopted case of parity, we perform a complete numerical study of the quark mass matrices and the associated left and right mixing matrices without any assumptions usually made in the literature about the ratio of vacuum expectation values. We find that the usual lower limit on the mass of the right-handed gauge boson from the K mass difference, M_WR>2.5TeV, is subject to a possible small reduction due to the difference between right and left Cabibbo angles. In the case of charge conjugation the limit on M_WR is somewhat more robust. However, the more severe bounds from CP-violating observables are absent in this case. In fact, the free phases can also resolve the present mild discrepancy between the Standard Model and CP-violat...

  10. Finite temperature study of the axial U(1) symmetry on the lattice with overlap fermion formulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cossu, Guido; Aoki, Sinya; Fukaya, Hidenori; Hashimoto, Shoji; Kaneko, Takashi; Matsufuru, Hideo; Noaki, Jun-Ichi

    2013-06-01

    We examine the axial U(1) symmetry near and above the finite-temperature phase transition in two-flavor QCD using lattice QCD simulations. Although the axial U(1) symmetry is always violated by quantization, i.e., the chiral anomaly, the correlation functions may manifest effective restoration of the symmetry in the high-temperature phase. We explicitly study this possibility by calculating the meson correlators as well as the Dirac operator spectral density near the critical point. Our numerical simulations are performed on a 163×8 lattice with two flavors of dynamical quarks represented by the overlap fermion formalism. Chiral symmetry and its violation due to the axial anomaly is manifestly realized with this formulation, which is a prerequisite for the study of the effective restoration of the axial U(1) symmetry. In order to avoid discontinuity in the gauge configuration space, which occurs for the exactly chiral lattice fermions, the simulation is confined in a fixed topological sector. It induces a finite-volume effect, which is well described by a formula based on the Fourier transform from the θ vacua. We confirm this formula at finite temperature by calculating the topological susceptibility in the quenched theory. Our two-flavor simulations show degeneracy of the meson correlators and a gap in the Dirac operator spectral density, which implies that the axial U(1) symmetry is effectively restored in the chirally symmetric phase.

  11. Autoamplification of molecular chirality through the induction of supramolecular chirality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dijken, Derk Jan; Beierle, John M.; Stuart, Marc C. A.; Szymanski, Wiktor; Browne, Wesley R.; Feringa, Ben L.

    2014-01-01

    The novel concept for the autoamplification of molecular chirality, wherein the amplification proceeds through the induction of supramolecular chirality, is presented. A solution of prochiral, ring-open diarylethenes is doped with a small amount of their chiral, ring-closed counterpart. The

  12. Short-distance Schwinger-mechanism and chiral symmetry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McGady, David A.; Brogård, Jon

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we study Schwinger pair production of charged massless particles in constant electric fields of finite-extent. Exploiting a map from the Dirac and Klein-Gordon equation to the harmonic oscillator, we find exact pair production rates for massless fermions and scalars. Pair productio...

  13. Hadron ratios chiral symmetry restoration vs. nonequilibrium quark dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Paech, Kerstin; Scherer, S; Zschiesche, D; Stöcker, H; Greiner, W

    2001-01-01

    Hadron production in recent nucleus-nucleus collisions experiments at the SPS and at RHIC have been analyzed in various thermal model fits. Here it is shown that the fit cannot be unique: the chemical freeze- out close to the phase transition to a QGP should be accompanied by shifting baryon masses in the medium, which can yield considerably smaller break-up temperatures. Also a simple microscopic quark molecular dynamics model yields hadron ratios in nice agreement with those data. Hence, additional information, e.g. from HBT, is needed to determine the freeze-out parameters from data. (24 refs).

  14. Magnetic Catalysis of Chiral Symmetry Breaking: A Holographic Prospective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veselin Filev

    2010-01-01

    Zeeman splitting of the energy levels, and the existence of pseudo, Goldstone modes. An analytic derivation of the Gell-Mann-Oaks-Renner relation for the D3/D7 set up is reviewed. In the D3/D5 case, the pseudo-Goldstone modes satisfy nonrelativistic dispersion relation. The studies reviewed confirm the universal nature of the magnetic catalysis of mass generation.

  15. Chiral symmetry and nuclear matter equation of state

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Pramana – Journal of Physics; Volume 57; Issue 2-3 ... We investigate the effect on the nuclear matter equation of state (EOS) due to modification of meson and nucleon parameters in nuclear medium as a consequence ... Nuclear Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400 085, India ...

  16. Extreme optical activity and circular dichroism of chiral metal hole arrays

    CERN Document Server

    Gorkunov, M V; Artemov, V V; Rogov, O Y; Yudin, S G

    2014-01-01

    We report extremely strong optical activity and circular dichroism exhibited by subwavelength arrays of four-start-screw holes fabricated with one-pass focused ion beam milling of freely suspended silver films. Having the fourth order rotational symmetry, the structures exhibit the polarization rotation up to 90 degrees and peaks of full circular dichroism and operate as circular polarizers within certain ranges of wavelengths in the visible. We discuss the observations on the basis of general principles (symmetry, reciprocity and reversibility) and conclude that the extreme optical chirality is determined by the chiral localized plasmonic resonances.

  17. From a semimetal to a chiral Fulde-Ferrell superfluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poon, Ting Fung Jeffrey; Liu, Xiong-Jun

    2018-01-01

    The recent realization of two-dimensional (2D) synthetic spin-orbit (SO) coupling opens a broad avenue to explore novel topological states for ultracold atoms. Here, we propose a scheme to realize chiral Fulde-Ferrell superfluid for ultracold fermions, and show a generic theory that the topology of chiral superfluid phases can be uniquely determined from the normal states. The main findings are twofold. First, a semimetal is driven by a type of 2D SO coupling, and can be tuned into massive Dirac fermion phase with or without inversion symmetry. Without inversion symmetry, the superfluid phase of nonzero pairing momentum is favored under an attractive interaction. Furthermore, we show a fundamental theorem that the Chern number of a 2D chiral superfluid can be obtained from the 1D invariants of Fermi surfaces, with which the chiral Fulde-Ferrell superfluid with a broad topological region is predicted. This generic theorem is also useful for condensed-matter physics and material science in the search for new topological superconductors.

  18. Chiral anomalies and differential geometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zumino, B.

    1983-10-01

    Some properties of chiral anomalies are described from a geometric point of view. Topics include chiral anomalies and differential forms, transformation properties of the anomalies, identification and use of the anomalies, and normalization of the anomalies. 22 references. (WHK)

  19. Quantum Monte Carlo calculations with chiral effective field theory interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tews, Ingo

    2015-10-12

    The neutron-matter equation of state connects several physical systems over a wide density range, from cold atomic gases in the unitary limit at low densities, to neutron-rich nuclei at intermediate densities, up to neutron stars which reach supranuclear densities in their core. An accurate description of the neutron-matter equation of state is therefore crucial to describe these systems. To calculate the neutron-matter equation of state reliably, precise many-body methods in combination with a systematic theory for nuclear forces are needed. Chiral effective field theory (EFT) is such a theory. It provides a systematic framework for the description of low-energy hadronic interactions and enables calculations with controlled theoretical uncertainties. Chiral EFT makes use of a momentum-space expansion of nuclear forces based on the symmetries of Quantum Chromodynamics, which is the fundamental theory of strong interactions. In chiral EFT, the description of nuclear forces can be systematically improved by going to higher orders in the chiral expansion. On the other hand, continuum Quantum Monte Carlo (QMC) methods are among the most precise many-body methods available to study strongly interacting systems at finite densities. They treat the Schroedinger equation as a diffusion equation in imaginary time and project out the ground-state wave function of the system starting from a trial wave function by propagating the system in imaginary time. To perform this propagation, continuum QMC methods require as input local interactions. However, chiral EFT, which is naturally formulated in momentum space, contains several sources of nonlocality. In this Thesis, we show how to construct local chiral two-nucleon (NN) and three-nucleon (3N) interactions and discuss results of first QMC calculations for pure neutron systems. We have performed systematic auxiliary-field diffusion Monte Carlo (AFDMC) calculations for neutron matter using local chiral NN interactions. By

  20. Can monoatomic xenon become chiral?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartik, K; El Haouaj, M; Luhmer, M; Collet, A; Reisse, J

    2000-12-15

    A chiral host, cryptophane-A (1), makes even a monoatomic noble gas chiral. The interaction of xenon and 1 was monitored by (129) Xe NMR and in the presence of a chiral chemical shift reagent. © 2000 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH, Weinheim, Fed. Rep. of Germany.

  1. Kondo effect in triple quantum dots: interplay between continuous and discrete symmetries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kikoin, K. [Department of Physics, Ben-Gurion University, Beer-Sheva, 84105 (Israel)]. E-mail: kikoin@bgumail.bgu.ac.il; Kuzmenko, T. [Department of Physics, Ben-Gurion University, Beer-Sheva, 84105 (Israel); Avishai, Y. [Department of Physics, Ben-Gurion University, Beer-Sheva, 84105 (Israel); Ilse Kats Center for Nano-Technology, Ben-Gurion University, Beer-Sheva, 84105 (Israel)

    2006-05-01

    The physics of Kondo effect and related phenomena in a triangular triple quantum dot (TTQD) is studied. A fascinating property of TTQD is the interplay between continuous SU(2) symmetry in spin space and discrete C{sub 3v} symmetry in real space. We show that this interplay is manifested in strong oscillations of conductance as a function of magnetic flux through TTQD due to interplay between Kondo and Aharonov-Bohm effect.

  2. Doped Chiral Polymer Metamaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Cheol (Inventor); Kang, Jin Ho (Inventor); Gordon, Keith L. (Inventor); Sauti, Godfrey (Inventor); Lowther, Sharon E. (Inventor); Bryant, Robert G. (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    Some implementations provide a composite material that includes a first material and a second material. In some implementations, the composite material is a metamaterial. The first material includes a chiral polymer (e.g., crystalline chiral helical polymer, poly-.gamma.-benzyl-L-glutamate (PBLG), poly-L-lactic acid (PLA), polypeptide, and/or polyacetylene). The second material is within the chiral polymer. The first material and the second material are configured to provide an effective index of refraction value for the composite material of 1 or less. In some implementations, the effective index of refraction value for the composite material is negative. In some implementations, the effective index of refraction value for the composite material of 1 or less is at least in a wavelength of one of at least a visible spectrum, an infrared spectrum, a microwave spectrum, and/or an ultraviolet spectrum.

  3. Summary: symmetries and spin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haxton, W.C. (Institute for Nuclear Theory, Department of Physcis, FM-15, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 (US))

    1989-05-01

    I discuss a number of the themes of the Symmetries and Spin session of the 8th International Symposium on High Energy Spin Physics: parity non-conservation, CP/T nonconservation, and tests of charge symmetry and charge independence.

  4. Towards racemizable chiral organogelators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Bin Lin

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available A chiral organogelator has been synthesized that can be racemized and self-assembled in apolar solvents whilst at higher concentrations organogels are formed. Field emission scanning and transmission electron microscopy revealed the formation of bundle fibrils that are able to gelate the solvent. 1H NMR studies showed hydrogen-bond interactions between the peptide head groups of neighbouring organogelator molecules. The enantiomerically pure organogelator can be racemized by the base DBU (1,8-diazabicyclo[5.4.0]undec-7-ene as was evident from chiral high-performance liquid chromatography analysis.

  5. Towards racemizable chiral organogelators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jian Bin; Dasgupta, Debarshi; Cantekin, Seda; Schenning, Albertus P H J

    2010-10-06

    A chiral organogelator has been synthesized that can be racemized and self-assembled in apolar solvents whilst at higher concentrations organogels are formed. Field emission scanning and transmission electron microscopy revealed the formation of bundle fibrils that are able to gelate the solvent. ¹H NMR studies showed hydrogen-bond interactions between the peptide head groups of neighbouring organogelator molecules. The enantiomerically pure organogelator can be racemized by the base DBU (1,8-diazabicyclo[5.4.0]undec-7-ene) as was evident from chiral high-performance liquid chromatography analysis.

  6. Chiral anomaly and anomalous finite-size conductivity in graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Shun-Qing; Li, Chang-An; Niu, Qian

    2017-09-01

    Graphene is a monolayer of carbon atoms packed into a hexagon lattice to host two spin degenerate pairs of massless two-dimensional Dirac fermions with different chirality. It is known that the existence of non-zero electric polarization in reduced momentum space which is associated with a hidden chiral symmetry will lead to the zero-energy flat band of a zigzag nanoribbon and some anomalous transport properties. Here it is proposed that the Adler-Bell-Jackiw chiral anomaly or non-conservation of chiral charges of Dirac fermions at different valleys can be realized in a confined ribbon of finite width, even in the absence of a magnetic field. In the laterally diffusive regime, the finite-size correction to conductivity is always positive and is inversely proportional to the square of the lateral dimension W, which is different from the finite-size correction inversely proportional to W from the boundary modes. This anomalous finite-size conductivity reveals the signature of the chiral anomaly in graphene, and it is measurable experimentally. This finding provides an alternative platform to explore the purely quantum mechanical effect in graphene.

  7. Spontaneous Symmetry Breaking in Nonrelativistic Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Haruki

    The subject of condensed matter physics is very rich --- there are an infinite number of parameters producing a diversity of exciting phenomena. As a theorist, my goal is to distill general principles out of this complexity --- to construct theories that can coherently explain many known examples altogether. This thesis is composed of several attempts to develop such theories in topics related to spontaneously symmetry breaking. A remarkable feature of many-body interacting systems is that although they are described by equations respecting various symmetries, they may spontaneously organize into a state that explicitly breaks symmetries. Examples are numerous: various types of crystalline and magnetic orders, Bose-Einstein condensates of cold atoms, superfluids of liquid helium, chiral symmetry in QCD, neutron stars, and cosmic inflation. These systems with spontaneously broken continuous symmetries have gapless excitations, so called Nambu-Goldstone bosons (NGBs). Although the properties of NGBs are well understood in Lorentz-invariant systems, surprisingly, some basic properties of NGBs such as their number and dispersion in nonrelativistic systems have not been discussed from a general perspective. In the first part of this thesis, we solve this issue by developing and analyzing an effective Lagrangian that coherently captures the low-energy, long-distance physics of many different symmetry-breaking states all at once. Next, we examine whether these NGBs originating from spontaneous symmetry breaking remain to be well-defined excitations inside a metal, where low-energy electrons near Fermi surface can collide with them. Our result is a one equation criterion that specifies whether the interactions between electrons and NGBs can be ignored, or whether it completely changes their character. In the latter case, unusual phases of matter such as non-Fermi liquids may arise; in that case, NGBs are overdamped and cannot form particle-like excitations in spite of the

  8. Wigner's Symmetry Representation Theorem

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    This article elucidates the important role the no- tion of symmetry has played in physics. It dis- cusses the proof of one of the important theorems of quantum mechanics, viz., Wigner's Symmetry. Representation Theorem. It also shows how the representations of various continuous and dis- crete symmetries follow from the ...

  9. The finite temperature phase transition in the lattice SU(2)-Higgs model

    CERN Document Server

    Farakos, K; Rummukainen, K; Shaposhnikov, Mikhail E

    1994-01-01

    We study the finite temperature transition of SU(2)-Higgs model with lattice Monte Carlo techniques. We use dimensional reduction to transform the original 4-dimensional SU(2)-gauge + fundamental Higgs theory to an effective 3-dimensional SU(2) + adjoint Higgs + fundamental Higgs model. The simulations were performed with Higgs masses of 35 and 80 GeV; in both cases we observe a stronger first order transition than the perturbation theory predicts, indicating that the dynamics of the transition strongly depend on non-perturbative effects.

  10. Path integrals and coherent states of SU(2) and SU(1,1)

    CERN Document Server

    Inomata, Akira; Kuratsuji, Hiroshi

    1992-01-01

    The authors examine several topical subjects, commencing with a general introduction to path integrals in quantum mechanics and the group theoretical backgrounds for path integrals. Applications of harmonic analysis, polar coordinate formulation, various techniques and path integrals on SU(2) and SU(1, 1) are discussed. Soluble examples presented include particle-flux system, a pulsed oscillator, magnetic monopole, the Coulomb problem in curved space and others.The second part deals with the SU(2) coherent states and their applications. Construction and generalization of the SU(2) coherent sta

  11. Test of fundamental symmetries via the Primakoff effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gan Liping

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The three neutral pseudoscalar mesons, π0, η and η′, represent one of the most interesting systems in strong interaction physics. A study of the electromagnetic properties of these mesons provides a sensitive probe of the symmetry structure of QCD at low energy. A comprehensive experimental program at Jefferson Laboratory (Jlab is aimed at gathering high precision measurements on the two-photon decay widths and transition form factors at low Q2 of π0, η and η′ via the Primakoff effect. The completed experiments on the π0 radiative decay width at Jlab 6 GeV, and other planned measurements at Jlab 12 GeV will provide a rich laboratory to test the chiral anomaly and to study the origin and dynamics of chiral symmetry breaking at the confinement scale of QCD.

  12. W-symmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Bouwknegt, P G

    1995-01-01

    W-symmetry is an extension of conformal symmetry in two dimensions. Since its introduction in 1985, W-symmetry has become one of the central notions in the study of two-dimensional conformal field theory. The mathematical structures that underlie W-symmetry are so-called W-algebras, which are higher-spin extensions of the Virasoro algebra. This book contains a collection of papers on W-symmetry, covering the period from 1985 through 1993. Its main focus is the construction of W-algebras and their representation theory. A recurrent theme is the intimate connection between W-algebras and affine

  13. Chirality in molecular collision dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombardi, Andrea; Palazzetti, Federico

    2018-02-01

    Chirality is a phenomenon that permeates the natural world, with implications for atomic and molecular physics, for fundamental forces and for the mechanisms at the origin of the early evolution of life and biomolecular homochirality. The manifestations of chirality in chemistry and biochemistry are numerous, the striking ones being chiral recognition and asymmetric synthesis with important applications in molecular sciences and in industrial and pharmaceutical chemistry. Chiral discrimination phenomena, due to the existence of two enantiomeric forms, very well known in the case of interaction with light, but still nearly disregarded in molecular collision studies. Here we review some ideas and recent advances about the role of chirality in molecular collisions, designing and illustrating molecular beam experiments for the demonstration of chiral effects and suggesting a scenario for a stereo-directional origin of chiral selection.

  14. Chiral Imbalance in QCD and its consequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrianov Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Under extreme conditions of high temperature and/or large quark (baryon density, the vacuum of QCD changes its properties, and deconfinement, chiral symmetry restoration as well as chiral symmetry breaking take place. These transitions (phases are accompanied by the rapid change in the rate and nature of topological transitions connecting different topological sectors. The heavy ion collisions (HIC program opens a possibility to study these phenomena in so-called non-Abelian Quark-gluon plasma (QGP. In these phases the currents of light quarks (vector and axial-vector can be independently examined for right-handed (RH and left-handed (LH quarks. To describe such a quark matter chiral chemical potential can be introduced to quantify the presence of chirality imbalance (ChI i.e. the difference between the average numbers of RH and LH quarks in the fireball after HIC. In this review talk we will focus our attention on the discussion of the ChI related developments in heavy ion physics at central collisions and the plans for the future experiments aimed at establishing (or falsifying the presence of Local spacial Parity Breaking (LPB in heavy ion data. We describe some of experimental observables in detecting the signal of LPB. A number of measurements is proposed that allow to reach a definite conclusion on the occurrence of LPB effects in non-Abelian QGP produced in central heavy ion collisions and its simulation within a number of QCD-inspired models is outlined. Based on the effective meson theory in the presence of Chern-Simons interaction it is found that the spectrum of massive vector mesons splits into three polarization components with different effective masses. Moreover a resonance broadening occurs that leads to an increase of spectral contribution to the dilepton production as compared to the vacuum state. The asymmetry in production of longitudinally and transversely polarized states of ρ and ω mesons for various values of the

  15. Chiral quark model

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ingful. In particular, it is interesting to analyze the hadronic tensor that parametrizes the deep inelastic scattering (DIS) and confront the model predictions with empirical data. This picture has led to interesting studies of hadron structure functions in bosonized chiral quark models. Here I will present the results of refs [5–7].

  16. Nano-structural characteristics and optical properties of silver chiral nano-flower sculptured thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savaloni, Hadi, E-mail: savaloni@khayam.ut.ac.ir [Department of Physics, University of Tehran, North-Kargar Street, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Haydari-Nasab, Fatemh; Malmir, Mariam [Department of Physics, University of Tehran, North-Kargar Street, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-08-15

    Silver chiral nano-flowers with 3-, 4- and 5-fold symmetry were produced using oblique angle deposition method in conjunction with the rotation of sample holder with different speeds at different sectors of each revolution corresponding to symmetry order of the acquired nano-flower. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), were employed to obtain morphology and nano-structure of the films. Optical characteristics of silver chiral nano-flower thin films were obtained using single beam spectrophotometer with both s- and p-polarization incident light at 30{sup o} and 70{sup o} incidence angles and at different azimuthal angles ({phi}). Optical spectra showed both TM (TDM (transverse dipole mode) and TQM (transverse quadruple mode)) and LM (longitudinal mode) Plasmon resonance peaks. For 3- and 4-fold symmetry chiral nano-flowers the s-polarization extinction spectra obtained at different azimuthal angles did not show significant change in the Plasmon peak position while 5-fold symmetry chiral nano-flower showed a completely different behavior, which may be the result of increased surface anisotropy, so when the {phi} angle is changed the s-polarization response from the surface can change more significantly than that for lower symmetries. In general, for 3-, 4- and 5-fold symmetry chiral nano-flowers a sharp peak at lower wavelengths (<450 nm) is observed in the s-polarization spectra, while in addition to this peak a broad peak at longer wavelengths (i.e., LM) observed in the p-polarization spectra, which is more dominant for 70{sup o} incidence angle.

  17. Topics in three flavor chiral dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nissler, Robin

    2007-07-01

    In this work, we investigate several processes in low-energy hadron physics by combining chiral perturbation theory (ChPT), the effective field theory of quantum chromodynamics (QCD) at low energies, with a unitarization method based on the Bethe-Salpeter equation. Such so-called chiral unitary approaches are capable of describing processes in the three flavor sector of the strong interaction which involve substantial effects from final-state interactions and the excitation of (subthreshold) resonances, a domain where the perturbative framework of ChPT is not applicable. In part I of this work we study {eta} and {eta}' decays which constitute a perfect tool to examine symmetries and symmetry breaking patterns of QCD being incorporated in a model-independent fashion in ChPT. In particular, these decays allow to investigate the breaking of isospin symmetry due to the light quark mass difference m{sub d}-m{sub u} as well as effects of anomalies stemming from the quantum nature of QCD. For these reasons the decays of {eta} and {eta}' have also attracted considerable experimental interest. They are currently under investigation at several facilities including KLOE rate at DA{phi}NE, Crystal Ball at MAMI, WASA-at-COSY, VES at IHEP, and CLEO at CESR. In part II we investigate low-energy meson-baryon scattering in the strangeness S=-1 sector which is dominated by the {lambda}(1405) resonance immediately below the anti KN threshold. The anti KN interaction below threshold is of relevance for the quest of possible deeply bound anti K-nuclear clusters and has recently received an additional tight constraint: the K{sup -}p scattering length as determined from kaonic hydrogen by the KEK and the DEAR collaborations. Apart from successfully describing a large amount of experimental data and furnishing predictions for yet unmeasured quantities, our calculations allow to interrelate different experimental observables providing important consistency tests of experiments. E

  18. SU(2) Flat Connection on Riemann Surface and Twisted Geometry with Cosmological Constant

    CERN Document Server

    Han, Muxin

    2016-01-01

    SU(2) flat connection on 2D Riemann surface is shown to relate to the generalized twisted geometry in 3D space with cosmological constant. Various flat connection quantities on Riemann surface are mapped to the geometrical quantities in discrete 3D space. We propose that the moduli space of SU(2) flat connections on Riemann surface generalizes the phase space of twisted geometry or Loop Quantum Gravity to include the cosmological constant.

  19. A Conjectured Bound on Accidental Symmetries

    CERN Document Server

    Buican, Matthew

    2012-01-01

    In this note, we study a large class of four-dimensional R-symmetric theories, and we describe a new quantity, \\tau_U, which is well-defined in these theories. Furthermore, we conjecture that this quantity is larger in the ultraviolet (UV) than in the infrared (IR), i.e. that \\tau_U^{UV}>\\tau_U^{IR}. While we do not prove this inequality in full generality, it is straightforward to show that our conjecture holds in the subset of theories that do not have accidental symmetries. In addition, we subject our inequality to an array of non-trivial tests in theories with accidental symmetries and dramatically different dynamics both in N=1 and N=2 supersymmetry and find that our inequality is obeyed. One interesting consequence of this conjecture is that the mixing of accidental symmetries with the IR superconformal R current is bounded by the UV quantity, \\tau_U^{UV}. To demonstrate the potential utility of this bound, we apply it to the somewhat mysterious SU(2) gauge theory of Intriligator, Seiberg, and Shenker a...

  20. Large N_c volume reduction and chiral random matrix theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J. W.; Hanada, M.; Yamada, N.

    Motivated by recent progress on the understanding of the Eguchi-Kawai (EK) volume equivalence and growing interest in conformal window, we simultaneously use the large-Nc volume reduction and Chiral Random Matrix Theory (chRMT) to study the chiral symmetry breaking of four dimensional SU(Nc) gauge theory with adjoint fermions in the large Nc limit. Although some cares are required because the chRMT limit and 't Hooft limit are not compatible in general, we show that the breakdown of the chiral symmetry can be detected in large-Nc gauge theories. As a first step, we mainly focus on the quenched approximation to establish the methodology. We first confirm that heavy adjoint fermions, introduced as the center symmetry preserver, work as expected and thanks to them the volume reduction holds. Using massless overlap fermion as a probe, we then calculate the low-lying Dirac spectrum for fermion in the adjoint representation to compare to that of chRMT, and find that chiral symmetry is indeed broken in the quenched theory.

  1. Current-induced rotational torques in the skyrmion lattice phase of chiral magnets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Everschor, K.; Garst, M.; Duine, R.A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304830127; Rosch, A.

    2011-01-01

    In chiral magnets without inversion symmetry, the magnetic structure can form a lattice of magnetic whirl lines, a two-dimensional skyrmion lattice, stabilized by spin-orbit interactions in a small range of temperatures and magnetic fields. The twist of the magnetization within this phase gives rise

  2. Quantum opacity, the RHIC Hanbury Brown-Twiss puzzle, and the chiral phase transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramer, John G; Miller, Gerald A; Wu, Jackson M S; Yoon, Jin-Hee

    2005-03-18

    We present a relativistic quantum-mechanical treatment of opacity and refractive effects that allows reproduction of observables measured in two-pion Hanbury Brown-Twiss (HBT) interferometry and pion spectra at RHIC. The inferred emission duration is substantial. The results are consistent with the emission of pions from a system that has a restored chiral symmetry.

  3. Extended global symmetries for 4d N=1 SQCD theories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gahramanov, Ilmar [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany). Theory Group; Humboldt-Universitaet, Berlin (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik; Institute of Radiation Problems ANAS, Baku (Azerbaijan); Vartanov, Grigory [Humboldt-Universitaet, Berlin (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik

    2013-03-15

    In arXiv:0811.1909 Spiridonov and Vartanov, using the superconformal index technique, found that 4-dimensional N=1 SQCD theory with SU(2) gauge group and four flavors has 72 dual representations. Recently in arXiv:1209.1404 the authors showed that these dual theories, when coupled to 5d hypermultiplets with specific boundary conditions have an extended E{sub 7} global symmetry. In this work we find that for a reduced theory with 3 flavors the explicit SU(6) global symmetry is enhanced to an E{sub 6} symmetry in the presence of 5d hypermultiplets. We also show connections between indices of different theories in 3 and 4 dimensions.

  4. Spin-polarized versus chiral condensate in quark matter at finite temperature and density

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matsuoka, Hiroaki; Tsue, Yasuhiko; da Providencia, Joao

    2016-01-01

    It is shown that the spin-polarized condensate appears in quark matter at high baryon density and low temperature due to the tensor-type four-point interaction in the Nambu-Jona-Lasiniotype model as a low-energy effective theory of quantum chromodynamics. It is indicated within this low-energy ef......It is shown that the spin-polarized condensate appears in quark matter at high baryon density and low temperature due to the tensor-type four-point interaction in the Nambu-Jona-Lasiniotype model as a low-energy effective theory of quantum chromodynamics. It is indicated within this low......-energy effective model that the chiral symmetry is broken again by the spin-polarized condensate on increasing the quark number density, while chiral symmetry restoration occurs, in which the chiral condensate disappears at a certain density....

  5. D=4 Chiral String Compactifications from Intersecting Branes

    CERN Document Server

    Aldazabal, G.; Ibanez, Luis E.; Rabadan, R.; Uranga, A.M.

    2001-01-01

    Intersecting Dp-branes often give rise to chiral fermions living on their intersections. We study the construction of four-dimensional chiral theories by considering configurations of type II D(3+n)-branes wrapped on non-trivial n-cycles on T^{2n} x R^{2(3-n)}/Z_N, for $n=1,2,3$. The gauge theories on the four non-compact dimensions of the brane world-volume are generically chiral and non-supersymmetric. We analyze consistency conditions (RR tadpole cancellation) for these models, and their relation to four-dimensional anomaly cancellation. Cancellation of U(1) gauge anomalies involves a Green-Schwarz mechanism mediated by RR partners of untwisted and/or twisted moduli. This class of models is of potential phenomenological interest, and we construct explicit examples of SU(3) x SU(2) x U(1) three-generation models. The models are non-supersymmetric, but the string scale may be lowered close to the weak scale so that the standard hierarchy problem is avoided. We also comment on the presence of scalar tachyons ...

  6. Autoamplification of molecular chirality through the induction of supramolecular chirality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dijken, Derk Jan; Beierle, John M; Stuart, Marc C A; Szymański, Wiktor; Browne, Wesley R; Feringa, Ben L

    2014-05-12

    The novel concept for the autoamplification of molecular chirality, wherein the amplification proceeds through the induction of supramolecular chirality, is presented. A solution of prochiral, ring-open diarylethenes is doped with a small amount of their chiral, ring-closed counterpart. The molecules co-assemble into helical fibers through hydrogen bonding and the handedness of the fibers is biased by the chiral, ring-closed diarylethene. Photochemical ring closure of the open diarylethene yields the ring-closed product, which is enriched in the template enantiomer. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Hidden charged dark matter and chiral dark radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, P.; Nagata, Natsumi; Tang, Yong

    2017-10-01

    In the light of recent possible tensions in the Hubble constant H0 and the structure growth rate σ8 between the Planck and other measurements, we investigate a hidden-charged dark matter (DM) model where DM interacts with hidden chiral fermions, which are charged under the hidden SU(N) and U(1) gauge interactions. The symmetries in this model assure these fermions to be massless. The DM in this model, which is a Dirac fermion and singlet under the hidden SU(N), is also assumed to be charged under the U(1) gauge symmetry, through which it can interact with the chiral fermions. Below the confinement scale of SU(N), the hidden quark condensate spontaneously breaks the U(1) gauge symmetry such that there remains a discrete symmetry, which accounts for the stability of DM. This condensate also breaks a flavor symmetry in this model and Nambu-Goldstone bosons associated with this flavor symmetry appear below the confinement scale. The hidden U(1) gauge boson and hidden quarks/Nambu-Goldstone bosons are components of dark radiation (DR) above/below the confinement scale. These light fields increase the effective number of neutrinos by δNeff ≃ 0.59 above the confinement scale for N = 2, resolving the tension in the measurements of the Hubble constant by Planck and Hubble Space Telescope if the confinement scale is ≲1 eV. DM and DR continuously scatter with each other via the hidden U(1) gauge interaction, which suppresses the matter power spectrum and results in a smaller structure growth rate. The DM sector couples to the Standard Model sector through the exchange of a real singlet scalar mixing with the Higgs boson, which makes it possible to probe our model in DM direct detection experiments. Variants of this model are also discussed, which may offer alternative ways to investigate this scenario.

  8. Soft CP violation and the global matter-antimatter symmetry of the universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senjanovic, G.; Stecker, F. W.

    1980-01-01

    Scenarios for baryon production are considered within the context of SU(5) and SO(10) grand unified theories where CP violation arises spontaneously. The spontaneous CP symmetry breaking then results in a matter-antimatter domain structure in the universe. Two possible, distinct types of theories of soft CP violation are defined. In the first type the CP nonconservation originates only from the breaking of SU(2) sub L X U(1) symmetry, and in the second type, even at the unification temperature scale, CP violation can emerge as a result of symmetry breaking by the vacuum expectation values of the superheavy Higgs sector scalars.

  9. Conformal symmetry vs. chiral symmetry breaking in the SU(3) sextet model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drach, Vincent; Hansen, Martin; Hietanen, Ari

    2015-01-01

    We present new results for the SU(3) "sextet model" with two flavors transforming according to the two-index symmetric representation of the gauge group. The simulations are performed using unimproved Wilson fermions. We measure the meson and baryon spectrum of the theory for multiple bare quark ...

  10. From physical symmetries to emergent gauge symmetries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barceló, Carlos [Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía (IAA-CSIC),Glorieta de la Astronomía, 18008 Granada (Spain); Carballo-Rubio, Raúl [Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía (IAA-CSIC), Glorieta de la Astronomía, 18008 Granada (Spain); Laboratory for Quantum Gravity & Strings,Department of Mathematics & Applied Mathematics, University of Cape Town,Private Bag, Rondebosch 7701 (South Africa); Di Filippo, Francesco [Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía (IAA-CSIC), Glorieta de la Astronomía, 18008 Granada (Spain); Dipartamento di Scienze Fisiche “E.R. Caianiello”, Università di Salerno,I-84081 Fisciano (Italy); Garay, Luis J. [Departamento de Física Teórica II, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Instituto de Estructura de la Materia (IEM-CSIC), Serrano 121, 28006 Madrid (Spain)

    2016-10-17

    Gauge symmetries indicate redundancies in the description of the relevant degrees of freedom of a given field theory and restrict the nature of observable quantities. One of the problems faced by emergent theories of relativistic fields is to understand how gauge symmetries can show up in systems that contain no trace of these symmetries at a more fundamental level. In this paper we start a systematic study aimed to establish a satisfactory mathematical and physical picture of this issue, dealing first with abelian field theories. We discuss how the trivialization, due to the decoupling and lack of excitation of some degrees of freedom, of the Noether currents associated with physical symmetries leads to emergent gauge symmetries in specific situations. An example of a relativistic field theory of a vector field is worked out in detail in order to make explicit how this mechanism works and to clarify the physics behind it. The interplay of these ideas with well-known results of importance to the emergent gravity program, such as the Weinberg-Witten theorem, are discussed.

  11. Chiral logarithms to five loops

    OpenAIRE

    Bissegger, Moritz; Fuhrer, Andreas

    2006-01-01

    We investigate two specific Green functions in the framework of chiral perturbation theory. We show that, using analyticity and unitarity, their leading logarithmic singularities can be evaluated in the chiral limit to any desired order in the chiral expansion, with a modest calculational cost. The claim is illustrated with an evaluation of the leading logarithm for the scalar two-point function to five-loop order.

  12. Chiral Biomarkers in Meteorites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoover, Richard B.

    2010-01-01

    The chirality of organic molecules with the asymmetric location of group radicals was discovered in 1848 by Louis Pasteur during his investigations of the rotation of the plane of polarization of light by crystals of sodium ammonium paratartrate. It is well established that the amino acids in proteins are exclusively Levorotary (L-aminos) and the sugars in DNA and RNA are Dextrorotary (D-sugars). This phenomenon of homochirality of biological polymers is a fundamental property of all life known on Earth. Furthermore, abiotic production mechanisms typically yield recemic mixtures (i.e. equal amounts of the two enantiomers). When amino acids were first detected in carbonaceous meteorites, it was concluded that they were racemates. This conclusion was taken as evidence that they were extraterrestrial and produced by abiologically. Subsequent studies by numerous researchers have revealed that many of the amino acids in carbonaceous meteorites exhibit a significant L-excess. The observed chirality is much greater than that produced by any currently known abiotic processes (e.g. Linearly polarized light from neutron stars; Circularly polarized ultraviolet light from faint stars; optically active quartz powders; inclusion polymerization in clay minerals; Vester-Ulbricht hypothesis of parity violations, etc.). This paper compares the measured chirality detected in the amino acids of carbonaceous meteorites with the effect of these diverse abiotic processes. IT is concluded that the levels observed are inconsistent with post-arrival biological contamination or with any of the currently known abiotic production mechanisms. However, they are consistent with ancient biological processes on the meteorite parent body. This paper will consider these chiral biomarkers in view of the detection of possible microfossils found in the Orgueil and Murchison carbonaceous meteorites. Energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS) data obtained on these morphological biomarkers will be

  13. Stirring competes with chemical induction in chiral selection of Langmuir monolayer domains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petit-Garrido Nuria

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Chirality, the absence of mirror symmetry, can be equally invoked in relation to physical forces and chemical induction processes, yet a competition between these two types of influences is rarely reported. Here, we employ Langmuir monolayers of azobenzene surfactants as a prototypical self-assembled two-dimensional system in which chiral selection is controlled by the combined independent action of a chiral dopant and vortical stirring. The two effects can be arbitrarily coupled, either constructively or destructively, leading to a situation of perfect compensation. The induced enantiomorphic excess is measured in terms of the statistical imbalance of an ensemble of sub-millimeter monolayer domains, where achiral molecules self-assemble with a well-defined orientational chirality, which is unambiguously resolved using Brewster angle microscopy.

  14. Fluctuation and strain effects in a chiral $p$-wave superconductor

    OpenAIRE

    Fischer, Mark H; Berg, Erez

    2015-01-01

    For a tetragonal material, order parameters of $p_x$ and $p_y$ symmetry are related by rotation and hence have the same $T_{\\rm c}$ at a mean-field level. This degeneracy can be lifted by a symmetry-breaking field, like (uniaxial) in-plane strain, such that at $T_{\\rm c}$, the order parameter is only of $p_x$ or $p_y$ symmetry. Only at a lower temperature also the respective other order parameter condenses to form a chiral $p$-wave state. At the mean-field level, the derivative of $T_{\\rm c}$...

  15. Chiral algebras of class S

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beem, Christopher [Institute for Advanced Study,Einstein Dr., Princeton, NJ 08540 (United States); Peelaers, Wolfger; Rastelli, Leonardo [C.N. Yang Institute for Theoretical Physics, SUNY,Stony Brook, NY 11794-3840 (United States); Rees, Balt C. van [Theory Group, Physics Department, CERN,CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland)

    2015-05-05

    Four-dimensional N=2 superconformal field theories have families of protected correlation functions that possess the structure of two-dimensional chiral algebras. In this paper, we explore the chiral algebras that arise in this manner in the context of theories of class S. The class S duality web implies nontrivial associativity properties for the corresponding chiral algebras, the structure of which is best summarized in the language of generalized topological quantum field theory. We make a number of conjectures regarding the chiral algebras associated to various strongly coupled fixed points.

  16. Symmetry breakdown and coupling constants of leptons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gil C. Marques

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Based on a new approach to symmetries of the fundamental interactions we deal, in this paper, with the electroweak interactions of leptons. We show that the coupling constants, arising in the way leptons are coupled to intermediate bosons, can be understood as parameters associated to the breakdown of SU(2 and parity symmetries. The breakdown of both symmetries is characterized by a new parameter (the asymetry parameter of the electroweak interactions. This parameter gives a measure of the strength of breakdown of symmetries. We analyse the behaviour of the theory for three values of this parameter. The most relevant value is the one for which only the electromagnetic interactions do not break parity (the maximally allowed left-right asymetric theory. Maximamally allowed parity asymmetry is a requirement that is met for a value of Weinberg's theta-angle that is quite close to the experimental value of this parameter.Com base em uma formulação nova para simetrias das interações fundamentais nós lidamos, neste trabalho, com interações eletrofracas de leptons. Mostramos que as constantes do acoplamento, associadas aos acoplamentos de bósons intermediários, podem ser entendidas como parâmetros associados à quebra de simetrias SU(2 e paridade. A quebra de ambas as simetrias é caracterizada por um parâmetro novo (o parâmetro de assimetria das interações eletrofracas. Este parâmetro dá uma medida da intensidade com que a simetria é quebrada. Analisamos o comportamento da teoria para três valores deste parâmetro. O valor mais relevante é aquele para o qual apenas as interações eletromagnéticas não quebram a paridade (a teoria assimétrica esquerda-direita permitida da maneira máxima. A assimetria máxima permitida é uma exigência que leva a um ângulo de Weinberg cujo valor é próximo daquele observado experimentalmente.

  17. Symmetry Festival 2016

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    The Symmetry Festival is a science and art program series, the most important periodic event (see its history) to bring together scientists, artists, educators and practitioners interested in symmetry (its roots, what is behind, applications, etc.), or in the consequences of its absence.

  18. Symmetries in Optimal Control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaft, A.J. van der

    1987-01-01

    It is argued that the existence of symmetries may simplify, as in classical mechanics, the solution of optimal control problems. A procedure for obtaining symmetries for the optimal Hamiltonian resulting from the Maximum Principle is given; this avoids the actual calculation of the optimal

  19. Charged fluids with symmetries

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. We investigate the role of symmetries for charged perfect fluids by assuming that spacetime admits a conformal Killing vector. The existence of a conformal symmetry places restrictions on the model. It is possible to find a general relationship for the Lie derivative of the electromagnetic field along the integral curves ...

  20. Symmetry and Interculturality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchis, Iuliana

    2009-01-01

    Symmetry is one of the fundamental concepts in Geometry. It is a Mathematical concept, which can be very well connected with Art and Ethnography. The aim of the article is to show how to link the geometrical concept symmetry with interculturality. For this mosaics from different countries are used.

  1. Wide-range-tunable Dirac-cone band structure in a chiral-time-symmetric non-Hermitian system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, S.; Song, Z.

    2017-11-01

    We establish a connection between an arbitrary Hermitian tight-binding model with chiral (C ) symmetry and its non-Hermitian counterpart with chiral-time (CT ) symmetry. We show that such a non-Hermitian Hamiltonian is pseudo-Hermitian. The eigenvalues and eigenvectors of the non-Hermitian Hamiltonian can be easily obtained from those of its parent Hermitian Hamiltonian. It provides a way to generate a class of non-Hermitian models with a tunable full real band structure by means of additional imaginary potentials. We also present an illustrative example that could achieve a cone structure from the energy band of a two-layer Hermitian square lattice model.

  2. Evidence of effective axial U (1 ) symmetry restoration at high temperature QCD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomiya, A.; Cossu, G.; Aoki, S.; Fukaya, H.; Hashimoto, S.; Kaneko, T.; Noaki, J.; Jlqcd Collaboration

    2017-08-01

    We study the axial U (1 ) symmetry at a finite temperature in two-flavor lattice QCD. Employing the Möbius domain-wall fermions, we generate gauge configurations slightly above the critical temperature Tc with different lattice sizes L =2 - 4 fm . Our action allows frequent topology tunneling while keeping good chiral symmetry close enough to that of overlap fermions. This allows us to recover full chiral symmetry by an overlap/domain-wall reweighting. Above the phase transition, a strong suppression of the low-lying modes is observed in both overlap and domain-wall Dirac spectra. We, however, find a sizable violation of the Ginsparg-Wilson relation in the Möbius domain-wall Dirac eigenmodes, which dominates the signals of the axial U (1 ) symmetry breaking near the chiral limit. We also find that the use of the overlap fermion only in the valence sector is dangerous since it suffers from the artifacts due to partial quenching. Reweighting the Möbius domain-wall fermion determinant to that of the overlap fermion, we observe the axial U(1) breaking to vanish in the chiral limit, which is stable against the changes of the lattice volume and lattice spacing.

  3. Symmetry groups of automata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ugalde, Edgardo; Urías, Jesús

    1994-01-01

    Symmetry transformations on the input and output code spaces of deterministic finite automata (DFA) are introduced. We show that the symmetry groups of transformations are produced by group DFA (gDFA) whose set of states and set of inputs are subgroups of the symmetric groups S q and S k, respectively ( q is the number of states and k the number of input symbols). The set of transitions of a gDFA is also a group. The symmetries of the n-moment delay DFA, relevant for cellular automata, are studied in detail. In particular, we show that the n-moment delay DFA on two symbols are self-symmetric. The symmetry gDFA of the 2-moment delay DFA on two symbols is displayed in detail. An algorithm to construct the symmetry gDFA of arbitrary DFA is given. An application of gDFA to cellular automata dynamics is mentioned.

  4. CERN LHC sensitivity to the resonance spectrum of a minimal strongly interacting electroweak symmetry breaking sector

    CERN Document Server

    Dobado, A; Peláez, J R; Ruiz-Morales, Ester

    2000-01-01

    We present a unified analysis of the two main production processes of vector boson pairs at the CERN LHC, VV-fusion and qq annihilation, in a minimal strongly interacting electroweak symmetry breaking sector. Using a unitarized electroweak chiral Lagrangian formalism and modeling the final V/sub L/V/sub L/ strong rescattering effects by a form factor, we describe qq annihilation processes in terms of the two chiral parameters that govern elastic V/sub L/V/sub L/ scattering. Depending on the values of these two chiral parameters, the unitarized amplitudes may present resonant enhancements in different angular momentum-isospin channels. Scanning this two parameter space, we generate the general resonance spectrum of a minimal strongly interacting electroweak symmetry breaking sector and determine the regions that can be probed at the CERN LHC. (47 refs).

  5. Chiral nanophotonics chiral optical properties of plasmonic systems

    CERN Document Server

    Schäferling, Martin

    2017-01-01

    This book describes the physics behind the optical properties of plasmonic nanostructures focusing on chiral aspects. It explains in detail how the geometry determines chiral near-fields and how to tailor their shape and strength. Electromagnetic fields with strong optical chirality interact strongly with chiral molecules and, therefore, can be used for enhancing the sensitivity of chiroptical spectroscopy techniques. Besides a short review of the latest results in the field of plasmonically enhanced enantiomer discrimination, this book introduces the concept of chiral plasmonic near-field sources for enhanced chiroptical spectroscopy. The discussion of the fundamental properties of these light sources provides the theoretical basis for further optimizations and is of interest for researchers at the intersection of nano-optics, plasmonics and stereochemistry. .

  6. Symmetry Breaking in the Supramolecular Gels of an Achiral Gelator Exclusively Driven by π-π Stacking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Zhaocun; Jiang, Yuqian; Wang, Tianyu; Liu, Minghua

    2015-12-30

    Supramolecular symmetry breaking, in which chiral assemblies with imbalanced right- and left-handedness emerge from achiral molecular building blocks, has been achieved in the organogels of a C3-symmetric molecule only via π-π stacking. Specifically, an achiral C3-symmetric benzene-1,3,5-tricarboxylate substituted with methyl cinnamate through ester bond was found to form organogels in various organic solvents. More interestingly, when gels formed in cyclohexane, symmetry breaking occurred; i.e., optically active organogels together with the helical nanofibers with predominant handedness were obtained. Furthermore, the stochastically appeared imbalanced helicity could be driven to desired handedness by utilizing slight chiral solvents such as (R)- or (S)-terpinen-4-ol. Remarkably, the handedness of supramolecular assemblies thus formed could be kept even when the chiral solvents were removed. For the first time, we show that symmetry breaking can occur in supramolecular gel system driven exclusively through π-π stacking.

  7. Composite Weyl nodes stabilized by screw symmetry with and without time-reversal invariance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsirkin, Stepan S.; Souza, Ivo; Vanderbilt, David

    2017-07-01

    We classify the band degeneracies in three-dimensional crystals with screw symmetry nm and broken P *T symmetry, where P stands for spatial inversion and T for time reversal. The generic degeneracies along symmetry lines are Weyl nodes: chiral contact points between pairs of bands. They can be single nodes with a chiral charge of magnitude |χ |=1 or composite nodes with |χ |=2 or 3, and the possible χ values only depend on the order n of the axis, not on the pitch m /n of the screw. Double Weyl nodes require n =4 or 6, and triple nodes require n =6 . In all cases, the bands split linearly along the axis, and for composite nodes the splitting is quadratic on the orthogonal plane. This is true for triple as well as double nodes, due to the presence in the effective two-band Hamiltonian of a nonchiral quadratic term that masks the chiral cubic dispersion. If T symmetry is present and P is broken, there may exist on some symmetry lines Weyl nodes pinned to T -invariant momenta, which in some cases are unavoidable. In the absence of other symmetries, their classification depends on n ,m , and the type of T symmetry. With spinless T such T -invariant Weyl nodes are always double nodes, while with spinful T they can be single or triple nodes. T -invariant triples nodes can occur not only on sixfold axes but also on threefold ones, and their in-plane band splitting is cubic, not quadratic as in the case of generic triple nodes. These rules are illustrated by means of first-principles calculations for hcp cobalt, a T -broken, P -invariant crystal with 63 symmetry, and for trigonal tellurium and hexagonal NbSi2, which are T -invariant, P -broken crystals with threefold and sixfold screw symmetry, respectively.

  8. On the SU(2 vertical stroke 1) WZNW model and its statistical mechanics applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saleur, H. [CEA Centre d' Etudes de Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France). Service de Physique Theorique]|[University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States). Dept. of Physics; Schomerus, V. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2006-11-15

    Motivated by a careful analysis of the Laplacian on the supergroup SU(2 vertical stroke 1) we formulate a proposal for the state space of the SU(2 vertical stroke 1) WZNW model. We then use properties of sl(2 vertical stroke 1) characters to compute the partition function of the theory. In the special case of level k=1 the latter is found to agree with the properly regularized partition function for the continuum limit of the integrable sl(2 vertical stroke 1)3- anti 3 super-spin chain. Some general conclusions applicable to other WZNW models (in particular the case k=-1/2) are also drawn. (orig.)

  9. Investigation of the chiral antiferromagnetic Heisenberg model using projected entangled pair states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poilblanc, Didier

    2017-09-01

    A simple spin-1/2 frustrated antiferromagnetic Heisenberg model (AFHM) on the square lattice—including chiral plaquette cyclic terms—was argued [A. E. B. Nielsen, G. Sierra, and J. I. Cirac, Nat. Commun. 4, 2864 (2013), 10.1038/ncomms3864] to host a bosonic Kalmeyer-Laughlin (KL) fractional quantum Hall ground state [V. Kalmeyer and R. B. Laughlin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2095 (1987), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.59.2095]. Here, we construct generic families of chiral projected entangled pair states (chiral PEPS) with low bond dimension (D =3 ,4 ,5 ) which, upon optimization, provide better variational energies than the KL Ansatz. The optimal D =3 PEPS exhibits chiral edge modes described by the Wess-Zumino-Witten SU(2) 1 model, as expected for the KL spin liquid. However, we find evidence that, in contrast to the KL state, the PEPS spin liquids have power-law dimer-dimer correlations and exhibit a gossamer long-range tail in the spin-spin correlations. We conjecture that these features are genuine to local chiral AFHM on bipartite lattices.

  10. Enhanced gauge symmetry and winding modes in double field theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aldazabal, G. [Centro Atómico Bariloche,8400 S.C. de Bariloche (Argentina); Instituto Balseiro (CNEA-UNC) and CONICET,8400 S.C. de Bariloche (Argentina); Graña, M. [Institut de Physique Théorique, CEA/ Saclay,91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Iguri, S. [Instituto de Astronomía y Física del Espacio (CONICET-UBA), Universidad de Buenos Aires,1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina); Mayo, M. [Centro Atómico Bariloche,8400 S.C. de Bariloche (Argentina); Instituto Balseiro (CNEA-UNC) and CONICET,8400 S.C. de Bariloche (Argentina); Nuñez, C. [Instituto de Astronomía y Física del Espacio (CONICET-UBA), Universidad de Buenos Aires,1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina); Departamento de Física, FCEN, Universidad de Buenos Aires,C.C. 67 - Suc. 28, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina); Rosabal, J.A. [Departamento de Física, FCEN, Universidad de Buenos Aires,C.C. 67 - Suc. 28, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2016-03-15

    We provide an explicit example of how the string winding modes can be incorporated in double field theory. Our guiding case is the closed bosonic string compactified on a circle of radius close to the self-dual point, where some modes with non-zero winding or discrete momentum number become massless and enhance the U(1)×U(1) symmetry to SU(2SU(2). We compute three-point string scattering amplitudes of massless and slightly massive states, and extract the corresponding effective low energy gauge field theory. The enhanced gauge symmetry at the self-dual point and the Higgs-like mechanism arising when changing the compactification radius are examined in detail. The extra massless fields associated to the enhancement are incorporated into a generalized frame with ((O(d+3,d+3))/(O(d+3)×O(d+3))) structure, where d is the number of non-compact dimensions. We devise a consistent double field theory action that reproduces the low energy string effective action with enhanced gauge symmetry. The construction requires a truly non-geometric frame which explicitly depends on both the compact coordinate along the circle and its dual.

  11. Gluon parton density in the chiral quark model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mirjalili, A., E-mail: mirjalili@ipm.i [Yazd University, P.O.B 89195-741, Yazd (Iran, Islamic Republic of); School of Particles and Accelerators, Institute for Research in Fundamental Sciences (IPM) P. O.B 19395-5531, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Yazdanpanah, M.M., E-mail: myazdan@mail.ipm.i [School of Particles and Accelerators, Institute for Research in Fundamental Sciences (IPM) P. O.B 19395-5531, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Physics Department, Shahid-Bahonar University, Kerman (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ghorbani, K., E-mail: Kghorbani@mail.ipm.i [School of Particles and Accelerators, Institute for Research in Fundamental Sciences (IPM) P. O.B 19395-5531, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Physics Department, Arak University, Arak (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Taghavi-Shahri, F., E-mail: F_Taghavi@mail.ipm.i [School of Particles and Accelerators, Institute for Research in Fundamental Sciences (IPM) P. O.B 19395-5531, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2010-10-15

    Dynamical chiral symmetry breaking is one of the most important properties of low energy QCD. The breaking pattern has a profound impact on phenomenological quantities. Here we extend the idea of the meson cloud approach in the chiral quark model to include a gluon cloud in order to model the parton densities in the nucleon, based on the constituent quark framework. To obtain parton densities, including the gluon density in the constituent quark approach, we use the splitting functions of a quark to quark-meson and quark-gluon at low Q{sup 2} values. The parton densities at high energies can be obtained, using the DGLAP evolution equations. A good agreement with that expected is computed for the fraction of the total momentum of the proton which is carried by gluon.

  12. Large-Nc Gauge Theory and Chiral Random Matrix Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanada, Masanori; Lee, Jong-Wan; Yamada, Norikazu

    Effective theory approaches and the large-Nc limit are useful for studying the strongly coupled gauge theories. In this talk we consider how the chiral random matrix theory (χRMT) can be used in the study of large-Nc gauge theories. It turns out the parameter regions, in which each of these two approaches are valid, are different. Still, however, we show that the breakdown of chiral symmetry can be detected by combining the large-Nc argument and the χRMT with some cares. As a demonstration, we numerically study the four dimensional SU(Nc) gauge theory with Nf = 2 heavy adjoint fermions on a 24 lattice by using Monte-Carlo simulations, which is related to the infinite volume lattice through the Eguchi-Kawai equivalence.

  13. Z_{2} and Chiral Anomalies in Topological Dirac Semimetals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkov, Anton A; Kim, Yong Baek

    2016-09-23

    We demonstrate that topological Dirac semimetals, which possess two Dirac nodes, separated in momentum space along a rotation axis and protected by rotational symmetry, exhibit an additional quantum anomaly, distinct from the chiral anomaly. This anomaly, which we call the Z_{2} anomaly, is a consequence of the fact that the Dirac nodes in topological Dirac semimetals carry a Z_{2} topological charge. The Z_{2} anomaly refers to nonconservation of this charge in the presence of external fields due to quantum effects and has observable consequences due to its interplay with the chiral anomaly. We discuss possible implications of this for the interpretation of magnetotransport experiments on topological Dirac semimetals. We also provide a possible explanation for the magnetic field dependent angular narrowing of the negative longitudinal magnetoresistance, observed in a recent experiment on Na_{3}Bi.

  14. Chiral Crystallization of Ethylenediamine Sulfate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koby, Lawrence; Ningappa, Jyothi B.; Dakesssian, Maria; Cuccia, Louis A.

    2005-01-01

    The optimal conditions for the crystallization of achiral ethylenediamine sulfate into large chiral crystals that are ideal for polarimetry studies and observation using Polaroid sheets are presented. This experiment is an ideal undergraduate experiment, which clearly demonstrates the chiral crystallization of an achiral molecule.

  15. Necessary N-representability Constraints from Time-reversal Symmetry for Periodic Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Rubin, Nicholas C

    2016-01-01

    The variational calculation of the two-electron reduced density matrix (2-RDM) is extended to periodic molecular systems. If the 2-RDM theory is extended to the periodic case without consideration of time-reversal symmetry, however, it can yields energies that are significantly lower than the correct energies. We derive and implement linear constraints that enforce time-reversal symmetry on the 2-RDM without destroying its computationally favorable block-diagonal structure from translational invariance. Time-reversal symmetry is distinct from space-group or spin (SU(2)) symmetries which can be expressed by unitary transformations. The time-reversal symmetry constraints are demonstrated through calculations of the metallic hydrogen chain and the one-dimensional lithium hydride crystal.

  16. Two-chiral component microemulsion EKC - chiral surfactant and chiral oil. Part 2: diethyl tartrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahle, Kimberly A; Foley, Joe P

    2007-08-01

    In this second study on dual-chirality microemulsions containing a chiral surfactant and a chiral oil, a less hydrophobic and lower interfacial tension chiral oil, diethyl tartrate, is employed (Part 1, Foley, J. P. et al.., Electrophoresis, DOI: 10.1002/elps.200600551). Six stereochemical combinations of dodecoxycarbonylvaline (DDCV: R, S, or racemic, 2.00% w/v), racemic 2-hexanol (1.65% v/v), and diethyl tartrate (D, L, or racemic, 0.88% v/v) were examined as pseudostationary phases (PSPs) for the enantioseparation of six chiral pharmaceutical compounds: pseudoephedrine, ephedrine, N-methyl ephedrine, metoprolol, synephrine, and atenolol. Average efficiencies increased with the addition of a chiral oil to R-DDCV PSP formulations. Modest improvements in resolution and enantioselectivity (alpha(enant)) were achieved with two-chiral-component systems over the one-chiral-component microemulsion. Slight enantioselective synergies were confirmed using a thermodynamic model. Results obtained in this study are compared to those obtained in Part 1 as well as those obtained with chiral MEEKC using an achiral, low-interfacial-tension oil (ethyl acetate). Dual-chirality microemulsions with the more hydrophobic oil dibutyl tartrate yielded, relative to diethyl tartrate, higher efficiencies (100,000-134,000 vs. 80,800-94,300), but lower resolution (1.64-1.91 vs. 2.08-2.21) due to lower enantioselectivities (1.060-1.067 vs. 1.078-1.081). Atenolol enantiomers could not be separated with the dibutyl tartrate-based microemulsions but were partially resolved using diethyl tartrate microemulsions. A comparable single-chirality microemulsion based on the achiral oil ethyl acetate yielded, relative to diethyl tartrate, lower efficiency (78 300 vs. 91 600), higher resolution (1.99 vs. 1.83), and similar enantioselectivities.

  17. Programs for generating Clebsch-Gordan coefficients of SU(3) in SU(2) and SO(3) bases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahri, C.; Rowe, D. J.; Draayer, J. P.

    2004-05-01

    Computer codes are developed to calculate Clebsch-Gordan coefficients of SU(3) in both SU(2)- and SO(3)-coupled bases. The efficiency of this code derives from the use of vector coherent state theory to evaluate the required coefficients directly without recursion relations. The approach extends to other compact semi-simple Lie groups. The codes are given in subroutine form so that users can incorporate the codes into other programs. Program summaryTitle of program: SU3CGVCS Catalogue identifier: ADTN Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/ADTN Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University of Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Persons requesting the program must sign the standard CPC non-profit use license Computers for which the program is designed and others on which it is operable: SGI Origin 2000, HP Apollo 9000, Sun, IBM SP, Pentium Operating systems under which the program has been tested: IRIX 6.5, HP UX 10.01, SunOS, AIX, Linux Programming language used: FORTRAN 77 Memory required to execute with typical data: On the HP system, it requires about 732 KBytes. Disk space used for output: 2100+2460 bytes No. of bits in a word: 32 bit integer and 64 bit floating point numbers. No. of processors used: 1 Has the code been vectorized: No No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 26 309 No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 3969 Distribution format: tar gzip file Nature of physical problem: The group SU(3) and its Lie algebra su(3) have important applications, for example, in elementary particle physics, nuclear physics, and quantum optics [1-3]. The code presented is particularly relevant for the last two fields. Clebsch-Gordan (CG) coefficients are required whenever the symmetries of many-body systems are used for the evaluation of matrix elements of tensor operators. Moreover, the construction of CG coefficients for SU(3) serves as a nontrivial prototype for larger compact

  18. Physics from symmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Schwichtenberg, Jakob

    2015-01-01

    This is a textbook that derives the fundamental theories of physics from symmetry.   It starts by introducing, in a completely self-contained way, all mathematical tools needed to use symmetry ideas in physics. Thereafter, these tools are put into action and by using symmetry constraints, the fundamental equations of Quantum Mechanics, Quantum Field Theory, Electromagnetism, and Classical Mechanics are derived. As a result, the reader is able to understand the basic assumptions behind, and the connections between the modern theories of physics. The book concludes with first applications of the previously derived equations.

  19. BRST symmetry and de Rham cohomology

    CERN Document Server

    Hong, Soon-Tae

    2015-01-01

    This book provides an advanced introduction to extended theories of quantum field theory and algebraic topology, including Hamiltonian quantization associated with some geometrical constraints, symplectic embedding and Hamilton-Jacobi quantization and Becci-Rouet-Stora-Tyutin (BRST) symmetry, as well as de Rham cohomology. It offers a critical overview of the research in this area and unifies the existing literature, employing a consistent notation. Although the results presented apply in principle to all alternative quantization schemes, special emphasis is placed on the BRST quantization for constrained physical systems and its corresponding de Rham cohomology group structure. These were studied by theoretical physicists from the early 1960s and appeared in attempts to quantize rigorously some physical theories such as solitons and other models subject to geometrical constraints. In particular, phenomenological soliton theories such as Skyrmion and chiral bag models have seen a revival following experiment...

  20. Quantum groups as generalized gauge symmetries in WZNW models. Part I. The classical model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadjiivanov, L.; Furlan, P.

    2017-07-01

    Wess-Zumino-Novikov-Witten (WZNW) models over compact Lie groups G constitute the best studied class of (two dimensional, 2 D) rational conformal field theories (RCFTs). A WZNW chiral state space is a finite direct sum of integrable representations of the corresponding affine (current) algebra, and the correlation functions of primary fields are monodromy invariant combinations of left times right sector conformal blocks solving the Knizhnik-Zamolodchikov equation. However, even in this very well understood case of 2 D RCFT, the "internal" (gauge) symmetry that governs the ensuing fusion rules remains unclear. On the other hand, the canonical approach to the classical chiral WZNW theory developed by Faddeev, Alekseev, Shatashvili, Gawedzki and Falceto reveals its Poisson-Lie symmetry. After a covariant quantization, the latter gives rise to an associated quantum group symmetry which naturally requires an extension of the state space. This paper contains a review of earlier work on the subject with a special emphasis, in the case G = SU( n), on the emerging chiral "WZNW zero modes" which provide an adequate algebraic description of the internal symmetry structure of the model. Combining further left and right zero modes, one obtains a specific dynamical quantum group, the structure of its Fock representation resembling the axiomatic approach to gauge theories in which a "restricted" quantum group plays the role of a generalized gauge symmetry.

  1. Thermodynamics of SU(2) quantum Yang-Mills theory and CMB anomalies

    CERN Document Server

    Hofmann, Ralf

    2013-01-01

    A brief review of effective SU(2) Yang-Mills thermodynamics in the deconfining phase is given, including the construction of the thermal ground-state estimate in terms of an inert, adjoint scalar field $\\phi$, based on non-propagating (anti)selfdual field configurations of topological charge unity. We explain why the screening physics of an SU(2) photon is subject to an electric-magnetically dual interpretation. Next, we elucidate how a low-frequency excess of line temperature in the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) determines the value of the critical temperature of the deconfining-preconfining phase transition of an SU(2) Yang-Mills theory postulated to describe photon propagation, and we describe how, starting at a redshift of about unity, SU(2) photons collectively work 3D temperature depressions into the CMB. Upon projection along a line of sight, a given depression influences the present CMB sky in a cosmologically local way, possibly explaining the large-angle anomalies confirmed recently by the Planc...

  2. SU(2)$_{\\tiny\\mbox{CMB}}$ at high redshifts and the value of $H_0$

    CERN Document Server

    Hahn, Steffen

    2016-01-01

    We investigate a high-$z$ cosmological model to compute the co-moving sound horizon $r_s$ at baryon freeze-out following hydrogen recombination. This model assumes a replacement of the conventional CMB photon gas by SU(2) Yang-Mills thermodynamics, three flavors of massless neutrinos ($N_\

  3. Scattering lengths in SU(2) gauge theory with two fundamental fermions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arthur, R.; Drach, V.; Hansen, Martin Rasmus Lundquist

    2014-01-01

    We investigate non perturbatively scattering properties of Goldstone Bosons in an SU(2) gauge theory with two Wilson fermions in the fundamental representation. Such a theory can be used to build extensions of the Standard Model that unifies Technicolor and pseudo Goldstone composite Higgs models...

  4. Mass anomalous dimension and running of the coupling in SU(2) with six fundamental fermions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bursa, Francis; Del Debbio, Luigi; Keegan, Liam

    2010-01-01

    We simulate SU(2) gauge theory with six massless fundamental Dirac fermions. By using the Schr\\"odinger Functional method we measure the running of the coupling and the fermion mass over a wide range of length scales. We observe very slow running of the coupling and construct an estimator for the...

  5. Light Asymmetric Dark Matter on the Lattice: SU(2) Technicolor with Two Fundamental Flavors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lewis, Randy; Pica, Claudio; Sannino, Francesco

    2012-01-01

    The SU(2) gauge theory with two massless Dirac flavors constitutes the building block of several models of Technicolor. Furthermore it has also been used as a template for the construction of a natural light asymmetric, or mixed type, dark matter candidate. We use explicit lattice simulations to ...

  6. Confining vs. conformal scenario for SU(2) with 2 adjoint fermions. Mesonic spectrum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pica, Claudio; Del Debbio, Luigi; Lucini, Biagio

    2010-01-01

    The Minimal Walking Technicolor (MWT) model, based on the SU(2) gauge group with two Dirac adjoint fermions, is expected to lie close to the lower boundary of the conformal window. As such, it is believed to possess a dynamics different enough from QCD to be a viable candidate for a Technicolor t...

  7. Mass anomalous dimension of SU(2) using the spectral density method

    CERN Document Server

    Suorsa, Joni M; Rantaharju, Jarno; Rantalaiho, Teemu; Rummukainen, Kari; Tuominen, Kimmo; Tähtinen, Sara

    2016-01-01

    SU(2) with N_f = 6 and N_f = 8 are believed to have an infrared conformal fixed point. We use the spectral density method cross referenced with the mass step scaling method to evaluate the coupling constant dependence of the mass anomalous dimension for massless HEX smeared, clover improved Wilson fermions with Schr\\"odinger functional boundary conditions.

  8. On 2D and 3D solitons in SU(2) gluo-dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bogolubskaya, Alla; Bogolubsky, Igor [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research - JINR, Joliot-Curie st., 6, Moskovskaya obl., 141980, Dubna (Russian Federation)

    2010-07-01

    We plan to indicate the possibility of soliton existence in 2D and 3D SU(2) gluo-dynamics. Hamiltonians in terms of radial functions will be presented. Localized in space field distributions which provide local minima to these Hamiltonians are studied. Their physical implications are discussed. (author)

  9. Anatomy of isolated monopole in Abelian projection od SU(2) lattice gauge theory

    CERN Document Server

    Belavin, V A; Veselov, A I

    2001-01-01

    The structure of the isolated static monopolies in the maximum Abelian projection of the SU(2) gluodynamics on the lattice studied. The standard parametrization of the coupling matrix was used by determining the maximum Abelian projection of the R functional maximization relative to all scale transformations. The monopole radius R approx = 0.06 fm is evaluated

  10. Weinberg Angle Derivation from Discrete Subgroups of SU(2 and All That

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Potter F.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The Weinberg angle W of the Standard Model of leptons and quarks is derived from specific discrete (i.e., finite subgroups of the electroweak local gauge group SU(2 L U(1 Y . In addition, the cancellation of the triangle anomaly is achieved even when there are four quark families and three lepton families!

  11. Gradient flow and IR fixed point in SU(2) with Nf=8 flavors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leino, Viljami; Karavirta, Tuomas; Rantaharju, Jarno

    2015-01-01

    We study the running of the coupling in SU(2) gauge theory with 8 massless fundamental representation fermion flavours, using the gradient flow method with the Schr\\"odinger functional boundary conditions. Gradient flow allows us to measure robust continuum limit for the step scaling function...

  12. Running coupling in SU(2) gauge theory with two adjoint fermions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rantaharju, Jarno; Rantalaiho, Teemu; Rummukainen, Kari

    2016-01-01

    We study SU(2) gauge theory with two Dirac fermions in the adjoint representation of the gauge group on the lattice. Using clover improved Wilson fermion action with hypercubic truncated stout smearing we perform simulations at larger coupling than before. We measure the evolution of the coupling...

  13. The gradient flow running coupling in SU2 with 8 flavors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rantaharju, Jarno; Karavirta, Tuomas; Leino, Viljami

    2014-01-01

    We present preliminary results of the gradient flow running coupling with Dirichlet boundary condition in the SU(2) gauge theory with 8 fermion flavours. Improvements to the gradient flow measurement allow us to obtain a robust continuum limit. The results are consistent with perturbative running...

  14. Chiral quantum optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodahl, Peter; Mahmoodian, Sahand; Stobbe, Søren; Rauschenbeutel, Arno; Schneeweiss, Philipp; Volz, Jürgen; Pichler, Hannes; Zoller, Peter

    2017-01-25

    Advanced photonic nanostructures are currently revolutionizing the optics and photonics that underpin applications ranging from light technology to quantum-information processing. The strong light confinement in these structures can lock the local polarization of the light to its propagation direction, leading to propagation-direction-dependent emission, scattering and absorption of photons by quantum emitters. The possibility of such a propagation-direction-dependent, or chiral, light-matter interaction is not accounted for in standard quantum optics and its recent discovery brought about the research field of chiral quantum optics. The latter offers fundamentally new functionalities and applications: it enables the assembly of non-reciprocal single-photon devices that can be operated in a quantum superposition of two or more of their operational states and the realization of deterministic spin-photon interfaces. Moreover, engineered directional photonic reservoirs could lead to the development of complex quantum networks that, for example, could simulate novel classes of quantum many-body systems.

  15. Chiral imbalance in QCD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrianov Alexander

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The chiral imbalance (ChI is given by a difference between the numbers of RH and LH quarks which may occur in the fireball after heavy ion collision. To characterize it adiabatically a quark chiral (axial chemical potential must be introduced taking into account emergence of a ChI in such a phase. In this report the phenomenology of formation of Local spatial Parity Breaking (LPB in the hot and dense baryon matter is discussed and its simulation within a number of QCD-inspired models is outlined. The appearance of new states in the spectra of scalar, pseudoscalar and vector particles in such a matter is elucidated. In particular, from the effective vector meson theory in the presence of Chern-Simons interaction it is demonstrated that the spectrum of massive vector mesons splits into three polarization components with different effective masses. The asymmetry in production of longitudinally and transversely polarized states of ρ and ω mesons for various values of the dilepton invariant mass can serve as a characteristic indication of the LPB in PHENIX, STAR and ALICE experiments.

  16. Chiral imbalance in QCD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrianov, Alexander; Andrianov, Vladimir; Espriu, Domenec

    2017-03-01

    The chiral imbalance (ChI) is given by a difference between the numbers of RH and LH quarks which may occur in the fireball after heavy ion collision. To characterize it adiabatically a quark chiral (axial) chemical potential must be introduced taking into account emergence of a ChI in such a phase. In this report the phenomenology of formation of Local spatial Parity Breaking (LPB) in the hot and dense baryon matter is discussed and its simulation within a number of QCD-inspired models is outlined. The appearance of new states in the spectra of scalar, pseudoscalar and vector particles in such a matter is elucidated. In particular, from the effective vector meson theory in the presence of Chern-Simons interaction it is demonstrated that the spectrum of massive vector mesons splits into three polarization components with different effective masses. The asymmetry in production of longitudinally and transversely polarized states of ρ and ω mesons for various values of the dilepton invariant mass can serve as a characteristic indication of the LPB in PHENIX, STAR and ALICE experiments.

  17. Symmetry energy and neutron star properties in the saturated Nambu–Jona-Lasinio model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Si-Na Wei

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we adopt the Nambu–Jona-Lasinio (NJL model that ensures the nuclear matter saturation properties to study the density dependence of the symmetry energy. With the interactions constrained by the chiral symmetry, the symmetry energy shows novel characters different from those in conventional mean-field models. First, the negative symmetry energy at high densities that is absent in relativistic mean-field (RMF models can be obtained in the RMF approximation by introducing a chiral isovector–vector interaction, although it would be ruled out by the neutron star (NS stability. Second, with the inclusion of the isovector–scalar interaction the symmetry energy exhibits a general softening at high densities even for the large slope parameter of the symmetry energy. The NS properties obtained in the present NJL model can be in accord with the observations. The NS maximum mass obtained with various isovector–scalar couplings and momentum cutoffs is well above the 2M⊙, and the NS radius obtained well meets the limits extracted from recent measurements. In particular, the significant reduction of the canonical NS radius occurs with the moderate decrease of the slope of the symmetry energy.

  18. Gauge symmetry from decoupling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Wetterich

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Gauge symmetries emerge from a redundant description of the effective action for light degrees of freedom after the decoupling of heavy modes. This redundant description avoids the use of explicit constraints in configuration space. For non-linear constraints the gauge symmetries are non-linear. In a quantum field theory setting the gauge symmetries are local and can describe Yang–Mills theories or quantum gravity. We formulate gauge invariant fields that correspond to the non-linear light degrees of freedom. In the context of functional renormalization gauge symmetries can emerge if the flow generates or preserves large mass-like terms for the heavy degrees of freedom. They correspond to a particular form of gauge fixing terms in quantum field theories.

  19. Fundamental symmetries and interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jungmann, KP

    2005-01-01

    In nuclear physics numerous possibilities exist to investigate fundamental symmetries and interactions. In particular, the precise measurements of properties of fundamental fermions, searches for new interactions in beta-decays, and violations of discrete symmeties offer possibilities to search for

  20. Wigner's Symmetry Representation Theorem

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 19; Issue 10. Wigner's Symmetry Representation Theorem: At the Heart of Quantum Field Theory! Aritra Kr Mukhopadhyay. General Article Volume 19 Issue 10 October 2014 pp 900-916 ...

  1. Symmetry, beauty and evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enquist, M; Arak, A

    1994-11-10

    Humans and certain other species find symmetrical patterns more attractive than asymmetrical ones. These preferences may appear in response to biological signals, or in situations where there is no obvious signalling context, such as exploratory behaviour and human aesthetic response to pattern. It has been proposed that preferences for symmetry have evolved in animals because the degree of symmetry in signals indicates the signaller's quality. By contrast, we show here that symmetry preferences may arise as a by-product of the need to recognize objects irrespective of their position and orientation in the visual field. The existence of sensory biases for symmetry may have been exploited independently by natural selection acting on biological signals and by human artistic innovation. This may account for the observed convergence on symmetrical forms in nature and decorative art.

  2. Quantizations of D = 3 Lorentz symmetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lukierski, J. [University of Wroclaw, Institute for Theoretical Physics, Wroclaw (Poland); Tolstoy, V.N. [University of Wroclaw, Institute for Theoretical Physics, Wroclaw (Poland); Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2017-04-15

    Using the isomorphism o(3; C) ≅ sl(2; C) we develop a new simple algebraic technique for complete classification of quantum deformations (the classical r-matrices) for real forms o(3) and o(2,1) of the complex Lie algebra o(3; C) in terms of real forms of sl(2; C): su(2), su(1,1) and sl(2; R). We prove that the D = 3 Lorentz symmetry o(2,1) ≅ su(1,1) ≅ sl(2; R) has three different Hopf-algebraic quantum deformations, which are expressed in the simplest way by two standard su(1,1) and sl(2; R) q-analogs and by simple Jordanian sl(2; R) twist deformation. These quantizations are presented in terms of the quantum Cartan-Weyl generators for the quantized algebras su(1,1) and sl(2; R) as well as in terms of quantum Cartesian generators for the quantized algebra o(2,1). Finally, some applications of the deformed D = 3 Lorentz symmetry are mentioned. (orig.)

  3. Plasmonic rod dimers as elementary planar chiral meta-atoms

    CERN Document Server

    Zhukovsky, Sergei V; Chigrin, Dmitry N

    2011-01-01

    Electromagnetic response of metallic rod dimers is theoretically calculated for arbitrary planar arrangement of rods in the dimer. It is shown that dimers without an in-plane symmetry axis exhibit elliptical dichroism and act as "atoms" in planar chiral metamaterials. Due to a very simple geometry of the rod dimer, such planar metamaterials are much easier in fabrication than conventional split-ring or gammadion-type structures, and lend themselves to a simple analytical treatment based on coupled dipole model. Dependencies of metamaterial's directional asymmetry on the dimer's geometry are established analytically and confirmed in numerical simulations.

  4. Chiral quantum dot based materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govan, Joseph; Loudon, Alexander; Baranov, Alexander V.; Fedorov, Anatoly V.; Gun'ko, Yurii

    2014-05-01

    Recently, the use of stereospecific chiral stabilising molecules has also opened another avenue of interest in the area of quantum dot (QD) research. The main goal of our research is to develop new types of technologically important quantum dot materials containing chiral defects, study their properties and explore their applications. The utilisation of chiral penicillamine stabilisers allowed the preparation of new water soluble white emitting CdS quantum nanostructures which demonstrated circular dichroism in the band-edge region of the spectrum. It was also demonstrated that all three types of QDs (D-, L-, and Rac penicillamine stabilised) show very broad emission bands between 400 and 700 nm due to defects or trap states on the surfaces of the nanocrystals. In this work the chiral CdS based quantum nanostructures have also been doped by copper metal ions and new chiral penicilamine stabilized CuS nanoparticles have been prepared and investigated. It was found that copper doping had a strong effect at low levels in the synthesis of chiral CdS nanostructures. We expect that this research will open new horizons in the chemistry of chiral nanomaterials and their application in biotechnology, sensing and asymmetric synthesis.

  5. Dihedral flavor symmetries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blum, Alexander Simon

    2009-06-10

    This thesis deals with the possibility of describing the flavor sector of the Standard Model of Particle Physics (with neutrino masses), that is the fermion masses and mixing matrices, with a discrete, non-abelian flavor symmetry. In particular, mass independent textures are considered, where one or several of the mixing angles are determined by group theory alone and are independent of the fermion masses. To this end a systematic analysis of a large class of discrete symmetries, the dihedral groups, is analyzed. Mass independent textures originating from such symmetries are described and it is shown that such structures arise naturally from the minimization of scalar potentials, where the scalars are gauge singlet flavons transforming non-trivially only under the flavor group. Two models are constructed from this input, one describing leptons, based on the group D{sub 4}, the other describing quarks and employing the symmetry D{sub 14}. In the latter model it is the quark mixing matrix element V{sub ud} - basically the Cabibbo angle - which is at leading order predicted from group theory. Finally, discrete flavor groups are discussed as subgroups of a continuous gauge symmetry and it is shown that this implies that the original gauge symmetry is broken by fairly large representations. (orig.)

  6. The Kronecker product in terms of Hubbard operators and the Clebsch–Gordan decomposition of SU(2SU(2)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Enríquez, Marco; Rosas-Ortiz, Oscar, E-mail: orosas@fis.cinvestav.mx

    2013-12-15

    We review the properties of the Kronecker (direct, or tensor) product of square matrices A⊗B⊗C⋯ in terms of Hubbard operators. In its simplest form, a Hubbard operator X{sub n}{sup i,j} can be expressed as the n-square matrix which has entry 1 in position (i,j) and zero in all other entries. The algebra and group properties of the observables that define a multipartite quantum system are notably straightforward in such a framework. In particular, we use the Kronecker product in Hubbard notation to get the Clebsch–Gordan decomposition of the product group SU(2SU(2). Finally, the n-dimensional irreducible representations so obtained are used to derive closed forms of the Clebsch–Gordan coefficients that rule the addition of angular momenta. Our results can be further developed in many different directions. -- Highlights: •The Kronecker product is studied in terms of Hubbard operators. •Complicated calculations involving large matrices are reduced to simple relations of subscripts. •The algebraic properties of the quantum observables of multipartite systems are studied. •The Clebsch–Gordan coefficients are given in terms of hypergeometric {sub 3}F{sub 2} functions. •The results can be further developed in many different directions.

  7. Electronic chirality in the metallic ferromagnet Fe1 /3TaS2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, S.; Manuel, I.; al-Wahish, Amal; O'Neal, K. R.; Smith, K. A.; Won, C. J.; Kim, J. W.; Cheong, S.-W.; Haraldsen, J. T.; Musfeldt, J. L.

    2017-11-01

    We bring together optical spectroscopy and first-principles calculations to reveal the electronic properties of the chiral ferromagnet Fe1 /3TaS2 . Signatures of chirality are superimposed upon a complex free-carrier response that emanates from both Ta and Fe bands. These include a honeycomb charge density pattern in the Fe layer and a hole → electron pocket crossover at the K point, low-energy excitations between spin split bands that cross the Fermi surface, and clustered rather than well-separated on-site and charge-transfer excitations. These findings advance the understanding of intercalation and symmetry breaking on the fundamental excitations in metallic chalcogenides.

  8. Assuming Regge trajectories in holographic QCD: from OPE to Chiral Perturbation Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Cappiello, Luigi; Greynat, David

    2015-01-01

    The Soft Wall model in holographic QCD has Regge trajectories but wrong operator product expansion (OPE) for the two-point vectorial QCD Green function. We correct analytically this problem and describe the axial sector and chiral symmetry breaking. The low energy chiral parameters, $F_{\\pi}$ and $L_{10}$ , are well described analytically by the model in terms of Regge spacing and QCD condensates. The model nicely supports and extends previous theoretical analyses advocating Digamma function to study QCD two-point functions in different momentum regions.

  9. Rectified transport of chiral active particles in the two-dimensional channel with varied upper wall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiao-qun; An, Meng

    2018-02-01

    Rectified transport of chiral self-propelled particles is numerically investigated in a two-dimensional channel with varied upper wall. Due to the chirality of active particles, the transversal asymmetry can break the symmetry of the system and induce a longitudinal net transport. It is found that the variation of the channel walls can strongly affect the rectified transport. There exist optimal values of the parameters (the variation parameter, the self-propelled velocity, the angular velocity, and the translational diffusion) at which the scaled average velocity takes its maximal value.

  10. Stereochemical vocabulary for structures that are chiral but not asymmetric: History, analysis, and proposal for a rational terminology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gal, Joseph

    2011-09-01

    Asymmetric objects are necessarily chiral, but a structure may be chiral and not asymmetric if it possesses one or more proper rotation axes. Chiral but not asymmetric molecules are important in chemistry and its applications, but no suitable term exists for the designation of such structures, and their terminology in the literature is confused and chaotic. Dissymmetric has been redefined by some authors as "chiral but not asymmetric," in conflict both with Pasteur's definition of the term as "not superposable on its mirror image" (without other restrictions, i.e., chiral) and the understanding of the term in stereochemistry. Moreover, dissymmetric and asymmetric are frequently confused because of their similar forms. Furthermore, dissymmetric is widely used in many other definitions in chemistry, physics, and other disciplines. Thus, dissymmetric is unsuitable in the new definition of "chiral but not asymmetric," and a new term is needed. The adjective "symmanumorphous" is therefore proposed for "chiral but not asymmetric". "Sym" (from symmetry) indicates the presence of some symmetry in the structure, and "manu" (from "manus," Latin for hand, e.g., manual, manuscript) refers to its handedness. "Morphous," from the Greek "morphē," that is, form, is widely used, for example, anthropomorphous, enantiomorphous, etc. Symmanumorphous is convenient and euphonious and at 15 characters (same as enantiomorphous) is not unduly long. The nouns "a symmanumorph" (a structure that is chiral but not asymmetric) and "symmanumorphism" (the phenomenon of chirality without asymmetry) are also proposed. The new terminology is adaptable in other languages and would contribute to creating order out of linguistic chaos. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  11. Gauge-Higgs Unification Models in Six Dimensions with S2/Z2 Extra Space and GUT Gauge Symmetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Wei Chiang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We review gauge-Higgs unification models based on gauge theories defined on six-dimensional spacetime with S2/Z2 topology in the extra spatial dimensions. Nontrivial boundary conditions are imposed on the extra S2/Z2 space. This review considers two scenarios for constructing a four-dimensional theory from the six-dimensional model. One scheme utilizes the SO(12 gauge symmetry with a special symmetry condition imposed on the gauge field, whereas the other employs the E6 gauge symmetry without requiring the additional symmetry condition. Both models lead to a standard model-like gauge theory with the SU(3×SU(2L×U(1Y(×U(12 symmetry and SM fermions in four dimensions. The Higgs sector of the model is also analyzed. The electroweak symmetry breaking can be realized, and the weak gauge boson and Higgs boson masses are obtained.

  12. Resurgence in η-deformed Principal Chiral Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demulder, Saskia [Theoretische Natuurkunde, Vrije Universiteit Brussel and The International Solvay Institutes,Pleinlaan 2, 1050, Brussels (Belgium); Dorigoni, Daniele [Centre for Particle Theory & Department of Mathematical Sciences, Durham University,Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Thompson, Daniel C. [Theoretische Natuurkunde, Vrije Universiteit Brussel and The International Solvay Institutes,Pleinlaan 2, 1050, Brussels (Belgium)

    2016-07-18

    We study the SU(2) Principal Chiral Model (PCM) in the presence of an integrable η-deformation. We put the theory on ℝ×S{sup 1} with twisted boundary conditions and then reduce the circle to obtain an effective quantum mechanics associated with the Whittaker-Hill equation. Using resurgent analysis we study the large order behaviour of perturbation theory and recover the fracton events responsible for IR renormalons. The fractons are modified from the standard PCM due to the presence of this η-deformation but they are still the constituents of uniton-like solutions in the deformed quantum field theory. We also find novel SL(2,ℂ) saddles, thus strengthening the conjecture that the semi-classical expansion of the path integral gives rise to a resurgent transseries once written as a sum over Lefschetz thimbles living in a complexification of the field space. We conclude by connecting our quantum mechanics to a massive deformation of the N=2 4-d gauge theory with gauge group SU(2) and N{sub f}=2.

  13. On Yang--Mills Theories with Chiral Matter at Strong Coupling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shifman, M.; /Minnesota U., Theor. Phys. Inst. /Saclay, SPhT; Unsal, Mithat; /SLAC /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.

    2008-08-20

    Strong coupling dynamics of Yang-Mills theories with chiral fermion content remained largely elusive despite much effort over the years. In this work, we propose a dynamical framework in which we can address non-perturbative properties of chiral, non-supersymmetric gauge theories, in particular, chiral quiver theories on S{sub 1} x R{sub 3}. Double-trace deformations are used to stabilize the center-symmetric vacuum. This allows one to smoothly connect smaller(S{sub 1}) to larger(S{sub 1}) physics (R{sub 4} is the limiting case) where the double-trace deformations are switched off. In particular, occurrence of the mass gap in the gauge sector and linear confinement due to bions are analytically demonstrated. We find the pattern of the chiral symmetry realization which depends on the structure of the ring operators, a novel class of topological excitations. The deformed chiral theory, unlike the undeformed one, satisfies volume independence down to arbitrarily small volumes (a working Eguchi-Kawai reduction) in the large N limit. This equivalence, may open new perspectives on strong coupling chiral gauge theories on R{sub 4}.

  14. Amino Acids and Chirality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Jamie E.

    2012-01-01

    Amino acids are among the most heavily studied organic compound class in carbonaceous chondrites. The abundance, distributions, enantiomeric compositions, and stable isotopic ratios of amino acids have been determined in carbonaceous chondrites fi'om a range of classes and petrographic types, with interesting correlations observed between these properties and the class and typc of the chondritcs. In particular, isomeric distributions appear to correlate with parent bodies (chondrite class). In addition, certain chiral amino acids are found in enantiomeric excess in some chondrites. The delivery of these enantiomeric excesses to the early Earth may have contributed to the origin of the homochirality that is central to life on Earth today. This talk will explore the amino acids in carbonaceous chondritcs and their relevance to the origin of life.

  15. Thermodynamics of SU(2 quantum Yang-Mills theory and CMB anomalies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hofmann Ralf

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available A brief review of effective SU(2 Yang-Mills thermodynamics in the deconfining phase is given, including the construction of the thermal ground-state estimate in terms of an inert, adjoint scalar field φ, based on non-propagating (antiselfdual field configurations of topological charge unity. We also discuss kinematic constraints on interacting propagating gauge fields implied by the according spatial coarse-graining, and we explain why the screening physics of an SU(2 photon is subject to an electric-magnetically dual interpretation. This argument relies on the fact that only (anticalorons of scale parameter ρ ∼ |φ|−1 contribute to the coarse-graining required for thermal-ground-state emergence at temperature T. Thus, use of the effective gauge coupling e in the (anticaloron action is justified, yielding the value ħ for the latter at almost all temperatures. As a consequence, the indeterministic transition of initial to final plane waves caused by an effective, pointlike vertex is fundamentally mediated in Euclidean time by a single (anticaloron being part of the thermal ground state. Next, we elucidate how a low-frequency excess of line temperature in the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB determines the value of the critical temperature of the deconfining-preconfining phase transition of an SU(2 Yang-Mills theory postulated to describe photon propagation, and we describe how, starting at a redshift of about unity, SU(2 photons collectively work 3D temperature depressions into the CMB. Upon projection along a line of sight, a given depression influences the present CMB sky in a cosmologically local way, possibly explaining the large-angle anomalies confirmed recently by the Planck collaboration. Finally, six relativistic polarisations residing in the SU(2 vector modes roughly match the number of degrees of freedom in cosmic neutrinos (Planck which would disqualify the latter as radiation. Indeed, if interpreted as single center

  16. Review of chiral perturbation theory

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. A review of chiral perturbation theory and recent developments on the comparison of its predictions with experiment is presented. Some interesting topics with scope for further elaboration are touched upon.

  17. Homogenization of resonant chiral metamaterials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andryieuski, Andrei; Menzel, C.; Rockstuhl, Carsten

    2010-01-01

    Homogenization of metamaterials is a crucial issue as it allows to describe their optical response in terms of effective wave parameters as, e.g., propagation constants. In this paper we consider the possible homogenization of chiral metamaterials. We show that for meta-atoms of a certain size...... an analytical criterion for performing the homogenization and a tool to predict the homogenization limit. We show that strong coupling between meta-atoms of chiral metamaterials may prevent their homogenization at all....

  18. Chiral thermodynamics of nuclear matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fiorilla, Salvatore

    2012-10-23

    The equation of state of nuclear matter is calculated at finite temperature in the framework of in-medium chiral perturbation theory up to three-loop order. The dependence of its thermodynamic properties on the isospin-asymmetry is investigated. The chiral quark condensate is evaluated for symmetric nuclear matter. Its behaviour as a function of density and temperature sets important nuclear physics constraints for the QCD phase diagram.

  19. Chiral behaviour of the pion decay constant in N{sub f}=2 QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lottini, Stefano [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany). John von Neumann-Inst. fuer Computing NIC; Collaboration: ALPHA Collaboration

    2013-11-15

    As increased statistics and new ensembles with light pions have become available within the CLS effort, we complete previous work by inspecting the chiral behaviour of the pion decay constant. We discuss the validity of Chiral Perturbation Theory ({chi}PT) and examine the results concerning the pion decay constant and the ensuing scale setting, the pion mass squared in units of the quark mass, and the ratio of decay constants f{sub K}=f{sub {pi}}; along the way, the relevant low-energy constants of SU(2) {chi}PT are estimated. All simulations were performed with two dynamical flavours of nonperturbatively O(a)-improved Wilson fermions, on volumes with m{sub {pi}}L{>=}4, pion masses{>=}192 MeV and lattice spacings down to 0.048 fm. Our error analysis takes into account the effect of slow modes on the autocorrelations.

  20. Multi-W Events at LHC from a Warped Extra Dimension with Custodial Symmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Dennis, C; Tseng, J; Unel, M K; Dennis, Christopher; Servant, Geraldine; Tseng, Jeff; Unel, Muge Karagoz

    2007-01-01

    Randall-Sundrum models based on SU(2)_L * SU(2)_R with custodial symmetry are compelling frameworks for building alternative models of electroweak symmetry breaking. A particular feature of these models is the likely presence of light Kaluza-Klein fermions related to the right-handed top quark. These can be as light as a few hundred GeV and still compatible with EW precision constraints. In this article, we study the detectability of four-W final states at the LHC, which arise from the pair-production and tW decay of light Kaluza-Klein bottom quarks as well as light Kaluza-Klein quarks carrying electric charge 5/3.

  1. Probing neutrino and Higgs sectors in SU(2){sub 1} x SU(2){sub 2} x U(1){sub Y} model with lepton-flavor non-universality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hue, L.T. [Duy Tan University, Institute of Research and Development, Da Nang City (Viet Nam); Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology, Institute of Physics, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Arbuzov, A.B. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Researches, Bogoliubov Laboratory for Theoretical Physics, Dubna (Russian Federation); Ngan, N.T.K. [Cantho University, Department of Physics, Cantho (Viet Nam); Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology, Graduate University of Science and Technology, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Long, H.N. [Ton Duc Thang University, Theoretical Particle Physics and Cosmology Research Group, Ho Chi Minh City (Viet Nam); Ton Duc Thang University, Faculty of Applied Sciences, Ho Chi Minh City (Viet Nam)

    2017-05-15

    The neutrino and Higgs sectors in the SU(2){sub 1} x SU(2){sub 2} x U(1){sub Y} model with lepton-flavor non-universality are discussed. We show that active neutrinos can get Majorana masses from radiative corrections, after adding only new singly charged Higgs bosons. The mechanism for the generation of neutrino masses is the same as in the Zee models. This also gives a hint to solving the dark matter problem based on similar ways discussed recently in many radiative neutrino mass models with dark matter. Except the active neutrinos, the appearance of singly charged Higgs bosons and dark matter does not affect significantly the physical spectrum of all particles in the original model. We indicate this point by investigating the Higgs sector in both cases before and after singly charged scalars are added into it. Many interesting properties of physical Higgs bosons, which were not shown previously, are explored. In particular, the mass matrices of charged and CP-odd Higgs fields are proportional to the coefficient of triple Higgs coupling μ. The mass eigenstates and eigenvalues in the CP-even Higgs sector are also presented. All couplings of the SM-like Higgs boson to normal fermions and gauge bosons are different from the SM predictions by a factor c{sub h}, which must satisfy the recent global fit of experimental data, namely 0.995 < vertical stroke c{sub h} vertical stroke < 1. We have analyzed a more general diagonalization of gauge boson mass matrices, then we show that the ratio of the tangents of the W-W{sup '} and Z-Z{sup '} mixing angles is exactly the cosine of the Weinberg angle, implying that number of parameters is reduced by 1. Signals of new physics from decays of new heavy fermions and Higgs bosons at LHC and constraints of their masses are also discussed. (orig.)

  2. Probing neutrino and Higgs sectors in { SU(2) }_1 × { SU(2) }_2 × { U(1) }_Y model with lepton-flavor non-universality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hue, L. T.; Arbuzov, A. B.; Ngan, N. T. K.; Long, H. N.

    2017-05-01

    The neutrino and Higgs sectors in the { SU(2) }_1 × { SU(2) }_2 × { U(1) }_Y model with lepton-flavor non-universality are discussed. We show that active neutrinos can get Majorana masses from radiative corrections, after adding only new singly charged Higgs bosons. The mechanism for the generation of neutrino masses is the same as in the Zee models. This also gives a hint to solving the dark matter problem based on similar ways discussed recently in many radiative neutrino mass models with dark matter. Except the active neutrinos, the appearance of singly charged Higgs bosons and dark matter does not affect significantly the physical spectrum of all particles in the original model. We indicate this point by investigating the Higgs sector in both cases before and after singly charged scalars are added into it. Many interesting properties of physical Higgs bosons, which were not shown previously, are explored. In particular, the mass matrices of charged and CP-odd Higgs fields are proportional to the coefficient of triple Higgs coupling μ . The mass eigenstates and eigenvalues in the CP-even Higgs sector are also presented. All couplings of the SM-like Higgs boson to normal fermions and gauge bosons are different from the SM predictions by a factor c_h, which must satisfy the recent global fit of experimental data, namely 0.995Z-Z' mixing angles is exactly the cosine of the Weinberg angle, implying that number of parameters is reduced by 1. Signals of new physics from decays of new heavy fermions and Higgs bosons at LHC and constraints of their masses are also discussed.

  3. Physics from symmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Schwichtenberg, Jakob

    2018-01-01

    This is a textbook that derives the fundamental theories of physics from symmetry. It starts by introducing, in a completely self-contained way, all mathematical tools needed to use symmetry ideas in physics. Thereafter, these tools are put into action and by using symmetry constraints, the fundamental equations of Quantum Mechanics, Quantum Field Theory, Electromagnetism, and Classical Mechanics are derived. As a result, the reader is able to understand the basic assumptions behind, and the connections between the modern theories of physics. The book concludes with first applications of the previously derived equations. Thanks to the input of readers from around the world, this second edition has been purged of typographical errors and also contains several revised sections with improved explanations. .

  4. Rigidity and symmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Weiss, Asia; Whiteley, Walter

    2014-01-01

    This book contains recent contributions to the fields of rigidity and symmetry with two primary focuses: to present the mathematically rigorous treatment of rigidity of structures, and to explore the interaction of geometry, algebra, and combinatorics. Overall, the book shows how researchers from diverse backgrounds explore connections among the various discrete structures with symmetry as the unifying theme.  Contributions present recent trends and advances in discrete geometry, particularly in the theory of polytopes. The rapid development of abstract polytope theory has resulted in a rich theory featuring an attractive interplay of methods and tools from discrete geometry, group theory, classical geometry, hyperbolic geometry and topology.  The volume will also be a valuable source as an introduction to the ideas of both combinatorial and geometric rigidity theory and its applications, incorporating the surprising impact of symmetry. It will appeal to students at both the advanced undergraduate and gradu...

  5. From instantons to sphalerons: Time-dependent periodic solutions of SU(2)-Higgs theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frost, K.L.; Yaffe, L.G. [Department of Physics, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98105-1560 (United States)

    1999-11-01

    We solve numerically for periodic, spherically symmetric, classical solutions of SU(2)-Higgs theory in four-dimensional Euclidean space. In the limit of short periods the solutions approach tiny instanton{endash}anti-instanton superpositions while, for longer periods, the solutions merge with the static sphaleron. A previously predicted bifurcation point, where two branches of periodic solutions meet, appears for Higgs boson masses larger than 3.091M{sub W}. {copyright} {ital 1999} {ital The American Physical Society}

  6. Fractal dimension of the topological charge density distribution in SU(2) lattice gluodynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buividovich, P.V. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation); Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics ITEP, Moscow (Russian Federation); Kalaydzhyan, T. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics ITEP, Moscow (Russian Federation); Polikarpov, M.I. [Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics ITEP, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2011-11-15

    We study the effect of cooling on the spatial distribution of the topological charge density in quenched SU(2) lattice gauge theory with overlap fermions. We show that as the gauge field configurations are cooled, the Hausdorff dimension of regions where the topological charge is localized gradually changes from d=2/3 towards the total space dimension. Hence the cooling procedure destroys some of the essential properties of the topological charge distribution. (orig.)

  7. Template Composite Dark Matter : SU(2) gauge theory with 2 fundamental flavours

    CERN Document Server

    Drach, Vincent; Pica, Claudio; Rantaharju, Jarno; Sannino, Francesco

    2015-11-13

    We present a non perturbative study of SU(2) gauge theory with two fundamental Dirac flavours. We discuss how the model can be used as a template for composite Dark Matter (DM). We estimate one particular interaction of the DM candidate with the Standard Model : the interaction through photon exchange computing the electric polarizability of the DM candidate. Finally, we briefly discuss the viability of the model given the present experimental constraints.

  8. Quantum entanglement in the one-dimensional spin-orbital SU (2 )⊗XXZ model

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Wen-Long; Horsch, Peter; Oleś, Andrzej M.

    2015-08-01

    We investigate the phase diagram and the spin-orbital entanglement of a one-dimensional SU (2 )⊗XXZ model with SU(2) spin exchange and anisotropic XXZ orbital exchange interactions and negative exchange coupling constant. As a unique feature, the spin-orbital entanglement entropy in the entangled ground states increases here linearly with system size. In the case of Ising orbital interactions, we identify an emergent phase with long-range spin-singlet dimer correlations triggered by a quadrupling of correlations in the orbital sector. The peculiar translational-invariant spin-singlet dimer phase has finite von Neumann entanglement entropy and survives when orbital quantum fluctuations are included. It even persists in the isotropic SU (2 )⊗SU (2) limit. Surprisingly, for finite transverse orbital coupling, the long-range spin-singlet correlations also coexist in the antiferromagnetic spin and alternating orbital phase making this phase also unconventional. Moreover, we also find a complementary orbital singlet phase that exists in the isotropic case but does not extend to the Ising limit. The nature of entanglement appears essentially different from that found in the frequently discussed model with positive coupling. Furthermore, we investigate the collective spin and orbital wave excitations of the disentangled ferromagnetic-spin/ferro-orbital ground state and explore the continuum of spin-orbital excitations. Interestingly, one finds among the latter excitations two modes of exciton bound states. Their spin-orbital correlations differ from the remaining continuum states and exhibit logarithmic scaling of the von Neumann entropy with increasing system size. We demonstrate that spin-orbital excitons can be experimentally explored using resonant inelastic x-ray scattering, where the strongly entangled exciton states can be easily distinguished from the spin-orbital continuum.

  9. Comment on 'Calculated chiral and magneto-electric dichroic signals for copper metaborate (CuB(2)O(4)) in an applied magnetic field'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arima, T; Saito, M

    2009-12-09

    Contrary to a claim by Lovesey and Staub (2009 J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 21 142201), a careful treatment of symmetry shows that the application of a magnetic field along a twofold axis can induce the crystallographic chirality in a tetragonal system with the point group [Formula: see text] like CuB(2)O(4). The chirality is reversed by a 90° rotation of the magnetic field around the c axis.

  10. Electric-field-induced assembly and propulsion of chiral colloidal clusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Fuduo; Wang, Sijia; Wu, David T; Wu, Ning

    2015-05-19

    Chiral molecules with opposite handedness exhibit distinct physical, chemical, or biological properties. They pose challenges as well as opportunities in understanding the phase behavior of soft matter, designing enantioselective catalysts, and manufacturing single-handed pharmaceuticals. Microscopic particles, arranged in a chiral configuration, could also exhibit unusual optical, electric, or magnetic responses. Here we report a simple method to assemble achiral building blocks, i.e., the asymmetric colloidal dimers, into a family of chiral clusters. Under alternating current electric fields, two to four lying dimers associate closely with a central standing dimer and form both right- and left-handed clusters on a conducting substrate. The cluster configuration is primarily determined by the induced dipolar interactions between constituent dimers. Our theoretical model reveals that in-plane dipolar repulsion between petals in the cluster favors the achiral configuration, whereas out-of-plane attraction between the central dimer and surrounding petals favors a chiral arrangement. It is the competition between these two interactions that dictates the final configuration. The theoretical chirality phase diagram is found to be in excellent agreement with experimental observations. We further demonstrate that the broken symmetry in chiral clusters induces an unbalanced electrohydrodynamic flow surrounding them. As a result, they rotate in opposite directions according to their handedness. Both the assembly and propulsion mechanisms revealed here can be potentially applied to other types of asymmetric particles. Such kinds of chiral colloids will be useful for fabricating metamaterials, making model systems for both chiral molecules and active matter, or building propellers for microscale transport.

  11. Symmetry, structure, and spacetime

    CERN Document Server

    Rickles, Dean

    2007-01-01

    In this book Rickles considers several interpretative difficulties raised by gauge-type symmetries (those that correspond to no change in physical state). The ubiquity of such symmetries in modern physics renders them an urgent topic in philosophy of physics. Rickles focuses on spacetime physics, and in particular classical and quantum general relativity. Here the problems posed are at their most pathological, involving the apparent disappearance of spacetime! Rickles argues that both traditional ontological positions should be replaced by a structuralist account according to which relational

  12. Measures with symmetry properties

    CERN Document Server

    Schindler, Werner

    2003-01-01

    Symmetries and invariance principles play an important role in various branches of mathematics. This book deals with measures having weak symmetry properties. Even mild conditions ensure that all invariant Borel measures on a second countable locally compact space can be expressed as images of specific product measures under a fixed mapping. The results derived in this book are interesting for their own and, moreover, a number of carefully investigated examples underline and illustrate their usefulness and applicability for integration problems, stochastic simulations and statistical applications.

  13. The engagement of optical angular momentum in nanoscale chirality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, David L.

    2017-09-01

    Wide-ranging developments in optical angular momentum have recently led to refocused attention on issues of material chirality. The connection between optical spin and circular polarization, linking to well-known and utilized probes of chirality such as circular dichroism, has prompted studies aiming to achieve enhanced means of differentiating enantiomers - molecules or particles of opposite handedness. A number of newly devised schemes for physically separating mirror-image components by optical methods have also been gaining traction, together with a developing appreciation of how the scale of physical dimensions ultimately determines any capacity to differentially select for material chirality. The scope of such enquiries has substantially widened on recognition that suitably structured, topologically charged beams of light - often known as `twisted light' or `optical vortices' can additionally convey orbital angular momentum. A case can be made that understanding the full scope and constraints upon chiroptical interactions in the nanoscale regime involves the resolution of CPT symmetry conditions governing the fundamental interactions between matter and photons. The principles provide a sound theoretical test-bed for new methodologies.

  14. Continuum model for chiral induced spin selectivity in helical molecules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medina, Ernesto [Centro de Física, Instituto Venezolano de Investigaciones Científicas, 21827, Caracas 1020 A (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of); Groupe de Physique Statistique, Institut Jean Lamour, Université de Lorraine, 54506 Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy Cedex (France); Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287 (United States); González-Arraga, Luis A. [IMDEA Nanoscience, Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Finkelstein-Shapiro, Daniel; Mujica, Vladimiro [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287 (United States); Berche, Bertrand [Centro de Física, Instituto Venezolano de Investigaciones Científicas, 21827, Caracas 1020 A (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of); Groupe de Physique Statistique, Institut Jean Lamour, Université de Lorraine, 54506 Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy Cedex (France)

    2015-05-21

    A minimal model is exactly solved for electron spin transport on a helix. Electron transport is assumed to be supported by well oriented p{sub z} type orbitals on base molecules forming a staircase of definite chirality. In a tight binding interpretation, the spin-orbit coupling (SOC) opens up an effective π{sub z} − π{sub z} coupling via interbase p{sub x,y} − p{sub z} hopping, introducing spin coupled transport. The resulting continuum model spectrum shows two Kramers doublet transport channels with a gap proportional to the SOC. Each doubly degenerate channel satisfies time reversal symmetry; nevertheless, a bias chooses a transport direction and thus selects for spin orientation. The model predicts (i) which spin orientation is selected depending on chirality and bias, (ii) changes in spin preference as a function of input Fermi level and (iii) back-scattering suppression protected by the SO gap. We compute the spin current with a definite helicity and find it to be proportional to the torsion of the chiral structure and the non-adiabatic Aharonov-Anandan phase. To describe room temperature transport, we assume that the total transmission is the result of a product of coherent steps.

  15. Parafermionic theory with the symmetry Z{sub 5}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dotsenko, Vladimir S. E-mail: dotsenko@lpthe.jussieu.fr; Jacobsen, Jesper Lykke E-mail: jacobsen@ipno.in2p3.fr; Santachiara, Raoul E-mail: santachiara@lpthe.jussieu.fr

    2003-04-28

    A parafermionic conformal theory with the symmetry Z{sub 5} is constructed, based on the second solution of Fateev-Zamolodchikov for the corresponding parafermionic chiral algebra. The primary operators of the theory, which are the singlet, doublet 1, doublet 2, and disorder operators, are found to be accommodated by the weight lattice of the classical Lie algebra B{sub 2}. The finite Kac tables for unitary theories are defined and the formula for the conformal dimensions of primary operators is given.

  16. Experimental study of active LRC circuits with PT symmetries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schindler, Joseph; Li Ang; Zheng, Mei C.; Ellis, F. M.; Kottos, Tsampikos [Department of Physics, Wesleyan University, Middletown, Connecticut 06459 (United States)

    2011-10-15

    Mutually coupled modes of a pair of active LRC circuits, one with amplification and another with an equivalent amount of attenuation, provide an experimental realization of a wide class of systems where gain and loss mechanisms break the Hermiticity while preserving parity-time PT symmetry. For a value {gamma}{sub PT} of the gain and loss strength parameter the eigenfrequencies undergo a spontaneous phase transition from real to complex values, while the normal modes coalesce, acquiring a definite chirality. The consequences of the phase transition in the spatiotemporal energy evolution are also presented.

  17. The discrete family symmetries as the possible solution to the flavour problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dziewit, B.; Holeczek, J.; Richter, M.; Zajac, S.; Zralek, M.

    2017-07-01

    In order to explain the fermions' masses and mixing parameters appearing in the lepton sector of the Standard Model, one proposes the extension of its symmetry. A discrete, non-Abelian subgroup of U(3) is added to the gauge group SU(3) C × SU(2) L × U(1) Y . Apart from that, one assumes the existence of one extra Higgs doublet. This article focuses mainly on the mathematical theorems and computational techniques which brought us to the results.

  18. Universality of conductance in mesoscopic junctions and chiral anomaly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oxman, Luis E.; Mucciolo, Eduardo R. [Universidadade Catolica do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    2001-03-01

    We show that the electrical conductance of one-dimensional, finite systems with chiral symmetry is not renormalized at low temperatures and depends solely on the characteristics of the electron gas at the leads. This chiral symmetry is related to the invariance under phase transformations that distinguish between left- and right-moving electrons. Alternatively to previous works in the literature, we employ a fermionic path integral formalism which does not rely on bosonization. The fundamental role played by the reservoirs and the finite size of the junctions is put into evidence. [Spanish] En este articulo mostramos que en sistemas unidimensionales finitos con simetria quiral, la conductancia electrica no se renormaliza a bajas temperaturas, y depende solamente de las caracteristicas del gas de electrones en los reservatorios. Esta simetria quiral esta relacionada a la invariancia ante transformadores de fase que distinguen entre modos derechos e izquierdos. Empleamos un formalismo de integral funcional sobre fermiones, el cual constituye una alternativa al metodo de bosonizacion utilizado previamente en la literatura. Tambien ponemos en evidencia el papel fundamental desempenado por los reservatorios y el tamano finito de la muestra.

  19. Band gap and broken chirality in single-layer and bilayer graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varlet, Anastasia; Liu, Ming-Hao; Bischoff, Dominik; Simonet, Pauline; Taniguchi, Takashi; Watanabe, Kenji; Richter, Klaus; Ihn, Thomas; Ensslin, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    Chirality is one of the key features governing the electronic properties of single- and bilayer graphene: the basics of this concept and its consequences on transport are presented in this review. By breaking the inversion symmetry, a band gap can be opened in the band structures of both systems at the K-point. This leads to interesting consequences for the pseudospin and, therefore, for the chirality. These consequences can be accessed by investigating the evolution of the Berry phase in such systems. Experimental observations of Fabry-Perot interference in a dual-gated bilayer graphene device are finally presented and are used to illustrate the role played by the band gap on the evolution of the pseudospin. The presented results can be attributed to the breaking of the chirality in the energy range close to the gap.

  20. The nature of persistent conformational chirality, racemization mechanisms, and predictions in diarylether heptanoid cyclophane natural products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pattawong, Ommidala; Salih, M Quamar; Rosson, Nicholas T; Beaudry, Christopher M; Cheong, Paul Ha-Yeon

    2014-05-28

    Restricted rotations of chemical bonds can lead to the presence of persistent conformational chirality in molecules lacking stereocenters. We report the development of first-of-a-kind predictive rules that enable identification of conformational chirality and prediction of racemization barriers in the diarylether heptanoid (DAEH) natural products that do not possess stereocenters. These empirical rules-of-thumb are based on quantum mechanical computations (SCS-MP2/∞//B3LYP/6-31G*/PCM) of racemization barriers of four representative DAEHs. Specifically, the local symmetry of ring B and the E/Z configuration of the vinylogous acid/ester are critical in determining conformational chirality in the DAEH natural product family.

  1. Chirality in adsorption on solid surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaera, Francisco

    2017-12-07

    In the present review we survey the main advances made in recent years on the understanding of chemical chirality at solid surfaces. Chirality is an important topic, made particularly relevant by the homochiral nature of the biochemistry of life on Earth, and many chiral chemical reactions involve solid surfaces. Here we start our discussion with a description of surface chirality and of the different ways that chirality can be bestowed on solid surfaces. We then expand on the studies carried out to date to understand the adsorption of chiral compounds at a molecular level. We summarize the work published on the adsorption of pure enantiomers, of enantiomeric mixtures, and of prochiral molecules on chiral and achiral model surfaces, especially on well-defined metal single crystals but also on other flat substrates such as highly ordered pyrolytic graphite. Several phenomena are identified, including surface reconstruction and chiral imprinting upon adsorption of chiral agents, and the enhancement or suppression of enantioselectivity seen in some cases upon adsorption of enantiomixtures of chiral compounds. The possibility of enhancing the enantiopurity of adsorbed layers upon the addition of chiral seeds and the so-called "sergeants and soldiers" phenomenon are presented. Examples are provided where the chiral behavior has been associated with either thermodynamic or kinetic driving forces. Two main approaches to the creation of enantioselective surface sites are discussed, namely, via the formation of supramolecular chiral ensembles made out of small chiral adsorbates, and by adsorption of more complex chiral molecules capable of providing suitable chiral environments for reactants by themselves, via the formation of individual adsorbate:modifier adducts on the surface. Finally, a discussion is offered on the additional effects generated by the presence of the liquid phase often required in practical applications such as enantioselective crystallization, chiral

  2. Tunable odd-frequency triplet pairing states and skyrmion modes in chiral p-wave superconductor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Yu-Feng; Wen, Lin; Zha, Guo-Qiao; Zhou, Shi-Ping

    2017-08-29

    Bogliubov-de Gennes equations are solved self-consistently to investigate the properties of bound states in chiral p-wave superconductive disks. It shows that either an s-wave or the mixed d- and s-wave state with odd-frequency and spin-triplet symmetry is induced at the vortex core, depending both on the chirality of the pairing states and on the vortex topology. It is also found that the odd-frequency triplet even parity (OTE) bound state can be manipulated with a local non-magnetic potential. Interestingly, with an appropriate potential amplitude, the zero-energy OTE bound state can be stabilized at a distance from the vortex core and from the local potential. Possible existences of the Majorana fermion modes are expected if the particle-hole symmetry property is applied to the zero-energy OTE bound state. Moreover, skyrmion modes with an integer topological charge have been found to exist.

  3. Chiral Ramachandran Plots I: Glycine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baruch-Shpigler, Yael; Wang, Huan; Tuvi-Arad, Inbal; Avnir, David

    2017-10-24

    Ramachandran plots (RPs) map the wealth of conformations of the polypeptide backbone and are widely used to characterize protein structures. A limitation of the RPs is that they are based solely on two dihedral angles for each amino acid residue and provide therefore only a partial picture of the conformational richness of the protein. Here we extend the structural RP analysis of proteins from a two-dimensional (2D) map to a three-dimensional map by adding the quantitative degree of chirality-the continuous chirality measure (CCM)-of the amino acid residue at each point in the RP. This measure encompasses all bond angles and bond lengths of an amino acid residue. We focus in this report on glycine (Gly) because, due to its flexibility, it occupies a large portion of the 2D map, thus allowing a detailed study of the chirality measure, and in order to evaluate the justification of classically labeling Gly as the only achiral amino acid. We have analyzed in detail 4366 Gly residues extracted from high resolution crystallographic data of 160 proteins. This analysis reveals not only that Gly is practically always conformationally chiral, but that upon comparing with the backbone of all amino acids, the quantitative chirality values of Gly are of similar magnitudes to those of the (chiral) amino acids. Structural trends and energetic considerations are discussed in detail. Generally we show that adding chirality to Ramachandran plots creates far more informative plots that highlight the sensitivity of the protein structure to minor conformational changes.

  4. Horror Vacui Symmetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crumpecker, Cheryl

    2003-01-01

    Describes an art lesson used with children in the third grade to help them learn about symmetry, as well as encouraging them to draw larger than usual. Explains that students learn about the belief called "Horror Vacui" of the Northwest American Indian tribes and create their interpretation of this belief. (CMK)

  5. Exploring Metric Symmetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zwart, P.H.; Grosse-Kunstleve, R.W.; Adams, P.D.

    2006-07-31

    Relatively minor perturbations to a crystal structure can in some cases result in apparently large changes in symmetry. Changes in space group or even lattice can be induced by heavy metal or halide soaking (Dauter et al, 2001), flash freezing (Skrzypczak-Jankun et al, 1996), and Se-Met substitution (Poulsen et al, 2001). Relations between various space groups and lattices can provide insight in the underlying structural causes for the symmetry or lattice transformations. Furthermore, these relations can be useful in understanding twinning and how to efficiently solve two different but related crystal structures. Although (pseudo) symmetric properties of a certain combination of unit cell parameters and a space group are immediately obvious (such as a pseudo four-fold axis if a is approximately equal to b in an orthorhombic space group), other relations (e.g. Lehtio, et al, 2005) that are less obvious might be crucial to the understanding and detection of certain idiosyncrasies of experimental data. We have developed a set of tools that allows straightforward exploration of possible metric symmetry relations given unit cell parameters and a space group. The new iotbx.explore{_}metric{_}symmetry command produces an overview of the various relations between several possible point groups for a given lattice. Methods for finding relations between a pair of unit cells are also available. The tools described in this newsletter are part of the CCTBX libraries, which are included in the latest (versions July 2006 and up) PHENIX and CCI Apps distributions.

  6. Symmetries in fundamental physics

    CERN Document Server

    Sundermeyer, Kurt

    2014-01-01

    Over the course of the last century it has become clear that both elementary particle physics and relativity theories are based on the notion of symmetries. These symmetries become manifest in that the "laws of nature" are invariant under spacetime transformations and/or gauge transformations. The consequences of these symmetries were analyzed as early as in 1918 by Emmy Noether on the level of action functionals. Her work did not receive due recognition for nearly half a century, but can today be understood as a recurring theme in classical mechanics, electrodynamics and special relativity, Yang-Mills type quantum field theories, and in general relativity. As a matter of fact, as shown in this monograph, many aspects of physics can be derived solely from symmetry considerations. This substantiates the statement of E.P. Wigner "... if we knew all the laws of nature, or the ultimate Law of nature, the invariance properties of these laws would not furnish us new information." Thanks to Wigner we now also unders...

  7. Symmetries in fundamental physics

    CERN Document Server

    Sundermeyer, Kurt

    2014-01-01

    Over the course of the last century it has become clear that both elementary particle physics and relativity theories are based on the notion of symmetries. These symmetries become manifest in that the "laws of nature" are invariant under spacetime transformations and/or gauge transformations. The consequences of these symmetries were analyzed as early as in 1918 by Emmy Noether on the level of action functionals. Her work did not receive due recognition for nearly half a century, but can today be understood as a recurring theme in classical mechanics, electrodynamics and special relativity, Yang-Mills type quantum field theories, and in general relativity. As a matter of fact, as shown in this monograph, many aspects of physics can be derived solely from symmetry considerations. This substantiates the statement of E.P.Wigner "... if we knew all the laws of nature, or the ultimate Law of nature, the invariance properties of these laws would not furnish us new information." Thanks to Wigner we now also underst...

  8. Broken symmetry makes helium

    CERN Multimedia

    Gray, P L

    2003-01-01

    "The subatomic pion particle breaks the charge symmetry rule that governs both fusion and decay. In experiments performed at the Indiana University Cyclotron Laboratory, physicists forced heavy hydrogen (1 proton + 1 neutron) to fuse into helium in a controlled, measurable environment" (1 paragraph).

  9. Testing for central symmetry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Einmahl, John; Gan, Zhuojiong

    Omnibus tests for central symmetry of a bivariate probability distribution are proposed. The test statistics compare empirical measures of opposite regions. Under rather weak conditions, we establish the asymptotic distribution of the test statistics under the null hypothesis; it follows that they

  10. Nuclear lattice simulations using symmetry-sign extrapolation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laehde, Timo A.; Luu, Thomas [Forschungszentrum Juelich, Institute for Advanced Simulation, Institut fuer Kernphysik, and Juelich Center for Hadron Physics, Juelich (Germany); Lee, Dean [North Carolina State University, Department of Physics, Raleigh, NC (United States); Meissner, Ulf G. [Universitaet Bonn, Helmholtz-Institut fuer Strahlen- und Kernphysik and Bethe Center for Theoretical Physics, Bonn (Germany); Forschungszentrum Juelich, Institute for Advanced Simulation, Institut fuer Kernphysik, and Juelich Center for Hadron Physics, Juelich (Germany); Forschungszentrum Juelich, JARA - High Performance Computing, Juelich (Germany); Epelbaum, Evgeny; Krebs, Hermann [Ruhr-Universitaet Bochum, Institut fuer Theoretische Physik II, Bochum (Germany); Rupak, Gautam [Mississippi State University, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Mississippi State, MS (United States)

    2015-07-15

    Projection Monte Carlo calculations of lattice Chiral Effective Field Theory suffer from sign oscillations to a varying degree dependent on the number of protons and neutrons. Hence, such studies have hitherto been concentrated on nuclei with equal numbers of protons and neutrons, and especially on the alpha nuclei where the sign oscillations are smallest. Here, we introduce the ''symmetry-sign extrapolation'' method, which allows us to use the approximate Wigner SU(4) symmetry of the nuclear interaction to systematically extend the Projection Monte Carlo calculations to nuclear systems where the sign problem is severe. We benchmark this method by calculating the ground-state energies of the {sup 12}C, {sup 6}He and {sup 6}Be nuclei, and discuss its potential for studies of neutron-rich halo nuclei and asymmetric nuclear matter. (orig.)

  11. Type-II Symmetry-Protected Topological Dirac Semimetals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Tay-Rong; Xu, Su-Yang; Sanchez, Daniel S; Tsai, Wei-Feng; Huang, Shin-Ming; Chang, Guoqing; Hsu, Chuang-Han; Bian, Guang; Belopolski, Ilya; Yu, Zhi-Ming; Yang, Shengyuan A; Neupert, Titus; Jeng, Horng-Tay; Lin, Hsin; Hasan, M Zahid

    2017-07-14

    The recent proposal of the type-II Weyl semimetal state has attracted significant interest. In this Letter, we propose the concept of the three-dimensional type-II Dirac fermion and theoretically identify this new symmetry-protected topological state in the large family of transition-metal icosagenides, MA_{3} (M=V, Nb, Ta; A=Al, Ga, In). We show that the VAl_{3} family features a pair of strongly Lorentz-violating type-II Dirac nodes and that each Dirac node can be split into four type-II Weyl nodes with chiral charge ±1 via symmetry breaking. Furthermore, we predict that the Landau level spectrum arising from the type-II Dirac fermions in VAl_{3} is distinct from that of known Dirac or Weyl semimetals. We also demonstrate a topological phase transition from a type-II Dirac semimetal to a quadratic Weyl semimetal or a topological crystalline insulator via crystalline distortions.

  12. Switching the chirality of a ferroelectric vortex in designed nanostructures by a homogeneous electric field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Lich, Le; Shimada, Takahiro; Wang, Jie; Dinh, Van-Hai; Bui, Tinh Quoc; Kitamura, Takayuki

    2017-10-01

    Polarization vortices that typically form in ferroelectric nanostructures are fundamental polar topological structures characterized by a curling polarization around a stable core. The control of vortex chirality by conventional fields including homogeneous electric field is a key to the utilization of vortices in technological applications. However, an effective control of the vortex chirality by such an electric field remains elusive since the toroidal moment of ferroelectric vortex is conjugated to a curled electric field rather than the homogeneous electric field. Here we demonstrate the control of vortex chirality by homogeneous electric field in free-standing nanodots with rationally designed nanostructures. The nanodots are designed by including a notch or an antinotch in the rectangular structure of nanodots. The results show that the chirality of polarization vortex is deterministically switched by a homogeneous electric field through the control of depolarization distribution by designed structures. The evolution path under homogeneous electric field in antinotched nanodot takes place in the opposite direction in comparison with that in notched nanodot. We further demonstrate that the designed nanostructures break the symmetry of electrostatic field in the ferroelectric systems, where the depolarization field concentrates at the notch but scatters at the antinotch. Such a symmetry breaking of electrostatic field results in the opposite evolution paths in the notched and antinotched nanodots under homogeneous electric field and provides the fundamental reason that allows such control. The present study suggests a new route on the practical control of the vortex domain pattern in ferroelectric nanostructures by homogeneous electric field.

  13. Amplification of chirality in liquid crystals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eelkema, Rienk; Feringa, Ben L.

    2006-01-01

    The amplification of molecular chirality by liquid crystalline systems is widely applied in investigations towards enantioselective solvent - solute interactions, chiral supramolecular assemblies, smart materials, and the development of liquid crystal displays. Here we present an overview of recent

  14. Reagent controlled addition of chiral sulfur ylides to chiral aldehydes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bi Jie

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The degree of reagent and substrate control in the reaction of chiral sulfur ylides with chiral aldehydes has been investigated. Specifically, the reactions of the two enantiomers of the chiral benzyl sulfonium salt 1 with glyceraldehyde acetonide were studied in detail. Of the two new stereogenic centers created, it was found that the C1 stereochemistry was largely controlled by the reagent, whereas control at the C2 center was dependent on the aldehyde used. In one case, the trans isomer was produced via reversible formation of the intermediate betaine, whereas in the alternative case, the C2 center was under Felkin Anh/Cornforth control through non-reversible formation of the betaine. Thus, the aldehyde stereocenter influenced the degree of reversibility in betaine formation, which impacted on the stereocontrol at the C2 position.

  15. Pyramidal and Chiral Groupings of Gold Nanocrystals Assembled Using DNA Scaffolds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mastroianni, Alexander; Claridge, Shelley; Alivisatos, A. Paul

    2009-03-30

    Nanostructures constructed from metal and semiconductor nanocrystals conjugated to, and organized by DNA are an emerging class of material with collective optical properties. We created discrete pyramids of DNA with gold nanocrystals at the tips. By taking small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) measurments from solutions of these pyramids we confirmed that this pyramidal geometry creates structures which are more rigid in solution than linear DNA. We then took advantage of the tetrahedral symmetry to demonstrate construction of chiral nanostructures.

  16. Higgs-Yukawa model in chirally-invariant lattice field theory

    CERN Document Server

    Bulava, John; Jansen, Karl; Kallarackal, Jim; Knippschild, Bastian; Lin, C.-J.David; Nagai, Kei-Ichi; Nagy, Attila; Ogawa, Kenji

    2013-01-01

    Non-perturbative numerical lattice studies of the Higgs-Yukawa sector of the standard model with exact chiral symmetry are reviewed. In particular, we discuss bounds on the Higgs boson mass at the standard model top quark mass, and in the presence of heavy fermions. We present a comprehensive study of the phase structure of the theory at weak and very strong values of the Yukawa coupling as well as at non-zero temperature.

  17. Topological Fermi-liquid theory for interacting Weyl metals with time reversal symmetry breaking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jho, Yong-Soo; Han, Jae-Ho; Kim, Ki-Seok

    2017-05-01

    Introducing both the Berry curvature and the chiral anomaly into Landau's Fermi-liquid theory, we construct a topological Fermi-liquid theory, applicable to interacting Weyl metals in the absence of time reversal symmetry. Following the Landau's Fermi-liquid theory, we obtain an effective free-energy functional in terms of the density field of chiral fermions, where the band structure is modified, involved with an emergent magnetic dipole moment due to the Berry curvature. The density field of chiral fermions is determined by a self-consistent equation, minimizing the effective free-energy functional with respect to the order-parameter field. Beyond these thermodynamic properties, we construct a Boltzmann transport theory to encode both the Berry curvature and the chiral anomaly in the presence of forward scattering of a Fermi-liquid state, essential for understanding dynamic correlations in interacting Weyl metals. This generalizes the Boltzmann transport theory for the Landau's Fermi-liquid state in the respect of incorporating the topological structure and extends that for noninteracting Weyl metals in the sense of introducing the forward scattering. Finally, we justify this topological Fermi-liquid theory, generalizing the first-quantization description for noninteracting Weyl metals into the second-quantization representation for interacting Weyl metals. First, we introduce a topological Fermi-gas theory, integrating over high-energy electronic degrees of freedom deep inside a pair of chiral Fermi surfaces. As a result, we reproduce a topologically modified Drude model with both the Berry curvature and the chiral anomaly, given by the first-quantization description. Second, we take into account interactions between such low-energy chiral fermions on the pair of chiral Fermi surfaces. Following the Landau's Fermi-liquid theory, we perform the renormalization group analysis. We find that only forward scattering turns out to be marginal above possible

  18. Magnetic chirality as probed by neutron scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonet, V.; Loire, M.; Ballou, R.

    2012-11-01

    We review the concept of chirality, at first briefly in a general context then in the specific framework of the spin networks. We next discuss to what extent neutron scattering appears as an unconvertible tool to probe magnetic chirality in the static and dynamical regimes of the spins. The remarkable chiral ground state and excitations of the Fe-langasite compound finally serves to illustrate the use of neutron polarimetry in the experimental studies of the magnetic chirality.

  19. Quantum oscillations in the chiral magnetic conductivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaushik, Sahal; Kharzeev, Dmitri E.

    2017-06-01

    In strong magnetic field, the longitudinal magnetoconductivity in three-dimensional chiral materials is shown to exhibit a new type of quantum oscillations arising from the chiral magnetic effect (CME). These quantum CME oscillations are predicted to dominate over the Shubnikov-de Haas (SdH) ones in chiral materials with an approximately conserved chirality of quasiparticles at strong magnetic fields. The phase of quantum CME oscillations differs from the phase of the conventional SdH oscillations by π /2 .

  20. Natural selection of visual symmetries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helm, P.A. van der

    2002-01-01

    Implicitly, Wynn's target article starts from the transformational definition of symmetry. Unlike his suggestion, this traditional definition and the recent holographic definition are relevant to the discussion on the cognitive evolution of visual symmetries. These definitions reveal underlying

  1. On Symmetries in Optimal Control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaft, A.J. van der

    1986-01-01

    We discuss the use of symmetries in solving optimal control problems. In particular a procedure for obtaining symmetries is given which can be performed before the actual calculation of the optimal control and optimal Hamiltonian.

  2. Viscoelastic modes in chiral liquid crystals

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    amit@fs.rri.local.net (Amit Kumar Agarwal)

    our studies on the viscoelastic modes of some chiral liquid crystals using dynamic light scattering. We discuss viscoelastic modes corresponding to the C director fluctuations in the chiral smectic C phase and the behaviour of the Goldstone-mode near the chiral smectic C–smectic A phase transition. In cholesteric liquid ...

  3. Covariant perturbation theory and chiral superpropagators

    CERN Document Server

    Ecker, G

    1972-01-01

    The authors use a covariant formulation of perturbation theory for the non-linear chiral invariant pion model to define chiral superpropagators leading to S-matrix elements which are independent of the choice of the pion field coordinates. The relation to the standard definition of chiral superpropagators is discussed. (11 refs).

  4. Broken symmetries in field theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kok, Mark Okker de

    2008-01-01

    The thesis discusses the role of symmetries in Quantum Field Theory. Quantum Field Theory is the mathematical framework to describe the physics of elementary particles. A symmetry here means a transformation under which the model at hand is invariant. Three types of symmetry are distinguished: 1.

  5. Dynamical Symmetries in Classical Mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boozer, A. D.

    2012-01-01

    We show how symmetries of a classical dynamical system can be described in terms of operators that act on the state space for the system. We illustrate our results by considering a number of possible symmetries that a classical dynamical system might have, and for each symmetry we give examples of dynamical systems that do and do not possess that…

  6. Implicit Hamiltonian Systems with Symmetry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaft, A.J. van der

    1998-01-01

    Implicit Hamiltonian systems with symmetry are treated by exploiting the notion of symmetry of Dirac structures. It is shown how Dirac structures can be reduced to Dirac structures on the orbit space of the symmetry group, leading to a reduced implicit (generalized) Hamiltonian system. The approach

  7. Implicit Hamiltonian systems with symmetry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Schaft, Arjan

    1998-01-01

    Implicit Hamiltonian systems with symmetry are treated by exploiting the notion of symmetry of Dirac structures. It is shown how Dirac structures can be reduced to Dirac structures on the orbit space of the symmetry group, leading to a reduced implicit (generalized) Hamiltonian system. The approach

  8. Emergence of Symmetries from Entanglement

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2016-01-01

    Maximal Entanglement appears to be a key ingredient for the emergence of symmetries. We first illustrate this phenomenon using two examples: the emergence of conformal symmetry in condensed matter systems and  the relation of tensor networks to holography. We further present a Principle of Maximal Entanglement that seems to dictate to a large extend the structure of gauge symmetry.

  9. Chirality and gravitational parity violation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bargueño, Pedro

    2015-06-01

    In this review, parity-violating gravitational potentials are presented as possible sources of both true and false chirality. In particular, whereas phenomenological long-range spin-dependent gravitational potentials contain both truly and falsely chiral terms, it is shown that there are models that extend general relativity including also coupling of fermionic degrees of freedom to gravity in the presence of torsion, which give place to short-range truly chiral interactions similar to that usually considered in molecular physics. Physical mechanisms which give place to gravitational parity violation together with the expected size of the effects and their experimental constraints are discussed. Finally, the possible role of parity-violating gravity in the origin of homochirality and a road map for future research works in quantum chemistry is presented. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Topology in SU(2) lattice gauge theory and parallelization of functional magnetic resonance imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solbrig, Stefan

    2008-07-01

    In this thesis, I discuss topological properties of quenched SU(2) lattice gauge fields. In particular, clusters of topological charge density exhibit a power-law. The exponent of that power-law can be used to validate models for lattice gauge fields. Instead of working with fixed cutoffs of the topological charge density, using the notion of a ''watermark'' is more convenient. Furthermore, I discuss how a parallel computer, originally designed for lattice gauge field simulations, can be used for functional magnetic resonance imaging. Multi parameter fits can be parallelized to achieve almost real-time evaluation of fMRI data. (orig.)

  11. Spherically symmetric classical solutions in SU(2) gauge theory with a Higgs field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ratra, B.; Yaffe, L.G.

    1988-04-21

    A consistent ansatz for time dependent classical solutions in an SU(2) gauge theory with a doublet Higgs field is presented. The (3+1)-dimensional field equations are reduced to those of an effective (1+1)-dimensional theory. This ansatz describes solutions which travel between topologically distinct classical vacua of the non-abelian gauge theory. The real time version of these solutions describes the creation and decay of the unstable static 'sphaleron', the imaginary time version describes a euclidean instanton. (orig.)

  12. Machine learning of explicit order parameters: From the Ising model to SU(2) lattice gauge theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetzel, Sebastian J.; Scherzer, Manuel

    2017-11-01

    We present a solution to the problem of interpreting neural networks classifying phases of matter. We devise a procedure for reconstructing the decision function of an artificial neural network as a simple function of the input, provided the decision function is sufficiently symmetric. In this case one can easily deduce the quantity by which the neural network classifies the input. The method is applied to the Ising model and SU(2) lattice gauge theory. In both systems we deduce the explicit expressions of the order parameters from the decision functions of the neural networks. We assume no prior knowledge about the Hamiltonian or the order parameters except Monte Carlo-sampled configurations.

  13. Representations of the deformed U(su(2)) and U(osp(1,2)) algebras

    CERN Document Server

    Bonatsos, Dennis; Kolokotronis, P; Lenis, D; Bonatsos, Dennis

    1996-01-01

    The polynomial deformations of the Witten extensions of the U(su(2)) and U(osp(1,2)) algebras are three generator algebras with normal ordering, admitting a two generator subalgebra. The modules and the representations of these algebras are based on the construction of Verma modules, which are quotient modules, generated by ideals of the original algebra. This construction unifies a large number of the known algebras under the same scheme. The finite dimensional representations show new features such as the multiplicity of representations of the same dimensionality, or the existence of finite dimensional representations only for some dimensions.

  14. From decay to complete breaking: pulling the strings in SU(2) Yang-Mills theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepe, M; Wiese, U-J

    2009-05-15

    We study {2Q+1} strings connecting two static charges Q in (2+1)D SU(2) Yang-Mills theory. While the fundamental {2} string between two charges Q=1/2 is unbreakable, the adjoint {3} string connecting two charges Q=1 can break. When a {4} string is stretched beyond a critical length, it decays into a {2} string by gluon pair creation. When a {5} string is stretched, it first decays into a {3} string, which eventually breaks completely. The energy of the screened charges at the ends of a string is well described by a phenomenological constituent gluon model.

  15. Monopoles in the Plaquette Formulation of the 3D SU(2) Lattice Gauge Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Borisenko, O; Boháčik, J

    2011-01-01

    Using a plaquette formulation for lattice gauge models we describe monopoles of the three dimensional SU(2) theory which appear as configurations in the complete axial gauge and violate the continuum Bianchi identity. Furthemore we derive a dual formulation for the Wilson loop in arbitrary representation and calculate the form of the interaction between generated electric flux and monopoles in the region of a weak coupling relevant for the continuum limit. The effective theory which controls the interaction is of the sine-Gordon type model. The string tension is calculated within the semiclassical approximation.

  16. Hagedorn spectrum and thermodynamics of SU(2) and SU(3) Yang-Mills theories

    CERN Document Server

    Caselle, Michele; Panero, Marco

    2015-01-01

    We present a high-precision lattice calculation of the equation of state in the confining phase of SU(2) Yang-Mills theory. We show that the results are described very well by a gas of massive, non-interacting glueballs, provided one assumes an exponentially growing Hagedorn spectrum. The latter can be derived within an effective bosonic closed-string model, leading to a parameter-free theoretical prediction, which is in perfect agreement with our lattice results. Furthermore, when applied to SU(3) Yang-Mills theory, this effective model accurately describes the lattice results reported by Bors\\'anyi et al. in JHEP 07 (2012) 056.

  17. Correlation functions of the energy-momentum tensor in SU(2) gauge theory at finite temperature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huebner, K.; Karsch, F.; Pica, Claudio

    2008-01-01

    We calculate correlation functions of the energy-momentum tensor in the vicinity of the deconfinement phase transition of (3+1)-dimensional SU(2) gauge theory and discuss their critical behavior in the vicinity of the second order deconfinement transition. We show that correlation functions...... of the trace of the energy momentum tensor diverge uniformly at the critical point in proportion to the specific heat singularity. Correlation functions of the pressure, on the other hand, stay finite at the critical point. We discuss the consequences of these findings for the analysis of transport...

  18. Asymmetry, Symmetry and Beauty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbe R. Kopra

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Asymmetry and symmetry coexist in natural and human processes.  The vital role of symmetry in art has been well demonstrated. This article highlights the complementary role of asymmetry. Further we show that the interaction of asymmetric action (recursion and symmetric opposition (sinusoidal waves are instrumental in generating creative features (relatively low entropy, temporal complexity, novelty (less recurrence in the data than in randomized copies and complex frequency composition. These features define Bios, a pattern found in musical compositions and in poetry, except for recurrence instead of novelty. Bios is a common pattern in many natural and human processes (quantum processes, the expansion of the universe, gravitational waves, cosmic microwave background radiation, DNA, physiological processes, animal and human populations, and economic time series. The reduction in entropy is significant, as it reveals creativity and contradicts the standard claim of unavoidable decay towards disorder. Artistic creations capture fundamental features of the world.

  19. Segmentation Using Symmetry Deviation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hollensen, Christian; Højgaard, L.; Specht, L.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The manual delineation of gross tumour volume(GTV) for radiation therapy for head and neck cancer patients relies in some degree of pathological deviation from normal anatomical symmetry. The purpose of this study is to introduce a novel method for 3-dimensional determination of GTV...... hypopharyngeal cancer patients to find anatomical symmetry and evaluate it against the standard deviation of the normal patients to locate pathologic volumes. Combining the information with an absolute PET threshold of 3 Standard uptake value (SUV) a volume was automatically delineated. The overlap of automated...... segmentations on manual contours was evaluated using concordance index and sensitivity for the hypopharyngeal patients. The resulting concordance index and sensitivity was compared with the result of using a threshold of 3 SUV using a paired t-test. Results: The anatomical and symmetrical atlas was constructed...

  20. Precursors and BRST symmetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Boer, Jan; Freivogel, Ben; Kabir, Laurens; Lokhande, Sagar F.

    2017-07-01

    In the AdS/CFT correspondence, bulk information appears to be encoded in the CFT in a redundant way. A local bulk field corresponds to many different non-local CFT operators (precursors). We recast this ambiguity in the language of BRST symmetry, and propose that in the large N limit, the difference between two precursors is a BRST exact and ghost-free term. This definition of precursor ambiguities has the advantage that it generalizes to any gauge theory. Using the BRST formalism and working in a simple model with global symmetries, we re-derive a precursor ambiguity appearing in earlier work. Finally, we show within this model that the obtained ambiguity has the right number of parameters to explain the freedom to localize precursors within different spatial regions of the boundary order by order in the large N expansion.

  1. Symmetry in music

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrero, O F, E-mail: o.f.herrero@hotmail.co [Conservatorio Superior de Musica ' Eduardo Martinez Torner' Corrada del Obispo s/n 33003 - Oviedo - Asturias (Spain)

    2010-06-01

    Music and Physics are very close because of the symmetry that appears in music. A periodic wave is what music really is, and there is a field of Physics devoted to waves researching. The different musical scales are the base of all kind of music. This article tries to show how this musical scales are made, how the consonance is the base of many of them and how symmetric they are.

  2. Local Rotational Symmetries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-08-01

    way to choose among them. Spirals can occur in natural figures, e.g. a spiralled tail or a coil of rope or vine tendril, and in line drawings. Since...generated and removes it and all regions similar to it from the list of regions. The end result is a pruned list of distinct optimal regions. 4.7...that, at least to a first approximation, the potential symmetry regions pruned by the locality restriction are not perceptually salient. For example

  3. Cluster Symmetries and Dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freer Martin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Many light nuclei display behaviour that indicates that rather than behaving as an A-body systems, the protons and neutrons condense into clusters. The α-particle is the most obvious example of such clustering. This contribution examines the role of such α-clustering on the structure, symmetries and dynamics of the nuclei 8Be, 12C and 16O, recent experimental measurements and future perspectives.

  4. Symmetry and quantum mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Corry, Scott

    2016-01-01

    This book offers an introduction to quantum mechanics for professionals, students, and others in the field of mathematics who have a minimal background in physics with an understanding of linear algebra and group theory. It covers such topics as Lie groups, algebras and their representations, and analysis (Hilbert space, distributions, the spectral Theorem, and the Stone-Von Neumann Theorem). The book emphasizes the role of symmetry and is useful to physicists as it provides a mathematical introduction to the topic.

  5. Chiral Anomaly from Strain-Induced Gauge Fields in Dirac and Weyl Semimetals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pikulin, D. I.; Chen, Anffany; Franz, M.

    2016-10-01

    Dirac and Weyl semimetals form an ideal platform for testing ideas developed in high-energy physics to describe massless relativistic particles. One such quintessentially field-theoretic idea of the chiral anomaly already resulted in the prediction and subsequent observation of the pronounced negative magnetoresistance in these novel materials for parallel electric and magnetic fields. Here, we predict that the chiral anomaly occurs—and has experimentally observable consequences—when real electromagnetic fields E and B are replaced by strain-induced pseudo-electromagnetic fields e and b . For example, a uniform pseudomagnetic field b is generated when a Weyl semimetal nanowire is put under torsion. In accordance with the chiral anomaly equation, we predict a negative contribution to the wire resistance proportional to the square of the torsion strength. Remarkably, left- and right-moving chiral modes are then spatially segregated to the bulk and surface of the wire forming a "topological coaxial cable." This produces hydrodynamic flow with potentially very long relaxation time. Another effect we predict is the ultrasonic attenuation and electromagnetic emission due to a time-periodic mechanical deformation causing pseudoelectric field e . These novel manifestations of the chiral anomaly are most striking in the semimetals with a single pair of Weyl nodes but also occur in Dirac semimetals such as Cd3 As2 and Na3Bi and Weyl semimetals with unbroken time-reversal symmetry.

  6. Chiral Anomaly from Strain-Induced Gauge Fields in Dirac and Weyl Semimetals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. I. Pikulin

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Dirac and Weyl semimetals form an ideal platform for testing ideas developed in high-energy physics to describe massless relativistic particles. One such quintessentially field-theoretic idea of the chiral anomaly already resulted in the prediction and subsequent observation of the pronounced negative magnetoresistance in these novel materials for parallel electric and magnetic fields. Here, we predict that the chiral anomaly occurs—and has experimentally observable consequences—when real electromagnetic fields E and B are replaced by strain-induced pseudo-electromagnetic fields e and b. For example, a uniform pseudomagnetic field b is generated when a Weyl semimetal nanowire is put under torsion. In accordance with the chiral anomaly equation, we predict a negative contribution to the wire resistance proportional to the square of the torsion strength. Remarkably, left- and right-moving chiral modes are then spatially segregated to the bulk and surface of the wire forming a “topological coaxial cable.” This produces hydrodynamic flow with potentially very long relaxation time. Another effect we predict is the ultrasonic attenuation and electromagnetic emission due to a time-periodic mechanical deformation causing pseudoelectric field e. These novel manifestations of the chiral anomaly are most striking in the semimetals with a single pair of Weyl nodes but also occur in Dirac semimetals such as Cd_{3}As_{2} and Na_{3}Bi and Weyl semimetals with unbroken time-reversal symmetry.

  7. Use of chiral cell shape to ensure highly directional swimming in trypanosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Richard John

    2017-01-01

    Swimming cells typically move along a helical path or undergo longitudinal rotation as they swim, arising from chiral asymmetry in hydrodynamic drag or propulsion bending the swimming path into a helix. Helical paths are beneficial for some forms of chemotaxis, but why asymmetric shape is so prevalent when a symmetric shape would also allow highly directional swimming is unclear. Here, I analyse the swimming of the insect life cycle stages of two human parasites; Trypanosoma brucei and Leishmania mexicana. This showed quantitatively how chirality in T. brucei cell shape confers highly directional swimming. High speed videomicrographs showed that T. brucei, L. mexicana and a T. brucei RNAi morphology mutant have a range of shape asymmetries, from wild-type T. brucei (highly chiral) to L. mexicana (near-axial symmetry). The chiral cells underwent longitudinal rotation while swimming, with more rapid longitudinal rotation correlating with swimming path directionality. Simulation indicated hydrodynamic drag on the chiral cell shape caused rotation, and the predicted geometry of the resulting swimming path matched the directionality of the observed swimming paths. This simulation of swimming path geometry showed that highly chiral cell shape is a robust mechanism through which microscale swimmers can achieve highly directional swimming at low Reynolds number. It is insensitive to random variation in shape or propulsion (biological noise). Highly symmetric cell shape can give highly directional swimming but is at risk of giving futile circular swimming paths in the presence of biological noise. This suggests the chiral T. brucei cell shape (associated with the lateral attachment of the flagellum) may be an adaptation associated with the bloodstream-inhabiting lifestyle of this parasite for robust highly directional swimming. It also provides a plausible general explanation for why swimming cells tend to have strong asymmetries in cell shape or propulsion.

  8. Use of chiral cell shape to ensure highly directional swimming in trypanosomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard John Wheeler

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Swimming cells typically move along a helical path or undergo longitudinal rotation as they swim, arising from chiral asymmetry in hydrodynamic drag or propulsion bending the swimming path into a helix. Helical paths are beneficial for some forms of chemotaxis, but why asymmetric shape is so prevalent when a symmetric shape would also allow highly directional swimming is unclear. Here, I analyse the swimming of the insect life cycle stages of two human parasites; Trypanosoma brucei and Leishmania mexicana. This showed quantitatively how chirality in T. brucei cell shape confers highly directional swimming. High speed videomicrographs showed that T. brucei, L. mexicana and a T. brucei RNAi morphology mutant have a range of shape asymmetries, from wild-type T. brucei (highly chiral to L. mexicana (near-axial symmetry. The chiral cells underwent longitudinal rotation while swimming, with more rapid longitudinal rotation correlating with swimming path directionality. Simulation indicated hydrodynamic drag on the chiral cell shape caused rotation, and the predicted geometry of the resulting swimming path matched the directionality of the observed swimming paths. This simulation of swimming path geometry showed that highly chiral cell shape is a robust mechanism through which microscale swimmers can achieve highly directional swimming at low Reynolds number. It is insensitive to random variation in shape or propulsion (biological noise. Highly symmetric cell shape can give highly directional swimming but is at risk of giving futile circular swimming paths in the presence of biological noise. This suggests the chiral T. brucei cell shape (associated with the lateral attachment of the flagellum may be an adaptation associated with the bloodstream-inhabiting lifestyle of this parasite for robust highly directional swimming. It also provides a plausible general explanation for why swimming cells tend to have strong asymmetries in cell shape or propulsion.

  9. Symmetry theory of the flexomagnetoelectric interaction in the magnetic vortices and skyrmions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanygin, B. M.

    2012-03-01

    Symmetry classification of the magnetic vortices and skyrmions has been suggested. Relation between symmetry based predictions and direct calculation has been shown. It was shown that electric dipole moment of the vortex is located inside the small vortex core. The antivortices and antiskyrmions do not carry the total core electric dipole induced by the flexomagnetoelectric interaction in the hexoctahedral cubic crystal. The volumetric bound electric charge is distributed around the core. Switching of the core electric dipole direction produces the switching of the core magnetization or vortex chirality and vice versa. The vortices and skyrmions with time-invariant enantiomorphism have two degenerative states: clockwise and counterclockwise state.

  10. Sub-thermal to super-thermal light statistics from a disordered lattice via deterministic control of excitation symmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Kondakci, H E; Abouraddy, A F; Christodoulides, D N; Saleh, B E A

    2016-01-01

    Monochromatic coherent light traversing a disordered photonic medium evolves into a random field whose statistics are dictated by the disorder level. Here we demonstrate experimentally that light statistics can be deterministically tuned in certain disordered lattices, even when the disorder level is held fixed, by controllably breaking the excitation symmetry of the lattice modes. We exploit a lattice endowed with disorder-immune chiral symmetry in which the eigenmodes come in skew-symmetric pairs. If a single lattice site is excited, a "photonic thermalization gap" emerges: the realm of sub-thermal light statistics is inaccessible regardless of the disorder level. However, by exciting two sites with a variable relative phase, as in a traditional two-path interferometer, the chiral symmetry is judiciously broken and interferometric control over the light statistics is exercised, spanning sub-thermal and super-thermal regimes. These results may help develop novel incoherent lighting sources from coherent lase...

  11. Infrared conformality and bulk critical points: SU(2) with heavy adjoint quarks

    CERN Document Server

    Lucini, Biagio; Rago, Antonio; Rinaldi, Enrico

    2013-01-01

    The lattice phase structure of a gauge theory can be a serious obstruction to Monte Carlo studies of its continuum behaviour. This issue is particularly delicate when numerical studies are performed to determine whether a theory is in a (near-)conformal phase. In this work we investigate the heavy mass limit of the SU(2) gauge theory with Nf=2 adjoint fermions and its lattice phase diagram, showing the presence of a critical point ending a line of first order bulk phase transition. The relevant gauge observables and the low-lying spectrum are monitored in the vicinity of the critical point with very good control over different systematic effects. The scaling properties of masses and susceptibilities open the possibility that the effective theory at criticality is a scalar theory in the universality class of the four-dimensional Gaussian model. This behaviour is clearly different from what is observed for SU(2) gauge theory with two dynamical adjoint fermions, whose (near-)conformal numerical signature is henc...

  12. Symmetry of “Twins”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladan Nikolić

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The idea of construction of twin buildings is as old as architecture itself, and yet there is hardly any study emphasizing their specificity. Most frequently there are two objects or elements in an architectural composition of “twins” in which there may be various symmetry relations, mostly bilateral symmetries. The classification of “twins” symmetry in this paper is based on the existence of bilateral symmetry, in terms of the perception of an observer. The classification includes both, 2D and 3D perception analyses. We start analyzing a pair of twin buildings with projection of the architectural composition elements in 2D picture plane (plane of the composition and we distinguish four 2D keyframe cases based on the relation between the bilateral symmetry of the twin composition and the bilateral symmetry of each element. In 3D perception for each 2D keyframe case there are two sub-variants, with and without a symmetry plane parallel to the picture plane. The bilateral symmetry is dominant if the corresponding symmetry plane is orthogonal to the picture plane. The essence of the complete classification is relation between the bilateral (dominant symmetry of the architectural composition and the bilateral symmetry of each element of that composition.

  13. Chiral acidic amino acids induce chiral hierarchical structure in calcium carbonate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Wenge; Pacella, Michael S.; Athanasiadou, Dimitra; Nelea, Valentin; Vali, Hojatollah; Hazen, Robert M.; Gray, Jeffrey J.; McKee, Marc D.

    2017-04-01

    Chirality is ubiquitous in biology, including in biomineralization, where it is found in many hardened structures of invertebrate marine and terrestrial organisms (for example, spiralling gastropod shells). Here we show that chiral, hierarchically organized architectures for calcium carbonate (vaterite) can be controlled simply by adding chiral acidic amino acids (Asp and Glu). Chiral, vaterite toroidal suprastructure having a `right-handed' (counterclockwise) spiralling morphology is induced by L-enantiomers of Asp and Glu, whereas `left-handed' (clockwise) morphology is induced by D-enantiomers, and sequentially switching between amino-acid enantiomers causes a switch in chirality. Nanoparticle tilting after binding of chiral amino acids is proposed as a chiral growth mechanism, where a `mother' subunit nanoparticle spawns a slightly tilted, consequential `daughter' nanoparticle, which by amplification over various length scales creates oriented mineral platelets and chiral vaterite suprastructures. These findings suggest a molecular mechanism for how biomineralization-related enantiomers might exert hierarchical control to form extended chiral suprastructures.

  14. Symmetry breaking in ligand-protected gold clusters probed by nonlinear optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Steerteghem, Nick; Van Cleuvenbergen, Stijn; Deckers, Steven; Kumara, Chanaka; Dass, Amala; Häkkinen, Hannu; Clays, Koen; Verbiest, Thierry; Knoppe, Stefan

    2016-06-16

    The first hyperpolarizabilities of [Au25(SR)18](-1/0) and Au38(SR)24 clusters were determined by Hyper-Rayleigh Scattering. A strong dependence on the molecular symmetry was observed, and we explore two strategies to destroy the center of inversion in [Au25(SR)18](-1/0), protection by chiral ligands and alloying of the cluster with silver. This may open new avenues to applications of Au : SR clusters in second-order nonlinear optics.

  15. Mesoscale structure of chiral nematic shells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ye; Guo, Ashley; Zhang, Rui; Armas-Perez, Julio C; Martínez-González, José A; Rahimi, Mohammad; Sadati, Monirosadat; de Pablo, Juan J

    2016-11-09

    There is considerable interest in understanding and controlling topological defects in nematic liquid crystals (LCs). Confinement, in the form of droplets, has been particularly effective in that regard. Here, we employ a Landau-de Gennes formalism to explore the geometrical frustration of nematic order in shell geometries, and focus on chiral materials. By varying the chirality and thickness in uniform shells, we construct a phase diagram that includes tetravalent structures, bipolar structures (BS), bent structures and radial spherical structures (RSS). It is found that, in uniform shells, the BS-to-RSS structural transition, in response to both chirality and shell geometry, is accompanied by an abrupt change of defect positions, implying a potential use for chiral nematic shells as sensors. Moreover, we investigate thickness heterogeneity in shells and demonstrate that non-chiral and chiral nematic shells exhibit distinct equilibrium positions of their inner core that are governed by shell chirality c.

  16. Three-Index Symmetric Matter Representations of SU(2) in F-Theory from Non-Tate Form Weierstrass Models

    CERN Document Server

    Klevers, Denis

    2016-01-01

    We give an explicit construction of a class of F-theory models with matter in the three-index symmetric (4) representation of SU(2). This matter is realized at codimension two loci in the F-theory base where the divisor carrying the gauge group is singular; the associated Weierstrass model does not have the form associated with a generic SU(2) Tate model. For 6D theories, the matter is localized at a triple point singularity of arithmetic genus g=3 in the curve supporting the SU(2) group. This is the first explicit realization of matter in F-theory in a representation corresponding to a genus contribution greater than one. The construction is realized by "unHiggsing" a model with a U(1) gauge factor under which there is matter with charge q=3. The resulting SU(2) models can be further unHiggsed to realize non-Abelian G_2xSU(2) models with more conventional matter content or SU(2)^3 models with trifundamental matter. The U(1) models used as the basis for this construction do not seem to have a Weierstrass real...

  17. Symmetries of nonlinear ordinary differential equations: The ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2015-10-21

    Oct 21, 2015 ... Lie symmetry analysis is one of the powerful tools to analyse nonlinear ordinary differential equations. We review the effectiveness of this method in terms of various symmetries. We present the method of deriving Lie point symmetries, contact symmetries, hidden symmetries, nonlocal symmetries, ...

  18. Asymmetric Synthesis via Chiral Aziridines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tanner, David Ackland; Harden, Adrian; Wyatt, Paul

    1996-01-01

    A series of chiral bis(aziridines) has been synthesised and evaluated as chelating ligands for a variety of asymmetric transformations mediated by metals [Os (dihydroxylation), Pd (allylic alkylation) Cu (cyclopropanation and aziridination, Li (1,2-addition of organolithiums to imines)]. In the b...

  19. Single chirality through crystal grinding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noorduin, W.L.

    2010-01-01

    The properties of chiral molecules in living organisms can be different for left- and right-handed molecules. Therefore, ways to produce molecules of single handedness are of paramount importance, especially for economical, high yielding processes to synthesize pharmaceutical compounds that must be

  20. Review of chiral perturbation theory

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    the CLEO Collaboration. Other sources could be the decay τ →ππν. In the modern context, a fresh Roy equation analysis with the view of combining dis- persion relations with chiral perturbation theory has been carried out [20]. The evaluation of the inhomogeneous terms, the so-called 'driving terms' for the Roy equations ...

  1. Chiral phosphines in nucleophilic organocatalysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yumei Xiao

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This review discusses the tertiary phosphines possessing various chiral skeletons that have been used in asymmetric nucleophilic organocatalytic reactions, including annulations of allenes, alkynes, and Morita–Baylis–Hillman (MBH acetates, carbonates, and ketenes with activated alkenes and imines, allylic substitutions of MBH acetates and carbonates, Michael additions, γ-umpolung additions, and acylations of alcohols.

  2. Algebraic study of chiral anomalies

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2012-06-14

    Jun 14, 2012 ... †Reproduced with kind permission from Springer Science+Business Media: Algebraic study of chiral anoma- lies, Juan Mañes, Raymond Stora and Bruno Zumino, Communications in Mathematical Physics 102, 157–174. (1985) Springer-Verlag. Even though at variance with normal Pramana policy, we ...

  3. Nonperturbative effects of a topological theta term on principal chiral nonlinear sigma models in 2 + 1 dimensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Cenke; Ludwig, Andreas W W

    2013-05-17

    We study the effects of a topological Theta term on 2+1-dimensional principal chiral models, which are nonlinear sigma models defined on Lie group manifolds. We find that when Θ=π, the nature of the disordered phase of the principal chiral model is strongly affected by the topological term: it is either a gapless conformal field theory, or it is gapped and twofold degenerate. The result of our Letter can be used to analyze the boundary states of three-dimensional symmetry protected topological phases.

  4. Chiral Induction with Chiral Conformational Switches in the Limit of Low "Sergeants to Soldiers" Ratio

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nuermaimaiti, Ajiguli; Bombis, Christian; Knudsen, Martin Markvard

    2014-01-01

    Molecular-level insights into chiral adsorption phenomena are highly relevant within the fields of asymmetric heterogeneous catalysis or chiral separation and may contribute to understand the origins of homochirality in nature. Here, we investigate chiral induction by the "sergeants and soldiers......" mechanism for an oligo(phenylene ethynylene) based chiral conformational switch by coadsorbing it with an intrinsically chiral seed on Au(111). Through statistical analysis of scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) data we demonstrate successful chiral induction with a very low concentration of seeding...

  5. Geometry and symmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Yale, Paul B

    2012-01-01

    This book is an introduction to the geometry of Euclidean, affine, and projective spaces with special emphasis on the important groups of symmetries of these spaces. The two major objectives of the text are to introduce the main ideas of affine and projective spaces and to develop facility in handling transformations and groups of transformations. Since there are many good texts on affine and projective planes, the author has concentrated on the n-dimensional cases.Designed to be used in advanced undergraduate mathematics or physics courses, the book focuses on ""practical geometry,"" emphasi

  6. Leadership, power and symmetry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spaten, Ole Michael

    2016-01-01

    Research publications concerning managers who coach their own employees are barely visible despite its wide- spread use in enterprises (McCarthy & Milner, 2013; Gregory & Levy, 2011; Crabb, 2011). This article focuses on leadership, power and moments of symmetry in the coaching relationship...... regarding managers coaching their employees and it is asked; what contributes to coaching of high quality when one reflects on the power aspect as being immanent? Fourteen middle managers coached five of their employees, and all members of each party wrote down cues and experiences immediately after each...

  7. Mirror symmetry II

    CERN Document Server

    Greene, Brian R

    1997-01-01

    Mirror symmetry has undergone dramatic progress during the last five years. Tremendous insight has been gained on a number of key issues. This volume surveys these results. Some of the contributions in this work have appeared elsewhere, while others were written specifically for this collection. The areas covered are organized into 4 sections, and each presents papers by both physicists and mathematicians. This volume collects the most important developments that have taken place in mathematical physics since 1991. It is an essential reference tool for both mathematics and physics libraries and for students of physics and mathematics.

  8. Groups and symmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Farmer, David W

    1995-01-01

    In most mathematics textbooks, the most exciting part of mathematics-the process of invention and discovery-is completely hidden from the reader. The aim of Groups and Symmetry is to change all that. By means of a series of carefully selected tasks, this book leads readers to discover some real mathematics. There are no formulas to memorize; no procedures to follow. The book is a guide: Its job is to start you in the right direction and to bring you back if you stray too far. Discovery is left to you. Suitable for a one-semester course at the beginning undergraduate level, there are no prerequ

  9. Gauging the Full R-Symmetry Group in Five-dimensional, N = 2 Yang-Mills/Einstein/tensor Supergravity

    CERN Document Server

    Günaydin, M; Gunaydin, Murat; Zagermann, Marco

    2001-01-01

    We show that certain 5d, N=2 Yang-Mills/Einstein supergravity theories admit the gauging of the \\emph{full} R-symmetry group, $SU(2)_{R}$, of the underlying $\\mathcal{N}=2$ Poincar\\'{e} superalgebra. This generalizes the previously studied Abelian gaugings of $U(1)_{R}\\subset SU(2)_{R}$, and completes the construction of the most general vector and tensor field coupled $5d$, $\\mathcal{N}=2$ supergravity theories with gauge interactions. The gauging of $SU(2)_{R}$ turns out to be possible only in special cases, and leads to a new type of scalar potential. For a large class of these theories the potential does not have any critical points.

  10. Molecular Chirality: Enantiomer Differentiation by High-Resolution Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirota, Eizi

    2014-06-01

    I have demonstrated that triple resonance performed on a three-rotational-level system of a chiral molecule of C1 symmetry exhibits signals opposite in phase for different enantiomers, thereby making enantiomer differentiation possible by microwave spectroscopy This prediction was realized by Patterson et al. on 1,2-propanediol and 1,3-butanediol. We thus now add a powerful method: microwave spectroscopy to the study of chiral molecules, for which hitherto only the measurement of optical rotation has been employed. Although microwave spectroscopy is applied to molecules in the gaseous phase, it is unprecedentedly superior to the traditional method: polarimeter in resolution, accuracy, sensitivity, and so on, and I anticipate a new fascinating research area to be opened in the field of molecular chirality. More versatile and efficient systems should be invented and developed for microwave spectroscopy, in order to cope well with new applications expected for this method For C2 and Cn (n ≥ 3)chiral molecules, the three-rotational-level systems treated above for C1 molecules are no more available within one vibronic state. It should, however, be pointed out that, if we take into account an excited vibronic state in addition to the ground state, for example, we may encounter many three-level systems. Namely, either one rotational transition in the ground state is combined with two vibronic transitions, or such a rotational transition in an excited state may be connected through two vibronic transitions to a rotational level in the ground state manifold. The racemization obviously plays a crucial role in the study of molecular chirality. However, like many other terms employed in chemistry, this important process has been "defined" only in a vague way, in other words, it includes many kinds of processes, which are not well classified on a molecular basis. I shall mention an attempt to obviate these shortcomings in the definition of racemization and also to clarify the

  11. Quantum Fluctuations along Symmetry Crossover in a Kondo-Correlated Quantum Dot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrier, Meydi; Arakawa, Tomonori; Hata, Tokuro; Fujiwara, Ryo; Delagrange, Raphaëlle; Deblock, Richard; Teratani, Yoshimichi; Sakano, Rui; Oguri, Akira; Kobayashi, Kensuke

    2017-05-01

    Universal properties of entangled many-body states are controlled by their symmetry and quantum fluctuations. By the magnetic-field tuning of the spin-orbital degeneracy in a Kondo-correlated quantum dot, we have modified quantum fluctuations to directly measure their influence on the many-body properties along the crossover from SU(4) to SU(2) symmetry of the ground state. High-sensitive current noise measurements combined with the nonequilibrium Fermi liquid theory clarify that the Kondo resonance and electron correlations are enhanced as the fluctuations, measured by the Wilson ratio, increase along the symmetry crossover. Our achievement demonstrates that nonlinear noise constitutes a measure of quantum fluctuations that can be used to tackle quantum phase transitions.

  12. REVIEW ARTICLE: Chiral metamaterials: simulations and experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bingnan; Zhou, Jiangfeng; Koschny, Thomas; Kafesaki, Maria; Soukoulis, Costas M.

    2009-11-01

    Electromagnetic metamaterials are composed of periodically arranged artificial structures. They show peculiar properties, such as negative refraction and super-lensing, which are not seen in natural materials. The conventional metamaterials require both negative epsilon and negative μ to achieve negative refraction. Chiral metamaterial is a new class of metamaterials offering a simpler route to negative refraction. In this paper, we briefly review the history of metamaterials and the developments on chiral metamaterials. We study the wave propagation properties in chiral metamaterials and show that negative refraction can be realized in chiral metamaterials with a strong chirality, with neither epsilon nor μ negative required. We have developed a retrieval procedure, adopting a uniaxial bi-isotropic model to calculate the effective parameters such as n ± , κ, epsilon and μ of the chiral metamaterials. Our work on the design, numerical calculations and experimental measurements of chiral metamaterials is introduced. Strong chiral behaviors such as optical activity and circular dichroism are observed and negative refraction is obtained for circularly polarized waves in these chiral metamaterials. We show that 3D isotropic chiral metamaterials can eventually be realized.

  13. Timoshenko beam model for chiral materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, T. Y.; Wang, Y. N.; Yuan, L.; Wang, J. S.; Qin, Q. H.

    2017-12-01

    Natural and artificial chiral materials such as deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), chromatin fibers, flagellar filaments, chiral nanotubes, and chiral lattice materials widely exist. Due to the chirality of intricately helical or twisted microstructures, such materials hold great promise for use in diverse applications in smart sensors and actuators, force probes in biomedical engineering, structural elements for absorption of microwaves and elastic waves, etc. In this paper, a Timoshenko beam model for chiral materials is developed based on noncentrosymmetric micropolar elasticity theory. The governing equations and boundary conditions for a chiral beam problem are derived using the variational method and Hamilton's principle. The static bending and free vibration problem of a chiral beam are investigated using the proposed model. It is found that chirality can significantly affect the mechanical behavior of beams, making materials more flexible compared with nonchiral counterparts, inducing coupled twisting deformation, relatively larger deflection, and lower natural frequency. This study is helpful not only for understanding the mechanical behavior of chiral materials such as DNA and chromatin fibers and characterizing their mechanical properties, but also for the design of hierarchically structured chiral materials.

  14. Extended Soliton Solutions in an Effective Action for SU(2 Yang-Mills Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobuyuki Sawado

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The Skyrme-Faddeev-Niemi (SFN model which is an O(3 σ model in three dimensional space up to fourth-order in the first derivative is regarded as a low-energy effective theory of SU(2 Yang-Mills theory. One can show from the Wilsonian renormalization group argument that the effective action of Yang-Mills theory recovers the SFN in the infrared region. However, the theory contains an additional fourth-order term which destabilizes the soliton solution. We apply the perturbative treatment to the second derivative term in order to exclude (or reduce the ill behavior of the original action and show that the SFN model with the second derivative term possesses soliton solutions.

  15. More on the SU(2) deconfinement transition in the mixed action

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gavai, R.V. [Theoretical Physics Group, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Homi Bhabha Road, Mumbai 400005 (India); Mathur, M. [Dipartimento di Fisica dell Universita and INFN, Piazza Torricelli 2 Pisa-56100 (Italy)

    1997-07-01

    We examine certain issues related to the universality of the SU(2) lattice gauge theory at nonzero temperatures. Using Monte Carlo simulations and strong coupling expansions, we study the behavior of the deconfinement transition in an extended coupling plane ({beta},{beta}{sub A}) around the tricritical point where the deconfinement transition changes from second to first order. Our numerical results on N{sub {tau}}=2,4,6,8 lattices show that the tricritical point first moves down towards the Wilson axis and then moves slowly upwards, if at all, as the lattice spacing is reduced. Lattices with very large N{sub {tau}} seem to be, therefore, necessary for the mixed action to exhibit the critical exponents of the three-dimensional Ising model for positive values of the adjoint coupling. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  16. $SU(2)$ gauge theory with two fundamental flavours: scalar and pseudoscalar spectrum

    CERN Document Server

    Arthur, Rudy; Hietanen, Ari; Pica, Claudio; Sannino, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the scalar and pseudoscalar spectrum of the $SU(2)$ gauge theory with $N_f=2$ flavours of fermions in the fundamental representation using non perturbative lattice simulations. We provide first benchmark estimates of the mass of the lightest $0(0^{+})$ ($\\sigma$), $0(0^{-})$ ($\\eta'$) and $1(0^+)$ ($a_0$) states, including estimates of the relevant disconnected contributions. We find $m_{a_0}/F_{\\rm{PS}}= 16.7(4.9)$, $m_\\sigma/F_{\\rm{PS}}=19.2(10.8)$ and $m_{\\eta'}/F_{\\rm{PS}} = 12.8(4.7)$. These values for the masses of light scalar states provide crucial information for composite extensions of the Standard Model from the unified Fundamental Composi te Higgs-Technicolor theory \\cite{Cacciapaglia:2014uja} to models of composite dark matter.

  17. Study of shear viscosity of SU(2)-gluodynamics within lattice simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Astrakhantsev, N.Yu. [Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics,Moscow, 117218 (Russian Federation); Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology,Dolgoprudny, 141700 (Russian Federation); Braguta, V.V. [Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics,Moscow, 117218 (Russian Federation); Institute for High Energy Physics NRC “Kurchatov Institute”,Protvino, 142281 Russian Federation (Russian Federation); Far Eastern Federal University, School of Biomedicine,Vladivostok, 690950 (Russian Federation); National Research Nuclear University MEPhI (Moscow Engineering Physics Institute),Kashirskoe highway, 31, Moscow, 115409 (Russian Federation); Kotov, A.Yu. [Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics,Moscow, 117218 (Russian Federation); National Research Nuclear University MEPhI (Moscow Engineering Physics Institute),Kashirskoe highway, 31, Moscow, 115409 (Russian Federation)

    2015-09-14

    This paper is devoted to the study of two-point correlation function of the energy-momentum tensor 〈T{sub 12}T{sub 12}〉 for SU(2)-gluodynamics within lattice simulation of QCD. Using multilevel algorithm we carried out the measurement of the correlation function at the temperature T/T{sub c}≃1.2. It is shown that lattice data can be described by spectral functions which interpolate between hydrodynamics at low frequencies and asymptotic freedom at high frequencies. The results of the study of spectral functions allowed us to estimate the ratio of shear viscosity to the entropy density η/s=0.134±0.057.

  18. Effective geometric phases and topological transitions in SO(3) and SU(2) rotations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saarikoski, Henri; Baltanás, José Pablo; Vázquez-Lozano, J Enrique; Nitta, Junsaku; Frustaglia, Diego

    2016-04-27

    We address the development of geometric phases in classical and quantum magnetic moments (spin-1/2) precessing in an external magnetic field. We show that nonadiabatic dynamics lead to a topological phase transition determined by a change in the driving field topology. The transition is associated with an effective geometric phase which is identified from the paths of the magnetic moments in a spherical geometry. The topological transition presents close similarities between SO(3) and SU(2) cases but features differences in, e.g. the adiabatic limits of the geometric phases, being 2π and π in the classical and the quantum case, respectively. We discuss possible experiments where the effective geometric phase would be observable.

  19. Scaling properties of SU(2) gauge theory with mixed fundamental-adjoint action

    CERN Document Server

    Rinaldi, Enrico; Lucini, Biagio; Patella, Agostino; Rago, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    We study the phase diagram of the SU(2) lattice gauge theory with fundamental-adjoint Wilson plaquette action. We confirm the presence of a first order bulk phase transition and we estimate the location of its end-point in the bare parameter space. If this point is second order, the theory is one of the simplest realizations of a lattice gauge theory admitting a continuum limit at finite bare couplings. All the relevant gauge observables are monitored in the vicinity of the fixed point with very good control over finite-size effects. The scaling properties of the low-lying glueball spectrum are studied while approaching the end-point in a controlled manner.

  20. Drinfeld Doubles for Finite Subgroups of SU(2 and SU(3 Lie Groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Coquereaux

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Drinfeld doubles of finite subgroups of SU(2 and SU(3 are investigated in detail. Their modular data – S, T and fusion matrices – are computed explicitly, and illustrated by means of fusion graphs. This allows us to reexamine certain identities on these tensor product or fusion multiplicities under conjugation of representations that had been discussed in our recent paper [J. Phys. A: Math. Theor. 44 (2011, 295208, 26 pages], proved to hold for simple and affine Lie algebras, and found to be generally wrong for finite groups. It is shown here that these identities fail also in general for Drinfeld doubles, indicating that modularity of the fusion category is not the decisive feature. Along the way, we collect many data on these Drinfeld doubles which are interesting for their own sake and maybe also in a relation with the theory of orbifolds in conformal field theory.