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Sample records for stz theory captures

  1. Radiative capture reactions in lattice effective field theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rupak, Gautam; Lee, Dean

    2013-07-19

    We outline a general method for computing nuclear capture reactions on the lattice. The method consists of two major parts. In this study we detail the second part which consists of calculating an effective two-body capture reaction on the lattice at finite volume. We solve this problem by calculating the two-point Green's function using an infrared regulator and the capture amplitude to a two-body bound state. We demonstrate the details of this method by calculating on the lattice the leading M1 contribution to the radiative neutron capture on proton at low energies using pionless effective field theory. We find good agreement with exact continuum results. The approach we outline here can be used in a wide range of applications including few-body reactions in cold atomic systems and hadronic reactions in lattice quantum chromodynamics.

  2. Calculation of doublet capture rate for muon capture in deuterium within chiral effective field theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adam, J.; Tater, M. [Institute of Nuclear Physics ASCR, CZ-250 68 Rez (Czech Republic); Truhlik, E., E-mail: truhlik@ujf.cas.cz [Institute of Nuclear Physics ASCR, CZ-250 68 Rez (Czech Republic); Epelbaum, E. [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik II, Fakultaet fuer Physik und Astronomie, Ruhr-Universitaet Bochum, 44780 Bochum (Germany); Machleidt, R. [Department of Physics, University of Idaho, Moscow, ID 83844-0903 (United States); Ricci, P. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Firenze, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Firenze) (Italy)

    2012-03-13

    The doublet capture rate {Lambda}{sub 1/2} of the negative muon capture in deuterium is calculated employing the nuclear wave functions generated from accurate nucleon-nucleon (NN) potentials constructed at next-to-next-to-next-to-leading order of heavy-baryon chiral perturbation theory and the weak meson exchange current operator derived within the same formalism. All but one of the low-energy constants that enter the calculation were fixed from pion-nucleon and nucleon-nucleon scattering data. The low-energy constant d{sup -hatR} (c{sub D}), which cannot be determined from the purely two-nucleon data, was extracted recently from the triton {beta}-decay and the binding energies of the three-nucleon systems. The calculated values of {Lambda}{sub 1/2} show a rather large spread for the used values of the d-hatR. Precise measurement of {Lambda}{sub 1/2} in the future will not only help to constrain the value of d-hatR, but also provide a highly nontrivial test of the nuclear chiral EFT framework. Besides, the precise knowledge of the constant d-hatR will allow for consistent calculations of other two-nucleon weak processes, such as proton-proton fusion and solar neutrino scattering on deuterons, which are important for astrophysics.

  3. Theory of inelastic multiphonon scattering and carrier capture by defects in semiconductors: Application to capture cross sections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barmparis, Georgios D.; Puzyrev, Yevgeniy S.; Zhang, X.-G.; Pantelides, Sokrates T.

    2015-12-01

    Inelastic scattering and carrier capture by defects in semiconductors are the primary causes of hot-electron-mediated degradation of power devices, which holds up their commercial development. At the same time, carrier capture is a major issue in the performance of solar cells and light-emitting diodes. A theory of nonradiative (multiphonon) inelastic scattering by defects, however, is nonexistent, while the theory for carrier capture by defects has had a long and arduous history. Here we report the construction of a comprehensive theory of inelastic scattering by defects, with carrier capture being a special case. We distinguish between capture under thermal equilibrium conditions and capture under nonequilibrium conditions, e.g., in the presence of an electrical current or hot carriers where carriers undergo scattering by defects and are described by a mean free path. In the thermal-equilibrium case, capture is mediated by a nonadiabatic perturbation Hamiltonian, originally identified by Huang and Rhys and by Kubo, which is equal to linear electron-phonon coupling to first order. In the nonequilibrium case, we demonstrate that the primary capture mechanism is within the Born-Oppenheimer approximation (adiabatic transitions), with coupling to the defect potential inducing Franck-Condon electronic transitions, followed by multiphonon dissipation of the transition energy, while the nonadiabatic terms are of secondary importance (they scale with the inverse of the mass of typical atoms in the defect complex). We report first-principles density-functional-theory calculations of the capture cross section for a prototype defect using the projector-augmented wave, which allows us to employ all-electron wave functions. We adopt a Monte Carlo scheme to sample multiphonon configurations and obtain converged results. The theory and the results represent a foundation upon which to build engineering-level models for hot-electron degradation of power devices and the performance

  4. Capturing Nonperturbative Physics In Non-critical String Theory And Gauge Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Mukhopadhyay, S

    2004-01-01

    After a short introduction to aspects of nonperturbative physics in noncritical string theory with special emphasis to the work done in 2D, we pass on to studying Large N RG and its various applications in that context. We observe that the Large N RG can reproduce the known physics of the singlet sector in matrix quantum mechanics and also can capture the physics of the 2D black hole like fixed point. We then pass on to the study of the RG flows around such fixed points from the point of view of Holographic RG and obtain the cigar metric. We also study the application of Large-N RG in understanding the boundaries in matrix quantum mechanics. We then pass on to studying nonperturbative superpotential of certain N = 1 multi-adjoint gauge theories using some approximation schemes in appropriate multi matrix models. We also discuss another World-sheet RG in context of open string tachyon condensation in string field theory.

  5. Neuroprotective effect of Amorphophallus campanulatus in STZ ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    3 mg/kg, ICV) day one and 3rd day after surgery. Surgery was performed on anesthetized rats by the help of stereotaxic apparatus. STZ induced AD rats were treated with petroleum ether extract of AC (100, 200 and 500 mg/kg, p.o.) for 14 days.

  6. Theory of nuclear excitation by electron capture for heavy ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gagyi-Palffy, A.

    2006-07-01

    The resonant process of nuclear excitation by electron capture (NEEC) in collisions involving highly-charged ions has been investigated theoretically. NEEC is a rare recombination process in which a free electron is captured into a bound shell of an ion with the simultaneous excitation of the nucleus. Total cross sections for NEEC followed by the radiative decay of the excited nucleus are presented for various collision systems. The possibility to observe the NEEC in scattering experiments with trapped or stored ions was discussed focusing on the cases with the largest calculated resonance strength. As the photons emitted in different channels of the electron recombination process are indistinguishable in the total cross section, the interference between NEEC followed by the radiative decay of the nucleus and radiative recombination was investigated. The angular distribution of the emitted photons in the recombination process provides means to discern the two processes. Angular differential cross sections for the emitted photons in the case of E2 nuclear transitions were presented for several heavy elements. (orig.)

  7. A Policy-Capturing Investigation of Expectancy Theory Models of Valence and Force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-12-01

    1954) need hierarchy, Herzberg’s (1959) two-factor theory , and Alderfer’s (1972) ERG theory are three of the most widely publicized and researched...AO-AO83 714 AIR FORCE INST OF TECH WRIGHT-PATTERSON AFB OH SCHOO-ETC F/G 5/10 PC4LICY-CAPTURING INVESTIGATION OF EXPECTANCY THEORY MODELS OF--ETC(U...INVESTIGATION OF EXPECTANCY THEORY MODELS OF VALENCE AND FORCE Thesis Norbert C. Wagner, Jr. Captain USAF AFIT/GSM/SM/79D-21 / C..) Approved for public

  8. Metformin ameliorates insulitis in STZ-induced diabetic mice

    OpenAIRE

    Guo-Jun Jiang; Xue Han; Yu-Long Tao; Ya-Ping Deng; Jia-Wen Yu; Jian Cai; Guo-Fei Ren; Yuan-Nan Sun

    2017-01-01

    Background & Aims Metformin is currently the most widely used first-line hypoglycemic agent for diabetes mellitus. Besides glucose-lowering action, there is increasingly interest in the potential anti-inflammatory action of this drug. In the present study, we investigated the actions of metformin on experimental insulitis using STZ-induced diabetic mice. Methods Mice with acute diabetes induced by STZ were administered metformin by gavage. Changes of blood glucose and body weight, and the dai...

  9. Level-resolved quantum statistical theory of electron capture into many-electron compound resonances in highly charged ions

    CERN Document Server

    Berengut, J C; Dzuba, V A; Flambaum, V V; Gribakin, G F

    2015-01-01

    The strong mixing of many-electron basis states in excited atoms and ions with open $f$ shells results in very large numbers of complex, chaotic eigenstates that cannot be computed to any degree of accuracy. Describing the processes which involve such states requires the use of a statistical theory. Electron capture into these 'compound resonances' leads to electron-ion recombination rates that are orders of magnitude greater than those of direct, radiative recombination, and cannot be described by standard theories of dielectronic recombination. Previous statistical theories considered this as a two-electron capture process which populates a pair of single-particle orbitals, followed by 'spreading' of the two-electron states into chaotically mixed eigenstates. This method is similar to a configuration-average approach, as it neglects potentially important effects of spectator electrons and conservation of total angular momentum. In this work we develop a statistical theory which considers electron capture in...

  10. Application of mass transfer theory to biomarker capture by surface functionalized magnetic beads in microcentrifuge tubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherr, Thomas F; Markwalter, Christine F; Bauer, Westley S; Gasperino, David; Wright, David W; Haselton, Frederick R

    2017-08-01

    In many diagnostic assays, specific biomarker extraction and purification from a patient sample is performed in microcentrifuge tubes using surface-functionalized magnetic beads. Although assay binding times are known to be highly dependent on sample viscosity, sample volume, capture reagent, and fluid mixing, the theoretical mass transport framework that has been developed and validated in engineering has yet to be applied in this context. In this work, we adapt this existing framework for simultaneous mass transfer and surface reaction and apply it to the binding of biomarkers in clinical samples to surface-functionalized magnetic beads. We discuss the fundamental fluid dynamics of vortex mixing within microcentrifuge tubes as well as describe how particles and biomolecules interact with the fluid. The model is solved over a wide range of parameters, and we present scenarios when a simplified analytical expression would be most accurate. Next, we review of some relevant techniques for model parameter estimation. Finally, we apply the mass transfer theory to practical use-case scenarios of immediate use to clinicians and assay developers. Throughout, we highlight where further characterization is necessary to bridge the gap between theory and practical application. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Using Grounded Theory Method to Capture and Analyze Health Care Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, Geraldine; Timonen, Virpi

    2015-01-01

    Objective Grounded theory (GT) is an established qualitative research method, but few papers have encapsulated the benefits, limits, and basic tenets of doing GT research on user and provider experiences of health care services. GT can be used to guide the entire study method, or it can be applied at the data analysis stage only. Methods We summarize key components of GT and common GT procedures used by qualitative researchers in health care research. We draw on our experience of conducting a GT study on amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients’ experiences of health care services. Findings We discuss why some approaches in GT research may work better than others, particularly when the focus of study is hard-to-reach population groups. We highlight the flexibility of procedures in GT to build theory about how people engage with health care services. Conclusion GT enables researchers to capture and understand health care experiences. GT methods are particularly valuable when the topic of interest has not previously been studied. GT can be applied to bring structure and rigor to the analysis of qualitative data. PMID:25523315

  12. Metformin ameliorates insulitis in STZ-induced diabetic mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo-Jun Jiang

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background & Aims Metformin is currently the most widely used first-line hypoglycemic agent for diabetes mellitus. Besides glucose-lowering action, there is increasingly interest in the potential anti-inflammatory action of this drug. In the present study, we investigated the actions of metformin on experimental insulitis using STZ-induced diabetic mice. Methods Mice with acute diabetes induced by STZ were administered metformin by gavage. Changes of blood glucose and body weight, and the daily amount of food and water intake were measured. Pancreatic tissues were collected for histologic analyses. Pathological assessment and immunohistochemistry analysis were used to determine the effect of metformin on insulitis. Inflammatory cytokines in the pancreas and insulin levels were measured through ELISA analysis. Results Metformin significantly reduced blood glucose levels and improved aberrant water intake behavior in experimental diabetic mice. No significant differences were observed in terms of body weight and food intake behavior in metformin-treated animals. In the STZ-induced model of diabetes, we found the appearance of pronounced insulitis. However, metformin administration reduced the severity of insulitis assessed by blind pathological scoring. In addition, metformin treatment improved insulin levels in experimental diabetic mice. ELISA assay revealed decreased levels of inflammatory response marker IL-1β and TNF-α in the pancreatic tissues following metformin treatment. Conclusion Metformin attenuated insulitis in the STZ-induced mice model of diabetes. This islet-protective effect might be partly correlated with the anti-inflammatory action of metformin.

  13. Application of generalized perturbation theory to sensitivity analysis in boron neutron capture therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, Vanessa S. [Universidade Federal Fluminense (EEIMVR/UFF-RJ), Volta Redonda, RJ (Brazil). Escola de Engenharia Industrial e Metalurgica. Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Modelagem Computacional em Ciencia e Tecnologia; Silva, Fernando C.; Silva, Ademir X., E-mail: fernando@con.ufrj.b, E-mail: ademir@con.ufrj.b [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia (PEN/COPPE/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Programa de Engenharia Nuclear; Alvarez, Gustavo B. [Universidade Federal Fluminense (EEIMVR/UFF-RJ), Volta Redonda, RJ (Brazil). Escola de Engenharia Industrial e Metalurgica. Dept. de Ciencias Exatas

    2011-07-01

    Boron neutron capture therapy - BNCT - is a binary cancer treatment used in brain tumors. The tumor is loaded with a boron compound and subsequently irradiated by thermal neutrons. The therapy is based on the {sup 10}B (n, {alpha}) {sup 7}Li nuclear reaction, which emits two types of high-energy particles, {alpha} particle and the {sup 7}Li nuclei. The total kinetic energy released in this nuclear reaction, when deposited in the tumor region, destroys the cancer cells. Since the success of the BNCT is linked to the different selectivity between the tumor and healthy tissue, it is necessary to carry out a sensitivity analysis to determinate the boron concentration. Computational simulations are very important in this context because they help in the treatment planning by calculating the lowest effective absorbed dose rate to reduce the damage to healthy tissue. The objective of this paper is to present a deterministic method based on generalized perturbation theory (GPT) to perform sensitivity analysis with respect to the {sup 10}B concentration and to estimate the absorbed dose rate by patients undergoing this therapy. The advantage of the method is a significant reduction in computational time required to perform these calculations. To simulate the neutron flux in all brain regions, the method relies on a two-dimensional neutron transport equation whose spatial, angular and energy variables are discretized by the diamond difference method, the discrete ordinate method and multigroup formulation, respectively. The results obtained through GPT are consistent with those obtained using other methods, demonstrating the efficacy of the proposed method. (author)

  14. Increased caspase-3 immunoreactivity of erythrocytes in STZ diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fırat, Uğur; Kaya, Savaş; Cim, Abdullah; Büyükbayram, Hüseyin; Gökalp, Osman; Dal, Mehmet Sinan; Tamer, Mehmet Numan

    2012-01-01

    Eryptosis is a term to define apoptosis of erythrocytes. Oxidative stress and hyperglycemia, both of which exist in the diabetic intravascular environment, can trigger eryptosis of erythrocytes. In this experimental study, it is presented that the majority of erythrocytes shows caspase-3 immunoreactivity in streptozocin- (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. Besides that, caspase-3 positive erythrocytes are aggregated and attached to vascular endothelium. In conclusion, these results may start a debate that eryptosis could have a role in the diabetic complications.

  15. A New Disintegrative Capture Theory for the Origin of the Moon

    OpenAIRE

    Noerdlinger, Peter D.

    2012-01-01

    The object that resulted in the creation of the Moon started in the same orbital path as Earth around the Sun, but at Earth's L4. This proto-Moon (PM) was 4 times less massive than the usual Giant Impact (GI) object "Theia" and was captured into Earth orbit. It had a 32% Iron-Nickel-Sulfur core supporting a dynamo, which explains magnetized lunar rocks. Following capture, it was torn apart by tidal forces and its core of iron plastered itself, with some of its rock mantle, on the surface of E...

  16. Towards a general theory of multi-representation data capture in GIS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Normally, spatial databases were built by digitizing existing different scale maps. When there was a requirement for capturing new datasets in order to update databases or build new databases, the process usually follows a similar methodology, whereby different spatial databases were created with representations of each ...

  17. Adiabatic capture theory applied to N+NH-->N2+H at low temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankcombe, Terry J; Nyman, Gunnar

    2007-12-20

    The adiabatic capture centrifugal sudden approximation (ACCSA) has been applied to the ground state reaction N+NH-->N2+H over the temperature range 2-300 K using an existent potential energy surface. The resultant thermal rate constants are in agreement with available rate constants from quasi-classical trajectory calculations but are significantly larger than the available experimentally derived rate. The calculated rate constants monotonically increase with increasing temperature but could only be approximately described with a simple Arrhenius-like form. Subtle quantum effects are evident in the initial rotational state resolved cross sections and rate constants.

  18. Culture's Consequences on Student Motivation: Capturing Cross-Cultural Universality and Variability through Personal Investment Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Ronnel B.; McInerney, Dennis M.

    2014-01-01

    Culture influences basic motivational processes; however, Western theories of achievement motivation seem to have neglected the role of culture. They are inadequate when trying to explain student motivation and engagement across a wide range of cultural groups because they may not have the conceptual tools needed to handle culturally relevant…

  19. Prior Exercise Training Prevent Hyperglycemia in STZ Mice by Increasing Hepatic Glycogen and Mitochondrial Function on Skeletal Muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Carvalho, Afonso Kopczynski; da Silva, Sabrina; Serafini, Edenir; de Souza, Daniela Roxo; Farias, Hemelin Resende; de Bem Silveira, Gustavo; Silveira, Paulo Cesar Lock; de Souza, Claudio Teodoro; Portela, Luis Valmor; Muller, Alexandre Pastoris

    2017-04-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder characterized by hyperglycemia. We investigated the effect of a prior 30 days voluntary exercise protocol on STZ-diabetic CF1 mice. Glycemia, and the liver and skeletal muscle glycogen, mitochondrial function, and redox status were analyzed up to 5 days after STZ injection. Animals were engaged in the following groups: Sedentary vehicle (Sed Veh), Sedentary STZ (Sed STZ), Exercise Vehicle (Ex Veh), and Exercise STZ (Ex STZ). Exercise prevented fasting hyperglycemia in the Ex STZ group. In the liver, there was decreased on glycogen level in Sed STZ group but not in EX STZ group. STZ groups showed decreased mitochondrial oxygen consumption compared to vehicle groups, whereas mitochondrial H2 O2 production was not different between groups. Addition of ADP to the medium did not decrease H2 O2 production in Sed STZ mice. Exercise increased GSH level. Sed STZ group increased nitrite levels compared to other groups. In quadriceps muscle, glycogen level was similar between groups. The Sed STZ group displayed decreased O2 consumption, and exercise prevented this reduction. The H2 O2 production was higher in Ex STZ when compared to other groups. Also, GSH level decreased whereas nitrite levels increased in the Sed STZ compared to other groups. The PGC1 α levels increased in Sed STZ, Ex Veh, and Ex STZ groups. In summary, prior exercise training prevents hyperglycemia in STZ-mice diabetic associated with increased liver glycogen storage, and oxygen consumption by the mitochondria of skeletal muscle implying in increased oxidative/biogenesis capacity, and improved redox status of both tissues. J. Cell. Biochem. 118: 678-685, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Mineral inversion for element capture spectroscopy logging based on optimization theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jianpeng; Chen, Hui; Yin, Lu; Li, Ning

    2017-12-01

    Understanding the mineralogical composition of a formation is an essential key step in the petrophysical evaluation of petroleum reservoirs. Geochemical logging tools can provide quantitative measurements of a wide range of elements. In this paper, element capture spectroscopy (ECS) was taken as an example and an optimization method was adopted to solve the mineral inversion problem for ECS. This method used the converting relationship between elements and minerals as response equations and took into account the statistical uncertainty of the element measurements and established an optimization function for ECS. Objective function value and reconstructed elemental logs were used to check the robustness and reliability of the inversion method. Finally, the inversion mineral results had a good agreement with x-ray diffraction laboratory data. The accurate conversion of elemental dry weights to mineral dry weights formed the foundation for the subsequent applications based on ECS.

  1. Capturing the cornerstones of coral reef resilience: linking theory to practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyström, M.; Graham, N. A. J.; Lokrantz, J.; Norström, A. V.

    2008-12-01

    Coral reefs can undergo unexpected and dramatic changes in community composition, so called phase shifts. This can have profound consequences for ecosystem services upon which human welfare depends. Understanding of this behavior is in many aspects still in its infancy. Resilience has been argued to provide insurance against unforeseen ecosystem responses in the face of environmental change, and has become a prime goal for the management of coral reefs. However, diverse definitions of resilience can be found in the literature, making its meaning ambiguous. Several studies have used the term as a theoretical framework and concern regarding its practical applicability has been raised. Consequently, operationalizing theory to make resilience observable is an important task, particularly for policy makers and managers dealing with pressing environmental problems. Ultimately this requires some type of empirical assessments, something that has proven difficult due to the multidimensional nature of the concept. Biodiversity, spatial heterogeneity, and connectivity have been proposed as cornerstones of resilience as they may provide insurance against ecological uncertainty. The aim of this article is to provide an overview of the divergent uses of the concept and to propose empirical indicators of the cornerstones of coral reef resilience. These indicators include functional group approaches, the ratios of “good” and “bad” colonizers of space, measurements of spatial heterogeneity, and estimates of potential space availability against grazing capacity. The essence of these operational indicators of resilience is to use them as predictive tools to recognize vulnerability before disturbance occurs that may lead to abrupt phase shifts. Moving toward operationalizing resilience theory is imperative to the successful management of coral reefs in an increasingly disturbed and human-dominated environment.

  2. Tungstate reduces the expression of gluconeogenic enzymes in STZ rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Nocito

    Full Text Available Oral administration of sodium tungstate has shown hyperglycemia-reducing activity in several animal models of diabetes. We present new insights into the mechanism of action of tungstate.We studied protein expression and phosphorylation in the liver of STZ rats, a type I diabetes model, treated with sodium tungstate in the drinking water (2 mg/ml and in primary cultured-hepatocytes, through Western blot and Real Time PCR analysis.Tungstate treatment reduces the expression of gluconeogenic enzymes (PEPCK, G6Pase, and FBPase and also regulates transcription factors accountable for the control of hepatic metabolism (c-jun, c-fos and PGC1α. Moreover, ERK, p90rsk and GSK3, upstream kinases regulating the expression of c-jun and c-fos, are phosphorylated in response to tungstate. Interestingly, PKB/Akt phosphorylation is not altered by the treatment. Several of these observations were reproduced in isolated rat hepatocytes cultured in the absence of insulin, thereby indicating that those effects of tungstate are insulin-independent.Here we show that treatment with tungstate restores the phosphorylation state of various signaling proteins and changes the expression pattern of metabolic enzymes.

  3. ICV STZ induced impairment in memory and neuronal mitochondrial function: A protective role of nicotinic receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Gunjan; Patro, Ishan K; Nath, Chandishwar

    2011-10-10

    The present study was planned to evaluate the cholinergic influence on mitochondrial activity and neurodegeneration associated with impaired memory in intracerebroventricular (ICV) streptozotocin (STZ) treated rats. STZ (3mg/kg), administered ICV twice with an interval of 48h between the two doses, showed significant impairment in spatial memory tested by water maze test 14 days after first dose without altering blood glucose level and locomotor activity. Animals were sacrificed on 21st day of ICV administration. STZ significantly increased malondialdehyde (MDA), reactive oxygen species (ROS), Ca(2+) ion influx, caspase-3 activity and decreased glutathione (GSH) level. Acetylcholinesterase inhibitors tacrine and donepezil (5mg/kg, PO) pretreatment significantly prevented STZ induced memory deficit, oxidative stress, Ca(2+) influx and caspase-3 activity. Carbachol, a muscarinic cholinergic agonist (0.01mg/kg, SC) did not show any significant effect on ROS generation, Ca(2+) ion influx and caspase-3 activity. While nicotinic cholinergic agonist, nicotine, significantly attenuated ICV STZ induced mitochondrial dysfunction and caspase-3 activity. The results indicate that instead of muscarinic receptors nicotinic receptors may be involved in neuroprotection by maintaining mitochondrial functions. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Capturing Thoughts, Capturing Minds?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Janni

    2004-01-01

    Think Aloud is cost effective, promises access to the user's mind and is the applied usability technique. But 'keep talking' is difficult, besides, the multimodal interface is visual not verbal. Eye-tracking seems to get around the verbalisation problem. It captures the visual focus of attention....... However, it is expensive, obtrusive and produces huge amount of data. Besides, eye-tracking do not give access to user's mind. Capturing interface/cursor tracking may be cost effective. It is easy to install, data collection is automatic and unobtrusive and replaying the captured recording to the user...

  5. Effect of Rebaudioside A, a diterpenoid on glucose homeostasis in STZ-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saravanan, Ramalingam; Vengatash babu, Kaliyappan; Ramachandran, Vinayagam

    2012-09-01

    Rebaudioside A (Reb A), a major constituent of Stevia rebaudiana, was recently proposed as an insulinotropic agent. The aim of this investigation was to evaluate the antihyperglycemic effect of Reb A on the activities of hepatic enzymes of carbohydrate metabolism in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. Diabetes was induced in adult male Albino Wistar rats, weighing 180-200 g, by a single intraperitoneal injection at a dose of STZ (40 mg/kg body weight). Diabetic rats showed significant (Pdiabetic rats significantly (Pdiabetic rats. Thus, the results show that Reb A possesses an antihyperglycemic activity and provide evidence for its traditional usage in the control of diabetes.

  6. In vivo evidences of Curcuma longa on oxidative stress in STZ ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... mildly with a significance of: (p<0.05) in comparison to control group and with the diabetic group being critically lower than those in control group. This suggested that Curcuma longa may be promising in enhancing sperm health parameters. Keywords: Turmeric, oxidative stress, semen, STZ-induced diabetes, antioxidant ...

  7. Fenugreek Prevents the Development of STZ-Induced Diabetic Nephropathy in a Rat Model of Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingli Jin

    2014-01-01

    evidently reduced by fenugreek treatment. Furthermore, the upregulation of TGF-β1 and CTGF at a transcriptional and translational level in DN rats was distinctly inhibited by fenugreek. Consequently, fenugreek prevents DN development in a STZ-induced diabetic rat model.

  8. The theory and methodology of capturing and representing the design process and its application to the task of rapid redesign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nii, Kendall M.

    The paradigm under which engineering design is being performed in the Aerospace industry is changing. There is an increased emphasis on a "faster, better, and cheaper" way of doing business. Designers are tasked with developing a better product, in a shorter time, with less money. Engineers are continually trying to improve their products, lower their costs, and reduce their schedules. So at first glance, it might seem difficult if not impossible to perform these three tasks simultaneously and attempt to achieve order of magnitude improvements in each area. Indeed it might well be impossible for an engineer using only traditional tools and techniques. However, there is a new tool, known as design capture, available to the designer. A design capture system, can aid the designer in a variety of ways. One specific use for a design capture system is to aid the designer in performing rapid redesign. This thesis presents a new methodology for a Design Capture System (DCS) which can aid the designer with performing rapid redesign. The Design Capture for Rapid Redesign (DCARRD) method facilitates rapid redesign in three ways: it allows the designer to assess the impact of changing an initial requirement, it allows the designer to assess the impact of changing a decision, and it enhances the ability of the designer to assess the impact of a completely new requirement. The DCARRD method was implemented into an html-based design capture system accessible through a Web browser. This implementation demonstrates the feasibility of the DCARRD method. The most important features of DCARRD are that it is focused an performing rapid redesign, it places the design decisions within the framework of the design process, it is simple to use and implement, and it has the ability to track subsystem baselines. The many complex issues surrounding testing of design tools in general, and DCARRD in particular, are discussed at length. There are a number of complex issues which must be addressed

  9. Determination of micronutrients and oxidative stress status in the blood of STZ-induced experimental diabetic rat models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragbetli, Cennet; Dede, Semiha; Tanritanir, Pinar; Yoruk, Ibrahim Hakki; Ragbetli, Murat Cetin

    2014-11-01

    This study aims to research the effect of streptozotocin (STZ) at different doses on the serum micronutrients and oxidative stress status in diabetic rat models. Twenty male rats averaged 250 g and 3-4 months old were used as experimental models. They were put in four groups composed of five rats each. Diabetic was induced by administering STZ 55 and 65 mg/kg intraperitonally. The serum micronutrients including minerals and vitamins (Cu, Zn, Mg, Fe, vitamins D, E, and C) and oxidative stress (malondialdehyde, MDA) were determined. Cu, Zn, and Vitamin D3 levels were found to increase significantly in STZ groups (p micronutrients were affected significantly.

  10. Podocyte-specific deletion of Rac1 leads to aggravation of renal injury in STZ-induced diabetic mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishizaka, Masanori [Division of Nephrology, Department of Internal Medicine, Juntendo University Faculty of Medicine, 2-1-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8421 (Japan); Gohda, Tomohito, E-mail: goda@juntendo.ac.jp [Division of Nephrology, Department of Internal Medicine, Juntendo University Faculty of Medicine, 2-1-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8421 (Japan); Takagi, Miyuki; Omote, Keisuke; Sonoda, Yuji [Division of Nephrology, Department of Internal Medicine, Juntendo University Faculty of Medicine, 2-1-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8421 (Japan); Oliva Trejo, Juan Alejandro [Laboratory for Kidney Research (TMK Project), Medical Innovation Center, Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine, 53 Shogoin Kawaharacho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8397 (Japan); Asao, Rin; Hidaka, Teruo [Division of Nephrology, Department of Internal Medicine, Juntendo University Faculty of Medicine, 2-1-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8421 (Japan); Asanuma, Katsuhiko [Division of Nephrology, Department of Internal Medicine, Juntendo University Faculty of Medicine, 2-1-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8421 (Japan); Laboratory for Kidney Research (TMK Project), Medical Innovation Center, Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine, 53 Shogoin Kawaharacho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8397 (Japan); Horikoshi, Satoshi [Division of Nephrology, Department of Internal Medicine, Juntendo University Faculty of Medicine, 2-1-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8421 (Japan); Tomino, Yasuhiko [Division of Nephrology, Department of Internal Medicine, Juntendo University Faculty of Medicine, 2-1-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8421 (Japan); Medical Corporation SHOWAKAI, 3-12-12 Nishishinjuku, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 160-0023 (Japan)

    2015-11-20

    Rac1, a GTPase of the Rho subfamily, has a crucial role in cytoskeletal architecture, as well as the regulation of cell migration and growth. However, renal injury in mice with podocyte-specific deletion of Rac1 has yet to be elucidated fully due to conflicting findings. Herein, we identified a possible role for Rac1 in podocytes of streptozotocin- (STZ) induced diabetic mice. The urinary albumin/creatinine ratio (ACR) in the knockout (KO) group was significantly higher than that in the wild type (WT) group at any week of age. A more marked ACR increase was observed in STZ/KO group than STZ/WT group, although ACR did increase with weeks of age in both diabetic groups. The kidney sections from diabetic mice revealed a glomerular hypertrophy with mesangial expansion, but there was no appreciable difference in glomerular findings under a light microscope between STZ/WT and STZ/KO mice. However, an electron microscopy analysis revealed that regardless of the presence or absence of diabetes, both KO (KO and STZ/KO) groups had a higher rate of foot process effacement compared with both WT (WT and STZ/WT) groups. The expression levels of the slit diaphragm protein, podocin, was reduced with the induction of diabetes, and the levels in the STZ/KO group experienced a further reduction compared with the STZ/WT group. The number of WT1-positive cells in the STZ/KO group was more significantly decreased than that in the other three groups. In contrast, the numbers of cleaved caspase 3- and TUNEL-positive cells in the glomeruli of the STZ/KO group were more increased than those in the STZ/WT group. Thus, this study provides evidence that podocyte-specific deletion of Rac1 results in morphological alteration in podocytes, and that the induction of apoptosis or decreased expression of the slit diaphragm proteins by hyperglycemic stimuli are associated with the progression of diabetic nephropathy.

  11. Biomechanical and morphological remodelings of gastrointestinal tract in STZ-induced diabetic rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sha, Hong; Zhao, Jingbo; Liu, Gui-Fang

    2012-01-01

    AIM: The aim of the study was to investigate the biomechanical and morphometrical remodeling of gastrointestinal (GI) tract in streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetic rats. METERIALS AND METHODS: Eighteen SD male rats of diabetic group(DM, a single tail vein injection 40mg/kg of STZ, 9 rats......) and normal group (CON, 9 rats) were used in the study. Blood glucose and body weight was regularly measured. After 60 days of experiment, morphometric properties and residual strains were studied in esophageal, duodenal, jejunal, ileal, colonic and rectal segments. Stress-strain of the wall was also studied......, jejunal, colonic wall in circumferential direction and the esophageal, colonic wall in longitudinal direction increased in DM group compared those with CON group (Pdiabetes induces morphometric and biomechanical remodeling in the gastrointestinal tract which is likely...

  12. Effect of berberin on the regulatin of GFAP+ astrecyte in the hippocampus of STZ diabetic rats

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    Hamid Kalalian-Moghaddam

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Diabetes mellitus increases the risk of central nervous system (CNS disorders such as stroke, seizures, dementia, and cognitive impairment. Berberine, a natural isoquinolne alkaloid, is reported to exhibit beneficial effect in various neurodegenerative and neuropsychiatric disorders. Moreover astrocytes are proving critical for normal CNS function, and alterations in their activity and impaired oxidative stress could contribute to diabetes-related cognitive dysfunction. Metabolic and oxidative insults often cause rapid changes in glial cells. Key indicators of this response are increased synthesis of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP as an astrocytic marker. Therefore, this study was conducted to determine the effect of berberine on glial reactivity of hippocampus in (STZ-induced diabetes rats. Materials and Methods: Experimental groups included: The control, control berberine treated (100 mg/kg.8 weeks, diabetic and diabetic berberine treated (50,100 mg/kg for 8 weeks groups. The effects of berberine on glial reactivity of hippocampus evaluated in (STZ-induced diabetics rats, using GFAP immunohistochemistry test. Data were analyzed by using Prism-5, one way ANOVA and Tukey tests. Results: Eight weeks after diabetes induction we observed an increase in GFAP immune staining in the hippocampus of STZ-diabetic rats relative to levels in the control brains. In contrast, chronic treatment with berberine (50 and 100 mg/kg, p.o., once daily lowered hyperglycemia, and prevents the up regulation of GFAP in brain of diabetic rats. Conclusion: the present study demonstrates treatment with berberine resulted in an obvious reduction of GFAP+ immunoreactive astrocytes in hippocampus of STZ -induced diabetic rats.

  13. Intranasal insulin improves cerebral blood flow, Nrf-2 expression and BDNF in STZ (ICV)-induced memory impaired rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajasekar, N; Nath, Chandishwar; Hanif, Kashif; Shukla, Rakesh

    2017-03-15

    Insulin/insulin receptor signaling is involved in cognitive functions. Clinical studies have shown that intranasal insulin administration improves memory functions. However, the molecular mechanisms associated with improvement in memory functions are largely unexplored. Therefore, we investigated the protective effect of intranasal insulin in intracerebroventricular (ICV) streptozotocin (STZ) induced memory impairment in rats. Rats were injected with STZ (3mg/kg, ICV) bilaterally twice, on days 1 and 3 and intranasal insulin (2IU/rat/day) was given for 14days. Memory was assessed by Morris water maze test. Cerebral blood flow (CBF) was measured by laser-Doppler flowmetry. The biochemical and molecular studies were done in cortex and hippocampus of rat brain. STZ (ICV) administration caused memory impairment along with the reduction of CBF, ATP level, and Nrf-2 expression. Treatment with intranasal insulin significantly improved memory functions as well as restored CBF, ATP content and Nrf-2 expression in STZ injected rats. STZ administration stimulated oxidative-nitrosative stress as evidenced by a significant increase in ROS, malondialdehyde, NO level and inducible nitric oxide synthase expression and the decrease in glutathione level; which was normalized by intranasal insulin delivery. STZ-induced cholinergic dysfunction (AChE activity and α7-nAChR expression), and mitochondrial hypofunction was largely prevented by treatment with intranasal insulin. Intranasal insulin delivery successfully restored BDNF level and pCREB expression in STZ injected rats. The study shows the beneficial effects of intranasal insulin against STZ-induced memory impairment, which attributed to improved CBF, cholinergic function, brain energy metabolism, BDNF, Nrf-2 expression and antioxidative action. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. [Study on hypoglycemic effect and mechanism of total flavonoids of Propolis in STZ diabetic rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ming; Sui, Dian-jun; Chen, Wen-xue; Yang, Ming; Yu, De-wei

    2014-09-01

    To study hypoglycemic effect and mechanism of the total flavonoids of Propolis (TFP) in the STZ diabetic rats. The model of type 2 diabetic rats was induced by high-fat diet feeding for 4 weeks combined with intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (STZ). Then the rats without above-mentioned treatment were selected as the normal control group,the diabetic rats were randomly divided into four groups by blood glucose, the model control group, high doses (240 mg/kg), medium doses (120 mg/kg) and low doses (60 mg/kg) TFP groups. The TFP preparation was intragastric administration given to rats in TFP groups. The model control rats were treated intragastric administration with 0.5% sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC-Na) for 4 weeks. The rats were fed with high fat diet during treatment. 12 hours after the last administration, glucose (GLU), total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), high density lipoprotein( HDL-C), low density lipoprotein LDL-C), glycated hemoglobin (GHb), serum insulin INS), C-peptide (C-P), superoxide dismutase( SOD), malondialdehyde (MDA), glutathione (GSH), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), free fatty acid (FFA), nitric oxide (NO), and hepatic glycogen were determined. Compared with the normal group, the levels of GLU, TC, TG, HDL-C, FFA, TNF-alpha, NO, MDA and GHb in serum were increased significantly in the model control group (P < 0.05-P < 0.001), the levels of HDL-C, INS, C-P, SOD and GSH in serum and hepatic glycogen in hepatic tissue were decreased significantly (P < 0.01 or P < 0.001). The levels of all above indexes of high and medium doses groups were improved significantly compared with the model control group (P < 0.05-P < 0.01). TFP can significantly decrease the level of blood glucose,improve the glucose and lipid metabolism and inhibit insulin resistance in STZ diabetic rats.

  15. Capturing the Future: Direct and Indirect Probes of Neutron Capture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Couture, Aaron Joseph [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-08-31

    This report documents aspects of direct and indirect neutron capture. The importance of neutron capture rates and methods to determine them are presented. The following conclusions are drawn: direct neutron capture measurements remain a backbone of experimental study; work is being done to take increased advantage of indirect methods for neutron capture; both instrumentation and facilities are making new measurements possible; more work is needed on the nuclear theory side to understand what is needed furthest from stability.

  16. Effect of Chinese medicine Qidengmingmu capsule on the STZ induced hyperglycemia rat's blood-retinal barrier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fu-Wen Zhang

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To observe retinal vessel leakage of streptozotocin(STZinduced diabetic rat, and the effect of traditional Chinese medicine on it. METHODS: We induced diabetic rat model by peritoneal injection of STZ, after the blood glucose raised, we used Evans blue to trace the leakage of blood-retina barrier(BRBevery month. After blood glucose rose three months later, we treated the Chinese medicine group diabetic rat with Qidengmingmu capsule. There were three groups of different dose, low dose group of 125mg/kg, middle dose group of 250mg/kg, high dose group of 500mg/kg. The control group was treated with calcium dobesilate(200mg/kg. After three months treated by medicine, the leakage of rat blood-retina barrier was evaluated. RESULTS: The damage of BRB and visual function occurred at two week after the blood glucose rose, and the damage aggravated with the continuing of high diabetic. But after the Chinese medicine treated three months, the rat's retina vessel leakage was reduced. CONCLUSION: BRB break down and visual acuity damage appears in early phase of STZ diabetic rat and get worse as the hyperglycemia keep on. The Chinese medicine Qidengmingmu capsule can prevent the vessel leakage by damage of BRB.

  17. Novel hydrogen sulfide-releasing compound, S-propargyl-cysteine, prevents STZ-induced diabetic nephropathy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qian, Xin [Department of Pharmacology, School of Pharmacy, Fudan University, Shanghai (China); Li, Xinghui [Departments of Physiology and Pathophysiology, Shanghai College of Medicine, Fudan University, Shanghai (China); Ma, Fenfen; Luo, Shanshan [Department of Pharmacology, School of Pharmacy, Fudan University, Shanghai (China); Ge, Ruowen [Departmentof Biological Sciences, National University of Singapore (Singapore); Zhu, Yizhun, E-mail: zhuyz@fudan.edu.cn [Department of Pharmacology, School of Pharmacy, Fudan University, Shanghai (China); Departmentof Pharmacology, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore (Singapore)

    2016-05-13

    In this work, we demonstrated for the first time that S-propargyl-cysteine (SPRC, also named as ZYZ-802), a novel hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S)-releasing compound, had renoprotective effects on streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic kidney injury. SPRC treatment significantly reduced the level of creatinine, kidney to body weight ratio and in particular, markedly decreased 24-h urine microalbuminuria excretion. SPRC suppressed the mRNA expression of fibronectin and type IV collagen. In vitro, SPRC inhibited mesangial cells over-proliferation and hypertrophy induced by high glucose. Additionally, SPRC attenuated inflammation in diabetic kidneys. SPRC also reduced transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1) signaling and expression of phosphorylated Smad3 (p-Smad3) pathway. Moreover, SPRC inhibited phosphorylation of ERK, p38 protein. Taken together, SPRC was demonstrated to be a potential therapeutic candidate to suppress diabetic nephropathy. - Highlights: • We synthesized a novel hydrogen sulfide-releasing compound, S-propargyl-cysteine (SPRC). • SPRC was preliminarily demonstrated to prevent STZ-induced diabetic nephropathy (DN). • SPRC may exert potential therapeutic candidate to suppress DN.

  18. Puerarin attenuates learning and memory impairments and inhibits oxidative stress in STZ-induced SAD mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Shan-shan; Yang, Wei-na; Jin, Hui; Ma, Kai-ge; Feng, Gai-feng

    2015-12-01

    Puerarin (PUE), an isoflavone purified from the root of Pueraria lobata (Chinese herb), has been reported to attenuate learning and memory impairments in the transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer's disease (AD). In the present study, we tested PUE in a sporadic AD (SAD) mouse model which was induced by the intracerebroventricular injection of streptozotocin (STZ). The mice were administrated PUE (25, 50, or 100mg/kg/d) for 28 days. Learning and memory abilities were assessed by the Morris water maze test. After behavioral test, the biochemical parameters of oxidative stress (glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), superoxide dismutases (SOD), and malondialdehyde (MDA)) were measured in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus. The SAD mice exhibited significantly decreased learning and memory ability, while PUE attenuated these impairments. The activities of GSH-Px and SOD were decreased while MDA was increased in the SAD animals. After PUE treatment, the activities of GSH-Px and SOD were elevated, and the level of MDA was decreased. The middle dose PUE was more effective than others. These results indicate that PUE attenuates learning and memory impairments and inhibits oxidative stress in STZ-induced SAD mice. PUE may be a promising therapeutic agent for SAD. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. The Effect of Alium Satium Extract on the Glomerular Diameter of STZ -induced Sprague dawley Rats

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    Susilorini Susilorini

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Hyperglycemia exert toxic effect in kidney.The aim of this study was to investigate the short term effect of ethanolic extract of garlic in preventing nephropathy following streptozotocin (STZ induced rats. Twenty male Sprague dawley rats were randomly divided into 4 group, all group induced induced by single dose intraperitoneal injection of 40 mg kg-1 of streptozotocin (STZ. Treatment with 3 doses ethanolic extract of garlic (0,1; 0,25; 0,5 mg kg-1 day-1 was followed for 14 days, then the left kidneys were excised and histhopathological studies were carried out using scanner 3D Hitech and Panoramic view software. Statistical analysis have been done using non parametric analysis Kruskall Wallis. The study revealed that glomerular diameter of the treatment rats was significantly different from the control group (p=0,0001. Increasing doses didn’t make difference. The ethanolic extract of garlic (Allium sativum influences the diameter glomeruli but increasing doses has no effect on the glomerular diameter.

  20. Effect of naringenin on brain insulin signaling and cognitive functions in ICV-STZ induced dementia model of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wenqing; Ma, Jing; Liu, Zheng; Lu, Yongliang; Hu, Bin; Yu, Huarong

    2014-05-01

    Recent evidence indicates that severe abnormalities in brain glucose/energy metabolism and insulin signaling have been documented to take a pivotal role in early sporadic Alzheimer's disease pathology. It has been reported that naringenin (NAR), derived from citrus aurantium, exhibits antioxidant potential and protects the brain against neurodegeneration. The current study was designed to further investigate the protective effect of the NAR on neurodegeneration in a rat model of AD induced by an intracerebroventricular (ICV) injection of streptozotocin (STZ), and to determine whether this neuroprotective effect was associated with brain insulin signaling. Rats were injected bilaterally with ICV-STZ (3 mg/kg), while sham rats received the same volume of vehicle and then supplemented with NAR (25, 50 mg, 100 mg/kg, respectively) for 3 weeks. The ICV-STZ injected rats did not have elevated blood glucose levels. 21 days following ICV-STZ injection, rats treated with NAR had better learning and memory performance in the Morris water maze test compared with rats treated with saline. We demonstrated that NAR increased the mRNA expression of INS and INSR in cerebral cortex and hippocampus. In addition, NAR reversed ICV-STZ induced Tau hyper-phosphorylation in both hippocampus and cerebral cortex through downregulation of glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β) activity, a key kinase in the insulin signaling. Brain levels of Abeta, which were elevated in ICV-STZ rats, were significantly reduced in NAR-treated rats via upregulation of insulin degrading enzyme. These effects were mediated by increased insulin and insulin receptors expression in the brain, suggesting that insulin sensitizer agents might have therapeutic efficacy in early AD.

  1. PENGARUH PEMBERIAN KEFIR BENING TERHADAP KADAR GLUKOSA DARAH PADA TIKUS WISTAR HIPERGLIKEMIA YANG DIINDUKSI STREPTOZOTOCIN (STZ

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    Judiono Judiono

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Background: Hyperglycemia in diabetes caused by excessive free-radicals, which in turn increases reactive oxygen species, reduced immune function and antioxidant, the beta cell damage. Objective: To validate the effects of plain kefir probiotic on blood glucose level in streptozotocin (STZ induced hyperglycemia Wistar rats. Methods: The experiment using randomized pretest-posttest control group design was carried-out on 48 male hyperglycemia Wistar rats induced by 40 mg/kg body-weight of STZ. Rats were divided randomly into four groups: (1 negative control fed ad libitum standard diet, (2 positive control induced by STZ, (3 insulin treated 0.76 UI/200 g body weight, and (4 plain kefir 3.6 cc per day. Kefir is prepared by the use of pasteurized skim milk fermented by kefir commercial inoculums. Blood glucose was measured with Super Glucocard II meter (Arkray, Kyoto, Japan. Results Kefir supplementation 3.6 cc per day had significantly effect on blood glucose reduction after… days. Results showed that blood glucose levels before and after the treatment in each group as follows: in negative control group, before and after the treatment were 92.7 ± 6.6 mgdL and 89.4 ± 5.3 mgdL, respectively; in positive control group, before and after treatment were 263.9 ± 61.7 mgdL and 290.9 ± 99.8 mgdL; in insulin group, before and after the treatment were 286.9 ± 73.2 mgdL and 168.3 ± 53.3 mgdL; and in kefir group, before and after the treatment were 234.0 ± 61.1 mgdL and 147.8 ± 52.6 mgdL. Conclusion: Kefir supplementation significantly reduced blood glucose in vivo. Isolation and identification of probiotic involved on biomolecular and to find out the role of specific probiotic originated from kefir in diabetes mellitus are very challenging to be implemented in clinical application. [Penel Gizi Makan 2009, 32(2: 129-136] Key words: probiotic, kefir, diabetes mellitus, hyperglicemia, streptozotocin

  2. Density functional theory studies of the structural, electronic, and phonon properties of Li2O and Li2CO3 : Application to CO2 capture reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Yuhua; Sorescu, Dan C.

    2009-01-01

    The structural, electronic, and phonon properties of Li2O and Li2CO3 solids are investigated using density functional theory (DFT) and their thermodynamic properties for CO2 absorption and desorption reactions are analyzed. The calculated bulk properties for both the ambient- and the high-pressure phases of Li2O and Li2CO3 are in good agreement with available experimental measurements. The calculated band gap of the high-pressure phase of Li2O (8.37 eV, indirect) is about 3 eV larger than the one corresponding to the ambient Li2O phase (5.39 eV, direct), whereas the calculated band gap for the high-pressure phase of Li2CO3 (3.55 eV, indirect) is about 1.6 eV smaller than that for the ambient phase of Li2CO3 (5.10 eV, direct). The oxygen atoms in the ambient phase of the Li2CO3 crystal are not equivalent as reflected by two different sets of C-O bond lengths (1.28 and 1.31Å ) and they form two different groups. When Li2CO3 dissociates, one group of O forms Li2O , while the other group of O forms CO2 . The calculated phonon dispersion and density of states for the ambient phases of Li2O and Li2CO3 are in good agreement with experimental measurements and other available theoretical results. Li2O(s)+CO2(g)↔Li2CO3(s) is the key reaction of lithium salt sorbents (such as lithium silicates and lithium zircornates) for CO2 capture. The energy change and the chemical potential of this reaction have been calculated by combining DFT with lattice dynamics. Our results indicate that although pure Li2O can absorb CO2 efficiently, it is not a good solid sorbent for CO2 capture because the reverse reaction, corresponding to Li2CO3 releasing CO2 , can only occur at very low CO2 pressure and/or at very high temperature when Li2CO3 is in liquid phase.

  3. Anti-diabetic activity of peony seed oil, a new resource food in STZ-induced diabetic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Jianhui; Wang, Hongxin; Ma, Caoyang; Lou, Zaixiang; Liu, Chengxiang; Tanver Rahman, MdRamim; Gao, Chuanzhong; Nie, Rongjing

    2015-09-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the components of a new resource food in China, peony seed oil (PSO) by GC-MS (gas chromatography-mass spectrometry), its inhibitory effects on carbohydrate hydrolyzing enzymes in vitro and its anti-diabetic effects on mice induced by streptozotocin (STZ). The results showed that peony seed oil showed weak anti-α-amylase activity; however, strong anti-α-glucosidase activity was noted. The GC-MS analysis of the oil showed 9 constituents of which α-linolenic acid was found to be the major component (38.66%), followed by linoleic acid (26.34%) and oleic acid (23.65%). The anti-diabetic potential of peony seed oil was tested in STZ induced diabetic mice. Administration of peony seed oil and glibenclamide reduced the blood glucose level and the area under curve (AUC) in STZ induced diabetic mice. There were significant increases in body weight, liver glycogen content, serum insulin level, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and decreases in glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1C), total serum cholesterol (TC), and triglyceride (TG) in test groups as compared to the untreated diabetic groups. In vivo antioxidant studies on STZ induced diabetic mice revealed the reduction of malondialdehyde (MDA) and increase of glutathione peroxides (GSH-px), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and glutathione (GSH). The results provided a sound rationale for future clinical trials of oral administration of peony seed oil to alleviate postprandial hyperglycemia in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice.

  4. Antidiabetic activities of polysaccharides from Anoectochilus roxburghii and Anoectochilus formosanus in STZ-induced diabetic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Tingting; Duan, Xiaoyu; Ke, Yu; Zhang, Lan; Shen, Yingbin; Hu, Bin; Liu, Aiping; Chen, Hong; Li, Cheng; Wu, Wenjuan; Shen, Li; Liu, Yuntao

    2018-02-10

    Six polysaccharides were extracted from different parts (whole plants, roots and leaves) of Anoectochilus roxburghii and Anoectochilus formosanus (ARPs, ARPs-1, ARPs-2, AFPs, AFPs-1 and AFPs-2). Their primary characteristics were identified and their antidiabetic activities were evaluated in STZ-induced diabetic mice. Root polysaccharides (ARPs-1and AFPs-1) and leaf polysaccharides (ARPs-2 and AFPs-2) were distinct from each other in terms of the Mws, monosaccharide compositions and functional groups. Notably, the primary structures of ARPs and AFPs were similar to those of ARPs-1and AFPs-1, respectively. In animal experiment, after feeding with polysaccharides samples, the body weight, blood glucose, glycogen, insulin, total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), malondiadehyde (MDA) and antioxidant enzyme activities in liver and kidney of mice were tested to investigate the antidiabetic activities. All polysaccharides exhibited varying antidiabetic activities (antihyperglycemic, antioxidant and antihyperlipidemic activities), which were closely related to their primary characteristics. Furthermore, root polysaccharides with higher Mws and glucose content in both A. roxburghii and A. formosanus, exhibited better antidiabetic activities than leaf polysaccharides, and ARPs which showed the best antidiabetic activities had the potential to be used as functional food or medicine for diabetes treatment. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Protective Effects of Berberine on Renal Injury in Streptozotocin (STZ-Induced Diabetic Mice

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    Xiuli Zhang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Diabetic nephropathy (DN is a serious diabetic complication with renal hypertrophy and expansion of extracellular matrices in renal fibrosis. Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT of renal tubular epithelial cells may be involved in the main mechanism. Berberine (BBR has been shown to have antifibrotic effects in liver, kidney and lung. However, the mechanism of cytoprotective effects of BBR in DN is still unclear. In this study, we investigated the curative effects of BBR on tubulointerstitial fibrosis in streptozotocin (STZ-induced diabetic mice and the high glucose (HG-induced EMT in NRK 52E cells. We found that BBR treatment attenuated renal fibrosis by activating the nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2 signaling pathway in the diabetic kidneys. Further revealed that BBR abrogated HG-induced EMT and oxidative stress in relation not only with the activation of Nrf2 and two Nrf2-targeted antioxidative genes (NQO-1 and HO-1, but also with the suppressing the activation of TGF-β/Smad signaling pathway. Importantly, knockdown Nrf2 with siRNA not only abolished the BBR-induced expression of HO-1 and NQO-1 but also removed the inhibitory effect of BBR on HG-induced activation of TGF-β/Smad signaling as well as the anti-fibrosis effects. The data from present study suggest that BBR can ameliorate tubulointerstitial fibrosis in DN by activating Nrf2 pathway and inhibiting TGF-β/Smad/EMT signaling activity.

  6. Effect of Urtica dioica L. (Urticaceae) on testicular tissue in STZ-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghafari, S; Balajadeh, B Kabiri; Golalipour, M J

    2011-08-15

    Urtica dioica L. (Stinging nettle) has already been known for a long time as a medicinal plant in the world. This histopathological and morphometrical study was conducted to determine the effects of the hydroalcoholic extract of Urtica dioica leaves on testis of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Eighteen male Wistar rats were allocated to equally normal, diabetic and treatment groups. Hyperglycemia was induced by Streptozotocin (80 mg kg(-1)) in animals of diabetic and treatment groups. One week after STZ injection (80 mg kg(-1)), the rats of treatment group received the extract of U. dioica (100 mg/kg/day) IP for 28 days. After 5 weeks of study, all the rats were sacrificed and testes were removed and fixed in bouin and after tissue processing stained with H and E technique. Tubular cell disintegration, sertoli and spermatogonia cell vacuolization and decrease in sperm concentration in seminiferous tubules were seen in diabetic and treatment groups group in comparison with control. External Seminiferous Tubular Diameter (STD) and Seminiferous Epithelial Height (SEH) significantly reduced (p Urtica dioica leaves, after induction of diabetes; has no treatment effect on seminiferous tubules alterations in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

  7. MiR-124 is Related to Podocytic Adhesive Capacity Damage in STZ-Induced Uninephrectomized Diabetic Rats

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    Dong Li

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Diabetic nephropathy (DN is the leading cause of end-stage renal disease. Podocyte plays a key role in the pathogenesis of DN. Adhesive capacity damage of podocytes is characteristic in DN. Emerging evidence suggests that microRNAs (miRNAs play crucial roles in controlling many cell adhesion molecules thus contribute to normal cell adhesion. The roles of miRNA in podocytic adhesive capacity damage in diabetic conditions remain largely unknown. Methods: Diabetes was induced by tail vein injection of streptozotocin (STZ into uninephrectomized male Wistar rats. Comparative miRNA expression array and real-time PCR analyses were conducted in sham group at week 0 (W0, n = 3 and STZ-induced uninephrectomized diabetic rats at week 1 (W1, n = 3 and week 2 (W2, n = 3 to demonstrate the greatest increased miRNA in renal cortex. At week 2, STZ-induced uninephrectomized diabetic rats were treated with vehicle (Group U, n = 9, chemically modified antisense RNA oligonucleotide (ASO complementary to the mature miR-124 (Group O, n = 8, miR-124 mismatch control sequence (Group M, n = 8. Urine specimens were obtained for measurement of urine albumin concentration and urinary podocyte specific protein (nephrin and podocin quantitation. Expression of integrin α3 were detected by immunohistochemistry and western blotting. Results: MiRNAs are differentially regulated in renal cortex of STZ-induced uninephrectomized diabetic rats relative to sham rats. Among the up-regulated miRNAs, miR-124 expression demonstrated the greatest increase. Administration of miR-124 ASO for two weeks significantly reduced urinary podocytic nephrin, podocin and albumin excretion and up-regulate integrin α3 expression. Conclusion: MiR-124 is related to podocytic adhesive capacity damage and may be implicated in the pathogenesis of DN.

  8. The effects of hydroalcoholic extract of Nigella sativa seed on oxidative stress in hippocampus of STZ-induced diabetic rats

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    Abbasali Abbasnezhad

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Oxidative stress plays an important role in the etiology of diabetic complications. Diabetes impairs hippocampus neurogenesis, synaptic plasticity, and learning. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of hydroalcoholic extract of Nigella sativa seed on oxidative stress in STZ-induced diabetic rats' hippocampus. Materials and Methods: Diabetes induced by 60 mg/kg STZ, i.p, and the rats were divided into five experimental groups (n=8-10 in each group including control (received 0.5 ml normal saline, untreated STZ-diabetic (received 0.5 ml normal saline, and treated rats received Nigella sativa extract (200 and 400 mg/kg or metformin (300 mg/kg by gavage for 42 days. Serum glucose concentration and body weight as well as hippocampus tissue malondialdehyde and thiollevels were determined by calorimetric assay. Results: Serum glucose level in the diabetic rats treated with 200 mg/kg Nigella sativaextract at the days 24 and 45 decreased in comparison to untreated diabetic group (p

  9. Bio-optic signatures for advanced glycation end products in the skin in streptozotocin (STZ) Induced Diabetes (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saidian, Mayer; Ponticorvo, Adrien; Rowland, Rebecca A.; Balbado, Melisa L.; Lentsch, Griffin; Balu, Mihaela; Alexander, Micheal; Shiri, Li; Lakey, Jonathan R. T.; Durkin, Anthony J.; Kohen, Roni; Tromberg, Bruce J.

    2017-02-01

    Type 1diabetes (T1D) is an autoimmune disorder that occurs due to the rapid destruction of insulin-producing beta cells, leading to insulin deficiency and the inability to regulate blood glucose levels and leads to destructive secondary complications. Advanced glycation end (AGEs) products, the result of the cross-linking of reducing sugars and proteins within the tissues, are one of the key causes of major complications associated with diabetes such as renal failure, blindness, nerve damage and vascular changes. Non-invasive techniques to detect AGEs are important for preventing the harmful effects of AGEs during diabetes mellitus. In this study, we utilized multiphoton microscopy to image biopsies taken from control rats and compared them to biopsies taken from streptozotocin (STZ) induced adult male diabetic rats. This was done at two and four weeks after the induction of hyperglycemia (>400 mg/dL) specifically to evaluate the effects of glycation on collagen. We chose to use an in-situ multiphoton microscopy method that combines multiphoton auto-florescence (AF) and second harmonic generation (SHG) to detect the microscopic influence of glycation. Initial results show high auto-florescence levels were present on the collagen, as a result of the accumulation of AGEs only two weeks after the STZ injection and considerably higher levels were present four weeks after the STZ injection. Future projects could involve evaluating advanced glycation end products in a clinical trial of diabetic patients.

  10. Protective Effect of Ethyl Acetate Fraction of Stereospermum Suaveolens Against Hepatic Oxidative Stress in STZ Diabetic Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasubramanian, Thirumalaiswamy; Senthilkumar, G P; Karthikeyan, M; Chatterjee, Tapan Kumar

    2013-07-01

    Stereospermum suaveolens is a folk remedy for the treatment of diabetes and liver disorders in southern parts of India. In the present study, the protective effect of the ethyl acetate fraction of ethanol extract from S. suaveolens against hepatic oxidative stress was evaluated in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats for 14 days. The ethyl acetate fraction was administered orally to the STZ diabetic rats at the doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg. Blood glucose level was measured according to glucose oxidase method. In order to determine hepatoprotective activity, changes in the levels of serum biomarker enzymes such as aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), and serum alkaline phosphatase (SALP) were assessed in the ethyl acetate fraction treated diabetic rats and were compared with the levels in diabetic control rats. In addition, the antioxidant activity of ethyl acetate fraction was evaluated using various hepatic parameters such as thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), reduced glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT). It was found that administration of ethyl acetate fraction (200 and 400 mg/kg) produced a significant (P ethyl acetate fraction on the liver tissues of diabetic rats. It was concluded from this study that the ethyl acetate fraction from ethanol extract of S. suaveolens modulates the activity of enzymatic and nonenzymatic antioxidants and enhances the defense against hepatic oxidative stress in STZ-induced diabetic rats.

  11. Ophiocordyceps formosana improves hyperglycemia and depression-like behavior in an STZ-induced diabetic mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chao-Wei; Hong, Tzu-Wen; Wang, Ying-Jing; Chen, Ko-Chien; Pei, Ju-Chun; Chuang, Tai-Yuan; Lai, Wen-Sung; Tsai, Sheng-Hong; Chu, Richard; Chen, Wei-Cheng; Sheen, Lee-Yan; Takahashi, Satoru; Ding, Shih-Torng; Shen, Tang-Long

    2016-08-24

    A newly defined Cordyceps species, Ophiocordyceps formosana (O. formosana) has been implicated in multitudinous bioactivities, including lowering glucose and cholesterol levels and modulating the immune system. However, few literatures demonstrate sufficient evidence to support these proposed functions. Although the use of Cordyceps spp. has been previously addressed to improve insulin insensitivity and improve the detrimental symptoms of depression; its mechanistic nature remains unsettled. Herein, we reveal the effects of O. formosana in ameliorating hyperglycemia accompanied with depression. Diabetes was induced in mice by employing streptozotocin(STZ), a chemical that is toxic to insulin-producing β cells of the pancreas. These streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic mice showed combined symptoms of hyperglycemia and depressive behaviors. Twenty-four STZ-induced mice were randomly divided into 3 groups subjected to oral gavage with 100 μL solution of either PBS or 25 mg/mL Ophiocordyceps formosana extract (OFE) or 2 mg/mL rosiglitazone (Rosi, positive control group). Treatments were administered once per day for 28 days. An additional 6 mice without STZ induction were treated with PBS to serve as the control group. Insulin sensitivity was measured by a glucose tolerance test and levels of adiponectin in plasma and adipose tissue were also quantified. Behavioral tests were conducted and levels of monoamines in various brain regions relating to depression were evaluated. HPLC analysis uncovered three major constituents, adenosine, D-mannitol and cordycepin, within O. formosana similar to other prestigious medicinal Cordyceps spp.. STZ-induced diabetic mice demonstrated decreased body weight and subcutaneous adipose tissue, while these symptoms were recovered in mice receiving OFE treatment. Moreover, the OFE group displayed improved insulin sensitivity and elevated adiponectin within the plasma and adipose tissue. The anti-depressive effect of OFE was

  12. Anti-inflammatory role of sesamin in STZ induced mice model of diabetic retinopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Saif; ElSherbiny, Nehal M; Jamal, Mohammad Sarwar; Alzahrani, Faisal A; Haque, Rizwanul; Khan, Raziuddin; Zaidi, Syed Kashif; AlQahtani, Mohammed H; Liou, Gregory I; Bhatia, Kanchan

    2016-06-15

    Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is the common cause of diabetic vascular complications that leads to the blindness in the working age population throughout the world. Free radicals mediated oxidative stress and inflammation play a significant role in pathophysiology of DR. To find a new and safe drug to treat DR is still challenging and for that purpose the natural compounds may be therapeutic agents. Here we show that sesamin (SES), which is the main component of sesame seed and its oil, and has been reported as potent antioxidant and neuroprotective, could be a therapeutic agent in DR. In the present study, we investigated protective effect of SES in Streptozotocin (STZ) induced DR in mice. The mice were divided into three groups (Control, DR and DR+SES) for the study. After two weeks post-diabetic establishment, mice were treated with SES (30mg/kg BW, i.p, alternate day) for four weeks. Mice body weight and blood glucose level were measured from each group. The microglial activation of retina was determined by immunohistochemistry analysis by using Iba-1 as a microglia marker. Retinal mRNA levels of Iba-1, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and Intercellular Adhesion Molecule 1 (ICAM-1) were examined by qRT-PCR. The level of iNOS protein expression was examined by immunoblotting. Together these data demonstrate that SES treatment lowered the progression of diabetic retinal injury by: 1) decreasing blood glucose level, 2) suppressing microglia activation, 3) reducing retinal TNF-α and ICAM-1 levels and 4) quenching iNOS expression. In conclusion, the results suggest that SES treatment may be of therapeutic benefit in reducing the progression of DR by ameliorating hyperglycemia and inflammation in diabetic retina. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Evaluation of antidiabetic potential of selected traditional Chinese medicines in STZ-induced diabetic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Kai; Li, Xuegang; Chen, Xin; Ye, Xiaoli; Huang, Jing; Jin, Yanan; Li, Panpan; Deng, Yafei; Jin, Qing; Shi, Qing; Shu, Hejing

    2011-10-11

    Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has been used for treating complex chronic diseases owing to their fewer side-effects, better patient tolerance and relatively less cost. The present work was carried out to study the anti-diabetic efficacy and mechanisms of 34 TCMs. Streptozotocin (STZ)-diabetic mice were orally administrated with corresponding herbal solution once a day for 4 weeks. At the end of experiment, the level of plasma glucose, malondialdehyde (MDA), the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and the serum aldose reductase (AR) were determined, the effects of TCM extract on α-glucosidase and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) in vitro were also evaluated. 13 out of the 34 herbs showed a statistically significant plasma glucose lowering action compared with the diabetic control group. Biochemical analysis revealed that Atractylodes macrocephala, Codonopsis pilosula, Dioscorea opposite, Flos lonicerae and Pueraria lobata may retard the progression of diabetes via reduce the blood glucose level and prevent the increase of AR activity. Other tested herbs, such as Ramulus cinnamomi, Cinnamomum cassia, and Eucommia ulmoides, showed the antidiabetic ability by either prevent the decrease in SOD activity or suppress the increase of MDA. Zymologic assay reveals that Pueraria lobata and Anemarrhena asphodeloides showed the highest inhibition against α-glucosidase and ACE respectively. Interestingly, the post-treatment glucose levels and AR activity were positively correlated with kidney/body weight of 34 herbs treated diabetic mice (p = 0.02, 0.04 respectively). Several potential antidiabetic herbs derived from Chinese traditional pharmacopeia such as Dioscorea opposite, Pueraria lobata, Codonopsis pilosula and Ramulus cinnamomi, have been found to exert a beneficial action on diabetes and diabetic complications via multi-mechanisms. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Administration of Lupinus albus gamma conglutin (Cγ) to n5 STZ rats augmented Ins-1 gene expression and pancreatic insulin content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas-Guerrero, Belinda; García-López, Pedro M; Martínez-Ayala, Alma L; Domínguez-Rosales, José A; Gurrola-Díaz, Carmen M

    2014-09-01

    Several studies support the health-promoting benefits of lupins, particularly lupin proteins. It has been demonstrated that Lupinus albus gamma conglutin (Cγ) protein lowered blood glucose levels; thus, Cγ showed promise as a new anti-diabetic compound for type 2 diabetes (T2D) treatment. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of Cγ on Ins-1 gene expression and on pancreatic insulin content in streptozotocin-mediated diabetic rats. Cγ was isolated from Lupinus albus seeds. Its identification was confirmed with polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis under native and denaturing conditions. We used streptozotocin (STZ) to induce T2D on the 5th day of life of newborn male Wistar rats (n5-STZ). After 20 weeks post-induction, these animals (glycemia > 200 mg/dL) were randomly assigned to three groups that received the following one-week treatments: vehicle, 0.90% w/v NaCl (n5 STZ-Ctrl); glibenclamide, 10 mg/kg (n5 STZ-Glib); or Cγ, 120 mg/kg (n5 STZ-Cγ). Glucose and insulin levels were measured before and after treatment. Ins-1 gene expression was quantified using real time polymerase chain reaction and the pancreatic insulin content was evaluated with immunohistochemistry. Post-treatment, the n5 STZ-Cγ and n5 STZ-Glib groups showed reductions in glucose, increments in serum insulin, and increases in Ins-1 gene expression and beta cell insulin content compared to the n5 STZ-Ctrl group. The results showed that Cγ had beneficial effects on Ins-1 gene expression and pancreatic insulin content. These biological effects of Cγ strengthen its promising potential as a nutraceutical and/or new agent for controlling hyperglycemia.

  15. Marketing Impact of Halal Labeling toward Indonesian Muslim Consumer’s Behavioral Intention Based on Ajzen’s Planned Behavior Theory: Policy Capturing Studies on Five Different Product Categories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imam Salehudin

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to test the applicability of the theory of planned behavior (TPB in explaining the intention to switch from products without certified Halal labels within a wide array of purchase context, especially in the purchase of food and medicine products. A policy capturing questionnaire was used to elicit responses from consumers using a convenience sampling technique. A total of 7500 responses were obtained from 150 participating respondent in 50 different scenario cases. Data is analyzed using Multi-Group Structural Equation Modeling. The study finds that the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB is not completely valid to explain both the behavioral intention of Muslim consumers in Indonesia to seek information about the Halal certification of a product and to cancel their purchase if the product did not have Halal certification. Differences in magnitude and significance of causal relationships exist between different product categories.

  16. To neither target, capture, surveille, nor wage war: On-going need for attention to metaphor theory in care and prevention for people who use drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perlman, David C; Jordan, Ashly E

    2017-01-01

    Metaphors, and the frames they evoke, potently influence how people understand issues. These concepts of discourse, metaphor, and framing have been productively used in a range of studies including in the field of addiction. In public health and clinical discourse on people who use drugs, use of terms such as "targeting," "surveilling," and "capturing," along with "war on drugs" frames and referring to drug treatment as "substitution" may reinforce negative perceptions of people who use drugs. Avoiding military metaphors and explicitly leveraging metaphors that emphasize humanity, social cohesion, and agency have the potential to improve public health for people who use drugs.

  17. A new test of advanced theory of mind: The "Strange Stories Film Task" captures social processing differences in adults with autism spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Kim; Johnston, Kate; Cunnane, Helen; Kerr, Charlotte; Spain, Debbie; Gillan, Nicola; Hammond, Neil; Murphy, Declan; Happé, Francesca

    2017-06-01

    Real-life social processing abilities of adults with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) can be hard to capture in lab-based experimental tasks. A novel measure of social cognition, the "Strange Stories Film task' (SSFt), was designed to overcome limitations of available measures in the field. Brief films were made based on the scenarios from the Strange Stories task (Happé) and designed to capture the subtle social-cognitive difficulties observed in ASD adults. Twenty neurotypical adults were recruited to pilot the new measure. A final test set was produced and administered to a group of 20 adults with ASD and 20 matched controls, alongside established social cognition tasks and questionnaire measures of empathy, alexithymia and ASD traits. The SSFt was more effective than existing measures at differentiating the ASD group from the control group. In the ASD group, the SSFt was associated with the Strange Stories task. The SSFt is a potentially useful tool to identify social cognitive dis/abilities in ASD, with preliminary evidence of adequate convergent validity. Future research directions are discussed. Autism Res 2017. © 2017 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Autism Res 2017, 10: 1120-1132. © 2017 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Protective effect of the daming capsule on impaired baroreflexes in STZ-induced diabetic rats with hyperlipoidemia

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    Lu Guan-Yi

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Daming capsule (DMC is a traditional Chinese medicine used to treat hyperlipoidemia. Both clinic trials and studies on animal models have demonstrated that DMC is beneficial against diabetic symptoms. Impairment of the baroreflex can cause life-threatening arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM. This study was designed to elucidate the effects of DMC on baroreflexes in streptozocin (STZ-induced diabetic rats with hyperlipoidemia. Methods Wistar rats were randomly divided into three groups: untreated controls, rats pretreated STZ and high lipids (a diabetes model or DM rats, and DM rats treated with DMC. The baroreflex sensitivity was examined during intravenous injection of phenylephrine (PE or sodium nitroprusside (SNP and quantified by the change in heart rate over the change in mean arterial blood pressure (ΔHR/ΔMABP. Morphological remodeling of baroreceptors was analyzed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM. The mRNA levels and expression of GluR2 and a GABAA receptor subunit were measured by quantitative RT-PCR and Western blotting. Results Compared to untreated DM rats, DMC significantly elevated the ratio of ΔHR/ΔMABP by enhancing the compensatory reduction in HR (-ΔHR in response to PE-induced hypertension (+ΔMABP (P P P A receptor expression. Conclusion The Daming capsule partially reversed the parasympathetic baroreflex impairment observed in STZ-induced diabetic rats with hyperlipoidemia. Treatment with DMC also prevented the degeneration of neurons and myelinated axons in the brain stem NAm and reversed the down-regulation of GluR2 mRNA. Rescue of NAm function may contribute to the medicinal properties of DMC in diabetic rats.

  19. High Pancreatic n-3 Fatty Acids Prevent STZ-Induced Diabetes in Fat-1 Mice: Inflammatory Pathway Inhibition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellenger, Jérôme; Bellenger, Sandrine; Bataille, Amandine; Massey, Karen A.; Nicolaou, Anna; Rialland, Mickaël; Tessier, Christian; Kang, Jing X.; Narce, Michel

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Because of confounding factors, the effects of dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) on type 1 diabetes remain to be clarified. We therefore evaluated whether fat-1 transgenic mice, a well-controlled experimental model endogenously synthesizing n-3 PUFA, were protected against streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes. We then aimed to elucidate the in vivo response at the pancreatic level. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS β-Cell destruction was produced by multiple low-doses STZ (MLD-STZ). Blood glucose level, plasma insulin level, and plasma lipid analysis were then performed. Pancreatic mRNA expression of cytokines, the monocyte chemoattractant protein, and GLUT2 were evaluated as well as pancreas nuclear factor (NF)-κB p65 and inhibitor of κB (IκB) protein expression. Insulin and cleaved caspase-3 immunostaining and lipidomic analysis were performed in the pancreas. RESULTS STZ-induced fat-1 mice did not develop hyperglycemia compared with wild-type mice, and β-cell destruction was prevented as evidenced by lack of histological pancreatic damage or reduced insulin level. The prevention of β-cell destruction was associated with no proinflammatory cytokine induction (tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β, inducible nitric oxide synthase) in the pancreas, a decreased NF-κB, and increased IκB pancreatic protein expression. In the fat-1–treated mice, proinflammatory arachidonic-derived mediators as prostaglandin E2 and 12-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid were decreased and the anti-inflammatory lipoxin A4 was detected. Moreover, the 18-hydroxyeicosapentaenoic acid, precursor of the anti-inflammatory resolvin E1, was highly increased. CONCLUSIONS Collectively, these findings indicate that fat-1 mice were protected against MLD-STZ–induced diabetes and pointed out for the first time in vivo the beneficial effects of n-3 PUFA at the pancreatic level, on each step of the development of the pathology—inflammation, β-cell damage—through cytokine

  20. Chromane isolated from leaves of Dillenia indica improves the neuronal dysfunction in STZ-induced diabetic neuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Navpreet; Kishore, Lalit; Singh, Randhir

    2017-07-12

    According to the Indian traditional medicine, Dillenia indica L. has shown therapeutic efficacy in various diseases. Fruits and leaves of the plant possess anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Reactive oxygen species, formation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) and apoptosis are implicated in the pathogenesis of diabetic neuropathy. The aim of the present study was to explore the effect of D. indica and its isolate, chromane (CR), on thermal and mechanical hyperalgesia, allodynia, MNCV and oxidative-nitrosative stress in streptozotocin-induced experimental diabetes. Diabetes was induced by intraperitoneal administration of Streptozotocin (STZ; 65mg/kg) for the development of diabetic neuropathy. Chronic treatment with DAE (100, 200 and 400mg/kg, p.o.) and CR (5 and 10mg/kg, p.o.) for 30 days was started from the 60th day of STZ administration. Development of neuropathy was evident from a marked hyperalgesia and allodynia; reduced MNCV associated with increased formation of AGEs and reactive oxygen species. significantly attenuated behavioral and biochemical changes associated with diabetic neuropathy. Present study suggested that DAE and CR ameliorated hyperglycemia and diabetic neuropathic pain via modulation of oxidative-nitrosative stress and reduction in AGEs formation in the diabetic rats. Thus D. indica might be beneficial in chronic diabetics, ameliorate the progression of diabetic neuropathy and may also find application in diabetic neuropathic pain. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The effect of Stevia rebaudiana on serum omentin and visfatin level in STZ-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbarzadeh, Samad; Eskandari, Fatemeh; Tangestani, Hadis; Bagherinejad, Somaieh Tangerami; Bargahi, Afshar; Bazzi, Parviz; Daneshi, Adel; Sahrapoor, Azam; O'Connor, William J; Rahbar, Ali Reza

    2015-03-01

    Recently the role of adipocytokines in relationship to incidence of diabetes has been demonstrated. One of the medicinal plants that are used in the treatment of diabetes is stevia. This study investigates the effect of stevia on serum omentin and visfatin levels as novel adipocytokines in diabetic induced rats to find potential mechanisms for the anti hyperglycemic effect of stevia. Forty male wistar rats weighing 180-250 g were induced with diabetes by intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (STZ). The animals were divided into 5 groups of 8. Rats in group 1 (non-diabetic control) and group 2 (diabetic control) were treated with distilled water, and the rats in the treated groups, group 3 (T250), group 4 (T500), and group 5 (T750) were treated with stevia, gavaged every day at 9 a.m. in doses of 250, 500, and 750 mg/kg, respectively. At the end of the study significant reductions in fasting blood sugar (FBS), the homeostasis model assessment insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), triglyceride (TG), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and Omentin level were found in groups 3 and 4 in comparison with group 2. Pancreatic histopathology slides demonstrated that stevia extract did not induce any increase in the number of β-cells. The conclusion is that prescription of stevia in the doses of 250 and 500 mg/kg/d decreases the omentin level indirectly via activating insulin sensitivity and lowering blood glucose in STZ-induced diabetic rats.

  2. Renal Protective Effects of Low Molecular Weight of Inonotus obliquus Polysaccharide (LIOP on HFD/STZ-Induced Nephropathy in Mice

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    Yen-Jung Chou

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Diabetic nephropathy (DN is the leading cause of end-stage renal disease in diabetes mellitus. Oxidative stress, insulin resistance and pro-inflammatory cytokines have been shown to play an important role in pathogeneses of renal damage on type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM. Inonotus obliquus (IO is a white rot fungus that belongs to the family Hymenochaetaceae; it has been used as an edible mushroom and exhibits many biological activities including anti-tumor, anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-hyperglycemic properties. Especially the water-soluble Inonotus obliquus polysaccharides (IOPs have been previously reported to significantly inhibit LPS-induced inflammatory cytokines in mice and protect from streptozotocin (STZ-induced diabetic rats. In order to identify the nephroprotective effects of low molecular weight of IOP fraction (LIOP, from the fruiting bodies of Inonotus obliquus, high-fat diet (HFD plus STZ-induced type 2-like diabetic nephropathy C57BL/6 mice were investigated in this study. Our data showed that eight weeks of administration of 10–100 kDa, LIOP (300 mg/kg had progressively increased their sensitivity to glucose (less insulin tolerance, reduced triglyceride levels, elevated the HDL/LDL ratio and decreased urinary albumin/creatinine ratio(ACR compared to the control group. By pathological and immunohistochemical examinations, it was indicated that LIOP can restore the integrity of the glomerular capsules and increase the numbers of glomerular mesangial cells, associated with decreased expression of TGF-β on renal cortex in mice. Consistently, three days of LIOP (100 μg/mL incubation also provided protection against STZ + AGEs-induced glucotoxicity in renal tubular cells (LLC-PK1, while the levels of NF-κB and TGF-β expression significantly decreased in a dose-dependent manner. Our findings demonstrate that LIOP treatment could ameliorate glucolipotoxicity-induced renal fibrosis, possibly partly via the inhibition of NF

  3. Colonic PDGFRα Overexpression Accompanied Forkhead Transcription Factor FOXO3 Up-Regulation in STZ-Induced Diabetic Mice

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    Hongli Lu

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Colonic transit disorder-induced constipation is a major complication in diabetic patients. PDGFRα+ (platelet-derived growth factor receptor α-positive cells play critical roles in the inhibitory regulation of colonic motility, and FOXO3 (forkhead transcription factor 3 has a broad range of biological functions. The present study was designed to investigate the relationship between FOXO3 and PDGFRα+ cell proliferation in streptozotocin (STZ-induced diabetic mice. Methods: The major experimental techniques used in this paper are immunohistochemistry, quantitative RT-RCR and Western blotting for the evaluation of specific protein expression; ChIP assay for identifying the interaction between FOXO3 protein and the PDGFRα promotor; and lentiviral transfection for the overexpression of short hairpin RNAs (shRNAs to down-regulate FOXO3. Results: In proximal colonic smooth muscle tissue of STZ-induced diabetic mice, there was a significant increase in PDGFRα and Ki67 immunoreactivity. PDGFRα mRNA and protein expression levels were both significantly increased in colonic smooth muscle tissue, but PDGFRβ expression was unchanged. Meanwhile, the expression of PDGF ligands, including both PDGFα and PDGFβ, was significantly increased in diabetic colonic smooth muscle tissue. In whole cell and nuclear extracts, the expression of FOXO3 protein was also significantly increased; however, the expression of P-FOXO3 (phosphorylated FOXO3 protein was significantly decreased. When NIH cells were incubated with 50 mmol/L glucose for 12 h, 24 h and 48 h, the expression of PDGFRα significantly increased, and in whole cell and nuclear extracts, the expression of FOXO3 protein was significantly increased. However, the expression of P-FOXO3 protein was significantly decreased. FOXO3 could bind to a site on the PDGFRα promoter, and the basal expression of PDGFRα was significantly reduced when endogenous FOXO3 expression was knocked down with FOXO3

  4. Protective Effect of Urtica dioica L. (Urticaceae) on Morphometric and Morphologic Alterations of Seminiferous Tubules in STZ Diabetic Rats.

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    Golalipour, Mohammad Jafar; Kabiri Balajadeh, Babak; Ghafari, Soraya; Azarhosh, Ramin; Khori, Vahid

    2011-09-01

    Urtica dioica L. has been known as a medicinal plant in the world. This study was conducted to determine the effects of the hydroalcoholic extract of Urtica dioica leaves on seminiferous tubules of diabetic rats. Animals were allocated to control, diabetic and protective groups. Treated animals received extract of U. dioica (100 mg/ kg/ day) IP for the first 5 days and STZ injection on the 6th day. After 5 weeks, testes removed and stained with H&E technique. Tubular cell disintegration, sertoli and spermatogonia cell vacuolization, and decrease in sperm concentration observed in diabetic in comparison with control and protective groups. External seminiferous tubular diameter and seminiferous epithelial height significantly reduced (Pdioica, before induction of diabetes; has protective role on seminiferous tubules alterations.

  5. Investigation of metabolic changes in STZ-induced diabetic rats with hyperpolarized [1-13C]acetate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koellisch, Ulrich; Laustsen, Christoffer; Nørlinger, Thomas S

    2015-01-01

    In the metabolism of acetate several enzymes are involved, which play an important role in free fatty acid oxidation. Fatty acid metabolism is altered in diabetes patients and therefore acetate might serve as a marker for pathological changes in the fuel selection of cells, as these changes occur...... in diabetes patients. Acetylcarnitine is a metabolic product of acetate, which enables its transport into the mitochondria for energy production. This study investigates whether the ratio of acetylcarnitine to acetate, measured by noninvasive hyperpolarized [1-(13)C]acetate magnetic resonance spectroscopy......, could serve as a marker for myocardial, hepatic, and renal metabolic changes in rats with Streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes in vivo. We demonstrate that the conversion of acetate to acetylcarnitine could be detected and quantified in all three organs of interest. More interestingly, we found...

  6. Evaluation of the Effect of Hydroalcoholic Extract of Citrullus colocynthis in Normoglycemic and Streptozocine (STZ Induced Diabetic Male Rats

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    MR Nikbakht

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Adverse side effects of chemical drugs for treatment of diabetes persuaded the using of medical plants. Citrullus colocynthis is a plant which has been used traditionally for treatment of diabetes. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of hydroalcholic extract of Citrullus colocynthis fruit on normoglycemic and streptozocine induced diabetic rats. Materials & Methods: 45 male Wistar rats weighing, 250-350 gr, have been selected and randomly divided in seven groups. Group1 without any drugs usage, group 2 that received normal saline (IV and distilled water (oral, group 3 received only streptozocine (IV, group 4 received only the extract of Citrullus colocynthis (1000 mg/kg, groups 5, 6 and 7 received 500, 1000 and 1500 mg/kg of Citrullus colocynthis extract after injection of STZ and induction of diabetes. Diabetes was induced by intravenous injection (45 mg/kg of STZ. Blood sampling was provided directly from animal heart and blood sugar was measured. The collected data were analyzed by SPSS software using students t-test and ANOVA. Results: Mean of normal blood sugar in control group was 156.5±15.7 mg/dl which defined as normal blood sugar. Streptozocine significantly increased blood sugar (p<0.05. The Citrullus colocynthis extract with 500 mg/kg dosage has not significantly reduced the blood sugar but is dosage of 1000 and 1500 mg/kg significantly decreased the blood sugar in a dose-dependent mode (p<0.05. Results also showed that the extract in dosage of 1000 mg/kg did not have a significant effect on normoglycemic animals. Conclusion: Results of this study indicate that the extract of Citrullus colocynthis fruit dose-dependently reduced the blood glucose level in streptozocine-induced diabetic rats but did not have significant effect on normal blood sugar.

  7. TRAIL and DcR1 Expressions Are Differentially Regulated in the Pancreatic Islets of STZ- versus CY-Applied NOD Mice

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    Ercument Dirice

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL is an important component of the immune system. Although it is well acknowledged that it also has an important role in Type 1 Diabetes (T1D development, this presumed role has not yet been clearly revealed. Streptozotocin (STZ and Cyclophosphamide (CY are frequently used agents for establishment or acceleration of T1D disease in experimental models, including the non-obese diabetic (NOD mice. Although such disease models are very suitable for diabetes research, different expression patterns for various T1D-related molecules may be expected, depending on the action mechanism of the applied agent. We accelerated diabetes in female NOD mice using STZ or CY and analyzed the expression profiles of TRAIL ligand and receptors throughout disease development. TRAIL ligand expression followed a completely different pattern in STZ- versus CY-accelerated disease, displaying a prominent increase in the former, while appearing at reduced levels in the latter. Decoy receptor 1 (DcR1 expression also increased significantly in the pancreatic islets in STZ-induced disease. Specific increases observed in TRAIL ligand and DcR1 expressions may be part of a defensive strategy of the beta islets against the infiltrating leukocytes, while the immune-suppressive agent CY may partly hold down this defense, contributing further to diabetes development.

  8. A first-principles density functional theory study of the electronic structural and thermodynamic properties of M2ZrO3 and M2CO3 (M=Na, K) and their capabilities for CO2 capture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuhua Duan

    2012-01-01

    Alkali metal zirconates could be used as solid sorbents for CO{sub 2} capture. The structural, electronic, and phonon properties of Na{sub 2}ZrO{sub 3}, K{sub 2}ZrO{sub 3}, Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}, and K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} are investigated by combining the density functional theory with lattice phonon dynamics. The thermodynamics of CO{sub 2} absorption/desorption reactions of these two zirconates are analyzed. The calculated results show that their optimized structures are in a good agreement with experimental measurements. The calculated band gaps are 4.339 eV (indirect), 3.641 eV (direct), 3.935 eV (indirect), and 3.697 eV (direct) for Na{sub 2}ZrO{sub 3}, K{sub 2}ZrO{sub 3}, Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}, and K{sub 2}CO{sub 3}, respectively.The calculated phonon dispersions and phonon density of states for M{sub 2}ZrO{sub 3} and M{sub 2}CO{sub 3} (M = K, Na, Li) revealed that from K to Na to Li, their frequency peaks are shifted to high frequencies due to the molecular weight decreased from K to Li. From the calculated reaction heats and relationships of free energy change versus temperatures and CO{sub 2} pressures of the M{sub 2}ZrO{sub 3} (M = K, Na, Li) reacting with CO{sub 2}, we found that the performance of Na{sub 2}ZrO{sub 3} capturing CO{sub 2} is similar to that of Li{sub 2}ZrO{sub 3} and is better than that of K{sub 2}ZrO{sub 3}. Therefore, Na{sub 2}ZrO{sub 3} and Li{sub 2}ZrO{sub 3} are good candidates of high temperature CO{sub 2} sorbents and could be used for post combustion CO{sub 2} capture technologies.

  9. Efek Hipoglikemik Kecambah Beras Merah pada Tikus yang Diinduksi STZ-NA dengan Parameter Kadar Insulin, Indeks HOMA-IR dan HOMA β

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurhidajah Nurhidajah

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The process of germination of grains such as rice, could increase some nutritional values of  amino acids and dietary fiber. Red rice and its sprouts are believed to be able to decrease blood glucose in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM. The aim of this study was to evaluate the hypoglycemic effect of red rice sprouts in STZ-NA induced diabetic rats on blood glucose level, insulin level, and HOMA-IR and HOMA-β index. This experimental study was conducted based on randomized post test only control group design using 24 male Wistar rats aged 2.5 months. Rats were divided into 4 groups, one group without induction of STZ-NA fed with a standard diet (control and three groups of STZ- NA induced with a standard diet, red rice and red rice germ. Experiments were conducted for 6 weeks. The results showed that sprouted red rice lowered blood glucose levels by 61.88 % and the value of HOMA-IR (insulin resistance parameters by 56.82%. Insulin level increased by 16.35 % and HOMA-β by 763.6 %. This study showed that red rice germ was able to decrease blood glucose levels and increase insulin resistance of DM rats and the strength of the pancreatic beta cells.   ABSTRAK Proses perkecambahan biji-bijian seperti beras, dapat meningkatkan beberapa nilai gizi seperti asam amino dan serat pangan. Beras merah dan kecambahnya diyakini mampu menurunkan glukosa darah pada penderita diabetes melitus (DM. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah mengevaluasi efek hipoglikemik kecambah beras merah pada tikus diabetes yang diinduksi STZ-NA terhadap kadar glukosa darah, insulin, serta indeks HOMA-IR dan HOMA β. Penelitian ini bersifat eksperimental in vivo pada hewan coba tikus Wistar jantan usia 2,5 bulan sebanyak 24 ekor dengan desain penelitian randomized post test only control group. Tikus dibagi menjadi 4 kelompok, masing-masing 1 kelompok tanpa induksi STZ-NA dengan diet standar dan 3 kelompok diinduksi STZ-NA dengan diet standar, beras merah dan kecambah beras merah

  10. Video Screen Capture Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunbar, Laura

    2014-01-01

    This article is an introduction to video screen capture. Basic information of two software programs, QuickTime for Mac and BlueBerry Flashback Express for PC, are also discussed. Practical applications for video screen capture are given.

  11. Effect Of Keren Fruit Extract (Muntingia calabura On Blood Glucose Levels Of Rats (Rattus novergicus Which Induced By Streptozotocin (STZ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vembriarto Jati Pramono

    2015-06-01

    control, group II (positive control, group III, IV, and V were given kersen fruit extract 100 mg/kg BW, 200 mg/kg BW, and 400 mg/kg BW respectively. Rats of groups I-V were induced with streptozotocin (STZ. Blood sugar values were analyzed using Analysis of Variance Repeated method (Repated ANOVA. The results showed blood glucose levels before treatment, week-0, and week-2 in the group I (133 mg/dL, 164 mg/dL, 105 mg/dL, group II (136 mg/dL, 362 mg/dL, 431 mg/dL, group III (133 mg/dL, 513 mg/dL, 109 mg/dL, group IV (100 mg/dL, 376 mg/dL, 153 mg/dL, and group V (83 mg/dL, 225 mg/dL, 169 mg/dL. Respectively based on statistical analysis showed a significant decreasies of blood sugar levels of the group III so that kersen extract with the dose of 100 mg / kg has the potential to antidiabetic.

  12. [Effect of combination of insulin and selenium on insulin signal transduction in cardiac muscle of STZ-induced diabetic rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Tian-Jiao; Yuan, Bing-Xiang; Zou, Ya-Min

    2011-03-01

    This study is to investigate the effect of low doses of insulin (1 u x kg(-1)) and selenium (180 microg x kg(-1)) in combination on general physiological parameters and insulin signal molecules in cardiac muscle of STZ-induced diabetic rats. The levels of blood glucose were estimated using One Touch SureStep Blood Glucose meter. HbA1c levels were estimated using microcolumn assay. TG and TC were estimated using enzymatic assay. The levels of PI3K and GLUT4 in cardiac muscle were examined by immunoblotting and immunohistochemistry. The result showed that insulin in combination with selenium could significantly lower blood glucose and blood lipid levels and markedly restored the PI3K and GLUT4 levels in cardiac muscle. It could be concluded that there was cooperation between insulin and selenium, and that treatment of diabetic rats with combined doses of insulin and selenium increased cardiac glucose uptake by upregulating the level of PI3K-mediated GLUT4 in cardiac muscle, eventually ameliorating myocardial dysfunction.

  13. Capture Their Attention: Capturing Lessons Using Screen Capture Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drumheller, Kristina; Lawler, Gregg

    2011-01-01

    When students miss classes for university activities such as athletic and academic events, they inevitably miss important class material. Students can get notes from their peers or visit professors to find out what they missed, but when students miss new and challenging material these steps are sometimes not enough. Screen capture and recording…

  14. Anti-Diabetic, Anti-Oxidant and Anti-Hyperlipidemic Activities of Flavonoids from Corn Silk on STZ-Induced Diabetic Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Yan Zhang; Liying Wu; Zhongsu Ma; Jia Cheng; Jingbo Liu

    2015-01-01

    Corn silk is a well-known ingredient frequently used in traditional Chinese herbal medicines. This study was designed to evaluate the anti-diabetic, anti-oxidant and anti-hyperlipidemic activities of crude flavonoids extracted from corn silk (CSFs) on streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic mice. The results revealed that treatment with 300 mg/kg or 500 mg/kg of CSFs significantly reduced the body weight loss, water consumption, and especially the blood glucose (BG) concentration of diabetic mi...

  15. Lutein attenuates oxidative stress markers and ameliorates glucose homeostasis through polyol pathway in heart and kidney of STZ-induced hyperglycemic rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharavana, Gurunathan; Joseph, G S; Baskaran, Vallikannan

    2017-12-01

    Lutein's role on chronic hyperglycemia-induced oxidative stress and associated glucose homeostasis in heart and kidney is limited. Purpose of the study is to investigate the effect of lutein on cardiac and renal polyol pathway enzymes and oxidative stress markers under hyperglycemia-induced oxidative stress condition using streptozotocin (STZ)-injected rat model. STZ-induced hyperglycemic (fasting blood glucose ≥11 mM) male Wistar rats were divided into two groups (n = 11/group). Group 1 received micellar lutein (39 nmol/day/rat) and group 2 (negative control) received micelle without lutein for 8 weeks. A separate group (no STZ injected) served as a positive control (n = 11/group). Oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), biweekly urine glucose and activities of aldose reductase (AR) and sorbitol dehydrogenase (SDH) enzymes were assessed. Activities of antioxidant enzymes and antioxidant level were also evaluated. Lutein-administered hyperglycemic rats showed better glucose tolerance as evidenced with OGTT and biweekly urine glucose when compared to negative control. Activities of AR and SDH were decreased in heart and kidney of lutein-fed hyperglycemic rats. Also, they had significantly (p < 0.05) decreased malondialdehyde levels (66, 34, and 33 %) and increased reduced glutathione level (81, 18 and 92 %) in serum, heart and kidney, respectively. Altered antioxidant enzyme activities such as superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase and glutathione transferase were also affected in serum, heart and kidney of lutein-fed diabetic group. Lutein prevented cardiac and renal injury in STZ-induced hyperglycemic rats due to potential amelioration of altered activities in polyol pathway and oxidative stress markers.

  16. Effect of L-carnitine administration on serum insulin and adiponectin levels, and AMPK, APPL1 and PPARγ gene expression in STZ-induced diabetic rat liver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Shahouzehi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes is considered as a metabolic disease in which insulin secretion and functions are disturbed and characterized by hyperglycemia. L-carnitine is synthesized in most mammals and plays critical role in fatty acid oxidation and energy production. Data about the L-carnitine hypoglycemic effects are controversial. We evaluated long-term oral L-carnitine administration effects on blood glucose, insulin and adiponectin levels, as well as expression of AMPK, APPL1 and PPARγ genes in liver of STZ-induced diabetic rats. Group 1 (control, did not receive any treatment, group 2 received 50 mg/kg STZ by i.p injection, group 3 received single dose of 50 mg/kg STZ by i.p injection and also 600 mg/kg/day L-carnitine orally for 5 weeks. Our results showed that L-carnitine long-term oral supplementation significantly reduced blood glucose and normalized insulin levels in diabetic rats. Also, we found that L-carnitine significantly increased AMPK and APPL1 expression, and showed a mild elevation of PPARγ expression. In sum, we suggest that long-term L-carnitine supplementation has beneficial effects on diabetic rats which showed hypoglycemic effects. Probably the beneficial effects of L-carnitine are contributed to the upregulation of insulin sensitizers such as AMPK and adiponectin.

  17. Exercise Training and Grape Seed Extract Co-Administration Improves Lipid Profile, Weight Loss, Bradycardia, and Hypotension of STZ-Induced Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Badavi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background:: Exercise Training (ET and Grape Seed Extract (GSE as an antioxidant have many positive effects on controlling diabetes mellitus and its complications. Objectives:: This study aimed to determine the effects of GSE alone or combined with ET on body weight, plasma lipid profile, blood pressure, and heart rate in STZ-induced diabetic rats. Methods:: In this study, male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to five groups: sedentary control, sedentary diabetic, trained diabetic, GSE treated sedentary diabetic, and GSE treated trained diabetic. ET was conducted on the treadmill daily for 8 weeks. One way ANOVA followed by LSD test was used for statistical analysis. Results:: Reduction of body weight, high density lipoproteins, heart rate, and systolic blood pressure and increment of total cholesterol, triglyceride, low density lipoprotein, and very low density lipoproteins were observed after STZ injection. Co-administration of GSE and ET had more positive effects on lipid profile compared to each method alone. In addition, GSE and ET modified heart rate partially, while their combination was more effective in improvement of heart rat in conscious rats. On the other hand, administration of ET or GSE alone did not affect systolic blood pressure and body weight, while their combination restored systolic blood pressure completely and improved body weight partially. Conclusions:: The study findings indicated that ET combined with GSE had more beneficial effects compared to each one alone on the complications of STZ induced diabetes. This may constitute a convenient and inexpensive therapeutic approach to diabetic complications.

  18. Antidiabetic and antioxidant effect of Semecarpus anacardium Linn. nut milk extract in a high-fat diet STZ-induced type 2 diabetic rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Haseena Banu Hedayathullah; Vinayagam, Kaladevi Siddhi; Sekar, Ashwini; Palanivelu, Shanthi; Panchanadham, Sachdanandam

    2012-03-01

    Semecarpus anacardium commonly known as marking nut has been used in the Siddha system of medicine against various ailments. The antidiabetic and antioxidant potential of the drug was evaluated in Type 2 diabetic rats induced by feeding a high-fat diet (HFD) for 2 weeks followed by single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (STZ) 35 mg/kg body weight. Three days after STZ induction, the hyperglycemic rats were treated with Semecarpus anacardium nut milk extract (SA) orally at a dosage of 200 mg/kg body weight daily for 30 days. Metformin (500 mg/kg body weight, orally) was used as a reference drug. The fasting blood glucose, insulin, Hb, HbA1c levels, and HOMA-IR and HOMA-β were measured, and also the levels of lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzymes were observed. SA significantly (p < .05) reduced and normalized blood glucose levels and also decreased the levels of HbA1c as compared with that of HFD STZ control group. SA treatment also significantly (p < .05) increased the levels of antioxidant enzymes while decreasing the levels of lipid peroxidation. The potential antihyperglycemic action and antioxidant role might be due to the presence of flavonoids in the drug.

  19. Recombinant human GLP-1(rhGLP-1) alleviating renal tubulointestitial injury in diabetic STZ-induced rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Weiqin; Xu, Shiqing; Wang, Zai; Liu, Honglin; Peng, Liang; Fang, Qing; Deng, Tingting; Zhang, Wenjian; Lou, Jinning

    2018-01-01

    GLP-1-based treatment improves glycemia through stimulation of insulin secretion and inhibition of glucagon secretion. Recently, more and more findings showed that GLP-1 could also protect kidney from diabetic nephropathy. Most of these studies focused on glomeruli, but the effect of GLP-1 on tubulointerstitial and tubule is not clear yet. In this study, we examined the renoprotective effect of recombinant human GLP-1 (rhGLP-1), and investigated the influence of GLP-1 on inflammation and tubulointerstitial injury using diabetic nephropathy rats model of STZ-induced. The results showed that rhGLP-1 reduced urinary albumin without influencing the body weight and food intake. rhGLP-1 could increased the serum C-peptide slightly but not lower fasting blood glucose significantly. In diabetic nephropathy rats, beside glomerular sclerosis, tubulointerstitial fibrosis was very serious. These lesions could be alleviated by rhGLP-1. rhGLP-1 decreased the expression of profibrotic factors collagen I, α-SMA, fibronectin, and inflammation factors MCP-1 and TNFα in tubular tissue and human proximal tubular cells (HK-2 cells). Furthermore, rhGLP-1 significantly inhibited the phosphorylation of NF-κB, MAPK in both diabetic tubular tissue and HK-2 cells. The inhibition of the expression of TNFα, MCP-1, collagen I and α-SMA in HK-2 cells by GLP-1 could be mimicked by blocking NF-κB or MAPK. These results indicate that rhGLP-1 exhibit renoprotective effect by alleviation of tubulointerstitial injury via inhibiting phosphorylation of MAPK and NF-κB. Therefore, rhGLP-1 may be a potential drug for treatment of diabetic nephropathy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Hypoglycemic effect of the polyphenols rich extract from Rose rugosa Thunb on high fat diet and STZ induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Liu; Tang, Dan; Zhao, Haiqing; Xin, Xuelei; Aisa, Haji Akber

    2017-03-22

    Rosa rugosa Thunb is a traditional Uygur medicine that has been used in the treatment of diabetes in Uygur ancient recipe for hundreds of years. However, the mechanism of Rosa rugosa Thunb activity is still unclear. This study was designed to address this issue by studying the polyphenols enriched extract (RPE) of Rosa rugosa Thunb in diabetic rats. RPE were tested in the inhibition of α-glucosidase and oxidative stress in vitro. RPE was administrated at dosages of 37.5, 75 and 150mg/kg body weight in the type 2 diabetic rats, which were made by high fat diet feeding plus a low dose of STZ injection (30mg/kg). The therapeutic effect was evaluated four weeks later. Oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), insulin tolerance test (ITT) and insulin signal pathway (PI3K/AKT) were examined to determine insulin sensitivity. Blood glucose levels and body weight were measured weekly in the study. In vitro, RPE exhibited an activity in the inhibition of α-glucosidase and had an excellent antioxidant activity in the liver of diabetic rats. RPE significantly decreased the fasting blood glucose, improved insulin sensitivity (HOMA-IR), OGTT, ITT and blood lipid profile. The glycogen synthesis and hexokinase activity were increased together with the improved signaling activity of insulin as indicated by p-IRS, p-IR, p-AKT, and p-GSK-3β. The results suggest that RPE reduced blood glucose in type 2 diabetic rats by improvement of insulin sensitivity. The effect is likely achieved by inhibition of oxidative stress and α-glucosidase. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Carbon Capture and Storage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benson, S.M.; Bennaceur, K.; Cook, P.; Davison, J.; Coninck, H. de; Farhat, K.; Ramirez, C.A.; Simbeck, D.; Surles, T.; Verma, P.; Wright, I.

    2012-01-01

    Emissions of carbon dioxide, the most important long-lived anthropogenic greenhouse gas, can be reduced by Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS). CCS involves the integration of four elements: CO 2 capture, compression of the CO2 from a gas to a liquid or a denser gas, transportation of pressurized CO 2

  2. CAPTURED India Country Evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O'Donoghue, R.; Brouwers, J.H.A.M.

    2012-01-01

    This report provides the findings of the India Country Evaluation and is produced as part of the overall CAPTURED End Evaluation. After five years of support by the CAPTURED project the End Evaluation has assessed that results are commendable. I-AIM was able to design an approach in which health

  3. RNA-Seq analysis of glycosylation related gene expression in STZ-induced diabetic rat kidney inner medulla

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoqian eQian

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The UT-A1 urea transporter is crucial to the kidney’s ability to generate concentrated urine. Native UT-A1 from kidney inner medulla (IM is a heavily glycosylated protein with two glycosylation forms of 97 and 117 kDa. In diabetes, UT-A1 protein abundance, particularly the 117 kD isoform, is significantly increased corresponding to an increased urea permeability in perfused IM collecting ducts, which plays an important role in preventing the osmotic diuresis caused by glucosuria. However, how the glycan carbohydrate structure change and the glycan related enzymes regulate kidney urea transport activity, particularly under diabetic condition, is largely unknown. In this study, using sugar-specific binding lectins, we found that the carbohydrate structure of UT-A1 is changed with increased amounts of sialic acid, fucose, and increased glycan branching under diabetic conditions. These changes were accompanied by altered UT-A1 association with the galectin proteins, α-galactoside glycan binding proteins. To explore the molecular basis of the alterations of glycan structures, the highly sensitive next generation sequencing (NGS technology, Illumina RNA-seq, was employed to analyze genes involved in the process of UT-A1 glycosylation using streptozotocin (STZ - induced diabetic rat kidney. Differential gene expression analysis combining quantitative PCR revealed that expression of a number of important glycosylation related genes were changed under diabetic conditions. These genes include the glycosyltransferase genes Mgat4a, the sialylation enzymes St3gal1 and St3gal4 and glycan binding protein galectin-3, -5, -8 and -9. In contrast, although highly expressed in kidney IM, the glycosyltransferase genes Mgat1, Mgat2, and fucosyltransferase Fut8, did not show any changes. Conclusions: In diabetes, not only is UT-A1 protein abundance increased but the protein’s glycan structure is also significantly changed. UT-A1 protein becomes highly sialylated

  4. Study of Okra Powder (Abelmoscus Esculentus Effects on Histology of Liver Tissue and Sero-Biochemical Parameters in Diabetic Rats (HFD/STZ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N erfani majd

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Type 2 diabete is a kind of metabolic disease that it is associated with hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia and disturbed liver function.  The aim of the present study was to evaluate the protective effects of Okra Powder on liver damage in high fat diet fed / streptozotocin (HFD-STZ-induced type 2 diabetic rats. Methods: In this experimental study, 25 Wistar Albino female rats with an average weight of (200–220 g were randomly divided  into 5 groups: Group I: (control group rats were fed the standard diet, Group II: healthy rats that received Okra Powder (200 mg/kg for 4 weeks; Group III (HFD/STZ group: Rats were fed with high-fat diet (HFD (60% fat for 4 weeks  and then injected low dose of STZ (35 mg/kg, Group IV:  Diabetic rats that received Okra Powder (200 mg/kg for 4 weeks. GroupV: Diabetic rats that received metformin (200 mg/kg for 4 weeks. At the end of experiment, biochemical parameters were measured. Liver samples were removed and 5-6 µ sections were made and stained by H&E and Sudan black staining. Results: The results showed that all the biochemical parameters, except HDL-C and serum insulin were increased in diabetic rats, while they were decreased in Okra supplementation group compared  to diabetic rats (p<0.05. The liver structure alterations were improved in treated diabetic rats with Okra Powder and metformin.  Conclusion: Our findings confirmed the potential anti-hyperglycemic and hypolipidemic effects of Okra Powder. Thus, it seems it has an important role in the management of type 2 diabete.

  5. Capture of cenospheres by evaporating drops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leong, K. H.; Ochs, Harry T.; Beard, K. V.

    The capture efficiency of evaporating cloud drops between 60 and 100 μm radius has been measured for 2 μm radius lithium carbonate hollow particles (cenospheres). Since the effective particle density is low compared to a 2-μm solid particle the cenospheres have reduced sedimentation speeds and a negligible inertial capture efficiency. The particles are sufficiently large ( Kn = 0.03) so that the phoretic theory in the slip regime ( Kn < 0.1) should apply. The measured capture efficiencies are significantly above the theoretical computations. There is some evidence to suggest that thermophoresis may be underestimated in the computations. This assessment is contigent on attributing the discrepancy between theory and experiment to the theoretical description of phoresis or its application to our experiment.

  6. Effects of insulin therapy on weight gain and fat distribution in the HF/HS-STZ rat model of type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovsø, Søs; Damgaard, J; Fels, J J

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Insulin therapy is required for many patients with the obesity-related disorder type 2 diabetes, but is also associated with weight gain. The specific location of adipose tissue location matters to cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. We investigated effects of exogenous...... before and after insulin therapy in HF/HS-STZ rats. HbA1c%, TGs, cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein and adiponectin were analyzed by conventional methods adapted for rats. RESULTS: Insulin therapy lowered HbA1c (P

  7. Radiative Neutron Capture on Lithium-7

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rupak, Gautam; Renato, Higa

    2011-01-01

    The radiative neutron capture on lithium-7 is calculated model independently using a low energy halo effective field theory. The cross section is expressed in terms of scattering parameters directly related to the S-matrix element. The cross section depends on the poorly known p-wave effective range

  8. Preparing to Capture Carbon

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Daniel P. Schrag

    2007-01-01

    .... Scientific and economic challenges still exist, but none are serious enough to suggest that carbon capture and storage will not work at the scale required to offset trillions of tons of carbon...

  9. Marine turtle capture data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — To estimate abundance, growth, and survival rate and to collect tissue samples, marine turtles are captured at nesting beaches and foraging grounds through various...

  10. Evaluation of the Effect of Different Doses of Low Energy Shock Wave Therapy on the Erectile Function of Streptozotocin (STZ-Induced Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhong-Cheng Xin

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the therapeutic effect of different doses of low energy shock wave therapy (LESWT on the erectile dysfunction (ED in streptozotocin (STZ induced diabetic rats. SD rats (n = 75 were randomly divided into 5 groups (normal control, diabetic control, 3 different dose LESWT treated diabetic groups. Diabetic rats were induced by intra-peritoneal injection of STZ (60 mg/kg and rats with fasting blood glucose ≥ 300 mg/dL were selected as diabetic models. Twelve weeks later, different doses of LESWT (100, 200 and 300 shocks each time treatment on penises were used to treat ED (7.33 MPa, 2 shocks/s three times a week for two weeks. The erectile function was evaluated by intracavernous pressure (ICP after 1 week washout period. Then the penises were harvested for histological study. The results showed LESWT could significantly improve the erectile function of diabetic rats, increase smooth muscle and endothelial contents, up-regulate the expression of α-SMA, vWF, nNOS and VEGF, and down- regulate the expression of RAGE in corpus cavernosum. The therapeutic effect might relate to treatment dose positively, and the maximal therapeutic effect was noted in the LESWT300 group. Consequently, 300 shocks each time might be the ideal LESWT dose for diabetic ED treatment.

  11. Anti-Glycemic and Anti-Hepatotoxic Effects of Mangosteen Vinegar Rind from Garcinia mangostana Against HFD/STZ-Induced Type II Diabetes in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karim Naymul

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on anti-glycemic and anti-hepatotoxic effects of mangosteen vinegar rind (MVR on five weeks high-fat diet (HFD / single dose streptozotocin (STZ 30 mg/kg BW induced male ICR diabetic mice. Mice were randomly divided into five groups (n=6, normal control, diabetic control, and diabetic groups treated with MVR 100, 200 mg/kg BW and glibenclamide 60 mg/kg BW for one week. After the treatment, lipid profile, glycogen and bilirubin contents, oxidative damage (malondialdehyde, MDA, aspartate aminotransferase (AST and alanine aminotransferase (ALT activities, antioxidant enzymes: superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT were measured in plasma and/or liver tissues. MVR and glibenclamide treatment to HFD/STZ-induced diabetic mice significantly reduced their plasma glucose, plasma lipid profile, and hepatic lipid profile (P<0.05. Increased hepatic glycogen content indicates improvement of insulin sensitivity. Moreover, oxidative damage markers were ameliorated in MVR- and glibenclamide-treated groups compared to the diabetic control group. MVR with phenolic compounds content of 75 mg GAE/g dry weight and antioxidant potential of 303 mmol/L Trolox/g dry weight acted as a hepatoprotective agent against oxidative damage.

  12. In Vivo Hypoglycaemic Effect and Inhibitory Mechanism of the Branch Bark Extract of the Mulberry on STZ-Induced Diabetic Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua-Yu Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Branch bark extract (BBE derived from the mulberry cultivar Husang 32 (Morus multicaulis L. with aqueous alcohol solution has been investigated as an inhibitor of α-glycosidase in vitro. Mulberry BBE was orally administered to STZ-induced diabetic mice for three weeks, and it improved the weight gain and ameliorated the swelling of liver and kidney in diabetic mice. Obviously, mulberry BBE not only can reduce the abnormally elevated levels of serum insulin and ameliorate insulin resistance induced by STZ, but also it regulates dyslipidemia in diabetic mice. To understand this therapeutic effect and the regulatory mechanisms of BBE in diabetic mice, a qRT-PCR experiment was performed, indicating that the mulberry BBE can regulate the mRNA expression of glycometabolism genes in diabetic mice, including glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase, glucokinase (GCK, and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK, thereby regulating sugar metabolism and reducing the blood glucose level in diabetic mice. The mulberry BBE can increase the mRNA expression of the genes Ins1, Ins2 and pancreatic duodenal homeobox-1 (PDX-1 and may decrease the insulin resistance in diabetic mice. Those results provide an important basis for making the best use of mulberry branch resources and producing biomedical drugs with added value.

  13. Exercise and Beta-Glucan Consumption (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) Improve the Metabolic Profile and Reduce the Atherogenic Index in Type 2 Diabetic Rats (HFD/STZ).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Eric Francelino; Lima, Andressa Ribeiro Veiga; Nunes, Ingrid Edwiges; Orlando, Débora Ribeiro; Gondim, Paula Novato; Zangeronimo, Márcio Gilberto; Alves, Fernando Henrique Ferrari; Pereira, Luciano José

    2016-12-17

    Physical activity and the ingestion of dietary fiber are non-drug alternatives commonly used as adjuvants to glycemic control in diabetic individuals. Among these fibers, we can highlight beta-glucans. However, few studies have compared isolated and synergic effects of physical exercise and beta-glucan ingestion, especially in type 2 diabetic rats. Therefore, we evaluated the effects beta-glucan (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) consumption, associated or not to exercise, on metabolic parameters of diabetic Wistar rats. The diabetes mellitus (DM) was induced by high-fat diet (HFD) associated with a low dose of streptozotocin (STZ-35 mg/kg). Trained groups were submitted to eight weeks of exercise in aquatic environment. In the last 28 days of experiment, animals received 30 mg/kg/day of beta-glucan by gavage. Isolated use of beta-glucan decreased glucose levels in fasting, Glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), triglycerides (TAG), total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein (LDL-C), the atherogenic index of plasma. Exercise alone also decreased blood glucose levels, HbA1c, and renal lesions. An additive effect for reducing the atherogenic index of plasma and renal lesions was observed when both treatments were combined. It was concluded that both beta-glucan and exercise improved metabolic parameters in type 2 (HFD/STZ) diabetic rats.

  14. Ameliorating effect of Semecarpus anacardium Linn. nut milk extract on altered glucose metabolism in high fat diet STZ induced type 2 diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Haseena Banu Hedayathullah; Vinayagam, Kaladevi Siddhi; Palanivelu, Shanthi; Panchanadham, Sachdanandam

    2012-12-01

    To explore the protective effect of the drug Semecarpus anacardium (S. anacardium)on altered glucose metabolism in diabetic rats. Type 2 diabetes mellitus was induced by feeding rats with high fat diet followed by single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (STZ) (35 mg/kg b.w.). Seven days after STZ induction, diabetic rats received nut milk extract of S. anacardium Linn. nut milk extract orally at a dosage of 200 mg/kg daily for 4 weeks. The effect of nut milk extract of S. anacardium on blood glucose, plasma insulin, glucose metabolising enzymes and GSK were studied. Treatment with SA extract showed a significant reduction in blood glucose levels and increase in plasma insulin levels and also increase in HOMA - β and decrease in HOMA -IR. The drug significantly increased the activity of glycolytic enzymes and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity and increased the glycogen content in liver of diabetic rats while reducing the activities of gluconeogenic enzymes. The drug also effectively ameliorated the alterations in GSK-3 mRNA expression. Overall, the present study demonstrates the possible mechanism of glucose regulation of S. anacardium suggestive of its therapeutic potential for the management of diabetes mellitus. Copyright © 2012 Hainan Medical College. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Polyploidy Analysis and Attenuation of Oxidative Stress in Hepatic Tissue of STZ-Induced Diabetic Rats Treated with an Aqueous Extract of Vochysia rufa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izabela Barbosa Moraes

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus (DM is characterized by hyperglycemia and alterations in the metabolism of lipids, carbohydrates, and proteins. Due to its hypoglycemic effect Vochysia rufa is frequently used in Uberlandia, Brazil, to treat DM. Despite its popularity, there is little information about its effect on hepatic tissue. Therefore, we evaluated the histoarchitecture, oxidative stress parameters, and polyploidy of liver tissue from streptozotocin- (STZ- induced diabetic rats treated with aqueous extract of Vochysia rufa (AEV. Histology was determined by fixing the livers, processing, and staining with HE. Oxidative stress was determined by evaluating CAT, GPx, and SOD activity in liver homogenates and hepatic mitochondria fraction and by measuring GST, GSH levels and lipid peroxidation (MDA. Polyploidy was determined by subjecting isolated hepatocyte nuclei to flow cytometry. In the diabetic group, GST activity and GSH rates decreased whereas liver homogenate analysis showed that GPx, SOD activity and MDA increased. AEV treatment restored all parameters to normal levels. The oxidative stress analysis of hepatic mitochondria fraction showed similar results. Lower polyploid cell populations were found in the diabetic rat livers, even after glibenclamide treatment. Thus, AEV treatment efficiently reduced hepatic oxidative stress caused by STZ-induced diabetes and produced no morphological changes in the histological analysis.

  16. Resonance Contribution to Radiative Neutron Capture on Lithium-7

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fernando, Lakma; Higa, Renato; Rupak, Gautam

    2011-01-01

    Using halo eective eld theory, we provide a model-independent calculation of the radiative neutron capture on lithium-7 over an energy range where the contribution from the 3+ resonance becomes important. One nds that a satisfactory description of the capture reaction, in the present single-particle

  17. Systematic muon capture rates in PQRPA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samana, A. R. [Departamento de Ciências Exatas e Tecnológicas, UESC-Br (Brazil); Sande, D. [Instituto de Geociências, UFBA-Br (Brazil); Krmpotić, F. [Instituto de Física La Plata, CONICET-Ar and Fac. de Cs. Astronómicas y Geofísicas, UNLP-Ar (Argentina)

    2015-05-15

    In this work we performed a systematic study of the inclusive muon capture rates for several nuclei with A < 60 using the Projected Random Quasi-particle Phase Approximation (PQRPA) as nuclear model, because it is the only RPA model that treats the Pauli Principle correctly. We reckon that the comparison between theory and data for the inclusive muon capture is not a fully satisfactory test on the nuclear model that is used. The exclusive muon transitions are more robust for such a purpose.

  18. US Spacesuit Knowledge Capture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chullen, Cinda; Thomas, Ken; McMann, Joe; Dolan, Kristi; Bitterly, Rose; Lewis, Cathleen

    2011-01-01

    The ability to learn from both the mistakes and successes of the past is vital to assuring success in the future. Due to the close physical interaction between spacesuit systems and human beings as users, spacesuit technology and usage lends itself rather uniquely to the benefits realized from the skillful organization of historical information; its dissemination; the collection and identification of artifacts; and the education of those in the field. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), other organizations and individuals have been performing United States (U.S.) Spacesuit Knowledge Capture since the beginning of space exploration. Avenues used to capture the knowledge have included publication of reports; conference presentations; specialized seminars; and classes usually given by veterans in the field. More recently the effort has been more concentrated and formalized whereby a new avenue of spacesuit knowledge capture has been added to the archives in which videotaping occurs engaging both current and retired specialists in the field presenting technical scope specifically for education and preservation of knowledge. With video archiving, all these avenues of learning can now be brought to life with the real experts presenting their wealth of knowledge on screen for future learners to enjoy. Scope and topics of U.S. spacesuit knowledge capture have included lessons learned in spacesuit technology, experience from the Gemini, Apollo, Skylab and Shuttle programs, hardware certification, design, development and other program components, spacesuit evolution and experience, failure analysis and resolution, and aspects of program management. Concurrently, U.S. spacesuit knowledge capture activities have progressed to a level where NASA, the National Air and Space Museum (NASM), Hamilton Sundstrand (HS) and the spacesuit community are now working together to provide a comprehensive closed-looped spacesuit knowledge capture system which includes

  19. Conceptual Design capture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Mogens Myrup

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents a basic theory of mechanical systems design, the so-called domain theory. By a strict distinction between structural characteristics and behavioural properties, each domain becomes a strong view for synthesis of the artefact. The functional reasoning in each domain and between...

  20. A Soxhlet Extract of Gongronema latifolium Retains Moderate Blood Glucose Lowering Effect and Produces Structural Recovery in the Pancreas of STZ-Induced Diabetic Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hindi, Bassel; Yusoff, Nor A.; Atangwho, Item J.; Ahmad, Mariam; Asmawi, Mohd Z.; Yam, Mun F.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Gongronema latifolium Benth. (GL) possesses considerable glucose lowering effects able to be utilized on a large-scale. This paper investigates the effects of a Soxhlet extract on hyperglycemia, Langerhans islets and glucose uptake by abdominal muscles. Methods: Ethanol and a Soxhlet apparatus were used to obtain GL ethanolic Soxhlet extract (GLES). It was then administered to randomly-segregated male Sprague-Dawley, normal and STZ-induced diabetic rats, using oral gavage to evaluate blood glucose levels (BGLs), serum lipid profile, insulin levels and the pancreas post-treatment. Results: GLES significantly (p Soxhlet extraction of Gongronema latifolium probably leads to the destruction of active heat-liable compounds. PMID:29083373

  1. Attenuation of diabetic nephropathy by Sanziguben Granule inhibiting EMT through Nrf2-mediated anti-oxidative effects in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chenxue; Li, Qian; Lai, Sisi; Yang, Lei; Shi, Guoqi; Wang, Qing; Luo, Zijie; Zhao, Ruizhi; Yu, Yang

    2017-06-09

    Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is an acute and serious diabetic complication characterized by renal hypertrophy and renal fibrosis with the expansion of extracellular matrices. Diabetic nephropathy has become a major cause of end-stage kidney disease. Sanziguben Granule (SZGB) is a compound prescription which has been widely applied in clinical medicine for the prevention and treatment of diabetic nephropathy as well as for acute and chronic kidney injuries. However, the mechanism of protective effects of SZGB in DN remains unclear. In this research, we investigated the effects of SZGB on renal interstitial fibrosis, antioxidant proficiency, and apoptosis in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. Diabetic rats were prepared by performing a right uninephrectomy along with a single intraperitoneal injection of STZ. Rats were divided into six groups including sham, DN, SZGB-D, SZGB-Z, SZGB-G and fosinopril. SZGB and fosinopril were given to rats by gavage for 12 weeks. Samples from urine, blood and kidneys were collected for biochemical, histological, immunohistochemical and western blot analyses. We found that rats treated with SZGB showed reduced 24-h urinary protein excretion along with reduced serum total cholesterol (TC) and triglyceride (TG) levels. SZGB was also shown to prevent the disruption of catalase activity and reduce serum urea, creatinine, and renal malondialdehyde while increasing glutathione levels. Moreover, SZGB administration markedly improved the expression levels of E-cadherin, 4-HNE, Nrf2, HO-1, and Bcl-2, while it decreased the expression levels of Vimentin, α-SMA and Cleaved caspase-3 in the kidneys of diabetic rats. The renoprotective effects of SZGB was believed to be mediated by its antioxidant capacity, and SZGB treatment attenuated renal fibrosis through stimulating the nuclear factor erythroid-2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) signaling pathway in the diabetic kidneys. Therefore, it is suggested that SZGB can restrain epithelial

  2. A novel dual GLP-1/GIP receptor agonist alleviates cognitive decline by re-sensitizing insulin signaling in the Alzheimer icv. STZ rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Lijuan; Zhang, Zhihua; Li, Lin; Hölscher, Christian

    2017-06-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder, accompanied by memory loss and cognitive impairments, and there is no effective treatment for it at present. Since type 2 diabetes (T2DM) has been identified as a risk factor for AD, the incretins glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) and glucose dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), promising antidiabetic agents for the treatment of type 2 diabetes, have been tested in models of neurodegenerative disease including AD and achieved good results. Here we show for the first time the potential neuroprotective effect of a novel dual GLP-1/GIP receptor agonist (DA-JC4) in the icv. streptozotocin (STZ)-induced AD rat model. Treatment with DA-JC4 (10nmol/kg ip.) once-daily for 14days after STZ intracerebroventricular (ICV) administration significantly prevented spatial learning deficits in a Y- maze test and Morris water maze tests, and decreased phosphorylated tau levels in the rat cerebral cortex and hippocampus. DA-JC4 also alleviated the chronic inflammation response in the brain (GFAP-positive astrocytes, IBA1-positive microglia). Apoptosis was reduced as shown in the reduced ratio of pro-apoptotic BAX to anti- apoptotic Bcl-2 levels. Importantly, insulin signaling was re-sensitized as evidenced by a reduction of phospho-IRS1Ser1101 levels and phospho-AktSer473 up-regulation. In conclusion, the novel dual agonist DA-JC4 shows promise as a novel treatment for sporadic AD, and reactivating insulin signaling pathways may be a key mechanism that prevents disease progression in AD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Protective Effect of Flowerbuds of Lonicera Japonica Extract on Diabetes Mellitus Type 2 and Associated Vascular Complications in STZ-HFD Treated Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiragkumar Amrutlal Prajapati

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the protective effect of Lonicera Japonica Alcoholic Extract (LJALE on Diabetes Mellitus  II (DM and associated vascular complications.Methods: Induction of Diabetes Mellitus II with 35 mg / kg STZ-HFD leads to excessive level of 11β-HSD1 enzyme. It has been found that flower buds of Lonicera Japonica (LJ has also been traditionally indicated for treatment of diabetes. Chlorogenic Acid (CA is a major bioactive component in the flower buds of LJ has received more attention because of its 11β-HSD1 inhibitory action.11β-HSD1 regulates glucocorticoid action at the pre-receptor stage by converting cortisone to cortisol. Elevated glucocorticoids are a key risk factor for metabolic diseases. LJALE was prepared with help of Microwave Assisted Extraction (MAE method.  STZ-HFD-induced diabetic rats were treated with LJALE (200 mg/kg, 500 mg/kg and Metformin (50 mg/kg. It was given for 4 weeks.Result: LJALE treated Diabetic rats showed significant decreased in blood glucose levels, plasma insulin, serum cortisol as well significant increased hepatic glycogen, 11β-HSD1 index compare to diabetic control rats. LJALE (500 mg/kg treatment showed the return of islets close to good vascular pattern. LJALE treatment restored endothelium dysfunction.Conclusions: From all results it is reasonable to conclude that LJALE (500 mg/kg may be used in treatment of diabetes and diabetes associated vascular dysfunction.Keywords:  Diabetes Mellitus, 11β-HSD1, CA, LJALE

  4. Lunar Sulfur Capture System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Lunar Sulfur Capture System (LSCS) is an innovative method to capture greater than 90 percent of sulfur gases evolved during thermal treatment of lunar soils....

  5. Capturing the Evasive Passive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crain, Stephen; Thornton, Rosalind; Murasugi, Keiko

    2009-01-01

    In the 1980s, researchers in child language devised several new experimental techniques to assess children's emerging linguistic competence. Innovations in methodology were needed to bridge the apparent gap between the expectation of rapid language acquisition, based on linguistic theory, and the protracted acquisition that was being witnessed…

  6. Capturing the Daylight Dividend

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peter Boyce; Claudia Hunter; Owen Howlett

    2006-04-30

    Capturing the Daylight Dividend conducted activities to build market demand for daylight as a means of improving indoor environmental quality, overcoming technological barriers to effective daylighting, and informing and assisting state and regional market transformation and resource acquisition program implementation efforts. The program clarified the benefits of daylight by examining whole building systems energy interactions between windows, lighting, heating, and air conditioning in daylit buildings, and daylighting's effect on the human circadian system and productivity. The project undertook work to advance photosensors, dimming systems, and ballasts, and provided technical training in specifying and operating daylighting controls in buildings. Future daylighting work is recommended in metric development, technology development, testing, training, education, and outreach.

  7. Robust automated knowledge capture.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stevens-Adams, Susan Marie; Abbott, Robert G.; Forsythe, James Chris; Trumbo, Michael Christopher Stefan; Haass, Michael Joseph; Hendrickson, Stacey M. Langfitt

    2011-10-01

    This report summarizes research conducted through the Sandia National Laboratories Robust Automated Knowledge Capture Laboratory Directed Research and Development project. The objective of this project was to advance scientific understanding of the influence of individual cognitive attributes on decision making. The project has developed a quantitative model known as RumRunner that has proven effective in predicting the propensity of an individual to shift strategies on the basis of task and experience related parameters. Three separate studies are described which have validated the basic RumRunner model. This work provides a basis for better understanding human decision making in high consequent national security applications, and in particular, the individual characteristics that underlie adaptive thinking.

  8. L2 Milestone: Neutron Capture Cross Sections from Surrogate (p, d) Measurements: Determination of the Unknown 87Y(n, g) Cross Section and Assessment of the Method Via the 90Zr(n, g) Benchmark Case: Theory Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Escher, J. E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-09-06

    Cross sections for compound-nuclear reactions involving unstable targets are important for many applications, but can often not be measured directly. Here we describe a method for extracting cross sections for neutron-capture on unstable isotopes from indirect (surrogate) measurements. The surrogate reaction, which produces the compound nucleus of interest, has to be described and the decay of the nucleus has to be modeled. We outline the approach for one-neutron pickup and report on the determination of the 90Zr(n, γ ) reaction from surrogate 92Zr(p,d) data, which is compared to the directly-measured capture cross section and thus provides a benchmark for the method. We then apply the method to determine the 87Y(n, γ ) cross section, which has not been measured directly. The work was carried out in the context of an LLNL L2 Milestone. This report addresses the theory aspects of the milestone. A complementary document summarizes the experimental efforts [1].

  9. Transfer and capture into distant retrograde orbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Christopher J.

    This dissertation utilizes theory and techniques derived from the fields of dynamical systems theory, astrodyanamics, celestial mechanics, and fluid mechanics to analyze the phenomenon of satellite capture and interrelated spacecraft transfers in restricted three-body systems. The results extend current knowledge and understanding of capture dynamics in the context of astrodynamics and celestial mechanics. Manifold theory, fast Lyapunov indicator maps, and the classification of space structure facilitate an analysis of the transport of objects from the chaotic reaches of the solar system to the distant retrograde region in the sun-Jupiter system. Apart from past studies this dissertation considers the role of the complex lobe structure encompassing stable regions in the circular restricted three-body problem. These structures are shown to be responsible for the phenomenon of sticky orbits and the transport of objects among stable regions. Since permanent capture can only be achieved through a change in energy, fast Lyapunov indicator maps and other methods which reveal the structure of the conservative system are used to discern capture regions and identify the underpinnings of the dynamics. Fast Lyapunov indicator maps provide an accurate classification of orbits of permanent capture and escape, yet monopolize computational resources. In anticipation of a fully three-dimensional analysis in the dissipative system a new mapping parameter is introduced based on energy degradation and averaged velocity. Although the study specifically addresses the sun-Jupiter system, the qualitative results and devised techniques can be applied throughout the solar system and to capture about extrasolar planets. Extending the analysis beyond the exterior of the stable distant retrograde region fosters the construction of transfer orbits from low-Earth orbit to a stable periodic orbit at the center of the stable distant retrograde region. Key to this analysis is the predictability of

  10. Anti neuroinflammatory effect of Vildagliptin in ischaemia-reperfusion induced cerebral infarction in normal and STZ induced type-II diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaleru Purnachander

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes is one of the major risk factor for cerebral ischemic stroke. Increased base line levels of oxidative stress in diabetes will lead to cerebral ischemic damage. In pathological conditions such as cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury, free radicals cause oxidative stress and inflammation leading to increased injury of brain. Inflammation is one of the major pathological mechanisms involved in cerebral ischemia and reperfusion injury. Vildagliptin newer anti-diabetic drug of the class DPP-4 inhibitors is reported to have anti-inflammatory properties apart from its antihyperglycemic activity. Therefore the aim of the present study is to evaluate the anti-inflammatory effect of Vildagliptin against cerebral infarction induced ischemia reperfusion injury in normal and STZ induced diabetic Wistar rats. Cerebral infarction was induced by bilateral common carotid artery occlusion followed by 4 hr reperfusion. Percent infarction, inflammatory markers such as MPO, TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-10 were analysed. Treatment with Vildagliptin for a period of four weeks produced significant reduction in percent cerebral infarct volume. Vildagliptin at 10 mg/kg dose, showed significant reduction in markers like MPO, TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-1β in diabetic group when compared to normal group and in contrast significant increase in anti-inflammatory marker like IL-10 levels. Vildagliptin showed significant cerebroprotective effect by antiinflammatory mechanisms.

  11. Anti-Diabetic, Anti-Oxidant and Anti-Hyperlipidemic Activities of Flavonoids from Corn Silk on STZ-Induced Diabetic Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan; Wu, Liying; Ma, Zhongsu; Cheng, Jia; Liu, Jingbo

    2015-12-23

    Corn silk is a well-known ingredient frequently used in traditional Chinese herbal medicines. This study was designed to evaluate the anti-diabetic, anti-oxidant and anti-hyperlipidemic activities of crude flavonoids extracted from corn silk (CSFs) on streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic mice. The results revealed that treatment with 300 mg/kg or 500 mg/kg of CSFs significantly reduced the body weight loss, water consumption, and especially the blood glucose (BG) concentration of diabetic mice, which indicated their potential anti-diabetic activities. Serum total superoxide dismutase (SOD) and malondialdehyde (MDA) assays were also performed to evaluate the anti-oxidant effects. Besides, several serum lipid values including total cholesterol (TC), triacylglycerol (TG), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) were reduced and the high density lipoprotein cholesterol level (HDL-C) was increased. The anti-diabetic, anti-oxidant and anti-hyperlipidemic effect of the CSFs suggest a potential therapeutic treatment for diabetic conditions.

  12. The Research on the Relationship of RAGE, LRP-1, and Aβ Accumulation in the Hippocampus, Prefrontal Lobe, and Amygdala of STZ-Induced Diabetic Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Lou-Yan; Fei, Yu-Lang; Wang, Xiao-Ye; Wu, Song-Di; Du, Jun-Hui; Zhu, Mei; Jin, Long; Li, Ming; Li, Hai-Long; Zhai, Jia-Jia; Ji, Lu-Peng; Ma, Ran-Ran; Liu, Song-Fang; Li, Mo; Ma, Li; Ma, Xiao-Rui; Qu, Qiu-Min; Lv, Ya-Li

    2017-05-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) has been regarded as an important risk factor for Alzheimer's disease (AD), and diabetic patients and animals have shown cognitive dysfunction. More research has shown that the amyloid-β (Aβ), which is a hallmark of AD, was found deposited in the hippocampus of diabetic rats. This Aβ accumulation is regulated by the receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) and low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein (LRP-1). However, the expression of RAGE and LRP-1 in diabetic rats is not very clear. In the present study, we used streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats to investigate whether the expression of RAGE and LRP-1 is related to Aβ 1-42 deposition at the hippocampus, prefrontal lobe, and amygdala in DM. We found that diabetic rats had longer escape latency and less frequency of entrance into the target zone than that of the control group (P RAGE increased (P RAGE positively (P RAGE, and LRP-1 were not changed in the amygdala between the diabetic rats and the control group. These findings indicated that upregulating RAGE and/or downregulating LRP-1 at the hippocampus and the prefrontal lobe contributed to the Aβ 1-42 accumulation and then further promoted the cognitive impairment of diabetic rats.

  13. Antidiabetic and Hypolipidemic Activities of Curculigo latifolia Fruit:Root Extract in High Fat Fed Diet and Low Dose STZ Induced Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Akmal Ishak

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Curculigo latifolia fruit is used as alternative sweetener while root is used as alternative treatment for diuretic and urinary problems. The antidiabetic and hypolipidemic activities of C. latifolia fruit:root aqueous extract in high fat diet (HFD and 40 mg streptozotocin (STZ induced diabetic rats through expression of genes involved in glucose and lipid metabolisms were investigated. Diabetic rats were treated with C. latifolia fruit:root extract for 4 weeks. Plasma glucose, insulin, adiponectin, lipid profiles, alanine aminotransferase (ALT, gamma glutamyltransferase (GGT, urea, and creatinine levels were measured before and after treatments. Regulations of selected genes involved in glucose and lipid metabolisms were determined. Results showed the significant (P<0.05 increase in body weight, high density lipoprotein (HDL, insulin, and adiponectin levels and decreased glucose, total cholesterol (TC, triglycerides (TG, low density lipoprotein (LDL, urea, creatinine, ALT, and GGT levels in diabetic rats after 4 weeks treatment. Furthermore, C. latifolia fruit:root extract significantly increased the expression of IRS-1, IGF-1, GLUT4, PPARα, PPARγ, AdipoR1, AdipoR2, leptin, LPL, and lipase genes in adipose and muscle tissues in diabetic rats. These results suggest that C. latifolia fruit:root extract exerts antidiabetic and hypolipidemic effects through altering regulation genes in glucose and lipid metabolisms in diabetic rats.

  14. L-carnitine ameliorated fatty liver in high-calorie diet/STZ-induced type 2 diabetic mice by improving mitochondrial function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xia Yunqiu

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are an increasing number of patients suffering from fatty liver caused by type 2 diabetes. We intended to study the preventive and therapeutic effect of L-carnitine (LC on nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD in streptozotocin (STZ-induced type 2 diabetic mice and to explore its possible mechanism. Methods Thirty male Kungming mice were randomly divided into five groups: control group, diabetic group, pre-treatment group (125 mg/kg BW, low-dose (125 mg/kg BW therapeutic group and high-dose (250 mg/kg BW therapeutic group. The morphology of hepatocytes was observed by light and electron microscopy. LC and ALC (acetyl L-carnitine concentrations in the liver were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. Moreover, liver weight, insulin levels and free fatty acid (FFA and triglyceride (TG levels in the liver and plasma were measured. Results Average liver LC and ALC levels were 33.7% and 20% lower, respectively, in diabetic mice compared to control mice (P Conclusion LC supplements ameliorated fatty liver in type 2 diabetic mice by increasing fatty acid oxidation and decreasing the LC/ALC ratio in the liver. Therefore, oral administration of LC protected mitochondrial function in liver.

  15. Exercise and Beta-Glucan Consumption (Saccharomyces cerevisiae Improve the Metabolic Profile and Reduce the Atherogenic Index in Type 2 Diabetic Rats (HFD/STZ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Francelino Andrade

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Physical activity and the ingestion of dietary fiber are non-drug alternatives commonly used as adjuvants to glycemic control in diabetic individuals. Among these fibers, we can highlight beta-glucans. However, few studies have compared isolated and synergic effects of physical exercise and beta-glucan ingestion, especially in type 2 diabetic rats. Therefore, we evaluated the effects beta-glucan (Saccharomyces cerevisiae consumption, associated or not to exercise, on metabolic parameters of diabetic Wistar rats. The diabetes mellitus (DM was induced by high-fat diet (HFD associated with a low dose of streptozotocin (STZ—35 mg/kg. Trained groups were submitted to eight weeks of exercise in aquatic environment. In the last 28 days of experiment, animals received 30 mg/kg/day of beta-glucan by gavage. Isolated use of beta-glucan decreased glucose levels in fasting, Glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c, triglycerides (TAG, total cholesterol (TC, low-density lipoprotein (LDL-C, the atherogenic index of plasma. Exercise alone also decreased blood glucose levels, HbA1c, and renal lesions. An additive effect for reducing the atherogenic index of plasma and renal lesions was observed when both treatments were combined. It was concluded that both beta-glucan and exercise improved metabolic parameters in type 2 (HFD/STZ diabetic rats.

  16. A Soxhlet Extract of Gongronema latifolium Retains Moderate Blood Glucose Lowering Effect and Produces Structural Recovery in the Pancreas of STZ-Induced Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bassel Al-Hindi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Gongronema latifolium Benth. (GL possesses considerable glucose lowering effects able to be utilized on a large-scale. This paper investigates the effects of a Soxhlet extract on hyperglycemia, Langerhans islets and glucose uptake by abdominal muscles. Methods: Ethanol and a Soxhlet apparatus were used to obtain GL ethanolic Soxhlet extract (GLES. It was then administered to randomly-segregated male Sprague-Dawley, normal and STZ-induced diabetic rats, using oral gavage to evaluate blood glucose levels (BGLs, serum lipid profile, insulin levels and the pancreas post-treatment. Results: GLES significantly (p < 0.05 decreased BGLs of normal rats in glucose tolerance testing at a dose of 2 g/kg b.w. but failed to do so in diabetic rats undergoing acute 7-h treatment. Given twice-daily, 1 g/kg b.w. of GLES moderately controlled diabetic BGLs starting from day 10. After 14 days of treatment, 1 g/kg and 0.5 g/kg b.w. of GLES caused 44% and 50% respective increases in the average area of Langerhans islets compared to DC. Using isolated rat abdominal muscle, GLES was found to be a mild insulin-sensitizer. GC-MS analysis revealed the presence of the known glucose-lowering phytosterol, Sitostenone. Conclusion: Despite retaining moderate antidiabetic activity, Soxhlet extraction of Gongronema latifolium probably leads to the destruction of active heat-liable compounds.

  17. Changes in Iron Metabolism and Oxidative Status in STZ-Induced Diabetic Rats Treated with Bis(maltolato Oxovanadium (IV as an Antidiabetic Agent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Sánchez-González

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The role of vanadium as a micronutrient and hypoglycaemic agent has yet to be fully clarified. The present study was undertaken to investigate changes in the metabolism of iron and in antioxidant defences of diabetic STZ rats following treatment with vanadium. Four groups were examined: control; diabetic; diabetic treated with 1 mgV/day; and Diabetic treated with 3 mgV/day. The vanadium was supplied in drinking water as bis(maltolato oxovanadium (IV (BMOV. The experiment had a duration of five weeks. Iron was measured in food, faeces, urine, serum, muscle, kidney, liver, spleen, and femur. Superoxide dismutase, catalase, NAD(PH: quinone-oxidoreductase-1 (NQO1 activity, and protein carbonyl group levels in the liver were determined. In the diabetic rats, higher levels of Fe absorbed, Fe content in kidney, muscle, and femur, and NQO1 activity were recorded, together with decreased catalase activity, in comparison with the control rats. In the rats treated with 3 mgV/day, there was a significant decrease in fasting glycaemia, Fe content in the liver, spleen, and heart, catalase activity, and levels of protein carbonyl groups in comparison with the diabetic group. In conclusion BMOV was a dose-dependent hypoglycaemic agent. Treatment with 3 mgV/day provoked increased Fe deposits in the tissues, which promoted a protein oxidative damage in the liver.

  18. Effect of Resistance Exercise Training Associated with Skeletal Muscle Hypertrophy on Serum Pro-Inflammatory Cytokines in STZ-induced Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdieh Molanouri Shamsi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Skeletal muscle atrophy is associated with type 1 diabetes. Effects of resistance exercise training associated with skeletal muscle hypertrophy on serum inflammatory cytokines was exactly not clarified. Protein levels of inflammatory cytokines IL-6, TNF-α, and interleukin-1beta (IL-1β in serum of healthy and streptozotocin (STZ- induced diabetic rats subjected to resistance exercise training were assessed in this study. Rats were divided into the control, training, control diabetic and diabetic training groups. Training groups performed the resistance training consisted of climbing a 1 m ladder with increasing weight added to the tail. Proteins levels of IL-6, TNF-α and IL-1β in serum were measured by the ELIZA method. The results of this study indicated that resistance training induced skeletal muscle hypertrophy in diabetic samples (P<0.05. Also, Resistance training decrease IL-6 protein levels in serum. Inflammatory cytokines could act as stress factors in diabetes. It seems that this kind of exercise training individually could not change cytokines levels in serum.

  19. Effect of Elderberry (Sambucus nigra L. Extract Supplementation in STZ-Induced Diabetic Rats Fed with a High-Fat Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ângelo C. Salvador

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Elderberry (Sambucus nigra L. lipophilic and polar extract dietary supplementation effects were evaluated according to diabetes management indices, using an in vivo model. A research pipeline was constructed, that ranged from extract preparation, partial chemical characterization and toxicity evaluation, to examining the elderberry extract dietary supplementation effects on biofluid and tissues. Extracts toxicity was screened using an Aliivibrio fischeri bioluminescence model. A concentration of up to 60 mg/L was selected, and rat doses for oral supplementation were computed applying the interspecies correlation between A. fischeri and rats. Wistar type 2 diabetic rats, induced by streptozotocin (STZ, were fed a high-fat diet and supplemented for 4 weeks at doses of 190 and 350 mg/kg body weight/day of lipophilic and polar extract, respectively. As far as we know, lipophilic elderberry extract supplementation was assessed for the first time, while polar extract was administrated at higher doses and for a shorter period compared to previous studies, aiming to evaluate subacute supplementation effects. The polar extract modulated glucose metabolism by correcting hyperglycemia, while the lipophilic extract lowered insulin secretion. Both extracts lowered insulin resistance, without remarkable alterations to hematological indices, sera lipids and sera and tissular trace element homeostasis. In conclusion, elderberries are a potential source of bioactive compounds for formulations to be used as co-adjuvants in diabetes management.

  20. The relationship between action-effect monitoring and attention capture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Neeraj; Manjaly, Jaison A; Sunny, Meera Mary

    2015-02-01

    Many recent findings suggest that stimuli that are perceived to be the consequence of one's own actions are processed with priority. According to the preactivation account of intentional binding, predicted consequences are preactivated and hence receive a temporal advantage in processing. The implications of the preactivation account are important for theories of attention capture, as temporal advantage often translates to attention capture. Hence, action might modulate attention capture by feature singletons. Experiment 1 showed that a motion onset and color change captured attention only when it was preceded by an action. Experiment 2 showed that the capture occurs only with predictable, but not with unpredictable, consequences of action. Experiment 3 showed that even when half the display changed color at display transition, they were all prioritized. The results suggest that action modulates attentional control.

  1. How can companies capture value from an innovation? : from value creation to value capture : case study Uber

    OpenAIRE

    Seifert, Frederik

    2016-01-01

    This thesis examines the value creation process and how companies can capture value that they created. It particularly analyses the opportunities a company has to capture value from an innovation. The ability to monetise innovations is crucial for companies and determines whether they can establish a sustainable business. This thesis first discusses previous research and connects theories to broaden and enhance their applicability. The main part is a case study on Uber, a ride-...

  2. Inland capture fisheries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welcomme, Robin L; Cowx, Ian G; Coates, David; Béné, Christophe; Funge-Smith, Simon; Halls, Ashley; Lorenzen, Kai

    2010-09-27

    The reported annual yield from inland capture fisheries in 2008 was over 10 million tonnes, although real catches are probably considerably higher than this. Inland fisheries are extremely complex, and in many cases poorly understood. The numerous water bodies and small rivers are inhabited by a wide range of species and several types of fisher community with diversified livelihood strategies for whom inland fisheries are extremely important. Many drivers affect the fisheries, including internal fisheries management practices. There are also many drivers from outside the fishery that influence the state and functioning of the environment as well as the social and economic framework within which the fishery is pursued. The drivers affecting the various types of inland water, rivers, lakes, reservoirs and wetlands may differ, particularly with regard to ecosystem function. Many of these depend on land-use practices and demand for water which conflict with the sustainability of the fishery. Climate change is also exacerbating many of these factors. The future of inland fisheries varies between continents. In Asia and Africa the resources are very intensely exploited and there is probably little room for expansion; it is here that resources are most at risk. Inland fisheries are less heavily exploited in South and Central America, and in the North and South temperate zones inland fisheries are mostly oriented to recreation rather than food production.

  3. Capture-recapture methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, William R.; Kendall, William L.

    2013-01-01

    Capture-recapture methods were initially developed to estimate human population abundance, but since that time have seen widespread use for fish and wildlife populations to estimate and model various parameters of population, metapopulation, and disease dynamics. Repeated sampling of marked animals provides information for estimating abundance and tracking the fate of individuals in the face of imperfect detection. Mark types have evolved from clipping or tagging to use of noninvasive methods such as photography of natural markings and DNA collection from feces. Survival estimation has been emphasized more recently as have transition probabilities between life history states and/or geographical locations, even where some states are unobservable or uncertain. Sophisticated software has been developed to handle highly parameterized models, including environmental and individual covariates, to conduct model selection, and to employ various estimation approaches such as maximum likelihood and Bayesian approaches. With these user-friendly tools, complex statistical models for studying population dynamics have been made available to ecologists. The future will include a continuing trend toward integrating data types, both for tagged and untagged individuals, to produce more precise and robust population models.

  4. Inland capture fisheries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welcomme, Robin L.; Cowx, Ian G.; Coates, David; Béné, Christophe; Funge-Smith, Simon; Halls, Ashley; Lorenzen, Kai

    2010-01-01

    The reported annual yield from inland capture fisheries in 2008 was over 10 million tonnes, although real catches are probably considerably higher than this. Inland fisheries are extremely complex, and in many cases poorly understood. The numerous water bodies and small rivers are inhabited by a wide range of species and several types of fisher community with diversified livelihood strategies for whom inland fisheries are extremely important. Many drivers affect the fisheries, including internal fisheries management practices. There are also many drivers from outside the fishery that influence the state and functioning of the environment as well as the social and economic framework within which the fishery is pursued. The drivers affecting the various types of inland water, rivers, lakes, reservoirs and wetlands may differ, particularly with regard to ecosystem function. Many of these depend on land-use practices and demand for water which conflict with the sustainability of the fishery. Climate change is also exacerbating many of these factors. The future of inland fisheries varies between continents. In Asia and Africa the resources are very intensely exploited and there is probably little room for expansion; it is here that resources are most at risk. Inland fisheries are less heavily exploited in South and Central America, and in the North and South temperate zones inland fisheries are mostly oriented to recreation rather than food production. PMID:20713391

  5. Commercial Capabilities and Entrepreneurial Value Capturing in Dynamic Maritime Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sløk-Madsen, Stefan Kirkegaard

    This paper develops and tests a theory of entrepreneurial value capturing in maritime markets. The framework is argued to be applicable in all maritime fields and other fields with similar attributes but is specifically tested on Oil Service companies operating in the North Sea region...... market process view; building on Kirznerian alertness, Hayekian capital heterogeneity, and Knightian uncertainty. The theory helps explain value capturing from a firm perspective but also subsequent new firm creation or value loss. The model is tested and relevant managerial implications, as well...

  6. Quantitative Expression Analysis of APP Pathway and Tau Phosphorylation-Related Genes in the ICV STZ-Induced Non-Human Primate Model of Sporadic Alzheimer’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang-Je Park

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The accumulation and aggregation of misfolded proteins in the brain, such as amyloid-β (Aβ and hyperphosphorylated tau, is a neuropathological hallmark of Alzheimer’s disease (AD. Previously, we developed and validated a novel non-human primate model for sporadic AD (sAD research using intracerebroventricular administration of streptozotocin (icv STZ. To date, no characterization of AD-related genes in different brain regions has been performed. Therefore, in the current study, the expression of seven amyloid precursor protein (APP pathway-related and five tau phosphorylation-related genes was investigated by quantitative real-time PCR experiments, using two matched-pair brain samples from control and icv STZ-treated cynomolgus monkeys. The genes showed similar expression patterns within the control and icv STZ-treated groups; however, marked differences in gene expression patterns were observed between the control and icv STZ-treated groups. Remarkably, other than β-secretase (BACE1 and cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (CDK5, all the genes tested showed similar expression patterns in AD models compared to controls, with increased levels in the precuneus and occipital cortex. However, significant changes in gene expression patterns were not detected in the frontal cortex, hippocampus, or posterior cingulate. Based on these results, we conclude that APP may be cleaved via the general metabolic mechanisms of increased α- and γ-secretase levels, and that hyperphosphorylation of tau could be mediated by elevated levels of tau protein kinase, specifically in the precuneus and occipital cortex.

  7. Resource capture by single leaves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Long, S.P.

    1992-05-01

    Leaves show a variety of strategies for maximizing CO{sub 2} and light capture. These are more meaningfully explained if they are considered in the context of maximizing capture relative to the utilization of water, nutrients and carbohydrates reserves. There is considerable variation between crops in their efficiency of CO{sub 2} and light capture at the leaf level. Understanding of these mechanisms indicate some ways in which efficiency of resource capture could be level cannot be meaningfully considered without simultaneous understanding of implications at the canopy level. 36 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Virtual Dance and Motion-Capture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Boucher

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A general view of various ways in which virtual dance can be understood is presented in the first part of this article. It then appraises the uses of the term “virtual” in previous studies of digital dance. A more in-depth view of virtual dance as it relates to motion-capture is offered, and key issues are discussed regarding computer animation, digital imaging, motion signature, virtual reality and interactivity. The paper proposes that some forms of virtual dance be defined in relation to both digital technologies and contemporary theories of virtuality.

  9. Theoretical and experimental physical methods of neutron-capture therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borisov, G. I.

    2011-09-01

    This review is based to a substantial degree on our priority developments and research at the IR-8 reactor of the Russian Research Centre Kurchatov Institute. New theoretical and experimental methods of neutron-capture therapy are developed and applied in practice; these are: A general analytical and semi-empiric theory of neutron-capture therapy (NCT) based on classical neutron physics and its main sections (elementary theories of moderation, diffuse, reflection, and absorption of neutrons) rather than on methods of mathematical simulation. The theory is, first of all, intended for practical application by physicists, engineers, biologists, and physicians. This theory can be mastered by anyone with a higher education of almost any kind and minimal experience in operating a personal computer.

  10. Iodine neutron capture therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Kazi Fariduddin

    A new technique, Iodine Neutron Capture Therapy (INCT) is proposed to treat hyperthyroidism in people. Present thyroid therapies, surgical removal and 131I treatment, result in hypothyroidism and, for 131I, involve protracted treatment times and excessive whole-body radiation doses. The new technique involves using a low energy neutron beam to convert a fraction of the natural iodine stored in the thyroid to radioactive 128I, which has a 24-minute half-life and decays by emitting 2.12-MeV beta particles. The beta particles are absorbed in and damage some thyroid tissue cells and consequently reduce the production and release of thyroid hormones to the blood stream. Treatment times and whole-body radiation doses are thus reduced substantially. This dissertation addresses the first of the several steps needed to obtain medical profession acceptance and regulatory approval to implement this therapy. As with other such programs, initial feasibility is established by performing experiments on suitable small mammals. Laboratory rats were used and their thyroids were exposed to the beta particles coming from small encapsulated amounts of 128I. Masses of 89.0 mg reagent-grade elemental iodine crystals have been activated in the ISU AGN-201 reactor to provide 0.033 mBq of 128I. This activity delivers 0.2 Gy to the thyroid gland of 300-g male rats having fresh thyroid tissue masses of ˜20 mg. Larger iodine masses are used to provide greater doses. The activated iodine is encapsulated to form a thin (0.16 cm 2/mg) patch that is then applied directly to the surgically exposed thyroid of an anesthetized rat. Direct neutron irradiation of a rat's thyroid was not possible due to its small size. Direct in-vivo exposure of the thyroid of the rat to the emitted radiation from 128I is allowed to continue for 2.5 hours (6 half-lives). Pre- and post-exposure blood samples are taken to quantify thyroid hormone levels. The serum T4 concentration is measured by radioimmunoassay at

  11. Carbon Capture and Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedmann, S

    2007-10-03

    Carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) is the long-term isolation of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere through physical, chemical, biological, or engineered processes. This includes a range of approaches including soil carbon sequestration (e.g., through no-till farming), terrestrial biomass sequestration (e.g., through planting forests), direct ocean injection of CO{sub 2} either onto the deep seafloor or into the intermediate depths, injection into deep geological formations, or even direct conversion of CO{sub 2} to carbonate minerals. Some of these approaches are considered geoengineering (see the appropriate chapter herein). All are considered in the 2005 special report by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC 2005). Of the range of options available, geological carbon sequestration (GCS) appears to be the most actionable and economic option for major greenhouse gas reduction in the next 10-30 years. The basis for this interest includes several factors: (1) The potential capacities are large based on initial estimates. Formal estimates for global storage potential vary substantially, but are likely to be between 800 and 3300 Gt of C (3000 and 10,000 Gt of CO{sub 2}), with significant capacity located reasonably near large point sources of the CO{sub 2}. (2) GCS can begin operations with demonstrated technology. Carbon dioxide has been separated from large point sources for nearly 100 years, and has been injected underground for over 30 years (below). (3) Testing of GCS at intermediate scale is feasible. In the US, Canada, and many industrial countries, large CO{sub 2} sources like power plants and refineries lie near prospective storage sites. These plants could be retrofit today and injection begun (while bearing in mind scientific uncertainties and unknowns). Indeed, some have, and three projects described here provide a great deal of information on the operational needs and field implementation of CCS. Part of this interest comes from several

  12. Measuring Behavior using Motion Capture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fikkert, F.W.; van der Kooij, Herman; Ruttkay, Z.M.; van Welbergen, H.; Spink, A.J.; Ballintijn, M.R.; Bogers, N.D.; Grieco, F; Loijens, L.W.S.; Noldus, L.P.J.J.; Smit, G; Zimmerman, P.H.

    2008-01-01

    Motion capture systems, using optical, magnetic or mechanical sensors are now widely used to record human motion. Motion capture provides us with precise measurements of human motion at a very high recording frequency and accuracy, resulting in a massive amount of movement data on several joints of

  13. Impact of the controlled release of a connexin 43 peptide on corneal wound closure in an STZ model of type I diabetes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keith Moore

    Full Text Available The alpha-carboxy terminus 1 (αCT1 peptide is a synthetically produced mimetic modified from the DDLEI C-terminus sequence of connexin 43 (Cx43. Previous research using various wound healing models have found promising therapeutic effects when applying the drug, resulting in increased wound healing rates and reduced scarring. Previous data suggested a rapid metabolism rate in vitro, creating an interest in long term release. Using a streptozotocin (STZ type I diabetic rat model with a surgically induced corneal injury, we delivered αCT1 both directly, in a pluronic gel solution, and in a sustained system, using polymeric alginate-poly-l-ornithine (A-PLO microcapsules (MC. Fluorescent staining of wound area over a 5 day period indicated a significant increase in wound closure rates for both αCT1 and αCT1 MC treated groups, withαCT1 MC groups showing the most rapid wound closure overall. Analysis of inflammatory reaction to the treatment groups indicated significantly lower levels of both Interferon Inducible T-Cell Alpha Chemoattractant (ITAC and Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha (TNFα markers using confocal quantification and ELISA assays. Additional analysis examining genes selected from the EMT pathway using RT-PCR and Western blotting suggested αCT1 modification of Transforming Growth Factor Beta 2 (TGFβ2, Keratin 8 (Krt8, Estrogen Receptor 1 (Esr1, and Glucose Transporter 4 (Glut4 over a 14 day period. Combined, this data indicated a possible suppression of the inflammatory response by αCT1, leading to increased wound healing rates.

  14. Impairment of insulin-stimulated Akt/GLUT4 signaling is associated with cardiac contractile dysfunction and aggravates I/R injury in STZ-diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deng Jen-Ying

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this study, we established systemic in-vivo evidence from molecular to organism level to explain how diabetes can aggravate myocardial ischemia-reperfusion (I/R injury and revealed the role of insulin signaling (with specific focus on Akt/GLUT4 signaling molecules. The myocardial I/R injury was induced by the left main coronary artery occlusion for 1 hr and then 3 hr reperfusion in control, streptozotocin (STZ-induced insulinopenic diabetes, and insulin-treated diabetic rats. The diabetic rats showed a significant decrease in heart rate, and a prolonged isovolumic relaxation (tau which lead to decrease in cardiac output (CO without changing total peripheral resistance (TPR. The phosphorylated Akt and glucose transporter 4 (GLUT 4 protein levels were dramatically reduced in both I/R and non-I/R diabetic rat hearts. Insulin treatment in diabetes showed improvement of contractile function as well as partially increased Akt phosphorylation and GLUT 4 protein levels. In the animals subjected to I/R, the mortality rates were 25%, 65%, and 33% in the control, diabetic, and insulin-treated diabetic group respectively. The I/R-induced arrhythmias and myocardial infarction did not differ significantly between the control and the diabetic groups. Consistent with its anti-hyperglycemic effects, insulin significantly reduced I/R-induced arrhythmias but had no effect on I/R-induced infarctions. Diabetic rat with I/R exhibited the worse hemodynamic outcome, which included systolic and diastolic dysfunctions. Insulin treatment only partially improved diastolic functions and elevated P-Akt and GLUT 4 protein levels. Our results indicate that cardiac contractile dysfunction caused by a defect in insulin-stimulated Akt/GLUT4 may be a major reason for the high mortality rate in I/R injured diabetic rats.

  15. Gauge theory loop operators and Liouville theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drukker, Nadav [Humboldt Univ. Berlin (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik; Gomis, Jaume; Okuda, Takuda [Perimeter Inst. for Theoretical Physics, Waterloo, ON (Canada); Teschner, Joerg [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2009-10-15

    We propose a correspondence between loop operators in a family of four dimensional N=2 gauge theories on S{sup 4} - including Wilson, 't Hooft and dyonic operators - and Liouville theory loop operators on a Riemann surface. This extends the beautiful relation between the partition function of these N=2 gauge theories and Liouville correlators found by Alday, Gaiotto and Tachikawa. We show that the computation of these Liouville correlators with the insertion of a Liouville loop operator reproduces Pestun's formula capturing the expectation value of a Wilson loop operator in the corresponding gauge theory. We prove that our definition of Liouville loop operators is invariant under modular transformations, which given our correspondence, implies the conjectured action of S-duality on the gauge theory loop operators. Our computations in Liouville theory make an explicit prediction for the exact expectation value of 't Hooft and dyonic loop operators in these N=2 gauge theories. The Liouville loop operators are also found to admit a simple geometric interpretation within quantum Teichmueller theory as the quantum operators representing the length of geodesics. We study the algebra of Liouville loop operators and show that it gives evidence for our proposal as well as providing definite predictions for the operator product expansion of loop operators in gauge theory. (orig.)

  16. Materials For Gas Capture, Methods Of Making Materials For Gas Capture, And Methods Of Capturing Gas

    KAUST Repository

    Polshettiwar, Vivek

    2013-06-20

    In accordance with the purpose(s) of the present disclosure, as embodied and broadly described herein, embodiments of the present disclosure, in one aspect, relate to materials that can be used for gas (e.g., CO.sub.2) capture, methods of making materials, methods of capturing gas (e.g., CO.sub.2), and the like, and the like.

  17. Lunar neutron capture as a tracer for regolith dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnett, D. S.; Woolum, D. S.

    1974-01-01

    The Apollo 17 Lunar Neutron Probe Experiment measured both the boron-10 neutron capture rate and the uranium-235 neutron-induced fission rate as a function of depth. Cd absorption gave a measure of the neutron energy spectrum. Comparisons of the results are made with theory, and good agreement is obtained for the magnitudes and depth dependences of the capture rates. While the low-energy neutron spectrum at depth agrees with theory, the spectrum near the peak of the flux profile is harder than predicted. In light of these results, several alternatives for interpreting the magnitude and uniformity of the neutron capture data from lunar surface soil samples are outlined. While none of the alternatives can be unquestionably defended or discarded, a surface layer mixing model is discussed in detail.

  18. Capture methods for Musk Ducks

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCracken, K.G.; Hemmings, J.; Paton, D.C.; Afton, A.D.

    2003-01-01

    Musk Ducks Biziura lobata are endemic to wetlands, river systems and coastal oceanic waters of temperate Australia. Individuals of this species are difficult to capture because of their excellent swimming and diving abilities and frequent use of deep-water habitats. Night-lighting, baited clover-leaf traps and walk-in-nest-traps were used to capture Musk Ducks at Murray Lagoon, Cape Gantheaume Conservation Park, Kangaroo Island, South Australia. These techniques should be useful for capturing Musk Ducks at other locations in Australia.

  19. Enzymes in CO2 Capture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fosbøl, Philip Loldrup; Gladis, Arne; Thomsen, Kaj

    The enzyme Carbonic Anhydrase (CA) can accelerate the absorption rate of CO2 into aqueous solutions by several-fold. It exist in almost all living organisms and catalyses different important processes like CO2 transport, respiration and the acid-base balances. A new technology in the field...... of carbon capture is the application of enzymes for acceleration of typically slow ternary amines or inorganic carbonates. There is a hidden potential to revive currently infeasible amines which have an interesting low energy consumption for regeneration but too slow kinetics for viable CO2 capture. The aim...... of this work is to discuss the measurements of kinetic properties for CA promoted CO2 capture solvent systems. The development of a rate-based model for enzymes will be discussed showing the principles of implementation and the results on using a well-known ternary amine for CO2 capture. Conclusions...

  20. Carbon capture and sequestration (CCS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-06-19

    Carbon capture and sequestration (or storage)known as CCShas attracted interest as a : measure for mitigating global climate change because large amounts of carbon dioxide (CO2) : emitted from fossil fuel use in the United States are potentiall...

  1. Lunar Sulfur Capture System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Lunar Sulfur Capture System (LSCS) is an innovative method to recover sulfur compounds from lunar soil using sorbents derived primarily from in-situ resources....

  2. Chaotic Capture of Neptune Trojans

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nesvorný, David; Vokrouhlický, David

    2009-01-01

    ... than that of Jupiter Trojans and orbital inclinations reaching ∼25 ◦ . The high inclinations of NTs are indicative of capture instead of in situ formation. Here we study a model in which NTs were...

  3. Toward transformational carbon capture systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, David C. [National Energy Technology Laboratory, U.S. Dept. of Energy, Pittsburgh PA (United States); Litynski, John T. [Office of Fossil Energy, U.S. Dept. of Energy, Washington DC (United States); Brickett, Lynn A. [National Energy Technology Laboratory, U.S. Dept. of Energy, Pittsburgh PA (United States); Morreale, Bryan D. [National Energy Technology Laboratory, U.S. Dept. of Energy, Pittsburgh PA (United States)

    2015-10-28

    This paper will briefly review the history and current state of Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) research and development and describe the technical barriers to carbon capture. it will argue forcefully for a new approach to R&D, which leverages both simulation and physical systems at the laboratory and pilot scales to more rapidly move the best technoogies forward, prune less advantageous approaches, and simultaneously develop materials and processes.

  4. Direct Air Capture of CO2 with an Amine Resin: A Molecular Modeling Study of the CO2 Capturing Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buijs, Wim; de Flart, Stijn

    2017-11-01

    Several reactions, known from other amine systems for CO2 capture, have been proposed for Lewatit R VP OC 1065. The aim of this molecular modeling study is to elucidate the CO2 capture process: the physisorption process prior to the CO2-capture and the reactions. Molecular modeling yields that the resin has a structure with benzyl amine groups on alternating positions in close vicinity of each other. Based on this structure, the preferred adsorption mode of CO2 and H2O was established. Next, using standard Density Functional Theory two catalytic reactions responsible for the actual CO2 capture were identified: direct amine and amine-H2O catalyzed formation of carbamic acid. The latter is a new type of catalysis. Other reactions are unlikely. Quantitative verification of the molecular modeling results with known experimental CO2 adsorption isotherms, applying a dual site Langmuir adsorption isotherm model, further supports all results of this molecular modeling study.

  5. Capture by colour: evidence for dimension-specific singleton capture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Anthony M; Becker, Stefanie I; Remington, Roger W

    2015-10-01

    Previous work on attentional capture has shown the attentional system to be quite flexible in the stimulus properties it can be set to respond to. Several different attentional "modes" have been identified. Feature search mode allows attention to be set for specific features of a target (e.g., red). Singleton detection mode sets attention to respond to any discrepant item ("singleton") in the display. Relational search sets attention for the relative properties of the target in relation to the distractors (e.g., redder, larger). Recently, a new attentional mode was proposed that sets attention to respond to any singleton within a particular feature dimension (e.g., colour; Folk & Anderson, 2010). We tested this proposal against the predictions of previously established attentional modes. In a spatial cueing paradigm, participants searched for a colour target that was randomly either red or green. The nature of the attentional control setting was probed by presenting an irrelevant singleton cue prior to the target display and assessing whether it attracted attention. In all experiments, the cues were red, green, blue, or a white stimulus rapidly rotated (motion cue). The results of three experiments support the existence of a "colour singleton set," finding that all colour cues captured attention strongly, while motion cues captured attention only weakly or not at all. Notably, we also found that capture by motion cues in search for colour targets was moderated by their frequency; rare motion cues captured attention (weakly), while frequent motion cues did not.

  6. Attentional Capture in Driving Displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arexis, Mahé; Maquestiaux, François; Gaspelin, Nicholas; Ruthruff, Eric; Didierjean, André

    2016-01-01

    Drivers face frequent distraction on the roadways but little is known about situations placing them at risk of misallocating visual attention. To investigate this issue, we asked participants to search for a red target embedded within simulated driving scenes (photographs taken from inside a car) in three experiments. Distraction was induced by presenting, via a GPS unit, red or green distractors positioned in an irrelevant location at which the target never appeared. If the salient distractor captures attention, visual search should be slower on distractor-present trials than distractor-absent trials. In Experiment 1, salient distractors yielded no such capture effect. In Experiment 2, we decreased the frequency of the salient distractor from 50% of trials to only 10% or 20% of trials. Capture effects were almost five times larger for the 10% occurrence group than for the 20% occurrence group. In Experiment 3, the amount of available central resources was manipulated by asking participants to either simultaneously monitor or ignore a stream of spoken digits. Capture effects were much larger for the dual-task group than for the single-task group. In summary, these findings identify risk factors for attentional capture in real-world driving scenes: distractor rarity and diversion of attention. PMID:28369841

  7. Investigation of the electron capture process in semiclassical plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seisembayeva Madina M.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the process of electron capture in partially ionized plasma is considered. Electron-atom interaction was described by the effective interaction potential, which takes into account the screening effect at large distances and the diffraction effect at the small distances. The results of numerical calculations of the electron capture radius, differential cross-section for different values of the coupling and density parameters are presented. The differential cross-section was obtained on the basis of perturbation theory and also by solving of the equation of motion of the projectile electron.

  8. Waltz's Theory of Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wæver, Ole

    2009-01-01

    Kenneth N. Waltz's 1979 book, Theory of International Politics, is the most influential in the history of the discipline. It worked its effects to a large extent through raising the bar for what counted as theoretical work, in effect reshaping not only realism but rivals like liberalism and refle......Kenneth N. Waltz's 1979 book, Theory of International Politics, is the most influential in the history of the discipline. It worked its effects to a large extent through raising the bar for what counted as theoretical work, in effect reshaping not only realism but rivals like liberalism...... and reflectivism. Yet, ironically, there has been little attention to Waltz's very explicit and original arguments about the nature of theory. This article explores and explicates Waltz's theory of theory. Central attention is paid to his definition of theory as ‘a picture, mentally formed' and to the radical anti......-empiricism and anti-positivism of his position. Followers and critics alike have treated Waltzian neorealism as if it was at bottom a formal proposition about cause-effect relations. The extreme case of Waltz being so victorious in the discipline, and yet being consistently mis-interpreted on the question of theory...

  9. Motion capture in educational robotics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajniyarov, Igor; Obabkov, Ilya; Khlebnikov, Nikolai

    2017-09-01

    The learning of a basic task is based on traditional classroom instruction with qualitative assessment and observation. Introduction of individualized tutorials with integrated behavioral-based evaluation techniques could significantly accelerate skill acquisition. The main idea is to provide correct behavior feedback during the process of skill acquisition but isn't by the result only. It is possible by special motion capture suit.

  10. Knowledge Capture and Management for Space Flight Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, John L.

    2005-01-01

    The incorporation of knowledge capture and knowledge management strategies early in the development phase of an exploration program is necessary for safe and successful missions of human and robotic exploration vehicles over the life of a program. Following the transition from the development to the flight phase, loss of underlying theory and rationale governing design and requirements occur through a number of mechanisms. This degrades the quality of engineering work resulting in increased life cycle costs and risk to mission success and safety of flight. Due to budget constraints, concerned personnel in legacy programs often have to improvise methods for knowledge capture and management using existing, but often sub-optimal, information technology and archival resources. Application of advanced information technology to perform knowledge capture and management would be most effective if program wide requirements are defined at the beginning of a program.

  11. Natural materials for carbon capture.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myshakin, Evgeniy M. (National Energy Technology Laboratory, Pittsburgh, PA); Romanov, Vyacheslav N. (National Energy Technology Laboratory, Pittsburgh, PA); Cygan, Randall Timothy

    2010-11-01

    Naturally occurring clay minerals provide a distinctive material for carbon capture and carbon dioxide sequestration. Swelling clay minerals, such as the smectite variety, possess an aluminosilicate structure that is controlled by low-charge layers that readily expand to accommodate water molecules and, potentially, carbon dioxide. Recent experimental studies have demonstrated the efficacy of intercalating carbon dioxide in the interlayer of layered clays but little is known about the molecular mechanisms of the process and the extent of carbon capture as a function of clay charge and structure. A series of molecular dynamics simulations and vibrational analyses have been completed to assess the molecular interactions associated with incorporation of CO2 in the interlayer of montmorillonite clay and to help validate the models with experimental observation.

  12. Metazen - metadata capture for metagenomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bischof, Jared; Harrison, Travis; Paczian, Tobias; Glass, Elizabeth; Wilke, Andreas; Meyer, Folker

    2014-01-01

    As the impact and prevalence of large-scale metagenomic surveys grow, so does the acute need for more complete and standards compliant metadata. Metadata (data describing data) provides an essential complement to experimental data, helping to answer questions about its source, mode of collection, and reliability. Metadata collection and interpretation have become vital to the genomics and metagenomics communities, but considerable challenges remain, including exchange, curation, and distribution. Currently, tools are available for capturing basic field metadata during sampling, and for storing, updating and viewing it. Unfortunately, these tools are not specifically designed for metagenomic surveys; in particular, they lack the appropriate metadata collection templates, a centralized storage repository, and a unique ID linking system that can be used to easily port complete and compatible metagenomic metadata into widely used assembly and sequence analysis tools. Metazen was developed as a comprehensive framework designed to enable metadata capture for metagenomic sequencing projects. Specifically, Metazen provides a rapid, easy-to-use portal to encourage early deposition of project and sample metadata. Metazen is an interactive tool that aids users in recording their metadata in a complete and valid format. A defined set of mandatory fields captures vital information, while the option to add fields provides flexibility.

  13. Molecular capture in protein nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Xue; Komatsu, Teruyuki

    2010-01-26

    We describe molecular capturing properties of protein nanotubes with a controllable ligand binding affinity and size selectivity. These practical biocylinders were prepared using an alternating layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly of protein and oppositely charged poly(amino acid) into the nanoporous polycarbonate (PC) membrane (pore diameter, 400 nm), with subsequent dissolution of the template. The tube wall typically comprises six layers of poly-L-arginine (PLA) and human serum albumin (HSA) [(PLA/HSA)(3)]. Use of high molecular weight PLA (M(w) = ca. 70 000) yielded robust nanotubes, which are available as lyophilized powder. The (PLA/HSA)(3) nanotubes swelled considerably in water, although the outer diameter was almost unaltered. Uranyl ion, 3,3'-diethylthiacarbocyanine iodide, and zinc(II) protoporphyrin IX (ZnPP) were bound to the HSA component in the cylinder wall. Similar nanotubes comprising recombinant HSA mutant [rHSA(His)], which has a strong binding affinity for ZnPP, captured this ligand more tightly. Furthermore, addition of excess myristic acid released ZnPP from the tubes through a ligand replacement reaction. The hybrid nanotubes bearing a single avidin layer as an internal surface captured FITC-biotin efficiently. Biotin-labeled nanoparticles are also incorporated into the tubes when their particle size is sufficiently small to enter the pores. Subsequent TEM observation revealed a line of loaded nanoparticles (100 nm) in the one-dimensional space interior.

  14. M theory fivebrane and SQCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ooguri, H. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Physics]|[Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States). Physics Div.

    1997-09-01

    A low energy effective theory of parallel D(irichlet) branes is a gauge theory with sixteen supercharges, but one can consider a web of brane to realize situations with reduced number of supersymmetry. In this talk, the authors discusses four-dimensional theories with N = 1 and 2 supersymmetry (i.e. four and eight supercharges). In the case of theories with N = 2 supersymmetry, the exact description of the Coulomb branch is given by reinterpreting the web of branes as a configuration of a single fivebrane in the IIA theory. Recently the authors studied the case with N = 1 supersymmetry, and found that description in terms of the fivebrane in M Theory captures strong coupling dynamics of the N = 1 gauge theory in four dimensions. In particular, they found that the configuration of the fivebrane geometrically encodes information on the Affleck-Dine-Seiberg superpotential and the structure of the quantum moduli space of vacua.

  15. Realistic costs of carbon capture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al Juaied, Mohammed (Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (US). Belfer Center for Science and International Affiaris); Whitmore, Adam (Hydrogen Energy International Ltd., Weybridge (GB))

    2009-07-01

    There is a growing interest in carbon capture and storage (CCS) as a means of reducing carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. However there are substantial uncertainties about the costs of CCS. Costs for pre-combustion capture with compression (i.e. excluding costs of transport and storage and any revenue from EOR associated with storage) are examined in this discussion paper for First-of-a-Kind (FOAK) plant and for more mature technologies, or Nth-of-a-Kind plant (NOAK). For FOAK plant using solid fuels the levelised cost of electricity on a 2008 basis is approximately 10 cents/kWh higher with capture than for conventional plants (with a range of 8-12 cents/kWh). Costs of abatement are found typically to be approximately US$150/tCO2 avoided (with a range of US$120-180/tCO2 avoided). For NOAK plants the additional cost of electricity with capture is approximately 2-5 cents/kWh, with costs of the range of US$35-70/tCO2 avoided. Costs of abatement with carbon capture for other fuels and technologies are also estimated for NOAK plants. The costs of abatement are calculated with reference to conventional SCPC plant for both emissions and costs of electricity. Estimates for both FOAK and NOAK are mainly based on cost data from 2008, which was at the end of a period of sustained escalation in the costs of power generation plant and other large capital projects. There are now indications of costs falling from these levels. This may reduce the costs of abatement and costs presented here may be 'peak of the market' estimates. If general cost levels return, for example, to those prevailing in 2005 to 2006 (by which time significant cost escalation had already occurred from previous levels), then costs of capture and compression for FOAK plants are expected to be US$110/tCO2 avoided (with a range of US$90-135/tCO2 avoided). For NOAK plants costs are expected to be US$25-50/tCO2. Based on these considerations a likely representative range of costs of abatement from CCS

  16. The Japanese management theory jungle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keys, J B; Miller, T R

    1984-04-01

    Many competing hypotheses have been advanced to account for the apparent effectiveness of Japanese management practices. The present review of some of the leading theories attempts to classify and clarify the state of knowledge of Japanese management. Although each theory may be correct as a partial explanation of Japan's success, no single conceptualization has captured the complexity of Japan's managerial achievement. Further development of integrated, internally consistent models is needed.

  17. Capturing Reality at Centre Block

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulanger, C.; Ouimet, C.; Yeomans, N.

    2017-08-01

    The Centre Block of Canada's Parliament buildings, National Historic Site of Canada is set to undergo a major rehabilitation project that will take approximately 10 years to complete. In preparation for this work, Heritage Conservation Services (HCS) of Public Services and Procurement Canada has been completing heritage documentation of the entire site which includes laser scanning of all interior rooms and accessible confined spaces such as attics and other similar areas. Other documentation completed includes detailed photogrammetric documentation of rooms and areas of high heritage value. Some of these high heritage value spaces present certain challenges such as accessibility due to the height and the size of the spaces. Another challenge is the poor lighting conditions, requiring the use of flash or strobe lighting to either compliment or completely eliminate the available ambient lighting. All the spaces captured at this higher level of detail were also captured with laser scanning. This allowed the team to validate the information and conduct a quality review of the photogrammetric data. As a result of this exercise, the team realized that in most, if not all cases, the photogrammetric data was more detailed and at a higher quality then the terrestrial laser scanning data. The purpose and motivation of this paper is to present these findings, as well provide the advantages and disadvantages of the two methods and data sets.

  18. Bubble capture by a propeller

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caillé, François; Clanet, Christophe; Magnaudet, Jacques

    2006-08-01

    A small air bubble (radius a) is injected in water (kinematic viscosity nu) in the vicinity (distance r_0) of a propeller (radius r_p, angular frequency omega). We study experimentally and theoretically the conditions under which the bubble can be ‘captured’, i.e. deviated from its vertical trajectory (imposed by gravity g) and moved toward the centre of the propeller (r {=} 0). We show that the capture frequency omega_{scriptsizecapt} follows the relationship [omega_{hboxriptsizeit capt}=left(frac{2ga^2}{9betanu r_p f(hboxRe_b)}right)left(frac{r_0}{r_p}right)^2(1+\\cos\\varphi_0),] where beta is a dimensionless parameter characterizing the propeller, f(Re_b) is an empirical correction to Stokes' drag law which accounts for finite-Reynolds-number effects and pi/2-varphi_0 is the angle between the axis of the propeller and the line between the centre of the propeller and the point where the bubble is injected. This law is found to be valid as long as the distance d between the propeller and the water surface is larger than 3r_0. For smaller distances, the capture frequency increases; using an image technique, we show how the above expression is modified by the presence of the surface.

  19. Filtration theory using computer simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergman, W.; Corey, I.

    1997-01-01

    We have used commercially available fluid dynamics codes based on Navier-Stokes theory and the Langevin particle equation of motion to compute the particle capture efficiency and pressure drop through selected two- and three- dimensional fiber arrays. The approach we used was to first compute the air velocity vector field throughout a defined region containing the fiber matrix. The particle capture in the fiber matrix is then computed by superimposing the Langevin particle equation of motion over the flow velocity field. Using the Langevin equation combines the particle Brownian motion, inertia and interception mechanisms in a single equation. In contrast, most previous investigations treat the different capture mechanisms separately. We have computed the particle capture efficiency and the pressure drop through one, 2-D and two, 3-D fiber matrix elements.

  20. Filtration theory using computer simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergman, W.; Corey, I. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1997-08-01

    We have used commercially available fluid dynamics codes based on Navier-Stokes theory and the Langevin particle equation of motion to compute the particle capture efficiency and pressure drop through selected two- and three-dimensional fiber arrays. The approach we used was to first compute the air velocity vector field throughout a defined region containing the fiber matrix. The particle capture in the fiber matrix is then computed by superimposing the Langevin particle equation of motion over the flow velocity field. Using the Langevin equation combines the particle Brownian motion, inertia and interception mechanisms in a single equation. In contrast, most previous investigations treat the different capture mechanisms separately. We have computed the particle capture efficiency and the pressure drop through one, 2-D and two, 3-D fiber matrix elements. 5 refs., 11 figs.

  1. Dynasting Theory: Lessons in learning grounded theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnben Teik-Cheok Loy, MBA, MTS, Ph.D.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This article captures the key learning lessons gleaned from the author’s experience learning and developing a grounded theory for his doctoral dissertation using the classic methodology as conceived by Barney Glaser. The theory was developed through data gathered on founders and successors of Malaysian Chinese family-own businesses. The main concern for Malaysian Chinese family businesses emerged as dynasting . the building, maintaining, and growing the power and resources of the business within the family lineage. The core category emerged as dynasting across cultures, where founders and successors struggle to transition from traditional Chinese to hybrid cultural and modernized forms of family business from one generation to the next. The key learning lessons were categorized under five headings: (a sorting through different versions of grounded theory, (b educating and managing research stakeholders, (c embracing experiential learning, (d discovering the core category: grounded intuition, and (e recognizing limitations and possibilities.Keywords: grounded theory, learning, dynasting, family business, Chinese

  2. String Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Marino Beiras, Marcos

    2011-01-01

    We give an overview of the relations between matrix models and string theory, focusing on topological string theory and the Dijkgraaf--Vafa correspondence. We discuss applications of this correspondence and its generalizations to supersymmetric gauge theory, enumerative geometry and mirror symmetry. We also present a brief overview of matrix quantum mechanical models in superstring theory.

  3. Game Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Game Theory is a collection of short interviews based on 5 questions presented to some of the most influential and prominent scholars in game theory. We hear their views on game theory, its aim, scope, use, the future direction of game theory and how their work fits in these respects....

  4. Ring Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Jara, Pascual; Torrecillas, Blas

    1988-01-01

    The papers in this proceedings volume are selected research papers in different areas of ring theory, including graded rings, differential operator rings, K-theory of noetherian rings, torsion theory, regular rings, cohomology of algebras, local cohomology of noncommutative rings. The book will be important for mathematicians active in research in ring theory.

  5. Children's Theories and the Drive to Explain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwitzgebel, Eric

    Debate has been growing in developmental psychology over how much the cognitive development of children is like theory change in science. Useful debate on this topic requires a clear understanding of what it would be for a child to have a theory. I argue that existing accounts of theories within philosophy of science and developmental psychology either are less precise than is ideal for the task or cannot capture everyday theorizing of the sort that children, if they theorize, must do. I then propose an account of theories that ties theories and explanation very closely together, treating theories primarily as products of a drive to explain. I clarify some of the positions people have taken regarding the theory theory of development, and I conclude by proposing that psychologists interested in the ''theory theory'' look for patterns of affect and arousal in development that would accompany the existence of a drive to explain.

  6. Cage-based performance capture

    CERN Document Server

    Savoye, Yann

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays, highly-detailed animations of live-actor performances are increasingly easier to acquire and 3D Video has reached considerable attentions in visual media production. In this book, we address the problem of extracting or acquiring and then reusing non-rigid parametrization for video-based animations. At first sight, a crucial challenge is to reproduce plausible boneless deformations while preserving global and local captured properties of dynamic surfaces with a limited number of controllable, flexible and reusable parameters. To solve this challenge, we directly rely on a skin-detached dimension reduction thanks to the well-known cage-based paradigm. First, we achieve Scalable Inverse Cage-based Modeling by transposing the inverse kinematics paradigm on surfaces. Thus, we introduce a cage inversion process with user-specified screen-space constraints. Secondly, we convert non-rigid animated surfaces into a sequence of optimal cage parameters via Cage-based Animation Conversion. Building upon this re...

  7. Subsurface capture of carbon dioxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blount, Gerald; Siddal, Alvin A.; Falta, Ronald W.

    2014-07-22

    A process and apparatus of separating CO.sub.2 gas from industrial off-gas source in which the CO.sub.2 containing off-gas is introduced deep within an injection well. The CO.sub.2 gases are dissolved in the, liquid within the injection well while non-CO.sub.2 gases, typically being insoluble in water or brine, are returned to the surface. Once the CO.sub.2 saturated liquid is present within the injection well, the injection well may be used for long-term geologic storage of CO.sub.2 or the CO.sub.2 saturated liquid can be returned to the surface for capturing a purified CO.sub.2 gas.

  8. Neutron capture therapy for melanoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coderre, J.A.; Glass, J.D.; Micca, P.; Fairchild, R.G.

    1988-01-01

    The development of boron-containing compounds which localize selectively in tumor may require a tumor-by-tumor type of approach that exploits any metabolic pathways unique to the particular type of tumor. Melanin-producing melanomas actively transport and metabolize aromatic amino acids for use as precursors in the synthesis of the pigment melanin. It has been shown that the boron-containing amino acid analog p-borono-phenylalanine (BPA) is selectively accumulated in melanoma tissue, producing boron concentrations in tumor that are within the range estimated to be necessary for successful boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT). We report here the results of therapy experiments carried out at the Brookhaven Medical Research Reactor (BMRR). 21 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  9. Workshop on neutron capture therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fairchild, R.G.; Bond, V.P. (eds.)

    1986-01-01

    Potentially optimal conditions for Neutron Capture Therapy (NCT) may soon be in hand due to the anticipated development of band-pass filtered beams relatively free of fast neutron contaminations, and of broadly applicable biomolecules for boron transport such as porphyrins and monoclonal antibodies. Consequently, a number of groups in the US are now devoting their efforts to exploring NCT for clinical application. The purpose of this Workshop was to bring these groups together to exchange views on significant problems of mutual interest, and to assure a unified and effective approach to the solutions. Several areas of preclinical investigation were deemed to be necessary before it would be possible to initiate clinical studies. As neither the monomer nor the dimer of sulfhydryl boron hydride is unequivocally preferable at this time, studies on both compounds should be continued until one is proven superior.

  10. Earth-Mars transfers with ballistic capture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topputo, F.; Belbruno, E.

    2015-04-01

    We construct a new type of transfer from the Earth to Mars, which ends in ballistic capture. This results in substantial savings in capture from that of a classical Hohmann transfer under certain assumptions as well as an alternate way for spacecraft to transfer to Mars. This is accomplished by first becoming captured at Mars, very distant from the planet, and then from there, following a ballistic capture transfer to a desired altitude within a ballistic capture set. This is achieved by using stable sets, which are sets of initial conditions whose orbits satisfy a definition of orbital stability. This transfer type may be of interest for Mars missions because of low capture , flexibility of launch period from the Earth, moderate flight time, and the benign nature of the capture process.

  11. School Board Elections: Theories Meet Reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garn, Gregg; Copeland, Gary

    2014-01-01

    This exploratory article relies on qualitative data generated from observations and focus group interviews to investigate what motivates citizens to vote in school board elections and how they choose among candidates. Our review of literature suggests that capture theory, dissatisfaction theory, retrospective voting, partisanship, issue voting,…

  12. Dynamics and control of robot for capturing objects in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Panfeng

    Space robots are expected to perform intricate tasks in future space services, such as satellite maintenance, refueling, and replacing the orbital replacement unit (ORU). To realize these missions, the capturing operation may not be avoided. Such operations will encounter some challenges because space robots have some unique characteristics unfound on ground-based robots, such as, dynamic singularities, dynamic coupling between manipulator and space base, limited energy supply and working without a fixed base, and so on. In addition, since contacts and impacts may not be avoided during capturing operation. Therefore, dynamics and control problems of space robot for capturing objects are significant research topics if the robots are to be deployed for the space services. A typical servicing operation mainly includes three phases: capturing the object, berthing and docking the object, then repairing the target. Therefore, this thesis will focus on resolving some challenging problems during capturing the object, berthing and docking, and so on. In this thesis, I study and analyze the dynamics and control problems of space robot for capturing objects. This work has potential impact in space robotic applications. I first study the contact and impact dynamics of space robot and objects. I specifically focus on analyzing the impact dynamics and mapping the relationship of influence and speed. Then, I develop the fundamental theory for planning the minimum-collision based trajectory of space robot and designing the configuration of space robot at the moment of capture. To compensate for the attitude of the space base during the capturing approach operation, a new balance control concept which can effectively balance the attitude of the space base using the dynamic couplings is developed. The developed balance control concept helps to understand of the nature of space dynamic coupling, and can be readily applied to compensate or minimize the disturbance to the space base

  13. Borophene as a Promising Material for Charge-Modulated Switchable CO2Capture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Xin; Tahini, Hassan A; Smith, Sean C

    2017-06-14

    Ideal carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) capture materials for practical applications should bind CO 2 molecules neither too weakly to limit good loading kinetics nor too strongly to limit facile release. Although charge-modulated switchable CO 2 capture has been proposed to be a controllable, highly selective, and reversible CO 2 capture strategy, the development of a practical gas-adsorbent material remains a great challenge. In this study, by means of density functional theory (DFT) calculations, we have examined the possibility of conductive borophene nanosheets as promising sorbent materials for charge-modulated switchable CO 2 capture. Our results reveal that the binding strength of CO 2 molecules on negatively charged borophene can be significantly enhanced by injecting extra electrons into the adsorbent. At saturation CO 2 capture coverage, the negatively charged borophene achieves CO 2 capture capacities up to 6.73 × 10 14 cm -2 . In contrast to the other CO 2 capture methods, the CO 2 capture/release processes on negatively charged borophene are reversible with fast kinetics and can be easily controlled via switching on/off the charges carried by borophene nanosheets. Moreover, these negatively charged borophene nanosheets are highly selective for separating CO 2 from mixtures with CH 4 , H 2 , and/or N 2 . This theoretical exploration will provide helpful guidance for identifying experimentally feasible, controllable, highly selective, and high-capacity CO 2 capture materials with ideal thermodynamics and reversibility.

  14. Leading E1 and M1 contributions to radiative neutron capture on lithium-7

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernando, L.; Rupak, G. [Mississippi State University, Department of Physics and Astronomy and HPC2 Center for Computational Sciences, Mississippi State, MS (United States); Higa, R. [University of Groningen, Kernfysisch Versneller Instituut, Theory Group, Groningen (Netherlands); Universidade de Sao Paulo, Instituto de Fisica, C.P. 66318, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2012-02-15

    Using halo effective field theory, we provide a model-independent calculation of the radiative neutron capture on lithium-7 over an energy range where the contribution from the 3{sup +} resonance becomes important. We also present power counting arguments that establish a hierarchy for electromagnetic one- and two-body currents. One finds that a satisfactory description of the capture reaction, in the present single-particle approximation, requires a resonance width about three times larger than the experimentally quoted value. (orig.)

  15. Matching theory

    CERN Document Server

    Lovász, László

    2009-01-01

    This book surveys matching theory, with an emphasis on connections with other areas of mathematics and on the role matching theory has played, and continues to play, in the development of some of these areas. Besides basic results on the existence of matchings and on the matching structure of graphs, the impact of matching theory is discussed by providing crucial special cases and nontrivial examples on matroid theory, algorithms, and polyhedral combinatorics. The new Appendix outlines how the theory and applications of matching theory have continued to develop since the book was first publish

  16. New Adsorption Cycles for Carbon Dioxide Capture and Concentration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James Ritter; Armin Ebner; Steven Reynolds Hai Du; Amal Mehrotra

    2008-07-31

    The objective of this three-year project was to study new pressure swing adsorption (PSA) cycles for CO{sub 2} capture and concentration at high temperature. The heavy reflux (HR) PSA concept and the use of a hydrotalcite like (HTlc) adsorbent that captures CO{sub 2} reversibly at high temperatures simply by changing the pressure were two key features of these new PSA cycles. Through the completion or initiation of nine tasks, a bench-scale experimental and theoretical program has been carried out to complement and extend the process simulation study that was carried out during Phase I (DE-FG26-03NT41799). This final report covers the entire project from August 1, 2005 to July 31, 2008. This program included the study of PSA cycles for CO{sub 2} capture by both rigorous numerical simulation and equilibrium theory analysis. The insight gained from these studies was invaluable toward the applicability of PSA for CO{sub 2} capture, whether done at ambient or high temperature. The rigorous numerical simulation studies showed that it is indeed possible to capture and concentrate CO{sub 2} by PSA. Over a wide range of conditions it was possible to achieve greater than 90% CO{sub 2} purity and/or greater than 90% CO{sub 2} recovery, depending on the particular heavy reflux (HR) PSA cycle under consideration. Three HR PSA cycles were identified as viable candidates for further study experimentally. The equilibrium theory analysis, which represents the upper thermodynamic limit of the performance of PSA process, further validated the use of certain HR PSA cycles for CO{sub 2} capture and concentration. A new graphical approach for complex PSA cycle scheduling was also developed during the course of this program. This new methodology involves a priori specifying the cycle steps, their sequence, and the number of beds, and then following a systematic procedure that requires filling in a 2-D grid based on a few simple rules, some heuristics and some experience. It has been

  17. Report to the DOE nuclear data committee. [EV RANGE 10-100; CROSS SECTIONS; PHOTONEUTRONS; NEUTRONS; GAMMA RADIATION; COUPLED CHANNEL THEORY; DIFFERENTIAL CROSS SECTIONS; MEV RANGE 01-10; ; CAPTURE; GAMMA SPECTRA; THERMAL NEUTRONS; COMPUTER CALCULATIONS; DECAY; FISSION PRODUCTS; FISSION YIELD; SHELL MODELS; NUCLEAR DATA COLLECTIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Struble, G.L.; Haight, R.C.

    1981-03-01

    Topics covered include: studies of (n, charged particle) reactions with 14 to 15 MeV neutrons; photoneutron cross sections for /sup 15/N; neutron radiative capture; Lane-model analysis of (p,p) and (n,n) scattering on the even tin isotopes; neutron scattering cross sections for /sup 181/Ta, /sup 197/Au, /sup 209/Bi, /sup 232/Th, and /sup 238/U inferred from proton scattering and charge exchange cross sections; neutron-induced fission cross sections of /sup 245/Cm and /sup 242/Am; fission neutron multiplicities for /sup 245/Cm and /sup 242/Am; the transport of 14 MeV neutrons through heavy materials 150 < A < 208; /sup 249/Cm energy levels from measurement of thermal neutron capture gamma rays; /sup 231/Th energy levels from neutron capture gamma ray and conversion electron spectroscopy; new measurements of conversion electron binding energies in berkelium and californium; nuclear level densities; relative importance of statistical vs. valence neutron capture in the mass-90 region; determination of properties of short-lived fission products; fission yield of /sup 87/Br and /sup 137/I from 15 nuclei ranging from /sup 232/Th to /sup 249/Cf; evaluation of charged particle data for the ECPL library; evaluation of secondary charged-particle energy and angular distributions for ENDL; and evaluated nuclear structure libraries derived from the table of isotopes. (GHT)

  18. Topos theory

    CERN Document Server

    Johnstone, PT

    2014-01-01

    Focusing on topos theory's integration of geometric and logical ideas into the foundations of mathematics and theoretical computer science, this volume explores internal category theory, topologies and sheaves, geometric morphisms, other subjects. 1977 edition.

  19. Capture market share, raise prices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robbins RA

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated after 150 words. Two principles in medical economics central to the Affordable Care Act (ACA were dealt blows by recently published studies. The first principle is the belief that economies of scale will result in lower prices. The theory is that larger insurers will have lower prices because they are more administratively efficient. The second principle is that provider-owned health plans, usually hospitals, will reduce premiums. The theory is that by controlling doctors over charging health plans in a fee-for-service model will lower prices. The first study published in Technology Science found that the largest insurer in each of the states served by HealthCare.gov raised their prices in 2015 by an average of over 10 per cent compared to smaller competitors in the same market (1. Those steeper price hikes for monthly premiums did not seem warranted by the level of health claims which did not significantly differ as a percentage of premiums ...

  20. Geometric group theory an introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Löh, Clara

    2017-01-01

    Inspired by classical geometry, geometric group theory has in turn provided a variety of applications to geometry, topology, group theory, number theory and graph theory. This carefully written textbook provides a rigorous introduction to this rapidly evolving field whose methods have proven to be powerful tools in neighbouring fields such as geometric topology. Geometric group theory is the study of finitely generated groups via the geometry of their associated Cayley graphs. It turns out that the essence of the geometry of such groups is captured in the key notion of quasi-isometry, a large-scale version of isometry whose invariants include growth types, curvature conditions, boundary constructions, and amenability. This book covers the foundations of quasi-geometry of groups at an advanced undergraduate level. The subject is illustrated by many elementary examples, outlooks on applications, as well as an extensive collection of exercises.

  1. Does imminent threat capture and hold attention?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koster, Ernst H W; Crombez, Geert; Van Damme, Stefaan; Verschuere, Bruno; De Houwer, Jan

    2004-09-01

    According to models of attention and emotion, threat captures and holds attention. In behavioral tasks, robust evidence has been found for attentional holding but not for attentional capture by threat. An important explanation for the absence of attentional capture effects is that the visual stimuli used posed no genuine threat. The present study investigated whether visual cues that signal an aversive white noise can elicit attentional capture and holding effects. Cues presented in an attentional task were simultaneously provided with a threat value through an aversive conditioning procedure. Response latencies showed that threatening cues captured and held attention. These results support recent views on attention to threat, proposing that imminent threat captures attention in everyone. (c) 2004 APA, all rights reserved

  2. Grounded theory

    OpenAIRE

    Harris, Tina

    2014-01-01

    Grounded theory is a popular research approach in health care and the social sciences. This article provides a description of grounded theory methodology and its key components, using examples from published studies to demonstrate practical application. It aims to demystify grounded theory for novice nurse researchers, by explaining what it is, when to use it, why they would want to use it and how to use it. It should enable nurse researchers to decide if grounded theory is an appropriate app...

  3. Techniques for capturing bighorn sheep lambs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Joshua B.; Walsh, Daniel P.; Goldstein, Elise J.; Parsons, Zachary D.; Karsch, Rebekah C.; Stiver, Julie R.; Cain, James W.; Raedeke, Kenneth J.; Jenks, Jonathan A.

    2014-01-01

    Low lamb recruitment is a major challenge facing managers attempting to mitigate the decline of bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis), and investigations into the underlying mechanisms are limited because of the inability to readily capture and monitor bighorn sheep lambs. We evaluated 4 capture techniques for bighorn sheep lambs: 1) hand-capture of lambs from radiocollared adult females fitted with vaginal implant transmitters (VITs), 2) hand-capture of lambs of intensively monitored radiocollared adult females, 3) helicopter net-gunning, and 4) hand-capture of lambs from helicopters. During 2010–2012, we successfully captured 90% of lambs from females that retained VITs to ≤1 day of parturition, although we noted differences in capture rates between an area of high road density in the Black Hills (92–100%) of South Dakota, USA, and less accessible areas of New Mexico (71%), USA. Retention of VITs was 78% with pre-partum expulsion the main cause of failure. We were less likely to capture lambs from females that expelled VITs ≥1 day of parturition (range = 80–83%) or females that were collared without VITs (range = 60–78%). We used helicopter net-gunning at several sites in 1999, 2001–2002, and 2011, and it proved a useful technique; however, at one site, attempts to capture lambs led to lamb predation by golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos). We attempted helicopter hand-captures at one site in 1999, and they also were successful in certain circumstances and avoided risk of physical trauma from net-gunning; however, application was limited. In areas of low accessibility or if personnel lack the ability to monitor females and/or VITs for extended periods, helicopter capture may provide a viable option for lamb capture.

  4. Carbon dioxide capture and storage : hindrances for implementation in Norway

    OpenAIRE

    Houm, Marius

    2007-01-01

    This paper is an actor-network theory-based analysis of the hindrances for implementation of carbon dioxide capture, transport and storage, CCS, as a climate mitigation initiative in Norway. It uses the Norwegian projects Kårstø, Mongstad, Tjeldbergodden/Halten/Draugen, Sleipner and Snøhvit as the basis for a discussion of the relevant technologies, obstacles, policies, rhetoric and realities. CCS is a possible way to reduce emissions of carbon dioxide. We need an emission reduction of th...

  5. Ring theory

    CERN Document Server

    Rowen, Louis H

    1991-01-01

    This is an abridged edition of the author's previous two-volume work, Ring Theory, which concentrates on essential material for a general ring theory course while ommitting much of the material intended for ring theory specialists. It has been praised by reviewers:**""As a textbook for graduate students, Ring Theory joins the best....The experts will find several attractive and pleasant features in Ring Theory. The most noteworthy is the inclusion, usually in supplements and appendices, of many useful constructions which are hard to locate outside of the original sources....The audience of non

  6. Atomic theories

    CERN Document Server

    Loring, FH

    2014-01-01

    Summarising the most novel facts and theories which were coming into prominence at the time, particularly those which had not yet been incorporated into standard textbooks, this important work was first published in 1921. The subjects treated cover a wide range of research that was being conducted into the atom, and include Quantum Theory, the Bohr Theory, the Sommerfield extension of Bohr's work, the Octet Theory and Isotopes, as well as Ionisation Potentials and Solar Phenomena. Because much of the material of Atomic Theories lies on the boundary between experimentally verified fact and spec

  7. Grounded theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Tina

    2015-04-29

    Grounded theory is a popular research approach in health care and the social sciences. This article provides a description of grounded theory methodology and its key components, using examples from published studies to demonstrate practical application. It aims to demystify grounded theory for novice nurse researchers, by explaining what it is, when to use it, why they would want to use it and how to use it. It should enable nurse researchers to decide if grounded theory is an appropriate approach for their research, and to determine the quality of any grounded theory research they read.

  8. Number theory via Representation theory

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-11-09

    Number theory via Representation theory. Eknath Ghate. November 9, 2014. Eightieth Annual Meeting, Chennai. Indian Academy of Sciences1. 1. This is a non-technical 20 minute talk intended for a general Academy audience.

  9. Neutrino mass, electron capture, and the shake-off contributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faessler, Amand; Gastaldo, Loredana; Šimkovic, Fedor

    2017-04-01

    Electron capture can determine the electron neutrino mass, while the β decay of tritium measures the electron antineutrino mass and the neutrinoless double β decay observes the Majorana neutrino mass. In electron capture, e.g., Ho16367+e-→Dy16366*+νe , one can determine the electron neutrino mass from the upper end of the decay spectrum of the excited Dy, which is given by the Q value minus the neutrino mass. The excitation of Dy is described by one, two, and even three hole excitations limited by the Q value. These states decay by x-ray and Auger electron emissions. The total decay energy is measured in a bolometer. These excitations have been studied by Robertson and by Faessler et al. In addition the daughter atom Dy can also be excited by moving in the capture process one (or more) electrons into the continuum. The escape of these continuum electrons is automatically included in the experimental bolometer spectrum. Recently a method developed by Intemann and Pollock was used by DeRujula and Lusignoli for a rough estimate of this shake-off process for "s " wave electrons in capture on 163Ho. The purpose of the present work is to give a more reliable description of "s " wave shake-off in electron capture on holmium. One uses the sudden approximation to calculate the spectrum of the decay of Dy16366* after electron capture on Ho16367. For that one needs very accurate atomic wave functions of Ho in its ground state and excited atomic wave functions of Dy including a description of the continuum electrons. DeRujula and Lusignoli use screened nonrelativistic Coulomb wave functions for the Ho electrons 3 s and 4 s and calculate the Dy* states by first-order perturbation theory based on Ho. In the present approach the wave functions of Ho and Dy* are determined self-consistently with the antisymmetrized relativistic Dirac-Hartree-Fock approach. The relativistic continuum electron wave functions for the ionized Dy* are obtained in the corresponding self

  10. New quasibound states of the compound nucleus in α -particle capture by the nucleus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maydanyuk, Sergei P.; Zhang, Peng-Ming; Zou, Li-Ping

    2017-07-01

    We generalize the theory of nuclear decay and capture of Gamow that is based on tunneling through the barrier and internal oscillations inside the nucleus. In our formalism an additional factor is obtained, which describes distribution of the wave function of the the α particle inside the nuclear region. We discover new most stable states (called quasibound states) of the compound nucleus (CN) formed during the capture of α particle by the nucleus. With a simple example, we explain why these states cannot appear in traditional calculations of the α capture cross sections based on monotonic penetrabilities of a barrier, but they appear in a complete description of the evolution of the CN. Our result is obtained by a complete description of the CN evolution, which has the advantages of (1) a clear picture of the formation of the CN and its disintegration, (2) a detailed quantum description of the CN, (3) tests of the calculated amplitudes based on quantum mechanics (not realized in other approaches), and (4) high accuracy of calculations (not achieved in other approaches). These peculiarities are shown with the capture reaction of α +44Ca . We predict quasibound energy levels and determine fusion probabilities for this reaction. The difference between our approach and theory of quasistationary states with complex energies applied for the α capture is also discussed. We show (1) that theory does not provide calculations for the cross section of α capture (according to modern models of the α capture), in contrast with our formalism, and (2) these two approaches describe different states of the α capture (for the same α -nucleus potential).

  11. An effective box trap for capturing lynx

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jay A. Kolbe; John R. Squires; Thomas W. Parker

    2003-01-01

    We designed a box trap for capturing lynx (Lynx lynx) that is lightweight, safe, effective, and less expensive than many commercial models. It can be constructed in approximately 3-4 hours from readily available materials. We used this trap to capture 40 lynx 89 times (96% of lynx entering traps) and observed no trapping related injuries. We compare our box...

  12. Radiative proton capture on He-6

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sauvan, E.; Marqués, F.M.; Wilschut, H.W.; Orr, N.A.; Angelique, J.C.; Borcea, C.; Catford, W.N.; Clarke, N.M.; Descouvemont, P.; Diaz, J.; Grevy, S.; Kugler, A.; Kravchuk, V.; Labiche, M.; Le Brun, C.; Lienard, E.; Löhner, H.; Mittig, W.; Ostendorf, R.W.; Pietri, S.; Roussel-Chomaz, P.; Saint Laurent, M.G.; Savajols, H.; Wagner, V.; Yahlali, N.

    2001-01-01

    Radiative capture of protons is investigated as a probe of clustering in nuclei far from stability. The first such measurement on a halo nucleus is reported here for the reaction He-6(p, gamma) at 40 MeV. Capture into Li-7 is observed as the strongest channel. In addition, events have been recorded

  13. CO2 Capture by Cement Raw Meal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pathi, Sharat Kumar; Lin, Weigang; Illerup, Jytte Boll

    2013-01-01

    The cement industry is one of the major sources of CO2 emissions and is likely to contribute to further increases in the near future. The carbonate looping process has the potential to capture CO2 emissions from the cement industry, in which raw meal for cement production could be used...... as the sorbent. Cyclic experiments were carried out in a TGA apparatus using industrial cement raw meal and synthetic raw meal as sorbents, with limestone as the reference. The results show that the CO2 capture capacities of the cement raw meal and the synthetic raw meal are comparable to those of pure limestone....... The CO2 capture capacity of limestone in the raw meal is lower than for pure limestone. The difference in the CO2 capture capacity decreases with an increase in cycle number. The calcination conditions and composition are major factors that influence the CO2 capture capacity of limestone. At 850 °C in N2...

  14. Encapsulated liquid sorbents for carbon dioxide capture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vericella, John J; Baker, Sarah E; Stolaroff, Joshuah K; Duoss, Eric B; Hardin, James O; Lewicki, James; Glogowski, Elizabeth; Floyd, William C; Valdez, Carlos A; Smith, William L; Satcher, Joe H; Bourcier, William L; Spadaccini, Christopher M; Lewis, Jennifer A; Aines, Roger D

    2015-02-05

    Drawbacks of current carbon dioxide capture methods include corrosivity, evaporative losses and fouling. Separating the capture solvent from infrastructure and effluent gases via microencapsulation provides possible solutions to these issues. Here we report carbon capture materials that may enable low-cost and energy-efficient capture of carbon dioxide from flue gas. Polymer microcapsules composed of liquid carbonate cores and highly permeable silicone shells are produced by microfluidic assembly. This motif couples the capacity and selectivity of liquid sorbents with high surface area to facilitate rapid and controlled carbon dioxide uptake and release over repeated cycles. While mass transport across the capsule shell is slightly lower relative to neat liquid sorbents, the surface area enhancement gained via encapsulation provides an order-of-magnitude increase in carbon dioxide absorption rates for a given sorbent mass. The microcapsules are stable under typical industrial operating conditions and may be used in supported packing and fluidized beds for large-scale carbon capture.

  15. Basic Research Needs for Carbon Capture: Beyond 2020

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alivisatos, Paul [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Buchanan, Michelle [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2010-03-04

    mimic those encountered in actual separation processes. Such tools are needed to examine interfaces and thin films at the atomic and molecular levels, achieving an atomic/molecular-scale understanding of gas–host structures, kinetics, and dynamics, and understanding and control of nanoscale synthesis in multiple dimensions. A second major crosscutting theme was the development of new computational tools for theory, modeling, and simulation of separation processes. Computational techniques can be used to elucidate mechanisms responsible for observed separations, predict new desired features for advanced separations materials, and guide future experiments, thus complementing synthesis and characterization efforts. These two crosscut areas underscored the fact that the challenge for future carbon capture technologies will be met only with multidisciplinary teams of scientists and engineers. In addition, it was noted that success in this fundamental research area must be closely coupled with successful applied research to ensure the continuing assessment and maturation of new technologies as they undergo scale-up and deployment. Carbon capture is a very rich scientific problem, replete with opportunity for basic researchers to advance the frontiers of science as they engage on one of the most important technical challenges of our times. This workshop report outlines an ambitious agenda for addressing the very difficult problem of carbon capture by creating foundational new basic science. This new science will in turn pave the way for many additional advances across a broad range of scientific disciplines and technology sectors.

  16. Viability Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Aubin, Jean-Pierre; Saint-Pierre, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    Viability theory designs and develops mathematical and algorithmic methods for investigating the adaptation to viability constraints of evolutions governed by complex systems under uncertainty that are found in many domains involving living beings, from biological evolution to economics, from environmental sciences to financial markets, from control theory and robotics to cognitive sciences. It involves interdisciplinary investigations spanning fields that have traditionally developed in isolation. The purpose of this book is to present an initiation to applications of viability theory, explai

  17. Model theory

    CERN Document Server

    Chang, CC

    2012-01-01

    Model theory deals with a branch of mathematical logic showing connections between a formal language and its interpretations or models. This is the first and most successful textbook in logical model theory. Extensively updated and corrected in 1990 to accommodate developments in model theoretic methods - including classification theory and nonstandard analysis - the third edition added entirely new sections, exercises, and references. Each chapter introduces an individual method and discusses specific applications. Basic methods of constructing models include constants, elementary chains, Sko

  18. Confabulation Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solari, Soren; Smith, Andrew; Minnett, Rupert; Hecht-Nielsen, Robert

    2008-06-01

    Confabulation Theory [Hecht-Nielsen R. Confabulation theory. Springer-Verlag; 2007] is the first comprehensive theory of human and animal cognition. Here, we briefly describe Confabulation Theory and discuss experimental results that suggest the theory is correct. Simply put, Confabulation Theory proposes that thinking is like moving. In humans, the theory postulates that there are roughly 4000 thalamocortical modules, the “muscles of thought”. Each module performs an internal competition ( confabulation) between its symbols, influenced by inputs delivered via learned axonal associations with symbols in other modules. In each module, this competition is controlled, as in an individual muscle, by a single graded (i.e., analog) thought control signal. The final result of this confabulation process is a single active symbol, the expression of which also results in launching of action commands that trigger and control subsequent movements and/or thought processes. Modules are manipulated in groups under coordinated, event-contingent control, in a similar manner to our 700 muscles. Confabulation Theory hypothesizes that the control of thinking is a direct evolutionary outgrowth of the control of movement. Establishing a complete understanding of Confabulation Theory will require launching and sustaining a massive new phalanx of confabulation neuroscience research.

  19. Elastoplasticity theory

    CERN Document Server

    Hashiguchi, Koichi

    2009-01-01

    This book details the mathematics and continuum mechanics necessary as a foundation of elastoplasticity theory. It explains physical backgrounds with illustrations and provides descriptions of detailed derivation processes..

  20. Field theory

    CERN Document Server

    Roman, Steven

    2006-01-01

    Intended for graduate courses or for independent study, this book presents the basic theory of fields. The first part begins with a discussion of polynomials over a ring, the division algorithm, irreducibility, field extensions, and embeddings. The second part is devoted to Galois theory. The third part of the book treats the theory of binomials. The book concludes with a chapter on families of binomials - the Kummer theory. This new edition has been completely rewritten in order to improve the pedagogy and to make the text more accessible to graduate students.  The exercises have also been im

  1. Game theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufwenberg, Martin

    2011-03-01

    Game theory is a toolkit for examining situations where decision makers influence each other. I discuss the nature of game-theoretic analysis, the history of game theory, why game theory is useful for understanding human psychology, and why game theory has played a key role in the recent explosion of interest in the field of behavioral economics. WIREs Cogni Sci 2011 2 167-173 DOI: 10.1002/wcs.119 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Recent development of capture of CO2

    CERN Document Server

    Chavez, Rosa Hilda

    2014-01-01

    "Recent Technologies in the capture of CO2" provides a comprehensive summary on the latest technologies available to minimize the emission of CO2 from large point sources like fossil-fuel power plants or industrial facilities. This ebook also covers various techniques that could be developed to reduce the amount of CO2 released into the atmosphere. The contents of this book include chapters on oxy-fuel combustion in fluidized beds, gas separation membrane used in post-combustion capture, minimizing energy consumption in CO2 capture processes through process integration, characterization and application of structured packing for CO2 capture, calcium looping technology for CO2 capture and many more. Recent Technologies in capture of CO2 is a valuable resource for graduate students, process engineers and administrative staff looking for real-case analysis of pilot plants. This eBook brings together the research results and professional experiences of the most renowned work groups in the CO2 capture field...

  3. The capture and recreation of 3D auditory scenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhiyun

    The main goal of this research is to develop the theory and implement practical tools (in both software and hardware) for the capture and recreation of 3D auditory scenes. Our research is expected to have applications in virtual reality, telepresence, film, music, video games, auditory user interfaces, and sound-based surveillance. The first part of our research is concerned with sound capture via a spherical microphone array. The advantage of this array is that it can be steered into any 3D directions digitally with the same beampattern. We develop design methodologies to achieve flexible microphone layouts, optimal beampattern approximation and robustness constraint. We also design novel hemispherical and circular microphone array layouts for more spatially constrained auditory scenes. Using the captured audio, we then propose a unified and simple approach for recreating them by exploring the reciprocity principle that is satisfied between the two processes. Our approach makes the system easy to build, and practical. Using this approach, we can capture the 3D sound field by a spherical microphone array and recreate it using a spherical loudspeaker array, and ensure that the recreated sound field matches the recorded field up to a high order of spherical harmonics. For some regular or semi-regular microphone layouts, we design an efficient parallel implementation of the multi-directional spherical beamformer by using the rotational symmetries of the beampattern and of the spherical microphone array. This can be implemented in either software or hardware and easily adapted for other regular or semi-regular layouts of microphones. In addition, we extend this approach for headphone-based system. Design examples and simulation results are presented to verify our algorithms. Prototypes are built and tested in real-world auditory scenes.

  4. Model-Independent Calculation of Radiative Neutron Capture on Lithium-7

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rupak, Gautam; Higa, Renato

    2011-01-01

    The radiative neutron capture on lithium-7 is calculated model independently using a low-energy halo effective field theory. The cross section is expressed in terms of scattering parameters directly related to the S-matrix elements. It depends on the poorly known p-wave effective range parameter

  5. Gravitational Capture of Asteroids by Gas Drag

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Vieira Neto

    2009-01-01

    captured by the planet got its velocity reduced and could been trapped as an irregular satellite. It is well known that, depending on the time scale of the gas envelope, an asteroid will spiral and collide with the planet. So, we simulate the passage of the asteroid in the gas envelope with its density decreasing along the time. Using this approach, we found effective captures, and have a better understanding of the whole process. Finally, we conclude that the origin of the irregular satellites cannot be attributed to the gas drag capture mechanism alone.

  6. Understanding Motion Capture for Computer Animation

    CERN Document Server

    Menache, Alberto

    2010-01-01

    The power of today's motion capture technology has taken animated characters and special effects to amazing new levels of reality. And with the release of blockbusters like Avatar and Tin-Tin, audiences continually expect more from each new release. To live up to these expectations, film and game makers, particularly technical animators and directors, need to be at the forefront of motion capture technology. In this extensively updated edition of Understanding Motion Capture for Computer Animation and Video Games, an industry insider explains the latest research developments in digital design

  7. Shielding Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion N.Chiuta

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper determines relations for shieldingeffectiveness relative to several variables, includingmetal type, metal properties, thickness, distance,frequency, etc. It starts by presenting some relationshipsregarding magnetic, electric and electromagnetic fieldsas a pertinent background to understanding and applyingfield theory. Since literature about electromagneticcompatibility is replete with discussions about Maxwellequations and field theory only a few aspects arepresented.

  8. Calculation of Evaluation Variables for High Gradient Magnetic Separation with an Idealized Capture Model

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, Fengyu

    2016-01-01

    This paper regards feed mine as a mixture of intergrowths and pure non-magnetic mineral particles, presents a method to calculate the evaluation variables such as grade and recovery in high gradient magnetic separation (HGMS). A idealized capture model is constructed in which the interaction between particles is not taken into account and only for the initial aggregation condition that the separator has the highest capture efficiency. In the model we adopt the functions that use nominal particle radius and magnetic mineral content as independent variables to describe volume fraction distribution and capture efficiency of intergrowths respectively. Through adding multi-wire magnetic fields and setting periodic boundary conditions in flow field analysis, we modify the computational domain of the single-wire capture theory to a element domain that periodically appears in the multi-wire matrix. By means of finite element software, particle trajectories, flow field and magnetic field are clearly exhibited, and the...

  9. Uncertainty theory

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Baoding

    2015-01-01

    When no samples are available to estimate a probability distribution, we have to invite some domain experts to evaluate the belief degree that each event will happen. Perhaps some people think that the belief degree should be modeled by subjective probability or fuzzy set theory. However, it is usually inappropriate because both of them may lead to counterintuitive results in this case. In order to rationally deal with belief degrees, uncertainty theory was founded in 2007 and subsequently studied by many researchers. Nowadays, uncertainty theory has become a branch of axiomatic mathematics for modeling belief degrees. This is an introductory textbook on uncertainty theory, uncertain programming, uncertain statistics, uncertain risk analysis, uncertain reliability analysis, uncertain set, uncertain logic, uncertain inference, uncertain process, uncertain calculus, and uncertain differential equation. This textbook also shows applications of uncertainty theory to scheduling, logistics, networks, data mining, c...

  10. Potential Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Lukeš, Jaroslav; Netuka, Ivan; Veselý, Jiří

    1988-01-01

    Within the tradition of meetings devoted to potential theory, a conference on potential theory took place in Prague on 19-24, July 1987. The Conference was organized by the Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Charles University, with the collaboration of the Institute of Mathematics, Czechoslovak Academy of Sciences, the Department of Mathematics, Czech University of Technology, the Union of Czechoslovak Mathematicians and Physicists, the Czechoslovak Scientific and Technical Society, and supported by IMU. During the Conference, 69 scientific communications from different branches of potential theory were presented; the majority of them are in­ cluded in the present volume. (Papers based on survey lectures delivered at the Conference, its program as well as a collection of problems from potential theory will appear in a special volume of the Lecture Notes Series published by Springer-Verlag). Topics of these communications truly reflect the vast scope of contemporary potential theory. Some contributions deal...

  11. Field theory

    CERN Multimedia

    1999-11-08

    In these lectures I will build up the concept of field theory using the language of Feynman diagrams. As a starting point, field theory in zero spacetime dimensions is used as a vehicle to develop all the necessary techniques: path integral, Feynman diagrams, Schwinger-Dyson equations, asymptotic series, effective action, renormalization etc. The theory is then extended to more dimensions, with emphasis on the combinatorial aspects of the diagrams rather than their particular mathematical structure. The concept of unitarity is used to, finally, arrive at the various Feynman rules in an actual, four-dimensional theory. The concept of gauge-invariance is developed, and the structure of a non-abelian gauge theory is discussed, again on the level of Feynman diagrams and Feynman rules.

  12. Reactive Capture of Carbon Dioxide Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In this Phase I SBIR, Reactive Innovations, LLC (RIL) proposes to develop a compact and lightweight electrochemical to capture carbon dioxide in the martian...

  13. Carbon Dioxide Capture Adsorbents: Chemistry and Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Hasmukh A; Byun, Jeehye; Yavuz, Cafer T

    2017-04-10

    Excess carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions and their inevitable consequences continue to stimulate hard debate and awareness in both academic and public spaces, despite the widespread lack of understanding on what really is needed to capture and store the unwanted CO 2 . Of the entire carbon capture and storage (CCS) operation, capture is the most costly process, consisting of nearly 70 % of the price tag. In this tutorial review, CO 2 capture science and technology based on adsorbents are described and evaluated in the context of chemistry and methods, after briefly introducing the current status of CO 2 emissions. An effective sorbent design is suggested, whereby six checkpoints are expected to be met: cost, capacity, selectivity, stability, recyclability, and fast kinetics. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Neutron Capture Cross Sections of Tellurium Isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastman, Micah; Krane, Kenneth

    2006-05-01

    Neutron capture by the stable even-mass Te isotopes (A = 120 to 130) produces in the neighboring odd-neutron isotopes a low-spin ground state (1/2 or 3/2) and a high-spin (11/2) isomeric state. By irradiating samples of natural isotopic Te in our reactor, we have measured the neutron capture cross sections for all of the odd-mass radioactive ground states and isomers produced in the capture process. By using Cd-shielded and unshielded irradiations, we have been able to obtain both the effective thermal cross sections and the resonance integrals. Comparison with similar neutron capture processes in Sn isotopes leads to interesting systematic effects, especially among the thermal cross sections of the low-spin and high-spin states.

  15. Field Testing of Cryogenic Carbon Capture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sayre, Aaron [Sustainable Energy Solutions, LLC; Frankman, Dave [Sustainable Energy Solutions, LLC; Baxter, Andrew [Sustainable Energy Solutions, LLC; Stitt, Kyler [Sustainable Energy Solutions, LLC; Baxter, Larry [Sustainable Energy Solutions, LLC; Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT (United States)

    2017-07-17

    Sustainable Energy Solutions has been developing Cryogenic Carbon Capture™ (CCC) since 2008. In that time two processes have been developed, the External Cooling Loop and Compressed Flue Gas Cryogenic Carbon Capture processes (CCC ECL™ and CCC CFG™ respectively). The CCC ECL™ process has been scaled up to a 1TPD CO2 system. In this process the flue gas is cooled by an external refrigerant loop. SES has tested CCC ECL™ on real flue gas slip streams from subbituminous coal, bituminous coal, biomass, natural gas, shredded tires, and municipal waste fuels at field sites that include utility power stations, heating plants, cement kilns, and pilot-scale research reactors. The CO2 concentrations from these tests ranged from 5 to 22% on a dry basis. CO2 capture ranged from 95-99+% during these tests. Several other condensable species were also captured including NO2, SO2 and PMxx at 95+%. NO was also captured at a modest rate. The CCC CFG™ process has been scaled up to a .25 ton per day system. This system has been tested on real flue gas streams including subbituminous coal, bituminous coal and natural gas at field sites that include utility power stations, heating plants, and pilot-scale research reactors. CO2 concentrations for these tests ranged from 5 to 15% on a dry basis. CO2 capture ranged from 95-99+% during these tests. Several other condensable species were also captured including NO2, SO2 and PMxx at 95+%. NO was also captured at 90+%. Hg capture was also verified and the resulting effluent from CCC CFG™ was below a 1ppt concentration. This paper will focus on discussion of the capabilities of CCC, the results of field testing and the future steps surrounding the development of this technology.

  16. Plasticity theory

    CERN Document Server

    Lubliner, Jacob

    2008-01-01

    The aim of Plasticity Theory is to provide a comprehensive introduction to the contemporary state of knowledge in basic plasticity theory and to its applications. It treats several areas not commonly found between the covers of a single book: the physics of plasticity, constitutive theory, dynamic plasticity, large-deformation plasticity, and numerical methods, in addition to a representative survey of problems treated by classical methods, such as elastic-plastic problems, plane plastic flow, and limit analysis; the problem discussed come from areas of interest to mechanical, structural, and

  17. Lattice theory

    CERN Document Server

    Birkhoff, Garrett

    1940-01-01

    Since its original publication in 1940, this book has been revised and modernized several times, most notably in 1948 (second edition) and in 1967 (third edition). The material is organized into four main parts: general notions and concepts of lattice theory (Chapters I-V), universal algebra (Chapters VI-VII), applications of lattice theory to various areas of mathematics (Chapters VIII-XII), and mathematical structures that can be developed using lattices (Chapters XIII-XVII). At the end of the book there is a list of 166 unsolved problems in lattice theory, many of which still remain open. I

  18. Agency Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linder, Stefan; Foss, Nicolai Juul

    2015-01-01

    Agency theory studies the problems and solutions linked to delegation of tasks from principals to agents in the context of conflicting interests between the parties. Beginning from clear assumptions about rationality, contracting, and informational conditions, the theory addresses problems of ex...... ante (‘hidden characteristics’) as well as ex post information asymmetry (‘hidden action’), and examines conditions under which various kinds of incentive instruments and monitoring arrangements can be deployed to minimize the welfare loss. Its clear predictions and broad applicability have allowed...... agency theory to enjoy considerable scientific impact on social science; however, it has also attracted considerable criticism....

  19. Agency Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linder, Stefan; Foss, Nicolai Juul

    Agency theory studies the problems and solutions linked to delegation of tasks from principals to agents in the context of conflicting interests between the parties. Beginning from clear assumptions about rationality, contracting and informational conditions, the theory addresses problems of ex...... ante (“hidden characteristics”) as well as ex post information asymmetry (“hidden action”), and examines conditions under which various kinds of incentive instruments and monitoring arrangements can be deployed to minimize the welfare loss. Its clear predictions and broad applicability have allowed...... agency theory to enjoy considerable scientific impact on social science; however, it has also attracted considerable criticism....

  20. Number theory

    CERN Document Server

    Andrews, George E

    1994-01-01

    Although mathematics majors are usually conversant with number theory by the time they have completed a course in abstract algebra, other undergraduates, especially those in education and the liberal arts, often need a more basic introduction to the topic.In this book the author solves the problem of maintaining the interest of students at both levels by offering a combinatorial approach to elementary number theory. In studying number theory from such a perspective, mathematics majors are spared repetition and provided with new insights, while other students benefit from the consequent simpl

  1. Continuity theory

    CERN Document Server

    Nel, Louis

    2016-01-01

    This book presents a detailed, self-contained theory of continuous mappings. It is mainly addressed to students who have already studied these mappings in the setting of metric spaces, as well as multidimensional differential calculus. The needed background facts about sets, metric spaces and linear algebra are developed in detail, so as to provide a seamless transition between students' previous studies and new material. In view of its many novel features, this book will be of interest also to mature readers who have studied continuous mappings from the subject's classical texts and wish to become acquainted with a new approach. The theory of continuous mappings serves as infrastructure for more specialized mathematical theories like differential equations, integral equations, operator theory, dynamical systems, global analysis, topological groups, topological rings and many more. In light of the centrality of the topic, a book of this kind fits a variety of applications, especially those that contribute to ...

  2. [Theory? Practice?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina Moya, José Luis

    2005-04-01

    This second article about the difficult balance between academic and professional development in pre-European Spain poses the issue of the theory-practice, or learning-treatment, relationship as the historical dissolution of the practical in the theoretical.

  3. Model theory

    CERN Document Server

    Hodges, Wilfrid

    1993-01-01

    An up-to-date and integrated introduction to model theory, designed to be used for graduate courses (for students who are familiar with first-order logic), and as a reference for more experienced logicians and mathematicians.

  4. Concept theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjørland, Birger

    2009-01-01

      Concept theory is an extremely broad, interdisciplinary and complex field of research related to many deep fields with very long historical traditions without much consensus. However, information science and knowledge organization cannot avoid relating to theories of concepts. Knowledge...... organizing systems (e.g. classification systems, thesauri and ontologies) should be understood as systems basically organizing concepts and their semantic relations. The same is the case with information retrieval systems. Different theories of concepts have different implications for how to construe......). It is also argued that the historicist and pragmatist understandings of concepts are the most fruitful views and that this understanding may be part of a broader paradigm shift that is also beginning to take place in information science.  The importance of historicist and pragmatic theories of concepts...

  5. Graph theory

    CERN Document Server

    Gould, Ronald

    2012-01-01

    This introduction to graph theory focuses on well-established topics, covering primary techniques and including both algorithmic and theoretical problems. The algorithms are presented with a minimum of advanced data structures and programming details. This thoroughly corrected 1988 edition provides insights to computer scientists as well as advanced undergraduates and graduate students of topology, algebra, and matrix theory. Fundamental concepts and notation and elementary properties and operations are the first subjects, followed by examinations of paths and searching, trees, and networks. S

  6. Conspiracy Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerg, Ole; Presskorn-Thygesen, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    The paper is a contribution to current debates about conspiracy theories within philosophy and cultural studies. Wittgenstein’s understanding of language is invoked to analyse the epistemological effects of designating particular questions and explanations as a ‘conspiracy theory’. It is demonstr......The paper is a contribution to current debates about conspiracy theories within philosophy and cultural studies. Wittgenstein’s understanding of language is invoked to analyse the epistemological effects of designating particular questions and explanations as a ‘conspiracy theory......’. It is demonstrated how such a designation relegates these questions and explanations beyond the realm of meaningful discourse. In addition, Agamben’s concept of sovereignty is applied to explore the political effects of using the concept of conspiracy theory. The exceptional epistemological status assigned...... to alleged conspiracy theories within our prevalent paradigms of knowledge and truth is compared to the exceptional legal status assigned to individuals accused of terrorism under the War on Terror. The paper concludes by discussing the relation between conspiracy theory and ‘the paranoid style...

  7. Attentional capture and engagement during the attentional blink: A "camera" metaphor of attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zivony, Alon; Lamy, Dominique

    2016-11-01

    Identification of a target is impaired when it follows a previous target within 500 ms, suggesting that our attentional system suffers from severe temporal limitations. Although control-disruption theories posit that such impairment, known as the attentional blink (AB), reflects a difficulty in matching incoming information with the current attentional set, disrupted-engagement theories propose that it reflects a delay in later processes leading to transient enhancement of potential targets. Here, we used a variant of the contingent-capture rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) paradigm (Folk, Ester, & Troemel, 2009) to adjudicate these competing accounts. Our results show that a salient distractor that shares the target color captures attention to the same extent whether it appears within or outside the blink, thereby invalidating the notion that control over the attentional set is compromised during the blink. In addition, our results show that during the blink, not the attention-capturing object itself but the item immediately following it, is selected, indicating that the AB manifests as a delay between attentional capture and attentional engagement. We therefore conclude that attentional capture and attentional engagement can be dissociated as separate stages of attentional selection. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. Technology Roadmap: Carbon Capture and Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-08-01

    As long as fossil fuels and carbon-intensive industries play dominant roles in our economies, carbon capture and storage (CCS) will remain a critical greenhouse gas reduction solution. This CCS roadmap aims at assisting governments and industry in integrating CCS in their emissions reduction strategies and in creating the conditions for scaled-up deployment of all three components of the CCS chain: CO2 capture, transport and storage. To get us onto the right pathway, this roadmap highlights seven key actions needed in the next seven years to create a solid foundation for deployment of CCS starting by 2020. IEA analysis shows that CCS is an integral part of any lowest-cost mitigation scenario where long-term global average temperature increases are limited to significantly less than 4 °C, particularly for 2 °C scenarios (2DS). In the 2DS, CCS is widely deployed in both power generation and industrial applications. The total CO2 capture and storage rate must grow from the tens of megatonnes of CO2 captured in 2013 to thousands of megatonnes of CO2 in 2050 in order to address the emissions reduction challenge. A total cumulative mass of approximately 120 GtCO2 would need to be captured and stored between 2015 and 2050, across all regions of the globe.

  9. Selective particle capture by asynchronously beating cilia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Yang; Kanso, Eva

    2015-12-01

    Selective particle filtration is fundamental in many engineering and biological systems. For example, many aquatic microorganisms use filter feeding to capture food particles from the surrounding fluid, using motile cilia. One of the capture strategies is to use the same cilia to generate feeding currents and to intercept particles when the particles are on the downstream side of the cilia. Here, we develop a 3D computational model of ciliary bands interacting with flow suspended particles and calculate particle trajectories for a range of particle sizes. Consistent with experimental observations, we find optimal particle sizes that maximize capture rate. The optimal size depends nonlinearly on cilia spacing and cilia coordination, synchronous vs. asynchronous. These parameters affect the cilia-generated flow field, which in turn affects particle trajectories. The low capture rate of smaller particles is due to the particles' inability to cross the flow streamlines of neighboring cilia. Meanwhile, large particles have difficulty entering the sub-ciliary region once advected downstream, also resulting in low capture rates. The optimal range of particle sizes is enhanced when cilia beat asynchronously. These findings have potentially important implications on the design and use of biomimetic cilia in processes such as particle sorting in microfluidic devices.

  10. AMUC: Associated Motion capture User Categories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Sally Jane; Lawson, Sian E M; Olivier, Patrick; Watson, Paul; Chan, Anita M-A; Dade-Robertson, Martyn; Dunphy, Paul; Green, Dave; Hiden, Hugo; Hook, Jonathan; Jackson, Daniel G

    2009-07-13

    The AMUC (Associated Motion capture User Categories) project consisted of building a prototype sketch retrieval client for exploring motion capture archives. High-dimensional datasets reflect the dynamic process of motion capture and comprise high-rate sampled data of a performer's joint angles; in response to multiple query criteria, these data can potentially yield different kinds of information. The AMUC prototype harnesses graphic input via an electronic tablet as a query mechanism, time and position signals obtained from the sketch being mapped to the properties of data streams stored in the motion capture repository. As well as proposing a pragmatic solution for exploring motion capture datasets, the project demonstrates the conceptual value of iterative prototyping in innovative interdisciplinary design. The AMUC team was composed of live performance practitioners and theorists conversant with a variety of movement techniques, bioengineers who recorded and processed motion data for integration into the retrieval tool, and computer scientists who designed and implemented the retrieval system and server architecture, scoped for Grid-based applications. Creative input on information system design and navigation, and digital image processing, underpinned implementation of the prototype, which has undergone preliminary trials with diverse users, allowing identification of rich potential development areas.

  11. Tacit Knowledge Capture and the Brain-Drain at Electrical Utilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perjanik, Nicholas Steven

    As a consequence of an aging workforce, electric utilities are at risk of losing their most experienced and knowledgeable electrical engineers. In this research, the problem was a lack of understanding of what electric utilities were doing to capture the tacit knowledge or know-how of these engineers. The purpose of this qualitative research study was to explore the tacit knowledge capture strategies currently used in the industry by conducting a case study of 7 U.S. electrical utilities that have demonstrated an industry commitment to improving operational standards. The research question addressed the implemented strategies to capture the tacit knowledge of retiring electrical engineers and technical personnel. The research methodology involved a qualitative embedded case study. The theories used in this study included knowledge creation theory, resource-based theory, and organizational learning theory. Data were collected through one time interviews of a senior electrical engineer or technician within each utility and a workforce planning or training professional within 2 of the 7 utilities. The analysis included the use of triangulation and content analysis strategies. Ten tacit knowledge capture strategies were identified: (a) formal and informal on-boarding mentorship and apprenticeship programs, (b) formal and informal off-boarding mentorship programs, (c) formal and informal training programs, (d) using lessons learned during training sessions, (e) communities of practice, (f) technology enabled tools, (g) storytelling, (h) exit interviews, (i) rehiring of retirees as consultants, and (j) knowledge risk assessments. This research contributes to social change by offering strategies to capture the know-how needed to ensure operational continuity in the delivery of safe, reliable, and sustainable power.

  12. Does the Separation of Regulatory Powers Reduce the Threat of Capture? Evidence from the US Maritime Bureaucracy

    OpenAIRE

    Marín Uribe, Pedro Luis; Sicotte, Richard

    2003-01-01

    Recent economic theories have investigated the susceptibility of diverse public bureaucratic structures to capture by private industry. In particular, Laffont and Martimort (1999) propose that the separation of regulatory powers will reduce the threat of capture. We analyse investor reaction to a reorganization of the United States maritime bureaucracy that created two separate agencies to carry out the duties previously assigned to a single entity. We find strong evidence that investors inte...

  13. Neutron transmission and capture of 241Am

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sage C.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A set of neutron transmission and capture experiments based on the Time Of Flight (TOF technique, were performed in order to determine the 241Am capture cross section in the energy range from 0.01 eV to 1 keV. The GELINA facility of the Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements (IRMM served as the neutron source. A pair of C6D6 liquid scintillators was used to register the prompt gamma rays emerging from the americium sample, while a Li-glass detector was used in the transmission setup. Results from the capture and transmission data acquired are consistent with each other, but appear to be inconsistent with the evaluated data files. Resonance parameters have been derived for the data up to the energy of 100 eV.

  14. Attentional capture by working memory contents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Yi

    2010-06-01

    There has been controversy on whether working memory (WM) contents automatically guide attention. The present study tried to replicate the effect of WM-based attentional capture using an adaption of Downing's (2000) paradigm, in which WM and attentional capture were combined. Subjects were presented with an attention display containing two objects, one of which could be precued by a matching item being held in WM. As measured by a probe discrimination task, the memory-matching object had a privileged status to capture attention regardless of the stimulus onset asynchronies between the memory cue and the attention display, even when there was absolutely no benefit for subjects to bias attention in favour of the memory match. These results suggest that WM contents guide attention in an involuntary manner. The implications of current findings for understanding of WM effects on visual selection are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. Mobile Motion Capture--MiMiC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harbert, Simeon D; Jaiswal, Tushar; Harley, Linda R; Vaughn, Tyler W; Baranak, Andrew S

    2013-01-01

    The low cost, simple, robust, mobile, and easy to use Mobile Motion Capture (MiMiC) system is presented and the constraints which guided the design of MiMiC are discussed. The MiMiC Android application allows motion data to be captured from kinematic modules such as Shimmer 2r sensors over Bluetooth. MiMiC is cost effective and can be used for an entire day in a person's daily routine without being intrusive. MiMiC is a flexible motion capture system which can be used for many applications including fall detection, detection of fatigue in industry workers, and analysis of individuals' work patterns in various environments.

  16. Electron capture in carbon dwarf supernovae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazurek, T. J.; Truran, J. W.; Cameron, A. G. W.

    1974-01-01

    The rates of electron capture on heavier elements under the extreme conditions predicted for dwarf star supernovae have been computed, incorporating modifications that seem to be indicated by present experimental results. An estimate of the maximum possible value of such rates is also given. The distribution of nuclei in nuclear statistical equilibrium has been calculated for the range of expected supernovae conditions, including the effects of the temperature dependence of nuclear partition functions. These nuclide abundance distributions are then used to compute nuclear equilibrium thermodynamic properties. The effects of the electron capture on such equilibrium matter are discussed. In the context of the 'carbon detonation' supernova model, the dwarf central density required to ensure core collapse to a neutron star configuration is found to be slightly higher than that obtained by Bruenn (1972) with the electron capture rates of Hansen (1966).-

  17. Neutron capture by hook or by crook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosby, Shea

    2016-03-01

    The neutron capture reaction is a topic of fundamental interest for both heavy element (A>60) nucleosynthesis and applications in such fields as nuclear energy and defense. The full suite of interesting isotopes ranges from stable nuclei to the most exotic, and it is not possible to directly measure all the relevant reaction rates. The DANCE instrument at Los Alamos provides direct access to the neutron capture reaction for stable and long-lived nuclei, while Apollo coupled to HELIOS at Argonne has been developed as an indirect probe for cases where a direct measurement is impossible. The basic techniques and their implications will be presented, and the status of ongoing experimental campaigns to address neutron capture in the A=60 and A=100 mass regions will be discussed.

  18. Rebuild of Capture Cavity 1 at Fermilab

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harms, E. [Fermilab; Arkan, T. [Fermilab; Borissov, E. [Fermilab; Dhanaraj, N. [Fermilab; Hocker, A. [Fermilab; Orlov, Y. [Fermilab; Peterson, T. [Fermilab; Premo, K. [Fermilab

    2014-01-01

    The front end of the proposed Advanced Superconducting Test Accelerator at Fermilab employs two single cavity cryomodules, known as 'Capture Cavity 1' and 'Capture Cavity 2', for the first stage of acceleration. Capture Cavity 1 was previously used as the accelerating structure for the A0 Photoinjector to a peak energy of ~14 MeV. In its new location a gradient of ~25 MV/m is required. This has necessitated a major rebuild of the cryomodule including replacement of the cavity with a higher gradient one. Retrofitting the cavity and making upgrades to the module required significant redesign. The design choices and their rationale, summary of the rebuild, and early test results are presented.

  19. The Skyrme-TQRPA calculations of electron capture on hot nuclei in pre-supernova environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dzhioev, Alan A., E-mail: dzhioev@theor.jinr.ru; Vdovin, A. I., E-mail: vdovin@theor.jinr.ru [JINR, Bogoliubov Laboratory of Theoretical Physics (Russian Federation); Stoyanov, Ch., E-mail: stoyanov@inrne.bas.bg [Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Institute for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy (Bulgaria)

    2016-11-15

    We combine the thermal QRPA approach with the Skyrme energy density functional theory (Skyrme–TQRPA) for modelling the process of electron capture on nuclei in supernova environment. For a sample nucleus, {sup 56}Fe, the Skyrme–TQRPA approach is applied to analyze thermal effects on the strength function of GT{sub +} transitions which dominate electron capture at E{sub e} ≤ 30 MeV. Several Skyrme interactions are used in order to verify the sensitivity of the obtained results to the Skyrme force parameters. Finite-temperature cross sections are calculated and the results are comparedwith those of the other model calculations.

  20. Competitive Advantaje Anatomy: from Methodological Holism to State Capture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cosmin Marinescu

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available According to the orthodox theory of international trade, the argument of selective industrial policy means the state capability of identifying competitive advantages and to exploit them. In this approach, I want to emphasize the necessity of a critical reconsideration of the “competitive advantage” and “national competitiveness”, and also of the implications deriving from these concepts over public policy. First of all, I analyzed the scientifically basis of competitiveness: on the free market, the competitive advantage is given by the entrepreneurial ability, which so becomes the real source of the economic success. Being given any other conditions, meaning here a market affected by state’s interventionism, reaching “competitive advantages” derives from rent-seeking activities which attend to capture public policy.

  1. Neutral Vlasov kinetic theory of magnetized plasmas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Tronci; E. Camporeale (Enrico)

    2014-01-01

    htmlabstractThe low-frequency limit of Maxwell equations is considered in the Maxwell-Vlasov system. This limit produces a neutral Vlasov system that captures essential features of plasma dynamics, while neglecting radiation effects. Euler-Poincar\\'e reduction theory is used to show that the neutral

  2. Neutral Vlasov kinetic theory of magnetized plasmas.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Tronci; E. Camporeale (Enrico)

    2015-01-01

    htmlabstractThe low-frequency limit of Maxwell equations is considered in the Maxwell-Vlasov system. This limit produces a neutral Vlasov system that captures essential features of plasma dynamics, while neglecting radiation effects. Euler-Poincar\\'e reduction theory is used to show that the neutral

  3. Thermal Propulsion Capture System Heat Exchanger Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard, Evan M.

    2016-01-01

    One of the biggest challenges of manned spaceflight beyond low earth orbit and the moon is harmful radiation that astronauts would be exposed to on their long journey to Mars and further destinations. Using nuclear energy has the potential to be a more effective means of propulsion compared to traditional chemical engines (higher specific impulse). An upper stage nuclear engine would allow astronauts to reach their destination faster and more fuel efficiently. Testing these engines poses engineering challenges due to the need to totally capture the engine exhaust. The Thermal Propulsion Capture System is a concept for cost effectively and safely testing Nuclear Thermal Engines. Nominally, hydrogen exhausted from the engine is not radioactive, but is treated as such in case of fuel element failure. The Thermal Propulsion Capture System involves injecting liquid oxygen to convert the hydrogen exhaust into steam. The steam is then cooled and condensed into liquid water to allow for storage. The Thermal Propulsion Capture System concept for ground testing of a nuclear powered engine involves capturing the engine exhaust to be cooled and condensed before being stored. The hydrogen exhaust is injected with liquid oxygen and burned to form steam. That steam must be cooled to saturation temperatures before being condensed into liquid water. A crossflow heat exchanger using water as a working fluid will be designed to accomplish this goal. Design a cross flow heat exchanger for the Thermal Propulsion Capture System testing which: Eliminates the need for water injection cooling, Cools steam from 5800 F to saturation temperature, and Is efficient and minimizes water requirement.

  4. Capturing Many-Body Interactions with Classical Dipole Induction Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chengwen; Qi, Rui; Wang, Qiantao; Piquemal, J-P; Ren, Pengyu

    2017-06-13

    The nonadditive many-body interactions are significant for structural and thermodynamic properties of condensed phase systems. In this work we examined the many-body interaction energy of a large number of common organic/biochemical molecular clusters, which consist of 18 chemical species and cover nine common organic elements, using the Møller-Plesset perturbation theory to the second order (MP2) [ Møller et al. Phys. Rev. 1934 , 46 , 618 . ]. We evaluated the capability of Thole-based dipole induction models to capture the many-body interaction energy. Three models were compared: the original model and parameters used by the AMOEBA force field, a variation of this original model where the damping parameters have been reoptimized to MP2 data, and a third model where the damping function form applied to the permanent electric field is modified. Overall, we find the simple classical atomic dipole models are able to capture the 3- and 4-body interaction energy across a wide variety of organic molecules in various intermolecular configurations. With modified Thole models, it is possible to further improve the agreement with MP2 results. These models were also tested on systems containing metal/halogen ions to examine the accuracy and transferability. This work suggests that the form of damping function applied to the permanent electrostatic field strongly affects the distance dependence of polarization energy at short intermolecular separations.

  5. Nevanlinna theory

    CERN Document Server

    Kodaira, Kunihiko

    2017-01-01

    This book deals with the classical theory of Nevanlinna on the value distribution of meromorphic functions of one complex variable, based on minimum prerequisites for complex manifolds. The theory was extended to several variables by S. Kobayashi, T. Ochiai, J. Carleson, and P. Griffiths in the early 1970s. K. Kodaira took up this subject in his course at The University of Tokyo in 1973 and gave an introductory account of this development in the context of his final paper, contained in this book. The first three chapters are devoted to holomorphic mappings from C to complex manifolds. In the fourth chapter, holomorphic mappings between higher dimensional manifolds are covered. The book is a valuable treatise on the Nevanlinna theory, of special interests to those who want to understand Kodaira's unique approach to basic questions on complex manifolds.

  6. Upscaling of enzyme enhanced CO2 capture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gladis, Arne Berthold

    Fossil fuels are the backbone of the energy generation in the coming decades for USA, China, India and Europe, hence high greenhouse gas emissions are expected in future. Carbon capture and storage technology (CCS) is the only technology that can mitigate greenhouse gas emissions from fossil fuel...... fired power by selectively capturing CO2 from flue gases. High capital and high operational costs of this process are the major obstacles of industrial implementation. In the field of CCS the chemical absorption process is the most mature technology. The use of kinetic rate promoters that enhance...

  7. Retro-fitting post combustion capture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Louis Wibberley; Doug Palfreyman; Peter Scaife [CSIRO Energy Technology (Australia)

    2008-02-15

    This report gives a technical assessment of the issues of retro-fitting post combustion capture to Australian coal fired power stations. It includes a description of the various capture technologies, their status and development timeline, and the implications for Australian power stations. A more detailed assessment is given for current and near future best available technology in both retro-fit and new applications. This is followed by a detailed thermodynamic assessment of the heat integration of solvent based PCC for a 450 MW power plant, with sensitivities for a range of key parameters. 50 refs., 66 figs.

  8. Engineered Resilient Systems: Knowledge Capture and Transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-29

    ld be captured. The st udy description at a t op level shou ld include an overview, identification of key decision makers, t he goals for the study...capture and transfer across TSE st udies . EXPLORATION CASE STUDY One of t he tasks in this research proj ect was to conduct an exploratory case study to...knowledge t radeoffs in a TSE st udy using RSC 54 Products similar to Figure 18 would be very useful to practitioners as well as for further

  9. Hadronic density of states from string theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pando Zayas, Leopoldo A; Vaman, Diana

    2003-09-12

    We present an exact calculation of the finite temperature partition function for the hadronic states corresponding to a Penrose-Güven limit of the Maldacena-Nùñez embedding of the N=1 super Yang-Mills (SYM) into string theory. It is established that the theory exhibits a Hagedorn density of states. We propose a semiclassical string approximation to the finite temperature partition function for confining gauge theories admitting a supergravity dual, by performing an expansion around classical solutions characterized by temporal windings. This semiclassical approximation reveals a hadronic energy density of states of a Hagedorn type, with the coefficient determined by the gauge theory string tension as expected for confining theories. We argue that our proposal captures primarily information about states of pure N=1 SYM theory, given that this semiclassical approximation does not entail a projection onto states of large U(1) charge.

  10. Optimization of wave energy capture of wave-powered navigational lighting buoys of seadromes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WANG Guangda

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available [Objectives] This paper proposes an optimized design for wave-power navigational lighting buoys of seadromes.[Methods] Based on the theory of three-dimensional potential flow, the buoyant motion response of a buoy is calculated. A type of array of wave-power navigational lighting buoys located in an offshore seadrome is proposed,and a procedure for the design optimization of its component buoys is presented. Matching the best Power Take-Off(PTO damping, the diameter to draft ratio and array distance with the best energy capture width ratio are acquired, and the energy capture for the short-term forecast of the buoy array is accomplished. On this basis, combined with the actual sea conditions, energy capture for the long-term forecast of an individual buoy is accomplished. The influence of the buoy diameter, buoy draft and array distance on the energy capture width ratio is discussed.[Results] The results show that the energy capture width ratio is at its greatest when the diameter to draft ratio is between 2.4-2.6; the smaller the distance between array buoys, the greater the energy capture width of each buoy.[Conclusions] The results can provide a reference and suggestions for the optimization of the design of wave energy generation for arrays buoy.

  11. Precipitating amino acid solvents for CO2 capture: opportunities to reduce costs in post combustion capture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanchez Fernandez, E.; Heffernan, K.; Ham, L.V. van der; Linders, M.J.G.; Goetheer, E.L.V.; Vlugt, T.J.H.

    2014-01-01

    Post-combustion CO2 capture based on absorption and thermal desorption is considered a suitable technology for carbon abatement in fossil fuelled power plants. The economic viability of post-combustion capture has been widely studied. The major drawbacks of this technology are the efficiency

  12. Precipitating amino acid solvents for CO2 capture : Opportunities to reduce costs in post combustion capture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanchez-Fernandez, E.; Heffernan, K.; Van der Ham, L.; Linders, M.J.G.; Goetheer, E.; Vlugt, T.J.H.

    2014-01-01

    Post-combustion CO2 capture based on absorption and thermal desorption is considered a suitable technology for carbon abatement in fossil fuelled power plants. The economic viability of post-combustion capture has been widely studied. The major drawbacks of this technology are the efficiency

  13. Capturing attention is not that simple: different mechanisms for stimulus-driven and contingent capture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Hsin-I; Yeh, Su-Ling

    2013-11-01

    Attentional orienting can be involuntarily directed to task-irrelevant stimuli, but it remains unsolved whether such attentional capture is contingent on top-down settings or could be purely stimulus-driven. We propose that attentional capture depends on the stimulus property because transient and static features are processed differently; thus, they might be modulated differently by top-down controls. To test this hybrid account, we adopted a spatial cuing paradigm in which a noninformative onset or color cue preceded an onset or color target with various stimulus onset asynchronies (SOAs). Results showed that the onset cue captured attention regardless of target type at short-but not long-SOAs. In contrast, the color cue captured attention at short and long SOAs, but only with a color target. The overall pattern of results corroborates our hypothesis, suggesting that different mechanisms are at work for stimulus-driven capture (by onset) and contingent capture (by color). Stimulus-driven capture elicits reflexive involuntary orienting, and contingent capture elicits voluntary feature-based enhancement.

  14. Persistence theory

    CERN Document Server

    Oudot, Steve Y

    2015-01-01

    Persistence theory emerged in the early 2000s as a new theory in the area of applied and computational topology. This book provides a broad and modern view of the subject, including its algebraic, topological, and algorithmic aspects. It also elaborates on applications in data analysis. The level of detail of the exposition has been set so as to keep a survey style, while providing sufficient insights into the proofs so the reader can understand the mechanisms at work. The book is organized into three parts. The first part is dedicated to the foundations of persistence and emphasizes its conne

  15. Probability theory

    CERN Document Server

    S Varadhan, S R

    2001-01-01

    This volume presents topics in probability theory covered during a first-year graduate course given at the Courant Institute of Mathematical Sciences. The necessary background material in measure theory is developed, including the standard topics, such as extension theorem, construction of measures, integration, product spaces, Radon-Nikodym theorem, and conditional expectation. In the first part of the book, characteristic functions are introduced, followed by the study of weak convergence of probability distributions. Then both the weak and strong limit theorems for sums of independent rando

  16. Galois theory

    CERN Document Server

    Stewart, Ian

    2003-01-01

    Ian Stewart's Galois Theory has been in print for 30 years. Resoundingly popular, it still serves its purpose exceedingly well. Yet mathematics education has changed considerably since 1973, when theory took precedence over examples, and the time has come to bring this presentation in line with more modern approaches.To this end, the story now begins with polynomials over the complex numbers, and the central quest is to understand when such polynomials have solutions that can be expressed by radicals. Reorganization of the material places the concrete before the abstract, thus motivating the g

  17. Multifractional theories: an unconventional review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calcagni, Gianluca

    2017-03-01

    We answer to 72 frequently asked questions about theories of multifractional spacetimes. Apart from reviewing and reorganizing what we already know about such theories, we discuss the physical meaning and consequences of the very recent flow-equation theorem on dimensional flow in quantum gravity, in particular its enormous impact on the multifractional paradigm. We will also get new theoretical results about the construction of multifractional derivatives and the symmetries in the yet-unexplored theory T γ , the resolution of ambiguities in the calculation of the spectral dimension, the relation between the theory T q with q-derivatives and the theory T γ with fractional derivatives, the interpretation of complex dimensions in quantum gravity, the frame choice at the quantum level, the physical interpretation of the propagator in T γ as an infinite superposition of quasiparticle modes, the relation between multifractional theories and quantum gravity, and the issue of renormalization, arguing that power-counting arguments do not capture the exotic properties of extreme UV regimes of multifractional geometry, where T γ may indeed be renormalizable. A careful discussion of experimental bounds and new constraints are also presented.

  18. Towards a Theory Grounded Theory of Language

    OpenAIRE

    Prince, Christopher G.; Mislivec, Eric J.; Kosolapov, Oleksandr V.; Lykken, Troy R.

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, we build upon the idea of theory grounding and propose one specific form of theory grounding, a theory of language. Theory grounding is the idea that we can imbue our embodied artificially intelligent systems with theories by modeling the way humans, and specifically young children, develop skills with theories. Modeling theory development promises to increase the conceptual and behavioral flexibility of these systems. An example of theory development in children is the social ...

  19. Combinatorial Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Hall, Marshall

    2011-01-01

    Includes proof of van der Waerden's 1926 conjecture on permanents, Wilson's theorem on asymptotic existence, and other developments in combinatorics since 1967. Also covers coding theory and its important connection with designs, problems of enumeration, and partition. Presents fundamentals in addition to latest advances, with illustrative problems at the end of each chapter. Enlarged appendixes include a longer list of block designs.

  20. Mapping Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, Shelley

    This paper came about within the context of a 13-month research project, Focus Area 1 - Method and Theory, at the Center for Public Space Research at the Royal Academy of the Arts School of Architecture in Copenhagen, Denmark. This project has been funded by RealDania. The goals of the research p...

  1. Matching theory

    CERN Document Server

    Plummer, MD

    1986-01-01

    This study of matching theory deals with bipartite matching, network flows, and presents fundamental results for the non-bipartite case. It goes on to study elementary bipartite graphs and elementary graphs in general. Further discussed are 2-matchings, general matching problems as linear programs, the Edmonds Matching Algorithm (and other algorithmic approaches), f-factors and vertex packing.

  2. Framing theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vreese, C.H.; Lecheler, S.; Mazzoleni, G.; Barnhurst, K.G.; Ikeda, K.; Maia, R.C.M.; Wessler, H.

    2016-01-01

    Political issues can be viewed from different perspectives and they can be defined differently in the news media by emphasizing some aspects and leaving others aside. This is at the core of news framing theory. Framing originates within sociology and psychology and has become one of the most used

  3. Autocommunication Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Lars Thøger

    2016-01-01

    they communicate with and evaluate themselves as social beings. This latter point was clearly illustrated in Jane Dutton and Janet Dukerich’s (1991) now classic study of the New York Port Authority, in which employees used external perceptions of their workplace to judge their individual characters. This entry...... covers the theory of autocommunication and its implications for corporate reputation and managerial applications....

  4. Theory U

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Monthoux, Pierre Guillet de; Statler, Matt

    2014-01-01

    The recent Carnegie report (Colby, et al., 2011) characterizes the goal of business education as the development of practical wisdom. In this chapter, the authors reframe Scharmer’s Theory U as an attempt to develop practical wisdom by applying certain European philosophical concepts. Specifically...

  5. Complexity Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, William H K.

    2016-01-01

    A complex system consists of many interacting parts, generates new collective behavior through self organization, and adaptively evolves through time. Many theories have been developed to study complex systems, including chaos, fractals, cellular automata, self organization, stochastic processes, turbulence, and genetic algorithms.

  6. Activity Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertelsen, Olav Wedege; Bødker, Susanne

    2003-01-01

    the young HCI research tradition. But HCI was already facing problems: lack of consideration for other aspects of human behavior, for interaction with other people, for culture. Cognitive science-based theories lacked means to address several issues that came out of the empirical projects....

  7. Theory U

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guillet de Monthoux, Pierre; Statler, Matt

    2017-01-01

    The recent Carnegie report (Colby, et al., 2011) characterizes the goal of business education as the development of practical wisdom. In this chapter, the authors reframe Scharmer's Theory U as an attempt to develop practical wisdom by applying certain European philosophical concepts. Specifically...

  8. Singularity theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broer, H.; Hoveijn, I.; Lunter, G.; Vegter, G.

    2003-01-01

    The space of functions – or maps – is huge. Fortunately, many of its elements may be regarded as equivalent in a natural way, for example under right- or left-right transformations. Singularity theory studies how such equivalences foliate these spaces into a more manageable family of orbits of

  9. Influence of attentional capture on oculomotor control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Theeuwes, J.; Kramer, A.F.; Hahn, S.

    1999-01-01

    Previous research has shown that when searching for a color singleton. top-down control cannot prevent attentional capture by an abrupt visual onset. The present research addressed whether a task-irrelevant abrupt onset would affect eye movement behavior when searching for a color singleton. Results

  10. RPA correlation effects in radiative pion capture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krivine, H.; Lipparini, E.; Navarro, J.; Roig, F.

    1988-05-16

    A sum rule approach to radiative pion capture is given in terms of the energy-weighted and inverse-energy weighted sum rules. They are evaluated with RPA accuracy for Skyrme-like interactions. The static polarizabilities of the dipole, quadrupole and octupole isovector modes turn out to be the relevant quantities to determine the total branching ratios and mean photon energies.

  11. Multimodal human motion capture and synthesis

    OpenAIRE

    Gowing, Marc; Monaghan, David; O'Connor, Noel E.

    2014-01-01

    Human motion capture (HMC) involves the sensing, recording and mapping of human motion to a digital model. It is useful for many commercial applications and fields of study, including digital animation, virtual reality/gaming, biomechanical/clinical studies and sports performance analysis. What follows is an overview of the current research being carried out in Insight.

  12. CO2 capture, transport, storage and utilisation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, J.H.

    2013-01-01

    Reducing CO2 emissions requires an integrated CO2 management approach. The dependency between the different industry sectors is higher than commonly acknowledged and covers all areas; capture, transport, storage and utilisation. TNO is one of Europe’s largest independent research organisations and

  13. Water surface capturing by image processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    An alternative means of measuring the water surface interface during laboratory experiments is processing a series of sequentially captured images. Image processing can provide a continuous, non-intrusive record of the water surface profile whose accuracy is not dependent on water depth. More trad...

  14. Rapid sulfur capture studies at high temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richards, G.A.; Lawson, W.F.; Maloney, D.J.; Shaw, D.W.

    1990-12-01

    Determine conditions that would reproduce optimum sulfur capture ( super-equilibrium'') behavior. No attempt was made to extract kinetic data for calcination or sulfur capture, as might be done in a comprehensive study of sorbent behavior. While some interesting anomalies are present in the calcination data and in the limited surface area data, no attempt was made to pursue those issues. Since little sulfur capture was observed at operating conditions where super-equilibrium'' might be expected to occur, tests were stopped when the wide range of parameters that were studied failed to produce significant sulfur capture via the super-equilibrium mechanism. Considerable space in this report is devoted to a description of the experiment, including details of the GTRC construction. This description is included because we have received requests for a detailed description of the GTRC itself, as well as the pressurized dry powder feed system. In addition, many questions about accurately sampling the sulfur species from a high-temperature, high-pressure reactor were raised during the course of this investigation. A full account of the development of the gas and particulate sampling train in thus provided. 8 refs., 17 figs., 2 tabs.

  15. Capturing Cultural Glossaries: Case-study II

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    R.B. Ruthven

    It is a follow-up of a similar case-study (Madiba, Mphahlele and Kganyago 2003), which was an attempt to capture and .... A common problem with the oral transmission of information is its level of variation and the different ... Van der Horst and Mac-. Donald (1997) maintain that learners must take an active part in learning.

  16. Analysis of capture-recapture data

    CERN Document Server

    McCrea, Rachel S

    2014-01-01

    An important first step in studying the demography of wild animals is to identify the animals uniquely through applying markings, such as rings, tags, and bands. Once the animals are encountered again, researchers can study different forms of capture-recapture data to estimate features, such as the mortality and size of the populations. Capture-recapture methods are also used in other areas, including epidemiology and sociology.With an emphasis on ecology, Analysis of Capture-Recapture Data covers many modern developments of capture-recapture and related models and methods and places them in the historical context of research from the past 100 years. The book presents both classical and Bayesian methods.A range of real data sets motivates and illustrates the material and many examples illustrate biometry and applied statistics at work. In particular, the authors demonstrate several of the modeling approaches using one substantial data set from a population of great cormorants. The book also discusses which co...

  17. Historic Methods for Capturing Magnetic Field Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwan, Alistair

    2016-01-01

    I investigated two late 19th-century methods for capturing magnetic field images from iron filings for historical insight into the pedagogy of hands-on physics education methods, and to flesh out teaching and learning practicalities tacit in the historical record. Both methods offer opportunities for close sensory engagement in data-collection…

  18. Spectral tailoring for boron Neutron capture therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nievaart, V.A.

    2007-01-01

    In several places in the world, such as Petten and Delft in the Netherlands, investigations are in progress in the fight against certain types of cancer with Boron Neutron Capture Therapy. The basic idea is very simple: boron is loaded only into the cancer cells, using a special drug, after which

  19. Capture and fission with DANCE and NEUANCE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jandel, M.; Baramsai, B.; Bond, E.; Rusev, G.; Walker, C.; Bredeweg, T.A.; Chadwick, M.B.; Couture, A.; Fowler, M.M.; Hayes, A.; Kawano, T.; Mosby, S.; Stetcu, I.; Taddeucci, T.N.; Talou, P.; Ullmann, J.L.; Vieira, D.J.; Wilhelmy, J.B. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico (United States)

    2015-12-15

    A summary of the current and future experimental program at DANCE is presented. Measurements of neutron capture cross sections are planned for many actinide isotopes with the goal to reduce the present uncertainties in nuclear data libraries. Detailed studies of capture gamma rays in the neutron resonance region will be performed in order to derive correlated data on the de-excitation of the compound nucleus. New approaches on how to remove the DANCE detector response from experimental data and retain the correlations between the cascade gamma rays are presented. Studies on {sup 235}U are focused on quantifying the population of short-lived isomeric states in {sup 236}U after neutron capture. For this purpose, a new neutron detector array NEUANCE is under construction. It will be installed in the central cavity of the DANCE array and enable the highly efficient tagging of fission and capture events. In addition, developments of fission fragment detectors are also underway to expand DANCE capabilities to measurements of fully correlated data on fission observables. (orig.)

  20. Neutron capture cross sections of Kr

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiebiger Stefan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Neutron capture and β− -decay are competing branches of the s-process nucleosynthesis path at 85Kr [1], which makes it an important branching point. The knowledge of its neutron capture cross section is therefore essential to constrain stellar models of nucleosynthesis. Despite its importance for different fields, no direct measurement of the cross section of 85Kr in the keV-regime has been performed. The currently reported uncertainties are still in the order of 50% [2, 3]. Neutron capture cross section measurements on a 4% enriched 85Kr gas enclosed in a stainless steel cylinder were performed at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL using the Detector for Advanced Neutron Capture Experiments (DANCE. 85Kr is radioactive isotope with a half life of 10.8 years. As this was a low-enrichment sample, the main contaminants, the stable krypton isotopes 83Kr and 86Kr, were also investigated. The material was highly enriched and contained in pressurized stainless steel spheres.

  1. Capture and fission with DANCE and NEUANCE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jandel, M.; Baramsai, B.; Bond, E.; Rusev, G.; Walker, C.; Bredeweg, T. A.; Chadwick, M. B.; Couture, A.; Fowler, M. M.; Hayes, A.; Kawano, T.; Mosby, S.; Stetcu, I.; Taddeucci, T. N.; Talou, P.; Ullmann, J. L.; Vieira, D. J.; Wilhelmy, J. B.

    2015-12-01

    A summary of the current and future experimental program at DANCE is presented. Measurements of neutron capture cross sections are planned for many actinide isotopes with the goal to reduce the present uncertainties in nuclear data libraries. Detailed studies of capture gamma rays in the neutron resonance region will be performed in order to derive correlated data on the de-excitation of the compound nucleus. New approaches on how to remove the DANCE detector response from experimental data and retain the correlations between the cascade gamma rays are presented. Studies on 235U are focused on quantifying the population of short-lived isomeric states in 236U after neutron capture. For this purpose, a new neutron detector array NEUANCE is under construction. It will be installed in the central cavity of the DANCE array and enable the highly efficient tagging of fission and capture events. In addition, developments of fission fragment detectors are also underway to expand DANCE capabilities to measurements of fully correlated data on fission observables.

  2. Neutron capture cross sections of Kr

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiebiger, Stefan; Baramsai, Bayarbadrakh; Couture, Aaron; Krtička, Milan; Mosby, Shea; Reifarth, René; O'Donnell, John; Rusev, Gencho; Ullmann, John; Weigand, Mario; Wolf, Clemens

    2018-01-01

    Neutron capture and β- -decay are competing branches of the s-process nucleosynthesis path at 85Kr [1], which makes it an important branching point. The knowledge of its neutron capture cross section is therefore essential to constrain stellar models of nucleosynthesis. Despite its importance for different fields, no direct measurement of the cross section of 85Kr in the keV-regime has been performed. The currently reported uncertainties are still in the order of 50% [2, 3]. Neutron capture cross section measurements on a 4% enriched 85Kr gas enclosed in a stainless steel cylinder were performed at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) using the Detector for Advanced Neutron Capture Experiments (DANCE). 85Kr is radioactive isotope with a half life of 10.8 years. As this was a low-enrichment sample, the main contaminants, the stable krypton isotopes 83Kr and 86Kr, were also investigated. The material was highly enriched and contained in pressurized stainless steel spheres.

  3. Synthesis of optimal adsorptive carbon capture processes.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    chang, Y.; Cozad, A.; Kim, H.; Lee, A.; Vouzis, P.; Konda, M.; Simon, A.; Sahinidis, N.; Miller, D.

    2011-01-01

    Solid sorbent carbon capture systems have the potential to require significantly lower regeneration energy compared to aqueous monoethanol amine (MEA) systems. To date, the majority of work on solid sorbents has focused on developing the sorbent materials themselves. In order to advance these technologies, it is necessary to design systems that can exploit the full potential and unique characteristics of these materials. The Department of Energy (DOE) recently initiated the Carbon Capture Simulation Initiative (CCSI) to develop computational tools to accelerate the commercialization of carbon capture technology. Solid sorbents is the first Industry Challenge Problem considered under this initiative. An early goal of the initiative is to demonstrate a superstructure-based framework to synthesize an optimal solid sorbent carbon capture process. For a given solid sorbent, there are a number of potential reactors and reactor configurations consisting of various fluidized bed reactors, moving bed reactors, and fixed bed reactors. Detailed process models for these reactors have been modeled using Aspen Custom Modeler; however, such models are computationally intractable for large optimization-based process synthesis. Thus, in order to facilitate the use of these models for process synthesis, we have developed an approach for generating simple algebraic surrogate models that can be used in an optimization formulation. This presentation will describe the superstructure formulation which uses these surrogate models to choose among various process alternatives and will describe the resulting optimal process configuration.

  4. Capturing Creativity in Collaborative Design Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, J. U.; Onarheim, Balder

    2015-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the question of how we can capture creativity in collaborative design processes consisting of two or more individuals collaborating in the process of producing innovative outputs. Traditionally, methods for detecting creativity are focused on the cognitive and mental...... for detecting divergence and convergence, and for backtracking of explored themes in the design process....

  5. Optimum prey capture techniques in fish

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuwen, van J.L.

    1983-01-01

    In this thesis hydrodynamic principles are used to quantify relations between form and function in the prey capture mechanism of actinopterygian fish. This work is closely related to the papers on the hydrodynamics of fish feeding by Muller et al. (1982) and Muller & Osse (in press).

  6. Incremental learning for automated knowledge capture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benz, Zachary O. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Basilico, Justin Derrick [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Davis, Warren Leon [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Dixon, Kevin R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Jones, Brian S. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Martin, Nathaniel [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Wendt, Jeremy Daniel [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2013-12-01

    People responding to high-consequence national-security situations need tools to help them make the right decision quickly. The dynamic, time-critical, and ever-changing nature of these situations, especially those involving an adversary, require models of decision support that can dynamically react as a situation unfolds and changes. Automated knowledge capture is a key part of creating individualized models of decision making in many situations because it has been demonstrated as a very robust way to populate computational models of cognition. However, existing automated knowledge capture techniques only populate a knowledge model with data prior to its use, after which the knowledge model is static and unchanging. In contrast, humans, including our national-security adversaries, continually learn, adapt, and create new knowledge as they make decisions and witness their effect. This artificial dichotomy between creation and use exists because the majority of automated knowledge capture techniques are based on traditional batch machine-learning and statistical algorithms. These algorithms are primarily designed to optimize the accuracy of their predictions and only secondarily, if at all, concerned with issues such as speed, memory use, or ability to be incrementally updated. Thus, when new data arrives, batch algorithms used for automated knowledge capture currently require significant recomputation, frequently from scratch, which makes them ill suited for use in dynamic, timecritical, high-consequence decision making environments. In this work we seek to explore and expand upon the capabilities of dynamic, incremental models that can adapt to an ever-changing feature space.

  7. Annual Report: Carbon Capture (30 September 2012)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luebke, David; Morreale, Bryan; Richards, George; Syamlal, Madhava

    2014-04-16

    Capture of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) is a critical component in reducing greenhouse gas emissions from fossil fuel-based processes. The Carbon Capture research to be performed is aimed at accelerating the development of efficient, cost-effective technologies which meet the post-combustion programmatic goal of capture of 90% of the CO{sub 2} produced from an existing coal-fired power plant with less than a 35% increase in the cost of electricity (COE), and the pre-combustion goal of 90% CO{sub 2} capture with less than a 10% increase in COE. The specific objective of this work is to develop innovative materials and approaches for the economic and efficient capture of CO{sub 2} from coal-based processes, and ultimately assess the performance of promising technologies at conditions representative of field application (i.e., slip stream evaluation). The Carbon Capture research includes seven core technical research areas: post-combustion solvents, sorbents, and membranes; pre-combustion solvents, sorbents, and membranes; and oxygen (O{sub 2}) production. The goal of each of these tasks is to develop advanced materials and processes that are able to reduce the energy penalty and cost of CO{sub 2} (or O{sub 2}) separation over conventional technologies. In the first year of development, materials will be examined by molecular modeling, and then synthesized and experimentally characterized at lab scale. In the second year, they will be tested further under ideal conditions. In the third year, they will be tested under realistic conditions. The most promising materials will be tested at the National Carbon Capture Center (NCCC) using actual flue or fuel gas. Systems analyses will be used to determine whether or not materials developed are likely to meet the Department of Energy (DOE) COE targets. Materials which perform well and appear likely to improve in performance will be licensed for further development outside of the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL

  8. Generalized extended Navier-Stokes theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, J. S.; Daivis, Peter J.; Dyre, Jeppe C.

    2013-01-01

    in molecular fluids. To discuss these phenomena in detail, molecular dynamics simulations of molecular chlorine are performed for three different state points. In general, the theory captures the behavior for small wavevector and frequencies as expected. For example, in the hydrodynamic regime...... and for molecular fluids with small moment of inertia like chlorine, the theory predicts that the longitudinal and transverse intrinsic angular velocity correlation functions are almost identical, which is also seen in the molecular dynamics simulations. However, the theory fails at large wavevector and frequencies...... and translational velocity for large frequencies in the gas phase; this is not observed for the supercritical fluid and liquid state points....

  9. One- and two-phonon capture processes in quantum dots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magnúsdóttir, Ingibjörg; Uskov, Alexander; Bischoff, Svend

    2002-01-01

    Multiphonon capture processes are investigated theoretically and found to contribute efficiently to the carrier injection into quantum dots. It is shown that two-phonon capture contributes where single-phonon capture is energetically inhibited and can lead to electron capture times of a few...

  10. Broken Expectations: Violation of Expectancies, Not Novelty, Captures Auditory Attention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vachon, Francois; Hughes, Robert W.; Jones, Dylan M.

    2012-01-01

    The role of memory in behavioral distraction by auditory attentional capture was investigated: We examined whether capture is a product of the novelty of the capturing event (i.e., the absence of a recent memory for the event) or its violation of learned expectancies on the basis of a memory for an event structure. Attentional capture--indicated…

  11. Particle capture in axial magnetic filters with power law flow model

    CERN Document Server

    Abbasov, T; Koksal, M

    1999-01-01

    A theory of capture of magnetic particle carried by laminar flow of viscous non-Newtonian (power law) fluid in axially ordered filters is presented. The velocity profile of the fluid flow is determined by the Kuwabara-Happel cell model. For the trajectory of the particle, the capture area and the filter performance simple analytical expressions are obtained. These expressions are valid for particle capture processes from both Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids. For this reason the obtained theoretical results make it possible to widen the application of high-gradient magnetic filtration (HGMF) to other industrial areas. For Newtonian fluids the theoretical results are shown to be in good agreement with the experimental ones reported in the literature. (author)

  12. Midwife to the greens: the electron capture detector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovelock, J E

    1997-03-01

    James E. Lovelock makes an account of the path he has followed since he started his scientific research at the National Institute for Medical Research (NIMR) in London in the 1940s, emphasizing the aspects related to environmental sciences. Lovelock explains the origins of the electron capture detector (ECD). So far, the ECD is the most sensitive, easily portable and inexpensive analytical apparatus capable of detecting substances present in the atmosphere at concentrations as low as parts per trillion (10(-12)). It has been the first device specifically sensitive to pollutants, and its use has provided the grounds for the development of environmental sciences, and green politics. The data gathered by the ECD about the persistence of pesticides in the environment led American biologist Rachel Carson to write her seminal book Silent Spring; data regarding the global presence of chlorofluorocarbons (CFC) in the atmosphere led Sherwood Rowland and Mario Molina to develop their theory of ozone depletion. The results of his research over the years led Lovelock himself to the development of the Gaia theory.

  13. Elastoplasticity theory

    CERN Document Server

    Hashiguchi, Koichi

    2014-01-01

    This book was written to serve as the standard textbook of elastoplasticity for students, engineers and researchers in the field of applied mechanics. The present second edition is improved thoroughly from the first edition by selecting the standard theories from various formulations and models, which are required to study the essentials of elastoplasticity steadily and effectively and will remain universally in the history of elastoplasticity. It opens with an explanation of vector-tensor analysis and continuum mechanics as a foundation to study elastoplasticity theory, extending over various strain and stress tensors and their rates. Subsequently, constitutive equations of elastoplastic and viscoplastic deformations for monotonic, cyclic and non-proportional loading behavior in a general rate and their applications to metals and soils are described in detail, and constitutive equations of friction behavior between solids and its application to the prediction of stick-slip phenomena are delineated. In additi...

  14. Potential theory

    CERN Document Server

    Helms, Lester L

    2014-01-01

    Potential Theory presents a clear path from calculus to classical potential theory and beyond, with the aim of moving the reader into the area of mathematical research as quickly as possible. The subject matter is developed from first principles using only calculus. Commencing with the inverse square law for gravitational and electromagnetic forces and the divergence theorem, the author develops methods for constructing solutions of Laplace's equation on a region with prescribed values on the boundary of the region. The latter half of the book addresses more advanced material aimed at those with the background of a senior undergraduate or beginning graduate course in real analysis. Starting with solutions of the Dirichlet problem subject to mixed boundary conditions on the simplest of regions, methods of morphing such solutions onto solutions of Poisson's equation on more general regions are developed using diffeomorphisms and the Perron-Wiener-Brelot method, culminating in application to Brownian motion. In ...

  15. Operator theory

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    A one-sentence definition of operator theory could be: The study of (linear) continuous operations between topological vector spaces, these being in general (but not exclusively) Fréchet, Banach, or Hilbert spaces (or their duals). Operator theory is thus a very wide field, with numerous facets, both applied and theoretical. There are deep connections with complex analysis, functional analysis, mathematical physics, and electrical engineering, to name a few. Fascinating new applications and directions regularly appear, such as operator spaces, free probability, and applications to Clifford analysis. In our choice of the sections, we tried to reflect this diversity. This is a dynamic ongoing project, and more sections are planned, to complete the picture. We hope you enjoy the reading, and profit from this endeavor.

  16. Communication theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stein, Irene F.; Stelter, Reinhard

    2011-01-01

    Communication theory covers a wide variety of theories related to the communication process (Littlejohn, 1999). Communication is not simply an exchange of information, in which we have a sender and a receiver. This very technical concept of communication is clearly outdated; a human being...... is not a data processing device. In this chapter, communication is understood as a process of shared meaning-making (Bruner, 1990). Human beings interpret their environment, other people, and themselves on the basis of their dynamic interaction with the surrounding world. Meaning is essential because people...... ascribe specific meanings to their experiences, their actions in life or work, and their interactions. Meaning is reshaped, adapted, and transformed in every communication encounter. Furthermore, meaning is cocreated in dialogues or in communities of practice, such as in teams at a workplace or in school...

  17. Percolation Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Wierman, John C.

    1982-01-01

    An introduction is provided to the mathematical tools and problems of percolation theory. A discussion of Bernoulli percolation models shows the role of graph duality and correlation inequalities in the recent determination of the critical probability in the square, triangular, and hexagonal lattice bond models. An introduction to first passage percolation concentrates on the problems of existence of optimal routes, length of optimal routes, and conditions for convergence of first passage tim...

  18. An effective attentional set for a specific colour does not prevent capture by infrequently presented motion distractors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Retell, James D; Becker, Stefanie I; Remington, Roger W

    2016-01-01

    An organism's survival depends on the ability to rapidly orient attention to unanticipated events in the world. Yet, the conditions needed to elicit such involuntary capture remain in doubt. Especially puzzling are spatial cueing experiments, which have consistently shown that involuntary shifts of attention to highly salient distractors are not determined by stimulus properties, but instead are contingent on attentional control settings induced by task demands. Do we always need to be set for an event to be captured by it, or is there a class of events that draw attention involuntarily even when unconnected to task goals? Recent results suggest that a task-irrelevant event will capture attention on first presentation, suggesting that salient stimuli that violate contextual expectations might automatically capture attention. Here, we investigated the role of contextual expectation by examining whether an irrelevant motion cue that was presented only rarely (∼3-6% of trials) would capture attention when observers had an active set for a specific target colour. The motion cue had no effect when presented frequently, but when rare produced a pattern of interference consistent with attentional capture. The critical dependence on the frequency with which the irrelevant motion singleton was presented is consistent with early theories of involuntary orienting to novel stimuli. We suggest that attention will be captured by salient stimuli that violate expectations, whereas top-down goals appear to modulate capture by stimuli that broadly conform to contextual expectations.

  19. Scattering theory

    CERN Document Server

    Friedrich, Harald

    2016-01-01

    This corrected and updated second edition of "Scattering Theory" presents a concise and modern coverage of the subject. In the present treatment, special attention is given to the role played by the long-range behaviour of the projectile-target interaction, and a theory is developed, which is well suited to describe near-threshold bound and continuum states in realistic binary systems such as diatomic molecules or molecular ions. It is motivated by the fact that experimental advances have shifted and broadened the scope of applications where concepts from scattering theory are used, e.g. to the field of ultracold atoms and molecules, which has been experiencing enormous growth in recent years, largely triggered by the successful realization of Bose-Einstein condensates of dilute atomic gases in 1995. The book contains sections on special topics such as near-threshold quantization, quantum reflection, Feshbach resonances and the quantum description of scattering in two dimensions. The level of abstraction is k...

  20. Graph theory

    CERN Document Server

    Diestel, Reinhard

    2017-01-01

    This standard textbook of modern graph theory, now in its fifth edition, combines the authority of a classic with the engaging freshness of style that is the hallmark of active mathematics. It covers the core material of the subject with concise yet reliably complete proofs, while offering glimpses of more advanced methods in each field by one or two deeper results, again with proofs given in full detail. The book can be used as a reliable text for an introductory course, as a graduate text, and for self-study. From the reviews: “This outstanding book cannot be substituted with any other book on the present textbook market. It has every chance of becoming the standard textbook for graph theory.”Acta Scientiarum Mathematiciarum “Deep, clear, wonderful. This is a serious book about the heart of graph theory. It has depth and integrity. ”Persi Diaconis & Ron Graham, SIAM Review “The book has received a very enthusiastic reception, which it amply deserves. A masterly elucidation of modern graph theo...

  1. What's Next in Complex Networks? Capturing the Concept of Attacking Play in Invasive Team Sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, João; Lopes, Rui J; Araújo, Duarte

    2017-09-16

    The evolution of performance analysis within sports sciences is tied to technology development and practitioner demands. However, how individual and collective patterns self-organize and interact in invasive team sports remains elusive. Social network analysis has been recently proposed to resolve some aspects of this problem, and has proven successful in capturing collective features resulting from the interactions between team members as well as a powerful communication tool. Despite these advances, some fundamental team sports concepts such as an attacking play have not been properly captured by the more common applications of social network analysis to team sports performance. In this article, we propose a novel approach to team sports performance centered on sport concepts, namely that of an attacking play. Network theory and tools including temporal and bipartite or multilayered networks were used to capture this concept. We put forward eight questions directly related to team performance to discuss how common pitfalls in the use of network tools for capturing sports concepts can be avoided. Some answers are advanced in an attempt to be more precise in the description of team dynamics and to uncover other metrics directly applied to sport concepts, such as the structure and dynamics of attacking plays. Finally, we propose that, at this stage of knowledge, it may be advantageous to build up from fundamental sport concepts toward complex network theory and tools, and not the other way around.

  2. Scattering amplitudes in gauge theories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henn, Johannes M. [Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton, NJ (United States). School of Natural Sciences; Plefka, Jan C. [Humboldt-Universitaet, Berlin (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik

    2014-03-01

    First monographical text on this fundamental topic. Course-tested, pedagogical and self-contained exposition. Includes exercises and solutions. At the fundamental level, the interactions of elementary particles are described by quantum gauge field theory. The quantitative implications of these interactions are captured by scattering amplitudes, traditionally computed using Feynman diagrams. In the past decade tremendous progress has been made in our understanding of and computational abilities with regard to scattering amplitudes in gauge theories, going beyond the traditional textbook approach. These advances build upon on-shell methods that focus on the analytic structure of the amplitudes, as well as on their recently discovered hidden symmetries. In fact, when expressed in suitable variables the amplitudes are much simpler than anticipated and hidden patterns emerge. These modern methods are of increasing importance in phenomenological applications arising from the need for high-precision predictions for the experiments carried out at the Large Hadron Collider, as well as in foundational mathematical physics studies on the S-matrix in quantum field theory. Bridging the gap between introductory courses on quantum field theory and state-of-the-art research, these concise yet self-contained and course-tested lecture notes are well-suited for a one-semester graduate level course or as a self-study guide for anyone interested in fundamental aspects of quantum field theory and its applications. The numerous exercises and solutions included will help readers to embrace and apply the material presented in the main text.

  3. Hybridization Capture Using Short PCR Products Enriches Small Genomes by Capturing Flanking Sequences (CapFlank)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tsangaras, Kyriakos; Wales, Nathan; Sicheritz-Pontén, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Solution hybridization capture methods utilize biotinylated oligonucleotides as baits to enrich homologous sequences from next generation sequencing (NGS) libraries. Coupled with NGS, the method generates kilo to gigabases of high confidence consensus targeted sequence. However, in many experiments...

  4. Layered solid sorbents for carbon dioxide capture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Bingyun; Jiang, Bingbing; Gray, McMahan L; Fauth, Daniel J; Pennline, Henry W; Richards, George A

    2014-11-18

    A solid sorbent for the capture and the transport of carbon dioxide gas is provided having at least one first layer of a positively charged material that is polyethylenimine or poly(allylamine hydrochloride), that captures at least a portion of the gas, and at least one second layer of a negatively charged material that is polystyrenesulfonate or poly(acryclic acid), that transports the gas, wherein the second layer of material is in juxtaposition to, attached to, or crosslinked with the first layer for forming at least one bilayer, and a solid substrate support having a porous surface, wherein one or more of the bilayers is/are deposited on the surface of and/or within the solid substrate. A method of preparing and using the solid sorbent is provided.

  5. CO2 Capture for Cement Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pathi, Sharat Kumar

    Production of cement is an energy intensive process and is the source of considerable CO2emissions. Itis estimated that the cement industry contributes around 8% of total global CO2emissions. CO2is oneof the major greenhouse gases. In the atmosphere, the CO2concentration has increased from 310...... ppmvin 1960 to 390 ppmv in 2012, probably due to human activity. A lot of research is being carried out forreducing CO2emissions from large stationary sources. Ofwhich, the carbonate looping process is anew process and has the potential to reduce CO2emissions with lower energy penalties. Most of thework...... performed recently has focused on CO2capture from fossil fuel-based power plants. Inherently,this process is especially suitablefor cement plants, as CaO used for CO2capture is also a majoringredient for clinker production. Thus, a detailed investigation was carried outto study the applicationof...

  6. Electron Capture Cross Sections for Stellar Nucleosynthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. G. Giannaka

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the first stage of this work, we perform detailed calculations for the cross sections of the electron capture on nuclei under laboratory conditions. Towards this aim we exploit the advantages of a refined version of the proton-neutron quasiparticle random-phase approximation (pn-QRPA and carry out state-by-state evaluations of the rates of exclusive processes that lead to any of the accessible transitions within the chosen model space. In the second stage of our present study, we translate the abovementioned e--capture cross sections to the stellar environment ones by inserting the temperature dependence through a Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution describing the stellar electron gas. As a concrete nuclear target we use the 66Zn isotope, which belongs to the iron group nuclei and plays prominent role in stellar nucleosynthesis at core collapse supernovae environment.

  7. Potassium Capture by Kaolin, Part 1: KOH

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Guoliang; Jensen, Peter Arendt; Wu, Hao

    2018-01-01

    The reaction of gaseous KOH with kaolin and mullite powder under suspension-fired conditions was studied by entrained flow reactor (EFR) experiments. A water-based slurry containing kaolin/mullite and KOH was fed into the reactor and the reacted solid samples were analyzed to quantify the K.......47 μm) and fine(D50 = 3.51 μm) kaolin powder at1100 and 1300 °C. The difference was less significant at 900°C. Mullite generated from kaolin captured KOH less effectively than kaolin at temperatures below 1100 °C. However, at 1300 and1450 °C, the amount of potassium captured by mullite became comparable...

  8. Layered solid sorbents for carbon dioxide capture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bingyun; Jiang, Bingbing; Gray, McMahan L; Fauth, Daniel J; Pennline, Henry W; Richards, George A

    2013-02-25

    A solid sorbent for the capture and the transport of carbon dioxide gas is provided having at least one first layer of a positively charged material that is polyethylenimine or poly(allylamine hydrochloride), that captures at least a portion of the gas, and at least one second layer of a negatively charged material that is polystyrenesulfonate or poly(acryclic acid), that transports the gas, wherein the second layer of material is in juxtaposition to, attached to, or crosslinked with the first layer for forming at least one bilayer, and a solid substrate support having a porous surface, wherein one or more of the bilayers is/are deposited on the surface of and/or within the solid substrate. A method of preparing and using the solid sorbent is provided.

  9. Thermal neutron capture gamma-rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuli, J.K.

    1983-01-01

    The energy and intensity of gamma rays as seen in thermal neutron capture are presented. Only those (n,..cap alpha..), E = thermal, reactions for which the residual nucleus mass number is greater than or equal to 45 are included. These correspond to evaluations published in Nuclear Data Sheets. The publication source data are contained in the Evaluated Nuclear Structure Data File (ENSDF). The data presented here do not involve any additional evaluation. Appendix I lists all the residual nuclides for which the data are included here. Appendix II gives a cumulated index to A-chain evaluations including the year of publication. The capture gamma ray data are given in two tables - the Table 1 is the list of all gamma rays seen in (n,..gamma..) reaction given in the order of increasing energy; the Table II lists the gamma rays according to the nuclide.

  10. Capturing the flow beneath water waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nachbin, A; Ribeiro-Junior, R

    2018-01-28

    Recently, the authors presented two numerical studies for capturing the flow structure beneath water waves (Nachbin and Ribeiro-Junior 2014 Disc. Cont. Dyn. Syst. A 34 , 3135-3153 (doi:10.3934/dcds.2014.34.3135); Ribeiro-Junior et al. 2017 J. Fluid Mech. 812 , 792-814 (doi:10.1017/jfm.2016.820)). Closed orbits for irrotational waves with an opposing current and stagnation points for rotational waves were some of the issues addressed. This paper summarizes the numerical strategies adopted for capturing the flow beneath irrotational and rotational water waves. It also presents new preliminary results for particle trajectories, due to irrotational waves, in the presence of a bottom topography.This article is part of the theme issue 'Nonlinear water waves'. © 2017 The Author(s).

  11. Prey capture by freely swimming flagellates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Anders; Dolger, Julia; Nielsen, Lasse Tor; Kiorboe, Thomas

    2017-11-01

    Flagellates are unicellular microswimmers that propel themselves using one or several beating flagella. Here, we explore the dependence of swimming kinematics and prey clearance rate on flagellar arrangement and determine optimal flagellar arrangements and essential trade-offs. To describe near-cell flows around freely swimming flagellates we consider a model in which the cell is represented by a no-slip sphere and each flagellum by a point force. For uniflagellates pulled by a single flagellum the model suggests that a long flagellum favors fast swimming, whereas high clearance rate is favored by a very short flagellum. For biflagellates with both a longitudinal and a transversal flagellum we explore the helical swimming kinematics and the prey capture sites. We compare our predictions with observations of swimming kinematics, prey capture, and flows around common marine flagellates. The Centre for Ocean Life is a VKR Centre of Excellence supported by the Villum Foundation.

  12. Survival Mediated Heavy Element Capture Cross Sections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loveland, Walter; Yao, Larry

    2017-11-01

    Formally, the cross section for producing a heavy evaporation residue, σEVR, in a fusion reaction can be written as where E is the center of mass energy, and T is the probability of the colliding nuclei to overcome the potential barrier in the entrance channel and reach the contact point. PCN is the probability that the projectile-target system will evolve from the contact point to the compound nucleus. Wsur is the probability that the compound nucleus will decay to produce an evaporation residue rather than fissioning. However, one must remember that the Wsur term effectively sets the allowed values of the spin, which in turn, restricts the values of the capture and fusion cross sections. We point out the implications of this fact for capture cross sections for heavy element formation reactions.

  13. Survival Mediated Heavy Element Capture Cross Sections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loveland Walter

    2017-01-01

    where E is the center of mass energy, and T is the probability of the colliding nuclei to overcome the potential barrier in the entrance channel and reach the contact point. PCN is the probability that the projectile-target system will evolve from the contact point to the compound nucleus. Wsur is the probability that the compound nucleus will decay to produce an evaporation residue rather than fissioning. However, one must remember that the Wsur term effectively sets the allowed values of the spin, which in turn, restricts the values of the capture and fusion cross sections. We point out the implications of this fact for capture cross sections for heavy element formation reactions.

  14. Copula Theory and Its Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Jaworski, Piotr; Hardle, Wolfgang Karl; Rychlik, Tomasz

    2010-01-01

    Copulas are mathematical objects that fully capture the dependence structure among random variables and hence offer great flexibility in building multivariate stochastic models. Since their introduction in the early 50's, copulas have gained considerable popularity in several fields of applied mathematics, such as finance, insurance and reliability theory. Today, they represent a well-recognized tool for market and credit models, aggregation of risks, portfolio selection, etc. This book is divided into two main parts: Part I - 'Surveys' contains 11 chapters that provide an up-to-date account o

  15. Parity violation in neutron capture on the proton: Determining the weak pion–nucleon coupling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. de Vries

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the parity-violating analyzing power in neutron capture on the proton at thermal energies in the framework of chiral effective field theory. By combining this analysis with a previous analysis of parity violation in proton–proton scattering, we are able to extract the size of the weak pion–nucleon coupling constant. The uncertainty is significant and dominated by the experimental error which is expected to be reduced soon.

  16. Age-Differential Effects of Job Characteristics on Job Attraction: A Policy-Capturing Study

    OpenAIRE

    Hannes Zacher; Dirkers, Bodil T.; Sabine Korek; Brenda Hughes

    2017-01-01

    Based on an integration of job design and lifespan developmental theories, Truxillo et al. (2012) proposed that job characteristics interact with employee age in predicting important work outcomes. Using an experimental policy-capturing design, we investigated age-differential effects of four core job characteristics (i.e., job autonomy, task variety, task significance, and feedback from the job) on job attraction (i.e., individuals' rating of job attractiveness). Eighty-two employees between...

  17. Capturing whole person care\\ud

    OpenAIRE

    Morris, Andrew; Biggerstaff, Deborah; Lycett, Deborah

    2016-01-01

    Biochemical blood levels are one international renal outcome measure. These quantitative data (such as phosphate levels) reflect, in part, dietary intervention and compliance to medical regimens, for example dialysis prescriptions and phosphate binding medication. The numbers demonstrate intervention efficacy, the cornerstone of evidence-based practice (EBP) (Greenhalgh et al., 2014). However, such data misses opportunities to capture the quality of the whole care provided, something that rea...

  18. Porous Organic Polymers for CO2 Capture

    KAUST Repository

    Teng, Baiyang

    2013-05-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) has long been regarded as the major greenhouse gas, which leads to numerous negative effects on global environment. The capture and separation of CO2 by selective adsorption using porous materials proves to be an effective way to reduce the emission of CO2 to atmosphere. Porous organic polymers (POPs) are promising candidates for this application due to their readily tunable textual properties and surface functionalities. The objective of this thesis work is to develop new POPs with high CO2 adsorption capacities and CO2/N2 selectivities for post-combustion effluent (e.g. flue gas) treatment. We will also exploit the correlation between the CO2 capture performance of POPs and their textual properties/functionalities. Chapters Two focuses on the study of a group of porous phenolic-aldehyde polymers (PPAPs) synthesized by a catalyst-free method, the CO2 capture capacities of these PPAPs exceed 2.0 mmol/g at 298 K and 1 bar, while keeping CO2/N2 selectivity of more than 30 at the same time. Chapter Three reports the gas adsorption results of different hyper-cross-linked polymers (HCPs), which indicate that heterocyclo aromatic monomers can greatly enhance polymers’ CO2/N2 selectivities, and the N-H bond is proved to the active CO2 adsorption center in the N-contained (e.g. pyrrole) HCPs, which possess the highest selectivities of more than 40 at 273 K when compared with other HCPs. Chapter Four emphasizes on the chemical modification of a new designed polymer of intrinsic microporosity (PIM) with high CO2/N2 selectivity (50 at 273 K), whose experimental repeatability and chemical stability prove excellent. In Chapter Five, we demonstrate an improvement of both CO2 capture capacity and CO2/N2 selectivity by doping alkali metal ions into azo-polymers, which leads a promising method to the design of new porous organic polymers.

  19. Spatial scaling of the binocular capture effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghunandan, Avesh; Anderson, Coleman S; Saladin, James J

    2009-03-01

    Binocular "capture" occurs when the perceived visual direction of a monocular stimulus is displaced in the direction of the cyclopean visual direction of nearby binocular targets. This effect increases with the vertical separation of broadband monocular stimuli. The present study investigated whether the "capture" effect exhibits a systematic relationship with the spatial frequency composition of monocular lines and vertical separation. Subjects judged the horizontal misalignment of 66 arc min vertical spatial frequency ribbons that were temporally interleaved with a random dot depth edge (3.2 degrees) for 108 ms. Spatial frequency ribbons were constructed from horizontal cosine gratings windowed by a 4 arc min vertical Gaussian envelope. The bottom half of the depth edge was presented with zero relative disparity, whereas the top half was presented with 10 arc min of crossed or uncrossed relative disparity. Four vertical separations (8, 16, 30, and 60 arc min) and three ribbon spatial frequencies (1, 4, and 8 cpd) were tested. The horizontal ribbon offset corresponding to 50% performance was calculated for each combination of depth condition, ribbon spatial frequency, and vertical separation. The magnitude of the "capture" effect was consistently larger for higher spatial frequency ribbons and decreased with decreasing vertical separation. When vertical separation was expressed as multiples of spatial periods of the respective ribbon spatial frequency, the magnitude of effect was significantly larger for separations greater than about one spatial period. The systematic scaling of the "capture" effect with spatial frequency and vertical separation is strongly suggestive of the operation of multiple spatial scale mechanisms; similar to those advocated for the processing of relative positional acuity with increasing vertical separation of monocular targets.

  20. Mars Atmospheric Capture and Gas Separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muscatello, Anthony; Santiago-Maldonado, Edgardo; Gibson, Tracy; Devor, Robert; Captain, James

    2011-01-01

    The Mars atmospheric capture and gas separation project is selecting, developing, and demonstrating techniques to capture and purify Martian atmospheric gases for their utilization for the production of hydrocarbons, oxygen, and water in ISRU systems. Trace gases will be required to be separated from Martian atmospheric gases to provide pure C02 to processing elements. In addition, other Martian gases, such as nitrogen and argon, occur in concentrations high enough to be useful as buffer gas and should be captured as welL To achieve these goals, highly efficient gas separation processes will be required. These gas separation techniques are also required across various areas within the ISRU project to support various consumable production processes. The development of innovative gas separation techniques will evaluate the current state-of-the-art for the gas separation required, with the objective to demonstrate and develop light-weight, low-power methods for gas separation. Gas separation requirements include, but are not limited to the selective separation of: (1) methane and water from un-reacted carbon oxides (C02- CO) and hydrogen typical of a Sabatier-type process, (2) carbon oxides and water from unreacted hydrogen from a Reverse Water-Gas Shift process, (3) carbon oxides from oxygen from a trash/waste processing reaction, and (4) helium from hydrogen or oxygen from a propellant scavenging process. Potential technologies for the separations include freezers, selective membranes, selective solvents, polymeric sorbents, zeolites, and new technologies. This paper and presentation will summarize the results of an extensive literature review and laboratory evaluations of candidate technologies for the capture and separation of C02 and other relevant gases.

  1. Generalizing Prototype Theory: A Formal Quantum Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aerts, Diederik; Broekaert, Jan; Gabora, Liane; Sozzo, Sandro

    2016-01-01

    Theories of natural language and concepts have been unable to model the flexibility, creativity, context-dependence, and emergence, exhibited by words, concepts and their combinations. The mathematical formalism of quantum theory has instead been successful in capturing these phenomena such as graded membership, situational meaning, composition of categories, and also more complex decision making situations, which cannot be modeled in traditional probabilistic approaches. We show how a formal quantum approach to concepts and their combinations can provide a powerful extension of prototype theory. We explain how prototypes can interfere in conceptual combinations as a consequence of their contextual interactions, and provide an illustration of this using an intuitive wave-like diagram. This quantum-conceptual approach gives new life to original prototype theory, without however making it a privileged concept theory, as we explain at the end of our paper. PMID:27065436

  2. The geometric Hopf invariant and surgery theory

    CERN Document Server

    Crabb, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Written by leading experts in the field, this monograph provides homotopy theoretic foundations for surgery theory on higher-dimensional manifolds. Presenting classical ideas in a modern framework, the authors carefully highlight how their results relate to (and generalize) existing results in the literature. The central result of the book expresses algebraic surgery theory in terms of the geometric Hopf invariant, a construction in stable homotopy theory which captures the double points of immersions. Many illustrative examples and applications of the abstract results are included in the book, making it of wide interest to topologists. Serving as a valuable reference, this work is aimed at graduate students and researchers interested in understanding how the algebraic and geometric topology fit together in the surgery theory of manifolds. It is the only book providing such a wide-ranging historical approach to the Hopf invariant, double points and surgery theory, with many results old and new. .

  3. Generalizing Prototype Theory: A Formal Quantum Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diederik eAerts

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Theories of natural language and concepts have been unable to model the flexibility, creativity, context-dependence, and emergence, exhibited by words, concepts and their combinations. The mathematical formalism of quantum theory has instead been successful in capturing these phenomena such as graded membership, situational meaning, composition of categories, and also more complex decision making situations, which cannot be modeled in traditional probabilistic approaches. We show how a formal quantum approach to concepts and their combinations can provide a powerful extension of prototype theory. We explain how prototypes can interfere in conceptual combinations as a consequence of their contextual interactions, and provide an illustration of this using an intuitive wave-like diagram. This quantum-conceptual approach gives new life to original prototype theory, without however making it a privileged concept theory, as we explain at the end of our paper.

  4. Generalizing Prototype Theory: A Formal Quantum Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aerts, Diederik; Broekaert, Jan; Gabora, Liane; Sozzo, Sandro

    2016-01-01

    Theories of natural language and concepts have been unable to model the flexibility, creativity, context-dependence, and emergence, exhibited by words, concepts and their combinations. The mathematical formalism of quantum theory has instead been successful in capturing these phenomena such as graded membership, situational meaning, composition of categories, and also more complex decision making situations, which cannot be modeled in traditional probabilistic approaches. We show how a formal quantum approach to concepts and their combinations can provide a powerful extension of prototype theory. We explain how prototypes can interfere in conceptual combinations as a consequence of their contextual interactions, and provide an illustration of this using an intuitive wave-like diagram. This quantum-conceptual approach gives new life to original prototype theory, without however making it a privileged concept theory, as we explain at the end of our paper.

  5. Generalized extended Navier-Stokes theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, J. S.; Daivis, Peter J.; Dyre, Jeppe C.

    2013-01-01

    and for molecular fluids with small moment of inertia like chlorine, the theory predicts that the longitudinal and transverse intrinsic angular velocity correlation functions are almost identical, which is also seen in the molecular dynamics simulations. However, the theory fails at large wavevector and frequencies......The extended Navier-Stokes theory accounts for the coupling between the translational and rotational molecular degrees of freedom. In this paper, we generalize this theory to non-zero frequencies and wavevectors, which enables a new study of spatio-temporal correlation phenomena present...... in molecular fluids. To discuss these phenomena in detail, molecular dynamics simulations of molecular chlorine are performed for three different state points. In general, the theory captures the behavior for small wavevector and frequencies as expected. For example, in the hydrodynamic regime...

  6. Cutting the cost of carbon capture: a case for carbon capture and utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joos, Lennart; Huck, Johanna M; Van Speybroeck, Veronique; Smit, Berend

    2016-10-20

    A significant part of the cost for carbon capture and storage (CCS) is related to the compression of captured CO 2 to its supercritical state, at 150 bar and typically 99% purity. These stringent conditions may however not always be necessary for specific cases of carbon capture and utilization (CCU). In this manuscript, we investigate how much the parasitic energy of an adsorbent-based carbon capture process may be lowered by utilizing CO 2 at 1 bar and adapting the final purity requirement for CO 2 from 99% to 70% or 50%. We compare different CO 2 sources: the flue gases of coal-fired or natural gas-fired power plants and ambient air. We evaluate the carbon capture performance of over 60 nanoporous materials and determine the influence of the initial and final CO 2 purity on the parasitic energy of the carbon capture process. Moreover, we demonstrate the underlying principles of the parasitic energy minimization in more detail using the commercially available NaX zeolite. Finally, the calculated utilization cost of CO 2 is compared with the reported prices for CO 2 and published costs for CCS.

  7. Material capture by double lunar gravity assist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, D. J.

    1980-01-01

    The equations yielding the performance of a single lunar flyby in removing incoming hyperbolic excess velocity to capture payloads on interplanetary trajectories are briefly derived. The impossibility of using a single lunar flyby to capture a body entering the earth-moon system with a hyperbolic velocity in excess of about 1.9 km/s is discussed, and a method of using a double flyby of the moon to significantly improve this performance is developed. The equations for achieving a double lunar flyby are derived by solving the orbital equations and Lambert's problem both for the incoming trajectory in the plane of the moon's orbit and for arbitrary declination. For the in-plane case it is shown that the maximum removable hyperbolic excess velocity is 2.2687 km/s. For the inclined case, it is shown that the use of a double lunar flyby allows capture for declinations in excess of 54 degrees, and that for declinations less than 38 degrees the double lunar flyby offers better performance than the single lunar flyby.

  8. Tracking Progress in Carbon Capture and Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-09-06

    At the second Clean Energy Ministerial in Abu Dhabi, April 2011 (CEM 2), the Carbon Capture, Use and Storage Action Group (CCUS AG) presented seven substantive recommendations to Energy Ministers on concrete, near-term actions to accelerate global carbon capture and storage (CCS) deployment. Twelve CCUS AG governments agreed to advance progress against the 2011 recommendations by the third Clean Energy Ministerial (London, 25-26 April 2012) (CEM 3). Following CEM 2, the CCUS AG requested the IEA and the Global CCS Institute to report on progress made against the 2011 recommendations at CEM 3. Tracking Progress in Carbon Capture and Storage: International Energy Agency/Global CCS Institute report to the third Clean Energy Ministerial responds to that request. The report considers a number of key questions. Taken as a whole, what advancements have committed CCUS AG governments made against the 2011 recommendations since CEM 2? How can Energy Ministers continue to drive progress to enable CCS to fully contribute to climate change mitigation? While urgent further action is required in all areas, are there particular areas that are currently receiving less policy attention than others, where efforts could be redoubled? The report concludes that, despite developments in some areas, significant further work is required. CCS financing and industrial applications continue to represent a particularly serious challenge.

  9. Metazen – metadata capture for metagenomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background As the impact and prevalence of large-scale metagenomic surveys grow, so does the acute need for more complete and standards compliant metadata. Metadata (data describing data) provides an essential complement to experimental data, helping to answer questions about its source, mode of collection, and reliability. Metadata collection and interpretation have become vital to the genomics and metagenomics communities, but considerable challenges remain, including exchange, curation, and distribution. Currently, tools are available for capturing basic field metadata during sampling, and for storing, updating and viewing it. Unfortunately, these tools are not specifically designed for metagenomic surveys; in particular, they lack the appropriate metadata collection templates, a centralized storage repository, and a unique ID linking system that can be used to easily port complete and compatible metagenomic metadata into widely used assembly and sequence analysis tools. Results Metazen was developed as a comprehensive framework designed to enable metadata capture for metagenomic sequencing projects. Specifically, Metazen provides a rapid, easy-to-use portal to encourage early deposition of project and sample metadata. Conclusions Metazen is an interactive tool that aids users in recording their metadata in a complete and valid format. A defined set of mandatory fields captures vital information, while the option to add fields provides flexibility. PMID:25780508

  10. Radon capture with silver exchanged zeolites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hedstroem, H. [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden). Nuclear Chemistry; Foreman, M.; Ekberg, C. [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden). Nuclear Chemistry; Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden). Industrial Materials Recycling; Ramebaeck, H. [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden). Nuclear Chemistry; Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden). Industrial Materials Recycling; Swedish Defence Research Agency (FOI), Division of CBRN Defence and Security, Umeaa (Sweden)

    2012-07-01

    To enable laboratory work with larger amounts of {sup 226}Ra and its decay products, e.g., {sup 222}Rn and its daughters, these need to be captured in order to avoid unnecessary alpha contamination of the laboratory work space and ventilation systems. In this study, radon gas was pumped through a column filled with the silver exchanged zeolite called 'silver exchanged molecular sieves 13X' (Ag{sub 84}Na{sub 2}[(AlO{sub 2}){sub 86}(SiO{sub 2}){sub 106}].xH{sub 2}O). After exposure to radon, the radioactivity of the zeolite was measured repeatedly using high resolution gamma spectrometry. It was shown that radon was captured and retained in the silver exchanged zeolite. The zeolites' ability to retain radon was decreased by formation of metallic silver, caused by ionizing radiation. However, the zeolite was regenerated by heating and its radon capture ability was restored. The daughters of radon are not in gas phase and will hence stay on the column. (orig.)

  11. The capture and conversion of low grade waste heat in pyrometallurgical operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mucciardi, F.; Razavinia, N. [McGill Univ., Montreal, PQ (Canada). Dept. of Metals and Materials Engineering

    2008-07-01

    Although most metallurgical and chemical processing facilities produce large quantities of low grade, waste heat, little effort has been made to recover some of this energy. This paper reported on a study aimed at increasing the efficiency of energy usage by capturing some of the waste heat in off-gas process streams and then converting this heat to a valuable energy form such as electricity. The paper described several possibilities of how low grade energy could be captured, concentrated and converted to a valuable form such as electricity. Specifically, it discussed the Rankine cycle, the Stirling engine, the Peltier cell, the solar-Stirling engine combination, and the McGill heat pipe-Stirling engine combination. The paper also discussed heat pipe technology with particular reference to heat pipe theory and new developments in heat pipe technology. The redesign of the McGill heat pipe was also presented. The paper described the capture of low grade energy and its conversion with a Stirling engine. An experimental program was also presented which involved the research of the capture and concentration of low grade waste heat in a laboratory simulator to demonstrate and quantify the capture and concentration of low grade waste heat. The paper described the laboratory simulator and the laboratory studies. An alternative to the Stirling engine was provided which involved energy storage of low grade heat from the sun. 16 refs., 11 figs.

  12. Inhibition of Return is no Hallmark of Exogenous Capture by Unconscious Cues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabella eFuchs

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Inhibition of irrelevant information and response tendencies is a central characteristic of conscious control and executive functions. However, recent theories in vision considered Inhibition of Return (IOR: slower responses to attended than unattended positions to be a hallmark of automatic exogenous capture of visual attention by unconscious cues. In the present study, we show that an unconscious cue that exogenously captures attention does not lead to IOR. First of all, subliminal cues with a contrast different from a searched-for target contrast capture attention independently of their match of contrast polarity to the search criteria. This is found with a short cue-target interval (Exp. 1. However, the same cues do not lead to IOR with a long cue-target interval. The lack of IOR is also verified for several intermediate intervals (Exp. 2, for high-contrast cues and low-contrast targets (Exp. 3, and with lower luminance cues presented on a CRT screen (Exp. 4. Finally, no capture effect but IOR is found for consciously perceived anti-predictive cues (Exp. 5. Together the results support the notion of a double dissociation between IOR and exogenous capture and are in line with a decisive role of consciousness for inhibition.

  13. Design of Stratified Functional Nanoporous Materials for CO2 Capture and Conversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, J. Karl [Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Ye, Jingyun [Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2017-10-03

    The objective of this project is to develop novel nanoporous materials for CO2 capture and conversion. The motivation of this work is that capture of CO2 from flue gas or the atmosphere coupled with catalytic hydrogenation of CO2 into valuable chemicals and fuels can reduce the net amount of CO2 in the atmosphere while providing liquid transportation fuels and other commodity chemicals. One approach to increasing the economic viability of carbon capture and conversion is to design a single material that can be used for both the capture and catalytic conversion of CO2, because such a material could increase efficiency through process intensification. We have used density functional theory (DFT) methods to design catalytic moieties that can be incorporated into various metal organic framework (MOF) materials. We chose to work with MOFs because they are highly tailorable, can be functionalized, and have been shown to selectively adsorb CO2 over N2, which is a requirement for CO2 capture from flue gas. Moreover, the incorporation of molecular catalytic moieties into MOF, through covalent bonding, produces a heterogeneous catalytic material having activities and selectivities close to those of homogeneous catalysts, but without the draw-backs associated with homogeneous catalysis.

  14. Theoretical Screening of Mixed Solid Sorbent for Applications to CO{sub 2} Capture Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duan, Yuhua

    2014-03-30

    Since current technologies for capturing CO{sub 2} to fight global climate change are still too energy intensive, there is a critical need for development of new materials that can capture CO{sub 2} reversibly with acceptable energy costs. Accordingly, solid sorbents have been proposed to be used for CO{sub 2} capture applications through a reversible chemical transformation. By combining thermodynamic database mining with first principles density functional theory and phonon lattice dynamics calculations, a theoretical screening methodology to identify the most promising CO{sub 2} sorbent candidates from the vast array of possible solid materials has been proposed and validated. The calculated thermodynamic properties of different classes of solid materials versus temperature and pressure changes were further used to evaluate the equilibrium properties for the CO{sub 2} adsorption/desorption cycles. According to the requirements imposed by the pre- and post- combustion technologies and based on our calculated thermodynamic properties for the CO{sub 2} capture reactions by the solids of interest, we were able to screen only those solid materials for which lower capture energy costs are expected at the desired pressure and temperature conditions. Only those selected CO{sub 2} sorbent candidates were further considered for experimental validations. The ab initio thermodynamic technique has the advantage of identifying thermodynamic properties of CO{sub 2} capture reactions without any experimental input beyond crystallographic structural information of the solid phases involved. Such methodology not only can be used to search for good candidates from existing database of solid materials, but also can provide some guidelines for synthesis new materials. In this presentation, we apply our screening methodology to mixing solid systems to adjust the turnover temperature to help on developing CO{sub 2} capture Technologies.

  15. Supervised accelerometry analysis can identify prey capture by penguins at sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Gemma; Slip, David; Jonsen, Ian; Harcourt, Rob

    2014-12-15

    Determining where, when and how much animals eat is fundamental to understanding their ecology. We developed a technique to identify a prey capture signature for little penguins from accelerometry, in order to quantify food intake remotely. We categorised behaviour of captive penguins from HD video and matched this to time-series data from back-mounted accelerometers. We then trained a support vector machine (SVM) to classify the penguins' behaviour at 0.3 s intervals as either 'prey handling' or 'swimming'. We applied this model to accelerometer data collected from foraging wild penguins to identify prey capture events. We compared prey capture and non-prey capture dives to test the model predictions against foraging theory. The SVM had an accuracy of 84.95±0.26% (mean ± s.e.) and a false positive rate of 9.82±0.24% when tested on unseen captive data. For wild data, we defined three independent, consecutive prey handling observations as representing true prey capture, with a false positive rate of 0.09%. Dives with prey captures had longer duration and bottom times, were deeper, had faster ascent rates, and had more 'wiggles' and 'dashes' (proxies for prey encounter used in other studies). The mean (±s.e.) number of prey captures per foraging trip was 446.6±66.28. By recording the behaviour of captive animals on HD video and using a supervised machine learning approach, we show that accelerometry signatures can classify the behaviour of wild animals at unprecedentedly fine scales. © 2014. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  16. Theoretical Screening of Mixed Solid Sorbent for Applications to CO2 Capture Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duan, Yuhua

    2014-01-01

    Since current technologies for capturing CO2 to fight global climate change are still too energy intensive, there is a critical need for development of new materials that can capture CO2 reversibly with acceptable energy costs. Accordingly, solid sorbents have been proposed to be used for CO2 capture applications through a reversible chemical transformation. By combining thermodynamic database mining with first principles density functional theory and phonon lattice dynamics calculations, a theoretical screening methodology to identify the most promising CO2 sorbent candidates from the vast array of possible solid materials has been proposed and validated. The calculated thermodynamic properties of different classes of solid materials versus temperature and pressure changes were further used to evaluate the equilibrium properties for the CO2 adsorption/desorption cycles. According to the requirements imposed by the pre- and post- combustion technologies and based on our calculated thermodynamic properties for the CO2 capture reactions by the solids of interest, we were able to screen only those solid materials for which lower capture energy costs are expected at the desired pressure and temperature conditions. Only those selected CO2 sorbent candidates were further considered for experimental validations. The ab initio thermodynamic technique has the advantage of identifying thermodynamic properties of CO2 capture reactions without any experimental input beyond crystallographic structural information of the solid phases involved. Such methodology not only can be used to search for good candidates from existing database of solid materials, but also can provide some guidelines for synthesis new materials. In this presentation, we apply our screening methodology to mixing solid systems to adjust the turnover temperature to help on developing CO2 capture Technologies.

  17. Theoretical calculating the thermodynamic properties of solid sorbents for CO{sub 2} capture applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duan, Yuhua

    2012-11-02

    Since current technologies for capturing CO{sub 2} to fight global climate change are still too energy intensive, there is a critical need for development of new materials that can capture CO{sub 2} reversibly with acceptable energy costs. Accordingly, solid sorbents have been proposed to be used for CO{sub 2} capture applications through a reversible chemical transformation. By combining thermodynamic database mining with first principles density functional theory and phonon lattice dynamics calculations, a theoretical screening methodology to identify the most promising CO{sub 2} sorbent candidates from the vast array of possible solid materials has been proposed and validated. The calculated thermodynamic properties of different classes of solid materials versus temperature and pressure changes were further used to evaluate the equilibrium properties for the CO{sub 2} adsorption/desorption cycles. According to the requirements imposed by the pre- and post- combustion technologies and based on our calculated thermodynamic properties for the CO{sub 2} capture reactions by the solids of interest, we were able to screen only those solid materials for which lower capture energy costs are expected at the desired pressure and temperature conditions. Only those selected CO{sub 2} sorbent candidates were further considered for experimental validations. The ab initio thermodynamic technique has the advantage of identifying thermodynamic properties of CO{sub 2} capture reactions without any experimental input beyond crystallographic structural information of the solid phases involved. Such methodology not only can be used to search for good candidates from existing database of solid materials, but also can provide some guidelines for synthesis new materials. In this presentation, we first introduce our screening methodology and the results on a testing set of solids with known thermodynamic properties to validate our methodology. Then, by applying our computational method

  18. Graph theory

    CERN Document Server

    Merris, Russell

    2001-01-01

    A lively invitation to the flavor, elegance, and power of graph theoryThis mathematically rigorous introduction is tempered and enlivened by numerous illustrations, revealing examples, seductive applications, and historical references. An award-winning teacher, Russ Merris has crafted a book designed to attract and engage through its spirited exposition, a rich assortment of well-chosen exercises, and a selection of topics that emphasizes the kinds of things that can be manipulated, counted, and pictured. Intended neither to be a comprehensive overview nor an encyclopedic reference, th

  19. Graph theory

    CERN Document Server

    Diestel, Reinhard

    2012-01-01

    HauptbeschreibungThis standard textbook of modern graph theory, now in its fourth edition, combinesthe authority of a classic with the engaging freshness of style that is the hallmarkof active mathematics. It covers the core material of the subject with concise yetreliably complete proofs, while offering glimpses of more advanced methodsin each field by one or two deeper results, again with proofs given in full detail.The book can be used as a reliable text for an introductory course, as a graduatetext, and for self-study. Rezension"Deep, clear, wonderful. This is a serious book about the

  20. Function theory

    CERN Document Server

    Sawyer, Eric T

    2009-01-01

    These lecture notes take the reader from Lennart Carleson's first deep results on interpolation and corona problems in the unit disk to modern analogues in the disk and ball. The emphasis is on introducing the diverse array of techniques needed to attack these problems rather than producing an encyclopedic summary of achievements. Techniques from classical analysis and operator theory include duality, Blaschke product constructions, purely Hilbert space arguments, bounded mean oscillation, best approximation, boundedness of the Beurling transform, estimates on solutions to the \\bar\\partial equ

  1. Residuation theory

    CERN Document Server

    Blyth, T S; Sneddon, I N; Stark, M

    1972-01-01

    Residuation Theory aims to contribute to literature in the field of ordered algebraic structures, especially on the subject of residual mappings. The book is divided into three chapters. Chapter 1 focuses on ordered sets; directed sets; semilattices; lattices; and complete lattices. Chapter 2 tackles Baer rings; Baer semigroups; Foulis semigroups; residual mappings; the notion of involution; and Boolean algebras. Chapter 3 covers residuated groupoids and semigroups; group homomorphic and isotone homomorphic Boolean images of ordered semigroups; Dubreil-Jacotin and Brouwer semigroups; and loli

  2. Practical theories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Klaus Bruhn

    2016-01-01

    This article revisits the place of normative and other practical issues in the wider conceptual architecture of communication theory, building on the tradition of philosophical pragmatism. The article first characterizes everyday concepts of communication as the accumulated outcome of natural...... evolution and history: practical resources for human existence and social coexistence. Such practical concepts have served as the point of departure for diverse theoretical conceptions of what communication is. The second part of the article highlights the past neglect and current potential of normative...

  3. Biocultural Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carroll, Joseph; Clasen, Mathias; Jonsson, Emelie

    2017-01-01

    of research as contributions to a coherent, collective research program. This article argues that a mature biocultural paradigm needs to be informed by at least 7 major research clusters: (a) gene-culture coevolution; (b) human life history theory; (c) evolutionary social psychology; (d) anthropological...... research on contemporary hunter-gatherers; (e) biocultural socioeconomic and political history; (f) evolutionary aesthetics; and (g) biocultural research in the humanities (religions, ideologies, the history of ideas, and the arts). This article explains the way these research clusters are integrated...

  4. Design theory

    CERN Document Server

    2009-01-01

    This book deals with the basic subjects of design theory. It begins with balanced incomplete block designs, various constructions of which are described in ample detail. In particular, finite projective and affine planes, difference sets and Hadamard matrices, as tools to construct balanced incomplete block designs, are included. Orthogonal latin squares are also treated in detail. Zhu's simpler proof of the falsity of Euler's conjecture is included. The construction of some classes of balanced incomplete block designs, such as Steiner triple systems and Kirkman triple systems, are also given.

  5. Scattering amplitudes in gauge theories

    CERN Document Server

    Henn, Johannes M

    2014-01-01

    At the fundamental level, the interactions of elementary particles are described by quantum gauge field theory. The quantitative implications of these interactions are captured by scattering amplitudes, traditionally computed using Feynman diagrams. In the past decade tremendous progress has been made in our understanding of and computational abilities with regard to scattering amplitudes in gauge theories, going beyond the traditional textbook approach. These advances build upon on-shell methods that focus on the analytic structure of the amplitudes, as well as on their recently discovered hidden symmetries. In fact, when expressed in suitable variables the amplitudes are much simpler than anticipated and hidden patterns emerge.   These modern methods are of increasing importance in phenomenological applications arising from the need for high-precision predictions for the experiments carried out at the Large Hadron Collider, as well as in foundational mathematical physics studies on the S-matrix in quantum ...

  6. Laser capture microdissection: Arcturus(XT) infrared capture and UV cutting methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Rosa I; Blakely, Steven R; Liotta, Lance A; Espina, Virginia

    2012-01-01

    Laser capture microdissection (LCM) is a technique that allows the precise procurement of enriched cell populations from a heterogeneous tissue under direct microscopic visualization. LCM can be used to harvest the cells of interest directly or can be used to isolate specific cells by ablating the unwanted cells, resulting in histologically enriched cell populations. The fundamental components of laser microdissection technology are (a) visualization of the cells of interest via microscopy, (b) transfer of laser energy to a thermolabile polymer with either the formation of a polymer-cell composite (capture method) or transfer of laser energy via an ultraviolet laser to photovolatize a region of tissue (cutting method), and (c) removal of cells of interest from the heterogeneous tissue section. Laser energy supplied by LCM instruments can be infrared (810 nm) or ultraviolet (355 nm). Infrared lasers melt thermolabile polymers for cell capture, whereas ultraviolet lasers ablate cells for either removal of unwanted cells or excision of a defined area of cells. LCM technology is applicable to an array of applications including mass spectrometry, DNA genotyping and loss-of-heterozygosity analysis, RNA transcript profiling, cDNA library generation, proteomics discovery, and signal kinase pathway profiling. This chapter describes the unique features of the Arcturus(XT) laser capture microdissection instrument, which incorporates both infrared capture and ultraviolet cutting technology in one instrument, using a proteomic downstream assay as a model.

  7. Microspine Gripping Mechanism for Asteroid Capture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merriam, Ezekiel G.; Berg, Andrew B.; Willig, Andrew; Parness, Aaron; Frey, Tim; Howell, Larry L.

    2016-01-01

    This paper details the development and early testing of a compliant suspension for a microspine gripper device for asteroid capture or micro-gravity percussive drilling. The microspine gripper architecture is reviewed, and a proposed microspine suspension design is presented and discussed. Prototyping methods are discussed, as well as testing methods and results. A path forward is identified from the results of the testing completed thus far. Key findings include: the microspine concept has been established as a valid architecture and the compliant suspension exhibits the desired stiffness characteristics for good gripping behavior. These developments will aid in developing the capability to grasp irregularly shaped boulders in micro-gravity.

  8. Wyoming Carbon Capture and Storage Institute

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nealon, Teresa

    2014-06-30

    This report outlines the accomplishments of the Wyoming Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) Technology Institute (WCTI), including creating a website and online course catalog, sponsoring technology transfer workshops, reaching out to interested parties via news briefs and engaging in marketing activities, i.e., advertising and participating in tradeshows. We conclude that the success of WCTI was hampered by the lack of a market. Because there were no supporting financial incentives to store carbon, the private sector had no reason to incur the extra expense of training their staff to implement carbon storage. ii

  9. Neutron capture cross section of $^{93}$Zr

    CERN Multimedia

    We propose to measure the neutron capture cross section of the radioactive isotope $^{93}$Zr. This project aims at the substantial improvement of existing results for applications in nuclear astrophysics and emerging nuclear technologies. In particular, the superior quality of the data that can be obtained at n_TOF will allow on one side a better characterization of s-process nucleosynthesis and on the other side a more accurate material balance in systems for transmutation of nuclear waste, given that this radioactive isotope is widely present in fission products.

  10. Carbon Capture and Storage in the CDM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    This publication assesses the policy questions as highlighted in the relevant COP/MOP 2 decision, particularly leaks (or seepage) and permanence for geological storage, project boundaries and liability issues, and leakage, as well as a few others raised by some Parties. Since any emissions or leaks during the separation, capture and transport phases would occur during the crediting period of the project (and would therefore be accounted for as project emissions), the paper focuses its analyses for leaks and liability on storage, as it is in this part of the CCS process that long-term leaks could occur.

  11. Continuum secondary structure captures protein flexibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anderson, C.A.F.; Palmer, A.G.; Brunak, Søren

    2002-01-01

    with different hydrogen bond thresholds. The final continuous assignment for a single NMR model successfully reflected the structural variations observed between all NMR models in the ensemble. The structural variations between NMR models were verified to correlate with thermal motion; these variations were...... captured by the continuous assignments. Because the continuous assignment reproduces the structural variation between many NMR models from one single model, functionally important variation can be extracted from a single X-ray structure. Thus, continuous assignments of secondary structure may affect future...

  12. Virtual Dance and Motion-Capture

    OpenAIRE

    Marc Boucher

    2011-01-01

    A general view of various ways in which virtual dance can be understood is presented in the first part of this article. It then appraises the uses of the term “virtual” in previous studies of digital dance. A more in-depth view of virtual dance as it relates to motion-capture is offered, and key issues are discussed regarding computer animation, digital imaging, motion signature, virtual reality and interactivity. The paper proposes that some forms of virtual dance be defined in relation to...

  13. Capture of carbon dioxide by hybrid sorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasachar, Srivats

    2014-09-23

    A composition, process and system for capturing carbon dioxide from a combustion gas stream. The composition has a particulate porous support medium that has a high volume of pores, an alkaline component distributed within the pores and on the surface of the support medium, and water adsorbed on the alkaline component, wherein the proportion of water in the composition is between about 5% and about 35% by weight of the composition. The process and system contemplates contacting the sorbent and the flowing gas stream together at a temperature and for a time such that some water remains adsorbed in the alkaline component when the contact of the sorbent with the flowing gas ceases.

  14. Integral photography capture and electronic holography display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichihashi, Yasuyuki; Yamamoto, Kenji

    2014-06-01

    This paper describes electronic holography output of three-dimensional (3D) video with integral photography as input. A real-time 3D image reconstruction system was implemented by using a 4K (3840×2160) resolution IP camera to capture 3D images and converting them to 8K (7680×4320) resolution holograms. Multiple graphics processing units (GPUs) were used to create 8K holograms from 4K IP images. In addition, higher resolution holograms were created to successfully reconstruct live-scene video having a diagonal size of 6 cm using a large electronic holography display.

  15. Neutron Capture Cross Section of 239Pu

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosby, S.; Arnold, C.; Bredeweg, T. A.; Couture, A.; Jandel, M.; O'Donnell, J. M.; Rusev, G.; Ullmann, J. L.; Chyzh, A.; Henderson, R.; Kwan, E.; Wu, C. Y.

    2014-09-01

    The 239Pu(n,γ) cross section has been measured over the energy range 10 eV - 10 keV using the Detector for Advanced Neutron Capture Experiments (DANCE) as part of a campaign to produce precision (n,γ) measurements on 239Pu in the keV region. Fission coincidences were measured with a PPAC and used to characterize the prompt fission γ-ray spectrum in this region. The resulting spectra will be used to better characterize the fission component of another experiment with a thicker target to extend the (n,γ) cross section measurement well into the keV region.

  16. Control theory

    CERN Document Server

    Simrock, S

    2008-01-01

    In engineering and mathematics, control theory deals with the behaviour of dynamical systems. The desired output of a system is called the reference. When one or more output variables of a system need to follow a certain reference over time, a controller manipulates the inputs to a system to obtain the desired effect on the output of the system. Rapid advances in digital system technology have radically altered the control design options. It has become routinely practicable to design very complicated digital controllers and to carry out the extensive calculations required for their design. These advances in implementation and design capability can be obtained at low cost because of the widespread availability of inexpensive and powerful digital processing platforms and high-speed analog IO devices.

  17. Hybridization capture using short PCR products enriches small genomes by capturing flanking sequences (CapFlank.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyriakos Tsangaras

    Full Text Available Solution hybridization capture methods utilize biotinylated oligonucleotides as baits to enrich homologous sequences from next generation sequencing (NGS libraries. Coupled with NGS, the method generates kilo to gigabases of high confidence consensus targeted sequence. However, in many experiments, a non-negligible fraction of the resulting sequence reads are not homologous to the bait. We demonstrate that during capture, the bait-hybridized library molecules add additional flanking library sequences iteratively, such that baits limited to targeting relatively short regions (e.g. few hundred nucleotides can result in enrichment across entire mitochondrial and bacterial genomes. Our findings suggest that some of the off-target sequences derived in capture experiments are non-randomly enriched, and that CapFlank will facilitate targeted enrichment of large contiguous sequences with minimal prior target sequence information.

  18. Population of metastable ionic states in electron-capture collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seim, W.; Mueller, A.; Salzborn, E.

    1981-07-01

    The population of metastable states of singly and doubly charged rare-gas ions created by electron capture in keV ion-atom collisions is investigated by means of a subsequent electron stripping or capture collision.

  19. Fishes’ composition and captured yield in Sentani Lake Papua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHAIRULWAN UMAR

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Sentani lake is known as lake in Papua where biodiversity of fish is high and captured fisheries activities is dominantly found. The aim of this research was to know the fishes’ composition and captured yield in Sentani lake. This research was done in 2005 by using stratified sampling method which covered 7 (seven research stations. Data of fishes’ composition and captured yield were obtain from fishers’ captured and from experimental captured. The captured fish and relative abundance are 16 species. Captured yield in period of Mei – December 2005 was fluctuative (130.860 – 182.144 kg. The average was 151.960 kg. Total production a year was around 1.823, 52 ton/year in which fishers’ captured yield was around 4.2 – 5.6 kg/day with the average 4.7 kg/day.

  20. Evaluation of a Gait Assessment Module Using 3D Motion Capture Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baskwill, Amanda J; Belli, Patricia; Kelleher, Leila

    2017-03-01

    Gait analysis is the study of human locomotion. In massage therapy, this observation is part of an assessment process that informs treatment planning. Massage therapy students must apply the theory of gait assessment to simulated patients. At Humber College, the gait assessment module traditionally consists of a textbook reading and a three-hour, in-class session in which students perform gait assessment on each other. In 2015, Humber College acquired a three-dimensional motion capture system. The purpose was to evaluate the use of 3D motion capture in a gait assessment module compared to the traditional gait assessment module. Semester 2 massage therapy students who were enrolled in Massage Theory 2 (n = 38). Quasi-experimental, wait-list comparison study. The intervention group participated in an in-class session with a Qualisys motion capture system. The outcomes included knowledge and application of gait assessment theory as measured by quizzes, and students' satisfaction as measured through a questionnaire. There were no statistically significant differences in baseline and post-module knowledge between both groups (pre-module: p = .46; post-module: p = .63). There was also no difference between groups on the final application question ( p = .13). The intervention group enjoyed the in-class session because they could visualize the content, whereas the comparison group enjoyed the interactivity of the session. The intervention group recommended adding the assessment of gait on their classmates to their experience. Both groups noted more time was needed for the gait assessment module. Based on the results of this study, it is recommended that the gait assessment module combine both the traditional in-class session and the 3D motion capture system.

  1. Atmospheric Capture On Mars (and Processing)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muscatello, Tony

    2017-01-01

    The ultimate destination of NASA's human exploration program is Mars. In Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) is a key technology required to enable such missions, as first proposed by Prof. Robert Ash in 1976. This presentation will review progress in the systems required to produce rocket propellant, oxygen, and other consumables on Mars using the carbon dioxide atmosphere and other potential resources. For many years, NASA, commercial companies, and academia have been developing, and demonstrating techniques to capture and purify Martian atmospheric gases for their utilization for the production of hydrocarbons, oxygen, and water in ISRU systems. Other gases will be required to be separated from Martian atmospheric gases to provide pure CO2 for processing elements. Significant progress has been demonstrated in CO2 collection via adsorption by molecular sieves, freezing, and direct compression. Early stage work in adsorption in Ionic Liquids followed by electrolysis to oxygen is also underway. In addition, other Martian gases, such as nitrogen and argon, occur in concentrations high enough to be useful as buffer gas and could be captured as well. Gas separation requirements include, but are not limited to the selective separation of: (1) methane and water from unreacted carbon oxides (CO2-CO) and hydrogen typical of a Sabatier-type process, (2) carbon oxides and water from unreacted hydrogen from a Reverse Water-Gas Shift process, and (3) carbon oxides from oxygen from a trash/waste processing reaction.

  2. Capturing a Commander's decision making style

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Eugene; Nguyen, Hien; Russell, Jacob; Kim, Keumjoo; Veenhuis, Luke; Boparai, Ramnjit; Stautland, Thomas Kristoffer

    2017-05-01

    A Commander's decision making style represents how he weighs his choices and evaluates possible solutions with regards to his goals. Specifically, in the naval warfare domain, it relates the way he processes a large amount of information in dynamic, uncertain environments, allocates resources, and chooses appropriate actions to pursue. In this paper, we describe an approach to capture a Commander's decision style by creating a cognitive model that captures his decisionmaking process and evaluate this model using a set of scenarios using an online naval warfare simulation game. In this model, we use the Commander's past behaviors and generalize Commander's actions across multiple problems and multiple decision making sequences in order to recommend actions to a Commander in a manner that he may have taken. Our approach builds upon the Double Transition Model to represent the Commander's focus and beliefs to estimate his cognitive state. Each cognitive state reflects a stage in a Commander's decision making process, each action reflects the tasks that he has taken to move himself closer to a final decision, and the reward reflects how close he is to achieving his goal. We then use inverse reinforcement learning to compute a reward for each of the Commander's actions. These rewards and cognitive states are used to compare between different styles of decision making. We construct a set of scenarios in the game where rational, intuitive and spontaneous decision making styles will be evaluated.

  3. Causal capture effects in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuno, Toyomi; Tomonaga, Masaki

    2017-01-01

    Extracting a cause-and-effect structure from the physical world is an important demand for animals living in dynamically changing environments. Human perceptual and cognitive mechanisms are known to be sensitive and tuned to detect and interpret such causal structures. In contrast to rigorous investigations of human causal perception, the phylogenetic roots of this perception are not well understood. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the susceptibility of nonhuman animals to mechanical causality by testing whether chimpanzees perceived an illusion called causal capture (Scholl & Nakayama, 2002). Causal capture is a phenomenon in which a type of bistable visual motion of objects is perceived as causal collision due to a bias from a co-occurring causal event. In our experiments, we assessed the susceptibility of perception of a bistable stream/bounce motion event to a co-occurring causal event in chimpanzees. The results show that, similar to in humans, causal "bounce" percepts were significantly increased in chimpanzees with the addition of a task-irrelevant causal bounce event that was synchronously presented. These outcomes suggest that the perceptual mechanisms behind the visual interpretation of causal structures in the environment are evolutionarily shared between human and nonhuman animals. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Inertial Motion Capture Costume Design Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szczęsna, Agnieszka; Skurowski, Przemysław; Lach, Ewa; Pruszowski, Przemysław; Pęszor, Damian; Paszkuta, Marcin; Słupik, Janusz; Lebek, Kamil; Janiak, Mateusz; Polański, Andrzej; Wojciechowski, Konrad

    2017-03-17

    The paper describes a scalable, wearable multi-sensor system for motion capture based on inertial measurement units (IMUs). Such a unit is composed of accelerometer, gyroscope and magnetometer. The final quality of an obtained motion arises from all the individual parts of the described system. The proposed system is a sequence of the following stages: sensor data acquisition, sensor orientation estimation, system calibration, pose estimation and data visualisation. The construction of the system's architecture with the dataflow programming paradigm makes it easy to add, remove and replace the data processing steps. The modular architecture of the system allows an effortless introduction of a new sensor orientation estimation algorithms. The original contribution of the paper is the design study of the individual components used in the motion capture system. The two key steps of the system design are explored in this paper: the evaluation of sensors and algorithms for the orientation estimation. The three chosen algorithms have been implemented and investigated as part of the experiment. Due to the fact that the selection of the sensor has a significant impact on the final result, the sensor evaluation process is also explained and tested. The experimental results confirmed that the choice of sensor and orientation estimation algorithm affect the quality of the final results.

  5. Inertial Motion Capture Costume Design Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Szczęsna

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes a scalable, wearable multi-sensor system for motion capture based on inertial measurement units (IMUs. Such a unit is composed of accelerometer, gyroscope and magnetometer. The final quality of an obtained motion arises from all the individual parts of the described system. The proposed system is a sequence of the following stages: sensor data acquisition, sensor orientation estimation, system calibration, pose estimation and data visualisation. The construction of the system’s architecture with the dataflow programming paradigm makes it easy to add, remove and replace the data processing steps. The modular architecture of the system allows an effortless introduction of a new sensor orientation estimation algorithms. The original contribution of the paper is the design study of the individual components used in the motion capture system. The two key steps of the system design are explored in this paper: the evaluation of sensors and algorithms for the orientation estimation. The three chosen algorithms have been implemented and investigated as part of the experiment. Due to the fact that the selection of the sensor has a significant impact on the final result, the sensor evaluation process is also explained and tested. The experimental results confirmed that the choice of sensor and orientation estimation algorithm affect the quality of the final results.

  6. CO2 capture in different carbon materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez, Vicente; Ramírez-Lucas, Ana; Díaz, José Antonio; Sánchez, Paula; Romero, Amaya

    2012-07-03

    In this work, the CO(2) capture capacity of different types of carbon nanofibers (platelet, fishbone, and ribbon) and amorphous carbon have been measured at 26 °C as at different pressures. The results showed that the more graphitic carbon materials adsorbed less CO(2) than more amorphous materials. Then, the aim was to improve the CO(2) adsorption capacity of the carbon materials by increasing the porosity during the chemical activation process. After chemical activation process, the amorphous carbon and platelet CNFs increased the CO(2) adsorption capacity 1.6 times, whereas fishbone and ribbon CNFs increased their CO(2) adsorption capacity 1.1 and 8.2 times, respectively. This increase of CO(2) adsorption capacity after chemical activation was due to an increase of BET surface area and pore volume in all carbon materials. Finally, the CO(2) adsorption isotherms showed that activated amorphous carbon exhibited the best CO(2) capture capacity with 72.0 wt % of CO(2) at 26 °C and 8 bar.

  7. Electron Capture Supernovae from Close Binary Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poelarends, Arend J. T.; Wurtz, Scott; Tarka, James; Cole Adams, L.; Hills, Spencer T.

    2017-12-01

    We present the first detailed study of the Electron Capture Supernova Channel (ECSN Channel) for a primary star in a close binary star system. Progenitors of ECSN occupy the lower end of the mass spectrum of supernova progenitors and are thought to form the transition between white dwarf progenitors and core-collapse progenitors. The mass range for ECSN from close binary systems is thought to be wider than the range for single stars, because of the effects of mass transfer on the helium core. Using the MESA stellar evolution code, we explored the parameter space of initial primary masses between 8 and 17 {M}⊙ , using a large grid of models. We find that the initial primary mass and the mass transfer evolution are important factors in the final fate of stars in this mass range. Mass transfer due to Roche lobe overflow during and after carbon burning causes the core to cool down so that it avoids neon ignition, even in helium-free cores with masses up to 1.52 {M}⊙ , which in single stars would ignite neon. If the core is able to contract to high enough densities for electron captures to commence, we find that, for the adopted Ledoux convection criterion, the initial mass range for the primary to evolve into an ECSN is between 13.5 and 17.6 {M}⊙ . The mass ratio, initial period, and mass-loss efficiency only marginally affect the predicted ranges.

  8. Capturing the semiotic relationship between terms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hargood, Charlie; Millard, David E.; Weal, Mark J.

    2010-04-01

    Tags describing objects on the web are often treated as facts about a resource, whereas it is quite possible that they represent more subjective observations. Existing methods of term expansion expand terms based on dictionary definitions or statistical information on term occurrence. Here we propose the use of a thematic model for term expansion based on semiotic relationships between terms; this has been shown to improve a system's thematic understanding of content and tags and to tease out the more subjective implications of those tags. Such a system relies on a thematic model that must be made by hand. In this article, we explore a method to capture a semiotic understanding of particular terms using a rule-based guide to authoring a thematic model. Experimentation shows that it is possible to capture valid definitions that can be used for semiotic term expansion but that the guide itself may not be sufficient to support this on a large scale. We argue that whilst the formation of super definitions will mitigate some of these problems, the development of an authoring support tool may be necessary to solve others.

  9. An optoelectronic based approach for handwriting capture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ancillao, Andrea; Galli, Manuela; Vimercati, Sara Laura; Albertini, Giorgio

    2013-08-01

    Clinical practice for the evaluation of motor and cognitive capabilities often relies upon writing and drawing tests. A non-invasive method to capture handwriting and analyze data is therefore needed. In this work a method to capture motion of a pen through a mo-cap optoelectronic system was developed, which could solve the limits of systems based on graphic tablets. Four IR passive markers were placed on a pen cap. Once a pen was equipped with the cap, track of tip was computed through a numeric algorithm using the 3D coordinates of markers provided by the optoelectronic system. Some tests were performed to estimate the error in track reconstruction and to compare the new protocol with previous reconstruction methods. The results showed a higher accuracy of the new method. The new protocol also overcomes the problems related to pen grasping and marker covering that affected other methods described in the literature and permits the evaluation of writing and drawing kinematics as well as postural behaviour related to them. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Calculation of fractional electron capture probabilities

    CERN Document Server

    Schoenfeld, E

    1998-01-01

    A 'Table of Radionuclides' is being prepared which will supersede the 'Table de Radionucleides' formerly issued by the LMRI/LPRI (France). In this effort it is desirable to have a uniform basis for calculating theoretical values of fractional electron capture probabilities. A table has been compiled which allows one to calculate conveniently and quickly the fractional probabilities P sub K , P sub L , P sub M , P sub N and P sub O , their ratios and the assigned uncertainties for allowed and non-unique first forbidden electron capture transitions of known transition energy for radionuclides with atomic numbers from Z=3 to 102. These results have been applied to a total of 28 transitions of 14 radionuclides ( sup 7 Be, sup 2 sup 2 Na, sup 5 sup 1 Cr, sup 5 sup 4 Mn, sup 5 sup 5 Fe, sup 6 sup 8 Ge , sup 6 sup 8 Ga, sup 7 sup 5 Se, sup 1 sup 0 sup 9 Cd, sup 1 sup 2 sup 5 I, sup 1 sup 3 sup 9 Ce, sup 1 sup 6 sup 9 Yb, sup 1 sup 9 sup 7 Hg, sup 2 sup 0 sup 2 Tl). The values are in reasonable agreement with measure...

  11. Comparison of Ring-Buffer-Based Packet Capture Solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barker, Steven Andrew [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-10-01

    Traditional packet-capture solutions using commodity hardware incur a large amount of overhead as packets are copied multiple times by the operating system. This overhead slows sensor systems to a point where they are unable to keep up with high bandwidth traffic, resulting in dropped packets. Incomplete packet capture files hinder network monitoring and incident response efforts. While costly commercial hardware exists to capture high bandwidth traffic, several software-based approaches exist to improve packet capture performance using commodity hardware.

  12. Disagreement between capture probabilities extracted from capture and quasi-elastic backscattering excitation functions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sargsyan, V.V. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation); Yerevan State University, Yerevan (Armenia); Adamian, G.G.; Antonenko, N.V. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation); Gomes, R.P.S. [Universidade Federal Fluminense, Instituto de Fisica, Niteroi, R.J. (Brazil)

    2014-12-01

    Experimental quasi-elastic backscattering and capture (fusion) excitation functions are usually used to extract the s -wave capture probabilities for the heavy-ion reactions. We investigated the {sup 16}O + {sup 120}Sn, {sup 144}Sm, {sup 208}Pb systems at energies near and below the corresponding interaction barriers and concluded that the probabilities extracted from quasi-elastic data are much larger than the ones extracted from fusion excitation functions at sub and deep-sub barrier energies. This seems to be a reasonable explanation for the known disagreement observed in the literature for the nuclear potential diffuseness derived from both methods. (orig.)

  13. Review of Hydroelasticity Theories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Xu-jun; Wu, You-sheng; Cui, Wei-cheng

    2006-01-01

    Existing hydroelastic theories are reviewed. The theories are classified into different types: two-dimensional linear theory, two-dimensional nonlinear theory, three-dimensional linear theory and three-dimensional nonlinear theory. Applications to analysis of very large floating structures (VLFS...

  14. General Theories of Regulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hertog, J.A. den

    1999-01-01

    This chapter makes a distinction between three types of theories of regulation: public interest theories, the Chicago theory of regulation and the public choice theories. The Chicago theory is mainly directed at the explanation of economic regulation; public interest theories and public choice

  15. Theory of wind accretion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shakura N.I.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A review of wind accretion in high-mass X-ray binaries is presented. We focus attention to different regimes of quasi-spherical accretion onto the neutron star: the supersonic (Bondi accretion, which takes place when the captured matter cools down rapidly and falls supersonically toward NS magnetospghere, and subsonic (settling accretion which occurs when plasma remains hot until it meets the magnetospheric boundary. Two regimes of accretion are separated by an X-ray luminosity of about 4 × 1036 erg/s. In the subsonic case, which sets in at low luminosities, a hot quasi-spherical shell must be formed around the magnetosphere, and the actual accretion rate onto NS is determined by ability of the plasma to enter the magnetosphere due to Rayleigh-Taylor instability. We calculate the rate of plasma entry the magnetopshere and the angular momentum transfer in the shell due to turbulent viscosity appearing in the convective differentially rotating shell. We also discuss and calculate the structure of the magnetospheric boundary layer where the angular momentum between the rotating magnetosphere and the base of the differentially rotating quasi-spherical shell takes place. We show how observations of equilibrium X-ray pulsars Vela X-1 and GX 301-2 can be used to estimate dimensionless parameters of the subsonic settling accretion theory, and obtain the width of the magnetospheric boundary layer for these pulsars.

  16. Automated Patient Facial Image Capture to Reduce Medical Error

    OpenAIRE

    Gillam, Michael; Feied, Craig; Birchfield, Stan; Handler, Jonathan; Smith, Mark

    2006-01-01

    The authors describe their experiences creating technology to automatically capture facial images from patients during triage and registration for integration into the electronic medical record (EMR) to reduce data retrieval and data entry errors. The prototype system was tested across a variety of ethnicities with facial images captured successfully in 100% of cases with a median time to capture of 0.75 seconds.

  17. Is string theory a theory of strings?

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, Clifford V.; Kaloper, Nemanja; Khuri, Ramzi R.; Myers, Robert C.

    1995-01-01

    Recently a great deal of evidence has been found indicating that type IIA string theory compactified on K3 is equivalent to heterotic string theory compactified on T^4. Under the transformation which relates the two theories, the roles of fundamental and solitonic string solutions are interchanged. In this letter we show that there exists a solitonic membrane solution of the heterotic string theory which becomes a singular solution of the type IIA theory, and should therefore be interpreted a...

  18. Can we "apply" the findings of Forster and Lavie (2008)? On the generalizability of attentional capture effects under varying levels of perceptual load.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lleras, Alejandro; Chu, Hengqing; Buetti, Simona

    2017-06-01

    Perceptual Load theory states that the degree of perceptual load on a display determines the amount of leftover attentional resources that the system can use to process distracting information. An important corollary of this theory is that the amount of perceptual load determines the vulnerability of the attention system to being captured by completely irrelevant stimuli, predicting larger amounts of capture with low perceptual load than with high perceptual load. This prediction was first confirmed by Forster and Lavie (2008). Here, we report 6 experiments that followed up on those earlier results, where we find that in many cases, the opposite pattern is obtained: attentional capture increased with increasing perceptual load. Given the lack of generalizability of the theory to new experimental contexts with fairly minor methodological differences, we conclude that Perceptual Load may not be a useful framework for understanding attentional capture. The theoretical and applied importance of these findings is discussed. In particular, we caution against using this theory in applied tasks and settings because best-use recommendations stemming from this theory regarding strategies to decrease distractibility may in fact produce the opposite effect: an increase in distractibility (with distractibility being indexed by the magnitude of the capture effect). (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. Tautological relations in Hodge field theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Losev, A. [Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Bolshaya Cheremushkinskaya 25, Moscow 117218 (Russian Federation)], E-mail: losev@itep.ru; Shadrin, S. [Department of Mathematics, University of Zurich, Winterthurerstrasse 190, CH-8057 Zurich (Switzerland)], E-mail: sergey.shadrin@math.unizh.ch; Shneiberg, I. [Department of Algebra, Faculty of Mechanics and Mathematics, Moscow State University, Leninskie Gory, GSP, Moscow 119899 (Russian Federation)], E-mail: shneiberg@mtu-net.ru

    2007-12-17

    We propose a Hodge field theory construction that captures algebraic properties of the reduction of Zwiebach invariants to Gromov-Witten invariants. It generalizes the Barannikov-Kontsevich construction to the case of higher genera correlators with gravitational descendants. We prove the main theorem stating that algebraically defined Hodge field theory correlators satisfy all tautological relations. From this perspective the statement that Barannikov-Kontsevich construction provides a solution of the WDVV equation looks as the simplest particular case of our theorem. Also it generalizes the particular cases of other low-genera tautological relations proven in our earlier works; we replace the old technical proofs by a novel conceptual proof.

  20. Automatic capture of attention by conceptually generated working memory templates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Sol Z; Shen, Jenny; Shaw, Mark; Cant, Jonathan S; Ferber, Susanne

    2015-08-01

    Many theories of attention propose that the contents of working memory (WM) can act as an attentional template, which biases processing in favor of perceptually similar inputs. While support has been found for this claim, it is unclear how attentional templates are generated when searching real-world environments. We hypothesized that in naturalistic settings, attentional templates are commonly generated from conceptual knowledge, an idea consistent with sensorimotor models of knowledge representation. Participants performed a visual search task in the delay period of a WM task, where the item in memory was either a colored disk or a word associated with a color concept (e.g., "Rose," associated with red). During search, we manipulated whether a singleton distractor in the array matched the contents of WM. Overall, we found that search times were impaired in the presence of a memory-matching distractor. Furthermore, the degree of impairment did not differ based on the contents of WM. Put differently, regardless of whether participants were maintaining a perceptually colored disk identical to the singleton distractor, or whether they were simply maintaining a word associated with the color of the distractor, the magnitude of attentional capture was the same. Our results suggest that attentional templates can be generated from conceptual knowledge, in the physical absence of the visual feature.

  1. Capturing tensile size-dependency in polymer nanofiber elasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Bo; Wang, Jun; Han, Ray P S

    2015-02-01

    As the name implies, tensile size-dependency refers to the size-dependent response under uniaxial tension. It defers markedly from bending size-dependency in terms of onset and magnitude of the size-dependent response; the former begins earlier but rises to a smaller value than the latter. Experimentally, tensile size-dependent behavior is much harder to capture than its bending counterpart. This is also true in the computational effort; bending size-dependency models are more prevalent and well-developed. Indeed, many have questioned the existence of tensile size-dependency. However, recent experiments seem to support the existence of this phenomenon. Current strain gradient elasticity theories can accurately predict bending size-dependency but are unable to track tensile size-dependency. To rectify this deficiency a higher-order strain gradient elasticity model is constructed by including the second gradient of the strain into the deformation energy. Tensile experiments involving 10 wt% polycaprolactone nanofibers are performed to calibrate and verify our model. The results reveal that for the selected nanofibers, their size-dependency begins when their diameters reduce to 600 nm and below. Further, their characteristic length-scale parameter is found to be 1095.8 nm. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Precise Measurement of Muon Capture on the Proton

    CERN Document Server

    Kammel, P; Balin, D V; Carey, R M; Case, T; Chitwood, D B; Clayton, S M; Crowe, K M; Deutsch, J; Debevec, P T; Dick, P U; Dijksman, A; Egger, J; Fahrni, D; Fetisov, A A; Freedman, S J; Ganzha, V A; Gartner, B; Govaerts, J; Gray, F E; Hartmann, F J; Herold, W D; Hertzog, D W; Jatsoura, V I; Krivshich, A G; Lauss, B; Maev, E M; Maev, O E; Markushin, V E; Onderwater, Gerco; Petitjean, C; Petrov, G E; Polly, C C; Prieels, R; Sadetsky, S M; Schapkin, G N; Schmidt, R; Semenchuk, G G; Soroka, M; Vorobyov, A A; Voropaev, N I

    2002-01-01

    The aim of the MuCap experiment is a 1% measurement of the singlet capture rate Lambda_S for the basic electro-weak reaction mu + p -> n + nu_mu. This observable is sensitive to the weak form-factors of the nucleon, in particular to the induced pseudoscalar coupling constant g_P. It will provide a rigorous test of theoretical predictions based on the Standard Model and effective theories of QCD. The present method is based on high precision lifetime measurements of mu^- in hydrogen gas and the comparison with the free mu^+ lifetime. The mu^- experiment will be performed in ultra-clean, deuterium-depleted H_2 gas at 10 bar. Low density compared to liquid H_2 is chosen to avoid uncertainties due to ppmu formation. A time projection chamber acts as a pure hydrogen active target. It defines the muon stop position in 3-D and detects rare background reactions. Decay electrons are tracked in cylindrical wire-chambers and a scintillator array covering 75% of 4 pi.

  3. Qualitative and Asymptotic Theory of Detonations

    KAUST Repository

    Faria, Luiz

    2014-11-09

    Shock waves in reactive media possess very rich dynamics: from formation of cells in multiple dimensions to oscillating shock fronts in one-dimension. Because of the extreme complexity of the equations of combustion theory, most of the current understanding of unstable detonation waves relies on extensive numerical simulations of the reactive compressible Euler/Navier-Stokes equations. Attempts at a simplified theory have been made in the past, most of which are very successful in describing steady detonation waves. In this work we focus on obtaining simplified theories capable of capturing not only the steady, but also the unsteady behavior of detonation waves. The first part of this thesis is focused on qualitative theories of detonation, where ad hoc models are proposed and analyzed. We show that equations as simple as a forced Burgers equation can capture most of the complex phenomena observed in detonations. In the second part of this thesis we focus on rational theories, and derive a weakly nonlinear model of multi-dimensional detonations. We also show, by analysis and numerical simulations, that the asymptotic equations provide good quantitative predictions.

  4. Client/server approach to image capturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuijn, Chris; Stokes, Earle

    1998-01-01

    The diversity of the digital image capturing devices on the market today is quite astonishing and ranges from low-cost CCD scanners to digital cameras (for both action and stand-still scenes), mid-end CCD scanners for desktop publishing and pre- press applications and high-end CCD flatbed scanners and drum- scanners with photo multiplier technology. Each device and market segment has its own specific needs which explains the diversity of the associated scanner applications. What all those applications have in common is the need to communicate with a particular device to import the digital images; after the import, additional image processing might be needed as well as color management operations. Although the specific requirements for all of these applications might differ considerably, a number of image capturing and color management facilities as well as other services are needed which can be shared. In this paper, we propose a client/server architecture for scanning and image editing applications which can be used as a common component for all these applications. One of the principal components of the scan server is the input capturing module. The specification of the input jobs is based on a generic input device model. Through this model we make abstraction of the specific scanner parameters and define the scan job definitions by a number of absolute parameters. As a result, scan job definitions will be less dependent on a particular scanner and have a more universal meaning. In this context, we also elaborate on the interaction of the generic parameters and the color characterization (i.e., the ICC profile). Other topics that are covered are the scheduling and parallel processing capabilities of the server, the image processing facilities, the interaction with the ICC engine, the communication facilities (both in-memory and over the network) and the different client architectures (stand-alone applications, TWAIN servers, plug-ins, OLE or Apple-event driven

  5. On some Symmetry Axioms in Relativity Theories

    CERN Document Server

    Székely, Gergely

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we review two symmetry axioms of special relativity and their connections to each other together with their role in some famous predictions of relativity theory, such as time dilation, length contraction, and the twin paradox. We also discuss briefly counterparts of these symmetry axioms in general relativity and formulate a conjecture, namely that without them the axioms of general relativity would capture general relativistic spacetimes only up to conformal equivalence.

  6. IDR muon capture front end and variations

    CERN Document Server

    Neuffer, David; Rogers, Christopher; Snopok, Pavel; Yoshikawa, Cary

    2011-01-01

    The (International Design Report) IDR neutrino factory scenario for capture, bunching, phase-energy rotation and initial cooling of micro's produced from a proton source target is explored. It requires a drift section from the target, a bunching section and a -E rotation section leading into the cooling channel. The rf frequency changes along the bunching and rotation transport in order to form the 's into a train of equal-energy bunches suitable for cooling and acceleration. Optimization and variations are discussed. An important concern is rf limitations within the focusing magnetic fields, mitigation procedures are described. The method can be extended to provide muons for a micro+-micro < Collider, variations toward optimizing that extension are discussed.

  7. Materials design for electrocatalytic carbon capture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Tan

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available We discuss our philosophy for implementation of the Materials Genome Initiative through an integrated materials design strategy, exemplified here in the context of electrocatalytic capture and separation of CO2 gas. We identify for a group of 1:1 X–N graphene analogue materials that electro-responsive switchable CO2 binding behavior correlates with a change in the preferred binding site from N to the adjacent X atom as negative charge is introduced into the system. A reconsideration of conductive N-doped graphene yields the discovery that the N-dopant is able to induce electrocatalytic binding of multiple CO2 molecules at the adjacent carbon sites.

  8. Auditory motion capturing ambiguous visual motion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arjen eAlink

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, it is demonstrated that moving sounds have an effect on the direction in which one sees visual stimuli move. During the main experiment sounds were presented consecutively at four speaker locations inducing left- or rightwards auditory apparent motion. On the path of auditory apparent motion, visual apparent motion stimuli were presented with a high degree of directional ambiguity. The main outcome of this experiment is that our participants perceived visual apparent motion stimuli that were ambiguous (equally likely to be perceived as moving left- or rightwards more often as moving in the same direction than in the opposite direction of auditory apparent motion. During the control experiment we replicated this finding and found no effect of sound motion direction on eye movements. This indicates that auditory motion can capture our visual motion percept when visual motion direction is insufficiently determinate without affecting eye movements.

  9. Laser capture microdissection to study flower morphogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawełkowicz, Magdalena Ewa; Skarzyńska, Agnieszka; Kowalczuk, Cezary; PlÄ der, Wojciech; Przybecki, Zbigniew

    2017-08-01

    Laser Capture Microdissection (LCM) is a sample preparation microscopic method that enables isolation of an interesting cell or cells population from human, animal or plant tissue. This technique allows for obtaining pure sample from heterogeneous mixture. From isolated cells, it is possible to obtain the appropriate quality material used for genomic research in transcriptomics, proteomics and metabolomics. We used LCM method to study flower morphogenesis and specific bud's organ organization and development. The genes expression level in developing flower buds of male (B10) and female (2gg) lines were analyzed with qPCR. The expression was checked for stamen and carpel primordia obtained with LCM and for whole flower buds at successive stages of growth.

  10. High performance hydrophobic solvent, carbon dioxide capture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nulwala, Hunaid; Luebke, David

    2017-05-09

    Methods and compositions useful, for example, for physical solvent carbon capture. A method comprising: contacting at least one first composition comprising carbon dioxide with at least one second composition to at least partially dissolve the carbon dioxide of the first composition in the second composition, wherein the second composition comprises at least one siloxane compound which is covalently modified with at least one non-siloxane group comprising at least one heteroatom. Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) materials and ethylene-glycol based materials have high carbon dioxide solubility but suffer from various problems. PDMS is hydrophobic but suffers from low selectivity. Ethylene-glycol based systems have good solubility and selectivity, but suffer from high affinity to water. Solvents were developed which keep the desired combinations of properties, and result in a simplified, overall process for carbon dioxide removal from a mixed gas stream.

  11. Biochemical Capture and Removal of Carbon Dioxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trachtenberg, Michael C.

    1998-01-01

    We devised an enzyme-based facilitated transport membrane bioreactor system to selectively remove carbon dioxide (CO2) from the space station environment. We developed and expressed site-directed enzyme mutants for CO2 capture. Enzyme kinetics showed the mutants to be almost identical to the wild type save at higher pH. Both native enzyme and mutant enzymes were immobilized to different supports including nylons, glasses, sepharose, methacrylate, titanium and nickel. Mutant enzyme could be attached and removed from metal ligand supports and the supports reused at least five times. Membrane systems were constructed to test CO2 selectivity. These included proteic membranes, thin liquid films and enzyme-immobilized teflon membranes. Selectivity ratios of more than 200:1 were obtained for CO2 versus oxygen with CO2 at 0.1%. The data indicate that a membrane based bioreactor can be constructed which could bring CO2 levels close to Earth.

  12. Using Prokaryotes for Carbon Capture Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, Natalie; Vik, Unni; Taylor, Peter; Ladoukakis, Efthymios; Park, Joonsang; Kolisis, Frangiskos; Jakobsen, Kjetill S

    2017-01-01

    Geological storage of CO 2 is a fast-developing technology that can mitigate rising carbon emissions. However, there are environmental concerns with the long-term storage and implications of a leak from a carbon capture storage (CCS) site. Traditional monitoring lacks clear protocols and relies heavily on physical methods. Here, we discuss the potential of biotechnology, focusing on microbes with a natural ability to utilize and assimilate CO 2 through different metabolic pathways. We propose the use of natural microbial communities for CCS monitoring and CO 2 utilization, and, with examples, demonstrate how synthetic biology may maximize CO 2 uptake within and above storage sites. An integrated physical and biological approach, combined with metagenomics data and biotechnological advances, will enhance CO 2 sequestration and prevent large-scale leakages. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Positron source based on neutron capture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hugenschmidt, C.; Kögel, G.; Repper, R.; Schreckenbach, K.; Sperr, P.; Triftshäuser, W.

    2003-10-01

    A positron beam based on absorption of high-energy prompt γ-rays from thermal neutron capture in 113Cd was installed at a neutron guide of the High Flux Reactor at the ILL in Grenoble. The positron source consists of platinum foils acting as γ-e +e --converter and positron moderator. After acceleration to 3 keV by electrical lenses the positrons were magnetically guided through the beamline. Measurements were performed for various source geometries. The beam diameter and moderation characteristics such as positron work function, moderation efficiency and degradation were determined as well. The results lead to an optimised design of the in-pile positron source which will be implemented at the Munich research reactor FRM-II.

  14. The Case for Carbon Capture and Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephens, J.C. [Environmental Science and Policy, Clark University, Worcester, MA (United States); Van der Zwaan, B. [ECN Policy Studies, Petten (Netherlands)

    2005-07-01

    Human activity spills about 25 billion tons of carbon dioxide (CO2) into the atmosphere every year, building up the levels of greenhouse gases that bring us ever closer to dangerous interference with Earth's climate system. The world's forests take up about 2 or 3 billion tons of that output annually, and the ocean absorbs 7 billion tons. Experts estimate that another 5 to 10 billion tons of this greenhouse gas - as much as 40% of human-made CO2 - could be removed from the atmosphere and tucked safely away. Advancing the technologies needed to capture and store CO2 is a sensible strategy. In addition to increasing renewable energy and promoting energy efficiency and conservation, the strategy of advancing CO2 capture and storage (CCS) can be easily understood by all Americans who acknowledge that even though fossil fuels will be needed for a long time to come, the U.S. government at some point must confront the climate change problem by setting limits on CO2 emissions. Capturing and storing CO2 is a cost-competitive and safe way to achieve large-scale reductions in emissions. CCS technology offers a unique opportunity to reconcile limits on CO2 emissions with society's fossil fuel-dominated energy infrastructure. In order to continue using the United States' vast domestic coal resources in a world where CO2 must be constrained, the country will need to rely on technology that can seize CO2 generated from coal-fired power plants and store it in geologic formations underground. However, the integration and scaling up of existing technologies to capture, transport, and store CO2 emitted from a full-scale power plant have not yet been demonstrated. The technical feasibility of integrating a complete CCS system with a commercial-scale power plant is not in doubt, but it is necessary to build up experience by advancing early deployment. In addition to the environmental benefits, more aggressive support of CCS technology is critical to maintaining U

  15. The Moral Capture of "Being Good"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Annemette Leonhardt; Morsing, Mette

    layer of institutional control for identity work that emerges beyond managerial influence, as employees as well as managers are morally inclined to comply with the corporate CSR promise of “being good”. Importantly, our findings show that members comply with the CSR message in four ways that include......This paper reports a study on CSR as a form of control of organizational members’ identity. Prior studies have suggested that managerial CSR policies may have disciplining effects on member identity. We extend this research by suggesting that identity-image dynamics amplify and change such control...... devotion but also suppression of overt forms of critique and resistance. We refer to these four compliance modes as the “moral capture of CSR”. We discuss the implications of compliance to CSR as a form of control of identity work, as we propose that CSR images “captivate” member identity in discursive...

  16. The Chase to Capture Gamma Ray Bursts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehrels, Neil

    2008-01-01

    Gamma-ray bursts are the most powerful explosions in the universe, thought to be the birth cries of black holes. It has taken 40 years of international cooperation and competition to begin to unravel the mystery of their origin. The most recent chapter in this field is being written by the SWIFT mission, a fast-response satellite with 3 power telescopes. An international team from countries all over the world participates in the chase to capture the fading light of bursts detected by SWIFT. This talk will discuss the challenges and excitement of building this space observatory. New results will be presented on our growing understanding of exploding stars and fiery mergers of orbiting stars.

  17. Data Service: Distributed Data Capture and Replication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, P. B.; Pietrowicz, S. R.

    2007-10-01

    Data Service is a critical component of the NOAO Data Management and Science Support (DMaSS) Solutions Platform, which is based on a service-oriented architecture, and is to replace the current NOAO Data Transport System. Its responsibilities include capturing data from NOAO and partner telescopes and instruments and replicating the data across multiple (currently six) storage sites. Java 5 was chosen as the implementation language, and Java EE as the underlying enterprise framework. Application metadata persistence is performed using EJB and Hibernate on the JBoss Application Server, with PostgreSQL as the persistence back-end. Although potentially any underlying mass storage system may be used as the Data Service file persistence technology, DTS deployments and Data Service test deployments currently use the Storage Resource Broker from SDSC. This paper presents an overview and high-level design of the Data Service, including aspects of deployment, e.g., for the LSST Data Challenge at the NCSA computing facilities.

  18. Packet Capture Solutions: PcapDB Benchmark for High-Bandwidth Capture, Storage, and Searching

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinfadt, Shannon Irene [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Ferrell, Paul Steven [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-03-21

    PcapDB stands alone when looking at the overall field of competitors, from the cost-effective COTS hardware, to the efficient utilization of disk space that enables a longer packet history. A scalable, 100GbE-enabled system that indexes every packet and indexes flow data without complicated load-balancing requirements. The Transport Layer search and indexing approach led to patent-pending flow indexing technology, providing a specialized database system specifically optimized around providing fast flow searches. While there are a plethora of options in network packet capture, there are very few that are able to effectively manage capture rates of more than 10 Gb/s, distributed capture and querying, and a responsive user interface. By far, the primary competitor in the market place is Endace and DeepSee; in addition to meeting the technical requirements we set out in this document, they provide technical support and a fully 'appliance like' system. In terms of cost, however, our experience has been that the yearly maintenance charges alone outstrip the entire hardware cost of solutions like PcapDB. Investment in cyber security research and development is a large part of what has enabled us to build the base of knowlegable workers needed to defend government resources in the rapidly evolving cyber security landscape. We believe projects like Bro, WireCap, and Farm do more than just fill temporary gaps in our capabilities. They give allow us to build the firm foundation needed to tackle the next generation of cyber challenges. PcapDB was built with loftier ambitions than simply solving the packet capture of a single lab site, but instead to provide a robust, scaleable packet capture solution to the DOE complex and beyond.

  19. Capture, transport and husbandry of Naucrates ductor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco De Vaissier Ferro Mauricio

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This is a report on the capture, transport, and husbandry of Naucrates ductor, also known as pilot fish. Approximately 100 individuals were collected by Flying Sharks in the sequence of an order from multiple public aquaria. Because there is vely limited knowledge about the capture, husbandry and transport of this species, it became necessary to investigate how to achieve this while causing minimum mortality and ensuring animal welfare. Collection was done in the Azores Islands, approximately 20 nautical miles from Horta, using a standard fishing rod and hook, after attracting blue sharks with bait. The animals were transported to shore inside plastic vats and introduced to large 2,0 m wide holding tanks at the Porto Pim Aquarium, where they were held for 2 months. Multiple treatments for wounds, and parasite control, were used and are reported. Transport to mainland Portugal was done aboard a commercial vessel, inside 2,4 m wide polyethylene vats with mechanical and chemical filtration consisting of cartridge filters and protein skimmers, respectively. Once docked on shore the 40 ft. container was then moved to a truck, where it traveled to Spain and France over 6 days. The total transport time of those animals delivered last was therefore 11 days and no mortalities were sustained in transit. The remaining animals were kept in Peniche for 2 more months inside 2,4 m wide polyethylene vats, with filtration consisting of cartridge and protein skimmers, as well as daily water changes. Multiple challenges faced during the collection, holding and transport processes are presented in this presentation.

  20. Post combustion capture program in Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Brockway; Louis Wibberley [CSIRO Division of Energy Technology, Newcastle, NSW (Australia)

    2006-07-01

    A National Post Combustion Capture (NPCC) Program is being progressed in Australia, with a demonstration sub-program ($64 M) led by industry, and a research sub-program ($20 M) led by CSIRO. The main activity of the demonstration component is to operate a PCC plant at a semicommercial scale of 50,000 tpy at a host power station site, to demonstrate capture, and provide CO{sub 2} for sequestration projects of others. The research component provides a focus for applied research, laboratory and pilot testing of sorbents and technologies, for Australian specific PCC requirements. Testing will include use of a 1000 tpy transportable pilot plant operating on slip streams from operating power plants. For PCC to be implemented in Australia now, plants will require retrofit of deNOx and deSOx equipment, which will reduce the advantages of PCC. This situation requires that new sorbents and new process designs be developed to minimise the effect of NOx and SOx. Without cost effective PCC, in a carbon constrained future, many of the current 40 GW of pf plant could become stranded assets. Many Australian plants are located in areas of high solar insolation, and these could utilise some lower grade heat. PCC is particularly suitable for using solar thermal energy, and new sorbents with lower regeneration temperature (as distinct from regeneration energy) could further improve the cost benefits of this integration. PCC can also provide a means for offsetting peak load, and can therefore assist in the integration of intermittent renewables into the grid. 7 refs., 1 fig.

  1. Nominal effective radiation doses delivered during clinical trials of boron neutron capture therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Capala, J.; Diaz, A.Z.; Chanana, A.D.

    1997-12-31

    Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is a binary system that, in theory, should selectively deliver lethal, high linear energy transfer (LET) radiation to tumor cells dispersed within normal tissues. It is based on the nuclear reaction 10-B(n, {alpha})7-Li, which occurs when the stable nucleus of boron-10 captures a thermal neutron. Due to the relatively high cross-section of the 10-B nucleus for thermal neutron capture and short ranges of the products of this reaction, tumor cells in the volume exposed to thermal neutrons and containing sufficiently high concentration of 10-B would receive a much higher radiation dose than the normal cells contained within the exposed volume. Nevertheless, radiation dose deposited in normal tissue by gamma and fast neutron contamination of the neutron beam, as well as neutron capture in nitrogen, 14-N(n,p)14-C, hydrogen, 1-H(n,{gamma})2-H, and in boron present in blood and normal cells, limits the dose that can be delivered to tumor cells. It is, therefore, imperative for the success of the BNCT the dosed delivered to normal tissues be accurately determined in order to optimize the irradiation geometry and to limit the volume of normal tissue exposed to thermal neutrons. These are the major objectives of BNCT treatment planning.

  2. Thermal neutron capture cross section of gadolinium by pile-oscillation measurements in MINERVE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leconte, P.; Di-Salvo, J.; Antony, M.; Pepino, A. [CEA, DEN, DER, Cadarache, F-13108 Saint-Paul-Lez-Durance (France); Hentati, A. [International School in Nuclear Engineering, Cadarache, F-13108 Saint-Paul-Lez-Durance (France)

    2012-07-01

    Natural gadolinium is used as a burnable poison in most LWR to account for the excess of reactivity of fresh fuels. For an accurate prediction of the cycle length, its nuclear data and especially its neutron capture cross section needs to be known with a high precision. Recent microscopic measurements at Rensselaer Polytechnic Inst. (RPI) suggest a 11% smaller value for the thermal capture cross section of {sup 157}Gd, compared with most of evaluated nuclear data libraries. To solve this inconsistency, we have analyzed several pile-oscillation experiments, performed in the MINERVE reactor. They consist in the measurement of the reactivity variation involved by the introduction in the reactor of small-samples, containing different mass amounts of natural gadolinium. The analysis of these experiments is done through the exact perturbation theory, using the PIMS calculation tool, in order to link the reactivity effect to the thermal capture cross section. The measurement of reactivity effects is used to deduce the 2200 m.s-1 capture cross section of {sup nat}Gd which is (49360 {+-} 790) b. This result is in good agreement with the JEFF3.1.1 value (48630 b), within 1.6% uncertainty at 1{sigma}, but is strongly inconsistent with the microscopic measurements at RPI which give (44200 {+-} 500) b. (authors)

  3. Dining dichotomy: aquatic and terrestrial prey capture behavior in the Himalayan newt Tylototriton verrucosus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Egon Heiss

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Transitions between aquatic and terrestrial prey capture are challenging. Trophic shifts demand a high degree of behavioral flexibility to account for different physical circumstances between water and air to keep performance in both environments. The Himalayan newt, Tylototriton verrucosus, is mostly terrestrial but becomes aquatic during its short breeding period. Nonetheless, it was assumed that it lacks the capability of trophic behavioral flexibility, only captures prey on land by its tongue (lingual prehension and does not feed in water. This theory was challenged from stomach content analyses in wild populations that found a variety of aquatic invertebrates in the newts' stomachs during their breeding season. Accordingly, we hypothesized that T. verrucosus actively changes its terrestrial prey capture mechanism to hunt for aquatic prey at least during its aquatic stage. In fact, the kinematic analyses showed that T. verrucosus uses lingual prehension to capture prey on land but changes to suction feeding for aquatic strikes. The statistical analyses revealed that terrestrial and aquatic strikes differ significantly in most kinematic parameters while behavioral variability does not differ between both behaviors. In turn, the movement patterns in suction feeding showed a higher degree of coordination between jaw and hyoid movements compared to the putative primary feeding mode, namely lingual prehension. We conclude that T. verrucosus, though relatively slow compared to trophic specialists, benefits from a high degree of behavioral flexibility that allows exploiting food sources efficiently from two very different habitats.

  4. Dining dichotomy: aquatic and terrestrial prey capture behavior in the Himalayan newt Tylototriton verrucosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heiss, Egon; De Vylder, Marie

    2016-10-15

    Transitions between aquatic and terrestrial prey capture are challenging. Trophic shifts demand a high degree of behavioral flexibility to account for different physical circumstances between water and air to keep performance in both environments. The Himalayan newt, Tylototriton verrucosus, is mostly terrestrial but becomes aquatic during its short breeding period. Nonetheless, it was assumed that it lacks the capability of trophic behavioral flexibility, only captures prey on land by its tongue (lingual prehension) and does not feed in water. This theory was challenged from stomach content analyses in wild populations that found a variety of aquatic invertebrates in the newts' stomachs during their breeding season. Accordingly, we hypothesized that T. verrucosus actively changes its terrestrial prey capture mechanism to hunt for aquatic prey at least during its aquatic stage. In fact, the kinematic analyses showed that T. verrucosus uses lingual prehension to capture prey on land but changes to suction feeding for aquatic strikes. The statistical analyses revealed that terrestrial and aquatic strikes differ significantly in most kinematic parameters while behavioral variability does not differ between both behaviors. In turn, the movement patterns in suction feeding showed a higher degree of coordination between jaw and hyoid movements compared to the putative primary feeding mode, namely lingual prehension. We conclude that T. verrucosus, though relatively slow compared to trophic specialists, benefits from a high degree of behavioral flexibility that allows exploiting food sources efficiently from two very different habitats. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  5. AN EDUCATIONAL THEORY MODEL--(SIGGS), AN INTEGRATION OF SET THEORY, INFORMATION THEORY, AND GRAPH THEORY WITH GENERAL SYSTEMS THEORY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MACCIA, ELIZABETH S.; AND OTHERS

    AN ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY OF 20 ITEMS AND A DISCUSSION OF ITS SIGNIFICANCE WAS PRESENTED TO DESCRIBE CURRENT UTILIZATION OF SUBJECT THEORIES IN THE CONSTRUCTION OF AN EDUCATIONAL THEORY. ALSO, A THEORY MODEL WAS USED TO DEMONSTRATE CONSTRUCTION OF A SCIENTIFIC EDUCATIONAL THEORY. THE THEORY MODEL INCORPORATED SET THEORY (S), INFORMATION THEORY…

  6. Partial radiative capture of resonance neutrons; Capture radiative partielle des neutrons de resonance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samour, C. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1969-07-01

    The radiative capture of resonance neutrons has been studied near the Saclay linac between 0.5 and 700 eV with time-of-flight method and a Ge(Li) detector. {sup 195}Pt + n and {sup 183}W + n allow the study of the distribution of partial radiative widths and their eventual correlation and also the variation of < {gamma}{sub {gamma}{sub i}} > with E{sub {gamma}}. The mean values of Ml and El transition intensities are compared in several tin isotopes. Interference effects, either between resonances or between direct capture and resonant capture are found in {sup 195}Pt + n, {sup 197}Au + n and {sup 59}Co + n. The excited level schemes of a great deal of nuclei are obtained and compared with theoretical predictions. This study has been completed by an analysis of thermal spectrum. (author) [French] La capture radiative des neutrons de resonance a ete etudiee pres de l'accelerateur lineaire de Saclay entre 0,5 et 700 eV a l'aide de la methode du temps-de-vol et d'un detecteur Ge(Li). Les noyaux {sup 195}Pt + n et {sup 183}W + n permettent l'analyse de la distribution de resonance en resonance des largeurs radiatives partielles {gamma}{sub {gamma}{sub i}} et de leur eventuelle correlation, ainsi que l'etude de la variation de < {gamma}{sub {gamma}{sub i}} > en fonction de E{sub {gamma}}. Les intensites moyennes des transitions Ml et El sont comparees pour quelques isotopes de l'etain. Des effets d'interference, soit entre resonances, soit entre capture directe et capture resonnante sont mis en evidence dans {sup 195}Pt + n, {sup 197}Au + n et {sup 59}Co + n. Enfin les schemas des etats excites d'un grand nombre de noyaux sont obtenus et compares avec les predictions theoriques. Cette etude a ete completee par une analyse des spectres thermiques. (auteur)

  7. Capturing Causality for Fault Diagnosis Based on Multi-Valued Alarm Series Using Transfer Entropy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianjun Su

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Transfer entropy (TE is a model-free approach based on information theory to capture causality between variables, which has been used for the modeling and monitoring of, and fault diagnosis in, complex industrial processes. It is able to detect the causality between variables without assuming any underlying model, but it is computationally burdensome. To overcome this limitation, a hybrid method of TE and the modified conditional mutual information (CMI approach is proposed by using generated multi-valued alarm series. In order to obtain a process topology, TE can generate a causal map of all sub-processes and modified CMI can be used to distinguish the direct connectivity from the above-mentioned causal map by using multi-valued alarm series. The effectiveness and accuracy rate of the proposed method are validated by simulated and real industrial cases (the Tennessee-Eastman process to capture process topology by using multi-valued alarm series.

  8. Recursion Theory Week

    CERN Document Server

    Müller, Gert; Sacks, Gerald

    1990-01-01

    These proceedings contain research and survey papers from many subfields of recursion theory, with emphasis on degree theory, in particular the development of frameworks for current techniques in this field. Other topics covered include computational complexity theory, generalized recursion theory, proof theoretic questions in recursion theory, and recursive mathematics.

  9. Capture and treatment of goat manure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Elzeário Castelo Branco Iapichini

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The appropriate management and disposal of feces and urine derived from goat production systems can help minimize the environmental impact of the activity reflecting in animal welfare, good sanitary conditions, viable indexes and increase revenue by aggregating the activity value of the manure generated. Aiming to take advantage of zootechnical installation already used for the manure in rabbits’ husbandry, it was carried out the suitability of a 15.40 m² pen (5.7 x 2.7 meters, filled with dirt in the goat rearing of UPD Itapetininga/APTA-SAA being deployed on slatted floor system for capturing and processing goat manure. It was dug in the floor of the bay rectangular holes with 15 m² of surface and 80 cm of depth for capturing of the excrements, filled with layers of gravel (0.20 m, coal (0.20 m, medium sand (0, 15 m and clay (0.05 m being the surface in direct contact with feces and urine. The gap of 40 cm between the back of the slatted floor and the last layer allowed the accumulation of manure during the occupation of the stall. We used the pens for 10 consecutive months for the management of newly calved Saanen and crossbred Saanen/Boer goats for 10 to 15 days postpartum in controlled feeding and termination of 27 confined kids. The maintenance of the collection system and treatment of manure was done through constant sweeps in the slatted floor and periodical aplication of 30 g of superphosphate per m² directly in feces, in order to acidifying the compound. This measure contributed to the ambience and animal comfort, controlling flies and neutralizing odors and harmful actions of ammonia coming from the urine. To carry out the sanitary break in the stall, needed for new production cycle, the frames of the slatted floor were raised and about 2500 kg of manure was removed, followed by cleaning and disinfection of floors and pillars of support and rest for 45 days unused until the entry of the new batch of goats recently calved. Using

  10. The characterization of a full-thickness excision open foot wound model in n5-streptozotocin (STZ)-induced type 2 diabetic rats that mimics diabetic foot ulcer in terms of reduced blood circulation, higher C-reactive protein, elevated inflammation, and reduced cell proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Caroline Oi-Ling; Leung, Kwok-Sui; Fung, Kwok-Pui; Lam, Francis Fu-Yuen; Ng, Ethel Sau-Kuen; Lau, Kit-Man; Chow, Simon Kwoon-Ho; Cheung, Wing-Hoi

    2017-08-05

    Delayed foot wound healing is a major complication attributed to hyperglycemia in type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) patients, and these wounds may develop into foot ulcers. There are at least two types of DM wound models used in rodents to study delayed wound healing. However, clinically relevant animal models are not common. Most models use type 1 DM rodents or wounds created on the back rather than on the foot. An open full-thickness excision wound on the footpad of type 2 DM rats is more clinically relevant, but such a model has not yet been characterized systematically. The objective of this study was to investigate and characterize how DM affected a full-thickness excision open foot wound in n5-streptozotocin (n5-STZ)-induced type 2 DM rats. We hypothesized that elevated inflammation, reduced blood circulation, and cell proliferation due to hyperglycemia could delay the wound healing of DM rats. The wounds of DM rats were compared with those of non-DM rats (Ctrl) at Days 1 and 8 post wounding. The wound healing process of the DM rats was significantly delayed compared with that of the Ctrl rats. The DM rats also had higher C-reactive protein (CRP) and lower blood circulation and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) in DM wounds. This confirmed that elevated inflammation and reduced blood flow and cell proliferation delayed foot wound healing in the n5-STZ rats. Hence, this open foot wound animal model provides a good approach to study the process of delayed wound healing.

  11. Automated full matrix capture for industrial processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Roy H.; Pierce, S. Gareth; Collison, Ian; Dutton, Ben; Dziewierz, Jerzy; Jackson, Joseph; Lardner, Timothy; MacLeod, Charles; Morozov, Maxim

    2015-03-01

    Full matrix capture (FMC) ultrasound can be used to generate a permanent re-focusable record of data describing the geometry of a part; a valuable asset for an inspection process. FMC is a desirable acquisition mode for automated scanning of complex geometries, as it allows compensation for surface shape in post processing and application of the total focusing method. However, automating the delivery of such FMC inspection remains a significant challenge for real industrial processes due to the high data overhead associated with the ultrasonic acquisition. The benefits of NDE delivery using six-axis industrial robots are well versed when considering complex inspection geometries, but such an approach brings additional challenges to scanning speed and positional accuracy when combined with FMC inspection. This study outlines steps taken to optimize the scanning speed and data management of a process to scan the diffusion bonded membrane of a titanium test plate. A system combining a KUKA robotic arm and a reconfigurable FMC phased array controller is presented. The speed and data implications of different scanning methods are compared, and the impacts on data visualization quality are discussed with reference to this study. For the 0.5 m2 sample considered, typical acquisitions of 18 TB/m2 were measured for a triple back wall FMC acquisition, illustrating the challenge of combining high data throughput with acceptable scanning speeds.

  12. Capturing a flavivirus pre-fusion intermediate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bärbel Kaufmann

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available During cell entry of flaviviruses, low endosomal pH triggers the rearrangement of the viral surface glycoproteins to a fusion-active state that allows the release of the infectious RNA into the cytoplasm. In this work, West Nile virus was complexed with Fab fragments of the neutralizing mAb E16 and was subsequently exposed to low pH, trapping the virions in a pre-fusion intermediate state. The structure of the complex was studied by cryo-electron microscopy and provides the first structural glimpse of a flavivirus fusion intermediate near physiological conditions. A radial expansion of the outer protein layer of the virion was observed compared to the structure at pH 8. The resulting approximately 60 A-wide shell of low density between lipid bilayer and outer protein layer is likely traversed by the stem region of the E glycoprotein. By using antibody fragments, we have captured a structural intermediate of a virus that likely occurs during cell entry. The trapping of structural transition states by antibody fragments will be applicable for other processes in the flavivirus life cycle and delineating other cellular events that involve conformational rearrangements.

  13. Technology Roadmaps: Carbon Capture and Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-07-01

    Carbon capture and storage (CCS) is an important part of the lowest-cost greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation portfolio. IEA analysis suggests that without CCS, overall costs to reduce emissions to 2005 levels by 2050 increase by 70%. This roadmap includes an ambitious CCS growth path in order to achieve this GHG mitigation potential, envisioning 100 projects globally by 2020 and over 3000 projects by 2050. This roadmap's level of project development requires an additional investment of over USD 2.5-3 trillion from 2010 to 2050, which is about 6% of the overall investment needed to achieve a 50% reduction in GHG emissions by 2050. OECD governments will need to increase funding for CCS demonstration projects to an average annual level of USD 3.5 to 4 billion (bn) from 2010 to 2020. In addition, mechanisms need to be established to incentivise commercialisation beyond 2020 in the form of mandates, GHG reduction incentives, tax rebates or other financing mechanisms.

  14. Resonance capture cross section of 207Pb

    CERN Document Server

    Domingo-Pardo, C.; Aerts, G.; Alvarez-Pol, H.; Alvarez-Velarde, F.; Andriamonje, S.; Andrzejewski, J.; Assimakopoulos, P.; Audouin, L.; Badurek, G.; Baumann, P.; Becvar, F.; Berthoumieux, E.; Bisterzo, S.; Calvino, F.; Cano-Ott, D.; Capote, R.; Carrapico, C.; Cennini, P.; Chepel, V.; Chiaveri, E.; Colonna, N.; Cortes, G.; Couture, A.; Cox, J.; Dahlfors, M.; David, S.; Dillman, I.; Dolfini, R.; Dridi, W.; Duran, I.; Eleftheriadis, C.; Embid-Segura, M.; Ferrant, L.; Ferrari, A.; Ferreira-Marques, R.; Fitzpatrick, L.; Frais-Koelbl, H.; Fujii, K.; Furman, W.; Gallino, R.; Goncalves, I.; Gonzalez-Romero, E.; Goverdovski, A.; Gramegna, F.; Griesmayer, E.; Guerrero, C.; Gunsing, F.; Haas, B.; Haight, R.; Heil, M.; Herrera-Martinez, A.; Igashira, M.; Isaev, S.; Jericha, E.; Kadi, Y.; Kappeler, F.; Karamanis, D.; Karadimos, D.; Kerveno, M.; Ketlerov, V.; Koehler, P.; Konovalov, V.; Kossionides, E.; Krticka, M.; Lamboudis, C.; Leeb, H.; Lindote, A.; Lopes, I.; Lozano, M.; Lukic, S.; Marganiec, J.; Marrone, S.; Mastinu, P.; Mengoni, A.; Milazzo, P.M.; Moreau, C.; Mosconi, M.; Neves, F.; Oberhummer, H.; Oshima, M.; O'Brien, S.; Pancin, J.; Papachristodoulou, C.; Papadopoulos, C.; Paradela, C.; Patronis, N.; Pavlik, A.; Pavlopoulos, P.; Perrot, L.; Plag, R.; Plompen, A.; Plukis, A.; Poch, A.; Pretel, C.; Quesada, J.; Rauscher, T.; Reifarth, R.; Rosetti, M.; Rubbia, C.; Rudolf, G.; Rullhusen, P.; Salgado, J.; Sarchiapone, L.; Savvidis, I.; Stephan, C.; Tagliente, G.; Tain, J.L.; Tassan-Got, L.; Tavora, L.; Terlizzi, R.; Vannini, G.; Vaz, P.; Ventura, A.; Villamarin, D.; Vincente, M.C.; Vlachoudis, V.; Vlastou, R.; Voss, F.; Walter, S.; Wendler, H.; Wiescher, M.; Wisshak, K.

    2006-01-01

    The radiative neutron capture cross section of 207Pb has been measured at the CERN neutron time of flight installation n_TOF using the pulse height weighting technique in the resolved energy region. The measurement has been performed with an optimized setup of two C6D6 scintillation detectors, which allowed us to reduce scattered neutron backgrounds down to a negligible level. Resonance parameters and radiative kernels have been determined for 16 resonances by means of an R-matrix analysis in the neutron energy range from 3 keV to 320 keV. Good agreement with previous measurements was found at low neutron energies, whereas substantial discrepancies appear beyond 45 keV. With the present results, we obtain an s-process contribution of 77(8)% to the solar abundance of 207Pb. This corresponds to an r-process component of 23(8)%, which is important for deriving the U/Th ages of metal poor halo stars.

  15. Carbon Capture and Sequestration- A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sood, Akash; Vyas, Savita

    2017-08-01

    The Drastic increase of CO2 emission in the last 30 years is due to the combustion of fossil fuels and it causes a major change in the environment such as global warming. In India, the emission of fossil fuels is developed in the recent years. The alternate energy sources are not sufficient to meet the values of this emission reduction and the framework of climate change demands the emission reduction, the CCS technology can be used as a mitigation tool which evaluates the feasibility for implementation of this technology in India. CCS is a process to capture the carbon dioxide from large sources like fossil fuel station to avoid the entrance of CO2 in the atmosphere. IPCC accredited this technology and its path for mitigation for the developing countries. In this paper, we present the technologies of CCS with its development and external factors. The main goal of this process is to avoid the release the CO2 into the atmosphere and also investigates the sequestration and mitigation technologies of carbon.

  16. Research needs for neutron capture therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-01

    Key issues and questions addressed by the workshop related to optimization of Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT), in general, and to the possibility of success of the present BNCT trials at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) and Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), in particular. Both trials use nuclear fission reactors as neutron sources for BNCT of glioblastoma multiforme (BNL) and of deep seated melanoma (MIT). Presentations and discussions focussed on optimal boron-labeled compounds, mainly for brain tumors such as glioblastoma multiforme, and the best mode of compound delivery to the tumor. Also, optimizing neutron irradiation with dose delivery to the tumor cells and the issues of dosimetry of BNCT especially in the brain were discussed. Planning of treatment and of follow-up of patients, coordination of BNCT at various treatment sites, and the potential of delivering BNCT to various types of cancer with an appropriately tailored protocol were additional issues. The need for multicentric interdisciplinary cooperation among the different medical specialties was highlighted.

  17. Capturing Ambulatory Activity Decline in Parkinson Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavanaugh, James T; Ellis, Terry D; Earhart, Gammon M; Ford, Matthew P; Foreman, K. Bo

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose Relatively little is known about the natural evolution of physical activity-related participation restrictions associated with Parkinson disease (PD). We examined this issue prospectively using continuous monitoring technology to capture the free-living ambulatory activity of persons living with PD engaging in life situations. We specifically sought (1) to explore natural, long-term changes in daily ambulatory activity, and (2) to compare the responsiveness of ambulatory activity parameters to clinical measures of gait and disease severity. Methods Thirty-three persons with PD participated (Hoehn and Yahr range of 1–3). Participants wore a step activity monitor for up to 7 days at baseline and again at 1-year follow-up. Mean daily values were calculated for parameters indicative of amount, intensity, frequency, and duration of ambulatory activity. Clinical measures included the Unified Parkinson Disease Rating Scale, the 6-Minute Walk, and Maximal Gait Speed. Parametric tests for paired samples were used to investigate changes in ambulatory activity parameters and clinical measures. Results Participants had significant declines in the amount and intensity of daily ambulatory activity but not in its frequency and duration (p ambulatory activity. Conclusion Continuous monitoring of ambulatory activity beyond mere step counts may serve as a distinct and important means of quantifying declining ambulatory behavior associated with disease progression or improved ambulatory behavior resulting from rehabilitation, medical, and / or surgical interventions in persons with PD. PMID:22592060

  18. Aqueous ethylenediamine for CO(2) capture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Shan; Chen, Xi; Nguyen, Thu; Voice, Alexander K; Rochelle, Gary T

    2010-08-23

    Aqueous ethylenediamine (EDA) has been investigated as a solvent for CO(2) capture from flue gas. EDA can be used at 12 M (mol kg(-1) H(2)O) with an acceptable viscosity of 16 cP (1 cP=10(-3) Pa s) with 0.48 mol CO(2) per equivalent of EDA. Similar to monoethanolamine (MEA), EDA can be used up to 120 degrees C in a stripper without significant thermal degradation. Inhibitor A will effectively eliminate oxidative degradation. Above 120 degrees C, loaded EDA degrades with the production of its cyclic urea and other related compounds. Unlike piperazine, when exposed to oxidative degradation, EDA does not result in excessive foaming. Over much of the loading range, the CO(2) absorption rate with 12 M EDA is comparable to 7 M MEA. However, at typical rich loading, 12 M EDA absorbs CO(2) 2 times slower than 7 M MEA. The capacity of 12 M EDA is 0.72 mol CO(2)/(kg H(2)O+EDA) (for P(CO(2) )=0.5 to 5 kPa at 40 degrees C), which is about double that of MEA. The apparent heat of CO(2) desorption in EDA solution is 84 kJ mol(-1) CO(2); greater than most other amine systems.

  19. Foundations for a theory of gravitation theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorne, K. S.; Lee, D. L.; Lightman, A. P.

    1972-01-01

    A foundation is laid for future analyses of gravitation theories. This foundation is applicable to any theory formulated in terms of geometric objects defined on a 4-dimensional spacetime manifold. The foundation consists of (1) a glossary of fundamental concepts; (2) a theorem that delineates the overlap between Lagrangian-based theories and metric theories; (3) a conjecture (due to Schiff) that the Weak Equivalence Principle implies the Einstein Equivalence Principle; and (4) a plausibility argument supporting this conjecture for the special case of relativistic, Lagrangian-based theories.

  20. Theory of thermal stresses

    CERN Document Server

    Boley, Bruno A

    1997-01-01

    Highly regarded text presents detailed discussion of fundamental aspects of theory, background, problems with detailed solutions. Basics of thermoelasticity, heat transfer theory, thermal stress analysis, more. 1985 edition.

  1. Bounded queries in recursion theory

    CERN Document Server

    Gasarch, William I

    1999-01-01

    One of the major concerns of theoretical computer science is the classifi­ cation of problems in terms of how hard they are. The natural measure of difficulty of a function is the amount of time needed to compute it (as a function of the length of the input). Other resources, such as space, have also been considered. In recursion theory, by contrast, a function is considered to be easy to compute if there exists some algorithm that computes it. We wish to classify functions that are hard, i.e., not computable, in a quantitative way. We cannot use time or space, since the functions are not even computable. We cannot use Turing degree, since this notion is not quantitative. Hence we need a new notion of complexity-much like time or spac~that is quantitative and yet in some way captures the level of difficulty (such as the Turing degree) of a function.

  2. Neutron capture strategy and technique developments for GNEP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Couture, Aaron Joseph [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01

    The initial three years of neutron capture measurements have been very successful in providing data for the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative/Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (AFCI/GNEP) program. Now that the most straightforward measurements have been completed, additional technical challenges face future measurements. In particular, techniques are needed to perform measurements that exhibit at least one of three major problems -- large fission:capture ratios, large capture:capture ratios, and high intrinsic activity samples. This paper will set forward a plan for attacking these technical challenges and moving forward with future measurements.

  3. Designed amyloid fibers as materials for selective carbon dioxide capture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dan; Furukawa, Hiroyasu; Deng, Hexiang; Liu, Cong; Yaghi, Omar M; Eisenberg, David S

    2014-01-07

    New materials capable of binding carbon dioxide are essential for addressing climate change. Here, we demonstrate that amyloids, self-assembling protein fibers, are effective for selective carbon dioxide capture. Solid-state NMR proves that amyloid fibers containing alkylamine groups reversibly bind carbon dioxide via carbamate formation. Thermodynamic and kinetic capture-and-release tests show the carbamate formation rate is fast enough to capture carbon dioxide by dynamic separation, undiminished by the presence of water, in both a natural amyloid and designed amyloids having increased carbon dioxide capacity. Heating to 100 °C regenerates the material. These results demonstrate the potential of amyloid fibers for environmental carbon dioxide capture.

  4. Experimental and Theoretical Understanding of Neutron Capture on Uranium Isotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ullmann, John Leonard [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-09-21

    Neutron capture cross sections on uranium isotopes are important quantities needed to model nuclear explosion performance, nuclear reactor design, nuclear test diagnostics, and nuclear forensics. It has been difficult to calculate capture accurately, and factors of 2 or more be- tween calculation and measurements are not uncommon, although normalization to measurements of the average capture width and nuclear level density can improve the result. The calculations of capture for 233,235,237,239U are further complicated by the need to accurately include the fission channel.

  5. Model-independent calculation of radiative neutron capture on lithium-7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rupak, Gautam; Higa, Renato

    2011-06-03

    The radiative neutron capture on lithium-7 is calculated model independently using a low-energy halo effective field theory. The cross section is expressed in terms of scattering parameters directly related to the S-matrix elements. It depends on the poorly known p-wave effective range parameter r(1). This constitutes the largest uncertainty in traditional model calculations. It is explicitly demonstrated by comparing with potential model calculations. A single parameter fit describes the low-energy data extremely well and yields r(1)≈-1.47  fm(-1).

  6. Comet capture from molecular clouds: a dynamical constraint on star and planet formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clube, S.V.M.; Napier, W.M.

    1984-06-01

    The process is analysed whereby successive clouds of comets are captured into and ejected from the Solar System during spiral arm passages in accord with the theory of episodic terrestrial catastrophism. Geophysical and biological phenomena are thereby expected to reveal Galactic periodicities, including cycles of 50 or 100 Myr, and 25-30 Myr. A large number density of comets in giant molecular clouds is implied, indicating that the aggregation of planetesimals to form stars and planets could well take place in compact systems of near zero energy. It is shown that the source of such systems of planetesimals may be inferred from studies of isotope anomalies in cometary and meteoritic material.

  7. Theoretical Screening of Solid Sorbents for CO{sub 2} Capture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duan, Y [NETL; Sorescu, D C [NETL; Luebke, D [NETL; Morreale, B [NETL; Li, B Y; Zhang, B; Johnson, J K; Zhang, K; Li, X S; King, D

    2013-04-11

    By combining thermodynamic database searches with density functional theory and lattice phonon dynamics, a screening methodology was developed to identify promising solid sorbent candidates for CO{sub 2} capture. This methodology has been used to screen hundreds of solid compounds and some of the promising candidates to date have been reported in literature. This screening methodology is particularly relevant for the case of materials for which experimental thermodynamic data is not available. Such areas of interest are represented by the case of solid mixtures and doped materials, where thermodynamic data are generally not available but for which the crystallographic structure is known or can be easily determined.

  8. Single photon image from position emission tomography with insertable collimator for boron neutron capture therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Joo Young; Yoo, Do Kun; Suh, Tae Suk [Dept. of Biomedical Engineering and Research Institute of Biomedical Engineering, College of Medicine, Catholic University of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Hong, Key Jo [Molecular Imaging Program at Stanford (MIPS), Dept. of Radiology, Stanford University, Stanford (United States)

    2014-04-15

    The aim of our proposed system is to confirm the feasibility of extraction of two types of images from one positron emission tomography (PET) module with an insertable collimator for brain tumor treatment during the boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT). The BNCT theory and conceptual diagram of our proposed system are shown fig.1. Data from the PET module, neutron source, and collimator was entered in the Monte Carlon-particle extende source code. We attempted to acquire the PET and SPECT images simultaneously using only PET without an additional isotope. Single photon images were acquired using an insertable collimator on a PET detector.

  9. Thermodynamic screening of metal-substituted MOFs for carbon capture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Hyun Seung; Rana, Malay Kumar; Hwang, Jinhyung; Siegel, Donald J

    2013-04-07

    Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) have emerged as promising materials for carbon capture applications due to their high CO2 capacities and tunable properties. Amongst the many possible MOFs, metal-substituted compounds based on M-DOBDC and M-HKUST-1 have demonstrated amongst the highest CO2 capacities at the low pressures typical of flue gasses. Here we explore the possibility for additional performance tuning of these compounds by computationally screening 36 metal-substituted variants (M = Be, Mg, Ca, Sr, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Mo, W, Sn, and Pb) with respect to their CO2 adsorption enthalpy, ΔH(T=300K). Supercell calculations based on van der Waals density functional theory (vdW-DF) yield enthalpies in good agreement with experimental measurements, out-performing semi-empirical (DFT-D2) and conventional (LDA & GGA) functionals. Our screening identifies 13 compounds having ΔH values within the targeted thermodynamic window -40 ≤ ΔH ≤ -75 kJ mol(-1): 8 are based on M-DODBC (M = Mg, Ca, Sr, Sc, Ti, V, Mo, and W), and 5 on M-HKUST-1 (M = Be, Mg, Ca, Sr and Sc). Variations in the electronic structure and the geometry of the structural building unit are examined and used to rationalize trends in CO2 affinity. In particular, the partial charge on the coordinatively unsaturated metal sites is found to correlate with ΔH, suggesting that this property may be used as a simple performance descriptor. The ability to rapidly distinguish promising MOFs from those that are "thermodynamic dead-ends" will be helpful in guiding synthesis efforts towards promising compounds.

  10. Capturing Essential Information to Achieve Safe Interoperability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weininger, Sandy; Jaffe, Michael B; Rausch, Tracy; Goldman, Julian M

    2017-01-01

    In this article, we describe the role of "clinical scenario" information to assure the safety of interoperable systems, as well as the system's ability to deliver the requisite clinical functionality to improve clinical care. Described are methods and rationale for capturing the clinical needs, workflow, hazards, and device interactions in the clinical environment. Key user (clinician and clinical engineer) needs and system requirements can be derived from this information, therefore, improving the communication from clinicians to medical device and information technology system developers. This methodology is intended to assist the health care community, including researchers, standards developers, regulators, and manufacturers, by providing clinical definition to support requirements in the systems engineering process, particularly those focusing on development of Integrated Clinical Environments described in standard ASTM F2761. Our focus is on identifying and documenting relevant interactions and medical device capabilities within the system using a documentation tool called medical device interface data sheets and mitigating hazardous situations related to workflow, product usability, data integration, and the lack of effective medical device-health information technology system integration to achieve safe interoperability. Portions of the analysis of a clinical scenario for a "patient-controlled analgesia safety interlock" are provided to illustrate the method. Collecting better clinical adverse event information and proposed solutions can help identify opportunities to improve current device capabilities and interoperability and support a learning health system to improve health care delivery. Developing and analyzing clinical scenarios are the first steps in creating solutions to address vexing patient safety problems and enable clinical innovation. A Web-based research tool for implementing a means of acquiring and managing this information, the Clinical

  11. Fracture Systems - Digital Field Data Capture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haslam, Richard

    2017-04-01

    Fracture systems play a key role in subsurface resources and developments including groundwater and nuclear waste repositories. There is increasing recognition that there is a need to record and quantify fracture systems to better understand the potential risks and opportunities. With the advent of smart phones and digital field geology there have been numerous systems designed for field data collection. Digital field data collection allows for rapid data collection and interpretations. However, many of the current systems have principally been designed to cover the full range of field mapping and data needs, making them large and complex, plus many do not offer the tools necessary for the collection of fracture specific data. A new multiplatform data recording app has been developed for the collection of field data on faults and joint/fracture systems and a relational database designed for storage and retrieval. The app has been developed to collect fault data and joint/fracture data based on an open source platform. Data is captured in a form-based approach including validity checks to ensure data is collected systematically. In addition to typical structural data collection, the International Society of Rock Mechanics' (ISRM) "Suggested Methods for the Quantitative Description of Discontinuities in Rock Masses" is included allowing for industry standards to be followed and opening up the tools to industry as well as research. All data is uploaded automatically to a secure server and users can view their data and open access data as required. Users can decide if the data they produce should remain private or be open access. A series of automatic reports can be produced and/or the data downloaded. The database will hold a national archive and data retrieval will be made through a web interface.

  12. Capture and playback synchronization in video conferencing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shae, Zon-Yin; Chang, Pao-Chi; Chen, Mon-Song

    1995-03-01

    Packet-switching based video conferencing has emerged as one of the most important multimedia applications. Lip synchronization can be disrupted in the packet network as the result of the network properties: packet delay jitters at the capture end, network delay jitters, packet loss, packet arrived out of sequence, local clock mismatch, and video playback overlay with the graphic system. The synchronization problem become more demanding as the real time and multiparty requirement of the video conferencing application. Some of the above mentioned problem can be solved in the more advanced network architecture as ATM having promised. This paper will present some of the solutions to the problems that can be useful at the end station terminals in the massively deployed packet switching network today. The playback scheme in the end station will consist of two units: compression domain buffer management unit and the pixel domain buffer management unit. The pixel domain buffer management unit is responsible for removing the annoying frame shearing effect in the display. The compression domain buffer management unit is responsible for parsing the incoming packets for identifying the complete data blocks in the compressed data stream which can be decoded independently. The compression domain buffer management unit is also responsible for concealing the effects of clock mismatch, lip synchronization, and packet loss, out of sequence, and network jitters. This scheme can also be applied to the multiparty teleconferencing environment. Some of the schemes presented in this paper have been implemented in the Multiparty Multimedia Teleconferencing (MMT) system prototype at the IBM watson research center.

  13. A macroecological theory of microbial biodiversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoemaker, William R; Locey, Kenneth J; Lennon, Jay T

    2017-04-03

    Microorganisms are the most abundant, diverse and functionally important organisms on Earth. Over the past decade, microbial ecologists have produced the largest ever community datasets. However, these data are rarely used to uncover law-like patterns of commonness and rarity, test theories of biodiversity, or explore unifying explanations for the structure of microbial communities. Using a global scale compilation of >20,000 samples from environmental, engineered and host-related ecosystems, we test the power of competing theories to predict distributions of microbial abundance and diversity-abundance scaling laws. We show that these patterns are best explained by the synergistic interaction of stochastic processes that are captured by lognormal dynamics. We demonstrate that lognormal dynamics have predictive power across scales of abundance, a criterion that is essential to biodiversity theory. By understanding the multiplicative and stochastic nature of ecological processes, scientists can better understand the structure and dynamics of Earth's largest and most diverse ecological systems.

  14. Statistical physics of balance theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belaza, Andres M; Hoefman, Kevin; Ryckebusch, Jan; Bramson, Aaron; van den Heuvel, Milan; Schoors, Koen

    2017-01-01

    Triadic relationships are accepted to play a key role in the dynamics of social and political networks. Building on insights gleaned from balance theory in social network studies and from Boltzmann-Gibbs statistical physics, we propose a model to quantitatively capture the dynamics of the four types of triadic relationships in a network. Central to our model are the triads' incidence rates and the idea that those can be modeled by assigning a specific triadic energy to each type of triadic relation. We emphasize the role of the degeneracy of the different triads and how it impacts the degree of frustration in the political network. In order to account for a persistent form of disorder in the formation of the triadic relationships, we introduce the systemic variable temperature. In order to learn about the dynamics and motives, we propose a generic Hamiltonian with three terms to model the triadic energies. One term is connected with a three-body interaction that captures balance theory. The other terms take into account the impact of heterogeneity and of negative edges in the triads. The validity of our model is tested on four datasets including the time series of triadic relationships for the standings between two classes of alliances in a massively multiplayer online game (MMOG). We also analyze real-world data for the relationships between the "agents" involved in the Syrian civil war, and in the relations between countries during the Cold War era. We find emerging properties in the triadic relationships in a political network, for example reflecting itself in a persistent hierarchy between the four triadic energies, and in the consistency of the extracted parameters from comparing the model Hamiltonian to the data.

  15. Statistical physics of balance theory.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andres M Belaza

    Full Text Available Triadic relationships are accepted to play a key role in the dynamics of social and political networks. Building on insights gleaned from balance theory in social network studies and from Boltzmann-Gibbs statistical physics, we propose a model to quantitatively capture the dynamics of the four types of triadic relationships in a network. Central to our model are the triads' incidence rates and the idea that those can be modeled by assigning a specific triadic energy to each type of triadic relation. We emphasize the role of the degeneracy of the different triads and how it impacts the degree of frustration in the political network. In order to account for a persistent form of disorder in the formation of the triadic relationships, we introduce the systemic variable temperature. In order to learn about the dynamics and motives, we propose a generic Hamiltonian with three terms to model the triadic energies. One term is connected with a three-body interaction that captures balance theory. The other terms take into account the impact of heterogeneity and of negative edges in the triads. The validity of our model is tested on four datasets including the time series of triadic relationships for the standings between two classes of alliances in a massively multiplayer online game (MMOG. We also analyze real-world data for the relationships between the "agents" involved in the Syrian civil war, and in the relations between countries during the Cold War era. We find emerging properties in the triadic relationships in a political network, for example reflecting itself in a persistent hierarchy between the four triadic energies, and in the consistency of the extracted parameters from comparing the model Hamiltonian to the data.

  16. Neutron Capture Experiments on Unstable Nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jon M. Schwantes; Ralf Sudowe; Heino Nitsche; Darleane C. Hoffman

    2003-12-16

    A primary objective of this project is to study neutron capture cross sections for various stable and unstable isotopes that will contribute to the Science Based Stockpile Stewardship (SBSS) program by providing improved data for modeling and interpretation of nuclear device performance. The information obtained will also be important in astrophysical modeling of nucleosynthesis. During this reporting period, the emphasis has been on preparing a radioactive target of {sup 155}Eu (half-life = 4.7 years), and several stable targets, including isotopically separated {sup 154}Sm, {sup 151}Eu, and {sup 153}Eu. Measurements of their neutron capture cross sections will be conducted in collaboration with researchers at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) facility using the Detector for Advanced Neutron Capture Experiments (DANCE). A suitable backing material (beryllium) for the targets has been selected after careful calculations of its contribution to the background of the measurements. In addition, a high voltage plating procedure has been developed and optimized. Stable targets of {sup 151}Eu and {sup 153}Eu and a target of natural Eu ({approx}50% {sup 151}Eu and {approx}50% {sup 153}Eu) have each been plated to a mass thickness of >1 mg/cm{sup 2} and delivered to the DANCE collaboration at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Natural Eu targets will be tested first to confirm that the target dimensions and backing are appropriate prior to performing measurements on the extremely valuable targets of separated isotopes. In order to prepare a target of the radioactive {sup 155}Eu, it must first be separated from the {sup 154}Sm target material that was irradiated in a very high neutron flux of 1.5x1015 neutrons/cm{sup 2}/s for 50 days. The reaction is {sup 154}Sm (n,f){sup 155}Sm (half-life = 22 minutes) {sup 155}Eu. Considerable progress has been made in developing a suitable high-yield and high-purity separation method for separating Eu from targets

  17. Detection costs and contingent attentional capture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schönhammer, Josef G; Kerzel, Dirk

    2017-02-01

    Peripheral cues reduce reaction times (RTs) to targets at the cued location with short cue-target SOAs (cueing benefits) but increase RTs at long SOAs (cueing costs or inhibition of return). In detection tasks, cueing costs occur at shorter SOAs and are larger compared with identification tasks. To account for effects of task, detection cost theory claims that the integration of cue and target into an object file makes it more difficult to detect the target as a new event, which is the principal task-requirement in detection tasks. The integration of cue and target is expected to increase when cue and target are similar. We provided evidence for detection cost theory in the modified spatial cueing paradigm. Two types of cues (onset, color) were paired with two types of targets (onset, color) in separate blocks of trials. In the identification task, we found cueing benefits with matching (i.e., similar) cue-target pairs (onset-onset, color-color) and no cueing effects with nonmatching cue-target pairs (onset-color, color-onset), which replicates previous work. In the detection task, cueing effects with matching cues were reduced and even turned into cueing costs for onset cues with onset targets, suggesting that cue-target integration made it more difficult to detect targets at the cued location as new events. In contrast, the results for nonmatching cue-target pairs were not affected by task. Furthermore, the pattern of false alarms in the detection task provides a measure of similarity that may explain the size of cueing benefits and costs.

  18. Wellness: A Review of Theory and Measurement for Counselors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roscoe, Lauren J.

    2009-01-01

    Wellness is considered the paradigm of counseling and development (J. E. Myers, 1991, 1992). However, researchers have failed to agree on a definition or on the dimensional structure of wellness. Furthermore, existing quantitative wellness instruments are inadequate for capturing the complexity of wellness. The author reviews wellness theory and…

  19. Towards a Theory-Based Framework for Assessing the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015:17). The theory-based framework attempts to capture ESD's complexity in terms of the underlying pedagogy and change processes. We argue that this framework can provide support and anchor teacher education institutions wishing to mainstream ESD in their local context. The necessary data were gathered as part ...

  20. A theory of everything?

    CERN Multimedia

    't Hooft, Gerardus; Witten, Edward

    2005-01-01

    In his later years, Einstein sought a unified theory that would extend general relativity and provide an alternative to quantum theory. There is now talk of a "theory of everything"; fifty years after his death, how close are we to such a theory? (3 pages)

  1. Theories and Modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apsche, Jack A.

    2005-01-01

    In his work on the Theory of Modes, Beck (1996) suggested that there were flaws with his cognitive theory. He suggested that though there are shortcomings to his cognitive theory, there were not similar shortcomings to the practice of Cognitive Therapy. The author suggests that if there are shortcomings to cognitive theory the same shortcomings…

  2. Game theory in philosophy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Bruin, B.P.

    2005-01-01

    Game theory is the mathematical study of strategy and conflict. It has wide applications in economics, political science, sociology, and, to some extent, in philosophy. Where rational choice theory or decision theory is concerned with individual agents facing games against nature, game theory deals

  3. Administrative Attribution Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frasher, James M.; Frasher, Ramona S.

    1981-01-01

    Hypothesizes that the growing body of empirical data concerning attribution theory offers insight into the administrative process. To stimulate research to test this hypothesis, presents previous relevant research and a theory entitled Administrative Attribution Theory. Research questions applying the theory to educational administration are…

  4. Descriptive set theory

    CERN Document Server

    Moschovakis, YN

    1987-01-01

    Now available in paperback, this monograph is a self-contained exposition of the main results and methods of descriptive set theory. It develops all the necessary background material from logic and recursion theory, and treats both classical descriptive set theory and the effective theory developed by logicians.

  5. Toward an Integrated Theory of Relational Youth Violence: Bridging a Gap among the Theory, Research, and Practice of Bullying Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brion-Meisels, Gretchen; Garnett, Bernice Raveche

    2016-01-01

    Despite an increased interest in bullying prevention programming over the last 10 years, significant gaps remain among theory, research, and practice in this critical area of school psychology. This article argues that the current Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) definition of bullying does not fully capture the experiences of many…

  6. Capture of Hydrogen Using ZrNi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patton, Lisa; Wales, Joshua; Lynch, David; Parrish, Clyde

    2005-01-01

    Water, as ice, is thought to reside in craters at the lunar poles along with CH4 and H2 . A proposed robotic mission for 2012 will utilize metal/metal hydrides for H2 recovery. Specifications are 99% capture of H2 initially at 5 bar and 100C (or greater), and degassing completely at 300C. Of 47-systems examined using the van't Hoff equation, 4 systems, Mg/MgH2, Mg2Ni/Mg2NiH4, ZrNi/ZrNiH2.8, and Pd/PdH0.77, were considered likely candidates for further examination. It is essential, when selecting a system, to also examine questions regarding activation, kinetics, cyclic stability, and gas impurity effects. After considering those issues, ZrN1 was selected as the most promising candidate, as it is easily activated and rapidly forms ZrNiH 2.8 . In addition, it resists oxide poisoning by CO2, and H2O, while some oxidation by O2 is recommended for improved activation . The presence of hydrogen in the as received Zr-Ni alloy from Alfa Aesar posed additional technical problems. X-ray diffraction of the Zr-Ni powder (-325 mesh), with a Zr:Ni wt% ratio of 70:30, was found to consist of ZrH2, ZrNiH2.8, and ZrNi. ZrH2 in the alloy presented the risk that after degassing that both Zr and ZrNi would be present, and thus lead to erroneous results regarding the reactivity of ZrNi with H2 . Fortunately, ZrH2 is a highly stable hydride that does not degas H2 to any significant extent at temperatures below 300C. Based on equilibrium calculations for the decomposition of ZrH2, only 1 millionth of the hydride decomposed at 300C under a N2 atmosphere flowing at 25 ccm for 64 hours, the longest time for pretreatment employed in the investigation. It was possible, from the X-ray results and knowledge of the Zr:Ni ratio, to compute the composition of a pretreated specimen as being 76 wt% ZrNi and the balance ZrH2.

  7. Adipocyte nuclei captured from VAT and SAT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambati, Suresh; Yu, Ping; McKinney, Elizabeth C; Kandasamy, Muthugapatti K; Hartzell, Diane; Baile, Clifton A; Meagher, Richard B

    2016-01-01

    Obesity-related comorbidities are thought to result from the reprogramming of the epigenome in numerous tissues and cell types, and in particular, mature adipocytes within visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue, VAT and SAT. The cell-type specific chromatin remodeling of mature adipocytes within VAT and SAT is poorly understood, in part, because of the difficulties of isolating and manipulating large fragile mature adipocyte cells from adipose tissues. We constructed MA-INTACT (Mature Adipocyte-Isolation of Nuclei TAgged in specific Cell Types) mice using the adiponectin (ADIPOQ) promoter (ADNp) to tag the surface of mature adipocyte nuclei with a reporter protein. The SUN1mRFP1Flag reporter is comprised of a fragment of the nuclear transmembrane protein SUN1, the fluorescent protein mRFP1, and three copies of the Flag epitope tag. Mature adipocyte nuclei were rapidly and efficiently immuno-captured from VAT and SAT (MVA and MSA nuclei, respectively), of MA-INTACT mice. MVA and MSA nuclei contained 1,000 to 10,000-fold higher levels of adipocyte-specific transcripts, ADIPOQ, PPARg2, EDNRB, and LEP, relative to uncaptured nuclei, while the latter expressed higher levels of leukocyte and endothelial cell markers IKZF1, RETN, SERPINF1, SERPINE1, ILF3, and TNFA. MVA and MSA nuclei differentially expressed several factors linked to adipogenesis or obesity-related health risks including CEBPA, KLF2, RETN, SERPINE1, and TNFA. The various nuclear populations dramatically differentially expressed transcripts encoding chromatin remodeler proteins regulating DNA cytosine methylation and hydroxymethylation (TETs, DNMTs, TDG, GADD45s) and nucleosomal histone modification (ARID1A, KAT2B, KDM4A, PRMT1, PRMT5, PAXIP1). Remarkably, MSA and MVA nuclei expressed 200 to 1000-fold higher levels of thermogenic marker transcripts PRDM16 and UCP1. The MA-INTACT mouse enables a simple way to perform cell-type specific analysis of highly purified mature adipocyte nuclei from VAT and SAT

  8. String theory for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Zimmerman Jones, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    Making Everything Easier!. String Theory for Dummies. Learn:. The basic concepts of this controversial theory;. How string theory builds on physics concepts;. The different viewpoints in the field;. String theory's physical implications. Andrew Zimmerman Jones. Physics Guide, About.com. with Daniel Robbins, PhD in Physics. Your plain-English guide to this complex scientific theory. String theory is one of the most complicated sciences being explored today. Not to worry though! This informative guide clearly explains the basics of this hot topic, discusses the theory's hypotheses and prediction

  9. Feasibility study of CO2 capture by anti-sublimation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schach, M.O.; Oyarzun, B.A.; Schramm, H.; Schneider, R.; Repke, J.U.

    2011-01-01

    Processes for carbon capture and storage have the drawback of high energy demand. In this work the application of CO2 capture by anti-sublimation is analyzed. The process was simulated using Aspen Plus. Process description is accomplished by phase equilibria models which are able to reproduce the

  10. Rapid neutron capture process in supernovae and chemical element formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baruah, Rulee; Duorah, Kalpana; Duorah, H. L.

    2009-01-01

    The rapid neutron capture process (r-process) is one of the major nucleosynthesis processes responsible for the synthesis of heavy nuclei beyond iron. Isotopes beyond Fe are most exclusively formed in neutron capture processes and more heavier ones are produced by the r-process. Approximately half

  11. Single ionization and electron capture in He2++Na collisions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knoop, S; Olson, RE; Ott, H; Hasan, VG; Morgenstern, R; Hoekstra, R

    2005-01-01

    Single-electron capture and ionization in He2+ + Na collisions at energies around the matching velocity (2-13 keV amu(-1)) have been studied both experimentally and theoretically. State-selective cross section for capture into the n = 2, 3, 4 and n >= 5, and the ionization cross section as well as

  12. Presence capture cameras - a new challenge to the image quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltoketo, Veli-Tapani

    2016-04-01

    Commercial presence capture cameras are coming to the markets and a new era of visual entertainment starts to get its shape. Since the true presence capturing is still a very new technology, the real technical solutions are just passed a prototyping phase and they vary a lot. Presence capture cameras have still the same quality issues to tackle as previous phases of digital imaging but also numerous new ones. This work concentrates to the quality challenges of presence capture cameras. A camera system which can record 3D audio-visual reality as it is has to have several camera modules, several microphones and especially technology which can synchronize output of several sources to a seamless and smooth virtual reality experience. Several traditional quality features are still valid in presence capture cameras. Features like color fidelity, noise removal, resolution and dynamic range create the base of virtual reality stream quality. However, co-operation of several cameras brings a new dimension for these quality factors. Also new quality features can be validated. For example, how the camera streams should be stitched together with 3D experience without noticeable errors and how to validate the stitching? The work describes quality factors which are still valid in the presence capture cameras and defines the importance of those. Moreover, new challenges of presence capture cameras are investigated in image and video quality point of view. The work contains considerations how well current measurement methods can be used in presence capture cameras.

  13. Multiphonon capture processes in self-assembled quantum dots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magnúsdóttir, Ingibjörg; Uskov, A.; Bischoff, Svend

    2001-01-01

    We investigate capture of carriers from states in the continuous part of the energy spectrum into the discrete states of self-assembled InAs/GaAs QDs via emission of one or two phonons. We are not aware of any other investigations of two-phonon mediated capture processes in QDs, but we show that ...

  14. Attentional capture by motion onsets is modulated by perceptual load.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosman, Joshua D; Vecera, Shaun P

    2010-11-01

    The onset of motion captures attention during visual search even if the motion is not task relevant, which suggests that motion onsets capture attention in a stimulus-driven manner. However, we have recently shown that stimulus-driven attentional capture by abruptly appearing objects is attenuated under conditions of high perceptual load. In the present study, we examined the influence of perceptual load on attentional capture by another type of dynamic stimulus: the onset of motion. Participants searched for a target letter through briefly presented low- and high-load displays. On each trial, two irrelevant flankers also appeared, one with a motion onset and one that was static. Flankers defined by a motion onset captured attention in the low-load but not in the high-load displays. This modulation of capture in high-load displays was not the result of overall lengthening of reaction times (RTs) in this condition, since search for a single low-contrast target lengthened RTs but did not influence capture. These results, together with those of previous studies, suggest that perceptual load can modulate attentional capture by dynamic stimuli.

  15. A Numerical and Experimental Study of Local Exhaust Capture Efficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, U.; Breum, N. O.; Nielsen, Peter Vilhelm

    1993-01-01

    Direct capture efficiency of a local exhaust system is defined by introducing an imaginary control box surrounding the contaminant source and the exhaust opening. The imaginary box makes it possible to distinguish between contaminants directly captured and those that escape. Two methods...

  16. Netguns: a technique for capturing Black-backed Woodpeckers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chad P. Lehman; Dylan C. Kesler; Christopher T. Rota; Mark A. Rumble; Eric M. Seckinger; Thomas M. Juntti; Joshua J. Millspaugh

    2011-01-01

    Effective capture techniques are essential for studying bird populations, but commonly used techniques have proven ineffective for capturing Black-backed Woodpeckers (Picoides arcticus) during the nonbreeding period. As a result, little is known about the winter ecology of Black-backed Woodpeckers. We used two netguns, one powered with a 0.308 cartridge and another...

  17. Pallid Harrier Circus macrourus bird hunting behaviour and capture ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Detailed observations were made of Pallid Harrier Circus macrourus behaviour when hunting birds, the bird prey species and bird capture success in northern Cameroon. Four hunting strategies are described to capture birds: fast contour flight, overt approach with rapid acceleration, covert ambush, and stoop from flight.

  18. Mountaineer Commerical Scale Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deanna Gilliland; Matthew Usher

    2011-12-31

    The Final Technical documents all work performed during the award period on the Mountaineer Commercial Scale Carbon Capture & Storage project. This report presents the findings and conclusions produced as a consequence of this work. As identified in the Cooperative Agreement DE-FE0002673, AEP's objective of the Mountaineer Commercial Scale Carbon Capture and Storage (MT CCS II) project is to design, build and operate a commercial scale carbon capture and storage (CCS) system capable of treating a nominal 235 MWe slip stream of flue gas from the outlet duct of the Flue Gas Desulfurization (FGD) system at AEP's Mountaineer Power Plant (Mountaineer Plant), a 1300 MWe coal-fired generating station in New Haven, WV. The CCS system is designed to capture 90% of the CO{sub 2} from the incoming flue gas using the Alstom Chilled Ammonia Process (CAP) and compress, transport, inject and store 1.5 million tonnes per year of the captured CO{sub 2} in deep saline reservoirs. Specific Project Objectives include: (1) Achieve a minimum of 90% carbon capture efficiency during steady-state operations; (2) Demonstrate progress toward capture and storage at less than a 35% increase in cost of electricity (COE); (3) Store CO{sub 2} at a rate of 1.5 million tonnes per year in deep saline reservoirs; and (4) Demonstrate commercial technology readiness of the integrated CO{sub 2} capture and storage system.

  19. Revisiting the issue of elite capture in participatory initiatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Jens Friis; Saito-Jensen, Moeko

    2013-01-01

    Based on case studies of two communities implementing participatory forestry in Tanzania and India, we revisit the issue of elite capture of participatory initiatives. Our cases illustrate how initial elite capture of the participatory initiatives is circumvented over time through various forms...

  20. The Bells' Capture note TH-3054-CERN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartouni, Ed P. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2014-01-29

    This document revisits the paper by M. Bell and J. S. Bell “Capture of Cooling Electrons by Cool Protons” TH-3054-CERN (March 30, 1981). I expand the treatment to include e+e- capture.

  1. M theory as a holographic field theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hořava, Petr

    1999-02-01

    We suggest that M theory could be nonperturbatively equivalent to a local quantum field theory. More precisely, we present a ``renormalizable'' gauge theory in eleven dimensions, and show that it exhibits various properties expected of quantum M theory, most notably the holographic principle of 't Hooft and Susskind. The theory also satisfies Mach's principle: A macroscopically large space-time (and the inertia of low-energy excitations) is generated by a large number of ``partons'' in the microscopic theory. We argue that at low energies in large eleven dimensions, the theory should be effectively described by eleven-dimensional supergravity. This effective description breaks down at much lower energies than naively expected, precisely when the system saturates the Bekenstein bound on energy density. We show that the number of partons scales like the area of the surface surrounding the system, and discuss how this holographic reduction of degrees of freedom affects the cosmological constant problem. We propose the holographic field theory as a candidate for a covariant, nonperturbative formulation of quantum M theory.

  2. Identity theory and personality theory: mutual relevance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stryker, Sheldon

    2007-12-01

    Some personality psychologists have found a structural symbolic interactionist frame and identity theory relevant to their work. This frame and theory, developed in sociology, are first reviewed. Emphasized in the review are a multiple identity conception of self, identities as internalized expectations derived from roles embedded in organized networks of social interaction, and a view of social structures as facilitators in bringing people into networks or constraints in keeping them out, subsequently, attention turns to a discussion of the mutual relevance of structural symbolic interactionism/identity theory and personality theory, looking to extensions of the current literature on these topics.

  3. Towards a theory of spacetime theories

    CERN Document Server

    Schiemann, Gregor; Scholz, Erhard

    2017-01-01

    This contributed volume is the result of a July 2010 workshop at the University of Wuppertal Interdisciplinary Centre for Science and Technology Studies which brought together world-wide experts from physics, philosophy and history, in order to address a set of questions first posed in the 1950s: How do we compare spacetime theories? How do we judge, objectively, which is the “best” theory? Is there even a unique answer to this question? The goal of the workshop, and of this book, is to contribute to the development of a meta-theory of spacetime theories. Such a meta-theory would reveal insights about specific spacetime theories by distilling their essential similarities and differences, deliver a framework for a class of theories that could be helpful as a blueprint to build other meta-theories, and provide a higher level viewpoint for judging which theory most accurately describes nature. But rather than drawing a map in broad strokes, the focus is on particularly rich regions in the “space of spaceti...

  4. What genre theory does

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jack

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To provide a small overview of genre theory and its associated concepts and to show how genre theory has had its antecedents in certain parts of the social sciences and not in the humanities. Findings The chapter argues that the explanatory force of genre theory may be explained with its...... emphasis on everyday genres, de facto genres. Originality/value By providing an overview of genre theory, the chapter demonstrates the wealth and richness of forms of explanations in genre theory....

  5. Foundations of Information Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Burgin, Mark

    2008-01-01

    Information is the basic concept of information theory. However, there is no definition of this concept that can encompass all uses of the term information in information theories and beyond. Many question a possibility of such a definition. However, foundations of information theory developed in the context of the general theory of information made it possible to build such a relevant and at the same time, encompassing definition. Foundations of information theory are built in a form of onto...

  6. Directed capture of enzymes and bacteria on bioplastic films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koepsel, Richard R; Russell, Alan J

    2003-01-01

    The development of smart coatings for a variety of uses depends on the ability of the coating material to perform specific functions. We have used water dispersible polyurethane preparations for the immobilization of binding proteins under mild conditions. In these experiments, antibodies against the enzyme beta-galactosidase or the bacterium Escherichia coli were immobilized in polyurethane coatings and then used to effectively capture their cognate antigen. Further, a second, more general, capture protocol was developed which involves the incorporation of the protein avidin in the plastics. This system efficiently captures biotinylated beta-galactosidase. Biotinylated anti-E. coli antibody captured by avidin bioplastics resulted in a nearly 5-fold increase in the number of bound bacteria when compared to blank polyurethane. The use of avidin in a bioplastic allows any biotinylated antibody to be applied to all or part of the surface resulting in a patterning of capture agents on a preformed surface.

  7. Neutron Resonance Capture in 2s-1d Shell Nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergqvist, I.; Biggerstaff, J. A.; Gibbons, J. H.; Good, W. M.

    1965-09-01

    Studies of gamma-ray spectra following thermal neutron capture have been illuminating and fruitful. While tremendous losses in intensity occur in experiments using resonance neutrons there are distinct advantages, such as the availability of resonances of known spin and parity to serve as initial states. Thus, since the identity of final state spins and parities are also frequently known, unique multipolarity and absolute reduced radiative partial widths can be obtained. In addition it is found that capture studies illuminate new resonances that are at best difficult to observe in transmission measurements. A third motivation to study resonance capture spectra is that it might help shed light on the importance of the direct capture mechanism in thermal neutron capture.

  8. Adhesion modulation using glue droplet spreading in spider capture silk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amarpuri, Gaurav; Zhang, Ci; Blackledge, Todd A; Dhinojwala, Ali

    2017-05-01

    Orb web spiders use sticky capture spiral silk to retain prey in webs. Capture spiral silk is composed of an axial fibre of flagelliform silk covered with glue droplets that are arranged in a beads-on-a-string morphology that allows multiple droplets to simultaneously extend and resist pull off. Previous studies showed that the adhesion of capture silk is responsive to environmental humidity, increasing up to an optimum humidity that varied among different spider species. The maximum adhesion was hypothesized to occur when the viscoelasticity of the glue optimized contributions from glue spreading and bulk cohesion. In this study, we show how glue droplet shape during peeling contributes significantly to capture silk adhesion. Both overspreading and underspreading of glue droplets reduces adhesion through changes in crack propagation and failure regime. Understanding the mechanism of stimuli-responsive adhesion of spider capture silk will lead to new designs for smarter adhesives. © 2017 The Author(s).

  9. Capture myopathy in little bustards after trapping and marking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marco, Ignasi; Mentaberre, Gregorio; Ponjoan, Anna; Bota, Gerard; Mañosa, Santi; Lavín, Santiago

    2006-10-01

    Four little bustards (Tetrax tetrax) (one adult and three juvenile males), captured with leg nooses and fitted with a backpack radiotag, died after capture. The first bird was found after 16 days with its left foot caught in the harness and died after 1 day. The other birds showed symptoms of capture myopathy after release, such as the difficulty or inability to fly and/or walk. They died after 5, 6, and 8 days, respectively. At necropsy, muscles affected in all cases were those from the legs, and these were diffusely pale and dull, with a soft friable texture. Microscopically these muscles had multiple foci of myofiber fragmentation, loss of striation, and necrosis; a mononuclear cell infiltrate was observed in muscle from two birds. These findings suggest the little bustard is susceptible to capture myopathy and that caution should be exercised during its capture and handling.

  10. Bicarbonate produced from carbon capture for algae culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Zhanyou; O'Fallon, James V; Chen, Shulin

    2011-11-01

    Using captured CO(2) to grow microalgae is limited by the high cost of CO(2) capture and transportation, as well as significant CO(2) loss during algae culture. Moreover, algae grow poorly at night, but CO(2) cannot be temporarily stored until sunrise. To address these challenges, we discuss a process where CO(2) is captured as bicarbonate and used as feedstock for algae culture, and the carbonate regenerated by the culture process is used as an absorbent to capture more CO(2). This process would significantly reduce carbon capture costs because it does not require additional energy for carbonate regeneration. Furthermore, not only would transport of the aqueous bicarbonate solution cost less than for that of compressed CO(2), but using bicarbonate would also provide a superior alternative for CO(2) delivery to an algae culture system. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. A Simple Correlation for Neutron Capture Rates from Nuclear Masses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Couture, Aaron Joseph [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2018-01-30

    Recent studies of neutron capture performed at LANL have revealed a previously unrecognized connection between nuclear masses and the average neutron capture cross section. A team of three scientists from Los Alamos (P-27), Yale Univ., and Istanbul Univ. (Turkey) recently discovered this connection and have published their results as a Rapid Communication in Physical Review C. Neutron capture is a reaction in which a free neutron is absorbed by the nucleus, keeping the element unchanged, but changing isotopes. This reaction is typically exothermic. As a result, the reaction can proceed even when many other reaction channels are closed. In an astrophysical environment, this means that neutron capture is the primary mechanism by which all of the elements with atomic number greater than nickel are produced is neutron capture.

  12. Sub-barrier capture with quantum diffusion approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scheid W.

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available With the quantum diffusion approach the behavior of capture cross sections and mean-square angular momenta of captured systems are revealed in the reactions with deformed and spherical nuclei at sub-barrier energies. With decreasing bombarding energy under the barrier the external turning point of the nucleus-nucleus potential leaves the region of short-range nuclear interaction and action of friction. Because of this change of the regime of interaction, an unexpected enhancement of the capture cross section is found at bombarding energies far below the Coulomb barrier. This effect is shown its worth in the dependence of mean-square angular momentum on the bombarding energy. From the comparison of calculated capture cross sections and experimental capture or fusion cross sections the importance of quasifission near the entrance channel is demonstrated for the actinidebased reactions and reactions with medium-heavy nuclei at extreme sub-barrier energies.

  13. Teaching Theory X and Theory Y in Organizational Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noland, Carey

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the activity described here is to integrate McGregor's Theory X and Theory Y into a group application: design a syllabus that embodies either Theory X or Theory Y tenets. Students should be able to differentiate between Theory X and Theory Y, create a syllabus based on Theory X or Theory Y tenets, evaluate the different syllabi…

  14. Debates—Perspectives on socio-hydrology: Capturing feedbacks between physical and social processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Baldassarre, Giuliano; Viglione, Alberto; Carr, Gemma; Kuil, Linda; Yan, Kun; Brandimarte, Luigia; Blöschl, Günter

    2015-06-01

    In flood risk assessment, there remains a lack of analytical frameworks capturing the dynamics emerging from two-way feedbacks between physical and social processes, such as adaptation and levee effect. The former, "adaptation effect", relates to the observation that the occurrence of more frequent flooding is often associated with decreasing vulnerability. The latter, "levee effect", relates to the observation that the non-occurrence of frequent flooding (possibly caused by flood protection structures, e.g. levees) is often associated to increasing vulnerability. As current analytical frameworks do not capture these dynamics, projections of future flood risk are not realistic. In this paper, we develop a new approach whereby the mutual interactions and continuous feedbacks between floods and societies are explicitly accounted for. Moreover, we show an application of this approach by using a socio-hydrological model to simulate the behavior of two main prototypes of societies: green societies, which cope with flooding by resettling out of flood-prone areas; and technological societies, which deal with flooding also by building levees or dikes. This application shows that the proposed approach is able to capture and explain the aforementioned dynamics (i.e. adaptation and levee effect) and therefore contribute to a better understanding of changes in flood risk, within an iterative process of theory development and empirical research.

  15. Electrocatalytically switchable CO2 capture: first principle computational exploration of carbon nanotubes with pyridinic nitrogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Yan; Zheng, Yao; Smith, Sean C; Du, Aijun; Zhu, Zhonghua

    2014-02-01

    Carbon nanotubes with specific nitrogen doping are proposed for controllable, highly selective, and reversible CO2 capture. Using density functional theory incorporating long-range dispersion corrections, we investigated the adsorption behavior of CO2 on (7,7) single-walled carbon nanotubes (CNTs) with several nitrogen doping configurations and varying charge states. Pyridinic-nitrogen incorporation in CNTs is found to induce an increasing CO2 adsorption strength with electron injecting, leading to a highly selective CO2 adsorption in comparison with N2 . This functionality could induce intrinsically reversible CO2 adsorption as capture/release can be controlled by switching the charge carrying state of the system on/off. This phenomenon is verified for a number of different models and theoretical methods, with clear ramifications for the possibility of implementation with a broader class of graphene-based materials. A scheme for the implementation of this remarkable reversible electrocatalytic CO2 -capture phenomenon is considered. Copyright © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. The (non)Theory of the Knowledge Firm

    OpenAIRE

    Paul Walker

    2008-01-01

    This paper argues that the mainstream approaches to the theory of the firm do not provide a theory of the human capital based or knowledge based firm. We examine the textbook (neoclassical) theory of the firm, the transaction cost model, the incentive-system approach and the Grossman Hart Moore approach to the firm and argue that none of them are able to fully capture the changes to the firm that the movement towards a knowledge economy entails. We also consider the effects of knowledge on th...

  17. Capture and dissociation in the complex-forming CH + H2 → CH2 + H, CH + H2 reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Miguel; Saracibar, Amaia; Garcia, Ernesto

    2011-02-28

    The rate coefficients for the capture process CH + H(2)→ CH(3) and the reactions CH + H(2)→ CH(2) + H (abstraction), CH + H(2) (exchange) have been calculated in the 200-800 K temperature range, using the quasiclassical trajectory (QCT) method and the most recent global potential energy surface. The reactions, which are of interest in combustion and in astrochemistry, proceed via the formation of long-lived CH(3) collision complexes, and the three H atoms become equivalent. QCT rate coefficients for capture are in quite good agreement with experiments. However, an important zero point energy (ZPE) leakage problem occurs in the QCT calculations for the abstraction, exchange and inelastic exit channels. To account for this issue, a pragmatic but accurate approach has been applied, leading to a good agreement with experimental abstraction rate coefficients. Exchange rate coefficients have also been calculated using this approach. Finally, calculations employing QCT capture/phase space theory (PST) models have been carried out, leading to similar values for the abstraction rate coefficients as the QCT and previous quantum mechanical capture/PST methods. This suggests that QCT capture/PST models are a good alternative to the QCT method for this and similar systems.

  18. Generalizability theory and item response theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Glas, Cornelis A.W.; Eggen, T.J.H.M.; Veldkamp, B.P.

    2012-01-01

    Item response theory is usually applied to items with a selected-response format, such as multiple choice items, whereas generalizability theory is usually applied to constructed-response tasks assessed by raters. However, in many situations, raters may use rating scales consisting of items with a

  19. Generalizability Theory and Classical Test Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, Robert L.

    2011-01-01

    Broadly conceived, reliability involves quantifying the consistencies and inconsistencies in observed scores. Generalizability theory, or G theory, is particularly well suited to addressing such matters in that it enables an investigator to quantify and distinguish the sources of inconsistencies in observed scores that arise, or could arise, over…

  20. Rotor theories by Professor Joukowsky: Momentum theories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Kuik, G. A. M.; Sørensen, Jens Nørkær; Okulov, V. L.

    2015-01-01

    This paper is the first of two papers on the history of rotor aerodynamics with special emphasis on the role of Joukowsky. The present one focuses on the development of the momentum theory while the second one surveys the development of vortex theory for rotors. Joukowsky has played a major role ...

  1. Theory system classics and theory of emotions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milenković Pavle

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the problematization of emotions within the systems theory in sociology, with special reference to Talcott Parsons and Niklas Luhmann. After considering the ambivalent interrelation of (studying emotions and sociology, as well as the basic postulates of systems theory, we offer a (reinterpretation of the role and place of emotions within this theoretical tradition. It is argued that emotions as a variable have a prominent place and play a significant role in the formulation of the basic assumptions of systems theory in sociology. Attention is drawn to the fact that systems theories offer a useful theoretical framework for problematization and explanation of human emotions and emotionality in a comprehensive and relevant manner. Finally, we discuss systems theory as a potential connecting point or a bridge between sociology and psychology (of emotions.

  2. Hematological indicators of stress in longline-captured sharks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Heather; Field, Lyndsay; Afiadata, Achankeng; Sepulveda, Chugey; Skomal, Gregory; Bernal, Diego

    2012-06-01

    For many shark species, little information exists about the stress response to capture and release in commercial longline fisheries. Recent studies have used hematological profiling to assess the secondary stress response, but little is known about how, and to what degree, these indicators vary interspecifically. Moreover, there is little understanding of the extent to which the level of relative swimming activity (e.g., sluggish vs. active) or the general ecological classification (e.g., coastal vs. pelagic) correlates to the magnitude of the exercise-induced (capture-related) stress response. This study compared plasma electrolytes (Na(+), Cl(-), Mg(2+), Ca(2+), and K(+)), metabolites (glucose and lactate), blood hematocrit, and heat shock protein (Hsp70) levels between 11 species of longline-captured sharks (n=164). Statistical comparison of hematological parameters revealed species-specific differences in response to longline capture, as well as differences by ecological classification. Taken together, the blood properties of longline-captured sharks appear to be useful indicators of interspecific variation in the secondary stress response to capture, and may prove useful in the future for predicting survivorship of longline-captured sharks where new technologies (i.e., pop-up satellite tags) can verify post-release mortality. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Fixation not required: characterizing oculomotor attention capture for looming stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Joanna E; Neider, Mark B

    2015-10-01

    A stimulus moving toward us, such as a ball being thrown in our direction or a vehicle braking suddenly in front of ours, often represents a stimulus that requires a rapid response. Using a visual search task in which target and distractor items were systematically associated with a looming object, we explored whether this sort of looming motion captures attention, the nature of such capture using eye movement measures (overt/covert), and the extent to which such capture effects are more closely tied to motion onset or the motion itself. We replicated previous findings indicating that looming motion induces response time benefits and costs during visual search Lin, Franconeri, & Enns(Psychological Science 19(7): 686-693, 2008). These differences in response times were independent of fixation, indicating that these capture effects did not necessitate overt attentional shifts to a looming object for search benefits or costs to occur. Interestingly, we found no differences in capture benefits and costs associated with differences in looming motion type. Combined, our results suggest that capture effects associated with looming motion are more likely subserved by covert attentional mechanisms rather than overt mechanisms, and attention capture for looming motion is likely related to motion itself rather than the onset of motion.

  4. Carbon Capture in the Cement Industry: Technologies, Progress, and Retrofitting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hills, Thomas; Leeson, Duncan; Florin, Nicholas; Fennell, Paul

    2016-01-05

    Several different carbon-capture technologies have been proposed for use in the cement industry. This paper reviews their attributes, the progress that has been made toward their commercialization, and the major challenges facing their retrofitting to existing cement plants. A technology readiness level (TRL) scale for carbon capture in the cement industry is developed. For application at cement plants, partial oxy-fuel combustion, amine scrubbing, and calcium looping are the most developed (TRL 6 being the pilot system demonstrated in relevant environment), followed by direct capture (TRL 4-5 being the component and system validation at lab-scale in a relevant environment) and full oxy-fuel combustion (TRL 4 being the component and system validation at lab-scale in a lab environment). Our review suggests that advancing to TRL 7 (demonstration in plant environment) seems to be a challenge for the industry, representing a major step up from TRL 6. The important attributes that a cement plant must have to be "carbon-capture ready" for each capture technology selection is evaluated. Common requirements are space around the preheater and precalciner section, access to CO2 transport infrastructure, and a retrofittable preheater tower. Evidence from the electricity generation sector suggests that carbon capture readiness is not always cost-effective. The similar durations of cement-plant renovation and capture-plant construction suggests that synchronizing these two actions may save considerable time and money.

  5. Quantum potential theory

    CERN Document Server

    Schürmann, Michael

    2008-01-01

    This volume contains the revised and completed notes of lectures given at the school "Quantum Potential Theory: Structure and Applications to Physics," held at the Alfried-Krupp-Wissenschaftskolleg in Greifswald from February 26 to March 10, 2007. Quantum potential theory studies noncommutative (or quantum) analogs of classical potential theory. These lectures provide an introduction to this theory, concentrating on probabilistic potential theory and it quantum analogs, i.e. quantum Markov processes and semigroups, quantum random walks, Dirichlet forms on C* and von Neumann algebras, and boundary theory. Applications to quantum physics, in particular the filtering problem in quantum optics, are also presented.

  6. Historicizing affordance theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Sofie; Bang, Jytte Susanne

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this article is to discuss how mutually enriching points from both affordance theory and cultural-historical activity theory can promote theoretical ideas which may prove useful as analytical tools for the study of human life and human development. There are two issues that need...... to be overcome in order to explore the potentials of James Gibson’s affordance theory: it does not sufficiently theorize (a) development and (b) society. We claim that Gibson’s affordance theory still needs to be brought beyond “the axiom of immediacy.” Ambivalences in Gibson’s affordance theory...... societal character of affordance theory....

  7. Bosonic M Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Horowitz, Gary T.; Susskind, Leonard

    2000-01-01

    We conjecture that there exists a strong coupling limit of bosonic string theory which is related to the 26 dimensional theory in the same way that 11 dimensional M theory is related to superstring theory. More precisely, we believe that bosonic string theory is the compactification on a line interval of a 27 dimensional theory whose low energy limit contains gravity and a three-form potential. The line interval becomes infinite in the strong coupling limit, and this may provide a stable grou...

  8. Fully automated corneal endothelial morphometry of images captured by clinical specular microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucht, Curry; Söderberg, Per; Manneberg, Göran

    2010-02-01

    The corneal endothelium serves as the posterior barrier of the cornea. Factors such as clarity and refractive properties of the cornea are in direct relationship to the quality of the endothelium. The endothelial cell density is considered the most important morphological factor of the corneal endothelium. Pathological conditions and physical trauma may threaten the endothelial cell density to such an extent that the optical property of the cornea and thus clear eyesight is threatened. Diagnosis of the corneal endothelium through morphometry is an important part of several clinical applications. Morphometry of the corneal endothelium is presently carried out by semi automated analysis of pictures captured by a Clinical Specular Microscope (CSM). Because of the occasional need of operator involvement, this process can be tedious, having a negative impact on sampling size. This study was dedicated to the development and use of fully automated analysis of a very large range of images of the corneal endothelium, captured by CSM, using Fourier analysis. Software was developed in the mathematical programming language Matlab. Pictures of the corneal endothelium, captured by CSM, were read into the analysis software. The software automatically performed digital enhancement of the images, normalizing lights and contrasts. The digitally enhanced images of the corneal endothelium were Fourier transformed, using the fast Fourier transform (FFT) and stored as new images. Tools were developed and applied for identification and analysis of relevant characteristics of the Fourier transformed images. The data obtained from each Fourier transformed image was used to calculate the mean cell density of its corresponding corneal endothelium. The calculation was based on well known diffraction theory. Results in form of estimated cell density of the corneal endothelium were obtained, using fully automated analysis software on 292 images captured by CSM. The cell density obtained by the

  9. Modeling Carbon Dioxide Capture by Monoethanolamine Solvent with ASPEN Plus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Tianyi

    Fossil fuels provide approximately 80% of the world's energy demands. Methods for reducing CO2 emissions resulting from fossil fuels include increasing the efficiency of power plants and production processes, decreasing energy demands, in combination with CO2 capture and long term storage (CCS). CO2 capture technologies include post-combustion, pre-combustion, and oxyfuel combustion. The amine-based post-combustion CO2 capture from a coal-fired power plant was studied in this thesis. In case of post-combustion capture, CO2 can be captured by Monoethanolamine solvent (MEA), a primary ethanolamine. MEA can associate with H3O+ to form an ion MEAH+, and can react with CO2 to form a carbonate ion MEACOO-. Commercial code ASPEN Plus was used to simulate the process of CO2 capture and optimize the process parameters and required energy duty. The major part of thermal energy requirement is from the Absorber and Stripper columns. This suggests that process optimization should focus on the Absorption/Desorption process. Optimization results show that the gas-liquid reaction equilibrium is affected by several operating parameters including solvent flow rate, stream temperature, column operating pressure, flue gas composition, solvent concentration and absorber design. With optimized CO2 capture, the energy consumption for solvent regeneration (reboiler thermal duty) was decreased from 5.76 GJ/ton captured CO2 to 4.56 GJ/t CO2. On the other hand, the cost of CO2 capture (and sequestration) could be reduced by limiting size of the Absorber column and operating pressure.

  10. Neutron Capture Gamma-Ray Libraries for Nuclear Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sleaford, B W; Firestone, R B; Summers, N; Escher, J; Hurst, A; Krticka, M; Basunia, S; Molnar, G; Belgya, T; Revay, Z; Choi, H D

    2010-11-04

    The neutron capture reaction is useful in identifying and analyzing the gamma-ray spectrum from an unknown assembly as it gives unambiguous information on its composition. this can be done passively or actively where an external neutron source is used to probe an unknown assembly. There are known capture gamma-ray data gaps in the ENDF libraries used by transport codes for various nuclear applications. The Evaluated Gamma-ray Activation file (EGAF) is a new thermal neutron capture database of discrete line spectra and cross sections for over 260 isotopes that was developed as part of an IAEA Coordinated Research project. EGAF is being used to improve the capture gamma production in ENDF libraries. For medium to heavy nuclei the quasi continuum contribution to the gamma cascades is not experimentally resolved. The continuum contains up to 90% of all the decay energy and is modeled here with the statistical nuclear structure code DICEBOX. This code also provides a consistency check of the level scheme nuclear structure evaluation. The calculated continuum is of sufficient accuracy to include in the ENDF libraries. This analysis also determines new total thermal capture cross sections and provides an improved RIPL database. For higher energy neutron capture there is less experimental data available making benchmarking of the modeling codes more difficult. They are investigating the capture spectra from higher energy neutrons experimentally using surrogate reactions and modeling this with Hauser-Feshbach codes. This can then be used to benchmark CASINO, a version of DICEBOX modified for neutron capture at higher energy. This can be used to simulate spectra from neutron capture at incident neutron energies up to 20 MeV to improve the gamma-ray spectrum in neutron data libraries used for transport modeling of unknown assemblies.

  11. Application of adjoint Monte Carlo to accelerate simulations of mono-directional beams in treatment planning for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nievaart, V.A.; Legrady, D.; Moss, R.L.; Kloosterman, J.L.; Van der Hagen, T.H.; Van Dam, H.

    2007-01-01

    This paper deals with the application of the adjoint transport theory in order to optimize Monte Carlo based radiotherapy treatment planning. The technique is applied to Boron Neutron Capture Therapy where most often mixed beams of neutrons and gammas are involved. In normal forward Monte Carlo

  12. Lessons Learnt from Experts in Design Rationale Knowledge Capture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hall, Mark; Bermell-Garcia, Pablo; Ravindranath, Ranjitun

    2017-01-01

    The focus of this paper is on the use of argumentation models and software tools to support knowledge capture in the design of long-life engineering products. The results of semi-structured interviews with a number of experts in the field are presented, exploring their collective experience...... of knowledge capture and eliciting guidelines for successful implementation of such models and tools. The results of this research may be used as the basis for the design of future tools and techniques for knowledge capture....

  13. First capture of Micronycteris homezi Pirlot (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrico Bernard

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available The first capture of the phyllostomid bat Micronycteris homezi Pirlot, 1867 in Brazil is reported. An adult male was captured in a forest fragment in Alter do Chão, Santarám, Pará State, in May 7th , 1998. A description of the species, previously reported only in Venezuela and French Guiana, is given, as well as the measures of the captured specimen. After this report, the bat fauna of Brazil is composed by 139 species.

  14. The microbe capture experiment in space: Fluorescence microscopic detection of microbes captured by aerogel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugino, Tomohiro; Yokobori, Shin-Ichi; Yang, Yinjie; Kawaguchi, Yuko; Okudaira, Kyoko; Tabata, Makoto; Kawai, Hideyuki; Hasegawa, Sunao; Yamagishi, Akihiko

    Microbes have been collected at the altitude up to about 70 km in the sampling experiment done by several groups[1]. We have also collected high altitude microbes, by using an airplane and balloons[2][3][4][5]. We collected new deinococcal strain (Deinococcus aetherius and Deinococ-cus aerius) and several strains of spore-forming bacilli from stratosphere[2][4][5]. However, microbe sampling in space has never been reported. On the other hand, "Panspermia" hy-pothesis, where terrestrial life is originated from outside of Earth, has been proposed[6][7][8][9]. Recent report suggesting existence of the possible microbe fossils in the meteorite of Mars origin opened the serious debate on the possibility of migration of life embedded in meteorites (and cosmic dusts)[10][11]. If we were able to find terrestrial microbes in space, it would suggest that the terrestrial life can travel between astronomical bodies. We proposed a mission "Tanpopo: Astrobiology Exposure and Micrometeoroid Capture Experiments" to examine possible inter-planetary migration of microbes, organic compounds and meteoroids on Japan Experimental Module of the International Space Station (ISS)[12]. Two of six sub themes in this mission are directly related to interplanetary migration of microbes. One is the direct capturing experi-ment of microbes (probably within the particles such as clay) in space by the exposed ultra-low density aerogel. Another is the exposure experiment to examine survivability of the microbes in harsh space environment. They will tell us the possibility of interplanetary migration of microbes (life) from Earth to outside of Earth (or vise versa). In this report, we will report whether aerogel that have been used for the collection of space debris and cosmic dusts can be used for microbe sampling in space. We will discuss how captured particles by aerogel can be detected with DNA-specific fluorescent dye, and how to distinguish microbes from other mate-rials (i.e. aerogel and

  15. VISTA Captures Celestial Cat's Hidden Secrets

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    The Cat's Paw Nebula, NGC 6334, is a huge stellar nursery, the birthplace of hundreds of massive stars. In a magnificent new ESO image taken with the Visible and Infrared Survey Telescope for Astronomy (VISTA) at the Paranal Observatory in Chile, the glowing gas and dust clouds obscuring the view are penetrated by infrared light and some of the Cat's hidden young stars are revealed. Towards the heart of the Milky Way, 5500 light-years from Earth in the constellation of Scorpius (the Scorpion), the Cat's Paw Nebula stretches across 50 light-years. In visible light, gas and dust are illuminated by hot young stars, creating strange reddish shapes that give the object its nickname. A recent image by ESO's Wide Field Imager (WFI) at the La Silla Observatory (eso1003) captured this visible light view in great detail. NGC 6334 is one of the most active nurseries of massive stars in our galaxy. VISTA, the latest addition to ESO's Paranal Observatory in the Chilean Atacama Desert, is the world's largest survey telescope (eso0949). It works at infrared wavelengths, seeing right through much of the dust that is such a beautiful but distracting aspect of the nebula, and revealing objects hidden from the sight of visible light telescopes. Visible light tends to be scattered and absorbed by interstellar dust, but the dust is nearly transparent to infrared light. VISTA has a main mirror that is 4.1 metres across and it is equipped with the largest infrared camera on any telescope. It shares the spectacular viewing conditions with ESO's Very Large Telescope (VLT), which is located on the nearby summit. With this powerful instrument at their command, astronomers were keen to see the birth pains of the big young stars in the Cat's Paw Nebula, some nearly ten times the mass of the Sun. The view in the infrared is strikingly different from that in visible light. With the dust obscuring the view far less, they can learn much more about how these stars form and develop in their first

  16. Rigour and grounded theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooney, Adeline

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores ways to enhance and demonstrate rigour in a grounded theory study. Grounded theory is sometimes criticised for a lack of rigour. Beck (1993) identified credibility, auditability and fittingness as the main standards of rigour for qualitative research methods. These criteria were evaluated for applicability to a Straussian grounded theory study and expanded or refocused where necessary. The author uses a Straussian grounded theory study (Cooney, In press) to examine how the revised criteria can be applied when conducting a grounded theory study. Strauss and Corbin (1998b) criteria for judging the adequacy of a grounded theory were examined in the context of the wider literature examining rigour in qualitative research studies in general and grounded theory studies in particular. A literature search for 'rigour' and 'grounded theory' was carried out to support this analysis. Criteria are suggested for enhancing and demonstrating the rigour of a Straussian grounded theory study. These include: cross-checking emerging concepts against participants' meanings, asking experts if the theory 'fit' their experiences, and recording detailed memos outlining all analytical and sampling decisions. IMPLICATIONS FOR RESEARCH PRACTICE: The criteria identified have been expressed as questions to enable novice researchers to audit the extent to which they are demonstrating rigour when writing up their studies. However, it should not be forgotten that rigour is built into the grounded theory method through the inductive-deductive cycle of theory generation. Care in applying the grounded theory methodology correctly is the single most important factor in ensuring rigour.

  17. Nongeometric F -theory-heterotic duality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Jie; Jockers, Hans

    2015-04-01

    In this work we study the duality between F -theory and the heterotic string beyond the stable degeneration limit in F -theory and large fiber limit in the heterotic theory. Building upon a recent proposal by Clingher and Doran and by Malmendier and Morrison—which phrases the duality on the heterotic side for a particular class of models in terms of (fibered) genus-two curves as nongeometric heterotic compactifications—we establish the precise limit to the semiclassical heterotic string in both eight and lower space-time dimensions. In particular for six-dimensional theories, we argue that this class of nongeometric heterotic compactifications capture α' quantum corrections to the semiclassical heterotic supergravity compactifications on elliptically fibered K 3 surfaces. From the nongeometric heterotic theory, the semiclassical phase on the K 3 surface is recovered from a remarkable limit of genus-two Siegel modular forms combined with a geometric surgery operation. Finally, in four dimensions we analyze another limit deep in the quantum regime of the nongeometric heterotic string, which we refer to as the heterotic Sen limit. In this limit we can explicitly argue that the semiclassical two-staged fibrational structure of the heterotic hypermultiplet moduli space—recently established by Alexandrov, Louis, Pioline, and Valandro—gets corrected by quantum effects.

  18. The theory of remainders

    CERN Document Server

    Rothbart, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    An imaginative introduction to number theory and abstract algebra, this unique approach employs a pair of fictional characters whose dialogues explain theories and demonstrate applications in terms of football scoring, chess moves, and more.

  19. [Mathematics and string theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaffe, A.; Yau, Shing-Tung.

    1993-01-01

    Work on this grant was centered on connections between non- commutative geometry and physics. Topics covered included: cyclic cohomology, non-commutative manifolds, index theory, reflection positivity, space quantization, quantum groups, number theory, etc.

  20. Psychological reactance theory (3)

    OpenAIRE

    Fukada, Hiromi

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to describe psychological reactance theory in detail and discuss and refine the theory. The paper consists of following two parts. 9. Effects of reactance 10. Attitudinal freedoms