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Sample records for styrene-butadiene rubber sbr

  1. Biodegradation behavior of styrene butadiene rubber (SBR) reinforced with modified coconut shell powder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreejith, M. P.; Balan, Aparna K.; Shaniba, V.; Jinitha, T. V.; Subair, N.; Purushothaman, E.

    2017-06-01

    Biodegradation behavior of styrene butadiene rubber composites reinforced with natural filler, coconut shell powder (CSP), with different filler loadings were carried out under soil burial conditions for three to six months. The extent of biodegradation of the composites was evaluated through weight loss, tensile strength and hardness measurements. It was observed that the permanence of the composites was remarkably dependent on filler modification, size of the filler particle and filler content. Composites containing silane modified filler were found to be more resistant to attack by the microbes present in the soil. Mechanical properties such as tensile strength, Young's modulus and hardness were decreased after soil burial testing due to the microbial attack onto the samples.

  2. Thermal Stability and Flammability of Styrene-Butadiene Rubber-Based (SBR Ceramifiable Composites

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    Rafał Anyszka

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Ceramifiable styrene-butadiene (SBR-based composites containing low-softening-point-temperature glassy frit promoting ceramification, precipitated silica, one of four thermally stable refractory fillers (halloysite, calcined kaolin, mica or wollastonite and a sulfur-based curing system were prepared. Kinetics of vulcanization and basic mechanical properties were analyzed and added as Supplementary Materials. Combustibility of the composites was measured by means of cone calorimetry. Their thermal properties were analyzed by means of thermogravimetry and specific heat capacity determination. Activation energy of thermal decomposition was calculated using the Flynn-Wall-Ozawa method. Finally, compression strength of the composites after ceramification was measured and their micromorphology was studied by scanning electron microscopy. The addition of a ceramification-facilitating system resulted in the lowering of combustibility and significant improvement of the thermal stability of the composites. Moreover, the compression strength of the mineral structure formed after ceramification is considerably high. The most promising refractory fillers for SBR-based ceramifiable composites are mica and halloysite.

  3. Adhesion properties of styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR/Standard Malaysian Rubber (SMR L-based adhesives in the presence of phenol formaldehyde resin

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    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The adhesion properties, i. e. viscosity, tack and peel strength of styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR/Standard Malaysian Rubber (SMR L-based pressure-sensitive adhesive was studied using phenol formaldehyde resin as the tackifying resin. Toluene was used as the solvent throughout the experiment. SBR composition in SBR/SMR L blend used was 0, 20, 40, 60, 80, 100%. Three different resin loadings, i. e. 40, 80 and 120 parts per hundred parts of rubber (phr were used in the adhesive formulation. The viscosity of adhesive was determined by a HAAKE Rotary Viscometer whereas loop tack and peel strength of paper/polyethylene terephthalate (PET film were measured using a Lloyd Adhesion Tester operating at 30 cm/min. Results indicate that the viscosity of adhesive decreases with increasing % SBR whereas loop tack passes through a maximum value at 20% SBR for all resin loadings. Except for the control sample (without resin, the peel strength shows a maximum value at 60% SBR for the three modes of peel tests. For a fixed % SBR, adhesive sample containing 40 phr phenol formaldehyde resin always exhibits the highest loop tack and peel strength, an observation which is associated to the optimum wettability of adhesive on the substrate.

  4. Mechanical and Thermal Properties of Styrene Butadiene Rubber - Functionalized Carbon Nanotubes Nanocomposites

    KAUST Repository

    Laoui, Tahar

    2013-01-01

    The effect of reinforcing styrene butadiene rubber (SBR) with functionalized carbon nanotubes on the mechanical and thermal properties of the nanocomposite was investigated. Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were functionalized with phenol

  5. Carbon nanotubes as reinforcement of styrene-butadiene rubber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Falco, Alejandro; Goyanes, Silvia; Rubiolo, Gerardo H.; Mondragon, Inaki; Marzocca, Angel

    2007-01-01

    This study reports an easy technique to produce cured styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR)/multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) composites with a sulphur/accelerator system at 150 deg. C. Significant improvement in Young's modulus and tensile strength were achieved by incorporating 0.66 wt% of filler without sacrificing SBR elastomer high elongation at break. A comparison with carbon black filled SBR was also made. Field emission scanning electron microscopy was used to investigate dispersion and fracture surfaces. Results indicated that the homogeneous dispersion of MWCNT throughout SBR matrix and strong interfacial adhesion between oxidized MWCNT and the matrix are responsible for the considerable enhancement of mechanical properties of the composite

  6. Effect of electron beam irradiation on the properties of natural rubber (NR)/styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR) blend

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manshaie, R. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84156-83111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Nouri Khorasani, S., E-mail: saied@cc.iut.ac.i [Department of Chemical Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84156-83111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Jahanbani Veshare, S. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84156-83111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Rezaei Abadchi, M. [Department of Polymer Engineering, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-01-15

    In this study, physico-mechanical properties of NR/SBR blends cured by electron beam irradiation and sulfur were compared. The NR/SBR blends were prepared using a two-roll mill. Electron beam irradiations of 100-400 kGy were applied to cure the blends and changes in physico-mechanical properties were studied as a function of irradiation. Also, oil resistance and the effect of thermal ageing on mechanical properties of the blends were investigated. The results show that the irradiated blends have better mechanical properties than those cured by sulfur system. The irradiation cured samples also exhibited better heat stability than the sulfur cured samples. The blend cured by the highest dose shows the lowest swelling and high oil resistance compared with the other samples cured by irradiation.

  7. Effect of gamma irradiation on the properties of natural rubber/styrene butadiene rubber blends

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    A.B. Moustafa

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Blends of natural rubber (NR with styrene butadiene rubber (SBR with varying ratios have been prepared. Vulcanization of the prepared blends has been induced by irradiation of gamma rays with varying doses up to 250 kGy. Mechanical properties, namely tensile strength, tensile modulus at 100% elongation, elongation at break have been followed up as a function of irradiation dose as well as blend composition. Physical properties, namely gel fraction and swelling number have been followed up using benzene as a solvent. Thermal measurements namely thermogravimetric analysis were carried out. The results indicated that the addition of NR has improved the properties of NR / SBR blends. Also NR/SBR blend is thermally stable than NR alone.

  8. Morphological and mechanical properties of styrene butadiene rubber/nano copper nanocomposites

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    Maryam Hadizadeh Harandi

    Full Text Available In this research, rubber based nanocomposites with presence of nanoparticle has been studied. Styrene butadiene rubber (SBR/nanocopper (NC composites were prepared using two-roll mill method. Transmission electron microscope (TEM and scanning electron microscope (SEM images showed proper dispersion of NC in the SBR matrix without substantial agglomeration of nanoparticles. To evaluate the curing properties of nanocomposite samples, swelling and cure rheometric tests were conducted. Moreover, the rheological studies were carried out over a range of shear rates. The effect of NC particles was examined on the thermal behavior of the SBR using thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA. Furthermore, tensile tests were employed to investigate the capability of nanoparticles to enhance mechanical behavior of the compounds. The results showed enhancement in tensile properties with incorporation of NC to SBR matrix. Moreover, addition of NC increased shear viscosity and curing time of SBR composites. Keywords: Nanocopper, Rubber, Curing behavior, Rheological properties, Thermal stability, Tensile characteristics

  9. The evaluation of tetrabutylamonium bis(4-ethylphenylsulphonyldithiocarbimate)zincate(II) (ZNIBU) efficiency as a reclaiming agent for styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreno, Pedro H.H.; Visconte, Leila L.Y.; Pacheco, Elen B.A.V.; Tavares, Eder C.

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, the production of rubber waste has been reported as a serious environmental problem. The chemical structure of rubbers (crosslinked, insoluble and infusible polymers) makes its reprocessing very difficult, unlike thermoplastics. The most common methods to treat rubber waste are of thermal, mechanical and chemical nature, wherein the chemical methods the purpose is to regenerate the rubber. Early studies with tetrabutylamonium bis(4-methylphenylsulphonyldithiocarbimate)zincate(II) (ZNIBU) point to its ability as an accelerator in the rubber curing process. In this work, this zinc complex was evaluated as a chemical regeneration agent. ZNIBU was synthesized and characterized by Nuclear Magnetic Resonance ("1"3C NMR) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR). The mixture of virgin SBR with vulcanization ingredients was performed in a two-roll mill, and the composition was then vulcanized and molded on a hydraulic press. The synthesized ZNIBU was then mixed with the vulcanized rubber and devulcanization was observed. Finally, the devulcanized elastomeric composition was revulcanized. The revulcanization of SBR regenerated with ZNIBU led to the formation of a rubber with maximum torque near the maximum torque of the virgin vulcanized rubber. After adjusting the optimal conditions of regeneration, mechanical tests will be carried out (tensile strength, tear strength and hardness) for the specimens of both vulcanized and revulcanized rubbers in order to compare their mechanical properties. (author)

  10. Morphological and mechanical properties of styrene butadiene rubber/nano copper nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harandi, Maryam Hadizadeh; Alimoradi, Fakhrodin; Rowshan, Gholamhussein; Faghihi, Morteza; Keivani, Maryam; Abadyan, Mohamadreza

    In this research, rubber based nanocomposites with presence of nanoparticle has been studied. Styrene butadiene rubber (SBR)/nanocopper (NC) composites were prepared using two-roll mill method. Transmission electron microscope (TEM) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) images showed proper dispersion of NC in the SBR matrix without substantial agglomeration of nanoparticles. To evaluate the curing properties of nanocomposite samples, swelling and cure rheometric tests were conducted. Moreover, the rheological studies were carried out over a range of shear rates. The effect of NC particles was examined on the thermal behavior of the SBR using thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA). Furthermore, tensile tests were employed to investigate the capability of nanoparticles to enhance mechanical behavior of the compounds. The results showed enhancement in tensile properties with incorporation of NC to SBR matrix. Moreover, addition of NC increased shear viscosity and curing time of SBR composites.

  11. Microstructural analysis of carbon nanotubes produced from pyrolysis/combustion of styrene-butadiene rubber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alves, Joner O.; Zhuo, Chuanwei; Levendis, Yannis A. [Northeastern Univ., Boston, MA (United States). Coll. of Engineering. Dept. of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering; Tenorio, Jorge A.S. [University of Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Polytechnic School. Dept. of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering

    2010-07-01

    Styrene-Butadiene-Rubber (SBR) is a synthetic rubber copolymer used to fabricate several products. This study aims to demonstrate the use of SBR as feedstock for carbon nanotubes (CNTs) growth, and therefore to establish a novel process for destination for wastes produced from SBR. Pellets of this rubber were controlled burned at temperature of 1000 deg C, and a catalyst system was used to synthesize the nanomaterials. CNTs are materials with a wide range of potential applications due to their extraordinary mechanical, thermal and electrical properties. Produced materials were characterized by SEM and TEM, and the hydrocarbons emissions were measured using GC. Results showed that materials with diameters of 30-100 nm and lengths of about 30 {mu}m were formed. That materials presented similar structures of multi-walled CNTs. Therefore, the use of SBR to produce carbon nanotubes showed quite satisfactory and an interesting field for future investments. (author)

  12. Tear energy and strain-induced crystallization of natural rubber/styrene-butadiene rubber blend

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noguchi, F; Akabori, K; Yamamoto, Y; Kawahara, S; Kawazura, T

    2009-01-01

    Strain-induced crystallization of natural rubber (NR), dispersed in styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR), was investigated in relation to dimensional feature of a dispersoid and crosslink density of NR by measuring tear energy (G) of crosslinked NR/SBR blends. The crosslinked NR/SBR blends in ratios of 1/9 and 3/7 by weight were prepared by mixing masticated NR and SBR with an internal mixer at a rotor speed of 30 rpm, followed by crosslinking with dicumyl peroxide on a hot press at 444 K for 60 min. The G, measured in wide-ranges of temperature and tear rate, was superposed into a master curve with a Williams-Landel-Ferry shift factor. The G of the NR/SBR(3/7) blend abruptly decreased to a level comparable to that of SBR at about melting temperature of NR crystals formed on straining. The temperature, at which the dramatic decrease in the G occurred, was associated with the dimensional feature of the NR dispersoid and the crosslink density.

  13. Performance of asphaltic concrete incorporating styrene butadiene rubber subjected to varying aging condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salah, Faisal Mohammed; Jaya, Ramadhansyah Putra; Mohamed, Azman; Hassan, Norhidayah Abdul; Rosni, Nurul Najihah Mad; Mohamed, Abdullahi Ali; Agussabti

    2017-12-01

    The influence of styrene butadiene rubber (SBR) on asphaltic concrete properties at different aging conditions was presented in this study. These aging conditions were named as un-aged, short-term, and long-term aging. The conventional asphalt binder of penetration grade 60/70 was used in this work. Four different levels of SBR addition were employed (i.e., 0 %, 1 %, 3 %, and 5 % by binder weight). Asphalt concrete mixes were prepared at selected optimum asphalt content (5 %). The performance was evaluated based on Marshall Stability, resilient modulus, and dynamic creep tests. Results indicated the improving stability and permanent deformation characteristics that the mixes modified with SBR polymer have under aging conditions. The result also showed that the stability, resilient modulus, and dynamic creep tests have the highest rates compared to the short-term aging and un-aged samples. Thus, the use of 5 % SBR can produce more durable asphalt concrete mixtures with better serviceability.

  14. A molecular dynamics study on Young's modulus and tribology of carbon nanotube reinforced styrene-butadiene rubber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chawla, Raj; Sharma, Sumit

    2018-03-18

    Styrene-butadiene rubber is a copolymer widely used in making car tires and has excellent abrasion resistance. The Young's modulus and tribology of pure styrene butadiene rubber (SBR) polymer and carbon nanotube reinforced polymer composites have been investigated using molecular dynamics simulations. The mechanism of enhanced tribology properties using carbon nanotube has been studied and discussed. The obtained Young's modulus shows the enhancement in mechanical properties of SBR polymer when carbon nanotubes are used as reinforcement. The concentration, temperature and velocity profiles, radial distribution function, frictional stresses, and cohesive energy density are calculated and analyzed in detail. The Young's modulus of SBR matrix increases about 29.16% in the presence of the 5% CNT. The atom movement velocity and average cohesive energy density in the friction area of pure SBR matrix was found to be more than that of the CNT/SBR composite. Graphical abstract Initial and final conditions of (a) pure SBR matrix and (b) CNT/SBR matrix subjected toshear loading and frictional stresses of top Fe layers of both pure SBR and CNT/SBR composite.

  15. Reinforcing styrene butadiene rubber with lignin-novolac epoxy resin networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Yu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, lignin-novolac epoxy resin networks were fabricated in the styrene butadiene rubber (SBR matrix by combination of latex compounding and melt mixing. Firstly, SBR/lignin compounds were co-coagulated by SBR latex and lignin aqueous solution. Then the novolac epoxy resin (F51 was added in the SBR/lignin compounds by melt compounding method. F51 was directly cured by lignin via the ring-opening reaction of epoxy groups of F51 and OH groups (or COOH groups of lignin during the curing process of rubber compounds, as was particularly evident from Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR studies and maximum torque of the curing analysis. The existence of lignin-F51 networks were also detected by scanning electron microscope (SEM and dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA. The structure of the SBR/lignin/F51 was also characterized by rubber process analyzer (RPA, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA and determination of crosslinking density. Due to rigid lignin-F51 networks achieved in SBR/lignin/F51 composites, it was found that the hardness, modulus, tear strength, crosslinking density, the temperature of 5 and 10% weight-loss were significantly enhanced with the loading of F51.

  16. About the cure kinetics in natural rubber/styrene Butadiene rubber blends at 433 K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mansilla, M.A.; Marzocca, A.J.

    2012-01-01

    Vulcanized blends of elastomers are employed in several goods mainly to improve physical properties and reduce costs. One of the most used blends of this kind is that composed by natural rubber (NR) and styrene butadiene rubber (SBR). The cure kinetic of these blends depends mainly on the compound formulation and the cure temperature and time. The preparation method of the blends can influence the mechanical properties of the vulcanized compounds. In this work the cure kinetic at 433 K of NR/SBR blends vulcanized with the system sulfur/TBBS (N-t-butyl-2-benzothiazole sulfenamide) is analyzed in samples prepared by mechanical mixing and solution blending. The two methods produce elastomer domains of NR and SBR, which present different microstructure due to the cure level attained during vulcanization. The cure kinetics is studied by means of rheometer tests and the model proposed by Kamal and Sourour. The analysis of the cure rate is presented and is related to the structure obtained during the vulcanization process.

  17. About the cure kinetics in natural rubber/styrene Butadiene rubber blends at 433 K

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mansilla, M.A., E-mail: mmansilla@df.uba.ar [Laboratorio de Polimeros y Materiales Compuestos, Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Ciudad Universitaria, Pabellon 1, C1428EGA Buenos Aires (Argentina); Marzocca, A.J. [Laboratorio de Polimeros y Materiales Compuestos, Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Ciudad Universitaria, Pabellon 1, C1428EGA Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2012-08-15

    Vulcanized blends of elastomers are employed in several goods mainly to improve physical properties and reduce costs. One of the most used blends of this kind is that composed by natural rubber (NR) and styrene butadiene rubber (SBR). The cure kinetic of these blends depends mainly on the compound formulation and the cure temperature and time. The preparation method of the blends can influence the mechanical properties of the vulcanized compounds. In this work the cure kinetic at 433 K of NR/SBR blends vulcanized with the system sulfur/TBBS (N-t-butyl-2-benzothiazole sulfenamide) is analyzed in samples prepared by mechanical mixing and solution blending. The two methods produce elastomer domains of NR and SBR, which present different microstructure due to the cure level attained during vulcanization. The cure kinetics is studied by means of rheometer tests and the model proposed by Kamal and Sourour. The analysis of the cure rate is presented and is related to the structure obtained during the vulcanization process.

  18. Mechanical performance of styrene-butadiene-rubber filled with carbon nanoparticles prepared by mechanical mixing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saatchi, M.M. [Department of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering, Sharif University of Technology, P.O. Box 11155-9465, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shojaei, A., E-mail: akbar.shojaei@sharif.edu [Department of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering, Sharif University of Technology, P.O. Box 11155-9465, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-09-15

    Highlights: {yields} We compare influence of carbon blacks and carbon nanotube on properties of SBR. {yields} We model mechanical behavior of SBR nanocomposites by the micromechanical model. {yields} Mechanical properties of carbon black/SBR is greatly dominated by bound rubber. {yields} Mechanical properties of SBR/nanotube is governed by big aspect ratio of nanotube. - Abstract: Reinforcement of styrene-butadiene-rubber (SBR) was investigated using two different carbon blacks (CBs) with similar particle sizes, including highly structured CB and conventional CB, as well as multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) prepared by mechanical mixing. The attempts were made to examine reinforcing mechanism of these two different classes of carbon nanoparticles. Scanning electron microscopy and electrical conductivity measurement were used to investigate morphology. Tensile, cyclic tensile and stress relaxation analyses were performed. A modified Halpin-Tsai model based on the concept of an equivalent composite particle, consisting of rubber bound, occluded rubber and nanoparticle, was proposed. It was found that properties of CB filled SBR are significantly dominated by rubber shell and occluded rubber in which molecular mobility is strictly restricted. At low strains, these rubber constituents can contribute in hydrodynamic effects, leading to higher elastic modulus. However, at higher strains, they contribute in stress hardening resulting in higher elongation at break and higher tensile strength. These elastomeric regions can also influence stress relaxation behaviors of CB filled rubber. For SBR/MWCNT, the extremely great inherent mechanical properties of nanotube along with its big aspect ratio were postulated to be responsible for the reinforcement while their interfacial interaction was not so efficient.

  19. Effect of the Compatibilizer Upon the Properties of Styrene-butadiene Rubber Organoclay Nanocomposites

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    M. Tavakoli

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanocomposite vulcunizates based on styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR, organoclay and a conventional sulfur curing system were prepared by melt blending process in an internal mixer. In order to study the effects of the type of interfacial compatibilizer on the properties of SBR and clay nanoparticles,three types of compatibilizers, maleic anhydride grafted ethylene-propylene diene rubber (EPDM-g-MAH, acrylonitrile-butadiene rubber (NBR and epoxidized natural rubber (ENR50 have been used. The nanocomposites have been compared together from view point of their curing behavior, rheological and mechanical properties. The developed microstructure and dynamics of the macromolecular chains in proximity of the clay nanolayers have been characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, and melt rheo-mechanical spectroscopy (RMS. Curing behavior of the prepared nanocomposites has been evaluated using a rubber curing rheometer. EPDM-g-MAH and ENR50 showed to enhance the interactions between SBR chains into clay tactoids much stronger than NBR as a compatibilizer. These were consistent with the dynamic mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA data as well as macroscale mechanical properties tested on the samples.

  20. Devulcanization of styrene butadiene rubber by microwave energy: Effect of the presence of ionic liquid

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    S. Seghar

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, styrene butadiene rubber (SBR was devulcanized using microwave irradiation. In particular, effect of ionic liquid (IL, pyrrolidinium hydrogen sulfate [Pyrr][HSO4], on the devulcanization performance was studied. It was observed that the evolution of the temperature reached by rubber powder exposed to microwave irradiation for different energy values was favored by the presence of ionic liquid [Pyrr][HSO4] significantly over the whole range of the microwave energy values. Beyond the threshold point of 220 Wh/kg, the soluble fraction after devulcanization sharply increased with increasing devulcanization microwave energy. For the powder mixed with [Pyrr][HSO4], the increase was more significant. Furthermore, the crosslink density was observed to decrease slowly with the microwave energy up to 220 Wh/kg, beyond which the crosslink density decreased significantly for the rubber impregnated with IL. For the rubber with IL, significant and continuous increase in Tg with microwave energy values was observed in comparison with the SBR where no change in transition temperature was observed. Mechanical shearing of rubber gums in the two-roll mill favored the devulcanization process, which indicated that the combination of mechanical loading with microwave energy and IL is an efficient procedure allowing an optimal devulcanization of rubbers.

  1. Styrene-butadiene rubber/halloysite nanotubes nanocomposites modified by methacrylic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Baochun; Lei Yanda; Chen Feng; Liu Xiaoliang; Du Mingliang; Jia Demin

    2008-01-01

    Methacrylic acid (MAA) was used to improve the performance of styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR)/halloysite nanotubes (HNTs) nanocomposites by direct blending. The detailed interaction mechanisms of MAA and the in situ formed zinc methacrylate (ZDMA) were revealed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), surface area and porosity analysis, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) together with crosslink density determination. The strong interfacial bonding between HNTs and rubber matrix is resulted through ZDMA and MAA intermediated linkages. ZDMA connects SBR and HNTs via grafting/complexation mechanism. MAA bonds SBR and HNTs through grafting/hydrogen bonding mechanism. Significantly improved dispersion of HNTs in virtue of the interactions between HNTs and MAA or ZDMA was achieved. Effects of MAA content on the vulcanization behavior, morphology and mechanical properties of the nanocomposites were investigated. Promising mechanical properties of MAA modified SBR/HNTs nanocomposites were obtained. The changes in vulcanization behavior, mechanical properties and morphology were correlated with the interactions between HNTs and MAA or ZDMA and the largely improved dispersion of HNTs

  2. Styrene-butadiene rubber/halloysite nanotubes nanocomposites modified by methacrylic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo Baochun [Department of Polymer Materials and Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640 (China)], E-mail: psbcguo@scut.edu.cn; Lei Yanda; Chen Feng; Liu Xiaoliang; Du Mingliang; Jia Demin [Department of Polymer Materials and Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640 (China)

    2008-12-30

    Methacrylic acid (MAA) was used to improve the performance of styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR)/halloysite nanotubes (HNTs) nanocomposites by direct blending. The detailed interaction mechanisms of MAA and the in situ formed zinc methacrylate (ZDMA) were revealed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), surface area and porosity analysis, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) together with crosslink density determination. The strong interfacial bonding between HNTs and rubber matrix is resulted through ZDMA and MAA intermediated linkages. ZDMA connects SBR and HNTs via grafting/complexation mechanism. MAA bonds SBR and HNTs through grafting/hydrogen bonding mechanism. Significantly improved dispersion of HNTs in virtue of the interactions between HNTs and MAA or ZDMA was achieved. Effects of MAA content on the vulcanization behavior, morphology and mechanical properties of the nanocomposites were investigated. Promising mechanical properties of MAA modified SBR/HNTs nanocomposites were obtained. The changes in vulcanization behavior, mechanical properties and morphology were correlated with the interactions between HNTs and MAA or ZDMA and the largely improved dispersion of HNTs.

  3. Study of the reinforcement of rubber styrene-butadiene with mesoporous silices by solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sierra, Ligia; Lopez, Betty; Pena, Bibiana; Rios, Juan Esteban; Castano, Nelson

    2001-01-01

    The knowledge about the interaction rubber/filler for the rubber reinforced with carbon black of silica is important to understand the physical properties, which determine the reinforcement. This paper presents a comparative study of the interactions between styrene butadiene rubber (SBR) and silica for a silica Ultrasil type and mesoporous silica MCM-41 type prepared by different procedures, based on solid state nuclear magnetic resonance: 1H MAS NMR; 13C MAS NMR, 13C CP/MAS, 29Si MAS and 29Si CP/MAS NMR. Mesoporous silica synthesized under certain specific conditions showed better interaction with the rubber than the ultrasil VN3 silica, commonly used as a reinforcement load. Mechanical tests for the SBR vulcanised with this silica indicate an important increase for values of elongation and tearing resistance, but an increase in the vulcanization time in it is compared with the SBR vulcanise with Ultrasil

  4. Particle reinforced composites from acrylamide modified blend of styrene-butadiene and natural rubber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blends of styrene-butadiene rubber and natural rubber that provide balanced properties were modified with acrylamide and reinforced with soy protein particles. The rubber composites show improved mechanical properties. Both modified rubber and composites showed a faster curing rate. The crosslinking...

  5. Styrene-butadiene rubber/halloysite nanotubes nanocomposites modified by sorbic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo Baochun, E-mail: psbcguo@scut.edu.cn [Department of Polymer Materials and Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Chen Feng; Lei Yanda; Liu Xiaoliang; Wan Jingjing; Jia Demin [Department of Polymer Materials and Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640 (China)

    2009-05-30

    Sorbic acid (SA) was used to improve the performance of styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR)/halloysite nanotubes (HNTs) nanocomposites by direct blending. The detailed mechanisms for the largely improved performance were studied by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), porosity analysis and crosslink density determination. The strong interfacial bonding between HNTs and rubber matrix is resulted through SA intermediated linkages. SA bonds SBR and HNTs through grafting copolymerization/hydrogen bonding mechanism. Significantly improved dispersion of HNTs in virtue of the interactions between HNTs and SA was achieved. Formation of zinc disorbate (ZDS) was revealed during the vulcanization of the composites. However, in the present systems, the contribution of ZDS to the reinforcement was limited. Effects of SA content on the vulcanization behavior, morphology and mechanical properties of the nanocomposites were investigated. Promising mechanical properties of SA modified SBR/HNTs nanocomposites were obtained. The changes in vulcanization behavior, mechanical properties and morphology were correlated with the interactions between HNTs and SA and the largely improved dispersion of HNTs.

  6. Mechanical and Thermal Properties of Styrene Butadiene Rubber - Functionalized Carbon Nanotubes Nanocomposites

    KAUST Repository

    Laoui, Tahar

    2013-01-01

    The effect of reinforcing styrene butadiene rubber (SBR) with functionalized carbon nanotubes on the mechanical and thermal properties of the nanocomposite was investigated. Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were functionalized with phenol functional group to enhance their dispersion in SBR matrix. Surface functionalization of the CNTs was carried out using acid treatment and FTIR technique was utilized so as to ascertain the presence of phenol functional group. This was followed with the dispersion of the functionalized CNTs into a polymer solution and a subsequent evaporation of the solvent. This study has demonstrated the inherent capability of CNTs as reinforcing filler as demonstrated by the substantial improvement in Young\\'s Modulus, tensile strength and energy of absorption of the nanocomposites. The tensile strength increased from 0.17 MPa (SBR) to 0.48 MPa while the Young\\'s Modulus increased from 0.25 MPa to 0.83 MPa when 10wt% functionalized CNTs was added. With the addition of 1wt% reinforcement-a peak value of 4.1 KJ energy absorption was obtained. The homogenous dispersion of CNT-Phenol is thought to be responsible for the considerable enhancement in the reported properties. Copyright © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

  7. Fundamental studies on dynamic wear behavior of SBR rubber compounds modified by SBR rubber powder

    OpenAIRE

    Euchler, Eric; Heinrich, Gert; Michael, Hannes; Gehde, Michael; Stocek, Radek; Kratina, Ondrej; Kipscholl, Reinhold; Bunzel, Jörg-Michael; Saal, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is focused on the experimental investigation of dynamic wear behavior of carbon black filled rubber compounds comprising pristine styrene butadiene rubber (SBR) together with incorporated SBR ground rubber (rubber powder). We also analyzed and described quantitatively the service conditions of some dynamically loaded rubber products, which are liable to wear (e.g. conveyor belts, tires). Beside the well-known standard test method to characterize wear resistance at steady...

  8. Characteristics of styrene-butadiene rubber/silica/Nanoprene compounds for application in tire tread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Byeongho; Kang, Jonghyub; Jang, Sukhee; Kang, Yonggu; Kim, Wonho

    2013-03-01

    Nanoprene is made from chemically cross-linked rubber particles, and has many hydroxyl groups on the surface of the particles. It is speculated that the Nanoprene could reduce the silica-silica network formation by introducing hydrogen bonding between the silanol group of silica and the hydroxyl group of Nanoprene. In this study, the styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR)/silica compounds with two types of the Nanoprene (BM75OH, BM15OH) were evaluated and it could be well explained by the concept of the volume fraction of filler or the volume fraction of rubber. If the Nanoprene applied to the compound is considered as a kind of filler, the minimum torque values and bound rubber contents of the un-vulcanized compounds, the swelling ratio and the stress-strain relationship of the vulcanized compounds could be well explained by the volume fraction of filler (phi(F)). If Nanoprene is considered as a kind of rubber such as SBR, the properties such as peak tan delta, Payne effect, tan delta at 0 degrees C and 60 degrees C, and abrasion resistance could be well explained by the volume fraction of rubber (phi'(R)). However, the improvement of silica dispersion by addition of the Nanoprene particles in the compounds was not significant. The application of BM75OH as a polymer to the tread compound will be suitable for winter tires. In addition, the compound with BM15OH as an additive will be suitable as a tread compound for summer tires.

  9. Physico-mechanical properties and thermal stability of thermoset nanocomposites based on styrene-butadiene rubber/phenolic resin blend

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shojaei, Akbar, E-mail: akbar.shojaei@sharif.edu [Department of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering, Sharif University of Technology, P.O. Box 11155-9465, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Faghihi, Morteza [Department of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering, Sharif University of Technology, P.O. Box 11155-9465, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2010-02-15

    Effect of organoclay (OC) on the performance of styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR)/phenolic resin (PH) blend prepared by two-roll mill was investigated. The influence of OC content ranging between 2.5 and 30 phr on the performance of SBR/PH was investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), interfacial energy analysis, tensile, dynamic mechanical, swelling, cure rheometry and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). It was found that the OC is mainly localized in the SBR phase of SBR/PH blend through the kinetically favored mechanism relevant to rubber chains. The results also demonstrated the positive role of PH on the dispersion of OC. Both PH and OC showed accelerating role on the cure rate of SBR and increased the crosslinking density of the rubber phase. Additionally, the mechanical and dynamic mechanical properties of SBR were influenced by incorporation of both PH and OC. TGA showed that the OC improves thermal stability of SBR vulcanizate, while it exhibits a catalytic role in presence of PH.

  10. Physico-mechanical properties and thermal stability of thermoset nanocomposites based on styrene-butadiene rubber/phenolic resin blend

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shojaei, Akbar; Faghihi, Morteza

    2010-01-01

    Effect of organoclay (OC) on the performance of styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR)/phenolic resin (PH) blend prepared by two-roll mill was investigated. The influence of OC content ranging between 2.5 and 30 phr on the performance of SBR/PH was investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), interfacial energy analysis, tensile, dynamic mechanical, swelling, cure rheometry and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). It was found that the OC is mainly localized in the SBR phase of SBR/PH blend through the kinetically favored mechanism relevant to rubber chains. The results also demonstrated the positive role of PH on the dispersion of OC. Both PH and OC showed accelerating role on the cure rate of SBR and increased the crosslinking density of the rubber phase. Additionally, the mechanical and dynamic mechanical properties of SBR were influenced by incorporation of both PH and OC. TGA showed that the OC improves thermal stability of SBR vulcanizate, while it exhibits a catalytic role in presence of PH.

  11. The use of styrene-butadiene rubber waste as a potential filler in nitrile rubber: order of addition and size of waste particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. A. Baeta

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR has large applications in the shoe industry, especially as expanded sheets used to produce insoles and inner soles. According to TG analysis, the rubber content in SBR residues (SBR-r was found to be around 26-wt%. Based on that data, a cost-effective technique for the reuse of SBR-r in Nitrile rubber (NBR was developed. Later, the effect of SBR-r on the cure behavior, mechanical performance, swelling, and crosslink density of reused rubber was investigated, with more emphasis placed on the effect of both particle size and loading of waste filler. Cure characteristics such as optimum cure time and scorch time were then reduced by the increasing amount of SBR-r filler. Owing to the reinforced nature of the largest particle size SBR-r, the best results for the mechanical properties of NBR were those in which SBR-r was added at the end of the cure process. The study has thus shown that SBR residue (SBR-r can be used as an economical alternative filler in NBR.

  12. Improved ozone resistance of styrene-butadiene rubber cured by a combination of sulfur and ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basfar, A.A.; Silverman, Joseph

    1995-01-01

    Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) studies performed in this work indicate that high ozone resistance of Styrene-Butadiene Rubber (SBR) formulations cured by a combination of sulfur and ionizing radiation is associated with unusually high vinyl concentration. On the other hand, sulfur cured SBR formulations with low vinyl concentration have poor ozone resistance. Curing with peroxides which involves chemistry similar to that of radiation curing, also leads to high vinyl concentration (relative to sulfur curing) and high ozone resistance. Increasing the absorbed dose in sulfur-radiation cured samples decreased the high vinyl content to a point where the ozone resistance declined greatly. Carbon black was shown to reduce the absorption of both the transvinylene and the vinyl unsaturation groups, but not to the same extent in all formulations. Also, the carbon black seems to play a greater role in the absorption of the unsaturation as sulfur increases. (Author)

  13. Improved ozone resistance of styrene-butadiene rubber cured by a combination of sulfur and ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basfar, A.A.; Silverman, J.

    1995-01-01

    Fourier Transform (FTIR) studies performed in this work indicate that high ozone resistance of Styrene-Butadiene Rubber (SBR) formulations cured by a combination of sulfur and ionizing radiation is associated with unusually high vinyl concentration. On the other hand, sulfur cured SBR formulations with low vinyl concentration have poor ozone resistance. Curing with peroxides which involves chemistry similar to that of radiation curing, also leads to high vinyl concentration (relative to sulfur curing) and high ozone resistance. Increasing the absorbed dose in sulfur-radiation cured samples decreased the high vinyl content to a point where the ozone resistance declined greatly. Carbon black was shown to reduce the absorption of both the transvinylene and the vinyl unsaturation groups, but not to the same extent in all formulations. Also, the carbon black seems to play a greater role in the absorption of the unsaturation as sulfur increases. (Author)

  14. Enhanced interfacial interaction and antioxidative behavior of novel halloysite nanotubes/silica hybrid supported antioxidant in styrene-butadiene rubber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jing; Luo, Yuanfang; Zhong, Bangchao; Hu, Dechao; Jia, Zhixin; Jia, Demin

    2018-05-01

    A novel antioxidant (HS-s-RT) to improve the mechanical properties and anti-aging performance of styrene-butadiene (SBR) composites was prepared by antioxidant intermediate p-aminodiphenylamine (RT) grafting on the surface of halloysite nanotubes/silica hybrid (HS) via the linkage of silane coupling agent. The analysis of SEM and rubber processing analyzer (RPA) demonstrated HS-s-RT was uniformly dispersed in SBR, and stronger interfacial interaction between HS-s-RT and SBR was formed. Consequently, SBR/HS-s-RT composites have improving mechanical properties. Furthermore, the test of the retention of mechanical properties, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy with attenuated total reflectance (FTIR-ATR), and oxidation induction time (OIT) showed HS-s-RT can effectively improve the anti-aging effect of SBR composites than corresponding low molecular-weight antioxidant N-isopropyl-N‧-phenyl-4-phenylenediamin (4010NA). Then, the mechanism of thermo-oxidative aging of SBR/HS composites was also investigated, and the superior antioxidative efficiency is attributed to the uniform dispersion and excellent migration resistance of HS-s-RT. Hence, this novel antioxidant might open up new opportunities for the fabrication of high-performance rubber composites due to its superior anti-aging effect and reinforcement.

  15. Surface modification of halloysite nanotubes by vulcanization accelerator and properties of styrene-butadiene rubber nanocomposites with modified halloysite nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhong, Bangchao; Jia, Zhixin, E-mail: zxjia@scut.edu.cn; Hu, Dechao; Luo, Yuanfang; Guo, Baochun; Jia, Demin

    2016-03-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Vulcanization accelerant was used to modify halloysite nanotubes (HNTs). • The modified HNTs reduced the activation energy of vulcanization. • Strong filler–rubber interaction was achieved in rubber/modified HNTs composites. • The modified HNTs exhibited excellent reinforcement effect on rubber. - Abstract: Vulcanization accelerant N-cyclohexyl-2-benzothiazole sulfenamide (CZ) was used as a surface modifier and chemically grafted on the surface of halloysite nanotubes (HNTs) to obtain CZ-functionalized HNTs (HNTs-s-CZ). It was found that HNTs-s-CZ could be homogeneously dispersed into styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR). The grafted CZ molecules, exactly located at the filler-rubber interface, reduced the activation energy of vulcanization of SBR/HNTs-s-CZ compounds. Besides, the density of chain segments introduced by the interfacial phase of SBR/HNTs-s-CZ nanocomposites was higher than the other nanocomposites with silane-modified HNTs (m-HNTs) or pristine HNTs, manifesting an indication of enhanced filler-rubber interfacial interaction in SBR/HNTs-s-CZ nanocomposites. Consequently, SBR/HNTs-s-CZ nanocomposites showed excellent mechanical properties. The tensile strength could be enhanced by as much as 38.6% and 102.5% compared to those of SBR/m-HNTs and SBR/HNTs nanocomposites, respectively, though containing equivalent accelerant component. The value of this work lies in the fact that apparent properties improvement of elastomer composites has been achieved by the incorporation of vulcanization accelerant-functionalized HNTs, which may be fruitful for the rational design of filler surface treatment and offer new scientific and technological opportunities for the preparation of high performance elastomer composites.

  16. Surface modification of halloysite nanotubes by vulcanization accelerator and properties of styrene-butadiene rubber nanocomposites with modified halloysite nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhong, Bangchao; Jia, Zhixin; Hu, Dechao; Luo, Yuanfang; Guo, Baochun; Jia, Demin

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Vulcanization accelerant was used to modify halloysite nanotubes (HNTs). • The modified HNTs reduced the activation energy of vulcanization. • Strong filler–rubber interaction was achieved in rubber/modified HNTs composites. • The modified HNTs exhibited excellent reinforcement effect on rubber. - Abstract: Vulcanization accelerant N-cyclohexyl-2-benzothiazole sulfenamide (CZ) was used as a surface modifier and chemically grafted on the surface of halloysite nanotubes (HNTs) to obtain CZ-functionalized HNTs (HNTs-s-CZ). It was found that HNTs-s-CZ could be homogeneously dispersed into styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR). The grafted CZ molecules, exactly located at the filler-rubber interface, reduced the activation energy of vulcanization of SBR/HNTs-s-CZ compounds. Besides, the density of chain segments introduced by the interfacial phase of SBR/HNTs-s-CZ nanocomposites was higher than the other nanocomposites with silane-modified HNTs (m-HNTs) or pristine HNTs, manifesting an indication of enhanced filler-rubber interfacial interaction in SBR/HNTs-s-CZ nanocomposites. Consequently, SBR/HNTs-s-CZ nanocomposites showed excellent mechanical properties. The tensile strength could be enhanced by as much as 38.6% and 102.5% compared to those of SBR/m-HNTs and SBR/HNTs nanocomposites, respectively, though containing equivalent accelerant component. The value of this work lies in the fact that apparent properties improvement of elastomer composites has been achieved by the incorporation of vulcanization accelerant-functionalized HNTs, which may be fruitful for the rational design of filler surface treatment and offer new scientific and technological opportunities for the preparation of high performance elastomer composites.

  17. Polybutadiene and Styrene-Butadiene rubbers for high-dose dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Lucas N. [Instituto Federal de Educacao, Ciencia e Tecnologia de Goias-IFG,Campus Goiania, Goiania -GO (Brazil); Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares -IPEN, Sao Paulo-SP (Brazil); Vieira, Silvio L. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal de Goias-UFG, Campus Samambaia, Goiania-GO (Brazil); Schimidt, Fernando [Instituto Federal de Educacao, Ciencia e Tecnologia de Goias-IFG,Campus Inhumas, Inhumas-GO (Brazil); Antonio, Patricia L.; Caldas, Linda V.E. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares -IPEN, Sao Paulo-SP (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    Polybutadiene and Styrene-Butadiene are synthetical rubbers used widely for pneumatic tires manufacturing. In this research, the dosimeter characteristics of those rubbers were studied for application in high-dose dosimetry. The rubber samples were irradiated with doses of 10 Gy up to 10 kGy, using a {sup 60}Co Gamma Cell-220 system (dose rate of 1.089 kGy/h) and their readings were taken on a Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy-FTIR system (model Frontier/Perkin Elmer). The ratios of two absorbance peaks were taken for each kind of rubber spectrum, Polybutadiene (1306/1130 cm{sup -1}) and Styrene-Butadiene (1449/1306 cm{sup -1}). The ratio calculated was used as the response to the irradiation, and is not uniform across the sample. From the results, it can be concluded for both rubbers: a) the dose-response curves may be useful for high-dose dosimetry (greater than 250 Gy); b) their response for reproducibility presented standard deviations lower than 2.5%; c) the relative sensitivity was higher for Styrene-Butadiene (1.86 kGy{sup -1}) than for Polybutadiene (1.81 kGy{sup -1}), d) for doses of 10 kGy to 200 kGy, there was no variation in the dosimetric response. Both types of rubber samples showed usefulness as high-dose dosimeters. (authors)

  18. Effect of carbon black composition with sludge palm oil on the curing characteristic and mechanical properties of natural rubber/styrene butadiene rubber compound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, R.; Nurazzi, N. Mohd; Huzaifah, M.

    2017-07-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the possibility of utilizing sludge palm oil (SPO) as processing oil, with various amount of carbon black as its reinforcing filler, and its effects on the curing characteristics and mechanical properties of natural rubber/styrene butadiene rubber (NR/SBR) compound. Rubber compound with fixed 15 pphr of SPO loading, and different carbon black loading from 20 to 50 pphr, was prepared using two roll mills. The cure characteristics and mechanical tests that have been conducted are the scorch and cure time analysis, tensile strength and tear strength. Scorch time (ts5) and cure time (t90) of the compound increases with the increasing carbon black loading. The mechanical properties of NR/SBR compound viz. the tensile strength, modulus at 300% strain and tear strength were also improved by the increasing carbon black loading.

  19. Mechanical properties of styrene-butadiene rubber cured by ionizing radiation in the presence of sulfur and polyfunctional agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basfar, A.A.; Al-Harithy, F.A.; Abdel-Aziz, M.M.

    1997-01-01

    The mechanical Properties of Styrene-Butadiene Rubber (SBR) samples cured by a combination of sulfur and ionizing radiation in the presence of polyfunctional crosslinking agent were studied. SBR formulations containing various concentrations of trimethyl propane triacrylate (TMPTA) were irradiated at absorbed doses in the range of 35-200 kGy. The influence of TMPTA on the mechanical properties, solubility % and swelling % were investigated. The various formulations were compared at the same crosslink density as determined by 200% modulus (i.e. tensile strength at 200% elongation). The increase in TMPTA concentration has led to the decrease in the absorbed dose required to achieve full-cure conditions. Another set of SBR formulations containing partial levels of sulfur in the presence of the same TMPTA concentrations as the earlier formulations were irradiated at the same absorbed dose range. The presence of sulfur has further decreased the absorbed dose required to achieve full-cure conditions. Thermal stability of the two sets of SBR formulations as studied by Thermogravimetric Analyzer (TGA) and Differential Scanning Calorimeter (DSC) remained unchanged over the entire range of absorbed dose

  20. Plane-interface-induced lignin-based nanosheets and its reinforcing effect on styrene-butadiene rubber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Jiang

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Lignin was viewed as a spherical microgel in aqueous alkali. While spread out in a monolayer or adsorbed on a surface, lignin was made up of flexible, disk-like molecules with approximately the same thickness of 2 nm. According to this principle, we employed the lamina of montmorillonite (MMT as a plane template to anchor cationic lignin (CL on its two sides, resulting in the formation of CL-MMT hybrid materials (CLM. The isotherm adsorption behavior and structure characteristics of CLM were studied. The results showed that CLM was individually dispersed nanosheets with a thickness of about 5 nm when the mass ratio of CL to MMT is more than 2:1 and prepared at acidic or neutral pH. Compared to the cocoagulation of lignin and styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR, CLM obviously accelerated the coagulation rate, due to the reduction of surface activity of CL restricted by MMT. The nanoscale dispersion of CLM in SBR matrix significantly improved the tensile strength of CLM/SBR nanocomposites to 14.1 MPa by adding only 10 phr CLM and cardanol glycidyl ether (CGE as compatibilizer. Dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA showed that the glass transition temperature of SBR/CLM nanocomposites decreased with increasing CLM loading. Correspondingly, a special interfacial structure was proposed.

  1. Novel Polyvinyl Alcohol/Styrene Butadiene Rubber Latex/Carboxymethyl Cellulose Nanocomposites Reinforced with Modified Halloysite Nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanjun Tang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Novel polyvinyl alcohol (PVA/styrene butadiene rubber (SBR latex/carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC/halloysite nanotubes (HNTs nanocomposites were successfully prepared through physical blending. The as-obtained PVA/SBR/CMC/HNTs nanocomposites were coated on the surface of old corrugated container (OCC-based paper in an effort to improve the mechanical properties of paper. To improve the dispersion of HNTs and enhance the compatibility between HNTs and polymer matrix, HNTs were modified with titanate coupling agent (TCA. FT-IR, together with TGA, confirmed that TCA was grafted onto the surface of HNTs successfully. XRD demonstrated that the crystal structures of HNTs remained almost unchanged. TEM showed that modified HNTs exhibited good dispersion and possessed nanotubular structures with an outer diameter of around 50 nm and an inner diameter of about 20 nm. SEM gave an indication that modified HNTs were dispersed more uniformly than unmodified HNTs within PVA/SBR/CMC matrix. Rheological measurement exhibited that surface modification process enhanced the compatibility between HNTs and polymer matrix, thus resulting in the decreased viscosity of nanocomposites. In comparison with unmodified HNTs, modified HNTs were found to contribute more to the enhancement in mechanical properties, which might be attributed to the better dispersion and compatibility of modified HNTs evidenced by TEM, SEM, and rheological measurement.

  2. Enhancing mechanical and thermal properties of styrene-butadiene rubber/carboxylated acrylonitrile butadiene rubber blend by the usage of graphene oxide with diverse oxidation degrees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Xiaodong; Yin, Qing; Jia, Hongbing; Zhang, Xuming; Wen, Yanwei; Ji, Qingmin; Xu, Zhaodong

    2017-11-01

    Graphene oxide (GO) with various oxidation degrees were prepared through a modified Hummer's method by varying the dosage of oxidizing agent. Styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR)/carboxylated acrylonitrile butadiene rubber (XNBR)/GO nanocomposites were fabricated by aqueous-phase mixing of GO colloidal dispersion with SBR latex and a small loading of XNBR latex, followed by co-coagulation. Effects of GO oxidation degree on the morphology, structure, mechanical and thermal properties of nanocomposites were thoroughly investigated. The results showed that the mechanical strength of nanocomposites were enhanced with the increase of oxidation degree of GO. Especially, when the weight ratio of KMnO4 to graphite was 15/5, the tensile strength, tear strength and thermal conductivity of SBR/XNBR/GO filled with 3 phr (parts per hundred rubber) GO increased by 255.3%, 141.5% and 22.8%, respectively, compared to those of neat SBR/XNBR blend. In addition, the thermal stability and the solvent resistance of the nanocomposites were also improved significantly. This work suggested that GO with higher oxidation degree could effectively improve the properties of SBR/XNBR blend.

  3. Best Practice for the Devulcanization of Sulfur-cured SBR Rubber

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saiwari, Sitisaiyidah; Dierkes, Wilma K.; Noordermeer, Jacobus W.M.; Blume, Anke

    2015-01-01

    In the present paper, special attention will be devoted to thermo-chemical devulcanization of sulfur-cured styrene butadiene rubber (SBR) using diphenyldisulfide (DPDS) as devulcanization aid. SBR is the main component in whole passenger car tire rubber and, at the same time, the most critical one

  4. 40 CFR 63.500 - Back-end process provisions-carbon disulfide limitations for styrene butadiene rubber by emulsion...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Back-end process provisions-carbon disulfide limitations for styrene butadiene rubber by emulsion processes. 63.500 Section 63.500 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR...

  5. Contribution made by multivariate curve resolution applied to gel permeation chromatography-Fourier transform infrared data for an in-depth characterization of styrene-butadiene rubber blends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruckebusch, C; Vilmin, F; Coste, N; Huvenne, J P

    2008-07-01

    We evaluate the contribution made by multivariate curve resolution-alternating least squares (MCR-ALS) for resolving gel permeation chromatography-Fourier transform infrared (GPC-FT-IR) data collected on butadiene rubber (BR) and styrene butadiene rubber (SBR) blends in order to access in-depth knowledge of polymers along the molecular weight distribution (MWD). In the BR-SBR case, individual polymers differ in chemical composition but share almost the same MWD. Principal component analysis (PCA) gives a general overview of the data structure and attests to the feasibility of modeling blends as a binary system. MCR-ALS is then performed. It allows resolving the chromatographic coelution and validates the chosen methodology. For SBR-SBR blends, the problem is more challenging since the individual elastomers present the same chemical composition. Rank deficiency is detected from the PCA data structure analysis. MCR-ALS is thus performed on column-wise augmented matrices. It brings very useful insight into the composition of the analyzed blends. In particular, a weak change in the composition of individual SBR in the MWD's lowest mass region is revealed.

  6. The evaluation of tetrabutylamonium bis(4-ethylphenylsulphonyldithiocarbimate)zincate(II) (ZNIBU) efficiency as a reclaiming agent for styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR); Avalicao da eficiencia do bis(4-metilfenilsulfonilditiocarbimato)zincato(II) de tetrabutilamonio (ZNIBU) como agente de regeneracao para borracha de butadieno-estireno (SBR)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreno, Pedro H.H.; Visconte, Leila L.Y.; Pacheco, Elen B.A.V., E-mail: pedro_hhm@ima.ufrj.br [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Tavares, Eder C. [Universidade Federal de Itajuba (UNIFEI), Itajuba, MG (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    In recent years, the production of rubber waste has been reported as a serious environmental problem. The chemical structure of rubbers (crosslinked, insoluble and infusible polymers) makes its reprocessing very difficult, unlike thermoplastics. The most common methods to treat rubber waste are of thermal, mechanical and chemical nature, wherein the chemical methods the purpose is to regenerate the rubber. Early studies with tetrabutylamonium bis(4-methylphenylsulphonyldithiocarbimate)zincate(II) (ZNIBU) point to its ability as an accelerator in the rubber curing process. In this work, this zinc complex was evaluated as a chemical regeneration agent. ZNIBU was synthesized and characterized by Nuclear Magnetic Resonance ({sup 13}C NMR) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR). The mixture of virgin SBR with vulcanization ingredients was performed in a two-roll mill, and the composition was then vulcanized and molded on a hydraulic press. The synthesized ZNIBU was then mixed with the vulcanized rubber and devulcanization was observed. Finally, the devulcanized elastomeric composition was revulcanized. The revulcanization of SBR regenerated with ZNIBU led to the formation of a rubber with maximum torque near the maximum torque of the virgin vulcanized rubber. After adjusting the optimal conditions of regeneration, mechanical tests will be carried out (tensile strength, tear strength and hardness) for the specimens of both vulcanized and revulcanized rubbers in order to compare their mechanical properties. (author)

  7. Preparation and properties of carboxylated styrene-butadiene rubber/cellulose nanocrystals composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Xiaodong; Xu, Chuanhui; Liu, Yuhong; Chen, Yukun

    2013-01-30

    A series of carboxylated styrene-butadiene rubber (XSBR)/cellulose nanocrystals (CNs) latex composites were successfully prepared. The vulcanization process, morphology, dynamic viscoelastic behavior, dynamic mechanical property, thermal and mechanical performance of the XSBR/CNs composites were investigated in detail. The results revealed that CNs were dispersed uniformly in the XSBR matrix and formed a strong filler-filler network. The dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) showed that the glass transition temperature (T(g)) of XSBR matrix was shifted from 48.45 to 50.64 °C with 3 phr CNs, but decreased from 50.64 to 46.28 °C when further increasing CNs content up to 15 phr. The composites exhibited a significant enhancement in tensile strength (from 16.9 to 24.1 MPa) and tear strength (from 43.5 to 65.2 MPa) with loading CNs from 0 to 15 phr. In addition, the thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA) showed that the temperature at 5% weight loss of the XSBR/CNs composites decreased slightly with an increase of the CNs content. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Fast and robust method for the determination of microstructure and composition in butadiene, styrene-butadiene, and isoprene rubber by near-infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilmin, Franck; Dussap, Claude; Coste, Nathalie

    2006-06-01

    In the tire industry, synthetic styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR), butadiene rubber (BR), and isoprene rubber (IR) elastomers are essential for conferring to the product its properties of grip and rolling resistance. Their physical properties depend on their chemical composition, i. e., their microstructure and styrene content, which must be accurately controlled. This paper describes a fast, robust, and highly reproducible near-infrared analytical method for the quantitative determination of the microstructure and styrene content. The quantitative models are calculated with the help of pure spectral profiles estimated from a partial least squares (PLS) regression, using (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) as the reference method. This versatile approach allows the models to be applied over a large range of compositions, from a single BR to an SBR-IR blend. The resulting quantitative predictions are independent of the sample path length. As a consequence, the sample preparation is solvent free and simplified with a very fast (five minutes) hot filming step of a bulk polymer piece. No precise thickness control is required. Thus, the operator effect becomes negligible and the method is easily transferable. The root mean square error of prediction, depending on the rubber composition, is between 0.7% and 1.3%. The reproducibility standard error is less than 0.2% in every case.

  9. Research of operational properties of compound based on high viscosity styrene-butadiene rubber SSBR-2560 TDAE HV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. I. Falyakhov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article consider the influence of replacement of SSBR-2560 TDAE batch production on high viscosity SSBR-2560-TDAE HV in the tread recipe on the tire performance properties. Obtained samples were highly viscosity styrene butadiene rubber did not differ in the microstructure of the SSBR-2560 TDAE batch production. Increasing the molecular weight possible to increase the Mooney viscosity of the rubber, however, is known to one of adverse factors is the deterioration of processability of rubber compounds based on polymers. In this connection, investigated the behavior in the step mixing compound based on high viscosity SSBR rubber. We chose recipes tread of the tire with a high content of organic silicon filler. It is established that the equivalent replacement of the polymer in the tread recipe does not lead to significant changes in the basic parameters of rubber mixing. We observed a slight increase in the energy consumption for the preparation of the rubber compounds, as well as the discharge temperature at each stage. It was shown to improve the distribution of the filler in the polymer matrix for the compound based on SSBR-2560 TDAE HV. The results showed that compound based on high viscosity SSBR improves rolling resistance and traction characteristics, while maintaining abrasion in comparison with the SSBR-2560-M27 batch production. Recommended use this brand in the production of rubber car tires.

  10. Damping of Mechanical Waves with Styrene/Butadiene Rubber Filled with Polystyrene Particle: Effects of Particles Size and Wave Frequency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Haghgo

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Utilizing polymeric materials for damping mechanical waves is of great importance in various fields of applications such as military camouflage, prevention of structural vibrational energy transfer, and noise attenuation. This ability originates from segmental dynamics of chain-like polymer molecules. Damping properties of styrene-butadiene rubbercontaining 10 wt% of monosize polystyrene particles with different diameters (from 80 nm to 500 μm was investigated in the frequency range of vibration, sound, and ultrasound via dynamic mechanical thermal analysis, normalsound adsorption test, and ultrasound attenuation coefficient measurement. The obtained results indicated that for different systems, containing different sizes of polystyrene particles, the area under the damping curve does not show significant change comparing to the neat SBR in the frequency range studied. However, addition of polystyrene particles, specifically nanosized particles, resulted in emergence of a secondary glass transition temperature which could be attributed to the modified dynamics of a layer of matrix molecules near the surface of PS particles. In the range of sound frequency, 0.5 to 6.3 kHz, the maximum damping was observed for the system containing polystyrene nanoparticles. However the single damping curve of neat SBR was separated into two or even three distinct curves owing to the presence of the particles. The maximum damping in the ultrasound frequency range was found for the system containing 0.5 mm polystyrene particles. This is attributed to different contributions from matrix chains dynamics and the reflection of mechanical waves from particles-matrix interface at different frequency ranges. On other words, the increase in the glass transition temperature of the elastomeric matrix phase with increasing the mechanical wave frequency causes a reduction in the contribution from matrix chains dynamics while the contribution due to diffraction from dispersed

  11. A comparison between the effects of gamma radiation and sulfur cure system on the microstructure and crosslink network of (styrene butadiene rubber/ethylene propylene diene monomer) blends in presence of nanoclay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoushtari Zadeh Naseri, Aida; Jalali-Arani, Azam

    2015-10-01

    Rubber blends based on (styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR)/ethylene-propylene-diene monomer (EPDM)) with and without organoclay (OC) were prepared through a melt mixing process. The concentration ratio of the rubber phases (EPDM/SBR; 50/50 wt%) and the amount of the OC were kept constant. The samples were then vulcanized by means of gamma radiation using a Co-60 gamma source as well as sulfur cure system. The effect of absorbed dose on the formation of the crosslinks was confirmed by the Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The effects of absorbed dose, sulfur cure system and OC on the gel content, and crosslink density were evaluated by the chemical tests. Applying the Charlesby-Pinner equation to estimate the radiation chemical yield, revealed that the use of OC in the blend caused 20% reduction in the degradation/crosslinking ratio. Employing the swelling test data, some thermodynamic parameters were determined. Using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) to investigate microstructure of the samples revealed a more homogeneous structure and also an increase in compatibility of the blend components in the sample cured by the irradiation in comparison to that cured by the sulfur curing system.

  12. Effect of montmorillonite on carboxylated styrene butadiene rubber/hindered phenol damping material with improved extraction resistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, Yuan; Wang, Xiaoping; Liu, Meijun; Xi, Xue; Zhang, Xin; Jia, Demin

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • MMT and XSBR display synergic effect on protecting HP1098 from being extracted. • A new hindered phenol HP1098 was used to prepare damping material. • Effects of three preparation methods on the material properties were studied. - Abstract: Three methods of blending, including direct blending, melt blending and latex blending, were introduced to disperse sodium based montmorillonite (Na-MMT) and N,N′-hexane-1,6-diylbis{3-(5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxyphenyl-propionamide)} (HP1098) into the carboxylated styrene butadiene (XSBR) matrix. Small angle X-ray Diffraction testing indicated that melting Na-MMT with HP1098 enlarged the d-spacing of Na-MMT, which was further enlarged by mechanical blending with XSBR, and this led to homogeneous dispersion of Na-MMT and HP1098, which was indicated by Transmission Electronic Microscopy; latex blending was found most advantageous in dispersing HP1098 which was essential for improved damping performance. Dynamic Mechanical Analysis was utilized to characterize damping properties, and enhanced static mechanical properties were presumably originated from molecule chains being intercalated into the enlarged galleries of Na-MMT by mechanical blending. Formation of hydrogen bonds was observed by Fourier Transformation Infrared Spectrum and was supposed to be responsible for exceptional damping performance at elevated temperature. Extraction measurement of XSBR/Na-MMT/HP1098 composite indicated that XSBR and Na-MMT showed synergic effect in protecting HP1098 molecules from being extracted, which is a promising method in preparing rubber/hindered phenol damping materials with improved extraction resistance, whereby increasing the performance stability and lifespan of the composite materials. Additional advantage of this type of materials is better processability and shortened vulcanization process

  13. Effects of interfacial interaction on the properties of poly(vinyl chloride)/styrene-butadiene rubber blends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Shuihan

    PVC/SBR blends---new thermoplastic elastomer material---were developed. They have potential applications due to low costs and low-temperature elasticity. A unique compatibilization method was employed to enhance the mechanical properties of the materials a compatibilizer miscible with one of the blend components can react chemically with the other component(s). Improvements in tensile and impact behavior were observed as a result of the compatibilization. A novel characterization technique to study the interface of PVC/SBR blends was developed. This technique involves the observation of the unstained sample under electron beam irradiation by a transmission electron microscope (TEM). An enrichment of rubber at the interface between PVC and SBR was detected in the compatiblized PVC/SBR blends. Magnetic relaxation measurements show that the rubber concentration in the proximity of PVC increases with the degree of covulcanization between NBR and SBR. The interface development and the rheological effect during processing were investigated. The interfacial concentration profile and the interfacial thickness were obtained by grayscale measurements on TEM micrographs, evaluation of SIMS images, and measurements of micromechanical properties.

  14. Effect of nano-scaled styrene butadiene rubber based nucleating agent on the thermal, crystallization and physical properties of isotactic polypropylene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petchwattana, Nawadon [Division of Polymer Materials Technology, Faculty of Agricultural Product Innovation and Technology, Srinakharinwirot University, Sukhumvit 23, Wattana, Bangkok 10110 (Thailand); Covavisaruch, Sirijutaratana, E-mail: sirijutaratana.c@chula.ac.th [Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Chulalongkorn University, Pathumwan, Bangkok 10330 (Thailand); Sripanya, Panjapong [Thai Oleochemicals Company Limited (A Subsidiary of PTT Global Chemical Public Company Limited), Mueang Rayong, Rayong 21150 (Thailand)

    2014-01-05

    Highlights: • The effect of a SBR based β-NA on the properties iPP was investigated. • The addition of β-NA led to higher population of nuclei and smaller spherulites. • β to α phase transformation was observed when re-extrusion process was applied. • Impact strength was increased when the β-NA was added from 0.10 to 0.20 wt%. -- Abstract: The influence of a specific nano-scaled styrene butadiene rubber based β-nucleating agent (β-NA) on the properties of isotactic polypropylene (iPP) was investigated in the current research. β-NA was applied at the concentration ranged from 0.05 to 0.50 wt%. Microscopic observation revealed that the neat iPP crystals grew very slowly; they ranged in size from 100 to 200 μm. The addition of β-NA led to higher population of nuclei and smaller spherulites than those found in neat iPP. The addition of only 0.05 wt% β-NA significantly decreased the sizes of the spherulites down to 5 μm; the crystal grew very rapidly, leading to extremely fine morphology. Analysis by X-ray diffraction (XRD) confirmed that iPP/β-NA constituted mainly of β-crystal structure. The transformation of β to α phase was observed upon re-extrusion, it was verified by the lowered fraction of the β-crystalline phase (K{sub β}) although the total degree of crystallinity remained unchanged. A significant improvement in the impact strength of the iPP/β-NA was observed when the β-NA was employed from 0.10 to 0.20 wt%, leading to the formation of tough β-crystals in the β-NA nucleated iPP. The color measurement implied that the iPP nucleated with β-NA was superior in terms of whiteness but it was less transparent, as was evident by the increased haze.

  15. Radiation-induced copolymerization of styrene/n-butyl acrylate in the presence of ultra-fine powdered styrene-butadiene rubber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu Haibo [Department of Applied Chemistry, College of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Peng Jing [Department of Applied Chemistry, College of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)], E-mail: jpeng@pku.edu.cn; Zhai Maolin; Li Jiuqiang; Wei Genshuan [Department of Applied Chemistry, College of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Qiao Jinliang [Department of Applied Chemistry, College of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); SINOPEC Beijing Research Institute of Chemical Industry, Beijing 100013 (China)

    2007-11-15

    Styrene (St)/n-butyl acrylate (BA) copolymers were prepared by two-stage polymerization: St/BA was pre-polymerized to a viscous state by bulk polymerization with initiation by benzoyl peroxide (BPO) followed by {sup 60}Co {gamma}-ray radiation curing. The resultant copolymers had higher molecular weight and narrower molecular weight distribution than conventional methods. After incorporation of ultra-fine powdered styrene-butadiene rubber (UFSBR) with a particle size of 100 nm in the monomer, the glass transition temperature (T{sub g}) of St-BA copolymer increased at low rubber content. Both the St-BA copolymer and the St-BA copolymer/UFSBR composites had good transparency at BA content below 40%.

  16. The Radiation Synthesis of Ultra-Fine Powdered Carboxylated Styrene-Butadiene Rubber (UFCSBR) and Property of Nylon 6/ UFCSBR Blends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, L.

    2006-01-01

    A serial of novel ultra-fine powdered carboxylated styrene-butadiene rubber (UFCSBR) were prepared by using radiation crosslinking and spray drying method. Thereafter, these powdered rubber particles were used as toughener of nylon 6.The radiation synthesis of ultra-fine powdered rubbers were studied, moreover, the mechanical and thermal property of nylon 6/UFCSBR blends were investigated. Finally, the toughening mechanism of nylon 6 modified with ultra-fine rubber particles was discussed. The UFCSBR could be dispersed well in nylon 6 as individual particles with a diameter of 150 nm by using melt blending. The Nylon 6/UFCSBR (80/20) blend possesses higher toughness and higher thermal stability than Nylon 6/POE-g-MAH (which is most often used elastomer in toughening nylon now). The deformation mechanism of nylon 6/UFCSBR blends includes shear deformation of nylon 6 and the formation of elongated rubber particles in matrix. In addition, the UFCSBR has good interfacial compatibility with nylon 6. Therefore, the nylon 6/UFCSBR blends with good mechanical performance could be prepared in this work

  17. Pathway for high-quality reclaim by thermal treatment of sulfur-vulcanized SBR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saiwari, Sitisaiyidah; Dierkes, Wilma K.; Noordermeer, Jacobus W.M.

    2011-01-01

    De-vulcanization of SBR (Styrene Butadiene Rubber) is a challenge, as the broken polymer chains tend to re-arrange. This influences the properties of the reclaimed and re-vulcanized rubber, and reduces the quality of the recycled material. Within this study, the breakdown of sulfur-cured SBR in a

  18. Influence of different curing systems on the physico-mechanical properties and stability of SBR and NR rubbers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basfar, A.A. E-mail: abasfar@kacst.edu.sa; Abdel-Aziz, M.M.; Mofti, S

    2002-01-01

    The physical properties of radiation, sulfur and peroxide-cured styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR) and natural rubber (NR) were compared. The dependence of the mechanical properties of the radiation-vulcanized SBR and NR on the coagent concentration and radiation dose was studied. The effect of thermal aging on the mechanical properties of the different rubber formulations was discussed. The radiation-cured formulations of SBR have superior mechanical properties and thermal stability compared with those of the chemically vulcanized compounds. Whereas, the radiation-cured formulations of NR have similar mechanical properties but superior thermal stability (based on the % change in E after thermal aging), when compared with those of the sulfur-vulcanized compounds and slightly better than those of the peroxide-vulcanized compounds.

  19. Fracture behavior of rubber powder modified rubber blends applied for conveying belt top covers

    OpenAIRE

    Euchler, Eric; Stocek, Radek; Gehde, Michael; Bunzel, Jörg-Michael; Saal, Wolfgang; Kipscholl, Reinhold

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is concentrated on the experimental investigation of wear resistance of rubber powder modified rubber blends. Styrene-Butadiene-Rubber (SBR) blends applied for conveying belt top covers have been modified by ground rubber (rubber powder) based on SBR. We theoretically described the rubber wear mechanism due to loading conditions occurring at conveyor belts in the field, to simulate wear behavior of top cover rubber materials. An own developed testing equipment based on g...

  20. Development of SBR-Nano clay Composites with Epoxidized Natural Rubber as Compatibilizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajasekar, R.; Das, Ch.K.; Gert Heinrich, G.; Das, A.

    2009-01-01

    The significant factor that determines the improvement of properties in rubber by the incorporation of nano clay is its distribution in the rubber matrix. The simple mixing of nonpolar rubber and organically modified nano clay will not contribute for the good dispersion of nano filler in the rubbery matrix. Hence a polar rubber like epoxidized natural rubber (ENR) can be used as a compatibilizer in order to obtain a better dispersion of the nano clay in the matrix polymer. Epoxidized natural rubber and organically modified nano clay composites (EC) were prepared by solution mixing. The nano clay employed in this study is Cloisite 20A. The obtained nano composites were incorporated in styrene butadiene-rubber (SBR) compounds with sulphur as a curing agent. The morphology observed through X-ray diffraction (XRD) and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM) shows that the nano clay is highly intercalated in ENR, and further incorporation of EC in SBR matrix leads to partial exfoliation of the nano clay. Dynamic mechanical thermal analysis showed an increase in storage modulus and lesser damping characteristics for the compounds containing EC loading in SBR matrix. In addition, these compounds showed improvement in the mechanical properties.

  1. SYNTHESIS OF STYRENE-BUTADIENE STATISTIC COPOLYMERS CONTAINING MAGNESIUM INITIATOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Firsova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the use of organomagnesium initiators in the synthesis of styrene-butadiene random copolymer (SBR obtained solution polymerization and their influence on the properties of rubber. Selected organic magnesium dialkyl initiator is combined with a modifier, which is a mixed alkoxide of an alkali and alkaline earth metals, which allows to control the micr ostructure of the diene polymer and its molecular weight characteristics. Alcohol derivatives selected high-boiling alcohols tetra (hydroxypropyl ethylenediamine (lapromol 294 and tetrahydrofurfuryl alcohol (TGFS. Selection of high-boiling alcohols due to the fact that the destruction of alkoxide with aqueous polymer degassing they do not fall into the return solvent and almost fall into the exact water. The metal components of alkoxides are lithium, sodium, potassium, magnesium and calcium. The resulting solutions are stable when stored modifier t hroughout the year even at -40 °C. The scheme of obtaining the new catalyst systems based organomagnesium and alcoxide of alkali and alkaline earth metals, which yields as functionalized SBR with a statistical and a distribution block of butadiene and styrene was developed. The process of copolymerization with styrene to butadiene organomagnesium initiators as using an organolithium compound (n-butyllithium was carried out, and without it. Found that the addition of n-butyllithium in the reaction mixture leads to a sharp increase in the rate of reaction. The results of studies of the effect of composition of the initiator system on the structure of diene polymers. It was revealed that a mixed initiator system affords a high conversion of monomers (to 90 % in 1 hour 1,2-polybutadiene content increased to 60 %. The process of polymerization of only a mixture of organomagnesium initiators and alcoxide of alkali and alkaline earth metals are not actively proceeds, conversion of the monomers reaches to 90 % in 4 hours, the microstructure

  2. Determination of the Mechanical Properties of Rubber by FT-NIR

    OpenAIRE

    Pornprasit, Rattapol; Pornprasit, Philaiwan; Boonma, Pruet; Natwichai, Juggapong

    2016-01-01

    Mechanical tests, for example, tensile and hardness tests, are usually used to evaluate the properties of rubber materials. In this work, mechanical properties of selected rubber materials, that is, natural rubber (NR), styrene butadiene rubber (SBR), nitrile butadiene rubber (NBR), and ethylene propylene diene monomer (EPDM), were evaluated using a near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy technique. Here, NR/NBR and NR/EPDM blends were first prepared. All of the samples were then scanned using a FT-...

  3. Quantitative analysis of styrene butadiene copolymers using S-SIMS and LA-FTICRMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruch, D.; Boes, C.; Zimmer, R.; Muller, J.F.; Migeon, H.-N.

    2003-01-01

    Styrene butadiene copolymers (SBR) have been analyzed by static secondary ion mass spectrometry (S-SIMS) and laser ablation Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (LA-FTICRMS) to obtain quantitative information based on specific peaks knowing that the complication of this system is that there are no characteristic SIMS peaks unique to each styrene and butadiene monomer. So, to overcome this problem, a silver deposition has been applied into polystyrene (PS), butadiene rubber (BR) and SBR. By this way, new secondary ions are detected in particular silver cationized butadiene and styrene monomers at m/z 161/163 and 211/213, respectively. The LA-FTICRMS experiments do not require pre-treatment. At high laser power density, UV photons (193, 266 and 355 nm) allow to detect directly the styrene and butadiene ions at m/z 104 and 54, respectively. Using these SIMS and LA-FTICRMS peaks, it is possible to obtain quantitative results. However, the silver coating in the SIMS experiment seems to have a great influence on the obtention of quantitative information. For LA-FTICRMS experiments, the best results seem to be obtained at the 355 nm wavelength

  4. Thermomechanical behavior of SBR reinforced with nanotubes functionalized with polyvinylpyridine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Falco, A. [Universidad de Buenos Aires, FCEyN, Depto. de Fisica, LPyMC, Pabellon I, Buenos Aires 1428 (Argentina); Lamanna, M. [Universidad de Buenos Aires, FCEyN, Depto. de Quimica Organica, Centro de Investigaciones en Hidratos de Carbono (CIHIDECAR) (Argentina); Goyanes, S. [Universidad de Buenos Aires, FCEyN, Depto. de Fisica, LPyMC, Pabellon I, Buenos Aires 1428 (Argentina); Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas (CONICET) (Argentina); D' Accorso, N.B. [Universidad de Buenos Aires, FCEyN, Depto. de Quimica Organica, Centro de Investigaciones en Hidratos de Carbono (CIHIDECAR) (Argentina); Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas (CONICET) (Argentina); Fascio, M.L., E-mail: mfascio@qo.fcen.uba.ar [Universidad de Buenos Aires, FCEyN, Depto. de Quimica Organica, Centro de Investigaciones en Hidratos de Carbono (CIHIDECAR) (Argentina)

    2012-08-15

    The mechanical and thermal behavior of composites consisting on a styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR) matrix with a sulphur/accelerator system and multiwalled carbon nanotubes functionalized with poly-4-vinylpyridine (MWCNT-PVP) as reinforcement, were studied. The materials were tested with stress-strain tensile tests, DMTA and DSC for thermal properties. A strong increase in the plastic behavior with slight decrease of its elastic Modulus and Tg led to unexpected results.

  5. Thermomechanical behavior of SBR reinforced with nanotubes functionalized with polyvinylpyridine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Falco, A.; Lamanna, M.; Goyanes, S.; D'Accorso, N.B.; Fascio, M.L.

    2012-01-01

    The mechanical and thermal behavior of composites consisting on a styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR) matrix with a sulphur/accelerator system and multiwalled carbon nanotubes functionalized with poly-4-vinylpyridine (MWCNT-PVP) as reinforcement, were studied. The materials were tested with stress-strain tensile tests, DMTA and DSC for thermal properties. A strong increase in the plastic behavior with slight decrease of its elastic Modulus and Tg led to unexpected results.

  6. A new mechanism for selective adsorption of rubber on carbon black surface caused by nano-confinement in SBR/NBR solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawazoe, Masayuki

    A novel mechanism of selective adsorption of rubber molecules onto carbon black surface in a binary immiscible rubber blend solution has been proposed in this dissertation. The phenomenon leads to uneven distribution of carbon black to the specific polymer in the blend and the obtained electrically conductive composite showed drastic reduction of percolation threshold concentration (PTC). The mechanism and the feature of conductive network formation have much potential concerning both fundamental understanding and industrial application to improve conductive polymer composites. In chapter I, carbon black filled conductive polymer composites are briefly reviewed. Then, in chapter II, a mechanism of rubber molecular confinement into carbon black aggregate structure is introduced to explain the selective adsorption of a specific rubber onto carbon black surface in an immiscible rubber solution blend (styrene butadiene rubber (SBR) and acrylonitrile butadiene rubber (NBR) with toluene or chloroform). Next, in chapters III and IV, polymers with various radius of gyration (Rg) and carbon blacks with various aggregate structure are examined to verify the selective adsorption mechanism. Finally, in chapter V, the novel mechanism was applied to create unique meso-/micro-unit conductive network in carbon black dispersed SBR/NBR composites.

  7. Phase Morphology and Mechanical Properties of Cyclic Butylene Terephthalate Oligomer-Containing Rubbers: Effect of Mixing Temperature

    OpenAIRE

    Hal?sz, Istv?n Zolt?n; B?r?ny, Tam?s

    2016-01-01

    In this work, the effect of mixing temperature (Tmix) on the mechanical, rheological, and morphological properties of rubber/cyclic butylene terephthalate (CBT) oligomer compounds was studied. Apolar (styrene butadiene rubber, SBR) and polar (acrylonitrile butadiene rubber, NBR) rubbers were modified by CBT (20 phr) for reinforcement and viscosity reduction. The mechanical properties were determined in tensile, tear, and dynamical mechanical analysis (DMTA) tests. The CBT-caused viscosity cha...

  8. Mechanical and Morphological Properties of Waste Short Nylon Fibers and Nanoclay Reinforced NR/SBR Rubber Nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Andideh

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Natural rubber and styrene butadiene rubber (NR/SBR reinforced with short nylon fibers along with nanoclay (Cloisite 15A hybrid composites were prepared in an internal and a two roll-mill mixer by a three-step mixingprocess. The effects of fiber content at a constant loading of 3 wt% nanoclay were studied on the microstructure, mechanical and morphological properties of the prepared nanocomposites. The adhesion between the fiber and the rubber was enhanced by the addition of a dry bonding system consisting of resorcinol, hexamethylene tetramine and hydrated silica (HRH. The curing characteristics of the composites were determined and subsequently vulcanized at 150°C using a hot press. It was observed that the cure time and swelling index of the composites decreased while maximum torque, and cure rate increased with increasing of short fiber and nanoclay contents. Thestructure and fracture surface morphology of the nanocomposites were characterized using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy. X-ray diffraction results of nanocomposites indicated that the interlayer distance of silicate layers increased. The mechanical properties (tensile, tear strength, elongation-at-break and hardness ofnanocomposites containing virgin and waste fibers in the longitudinal direction are compared.

  9. Evaluation of rubber composites as shielding materials against ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atia, M.K.

    2010-01-01

    Styrene-butadiene rubber/lead oxide composites were prepared as γ-radiation shields.The composites were prepared with different concentration of red lead oxide (Pb 3 O 4 ) .The assessment of the linear attenuation coefficient of the SBR/lead oxide composites for γ -rays from 137 Cs 137 γ-radiation point source was studied . The factors affecting the mechanical properties and shielding capacity of the composites were also studied. These factors include the lead oxide concentration, the type of monomers added and the irradiation dose. The styrene-butadiene rubber/lead oxide composites can attain up to about 43% of the shielding capacity of pure lead. The incorporation of high concentrations of lead oxide and the effect of accumulative irradiation doses up to 3000 kGy on the physico-mechanical properties of the composites were studied . These led to hardening of the SBR rubber/lead oxide composites.

  10. Effect of rubber polarity on selective wetting of carbon nanotubes in ternary blends

    OpenAIRE

    Le, H.H.; Parsaker, M.; Sriharish, M.N.; Henning, S.; Menzel, M.; Wiessner, S.; Das, A.; Do, Q.K.; Heinrich, G.; Radusch, H.J.

    2015-01-01

    Based on atomic force microscopy (AFM) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis of the rubber-filler gel (wetting concept) the kinetics of selective wetting of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in ternary styrene butadiene rubber (SBR)/butadiene rubber (BR)/natural rubber (NR) blends was qualitatively and quantitatively characterized. Almost all CNTs are found to be wetted by the non-polar NR but not by the other non-polar rubber like BR or weakly polar SBR. It was proposed that phos...

  11. A comparison between the effects of gamma radiation and sulfur cure system on the microstructure and crosslink network of (styrene butadiene rubber/ethylene propylene diene monomer) blends in presence of nanoclay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shoushtari Zadeh Naseri, Aida; Jalali-Arani, Azam

    2015-01-01

    Rubber blends based on (styrene–butadiene rubber (SBR)/ethylene–propylene-diene monomer (EPDM)) with and without organoclay (OC) were prepared through a melt mixing process. The concentration ratio of the rubber phases (EPDM/SBR; 50/50 wt%) and the amount of the OC were kept constant. The samples were then vulcanized by means of gamma radiation using a Co-60 gamma source as well as sulfur cure system. The effect of absorbed dose on the formation of the crosslinks was confirmed by the Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The effects of absorbed dose, sulfur cure system and OC on the gel content, and crosslink density were evaluated by the chemical tests. Applying the Charlesby–Pinner equation to estimate the radiation chemical yield, revealed that the use of OC in the blend caused 20% reduction in the degradation/crosslinking ratio. Employing the swelling test data, some thermodynamic parameters were determined. Using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) to investigate microstructure of the samples revealed a more homogeneous structure and also an increase in compatibility of the blend components in the sample cured by the irradiation in comparison to that cured by the sulfur curing system. - Highlights: • SBR/EPDM and SBR/EPDM/OC samples were prepared and irradiated by gamma radiation. • Increasing the absorbed dose and using OC enhanced gel content and crosslink density. • The increase in the absorbed dose resulted in an increase in ΔS and decrease in ΔG. • The use of OC in the blend caused 20% reduction in the degradation/crosslinking ratio. • In compare to sulfur cure sample the irradiated one showed more homogeneous structure

  12. Natural Rubber Modification For Upper Layer Of Rubberized Asphalt Paving Block AS Shock Absorber

    OpenAIRE

    Nasruddin, Nasruddin

    2017-01-01

    The research of rubber compounding modification for upper layer of rubberized asphalt paving block as shock absorber using natural rubber, styrene butadiene rubber (SBR) as synthetic rubber, fly ash as filler and also vegetable oil as plasticizer has been conducted. The research design was varying the filler Si-69, fly ash and palm oil. The five formulas A, B, C, D, and E designed by varying the amount of Si-69 (48.5; 50.75; 53.00; 55.25; and 57.50) phr; coal fly ash (4.75, 7.00, 9.25, 11.50 ...

  13. Evaluation of the modified nanoclay effect on the vulcanization of SBR through rheometric curve and DSC;Avaliacao do efeito de nanoargila modificada na vulcanizacao de SBR atraves da curva reometrica e DSC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forte, Maria Madalena C.; Brito, Karin J.S., E-mail: mmcforte@ufrgs.b [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (PPGEM/UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia Mecanica; Gheller Junior, Jordao [SENAI, Sao Leopoldo, RS (Brazil). Centro Tecnologico de Polimeros

    2009-07-01

    Rubber nanocomposites with nanoclays organically modified by quaternary ammonium salts may have the curing features modified significantly, since the salts may act on the rubber cure system. The aim of this work is to evaluate the influences of an organically modified montmorillonite (OMMT) on the curing reaction of an SBR (styrene butadiene rubber) with sulfur. The SBR/OMMT nanocomposites were prepared by co-coagulating SBR latex and Cloisite{sup R} 20A aqueous suspension at different nanoclay concentrations. The OMMT effect on the sulfur curing reaction was evaluated by the rheometric curve using a rheometer type RPA (Rubber Process Analyzer) and the heat of vulcanization (DELTAH{sub v}) using Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC). The evaluation of the clay nanolayers dispersion in the SBR matrix was accomplished by x-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. (author)

  14. Effects of Blend Ratio and SBR Type on Properties of Carbon Black-Filled and Silica-Filled SBR/BR Tire Tread Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pongdhorn Sae-oui

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This work aimed at investigating the effects of blend ratio between styrene butadiene rubber (SBR and butadiene rubber (BR and SBR type (E-SBR and S-SBR on properties of SBR/BR tire tread compounds. Influences of these parameters on properties of the tread compounds reinforced by 80 parts per hundred rubber (phr of carbon black (CB and silica were also compared. Results reveal that hardness, strengths, and wet grip efficiency were impaired whereas rolling resistance was improved with increasing BR proportion. Surprisingly, the presence of BR imparted poorer abrasion resistance in most systems, except for the CB-filled E-SBR system in which an enhanced abrasion resistance was observed. Obviously, S-SBR gave superior properties (tire performance compared to E-SBR, particularly obvious in the silica-filled system. Compared with CB, silica gave comparable strengths, better wet grip efficiency, and lower rolling resistance. Carbon black, however, offered greater abrasion resistance than silica.

  15. Biocompatibility of epoxidized styrene-butadiene-styrene block copolymer membrane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Jen Ming; Tsai, Shih Chang

    2010-01-01

    Styrene-butadiene-styrene block copolymer (SBS) membrane was prepared by solution casting method and then was epoxidized with peroxyformic acid generated in situ to yield the epoxidized styrene-butadiene-styrene block copolymer membrane (ESBS). The structure and properties of ESBS were characterized with infrared spectroscopy, Universal Testing Machine, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and thermogravimetry analysis (TGA). The performances of contact angle, water content, protein adsorption, and water vapor transmission rate on ESBS membrane were determined. After epoxidation, the hydrophilicity of the membrane increased. The water vapor transmission rate of ESBS membrane is similar to human skin. The biocompatibility of ESBS membrane was evaluated with the cell culture of fibroblasts on the membrane. It revealed that the cells not only remained viable but also proliferated on the surface of the various ESBS membranes and the population doubling time for fibroblast culture decreased.

  16. Determination of Crosslink Concentration by Mooney-Rivlin Equation for Vulcanized NR/ SBR Blend and its Influence on Mechanical Properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azreen Izzati Dzulkifli; Che Mohd Som Said; Han, C.C.

    2015-01-01

    Crosslink concentration is an important property affecting the major characteristic of cured rubber. The crosslink concentration was determined using Mooney-Rivlin equation due to its simple and reliable method. Cured natural rubber and styrene butadiene rubber blend (NR/SBR) with different crosslink concentrations were obtained with different blend ratios of 100/0, 80/20, 70/30, 60/40, 50/50, 40/60 and 0/100. The crosslink concentrations were determined using Mooney-Rivlin Equation and its influence on International Rubber Hardness Tester (IRHD), tensile strength and rebound resilience of NR/ SBR blend vulcanizates was investigated. The results showed different blend ratios had an influence on the crosslink concentration of the NR/ SBR blend vulcanizates. Obtained data showed that high NR content in NR/ SBR blend increased the crosslink concentration. The highest crosslink concentration recorded was for 100/0 blend ratio which was 0.0498 mol kg"-"1 RH while the lowest was 0.0295 mol kg"-"1 RH for 0/100 blend ratio. The study on the influence of crosslink concentration on IRHD, tensile strength and rebound resilience of NR/ SBR blend vulcanizates showed that the mechanical properties increased linearly with the crosslink concentration. High NR content in NR/ SBR blends resulted in higher crosslink concentration which improved the performance of mechanical properties for NR/ SBR blend. (author)

  17. Radiation vulcanization of rubbers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makuuchi, Keizo [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment

    2002-02-01

    An abstract of the radiation process of polymer materials and the polymer reaction by radiation is explained. Main radiation is 250 keV to 10 MeV of electron rays in the industry. Radiation cross-linked rubber has less the tensile strength than that by sulfur and organic peroxide crosslinking. The main origins of low tensile strength are caused by cut of backbone chain and ozone depend on radiation. Acceleration of crosslinking and short time of radiation are necessary to improve these defects. To accelerate crosslinking, we used crosslinking accelerators, for example, three poly-functional monomers (PFM). The maximum tensile strength of styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR) not added crosslinking accelerators showed 3 MPa at 110 kGy, but SBR added A-TMMT (tetramethylolmethane tetraacrylate) showed 5.5 MPa at 110 kGy. Radiation crosslinking of many kinds of rubber: isoprene (IR), SBR, CR, nitrile rubber (NBR), hydrogenated nitrile rubber (HNBR), butyl rubber (IIR), chlorinated butyl rubber (CIIR), EPM and TPE are explained. (S.Y.)

  18. Radiation vulcanization of rubbers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makuuchi, Keizo

    2002-01-01

    An abstract of the radiation process of polymer materials and the polymer reaction by radiation is explained. Main radiation is 250 keV to 10 MeV of electron rays in the industry. Radiation cross-linked rubber has less the tensile strength than that by sulfur and organic peroxide crosslinking. The main origins of low tensile strength are caused by cut of backbone chain and ozone depend on radiation. Acceleration of crosslinking and short time of radiation are necessary to improve these defects. To accelerate crosslinking, we used crosslinking accelerators, for example, three poly-functional monomers (PFM). The maximum tensile strength of styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR) not added crosslinking accelerators showed 3 MPa at 110 kGy, but SBR added A-TMMT (tetramethylolmethane tetraacrylate) showed 5.5 MPa at 110 kGy. Radiation crosslinking of many kinds of rubber: isoprene (IR), SBR, CR, nitrile rubber (NBR), hydrogenated nitrile rubber (HNBR), butyl rubber (IIR), chlorinated butyl rubber (CIIR), EPM and TPE are explained. (S.Y.)

  19. SBR

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2012-03-15

    Mar 15, 2012 ... Sequencing batch reactor (SBR) and granular activated sludge-SBR ...... chromium (III) from tannery wastewater using activated carbon from sugar industrial ... Nutrient removal performance of a sequencing batch reactor as a ...

  20. High Performance Graphene Oxide Based Rubber Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Yingyan; Wen, Shipeng; Chen, Yulong; Zhang, Fazhong; Panine, Pierre; Chan, Tung W.; Zhang, Liqun; Liang, Yongri; Liu, Li

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, graphene oxide/styrene-butadiene rubber (GO/SBR) composites with complete exfoliation of GO sheets were prepared by aqueous-phase mixing of GO colloid with SBR latex and a small loading of butadiene-styrene-vinyl-pyridine rubber (VPR) latex, followed by their co-coagulation. During co-coagulation, VPR not only plays a key role in the prevention of aggregation of GO sheets but also acts as an interface-bridge between GO and SBR. The results demonstrated that the mechanical properties of the GO/SBR composite with 2.0 vol.% GO is comparable with those of the SBR composite reinforced with 13.1 vol.% of carbon black (CB), with a low mass density and a good gas barrier ability to boot. The present work also showed that GO-silica/SBR composite exhibited outstanding wear resistance and low-rolling resistance which make GO-silica/SBR very competitive for the green tire application, opening up enormous opportunities to prepare high performance rubber composites for future engineering applications. PMID:23974435

  1. Effect of filler loading and silane modification on the biodegradability of SBR composites reinforced with peanut shell powder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaniba, V.; Balan, Aparna K.; Sreejith, M. P.; Jinitha, T. V.; Subair, N.; Purushothaman, E.

    2017-06-01

    The development of biocomposites and their applications are important in material science due to environmental and sustainability issues. The extent of degradation depends on the nature of reinforcing filler, particle size and their modification. In this article, we tried to focus on the biodegradation of composites of Styrene Butadiene Rubber (SBR) reinforced with Peanut Shell Powder (PSP) by soil burial test. The composites of SBR with untreated PSP (UPSP) and silane modified PSP (SPSP) of 10 parts per hundred rubber (phr) and 20 phr filler loading in two particle size were buried in the garden soil for six months. The microbial degradation were assessed through the measurement of weight loss, tensile strength and hardness at definite period. The study shows that degradation increases with increase in filler loading and particle size. The chemical treatment of filler has been found to resist the degradation. The analysis of morphological properties by the SEM also confirmed biodegradation process by the microorganism in the soil.

  2. Development of compatibilized SBR and EPR nanocomposites containing dual filler system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajasekar, R.; Nayak, G.C.; Malas, A.; Das, C.K.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Nanoclay is dispersed in non-polar rubbers by utilizing a polar compatibilizer. ► Effect of dual fillers [nanoclay and carbon black] on the rubber properties. ► Comparison of the results of single and dual filler containing rubber compounds. -- Abstract: The study described in this paper is an analysis of the role of a compatibilizer for dispersing organically modified nanoclay in styrene butadiene rubber (SBR) and ethylene propylene rubber (EPR) matrices. The normal mixing of non-polar rubbers and organically modified nanoclay may not lead to improved distribution of the nanofiller in the rubbery matrix. Hence, a polar rubber such as epoxidized natural rubber (ENR) can be used as a compatibilizer for dispersing nanoclay in the non-polar rubber matrices. ENR–organically modified nanoclay composites (EC) were prepared by solution mixing. The nanoclay used in this study is Cloisite 20A. The obtained ENR–nanoclay composites were incorporated in SBR and EPR matrices along with carbon black. The morphological studies proved the intercalation of nanoclay platelets in ENR and further incorporation of EC in SBR and EPR matrices leads to partial exfoliation of nanoclay platelets. A curing study demonstrated faster scorch time, cure time and increased maximum torque for the compatibilized SBR and EPR nanocomposites containing a dual filler system compared to the control. Dynamic mechanical thermal analysis showed increase in storage modulus for the SBR and EPR compounds containing dual fillers compared to rubber compounds containing pure and single filler. The same compounds show substantial improvement in mechanical properties. The tensile fractured surface of the rubber compounds containing single and dual filler observed by scanning electron microscopy, (SEM) showed highly rough and irregular fracture paths, which proved the physical interaction between filler and rubber.

  3. Friction and wear study of NR/SBR blends with Si3N4Filler

    Science.gov (United States)

    GaneshKumar, A.; Balaganesan, G.; Sivakumar, M. S.

    2018-04-01

    The aim of this paper is to investigate mechanical and frictional properties of natural rubber/styrene butadiene rubber (NR/SBR) blends with and without silicon nitride (Si3N4) filler. The rubber is surface modified by silane coupling agent (Si-69) for enhancing hydrophobic property. The Si3N4of percentage 0 1, 3, 5 and 7, is incorporated into NR/SBR rubber compounds with 20% precipitated silica. The specimens with and without fillers are prepared as per standard for tensile and friction testing. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy test is conducted and it is inferred that the coupling agent is covalently bonded on the surface of Si3N4 particles and an organic coating layer is formed. The co-efficient of friction and specific wear rate of NR/SBR blends are examined using an in-house built friction tester in a disc-on-plate (DOP) configuration. The specimens are tested to find coefficient of friction (COF) against steel grip antiskid plate under dry, mud, wet and oil environmental conditions. It is found that the increase in tensile strength and modulus at low percentage of Si3N4 dispersion. It is also observed that increase in sliding friction co-efficient and decrease in wear rate for 1% of Si3N4 dispersion in NR/SBR blends. The friction tested surfaces are inspected using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and 3D non contact surface profiler.

  4. Effect of organo clay on curing, mechanical and dielectric properties of NR/SBR blends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravikumar, K.; Joseph, Reji; Ravichandran, K.

    2018-04-01

    Natural rubber (NR) and styrene butadiene rubber (SBR) based elastomeric blends reinforced with organically modified Sodium bentonite clay were prepared by two roll mills. Vulcanization parameters such as minimum and maximum torque values scorch and cure times are measured by Oscillating Disc Rheometer. Mechanical properties such as Tensile strength, modulus at 100%, 200% and 300% elongation and elongation at break and Hardness were measured by Universal testing machine and Durometer Shore A hardness meter respectively. Dielectric properties such as dielectric constant (ε’), dissipation factor (tanδ) and volume resistivity (ρv) were measured at room temperature. The curing studies show that torque values are increasing in NR/SBR blends by increase NR content. The scorch and optimum cure time in NR/SBR blends reinforced organo modified clay was found through increase in the SBR content. This may be due to better processing safety of the NR/SBR blends reinforced with organo modified clay. Mechanical properties show that addition of SBR in blends, tensile strength, elongation modulus increases, but 100% modulus slightly increases and no change was observed in Hardness. Dielectric studies show that dielectric constant of NR and SBR rubbers are almost same, it may due to their non-polar nature. But addition of SBR in NR/SBR blend, dielectric constant gradually increases and maximum value observed at 50/50 ratio. But no considerable change was observed in dissipation factor. Frequency dependant resistivity shows that volume resistivity was not changed with respect to frequency up to 3.5 kHz and beyond that the frequency dependence resistivity was found.

  5. SBR

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2006-12-04

    . ... LSD, least significant difference; MLSS, mixed liquor suspend- ded solids; SBR, sequencing batch reactor; .... of influent and effluent, mixed liquor suspended solids (MLSS), and sludge volume index (SVI) of the system ...

  6. Hyundai plans rubber unit despite overcapacity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hyoungjin Kim.

    1993-01-01

    Despite the oversupply of synthetic rubber in South Korea, the government has granted approval to Hyundai Petrochemical (Seoul) to build the country's second synthetic rubber unit, to be located alongside its petrochemical complex at Daesan. The plant is due for startup during second-half 1995, when the local market is expected to be in better balance. Hyundai will use Goodyear Tire ampersand Rubber technology for the plant, which will have annual capacities for 40,000 m.t. of polybutadiene rubber (BR), 30,000 m.t. of styrene butadiene rubber (SBR) and 12,000 m.t. of nitrile rubber (NBR). Styrene and butadiene requirements will be met from Hyundai's own production at Daesan. The current local producer of synthetic rubber is Korea Kumho Petrochemicals (Seoul), which has annual capacities for 150,000 m.t. of SBR, 95,000 m.t. of BR, and 10,000 m.t. of NBR. Korean SBR demand is about 141,000 m.t./year but is expected to increase to 161,000 m.t./year by 1996 and reach 194,000 m.t./year by the end of the decade

  7. Effect of grafting cellulose acetate and methylmethacrylate as compatibilizer onto NBR/SBR blends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalf, A.I.; Nashar, D.E.El.; Maziad, N.A.

    2010-01-01

    Compatibilizer is used for improving of processability, interfacial interaction and mechanical properties of polymer blends. In this study acrylonitrile butadiene rubber (NBR) and styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR) blends were compatibilized by a graft copolymer of acrylonitrile butadiene rubber (NBR) grafted with cellulose acetate (CA) i.e. (NBR-g-CA) and acrylonitrile butadiene rubber (NBR) grafted with methylmethacrylate i.e. (NBR-g-MMA). Compatibilizers were prepared by gamma radiation induced grafting of NBR with cellulose acetate (CA) and methylmethacrylate (MMA) were added with different ratios to NBR/SBR (50/50) blend. The compatibilized blends were evaluated by rheometric characteristics, physico-mechanical properties, swelling behavior, scanning electron microscope (SEM) and thermal analysis. The results showed that, the blends with graft copolymer effect greatly on the rheological characteristics [optimum cure time (Tc 90 ), scorch time (Ts 2 ), and the cure rate index (CRI)]. The physico-mechanical properties of the investigated blends were enhanced by the incorporation of these graft copolymers, while the resistance to swelling in toluene became higher. SEM photographs confirm that, these compatibilizers improve the interfacial adhesion between NBR/SBR (50/50) blend which induce compatibilization in the immiscible blends. The efficiency of the compatibilizer was also evaluated by studying the thermogravimetric analysis.

  8. Multilayer graphene rubber nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schartel, Bernhard; Frasca, Daniele; Schulze, Dietmar; Wachtendorf, Volker; Krafft, Bernd; Morys, Michael; Böhning, Martin; Rybak, Thomas

    2016-05-01

    Multilayer Graphene (MLG), a nanoparticle with a specific surface of BET = 250 m2/g and thus made of only approximately 10 graphene sheets, is proposed as a nanofiller for rubbers. When homogenously dispersed, it works at low loadings enabling the replacement of carbon black (CB), increase in efficiency, or reduction in filler concentration. Actually the appropriate preparation yielded nanocomposites in which just 3 phr are sufficient to significantly improve the rheological, curing and mechanical properties of different rubbers, as shown for Chlorine-Isobutylene-Isoprene Rubber (CIIR), Nitrile-Butadiene Rubber (NBR), Natural Rubber (NR), and Styrene-Butadiene Rubber (SBR). A mere 3 phr of MLG tripled the Young's modulus of CIIR, an effect equivalent to 20 phr of carbon black. Similar equivalents are observed for MLG/CB mixtures. MLG reduces gas permeability, increases thermal and electrical conductivities, and retards fire behavior. The later shown by the reduction in heat release rate in the cone calorimeter. The higher the nanofiller concentration is (3 phr, 5 phr, and 10 phr was investigated), the greater the improvement in the properties of the nanocomposites. Moreover, the MLG nanocomposites improve stability of mechanical properties against weathering. An increase in UV-absorption as well as a pronounced radical scavenging are proposed and were proved experimentally. To sum up, MLG is interesting as a multifunctional nanofiller and seems to be quite ready for rubber development.

  9. Effect of plasticiser on properties of styrene-butadiene-styrene thermoplastic elastomers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norzalia, S.; Farid, A.S.; O'Brien, M.G.

    1999-01-01

    This study investigates the properties of plasticised styrene-butadiene-styrene thermoplastic elastomers for possible applications in pharmaceutical, medical and food industries. Unplasticised styrene-butadiene-styrene (USBS) materials: vector 8550-D and vector 4461-D, which are developmental materials introduced by Exxon, and blends of vector 8550-D with vector 4461-D were plasticised paraffinic type plasticisers plastol 172 and plastol 352. Shore A hardness, tensile stress at break, modulus at 100% strain, elongation at break and density values showed a decrease whereas flow properties such as melt flow index (MFI) increased considerably with increasing plasticiser concentration. The properties of the plasticised styrene-butadiene-styrene thermoplastic elastomers were compared to the USBS materials. (author)

  10. Blends of Styrene-Butadiene-Styrene Triblock Copolymer with Random Styrene-Maleic Anhydride Copolymers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Piccini, Maria Teresa; Ruggeri, Giacomo; Passaglia, Elisa; Picchioni, Francesco; Aglietto, Mauro

    2002-01-01

    Blends of styrene-butadiene-styrene triblock copolymer (SBS) with random styrene-maleic anhydride copolymers (PS-co-MA), having different MA content, were prepared in a Brabender Plastigraph mixer. The presence of polystyrene (PS) blocks in the SBS copolymer and the high styrene content (93 and 86

  11. Effect of rubber polarity on selective wetting of carbon nanotubes in ternary blends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. H. Le

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Based on atomic force microscopy (AFM and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR analysis of the rubber-filler gel (wetting concept the kinetics of selective wetting of carbon nanotubes (CNTs in ternary styrene butadiene rubber (SBR/butadiene rubber (BR/natural rubber (NR blends was qualitatively and quantitatively characterized. Almost all CNTs are found to be wetted by the non-polar NR but not by the other non-polar rubber like BR or weakly polar SBR. It was proposed that phospholipids, which are linked to the α-terminal of NR can interact with the CNT surface through cation-π interactions forming strong bonding between NR and CNTs. Using the corrected surface tension value of NR, which involves the effect of phospholipids found in our previous work the selective wetting of CNTs in ternary rubber blends can be well predicted using the Z-model for a thermodynamic equilibrium state. By replacing the non-polar BR by a polar rubber like nitrile butadiene rubber (NBR as a blend component CNTs are wetted by NBR slightly more than by NR thanks to the strong interaction between CNTs and nitrile groups of NBR. SBR remains unbound to CNTs in both blends.

  12. The Properties of Polymer-Modified Asphalt Drived from Vacuum Bottom and Wastes of PE and SBR Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Yousefi

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The polymeric and non-polymeric petrochemical wastes are environmentally unfavorable materials. We have to found a way to reuse these wastes in a safe manner. In styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR production plant two major wastes are produced one is a fine rubber powder and the other is recycled N-methyl pyrrolidone (NMP. In high-density polyethylene (HDPE production plant also a low molecular weight polymer waste is produced which does not degrade in environment easily. On the other hand, bitumen is usually blended with thermoplastics, rubbers and an oil to produce polymermodified bitumens. Effect of SBR, PE and NMP wastes on vacuum bottom residue of crude oil distillation was investigated. The results of penetration, softening point and Frass tests revealed the advantages of SBR and PE wastes at high temperatures and suggest NMP waste as a good bitumen extender. The results of the Marshal test on the prepared polymer-modified hot-mix asphalt of the optimum formulation highlight the superiority of its strength and its lower flow as compared with those of standard 60/70 penetration grade bitumen.

  13. Properties of rubber blends based on natural rubber loaded with different fillers and cured by gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamed, R.M.

    2011-01-01

    In this investigation system styrene butadiene rubber (1502 type) and natural rubber were blended in different ratios namely, NR/SBR (0/100), NR/SBR (25/75), NR/SBR (50/50), NR/SBR (75/25) and NR/SBR (100/0). All the samples were subjected to gamma irradiation dose up to 250 kGy. The improvement in the mechanical properties, physico-mechanical properties and thermal properties was followed as a function of irradiation dose and blend ratio. The SBR /NR (50/50) blend with reasonable properties were filled with 40 p hr of Hisil (highly fined silicon), HAF carbon black (high abrasion furnace), TiO 2 titanium dioxide and clay; the reinforcing ability of these fillers was found to follow the order: Hisil > HAF carbon black > Clay > TiO 2 The effect of different kinds of enhancing agents (coagent) namely: N, N- methylene di acrylamide (MDA), trimethylol propane tri methacrylate (TMPTMA) and tetramethylol - methane tetraacrylate (TMMT) on the properties of the obtained composites as a function of irradiation dose was studied. The data obtained showed that the enhancement character of the co agents follow the order: TMMT >TMPTMA > MDA >unenhanced composites. This investigation showed also the effect of gamma irradiation on improving the above mentioned properties in the presence of filler and co agents. Moreover, radiation dose at 100 kGy is sufficient enough for obtained the desired properties. The obtaining composites can be used in many industrial applications such as radio controlled model race car tires to footwear applications; the SBR component adds the toughness while the natural rubber provides superior resilience and energy return when used in footwear.

  14. Electron beam crosslinked gels-Preparation, characterization and their effect on the mechanical, dynamic mechanical and rheological properties of rubbers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitra, Suman; Chattopadhyay, Santanu; Sabharwal, Sunil; Bhowmick, Anil K.

    2010-01-01

    Electron beam (EB) crosslinked natural rubber (NR) gels were prepared by curing NR latex with EB irradiation over a range of doses from 2.5 to 20 kGy using butyl acrylate as sensitizer. The NR gels were systematically characterized by solvent swelling, dynamic light scattering, mechanical and dynamic mechanical properties. These gels were introduced in virgin NR and styrene butadiene rubber (SBR) matrices at 2, 4, 8 and 16 phr concentration. Addition of the gels improved the mechanical and dynamic mechanical properties of NR and SBR considerably. For example, 16 phr of 20 kGy EB-irradiated gel-filled NR showed a tensile strength of 3.53 MPa compared to 1.85 MPa of virgin NR. Introduction of gels in NR shifted the glass transition temperature to a higher temperature. A similar effect was observed in the case of NR gel-filled SBR systems. Morphology of the gel-filled systems was studied with atomic force microscopy. The NR gels also improved the processability of the virgin rubbers greatly. Both the shear viscosity and the die swell values of EB-irradiated gel-filled NR and SBR were lower than their virgin counterparts as investigated by capillary rheometer.

  15. Electron beam crosslinked gels-Preparation, characterization and their effect on the mechanical, dynamic mechanical and rheological properties of rubbers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitra, Suman; Chattopadhyay, Santanu [Rubber Technology Centre, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur 721302 (India); Sabharwal, Sunil [Radiation Technology Development Section, Bhabha Atomic Research Center, Trombay, Mumbai 400085 (India); Bhowmick, Anil K., E-mail: anilkb@rtc.iitkgp.ernet.i [Rubber Technology Centre, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur 721302 (India)

    2010-03-15

    Electron beam (EB) crosslinked natural rubber (NR) gels were prepared by curing NR latex with EB irradiation over a range of doses from 2.5 to 20 kGy using butyl acrylate as sensitizer. The NR gels were systematically characterized by solvent swelling, dynamic light scattering, mechanical and dynamic mechanical properties. These gels were introduced in virgin NR and styrene butadiene rubber (SBR) matrices at 2, 4, 8 and 16 phr concentration. Addition of the gels improved the mechanical and dynamic mechanical properties of NR and SBR considerably. For example, 16 phr of 20 kGy EB-irradiated gel-filled NR showed a tensile strength of 3.53 MPa compared to 1.85 MPa of virgin NR. Introduction of gels in NR shifted the glass transition temperature to a higher temperature. A similar effect was observed in the case of NR gel-filled SBR systems. Morphology of the gel-filled systems was studied with atomic force microscopy. The NR gels also improved the processability of the virgin rubbers greatly. Both the shear viscosity and the die swell values of EB-irradiated gel-filled NR and SBR were lower than their virgin counterparts as investigated by capillary rheometer.

  16. Nanosized TiN-SBR hybrid coating of stainless steel as bipolar plates for polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumagai, Masanobu; Myung, Seung-Taek; Asaishi, Ryo; Sun, Yang-Kook; Yashiro, Hitoshi

    2008-01-01

    In attempt to improve interfacial electrical conductivity of stainless steel for bipolar plates of polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells, TiN nanoparticles were electrophoretically deposited on the surface of stainless steel with elastic styrene butadiene rubber (SBR) particles. From transmission electron microscopic observation, it was found that the TiN nanoparticles (ca. 50 nm) surrounded the spherical SBR particles (ca. 300-600 nm), forming agglomerates. They were well adhered on the surface of the type 310S stainless steel. With help of elasticity of SBR, the agglomerates were well fitted into the interfacial gap between gas diffusion layer (GDL) and stainless steel bipolar plate, and the interfacial contact resistance (ICR), simultaneously, was successfully reduced. A single cell using the TiN nanoparticles-coated bipolar plates, consequently, showed comparable cell performance with the graphite employing cell at a current density of 0.5 A cm -2 (12.5 A). Inexpensive TiN nanoparticle-coated type 310S stainless steel bipolar plates would become a possible alternate for the expensive graphite bipolar plates as use in fuel cell applications

  17. FTIR spectra and mechanical strength analysis of some selected rubber derivatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunasekaran, S.; Natarajan, R. K.; Kala, A.

    2007-10-01

    Rubber materials have wide range of commercial applications such as, infant diapers, famine hygiene products, drug delivery devices and incontinency products such as rubber tubes, tyres, etc. In the present work, studies on mechanical properties of some selected rubber materials viz., natural rubber (NR), styrene butadiene rubber (SBR), nitrile butadiene rubber (NBR) and ethylene propylene diene monomer (EPDM) have been carried out in three states viz., raw, vulcanized and reinforced. To enhance the quality of rubber elastomers, an attempt is made to prepare new elastomers called polyblends. In the present study an attempt is made to blend NR with NBR and with EPDM. We here report, a novel approach for the evaluation of various physico-mechanical properties such as mechanical strength, tensile strength, elongation and hardness. The method is simple, direct and fast and involves infrared spectral measurements for the evaluation of these properties. With the applications of modern infrared spectroscopy, the mechanical strength of these rubber materials have been analyzed by calculating the internal standards among the methyl and methylene group vibrational frequencies obtained from FTIR spectroscopy. Also the tensile strength measurements carried out by universal testing machine. The results pertaining physico-mechanical properties of the rubber derivatives undertaken in the present study obtained by IR-based method are in good agreement with data resulted from the standard methods.

  18. Phase Morphology and Mechanical Properties of Cyclic Butylene Terephthalate Oligomer-Containing Rubbers: Effect of Mixing Temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halász, István Zoltán; Bárány, Tamás

    2016-08-24

    In this work, the effect of mixing temperature (T mix ) on the mechanical, rheological, and morphological properties of rubber/cyclic butylene terephthalate (CBT) oligomer compounds was studied. Apolar (styrene butadiene rubber, SBR) and polar (acrylonitrile butadiene rubber, NBR) rubbers were modified by CBT (20 phr) for reinforcement and viscosity reduction. The mechanical properties were determined in tensile, tear, and dynamical mechanical analysis (DMTA) tests. The CBT-caused viscosity changes were assessed by parallel-plate rheometry. The morphology was studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). CBT became better dispersed in the rubber matrices with elevated mixing temperatures (at which CBT was in partially molten state), which resulted in improved tensile properties. With increasing mixing temperature the size of the CBT particles in the compounds decreased significantly, from few hundred microns to 5-10 microns. Compounding at temperatures above 120 °C and 140 °C for NBR and SBR, respectively, yielded reduced tensile mechanical properties most likely due to the degradation of the base rubber. The viscosity reduction by CBT was more pronounced in mixes with coarser CBT dispersions prepared at lower mixing temperatures.

  19. Phase Morphology and Mechanical Properties of Cyclic Butylene Terephthalate Oligomer-Containing Rubbers: Effect of Mixing Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    István Zoltán Halász

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the effect of mixing temperature (Tmix on the mechanical, rheological, and morphological properties of rubber/cyclic butylene terephthalate (CBT oligomer compounds was studied. Apolar (styrene butadiene rubber, SBR and polar (acrylonitrile butadiene rubber, NBR rubbers were modified by CBT (20 phr for reinforcement and viscosity reduction. The mechanical properties were determined in tensile, tear, and dynamical mechanical analysis (DMTA tests. The CBT-caused viscosity changes were assessed by parallel-plate rheometry. The morphology was studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM. CBT became better dispersed in the rubber matrices with elevated mixing temperatures (at which CBT was in partially molten state, which resulted in improved tensile properties. With increasing mixing temperature the size of the CBT particles in the compounds decreased significantly, from few hundred microns to 5–10 microns. Compounding at temperatures above 120 °C and 140 °C for NBR and SBR, respectively, yielded reduced tensile mechanical properties most likely due to the degradation of the base rubber. The viscosity reduction by CBT was more pronounced in mixes with coarser CBT dispersions prepared at lower mixing temperatures.

  20. Determination of the Mechanical Properties of Rubber by FT-NIR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rattapol Pornprasit

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Mechanical tests, for example, tensile and hardness tests, are usually used to evaluate the properties of rubber materials. In this work, mechanical properties of selected rubber materials, that is, natural rubber (NR, styrene butadiene rubber (SBR, nitrile butadiene rubber (NBR, and ethylene propylene diene monomer (EPDM, were evaluated using a near infrared (NIR spectroscopy technique. Here, NR/NBR and NR/EPDM blends were first prepared. All of the samples were then scanned using a FT-NIR spectrometer and fitted with an integration sphere working in a diffused reflectance mode. The spectra were correlated with hardness and tensile properties. Partial least square (PLS calibration models were built from the spectra datasets with preprocessing techniques, that is, smoothing and second derivative. This indicated that reasonably accurate models, that is, with a coefficient of determination [R2] of the validation greater than 0.9, could be achieved for the hardness and tensile properties of rubber materials. This study demonstrated that FT-NIR analysis can be applied to determine hardness and tensile values in rubbers and rubber blends effectively.

  1. Devulcanization of ground tire rubber: Physical and chemical changes after different microwave exposure times

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. S. Garcia

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Microwave devulcanization is known to be a promising and an efficient rubber recycling method which makes possible for the rubber to regain its fluidity, and makes it capable of being remolded and revulcanized. The focus of this work is to understand the physical and chemical changes that occur in the ground tire rubber after different microwave exposure periods. For this purpose chemical, thermal, rheological and morphological analyses were performed on the tire rubber, which contains natural rubber (NR and styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR as polymeric material. The results showed that the microwave treatment promoted the breaking of sulfur cross-links and consequently increased the rubber fluidity. However, long periods of exposure led to degradation and modification of some properties. At nanoscale, the deformation of the devulcanized NR domain under stress was observed, and the morphology obtained appears to be a droplet dispersion morphology. The most exposed samples presented only one glass transition temperature, and from this it was concluded that the treatment may have played an important role in the compatibilization of the elastomeric blend. Based on the results, it is required to control the microwave exposure time and polymeric degradation in order to achieve a regenerated rubber with satisfactory properties.

  2. Electrical and Thermo-Mechanical properties of Irradiated Clay Nanoparticle/SBR Composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ata, M.M.E.M.

    2011-01-01

    Polymer-Composites incorporating metal, semiconductors, Carbon black, nano materials and Clay materials have been widely used and studied as multifunctional materials with inherent polymer properties. Polymer-clay nano composites show remarkable property improvement when compared to conventionally scaled composites. For designing new materials with desirable, predicted properties, a better understanding of structure-property relationships is necessary. In this work, we employ dielectric relaxation spectroscopy (DRS) to investigate molecular mobility in relation to morphology in styrene butadiene rubber-SBR (treated and untreated) nano composites. In addition to the investigation of dipolar processes, special attention is paid here to the investigation of conductivity effects and mechanical as well as thermo-mechanical properties. From the stress-strain characteristics, one found that, all the compositions showed a tensile strength higher than the virgin rubber. By increasing the filler loading, the tensile strength of the prepared composites increases. The elongation at break for treated and untreated clay filed composites increases with an increase in filer loading up to 10 p hr and then followed by a decrease up to 15 p hr. The cross linking density, υ increases with both treated and untreated clay contents and treated samples have higher increasing rate of υ values than untreated one. To elucidate the tensile behavior of the test samples. The Ht model is tested by using non-Gaussian chain statistics, which give a good fitting with the experimental data.

  3. Nanocomposites of NR/SBR Blend Prepared by Latex Casting Method: Effects of Nano-TiO2 and Polystyrene-Encapsulated Nano-TiO2 on the Cure Characteristics, Physical Properties, and Morphology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anyaporn Boonmahitthisud

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanocomposites of 80/20 (w/w natural rubber (NR/styrene butadiene rubber (SBR blend with four loadings of either nanosized titanium dioxide (nTiO2 or polystyrene-encapsulated nTiO2 (PS-nTiO2, ranging from 3 to 9 parts by weight per hundred of rubber (phr, were prepared by latex casting method. The PS-nTiO2 synthesized via in situ differential microemulsion polymerization displayed a core-shell morphology (nTiO2 core and PS shell with an average diameter of 42 nm. The cure characteristics (scorch time, cure time, and cure rate index, mechanical properties (tensile properties, tear strength, and hardness, thermal stability, glass transition temperature, and morphology of the prepared nanocomposites were quantified and compared. The results showed that the cure characteristics of all the nanocomposites were not significantly changed compared to those of the neat NR/SBR blend. The inclusion of an appropriate amount of either nTiO2 or PS-nTiO2 into the NR/SBR blend apparently improved the tensile strength, modulus at 300% strain, tear strength, hardness, and thermal stability but deteriorated the elongation at break of the nanocomposites. Based on differential scanning calorimetry, the glass transition temperature of all the nanocomposites was similar to that of the neat NR/SBR blend. Moreover, the morphology of the PS-nTiO2-filled rubber nanocomposites fractured surface analyzed by scanning electron microscopy showed an improvement in the interfacial adhesion between the rubber phase and the nanoparticles.

  4. Evaluation of tri-steps modified styrene-butadiene-styrene block copolymer membrane for wound dressing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Jen Ming; Huang, Huei Tsz

    2012-01-01

    Tri-steps modified styrene-butadiene-styrene block copolymer (SBS) membrane was prepared with epoxidation, ring opening reaction with maleated ionomer and layer-by-layer assembled polyelectrolyte technique. The tri-steps modified SBS membrane was characterized by infrared spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscope (XPS). The structures of the modified SBS membranes were identified with methylene blue and azocarmine G. The content of amino group on the surface of the modified membrane was calculated from uptake of an acid dye. The values of the contact angle, water absorption, water vapor transmission rate and the adsorption of fibronectin on the membranes were determined. To evaluate the biocompatibility of the tri-steps modified SBS membrane, the cytotoxicity, antibacterial and growth profile of the cell culture of 3T3 fibroblasts on the membrane were evaluated. The bactericidal activity was found on the modified SBS. From the cell culture of 3T3 fibroblasts on the membrane, it revealed that the cells not only remained viable but also proliferated on the surface of the tri-steps modified SBS membranes. As the membranes are sterile semipermeable with bactericidal activity and transparent allowing wound checks, they can be considered for shallow wound with low exudates. - Highlights: ► Styrene-butadiene-styrene block copolymer (SBS) was modified with tri-steps. ► The tri-steps are epoxidation, ring opening reaction and layer-by-layer assembly. ► Modified SBS membrane for wound dressing is evaluated. ► Membranes are sterile semipermeable with bactericidal activity and transparent. ► Membranes can be considered for shallow wound with low exudates.

  5. Evaluation of tri-steps modified styrene-butadiene-styrene block copolymer membrane for wound dressing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Jen Ming, E-mail: jmyang@mail.cgu.edu.tw; Huang, Huei Tsz

    2012-08-01

    Tri-steps modified styrene-butadiene-styrene block copolymer (SBS) membrane was prepared with epoxidation, ring opening reaction with maleated ionomer and layer-by-layer assembled polyelectrolyte technique. The tri-steps modified SBS membrane was characterized by infrared spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscope (XPS). The structures of the modified SBS membranes were identified with methylene blue and azocarmine G. The content of amino group on the surface of the modified membrane was calculated from uptake of an acid dye. The values of the contact angle, water absorption, water vapor transmission rate and the adsorption of fibronectin on the membranes were determined. To evaluate the biocompatibility of the tri-steps modified SBS membrane, the cytotoxicity, antibacterial and growth profile of the cell culture of 3T3 fibroblasts on the membrane were evaluated. The bactericidal activity was found on the modified SBS. From the cell culture of 3T3 fibroblasts on the membrane, it revealed that the cells not only remained viable but also proliferated on the surface of the tri-steps modified SBS membranes. As the membranes are sterile semipermeable with bactericidal activity and transparent allowing wound checks, they can be considered for shallow wound with low exudates. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Styrene-butadiene-styrene block copolymer (SBS) was modified with tri-steps. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The tri-steps are epoxidation, ring opening reaction and layer-by-layer assembly. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Modified SBS membrane for wound dressing is evaluated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Membranes are sterile semipermeable with bactericidal activity and transparent. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Membranes can be considered for shallow wound with low exudates.

  6. Rubber/clay nanocomposites by combined latex compounding and melt mixing: A masterbatch process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan, Jinghua; Wang, Xiaoping; Luo, Yuanfang; Jia, Demin

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: → Rubber/Ca-montmorillonite nanocomposites were prepared by the masterbatch process. → Latex compounding method is efficient to improve the Ca-montmorillonite dispersion. → Exfoliated structure was obtained in the masterbatch by latex compounding method. → Intercalated and exfoliated structures were achieved in the vulcanizate. → The properties of vulcanizate are improved by the addition of Ca-montmorillonite. -- Abstract: Rubber/Ca-montmorillonite (Ca-MMT) nanocomposites with well exfoliated Ca-MMT layers were prepared by combination of latex compounding and melt mixing. Firstly, a high Ca-MMT content masterbatch was co-coagulated by natural rubber (NR) latex and modified Ca-MMT aqueous suspension through latex compounding. The masterbatch was added in the system of styrene butadiene rubber (SBR) and epoxidized natural rubber (ENR) by melt mixing subsequently. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electronic microscopy (TEM) results showed that intercalated and exfoliated nanocomposites were obtained by the masterbatch technique. The effects of modified Ca-MMT introduction into the rubber matrix, via the masterbatch technique, on the properties of the resulting composites were studied. It was found that the vulcanization was hindered by the incorporation of modified Ca-MMT, while mechanical performances, thermal stability and aging resistance were improved. The increasingly glass transition temperature and the storage modulus with the loading of modified Ca-MMT were measured by dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA).

  7. Design, Construction, and Evaluation of Rubber Friction Tester

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Razzaghi Kashani

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Coeffcient of  friction  (COF  for  rubber parts  is one of  the key parameters in their interaction with solid rough surfaces (micrometer to millimeter scales,  such  as  tire-road  interactions. COF  of  rubber  depends  on  viscoelastic properties of rubber, roughness characteristics of the counter-part surface, and process variables such as contact nominal pressure and sliding speed. Due to the need for measuring COF  for  rubber,  a  new  friction  tester, with  continuous  variation  of nominal pressure and sliding speed, was designed and constructed in order to assess the effect of above mentioned parameters. Tire tread compounds, as the most common rubber part  in  the feld of  rubber  tribology, was used  for  this purpose. Viscoelastic properties of compounds were varied by changing composition of styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR and butadiene rubber (BR in the blend. Effect of surface roughness was evaluated by using silicon-carbide papers with different roughness parameters. By statistical analysis it was shown that the designed friction tester has high accuracy in measuring the coeffcient of friction of rubber and differentiating the effective parameters. Increasing the nominal pressure led to reduction of COF and increase in sliding speed forced it through a maximum. In conclusion, the loss factor of the compound and asymmetry in roughness distribution of the counter-surface are considered as the most effective parameters on COF of rubber.

  8. Bond Characteristics of Macro Polypropylene Fiber in Cementitious Composites Containing Nanosilica and Styrene Butadiene Latex Polymer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae-Woong Han

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the bond properties of polypropylene (PP fiber in plain cementitious composites (PCCs and styrene butadiene latex polymer cementitious composites (LCCs at different nanosilica contents. The bond tests were evaluated according to JCI SF-8, in which the contents of nanosilica in the cement were 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 wt%, based on cement weight. The addition of nanosilica significantly affected the bond properties between macro PP fiber and cementitious composites. For PCCs, the addition of 0–2 wt% nanosilica enhanced bond strength and interface toughness, whereas the addition of 4 wt% or more reduced bond strength and interface toughness. The bond strength and interfacial toughness of LCCs also increased with the addition of up to 6% nanosilica. The analysis of the relative bond strength showed that the addition of nanosilica affects the bond properties of both PCC and LCC. This result was confirmed via microstructural analysis of the macro PP fiber surface after the bond tests, which revealed an increase in scratches due to frictional forces and fiber tearing.

  9. Reducing the photo-bleaching effect of a new europium complex embedded in styrene butadiene copolymer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez, G. Lesly; Reyes-Rodríguez, J. L.; Padilla, Isela; Alarcón-Flores, G.; Falcony, C.

    2018-02-01

    A highly luminescent europium complex obtained with two different ligands, succinimide (SI) and 2-thenoyltrifluoroacetone (TTA) , was synthetized with different TTA concentrations. The photoluminescence (PL) emission from these materials corresponds to the characteristic inter-electronic energy level transitions of the Eu3+ ions. However, the excitation spectrum is strongly dependent on the presence of TTA, having an optimum response when 0.75 mmol of this compound is added to the EuL3(H2O)3 complex. The quantum yield obtained by these powders were around 72 % ± 1.7 % indicating an optimum sensitization of these complex. The EuL3 TTA complex with the best PL properties was embedded in a styrene butadiene copolymer (SBC) film, produced by the drop casting method, obtaining similar PL behavior at different concentrations, the highest intensity was observed at 1.2% (w/v) of EuL3 TTA complex and the quantum yield of these composite films was 60.5 % ± 2 % . These films were exposed to continuous UV irradiation and after 141 h no photo-bleaching effect was observed in contrast with the EuL3 TTA complex that exhibited a noticeable photoluminescence intensity degradation at much shorter exposure times. Both the Eu-complexes and the composite films were characterized by FT-IR, XRD, SEM and fluorescence spectroscopy.

  10. A Study of Styrene-Butadiene Rubber Blends as Improved Flame Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-06-01

    results of air gun tests. Thus, both elasticity and viscosity must be considered when DD I JAN 7 1473 EDITION OF I NOV 63 IS OBSOLETE UNCLASSIFIED sECURITy...L.EGEND!~ 23.9’ C 0~ 1:? 100 >.80 I.. 20 ini Sha at)sc Fiue2. Prcn eoyof2-ecnSR4/0a Vaiu aisa 38 227 I LI I : hi Ilii Al 01 100 130 6n0 40- Shear Rate

  11. Improved natural rubber composites reinforced with a complex filler network of biobased nanoparticles and ionomer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biobased rubber composites are renewable and sustainable. Significant improvement in modulus of rubber composite reinforced with hydrophilic filler was achieved with the inclusion of ionomers. Soy particles aided with ionomer, carboxylated styrene-butadiene (CSB), formed a strong complex filler netw...

  12. Chitosan/polyanion surface modification of styrene-butadiene-styrene block copolymer membrane for wound dressing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jen Ming; Yang, Jhe-Hao; Huang, Huei Tsz

    2014-01-01

    The surface of styrene-butadiene-styrene block copolymer (SBS) membrane is modified with tri-steps in this study. At first, two step modified SBS membrane (MSBS) was prepared with epoxidation and ring opening reaction with maleated ionomer. Then chitosan was used as the polycation electrolyte and sodium alginate, poly(γ-glutamic acid) (PGA) and poly(aspartic acid) (PAsp) were selected as polyanion electrolytes to deposit on the surfaces of MSBS membrane by the layer-by-layer self-assembly (LbL) deposition technique to get three [chitosan/polyanion] LbL modified SBS membranes, ([CS/Alg], [CS/PGA] and [CS/PAsp]). From the quantitative XPS analysis and water contact angle measurement, it is found that the order of wettability and the content of functional group percentages of COO(-) and OCN on the three [CS/polyanion] systems are [CS/Alg]>[CS/PGA]>[CS/PAsp]. Performances of water vapor transmission rates, fibronectin adsorption, antibacterial assessment and 3T3 fibroblast cell growth on [CS/Alg], [CS/PGA] and [CS/PAsp] membranes were also evaluated. With the evaluation of water vapor transmission rate, these [CS/Alg], [CS/PGA] and [CS/PAsp] membranes are sterile semipermeable with water evaporation at about 82±8g/day·m(2). It is found that the amount of fibronectin adsorption on the three [CS/polyanion] systems is significantly determined by the sum of the functional group of COO(-) and OCN on the surfaces of [CS/Alg], [CS/PGA] and [CS/PAsp] systems. The results are inverse with the sum of the functional group of COO(-) and OCN on the three [CS/polyanion]. From the cytotoxicity test and cell adhesion and proliferation assay of 3T3 fibroblasts on the three [CS/polyanion] systems, it revealed that the cells not only remained viable but they also proliferated on the surfaces of [CS/Alg], [CS/PGA] and [CS/PAsp]. The bactericidal activity was found on [CS/Alg], [CS/PGA] and [CS/PAsp]. The transport of bacterial through these [CS/polyanion] membranes was also conducted

  13. Effects of simulant mixed waste on EPDM and butyl rubber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nigrey, P.J.; Dickens, T.G.

    1997-11-01

    The authors have developed a Chemical Compatibility Testing Program for the evaluation of plastic packaging components which may be used in transporting mixed waste forms. In this program, they have screened 10 plastic materials in four liquid mixed waste simulants. These plastics were butadiene-acrylonitrile copolymer (Nitrile) rubber, cross-linked polyethylene, epichlorohydrin rubber, ethylene-propylene (EPDM) rubber, fluorocarbons (Viton and Kel-F trademark), polytetrafluoro-ethylene (Teflon), high-density polyethylene, isobutylene-isoprene copolymer (Butyl) rubber, polypropylene, and styrene-butadiene (SBR) rubber. The selected simulant mixed wastes were (1) an aqueous alkaline mixture of sodium nitrate and sodium nitrite; (2) a chlorinated hydrocarbon mixture; (3) a simulant liquid scintillation fluid; and (4) a mixture of ketones. The screening testing protocol involved exposing the respective materials to approximately 3 kGy of gamma radiation followed by 14-day exposures to the waste simulants at 60 C. The rubber materials or elastomers were tested using Vapor Transport Rate measurements while the liner materials were tested using specific gravity as a metric. The authors have developed a chemical compatibility program for the evaluation of plastic packaging components which may be incorporated in packaging for transporting mixed waste forms. From the data analyses performed to date, they have identified the thermoplastic, polychlorotrifluoroethylene, as having the greatest chemical compatibility after having been exposed to gamma radiation followed by exposure to the Hanford Tank simulant mixed waste. The most striking observation from this study was the poor performance of polytetrafluoroethylene under these conditions. In the evaluation of the two elastomeric materials they have concluded that while both materials exhibit remarkable resistance to these environmental conditions, EPDM has a greater resistance to this corrosive simulant mixed waste

  14. Various ways to reduce zinc oxide levels in S-SBR rubber compounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heideman, G.; Noordermeer, Jacobus W.M.; Datta, Rabin; van Baarle, Ben

    2007-01-01

    Because of environmental concerns, the zinc content in rubber compounds has come under scrutiny. The research described in this article encompasses zinc-oxide, various zinc-complexes and alternative metal oxides as activators for sulphur vulcanisation. Regarding zinc complexes, it can be concluded

  15. Thermolysis of scrap tire and rubber in sub/super-critical water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qinghai; Li, Fuxin; Meng, Aihong; Tan, Zhongchao; Zhang, Yanguo

    2018-01-01

    The rapid growth of waste tires has become a serious environmental issue. Energy and material recovery is regarded as a promising use for waste tires. Thermolysis of scrap tire (ST), natural rubber (NR), and styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR) was carried out in subcritical and supercritical water using a temperature-pressure independent adjustable batch tubular reactor. As a result, oil yields increased as temperature and pressure increased, and they reached maximum values as the state of water was near the critical point. However, further increases in water temperature and pressure reduced the oil yields. The maximum oil yield of 21.21% was obtained at 420 °C and 18 MPa with a reaction time of 40 min. The relative molecular weights of the chemicals in the oil products were in the range of 70-140 g/mole. The oil produced from ST, NR, and SBR contained similar chemical compounds, but the oil yield of SR was between those of NR and SBR. The oil yield from thermolysis of subcritical or supercritical water should be further improved. The main gaseous products, including CH 4 , C 2 H 2 , C 2 H 4 , C 2 H 6 , and C 3 H 8 , increased with reaction time, temperature, and pressure, whereas the solid residues, including carbon black and impurities, decreased. These results provide useful information to develop a sub/super-critical water thermolysis process for energy and material regeneration from waste tires. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Natural polymers: an overview

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    John, MJ

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The scarcity of natural polymers during the world war years led to the development of synthetic polymers like nylon, acrylic, neoprene, styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR) and polyethylene. The increasing popularity of synthetic polymers is partly due...

  17. Characterization of electron-beam-modified surface coated clay fillers and their influence on physical properties of rubbers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ray, Sudip; Bhowmick, Anil K.; Sarma, K.S.S.; Majali, A.B.; Tikku, V.K.

    2002-01-01

    A novel process of surface modification of clay filler has been developed by coating this with an acrylate monomer, trimethylol propane triacrylate (TMPTA) or a silane coupling agent, triethoxy vinyl silane (TEVS) followed by electron beam irradiation. Characterization of these surface modified fillers has been carried out by Fourier-transform infrared analysis (FTIR), electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis (ESCA), wettability by dynamic wicking method measuring the rise of a liquid through a filler-packed capillary tube and water flotation test, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Presence of the acrylate and the silane coupling agent on the modified fillers has been confirmed from FTIR, ESCA, and EDX studies, which has also been supported by TGA studies. The contact angle measurement by dynamic wicking method suggests improvement in hydrophobicity of the treated fillers, which is supported by water flotation test especially in the case of silanized clay. However, XRD studies demonstrate that the entire modification process does not affect the bulk properties of the fillers. Finally, both unmodified and modified clay fillers have been incorporated in styrene butadiene rubber (SBR) and nitrile rubber (NBR). Rheometric and mechanical properties reveal that there is a definite improvement using these modified fillers specially in the case of silanized clay compared to the control sample, probably due to successful enhancement in interaction between the treated clay and the base polymer

  18. Characterization of electron-beam-modified surface coated clay fillers and their influence on physical properties of rubbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Sudip; Bhowmick, Anil K.; Sarma, K. S. S.; Majali, A. B.; Tikku, V. K.

    2002-12-01

    A novel process of surface modification of clay filler has been developed by coating this with an acrylate monomer, trimethylol propane triacrylate (TMPTA) or a silane coupling agent, triethoxy vinyl silane (TEVS) followed by electron beam irradiation. Characterization of these surface modified fillers has been carried out by Fourier-transform infrared analysis (FTIR), electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis (ESCA), wettability by dynamic wicking method measuring the rise of a liquid through a filler-packed capillary tube and water flotation test, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Presence of the acrylate and the silane coupling agent on the modified fillers has been confirmed from FTIR, ESCA, and EDX studies, which has also been supported by TGA studies. The contact angle measurement by dynamic wicking method suggests improvement in hydrophobicity of the treated fillers, which is supported by water flotation test especially in the case of silanized clay. However, XRD studies demonstrate that the entire modification process does not affect the bulk properties of the fillers. Finally, both unmodified and modified clay fillers have been incorporated in styrene butadiene rubber (SBR) and nitrile rubber (NBR). Rheometric and mechanical properties reveal that there is a definite improvement using these modified fillers specially in the case of silanized clay compared to the control sample, probably due to successful enhancement in interaction between the treated clay and the base polymer.

  19. Styrene-butadiene-styrene copolymer compatibilized carbon black/polypropylene/polystyrene composites with tunable morphology, electrical conduction and rheological stabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yihu; Xu, Chunfeng; Zheng, Qiang

    2014-04-21

    We report a facile kinetic strategy in combination with styrene-butadiene-styrene (SBS) copolymer compatibilizers for preparing carbon black (CB) filled immiscible polypropylene (PP)/polystyrene (PS) (1/1) blends with finely tuned morphologies and show the important role of location and migration of CB nanoparticles in determining the electrical conductivity and rheological behaviour of the composites. A novel method of mixing a SBS/CB (5/3) masterbatch with the polymers allowed producing composites with CB aggregates dispersed partially in the unfavorable PP phase and partially in the PP side of the interface to exhibit diverse phase connectivity and electrical conductivity depending on the compounding sequences. A cocontinuous morphology with CB enrichment along the interface was formed in the composite prepared by mixing the SBS/CB masterbatch with the premixed PP/PS blend, giving rise to a highest electrical conductivity and dynamic moduli at low frequencies. On the other hand, mixing the masterbatch with one and then with another polymer yielded droplet (PS)-in-matrix (filled PP) composites. The composites underwent phase coalescence and CB redistribution accompanied by marked dynamic electrical conduction and modulus percolations as a function of time during thermal annealing at 180 °C. The composites with the initial droplet-in-matrix morphology progressed anomalously into the cocontinuous morphology, reflecting a common mechanism being fairly nonspecific for understanding the processing of filled multicomponent composites with tailored performances of general concern.

  20. Effect of casting solvents on the properties of styrene-butadiene-styrene block copolymers studied by positron annihilation techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Djermouni, B.; Ache, H.J.

    1980-01-01

    The positron annihilation technique was used to study the properties of styrene-butadiene-styrene block copolymers obtained by casting them in four different solvents: toluene, carbon tetrachloride, ethyl acetate, and methyl ethyl ketone. The positron annihilation rates plotted as a function of temperature show in all films irregularities at -70 and +85 0 C which were attributed to the onset of motions in the polybutadiene and polystyrene domaines, respectively. In addition to that, two irregularities were observed at -14 and +10 0 C if a poor solvent, such as ethyl acetate or methyl ethyl ketone, was used, while films cast in a good solvent such as toluene or carbon tetrachloride show only one additional irregularity on the lambda 2 -T curves at -14 0 C. The latter results were explained in terms of the interfacial model by assuming that these irregularities correspond to the glass transition of interlayer phases between the pure polystyrene and the pure polybutadiene phases. The one which shows the irregularity at -14 0 C could be the phase in which polybutadiene is the major component, while the transition at +10 0 C can be attributed to a phase in which polystyrene is the dominating factor

  1. Reduced graphene oxide/hydroxylated styrene-butadiene-styrene tri-block copolymer electroconductive nanocomposites: Preparation and properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiong, Yuanqin; Xie, Yanyan [Institute of Polymer Science and Engineering, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Zhang, Fan [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Jishou University, Jishou 416000 (China); Ou, Encai; Jiang, Zhuojuan; Ke, Lili; Hu, Ding [Institute of Polymer Science and Engineering, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Xu, Weijian, E-mail: weijianxu59@gmail.com [Institute of Polymer Science and Engineering, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China)

    2012-08-20

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer RGO/HO-SBS nanocomposites are prepared successfully. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The introduction of -OH improves the compatibility between RGO and HO-SBS. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer RGO disperse homogeneously and form a compact continuous network in matrix (HO-SBS). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The percolation threshold of the nanocomposites is of 0.2-0.5 wt% (0.09-0.23 vol%) and its conductivity is up to 1.3 S/m. - Abstract: Flexible and electroconductive nanocomposites based on reduced graphene oxide (RGO) and hydroxylated styrene-butadiene-styrene tri-block copolymer (HO-SBS) were prepared by solution blending method. By the introduction of the groups of -OH and >C=O onto SBS, the compatibility between RGO and SBS was enhanced. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM) showed that RGO dispersed homogeneously and formed a compact continuous network in matrix (HO-SBS). The addition of RGO improved the thermal stability of the RGO/HO-SBS nanocomposites while slightly lowered the mechanical property. Moreover, RGO gave the nanocomposites a maximum electrical conductivity up to 1.3 S/m.

  2. Using heat-treated starch to modify the surface of biochar and improve the tensile properties of biochar-filled stryene-butadiene rubber composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heat-treated starch is a renewable material that can be used to modify the surface chemistry of small particles. In this work, heat-treated starch was used to coat hydrophilic biochar particles in order to make them more hydrophobic. Then when added as filler to hydrophobic styrene-butadiene rubber,...

  3. Misturas NR/SBR: influência da composição e do modo de preparação sobre propriedades mecânicas e reométricas NR/SBR mixtures: influence of composition and preparation mode on the mechanical and rheological properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hérlon M. B. Abreu Junior

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Aplicações de produtos à base de borracha diversas vezes requerem um conjunto de propriedades as quais, geralmente, não são fornecidas por um único elastômero. Dessa forma, um dos recursos utilizados é a mistura de dois ou mais polímeros para obtenção de novas propriedades. Neste caso, os demais ingredientes que são adicionados, normalmente distribuem-se de forma irregular, dependendo de sua afinidade com cada uma das borrachas. O grau de dispersão de cada um desses ingredientes em cada fase elastomérica irá então influenciar a velocidade de cura e o grau de vulcanização e, certamente, terá conseqüências nas propriedades do produto final. Neste trabalho, a borracha natural (NR foi misturada ao elastômero de butadieno-estireno (SBR nas proporções de 75:25 e 50:50, em massa. As composições foram preparadas empregando-se quatro maneiras distintas para a incorporação dos aditivos. Os resultados das propriedades mecânicas mostraram que, apesar da utilização de uma mesma formulação, o modo de preparo tem grande influência sobre as propriedades. No caso da mistura NR/SBR as melhores propriedades são obtidas quando é favorecida a vulcanização da borracha que, isoladamente, apresenta propriedades inferiores.Frequently a set of properties required for a given application cannot be accomplished by one elastomer only and, thus, mixtures of two or more polymers must be employed. In these cases, the other ingredients added are normally dispersed in a non homogeneous way, depending on their affinity to each polymer. The degree of dispersion each additive experiences in each elastomeric phase will influence the rate and the degree of vulcanization and will certainly have consequences on the properties of the final product. In this work, natural rubber (NR was mixed with styrene-butadiene elastomer (SBR in 75:25 and 50:50 w/w ratios. The compositions were prepared in a two-roll mill, by introducing the additives according to

  4. The filler-rubber interface in styrene butadiene nanocomposites with anisotropic silica particles: morphology and dynamic properties

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tadiello, L.; D´Arienzo, M.; Di Credico, B.; Hanel, T.; Matějka, Libor; Mauri, M.; Morazzoni, F.; Simonutti, R.; Špírková, Milena; Scotti, R.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 11, č. 20 (2015), s. 4022-4033 ISSN 1744-683X Grant - others:European Commission(XE) COST Action MP1202 HINT Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : nanocomposites * silica particles * polymer Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 3.798, year: 2015

  5. Preparation, characterization and evaluation of proton-conducting hybrid membranes based on sulfonated hydrogenated styrene-butadiene and polysiloxanes for fuel cell applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monroy-Barreto, M.; Aguilar, J.C.; Rodriguez de San Miguel, E.; de Gyves, J. [Departamento de Quimica Analitica, Facultad de Quimica, UNAM, Ciudad Universitaria, 04360 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Acosta, J.L.; del Rio, C.; Ojeda, M.C. [Instituto de Ciencia y Tecnologia de Polimeros (CSIC), c/Juan de la Cierva 3, 28006 Madrid (Spain); Munoz, M. [Departament de Quimica Analitica, Facultat de Ciencies, U.A.B., Bellaterra 08193 Barcelona (Spain)

    2010-12-15

    This paper describes the preparation of proton-conducting hybrid membranes (HMs) obtained by a solvent casting procedure using a solution containing sulfonated hydrogenated styrene-butadiene (HSBS-S) and an inorganic-organic mixture (polysiloxanes) previously prepared by a sol-gel route. HSBS-S copolymers with different sulfonation degrees were obtained and characterized by means of elemental analysis (EA), chemical titration and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). HSBS-S with the best properties in terms of proton conductivity and solubility for the casting procedure was selected to prepare the HMs. The solvent casting procedure permitted the two phases to be homogeneously distributed while maintaining a relatively high proton conductivity in the membrane. HMs with different blend ratios were characterized using structural (Fourier transform infrared-attenuated total reflectance (FTIR-ATR), dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC)), electrical (EIS), physicochemical (water uptake, ion-exchange capacity) and thermal (TGA-MS) methods. Finally, the optimized HSBS-S membrane and HMs were tested in hydrogen single fuel cells to obtain the polarization and power curves at different cell temperatures and gas pressures. Results indicate that HMs show a considerable improvement in performance compared to the optimized HSBS-S membrane denoting the benefit of incorporating the inorganic-organic network in the hydrogenated styrene-butadiene matrix. A Nafion membrane was used as reference material throughout this work. (author)

  6. Effects of simulant mixed waste on EPDM and butyl rubber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nigrey, P.J.; Dickens, T.G.

    1998-01-01

    We have developed a Chemical Compatibility Testing Program for the evaluation of plastic packaging components which may be used in transporting mixed waste forms. In this program, we have screened 10 plastic materials in four liquid mixed waste simulants. These plastics were butadiene-acrylonitrile copolymer (Nitrile) rubber, cross-linked polyethylene, epi-chloro-hydrin rubber, ethylene-propylene (EPDM) rubber, fluorocarbons (Viton and Kel-F), poly-tetrafluoroethylene (Teflon), high-density polyethylene, isobutylene-isoprene copolymer (Butyl) rubber, polypropylene, and styrene-butadiene (SBR) rubber. The selected simulant mixed wastes were (1) an aqueous alkaline mixture of sodium nitrate and sodium nitrite; (2) a chlorinated hydrocarbon mixture; (3) a simulant liquid scintillation fluid; and (4) a mixture of ketones. The screening testing protocol involved exposing the respective materials to ∼3 kGy of gamma radiation followed by 14-day exposures to the waste simulants at 60 deg. C. The rubber materials or elastomers were tested using VTR measurements while the liner materials were tested using specific gravity as a metric. For these tests, screening criteria of ∼1 g/hr/m 2 for VTR and specific gravity change of 10% were used. Those materials that failed to meet these criteria were judged to have failed the screening tests and were excluded from the next phase of this experimental program. We have completed the comprehensive testing phase of liner materials in a simulant Hanford Tank waste consisting of an aqueous alkaline mixture of sodium nitrate and sodium nitrite. From the data analyses performed, we have identified the chloro-fluorocarbon Kel-F as having the greatest chemical durability after having been exposed to gamma radiation followed by exposure to the aqueous alkaline simulant mixed waste. The most striking observation from this study was the extremely poor performance of Teflon under these conditions. We have also completed the comprehensive

  7. US rubber markets recover

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, A.

    1993-01-01

    Synthetic rubber markets in North America bounced back in no uncertain terms last year, with demand climbing an impressive 9.5%, to 2.97 million m.t.; and, according to the International Institute of Synthetic Rubber Producers (IIS-RP; Houston) latest five-year forecast, producers can look forward to a 3.3% increase in demand during 1993. This growth rate outpaced out 1992 forecast and demonstrates the resilience of the synthetic rubber industry, says William E. Tessemer, managing director of IISRP. We expect demand in 1993 to surpass 1992 and level off at a 2%/year growth rate for synthetic rubber - 2.5% including thermoplastic elastomers [TPEs]-over the 1993-97 period. The improvement reflects signs of a recovery in North America, especially the pickup in the auto and tire industry. The two major tire rubbers - styrene butadiene and polybutadiene rubber - notched up double-digit gains, and other materials that have autos uses, such as nitrile rubber and many of the specialty elastomers, also advanced strongly

  8. Ozonolysis of Model Olefins-Efficiency of Antiozonants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huntink, N.M.; Datta, Rabin; Talma, Auke; Noordermeer, Jacobus W.M.

    2006-01-01

    In this study, the efficiency of several potential long lasting antiozonants was studied by ozonolysis of model olefins. 2-Methyl-2-pentene was selected as a model for natural rubber (NR) and 5-phenyl-2-hexene as a model for styrene butadiene rubber (SBR). A comparison was made between the

  9. DFT studies of the effectiveness of p-substituted diphenyl amine antioxidants in styrene-butadiene rubber through their Cu(II) coordination ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puškárová, Ingrid; Breza, Martin

    2017-07-01

    Structures of a series of diphenyl amine (DPA) antioxidants and of their complexes with Cu2+ were optimized at B3LYP level of theory. DPAs may be divided into two groups according to their molar antioxidant effectiveness (AEM). The effectiveness of high-AEM DPA antioxidants at 130 °C rises with decreasing spin densities at Cu atoms and with the increasing electron density Laplacian at Cu-N bond critical points in the 2[DPA…Cu]2+ complexes similarly as in the case of p-phenylene diamine antioxidants. No such trends are observed at 25 °C and for low- AEM DPA antioxidants.

  10. Towards quantification of butadiene content in styrene-butadiene block copolymers and their blends with general purpose polystyrene (GPPS) and the relation between mechanical properties and NMR relaxation times

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nestle, Nikolaus [BASF Aktiengesellschaft, GKP/P-G 201, D-67056 Ludwigshafen (Germany)], E-mail: nikolaus.nestle@basf.com; Heckmann, Walter; Steininger, Helmut; Knoll, Konrad [BASF Aktiengesellschaft, GKP/P-G 201, D-67056 Ludwigshafen (Germany)

    2007-11-26

    The properties of styrene-butadiene-styrene (SBS) block copolymers do not only depend on the butadiene content and the degree of polymerisation but also on their chain architecture. In this contribution we present the results of a low-field time domain (TD) NMR study in which the transverse relaxation behaviour of different SBS block copolymers was analysed and correlated with findings from mechanical testing on pure and blended materials and transmission electron microscopy data which provide information on the microphase separation. The results indicate that while a straightforward determination of the butadiene content as in blended materials like ABS is not possible for these materials, the TD-NMR results correlate quite well with the mechanical performance of blends from SBS block copolymers with general purpose polystyrene (GPPS), i.e. industrial grade homopolymer polystyrene. Temperature-dependent experiments on pure and blended materials revealed a slight reduction in the softening temperature of the GPPS fraction in the blends.

  11. Infrared Spectroscopic Study on Structural Change and Interfacial Interaction in Rubber Composites Filled with Silica-Kaolin Hybrid Fillers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Y.; Guan, J.; Hu, H.; Gao, H.; Zhang, L.

    2016-07-01

    A series of natural rubber/styrene butadiene rubber/polybutadiene rubber composites was prepared with nanometer silica and micron kaolin by a dry modification process, mechanical compounding, and mold vulcanization. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and a scanning electron microscope were used to investigate the structural changes and interfacial interactions in composites. The results showed that the "seesaw" structure was formed particularly with the incorporation of silica particles in the preparation process, which would be beneficial to the dispersibility of fillers in the rubber matrix. The kaolinite platelets were generally arranged in directional alignment. Kaolinite with smaller particle size and low-defect structure was more stable in preparation, but kaolinite with larger particle size and high defect structure tended to change the crystal structure. The composite prepared in this research exhibited excellent mechanical and thermal properties.

  12. Rubber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graves, D. F.

    The word "rubber" immediately brings to mind materials that are highly flexible and will snap back to their original shape after being stretched. In this chapter a variety of materials are discussed that possess this odd characteristics. There will also be a discussion on the mechanism of this "elastic retractive force." Originally, rubber meant the gum collected from a tree growing in Brazil. The term "rubber" was coined for this material by the English chemist Joseph Priestley, who noted that it was effective for removing pencil marks from paper. Today, in addition to Priestley's natural product, many synthetic materials are made that possess these characteristics and many other properties. The common features of these materials are that they are made up of long-chain molecules that are amorphous (not crystalline), and the chains are above their glass transition temperature at room temperature.

  13. Effect of adding of the styrene-butadiene-styrene (SBS) copolymer in chemical and rheological properties of the brazilian asphalt; Efeito da adicao de SBS nas propriedades quimicas e reologicas de asfalto oriundo de petroleo brasileiro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucena, M.C.C.; Soares, S.A. [Ceara Univ., Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica Organica e Inorganica]. E-mail: mccl@dqoi.ufc.br; sas@ufc.br; Soares, J.B. [Ceara Univ., Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia de Transportes]. E-mail: jsoares@det.ufc.br

    2003-07-01

    Chemical and rheological characterization of the asphalt cement (AC) from the Fazenda Alegre petroleum, and the effect of adding 4.5% of the styrene-butadiene-styrene (SBS) copolymer were investigated. Structural characteristics were analyzed by infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). A structure similar to the Arabian and Venezuelan petroleum was observed. The simulated aging led to structural modification noticed by the increment in the carbonyl and sulphoxide groups. Thermogravimetry (TGA) showed that SBS did not affect the AC thermal decomposition at both inert and oxidative atmosphere. However, the differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) showed a decrease in the glass transition temperature of the material when SBS was added. The effect of SBS on the absolute viscosity revealed that SBS is not an inert additive and causes an increase in viscosity, in a nonlinear fashion. The commonly found Newtonian behavior of asphalt binders under high temperatures was also found on the SBS modified binder. Dynamic mechanical tests have shown that SBS increases the binder performance grade. (author)

  14. Performance evaluation of CFRP-rubber shock absorbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamanna, Giuseppe; Sepe, Raffaele

    2014-05-01

    In the present work a numerical investigation on the energy absorbing capability of dedicated structural components made of a carbon fiber reinforced polymer and an emulsion polymerised styrene butadiene rubber is reported. The shock absorbers are devices designed to absorb large amounts of energy by sacrificing their own structural integrity. Their aim is to cushion the effects of an impact phenomenon with the intent to preserve other structures from global failure or local damaging. Another important role of shock absorbers is reducing the peak of the acceleration showed during an impact phenomenon. This effect is of considerable interest in the case of vehicles to preserve passengers' safety. Static and dynamic numerical results are compared with experimental ones in terms of mean crushing forces, energy and peak crushing. The global performance of the absorbers has been evaluated by referencing to a proposed quality index.

  15. Performance evaluation of CFRP-rubber shock absorbers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lamanna, Giuseppe, E-mail: giuseppe.lamanna@unina2.it; Sepe, Raffaele, E-mail: giuseppe.lamanna@unina2.it [Department of Industrial and Information Engineering, Second University of Naples, via Roma, 29 - 81031 Aversa (Italy)

    2014-05-15

    In the present work a numerical investigation on the energy absorbing capability of dedicated structural components made of a carbon fiber reinforced polymer and an emulsion polymerised styrene butadiene rubber is reported. The shock absorbers are devices designed to absorb large amounts of energy by sacrificing their own structural integrity. Their aim is to cushion the effects of an impact phenomenon with the intent to preserve other structures from global failure or local damaging. Another important role of shock absorbers is reducing the peak of the acceleration showed during an impact phenomenon. This effect is of considerable interest in the case of vehicles to preserve passengers’ safety. Static and dynamic numerical results are compared with experimental ones in terms of mean crushing forces, energy and peak crushing. The global performance of the absorbers has been evaluated by referencing to a proposed quality index.

  16. Biological Reclaiming of Recycled Rubber and Its Effect on Mechanical Properties of New Rubber Vulcanizates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Mansourirad

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, due to environmental concerns, there has been great attention to recycling and reclaiming of tires. Different methods have been used for reclaiming or desulfurization of rubber. One of these methods, in which desulfurization of rubber happens with no damage to the polymer structure, is desulfurization by biological microorganisms. In this research the application and performance of thermophilic and sulfur oxidizing bacteria, Acidianus brierleyi for this purpose was investigated. Ground tire rubber was detoxified with organic solvents, and the optimum conditions for growing microorganisms in the existence of rubber powder in the shaker flasks were determined. In order to accelerate the process, the suitable conditions for growth of bacteria and desulfurization in the bioreactor were adopted. Fourier transfer infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy were employed to characterize desulfurization of bio-treated powder from bioreactor. The results indicated that morphological changes on powder surface and reduction of sulfur bonds have occurred. Samples from bioreactors, with and without bacteria and also untreated rubber powder were compounded with virgin styrene butadiene rubber. Tensile and dynamic properties were investigated using uni-direction tensile test and dynamic-mechanical-thermal analysis, respectively. Although some differences in dynamic-mechanical-thermal properties of samples pointed to stronger interaction between rubber matrix and treated rubber powder, no significant improvements in the mechanical properties of vulcanizates containing A.brierleyi-treated powder were observed. Low concentration of sulfur in rubber vulcanizates, chemical bonds of sulfur, and low efficiency of A. brierleyi in breaking sulfur bonds and reclaiming rubber were considered as the reasons for low efficiency of this treatment process.

  17. Radiation luminescence of polymers - emission behaviour of aromatic compounds incorporated in synthetic rubbers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawanishi, Shunichi; Hagiwara, Miyuki

    1986-01-01

    For a deep understanding of a radiation protection mechanism of some aromatic compounds on synthetic polymers, their optical emission behavior under electron irradiation was studied. The fluorescence light was led out of an irradiation room through a wave guide and detected by a photomultiplier so that less noisy spectrum was obtained. Acenaphthene or acenaphthylene was added to the synthetic rubbers such as ethylene propylene diene terpolymer, styrene butadiene rubber and cis-1,4-polybutadiene. The intensities of optical emission induced by electron beams changed from polymer to polymer, while those by ultraviolet lights were independent of the kind of polymers. The dependence of emission intensity on polymers under electron irradiation was estimated to show the fact that the radiation excited energy transfers occur from the polymer matrix to the additives and that an efficiency of the energy transfer is dependent on kinds of polymers. (author)

  18. Study of Polymer Material Aging by Laser Mass Spectrometry, UV-Visible Spectroscopy, and Environmental Scanning Electron Microscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Junien Exposito; Claude Becker; David Ruch; Frédéric Aubriet

    2007-01-01

    Dyed natural rubber (NR) and styrene butadiene rubber (SBR), designed for outdoor applications, were exposed to an accelerated artificial aging in xenon light. The aging results in the deterioration of the exposed surface material properties. The ability of dyed polymers to withstand prolonged sunlight exposure without fading or undergoing any physical deterioration is largely determined not only by the photochemical characteristics of the absorbing dyestuff itself but also by the polymer str...

  19. Effects on the Physical and Mechanical Properties of Porous Concrete for Plant Growth of Blast Furnace Slag, Natural Jute Fiber, and Styrene Butadiene Latex Using a Dry Mixing Manufacturing Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hwang-Hee Kim

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the effects of industrial by-products materials on the performance of porous concrete for plant growth, this study investigated the physical, strength, and freeze/thaw resistances of porous concrete for plant growth, prepared by replacing cement with blast furnace slag powder at 60% by weight, and replacing natural stone aggregates with coarse blast furnace slag aggregates at rates of 0%, 20%, 40%, 60% and 100% by weight. In addition, the effects of adding natural jute fiber and styrene butadiene (SB latex to these concrete mixtures were evaluated. The void ratio, compressive strength, and freeze/thaw resistance of the samples were measured. With increasing replacement rate of blast furnace aggregates, addition of latex, and mixing of natural jute fiber the void ratio of the concrete was increased. Compressive strength decreased as the replacement rate of blast-furnace slag aggregates increased. The compressive strength decreased after 100 freeze/thaw cycles, regardless of the replacement rate of blast furnace slag aggregates or of the addition of natural jute fiber and latex. The addition of natural jute fiber and latex decreased the compressive strength after 100 freeze/thaw cycles. The test results indicate that the control mixture satisfied the target compressive strength of 10 MPa and the target void ratio of 25% at replacement rates of 0% and 20% for blast furnace aggregates, and that the mixtures containing latex satisfied the criteria up to an aggregate replacement rate of 60%. However, the mixtures containing natural jute fiber did not satisfy these criteria. The relationship between void ratio and residual compressive strength after 100 freeze/thaw cycles indicates that the control mixture and the mixtures containing jute fiber at aggregate replacement rates of 20% and 40% satisfied the target void ratio of 25% and the target residual compressive strength of over 80% after 100 freeze/thaw cycles. The mixtures containing

  20. Effects on the Physical and Mechanical Properties of Porous Concrete for Plant Growth of Blast Furnace Slag, Natural Jute Fiber, and Styrene Butadiene Latex Using a Dry Mixing Manufacturing Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hwang-Hee; Kim, Chun-Soo; Jeon, Ji-Hong; Park, Chan-Gi

    2016-01-29

    To evaluate the effects of industrial by-products materials on the performance of porous concrete for plant growth, this study investigated the physical, strength, and freeze/thaw resistances of porous concrete for plant growth, prepared by replacing cement with blast furnace slag powder at 60% by weight, and replacing natural stone aggregates with coarse blast furnace slag aggregates at rates of 0%, 20%, 40%, 60% and 100% by weight. In addition, the effects of adding natural jute fiber and styrene butadiene ( SB) latex to these concrete mixtures were evaluated. The void ratio, compressive strength, and freeze/thaw resistance of the samples were measured. With increasing replacement rate of blast furnace aggregates, addition of latex, and mixing of natural jute fiber the void ratio of the concrete was increased. Compressive strength decreased as the replacement rate of blast-furnace slag aggregates increased. The compressive strength decreased after 100 freeze/thaw cycles, regardless of the replacement rate of blast furnace slag aggregates or of the addition of natural jute fiber and latex. The addition of natural jute fiber and latex decreased the compressive strength after 100 freeze/thaw cycles. The test results indicate that the control mixture satisfied the target compressive strength of 10 MPa and the target void ratio of 25% at replacement rates of 0% and 20% for blast furnace aggregates, and that the mixtures containing latex satisfied the criteria up to an aggregate replacement rate of 60%. However, the mixtures containing natural jute fiber did not satisfy these criteria. The relationship between void ratio and residual compressive strength after 100 freeze/thaw cycles indicates that the control mixture and the mixtures containing jute fiber at aggregate replacement rates of 20% and 40% satisfied the target void ratio of 25% and the target residual compressive strength of over 80% after 100 freeze/thaw cycles. The mixtures containing latex and aggregate

  1. Ultrasonic degradation of butadiene, styrene and their copolymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sathiskumar, P S; Madras, Giridhar

    2012-05-01

    Ultrasonic degradation of commercially important polymers, styrene-butadiene (SBR) rubber, acrylonitrile-butadiene (NBR) rubber, styrene-acrylonitrile (SAN), polybutadiene rubber and polystyrene were investigated. The molecular weight distributions were measured using gel permeation chromatography (GPC). A model based on continuous distribution kinetics approach was used to study the time evolution of molecular weight distribution for these polymers during degradation. The effect of solvent properties and ultrasound intensity on the degradation of SBR rubber was investigated using different pure solvents and mixed solvents of varying volatility and different ultrasonic intensities. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. New insights into the effects of styrene-butadiene-styrene polymer modifier on the structure, properties, and performance of asphalt binder: The case of AP-5 asphalt and solvent deasphalting pitch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nciri, Nader, E-mail: nader.nciri@koreatech.ac.kr [Department of Energy, Materials, and Chemical Engineering, Korea University of Technology and Education, 1600 Chungjeol-ro, Byeongcheon-myeon, Dongnam-gu, Cheonan-City, Chungnam-Province 330-708 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Namho [Department of Architectural Engineering, Korea University of Technology and Education, 1600 Chungjeol-ro, Byeongcheon-myeon, Dongnam-gu, Cheonan-City, Chungnam-Province 330-708 (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Namjun, E-mail: njuncho@koreatech.ac.kr [Department of Energy, Materials, and Chemical Engineering, Korea University of Technology and Education, 1600 Chungjeol-ro, Byeongcheon-myeon, Dongnam-gu, Cheonan-City, Chungnam-Province 330-708 (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-06-01

    This paper deals with the poorly understood effects of styrene-butadiene-styrene (SBS) copolymer on the bitumen performance. It focuses on determining the impact of various concentrations (e.g., 0, 4, 8, and 12 wt. %) of SBS on the attributes of two types of asphalt namely AP-5 asphalt and solvent deasphalting (SDA) pitch. The unmodified and modified binders were investigated in terms of their chemical compositions, microstructures, thermo-analytical behaviors, and physical properties. The intricate chemical compositions were evaluated by elemental analysis and thin layer chromatography-ionization detection (TLC-FID). Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopies, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and X-ray diffraction (XRD) were utilized to examine the microstructures. Whereas, thermal characteristics were evaluated by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA/DTGA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The physical behaviors were monitored through the softening point, penetration, viscosity, and ductility tests. The findings showed that the blending of asphalt with different amounts of SBS resulted into different rheological behaviors. This was reflected from the difference in the SARA (i.e., saturates, aromatics, resins, and asphaltenes) compositions and colloidal instability indexes of the modified asphalts. SEM exhibited a continuous asphalt phase with distributed SBS particles, a continuous polymer phase with distributed asphalt globules, or two interconnected continuous phases. FT-IR, {sup 1}H {sup 13}C NMR, and XRD data revealed that the AP-5 asphalt and SDA pitch experienced a number of distinct structural changes. TGA/DSC studies determined the occurrence of diverse events during thermal treatment. It is concluded that the degree of SBS modification depends strongly on SARA composition and polymer content. If the polymers are molded at higher concentrations along with aromatics-rich SDA pitches, then the mixtures

  3. Advances in rubber/halloysite nanotubes nanocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Zhixin; Guo, Baochun; Jia, Demin

    2014-02-01

    The research advances in rubber/halloysite nanotubes (rubber/HNTs) nanocomposites are reviewed. HNTs are environmentally-friendly natural nanomaterials, which could be used to prepare the rubber-based nanocomposites with high performance and low cost. Unmodified HNTs could be adopted to prepare the rubber/HNTs composites with improved mechanical properties, however, the rubber/HNTs nanocomposites with fine morphology and excellent properties were chiefly prepared with various modifiers by in situ mixing method. A series of rubber/HNTs nanocomposites containing several rubbers (SBR, NR, xSBR, NBR, PU) and different modifiers (ENR, RH, Si69, SA, MAA, ILs) have been investigated. The results showed that all the rubber/HNTs nanocomposites achieved strong interfacial interaction via interfacial covalent bonds, hydrogen bonds or multiple interactions, realized significantly improved dispersion of HNTs at nanoscale and exhibited excellent mechanical performances and other properties.

  4. Adesivos poliméricos à base de SBR: influência de diferentes tipos de agentes promotores de adesão SBR-based polymeric adhesives: influence of different types of adhesion promoting agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro E. C. B. Pinto

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho, foi desenvolvido um novo adesivo não estrutural à base de copolímero de SBR com alto teor em estireno (SBR-53. O objetivo deste novo produto é avaliar a possibilidade de sua utilização no segmento moveleiro, em substituição ao adesivo de policloropreno (CR-M, cujo polímero-base é importado. Diferentes formulações de adesivos foram desenvolvidas, específicas para a indústria moveleira, e o desempenho do elastômero SBR-53 foi comparado ao dos elastômeros SBR-23 comercial (SBR tradicional - baixo teor de estireno e CR-M, quanto à estabilidade em solução, viscosidade e propriedades mecânicas.In this work a new non-structural adhesive based on a high styrene content SBR copolymer (SBR-53 was developed. This new product is intended to be used in the furniture segment, to replace the chloroprene rubber (CR-M adhesive, whose base polymer is imported. Different adhesive formulations were developed specifically for the furniture industry, and the performance of the elastomer SBR-53 was compared to that of commercial elastomers SBR-23 (low-styrene traditional SBR and CR-M, as for solution stability, viscosity and mechanical properties.

  5. Thermo-chemical de-vulcanization of suphur-vulcanized SBR assisted by de-vulcanization aids and oxidation stabilizers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saiwari, Sitisaiyidah; Dierkes, Wilma K.; Noordermeer, Jacobus W.M.

    2013-01-01

    Ground tire rubber (GTR) from whole passenger car tires is composed of several types of rubbers and fillers, making de-vulcanization of this material rather complicated. The most critical component in this material is SBR, as it tends to degrade and recombine during the commonly used reclaiming

  6. Effect of gamma irradiation on properties of ultrafine rubbers as toughening filler in polybenzoxazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taewattana, Rapiphan; Jubsilp, Chanchira; Suwanmala, Phiriyatorn; Rimdusit, Sarawut

    2018-04-01

    Three types of ultrafine fully vulcanized powdered rubbers (UFRs), i.e. natural rubber (NR), carboxylated nitrile-butadiene rubber (XNBR), and carboxylated styrene-butadiene rubber (XSBR) were prepared by combined technology between gamma irradiation for crosslinking and spray drying. The effects of doses in a range of 0-250 kGy on swelling ratio, crosslink density, and thermal stability of UFRs were investigated. Smaller particle size of UFRs was obtained at higher dose. A decrease in the swelling ratio and an increase in crosslink density were well corresponded to crosslinking effect related with absorbed dose. The increase in dose was also found to improve thermal performance of URFs. The influence of irradiated UFRs on impact resistance and glass transition temperature (Tg) of polybenzoxazine composites was also evaluated. The highest impact resistance of the composites belonged to the composite filled with irradiated UFXNBR at 200 kGy. While the significantly enhanced Tg of the composite was obtained by an addition of irradiated UFRs with higher doses, i.e. Tg = 173 °C for the composite filled with irradiated UFXNBR at 250 kGy. As a consequence, the UFRs can be used to effectively modify thermal and mechanical properties, especially impact resistance of polybenzoxazine composites.

  7. Influence of SEBS-MA and SBS compatibilizers on properties and morphology of blends of polystyrene/rubber residue (SBRr from the footwear industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Bruno Barreto Luna

    Full Text Available Abstract The reuse of rubber waste is very important today, both to reduce the harmful effects on the environment, and to reduce the cost of new material development. Considering that most of the studies reported in literature refer to the reuse of tire waste, this article aims to evaluate the influence of styrene-butadiene-styrene (SBS and styrene-(ethylene-butylene-styrene grafted with maleic anhydride (SEBS-MA compatibilizers on the blend performance of polystyrene (PS/styrene-butadiene rubber residue (SBRr, which come from the footwear industry. The blends were prepared in a co-rotating twin screw extruder and then were molded by injection. They were analyzed by impact and tensile tests, heat deflection temperature (HDT, ductile-brittle transition temperature, dynamic mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA and transmission electron microscopy (TEM. The results evidenced that the use of any of the compatibilizers on the PS/SBRr blend significantly increased the impact strength, while the tensile properties and HDT were lower when compared to the polymer matrix. The ductile-brittle transition temperature remains at approximately 25°C range for all the blends. In general, it has been proved that the SBS was the most effective compatibilization process in the PS/SBRr system. The DMTA test shows the presence of two distinct temperature peaks. The morphologies obtained by TEM of binary and ternary blends were quite different and typical of immiscible blend. The results show a good perspective regarding the use of industrial waste (SBRr, since it may enhance a material that would be discarded.

  8. Latex improvement of recycled asphalt pavement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drennon, C.

    1982-08-01

    The performance of a single unmodified milled recycled asphalt concrete was compared to milled asphalt concrete modified by addition of three types of rubber latex. Latex was added at 2, 3, 5, and 8 percent latex by weight of asphalt in the asphalt concrete. Lattices used were a styrene butadiene (SBR), a natural rubber (NR), an acrylonitrile butadiene (NBR), and four varieties of out of specification SBR lattices. Marshall tests, while indecisive, showed a modest improvement in properties of SBR and NR added material at 3 and 5 percent latex. Addition of NBR latex caused deterioration in Marshall stability and flow over that of control. Repeated load tests were run using the indirect tensile test, analyzed by the VESYS program, which computes life of pavements. Repeated load tests showed improvement in asphalt concrete life when 3 and 5 percent SBR was added. Improvement was also shown by the out of specification SBR.

  9. Radiation preparation of interpenetrating polymer networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheikh, N.; Ahmadi, M.; Afshar Taromi, F.

    2002-01-01

    Sequential interpenetrating polymer netwoks were prepared using gamma radiation. Styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR) and polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) were used as elastomer and plastomer components respectively. Dicumyl peroxide (DCP) and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA) were also used as the curing agent of SBR and crosslinker for MMA monomer. The resulting IPNs were characterized by evaluating their mechanical properties. The effect of the amount of DCP on the final properties of product was examined. It was found that amount of curing agent had an important role on the properties of obtained IPNS. The results of the mechanical properties of IPNs showed very good synergistic behavior. (Author)

  10. Elimination of the reactivation process in the adhesion of chlorinated SBS rubber with polychloroprene adhesives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Chlorination treatment of a thermoplastic styrene-butadiene-styrene rubber (SBS with a 3 wt% solution of trichloroisocyanuric acid (TCI in methyl ethyl ketone (MEK introduces chlorinated and oxidized moieties on the rubber surface which increase its surface energy and produces surface microroughness. Consequently adhesion properties, evaluated by T-peel strength measurements in chlorinated SBS/solvent based-polyurethane adhesive/leather joints, are enhanced. In this study, two solvent-based polychloroprene adhesives (PCP0 and PCP30R have been considered as an alternative to the commonly used solvent-based polyurethane adhesive (PU. A thermoreactive phenolic resin was added to one of the polychloroprene adhesive formulations (PCP30R. This tackifier resin favors chlorination of the adhesive and reinforces the interface between the chlorinated adhesive and the chlorinated rubber surface. Besides, PCP30R adhesive does not need adhesive reactivation and considerable high T-peel strength value (5.7±0.3 kN/m was obtained. Elimination of the reactivation process implies a considerable improvement of the manufacturing process in the footwear industry.

  11. Studies for methods to improve thermostability of the functionalized butadiene styrene rubbers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. L. Rumyantseva

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that the tire performance properties can deteriorate in the processes of production, processing, storage and operation. One of the reasons for that is a series of processes occurring in the polymer under the influence of different factors: thermal, mechanical or chemical. This problem is particularly relevant for functionalized polymers, as functional groups can interact with each other, causing side cross linking reactions that lead to a deterioration of consumer properties of the products. The main purpose of this work was to study influence of several key factors on the thermostability of functionalized rubbers in order to find a solution: different types of antioxidants, rubber polymerizate stripping conditions and rubber processing. In accordance with the problem, solutions were found and work was carried out in several directions: changing the pH of the medium in the rubber stripping and using antioxidants containing carbonyl groups located in ?-positions to methylene groups, namely Irganox 1520 and Irganox 1076. As an evaluation factor, thermal treatment was selected in two modes: at 100 °C for 48 hours and after extruder at 130 °C for 5 minutes + 100 °C for 48 hours. At the same time, the following parameters were determined: molecular weight characteristics and Mooney viscosity of the starting polymers and after thermal aging. During the experiments, it was found that the acidity of the medium in the water degasser does not affect the crosslinking of the functionalized rubber during storage. In addition, a study was made of the effect of the type of antioxidant and its quantity on the thermal stability of functionalized styrene butadiene rubbers, as well as the study of the effect of the content of the modifying agent on the thermal stability of the product. It has been found that the use, as antioxidants, of carbonyl compounds containing a methylene group at the ?-position, leads to inhibition of the cross

  12. Incorporation of Rubber Powder as Filler in a New Dry-Hybrid Technology: Rheological and 3D DEM Mastic Performances Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria Vignali

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the use of crumb rubber as modifier or additive within asphalt concretes has allowed obtaining mixtures able to bind high performances to recovery and reuse of discarded tires. To date, the common technologies that permit the reuse of rubber powder are the wet and dry ones. In this paper, a dry-hybrid technology for the production of Stone Mastic Asphalt mixtures is proposed. It allows the use of the rubber powder as filler, replacing part of the limestone one. Fillers are added and mixed with a high workability bitumen, modified with SBS (styrene-butadiene-styrene polymer and paraffinic wax. The role of rubber powder and limestone filler within the bituminous mastic has been investigated through two different approaches. The first one is a rheological approach, which comprises a macro-scale laboratory analysis and a micro-scale DEM simulation. The second, instead, is a performance approach at high temperatures, which includes Multiple Stress Creep Recovery tests. The obtained results show that the rubber works as filler and it improves rheological characteristics of the polymer modified bitumen. In particular, it increases stiffness and elasticity at high temperatures and it reduces complex modulus at low temperatures.

  13. Strategies to improve the adhesion of rubbers to adhesives by means of plasma surface modification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Martínez, J. M.; Romero-Sánchez, M. D.

    2006-05-01

    The surface modifications produced by treatment of a synthetic sulfur vulcanized styrene-butadiene rubber with oxidizing (oxygen, air, carbon dioxide) and non oxidizing (nitrogen, argon) RF low pressure plasmas, and by treatment with atmospheric plasma torch have been assessed by ATR-IR and XPS spectroscopy, SEM, and contact angle measurements. The effectiveness of the low pressure plasma treatment depended on the gas atmosphere used to generate the plasma. A lack of relationship between surface polarity and wettability, and peel strength values was obtained, likely due to the cohesive failure in the rubber obtained in the adhesive joints. In general, acceptable adhesion values of plasma treated rubber were obtained for all plasmas, except for nitrogen plasma treatment during 15 minutes due to the creation of low molecular weight moieties on the outermost rubber layer. A toluene wiping of the N{2 } plasma treated rubber surface for 15 min removed those moieties and increased adhesion was obtained. On the other hand, the treatment of the rubber with atmospheric pressure by means of a plasma torch was proposed. The wettability of the rubber was improved by decreasing the rubber-plasma torch distance and by increasing the duration because a partial removal of paraffin wax from the rubber surface was produced. The rubber surface was oxidized by the plasma torch treatment, and the longer the duration of the plasma torch treatment, the higher the degree of surface oxidation (mainly creation of C O moieties). However, although the rubber surface was effectively modified by the plasma torch treatment, the adhesion was not greatly improved, due to the migration of paraffin wax to the treated rubber-polyurethane adhesive interface once the adhesive joint was produced. On the other hand, the extended treatment with plasma torch facilitated the migration of zinc stearate to the rubber-adhesive interface, also contributing to deteriorate the adhesion in greater extent. Finally

  14. Pengaruh sulfur terhadap sifat fisika campuran pale crepe dan SBR untuk karet tahan panas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arum Yuniari

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Sulfur plays an important role in the rubber vulcanization process especially in the formation of crosslinks. Heat resistant rubber made from mixing pale crepe and SBR requires the right amount of sulfur as crosslinking agent. The purpose of the study was to determine the effect of the addition of sulfur on the changes in physical properties before and after aging. Heat resistant rubber was made with variation of pale crepe/SBR: 80/20; 70/30; 60/40; 50/50 phr and sulfur variation of 1; 1.5 phr. The results showed that sulfur was influential in the crosslinks formation. The addition of 1 phr sulfur gave higher physical properties of the vulcanized with 1.5 phr sulfur. The changes of physical properties after aging process of the vulcanized with sulfur 1 phr was lower than the vulcanized with sulfur 1.5 phr. Vulcanized pale crepe/SBR (70/30 with 1 phr sulfur could be applied as heat-resistant rubber products.

  15. Effects of Diatomite and SBS on Freeze-Thaw Resistance of Crumb Rubber Modified Asphalt Mixture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haibin Wei

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Asphalt mixture is susceptible to moisture damage under the effect of freeze-thaw (F-T cycles. In this paper, crumb rubber (CR was used to modify stone mastic asphalt (SMA and the effects of diatomite and styrene butadiene styrene (SBS on antifreezing performances of crumb rubber modified SMA (CRSMA were investigated. Regression analysis and modified grey model (MGM were used to construct the prediction models for properties of modified mixtures. CRSMA, CR and diatomite modified SMA (CRDSMA, and CR and SBS modified SMA (CRSSMA were prepared in laboratory, respectively. Process of F-T cycles was designed. Air void, indirect tensile strength (ITS, and indirect tensile stiffness modulus (ITSM were measured to evaluate the antifreezing performances of CRSMA, CRDSMA, and CRSSMA. Results indicate that air voids increase with the increasing of F-T cycles. ITS and ITSM all decrease with the increasing of F-T cycles. The addition of diatomite and SBS can reduce the air void and improve the ITS and ITSM of CRSMA. CRSSMA presents the lowest air void, highest tensile strength, and largest stiffness modulus, which reveals that CRSSMA has the best F-T resistance among three different kinds of mixtures. Moreover, MGM (1, 2 models present more favorable accuracy in prediction of air void and ITS compared with regression ones.

  16. Effect of Different Binders on the Electrochemical Performance of Metal Oxide Anode for Lithium-Ion Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Rui; Feng, Lili; Yang, Wenrong; Zhang, Yinyin; Zhang, Yanli; Bai, Wei; Liu, Bo; Zhang, Wei; Chuan, Yongming; Zheng, Ziguang; Guan, Hongjin

    2017-10-01

    When testing the electrochemical performance of metal oxide anode for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs), binder played important role on the electrochemical performance. Which binder was more suitable for preparing transition metal oxides anodes of LIBs has not been systematically researched. Herein, five different binders such as polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) HSV900, PVDF 301F, PVDF Solvay5130, the mixture of styrene butadiene rubber and sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (SBR+CMC), and polyacrylonitrile (LA133) were studied to make anode electrodes (compared to the full battery). The electrochemical tests show that using SBR+CMC and LA133 binder which use water as solution were significantly better than PVDF. The SBR+CMC binder remarkably improve the bonding capacity, cycle stability, and rate performance of battery anode, and the capacity retention was about 87% after 50th cycle relative to the second cycle. SBR+CMC binder was more suitable for making transition metal oxides anodes of LIBs.

  17. Variation of long periodicity in blends of styrene butadiene, styrene ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Instituto de Macromoleculas, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Centro de Tecnologia, Bl. J, Ilha do Fundo, 21945-970, Rio de Jeneiro, RJ, Brazil; Department of Physics, Yuvaraja's College, University of Mysore, Mysore 570 005, India; Department of Studies in Physics, University of Mysore, Manasagangothri, ...

  18. Variation of long periodicity in blends of styrene butadiene, styrene ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    relationship between long periodicity and concentration of blends. These parameters are ... tential customers for conducting polymers [10]. 2. ... Theory. The linear paracrystalline model of polymer morphology of blends comprises stacks.

  19. Application of gamma irradiation for incorporation of rubber powder in the formulations of EPDM and natural rubber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiyan, Ludmila Y.P.; Parra, Duclerc Fernandes; Lugao, Ademar Benevolo

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this work was to study the behavior of the recycling of rubber burrs in form of powder, of the rubber industry from EPDM rubber powder and natural rubber with SBR. The rubber powder was irradiated and reused in rubber artifacts formulations for classical vulcanization. The processed material was irradiated using a 60 Co source in doses of 50, 100, 150 and 200 kGy and a dose rate of 5 kGy s-1 at room temperature. The radiation created devulcanization active sites for subsequent integration of the material (rubber powder) in formulations of commercial use. The processes were compared and their products characterized by analytical methods of the physical properties such as strength and elongation. Satisfactory results were found, noting a major spin-off of EPDM chain demonstrated by increased elongation

  20. Rubber industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staszak, Maciej

    2018-03-01

    Following chapter presents short introductory description of rubber and rubber industry. The main problem of rubber industry is the way of the usage of spent tires. Furthermore very important group of problems arise considering the metal and nonmetal additives which are significant component of the vulcanized rubber. The key attention is dedicated to typical ways of rubber usage in utilization and recovery of metals from spent rubber materials concentrating specifically on used tires processing. The method of recovery of rare metals from rubber tires was described. The rubber debris finds widest use in the field of waste metal solutions processing. The environmental pollution caused by metals poses serious threat to humans. Several applications of the use of waste rubber debris to remove metals from environmental waters were described. Moreover, the agriculture usage of waste tire rubber debris is described, presenting systems where the rubber material can be useful as a soil replacement.

  1. Penelitian pengaruh variasi bahan pelunak naphtenic oil terhadap sifat fisis tegangan putus dan perpanjangan putus kompon karet untuk alas sapi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciawati Sunarjo

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to know influence of plasticizer naphtenic oil to the physical properties of tensile strength and elongation at break of rubber compound for cowmats. It makes from Rubber Smoke Sheet (RSS and Styrene Butadiene Rubber 1502 (SBR as raw material with addition ingredients are Calcium Carbonate, FEF black, Stearic Acid, Zinc Oxide, Plasticizer Naphtenic Oil, Paraffine Wax, TMT, CBS, AOSP and Sulphur as Vulcanizing agent. Rubber compound for cowmats, formed to slab by hydraulic press at 1500C and 150 Kg/cm2. Than tested tensile strength and elongation at break. The result of this research indicated that platicizer naphtenic oil (x and tensile strength have regression equation as Y1 = 24.168 – 0.634 X (r = 0.87, while naphtenic oil and elongation at break have regression equation as Y2 = 236.32 + 21 X (r = 0.88.

  2. SBR Brazilian organophilic/clay nanocomposites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guimaraes, Thiago R.; Valenzuela-Diaz, Francisco R.; Morales, Ana Rita; Paiva, Lucilene B.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this work is the obtaining of SBR composites using a Brazilian raw bentonite and the same bentonite treated with an organic salt. The clays were characterized by XRD. The clay addition in the composites was 10 pcr. The composites were characterized by XRD and had measured theirs tension strength (TS). The composite with Brazilian treated clay showed TS 233% higher than a composite with no clay, 133% higher than a composite with Cloisite 30B organophilic clay and 17% lower than a composite with Cloisite 20 A organophilic clay. XRD and TS data evidence that the composite with Brazilian treated clay is an intercalated nanocomposite. (author)

  3. Misturas BR/SBR: propriedades mecânicas em função do modo de preparo BR/SBR blends: mechanical properties as a function of the preparation mode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana F. de Alcantara

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Misturas com borracha são freqüentemente usadas para se conseguir o balanço das propriedades desejadas e também, em alguns casos, a redução de custos. As misturas elastoméricas são normalmente sistemas multifásicos e a distribuição dos aditivos entre as fases não é necessariamente uniforme. Neste trabalho, o polibutadieno (BR foi misturado ao elastômero de butadieno-estireno (SBR na proporção 1:1 em peso. As composições foram preparadas utilizando um misturador de rolos, segundo a norma ASTM D3182, sendo que a incorporação dos aditivos foi realizada de quatro formas diferentes. Após a avaliação das propriedades reométricas e a vulcanização, foram estudadas as propriedades mecânicas para cada composição, avaliadas de acordo com as normas ASTM específicas para cada ensaio. Os resultados mostram que os diferentes modos de preparo de uma mesma formulação podem provocar mudança significativa nas propriedades mecânicas de misturas envolvendo essas duas borrachas. No caso das misturas BR/SBR estudadas, as propriedades apresentaram valores intermediários aos das borrachas isoladas.Rubber blends are frequently prepared to give a balance of the desired properties and, in some cases, reduction of cost as well. Elastomeric mixtures are usually multiphase systems and the dispersion of the additives may not be uniform throughout the phases. In this work, polybutadiene rubber (BR was mixed with polybutadiene-styrene rubber (SBR in a 50:50 w/w ratio. The compositions were prepared in a two-roll mill, according to ASTM D3182, and the incorporation of the ingredients was carried out according to four different modes. After the determination of the rheometric properties and the vulcanization of the compounds, mechanical properties were evaluated according to specific ASTM procedures. The results show that the mechanical properties may be altered by changing the procedure to prepare a given formulation. In the case of BR/SBR

  4. Rubber Reclamation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Kathryn R.

    2007-01-01

    The safety and health hazards related to recycling of used rubber, due to the scarcity and high price of virgin rubber are reported. Various threats like stagnant water pools trapped in tires leading to diseases and ignited tires, which become very difficult to extinguish and generating smoke that is extremely detrimental to the environment, have…

  5. Positron Annihilation Characteristics in Polymer Composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashry, A.; Hemdan, M.; Ismail, A.; Ismail, H.; Osman, H.

    2000-01-01

    The effect of incorporation of GPF-carbon black on the free volume properties as well as the Doppler broadening parameters has been investigated for Natural rubber/Styrene Butadiene rubber (NR/SBR) blends. It is seen that, the free volume decreases with increasing of the GPF-black. Besides, as the size of the free volume decreases, the W-parameter, which corresponds to high momentum region, decreases and the S-parameter, which corresponds to low momentum one, shows an opposite behaviour. Furthermore, the d.c.electrical conductivity, mechanical and swelling behavior have been also investigated. Positron Annihilation Lifetime (PAL) and Doppler Broadening of the Annihilation Radiation (DBAR) results are compared with the other physical parameters measured. The analysis of positron annihilation parameters introduces a trusted support for the interpretations of the other macroscopic physical properties

  6. Comparison study of crosslink density determination in cured rubber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-sabbagh, S.H.; Yehia, A.A.

    2005-01-01

    The crosslink density is an important property affecting the major characteristics of cured rubber. The crosslink density can be determined by different methods such as: 1. Dynamic mechanical method using the data of stress-strain relationship. 2. Mooney-Rivlin equation 3. Swelling in organic solvents measurements using Flory-Rehner equation. The crosslink density calculated by the previous methods were discussed and compared with each other for cured NR, SBR and NBR. The obtained data showed that the dynamic-mechanical method can be considered as a simple and reliable method for determination of crosslink density for cured rubbers

  7. Evaluation of rubber seal products for gamma facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sobhy, M.S.; Shafy, M.A.; Shahin, F.

    2005-01-01

    Ageing behavior by employing the prolonged exposures of high-energy radiation such as gamma-rays on the physicomechanical properties of some rubber seal products are studied. The proposed binary-rubber blends, SBR/NBR, EPDM/NBR and EPDM/EPM. have overcome their problem of inhomogeneity and incompatibility between the two rubber phases. Such enhancements are acquired by either the replacement of part of NBR by SBR during mastication, or the incorporation of maleic anhydride. Results show that the EPDM/EPM rubber blend has possessed the radiation resistance property towards the deterioration due to higher gamma-irradiation dose. The SEM images have c early observed the role of the used antioxidant, where a thin film is usually produced, degraded; with the appearance of surface cracks, and repaired with further gamma-irradiation up to high doses. Such enhancement is necessary for the definition of the requirements to be put on rubber seal materials. Finally, these products ought to assure the quality control in production and evaluate their application suitability that may employ in the pneumatic system in gamma facility

  8. Microwave enhanced digestion of aerobic SBR sludge | Kennedy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MWs) for improving characteristics of aerobic sequencing batch reactor (SBR) sludge to enhance mesophilic anaerobic digestion. Effects of pretreatment temperature, MW irradiation intensity and solids concentration on sludge characterisation ...

  9. Dielectric study of Poly(styrene- co -butadiene) Composites with Carbon Black, Silica, and Nanoclay

    KAUST Repository

    Vo, Loan T.

    2011-08-09

    Dielectric spectroscopy is used to measure polymer relaxation in styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR) composites. In addition to the bulk polymer relaxation, the SBR nanocomposites also exhibit a slower relaxation attributed to polymer relaxation at the polymer-nanoparticle interface. The glass transition temperature associated with the slower relaxation is used as a way to quantify the interaction strength between the polymer and the surface. Comparisons were made among composites containing nanoclay, silica, and carbon black. The interfacial relaxation glass transition temperature of SBR-clay nanocomposites is more than 80 °C higher than the SBR bulk glass transition temperature. An interfacial mode was also observed for SBR-silica nanocomposites, but the interfacial glass transition temperature of SBR-silica nanocomposite is somewhat lower than that of clay nanocomposites. An interfacial mode is also seen in the carbon black filled system, but the signal is too weak to analyze quantitatively. The interfacial polymer relaxation in SBR-clay nanocomposites is stronger compared to both SBR-carbon black and SBR-silica composites indicating a stronger interfacial interaction in the nanocomposites containing clay. These results are consistent with dynamic shear rheology and dynamic mechanical analysis measurements showing a more pronounced reinforcement for the clay nanocomposites. Comparisons were also made among clay nanocomposites using different SBRs of varying styrene concentration and architecture. The interfacial glass transition temperature of SBR-clay nanocomposites increases as the amount of styrene in SBR increases indicating that styrene interacts more strongly than butadiene with clay. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  10. Application of gamma irradiation for incorporation of rubber powder in the formulations of EPDM and natural rubber; Aplicacao da radiacao gama para incorporacao do po de borracha em formulacoes de borracha natural e EPDM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiyan, Ludmila Y.P.; Parra, Duclerc Fernandes; Lugao, Ademar Benevolo, E-mail: ludmilapozzo@gmail.com [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP/CQMA), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro de Quimica e Meio Ambiente

    2013-07-01

    The objective of this work was to study the behavior of the recycling of rubber burrs in form of powder, of the rubber industry from EPDM rubber powder and natural rubber with SBR. The rubber powder was irradiated and reused in rubber artifacts formulations for classical vulcanization. The processed material was irradiated using a {sup 60}Co source in doses of 50, 100, 150 and 200 kGy and a dose rate of 5 kGy s-1 at room temperature. The radiation created devulcanization active sites for subsequent integration of the material (rubber powder) in formulations of commercial use. The processes were compared and their products characterized by analytical methods of the physical properties such as strength and elongation. Satisfactory results were found, noting a major spin-off of EPDM chain demonstrated by increased elongation.

  11. Combined photo-Fenton-SBR process for antibiotic wastewater treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elmolla, Emad S., E-mail: em_civil@yahoo.com [Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Al-Azhar University, Cairo (Egypt); Chaudhuri, Malay [Department of Civil Engineering, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Bandar Seri Iskandar, 31750 Tronoh, Perak (Malaysia)

    2011-09-15

    Highlights: {center_dot} The work focused on hazardous wastewater (antibiotic wastewater) treatment. {center_dot} Complete degradation of the antibiotics achieved by the treatment process. {center_dot} The SBR performance was found to be very sensitive to BOD{sub 5}/COD ratio below 0.40. {center_dot} Combined photo-Fenton-SBR process is a feasible treatment process for the antibiotic wastewater. - Abstract: The study examined combined photo-Fenton-SBR treatment of an antibiotic wastewater containing amoxicillin and cloxacillin. Optimum H{sub 2}O{sub 2}/COD and H{sub 2}O{sub 2}/Fe{sup 2+} molar ratio of the photo-Fenton pretreatment were observed to be 2.5 and 20, respectively. Complete degradation of the antibiotics occurred in one min. The sequencing batch reactor (SBR) was operated at different hydraulic retention times (HRTs) with the wastewater treated under different photo-Fenton operating conditions (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}/COD and H{sub 2}O{sub 2}/Fe{sup 2+} molar ratio). The SBR performance was found to be very sensitive to BOD{sub 5}/COD ratio of the photo-Fenton treated wastewater. Statistical analysis of the results indicated that it was possible to reduce the Fe{sup 2+} dose and increase the irradiation time of the photo-Fenton pretreatment. The best operating conditions of the combined photo-Fenton-SBR treatment were observed to be H{sub 2}O{sub 2}/COD molar ratio 2, H{sub 2}O{sub 2}/Fe{sup 2+} molar ratio 150, irradiation time 90 min and HRT of 12 h. Under the best operating conditions, 89% removal of sCOD with complete nitrification was achieved and the SBR effluent met the discharge standards.

  12. Combined photo-Fenton-SBR process for antibiotic wastewater treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elmolla, Emad S.; Chaudhuri, Malay

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: · The work focused on hazardous wastewater (antibiotic wastewater) treatment. · Complete degradation of the antibiotics achieved by the treatment process. · The SBR performance was found to be very sensitive to BOD 5 /COD ratio below 0.40. · Combined photo-Fenton-SBR process is a feasible treatment process for the antibiotic wastewater. - Abstract: The study examined combined photo-Fenton-SBR treatment of an antibiotic wastewater containing amoxicillin and cloxacillin. Optimum H 2 O 2 /COD and H 2 O 2 /Fe 2+ molar ratio of the photo-Fenton pretreatment were observed to be 2.5 and 20, respectively. Complete degradation of the antibiotics occurred in one min. The sequencing batch reactor (SBR) was operated at different hydraulic retention times (HRTs) with the wastewater treated under different photo-Fenton operating conditions (H 2 O 2 /COD and H 2 O 2 /Fe 2+ molar ratio). The SBR performance was found to be very sensitive to BOD 5 /COD ratio of the photo-Fenton treated wastewater. Statistical analysis of the results indicated that it was possible to reduce the Fe 2+ dose and increase the irradiation time of the photo-Fenton pretreatment. The best operating conditions of the combined photo-Fenton-SBR treatment were observed to be H 2 O 2 /COD molar ratio 2, H 2 O 2 /Fe 2+ molar ratio 150, irradiation time 90 min and HRT of 12 h. Under the best operating conditions, 89% removal of sCOD with complete nitrification was achieved and the SBR effluent met the discharge standards.

  13. The Effect of Clay/Multiwall Carbon Nanotube Hybrid Fillers on the Properties of Elastomer Nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung Ho Song

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The hybrid fillers of 1D multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWNT and 2D montmorillonite (MMT have led to excellent physical and chemical properties in high performance elastomer nanocomposites. In this study, the hybridization of PDDA (polydiallyldimethylammonium chloride functionalized MWNT (P-MWNT and hydroxyl-functionalized MMT (H-MMT was prepared by the electrostatic interaction between the positive charge on the MWNT and the negative charge on the MMT using a simple solution mixing process. Also, a styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR nanocomposite containing the hybrid nanofillers was prepared to improve the dispersion of nanofillers with SBR latex. The SBR nanocomposites with the hybrid nanofillers exhibited outstanding mechanical properties including modulus, tensile strength, and elongation at break, due to the enhanced interfacial bonding with the elastomer matrix. Furthermore, the hybrid nanofillers in the SBR matrix showed superior thermal and electrical properties and gas barrier performance at low loadings. The synergistic effects of the SBR produced by the hybridized nanofillers will open up new opportunities for elastomer composites with high performance.

  14. Efficient de-vulcanization of sulfur-vulcanized SBR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saiwari, Sitisaiyidah; Dierkes, Wilma K.; Noordermeer, Jacques W.M.

    Enabling recycling loops for used passenger car tires is a challenge and an opportunity: The challenge lies in the presence of SBR as the main elastomer in this type of tires, which makes this material difficult to reclaim due to the tendency of the elastomer chain fragments to re-combine. The

  15. Rubber compounding and processing

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    John, MJ

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This chapter presents an overview on the compounding and processing techniques of natural rubber compounds. The introductory portion deals with different types of rubbers and principles of rubber compounding. The primary and secondary fillers used...

  16. Laboratory Evaluation of Ground Tire Rubber in Stone Mastic Asphalt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Muniandy

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Stone mastic asphalt (SMA is a gap-graded mix whereby stiffer asphalt cement is required to bind the stone matrix or arrangement of stones together. Although various asphalt additives are traditionally available, the use of rubber crumbs in SMA is still a new rresearch endeavor. Many countries around the world are facing serious problems on what to do with reject or discarded tires. In the present study, commercial truck tires, containing 70% natural rubber, were ground and pre-blended in 80-100 penetration asphalt for use in SMA mixtures. An assessment was made of the laboratory performance of rubberized SMA in terms of stability, resilent modulus, dynamic creep and tensile strength ratio. It was observed that the performance of SMA with ground tire rubber was for superior as compared to SMA mix with unmodified asphalt. Sulfur and Styrene Butadeline Rubber (SBR were used in rubberized SMA mixes as additives to test the sensitivity of SMA mixtures. As standard practice a 0.3% newly developed cellulose oil palm fiber was used in SMA to minimize the asphalt drain-down effects.

  17. Study of Polymer Material Aging by Laser Mass Spectrometry, UV-Visible Spectroscopy, and Environmental Scanning Electron Microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junien Exposito

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Dyed natural rubber (NR and styrene butadiene rubber (SBR, designed for outdoor applications, were exposed to an accelerated artificial aging in xenon light. The aging results in the deterioration of the exposed surface material properties. The ability of dyed polymers to withstand prolonged sunlight exposure without fading or undergoing any physical deterioration is largely determined not only by the photochemical characteristics of the absorbing dyestuff itself but also by the polymer structure and fillers. Results obtained by laser mass spectrometry, UV-visible spectroscopy, and environmental scanning electron microscopy indicate that dyed filled NR and SBR samples behave differently during the photo-oxidation. The fading of the dyed polymers was found to be promoted in the NR sample. This can be correlated with LDI-FTICRMS results, which show the absence of [M-H]− orange pigment pseudomolecular ion and also its fragment ions after aging. This is confirmed by both EDX and UV/Vis spectroscopy. EDX analysis indicates a concentration of chlorine atoms, which can be considered as a marker of orange pigment or its degradation products, only at the surface of SBR flooring after aging. Reactivity of radicals formed during flooring aging has been studied and seems to greatly affect the behavior of such organic pigments.

  18. Evaluation of filler effects on SBR in large shearing deformations 1. Utility of differential dynamic modulus as predictor for wet skid resistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isono, Y.; Oyama, T.; Kawahara, S.

    2003-01-01

    Now the use of silica in tire tread applications is increasing. This is because of not so different rolling resistance for silica (Si) filled and carbon black (CB) filled rubbers, and of higher wet skid resistance for the former than the latter. Such difference should be attributed to the variation in viscoelasticity. It is, however, still unknown what viscoelastic function should be used as a predictor. At the place in contact with the road, a tire tread rubber undergoes a large deformation on which small oscillations are superposed. Hence differential dynamic modulus measured by intermittently superposing small oscillations on a large deformation may provide useful information. In this work, nonlinear viscoelastic properties of CB and Si (with coupling agent) filled SBR vulcanizates were studied in cycles of large shearing deformation (γ = 2) and recovery (γ = 0) on which small shear oscillations (γ osc = 0.005) were superposed. CB filled SBR showed different responses in deformed and recovered states: Values of tanδ are lower in deformed state than in recovered state. However, Si filled one showed no change in tanδ in the two states. In the deformed state, Si system showed higher tanδ than CB system. The results agree with our experience of higher wet skid resistance for Si than for CB, showing validity of differential loss tangent as the predictor. Copyright (2003) AD-TECH - International Foundation for the Advancement of Technology Ltd

  19. SBR-Blood: systems biology repository for hematopoietic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichtenberg, Jens; Heuston, Elisabeth F; Mishra, Tejaswini; Keller, Cheryl A; Hardison, Ross C; Bodine, David M

    2016-01-04

    Extensive research into hematopoiesis (the development of blood cells) over several decades has generated large sets of expression and epigenetic profiles in multiple human and mouse blood cell types. However, there is no single location to analyze how gene regulatory processes lead to different mature blood cells. We have developed a new database framework called hematopoietic Systems Biology Repository (SBR-Blood), available online at http://sbrblood.nhgri.nih.gov, which allows user-initiated analyses for cell type correlations or gene-specific behavior during differentiation using publicly available datasets for array- and sequencing-based platforms from mouse hematopoietic cells. SBR-Blood organizes information by both cell identity and by hematopoietic lineage. The validity and usability of SBR-Blood has been established through the reproduction of workflows relevant to expression data, DNA methylation, histone modifications and transcription factor occupancy profiles. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research 2015. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  20. Design and Preparation of Cross-Linked Polystyrene Nanoparticles for Elastomer Reinforcement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Lu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Cross-linked polystyrene (PS particles in a latex form were synthesized by free radical emulsion polymerization. The nano-PS-filled elastomer composites were prepared by the energy-saving latex compounding method. Results showed that the PS particles took a spherical shape in the size of 40–60 nm with a narrow size distribution, and the glass-transition temperature of the PS nanoparticles increased with the cross-linking density. The outcomes from the mechanical properties demonstrated that when filled into styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR, nitrile-butadiene rubber (NBR, and natural rubber (NR, the cross-linked PS nano-particles exhibited excellent reinforcing capabilities in all the three matrices, and the best in the SBR matrix. In comparison with that of the carbon black filled composites, another distinguished advantage of the cross-linked PS particles filled elastomer composites was found to be light weight in density, which could help to save tremendous amount of energy when put into end products.

  1. Rubber glove wearing device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nozaki, Tatsuo; Takada, Kaoru.

    1994-01-01

    Rubber groves are attached each to an upper end of a glove putting vessel having an air-sucking hole on the bottom by enlarging an opening end of the rubber glove and turning back the inside to the outside. When the sucking device is operated, air in the glove putting device is sucked and the rubber glove is expanded by an atmospheric pressure. After expansion of the rubber glove to some extent, the sucking device is stopped, and presence or absence of failures of the rubber glove is confirmed by shrinkage of the rubber glove and by an indication value of a pressure gauge for detecting the pressure change in the vessel. Then, a hand is inserted to the expanded rubber glove, and a detaching switch in the vessel is pushed by a finger tip. A detaching piece at the upper end of the vessel is protruded outwardly to enlarge the turned-back portion of the rubber glove to easily release the rubber glove from the putting vessel, and the rubber glove is put on. This enables to wear the rubber glove and conduct failure test simultaneously. Further, a user can put on the rubber glove without touching the outside of the rubber glove. (I.N.)

  2. Natural rubber: leather composites

    OpenAIRE

    Ravichandran,K.; Natchimuthu,N.

    2005-01-01

    Leather is a fibrous protein consisting of collagen in a three dimensionally crosslinked network. Chrome tanning of leather improves the appearance of leather but at the same time emits both solid and liquid chrome leather wastes. Scrap rubber recycling using untreated and neutralized leather fibrous particles in natural rubber has been studied. Vulcanization, mechanical, morphological and swelling properties of the natural rubber - scrap rubber composites containing neutralized leather have ...

  3. Pengaruh proses oil terhadap tegangan putus dan perpanjangan putus karet untuk komponen pompa air tangan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Rochani

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research is to know influence of process oil to the physical properties tensile strength and elongation at break of rubber compound for hand water pump. Vulcanized rubber makes from Rubber Smoke Sheet (RSS and Styrene Butadiene Rubber (SBR 1502 as raw material. Ingredient which added to raw material were Paraffin Wax, Strearic Acid, ZnO, CaCO3, Carbon Black, Process Oil, CBS, TMT, AOSP and Sulphur. Raw material rubber and ingredient were compounded in a two roll mill and formed to slab by hydraulic press at temperature 1500C and pressure 150 kg/cm2. It should be carry out by varying process oil 3 – 9 part by weight raw material. The compound was tested tensile strength and elongation at break. The result of this research indicated that process oil (X1 and tensile strength (Y1 have regression equation as Y1 = 235,697 – 8,33 X (correlation coeffisien = 0,72 while process oil and elongation at break has regression equation as Y2 = 251,64 + 12,75 X (correlation coeffisien = 0,97.

  4. Morphology and mechanical properties of polypropylene/polystyrene blends compatibilized with styrene-butadiene block copolymers

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fortelný, Ivan; Minkova, L. I.; Kotek, Jiří; Lapčíková, Monika; Michálková, Danuše

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 52, č. 1 (2012), s. 191-204 ISSN 0032-3888 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA106/06/0729; GA AV ČR IAA200500903 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : polymer blends * compatibilization * morphology Subject RIV: JI - Composite Materials Impact factor: 1.243, year: 2012

  5. Modified calibration protocol evaluated in a model-based testing of SBR flexibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Corominas, Lluís; Sin, Gürkan; Puig, Sebastià

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to refine the BIOMATH calibration protocol for SBR systems, in particular to develop a pragmatic calibration protocol that takes advantage of SBR information-rich data, defines a simulation strategy to obtain proper initial conditions for model calibration and provide...

  6. Developments in rubber technology 2 synthetic rubbers

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, K

    1981-01-01

    This book is intended for those people who have a knowledge or understanding of rubber materials and processes but who wish to update their knowledge. It should be read in conjunction with Developments in Rubber Technology-l as that volume discussed developments in natural rubber and selected special purpose synthetic rubbers as well as additives. The authors have been selected for their expertise in each particular field and we, as editors, would like to express our appreciation to the individual authors and also to their companies. Such a book would be impossible to produce without such active cooperation as we have received. Volumes 1 and 2 of Developments in Rubber Technology cover rubbers which are processed and vulcanised in the traditional manner. It is appreciated that the omission of non-vulcanised rubber materials (the so­ called thermoplastic elastomers) will be unwelcome to many readers but it is intended, because of the size of the subject, to cover these materials in a subsequent volume. A.W. K...

  7. Treatment of textiles industrial wastewater by electron beam and biological treatment (sbr)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khomsaton Abu Bakar; Khairul Zaman Mohd Dahlan; Zulkafli Ghazali; Ting Teo Ming

    2008-08-01

    Study of treating textiles industrial wastewater with combined of electron beam and Tower Style Biological Treatment (TSB) was investigated in Korea. In this project, textiles wastewater was also treated with electron beam, but hybrid with Sequencing Batch Reactor (SBR). The purpose of this research is to develop combined electron beam treatment with existing biological treatment facility (SBR), of textile industries in Malaysia. The objectives of this project are to determine the effective irradiation parameter for treatment and to identify effective total retention time in SBR system. To achieve the objective, samples fill in polypropyle tray were irradiated at 1 MeV, 20 mA and 1 MeV ,5 mA at doses 11, 20, 30, 40 and 50 kGy respectively. Raw effluent and two series of irradiated effluent at 1 MeV 20 mA (11, 20, 30, 40 and 50 kGy) and 1 MeV 5 mA (11, 20, 30, 40 and 50 kGy) were then treated in SBR system. Samples were analysed at 6, 14 and 20 hrs after aeration in the SBR. The results show that, average reduction in BOD was about 2-11% after irradiated at 5 mA, and the percentage increased to 21-73% after treatment in SBR system. At 20 mA, BOD reduced to 7-29% during irradiation and the value increased to 57-87% after treatment in SBR system. (Author)

  8. Natural rubber: leather composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Ravichandran

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Leather is a fibrous protein consisting of collagen in a three dimensionally crosslinked network. Chrome tanning of leather improves the appearance of leather but at the same time emits both solid and liquid chrome leather wastes. Scrap rubber recycling using untreated and neutralized leather fibrous particles in natural rubber has been studied. Vulcanization, mechanical, morphological and swelling properties of the natural rubber - scrap rubber composites containing neutralized leather have been discussed. Use of chrome leather particles has been found to improve the consumption of scrap rubber powder in natural rubber formulations. Polymer composites based on leather wastes as fillers are reported to be useful for many applications such as in construction materials, automobile interior moldings, heat and sound insulating boards, shoe soles, flooring materials and moldings with good anti-static properties, air permeability and good appearances.

  9. Magnetic rubber inspection (MRI)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carro, L.

    1997-01-01

    Magnetic Rubber Inspection (MRI) was developed to inspect for small cracks and flaws encountered in high performance aircraft. A formula of very fine magnetic particles immersed in a room temperature curing rubber is catalysed and poured into dams (retainers) on the surface of the part to be inspected. Inducing a magnetic field then causes the particles to be drawn to discontinuities in the component under test. These indicating particles are held to the discontinuity by magnetic attraction, as the rubber cures. The solid rubber cast (Replica) is then removed and examined under a microscope for indicating lines of particle concentrations. 3 refs., 6 figs

  10. Load Absorption Characteristics of Tyre Production Waste Rubber for Playground Floor Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Ghani A.N.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The floor surfaces where slides and swings are placed in parks and playrooms should be soft and thick to ensure that whenever a child falls, the surface can withstand the impact and minimize injuries to the child. Shredded tyres from waste tyres or waste rubber from tyre manufacturing could become beneficial as shock absorber material which can be used as a playground floor. In this study, rubber cubes and rubber pads with 5%, 8% and 10% SBR mixes were prepared for mechanical testing. Two types of floor design surfaces with and without plywood on the surface were assembled for the shock test. Gmax and HIC of this waste rubber flooring system were investigated using the compression test for the rubber cube and the drop test for the rubber pad. The criteria of general protection standards are 200g for optimum acceleration and 1000 for HIC. The Gmax and HIC results indicated that the material and system could ensure a safe fall from up to 1.0m height.

  11. The Properties of SBR/ENR50 Blend Containing Nanoclay/Carbon Black Dual Filler System Cured by Electron Beam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sima Ahmadi-Shooli

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Nanocomposites based on an SBR/ENR50 rubber blend with the blend ratio of 50/50 using Cloisite 15A nanoclay (5 and 10 phr and carbon black (20 phr were prepared by melt mixing process. The rubber compounds were crosslinked by electron beam irradiation process at 50 and 100 kGy doses. A reference sample containing carbon black at 35 phr was prepared using a conventional sulphur curing system. The gel content of the samples was specified using gel fraction measurement. The results showed the maximum gel content for the sample having 5 phr nanoclay and 20 phr carbon black. The dynamic mechanical properties, including the storage modulus, loss modulus, and loss factor, of the nanocomposites were evaluated using dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA tests. The results indicated that, in spite of a well dispersed nanoclay in samples containing 10 phr nanoclay and 20 phr carbon black, a minimum loss factor was observed in the sample containing 5 phr nanoclay and 20 phr carbon black at 100 kGy. On the other hand, the storage modulus of the reference sample was found to be higher than that of the sample with 5 phr nanoclay and 20 phr carbon black. The mechanical properties, including the tensile strength, stress at 100%, 200%, and 300% elongation and the percentage of elongation were measured by a tensile machine. The results showed an increase in tensile strength and the stress at different elongations for a sample with 5 phr nanoclay and 20 phr carbon black compared to the reference sample. In the corresponding SEM images of the samples having nanoclay and carbon black irradiated at 100 kGy a significantly higher surface roughness was observed.

  12. Biodiversity in rubber agroforests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beukema, Hendrien

    2013-01-01

    Jungle rubber tuinen zijn extensieve rubber agroforests die qua structuur op secundaire bossen lijken, en waarin wilde soorten door de boer worden getolereerd. Met het verdwijnen van het laaglandregenwoud rijst de vraag of de begroeiing die ervoor in de plaats komt een aantal kenmerken en functies

  13. Vulcanization of Rubber

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Temperature 140 -180°C. Sulfur. 2-3 parts per. 100 parts of rubber (phr). Accelerator 0.5-1.0 phr. ZnO ... out an experiment, he spilt a mixture of rubber and sulfur with other ingredients on a hot .... both carbon-sulfur and sulfur-nitrogen bonds -.

  14. Synthesis and Characterization of Starch-based Aqueous Polymer Isocyanate Wood Adhesive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-min Wang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Modified starch was prepared in this work by acid-thinning and oxidizing corn starch with ammonium persulfate. Also, starch-based aqueous polymer isocyanate (API wood adhesive was prepared. The effect of the added amount of modified starch, styrene butadiene rubber (SBR, polymeric diphenylmethane diisocyanate (P-MDI, and the mass concentration of polyvinyl alcohol (PVOH on the bonding strength of starch-based API adhesives were determined by orthogonal testing. The starch-based API adhesive performance was found to be the best when the addition of modified starch (mass concentration 35% was 45 g, the amount of SBR was 3%, the PVOH mass concentration was 10%, and the amount of P-MDI was 18%. The compression shearing of glulam produced by starch-based API adhesive reached bonding performance indicators of I type adhesive. A scanning electron microscope (SEM was used to analyze the changes in micro-morphology of the starch surface during each stage. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR was used to study the changes in absorption peaks and functional groups from starch to starch-based API adhesives. The results showed that during starch-based API adhesive synthesis, corn starch surface was differently changed and it gradually reacted with other materials.

  15. Chemical compatibility screening test results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nigrey, P.J.; Dickens, T.G.

    1997-12-01

    A program for evaluating packaging components that may be used in transporting mixed-waste forms has been developed and the first phase has been completed. This effort involved the screening of ten plastic materials in four simulant mixed-waste types. These plastics were butadiene-acrylonitrile copolymer rubber, cross-linked polyethylene (XLPE), epichlorohydrin rubber, ethylene-propylene rubber (EPDM), fluorocarbon (Viton or Kel-F), polytetrafluoroethylene, high-density polyethylene (HDPE), isobutylene-isoprene copolymer rubber (butyl), polypropylene, and styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR). The selected simulant mixed wastes were (1) an aqueous alkaline mixture of sodium nitrate and sodium nitrite; (2) a chlorinated hydrocarbon mixture; (3) a simulant liquid scintillation fluid; and (4) a mixture of ketones. The testing protocol involved exposing the respective materials to 286,000 rads of gamma radiation followed by 14-day exposures to the waste types at 60 degrees C. The seal materials were tested using vapor transport rate (VTR) measurements while the liner materials were tested using specific gravity as a metric. For these tests, a screening criterion of 0.9 g/hr/m 2 for VTR and a specific gravity change of 10% was used. Based on this work, it was concluded that while all seal materials passed exposure to the aqueous simulant mixed waste, EPDM and SBR had the lowest VTRs. In the chlorinated hydrocarbon simulant mixed waste, only Viton passed the screening tests. In both the simulant scintillation fluid mixed waste and the ketone mixture simulant mixed waste, none of the seal materials met the screening criteria. For specific gravity testing of liner materials, the data showed that while all materials with the exception of polypropylene passed the screening criteria, Kel-F, HDPE, and XLPE offered the greatest resistance to the combination of radiation and chemicals

  16. Intermittent Ozonation to Reduce Excess Biological Sludge in SBR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afshin Takdastan

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available A combination of ozonation and an aerobic biological process such as the activated sludge has been recently developed as an alternative solution for sludge reduction with the objective of minimizing the excess biological sludge production. In this study, two SBR reactors each with a capacity of 20 liters and controlled by an on-line system are used. Once the steady state conditions were set in the reactors, sampling and testing of such parameters as COD, MLSS, MLVSS, DO, SOUR, SVI, residual ozone, and Y coefficient were performed over the 8 months of research. Results showed that during the solid retention time of 10 days, the kinetic coefficients of Y and Kd were 0.58 mg biomass/mg COD and 0.058 1/day, respectively. In the next stage of the study, different concentrations of ozone in the reactor were intermittently used to reduce the excess biological sludge production. The results showed that 22 mg of ozone per 1 gram of MLSS in the reactor was able to reduce the yield coefficient Y from 0.58 to 0.23 mg Biomass/mg COD. In other words, the excess biological sludge reduced by 60% but the soluble COD increased slightly in the effluent and the removal percentage decreased from 92 in the blank reactor to 76 in the test reactor. While the amount of SVI and SOUR for this level of ozone concentration reached 6 mgO2/h.gVSS and 27 ml/g, respectively. No excess sludge was observed in the reactor for an ozone concentration of 27 mg per 1 gram of MLSS.

  17. A testing program to evaluate the effects of simulant mixed wastes on plastic transportation packaging components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nigrey, P.J.; Dickens, T.G.

    1997-01-01

    Based on regulatory requirements for Type A and B radioactive material packaging, a Testing Program was developed to evaluate the effects of mixed wastes on plastic materials which could be used as liners and seals in transportation containers. The plastics evaluated in this program were butadiene-acrylonitrile copolymer (Nitrile rubber), cross-linked polyethylene, epichlorohydrin, ethylene-propylene rubber (EPDM), fluorocarbons, high-density polyethylene (HDPE), butyl rubber, polypropylene, polytetrafluoroethylene, and styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR). These plastics were first screened in four simulant mixed wastes. The liner materials were screened using specific gravity measurements and seal materials by vapor transport rate (VTR) measurements. For the screening of liner materials, Kel-F, HDPE, and XLPE were found to offer the greatest resistance to the combination of radiation and chemicals. The tests also indicated that while all seal materials passed exposure to the aqueous simulant mixed waste, EPDM and SBR had the lowest VTRs. In the chlorinated hydrocarbon simulant mixed waste, only Viton passed the screening tests. In both the simulant scintillation fluid mixed waste and the ketone mixture waste, none of the seal materials met the screening criteria. Those materials which passed the screening tests were subjected to further comprehensive testing in each of the simulant wastes. The materials were exposed to four different radiation doses followed by exposure to a simulant mixed waste at three temperatures and four different exposure times (7, 14, 28, 180 days). Materials were tested by measuring specific gravity, dimensional, hardness, stress cracking, VTR, compression set, and tensile properties. The second phase of this Testing Program involving the comprehensive testing of plastic liner has been completed and for seal materials is currently in progress

  18. Nitrogen removal kinetics in the treatment of landfill leachate by SBR systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andreottola, G.; Foladori, P.; Ragazzi, M.

    1998-01-01

    In this study, laboratory-scale experiments were conducted applying the SBR activated sludge process to leachate from an old MSW landfill operating for 7 years. Due to the fact that old leachate is characterized with a high concentration of ammonia (approximately 1500 mgN/1) and low availability of readily biodegradable organic matter (BOD 5 /COD,06), the aim was to examine the nitrogen removal process and to compare the efficiency of one-stage and two stage systems operating at temperature of 20 C and 12 C. The second alternative SBR configuration is based on the coupling of two SBR reactors: the first one specialized in nitrification and the second one in post-denitrification, with external carbon source addition. By the efficient removal of nitrogen, an on-site pretreatment of leachate allows to comply with the limits required for discharging into sewers or into municipal wastewater treatment plant [it

  19. Comparison between MBR and SBR on Anammox start-up process from the conventional activated sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tao; Zhang, Hanmin; Gao, Dawen; Yang, Fenglin; Zhang, Guangyi

    2012-10-01

    Anammox start-up performances from the conventional activated sludge were compared between a MBR and SBR. Both the reactors successfully started up Anammox process. The start-up period in the MBR (59 days) was notably shorter than that in the SBR (101 days), and the max nitrogen (NH(4)(+)+NO(2)(-)) removal capacity of 345.2 mg N L(-1) d(-1) in the MBR was also higher than that of 292.0 mg N L(-1) d(-1) in the SBR. FISH analysis showed that Anammox bacteria predominated in both reactors. Phylogenetic analysis further disclosed that the MBR had the better biodiversity of Anammox bacteria and gained a higher ecological stability. Generally, the results showed that MBR exhibited a more excellent performance for Anammox start-up. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Rubber molds for investment casting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sibtain, S.N.

    2011-01-01

    The main objective of the project is to investigate different types of molding rubbers used for investment casting. The level of shape complexity which can be achieved by using these rubber molds is also studied. It was almost impossible to make complex shapes molds using metal molds, in that cases rubber molds are very important because they arc flexible and give accurate and precise part dimensions. Turbine blades are hi-tech components with air-foil geometries that have close dimensional tolerances. They are made of super-alloys and manufactured by investment casting. The final blade profile depends upon the dimensional accuracy in each of the processing steps. In the present work experimental study for the production of high quality low cost castings of turbine blades using rubber molds and injected wax patterns is presented. Natural Rubber molds and wax patterns from these molds were made. Different types of molding rubbers were studied including natural rubber, silicone rubber and liquid silicone rubber. It was found that by using rubber molds we can make most complex shape with very less finishing required. The shrinkage was 12% as compared to original master pattern. Rubber molds were made using laboratory hot press. Three layers of rubber above and below the master pattern. After that vulcanization was done by giving temperature and pressure. (author)

  1. Focusing light through strongly scattering media using genetic algorithm with SBR discriminant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bin; Zhang, Zhenfeng; Feng, Qi; Liu, Zhipeng; Lin, Chengyou; Ding, Yingchun

    2018-02-01

    In this paper, we have experimentally demonstrated light focusing through strongly scattering media by performing binary amplitude optimization with a genetic algorithm. In the experiments, we control 160 000 mirrors of digital micromirror device to modulate and optimize the light transmission paths in the strongly scattering media. We replace the universal target-position-intensity (TPI) discriminant with signal-to-background ratio (SBR) discriminant in genetic algorithm. With 400 incident segments, a relative enhancement value of 17.5% with a ground glass diffuser is achieved, which is higher than the theoretical value of 1/(2π )≈ 15.9 % for binary amplitude optimization. According to our repetitive experiments, we conclude that, with the same segment number, the enhancement for the SBR discriminant is always higher than that for the TPI discriminant, which results from the background-weakening effect of SBR discriminant. In addition, with the SBR discriminant, the diameters of the focus can be changed ranging from 7 to 70 μm at arbitrary positions. Besides, multiple foci with high enhancement are obtained. Our work provides a meaningful reference for the study of binary amplitude optimization in the wavefront shaping field.

  2. Complete genome sequence of Paenibacillus riograndensis SBR5(T), a Gram-positive diazotrophic rhizobacterium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brito, Luciana Fernandes; Bach, Evelise; Kalinowski, Jörn; Rückert, Christian; Wibberg, Daniel; Passaglia, Luciane M; Wendisch, Volker F

    2015-08-10

    Paenibacillus riograndensis is a Gram-positive rhizobacterium which exhibits plant growth promoting activities. It was isolated from the rhizosphere of wheat grown in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Here we announce the complete genome sequence of P. riograndensis strain SBR5(T). The genome of P. riograndensis SBR5(T) consists of a circular chromosome of 7,893,056bps. The genome was finished and fully annotated, containing 6705 protein coding genes, 87 tRNAs and 27 rRNAs. The knowledge of the complete genome helped to explain why P. riograndensis SBR5(T) can grow with the carbon sources arabinose and mannitol, but not myo-inositol, and to explain physiological features such as biotin auxotrophy and antibiotic resistances. The genome sequence will be valuable for functional genomics and ecological studies as well as for application of P. riograndensis SBR5(T) as plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Start-Up and Aeration Strategies for a Completely Autotrophic Nitrogen Removal Process in an SBR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoling Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The start-up and performance of the completely autotrophic nitrogen removal via nitrite (CANON process were examined in a sequencing batch reactor (SBR with intermittent aeration. Initially, partial nitrification was established, and then the DO concentration was lowered further, surplus water in the SBR with high nitrite was replaced with tap water, and continuous aeration mode was turned into intermittent aeration mode, while the removal of total nitrogen was still weak. However, the total nitrogen (TN removal efficiency and nitrogen removal loading reached 83.07% and 0.422 kgN/(m3·d, respectively, 14 days after inoculating 0.15 g of CANON biofilm biomass into the SBR. The aggregates formed in SBR were the mixture of activated sludge and granular sludge; the volume ratio of floc and granular sludge was 7 : 3. DNA analysis showed that Planctomycetes-like anammox bacteria and Nitrosomonas-like aerobic ammonium oxidization bacteria were dominant bacteria in the reactor. The influence of aeration strategies on CANON process was investigated using batch tests. The result showed that the strategy of alternating aeration (1 h and nonaeration (1 h was optimum, which can obtain almost the same TN removal efficiency as continuous aeration while reducing the energy consumption, inhibiting the activity of NOB, and enhancing the activity of AAOB.

  4. Performance of SBR for the treatment of textile dye wastewater: Optimization and kinetic studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sathian

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this work, sequential batch reactor (SBR was employed for the treatment of textile dye wastewater. The performance of four white rot fungi (WRF viz. Coriolus versicolor, Pleurotus floridanus, Ganoderma lucidum and Trametes pubescens was evaluated in pure and mixed combinations in terms of decolorization. From the results it was found that the combination of Pleurotus floridanus, Ganoderma lucidum and Trametes pubescens was best and they were used in the SBR. The process parameters like air flow rate, sludge retention time (SRT and cycle period were optimized using response surface methodology (RSM. At these optimized conditions, treatment of textile dye wastewater was carried out at various initial dye wastewater concentration and hydraulic retention time. The performance of SBR was analyzed in terms of decolorization, COD reduction and sludge volume index (SVI. From the results it was found that a maximum decolorization and COD reduction of 71.3% and 79.4%, respectively, was achieved in the SBR at an organic loading rate of 0.165 KgCOD/m3 d. The sludge volume index (SVI was found to be low in the range of 90–103 mL/g. The kinetic study was carried out using a first order based model and the degradation follows the first order system.

  5. Sequencing Batch Reactor (SBR) for the removal of Hg2+ and Cd2+ from synthetic petrochemical factory wastewater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malakahmad, Amirhossein; Hasani, Amirhesam; Eisakhani, Mahdieh; Isa, Mohamed Hasnain

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → We assessed SBR performances to treat synthetic wastewater containing Hg 2+ and Cd 2+ . → SBR was able to remove 76-90% of Hg 2+ and 96-98% of Cd 2+ . → COD removal efficiency and MLVSS was affected by Hg 2+ and Cd 2+ concentrations. → Removal was not only biological process but also by biosorption process of sludge. - Abstract: Petrochemical factories which manufacture vinyl chloride monomer and poly vinyl chloride (PVC) are among the largest industries which produce wastewater contains mercury and cadmium. The objective of this research is to evaluate the performance of a lab-scale Sequencing Batch Reactor (SBR) to treat a synthetic petrochemical wastewater containing mercury and cadmium. After acclimatization of the system which lasted 60 days, the SBR was introduced to mercury and cadmium in low concentrations which then was increased gradually to 9.03 ± 0.02 mg/L Hg and 15.52 ± 0.02 mg/L Cd until day 110. The SBR performance was assessed by measuring Chemical Oxygen Demand, Total and Volatile Suspended Solids as well as Sludge Volume Index. At maximum concentrations of the heavy metals, the SBR was able to remove 76-90% of Hg 2+ and 96-98% of Cd 2+ . The COD removal efficiency and MLVSS (microorganism population) in the SBR was affected by mercury and cadmium concentrations in influent. Different species of microorganisms such as Rhodospirilium-like bacteria, Gomphonema-like algae, and sulfate reducing-like bacteria were identified in the system. While COD removal efficiency and MLVSS concentration declined during addition of heavy metals, the appreciable performance of SBR in removal of Hg 2+ and Cd 2+ implies that the removal in SBR was not only a biological process, but also by the biosorption process of the sludge.

  6. Solid separation and sbr biological process for pig slurry treatment; Depuracion de purines por separacion de solidos y tratamiento biologico en SBR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lekuona, A.; Alberdi, M.; Lekue, I.; Lasuen, M.

    2009-07-01

    Egiluze treatment plant in Renteria (Gipuzkoa, spain), has treated around 45 m{sup 3}/day of pig slurry since 2006. During this two years, the plant has been running in order to get a suitable effluent, which fulfills the corresponding parameters to be discharged to municipal drain. The treatment process consists basically of a first solid separation and subsequent nitrification-de-nitrificacion biological process using a Sequencing Batch Reactor (SBR). The technical and economic results showed in this article, prove that the process used in Egiluze treatment plant is an effective solution which allows the treatment of pig slurry in an economical and automated way. (Author)

  7. Recycling cycle of materials applied to acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene/policarbonate blends with styrene-butadiene-styrene copolymer addition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cândido, L. H. A.; Ferreira, D. B.; Júnior, W. Kindlein; Demori, R.; Mauler, R. S.

    2014-05-01

    The scope of this research is the recycling of polymers from mobile phones hulls discarded and the performance evaluation when they are submitted to the Recycling Cycle of Materials (RCM). The studied material was the ABS/PC blend in a 70/30 proportion. Different compositions were evaluated adding virgin material, recycled material and using the copolymer SBS as impact modifier. In order to evaluate the properties of material's composition, the samples were characterized by TGA, FTIR, SEM, IZOD impact strength and tensile strength tests. At the first stage, the presented results suggest the composition containing 25% of recycled material and 5% of SBS combines good mechanical performance to the higher content of recycled material and lower content of impact modifier providing major benefits to recycling plans. Five cycles (RCM) were applied in the second stage; they evidenced a decrease trend considering the impact strength. At first and second cycle the impact strength was higher than reference material (ABS/PC blend) and from the fourth cycle it was lower. The superiority impact strength in the first and second cycles can be attributed to impact modifier effect. The thermal tests and the spectrometry didn't show the presence of degradation process in the material and the TGA curves demonstrated the process stability. The impact surface of each sample was observed at SEM. The microstructures are not homogeneous presenting voids and lamellar appearance, although the outer surface presents no defects, demonstrating good moldability. The present work aims to assess the life cycle of the material from the successive recycling processes.

  8. Morphology and Phase Transitions in Styrene-Butadiene-Styrene Triblock Copolymer Grafted with Isobutyl Substituted Polyhedral Oligomeric Silsesquioxanes (Postprint)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Drazowski, Daniel B; Lee, Andre; Haddad, Timothy S

    2007-01-01

    Two symmetric triblock polystyrene-butadiene-polystyrene (SBS) copolymers with different styrene content were grafted with varying amounts of isobutyl-substituted polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (POSS) molecules...

  9. Morphology and Phase Transitions in Styrene-Butadiene-Styrene Triblock Copolymer Grafted with Isobutyl Substituted Polyhedral Oligomeric Silsesquioxanes (preprint)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Drazkowski, Daniel B; Lee, Andre; Haddad, Timothy S

    2006-01-01

    Two symmetric triblock polystyrene-butadiene-polystyrene (SBS) copolymers with different styrene content were grafted with varying amounts of isobutyl-substituted polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (POSS) molecules...

  10. QENS investigation of filled rubbers

    CERN Document Server

    Triolo, A; Desmedt, A; Pieper, J K; Lo Celso, F; Triolo, R; Negroni, F; Arrighi, V; Qian, H; Frick, B

    2002-01-01

    The polymer segmental dynamics is investigated in a series of silica-filled rubbers. The presence of inert fillers in polymers greatly affects the mechanical and physical performance of the final materials. For example, silica has been proposed as a reinforcing agent of elastomers in tire production. Results from quasielastic neutron scattering and Dynamic Mechanical Thermal Analysis (DMTA) measurements are presented on styrene-ran-butadiene rubber filled with silica. A clear indication is obtained of the existence of a bimodal dynamics, which can be rationalized in terms of the relaxation of bulk rubber and the much slower relaxation of the rubber adsorbed on the filler surface. (orig.)

  11. Innovative Mesoporous Nanosilicas: SBR Nanocomposite for Low Environmental Impact Tread Tyre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellano, Maila; Turturro, Antonio; Finocchio, Elisabetta; Busca, Guido; Legami, Rossella Di; Vicini, Silvia

    2018-02-01

    Silica nanoparticles with different aspect ratios (A.R.) were tested as reinforcing fillers of styrenebutadiene copolymer (s-SBR) for "green tyres," i.e., tires with lower rolling resistance. A commercial nanosilica with A.R. = 1 (Aerosil® 200) was compared with two nanosilica samples with A.R. = 2 and 4, synthesized by means of an innovative process, to ascertain if the filler shape was significant to improve the composite properties. In addition, bis-triethoxysilylpropyltetrasulfide was grafted onto the particles surface, in order to obtain more hydrophobic materials and to enhance their dispersion in the elastomeric composites: pristine and modified silicas were then compared. Grafting extent was evaluated by thermogravimetric analysis. The surface properties of silicas were investigated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and inverse gas chromatography. s-SBR/silica nanocomposites were then prepared and characterized assessing their dynamic-mechanical properties and carrying out morphological observations by transmission electron microscopy.

  12. Compatibility of repair concretes in the aggressive environment of the South of Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parhizkar, T.; Ramezaniapour, A.A.; Hillemeier, B.; Ghasemi, A.M.R.; Mozafari, N.

    2006-01-01

    Deterioration of reinforced concrete structures, namely due to corrosion of reinforcement, in the south of Iran, on the coasts of the Gulf region has become a major problem in recent years. The high cost involved in repairing and strengthening of deteriorated concrete structures in this region makes it essential that the repair materials used are compatible enough to match the residual service life of the structure. This paper presents the engineering and compatibility-related properties of two repair concretes containing silica fume and styrene butadiene rubber latex (SBR) under simulated hot and humid conditions similar to the aggressive environment of the south of Iran. A normal cement-based repair concrete was used as control. Mechanical properties were assessed and the dimension stability of the repair concrete was also evaluated. The results of this investigation show that the concrete containing silica fume and the polymer-modified concrete are appropriate materials for repair in the severe environmental conditions of the Gulf region. (author)

  13. Fabrication of Si negative electrodes for Li-ion batteries (LIBs) using cross-linked polymer binders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Suk-Yong; Han, Sien-Ho

    2016-12-19

    Currently, Si as an active material for LIBs has been attracting much attention due to its high theoretical specific capacity (3572 mAh g -1 ). However, a disadvantage when using a Si negative electrode for LIBs is the abrupt drop of its capabilities during the cycling process. Therefore, there have been a few studies of polymers such as poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVdF), carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC), styrene butadiene rubber (SBR) and polyacrylic acid (PAA) given that the robust structure of a polymeric binder to LIBs anodes is a promising means by which to enhance the performance of high-capacity anodes. These studies essentially focused mainly on modifying of the linear-polymer component or on copolymers dissolved in solvents. Cross-linking polymers as a binder may be preferred due to their good scratch resistance, excellent chemical resistance and high levels of adhesion and resilience. However, because these types of polymers (with a rigid structure and cross-linking points) are also insoluble in general organic solvents, applying these types in this capacity is virtually impossible.

  14. The Effect of SBS Polymer on the Dynamic Properties of Asphalt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Ziari

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Polymer application for the improvement and modification of the bitumen used in roads surfaces has expanded in recent decades. The roads engineers and constructors, therefore, have used the modified bitumen in asphalts helping in this way to increase roads and pavements service life and improving the durability of the roads and asphalts. The bitumen used in asphalt mixture constitutes only a low percentage of the weight of this mixture (between 4% and 6%, but even this small amount has a significant effect on asphalt performance. The polymers that are mostly used in promoting the bitumen specifications are polymer modifiers including: styrenebutadiene- styrene (SBS, as well as similar polymers such as styrene-butadiene-rubber (SBR, ethylene-vinylacetate (EVA and polyethylene (PE. Polymers as the most important family of bitumen modifiers are added to bitumen to improve bitumen performance and to increase its effectiveness. Among the existing polymers, SBS is considered as the best bitumen modifier. In this research, SBS as one of the elastomer-thermoplast modifiers was added in different weights (2%-5% to bitumen 60/70 in Isfahan Refinery and its effect on asphalt properties were investigated. Adding this polymer to bitumen improves the Marshall stability of sample asphalt, flow, module of rupture and asphalt content voids. However, it has a minor effect on asphalt special weight. Adding SBS would also lead to asphalt fatigue life.

  15. Effective regeneration of anode material recycled from scrapped Li-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jin; Li, Xuelei; Song, Dawei; Miao, Yanli; Song, Jishun; Zhang, Lianqi

    2018-06-01

    Recycling high-valuable metal elements (such as Li, Ni, Co, Al and Cu elements) from scrapped lithium ion batteries can bring significant economic benefits. However, recycling and reusing anode material has not yet attracted wide attention up to now, due to the lower added-value than the above valuable metal materials and the difficulties in regenerating process. In this paper, a novel regeneration process with significant green advance is proposed to regenerate anode material recycled from scrapped Li-ion batteries for the first time. After regenerated, most acetylene black (AB) and all the styrene butadiene rubber (SBR), carboxymethylcellulose sodium (CMC) in recycled anode material are removed, and the surface of anode material is coated with pyrolytic carbon from phenolic resin again. Finally, the regenerated anode material (graphite with coating layer, residual AB and a little CMC pyrolysis product) is obtained. As expected, all the technical indexs of regenerated anode material exceed that of a midrange graphite with the same type, and partial technical indexs are even closed to that of the unused graphite. The results indicate the effective regeneration of anode material recycled from scrapped Li-ion batteries is really achieved.

  16. SBR treatment of olive mill wastewaters: dilution or pre-treatment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farabegoli, G; Chiavola, A; Rolle, E

    2012-01-01

    The olive-oil extraction industry is an economically important activity for many countries of the Mediterranean Sea area, with Spain, Greece and Italy being the major producers. This activity, however, may represent a serious environmental problem due to the discharge of highly polluted effluents, usually referred to as 'olive mill wastewaters' (OMWs). They are characterized by high values of chemical oxygen demand (COD) (80-300 g/L), lipids, total polyphenols (TPP), tannins and other substances difficult to degrade. An adequate treatment before discharging is therefore required to reduce the pollutant load. The aim of the present paper was to evaluate performances of a biological process in a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) fed with pre-treated OMWs. Pre-treatment consisted of a combined acid cracking (AC) and granular activated carbon (GAC) adsorption process. The efficiency of the system was compared with that of an identical SBR fed with the raw wastewater only diluted. Combined AC and GAC adsorption was chosen to be used prior to the following biological process due to its capability of providing high removal efficiencies of COD and TPP and also appreciable improvement of biodegradability. Comparing results obtained with different influents showed that best performances of the SBR were obtained by feeding it with raw diluted OMWs (dOMWs) and at the lowest dilution ratio (1:25): in this case, the removal efficiencies were 90 and 76%, as average, for COD and TPP, respectively. Feeding the SBR with either the pre-treated or the raw dOMWs at 1:50 gave very similar values of COD reduction (74%); however, an improvement of the TPP removal was observed in the former case.

  17. Study on the properties of blend rubber prepared with grafted rubber and irradiated rubber by Gamma Rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dafader, N. C.; Haque, M. E.; Islam, K. A.

    2004-05-01

    The blend rubbers were prepared by mixing γ-rays irradiated and monomer grafted rubbers. The monomers, methyl methacrylate (MMA) and styrene were used separately to prepare grafted rubber by exposure to radiation. The physico-chemical properties of the blend rubbers were evaluated. The tensile strength and elongation at break of the blend rubbers decrease whereas modulus at 500% elongation, swelling ratio and permanent set increase with the increased proportion of grafted rubber in the blend. The tear strength of the blend between irradiated and styrene grafted rubbers increases with the increased proportion of grafted rubber but that of the blend of irradiated and MMA grafted rubbers remains almost constant. The blend rubber could be used for special type of application like rubber thread, tube, catheter etc

  18. Aerobic granulation strategy for bioaugmentation of a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) treating high strength pyridine wastewater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Xiaodong; Chen, Yan [Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Chemical Pollution Control and Resources Reuse, School of Environmental and Biological Engineering, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing 210094, Jiangsu Province (China); Zhang, Xin [Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Chemical Pollution Control and Resources Reuse, School of Environmental and Biological Engineering, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing 210094, Jiangsu Province (China); Suzhou Institute of Architectural Design Co., Ltd, Suzhou 215021, Jiangsu Province (China); Jiang, Xinbai; Wu, Shijing [Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Chemical Pollution Control and Resources Reuse, School of Environmental and Biological Engineering, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing 210094, Jiangsu Province (China); Shen, Jinyou, E-mail: shenjinyou@mail.njust.edu.cn [Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Chemical Pollution Control and Resources Reuse, School of Environmental and Biological Engineering, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing 210094, Jiangsu Province (China); Sun, Xiuyun; Li, Jiansheng; Lu, Lude [Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Chemical Pollution Control and Resources Reuse, School of Environmental and Biological Engineering, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing 210094, Jiangsu Province (China); Wang, Lianjun, E-mail: wanglj@mail.njust.edu.cn [Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Chemical Pollution Control and Resources Reuse, School of Environmental and Biological Engineering, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing 210094, Jiangsu Province (China)

    2015-09-15

    Abstract: Aerobic granules were successfully cultivated in a sequencing batch reactor (SBR), using a single bacterial strain Rhizobium sp. NJUST18 as the inoculum. NJUST18 presented as both a good pyridine degrader and an efficient autoaggregator. Stable granules with diameter of 0.5–1 mm, sludge volume index of 25.6 ± 3.6 mL g{sup −1} and settling velocity of 37.2 ± 2.7 m h{sup −1}, were formed in SBR following 120-day cultivation. These granules exhibited excellent pyridine degradation performance, with maximum volumetric degradation rate (V{sub max}) varied between 1164.5 mg L{sup −1} h{sup −1} and 1867.4 mg L{sup −1} h{sup −1}. High-throughput sequencing analysis exhibited a large shift in microbial community structure, since the SBR was operated under open condition. Paracoccus and Comamonas were found to be the most predominant species in the aerobic granule system after the system had stabilized. The initially inoculated Rhizobium sp. lost its dominance during aerobic granulation. However, the inoculation of Rhizobium sp. played a key role in the start-up process of this bioaugmentation system. This study demonstrated that, in addition to the hydraulic selection pressure during settling and effluent discharge, the selection of aggregating bacterial inocula is equally important for the formation of the aerobic granule.

  19. Impact of reactor configuration on anammox process start-up: MBR versus SBR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Yu; Gao, Da-Wen; Fu, Yuan; Wu, Wei-Min; Ren, Nan-Qi

    2012-01-01

    Anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) is an energy saving biological nitrogen removal process which was limited to slow growth rate of anammox bacteria during start-up period. This study investigated the start-up of anammox process by a laboratory sequential batch reactor (SBR) for 218 days and subsequently modified the reactor as a membrane bioreactor (MBR) for 178 days. Modification of a SBR as MBR with installation of an external membrane module resulted in acceleration of specific anammox activity by 19 times. The acceleration of specific anammox activity with MBR was further confirmed by starting-up another MBR for a 242 day period. Molecular microbial analyses showed that Candidatus "Brocadia anammoxidans" and Candidatus "Kuenenia stuttgartiensis" were the dominant species in the inocula and biomass developed in the reactor. The start-up with MBR appeared to be more effective than SBR for the enrichment of anammox bacteria due to high sludge retention property of MBR configuration. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Aerobic granulation strategy for bioaugmentation of a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) treating high strength pyridine wastewater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Xiaodong; Chen, Yan; Zhang, Xin; Jiang, Xinbai; Wu, Shijing; Shen, Jinyou; Sun, Xiuyun; Li, Jiansheng; Lu, Lude; Wang, Lianjun

    2015-01-01

    Abstract: Aerobic granules were successfully cultivated in a sequencing batch reactor (SBR), using a single bacterial strain Rhizobium sp. NJUST18 as the inoculum. NJUST18 presented as both a good pyridine degrader and an efficient autoaggregator. Stable granules with diameter of 0.5–1 mm, sludge volume index of 25.6 ± 3.6 mL g −1 and settling velocity of 37.2 ± 2.7 m h −1 , were formed in SBR following 120-day cultivation. These granules exhibited excellent pyridine degradation performance, with maximum volumetric degradation rate (V max ) varied between 1164.5 mg L −1 h −1 and 1867.4 mg L −1 h −1 . High-throughput sequencing analysis exhibited a large shift in microbial community structure, since the SBR was operated under open condition. Paracoccus and Comamonas were found to be the most predominant species in the aerobic granule system after the system had stabilized. The initially inoculated Rhizobium sp. lost its dominance during aerobic granulation. However, the inoculation of Rhizobium sp. played a key role in the start-up process of this bioaugmentation system. This study demonstrated that, in addition to the hydraulic selection pressure during settling and effluent discharge, the selection of aggregating bacterial inocula is equally important for the formation of the aerobic granule

  1. Nitrile rubber and carboxylated nitrile rubber resistance to soybean biodiesel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Nunes Linhares

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Biodiesel has been considered a suitable substitute for petroleum diesel, but their chemical composition differs greatly. For this reason, biodiesel interacts differently than petroleum diesel with various materials, including rubbers. Therefore, the resistance of some elastomers should be thoroughly evaluated, specifically those which are commonly used in automotive industry. Nitrile rubber (NBR is widely used to produce vehicular parts that are constantly in contact with fuels. This paper aimed to assess the resistance of carboxylated nitrile rubber (XNBR with 28% of acrylonitrile content to soybean biodiesel in comparison with non-carboxylated nitrile rubber samples, with high and medium acrylonitrile content (33 and 45%. NBR with medium acrylonitrile content showed little resistance to biodiesel. However, carboxylated nitrile rubber even with low acrylonitrile content had similar performance to NBR with high acrylonitrile content.

  2. PROPERTIES TYRE TREAD RUBBERS DEPENDING ON PARTICULARITY OF RUBBER COMPOUND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. S. Shashok

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary. The results of studies of the elastomeric compositions based on natural rubber containing curatives different ratio "curing agent : vulcanization accelerator" listed in this article. Influence of the composition of the vulcanizing group on stress-strain and elastic- deformation properties of tire tread rubber was installed. It has been shown that a significant effect on thermo-oxidative aging of vulcanizates was the composition of the vulcanizing group. Results of studies resistance tread rubber to exposure to elevated temperatures were presented . Vulcanizates differing type and density by varying the cross-linking ratio of "curing agent : vulcanization accelerator" were obtained . Research results in the formation of rubber resistance and crack growth at different temperatures were presented. Revealed that the best education and resistance to tear propagation under normal conditions characterized by rubber ratio "curing agent : vulcanization accelerator" equal to 1.5:1. It has been established that a dynamic endurance study rubbers depends largely on the nature and concentration of the cross-linking cross-links and movable promote increase efficiency due to the grid and reduce the sulfidity rearrangement. During loading mode alternating deformations at elevated temperatures lability of polysulfide bonds negatively affects the performance of rubber, and the decisive role of providing strength and thermal cross-linking. It is shown that the performance of the spatial grid rubbers allow indirectly judge the dynamic vulcanizates endurance and predict performance rubbers at elevated temperatures under conditions of repeated cyclic deformation. Revealed that the vulcanizing system containing sulfur and vulcanization accelerator TBBS 1:2, promotes the formation of the optimal structure of vulcanized rubber , which provides the best resistance to repeated cyclic deformations in the operating temperatures of the tire.

  3. Lignocellulosic fiber reinforced rubber composites

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Jacob John, Maya

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Natural Rubber (NR) is a naturally occurring elastomeric polymer of isoprene (2-methyl-1,3-butadiene). It can be extracted from latex of only one kind of tree, the Hevea braziliensis. Hevea rubber is produced in many tropical regions of Southeast...

  4. Crack Velocities in Natural Rubber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-05-01

    vulcanized natural rubber (3). The surprisingly low value for natural rubber was attributed to highly anisotropic elastic behavior at high strains...Dr. R.L. Rabie Hercules Incorporated WX-2, MS-952 Alleghany Ballistic Lab Los Alamos National Lab. P.O. Box 210 P.O. Box 1663 Washington, D.C. 21502

  5. Alternative sources of natural rubber

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mooibroek, H.; Cornish, K.

    2000-01-01

    Rubber (cis-1,4-polyisoprene) is one of the most important polymers naturally produced by plants because it is a strategic raw material used in more than 40,000 products, including more than 400 medical devices. The sole commercial source, at present, is natural rubber harvested from the Brazilian

  6. Robotically enhanced rubber hand illusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arata, Jumpei; Hattori, Masashi; Ichikawa, Shohei; Sakaguchi, Masamichi

    2014-01-01

    The rubber hand illusion is a well-known multisensory illusion. In brief, watching a rubber hand being stroked by a paintbrush while one's own unseen hand is synchronously stroked causes the rubber hand to be attributed to one's own body and to "feel like it's my hand." The rubber hand illusion is thought to be triggered by the synchronized tactile stimulation of both the subject's hand and the fake hand. To extend the conventional rubber hand illusion, we introduce robotic technology in the form of a master-slave telemanipulator. The developed one degree-of-freedom master-slave system consists of an exoskeleton master equipped with an optical encoder that is worn on the subject's index finger and a motor-actuated index finger on the rubber hand, which allows the subject to perform unilateral telemanipulation. The moving rubber hand illusion has been studied by several researchers in the past with mechanically connected rigs between the subject's body and the fake limb. The robotic instruments let us investigate the moving rubber hand illusion with less constraints, thus behaving closer to the classic rubber hand illusion. In addition, the temporal delay between the body and the fake limb can be precisely manipulated. The experimental results revealed that the robotic instruments significantly enhance the rubber hand illusion. The time delay is significantly correlated with the effect of the multisensory illusion, and the effect significantly decreased at time delays over 100 ms. These findings can potentially contribute to the investigations of neural mechanisms in the field of neuroscience and of master-slave systems in the field of robotics.

  7. Nano-reinforcement of tire rubbers: silica-technology for natural rubber : exploring the infuence of non-rubber constituents on the natural rubber-silica system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sarkawi, S.S.

    2013-01-01

    Natural rubber is a renewable resource material with outstanding properties which offers significant advantages over its counterparts, the fossil-resource synthetic rubbers. In fact, a natural rubber tree is an efficient carbon dioxide sequester. Since natural rubber is a natural product, it is

  8. Solubility Study of Curatives in Various Rubbers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guo, R.; Talma, Auke; Datta, Rabin; Dierkes, Wilma K.; Noordermeer, Jacobus W.M.

    2008-01-01

    The previous works on solubility of curatives in rubbers were mainly carried out in natural rubber. Not too much information available on dissimilar rubbers and this is important because most of the compounds today are blends of dissimilar rubbers. Although solubility can be expected to certain

  9. Application of SBR technology for domestic waste water treatment; Aplicacion de la tecnologia SBR para el tratamiento de aguas residuales domesticas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mace, S.; Mata-Alvarez, J.

    2001-07-01

    The objective of the present study is to give an overall vision of SBR (Sequencing Batch Reactors) technology as an alternative way for treating domestic and municipal wastewaters. This technology has been gaining popularity through years, mainly due to its single-tank design and the ease of its automation. There are a lot of cases in literature dealing with the treatment of this kind of effluents with this technology, whether a lab-scale, pilot scale or industrial scale. Thus, this paper includes relevant experiments found in literature concerning domestic wastewater treatment. There is also a special attention given to an application that has been studied recently: the use of this technology in wastewater treatment plants, concretely for the treatment of the reject water found after anaerobic digesters, which contains high concentrations of ammoniacal nitrogen. (Author)

  10. Estudo da modificação química de polidienos do tipo SBR e BR Study of chemical modification of SBR and BR polydiene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana L. A. C. Rocha

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available A utilização de modificações químicas de polidienos comerciais tem sido estudada como um meio alternativo à síntese de novos polímeros, para otimização das propriedades finais destes materiais através da introdução de diferentes grupamentos reativos na cadeia polimérica. A modificação química pode ser feita através de diferentes métodos, os quais podem ser realizados tanto em solução como em massa, onde podem ser destacadas as reações de epoxidação, sulfonação, maleinização, carboxilação, etc. Neste trabalho foi estudado o método de epoxidação de borrachas do tipo SBR e BR. Foi possível observar que mesmo pequenos graus de modificação química causam mudanças marcantes nas propriedades finais dos polímeros, como determinado para a temperatura de transição vítrea.Chemical modification of polydiene has been studied as an alternative route to obtain modified polymers with improved final properties. This improvement is due to the introduction of different kinds of reactive groups into a polymer chain, and it can be done in solution as well as in bulk. The chemical modification can be carried out by different methods such as epoxidation, maleination, carboxylation, sulfonation etc. In this work we show that in the epoxidation of SBR and BR even a small degree of modification can change the final properties of the polymer, as it occurred for the glass transition temperature.

  11. A comparative examination of MBR and SBR performance for the treatment of high-strength landfill leachate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Fadel, M; Hashisho, J

    2014-09-01

    The management of landfill leachate is challenging, with relatively limited work targeting high-strength leachate. In this study, the performance of the membrane bioreactor (MBR) and sequencing batch reactor (SBR) technologies are compared in treating high-strength landfill leachate. The MBR exhibited a superior performance with removal efficiencies exceeding 95% for BOD5, TN, and NH3 and an improvement on SBR efficiencies ranging between 21 and 34%. The coupled experimental results contribute in filling a gap toward improving the management of high-strength landfill leachate and providing comparative guidelines or selection criteria and limitations for MBR and SBR applications. Implications: While the sequencing batch reactor (SBR) technology offers some flexibility in terms of cycle time and sequence, its performance is constrained when considering landfill leachate associated with significant variations in quality and quantity. Combining membrane separation and biodegradation processes or the membrane bioreactor (MBR) technology improved removal efficiencies significantly. In the context of leachate management using the MBR technology, more efforts have targeted low-strength leachate with limited attempts at moderate to high strength leachate. In this study, the SBR and MBR technologies were tested under different operating conditions to compare and evaluate their feasibility for the management of high-strength leachate from a full-scale operating landfill. Such a comparison has not been reported for high-strength leachate.

  12. Nitrile rubber and carboxylated nitrile rubber resistance to soybean biodiesel

    OpenAIRE

    Felipe Nunes Linhares; Cléverson Fernandes Senra Gabriel; Ana Maria Furtado de Sousa; Marcia Christina Amorim Moreira Leite; Cristina Russi Guimarães Furtado

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Biodiesel has been considered a suitable substitute for petroleum diesel, but their chemical composition differs greatly. For this reason, biodiesel interacts differently than petroleum diesel with various materials, including rubbers. Therefore, the resistance of some elastomers should be thoroughly evaluated, specifically those which are commonly used in automotive industry. Nitrile rubber (NBR) is widely used to produce vehicular parts that are constantly in contact with fuels. T...

  13. A sequential treatment of intermediate tropical landfill leachate using a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) and coagulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yong, Zi Jun; Bashir, Mohammed J K; Ng, Choon Aun; Sethupathi, Sumathi; Lim, Jun-Wei

    2018-01-01

    The increase in landfill leachate generation is due to the increase of municipal solid waste (MSW) as global development continues. Landfill leachate has constantly been the most challenging issue in MSW management as it contains high amount of organic and inorganic compounds that might cause pollution to water resources. Biologically treated landfill leachate often fails to fulfill the regulatory discharge standards. Thus, to prevent environmental pollution, many landfill leachate treatment plants involve multiple stages treatment process. The Papan Landfill in Perak, Malaysia currently has no proper leachate treatment system. In the current study, sequential treatment via sequencing batch reactor (SBR) followed by coagulation was used to treat chemical oxygen demand (COD), ammoniacal nitrogen (NH 3 -N), total suspended solids (TSS), and colour from raw landfill leachate. SBR optimum aeration rate, L/min, optimal pH and dosage (g/L) of Alum for coagulation as a post-treatment were determined. The two-step sequential treatment by SBR followed by coagulation (Alum) achieved a removal efficiency of 84.89%, 94.25%, 91.82% and 85.81% for COD, NH 3 -N, TSS and colour, respectively. Moreover, the two-stage treatment process achieved 95.0% 95.0%, 95.3%, 100.0%, 87.2%, 62.9%, 50.0%, 41.3%, 41.2, 34.8, and 22.9 removals of Cadmium, Lead, Copper, Selenium, Barium, Iron, Silver, Nickel, Zinc, Arsenic, and Manganese, respectively. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Non-biodegradable landfill leachate treatment by combined process of agitation, coagulation, SBR and filtration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abood, Alkhafaji R; Bao, Jianguo; Du, Jiangkun; Zheng, Dan; Luo, Ye

    2014-02-01

    This study describes the complete treatment of non-biodegradable landfill leachate by combined treatment processes. The processes consist of agitation as a novel stripping method used to overcome the ammonia toxicity regarding aerobic microorganisms. The NH3-N removal ratio was 93.9% obtained at pH 11.5 and a gradient velocity (G) 150 s(-1) within a five-hour agitation time. By poly ferric sulphate (PFS) coagulation followed the agitation process; chemical oxygen demand (COD) and biological oxygen demand (BOD5) were removed at 70.6% and 49.4%, respectively at an optimum dose of 1200 mg L(-1) at pH 5.0. The biodegradable ratio BOD5/COD was improved from 0.18 to 0.31 during pretreatment step by agitation and PFS coagulation. Thereafter, the effluent was diluted with sewage at a different ratio before it was subjected to sequencing batch reactor (SBR) treatment. Up to 93.3% BOD5, 95.5% COD and 98.1% NH3-N removal were achieved by SBR operated under anoxic-aerobic-anoxic conditions. The filtration process was carried out using sand and carbon as a dual filter media as polishing process. The final effluent concentration of COD, BOD5, suspended solid (SS), NH3-N and total organic carbon (TOC) were 72.4 mg L(-1), 22.8 mg L(-1), 24.2 mg L(-1), 18.4 mg L(-1) and 50.8 mg L(-1) respectively, which met the discharge standard. The results indicated that a combined process of agitation-coagulation-SBR and filtration effectively eliminated pollutant loading from landfill leachate. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Non-biodegradable landfill leachate treatment by combined process of agitation, coagulation, SBR and filtration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abood, Alkhafaji R. [State Key Laboratory of Biogeology and Environmental Geology, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan 430074 (China); Thi Qar University, Nasiriyah (Iraq); Bao, Jianguo, E-mail: bjianguo888@126.com [State Key Laboratory of Biogeology and Environmental Geology, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan 430074 (China); Du, Jiangkun; Zheng, Dan; Luo, Ye [State Key Laboratory of Biogeology and Environmental Geology, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan 430074 (China)

    2014-02-15

    Highlights: • A novel method of stripping (agitation) was investigated for NH{sub 3}-N removal. • PFS coagulation followed agitation process enhanced the leachate biodegradation. • Nitrification–denitrification achieved by changing operation process in SBR treatment. • A dual filter of carbon-sand is suitable as a polishing treatment of leachate. • Combined treatment success for the complete treatment of non-biodegradable leachate. - Abstract: This study describes the complete treatment of non-biodegradable landfill leachate by combined treatment processes. The processes consist of agitation as a novel stripping method used to overcome the ammonia toxicity regarding aerobic microorganisms. The NH{sub 3}-N removal ratio was 93.9% obtained at pH 11.5 and a gradient velocity (G) 150 s{sup −1} within a five-hour agitation time. By poly ferric sulphate (PFS) coagulation followed the agitation process; chemical oxygen demand (COD) and biological oxygen demand (BOD{sub 5}) were removed at 70.6% and 49.4%, respectively at an optimum dose of 1200 mg L{sup −1} at pH 5.0. The biodegradable ratio BOD{sub 5}/COD was improved from 0.18 to 0.31 during pretreatment step by agitation and PFS coagulation. Thereafter, the effluent was diluted with sewage at a different ratio before it was subjected to sequencing batch reactor (SBR) treatment. Up to 93.3% BOD{sub 5}, 95.5% COD and 98.1% NH{sub 3}-N removal were achieved by SBR operated under anoxic–aerobic–anoxic conditions. The filtration process was carried out using sand and carbon as a dual filter media as polishing process. The final effluent concentration of COD, BOD{sub 5}, suspended solid (SS), NH{sub 3}-N and total organic carbon (TOC) were 72.4 mg L{sup −1}, 22.8 mg L{sup −1}, 24.2 mg L{sup −1}, 18.4 mg L{sup −1} and 50.8 mg L{sup −1} respectively, which met the discharge standard. The results indicated that a combined process of agitation-coagulation-SBR and filtration effectively eliminated

  16. Optimization of an Sbr process for nitrogen removal from concentrated wastewater via nitrite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Longhi, L.; Basilico, D.; Meloni, A.; Canziani, R.

    2009-01-01

    The results of an experimentation carried out on a pilot-scale Sbr for nitrogen removal via nitridation-denitration are reported. The experimentation was carried out in the period July October 2007 and was aimed at achieving design data for the upgrade of a full scale wastewater treatment plant (WWTP), following the new regulations issued by Lombardy Regional Authority for the discharge of effluents into sensitive areas. One aspect that has been considered in the upgrade is nitrogen removal from the supernatant coming from anaerobic sludge digestion. The experimental results provided sound design data based on real biological activity measurements and operational process parameters such as oxygen and organic carbon requirements. [it

  17. Systematic model development for partial nitrification of landfill leachate in a SBR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ganigue, R.; Volcke, E.I.P.; Puig, S.

    2010-01-01

    ), confirmed by statistical tests. Good model fits were also obtained for pH, despite a slight bias in pH prediction, probably caused by the high salinity of the leachate. Future work will be addressed to the model-based evaluation of the interaction of different factors (aeration, stripping, pH, inhibitions....... Following a systematic procedure, the model was successfully constructed, calibrated and validated using data from short-term (one cycle) operation of the PN-SBR. The evaluation of the model revealed a good fit to the main physical-chemical measurements (ammonium, nitrite, nitrate and inorganic carbon......, among others) and their impact on the process performance....

  18. The Cyclization of natural rubber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirzataheri, M.

    2000-01-01

    The effect of solvent, temperature, time, weight percent of catalyst on the rate and mechanism of cyclization of natural rubber was studied in toluene and xylene solutions having tin tetra chloride catalyst (SnCl 4 ). Iodo metric titration show, with 8% SnCl 4 (based on polymer weight) cyclization occurs, leaving 27.4% of the total unsaturation. Infrared spectra of cyclized natural rubber show decreased absorption intensity at 840 and 780 cm -1 which are characteristic bands of the linear polymer and the appearance of absorption band at 890 cm -1 as cycles were formed. By using this chemical modification, natural rubber is transformed into a resinous thermoplastic, hard, non rubbery cyclized material with much less unsaturation than the original rubber, which could find commercial applications ad adhesives, printing inks, industrial and ship paints

  19. Tribology Aspect of Rubber Shock Absorbers Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Banić

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Rubber is a very flexible material with many desirable properties Which enable its broad use in engineering practice. Rubber or rubber-metal springs are widely used as anti-vibration or anti-shock components in technical systems. Rubber-metal springs are usually realized as a bonded assembly, however especially in shock absorbers, it is possible to realize free contacts between rubber and metal parts. In previous research it authors was observed that friction between rubber and metal in such case have a significant influence on the damping characteristics of shock absorber. This paper analyzes the development process of rubber or rubber-metal shock absorbers realized free contacts between the constitutive parts, starting from the design, construction, testing and operation, with special emphasis on the development of rubber-metal springs for the buffing and draw gear of railway vehicles.

  20. Treatment of landfill leachate using a combined stripping, Fenton, SBR, and coagulation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Jinsong; Abbas, Abdulhussain A.; Chen Youpeng; Liu Zhiping; Fang Fang; Chen Peng

    2010-01-01

    The leachate from Changshengqiao landfill (Chongqing, China) was characterized and submitted to a combined process of air stripping, Fenton, sequencing batch reactor (SBR), and coagulation. Optimum operating conditions for each process were identified. The performance of the treatment was assessed by monitoring the removal of organic matter (COD and BOD 5 ) and ammonia nitrogen (NH 3 -N). It has been confirmed that air stripping (at pH 11.0 and aeration time 18 h) effectively removed 96.6% of the ammonia. The Fenton process was investigated under optimum conditions (pH 3.0, FeSO 4 .7H 2 O of 20 g l -1 and H 2 O 2 of 20 ml l -1 ), COD removal of up to 60.8% was achieved. Biodegradability (BOD 5 /COD ratio) increased from 0.18 to 0.38. Thereafter the Fenton effluent was mixed with sewage at dilutions to a ratio of 1:3 before it was subjected to the SBR reactor; under the optimum aeration time of 20 h, up to 82.8% BOD 5 removal and 83.1% COD removal were achieved. The optimum coagulant (Fe 2 (SO 4 ) 3 ) was a dosage of 800 mg l -1 at pH of 5.0, which reduced COD to an amount of 280 mg l -1 . These combined processes were successfully employed and very effectively decreased pollutant loading.

  1. Treatment of anaerobic sludge digester effluents by the CANON process in an air pulsing SBR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vazquez-Padin, J.R.; Pozo, M.J.; Jarpa, M.; Figueroa, M.; Franco, A.; Mosquera-Corral, A.; Campos, J.L.; Mendez, R.

    2009-01-01

    The CANON (Completely Autotrophic Nitrogen removal Over Nitrite) process was successfully developed in an air pulsing reactor type SBR fed with the supernatant from an anaerobic sludge digester and operated at moderately low temperatures (18-24 o C). The SBR was started up as a nitrifying reactor, lowering progressively the dissolved oxygen concentration until reaching partial nitrification. Afterwards, an inoculation with sludge containing Anammox biomass was carried out. Nitrogen volumetric removal rates of 0.25 g N L -1 d -1 due to Anammox activity were measured 35 d after inoculation even though the inoculum constituted only 8% (w/w) of the biomass present in the reactor and it was poorly enriched in Anammox bacteria. The maximal nitrogen removal rate was of 0.45 g N L -1 d -1 . By working at a dissolved oxygen concentration of 0.5 mg L -1 in the bulk liquid, nitrogen removal percentages up to 85% were achieved. The reactor presented good biomass retention capacity allowing the accumulation of 4.5 g VSS L -1 . The biomass was composed by ammonia oxidizing bacteria (AOB) forming fluffy structures and granules with an average diameter of 1.6 mm. These granules were composed by Anammox bacteria located in internal anoxic layers surrounded by an external aerobic layer where AOB were placed.

  2. SBR treatment of tank truck cleaning wastewater: sludge characteristics, chemical and ecotoxicological effluent quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caluwé, Michel; Dobbeleers, Thomas; Daens, Dominique; Geuens, Luc; Blust, Ronny; Dries, Jan

    2017-08-02

    A lab-scale activated sludge sequencing batch reactor (SBR) was used to treat tank truck cleaning (TTC) wastewater with different operational strategies (identified as different stages). The first stage was an adaptation period for the seed sludge that originated from a continuous fed industrial plant treating TTC wastewater. The first stage was followed by a dynamic reactor operation based on the oxygen uptake rate (OUR). Thirdly, dynamic SBR control based on OUR treated a daily changing influent. Lastly, the reactor was operated with a gradually shortened fixed cycle. During operation, sludge settling evolved from nearly no settling to good settling sludge in 16 days. The sludge volume index improved from 200 to 70 mL gMLSS -1 in 16 days and remained stable during the whole reactor operation. The average soluble chemical oxygen demand (sCOD) removal varied from 87.0% to 91.3% in the different stages while significant differences in the food to mass ratio were observed, varying from 0.11 (stage I) to 0.37 kgCOD.(kgMLVSS day) -1 (stage III). Effluent toxicity measurements were performed with Aliivibrio fischeri, Daphnia magna and Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata. Low sensitivity of Aliivibrio was observed. A few samples were acutely toxic for Daphnia; 50% of the tested effluent samples showed an inhibition of 100% for Pseudokirchneriella.

  3. Effect of HRT on SBR Performance for Treatability of Combined Domestic and Textile Wastewaters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nawaz, M.S.; Khan, S.J.; Khan, S.J.

    2013-01-01

    Textile wastewater contains organics and color dyes which need to be treated before discharging into receiving water bodies. Sequencing batch reactor (SBR) is proved promising against textile wastewater due to its high organic and nutrient removal efficiencies. In this study the influence of variable hydraulic retention time (HRT) on the performance of SBR in treating combined textile and domestic wastewater was evaluated. Six SBRs were operated in parallel at 12 and 8 hrs HRTs respectively, three for synthetic and three for real textile plus domestic wastewater. SBRs were operated at constant temperature 25 +- 1 degree C and pH 7 +- 1 to avoid seasonal effects. The biological oxygen demand (BOD) removal efficiency was consistent at 73% while, total suspended solids (TSS) removal efficiency increased from 52 to 63% in SBRs with decrease in HRT from 12 to 8 hrs. The organic loading rate (OLR) increased from 0.45 to 0.68 Kg/m3/d, SVI decreased from 94 to 84 mL/g and chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiency increased in real waste water (RWW) SBRs from 59 to 63% with decrease in HRT from 12 to 8 hrs. Low COD removal at 12 hr HRT can be attributed to poor settling characteristics of sludge due to possible filamentous growth at low F/M (0.03) and greater SRT (28 days) as compared to 8 hr HRT condition, where F/M was 0.05 and SRT of 20 days. (author)

  4. Advanced treatment of sodium dithionite wastewater using the combination of coagulation, catalytic ozonation, and SBR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Xiao-Ling

    2017-10-01

    A combined process of coagulation-catalytic ozonation-anaerobic sequencing batch reactor (ASBR)-SBR was developed at lab scale for treating a real sodium dithionite wastewater with an initial chemical oxygen demand (COD) of 21,760-22,450 mg/L. Catalytic ozonation with the prepared cerium oxide (CeO 2 )/granular activated carbon catalyst significantly enhances wastewater biodegradability and reduces wastewater microtoxicity. The results show that, under the optimum conditions, the removal efficiencies of COD and suspended solids are averagely 99.3% and 95.6%, respectively, and the quality of final effluent can meet the national discharge standard of China. The coagulation and ASBR processes remove a considerable proportion of organic matter, while the SBR plays an important role in post-polish of final effluent. The ecotoxicity of the wastewater is greatly reduced after undergoing the hybrid treatment. This work demonstrates that the hybrid system has the potential to be applied for the advanced treatment of high-strength industrial wastewater.

  5. Advantage of SBR/carbon black masterbatch for tire tread application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sone, K.; Ishiguro, M.; Akimoto, H.; Ishida, M.

    1992-04-01

    The performance required of tire tread is becoming more severe and more various year by year, as social demands on tires have been changing. To improve wear resistance, driving safety and good drive feeling, new HP tires (high performance passenger car tires) are developed intensively. In addition, good fuel efficiency is required to satisfy the CAFE rule, which was proposed for a better global environment. To support this movement of the tire industry, material suppliers are making an effort to supply better materials. Mitsubishi Kasei has been improving the quality and production process of WMB, a SBR/carbon black master-batch produced by co-coagulation of SBR latex, carbon black and extender oil under the wet dispersion process. Compared to the tire tread made from dry-mixing compounds, that made from the WMB shows the following characteristics: (1) the abrasion resistance and the durability are higher; (2) from the viscoelastic properties, skid performance and driving stability are expected to be improved. These characteristics are remarkable when WMB is compounded in the recipes for HP and racing tires using fine carbon black. In this article, these features of WMB are studied from the view point of carbon black dispersion and polymer-carbon black interaction. Furthermore, the changes of carbon black structure during abrasion and fatigue process are analyzed and the mechanisms of these processes are discussed.

  6. Rubber mixing process and its relationship with bound rubber and crosslink density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, A.; Rochmadi; Sulistyo, H.; Honggokusumo, S.

    2017-06-01

    This research studied the relationship between bound rubber and crosslink density based on rubber mixing process. Bound rubber was obtained after natural rubber was masticated and mixed with rubber chemicals and filler while crosslink density was collected after rubber compound was vulcanized. Four methods are used and each method refers to four ways of incorporating carbon black during mixing. The first method, after rubber was masticated for 5 minutes, the addition of rubber chemicals and filler was done simultaneously. Rubber was masticated for 1 minute and continued mixing of rubber chemicals and filler where mixing was different from first method. This was the second method. The third method was the same as the second method but the filler used N 660 while in the second method N 330. The last method is not the same as the first and second, the rubber is only masticated for 3 minutes and then mixed with filler and followed by rubber chemicals sequentially. The results showed that bound rubber and crosslink density were influenced by mixing and mastication process. Bound rubber dropped and crosslink density was relatively stable in the first three mixing methods for increasing carbon black at the beginning of the mixing process. Bound rubber and crosslink density stated opposite results in the fourth mixing method. The higher the bound rubber the lower the crosslink density. Without regard to mixing methods, there is a non-linear relationship between bound rubber formation and crosslink density determination

  7. U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)--Surface Biogeochemical Research (SBR) 6th Annual PI Meeting: Abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hazen Ed., T.C.

    2011-04-11

    On behalf of the Subsurface Biogeochemical Research (SBR) program managers in the Climate and Environmental Sciences Division (CESD), Office of Biological and Environmental Research (BER), welcome to the 2011 SBR Principal Investigators meeting. Thank you in advance for your attendance and your presentations at this year's meeting. As the events in Japan continue to unfold, we are all reminded that the research we perform on radionuclide behavior in the environment has implications beyond legacy waste cleanup and in fact has its place in the discussion on the expanded use of nuclear power. As in the past, there are three broad objectives to the Principal Investigators meeting: (1) to provide opportunities to share research results and promote interactions among the SBR scientists and other invited guests; (2) to evaluate the progress of each project within the program; and (3) to showcase the scientific expertise and research progress over the past year to senior managers within the DOE Office of Science, the technology offices within DOE, and other invited attendees from other Federal Agencies. This past year has seen a few significant changes within BER and within the SBR program. In November, our Associate Director for BER, Anna Palmisano, retired from Federal service. Just this month, Dr. Sharlene Weatherwax (Division Director for Biological Systems Sciences) has been named as the new Associate Director for BER. In August, BER welcomed Dr. Gary Geernaert as the new Division Director for CESD. Gary joins the division from Los Alamos National Laboratory with a background in atmospheric science. Within the SBR program, a new Strategic Plan was completed last June (currently posted on the SBR and the Office of Science website). The new strategic plan is intended to foster integration within the Environmental Systems Science portion of the BER budget that includes both SBR and Terrestrial Ecosystem Sciences (TES). Both these programs share a goal of advancing a

  8. Radiation induced graft copolymerization of acrylonitrile on natural rubber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Claramma, N.M.; Mathew, N.M.; Thomas, E.V.

    1989-01-01

    Acrylonitrile graft natural rubber was prepared by initiating the polymerization of acrylonitrile in natural rubber field latex using γ-rays. The reaction was carried out at different rubber-monomer concentrations and the properties of the modified rubbers were compared with those of natural rubber and nitrile rubber. (author)

  9. Propriedades reométricas e mecânicas e morfologia de compósitos desenvolvidos com resíduos elastoméricos vulcanizados Cure characteristics, mechanical properties and morphology of composites developed with addition of elastomeric vulcanized ground scraps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Zanchet

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Uma alternativa para as empresas geradoras de resíduos elastoméricos é a incorporação dos mesmos em suas formulações. Esse trabalho tem como objetivo preparar compósitos a partir da incorporação de resíduos industriais de SBR (copolímero de butadieno-estireno e de EPDM (terpolímero de etileno-propileno-dieno, em formulação ASTM específica para cada tipo de elastômero. Foram avaliadas as propriedades reométricas, mecânicas e morfológicas dos compósitos desenvolvidos. A incorporação do resíduo permitiu a obtenção de produtos que vulcanizam em menores tempos quando comparados a composições sem resíduo. A quantidade de resíduo, para o melhor resultado de resistência à tração foi de 37 e de 196 phr para os compósitos com SBR e EPDM, respectivamente. As micrografias de MEV corroboraram os resultados mecânicos dessas composições, indicando melhor homogeneidade do resíduo na respectiva matriz elastomérica.One alternative for elastomeric scraps generation is its incorporation in conventional formulations in the industry itself. In this work, compositions with incorporation of SBR (styrene butadiene rubber and EPDM (ethylene propylene diene rubber industrial scraps, in specific ASTM formulation for each elastomer, were prepared. Rheometric characteristics, mechanical properties and the morphology of the compounds developed were evaluated. With the ground scraps incorporation the vulcanization time decreases, comparing with compounds without ground scraps. The amount of scraps for the best tensile strength properties was 37 and 196 phr for SBR and EPDM compositions, respectively. Micrographs corroborated the mechanical results, indicating the best homogeneity of the scraps in the elastomeric matrix for these compositions.

  10. Natural rubber producing plants: An overview | Venkatachalam ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... Hevea and also other natural rubber producing species for alternative source of latex production in the near future. Keywords: Alternative rubber sources, biotechnology, breeding, Hevea brasiliensis, Parthenium argentatum, Taraxacum koksaghyz, Ficus bengalensis, Lactuca serriola. African Journal of Biotechnology Vol.

  11. Rubber modification of asphalt binders and mixes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morrison, G.; Hesp, S.A.M. [Queen`s Univ., Kingston, ON (Canada). Dept. of Chemistry

    1995-12-31

    The physical properties of asphalt binders and concrete, modified with waste rubber tire, were examined. In an experiment designed to address the concern of waste disposal of scrap rubber, a control asphalt, devulcanized rubber modified asphalt and a crumb rubber modified asphalt were used to make asphalt concrete mixes. The three mixes were subjected to a thermal stress test to determine their low temperature fracture temperatures and strengths. Results were discussed in terms of the binder material used. At high service temperatures, the addition of 10% devulcanized rubber was found to have no beneficial effect, whereas the addition of 10% 80 mesh crumb rubber produced a modest improvement in performance. At low temperatures, the addition of devulcanized rubber produced increased resistance to cracking up to 90%. The addition of 10% 80 mesh crumb rubber increased fracture toughness by a factor of 3.3 times. 12 refs., 3 tabs.

  12. Butyl Rubber: Compound Development and Characterization

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sloan, James

    2000-01-01

    ...), to develop the standard butyl rubber compound. The strategy of this work was to compound- and compression-mold high-quality, uniform butyl rubber experimental sheets and to evaluate their cure properties, mechanical properties...

  13. Electrospinning of PVC with natural rubber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Othman, Muhammad Hariz; Mohamed, Mahathir; Abdullah, Ibrahim

    2013-11-01

    Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) was mixed with natural rubbers which are liquid natural rubber (LNR), liquid epoxidised natural rubber (LENR) and liquid epoxidised natural rubber acrylate (LENRA) for a preparation of a fine non-woven fiber's mat. PVC and each natural rubbers(PVC:LENR, PVC:LNR and PVC:LENRA) were mixed based on ratio of 70:30. Electrospinning method was used to prepare the fiber. The results show that the spinnable concentration of PVC/ natural rubber/THF solution is 16 wt%. The morphology, diameter, structure and degradation temperature of electrospun fibers were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). SEM photos showed that the morphology and diameter of the fibers were mainly affected by the addition of natural rubber. TGA results suggested that PVC electrospun fiber has higher degradation temperature than those electrospun fibers that contain natural rubber.

  14. Electrospinning of PVC with natural rubber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Othman, Muhammad Hariz; Abdullah, Ibrahim; Mohamed, Mahathir

    2013-01-01

    Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) was mixed with natural rubbers which are liquid natural rubber (LNR), liquid epoxidised natural rubber (LENR) and liquid epoxidised natural rubber acrylate (LENRA) for a preparation of a fine non-woven fiber’s mat. PVC and each natural rubbers(PVC:LENR, PVC:LNR and PVC:LENRA) were mixed based on ratio of 70:30. Electrospinning method was used to prepare the fiber. The results show that the spinnable concentration of PVC/ natural rubber/THF solution is 16 wt%. The morphology, diameter, structure and degradation temperature of electrospun fibers were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). SEM photos showed that the morphology and diameter of the fibers were mainly affected by the addition of natural rubber. TGA results suggested that PVC electrospun fiber has higher degradation temperature than those electrospun fibers that contain natural rubber

  15. Electrospinning of PVC with natural rubber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Othman, Muhammad Hariz; Abdullah, Ibrahim [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia); Mohamed, Mahathir [Radiation Processing Technology Division (BTS), Malaysian Nuclear Agency, Bangi, 43000, Kajang (Malaysia)

    2013-11-27

    Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) was mixed with natural rubbers which are liquid natural rubber (LNR), liquid epoxidised natural rubber (LENR) and liquid epoxidised natural rubber acrylate (LENRA) for a preparation of a fine non-woven fiber’s mat. PVC and each natural rubbers(PVC:LENR, PVC:LNR and PVC:LENRA) were mixed based on ratio of 70:30. Electrospinning method was used to prepare the fiber. The results show that the spinnable concentration of PVC/ natural rubber/THF solution is 16 wt%. The morphology, diameter, structure and degradation temperature of electrospun fibers were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). SEM photos showed that the morphology and diameter of the fibers were mainly affected by the addition of natural rubber. TGA results suggested that PVC electrospun fiber has higher degradation temperature than those electrospun fibers that contain natural rubber.

  16. Investigation of the electronic structure of the BiSBr and BiSeBr clusters by density functional method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Audzijonis, A.; Gaigalas, G.; Zigas, L.; Pauliukas, A.; Zaltauskas, R.; Kvedaravicius, A.; Cerskus, A.

    2008-01-01

    The energy levels of valence bands (VB) of the BiSBr and BiSeBr crystals have been calculated for investigation of the photoelectron emission spectra of BiSBr, BiSeBr and BiSI crystals. The molecular model of this crystal has been used for the calculation of VB by the Density Functional Theory (DFT) method. The molecular cluster, consisting of 20 molecules of BiSBr, BiSeBr, has been used for calculations of averaged total density of states, including atom vibrations. The spectra of the averaged total density of states from VB of BiSBr and BiSeBr clusters have been compared with the experimental photoelectron emission spectra from VB of BiSI crystals. The results clarify that the atomic vibrations in A 5 B 6 C 7 type crystals with chain structure create a smoother appearance of the averaged total density of state spectrum and the experimental X-ray photoemission spectra (XPS)

  17. Effect of Aromatic Oil on Phase Dynamics of S-SBR/BR Blends fro Passenger Car Tire Treads

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rathi, Akansha; Hernández, M.; Dierkes, Wilma K.; Noordermeer, Jacobus W.M.; Bergmann, C.; Trimbach, J.; Blume, Anke

    2015-01-01

    Even though S-SBR/BR blends are commonly used for passenger car tire treads, little is known about the phase dynamics arising from the local morphological heterogeneities. The present study aims at developing the understanding of: (i) the influence of aromatic oil on the dynamics of the individual

  18. COD fractions changes in the SBR-type reactor treating municipal wastewater with controlled percentage of dairy sewage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Struk-Sokołowska Joanna

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of study was to investigate the influence of percentage of dairy wastewater in the municipal wastewater on the changes of COD fractions during the cycle of SBR-type reactor. The scope of the research included physicochemical analyses of municipal wastewater without dairy wastewater, dairy wastewater, mixture of municipal and dairy wastewater as well as treated sewage. Both the concentrations and the proportions between COD fractions changed in the SBR cycle. In raw municipal and dairy wastewater - XS, insoluble hardly bio-degradable fraction of COD dominated (49.6 and 64.5% respectively. In treated wastewater SI, COD for dissolved compounds that are not biologically decomposed (inert (from 62.1 to 74.6% dominated, while XS fraction was from 19.1 to 24.4%. The consumption rate of organic compounds depended on the type of COD fraction, SBR cycle phase and the percentage of dairy wastewater. The highest rates of organic compounds consumption were noted in the phase of mixing. In the case of fraction SI, no differences in concentration in the SBR cycle time, were found. Concentration of COD in treated wastewater was from 34.8 to 58.9 mgO2·L-1 (efficiency wastewater treatment from 96.0 to 98.6%.

  19. Kinetic rates and mass balance of COD, TKN, and TP using SBR treating domestic and industrial wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warodomrungsimun, Chaowalit; Fongsatitkul, Prayoon

    2009-12-01

    To assess the performance of SBR to treat three different types of wastewater from domestic, hospital, slaughterhouse and investigate the kinetic rates of active biomass. Mass balance calculation of COD, TKN and TP was further performed to explain the mechanisms of the biological nutrient removals processed in the SBR system. The measured kinetic rates were in turn used to evaluate the process performances under different types of wastewater. Experimental research involving 3 similar SBR lab-scales were installed and operated at the Sanitary Engineering Laboratory. The reactors were seeded with sludge biomass obtained from the Sri-Phraya Domestic Wastewater Treatment Plant in Bangkok. The slaughterhouse, hospital and domestic wastewaters were treated by SBR system for biological organic carbon (COD), nitrogen (TKN) and phosphorus removals. Biological methods for kinetic rates evaluation were conducted in five replicated batch tests. The removal efficiencies of COD and TKN were greater than 90% for all three types of wastewater while the biological phosphorus removal for domestic and hospital wastewaters were less than 60% and phosphorus removal for slaughterhouse exceeded 95%. The kinetic rates of nitrification and denitrification of hospital wastewater was lower than those the domestic and slaughterhouse wastewaters. Phosphorus release and uptake rates of slaughterhouse wastewater were high but domestic and hospital wastewaters were very low. The result of system removal efficiency and batch test for kinetic rates confirmed that the domestic and hospital wastewaters were in deficiency of organic carbon with respect to its ability to support successful biological phosphorus removal.

  20. Organics removal from landfill leachate and activated sludge production in SBR reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klimiuk, Ewa; Kulikowska, Dorota

    2006-01-01

    This study is aimed at estimating organic compounds removal and sludge production in SBR during treatment of landfill leachate. Four series were performed. At each series, experiments were carried out at the hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 12, 6, 3 and 2 d. The series varied in SBR filling strategies, duration of the mixing and aeration phases, and the sludge age. In series 1 and 2 (a short filling period, mixing and aeration phases in the operating cycle), the relationship between organics concentration (COD) in the leachate treated and HRT was pseudo-first-order kinetics. In series 3 (with mixing and aeration phases) and series 4 (only aeration phase) with leachate supplied by means of a peristaltic pump for 4 h of the cycle (filling during reaction period) - this relationship was zero-order kinetics. Activated sludge production expressed as the observed coefficient of biomass production (Y obs ) decreased correspondingly with increasing HRT. The smallest differences between reactors were observed in series 3 in which Y obs was almost stable (0.55-0.6 mg VSS/mg COD). The elimination of the mixing phase in the cycle (series 4) caused the Y obs to decrease significantly from 0.32 mg VSS/mg COD at HRT 2 d to 0.04 mg VSS/mg COD at HRT 12 d. The theoretical yield coefficient Y accounted for 0.534 mg VSS/mg COD (series 1) and 0.583 mg VSS/mg COD (series 2). In series 3 and 4, it was almost stable (0.628 mg VSS/mg COD and 0.616 mg VSS/mg COD, respectively). After the elimination of the mixing phase in the operating cycle, the specific biomass decay rate increased from 0.006 d -1 (series 3) to 0.032 d -1 (series 4). The operating conditions employing mixing/aeration or only aeration phases enable regulation of the sludge production. The SBRs operated under aerobic conditions are more favourable at a short hydraulic retention time. At long hydraulic retention time, it can lead to a decrease in biomass concentration in the SBR as a result of cell decay. On the contrary

  1. Influence of Adhesive System on Performance of SiO/C Lithium-ion Battery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teng Xin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Silicon based anode material is turning into the research hot point of lithium-ion battery material field due to Si inside supporting higher capacity. Furthermore binder applied as major accessory material of anode system could bring anode material & current collector together, thus the influence given by binder system to battery performance becomes the key point. The paper describes the procedure of adopting commercial LiCoO2 SiO/C as composite material & electrolyte, with using styrene butadiene rubber and acrylic acid copolymer as binder to figure out lithium-ion battery with 2.5Ah, which is testified to present better performance on cold temperature & cycle life plus having a little bit swelling compared with the lithium-ion battery using only styrene butadiene rubber as binder.

  2. Rubber friction and tire dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persson, B N J

    2011-01-01

    We propose a simple rubber friction law, which can be used, for example, in models of tire (and vehicle) dynamics. The friction law is tested by comparing numerical results to the full rubber friction theory (Persson 2006 J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 18 7789). Good agreement is found between the two theories. We describe a two-dimensional (2D) tire model which combines the rubber friction model with a simple mass-spring description of the tire body. The tire model is very flexible and can be used to accurately calculate μ-slip curves (and the self-aligning torque) for braking and cornering or combined motion (e.g. braking during cornering). We present numerical results which illustrate the theory. Simulations of anti-blocking system (ABS) braking are performed using two simple control algorithms.

  3. Rubber friction and tire dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persson, B N J

    2011-01-12

    We propose a simple rubber friction law, which can be used, for example, in models of tire (and vehicle) dynamics. The friction law is tested by comparing numerical results to the full rubber friction theory (Persson 2006 J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 18 7789). Good agreement is found between the two theories. We describe a two-dimensional (2D) tire model which combines the rubber friction model with a simple mass-spring description of the tire body. The tire model is very flexible and can be used to accurately calculate μ-slip curves (and the self-aligning torque) for braking and cornering or combined motion (e.g. braking during cornering). We present numerical results which illustrate the theory. Simulations of anti-blocking system (ABS) braking are performed using two simple control algorithms.

  4. 75 FR 38119 - Polychloroprene Rubber From Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Rubber From Japan AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION: Institution of a five-year review concerning the antidumping duty finding on polychloroprene rubber from Japan. SUMMARY: The... on polychloroprene rubber from Japan would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of...

  5. Calibration and validation of a model describing complete autotrophic nitrogen removal in a granular SBR system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vangsgaard, Anna Katrine; Mutlu, Ayten Gizem; Gernaey, Krist

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A validated model describing the nitritation-anammox process in a granular sequencing batch reactor (SBR) system is an important tool for: a) design of future experiments and b) prediction of process performance during optimization, while applying process control, or during system scale......-up. RESULTS: A model was calibrated using a step-wise procedure customized for the specific needs of the system. The important steps in the procedure were initialization, steady-state and dynamic calibration, and validation. A fast and effective initialization approach was developed to approximate pseudo...... screening of the parameter space proposed by Sin et al. (2008) - to find the best fit of the model to dynamic data. Finally, the calibrated model was validated with an independent data set. CONCLUSION: The presented calibration procedure is the first customized procedure for this type of system...

  6. Treatment of landfill leachate using a combined stripping, Fenton, SBR, and coagulation process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo Jinsong, E-mail: guo0768@cqu.edu.cn [Faculty of Urban Construction and Environmental Engineering, Key Laboratory of the Three Gorges Reservoir Region' s Eco-Environment, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400045 (China); Abbas, Abdulhussain A. [Faculty of Urban Construction and Environmental Engineering, Key Laboratory of the Three Gorges Reservoir Region' s Eco-Environment, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400045 (China); Faculty of Engineering, Basrah University, Basrah (Iraq); Chen Youpeng; Liu Zhiping; Fang Fang; Chen Peng [Faculty of Urban Construction and Environmental Engineering, Key Laboratory of the Three Gorges Reservoir Region' s Eco-Environment, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400045 (China)

    2010-06-15

    The leachate from Changshengqiao landfill (Chongqing, China) was characterized and submitted to a combined process of air stripping, Fenton, sequencing batch reactor (SBR), and coagulation. Optimum operating conditions for each process were identified. The performance of the treatment was assessed by monitoring the removal of organic matter (COD and BOD{sub 5}) and ammonia nitrogen (NH{sub 3}-N). It has been confirmed that air stripping (at pH 11.0 and aeration time 18 h) effectively removed 96.6% of the ammonia. The Fenton process was investigated under optimum conditions (pH 3.0, FeSO{sub 4}.7H{sub 2}O of 20 g l{sup -1} and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} of 20 ml l{sup -1}), COD removal of up to 60.8% was achieved. Biodegradability (BOD{sub 5}/COD ratio) increased from 0.18 to 0.38. Thereafter the Fenton effluent was mixed with sewage at dilutions to a ratio of 1:3 before it was subjected to the SBR reactor; under the optimum aeration time of 20 h, up to 82.8% BOD{sub 5} removal and 83.1% COD removal were achieved. The optimum coagulant (Fe{sub 2}(SO{sub 4}){sub 3}) was a dosage of 800 mg l{sup -1} at pH of 5.0, which reduced COD to an amount of 280 mg l{sup -1}. These combined processes were successfully employed and very effectively decreased pollutant loading.

  7. Effect of dairy wastewater on changes in COD fractions in technical-scale SBR type reactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Struk-Sokołowska, Joanna; Rodziewicz, Joanna; Mielcarek, Artur

    2017-04-01

    The annual global production of milk is approximately 630,000 million litres and the volume of generated dairy wastewater accounts for 3.2 m 3 ·m -3 product. Dairy wastewater is characterized by a high load of chemical oxygen demand (COD). In many wastewater plants dairy wastewater and municipal wastewater are co-treated. The effect of dairy wastewater contribution on COD fraction changes in municipal sewage which has been treated with a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) in three wastewater treatment plants in north-east Poland is presented. In these plants the real contribution of dairy wastewater was 10, 13 and 17%. In raw wastewater, S S fraction (readily biodegradable dissolved organic matter) was dominant and ranged from 38.3 to 62.6%. In the effluent, S S fraction was not noted, which is indicative of consumption by microorganisms. The presence of dairy wastewater in municipal sewage does not cause changes in the content of the X I fraction (insoluble fractions of non-biodegradable organic matter). SBR effluents were dominated by non-biodegradable dissolved organic matter S I , which from 57.7 to 61.7%. In raw wastewater S I ranged from 1.0 to 4.6%. X s fraction (slowly biodegradable non-soluble organic matter) in raw wastewater ranged from 24.6 to 45.5% while in treated wastewater it ranged from 28.6 to 30.8%. In the control object (fourth wastewater plant) which does not process dairy wastewater, the S S , S I , X s and X I fraction in inflow was 28.7, 2.4, 51.7 and 17.2% respectively. In the effluent the S S , S I , X s and X I fraction was below 0.1, 33.6, 50.0 and 16.4% respectively.

  8. Sequencing Batch Reactor (SBR) for the removal of Hg{sup 2+} and Cd{sup 2+} from synthetic petrochemical factory wastewater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malakahmad, Amirhossein, E-mail: amirhossein@petronas.com.my [Faculty of Energy and Environmental Studies, Islamic Azad University, Science and Research branch, Hesarak, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Civil Engineering Department, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Tronoh, Perak (Malaysia); Hasani, Amirhesam [Faculty of Energy and Environmental Studies, Islamic Azad University, Science and Research branch, Hesarak, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Eisakhani, Mahdieh [School of Social, Development and the Environment, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia); Isa, Mohamed Hasnain [Civil Engineering Department, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Tronoh, Perak (Malaysia)

    2011-07-15

    Highlights: {yields} We assessed SBR performances to treat synthetic wastewater containing Hg{sup 2+} and Cd{sup 2+}. {yields} SBR was able to remove 76-90% of Hg{sup 2+} and 96-98% of Cd{sup 2+}. {yields} COD removal efficiency and MLVSS was affected by Hg{sup 2+} and Cd{sup 2+} concentrations. {yields} Removal was not only biological process but also by biosorption process of sludge. - Abstract: Petrochemical factories which manufacture vinyl chloride monomer and poly vinyl chloride (PVC) are among the largest industries which produce wastewater contains mercury and cadmium. The objective of this research is to evaluate the performance of a lab-scale Sequencing Batch Reactor (SBR) to treat a synthetic petrochemical wastewater containing mercury and cadmium. After acclimatization of the system which lasted 60 days, the SBR was introduced to mercury and cadmium in low concentrations which then was increased gradually to 9.03 {+-} 0.02 mg/L Hg and 15.52 {+-} 0.02 mg/L Cd until day 110. The SBR performance was assessed by measuring Chemical Oxygen Demand, Total and Volatile Suspended Solids as well as Sludge Volume Index. At maximum concentrations of the heavy metals, the SBR was able to remove 76-90% of Hg{sup 2+} and 96-98% of Cd{sup 2+}. The COD removal efficiency and MLVSS (microorganism population) in the SBR was affected by mercury and cadmium concentrations in influent. Different species of microorganisms such as Rhodospirilium-like bacteria, Gomphonema-like algae, and sulfate reducing-like bacteria were identified in the system. While COD removal efficiency and MLVSS concentration declined during addition of heavy metals, the appreciable performance of SBR in removal of Hg{sup 2+} and Cd{sup 2+} implies that the removal in SBR was not only a biological process, but also by the biosorption process of the sludge.

  9. Use of rubber crumbs in cement concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longvinenko, A. A.

    2018-03-01

    Rubber crumb obtained from worn out tires has been increasingly used over the last 15-20 years, especially in manufacture of asphalt and cement concrete mixtures. This review pays principal attention to application of the rubber crumb to cement concrete mixtures. Use of the rubber crumb in cement concrete is not as successful as in asphalt concrete mixtures, due to incompatibility problems linked to chemical composition and a significant difference in rigidity between the rubber crumb and concrete mixture aggregates. Different methods are proposed and studied to mitigate the adverse influence and increase the beneficial effects of the rubber crumb when added to cement concrete.

  10. Soft matter: rubber and networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenna, Gregory B.

    2018-06-01

    Rubber networks are important and form the basis for materials with properties ranging from rubber tires to super absorbents and contact lenses. The development of the entropy ideas of rubber deformation thermodynamics provides a powerful framework from which to understand and to use these materials. In addition, swelling of the rubber in the presence of small molecule liquids or solvents leads to materials that are very soft and ‘gel’ like in nature. The review covers the thermodynamics of polymer networks and gels from the perspective of the thermodynamics and mechanics of the strain energy density function. Important relationships are presented and experimental results show that the continuum ideas contained in the phenomenological thermodynamics are valid, but that the molecular bases for some of them remain to be fully elucidated. This is particularly so in the case of the entropic gels or swollen networks. The review is concluded with some perspectives on other networks, ranging from entropic polymer networks such as thermoplastic elastomers to physical gels in which cross-link points are formed by glassy or crystalline domains. A discussion is provided for other physical gels in which the network forms a spinodal-like decomposition, both in thermoplastic polymers that form a glassy network upon phase separation and for colloidal gels that seem to have a similar behavior.

  11. Cryogenic Deflashing for Rubber Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhilash M.

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Deflashing is the process of removal of excess flashes from the rubber products. Initially deflashing was a manual operation where dozen of workers, seated at small work stations would take each part and trim the excess rubber off with scissors, knives or by grinding. Still the same method is employed in most of the rubber industry. The drawbacks of this method are demand inconsistent and repeatable quality. Work done by hand is often inconsistent. There are commercially available cryogenic deflashing machine but they are too expensive hence cost effectiveness is also a prime factor. The objective of this paper is to develop a technique, to identify the media through which the flashes can be removed easily and effectively. Based on the test results obtained from testing of five different types of media, ABCUT Steel media gave best results. The testing of the ABCUT Steel media on rubber samples like O-rings, grommet tail door, bottom bush etc. shows good results.

  12. Upscaling of a Batch De-Vulcanization Process for Ground Car Tire Rubber to a Continuous Process in a Twin Screw Extruder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sitisaiyidah Saiwari

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available As a means to decrease the amount of waste tires and to re-use tire rubber for new tires, devulcanization of ground passenger car tires is a promising process. Being an established process for NR and EPDM, earlier work has shown that for ground passenger car tire rubber with a relatively high amount of SBR, a devulcanization process can be formulated, as well. This was proven for a laboratory-scale batch process in an internal mixer, using diphenyl disulfide as the devulcanization aid and powder-sized material. In this paper, the devulcanization process for passenger car tire rubber is upscaled from 15 g per batch and transformed into a continuous process in a co-rotating twin screw extruder with a capacity of 2 kg/h. As SBR is rather sensitive to devulcanization process conditions, such as thermal and mechanical energy input, the screw design was based on a low shear concept. A granulate with particle sizes from 1–3.5 mm was chosen for purity, as well as economic reasons. The devulcanization process conditions were fine-tuned in terms of: devulcanization conditions (time/temperature profile, concentration of devulcanization aid, extruder parameters (screw configuration, screw speed, fill factor and ancillary equipment (pre-treatment, extrudate handling. The influence of these parameters on the devulcanization efficiency and the quality of the final product will be discussed. The ratio of random to crosslink scission as determined by a Horikx plot was taken for the evaluation of the process and material. A best practice for continuous devulcanization will be given.

  13. In-depth proteome analysis of the rubber particle of Hevea brasiliensis (para rubber tree).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Longjun; Kang, Guijuan; Li, Yu; Nie, Zhiyi; Duan, Cuifang; Zeng, Rizhong

    2013-05-01

    The rubber particle is a special organelle in which natural rubber is synthesised and stored in the laticifers of Hevea brasiliensis. To better understand the biological functions of rubber particles and to identify the candidate rubber biosynthesis-related proteins, a comprehensive proteome analysis was performed on H. brasiliensis rubber particles using shotgun tandem mass spectrometry profiling approaches-resulting in a thorough report on the rubber particle proteins. A total of 186 rubber particle proteins were identified, with a range in relative molecular mass of 3.9-194.2 kDa and in isoelectric point values of 4.0-11.2. The rubber particle proteins were analysed for gene ontology and could be categorised into eight major groups according to their functions: including rubber biosynthesis, stress- or defence-related responses, protein processing and folding, signal transduction and cellular transport. In addition to well-known rubber biosynthesis-related proteins such as rubber elongation factor (REF), small rubber particle protein (SRPP) and cis-prenyl transferase (CPT), many proteins were firstly identified to be on the rubber particles, including cyclophilin, phospholipase D, cytochrome P450, small GTP-binding protein, clathrin, eukaryotic translation initiation factor, annexin, ABC transporter, translationally controlled tumour protein, ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes, and several homologues of REF, SRPP and CPT. A procedure of multiple reaction monitoring was established for further protein validation. This comprehensive proteome data of rubber particles would facilitate investigation into molecular mechanisms of biogenesis, self-homeostasis and rubber biosynthesis of the rubber particle, and might serve as valuable biomarkers in molecular breeding studies of H. brasiliensis and other alternative rubber-producing species.

  14. Development of biological treatment known as SBR process for supporting radiation treatment of industrial wastewater using electron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khomsaton Abu Bakar; Siti Aishah Hashim; Zulkafli Ghazali; Khairul Zaman Dahlan; Ismail Yaziz

    2005-01-01

    Electron beam irradiation of wastewater is capable of degrading stable non-biodegradable compound. However it requires high dose and in turn increase the cost of operation. A combination of irradiation and biological treatment is expected to overcome this problem. In this study, the treatment system will use a biological process known as Sequencing Batch Reactor (SBR). The SBR will be developed in a series and each series consist of reaction tank and clarifier tank. Filling and reaction step will occur in reaction tank while settling, decanting and idling step will ensue in the clarifier tank. The process is designed as such to enable rapid and simultaneous analysis on treated sample in order to achieve reliable results. (Author)

  15. Thermodynamic Study of Tl6SBr4 Compound and Some Regularities in Thermodynamic Properties of Thallium Chalcohalides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dunya Mahammad Babanly

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The solid-phase diagram of the Tl-TlBr-S system was clarified and the fundamental thermodynamic properties of Tl6SBr4 compound were studied on the basis of electromotive force (EMF measurements of concentration cells relative to a thallium electrode. The EMF results were used to calculate the relative partial thermodynamic functions of thallium in alloys and the standard integral thermodynamic functions (-ΔfG0, -ΔfH0, and S0298 of Tl6SBr4 compound. All data regarding thermodynamic properties of thallium chalcogen-halides are generalized and comparatively analyzed. Consequently, certain regularities between thermodynamic functions of thallium chalcogen-halides and their binary constituents as well as degree of ionization (DI of chemical bonding were revealed.

  16. The role of linked phospholipids in the rubber-filler interaction in carbon nanotube (CNT) filler natural rubber (NR) composites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Le, H.H.; Abhijeet, S.; Ilish, S.; Klehm, J.; Henning, S.; Beiner, M.; Sarkawi, S.S.; Dierkes, Wilma K.; Das, A.; Fischer, D.; Stöckelhuber, K.-W.; Wiessner, S.; Khatiwada, S.P.; Adhikari, R.; Pham, T.; Heinrich, G.; Radusch, H.-J.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present work is to evidence the role of the linked phospholipids of natural rubber (NR) in the rubber-carbon nanotube (CNT) interactions in rubber composites. Three rubbers namely NR, deproteinized NR (DPNR) and a synthetic rubber isoprene (IR) were used as matrix for CNTs. The

  17. Misturas NR/SBR: modos de preparação e propriedades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Visconte Leila L. Y.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Aplicações de artefatos de borracha muitas vezes requerem um conjunto de propriedades que não podem ser fornecidas por um único elastômero sendo, então necessário, que misturas de dois ou mais polímeros sejam empregadas. Nesses casos, os demais ingredientes que normalmente são adicionados, distribuem-se de modo diferente dependendo de sua afinidade com cada uma das borrachas. O grau de dispersão de cada um desses ingredientes em cada fase elastomérica irá influenciar a velocidade e o grau de vulcanização e, certamente, terá conseqüências sobre o desempenho do composto final. Neste trabalho, a borracha natural (NR foi misturada ao elastômero de butadieno-estireno (SBR na proporção de 1:1 em peso. As composições foram preparadas em misturador de cilindros, segundo a norma ASTM D 3182, empregando-se quatro maneiras distintas para a incorporação dos aditivos. Após a vulcanização foram estudadas propriedades mecânicas, como resistências à tração e ao rasgamento e dureza, propriedades termo-dinâmico-mecânicas e a morfologia de cada uma das composições. As propriedades mecânicas foram avaliadas de acordo com as normas ASTM específicas para cada ensaio. Os resultados mostram que, apesar de se usar a mesma formulação, o modo de preparo tem grande influência sobre as propriedades, o que é detectável pelas propriedades mecânicas e pela análise morfológica, e evidenciado através de testes sensíveis, como o dinâmico-mecânico. No caso da mistura NR/SBR as melhores propriedades são obtidas quando é favorecida a vulcanização da borracha que, isoladamente, apresenta propriedades inferiores.

  18. Integration of ozonation and an anaerobic sequencing batch reactor (AnSBR) for the treatment of cherry stillage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Pedro M; Beltrán, Fernando J; Rodríguez, Eva M

    2005-01-01

    Cherry stillage is a high strength organic wastewater arising from the manufacture of alcoholic products by distillation of fermented cherries. It is made up of biorefractory polyphenols in addition to readily biodegradable organic matter. An anaerobic sequencing batch reactor (AnSBR) was used to treat cherry stillage at influent COD ranging from 5 to 50 g/L. Different cycle times were selected to test biomass organic loading rates (OLR(B)), from 0.3 to 1.2 g COD/g VSS.d. COD and TOC efficiency removals higher than 80% were achieved at influent COD up to 28.5 g/L but minimum OLR(B) tested. However, as a result of the temporary inhibition of acetogens and methanogens, volatile fatty acids (VFA) noticeably accumulated and methane production came to a transient standstill when operating at influent COD higher than 10 g/L. At these conditions, the AnSBR showed signs of instability and could not operate efficiently at OLR(B) higher than 0.3 g COD/g VSS.d. A feasible explanation for this inhibition is the presence of toxic polyphenols in cherry stillage. Thus, an ozonation step prior to the AnSBR was observed to be useful, since more than 75% of polyphenols could be removed by ozone. The integrated process was shown to be a suitable treatment technology as the following advantages compared to the single AnSBR treatment were observed: greater polyphenols and color removals, higher COD and TOC removal rates thus enabling the process to effectively operate at higher OLR, higher degree of biomethanation, and good stability with less risk of acidification.

  19. Advanced phosphorus recovery using a novel SBR system with granular sludge in simultaneous nitrification, denitrification and phosphorus removal process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yong-Ze; Wang, Hou-Feng; Kotsopoulos, Thomas A; Zeng, Raymond J

    2016-05-01

    In this study, a novel process for phosphorus (P) recovery without excess sludge production from granular sludge in simultaneous nitrification-denitrification and P removal (SNDPR) system is presented. Aerobic microbial granules were successfully cultivated in an alternating aerobic-anaerobic sequencing batch reactor (SBR) for removing P and nitrogen (N). Dense and stable granular sludge was created, and the SBR system showed good performance in terms of P and N removal. The removal efficiency was approximately 65.22 % for N, and P was completely removed under stable operating conditions. Afterward, new operating conditions were applied in order to enhance P recovering without excess sludge production. The initial SBR system was equipped with a batch reactor and a non-woven cloth filter, and 1.37 g of CH3COONa·3H2O was added to the batch reactor after mixing it with 1 L of sludge derived from the SBR reactor to enhance P release in the liquid fraction, this comprises the new system configuration. Under the new operating conditions, 93.19 % of the P contained in wastewater was released in the liquid fraction as concentrated orthophosphate from part of granular sludge. This amount of P could be efficiently recovered in the form of struvite. Meanwhile, a deterioration of the denitrification efficiency was observed and the granules were disintegrated into smaller particles. The biomass concentration in the system increased firstly and then maintained at 4.0 ± 0.15 gVSS/L afterward. These results indicate that this P recovery operating (PRO) mode is a promising method to recover P in a SNDPR system with granular sludge. In addition, new insights into the granule transformation when confronted with high chemical oxygen demand (COD) load were provided.

  20. Radiotracer application for characterization of nuclear grade anion exchange resins Tulsion A-23 and Dowex SBR LC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singare, P.U.

    2015-01-01

    Radio isotopic tracer technique as one of the versatile nondestructive technique is employed to evaluate the performance of nuclear grade anion exchange resins Tulsion A-23 and Dowex SBR LC. The evaluation was made on the basis of ion-isotopic exchange reaction kinetics by using 131 I and 82 Br radioactive tracer isotopes. It was observed that for both the resins, the values of specific reaction rate (min -1 ), amount of ion exchanged (mmol) and initial rate of ion exchange (mmol/min) were calculated to be lower for bromide ion-isotopic exchange reaction than that for iodide ion-isotopic exchange reaction. It was observed that for iodide ion-isotopic exchange reaction under identical experimental conditions of 30.0 C, 1.000 g of ion exchange resins and 0.001 mol/L labeled iodide ion solution, the values of specific reaction rate (min -1 ), amount of iodide ion exchanged (mmol), initial rate of iodide ion exchange (mmol/min) and log K d were calculated as 0.377, 0.212, 0.080 and 15.5 respectively for Dowex SBR LC resin, which was higher than 0.215, 0.144, 0.031 and 14.1 respectively as that obtained for Tulsion A23 resins. Also at a constant temperature of 30.0 C, as the concentration of labeled iodide ion solution increases from 0.001 mol/L to 0.004 mol/L, the percentage of iodide ions exchanged increases from 84.75 % to 90.20 % for Dowex SBR LC resins which was higher than increases from 57.66 % to 62.38 % obtained for Tulsion A23 resins. The identical trend was observed for the two resins during bromide ion-isotopic exchange reaction. The overall results indicate superior performance of Dowex SBR LC over Tulsion A23 resins under identical experimental conditions.

  1. Constructing better roads with asphalt rubber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pais Jorge C.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Brazilians mixtures containing asphalt rubber were evaluated by mechanical laboratory tests. A conventional mixture with asphalt CAP-50/70 was produced as a mixture control. With the aim of compare the Brazilians mixtures performance, a Portuguese asphalt rubber mixture was tested as well. The testing set involved the determination of the mechanical properties, fatigue and permanent deformation, of asphalt rubber produced by wet process through two different systems: continuous blend and terminal blend. The asphalt rubber morphology was evaluated in order to determine the compatibility of the systems. The asphalt rubber mixtures exhibit good resistance to permanent deformation and prolonged fatigue life in relation to mixture control. Therefore it is concluded that the application of asphalt rubber alters the characteristics of asphalt mixture in a very beneficial way.

  2. Organic loading rate effect on the acidogenesis of cheese whey: a comparison between UASB and SBR reactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calero, R; Iglesias-Iglesias, R; Kennes, C; Veiga, M C

    2017-09-16

    Volatile fatty acids (VFA) production and degree of acidification (DA) were investigated in the anaerobic treatment of cheese whey by comparison of two processes: a continuous process using a laboratory upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor and a discontinuous process using a sequencing batch reactor (SBR). The main purpose of this work was to study the organic loading rate (OLR) effect on the yield of VFA in two kinds of reactors. The predominant products in the acidogenic process in both reactors were: acetate, propionate, butyrate and valerate. The maximum DA obtained was 98% in an SBR at OLR of 2.7 g COD L -1 d -1 , and 97% in the UASB at OLR at 15.1 g COD L -1 d -1 . The results revealed that the UASB reactor was more efficient at a medium OLR with a higher VFA yield, while with the SBR reactor, the maximum acidification was obtained at a lower OLR with changes in the VFA profile at different OLRs applied.

  3. Integration of Cleaner Production and Waste Water Treatment on Tofu Small Industry for Biogas Production using AnSBR Reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahayu, Suparni Setyowati; Budiyono; Purwanto

    2018-02-01

    A research on developing a system that integrates clean production and waste water treatment for biogas production in tofu small industry has been conducted. In this research, tofu waste water was turned into biogas using an AnSBR reactor. Mud from the sewage system serves as the inoculums. This research involved: (1) workshop; (2) supervising; (3) technical meeting; (4) network meeting, and (5) technical application. Implementation of clean production integrated with waste water treatment reduced the amount of waste water to be treated in a treatment plant. This means less cost for construction and operation of waste water treatment plants, as inherent limitations associated with such plants like lack of fund, limited area, and technological issues are inevitable. Implementation of clean production prior to waste water treatment reduces pollution figures down to certain levels that limitations in waste water treatment plants can be covered. Results show that biogas in 16 days HRT in an AnSBR reactor contains CH4(78.26 %) and CO2 (20.16 %). Meanwhile, treatments using a conventional bio-digester result in biogas with 72.16 % CH4 and 18.12 % CO2. Hence, biogas efficiency for the AnSBR system is 2.14 times greater than that of a conventional bio-digester.

  4. A comparative study of natural rubber modified with ground tire rubber of truck

    OpenAIRE

    Binti Haridan, Ili Liyana

    2016-01-01

    The recycling of waste rubber has considerable significance in term of environmental protection and energy conservation. Considering that most of the relevant literature is concerned with tire recycling, the aim of this work was to develop and characterize the elastomeric samples of natural rubber (NR) composites filled with ground tire rubber of truck (GTR) devulcanized by microwave (DGTR). The tire rubber was ground under ambient conditions and subjected to microwave exposure for 3, 5 and ...

  5. Radiation cured silicone rubber articles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DuPont, J.G.; Goodwin, P.A.

    1984-01-01

    A process for making radiation cured silicone rubber articles is disclosed wherein a hydroxyl-terminated polysilaxane having a molecular weight from about 50,000 to about 2,000,000, optionally modified by mixing with up to 85% of an end-stopped silicone rubber, is mixed with from about 10 to about 70 parts per hundred of rubber of a finely divided silica filler with a particle size in the reinforcing range and other inert fillers as determined by desired final properties; the composition so prepared is formed into the desired shape at room temperature; the article so formed is precured to improve the mechanical properties of the material with which it is made by exposure to ammonia gas, ammonium hydroxide, or to the vapors or solutions of a volatile amine at room temperature; and the precured article is irradiated with high energy electrons or gamma radiation to effect a permanent cure of the material from which the article is formed

  6. Thermal endurance tests on silicone rubber specimens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warburton, C.

    1977-07-01

    Thermal endurance tests have been performed on a range of silicone rubber specimens at temperature above 300 0 C. It is suggested that the rubber mix A2426, the compound from which Wylfa sealing rings are manufactured, will fail at temperatures above 300 0 C within weeks. Hardness measurements show that this particular rubber performs in a similar manner to Walker's S.I.L./60. (author)

  7. Treatment of wastewater from rubber industry in Malaysia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Treatment of wastewater from rubber industry in Malaysia. ... Discharge of untreated rubber effluent to waterways resulted in water pollution that affected the human health. ... Key words: Rubber industry, effluent, waste management, Malaysia.

  8. Chemical modifications of liquid natural rubber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azhar, Nur Hanis Adila; Rasid, Hamizah Md; Yusoff, Siti Fairus M.

    2016-11-01

    Liquid natural rubber (LNR) was synthesized via photosentisized degradation of natural rubber (NR). LNR was modified into epoxidized liquid natural rubber (LENR) and hydroxylated liquid natural rubber (LNR-OH) using Na2WO4/CH3COOH/H2O2 catalytic system. Chemical structures of LNR and modified LNRs were characterized using Attenuated Total Reflectance Fourier Transform Infrared (ATR-FTIR) and 1H Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopies. Integration of 1H NMR was used to calculate the epoxy content (%) of LENR. 1H NMR detected the formation of LNR-OH after prolonged heating and increased of catalyst in oxidation reaction.

  9. External validation of structure-biodegradation relationship (SBR) models for predicting the biodegradability of xenobiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devillers, J; Pandard, P; Richard, B

    2013-01-01

    Biodegradation is an important mechanism for eliminating xenobiotics by biotransforming them into simple organic and inorganic products. Faced with the ever growing number of chemicals available on the market, structure-biodegradation relationship (SBR) and quantitative structure-biodegradation relationship (QSBR) models are increasingly used as surrogates of the biodegradation tests. Such models have great potential for a quick and cheap estimation of the biodegradation potential of chemicals. The Estimation Programs Interface (EPI) Suite™ includes different models for predicting the potential aerobic biodegradability of organic substances. They are based on different endpoints, methodologies and/or statistical approaches. Among them, Biowin 5 and 6 appeared the most robust, being derived from the largest biodegradation database with results obtained only from the Ministry of International Trade and Industry (MITI) test. The aim of this study was to assess the predictive performances of these two models from a set of 356 chemicals extracted from notification dossiers including compatible biodegradation data. Another set of molecules with no more than four carbon atoms and substituted by various heteroatoms and/or functional groups was also embodied in the validation exercise. Comparisons were made with the predictions obtained with START (Structural Alerts for Reactivity in Toxtree). Biowin 5 and Biowin 6 gave satisfactorily prediction results except for the prediction of readily degradable chemicals. A consensus model built with Biowin 1 allowed the diminution of this tendency.

  10. Influence of cooking on anthocyanins in black rice (Oryza sativa L. japonica var. SBR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiemori, Miki; Koh, Eunmi; Mitchell, Alyson E

    2009-03-11

    The composition and thermal stability of anthocyanins in black rice (Oryza sativa L. japonica var. SBR) produced in California were investigated. Six anthocyanin pigments were identified and quantified by high performance liquid chromatography using photo diode-array detection (HPLC-PDA) and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry [LC-(ESI)MS/MS]. The predominant anthocyanins are cyanidin-3-glucoside (572.47 microg/g; 91.13% of total) and peonidin-3-glucoside (29.78 microg/g; 4.74% of total). Minor constituents included three cyanidin-dihexoside isomers and one cyanidin hexoside. Thermal stability of anthocyanins was assessed in rice cooked using a rice cooker, pressure cooker, or on a gas range. All cooking methods caused significant (P rice cooker (74.2%) and gas range (65.4%). Conversely, levels of protocatechuic acid increased 2.7 to 3.4 times in response to all cooking methods. These findings indicate that cooking black rice results in the thermal degradation of cyanidin-3-glucoside and concomitant production of protocatechuic acid.

  11. Wpływ czasu napowietrzania na pracę reaktora SBR i SBBR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Makowska

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available W pracy przedstawiono efekty oczyszczania małych ilości ścieków w bioreaktorach porcjowych. Przebadano dwa równolegle pracujące reaktory, z czego jeden był klasycznym systemem SBR, a drugi to reaktor SBBR ze złożem ruchomym. Obydwa ciągi technologiczne oczyszczały taką samą ilość ścieków bytowych wstępnie podczyszczonych w piaskowniku. Trzy kolejne serie badań różniły się długością napowietrzania. Porównano pracę reaktorów w kolejnych seriach oraz analizowano wyniki uzyskane w obu systemach. Największą skuteczność usuwania związków węgla organicznego (jako ChZT i azotu (jako N-NH4 uzyskano w reaktorze SBBR w trzeciej serii badań (średnio odpowiednio 90 i 62%. Reaktor SBBR pracował bardziej stabilnie oraz usuwał na drodze biologicznej fosfor z największą średnią skutecznością 83% w serii trzeciej. Ścieki oczyszczone w tym reaktorze charakteryzowały się mniejszym stężeniem zawiesiny, co świadczy o skuteczniejszej pracy reaktora z wypełnieniem w fazie sedymentacji.

  12. Treatment of opium alkaloid containing wastewater in sequencing batch reactor (SBR)-Effect of gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bural, Cavit B.; Demirer, Goksel N.; Kantoglu, Omer; Dilek, Filiz B.

    2010-01-01

    Aerobic biological treatment of opium alkaloid containing wastewater as well as the effect of gamma irradiation as pre-treatment was investigated. Biodegradability of raw wastewater was assessed in aerobic batch reactors and was found highly biodegradable (83-90% degradation). The effect of irradiation (40 and 140 kGy) on biodegradability was also evaluated in terms of BOD 5 /COD values and results revealed that irradiation imparted no further enhancement in the biodegradability. Despite the highly biodegradable nature of wastewater, further experiments in sequencing batch reactors (SBR) revealed that the treatment operation was not possible due to sludge settleability problem observed beyond an influent COD value of 2000 mg dm -3 . Possible reasons for this problem were investigated, and the high molecular weight, large size and aromatic structure of the organic pollutants present in wastewater was thought to contribute to poor settleability. Initial efforts to solve this problem by modifying the operational conditions, such as SRT reduction, failed. However, further operational modifications including addition of phosphate buffer cured the settleability problem and influent COD was increased up to 5000 mg dm -3 . Significant COD removal efficiencies (>70%) were obtained in both SBRs fed with original and irradiated wastewaters (by 40 kGy). However, pre-irradiated wastewater provided complete thebain removal and a better settling sludge, which was thought due to degradation of complex structure by radiation application. Degradation of the structure was observed by GC/MS analyses and enhancement in filterability tests.

  13. Treatment of opium alkaloid containing wastewater in sequencing batch reactor (SBR)-Effect of gamma irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bural, Cavit B.; Demirer, Goksel N. [Middle East Technical University, Department of Environmental Engineering, 06531 Ankara (Turkey); Kantoglu, Omer [Turkish Atomic Energy Authority, Saraykoy Nuclear Research and Training Center, 06982, Kazan, Ankara (Turkey); Dilek, Filiz B., E-mail: fdilek@metu.edu.t [Middle East Technical University, Department of Environmental Engineering, 06531 Ankara (Turkey)

    2010-04-15

    Aerobic biological treatment of opium alkaloid containing wastewater as well as the effect of gamma irradiation as pre-treatment was investigated. Biodegradability of raw wastewater was assessed in aerobic batch reactors and was found highly biodegradable (83-90% degradation). The effect of irradiation (40 and 140 kGy) on biodegradability was also evaluated in terms of BOD{sub 5}/COD values and results revealed that irradiation imparted no further enhancement in the biodegradability. Despite the highly biodegradable nature of wastewater, further experiments in sequencing batch reactors (SBR) revealed that the treatment operation was not possible due to sludge settleability problem observed beyond an influent COD value of 2000 mg dm{sup -3}. Possible reasons for this problem were investigated, and the high molecular weight, large size and aromatic structure of the organic pollutants present in wastewater was thought to contribute to poor settleability. Initial efforts to solve this problem by modifying the operational conditions, such as SRT reduction, failed. However, further operational modifications including addition of phosphate buffer cured the settleability problem and influent COD was increased up to 5000 mg dm{sup -3}. Significant COD removal efficiencies (>70%) were obtained in both SBRs fed with original and irradiated wastewaters (by 40 kGy). However, pre-irradiated wastewater provided complete thebain removal and a better settling sludge, which was thought due to degradation of complex structure by radiation application. Degradation of the structure was observed by GC/MS analyses and enhancement in filterability tests.

  14. Evaluation of clay hybrid nanocomposites of different chain length as reinforcing agent for natural and synthetic rubbers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yehia, A.A.; Akelah, A.M.; Rehab, A.; El-Sabbagh, S.H.; El Nashar, D.E.; Koriem, A.A.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: → The modified organo-clay (MMT-ATBN) markedly reinforce natural and synthetic rubbers. → The reinforcing efficiency of the organo-clay is much higher than HAF carbon black. → The reinforcing efficiency of MMT modified with different alkylamines greatly depend on the chain length. → The good compatibility of modified organo-clay with NBR can be attributed to the chemical nature. -- Abstract: Polymer nanocomposites are one of the highly discussed research topics in recent time. It has been reported in the present paper the preparation and the properties of different nanoclays based on sodium montmorillonite (bentonite) and some organic amines of varying chain lengths (dodecylamine, hexadecylamine and octadecylamine) beside amine-terminated butadiene-acrylonitrile copolymer (ATBN). The hybrid clays have been characterized with the help of Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Wide angle X-ray diffractions (WXRD), and Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). X-ray results showed that the intergallery distance of the clay is increased as a result of the intercalation of the amines and ATBN. The nanocomposite clays were incorporated in natural and synthetic rubbers (NR, SBR and NBR). The physico-mechanical properties are greatly improved with loading low concentrations of the nanocomposite clays compared with carbon black.

  15. Theory of rubber friction and traction properties of car tyres; Theorie der Gummireibung und Traktionseigenschaften von Reifen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klueppel, M.; Alshuth, T.; Schuster, R.H. [Deutsches Inst. fuer Kautschuktechnologie e.V., Hannover (Germany)

    1998-12-31

    ABS braking on dry and wet roads involves different mechanisms of rubber friction on rough surfaces. This improves car safety in terms of higher manoeuvrability and shorter braking lengths especially on wet roads. Current research focuses on optimisation of tyrecontact surface materials with better traction characteristics and lower rolling resistance. Laboratory predictions of the traction properties of tyre faces must be based on fundamental knowledge of the local sliding phenomena in the tyre contact surface and the resulting energy dissipation during ABS braking. This contribution therefore attempts to relate the elementary mechanisms of tyre mechanics in ABS braking processes to theoretical concepts of rubber friction on rough surfaces. [Deutsch] Beim ABS-Bremsen auf trockenen und nassen Strassen werden unterschiedliche Mechanismen der Gummireibung auf rauhen Oberflaechen wirksam. In der Summe bewirkt dies eine hoehere Fahrsicherheit, da neben der Manoevrierfaehigkeit des Autos auch der Bremsweg, vor allem auf nassen Strassen, verkuerzt sein kann. In diesem Zusammenhang wird zur Zeit verstaerkt an einer Optimierung von Laufflaechenmaterialien durch den Einsatz von massgeschneiderten Loesungs-SBR-Typen in Verbindung mit gefaellten Kieselsaeuren gearbeitet, wodurch neben einer Verbesserung der Traktionseigenschaften beim ABS-Bremsen auch eine Verringerung des Rollwiderstandes erreicht wird. Fuer Laborvorhersagen der Traktionseigenschaften von Reifenlaufflaechen ist ein grundlegendes Verstaendnis der lokalen Gleitphaenomene in der Reifenaufstandsflaeche und der damit verbundenen Energiedissipation beim ABS-Bremsen erforderlich. In dieser Arbeit wird deshalb angestrebt, die elementaren Mechanismen der Reifenmechanik beim ABS-Bremsen mit theoretischen Konzepten der Gummireibung auf rauhen Oberflaechen in Verbindung zu bringen. (orig.)

  16. Prediction of heat generation in rubber or rubber-metal springs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banić Milan S.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The temperature of rubber or rubber-metal springs increases under cyclic loading, due to hysteresis losses and low rubber thermal conductivity. Hysteresis losses correspond to energy dissipation from the rubber, which is primarily converted into heat. This well-known phenomenon, called heat build-up, is the primary reason for rubber aging. Increase in temperature within the rubber compound leads to degradation of its physical and chemical properties, increase in stiffness and loss of damping capability. This paper presents a novel procedure of heat generation prediction in rubber or rubber-metal springs. The procedure encompasses the prediction of hysteresis loss, i. e. dissipated energy within the rubber, by finite element analysis and application of a modern visco-plastic rubber constitutive model. The obtained dissipated energy was used as an input for transient thermal analysis. Verification of the proposed procedure was performed by comparison of simulation results with experimentally obtained data during the dynamic loading of the rubber specimen. The proposed procedure is highly computationally efficient and it enables time integration, which can be problematic in coupled mechanical thermal analysis. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR35005: Research and Development of New Generation of Wind Turbines of High Energy Efficiency

  17. Effect of Recycled Rubber Particles and Silica on Tensile and Tear Properties of Natural Rubber Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Velu CHANDRAN

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Application of scrap rubber and worn out tires in natural rubber compounds has been studied. The scrap rubber can, however, be recycled and compounded with natural rubber and thus can be generated as a rubber composite. In this work, recycled rubber particles (RRP were prepared using pulverization process. Then, RRP was blended with natural rubber and silica compounds, and it was synthesized by two- roll mill and hydraulic press at specified operating conditions. The samples ranging from 0 to 40 phr of RRP loaded with silica were used as constant filler. The mechanical properties and morphological analysis were carried out. The results showed that tensile strength and elongation at break gradually decreased with increasing RRP loading in natural rubber and silica compounds. Tensile modulus went down at 10 phr of RRP and then showed an increasing trend. Hardness increased up to 30 phr of RRP and tear strength increased up to 20 phr of RRP. A comparative study was also carried out with virgin natural rubber vulcanizates. The incorporation of RRP and silica up to 20 phr in natural rubber did not lower the performance of rubber articles. Morphological studies revealed that better filler dispersion, interfacial adhesion, and cross link density could increase the tensile and tear strengths.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.22.2.7330

  18. Energy usage in the rubber industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soederstroem, M.

    1980-01-01

    The rubber industry has several energy-intensive steps, such as mastication of natural rubber, mixing and extrusion, and vulcanization. Opportunities for energy savings would be available with a continuous mixing process, heat recovery from cooling waters, and abandonment of thermal conduction in vulcanization. 6 figures. (DCK)

  19. Natural rubber producing plants: An overview

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    2013-03-20

    Mar 20, 2013 ... Currently, Hevea brasiliensis has been only one resource for commercial natural rubber production. ...... ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES ... polymer chain. Combinations of an amine antioxidant and a zinc dialkyldithiocarbamate have been used to counter these effects, improving guayule rubber ...

  20. UTILISATION OF RUBBER SEED OL IN THE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thermal degradation studies on polyvinyl chloride in the presence of rubber seed oil, epoxidized rubber seed oil and metal ... Epoxidation of RSO was carried out at 29°C using peractic acid ..... impurities such as pigments, Vitamins, sterols ...

  1. 75 FR 57980 - Polychloroprene Rubber From Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-23

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. AA1921-129 (Third Review)] Polychloroprene Rubber From Japan AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION: Termination of five-year... of the antidumping duty finding on polychloroprene rubber from Japan would be likely to lead to...

  2. Rheological testing of crumb rubber modified bitumen

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mturi, GAJ

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available used to analyse crumb rubber modified (CRM) bitumen is that the specified gap setting in the configuration of the DSR between the upper and lower test platens is too small to accommodate crumb rubber particles. DSR testing of CRM bitumen therefore...

  3. Characterizing Tire Crumb Rubber for Exposure Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tire crumb rubber derived from recycled tires is widely used as infill material in synthetic turf fields in the United States. An estimated 95% of the over 12,000 installed fields in the U.S. use tire crumb rubber infill alone or mixed with sand or alternative materials. Concerns...

  4. Characteristics of N2O production and hydroxylamine variation in short-cut nitrification SBR process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Bo; Ye, Junhong; Zhao, Jianqiang; Ding, Xiaoqian; Yang, Liwei; Tian, Xiaolei

    2018-01-01

    In order to study the characteristics of nitrous oxide (N 2 O) production and hydroxylamine (NH 2 OH) variation under oxic conditions, concentrations of NH 2 OH and N 2 O were simultaneously monitored in a short-cut nitrification sequencing batch reactor (SBR) operated with different influent ammonia concentrations. In the short-cut nitrification process, N 2 O production was increased with the increasing of ammonia concentration in influent. The maximum concentrations of dissolved N 2 O-N in the reactor were 0.11 mg/L and 0.52 mg/L when ammonia concentrations in the influent were 50 mg/L and 70 mg/L respectively. Under the low and medium ammonia load phases, the concentrations of NH 2 OH-N in the reactor were remained at a low level which fluctuated around 0.06 mg/L in a small range, and did not change with the variation of influent NH 4 + -N concentration. Based on the determination results, the half-saturation of NH 2 OH in the biochemical conversion process of NH 2 OH to NO 2 - -N was very small, and the value of 0.05 mg NH 2 OH-N/L proposed in the published literature was accurate. NH 2 OH is an important intermediate in the nitrification process, and the direct determination of NH 2 OH in the nitrification process was beneficial for revealing the kinetic process of NH 2 OH production and consumption as well as the effects of NH 2 OH on N 2 O production in the nitrification process.

  5. A Treatment of Dyestuff Wastewater by Internal Electrolysis-Coagulate-SBR-Biocharcoal%内电解-混凝-SBR-生物炭组合工艺处理染料废水

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于文敦; 刘晓东; 孙秀云; 王连军

    2002-01-01

    详述用内电解-混凝-SBR-生物炭组合工艺处理染料废水的过程.通过对各工艺段的调试,确定了各工艺段的最佳控制条件.结果表明:当染料废水COD平均值为5100mg/L,色度为6 000倍时,去除率达95%以上,出水水质达到国家污水综合排放二级标准.

  6. Optimization aspects of the biological nitrogen removal process in a full-scale twin sequencing batch reactor (SBR) system in series treating landfill leachate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remmas, Nikolaos; Ntougias, Spyridon; Chatzopoulou, Marianna; Melidis, Paraschos

    2018-03-29

    Despite the fact that biological nitrogen removal (BNR) process has been studied in detail in laboratory- and pilot-scale sequencing batch reactor (SBR) systems treating landfill leachate, a limited number of research works have been performed in full-scale SBR plants regarding nitrification and denitrification. In the current study, a full-scale twin SBR system in series of 700 m 3 (350 m 3 each) treating medium-age landfill leachate was evaluated in terms of its carbon and nitrogen removal efficiency in the absence and presence of external carbon source, i.e., glycerol from biodiesel production. Both biodegradable organic carbon and ammonia were highly oxidized [biochemical oxygen demand (BOD 5 ) and total Kjehldahl nitrogen (TKN) removal efficiencies above 90%], whereas chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiency was slightly above 40%, which is within the range reported in the literature for pilot-scale SBRs. As the consequence of the high recalcitrant organic fraction of the landfill leachate, dissimilatory nitrate reduction was restricted in the absence of crude glycerol, although denitrification was improved by electron donor addition, resulting in TN removal efficiencies above 70%. Experimental data revealed that the second SBR negligibly contributed to BNR process, since carbon and ammonia oxidation completion was achieved in the first SBR. On the other hand, the low VSS/SS ratio, due to the lack of primary sedimentation, highly improved sludge settleability, resulting in sludge volume indices (SVI) below 30 mL g -1 .

  7. Polyamidoamine dendrimer-based binders for high-loading lithium–sulfur battery cathodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhattacharya, Priyanka; Nandasiri, Manjula I.; Lv, Dongping; Schwarz, Ashleigh M.; Darsell, Jens T.; Henderson, Wesley A.; Tomalia, Donald A.; Liu, Jun; Zhang, Ji-Guang; Xiao, Jie

    2016-01-01

    Lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries are regarded as one of the most promising candidates for next generation energy storage systems because of their ultra high theoretical specific energy. To realize the practical application of Li-S batteries, however, a high S active material loading is essential (>70 wt% in the carbon-sulfur (C-S) composite cathode and >2 mg cm-2 in the electrode). A critical challenge to achieving this high capacity in practical electrodes is the dissolution of the longer lithium polysulfide reaction intermediates in the electrolyte (resulting in loss of active material from the cathode and contamination of the anode due to the polysulfide shuttle mechanism). The binder material used for the cathode is therefore crucial as this is a key determinant of the bonding interactions between the active material (S) and electronic conducting support (C), as well as the maintenance of intimate contact between the electrode materials and current collector. The battery performance can thus be directly correlated with the choice of binder, but this has received only minimal attention in the relevant Li-S battery published literature. Here, we investigated the application of polyamidoamine (PAMAM) dendrimers as functional binders in Li-S batteries—a class of materials which has been unexplored for electrode design. By using dendrimers, it is demonstrated that high S loadings (>4 mg cm-2) can be easily achieved using "standard" (not specifically tailored) materials and simple processing methods. An exceptional electrochemical cycling performance was obtained (as compared to cathodes with conventional linear polymeric binders such as carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) and styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR)) with >100 cycles and 85-98% capacity retention, thus demonstrating the significant utility of this new binder architecture which exhibits critical physicochemical properties and flexible nanoscale design parameters (CNDP's).

  8. Physical degradation assessment of generator station cables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stonkus, D.J.

    1988-01-01

    Preliminary studies of fossil-fired and nuclear generator station cables indicate that the low voltage PVC insulated cables are in relatively good condition. The insulation is flexible and in the case of nuclear cables can withstand a design basis event after nearly 15 years of service. Cables insulated with styrene butadiene rubber have been found embrittled and cables insulated with SBR should be closely inspected in any plant assurance program. Thermal analysis using oxidative induction technique shows promise to indicate cable insulation degradation. Long term reliability assurance and plant life extension studies are being actively pursued at Ontario Hydro. A major study is currently underway to extend the life of the oldest operating fossil-fuel station, the 8-unit, 2400 MW Lakeview TGS in operation since the 1960s. Plant life assurance programs have been initiated at the 2000 MW Lambton TGS in operation since 1969, and for the oldest operating nuclear plant, Pickering NGS A in operation since the early 1970s. As cables are considered one of the critical components in a generator station due to the extreme difficulty and cost of cable replacement, test programs have been initiated to evaluate the physical degradation of the cables and relate the results to electrical diagnostic tests and to chemical changes. The decommissioning of two small nuclear stations, the 20 MW Nuclear Power Demonstration (NPD) and the 200 MW Douglas Point NGS, which were placed in service in 1962 and 1967 respectively, will provide an opportunity to perform destructive electrical and physical evaluation on field aged cables

  9. The Effect of Rubber Mixing Process on The Curing Characteristics of Natural Rubber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abu Hasan

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This research is aimed at studying the relationship between rubber mixing processes and curing characteristics of natural rubber. The curing characteristic analysis was carried out through a natural rubber formula having been masticated and mixed, followed by curing. As many as four mastication methods were finely applied; each respected four sequences of rubber mixing process. In the first method, rubber was masticated for 5 minutes and then rubber chemicals and carbon black N 330 were  simultaneously added. In the second and the third methods, rubber was masticated for 1 minute and then carbon blacks and rubber chemicals were also simultaneously added but using different type of fillers. In the fourth method, rubber was masticated for 3 minutes and then rubber chemicals and carbon black were subsequently added. The additions of rubber chemicals and carbon blacks to the masticated rubber were distinguished by the sequence and time allocated for each mixing process. The carbon blacks were added in two stages by which 10 phr was added first and the remaining 40 phr was added later along with oil. In another method, ratios of the carbon blacks addition (as done in the first  and the second stages were 20:30, 30:20, and 40:10. The examination results showed that rubber mixing process gave an impact on the changes of curing characteristics. They were much affected by the method of carbon black addition. The mixing temperature also had an effect on both curing time and curing rate in which the higher the mixing temperature, the lower the curing time and curing rate. Vulcanization temperature also affected the curing time and curing rate in which the higher the vulcanization temperature, the lower the curing time and the higher the curing rate. Lastly, particle size of carbon black also gave an impact on the curing time and curing rate in which the smaller the particle size, the lower the curing time and the higher the curing rate.

  10. Treatment of a simulated textile wastewater in a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) with addition of a low-cost adsorbent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Sílvia C.R.; Boaventura, Rui A.R.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Treating textile dyeing effluents by SBR coupled with waste sludge adsorption. • Metal hydroxide sludge: a good adsorbent for a direct textile dye. • Good adsorption capacities were found with the low-cost adsorbent. • Adsorbent performance considerably reduced by auxiliary products. • Color removal complies with discharge limits. - Abstract: Color removal from textile wastewaters, at a low-cost and consistent technology, is even today a challenge. Simultaneous biological treatment and adsorption is a known alternative to the treatment of wastewaters containing biodegradable and non-biodegradable contaminants. The present work aims at evaluating the treatability of a simulated textile wastewater by simultaneously combining biological treatment and adsorption in a SBR (sequencing batch reactor), but using a low-cost adsorbent, instead of a commercial one. The selected adsorbent was a metal hydroxide sludge (WS) from an electroplating industry. Direct Blue 85 dye (DB) was used in the preparation of the synthetic wastewater. Firstly, adsorption kinetics and equilibrium were studied, in respect to many factors (temperature, pH, WS dosage and presence of salts and dyeing auxiliary chemicals in the aqueous media). At 25 °C and pH 4, 7 and 10, maximum DB adsorption capacities in aqueous solution were 600, 339 and 98.7 mg/g, respectively. These values are quite considerable, compared to other reported in literature, but proved to be significantly reduced by the presence of dyeing auxiliary chemicals in the wastewater. The simulated textile wastewater treatment in SBR led to BOD 5 removals of 53–79%, but color removal was rather limited (10–18%). The performance was significantly enhanced by the addition of WS, with BOD 5 removals above 91% and average color removals of 60–69%

  11. Treatment of a simulated textile wastewater in a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) with addition of a low-cost adsorbent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Sílvia C.R., E-mail: scrs@fe.up.pt; Boaventura, Rui A.R.

    2015-06-30

    Highlights: • Treating textile dyeing effluents by SBR coupled with waste sludge adsorption. • Metal hydroxide sludge: a good adsorbent for a direct textile dye. • Good adsorption capacities were found with the low-cost adsorbent. • Adsorbent performance considerably reduced by auxiliary products. • Color removal complies with discharge limits. - Abstract: Color removal from textile wastewaters, at a low-cost and consistent technology, is even today a challenge. Simultaneous biological treatment and adsorption is a known alternative to the treatment of wastewaters containing biodegradable and non-biodegradable contaminants. The present work aims at evaluating the treatability of a simulated textile wastewater by simultaneously combining biological treatment and adsorption in a SBR (sequencing batch reactor), but using a low-cost adsorbent, instead of a commercial one. The selected adsorbent was a metal hydroxide sludge (WS) from an electroplating industry. Direct Blue 85 dye (DB) was used in the preparation of the synthetic wastewater. Firstly, adsorption kinetics and equilibrium were studied, in respect to many factors (temperature, pH, WS dosage and presence of salts and dyeing auxiliary chemicals in the aqueous media). At 25 °C and pH 4, 7 and 10, maximum DB adsorption capacities in aqueous solution were 600, 339 and 98.7 mg/g, respectively. These values are quite considerable, compared to other reported in literature, but proved to be significantly reduced by the presence of dyeing auxiliary chemicals in the wastewater. The simulated textile wastewater treatment in SBR led to BOD{sub 5} removals of 53–79%, but color removal was rather limited (10–18%). The performance was significantly enhanced by the addition of WS, with BOD{sub 5} removals above 91% and average color removals of 60–69%.

  12. Exposure to rubber fume and rubber process dust in the general rubber goods, tyre manufacturing and retread industries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dost, A A; Redman, D; Cox, G

    2000-08-01

    This study assesses the current patterns and levels of exposure to rubber fume and rubber process dust in the British rubber industry and compares and contrasts the data obtained from the general rubber goods (GRG), retread tire (RT) and new tire (NT) sectors. A total of 179 rubber companies were visited and data were obtained from 52 general rubber goods, 29 retread tire and 7 new tire manufacturers. The survey was conducted using a questionnaire and included a walk-through inspection of the workplace to assess the extent of use of control measures and the nature of work practices being employed. The most recent (predominantly 1995-97) exposure monitoring data for rubber fume and rubber process dust were obtained from these companies; no additional sampling was conducted for the purpose of this study. In addition to the assessment of exposure data, evaluation of occupational hygiene reports for the quality of information and advice was also carried out.A comparison of the median exposures for processes showed that the order of exposure to rubber fume (E, in mg m(-3)) is: E(moulding) (0.40) approximately E(extrusion) (0.33)>E(milling) (0.18) for GRG; E(press) (0. 32)>E(extrusion) (0.19)>E(autoclave) (0.10) for RT; and E(press) (0. 22) approximately E(all other) (0.22) for NT. The order of exposure to rubber fume between sectors was E(GRG) (0.40)>E(RT) (0.32)>E(NT) (0.22). Median exposures to rubber process dust in the GRG was E(weighing) (4.2)>E(mixing) (1.2) approximately E(milling) (0.8) approximately E(extrusion) (0.8) and no significant difference (P=0. 31) between GRG and NT sectors. The findings compare well with the study carried out in the Netherlands [Kromhout et al. (1994), Annals of Occupational Hygiene 38(1), 3-22], and it is suggested that the factors governing the significant differences noted between the three sectors relate principally to the production and task functions and also to the extent of controls employed. Evaluation of occupational

  13. Performance of self-compacting rubberized concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamza Bensaci

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Used tyre rubber wastes present a serious environmental problem of pollution and storage. The recycling of this waste in the industry of construction could be an appropriate solution to produce an eco-concrete and could contribute to the improvement of some of its properties. This paper aims to study the possibility of using tyre rubber waste as fine aggregate replacement in self-compacting concrete (SCC. Fines rubber particles of 0-2 mm of waste tyres were added SCC mixtures as a partial substitution of the total volume of sand at different percentages (5, 10, 15, 20 and 30%. The influence of fines rubber of used tyres on fresh and hardened properties of the SCC was investigated. The fresh properties of SCC were performed by using slump-flow, T50 flow time, L-box, V-funnel and segregation resistance tests. Characteristics of the hardened state were obtained by compressive strength and thermal conductivity. The experimental results showed that the inclusion of fines rubber in SCC decreases the workability, reduced its passing capacity and increases the possibility of blocking. A decrease in compressive strength is observed with the increase in rubber content. On the other hand, the incorporation of the rubber fines aggregates enhances in a remarkably way the thermal conductivity.

  14. Rubber friction: role of the flash temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persson, B N J

    2006-01-01

    When a rubber block is sliding on a hard rough substrate, the substrate asperities will exert time-dependent deformations of the rubber surface resulting in viscoelastic energy dissipation in the rubber, which gives a contribution to the sliding friction. Most surfaces of solids have roughness on many different length scales, and when calculating the friction force it is necessary to include the viscoelastic deformations on all length scales. The energy dissipation will result in local heating of the rubber. Since the viscoelastic properties of rubber-like materials are extremely strongly temperature dependent, it is necessary to include the local temperature increase in the analysis. At very low sliding velocity the temperature increase is negligible because of heat diffusion, but already for velocities of order 10 -2 m s -1 the local heating may be very important. Here I study the influence of the local heating on the rubber friction, and I show that in a typical case the temperature increase results in a decrease in rubber friction with increasing sliding velocity for v>0.01 m s -1 . This may result in stick-slip instabilities, and is of crucial importance in many practical applications, e.g. for tyre-road friction and in particular for ABS braking systems

  15. Butterfly valve of all rubber lining type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimada, Shosaku; Nakatsuma, Sumiya; Sasaki, Iwao; Aoki, Naoshi.

    1982-01-01

    The valves used for the circulating water pipes for condensers in nuclear and thermal power stations have become large with the increase of power output, and their specifications have become strict. The materials for the valves change from cast iron to steel plate construction. To cope with sea water corrosion, rubber lining has been applied to the internal surfaces of valve boxes, and the build-up welding of stainless steel has been made on the edges of valves. However, recently it is desired to develop butterfly valves, of which the whole valve disks are lined with hard rubber. For the purpose of confirming the performance of large bore valves, a 2600 mm bore butterfly valve of all rubber lining type was used, and the opening and closing test of 1100 times was carried out by applying thermal cycle and pressure difference and using artifical sea water. Also the bending test of hard rubber lining was performed with test pieces. Thus, it was confirmed that the butterfly valves of all rubber lining type have the performance exceeding that of the valves with build-up welding. The course of development of the valves of all rubber lining type, the construction and the items of confirmation by tests of these valves, and the tests of the valve and the hard rubber lining described above are reported. (Kako, I.)

  16. Cream concentrated latex for foam rubber products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suksup, R.; Imkaew, C.; Smitthipong, W.

    2017-12-01

    Fresh natural latex (around 40% rubber and 60% water) can be transformed to concentrated natural latex (around 60% rubber and 40% water) in order to realise economical transportation and easier latex product’s preparation. The concentrated natural latex is an extremely valuable material. It can be applied for many types of products, for example, foam rubber as pillow and mattress, elastic band, etc. Industrially, the concentrated natural latex can be prepared by centrifugation which requires an enormous expensive machine. From the eco-friendly products point of view, most of rubber entrepreneurs in the world try to develop a green rubber product. So, the main objective of this study is to prepare the cream concentrated latex without any sophisticated machine. Thus, we work on a simple, cheap and green method that does not use any expensive machine but uses water-based chemical as sodium alginate to prepare the cream concentrated latex. The optimal amount of sodium alginate in the latex was studied. The main characteristics of the cream concentrated latex were tested by various technics, such as alkalinity, total solid content (TSC), dry rubber content (DRC), etc. We found that there are no significant differences of results between fresh natural latex and cream concentrated latex, except for the TSC and DRC. The TSC and DRC of cream latex are higher than those of fresh natural latex. Finally, we propose a model of natural rubber particle and sodium alginate to form the cream concentrated latex.

  17. Zinc Leaching from Tire Crumb Rubber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, E. P.; Ren, J.; Mays, D. C.

    2010-12-01

    Recent estimates indicate that more than 2 billion scrap tires are currently stockpiled in the United States and approximately 280 million more tires are added annually. Various engineering applications utilize recycled tires in the form of shredded tire crumb rubber. However, the use of tire crumb rubber may have negative environmental impacts, especially when the rubber comes into contact with water. A review of the literature indicates that leaching of zinc from tire crumb rubber is the most significant water quality concern associated with using this material. Zinc is generally used in tire manufacturing, representing approximately 1.3% of the final product by mass. This study will report results from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA’s) Synthetic Precipitation Leaching Procedure, batch leaching tests, and column leaching tests performed to quantify the process by which zinc leaches from tire crumb rubber into water. Results are interpreted with a first-order kinetic attachment/detachment model, implemented with the U.S. Agricultural Research Service software HYDRUS-1D, in order to determine the circumstances when zinc leaching from tire crumb rubber would be expected to comply with the applicable discharge limits. One potential application for recycled tires is replacing sand with tire crumb rubber in granular media filters used for stormwater pollution control. For this to be a viable application, the total zinc in the stormwater discharge must be below the EPA’s benchmark value of 0.117 mg/L.

  18. Effect of SBR feeding strategy and feed composition on the stability of aerobic granular sludge in the treatment of a simulated textile wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franca, R D G; Ortigueira, J; Pinheiro, H M; Lourenço, N D

    2017-09-01

    Treatment of the highly polluting and variable textile industry wastewater using aerobic granular sludge (AGS) sequencing batch reactors (SBRs) has been recently suggested. Aiming to develop this technology application, two feeding strategies were compared regarding the capacity of anaerobic-aerobic SBRs to deal with disturbances in the composition of the simulated textile wastewater feed. Both a statically fed, anaerobic-aerobic SBR and an anaerobic plug-flow fed, anaerobic-aerobic SBR could cope with shocks of high azo dye concentration and organic load, the overall chemical oxygen demand and color removal yields being rapidly restored to 80%. Yet, subsequent azo dye metabolite bioconversion was not observed, along the 315-day run. Moreover, switching from a starch-based substrate to acetate in the feed composition deteriorated AGS stability. Overall, the plug-flow fed SBR recovered more rapidly from the imposed disturbances. Further research is needed towards guaranteeing long-term AGS stability during the treatment of textile wastewater.

  19. Structural characterization of rubber from jackfruit and euphorbia as a model of natural rubber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mekkriengkrai, Dararat; Ute, Koiichi; Swiezewska, Ewa; Chojnacki, Tadeusz; Tanaka, Yasuyuki; Sakdapipanich, Jitladda T

    2004-01-01

    A structural study of low molecular weight rubbers from Jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus) and Painted spurge (Euphorbia heterophylla) was carried out as model compounds of natural rubber from Hevea brasiliensis. The rubber content of latex from Jackfruit was 0.4-0.7%, which is very low compared with that of 30-35% in the latex from Hevea tree. The rubber from Jackfruit latex was low molecular weight with narrow unimodal molecular weight distribution (MWD), whereas that obtained from E. heterophylla showed very broad MWD. The 1H and 13C NMR analyses showed that Jackfruit rubber consists of a dimethylallyl group and two trans-isoprene units connected to a long sequence of cis-isoprene units. The alpha-terminal group of Jackfruit rubber was presumed to be composed of a phosphate group based on the presence of 1H NMR signal at 4.08 ppm corresponding to the terminal =CH-CH2OP group.

  20. Thermal properties of hydrogenated liquid natural rubber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamaluddin, Naharullah; Abdullah, Ibrahim; Yusoff, Siti Fairus M.

    2015-09-01

    Natural rubber (NR) was modified to form liquid natural rubber (LNR) via photooxidative degradation. Hydrogenated liquid natural rubber (HLNR) was synthesized by using diimide as source of hydrogen which the diimide is produced by thermolysis of p-toluenesulfonyl hydrazide (TSH). The structure of HLNR was characterized by determining the changes of main peaks in Fourier Transform infrared and nuclear magnetic resonance spectra after hydrogenation. Thermogravimetric analysis showed that the HLNR had higher decomposition temperature compared to LNR and the decomposition temperature is directly proportional to the percentage of conversion.

  1. Thermal properties of hydrogenated liquid natural rubber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jamaluddin, Naharullah; Abdullah, Ibrahim; Yusoff, Siti Fairus M.

    2015-01-01

    Natural rubber (NR) was modified to form liquid natural rubber (LNR) via photooxidative degradation. Hydrogenated liquid natural rubber (HLNR) was synthesized by using diimide as source of hydrogen which the diimide is produced by thermolysis of p-toluenesulfonyl hydrazide (TSH). The structure of HLNR was characterized by determining the changes of main peaks in Fourier Transform infrared and nuclear magnetic resonance spectra after hydrogenation. Thermogravimetric analysis showed that the HLNR had higher decomposition temperature compared to LNR and the decomposition temperature is directly proportional to the percentage of conversion

  2. Thermal properties of hydrogenated liquid natural rubber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jamaluddin, Naharullah; Abdullah, Ibrahim; Yusoff, Siti Fairus M. [School of Chemical Sciences and Food Technology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2015-09-25

    Natural rubber (NR) was modified to form liquid natural rubber (LNR) via photooxidative degradation. Hydrogenated liquid natural rubber (HLNR) was synthesized by using diimide as source of hydrogen which the diimide is produced by thermolysis of p-toluenesulfonyl hydrazide (TSH). The structure of HLNR was characterized by determining the changes of main peaks in Fourier Transform infrared and nuclear magnetic resonance spectra after hydrogenation. Thermogravimetric analysis showed that the HLNR had higher decomposition temperature compared to LNR and the decomposition temperature is directly proportional to the percentage of conversion.

  3. Life assessment of rubber articles in fuels

    OpenAIRE

    Selldén, Emmy

    2013-01-01

    The choice of rubber material for use in sealings and hoses in the fuel system is of great importance. If a wrong type of rubber is used, premature failure during service may occur. This impacts the environmental performance, the safety during driving, uptime and economy of the transport. In this diploma work, rubbers for use in sealing and hoses in the fuel system have been evaluated to assess which materials have the potential to be used under long-term use in contact with commercial fuels....

  4. Fatigue life of automotive rubber jounce bumper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sidhu, R S; Ali, Aidy

    2010-01-01

    It is evident that most rubber components in the automotive industry are subjected to repetitive loading. Vigorous research is needed towards improving the safety and reliability of the components. The study was done on an automotive rubber jounce bumper with a rubber hardness of 60 IRHD. The test was conducted in displacement-controlled environment under compressive load. The existing models by Kim, Harbour, Woo and Li were adopted to predict the fatigue life. The experimental results show strong similarities with the predicted models.

  5. Comparative studies on the mechanical properties of natural rubber and natural rubber filled with multi-walled carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, R.; Ibrahim, A.; Rusop, M.; Adnan, A.

    2018-05-01

    The present article compares the mechanical properties of natural rubber (NR) and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) filled natural rubber composites. Four types of nanocomposite specimens are fabricated with different MWCNT loadings: 0 wt% (pure natural rubber), 1 wt%, 3 wt%, and 5 wt%. The specimens are tested for their mechanical properties. It is observed that the tensile strength, hardness and elongation break of CNTs filled rubber composites are remarkably higher than that of raw rubber indicating the inherent reinforcing potential of CNTs. Percentage of the elongation at break of rubber CNTs composites is lower than that of raw rubber.

  6. Plant Growth and Water Purification of Porous Vegetation Concrete Formed of Blast Furnace Slag, Natural Jute Fiber and Styrene Butadiene Latex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hwang-Hee Kim

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to investigate porous vegetation concrete formed using the industrial by-products blast furnace slag powder and blast furnace slag aggregates. We investigated the void ratio, compressive strength, freeze–thaw resistance, plant growth and water purification properties using concretes containing these by-products, natural jute fiber and latex. The target performance was a compressive strength of ≥12 MPa, a void ratio of ≥25% and a residual compressive strength of ≥80% following 100 freeze–thaw cycles. Using these target performance metrics and test results for plant growth and water purification, an optimal mixing ratio was identified. The study characterized the physical and mechanical properties of the optimal mix, and found that the compressive strength decreased compared with the default mix, but that the void ratio and the freeze–thaw resistance increased. When latex was used, the compressive strength, void ratio and freeze–thaw resistance all improved, satisfying the target performance metrics. Vegetation growth tests showed that plant growth was more active when the blast furnace slag aggregate was used. Furthermore, the use of latex was also found to promote vegetation growth, which is attributed to the latex forming a film coating that suppresses leaching of toxic components from the cement. Water purification tests showed no so significant differences between different mixing ratios; however, a comparison of mixes with and without vegetation indicated improved water purification in terms of the total phosphorus content when vegetation had been allowed to grow.

  7. Hardness measurements of silicon rubber and polyurethane rubber cured by ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basfar, A.A.

    1995-01-01

    This work investigates the hardness of both silicon rubber and polyurethane rubber cured by ionizing radiation. Shore A Hardness is used to characterize the subject elastomers in relation to the crosslinking process. Various formulations of both materials have been investigated in order to achieve the optimum cure conditions desired. A small amount of the curing agent has been incorporated in some formulations in order to reduce the required dose to achieve full cure conditions. Silicon rubber has shown improvements in hardness as absorbed dose is increased, whereas hardness remained constant over a range of absorbed doses for polyurethane rubber

  8. The rubber tree genome reveals new insights into rubber production and species adaptation

    OpenAIRE

    Tang, Chaorong; Yang, Meng; Fang, Yongjun; Luo, Yingfeng; Gao, Shenghan; Xiao, Xiaohu; An, Zewei; Zhou, Binhui; Zhang, Bing; Tan, Xinyu; Yeang, Hoong Yeet; Qin, Yunxia; Yang, Jianghua; Lin, Qiang; Mei, Hailiang

    2016-01-01

    The Para rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis) is an economically important tropical tree species that produces natural rubber, an essential industrial raw material. Here we present a high-quality genome assembly of this species (1.37 Gb, scaffold N50 = 1.28 Mb) that covers 93.8% of the genome (1.47 Gb) and harbours 43,792 predicted protein-coding genes. A striking expansion of the REF/SRPP (rubber elongation factor/small rubber particle protein) gene family and its divergence into several laticif...

  9. Treatment of a simulated textile wastewater in a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) with addition of a low-cost adsorbent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Sílvia C R; Boaventura, Rui A R

    2015-06-30

    Color removal from textile wastewaters, at a low-cost and consistent technology, is even today a challenge. Simultaneous biological treatment and adsorption is a known alternative to the treatment of wastewaters containing biodegradable and non-biodegradable contaminants. The present work aims at evaluating the treatability of a simulated textile wastewater by simultaneously combining biological treatment and adsorption in a SBR (sequencing batch reactor), but using a low-cost adsorbent, instead of a commercial one. The selected adsorbent was a metal hydroxide sludge (WS) from an electroplating industry. Direct Blue 85 dye (DB) was used in the preparation of the synthetic wastewater. Firstly, adsorption kinetics and equilibrium were studied, in respect to many factors (temperature, pH, WS dosage and presence of salts and dyeing auxiliary chemicals in the aqueous media). At 25 °C and pH 4, 7 and 10, maximum DB adsorption capacities in aqueous solution were 600, 339 and 98.7 mg/g, respectively. These values are quite considerable, compared to other reported in literature, but proved to be significantly reduced by the presence of dyeing auxiliary chemicals in the wastewater. The simulated textile wastewater treatment in SBR led to BOD5 removals of 53-79%, but color removal was rather limited (10-18%). The performance was significantly enhanced by the addition of WS, with BOD5 removals above 91% and average color removals of 60-69%. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Treatability studies with granular activated carbon (GAC) and sequencing batch reactor (SBR) system for textile wastewater containing direct dyes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sirianuntapiboon, Suntud; Sansak, Jutarat

    2008-01-01

    The GAC-SBR efficiency was decreased with the increase of dyestuff concentration or the decrease of bio-sludge concentration. The system showed the highest removal efficiency with synthetic textile wastewater (STWW) containing 40 mg/L direct red 23 or direct blue 201 under MLSS of 3000 mg/L and hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 7.5 days. But, the effluent NO 3 - was higher than that of the influent. Direct red 23 was more effective than direct blue 201 to repress the GAC-SBR system efficiency. The dyes removal efficiency of the system with STWW containing direct red 23 was reduced by 30% with the increase of direct red 23 from 40 mg/L to 160 mg/L. The system with raw textile wastewater (TWW) showed quite low BOD 5 TKN and dye removal efficiencies of only 64.7 ± 4.9% and 50.2 ± 6.9%, respectively. But its' efficiencies could be increased by adding carbon sources (BOD 5 ). The dye removal efficiency with TWW was increased by 30% and 20% by adding glucose (TWW + glucose) or Thai rice noodle wastewater (TWW + TRNWW), respectively. SRT of the systems were 28 ± 1 days and 31 ± 2 days with TWW + glucose and TWW + TRNWW, respectively

  11. Treatability studies with granular activated carbon (GAC) and sequencing batch reactor (SBR) system for textile wastewater containing direct dyes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sirianuntapiboon, Suntud [Department of Environmental Technology, School of Energy Environment and Materials, King Mongkut' s University of Technology, Thonburi, Bangmod, Thung-kru, Bangkok 10140 (Thailand)], E-mail: suntud.sir@kmutt.ac.th; Sansak, Jutarat [Department of Environmental Technology, School of Energy Environment and Materials, King Mongkut' s University of Technology, Thonburi, Bangmod, Thung-kru, Bangkok 10140 (Thailand)

    2008-11-30

    The GAC-SBR efficiency was decreased with the increase of dyestuff concentration or the decrease of bio-sludge concentration. The system showed the highest removal efficiency with synthetic textile wastewater (STWW) containing 40 mg/L direct red 23 or direct blue 201 under MLSS of 3000 mg/L and hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 7.5 days. But, the effluent NO{sub 3}{sup -} was higher than that of the influent. Direct red 23 was more effective than direct blue 201 to repress the GAC-SBR system efficiency. The dyes removal efficiency of the system with STWW containing direct red 23 was reduced by 30% with the increase of direct red 23 from 40 mg/L to 160 mg/L. The system with raw textile wastewater (TWW) showed quite low BOD{sub 5} TKN and dye removal efficiencies of only 64.7 {+-} 4.9% and 50.2 {+-} 6.9%, respectively. But its' efficiencies could be increased by adding carbon sources (BOD{sub 5}). The dye removal efficiency with TWW was increased by 30% and 20% by adding glucose (TWW + glucose) or Thai rice noodle wastewater (TWW + TRNWW), respectively. SRT of the systems were 28 {+-} 1 days and 31 {+-} 2 days with TWW + glucose and TWW + TRNWW, respectively.

  12. Treatability studies with granular activated carbon (GAC) and sequencing batch reactor (SBR) system for textile wastewater containing direct dyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirianuntapiboon, Suntud; Sansak, Jutarat

    2008-11-30

    The GAC-SBR efficiency was decreased with the increase of dyestuff concentration or the decrease of bio-sludge concentration. The system showed the highest removal efficiency with synthetic textile wastewater (STWW) containing 40 mg/L direct red 23 or direct blue 201 under MLSS of 3,000 mg/L and hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 7.5 days. But, the effluent NO(3)(-) was higher than that of the influent. Direct red 23 was more effective than direct blue 201 to repress the GAC-SBR system efficiency. The dyes removal efficiency of the system with STWW containing direct red 23 was reduced by 30% with the increase of direct red 23 from 40 mg/L to 160 mg/L. The system with raw textile wastewater (TWW) showed quite low BOD(5) TKN and dye removal efficiencies of only 64.7+/-4.9% and 50.2+/-6.9%, respectively. But its' efficiencies could be increased by adding carbon sources (BOD(5)). The dye removal efficiency with TWW was increased by 30% and 20% by adding glucose (TWW+glucose) or Thai rice noodle wastewater (TWW+TRNWW), respectively. SRT of the systems were 28+/-1 days and 31+/-2 days with TWW+glucose and TWW+TRNWW, respectively.

  13. On-site treatment of a motorway service area wastewater using a package sequencing batch reactor (SBR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Solar, J; Hudson, S; Stephenson, T

    2005-01-01

    A sequencing batch reactor (SBR) treating the effluent of a motorway service station in the south of England situated on a major tourist route was investigated. Wastewater from the kitchens, toilets and washrooms facilities was collected from the areas on each side of the motorway for treatment on-site. The SBR was designed for a population equivalent (p.e.) of 500, assuming an average flow of 100 m3/d, influent biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) of 300 mg/l, and influent suspended solids (SS) of 300 mg/l. Influent monitoring over 8 weeks revealed that the average flow was only 65 m3/d and the average influent BOD and SS were 480 mg/l and 473 mg/l respectively. This corresponded to a high sludge loading rate (F:M) of 0.42 d(-1) which accounted for poor performance. Therefore the cycle times were extended from 6 h to 7 h and effluent BOD improved from 79 to 27 mg/l.

  14. Fluctuation of microbial activities after influent load variations in a full-scale SBR. Recovery of the biomass after starvation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cabezas, Angela; Draper, Patricia; Etchebehere, Claudia [Universidad de la Republica, Montevideo (Uruguay). Catedra de Microbiologia, Facultad de Quimica y Facultad de Ciencias

    2009-10-15

    Due to variations in the production levels, a full-scale sequencing batch reactor (SBR) for post-treatment of tannery wastewater was exposed to low and high ammonia load periods. In order to study how these changes affected the N-removal capacity, the microbiology of the reactor was studied by a diverse set of techniques including molecular tools, activity tests, and microbial counts in samples taken along 3 years. The recover capacity of the biomass was also studied in a lab-scale reactor operated with intermittent aeration without feeding for 36 days. The results showed that changes in the feeding negatively affected the nitrifying community, but the nitrogen removal efficiencies could be restored after the concentration stress. Species substitution was observed within the nitrifying bacteria, Nitrosomonas europaea and Nitrobacter predominated initially, and after an ammonia overload period, Nitrosomonas nitrosa and Nitrospira became dominant. Some denitrifiers, with nirS related to Alicycliphilus, Azospirillum, and Marinobacter nirS, persisted during long-term reactor operation, but the community fluctuated both in composition and in abundance. This fluctuating community may better resist the continuous changes in the feeding regime. Our results showed that a nitrifying-denitrifying SBR could be operated with low loads or even without feeding during production shut down periods. (orig.)

  15. [Total analysis of organic rubber additives].

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Wen-Xuan; Robert, Shanks; You, Ye-Ming

    2010-03-01

    In the present paper, after middle pressure chromatograph separation using both positive phase and reversed-phase conditions, the organic additives in ethylene-propylene rubber were identified by infrared spectrometer. At the same time, by using solid phase extraction column to maintain the main component-fuel oil in organic additves to avoid its interfering with minor compounds, other organic additves were separated and analysed by GC/Ms. In addition, the remaining active compound such as benzoyl peroxide was identified by CC/Ms, through analyzing acetone extract directly. Using the above mentioned techniques, soften agents (fuel oil, plant oil and phthalte), curing agent (benzoylperoxide), vulcanizing accelerators (2-mercaptobenzothiazole, ethyl thiuram and butyl thiuram), and antiagers (2, 6-Di-tert-butyl-4-methyl phenol and styrenated phenol) in ethylene-propylene rubber were identified. Although the technique was established in ethylene-propylene rubber system, it can be used in other rubber system.

  16. Radiation stability of plastics and rubbers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hitchon, J.W.

    1983-01-01

    Physical radiation effects of #betta# particles, #betta#-radiation, x rays and accelerated electrons on thermosets, thermoplastics and rubbers are charted. Modifications to the information due to composition, shape and environment are noted. (U.K.)

  17. Oils and rubber from arid land plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, J. D.; Hinman, C. W.

    1980-05-01

    In this article the economic development potentials of Cucurbita species (buffalo gourd and others), Simmondsia chinensis (jojoba), Euphorbia lathyris (gopher plant), and Parthenium argentatum (guayule) are discussed. All of these plants may become important sources of oils or rubber.

  18. Strength of mortar containing rubber tire particle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jusoh, M. A.; Abdullah, S. R.; Adnan, S. H.

    2018-04-01

    The main focus in this investigation is to determine the strength consist compressive and tensile strength of mortar containing rubber tire particle. In fact, from the previous study, the strength of mortar containing waste rubber tire in mortar has a slightly decreases compare to normal mortar. In this study, rubber tire particle was replacing on volume of fine aggregate with 6%. 9% and 12%. The sample were indicated M0 (0%), M6 (6%), M9 (9%) and M12 (12%). In this study, two different size of sample used with cube 100mm x 100mm x 100mm for compressive strength and 40mm x 40mm x 160mm for flexural strength. Morphology test was conducted by using Scanning electron microscopic (SEM) were done after testing compressive strength test. The concrete sample were cured for day 3, 7 and 28 before testing. Results compressive strength and flexural strength of rubber mortar shown improved compare to normal mortar.

  19. Contact allergy to rubber accelerators remains prevalent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwensen, J F; Menné, T; Johansen, J D

    2016-01-01

    several clinical cases with allergic facial dermatitis to rubber. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate temporal trends of contact allergy to rubber accelerators from the European baseline series in a tertiary patch test clinic in Denmark, and examine associations with anatomical locations of dermatitis. METHODS: Patch...... test and clinical data collected in a Danish tertiary dermatology clinic in Gentofte, Herlev, Copenhagen between 1 January 2005 and 31 December 2014 were analysed. The following rubber accelerators or mixtures in petrolatum from the European baseline patch test series were included: thiuram mix 1.......0%, mercaptobenzothiazole 2.0% and mercapto mix 1.0%. RESULTS: The overall prevalence of contact allergy to rubber accelerators was 3.1% with no significant change during the study period (Ptrend = 0.667). Contact allergy to thiuram mix was the most prevalent and was significantly associated with occupational contact...

  20. Advantages of Concrete Mixing with Tyre Rubber

    OpenAIRE

    Mazyad Al-Fadhli *

    2017-01-01

    Strong waste administration is one of the major natural concerns everywhere throughout the world. Tire-rubber particles made out of tire chips, piece elastic, and a mix of tire chips and scrap elastic, where utilized to supplant mineral totals in cement. These particles were utilized to supplant 10% , 15% , 20%, and 25% of the aggregate mineral totals volume in cement.Using rubber aggregates in such applications can help to prevent pollution and overcome the problem of storing used tyres. Adv...

  1. High macro rubber band ligature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José A. Reis Neto

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The goal of a rubber band ligature is to promote fibrosis of the submucosa with subsequent fixation of the anal epithelium to the underlying sphincter. Following this principle, a new technique of ligature was developed based on two aspects: 1. macro banding: to have a better fibrosis and fixation by banding a bigger volume of mucosa and 2. higher ligature: to have this fixation at the origin of the hemorrhoidal cushion displacement. Methods: 1634 patients with internal hemorrhoidal disease grade II or III were treated by the technique called high macro rubber band. There was no distinction as to age, gender or race. To perform this technique a new hemorrhoidal device was specially designed with a larger diameter and a bigger capacity for mucosal volume aspiration. It is recommended to utilize a longer and wider anoscope to obtain a better view of the anal canal, which will facilitate the injection of submucosa higher in the anal canal and the insertion of the rubber band device. The hemorrhoidal cushion must be banded higher in the anal canal (4 cm above the pectinate line. It is preferable to treat all the hemorrhoids in one single session (maximum of three areas banded. Results: The analysis was retrospective without any comparison with conventional banding. The period of evaluation extended from one to twelve years. The analysis of the results showed perianal edema in 1.6% of the patients, immediate tenesmus in 0.8%, intense pain (need for parenteral analgesia in 1.6%, urinary retention in 0.1% of the patients and a symptomatic recurrence rate of 4.2%. All patients with symptomatic recurrence were treated with a new session of macro rubber banding. None of the patients developed anal or rectal sepsis. Small post-ligature bleeding was observed only in 0.8% of the patients. Conclusions: The high macro rubber banding technique represents an alternative method for the treatment of hemorrhoidal disease grades II or III, with good

  2. Silane grafted natural rubber and its compatibilization effect on silica-reinforced rubber tire compounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sengloyluan, K.; Sahakaro, K.; Dierkes, W. K.; Noordermeer, J. W.M.

    2017-01-01

    Natural Rubber (NR) grafted with 3-octanoylthio-1-propyltriethoxysilane (NXT) was prepared by melt mixing using 1,1′-di(tert-butylperoxy)-3,3,5-trimethylcyclohexane as initiator at 140 °C with NXT contents of 10 and 20 parts per hundred rubber [phr] and initiator 0.1 phr. The silane grafted on NR

  3. Static friction in rubber-metal contacts with application to rubber pad forming processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deladi, E.L.

    2006-01-01

    A static friction model suitable for rubber-metal contact is presented in this dissertation. In introduction, the motivation and the aims of the research are introduced together with the background regarding the related industrial application, which is the rubber pad forming process.

  4. Shortcut nitrification-denitrification by means of autochthonous halophilic biomass in an SBR treating fish-canning wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capodici, Marco; Corsino, Santo Fabio; Torregrossa, Michele; Viviani, Gaspare

    2018-02-15

    Autochthonous halophilic biomass was cultivated in a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) aimed at analyzing the potential use of autochthonous halophilic activated sludge in treating saline industrial wastewater. Despite the high salt concentration (30 g NaCl L -1 ), biological oxygen demand (BOD) and total suspended solids (TSS), removal efficiencies were higher than 90%. More than 95% of the nitrogen was removed via a shortcut nitrification-denitrification process. Both the autotrophic and heterotrophic biomass samples exhibited high biological activity. The use of autochthonous halophilic biomass led to high-quality effluent and helped to manage the issues related to nitrogen removal in saline wastewater treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Sliding mode control of dissolved oxygen in an integrated nitrogen removal process in a sequencing batch reactor (SBR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, C; Young, H; Antileo, C; Bornhardt, C

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a sliding mode controller (SMC) for dissolved oxygen (DO) in an integrated nitrogen removal process carried out in a suspended biomass sequencing batch reactor (SBR). The SMC performance was compared against an auto-tuning PI controller with parameters adjusted at the beginning of the batch cycle. A method for cancelling the slow DO sensor dynamics was implemented by using a first order model of the sensor. Tests in a lab-scale reactor showed that the SMC offers a better disturbance rejection capability than the auto-tuning PI controller, furthermore providing reasonable performance in a wide range of operation. Thus, SMC becomes an effective robust nonlinear tool to the DO control in this process, being also simple from a computational point of view, allowing its implementation in devices such as industrial programmable logic controllers (PLCs).

  6. Evidence of carbon fixation pathway in a bacterium from candidate phylum SBR1093 revealed with genomic analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiping Wang

    Full Text Available Autotrophic CO2 fixation is the most important biotransformation process in the biosphere. Research focusing on the diversity and distribution of relevant autotrophs is significant to our comprehension of the biosphere. In this study, a draft genome of a bacterium from candidate phylum SBR1093 was reconstructed with the metagenome of an industrial activated sludge. Based on comparative genomics, this autotrophy may occur via a newly discovered carbon fixation path, the hydroxypropionate-hydroxybutyrate (HPHB cycle, which was demonstrated in a previous work to be uniquely possessed by some genera from Archaea. This bacterium possesses all of the thirteen enzymes required for the HPHB cycle; these enzymes share 30∼50% identity with those in the autotrophic species of Archaea that undergo the HPHB cycle and 30∼80% identity with the corresponding enzymes of the mixotrophic species within Bradyrhizobiaceae. Thus, this bacterium might have an autotrophic growth mode in certain conditions. A phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene reveals that the phylotypes within candidate phylum SBR1093 are primarily clustered into 5 clades with a shallow branching pattern. This bacterium is clustered with phylotypes from organically contaminated environments, implying a demand for organics in heterotrophic metabolism. Considering the types of regulators, such as FnR, Fur, and ArsR, this bacterium might be a facultative aerobic mixotroph with potential multi-antibiotic and heavy metal resistances. This is the first report on Bacteria that may perform potential carbon fixation via the HPHB cycle, thus may expand our knowledge of the distribution and importance of the HPHB cycle in the biosphere.

  7. Comparison of the efficiencies of attached- versus suspended-growth SBR systems in the treatment of recycled paper mill wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhamad, Mohd Hafizuddin; Sheikh Abdullah, Siti Rozaimah; Abu Hasan, Hassimi; Abd Rahim, Reehan Adnee

    2015-11-01

    The complexity of residual toxic organics from biologically treated effluents of pulp and paper mills is a serious concern. To date, it has been difficult to choose the best treatment technique because each of the available options has advantages and drawbacks. In this study, two different treatment techniques using laboratory-scale aerobic sequencing batch reactors (SBRs) were tested with the same real recycled paper mill effluent to evaluate their treatment efficiencies. Two attached-growth SBRs using granular activated carbon (GAC) with and without additional biomass and a suspended-growth SBR were used in the treatment of real recycled paper mill effluent at a chemical oxygen demand (COD) level in the range of 800-1300 mg/L, a fixed hydraulic retention time of 24 h and a COD:N:P ratio of approximately 100:5:1. The efficiency of this biological treatment process was studied over a 300-day period. The six most important wastewater quality parameters, namely, chemical oxygen demand (COD), turbidity, ammonia (expressed as NH3-N), phosphorus (expressed as PO4(3)-P), colour, and suspended solids (SS), were measured to compare the different treatment techniques. It was determined that these processes were able to almost completely and simultaneously eliminate COD (99%) and turbidity (99%); the removals of NH3-N (90-100%), PO4(3)-P (66-78%), colour (63-91%), and SS (97-99%) were also sufficient. The overall performance results confirmed that an attached-growth SBR system using additional biomass on GAC is a promising configuration for wastewater treatment in terms of performance efficiency and process stability under fluctuations of organic load. Hence, this hybrid system is recommended for the treatment of pulp and paper mill effluents. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Characterization of dissolved organic matter in landfill leachate during the combined treatment process of air stripping, Fenton, SBR and coagulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, ZhiPing, E-mail: liulqs@163.com [Key Laboratory of Three Gorges Reservoir Region’s Eco-Environment, Ministry of Education, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400045 (China); Faculty of Urban Construction and Environmental Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400020 (China); Wu, WenHui; Shi, Ping [Faculty of Urban Construction and Environmental Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400020 (China); Guo, JinSong [Chongqing Institute of Green and Intelligent Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chongqing 400045 (China); Cheng, Jin [Faculty of Urban Construction and Environmental Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400020 (China)

    2015-07-15

    Highlights: • DOM fractions spectra analysis during the whole treatment process. • Efficient method was achieved to remove organic matters in landfill leachate. • Molecular weight distribution and fractions were discussed. - Abstract: A combined treatment process of air stripping + Fenton + sequencing batch reactor (SBR)+ coagulation was performed to remove the pollutants in landfill leachate. Molecular weight (MW) distribution and fractions of dissolved organic matter (DOM) were discussed to study the characteristics. The experiment showed that the removal rate of chemical oxygen demand (COD), five day biological oxygen demand (BOD{sub 5}) and ammonia nitrogen (NH{sub 3}−N) by the combined process were 92.8%, 87.8% and 98.0%, respectively. Humic acid (HA) and fulvic acid (FA) were the main fractions in raw leachate with 81.8% of the total COD concentration, while hydrophilic organic matter (HyI) was the dominant fraction in the final effluent of the combined process with 63.5% of the total COD concentration. After the combined treatment process, the removal rate of DOM and fractions HA, FA, HyI were 91.9%, 97.1%, 95.8% and 71.7%, respectively. Organic matters of MW < 2 k and MW > 100 k were removed with 90.5% and 97.9% COD concentration after the treatment. The ultraviolet–visible spectra (UV–vis), Fourier transform infrared spectra (FTIR) and three-dimensional excitation-emission matrices spectra (EEMs) indicated that benzene materials and phenol compounds were preferentially removed in air stripping. High MW matters, aromatic rings, conjugated moieties and some functional groups were mainly removed by Fenton. While small MW fractions, carboxylic acids, alcohols and protein-like materials were preferentially biodegraded via SBR. Fulvic-like and humic-like materials were mainly destroyed via Fenton oxidation and coagulation.

  9. Seismic isolation rubber bearings for nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujita, Takafumi

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes results of biaxial breaking tests by compression and shear and by tension and shear for seismic isolation rubber bearings with bolted-type connections. The bearings used in the tests were low-damping rubber bearings, high-damping rubber bearings, and lead-rubber bearings. Three modes of failure of the bolted-type bearings were observed in the tests. They are the breaking failure by tension and shear; the breaking failure by compression and shear; and the buckling failure by compression and shear. The first and the second modes of failures are almost independent of the types and the sizes of the bearings. The breaking conditions of those failure modes are described in the axial-stress-shear-strain plane. This expression is useful for the evaluation of safety margins of the bearings. The paper outlines the basic design of the nuclear-grade bearings which were used for large-scale rubber bearing tests in a research project for seismic isolation of FBR plants. It also discusses the protection method against aging and the quality control which are important for implementation. (orig./HP)

  10. Seismic isolation rubber bearings for nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujita, Takafumi

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes results of biaxial breaking tests by compression and shear and by tension and shear for seismic isolation rubber bearings with bolted-type connections. The bearings used in the tests were low-damping rubber bearings, high-damping rubber bearings, and lead-rubber bearings. Three modes of failure of the bolted-type bearings were observed in the tests. They are the breaking failure by tension and shear; the breaking failure by compression and shear; and the buckling failure by compression and shear. The first and the second modes of failures are almost independent of the types and the sizes of the bearings. The breaking conditions of those failure modes are described in the axial stress-shear strain plane. This expression is useful for the evaluation of safety margins of the bearings. The paper outlines the basic design of the nuclear-grade bearings which were used for large-scale rubber bearing tests in a research project for seismic isolation of fast breeder reactor (FBR) plants. The paper also discusses the protection method against aging and the quality control which are important for implementation

  11. Stimuli-responsive cement-reinforced rubber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musso, Simone; Robisson, Agathe; Maheshwar, Sudeep; Ulm, Franz-Josef

    2014-05-14

    In this work, we report the successful development of a cement-rubber reactive composite with reversible mechanical properties. Initially, the composite behaves like rubber containing inert filler, but when exposed to water, it increases in volume and reaches a stiffness that is intermediate between that of hydrogenated nitrile butadiene rubber (HNBR) and hydrated cement, while maintaining a relatively large ductility characteristic of rubber. After drying, the modulus increases even further up to 400 MPa. Wet/drying cycles prove that the elastic modulus can reversibly change between 150 and 400 MPa. Utilizing attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy), we demonstrate that the high pH produced by the hydration of cement triggers the hydrolysis of the rubber nitrile groups into carboxylate anions. Thus, the salt bridges, generated between the carboxylate anions of the elastomer and the cations of the filler, are responsible for the reversible variations in volume and elastic modulus of the composite as a consequence of environmental moisture exposure. These results reveal that cement nanoparticles can successfully be used to accomplish a twofold task: (a) achieve an original postpolymerization modification that allows one to work with carboxylate HNBR (HXNBR) not obtained by direct copolymerization of carboxylate monomers with butadiene, and (b) synthesize a stimuli-responsive polymeric composite. This new type of material, having an ideal behavior for sealing application, could be used as an alternative to cement for oil field zonal isolation applications.

  12. Development of rubberized geopolymer interlocking bricks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bashar S Mohammed

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Waste tires contribute badly to the environment on a huge scale as they are bulky, non-biodegradable, and prone to fire and being a shelter for mosquitos and other insects. This paper reports on a novel approach towards the development of rubberized brick by utilizing crumb rubber as the sole fine aggregate in the production of geopolymer interlocking bricks. The response surface methodology (RSM from Design Experts software has been used to determine the numbers of trial mixes and their corresponding ingredients. A total of thirteen trial mixes were carried out and tested for compressive strength and the RSM model was developed to predict the design mix based on the targeted compressive strength. The mix design was obtained to be an 18 M for NaOH and 0.8 solution to fly ash ratio. The geopolymer interlocking rubberized bricks were then produced and tested for compressive strength, dimension, modulus of rupture, water absorption, initial rate of absorption, and efflorescence. The geopolymer interlocking rubberised bricks presented a low compressive and flexural strength and a high-water absorption capacity. The bricks were rated as non-effloresced and classified as 3rd class bricks which can be used as non-load bearing material. It is recommended to utilize nano silica in order to increase the strength of the brick. Keywords: Rubberized bricks, Crumb rubber, Interlocking bricks, Geopolymer, Response surface methodology

  13. New rubber qualification for the igniter adapter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humpherys, Mark A.

    1994-01-01

    Kirkhill Rubber Company (KRC) has informed Thiokol Corporation that two raw materials used in the asbestos and silica filled acrylonitrile butadience rubber (NBR) formulation per STW 2621 are no longer available from their vendors. Agerite White (Di-beta-naphthyl-paraphenylene diamine), manufactured by B. F. Goodrich, is an antioxidant used in NBR. This raw material makes up roughly 1-2 percent of the finished product. KRC proposed that this raw material be replaced by Agerite Stalite S (mixture of octylated diphenylamines) distributed by R. T. Vanderbilt Co. Protox-166 zinc oxide, manufactured by Zinc Corporation of America, is an activator currently used in NBR. This material also makes up about 1-2 percent of the finished material. Protox-166 is an American process grade zinc oxide. It is proposed by KRC to replace Protox-166 with Kadox-930C, a French process grade zinc oxide. American process grades have an ASTM minimum purity of 99.0 percent; the French process grades have a minimum purity of 99.5 percent. Previous testing per WTP-0270 has demonstrated that the mechanical and thermal properties of the rubber with the new ingredients are comparable to the 'old' rubber. The test results are reported in TWR-61790. One igniter adapter, Part no. 7U77562-02 serial no. 2 was insulated per ETP-1206 using the new rubber formulation and a modified lay up and cure method to demonstrate that there is no impact on this process. The results of this demonstration are reported.

  14. Physico-mecha-nical properties of rubber seed shell carbon – filled natural rubber compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.O. Ekebafe

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Samples of rubber seed shells were carbonized at varying temperatures (100, 200, 300, 400, 500, 600, 700 and 800 °C for three hours each and sieved through a 150 μm screen. The portion of the rubber seed shell carbon that passed through the screen was characterized in terms of loss on ignition, surface area, moisture content, pH, bulk density, and metal content and used in compounding natural rubber. The characterization shows that the pH, conductivity, loss on ignition and the surface area increases with the increases of the heating temperature, unlike the bulk density which decreases. The compound mixes were cured using the efficient vulcanization system. Cure characteristics of compounds and physico-mechanical properties of the vulcanisates were measured as a function of filler loading along with that of N330 carbon-black filled natural rubbers. The results showed that the cure times, scorch times and the torque gradually increased, with increasing the filler content for rubber seed shell carbon-filled natural rubber, with the filler obtained at carbonizing temperature of 600 °C tending to show optimum cure indices. The physicomechanical properties of the vulcanisates increase with filler loading. The reinforcing potential of the carbonized rubber seed shell carbon was found to increase markedly for the filler obtained at the temperature range of 500-600 °C and then decreases with further increase in temperature.

  15. Lifetime Analysis of Rubber Gasket Composed of Methyl Vinyl Silicone Rubber with Low-Temperature Resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Doo Kwon

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Most machines and instruments constantly require elastomeric materials like rubber for the purposes of shock absorption, noise attenuation, and sealing. The material properties and accurate lifetime prediction of rubber are closely related to the quality of machines, especially their durability and reliability. The properties of rubber-like elastomers are influenced by ambient conditions, such as temperature, environment, and mechanical load. Moreover, the initial properties of rubber gaskets must be sustained under working conditions to satisfy their required function. Because of its technical merits, as well as its low cost, the highly accelerated life test (HALT is used by many researchers to predict the long-term lifetime of rubber materials. Methyl vinyl silicone rubber (VMQ has recently been adopted to improve the lifetime of automobile radiator gaskets. A four-parameter method of determining the recovery ability of the gaskets was recently published, and two revised methods of obtaining the recovery were proposed for polyacrylate (ACM rubber. The recovery rate curves for VMQ were acquired using the successive zooming genetic algorithm (SZGA. The gasket lifetime for the target recovery (60% of a compressed gasket was computed somewhat differently depending on the selected regression model.

  16. Existence of a tribo-modified surface layer of BR/S-SBR elastomers reinforced with silica or carbon black

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mokhtari, Milad; Schipper, Dirk J.

    2016-01-01

    The existence of a modified surface layer on top of a rubber disk, in contact with a rigid counter-surface, is still a point of discussion. In this study, we show that a modified surface layer with different mechanical properties exists. Modification of the reinforced elastomers is discussed and the

  17. Effects of preparation process on performance of rubber modified asphalt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hanbing; Luo, Guobao; Wang, Xianqiang; Jiao, Yubo

    2015-06-01

    The rational utilization of waste rubber tire is essential for the environmental protection. Utilizing rubber particles to modify asphalt can not only improve asphalt performance, but also help the recycling of waste materials. Considering the effect of different preparation process parameters on the performance of rubber modified asphalt, this paper analyzes the effects of the shear temperature, shear time and shear rate on the performance of rubber modified asphalt, and provided a reference for its preparation.

  18. Review of food toxicological issues associated in rubber products

    OpenAIRE

    Ng, Mei Xiang; Ong, S.P.; Hii, C.L.; Chuah, L.A.; Law, C.L.

    2014-01-01

    Over the centuries, rubber latex gained its popularity in machinery application due to its unique thermal properties, high elasticity and excellent impact resistance. It is widely accepted in food industry as rubber has good resistance to chemicals, including acids, alkalis and salts. For instance, rubber components comprise of couplings, shields, dust covers, gaskets and seals exist as group or standalone component in food manufacturing equipments or machinery. Even though most of the rubber...

  19. Mechanical Properties of Graphene-Rubber Nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anhar, N. A. M.; Ramli, M. M.; Hambali, N. A. M. A.; Aziz, A. A.; Mat Isa, S. S.; Danial, N. S.; Abdullah, M. M. A. B.

    2017-11-01

    This research focused on development of wearable sensor device by using Prevulcanized Natural Rubber (PV) and Epoxidized Natural Rubber (ENR 50) latex incorporated with graphene oxide (GO), graphene paste, graphene powder and reduced graphene oxide (rGO) powder. The compounding formulation and calculation were based on phr (parts per hundred rubber) and all the samples were then tested for mechanical properties using Instron 5565 machine. It was found that the sonication effects on tensile strength may have better quality of tensile strength compared to non-sonicated GO. For PV incorporate GO, the optimum loading was best determined at loading 1.5 phr with or without sonication and similar result was recorded for PV/G. For ENR 50 incorporate graphene paste and rGO powder nanocomposite shows the best optimum was at 3.0 phr with 24 hours’ sonication.

  20. Development of rubber gloves by radiation vulcanization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makuuchi, K.; Yoshii, F.; Ishigaki, I.; Mogi, M.; Saito, T.

    1990-01-01

    The processes of radiation vulcanization and production of protective rubber gloves for radioactive contamination are described. A newly developed sensitizing system consisting of 5 phr 2-ethylhexyl acrylate and 1 phr carbon tetrachloride was used to vulcanize natural rubber latex at 12 kGy. Transparent and soft gloves were obtained from the radiation vulcanized latex by a coagulant dipping process. The mechanical properties of the gloves meet Japanese Industrial Standard specification for protective gloves. Combustion analysis of the gloves revealed that the amount of evolved sulfur dioxide and remaining ashes are less than those from commercially available rubber gloves. A trial usage of the gloves at a nuclear power plant showed that the gloves were easy to use for delicate work without undergoing fatigue. (author)

  1. Synergistic effect of plasma-modified halloysite nanotubes and carbon black in natural rubber-butadiene rubber blend

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poikelispaa, Minna; Das, Amit; Dierkes, Wilma K.; Vuorinen, Jyrki

    2013-01-01

    Halloysite nanotubes (HNTs) were investigated concerning their suitability for rubber reinforcement. As they have geometrical similarity with carbon nanotubes, they were expected to impart a significant reinforcement effect on the rubber compounds but the dispersion of the nanofillers is difficult.

  2. Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Rubber Industry in Thailand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jawjit, W.; Kroeze, C.; Rattanapan, S.

    2010-01-01

    Rubber production has been taking place in Thailand for many decades. Thailand is currently the world's largest natural rubber producer. We present emissions of greenhouse gases associated with the production of fresh latex, and three primary rubber products, including concentrated latex, block

  3. 30 CFR 77.606-1 - Rubber gloves; minimum requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Rubber gloves; minimum requirements. 77.606-1... COAL MINES Trailing Cables § 77.606-1 Rubber gloves; minimum requirements. (a) Rubber gloves (lineman's gloves) worn while handling high-voltage trailing cables shall be rated at least 20,000 volts and shall...

  4. 27 CFR 21.125 - Rubber hydrocarbon solvent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Rubber hydrocarbon solvent. 21.125 Section 21.125 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU....125 Rubber hydrocarbon solvent. (a) Rubber hydrocarbon solvent is a petroleum derivative. (b...

  5. STUDY ON HEAT DYNAMIC LOADING OF RUBBER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. I. Igumenova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A number of studies on heat buildup in tire rubber surface scan method samples using a thermal imaging camera. Investigated the exothermic chemical reaction mechanical destruction rubber when loading designs permanent cyclic stretching with deformation of the working zone 50%. Percentage of deformation of the working zone was chosen on the basis of the actual data on the stretch-compression zone "Rusk" tires, which is the maximum level difference of deformation during run-in. Experiment plan provided for periodic relaxation samples of at least 72 hours for more accurate simulation of operation process of structural products. Created and processed data on temperature changes in samples for bar and line profile for rubber compounds with the introduction of nanomodifiers (fulleren technical carbon in comparison with the control sample without him. The data obtained reflect the nature of heat depending on the composition of the compound. Identified common patterns of thermal nature of physico-chemical process mechanical destruction rubbers. For rubber with nanomodifikatorom there has been an increase in the temperature interval reaction from a minimum to a maximum 2 degrees that is also linked to the rise in the average temperature of the reaction on the histogram also at 2-3 degrees of deformation under the same conditions and the level of cyclic loading. However, the temperature in the control sample that is associated with the beginning of the formation of hardened rubber structures, economies of Mallinz-Petrikeev, occurs with delay twice compared with modified Fullerenes. Measurement of physic-mechanical indicators selected in the course of testing of samples showed the beginning of formation of structure with increased strength of samples in the sample temperature zone that corresponds to the thermal effect of èndotermičeskomu recombination reactions of macromolecules.

  6. Mechanical properties of irradiated rubber-blends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nasr, G.M.; Madani, M.

    2005-01-01

    A study has been made on blend ratios of natural rubber (NR) and acrylonitrile butadiene rubber (NBR) that are loaded with general purpose furnace (GPE) carbon black and irradiated at different gamma radiation doses. It was fount that the mechanical properties of such blend are highly affected by γ- irradiation dose and the composition ratios of its constituents. The elongation at break for blends was found to increase slightly with increasing NBR loafing which is mainly due to the stiffness of blending matrix formation between NR and GPF carbon black particles. The hysteresis loss, extension ratio and shape factor have been calculated for the different un-irradiated and irradiated samples

  7. NMR relaxation times of natural rubber latex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harun, S.; Aziz, H.; Basir, Z.

    1994-01-01

    NMR relaxation times T sub 1 and T sub 2 of natural rubber latex have been measured at 25 degree C on a pulsed NMR spectrometer. The work focuses on the variation of the relaxation times with the amount of water content from 0% to 50%. The water content was adjusted by centrifuging and removing a certain amount of water from the sample. The data were analysed using a biexponential fitting procedure which yields simultaneously either T sub 1a and T sub 1b or T sub 2a and T sub 2b. The amount of solid was compared with the known amount of dry rubber content

  8. Supply of Rubber Wood Log in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Noraida, A. W.; Abdul-Rahim, A. S.

    2014-01-01

    Issue on shortage of raw material for wood processing solved by discovery of rubber wood log as one of the substitutes the natural log. This paper examines the supply of rubber wood log in Malaysia. We employ ARDL Bound Approach Test and time series data from 1980 to 2010 which represented the whole Malaysia are used to achieve the established objectives. The result shown, in the long run harvested area and wages have 1% and 10% significant level respectively. While in the short run, there wa...

  9. Studies on the increased heat effect within the rubber tree rows of man-made rubber-tea community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Youxin

    1994-01-01

    Differences in the various components of thermal balance and the microclimatic factors within lower layers of rubber tree rows between a man-made rubber-tea community(RTC)and a pure rubber garden(PRG)in the coldest month were studied in Xishuangbanna,Yun-nan province

  10. Degradation of blending vulcanized natural rubber and nitril rubber (NR/NBR) by dimethyl ether through variation of elastomer ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saputra, A. H.; Juneva, S.; Sari, T. I.; Cifriadi, A.

    2018-04-01

    Dimethyl ether can cause degradation of the rubber material seal in some applications. In order to use of natural rubber in industry, research about a blending of natural rubber (NR) and nitrile rubber (NBR) to produce rubber to meet the standard seal material application were conducted. This study will observe the degradation mechanisms that occur in the blending natural rubber and nitrile rubber (NR/NBR) by dimethyl ether. Nitrile rubber types used in this study is medium quality nitrile rubber with 33% of acrylonitrile content (NBR33). The observed parameters are percent change in mass, mechanical properties and surface morphology. This study is limited to see the effect of variation vulcanized blending ratio (NR/NBR33) against to swelling. The increase of nitrile rubber (NBR33) ratio of blending rubber vulcanized can reduce the tensile strength and elongation. The best elastomer variation was obtained after comparing with the standard feasibility material of seal is rubber vulcanized blending (NR/NBR33) with ratio 40:60 NR: NBR.

  11. The Effect of Gamma Irradiation on the Mechanical Properties of vulcanized Natural Rubber and Natural Rubber-Polyethylene Blends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sudradjat Iskandar

    2008-01-01

    To enhance the quality of vulcanized natural rubber and natural rubber-polyethylene blends, gamma irradiation has been done. The compound of natural rubber and natural rubber-polyethylene blends made by using roll mill machine. The mixed materials were antioxidant, anti ozon, plasticizer and vulcanisator. The natural rubber and natural rubber-polyethylene blends compound were vulcanizer and made a slab (film of sample) using hot and could press machine. The slabs produced were then gamma irradiated at irradiation dose of 75, 150 and 300 kGy. Before and after irradiation, the slab were characterized using strograph R1 machine. The results showed that the modulus 300 and hardness of vulcanized natural rubber and natural rubber-polyethylene blends were increasing; the tensile strength and tear strength were increasing to maximum level then decreasing with gamma irradiation, while the elongation at break was decreasing. The maximum tensile strength of vulcanized natural rubber and natural rubber-polyethylene blends were found at irradiation dose of 75 kGy. At the irradiation dose of 75 kGy, the tensile strength of vulcanized natural rubber increased from 17.6 MN/m 2 to 21.2 MN/m 2 , while the tensile strength of vulcanized natural rubber-polyethylene blends increased slightly from 18.7 MN/m 2 to 19.4 MN/m 2 . (author)

  12. A Phase Blending Study on Rubber Blends Based on the Solubility Preference of Curatives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guo, R.; Talma, Auke; Datta, Rabin; Dierkes, Wilma K.; Noordermeer, Jacobus W.M.

    2009-01-01

    Using previously obtained data on the solubilities of curatives in SBR, EPDM and in NBR, different mixing procedures were performed on 50/50 SBR/EPDM and NBR/EPDM blends. In contrast to a previous phase-mixing study, the curatives were added to separate phases before final blending, in an attempt to

  13. Radiation-induced deterioration of natural rubber and isoprene rubber vulcanizates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kohjiya, Shinzo; Matsumura, Yasushige; Yamashita, Shinzo; Matsuyama, Tomochika; Yamaoka, Hitoshi.

    1984-01-01

    Natural rubber (NR) and isoprene rubber (IR) were cured by sulfur and accelerator to give rubber vulcanizates. Both vulcanizates were subject to solvent extraction to purify them, followed by the γ-ray irradiation in air at room temperature. The deterioration by γ-ray (0-20 Mrad) was investigated by the changes of tensile properties, hardness, swelling, and ATR-IR spectra. The tensile strength decreased much by a few Mrad irradiation, which is elucidated due to the difficulty of stretch-induced crystallization of polyisoprene after the irradiation. Modulus at 50 % elongation, network-chain density, and hardness did not show significant variation with the γ-ray dose. These irradiation results suggest both degradation and crosslinking occur comparably in the rubber vulcanizates and the regularity of polyisoprene chains may be somewhat randomized to prevent them from crystallizing on stretching. (author)

  14. Investigation of surface halide modification of nitrile butadiene rubber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhareva, K. V.; Mikhailov, I. A.; Andriasyan, Yu O.; Mastalygina, E. E.; Popov, A. A.

    2017-12-01

    The investigation is devoted to the novel technology of surface halide modification of rubber samples based on nitrile butadiene rubber (NBR). 1,1,2-trifluoro-1,2,2-trichlorethane was used as halide modifier. The developed technology is characterized by production stages reduction to one by means of treating the rubber compound with a halide modifier. The surface halide modification of compounds based on nitrile butadiene rubber (NBR) was determined to result in increase of resistance to thermal oxidation and aggressive media. The conducted research revealed the influence of modification time on chemical resistance and physical-mechanical properties of rubbers under investigation.

  15. Simulation work of fatigue life prediction of rubber automotive components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samad, M S A; Ali, Aidy

    2010-01-01

    The usage of rubbers has always been so important, especially in automotive industries. Rubbers have a hyper elastic behaviour which is the ability to withstand very large strain without failure. The normal applications for rubbers are used for shock absorption, sound isolation and mounting. In this study, the predictions of fatigue life of an engine mount of rubber automotive components were presented. The finite element analysis was performed to predict the critical part and the strain output were incorporated into fatigue model for prediction. The predicted result shows agreement in term of failure location of rubber mount.

  16. Performance Study of the Natural Rubber Composite with Clay Minerals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nyo Nyo Myint; Tin Tin Aye; Kyaw Myo Naing; Nyunt Wynn

    2008-03-01

    The preparation, characterization and some applications of natural rubber clay composite have been studied. This study investigated the possibility of natural rubber latex to replace some part of natural clays. In formulation of rubber clay composite from natural rubber latex and various clay minerals, three main steps were involved (i) preparation of latex cream (ii) prevulcanization of latex cream (iii) mixing vulcanized latex compound, with other ingredients. In each step, several parameters have been carefully investigated to optimize the performance of natural rubber clay composite production. The composite products were of better quality and can be considered to be more cost effective.

  17. Enzymatic synthesis of rubber polymer in Hevea brasiliensis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, F.; Hu, S.; Benedict, C.R. (Texas A and M Univ., College Station (United States))

    1991-05-01

    Light and Dennis purified serum soluble rubber transferase from Hevea latex to homogeneity. Prenyl transferase co-purified with rubber transferase. In the absence of washed rubber particles (WRP) the prenyl transferase catalyzed the formation of trans FPP from DMAPP and IPP. In the presence of WRP the transferase catalyzed cis additions of IPP to pre-existing rubber chains. Control mixtures of WRP, Mg{sup 2+} and FPP were not included to test for the contributions of the bound rubber transferase on WRP to the incorporation of IPP into polyisoprene. Bound rubber transferase catalyzes the repetitive addition of IPP to allylic-PP starter molecules to form polyisoprene. The order of utilization of allylic-PP starters was GGPP > FPP > GPP > DMAPP. The authors have shown that the polyisoprene enzymatically synthesized on WRP is a bimodal polymer consisting of different mol wt rubber chains similar to the polymeric characteristics of natural rubber. The bound rubber transferase was solubilized with Chaps and purified on DEAE-cellulose. The polymerization reaction catalyzed by the purified preparation showed a 98% requirement for pre-existing rubber chains. Results suggest that the prenyl transferase from Hevea serum may be part of the polymer starter system furnishing allylic-PP for the bound rubber transferase.

  18. Preparation of sulfonic acid-containing rubbers from natural rubber vulcanizates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poonsawat, Worapong; Poompradub, Sirilux; Ngamcharussrivichai, Chawalit

    2014-06-01

    In this work, a series of sulfonic acid-containing rubbers were prepared by aqueous phase oxidation of natural rubber vulcanizates in the presence of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and formic acid (HCOOH). The starting vulcanizates were neatly prepared via an efficient vulcanization (EV) system by varying mass ratio of N-cyclohexyl-2-benzothiazole sulfonamide (CBS), as an accelerator, to sulfur. The oxidation conditions were controlled at the molar ratio of H2O2: HCOOH = 1:1, the concentration of H2O2 = 15 wt.%, the temperature = 50 °C, and the reaction time = 3 h. The rubber materials before and after the oxidation were characterized for their physicochemical properties by using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, bomb calorimetry, acid-base titration and swelling measurements. The results indicated the presence of sulfonic acid group in the oxidized rubbers, generated by the oxidative cleaves of sulfide crosslinks in the rubber vulcanizates. The oxidation decreased the sulfur content of the rubber in which the level of sulfur loss was determined by the CBS/sulfur ratio. Moreover, the acidity of the oxidized products was correlated with the amount of sulfur remaining.

  19. Application of gamma irradiation for incorporation of rubber powder in the formulations EPDM and NBR rubber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiyan, Ludmila de Ysasa Pozzo

    2014-01-01

    The natural decomposition of rubber is a very slow process due to its three-dimensional network formed by vulcanized crosslinked structures becoming extremely difficult to reprocess this material. The present work aims to study the application of gamma irradiation as devulcanization process for material reuse/recycling. The interactions of elastomers with ionizing radiation of a gamma source were investigated and the changes in physicochemical properties of the materials were evaluated. Formulations of NBR (acrylonitrile - butadiene) and EPDM (ethylene - propylene - diene terpolymer) from the rubber industry were crosslinked by conventional sulfur-based mixing. Master - batch was processed with rubber powder (industrial waste) and virgin rubber. The raw material (master batch) was irradiated in 60 Co source at doses of 50, 100, 150 kGy and dose rate of 5 kGy h -1 at room temperature. The irradiated material was incorporated in classical sulfur-based formulations. The formulations were characterized by: infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), thermal analysis (TG and DTG), tensile strength, elongation at break, hardness, abrasion resistance, rheometry and swelling. The results showed a predominance of chain scission at a dose of 50 kGy for EPDM rubber. For nitrile predominance of chain scission was observed at a dose of 100 kGy. These results show the possibility of the use of gamma radiation for the reuse/recycling of EPDM and nitrile rubbers. (author)

  20. Carboxy terminated rubber based on natural rubber grafted with acid anhydrides and its adhesion properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klinpituksa, P; Kongkalai, P; Kaesaman, A

    2014-01-01

    The chemical modification of natural rubber by grafting of various polar functional molecules is an essential method, improving the versatility of rubber in applications. This research investigated the preparation of natural rubber-graft-citraconic anhydride (NR-g-CCA), natural rubber-graft-itaconic anhydride (NR-g-ICA), and natural rubber-graft-maleic anhydride (NR-g-MA), with the anhydrides grafted to natural rubber in toluene using benzoyl peroxide as an initiator. Variations of monomer content, initiator content, temperature and reaction time of the grafting copolymerization were investigated. The maximum degrees of grafting were 1.06% for NR-g-CCA, 4.66% for NR-g-ICA, and 5.03% for NR-g-MA, reached using 10 phr citraconic anhydride, 10 phr of itaconic anhydride, or 8 phr of maleic anhydride, 3 phr benzoyl peroxide, at 85, 80 and 80°C for 2, 2 and 3 hrs, respectively. Solvent-based wood adhesives were formulated from these copolymers with various contents of wood resin in the range 10-40 phr. The maximal 289 N/in cleavage peel and 245.7 KPa shear strength for NR-g-MA (5.03% grafting) were obtained at 40 phr wood resin

  1. Radiation modification of silicone rubber with glycidylmethacrylate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Segura, Tania; Burillo, Guillermina

    2013-01-01

    The grafting of glycidilmethacrylate(GMA) was grafted onto silicone rubber (SR) by using the γ-ray pre-irradiation grafting method under different conditions. The effect of reaction time, total dose, reaction temperature and monomer concentration on the graft yield was studied. It was found that the degree of grafting can be controlled by adjusting these parameters. The chemical structure of SR before and after grafting was characterized using FTIR-ATR and SEM–EDS. The analysis revealed that the surface of the SR was uniformly covered by GMA and the cross-section analysis indicated that the grafting occurred in the bulk. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) showed that the graft copolymer was more thermally stable than polyglycidylmethacrylate but less stable than SR, and the DSC confirmed that the GMA was grafting onto silicone rubber. - Highlights: • A graft copolymer with silicone rubber was synthesized by gamma pre-irradiation method. • SEM–EDS analysis showed that the surface and the bulk of the new copolymer were grafted. • The thermal properties of the silicone rubber used were modified with grafting. • The new copolymer could be used to immobilize nucleophilic biomolecules

  2. Reassessment of anoxic storage of ethnographic rubber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shashoua, Yvonne; Dyer, Joanne; Ward, Clare

    2011-01-01

    This paper revisits the 1991–1995 British Museum field trial on anoxic storage, where 23 registered ethnographic rubber objects were enclosed in oxygen barrier film Cryovac BDF200 with sachets of the oxygen absorbent Ageless Z. A unique opportunity for study was presented since most of the enclos...

  3. Rubber - application of radiation to tire manufacture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunt, J.D.; Alliger, G.

    1979-01-01

    Since the advent of commercial accelerators during the last several years capable of producing controllable electron beams of high energy, Firestone has devoted a considerable effort to the better understanding of the possible applications of such radiation to the production of tires or tire components. A number of chemical reactions can occur when elastomeric compounds are exposed to high energy waves, but crosslinking and degradation are the most important. The degree to which the crosslinking reaction predominates depends upon the nature of the rubber, compounding ingredients and the dosage. In general then, the effects achieved by the radiation of a rubber are quite similar to those resulting from heat. However, radiation cure or precure of compounds offers the advantage that the degree of crosslinking can be better controlled. Uniform crosslinking is possible since the high speed electrons penetrate uniformly throughout the sample. Curing with heat on the other hand may result in a greater degree of crosslinking on the surface of the sample than the center because of low heat conductivity. In general, radiation can be used to advantage to crosslink partially rubber tire components so that they retain better their shape and dimension during tire assembly and final cure or vulcanization. Added advantages of radiation precure include: a reduction of material usage, substitution of synthetic for natural rubber without loss in strength and the fact that partially crosslinked components will not thin out or become displaced during construction and vulcanization of the tire. (author)

  4. Boron-Loaded Silicone Rubber Scintillators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bell, Z.W.; Maya, L.; Brown, G.M.; Sloop, F.V.Jr

    2003-05-12

    Silicone rubber received attention as an alternative to polyvinyltoluene in applications in which the scintillator is exposed to high doses because of the increased resistance of the rubber to the formation of blue-absorbing color centers. Work by Bowen, et al., and Harmon, et al., demonstrated their properties under gamma/x-ray irradiation, and Bell, et al. have shown their response to thermal neutrons. This last work, however, provided an example of a silicone in which both the boron and the scintillator were contained in the rubber as solutes, a formulation which led to the precipitation of solids and sublimation of the boron component. In the present work we describe a scintillator in which the boron is chemically bonded to the siloxane and so avoids the problem of precipitation and loss of boron to sublimation. Material containing up to 18% boron, by weight, was prepared, mounted on photomultipliers, and exposed to both neutron and gamma fluxes. Pulse height spectra showing the neutron and photon response were obtained, and although the light output was found to be much poorer than from samples in which boron was dissolved, the higher boron concentrations enabled essentially 100% neutron absorption in only a few millimeters' thickness of rubber.

  5. Rubber Recycling: Chemistry, Processing, and Applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Myhre, M.; Saiwari, Sitisaiyidah; Dierkes, Wilma K.; Noordermeer, Jacobus W.M.

    2012-01-01

    For both environmental and economic reasons, there is broad interest in recycling rubber and in the continued development of recycling technologies. The use of postindustrial materials is a fairly well-established and documented business. Much effort over the past decade has been put into dealing

  6. Rubber hand illusion under delayed visual feedback.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sotaro Shimada

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Rubber hand illusion (RHI is a subject's illusion of the self-ownership of a rubber hand that was touched synchronously with their own hand. Although previous studies have confirmed that this illusion disappears when the rubber hand was touched asynchronously with the subject's hand, the minimum temporal discrepancy of these two events for attenuation of RHI has not been examined. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study, various temporal discrepancies between visual and tactile stimulations were introduced by using a visual feedback delay experimental setup, and RHI effects in each temporal discrepancy condition were systematically tested. The results showed that subjects felt significantly greater RHI effects with temporal discrepancies of less than 300 ms compared with longer temporal discrepancies. The RHI effects on reaching performance (proprioceptive drift showed similar conditional differences. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results first demonstrated that a temporal discrepancy of less than 300 ms between visual stimulation of the rubber hand and tactile stimulation to the subject's own hand is preferable to induce strong sensation of RHI. We suggest that the time window of less than 300 ms is critical for multi-sensory integration processes constituting the self-body image.

  7. Valorisation of Proteins from Rubber Tree

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Widyarani,; Coulen, Stef C.W.; Sanders, Johan P.M.; Bruins, Marieke E.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The objective of this study was to identify the availability, possible applications, and economic potential of proteins that are present in different parts of the rubber tree. Proteins from non-food sources can be used in e.g. animal feed or biochemicals production with no or little

  8. Boundary lubrication of glass: rubber sliding contacts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heide, E. van der; Lossie, C.M.; Bommel, K.J.C. van; Reinders, S.A.F.; Lenting, H.B.M.

    2009-01-01

    Polymer brush coatings represent a promising class of coatings for friction control [1], especially in a humid environment [2]. A study on the feasibility of a specific class of polymer brush coatings [5] was done for a sliding system that involves ‘silicon skin L7350’: a silicon rubber used by FIFA

  9. Natural rubber (NR) biosynthesis: perspectives from polymer chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barkakaty, Balaka [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    Natural rubber is an important strategic raw material for manufacturing a wide variety of industrial products. There are at least 2,500 different latex-producing plant species; however, only Hevea brasiliensis (the Brazilian rubber tree) is a commercial source. The chemical structure of natural rubber is cis-1,4-polyisoprene, but the exact structure of the head and end groups remains unknown. Since synthetic cis-1,4-polyisoprenes cannot match the superior properties of natural rubber, understanding the chemistry behind the biosynthetic process is key to finding a possible replacement. T his chapter summarizes our current understandings from the perspective of a polymer scientist by comparing synthetic polyisoprenes to natural rubber. The chapter also highlights biomimetic polymerization, research towards a synthetic match of natural rubber and the role of natural rubber in health care.

  10. Chlorinated rubbers with advanced properties for tire industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikhaylov, I. A.; Sukhareva, K. V.; Andriasyan, Yu. O.; Popov, A. A.

    2017-12-01

    The paper investigates the production and processing of halide-modified chlorinated rubbers, such as isobutylene isoprene rubber and ethylene-propylene-diene-monomer rubber (IIR and EPDM), which are perspective in terms of application in rubber industry. Prospects for their production and application are determined by the specific properties of these rubbers (low gas permeability of IIR, high heat and ozone resistance of EPDM). These properties are governed by the structure of both initial IIR and EPDM and chlorinated rubbers (ChIIR and ChEPDM). A new alternative technology of obtaining chlorinated elastomers based on solid-phase mechanochemical halide modification is proposed. Novel chlorinated polyolefin rubbers obtained by the developed technology show good technological properties under industrial production conditions due to enhanced covulcanization.

  11. A study on creep properties of laminated rubber bearings. Pt. 1. Creep properties and numerical simulations of thick rubber bearings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuda, Akihiro; Yabana, Shuichi

    2000-01-01

    In this report, to evaluate creep properties and effects of creep deformation on mechanical properties of thick rubber bearings for three-dimensional isolation system, we show results of compression creep test for rubber bearings of various rubber materials and shapes and development of numerical simulation method. Creep properties of thick rubber bearings were obtained from compression creep tests. The creep strain shows steady creep that have logarithmic relationships between strain and time and accelerated creep that have linear relationships. We make numerical model of a rubber material with nonlinear viscoelastic constitutional equations. Mechanical properties after creep loading test are simulated with enough accuracy. (author)

  12. Diseño de un SBR a escala piloto combinado con un sistema de ozonización para eliminar fangos en exceso

    OpenAIRE

    CROS MARTÍNEZ, MARTA

    2018-01-01

    Actualmente, los sistemas más comunes utilizados para el fango en exceso que se produce en un tratamiento biológico es espesamiento, estabilización (química, física o biológica) y deshidratación. En este trabajo se plantea un estudio de ozonizacion del fango en exceso y la evolución de los parámetros de salida del reactor biológico, en este caso un SBR, además del diseño de una planta piloto del sistema de tratamiento de fangos. Cros Martínez, M. (2017). Diseño de un SBR a escala piloto co...

  13. Efficiency of SBR Process with a Six Sequence Aerobic-Anaerobic Cycle for Phosphorus and Organic Material Removal from Municipal Wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadiya Shahandeh

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Various chemical, physical and biologic treatment methods are being used to remove nitrogen and phosphorus from wastewater. Sequencing batch reactor (SBR is a modified activated sludge process that removes phosphorus and organic material from sanitary wastewater, biologically. Methods: This study was conducted in 2016.The performance of an aerobic-anaerobic SBR pilot device, located at Ahwaz West Wastewater Treatment Plant, Ahwaz, southern Iran in phosphorus and organic material removal was evaluated to determine the effect of the aerobic-anaerobic step time on the efficiency of nitrogen and phosphorus removal, the effect of changing the sequence of steps and the effect of time ratio on phosphorus removal efficiency. A reactor of 8 L was used. Influent contained 397 and 10.7 mg/l COD and phosphorus, respectively. The pilot plant started with a 24 h cycle including four cycles of 6 h, as follows: 1- Loading (15 min, 2-Anaerobic (2 h-Aerobic (2 h, 3- Settling (1 h, Idleness (30 min and 5- decant (15 min. Results: After reaching steady conditions (6 months, Removal percentages of phosphorus, BOD5, COD, and TSS in The SBR over a period of 6 months was 79%, 86%, 89% and 83%, respectively. Conclusion: Result of this study can be used for designing and optimum operation of sequencing batch reactors.

  14. Long-term dynamic and pseudo-state modeling of complete partial nitrification process at high nitrogen loading rates in a sequential batch reactor (SBR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soliman, Moomen; Eldyasti, Ahmed

    2017-06-01

    Recently, partial nitrification has been adopted widely either for the nitrite shunt process or intermediate nitrite generation step for the Anammox process. However, partial nitrification has been hindered by the complexity of maintaining stable nitrite accumulation at high nitrogen loading rates (NLR) which affect the feasibility of the process for high nitrogen content wastewater. Thus, the operational data of a lab scale SBR performing complete partial nitrification as a first step of nitrite shunt process at NLRs of 0.3-1.2kg/(m 3 d) have been used to calibrate and validate a process model developed using BioWin® in order to describe the long-term dynamic behavior of the SBR. Moreover, an identifiability analysis step has been introduced to the calibration protocol to eliminate the needs of the respirometric analysis for SBR models. The calibrated model was able to predict accurately the daily effluent ammonia, nitrate, nitrite, alkalinity concentrations and pH during all different operational conditions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Silencing the lettuce homologs of small rubber particle protein does not influence natural rubber biosynthesis in lettuce (Lactuca sativa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakrabarty, Romit; Qu, Yang; Ro, Dae-Kyun

    2015-05-01

    Natural rubber, cis-1,4-polyisoprene, is an important raw material in chemical industries, but its biosynthetic mechanism remains elusive. Natural rubber is known to be synthesized in rubber particles suspended in laticifer cells in the Brazilian rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis). In the rubber tree, rubber elongation factor (REF) and its homolog, small rubber particle protein (SRPP), were found to be the most abundant proteins in rubber particles, and they have been implicated in natural rubber biosynthesis. As lettuce (Lactuca sativa) can synthesize natural rubber, we utilized this annual, transformable plant to examine in planta roles of the lettuce REF/SRPP homologs by RNA interference. Among eight lettuce REF/SRPP homologs identified, transcripts of two genes (LsSRPP4 and LsSRPP8) accounted for more than 90% of total transcripts of REF/SRPP homologs in lettuce latex. LsSRPP4 displays a typical primary protein sequence as other REF/SRPP, while LsSRPP8 is twice as long as LsSRPP4. These two major LsSRPP transcripts were individually and simultaneously silenced by RNA interference, and relative abundance, polymer molecular weight, and polydispersity of natural rubber were analyzed from the LsSRPP4- and LsSRPP8-silenced transgenic lettuce. Despite previous data suggesting the implications of REF/SRPP in natural rubber biosynthesis, qualitative and quantitative alterations of natural rubber could not be observed in transgenic lettuce lines. It is concluded that lettuce REF/SRPP homologs are not critically important proteins in natural rubber biosynthesis in lettuce. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Towards development of lignin reinforced elastomeric compounds with reduced energy dissipation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahl, Kushal

    spectroscopy and 1H spin-lattice relaxation times confirm pi-pi interactions. The hybrid fillers offer reduction of networking of carbon black particles and viscoelastic dissipation in rubber compounds without sacrificing the mechanical performance. The third part of this study evaluates the performance of polybutadiene- g-polypentafluorostyrene (PB-g-PPFS) as a coupling agent for promotion of interactions between lignin and rubber and to achieve better overall reinforcing performance. The PB domains of PB-g-PPFS are compatible with styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR) while the PPFS segments engage in arene-perfluoroarene interactions with lignin. These interactions are confirmed via UV-vis spectroscopy data. The efficacy of PB-g-PPFS as a coupling agent is evaluated for compounds filled with lignin and lignin/carbon black hybrid fillers. The results show that the addition of PB-g-PPFS improves the tensile strength by 33% and reduces the viscoelastic loss in filled SBR compounds by improving filler dispersion. The results presented in this thesis demonstrate that the approaches of surface modification, exploitation of non-covalent interactions, and the use of coupling agents are effective in solving the impending issues associated with the use of lignin, the second most abundant bio-derived material, as effective reinforcing filler for polymer compounds.

  17. Nitrous oxide reduction genetic potential from the microbial community of an intermittently aerated partial nitritation SBR treating mature landfill leachate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabarró, J; Hernández-Del Amo, E; Gich, F; Ruscalleda, M; Balaguer, M D; Colprim, J

    2013-12-01

    This study investigates the microbial community dynamics in an intermittently aerated partial nitritation (PN) SBR treating landfill leachate, with emphasis to the nosZ encoding gene. PN was successfully achieved and high effluent stability and suitability for a later anammox reactor was ensured. Anoxic feedings allowed denitrifying activity in the reactor. The influent composition influenced the mixed liquor suspended solids concentration leading to variations of specific operational rates. The bacterial community was low diverse due to the stringent conditions in the reactor, and was mostly enriched by members of Betaproteobacteria and Bacteroidetes as determined by 16S rRNA sequencing from excised DGGE melting types. The qPCR analysis for nitrogen cycle-related enzymes (amoA, nirS, nirK and nosZ) demonstrated high amoA enrichment but being nirS the most relatively abundant gene. nosZ was also enriched from the seed sludge. Linear correlation was found mostly between nirS and the organic specific rates. Finally, Bacteroidetes sequenced in this study by 16S rRNA DGGE were not sequenced for nosZ DGGE, indicating that not all denitrifiers deal with complete denitrification. However, nosZ encoding gene bacteria was found during the whole experiment indicating the genetic potential to reduce N2O. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Performance of CSTR-EGSB-SBR system for treating sulfate-rich cellulosic ethanol wastewater and microbial community analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Lili; Zhang, Zhaohan; Yu, Yanling; Ambuchi, John Justo; Feng, Yujie

    2017-06-01

    Performance and microbial community composition were evaluated in a two-phase anaerobic and aerobic system treating sulfate-rich cellulosic ethanol wastewater (CEW). The system was operated at five different chemical oxygen demand (COD)/SO 4 2- ratios (63.8, 26.3, 17.8, 13.7, and 10.7). Stable performance was obtained for total COD removal efficiency (94.5%), sulfate removal (89.3%), and methane production rate (11.5 L/day) at an organic loading rate of 32.4 kg COD/(m 3 ·day). The acidogenic reactor made a positive contribution to net VFAs production (2318.1 mg/L) and sulfate removal (60.9%). Acidogenic bacteria (Megasphaera, Parabacteroides, unclassified Ruminococcaceae spp., and Prevotella) and sulfate-reducing bacteria (Butyrivibrio, Megasphaera) were rich in the acidogenic reactor. In the methanogenic reactor, high diversity of microorganisms corresponded with a COD removal contribution of 83.2%. Moreover, methanogens (Methanosaeta) were predominant, suggesting that these organisms played an important role in the acetotrophic methanogenesis pathway. The dominant aerobic bacteria (Truepera) appeared to have been responsible for the COD removal of the SBR. These results indicate that dividing the sulfate reduction process could effectively minimize sulfide toxicity, which is important for the successful operation of system treating sulfate-rich CEW.

  19. Treatment of opium alkaloid containing wastewater in sequencing batch reactor (SBR)—Effect of gamma irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bural, Cavit B.; Demirer, Goksel N.; Kantoglu, Omer; Dilek, Filiz B.

    2010-04-01

    Aerobic biological treatment of opium alkaloid containing wastewater as well as the effect of gamma irradiation as pre-treatment was investigated. Biodegradability of raw wastewater was assessed in aerobic batch reactors and was found highly biodegradable (83-90% degradation). The effect of irradiation (40 and 140 kGy) on biodegradability was also evaluated in terms of BOD 5/COD values and results revealed that irradiation imparted no further enhancement in the biodegradability. Despite the highly biodegradable nature of wastewater, further experiments in sequencing batch reactors (SBR) revealed that the treatment operation was not possible due to sludge settleability problem observed beyond an influent COD value of 2000 mg dm -3. Possible reasons for this problem were investigated, and the high molecular weight, large size and aromatic structure of the organic pollutants present in wastewater was thought to contribute to poor settleability. Initial efforts to solve this problem by modifying the operational conditions, such as SRT reduction, failed. However, further operational modifications including addition of phosphate buffer cured the settleability problem and influent COD was increased up to 5000 mg dm -3. Significant COD removal efficiencies (>70%) were obtained in both SBRs fed with original and irradiated wastewaters (by 40 kGy). However, pre-irradiated wastewater provided complete thebain removal and a better settling sludge, which was thought due to degradation of complex structure by radiation application. Degradation of the structure was observed by GC/MS analyses and enhancement in filterability tests.

  20. Characterization of the natural rubber from new rubber tree clones of PB 300 series

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Maycon J.; Spinelli, Rafaela O.; Moreno, Rogerio M.B.; Mattoso, Luiz H.C.; Martins, Maria Alice; Scaloppi Junior, Erivaldo J.

    2015-01-01

    The natural rubber (NR) is present in more than 2500 species of plants, being the Hevea brasiliensis the most commercially exploited. It is a raw material of great importance to the Brazilian economy, but the country faces a production's deficit, having to import about 60% of its consumption. In this work , the latex obtained from rubber tree of new clones of PB series 300 (PB 311, PB 312, PB 314 , PB 326, PB 346 and PB 350 ) and RRIM 600 (control) were characterized by dry rubber content (DRC), total solids content, distribution of particle size, Zeta potential, thermogravimetry, differential scanning calorimetry, infrared in the spectroscopy (FTIR), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and technological properties. The DRC values ranged from 33% to 40%, and total solids of 38% to 44%. All of the clones showed average particle diameter between 180.0 to 192.1 nm, excluding clones PB 326 and PB 346 with 150.0 nm and 157.9 nm, respectively. The NMR spectra and FTIR showed that the structure of the natural rubber from all clones studied is cis -1,4- polyisoprene. Natural rubber from the new clones showed good thermal stability up to 285 °C and glass transition temperature of -64 °C. (author)

  1. Silicone rubber band for laparoscopic tubal sterilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari, A H; Sealey, R M; Gay, J W; Kang, I

    1977-12-01

    In 1974, Yoon and associates (Am J Obstet Gynecol 120:132, 1974) described a new approach in which laparoscopic tubal occlusion was accomplished by utilizing the silicone rubber band technique. Recognizing the great advantages of the new technique in eliminating potential thermal injury associated with electrocoagulation, the authors have utilized the Yoon silicone rubber band technique in these institutions over the past 20 months. Thus far the procedure has been performed in 304 patients without any major complications. In the hope of eliminating and/or reducing possible pregnancy-failure rates, in 110 cases. In addition to application of the silicone band, the tube within the band was transected with non-electrical Seigler biopsy forceps. This, we believe, should provide an interesting long-term comparative study.

  2. Rubber acid damage in fire hoses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thaysen, A C; Bunker, H J; Adams, M E

    1945-03-17

    Hose failure observed in rubber-lined fire hoses may be due to sulfuric acid formed from sulfur present in hoses when they are not properly dried. Microorganisms were observed in numerous samples of hose liquid and as a result of the experiments which were carried it was concluded that: the production of rubber acid in hose is due to the activity of sulfur-oxidizing bacteria of the Thiobacterium thiooxidans group. Such acid will invariably be formed when the hoses are stored with the linings wet, when the responsible bacteria are present and when the free sulfur content of the hoses exceeds 0.1 precent. The alternative of preventing the introduction of the causal bacteria does not appear practical since the water used in fire-fighting in the London district is taken from static supplies.

  3. Radiation Sterilization of Naturual Rubber Examination Gloves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jetawattana, S.; Na-Ranong, N.; Kajornchaiyakul, V.

    1998-01-01

    The sterilization dose setting by ISO 11137 method 1 was conducted for natural rubber examination gloves provided by a local factory. The suitable sterilization dose for an average product bioburden falls between 20 - 25 kilogray. Maximum dose of 25 or 50 kilogray results in no changes of tensile s and elongation at break. Samples of examination glove were irradiated using various doses between 10 - 50 kilogray. Analysis of soluble protein content using modified Lowry method was carried out and the results revealed that irradiation did not affect the decrement of soluble protein content in this case. However, thin film samples were prepared in laboratory and treated in the same procedure. The results were also the same. The results did not show any correlation. Two factors are possibly presumed : un consistency of samples and the irradiation of finished products could not affect those soluble proteins in rubber gloves

  4. Use of waste materials in rubber matrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pajtášová Mariana

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The presented paper deals with the use of waste materials as ecological fillers into rubber matrix. Waste materials were used as partial replacement of the commercial filler – carbon black, designated as N339. These prepared rubber compounds were characterized on the basis of the rheology and vulcanization characteristics – minimum torque (ML, maximum torque (MH, optimum time of vulcanization (t(c90, processing safety of compound (ts, rate coefficient of vulcanization (Rv. In the case of the prepared vulcanizates, physical-mechanical properties (tensile strength, tensibility and hardness and dynamic-mechanical properties (storage modulus, loss modulus, loss angle tan δ were investigated. Using the dependency of loss angle on temperature, the selected properties for tyre tread vulcanizates were evaluated, including traction on snow and ice, traction on the wet surface and rolling resistance.

  5. Energy recycling of plastic and rubber wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, R.

    2003-01-01

    Major areas for applications of plastics and rubbers are building and construction, packaging, transportation, automobiles, furniture, house wares, appliances, electrical and electronics. Approximately 20% of all the plastics produced are utilized by the building and construction industry/sup (1-3)/. Categories of polymers mostly used in the above industries include poly (vinyl chloride), polypropylene, polyethylene, polystyrene phenolics, acrylics and urethanes. Tyres and tubes are almost exclusively made up of rubbers. One third of total consumption of plastics finds applications, like films, bottles and packaging, in food-products that have a maximum life-span of two years, after which these find way to waste dumps. As the polymer industry in Pakistan is set to grow very rapidly in the near future the increase in utilization of plastic products in synchronous with the advent of computers and information technology. About 0.60 Kg per capita of waste generated daily in Lahore /(7.14)/ contains considerable quantity of plastics. (AB)

  6. Raman technique application for rubber blends characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smitthipong, W.

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Raman spectroscopy has been employed in a number of studies to examine the morphological changes in a variety of materials. It is a non-destructive analysis method and an equally useful method for the investigation of material structure. Recently, Raman spectroscopy has been developed to employ as an imaging instrumentation. Sample surface scanning in X- and Y-axis and sample depth (Z-axis can be carried out by modifying the focus of the laser beam from the Raman microscope. Therefore, three-dimensional images can be thus built by using special software. The surface and bulk properties of immiscible rubber blend were investigated by Raman spectroscopy. The results obtained by Raman spectroscopy were in good agreement with those of Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM. The combination of Raman spectrometry and SEM clearly elucidates the identification of phases between the dispersed phase and the matrix (continuous phase of the immiscible rubber blends.

  7. Characterization of crumb rubber modified by gamma radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faldini, Sonia B.; Terence, Mauro C.; Miranda, Leila F.; Munhoz, Antonio H.; Domingues, Leandro S.; Coghetto, Gregory, E-mail: sfaldini@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: mauroterence@yahoo.com.br [Universidade Presbiteriana Mackenzie (UPM), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Escola de Engenharia. Engenharia de Materiais

    2013-07-01

    The use of crumb rubber from scrap tires has become a common practice in the construction of roads, leading to improved properties of the asphalt and decreasing the environmental pollution. In this study, crumb rubber was modified by gamma radiation to eventually incorporate it into the asphalt and verify potential improvements of their properties. The crumb rubber modified by gamma radiation in the dose 500 kGy and 1000kGy was characterized by thermal analysis, infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The dose of radiation used has no effect on degradation temperatures. It is observed that the IV spectra of untreated rubbers and rubbers irradiated have substantially the same profile. The results indicate that despite small morphological changes in the irradiated rubber, they do not influence its degradation temperature and composition. (author)

  8. Characterization of crumb rubber modified by gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faldini, Sonia B.; Terence, Mauro C.; Miranda, Leila F.; Munhoz, Antonio H.; Domingues, Leandro S.; Coghetto, Gregory

    2013-01-01

    The use of crumb rubber from scrap tires has become a common practice in the construction of roads, leading to improved properties of the asphalt and decreasing the environmental pollution. In this study, crumb rubber was modified by gamma radiation to eventually incorporate it into the asphalt and verify potential improvements of their properties. The crumb rubber modified by gamma radiation in the dose 500 kGy and 1000kGy was characterized by thermal analysis, infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The dose of radiation used has no effect on degradation temperatures. It is observed that the IV spectra of untreated rubbers and rubbers irradiated have substantially the same profile. The results indicate that despite small morphological changes in the irradiated rubber, they do not influence its degradation temperature and composition. (author)

  9. Development of rubber material for high radiation field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakatsukasa, Sadayoshi; Tabasaki, Takeshi; Yoshida, Akihiro; Kadowaki, Yoshito

    2013-01-01

    Generally flexible polymeric materials exposed to radiation can't be used because they soften or harden remarkably in high radiation environment. Aromatic polymers such as PEEK, PI, and PES are also known as radiation-proof polymeric materials. Aromatic polymers are very hard, they can't be used for products like a packing where flexibility is required. We developed a new vulcanized rubber compound by the use of various additives and polymer blend. This developed rubber compound has a high radiation-proof performance by reaction balance of cross-linking and decomposition in this rubber. This rubber compound has a rubber elasticity even if exposed to radiation of MGy level, and its radiation proof is more than 5 times as high as conventional polymeric materials. This rubber compound is much more flexible than the aromatic polymers which are the used as conventional radiation-proof polymers. (author)

  10. Research on a haptic sensor made using MCF conductive rubber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Yaoyang; Shimada, Kunio

    2008-01-01

    To provide a new composite material having a high electrical sensitivity in the fields of robotics and sensing, a magnetic rubber having network-like magnetic clusters was developed by utilizing a magnetic compound fluid (MCF). MCF rubber with small deformations can provide an effective sensor. In this paper, we report many experiments in which changes of the MCF rubber's resistance were observed when the rubber was compressed and a deformation was generated; we then made a trial haptic sensor using the MCF conductive rubber and performed many experiments to observe changes of the electrical resistance of the sensor. The results of experiments showed that the proposed sensor made with MCF conductive rubber is useful for sensing small amounts of pressure or small deformations

  11. Research on a haptic sensor made using MCF conductive rubber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng Yaoyang; Shimada, Kunio [Faculty of Symbiotic Systems Science Fukushima University, 1 Kanayakawa, Fukushima 960-1296 (Japan)], E-mail: tei@sss.fukushima-u.ac.jp, E-mail: shimadakun@sss.fukushima-u.ac.jp

    2008-05-21

    To provide a new composite material having a high electrical sensitivity in the fields of robotics and sensing, a magnetic rubber having network-like magnetic clusters was developed by utilizing a magnetic compound fluid (MCF). MCF rubber with small deformations can provide an effective sensor. In this paper, we report many experiments in which changes of the MCF rubber's resistance were observed when the rubber was compressed and a deformation was generated; we then made a trial haptic sensor using the MCF conductive rubber and performed many experiments to observe changes of the electrical resistance of the sensor. The results of experiments showed that the proposed sensor made with MCF conductive rubber is useful for sensing small amounts of pressure or small deformations.

  12. Research on a haptic sensor made using MCF conductive rubber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yaoyang; Shimada, Kunio

    2008-05-01

    To provide a new composite material having a high electrical sensitivity in the fields of robotics and sensing, a magnetic rubber having network-like magnetic clusters was developed by utilizing a magnetic compound fluid (MCF). MCF rubber with small deformations can provide an effective sensor. In this paper, we report many experiments in which changes of the MCF rubber's resistance were observed when the rubber was compressed and a deformation was generated; we then made a trial haptic sensor using the MCF conductive rubber and performed many experiments to observe changes of the electrical resistance of the sensor. The results of experiments showed that the proposed sensor made with MCF conductive rubber is useful for sensing small amounts of pressure or small deformations.

  13. Biodiesel Production from Rubber Seed Oil via Esterification Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W Widayat

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available One promise source of alternative energy is biodiesel from rubber seed oil, because the raw materials available in plentiful quantities and can be renewed. In addition, the rubber seed is still lack of utilization, and Indonesia is one of the largest rubbers producing country in the world. The objective of this research is to studied on biodiesel production by esterification process. Parameters used in this study are the ratio of catalyst and temperature and its influence on the characteristics of the resulting biodiesel product. Characterization of rubber seed include acid content number analysis, saponification numbers, density, viscosity, iodine number, type of free fatty acids and triglyceride oils. The results of analysis showed that rubber seed oil content obtained is 50.5%. The results of the GCMS analysis showed that a free fatty acid level in rubber seed is very high. Conversion into bio-diesel oil is obtained by at most 59.91% and lowest 48.24%.

  14. On the response of rubbers at high strain rates.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niemczura, Johnathan Greenberg (University of Texas-Austin)

    2010-02-01

    In this report, we examine the propagation of tensile waves of finite deformation in rubbers through experiments and analysis. Attention is focused on the propagation of one-dimensional dispersive and shock waves in strips of latex and nitrile rubber. Tensile wave propagation experiments were conducted at high strain-rates by holding one end fixed and displacing the other end at a constant velocity. A high-speed video camera was used to monitor the motion and to determine the evolution of strain and particle velocity in the rubber strips. Analysis of the response through the theory of finite waves and quantitative matching between the experimental observations and analytical predictions was used to determine an appropriate instantaneous elastic response for the rubbers. This analysis also yields the tensile shock adiabat for rubber. Dispersive waves as well as shock waves are also observed in free-retraction experiments; these are used to quantify hysteretic effects in rubber.

  15. Radiation vulcanization of Philippine natural rubber latex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dela Rosa, A.M.; Abad, L.V.; Sta.Ana-Relleve, L.P.; Tranquilan-Aranilla, C.O.; Pascual, C.L.

    1996-01-01

    The response of Philippine natural rubber latex to irradiation vulcanization and the stability of the irradiated natural rubber latex (INRL) upon storage and aging were investigated. Commercially available high ammonia (HA) concentrated latices obtained from various rubber plantations in Mindanao island were treated with 5 phr of n-butyl acrylate (nBA), and gamma-irradiated at the PNRI 60 Co irradiation facility at a dose rate of 2.57 kGy/hr. Unirradiated cast latex films gave different green strengths which varied from 2-11 MPa. Cast films from INRL exhibited maximum tensile strengths were obtained from cast films with low Mg and high nitrogen contents. Thermal analysis using thermogravimetry (TG) revealed one major decomposition product at 374 o -377 o C. Its rate of decomposition decreased to a minimum at 15 kGy, then increased as radiation dose was increased. This trend correlated well with the tensile strength measurements. The stability of the INRL upon storage and aging is an essential parameter to the rubbe latex industry. For storage studies, INRL was stored for various periods of time. It was found that the pH and total solids content of the stored INRL did not change significantly after 12 months of storage; the MST values remained at above 1000 seconds, and the viscosity decreased with time. The cast films exhibited a decline in tensile strength, modulus 300% , and crosslinking density upon storage. While there were observed changes in the physical properties of the INRL during the storage period, the data indicate that these properties were within values acceptable to the latex industry. Tests on the aging properties of INRL films were undertaken. It was shown that among the chemical antioxidants presently used by the latex industry, TNPP demonstrated the highest antioxidant property, followed by Antage DAHQ and Vulcanox BKF. Our data indicate that the natural rubber latex produced and processed in the Philippines is suited for radiation vulcanization

  16. Production and performance of desulfurized rubber asphalt binder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanping Sheng

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Asphalt rubber binder typically exhibits disadvantages like segregation and high viscosity; however, this can be improved by the incorporation of desulfurized rubber powder. This study examined the swelling principle of desulfurized rubber asphalt (DRA. In addition, it evaluated the performance of DRA fabricated with various rubber powder contents under different shear conditions and development time. Superpave binders tests, including Brookfield viscosity, dynamic shear rheometer (DSR and bending beam rheometer (BBR tests, were applied on three control binders (i.e., neat, 20 mesh asphalt rubber binder, 40 mesh asphalt rubber binder and a DRA binder. Binder testing results indicated that rubber powder swelled into the base binder and resulted in enhanced stability. Optimum performance of the DRA binder was achieved by adding 20% (by weight of rubber powder into the base binder at shear rate, shear temperature, shear time and development time of 7000 r/min, 170 °C, 60 min and 45 min, respectively. Modified ranges of production conditions were also provided to widen the application of DRA in field construction. It appeared that DRA binder benefited from the recovered plasticity and viscosity of the rubber and consequently, exhibited superior performance over the neat and conventional asphalt rubber binders. Preliminary mixture evaluation was also conducted and the DRA binder was found to significantly improve the mixture resistance to permanent deformation and water damage. Overall, the DAR binder is encouraged to be used as a modified binder for flexible pavements. Keywords: Desulfurized rubber asphalt, Swelling model, Production process, Asphalt performance, Rubber asphalt

  17. The enzymatic synthesis of rubber polymer in Parthenium argentatum Gray

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benedict, C.R.; Madhavan, S.; Greenblatt, G.A.; Venkatachalam, K.V.; Foster, M.A.

    1990-01-01

    Washed rubber particles isolated from stem homogenates of Parthenium argentatum Gray by ultracentrifugation and gel filtration on columns of LKB Ultrogel AcA34 contain rubber transferase which catalyzes the polymerization of isopentenyl pyrophosphate into rubber polymer. The polymerization reaction requires Mg 2+ isopentenyl pyrophosphate, and an allylic pyrophosphate. The K m values for Mg 2+ , isopentenyl pyrophosphate, and dimethylallyl pyrophosphate were 5.2 x 10 -4 molar, 8.3 x 10 -5 molar, and 9.6 x 10 -5 molar, respectively. The molecular characteristics of the rubber polymer synthesized from [ 14 C]isopentenyl pyrophosphate were examined by gel permeation chromatography. The peak molecular weight of the radioactive polymer increased from 70,000 in 15 minutes to 750,000 in 3 hours. The weight average molecular weight of the polymer synthesized over a 3 hour period was 1.17 x 10 6 compared to 1.49 x 10 6 for the natural rubber polymer extracted from the rubber particles. Over 90% of the in vitro formation of the rubber polymer was de novo from dimethylallyl pyrophosphate and isopentenyl pyrophosphate. Treatment of the washed rubber particles with 3-[(3-cholamidopropyl)dimethylammonio]-1-propanesulfonate solubilized the rubber transferase. The solubilized enzyme(s) catalyzed the polymerization of isopentenyl pyrophosphate into rubber polymer with a peak molecular weight of 1 x 10 5 after 3 hours of incubation with Mg 2+ and dimethylallyl pyrophosphate. The data support the conclusion that the soluble preparation of rubber transferase is capable of catalyzing the formation of a high molecular weight rubber polymer from an allylic pyrophosphate initiator and isopentenyl pyrophosphate monomer

  18. Magnesium affects rubber biosynthesis and particle stability in Ficus elastica, Hevea brasiliensis and Parthenium argentatum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natural rubber biosynthesis occurs in laticifers of Ficus elastica and Hevea brasiliensis, and in parenchyma cells of Parthenium argentatum. Natural rubber is synthesized by rubber transferase using allylic pyrophosphates as initiators, isopentenyl pyrophosphate as monomeric substrate and magnesium ...

  19. Use of rubber crumb for preparation of asphalt-concrete mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yerbol Tileuberdi

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In this article use of rubber crumb from spent tire for preparation of rubber-bitumen compounds is investigated. Then the rubber-bitumen compositions are used in composition of asphalt concrete mixes .

  20. Modification of rubber surface by UV surface grafting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shanmugharaj, A.M.; Kim, Jin Kuk; Ryu, Sung Hun

    2006-01-01

    Rubber surface is subjected to ultraviolet radiation (UV) in the presence of allylamine and radiation sensitizer benzophenone (BP). Fourier transform infrared spectral studies reveal the presence of allylamine on the surface. The presence of irregular needle shapes on the surface as observed in scanning electron micrographs also confirms the polymerized allylamine on the surface. Allylamine coatings have been further confirmed from atomic force microscopy (AFM) analysis. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) reveals that allylamine coating on the rubber surface lowers the thermal degradation rate. The contact angle between the water and rubber surface decreases for the modified rubber surface confirming the surface modification due to UV surface grafting

  1. Geotechnical Properties of Rubber Tires and Sediments Mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Sellaf

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available An experimental work was undertaken to study the effect of rubber tires on the geotechnical properties of a dredged sediment, using a mixing ratio of large size. For comparison, two types of soil were studied (dredged sediment from Fergoug dam and Tizi Tuff from the north west of Algeria. Taking into account the high compressibility and the low water absorption of the rubber tires, grain size analysis, density, Atterberg limits analysis, chemical composition, direct shear tests, loading-unloading tests, modified Proctor and CBR tests are performed on the two soils and their mixtures with different scrap tire rubber (10, 20, 25 and 50%. The results show that liquid limits and plastic indexes decrease with the scrap tire rubber content and that the decrease is more significant for soil with high plasticity. Cohesion also decreases with scrap tire rubber content when the internal friction angle is vacillating. Compression and recompression indexes increase gradually with the scrap tire rubber content and the variation for compression index is more significant for the two soils. Compaction characteristics and CBR values decrease with scrap tire rubber content. The CBR values for W=3% are important compared to those with W=5% excepted for mixture with (75% tuff and 25% scrap tire rubber. The results show that the scrap tire rubber can be used as a reinforcement material for dredged soil, but with a content that should not highly affect the compressibility.

  2. Crumb Rubber Recycling in Enhancing Damping Properties of Concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugapriya, P.; Ramkrishnan, R.

    2018-02-01

    Damping plays a major role in the design of roadside structures that gets affected due to vibrations transmitted from moving traffic. In this study, fine aggregates were partially replaced with crumb rubber in concrete, at varying percentages of 5, 10, 15 and 20% by weight. Three different sets of concrete, mixed with crumb rubber were prepared using raw rubber, treated rubber and treated rubber with partial replacement of cement. Cement was partially replaced with Ultra-Fine Ground Granulated Blast furnace Slag (UFGGBS) for this study. Samples were cast, cured and tested for various properties on the 7th and 28th day. The damping ratio and frequency of the peak value from a number of waves in rubber incorporated beams were found out using a FFT Analyser along with its Strength, Damping and Sorptivity characteristics. SEM analysis was conducted to analyse the micro structural bonding between rubber and concrete. The mode shapes of pavement slabs were modelled and analysed using a FEM tool, ANSYS. From the results, the behaviour of the three sets of rubberized concrete were compared and analysed, and an optimum percentage for crumb rubber and UFGGBS was proposed to achieve best possible damping without compromising the strength properties.

  3. Asphalt concrete modified by rubber crumbs in transport construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duhovny, G. S.; Karpenko, AV

    2018-03-01

    High-temperature and low-temperature characteristics of the rubber-bitumen binder and rubber asphalt concrete based on it are researched. The determination method of binder’s low-temperature characteristics is offered. The estimation of binder’s and pavement’s stability against technological and operational aging is evaluated. Estimation of environmental and economic aspects of using rubber crumbs is made. The possibility of using rubber crumbs as modifier of organic binder for production of asphalt concrete on its base is justified.

  4. The use of radiotracers in natural rubber research in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lai, P.F.; Singh, M.M.

    1981-01-01

    Five main areas where radiotracers have been used in research on natural rubber are on studies on the uptake of plant nutrients by Hevea brasiliensis using 32 P, 86 Rb and 45 Ca as tracers; biosynthesis of Hevea rubber using 14 C or 3 H labelled intermediates; translocation and metabolism of 14 C. Ethephon in Hevea brasiliensis; use of radiotracers as analytical tools and adsorption of labelled fatty acid soaps on natural rubber lattices. These studies are discussed to show the powerful tool that radiotracers provide in agricultural, biochemical and chemical research on natural rubber. (author)

  5. Biodiesel production methods of rubber seed oil: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulfah, M.; Mulyazmi; Burmawi; Praputri, E.; Sundari, E.; Firdaus

    2018-03-01

    The utilization of rubber seed as raw material of biodiesel production is seen highly potential in Indonesia. The availability of rubber seeds in Indonesia is estimated about 5 million tons per annum, which can yield rubber seed oil about 2 million tons per year. Due to the demand of edible oils as a food source is tremendous and the edible oil feedstock costs are far expensive to be used as fuel, production of biodiesel from non-edible oils such as rubber seed is an effective way to overcome all the associated problems with edible oils. Various methods for producing biodiesel from rubber seed oil have been reported. This paper introduces an optimum condition of biodiesel production methods from rubber seed oil. This article was written to be a reference in the selection of methods and the further development of biodiesel production from rubber seed oil. Biodiesel production methods for rubber seed oils has been developed by means of homogeneous catalysts, heterogeneous catalysts, supercritical method, ultrasound, in-situ and enzymatic processes. Production of biodiesel from rubber seed oil using clinker loaded sodium methoxide as catalyst is very interesting to be studied and developed further.

  6. Amphiphilic semi-interpenetrating polymer networks using pulverized rubber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahidi, Nima

    Scrap rubber materials provide a significant challenge to either reuse or safe disposal. Every year, millions of tires are discarded to landfills in the United States, consuming a staggering amount of land space, creating a high risk for large fires, breeding mosquitoes that spread diseases, and wasting the planet's natural resources. This situation cannot be sustained. The challenge of reusing scrap rubber materials is mainly due to the crosslinked structure of vulcanized rubber that prevent them from melting and further processing for reuse. The most feasible recycling approach is believed to be a process in which the vulcanized rubber is first pulverized into a fine powder and then incorporated into new products. The production of fine rubber particles is generally accomplished through the use of a cryogenic process that is costly. Therefore, development of a cost effective technology that utilizes a large quantity of the scrap rubber materials to produce high value added materials is an essential element in maintaining a sustainable solution to rubber recycling. In this research, a cost effective pulverization process, solid state shear extrusion (SSSE), was modified and used for continuous pulverization of the rubber into fine particles. In the modified SSSE process, pulverization takes place at high compressive shear forces and a controlled temperature. Furthermore, an innovative particle modification process was developed to enhance the chemical structure and surface properties of the rubber particles for manufacturing of high value added products. Modification of rubber particles was accomplished through the polymerization of a hydrophilic monomer mixture within the intermolecular structure of the hydrophobic rubber particles. The resulting composite particles are considered as amphiphilic particulate phase semi-interpenetrating polymer networks (PPSIPNs). The modified rubber particles are water dispersible and suitable for use in a variety of aqueous media

  7. Radiation vulcanization of Philippine natural rubber latex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dela Rosa, Alumanda M.; Abad, Lucille V.; Sta, Lorna P.; Ana-Relleve; Tranquilan-Aranilla, Charito O.; Pascual, Cristina L.

    1996-01-01

    The response of Philippine natural rubber latex to radiation vulcanization and the stability of the irradiated natural rubber latex (INRL) upon storage and aging were investigated. Commercially available high ammonia (HA) concentrated lattices obtained from various rubber plantations in Mindanao Island were treated with 5 phr of n-butyl acrylate (nBA), and gamma-irradiated at the PNRI sup 60 Co irradiation facility at dose rate of 2.57 KGy/hr. Unirradiated cast latex films gave different green strength which varied from 2 - 11 MPa. Cast films from INRL exhibited maximum tensile strengths of 25 - 32 MPa at a radiation dose of 15 kGy. Higher tensile strengths were obtained from cast films with low Mg and high nitrogen contents. Thermal analysis using thermogravimetry (TG) revealed one major decomposition product at 374 degree C - 377 degree C. Its rate of decomposition decreased to a minimum at 15 kGy, then increased as radiation dose increased. This trend correlated well with the tensile strength measurements. The stability of the INRL upon storage and aging is an essential parameter to the rubber latex industry. For storage studies, INRL was stored for various periods of time. It was found that the pH and total solids content of the stored INRL did not change significantly after 12 months of storage; the MST values remained at above 100 seconds, and the viscosity decreased with time. The cast films exhibited a decline in tensile strength, modulus 300% and crosslinking density upon storage. While there were observed changes in the physical properties of the IRNL during the storage period, the data indicate that these properties were within values acceptable to the latex industry. Tests on the aging properties of INRL film were undertaken. It was shown that among the chemical antioxidants presently used by the latex industry. TNPP demonstrated the highest antioxidant property, followed by Antage DAHQ and Vulcanox BKF. Our data indicate that the natural rubber latex

  8. Buffing dust as a filler of carboxylated butadiene-acrylonitrile rubber and butadiene-acrylonitrile rubber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chronska, K; Przepiorkowska, A

    2008-03-01

    Buffing dust from chrome tanned leather is one of the difficult tannery wastes to manage. It is also hazardous to both human health and the environment. The scientific literature rarely reports studies on dust management, especially on its utilization as a filler for elastomers. In this connection we have made an attempt to use this leather waste as a filler for rubbers such as XNBR and NBR. The addition of the buffing dust to rubber mixes brought improvement in mechanical properties, and increase in resistance to thermal ageing as well as in electric conductivity and crosslink density of vulcalizates.

  9. Ultraviolet curing of acrylated liquid natural rubber for surface coating application

    OpenAIRE

    Kannikar Kwanming; Pairote Klinpituksa; Wae-asae Waehamad

    2009-01-01

    Ultraviolet curable acrylated liquid natural rubber was prepared by grafting of photosensitive molecule onto liquid natural rubber for surface coating application. The liquid natural rubber (LNR) was firstly obtained by degradation of natural rubber latex with hydrogen peroxide and cobalt acetylacetonate at 65oC for 72 hrs. The preparation of acrylated natural rubber was carried out by the reaction of acrylic acid and epoxidized liquid natural rubber (ELNR) prior obtained from LNR with formic...

  10. Some properties of a granular activated carbon-sequencing batch reactor (GAC-SBR) system for treatment of textile wastewater containing direct dyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirianuntapiboon, Suntud; Sadahiro, Ohmomo; Salee, Paneeta

    2007-10-01

    Resting (living) bio-sludge from a domestic wastewater treatment plant was used as an adsorbent of both direct dyes and organic matter in a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) system. The dye adsorption capacity of the bio-sludge was not increased by acclimatization with direct dyes. The adsorption of Direct Red 23 and Direct Blue 201 onto the bio-sludge was almost the same. The resting bio-sludge showed higher adsorption capacity than the autoclaved bio-sludge. The resting bio-sludge that was acclimatized with synthetic textile wastewater (STWW) without direct dyes showed the highest Direct Blue 201, COD, and BOD(5) removal capacities of 16.1+/-0.4, 453+/-7, and 293+/-9 mg/g of bio-sludge, respectively. After reuse, the dye adsorption ability of deteriorated bio-sludge was recovered by washing with 0.1% sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) solution. The direct dyes in the STWW were also easily removed by a GAC-SBR system. The dye removal efficiencies were higher than 80%, even when the system was operated under a high organic loading of 0.36kgBOD(5)/m(3)-d. The GAC-SBR system, however, showed a low direct dye removal efficiency of only 57+/-2.1% with raw textile wastewater (TWW) even though the system was operated with an organic loading of only 0.083kgBOD(5)/m(3)-d. The dyes, COD, BOD(5), and total kjeldalh nitrogen removal efficiencies increased up to 76.0+/-2.8%, 86.2+/-0.5%, 84.2+/-0.7%, and 68.2+/-2.1%, respectively, when 0.89 g/L glucose (organic loading of 0.17kgBOD(5)/m(3)-d) was supplemented into the TWW.

  11. Proceedings of the Rubber Association of Canada's 7. biennial 2006 rubber recycling symposium : changing concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    Rising energy costs and concerns over the environment have contributed to a renewed focus on recycling for many governments and industries. This conference examined recent trends affecting rubber recycling activities as well as the legislative environment and its impacts on future recycling activities. Major rubber recycling markets were reviewed, and emerging product ideas were evaluated. Industry stewardship model and governance models were discussed. The impacts of new advances in tire technology and manufacturing on the rubber recycling industry were also investigated. Issues concerning fixed tipping fees and incentive structures were discussed, and effective management strategies for the recycling of large off-the-road tires were evaluated. Tire-derived fuel (TDF) is the largest market in North America for scrap tires, and TDF may continue to grow as a result of rising fossil fuel costs. Issues and challenges related to the introduction of TDF to new communities were discussed. New developments in tire derived aggregates (TDA) and ground rubber were also reviewed. Twenty-eight presentations were given at this conference, 3 of which were catalogued separately for inclusion in this database. refs., tabs., figs

  12. Natural rubber/nitrile butadiene rubber/hindered phenol composites with high-damping properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiuying Zhao

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available New natural rubber (NR/nitrile butadiene rubber (NBR/hindered phenol (AO-80 composites with high-damping properties were prepared in this study. The morphological, structural, and mechanical properties were characterized by atomic force microscopy (AFM, polarized Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FTIR, dynamic mechanical thermal analyzer (DMTA, and a tensile tester. Each composite consisted of two phases: the NR phase and the NBR/AO-80 phase. There was partial compatibility between the NR phase and the NBR/AO-80 phase, and the NR/NBR/AO-80 (50/50/20 composite exhibited a co-continuous morphology. Strain-induced crystallization occurred in the NR phase at strains higher than 200%, and strain-induced orientation appeared in the NBR/AO-80 phase with the increase of strain from 100% to 500%. The composites had a special stress–strain behavior and mechanical properties because of the simultaneous strain-induced orientation and strain-induced crystallization. In the working temperature range of a seismic isolation bearing, the composites (especially the NR/NBR/AO-80 (50/50/20 composite presented a high loss factor, high area of loss peak (TA, and high hysteresis energy. Therefore, the NR/NBR/AO-80 rubber composites are expected to have important application as a high-performance damping material for rubber bearing.

  13. Fabrication of Wood-Rubber Composites Using Rubber Compound as a Bonding Agent Instead of Adhesives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongwei Shao

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Differing from the hot-pressing method in the manufacturing of traditional wood-rubber composites (WRCs, this study was aimed at fabricating WRCs using rubber processing to improve water resistance and mechanical properties. Three steps were used to make WRCs, namely, fiber-rubber mixing, tabletting, and the vulcanization molding process. Ninety-six WRC panels were made with wood fiber contents of 0%–50% at rotor rotational speeds of 15–45 rpm and filled coefficients of 0.55–0.75. Four regression equations, i.e., the tensile strength (Ts, elongation at break (Eb, hardness (Ha and rebound resilience (Rr as functions of fiber contents, rotational speed and filled coefficient, were derived and a nonlinear programming model were developed to obtain the optimum composite properties. Although the Ts, Eb and Rr of the panels were reduced, Ha was considerably increased by 17%–58% because of the wood fiber addition. Scanning electron microscope images indicated that fibers were well embedded in rubber matrix. The 24 h water absorption was only 1%–3%, which was much lower than commercial wood-based composites.

  14. Fabrication of Wood-Rubber Composites Using Rubber Compound as a Bonding Agent Instead of Adhesives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Dongwei; Xu, Min; Cai, Liping; Shi, Sheldon Q

    2016-06-14

    Differing from the hot-pressing method in the manufacturing of traditional wood-rubber composites (WRCs), this study was aimed at fabricating WRCs using rubber processing to improve water resistance and mechanical properties. Three steps were used to make WRCs, namely, fiber-rubber mixing, tabletting, and the vulcanization molding process. Ninety-six WRC panels were made with wood fiber contents of 0%-50% at rotor rotational speeds of 15-45 rpm and filled coefficients of 0.55-0.75. Four regression equations, i.e. , the tensile strength ( T s), elongation at break ( E b), hardness ( H a) and rebound resilience ( R r) as functions of fiber contents, rotational speed and filled coefficient, were derived and a nonlinear programming model were developed to obtain the optimum composite properties. Although the T s, E b and R r of the panels were reduced, H a was considerably increased by 17%-58% because of the wood fiber addition. Scanning electron microscope images indicated that fibers were well embedded in rubber matrix. The 24 h water absorption was only 1%-3%, which was much lower than commercial wood-based composites.

  15. An overview of the potentials of natural rubber ( Hevea brasiliensis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tapping rubber trees for valuable proteins will be more profitable compared to other options. The technologies have been developed and only needs to be adapted to our local conditions. It is hoped that this paper will be instructive to rubber farmers, policy makers, executors of policies or citizens wishing to join the Nigerian ...

  16. Research and Application Progress of Silicone Rubber Materials in Aviation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HUANG Yanhua

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The research progress of heat resistance, cold resistance, electrical conductivity and damping properties of aviation silicone rubber were reviewed in this article. The heat resistance properties of silicone rubber can be enhanced by changing the molecular structure (main chain, end-group, side chain and molecular weight of the gum and adding special heat-resistance filler. The cold resistance of aviation silicone rubber can be enhanced by adjusting the side chain molecular structure of the gum and the content of different gum chain. The electrical conductivity of silicone rubber can be improved by optimizing, blending and dispersing of conductive particles. The damping property of silicone rubber can be improved by designing and synthesizing of high-molecular polysiloxane damping agent. Furthermore, the application of aviation silicone rubber used in high-low temperature seal, electrical conduction and vibration damping technology are also summarized, and the high performance (for example long-term high temperature resistance, ultralow temperature resistance, high electromagnetic shelding, long-term fatigue resistance vibration damping, quasi constant modulus and so on of special silicone rubber is the future direction of aviation silicone rubber.

  17. Rubber Flooring Impact on Production and Herdlife of Dairy Cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Use of rubber flooring in dairies has become popular because of perceived cow comfort. The overall objective of this longitudinal study was to evaluate production, reproduction, and retention of first and second lactations of cows assigned to either rubber (RUB) or concrete (CON) flooring at the fe...

  18. Influence of Plasma Treatments on the Frictional Performance of Rubbers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolthuizen, D.J.; Martinez-Martinez, D.; Pei, Y.T.; Hosson, J.Th.M. De

    The frictional performance of several rubbers after pulsed-DC plasma treatments has been examined. In all cases, the treated rubbers showed better performance than the corresponding untreated ones. Stronger treatments, in terms of longer process time and/or higher substrate bias voltage, led to

  19. Ground tire rubber as a stabilizer for subgrade soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-01

    Over 250 million scrap tires are generated annually in the U.S. Historically, a significant portion of these tires : have been processed into finely ground tire rubber (GTR), or crumb rubber, for use as an additive in hot mix asphalt : (HMA) pavement...

  20. Ground tire rubber as a stabilizer for subgrade soils : [summary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-01

    Over 250 million scrap tires are generated : annually in the U.S. Historically, a significant : portion of these tires have been processed into : finely ground tire rubber (GTR), or crumb rubber, : for use as an additive in hot mix asphalt (HMA) : pa...

  1. Development of radiation-curable resin based on natural rubber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohd, Dahlan; Harun, Abdul Ghani [Nuclear Energy Unit, Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia)

    1994-12-31

    A new radiation curable resin based on natural rubber has been developed. The resin was based on the reaction between low molecular weight epoxidised natural rubber and acrylic acid. When formulated with reactive monomers and photoinitiator, it solidified upon irradiation with UV light. The resin may find applications in coating for cellulosic-based substrates and pressure-sensitive adhesive.

  2. Allergenicity of latex rubber products used in South African dental ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fourteen latex examination gloves (powdered and non-powdered) and five dental rubber dams, representing 6 brands, from five dental academic institutions were analysed for latex allergens and total protein. Total protein content was determined using the BioRad DC protein assay kit and natural rubber allergen levels ...

  3. Flexible diamond-like carbon film coated on rubber

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pei, Y.T.; Bui, X.L.; Pal, J.P. van der; Martinez-Martinez, D.; Hosson, J.Th.M. De

    2013-01-01

    Dynamic rubber seals are major sources of friction of lubrication systems and bearings, which may take up to 70% of the total friction. The solution we present is to coat rubbers with diamond-like carbon (DLC) thin films by which the coefficient of friction is reduced to less than one tenth. Coating

  4. Development of radiation-curable resin based on natural rubber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahlan Mohd; Abdul Ghani Harun

    1993-01-01

    A new radiation curable resin based on natural rubber has been developed. The resin was based on the reaction between low molecular weight epoxidised natural rubber and acrylic acid. When formulated with reactive monomers and photoinitiator, it solidified upon irradiation with UV light. The resin may find applications in coating for cellulosic-based substrates and pressure-sensitive adhesive

  5. Differential responses of two rubber tree clones to chilling stress ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chilling stress is one of the most important environmental factors that limit the growth, distribution and yield of rubber tree in China. The effects of chilling stress on the grated plants of two rubber trees clones, GT1 and Wenchang217, were studied by physiological methods in controlled light chamber in order to explore the ...

  6. Radiation response of Philippine natural rubber latex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dela Rosa, A.M.; Abad, L.V.; Ana-Relleve, L.S.; Tranquilan-Aranilla, C.; Pascual, C.L.

    1998-01-01

    Our earlier work has shown that the natural rubber latex (NRL) produced and processed in the Philippines is suited for radiation vulcanization. The cast films from NRL with 50% TSC exhibited maximum tensile strengths of 25-32 MPa at 15 kGy, which is the vulcanization dose or Dv. In the manufacture of dipped NRL products, certain specifications such as %TSC, protein content and tensile properties, must be met to ensure an acceptable product. For radiation vulcanization of natural rubber latex (RVNRL) to be accepted as an alternative process, it must also meet the requirements. Thus, this paper presents additional data on the radiation response of local NRL at different total solids contents (TSC), leachable proteins from NRL films as a function of dose, and the thermal activities of irradiated natural rubber latex (INRL). Different formulations of NRL showed varying tolerances to nBA. Data showed that as %TSC increases, the maximum concentration of nBA that can be added without affecting the stability of the latex decreases. The Dv increases as the %TSC increases and the nBA content decreases. This difference in response may be attributed to a lower concentration of nBA in formulations with higher %TSC. These data indicate that the parameters in the radiation treatment will be dictated by the intended applications of INRL. The thermogravimetric data showed greater stability of INRL to thermal oxidation relative to the unirradiated NRL, which correlates directly with the tensile properties of the INRL. A radiation dose of 10 kGy increased the amount of proteins leached from cast latex films. The amount of extractable proteins did not increase significantly at higher doses. The SDS PAGE analysis of the extractable proteins from unirradiated latex film showed distinct bands. An additional band at 60 Kda appeared at 10 kGy. All these bands became diffuse at higher doses, indicating the radiolysis of the proteins

  7. Hacking Experiment Using USB Rubber Ducky Scripting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Cannoles

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available By leaving your computer unlocked while you are away for seconds can give hackers all the time they need to obtain your personal information from your computer. This paper aims to detail the necessary research and development of a USB Rubber Ducky script, to obtain clear text logon id and passwords from a Windows machine, in mere seconds. Each stage is laid out in sections discussing Ducky script, powershell, Mimikatz, and reenabling the vulnerability by breaking down the attack into two parts for Windows 7 and up operating systems.

  8. Filled liquid silicone rubbers: Possibilities and challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Liyun; Vudayagiri, Sindhu; Zakaria, Shamsul Bin

    2014-01-01

    to ensure better particle dispersion as well as folllowing for film formation properties. We show that the mechanical properties of the films as well as the electrical breakdown strength can be affected, and that the control of the amount of solvent throughout the coating process is essential for solvent......Liquid silicone rubbers (LSRs) have been shown to possess very favorable properties as dielectric electroactive polymers due to their very high breakdown strengths (up to 170 V/μm) combined with their fast response, relatively high tear strength, acceptable Young’s modulus as well as they can...

  9. Radiation stability of plastics and rubbers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hitchon, J.W.

    1982-08-01

    The accompanying bar charts have been prepared from several sources in response to many requests for information on the effect of ionising radiation on organic polymers. The bar charts give some indications of the radiation life of the three main divisions of useful organic polymers; in descending order of radiation stability, thermosets, thermoplastics and rubbers. They are based on change in mechanical properties when the materials are irradiated at room temperature in air and are applicable to #betta#, #betta#-radiation, x-rays and accelerated electrons. (author)

  10. Radiation vulcanization of natural rubber latex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wan Manshol bin Wan Zin; Norjanah binti Mohid

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes the experimental techniques and the results of radiation vulcanization of natural rubber latex carried out on several high ammonia latices available in the country. The efficiency of various sensitisers and stabilisers used were evaluated in terms of the gamma radiation dose required to produce the maximum tensile strengths. The extent of crosslinking of RVNRL sample films were estimated by equilibrium swelling ratio measurements. The stability of pre-irradiated and post-irradiated samples were monitored using viscosity measurements as the parameter

  11. Demotivating factors influencing rubber production workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Iravani

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Motivation is one of the most important factors influencing workers' productivity. An increase in workers' motivation could add more value to organizations' structure and influence the profitability, significantly. In this paper, we study different factors on demotivating workers using questionnaire consist of various questions. The questionnaire is distributed among some employees who work for rubber production units located in Esfahan, Iran. The results of this survey indicate that discrimination on annual job compensation, entrusting responsibilities and unpleasant relationship with family partner are some of the most important factors influencing employees' motivation. While financial factors play important role on increasing employees' motivation, non-financial factors are considered more important.

  12. Evaluation of rubber modified asphalt demonstration projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-01-01

    As part of the Ontario Government's medium-term scrap tire management strategy, 11 rubber modified asphalt demonstration projects were funded or completed, with 13 additional projects from small to large (1,500-65,000 passenger tire equivalents) approved for the 1993 paving season. This report presents the results of an August to November 1993 study of the 11 demonstration projects. The evaluation included a description of the technology; technical review of the projects; economic analysis; review of the environmental literature; environmental review of the projects; comparison of the projects with similar ones in other jurisdictions; and recommendations. Detailed information on asphalt technology is included in an appendix.

  13. Characterization of Hexsyn, a polyolefin rubber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMillin, C R

    1987-07-01

    Hexsyn is the Goodyear Tire and Rubber Company tradename for a polyolefin rubber synthesized from 1-hexene with 3-5% methylhexadiene as the source of residual double bonds for vulcanization. Under license from Goodyear, this same polymer has been manufactured by Lord Corporation for the hinge portion of finger joint prostheses using the tradename Bion. This rubber is currently licensed to the University of Akron and to the Cleveland Clinic Foundation for use in biomedical applications, and is being used primarily for biocompatible and highly fatigue resistant rubber components in ventricular assist and artificial heart systems. Results are presented from the physical, mechanical, and biological characterization of Hexsyn. Procedures are described for the synthesis, compounding, and post-molding extraction for Hexsyn. The physical testing of Hexsyn reported includes determinations of its density at 23 and 37 degrees C, initial hardness and hardness after aging in oxygen, blood, pseudoextracellular fluid and polyethylene glycol 600, typical molecular weights determined by gel permeation chromatography/low angle laser light scattering and intrinsic viscosity, thermal analyses by differential scanning calorimetry of Hexsyn gum, and vulcanized Hexsyn after exposure to blood and blood/fatigue conditions. Also reported are results of differential thermal analyses, thermomechanical analyses of virgin and annealed samples, and thermogravimetric analyses conducted in helium and in air. Dynamic mechanical analyses of Hexsyn include Clash-Berg and Rheovibron tests. Swelling was conducted to determine lot-to-lot and sheet-to-sheet variation for quality control and also a number of solvents were used so that the polymer-solvent interaction parameters could be determined. The permeability of Hexsyn to water, water vapor, and a variety of gases is reported. The permeability by contact angle measurements, refractive index, residual solvent analyses, migration of blood components

  14. 3D silicone rubber interfaces for individually tailored implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stieghorst, Jan; Bondarenkova, Alexandra; Burblies, Niklas; Behrens, Peter; Doll, Theodor

    2015-01-01

    For the fabrication of customized silicone rubber based implants, e.g. cochlear implants or electrocortical grid arrays, it is required to develop high speed curing systems, which vulcanize the silicone rubber before it runs due to a heating related viscosity drop. Therefore, we present an infrared radiation based cross-linking approach for the 3D-printing of silicone rubber bulk and carbon nanotube based silicone rubber electrode materials. Composite materials were cured in less than 120 s and material interfaces were evaluated with scanning electron microscopy. Furthermore, curing related changes in the mechanical and cell-biological behaviour were investigated with tensile and WST-1 cell biocompatibility tests. The infrared absorption properties of the silicone rubber materials were analysed with fourier transform infrared spectroscopy in transmission and attenuated total reflection mode. The heat flux was calculated by using the FTIR data, emissivity data from the infrared source manufacturer and the geometrical view factor of the system.

  15. New type of liquid rubber and compositions based on it.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semikolenov, S V; Nartova, A V; Voronchikhin, V D; Dubkov, K A

    2014-11-01

    The new method for producing the functionalized polymers and oligomers containing carbonyl C=O groups is developed. The method is based on the noncatalytic oxidation of unsaturated rubbers by nitrous oxide (N2O) at 180-230 °С. The proposed method allows obtaining the new type of functionalized rubbers-liquid unsaturated polyketones with regulated molecular weight and concentration of C=O groups. The influence of the liquid polyketone addition on properties of rubber-based composites is investigated. The study indicates good prospects of using the liquid polyketones for the improvement of properties and operating characteristics of the various types of rubbers and the rubber-cord systems.

  16. Radiation vulcanization of natural rubber latex sensitized with commercial gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chirinos, H.; Lugao, A. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2002-07-01

    The industrial activities using natural rubber latex are fully compatible with rural areas in Amazon and other places in Brazil, as well as in other tropical countries. However the classical sulfur vulcanization presents many occupational problems for the workers in rural areas. Radiation vulcanization of natural rubber latex is a much more friendly process as sulfur compounds are not needed for crosslinking, although chemicals as acrylate monomers, particularly multifunctional acrylates are still used as sensitizers for radiation processes. Two commercial gases, acetylene and butadiene, were selected as sensitizers for the radiation vulcanization of natural rubber latex instead of acrylates. These gases accelerate the crosslinking rates of the cure process and lower the radiation dose required to achieve vulcanization of natural rubber latex and improve the mechanical properties to reduce the tackiness of rubber goods. (author)

  17. Sugarcane bagasse ash: new filler to natural rubber composite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renivaldo José dos Santos

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Waste recycling has been the subject of numerous scientific researches regarding the environmental care. This paper reports the redirecting of sugarcane bagasse ash (SBA as new filler to natural rubber (NR/SBA. The NR/SBA composites were prepared using an opened cylinder mixer to incorporate the vulcanization agents and different proportions of residue (SBA. The ash contains about 70-90% of inorganic compounds, with silica (SiO2 being the main compound. The SBA incorporation improved the mechanical properties of the vulcanized rubber. Based on these results, a new use is proposed for the agro-industry organic waste to be implemented in the rubber vulcanization process, aimed at improving the rubber physical properties as well as decreasing the prices of natural rubber composites.

  18. Radiation vulcanization of natural rubber latex sensitized with commercial gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chirinos, H.; Lugao, A.

    2002-01-01

    The industrial activities using natural rubber latex are fully compatible with rural areas in Amazon and other places in Brazil, as well as in other tropical countries. However the classical sulfur vulcanization presents many occupational problems for the workers in rural areas. Radiation vulcanization of natural rubber latex is a much more friendly process as sulfur compounds are not needed for crosslinking, although chemicals as acrylate monomers, particularly multifunctional acrylates are still used as sensitizers for radiation processes. Two commercial gases, acetylene and butadiene, were selected as sensitizers for the radiation vulcanization of natural rubber latex instead of acrylates. These gases accelerate the crosslinking rates of the cure process and lower the radiation dose required to achieve vulcanization of natural rubber latex and improve the mechanical properties to reduce the tackiness of rubber goods. (author)

  19. Reinforcing effect of plasma modified halloysite nanotubes in a carbon black filled natural rubber-butadien rubber matrix

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poikelispaa, Minna; Das, Amit; Dierkes, Wilma K.; Vuorinen, Jyrki

    2011-01-01

    Rubber composites are generally produced by the direct incorporation of fillers like carbon black and/or silica into the rubber matrix. The incorporation of different types of nanofillers is the subject of recent research with the aim of preparing composites with special compositions and properties.

  20. Recycling of rubber tires in electric arc furnace steelmaking: simultaneous combustion of metallurgical coke and rubber tyres blends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magdalena Zaharia; Veena Sahajwalla; Byong-Chul Kim; Rita Khanna; N. Saha-Chaudhury; Paul O' Kane; Jonathan Dicker; Catherine Skidmore; David Knights [University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW (Australia). School of Materials Science and Engineering

    2009-05-15

    The present study investigates the effect of addition of waste rubber tires on the combustion behavior of its blends with coke for carbon injection in electric arc furnace steelmaking. Waste rubber tires were mixed in different proportions with metallurgical coke (MC) (10:90, 20:80, 30:70) for combustion and pyrolysis at 1473 K in a drop tube furnace (DTF) and thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA), respectively. Under experimental conditions most of the rubber blends indicated higher combustion efficiencies compared to those of the constituent coke. In the early stage of combustion the weight loss rate of the blends is much faster compared to that of the raw coke due to the higher volatile yield of rubber. The presence of rubber in the blends may have had an impact upon the structure during the release and combustion of their high volatile matter (VM) and hence increased char burnout. Measurements of micropore surface area and bulk density of the chars collected after combustion support the higher combustion efficiency of the blends in comparison to coke alone. The surface morphology of the 30% rubber blend revealed pores in the residual char that might be attributed to volatile evolution during high temperature reaction in oxygen atmosphere. Physical properties and VM appear to have a major effect upon the measured combustion efficiency of rubber blends. The study demonstrates that waste rubber tires can be successfully co-injected with metallurgical coke in electric arc furnace steelmaking process to provide additional energy from combustion. 44 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs.

  1. Nylon-6/rubber blends: 6. Notched tensile impact testing of nylon-6(ethylene-propylene rubber) blends

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, Krijn; Dijkstra, K.; ter Laak, J.A.; ter Laak, J.; Gaymans, R.J.

    1994-01-01

    The deformation and fracture behaviour of nylon-6/EPR (ethylene-propylene rubber) blends is studied as a function of strain rate and rubber content. Therefore, tensile experiments are conducted on notched specimens over a broad range of draw speeds (including strain rates as encountered in normal

  2. Influence of Silver nanoparticles on nutrient removal and microbial communities in SBR process after long-term exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Zhaohan [State Key Laboratory of Urban Water Resource and Environment, Harbin Institute of Technology, No73, Huanghe Road, Nangang District, Harbin 150090 (China); Heilongjiang River Fisheries Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Fishery Sciences, No 43, Songfa Street, Daoli District, Harbin 150001 (China); Gao, Peng, E-mail: hitzzh@hit.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Urban Water Resource and Environment, Harbin Institute of Technology, No73, Huanghe Road, Nangang District, Harbin 150090 (China); Li, Moqing; Cheng, Jiaqi [State Key Laboratory of Urban Water Resource and Environment, Harbin Institute of Technology, No73, Huanghe Road, Nangang District, Harbin 150090 (China); Liu, Wei [Heilongjiang River Fisheries Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Fishery Sciences, No 43, Songfa Street, Daoli District, Harbin 150001 (China); Feng, Yujie, E-mail: yujief@hit.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Urban Water Resource and Environment, Harbin Institute of Technology, No73, Huanghe Road, Nangang District, Harbin 150090 (China)

    2016-11-01

    The widespread utilization of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) in industrial and commercial products inevitably raises the release into wastewater that might cause potential negative impacts on sewage treatment system. In this paper, long-term exposure experiments at four levels were conducted to determine whether AgNPs caused adverse impacts on nutrient removals in sequencing batch reactors (SBRs) and changes of microbial community structure. Compared with the control reactor (without AgNPs), carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus removal in presence of 0.1 mg/L AgNPs was no difference. However, presence of 1.0 and 10 mg/L AgNPs decreased the average removal efficiencies of COD from 95.4% to 85.2% and 68.3%, ammonia nitrogen from 98.8% to 71.2% and 49%, SOP from 97.6% to 75.5% and 54.1%, respectively. It was found that AgNPs could accumulate in sludge with the distribution coefficients of 39.2–114 L/g, inhibit the protein and polysaccharide production in EPS, reduce the SOUR of sludge, and greatly increase LDH release from microbial cells. The illumina high-throughput sequencing results indicated that AgNPs concentration changed the structures of bacterial communities, associating with the effects of AgNPs on reactor performance. Sequence analyses showed that Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes and Acidobacteria were the dominant phyla. It was notable that AgNPs addition reduced the contents of several nitrifying bacteria at genera level in sludge, leading to the lower removal of nitrogen. - Highlights: • More than 1.0 mg/L AgNPs evidently reduce COD, NH{sub 4}{sup +}-N and SOP removal in SBR process. • AgNPs decrease the protein and polysaccharide contents of EPS. • AgNPs increase LDH release for 1.46–2.41 times. • AgNPs are apt to accumulate on surface and even into microbial cells. • AgNPs levels affect microbial community structure and composition.

  3. Influence of Silver nanoparticles on nutrient removal and microbial communities in SBR process after long-term exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Zhaohan; Gao, Peng; Li, Moqing; Cheng, Jiaqi; Liu, Wei; Feng, Yujie

    2016-01-01

    The widespread utilization of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) in industrial and commercial products inevitably raises the release into wastewater that might cause potential negative impacts on sewage treatment system. In this paper, long-term exposure experiments at four levels were conducted to determine whether AgNPs caused adverse impacts on nutrient removals in sequencing batch reactors (SBRs) and changes of microbial community structure. Compared with the control reactor (without AgNPs), carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus removal in presence of 0.1 mg/L AgNPs was no difference. However, presence of 1.0 and 10 mg/L AgNPs decreased the average removal efficiencies of COD from 95.4% to 85.2% and 68.3%, ammonia nitrogen from 98.8% to 71.2% and 49%, SOP from 97.6% to 75.5% and 54.1%, respectively. It was found that AgNPs could accumulate in sludge with the distribution coefficients of 39.2–114 L/g, inhibit the protein and polysaccharide production in EPS, reduce the SOUR of sludge, and greatly increase LDH release from microbial cells. The illumina high-throughput sequencing results indicated that AgNPs concentration changed the structures of bacterial communities, associating with the effects of AgNPs on reactor performance. Sequence analyses showed that Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes and Acidobacteria were the dominant phyla. It was notable that AgNPs addition reduced the contents of several nitrifying bacteria at genera level in sludge, leading to the lower removal of nitrogen. - Highlights: • More than 1.0 mg/L AgNPs evidently reduce COD, NH_4"+-N and SOP removal in SBR process. • AgNPs decrease the protein and polysaccharide contents of EPS. • AgNPs increase LDH release for 1.46–2.41 times. • AgNPs are apt to accumulate on surface and even into microbial cells. • AgNPs levels affect microbial community structure and composition.

  4. Pyrolysis of Rubber in a Screw Reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozhechnik, A. V.; Savchin, V. V.

    2016-11-01

    On the basis of an analysis of thermal methods described in the literature and from the results of experimental investigations of steam conversion, the authors have developed and created a facility for thermal processing of rubber waste. Rubber crumb was used as the raw material; the temperature in the reactor was 500°C; nitrogen, steam, and a mixture of light hydrocarbons (noncondensable part of pyrolysis products) represented the working medium. The pyrolysis yielded 36-38% of a solid fraction, 54-56% of a liquid hydrocarbon fraction, and 6-9% of noncondensable gases. Changes in the composition of the gas mixture have been determined at different stages of processing. Gas chromatography of pyrolysis gases has shown that the basic gases produced by pyrolysis are H2 and hydrocarbons C2H4, C3H6, C3H8, C4H8, C2H6, C3H6O2, and C4H10, and a small amount of H2S, CO, and CO2. Noncondensable gases will be used as a fuel to heat the reactor and to implement the process.

  5. Evaluation of polybutadiene rubbers using FTIR spectra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, L.N.; Schimidt, F., E-mail: lucas@ifg.edu.br [Instituto Federal de Educacao, Ciencia e Tecnologia de Goias (IFG), Goiania, GO (Brazil); Antonio, P.L.; Caldas, L.V.E. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Vieira, S.L. [Universidade Federal de Goias (UFG), Goiania, GO (Brazil). Instituto de Fisica

    2017-09-01

    Radiation dosimetry for medical and industrial purposes has increasingly evolved over the last few decades with the introduction of various new detectors. Depending on the properties exhibited for radiation dosimetry, some detectors present their applications in a specific area. From a physics point of view, an ideal dosimeter should be able to measure absorbed dose. In this work, synthetic materials based on polybutadiene rubbers (PBR) were proposed as a new class of radiation detectors. The influence of radiation dose on their properties has been investigated for application in radiation dosimetry. The rubber samples were exposed to absorbed doses from 10 Gy up to 250 Gy, using a {sup 60}Co Gamma Cell-220 system. Their responses were carried out with a Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) Spectrometer to investigate the presence of absorbance peaks. The results suggested the existence of a relationship between the absorbed doses and the absorbance peaks associated with stretching (1300-1200 cm{sup -1}), deformation (1450-1340 cm{sup -1}) and vibration (1500-1400 cm{sup -1}) processes in the material. (author)

  6. Evaluation of polybutadiene rubbers using FTIR spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, L.N.; Schimidt, F.; Antonio, P.L.; Caldas, L.V.E.; Vieira, S.L.

    2017-01-01

    Radiation dosimetry for medical and industrial purposes has increasingly evolved over the last few decades with the introduction of various new detectors. Depending on the properties exhibited for radiation dosimetry, some detectors present their applications in a specific area. From a physics point of view, an ideal dosimeter should be able to measure absorbed dose. In this work, synthetic materials based on polybutadiene rubbers (PBR) were proposed as a new class of radiation detectors. The influence of radiation dose on their properties has been investigated for application in radiation dosimetry. The rubber samples were exposed to absorbed doses from 10 Gy up to 250 Gy, using a "6"0Co Gamma Cell-220 system. Their responses were carried out with a Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) Spectrometer to investigate the presence of absorbance peaks. The results suggested the existence of a relationship between the absorbed doses and the absorbance peaks associated with stretching (1300-1200 cm"-"1), deformation (1450-1340 cm"-"1) and vibration (1500-1400 cm"-"1) processes in the material. (author)

  7. Rubber hand illusion affects joint angle perception.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin V Butz

    Full Text Available The Rubber Hand Illusion (RHI is a well-established experimental paradigm. It has been shown that the RHI can affect hand location estimates, arm and hand motion towards goals, the subjective visual appearance of the own hand, and the feeling of body ownership. Several studies also indicate that the peri-hand space is partially remapped around the rubber hand. Nonetheless, the question remains if and to what extent the RHI can affect the perception of other body parts. In this study we ask if the RHI can alter the perception of the elbow joint. Participants had to adjust an angular representation on a screen according to their proprioceptive perception of their own elbow joint angle. The results show that the RHI does indeed alter the elbow joint estimation, increasing the agreement with the position and orientation of the artificial hand. Thus, the results show that the brain does not only adjust the perception of the hand in body-relative space, but it also modifies the perception of other body parts. In conclusion, we propose that the brain continuously strives to maintain a consistent internal body image and that this image can be influenced by the available sensory information sources, which are mediated and mapped onto each other by means of a postural, kinematic body model.

  8. Synthesis biolubricant from rubber seed oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Nguyen Tran Dong; Tuyen, Dang Thi Hong; Viet, Tran Tan

    2017-09-01

    The objective was biolubricant preparation from rubber seed oil (RSO) using polymerization reactor with/without catalyst in batch reactor. Before become reactant in polymerization reaction, a non-edible rubber seed oil was converted into methyl ester by esterification/tranesterification reaction with methanol and acid/base catalyst. The polymerization reaction parameters investigated were reaction time, temperature and weight ratio (catalyst with feed), and their effect on the bio lubricant formation. The result show significant conversion of methyl ester to bio lubricant in the temperature reaction of 160°C, reaction time of 2h min and ratio of super acid catalyst (tetrafluoroboric acid-sHBF4) of 3 %w/w. The resulting products were confirmed by GC-MS, FTIR spectroscopy and also analyzed for the viscosity. The best viscosity value of RSOFAME polymer was 110.6 cSt when the condition polymerization reaction were 160 °C, reaction time 3h, 6 wt% mass ratio of oil:catalyst.

  9. Performance characteristics of rubber seed oil biodiesel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, P.; Qin, M.; Wu, J.; Chen, B. S.

    2018-01-01

    The lubricity, ignition quality, oxidative stability, low temperature flow property and elastomeric compatibility of rubber seed oil biodiesel(RSM) were evaluated and compared with conventional petro-diesel. The results indicated that RSM and its blends with petro-diesel possessed outstanding lubricity manifested by sharp decrease in wear scar diameters in the high-frequency reciprocating rig(HFRR) testing. They also provided acceptable flammability and cold flow property,although the cetane numbers (CN) and cold filter plugging points(CFPP) of biodiesel blends slightly decreased with increasing contents of petro-diesel. However, RSM proved to be very susceptible to oxidation at elevated temperatures during prolonged oxidation durations, characterized by increased peroxide values, viscosity, acid values and isooctane insolubles. The oxidation stability of RSM could be significantly improved by antioxidants such as BD100, a phenol antioxidant produced by Ciba corporation. Furthermore, RSM provided poor compatibility with some elastomeric rubbers such as polyacrylate, nitrile-butadiene and chloroprene, but was well compatible with the hydrogenated nitrile-butadiene elastomer.

  10. Laterality in the rubber hand illusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocklenburg, Sebastian; Rüther, Naima; Peterburs, Jutta; Pinnow, Marlies; Güntürkün, Onur

    2011-03-01

    In patient studies, impairments of sense of body ownership have repeatedly been linked to right-hemispheric brain damage. To test whether a right-hemispheric dominance for sense of body ownership could also be observed in healthy adults, the rubber hand illusion was elicited on both hands of 21 left-handers and 22 right-handers. In this illusion, a participant's real hand is stroked while hidden from view behind an occluder, and a nearby visible hand prosthesis is repeatedly stroked in synchrony. Most participants experience the illusionary perception of touch sensations arising from the prosthesis. The vividness of the illusion was measured by subjective self-reports as well as by skin conductance responses to watching the rubber hand being harmed. Handedness did not affect the vividness of the illusion, but a stronger skin conductance response was observed, when the illusion was elicited on the left hand. These findings suggest a right-hemispheric dominance for sense of body ownership in healthy adults.

  11. Verification of Interactions between Silica and Epoxidized Squalene as a Model for Epoxidized Natural Rubber

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaewsakul, Wisut; Sahakaro, Kannika; Dierkes, Wilma K.; Noordermeer, Jacobus W.M.

    2014-01-01

    Unmodified squalene (Sq) and epoxidised squalene (ESq), as models for natural rubber and epoxidised natural rubber, were mixed with silica in a reactor at 140 – 145ºC, which corresponds to the optimal mixing dump temperature of silica-filled natural rubber or epoxidised natural rubber compounds. The

  12. The Rubber Hand Illusion Revisited: Visuotactile Integration and Self-Attribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsakiris, Manos; Haggard, Patrick

    2005-01-01

    Watching a rubber hand being stroked, while one's own unseen hand is synchronously stroked, may cause the rubber hand to be attributed to one's own body, to "feel like it's my hand." A behavioral measure of the rubber hand illusion (RHI) is a drift of the perceived position of one's own hand toward the rubber hand. The authors investigated (a) the…

  13. Effect of Free Ammonia, Free Nitrous Acid, and Alkalinity on the Partial Nitrification of Pretreated Pig Slurry, Using an Alternating Oxic/Anoxic SBR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisol Belmonte

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of free ammonia (NH3 or FA, free nitrous acid (HNO2 or FNA, and total alkalinity (TA on the performance of a partial nitrification (PN sequencing batch reactor (SBR treating anaerobically pretreated pig slurry was studied. The SBR was operated under alternating oxic/anoxic (O/A conditions and was fed during anoxic phases. This strategy allowed using organic matter to partially remove nitrite (NO2- and nitrate (NO3- generated during oxic phases. The desired NH4+ to NO2- ratio of 1.3 g N/g N was obtained when an Ammonium Loading Rate (ALR of 0.09 g NH4+-N/L·d was applied. The system was operated at a solid retention time (SRT of 15–20 d and dissolved oxygen (DO levels higher than 3 mg O2/L during the whole operational period. PN mainly occurred caused by the inhibitory effect of FNA on nitrite oxidizing bacteria (NOB. Once HNO2 concentration was negligible, NH4+ was fully oxidized to NO3- in spite of the presence of FA. The use of biomass acclimated to ammonium as inoculum avoided a possible effect of FA on NOB activity.

  14. Pemanfaatan Silika Abu Sekam Padi sebagai Bahan Pengisi Rubber Membrane Filter Press untuk Memisahkan Minyak Inti Sawit

    OpenAIRE

    Nasruddin

    2012-01-01

    This research was aimed to obtain rubber membrane filter press (RMFP) from natural rubber (NR) as well as synthetic rubber (chloroprene rubber and nytrike butadiene rubber). The research method was done my vulcanizing natural rubber, synthetic rubber, and filler to shape RMFP. Research formulation was done with 8 units of experiments using variations of mixers that have been pre-determined. The examination to the RMFP was done with ASTM test methods that cover parameters such as viscometer mo...

  15. Improving rubber concrete by waste organic sulfur compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Liang-Hisng; Lin, Chun-Nan; Lu, Chun-Ku; Lee, Cheng-Haw; Lee, Maw-Tien

    2010-01-01

    In this study, the use of crumb tyres as additives to concrete was investigated. For some time, researchers have been studying the physical properties of concrete to determine why the inclusion of rubber particles causes the concrete to degrade. Several methods have been developed to improve the bonding between rubber particles and cement hydration products (C-S-H) with the hope of creating a product with an improvement in mechanical strength. In this study, the crumb tyres were treated with waste organic sulfur compounds from a petroleum refining factory in order to modify their surface properties. Organic sulfur compounds with amphiphilic properties can enhance the hydrophilic properties of the rubber and increase the intermolecular interaction forces between rubber and C-S-H. In the present study, a colloid probe of C-S-H was prepared to measure these intermolecular interaction forces by utilizing an atomic force microscope. Experimental results showed that rubber particles treated with waste organic sulfur compounds became more hydrophilic. In addition, the intermolecular interaction forces increased with the adsorption of waste organic sulfur compounds on the surface of the rubber particles. The compressive, tensile and flexural strengths of concrete samples that included rubber particles treated with organic sulfur compound also increased significantly.

  16. Preparation of vinyl acetate grafted natural rubber by irradiation method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porntrairat, A.; Pattamaprom, C. [Center of Excellence on Natural Rubber Technology, Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Thammasat University, Pathumthani 12120 (Thailand)

    2016-03-09

    Improvement in properties of natural rubber could be done by several methods. In this research, gamma radiation technique, which is simple, accurate, easy to control and clean, was applied to enhance the properties of natural rubber (NR) in latex state. The purpose of this research is to study the appropriate condition for preparing grafted natural rubber latex by using irradiation method. Vinyl acetate monomers (VAc) were grafted onto natural rubber latex (NR-g-PVAc) at 0-10 kGys by gamma radiation from Cobalt-60 source at room temperature. Physical properties of grafted natural rubber such as chloroform number, swelling ratio and gel content were measured. The VAc content of NR-g-PVAc was investigated by titration and visualized by FTIR spectroscopy. The FTIR spectra of NR-g-PVAc prepared at 0-10 kGys showed characteristic peaks of the vinyl acetate confirming that VAc could be grafted onto natural rubber molecular chains effectively under appropriate irradiation conditions. From the result, radiation grafting was found to be a useful technique for grafting of vinyl acetate onto natural rubber.

  17. Fabrication of shape memory natural rubber using palmitic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeff Sze-Hua Wee

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the practicability of fabricating a shape memory natural rubber with the use of palmitic acid as the swelling agent. Strips of natural rubber samples were swollen in molten palmitic acid at 75 °C. Equilibrium swelling of natural rubber with palmitic acid was found to occur at approximately 50 min of swelling time. Under cooling effect, the palmitic acid crystallized to form a percolated crystalline platelet network. These networks allow fabricated shape memory natural rubber (SMNR to deform and recover its shape at a temperature above the melting point of palmitic acid. Under controlled uniaxial stress, the natural rubber sample with 0 parts per hundred rubber (phr carbon black loading exhibits fixity and recovery of 80 ± 10%. Motivation of this research is primarily on practicability of palmitic acid to be used as a swelling agent for shape memory properties. Results show that palmitic acid is a relatively good swelling agent to induce shape memory properties into natural rubber.

  18. The optimum content of rubber ash in concrete: flexural strength

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senin, M. S.; Shahidan, S.; Shamsuddin, S. M.; Ariffin, S. F. A.; Othman, N. H.; Rahman, R.; Khalid, F. S.; Nazri, F. M.

    2017-11-01

    Discarded scrap tyres have become one of the major environmental problems nowadays. Several studies have been carried out to reuse waste tires as an additive or sand replacement in concrete with appropriate percentages of tire rubber, called as rubberized concrete to solve this problem. The main objectives of this study are to investigate the flexural strength performance of concrete when adding the rubber ash and also to analyse the optimum content of rubber ash in concrete prisms. The performance total of 30 number of concrete prisms in size of 100mm x 100mm x 500 mm were investigated, by partially replacement of rubber ash with percentage of 0%, 3%, 5%, 7% and 9% from the volume of the sand. The flexural strength is increased when percentage of rubber ash is added 3% from control concrete prism, RA 0 for both concrete prism age, 7 days and 28 days with value 1.21% and 0.976% respectively. However, for RA 5, RA 7 and RA 9, the flexural strength was decreased compared to the control for both age, 7 days and 28 days. In conclusion, 3% is the optimum content of rubber ash in concrete prism for both concrete age

  19. Circuit racing, track texture, temperature and rubber friction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, R. S.; Gruber, P.; Fina, E.

    2016-04-01

    Some general observations relating to tyre shear forces and road surfaces are followed by more specific considerations from circuit racing. The discussion then focuses on the mechanics of rubber friction. The classical experiments of Grosch are outlined and the interpretations that can be put on them are discussed. The interpretations involve rubber viscoelasticity, so that the vibration properties of rubber need to be considered. Adhesion and deformation mechanisms for energy dissipation at the interface between rubber and road and in the rubber itself are highlighted. The enquiry is concentrated on energy loss by deformation or hysteresis subsequently. Persson's deformation theory is outlined and the material properties necessary to apply the theory to Grosch's experiments are discussed. Predictions of the friction coefficient relating to one particular rubber compound and a rough surface are made using the theory and these are compared with the appropriate results from Grosch. Predictions from Persson's theory of the influence of nominal contact pressure on the friction coefficient are also examined. The extent of the agreement between theory and experiment is discussed. It is concluded that there is value in the theory but that it is far from complete. There is considerable scope for further research on the mechanics of rubber friction.

  20. their use as Accelerator in Curing Process of Rubber Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. taghvaee

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available In some special cases, rubber compounds with high amounts of unsaturated elastomer are recommended with organic sulfur donors instead of mineral sulfurs. In this condition, activated sulfur is produced in situ and curingprocess is facilitated without accelerators. Organic sulfur donor compounds have low thermal stability and in the vulcanization temperature produce free and activated sulfurs. The advantages of these compounds are:1. High effectiveness of curing agent in low quantities in rubber compounds manufacturing.2. Producing activated sulfurs in controlled condition and avoiding the over curing of rubber compounds.In this report the novel synthesis of some derivatives of diamino-disulfides which can be applied as sulfur donors in vulcanization of special rubber compounds is introduced. The key process is reaction of sulfurmonochloride with amines in petroleum ether as solvent in low temperature. Dithio-dimorpholine(DTDM, dithio-dipipyridyl (DTDP, dithio-bis dibutylamine (DTBDB and dithio-bisdiisopropyl amine (DTBDI were prepared according to this method. All products thus obtained were characterized by 1H and 13C-NMR spectroscopies. The effects of accelerating and sulfur donoring of all prepared agents were detected in rubber compounds with natural and synthetic rubber bases. All physical, chemical, reological and mechanical properties of rubber compounds based on prepared sulfur donors were characterized.

  1. Practical application of thermoreversibly Cross-linked rubber products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polgar, L. M.; Picchioni, F.; de Ruiter, E.; van Duin, M.

    2017-07-01

    Currently, rubber products cannot simply be reprocessed after their product life, due to the irreversible cross-linking methods traditionally applied. The purpose of this work is to investigate how thermoreversible cross-linking of rubbers via Diels Alder chemistry can be used for the development of recyclable rubber products. Unfortunately, the applicability of the thermoreversible EPM-g-furan/BM system appears to be limited to room temperature applications, because of the rapid deterioration of the compression set at elevated temperatures compared to irreversibly cross-linked EPM. However, the use of EPM rubber modified with thiophene or cyclopentadiene moieties may extend the temperature application range and results in rubber products with acceptable properties. Finally, rubber products generally comprise fillers such as silica, carbon black or fibers. In this context, the reinforcing effect of short cut aramid fibers on the material properties of the newly developed thermoreversibly cross-linked EPM rubbers was also studied. The material properties of the resulting products were found to be comparable to those of a fiber reinforced, peroxide cured reference sample.

  2. Forecasting Natural Rubber Price In Malaysia Using Arima

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahari, Fatin Z.; Khalid, Kamil; Roslan, Rozaini; Sufahani, Suliadi; Mohamad, Mahathir; Saifullah Rusiman, Mohd; Ali, Maselan

    2018-04-01

    This paper contains introduction, materials and methods, results and discussions, conclusions and references. Based on the title mentioned, high volatility of the price of natural rubber nowadays will give the significant risk to the producers, traders, consumers, and others parties involved in the production of natural rubber. To help them in making decisions, forecasting is needed to predict the price of natural rubber. The main objective of the research is to forecast the upcoming price of natural rubber by using the reliable statistical method. The data are gathered from Malaysia Rubber Board which the data are from January 2000 until December 2015. In this research, average monthly price of Standard Malaysia Rubber 20 (SMR20) will be forecast by using Box-Jenkins approach. Time series plot is used to determine the pattern of the data. The data have trend pattern which indicates the data is non-stationary data and the data need to be transformed. By using the Box-Jenkins method, the best fit model for the time series data is ARIMA (1, 1, 0) which this model satisfy all the criteria needed. Hence, ARIMA (1, 1, 0) is the best fitted model and the model will be used to forecast the average monthly price of Standard Malaysia Rubber 20 (SMR20) for twelve months ahead.

  3. Utilization of waste tire rubber in manufacture of oriented strandboard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayrilmis, Nadir; Buyuksari, Umit; Avci, Erkan

    2009-09-01

    Some physical and mechanical properties of oriented strandboards (OSBs) containing waste tire rubber at various addition levels based on the oven-dry strand weight, using the same method as that used in the manufacture of OSB. Two resin types, phenol-formaldehyde (PF) and polyisocyanate, were used in the experiments. The manufacturing parameters were: a specific gravity of 0.65 and waste tire rubber content (10/90, 20/80 and 30/70 by wt.% of waste tire rubber/wood strand). Average internal bond values of PF-bonded OSB panels with rubber chips were between 17.6% and 48.5% lower than the average of the control samples while polyisocyanate bonded OSBs were 16.5-50.6%. However, water resistance and mechanical properties of OSBs made using polyisocyanate resin were found to comply with general-purpose OSB minimum property requirements of EN 300 Type 1 (1997) values for use in dry conditions at the lowest tire rubber loading level (10%) based on the oven-dry panel weight. The tire rubber improved water resistance of the OSB panel due to its almost hydrophobic property. Based on the findings obtained from this study, we concluded that waste tire rubber could be used for general-purpose OSB manufacturing up to 10% ratio based on the oven-dry panel weight.

  4. Model fire tests on polyphosphazene rubber and polyvinyl chloride (PVC)/nitrile rubber foams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widenor, W. M.

    1978-01-01

    A video tape record of model room fire tests was shown, comparing polyphosphazene (P-N) rubber and polyvinyl chloride (PVC)/nitrile rubber closed-cell foams as interior finish thermal insulation under conditions directly translatable to an actual fire situation. Flashover did not occur with the P-N foam and only moderate amounts of low density smoke were formed, whereas with the PVC/nitrile foam, flashover occurred quickly and large volumes of high density smoke were emitted. The P-N foam was produced in a pilot plant under carefully controlled conditions. The PVC/nitrile foam was a commercial product. A major phase of the overall program involved fire tests on P-N open-cell foam cushioning.

  5. Natural rubber/high density polyethylene/ground rubber composites vulcanized by gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaltout, N.A.; Abou zeid, M.M.; Khalil, A.M.; El Miligy, A.A.

    2010-01-01

    Natural rubber (NR) was blended mechanically with 50 phr high density polyethylene (HDPE). the mechanical, physical and thermal properties of NR/HDPE blend and its composites with different contents of ground tire rubber (GTR) before and after exposure to gamma irradiation to various doses up to 250 kGy were studied. Also, the change in structure morphology of irradiated NR/HDPE blend as well as NR/HDPE/GTR composites was examined by scanning electron microscope (SEM). The results showed that the substitution of a part of virgin NR with GTR decreases the mechanical and physical properties but not to the extent of deterioration . However, it was found that the mechanical and physical properties were improved after gamma irradiation . Composite of NR/GTR/HDPE (75/25/50) showed good properties. Scanning electron microscope showed homogeneity between the irradiated composites ingredients.

  6. Functionalization of Liquid Natural Rubber via Oxidative Degradation of Natural Rubber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suhawati Ibrahim

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Natural rubber (NR is a high molecular weight natural polymer and can be degraded to liquid natural rubber (LNR leaving certain functional groups at the end of chains. In this study, LNR samples prepared via oxidative degradation using H2O2 and NaNO2 as reagents were found to have different end groups depending on the pH of the reaction medium. In an acidic medium, LNR with hydroxyl terminal groups was formed as the degradation reaction was initiated by hydroxyl radicals produced from decomposition of peroxynitrite acid. In contrast, a redox reaction took place in an alkaline medium to yield LNR with carbonyl terminal groups. The mechanisms of reaction are discussed and proposed to explain the formation of different end groups when reaction carried out in acidic and alkaline media. Chain degradation in an acidic medium seems to be more effective than in an alkaline medium, and thus yields LNR with lower Mn.

  7. Properties of tire rubber with zinc-containing technological additives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. N. Kayushnikov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we studied the influence of zinc-containing technological additives on partial replacement of zinc oxide and stearic acid on deformation-strength and performance properties of tire elastomeric compositions based on polyisoprene rubber and combination of oil-filled butadiene-styrene and polybutadiene rubbers. It was revealed that partial replacement of zinc oxide and stearic acid with zinc-containing technological additives does not significantly affect the basic physico-mechanical properties of rubbers based on synthetic rubbers of general use. It was determined that the introduction of zinc-containing technological additives SCC2 in combination with zinc oxide in all the studied ratios and SCC3 in combination with zinc oxide in 4: 1 and 3: 1 ratios leads to increase (up to 10.4% of the resistance of these rubbers under the action of temperature-force fields, which is probably due to a more even distribution of polar components of curing system in non-polar elastomeric matrix, as well as the type of cross-links formed during vulcanization under the action of surface-active additives. It has been found that the introduction of zinc-containing additives into the elastomeric compositions based on SRMS-30 ARKM-15 + SRD in combination with zinc oxide leads to increase to 6.3% of wear resistance of rubbers, which may be due to a lower defectiveness of vulcanization structure of these rubbers, concentration of stress centers in the material. For rubbers based on SRI-3, preservation of bond strength of rubber with a textile cord at a sufficiently high level is shown.

  8. The role of pressure in rubber elasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bower, A F; Weiner, J H

    2004-06-22

    We describe a series of molecular dynamics computations that reveal an intimate connection at the atomic scale between difference stress (which resists stretches) and pressure (which resists volume changes) in an idealized elastomer, in contrast to the classical theory of rubber elasticity. Our simulations idealize the elastomer as a "pearl necklace," in which the covalent bonds are stiff linear springs, while nonbonded atoms interact through a Lennard-Jones potential with energy epsilon(LJ) and radius sigma(LJ). We calculate the difference stress t(11)-(t(22)+t(33))/2 and mean stress (t(11)+t(22)+t(33))/3 induced by a constant volume extension in the x(1) direction, as a function of temperature T and reduced density rho(*)=Nsigma(IJ) (3)/nu. Here, N is the number of atoms in the simulation cell and nu is the cell volume. Results show that for rho(*)rubber elasticity, which neglects nonbonded interactions. However, data presented by van Krevelen [Properties of Polymers, 3rd ed. (Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1990), p. 79] indicate that rubber at standard conditions corresponds to rho(*)=1.2. For rho(*)>1, the system is entropic for kT/epsilon(LJ)>2, but at lower temperatures the difference stress contains an additional energy component, which increases as rho(*) increases and temperature decreases. Finally, the model exhibits a glass transition for rho(*)=1.2 and kT/epsilon(LJ) approximately 2. The atomic-scale processes responsible for generating stress are explored in detail. Simulations demonstrate that the repulsive portion of the Lennard-Jones potential provides a contribution sigma(nbr)>0 to the difference stress, the attractive portion provides sigma(nba) approximately 0, while the covalent bonds provide sigma(b)nbr)0, and Pi(b)nbr)=-APi(nbr)P(2)(theta(b)), sigma(b)=BPi(b)P(2)(theta(b)), where P(2)(theta(b)) is a measure of the anisotropy of the orientation of the covalent bonds, and A and B are coefficients that depend weakly on rho(*) and temperature. For high

  9. Shear modulus and damping ratio of natural rubber containing carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, R.; Ibrahim, A.; Rusop, M.; Adnan, A.

    2018-05-01

    This paper presents the results of an investigation into the potential application of Natural rubber (NR) containing Carbon Nanotubes (CNTs) by measuring its shear modulus and damping ratio. Four different types of rubber specimens which fabricated with different MWCNT loadings: 0 wt% (pure natural rubber), 1 wt%, 3 wt%, and 5 wt%. It is observed that the shear modulus and damping ratio of CNTs filled rubber composites are remarkably higher than that of raw rubber indicating the inherent reinforcing potential of CNTs.

  10. Influence the Rubber Seed Type and Altitude on Characteristic of Seed, Oil and Biodiesel

    OpenAIRE

    Salni Salni; Poedji Loekitowati Hariani; Hanifa Marisa Hanifa

    2017-01-01

    This research studies the influence of the type of rubber seed that is superior and local, altitude plant in South Sumatra province to the characteristic of seed, oil and biodiesel (methyl ester). Rubber plants planted from local rubber seed by seeds seedlings and superior rubber seed by selected clones. In the study, rubber plants planted at a different altitude, namely in Banyuasin district (18 m above sea level), Prabumulih District (176 m above sea level) and Lahat District (627 m above s...

  11. Influence of the Rubber Seed Type and Altitude on Characteristic of Seed, Oil and Biodiesel

    OpenAIRE

    Salni, Salni; Hariani, Poedji Loekitowati; Hanifa, Hanifa Marisa

    2017-01-01

    This research studies the influence of the type of rubber seed that is superior and local, altitude plant in South Sumatra province to the characteristic of seed, oil and biodiesel (methyl ester). Rubber plants planted from local rubber seed by seeds seedlings and superior rubber seed by selected clones. In the study, rubber plants planted at a different altitude, namely in Banyuasin district (18 m above sea level), Prabumulih District (176 m above sea level) and Lahat District (627 m above s...

  12. EPDM Rubber Modified by Nitrogen Plasma Immersion Ion Implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondyurin, Alexey

    2018-04-24

    Ethylene-propylene diene monomer rubber (EPDM) was treated by plasma immersion ion implantation (PIII) with nitrogen ions of 20 keV energy and fluence from 10 13 to 10 16 ions/cm². The Fourier-transform infrared attenuated total reflection spectra, atomic force microscopy and optical microscopy showed significant structure changes of the surface. The analysis of an interface of PIII treated EPDM rubber with polyurethane binder showed a cohesive character of the adhesion joint fracture at the presence of solvent and interpreted as covalent bond network formation between the PIII treated rubber and the adhesive.

  13. EPDM Rubber Modified by Nitrogen Plasma Immersion Ion Implantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexey Kondyurin

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Ethylene-propylene diene monomer rubber (EPDM was treated by plasma immersion ion implantation (PIII with nitrogen ions of 20 keV energy and fluence from 1013 to 1016 ions/cm2. The Fourier-transform infrared attenuated total reflection spectra, atomic force microscopy and optical microscopy showed significant structure changes of the surface. The analysis of an interface of PIII treated EPDM rubber with polyurethane binder showed a cohesive character of the adhesion joint fracture at the presence of solvent and interpreted as covalent bond network formation between the PIII treated rubber and the adhesive.

  14. The cross linking of EPDM and NBR rubber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samardžija-Jovanović Suzana

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In the process of macromolecule cross linking, the choice of type and quantity of the components and the experimental conditions are important to obtain the new cross linked materials with better mechanical and chemical characteristics. The cross linking method depends on the rubber type and structure. Intermolecular cross linking results in the formation elastomer network. The basis of the cross linking process, between ethylene propylene diene rubber (EPDM and acrylonitrile butadiene rubber (NBR, is a chemical reaction. Fillers and other additives are present in different mass ratios in the material. The exploitation properties of the cross linked materials depend on the quantity of additive in the cross linked systems.

  15. Research Progress in Graphene/Rubber Conducting Nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DONG Hui-min

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The conductive mechanism of graphene/rubber nanocomposites was introduced.Advances in the synthesis and properties of graphene and its derivatives, modifications of graphene, along with its hybrid fillers, as well as fabrication of related rubber conducting nanocomposites were reviewed.Many factors affecting the electrical properties, such as fabrication method, vulcanization, temperature, pressure, frequency and media etc. were also summarized.It was pointed out that the further research should be focused on multi-component graphene/rubber nanocomposites and its double percolation phenomenon.

  16. Application of mathematical planning in production of filled emulsion rubbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugacheva, I. N.; Molokanova, L. V.; Popova, L. V.; Repin, P. S.

    2018-05-01

    The applicability of mathematical planning of experiment in the field of chemistry and chemical engineering, in particular in the industrial production of synthetic rubbers, is considered in the article. Possibility of using secondary material resources, which are waste products of light industry, in the production of elastomeric compositions is studied. The method of obtaining a powdered cellulose additive from wastes containing cellulose fiber is described. The best way of introducing the obtained additive into elastomeric compositions based on the emulsion rubber is established. Optimal conditions for obtaining filled emulsion rubber with the help of a powdered cellulose additive were established basing on the mathematical planning of experiment.

  17. SUPPLY-CHAIN OF NATURAL RUBBER IN INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bustanul Arifin

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1\\:*{behavior:url(#ieooui } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} The study examines the supply chain of natural rubber production in Indonesia and assessing the transmission of prices to rubber growers and provides recommendations for a suitable scheme that would help to ensure high production standards and a sustainable return for natural rubber production.  The frameworks to examine the performance of supply chain of rubber marketing rely mostly on the efficiency level of marketing system of natural rubbers, including the value chain principles in marketing margin, and revealed price transmission from consumers to growers. The results show that the roles of subdistrict middlemen are extremely crucial in moving up the slabs from the village level to urban areas, where trader-brokers are expecting the slabs to be forwarded directly to crumb-rubber factories.  Changes in world price, hence the profits being accumulated by traders and rubber factories, are not transmitted properly to rubber farmers and/or sharetappers. Information asymmetry, the access over price information, and immediate response of rubber growers to the change in world price could explain this non-cointegration in price data between growers and exporters.  In the near future, the policy reforms in supply chain of natural rubber marketing in Indonesia should carefully address these issues in a more comprehensive manner.  Finally, in order to contribute to the positive environmental and social benefits, the major challenge for natural rubber

  18. Preparation and study of new rubber to steel adhesive systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Labaj, I.; Ondrusova, D.; Dubec, A.; Pajtasova, M.; Kohutiar, M.

    2017-01-01

    The present paper deals with the preparation of new rubber to steel adhesive systems using the steel surface treatment by applying the adhesive coats based on Co (II) and Cu(II) salts. For demonstration of coats chemical composition EDX analysis was used. The topography and microstructure of prepared adhesive coats were investigated using Scanning Electron Microscopy. Finally the efficiency of adhesion between rubber blends and coated metal steel pieces was evaluated according to Test ASTM D429 Rubber to metal adhesion, method A. The adhesive strength resulting values of prepared steel samples with new adhesive coats were compared with samples covered with adhesive systems commonly used in industry. (authors)

  19. Interfacial interaction between the epoxidized natural rubber and silica in natural rubber/silica composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Tiwen; Jia, Zhixin; Luo, Yuanfang; Jia, Demin; Peng, Zheng

    2015-02-01

    The epoxidized natural rubber (ENR) as an interfacial modifier was used to improve the mechanical and dynamical mechanical properties of NR/silica composites. In order to reveal the interaction mechanism between ENR and silica, the ENR/Silica model compound was prepared by using an open mill and the interfacial interaction of ENR with silica was investigated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and stress-strain testing. The results indicated that the ring-opening reaction occurs between the epoxy groups of ENR chains and Si-OH groups on the silica surfaces and the covalent bonds are formed between two phases, which can improve the dispersion of silica in the rubber matrix and enhance the interfacial combination between rubber and silica. The ring-opening reaction occurs not only in vulcanization process but also in mixing process, meanwhile, the latter seems to be more important due to the simultaneous effects of mechanical force and temperature.

  20. Interfacial interaction between the epoxidized natural rubber and silica in natural rubber/silica composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Tiwen [College of Materials Science and Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Jia, Zhixin, E-mail: zxjia@scut.edu.cn [College of Materials Science and Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Luo, Yuanfang; Jia, Demin [College of Materials Science and Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Peng, Zheng [Agricultural Product Processing Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Tropical Agriculture Sciences, Zhanjiang 524001 (China)

    2015-02-15

    Highlights: • Substantiate the ring open reaction between Si-OH of silica and epoxy groups of ENR. • ENR can act as a bridge between NR and silica to enhance the interfacial interaction. • As a modifier, ENR gets the potential to be used in the tread of green tire for improving the wet skid resistance apparently. - Abstract: The epoxidized natural rubber (ENR) as an interfacial modifier was used to improve the mechanical and dynamical mechanical properties of NR/silica composites. In order to reveal the interaction mechanism between ENR and silica, the ENR/Silica model compound was prepared by using an open mill and the interfacial interaction of ENR with silica was investigated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and stress–strain testing. The results indicated that the ring-opening reaction occurs between the epoxy groups of ENR chains and Si-OH groups on the silica surfaces and the covalent bonds are formed between two phases, which can improve the dispersion of silica in the rubber matrix and enhance the interfacial combination between rubber and silica. The ring-opening reaction occurs not only in vulcanization process but also in mixing process, meanwhile, the latter seems to be more important due to the simultaneous effects of mechanical force and temperature.