Sample records for styrene sulfonate salts

  1. Interactions between halloysite nanotubes and poly(styrene sulfonate) in solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jae Heon; Ryu, Jung Ju; Shin, Joo Huei; Lee, Hoik; Sohn, Dae Won [Dept. of Chemistry and Research Institute for Convergence of Basic Science, Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Ick Soo [Nano Fusion Technology Research Lab, Division of Frontier Fibers, Institute for Fiber Engineering (IFES), Interdisciplinary Cluster for Cutting Edge Research (ICCER), Shinshu University, Nagano (Japan)


    The interaction between halloysite nanotubes (HNT) and poly(styrene sulfonate) (PSS) in aqueous solution was investigated by dynamic light scattering. Dynamic behavior of HNT/PSS was observed with different salt, HNT, and PSS concentrations. The HNT colloids were stabilized by PSS over a wide range of HNT concentrations, and HNT suspension in dilute solution formed stable HNT/PSS particles. On the other hand, HNT particles aggregated as sediments at higher concentrations due to strong attraction among HNT rods, and HNT aggregates were stabilized by additional PSS. The interactions between HNT and PSS are described by the van der Waals–London force (VDWL). The stabilization process of HNT/PSS particles in salt solution was proposed by comparing the hydrodynamic radii and apparent intensities of samples. The results demonstrate that electrostatic, steric, and depletion stabilization processes are responsible for the stable dispersion of HNT even at high concentration.

  2. Ionomeric membranes based on partially sulfonated poly(styrene) : synthesis, proton conduction and methanol permeation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Picchioni, F.; Tricoli, V.; Carretta, N.


    Homogeneuosly sulfonated poly(styrene) (SPS) was prepared with various concentration of sulfonic acid groups in the base polymer. Membranes cast from these materials were investigated in relation to proton conductivity and methanol permeability in the temperature range from 20°C to 60°C. It was

  3. Sulfonation and characterization of styrene-indene copolymers for the development of proton conducting polymer membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane M. Becker


    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to obtain polymer precursors based on styrene copolymers with distinct degrees of sulfonation, as an alternative material for fuel cell membranes. Acetyl sulfate was used to carry out the sulfonation and the performance of the polyelectrolyte was evaluated based on the content of acid polar groups incorporated into the macromolecular chain. Polymeric films were produced by blending the sulfonated styrene-indene copolymer with poly(vinylidene fluoride. The degree of sulfonation of the polymer was strongly affected by the sulfonation reaction parameters, with a direct impact on the ionic exchange capacity and the ionic conductivity of the sulfonated polymers and the membranes obtained from them. The films produced with the blends showed more suitable mechanical properties, although the conductivity of the membranes was still lower than that of commercially available membranes used in fuel cells.

  4. Spectrophotometric study of the interaction of methylene blue with poly(styrene-co-sodium styrene sulfonate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Souha Ben Mahmoud


    Full Text Available The interaction of the cationic phenothiazine dye, the Methylene Blue (MB with poly-(sodium styrene sulfonatef–co-(styrene1-f, (PSSNa f, has been investigated by spectrophotometric method. The polyelectrolyte induced metachromasy resulting in a blue shift of the absorption maxima of the dye, in agreement with the formation of dye H-aggregates. The stability of the PSSNa-MB complexes was studied as a function of polyelectrolyte chain length, polyelectrolyte electrostatic charge density f, polyelectrolyte concentration, NaCl salt addition, tetrahydrofurane (THF addition and THF treatment. The stoichiometry of PSSNa-MB complex evaluated by the molar ratio method was found 4:1 for the fully charged PSSNa f = 1. Reversal of metachromasy was observed upon salt and THF addition, while THF treatment does not affect the complex and allows recovering the initial complex. Finally, thermodynamic parameters of the interaction between the polyelectrolyte and the dye at different temperatures, namely free energy DG, the enthalpy DH and the entropy DS have been evaluated to determine the binding constant and as a consequence the stability of the complex. The metachromasy effect was found to be more high as the chemical charge f increases and reaches its maximum value f = 1, when operating at optimal conditions. So, the PSSNa f = 1-MB complex is the most stable in comparison to the others based on lower charge density PSSNa f.

  5. Grafting titanium nitride surfaces with sodium styrene sulfonate thin films (United States)

    Zorn, Gilad; Migonney, Véronique; Castner, David G.


    The importance of titanium nitride lies in its high hardness and its remarkable resistance to wear and corrosion, which has led to its use as a coating for the heads of hip prostheses, dental implants and dental surgery tools. However, the usefulness of titanium nitride coatings for biomedical applications could be significantly enhanced by modifying their surface with a bioactive polymer film. The main focus of the present work was to graft a bioactive poly(sodium styrene sulfonate) (pNaSS) thin film from titanium nitride surfaces via a two-step procedure: first modifying the surface with 3-methacryloxypropyltrimethoxysilane (MPS) and then grafting the pNaSS film from the MPS modified titanium through free radical polymerization. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) were used after each step to characterize success and completeness of each reaction. The surface region of the titanium nitride prior to MPS functionalization and NaSS grafting contained a mixture of titanium nitride, oxy-nitride, oxide species as well as adventitious surface contaminants. After MPS functionalization, Si was detected by XPS, and characteristic MPS fragments were detected by ToF-SIMS. After NaSS grafting, Na and S were detected by XPS and characteristic NaSS fragments were detected by ToF-SIMS. The XPS determined thicknesses of the MPS and NaSS overlayers were ∼1.5 and ∼1.7 nm, respectively. The pNaSS film density was estimated by the toluidine blue colorimetric assay to be 260 ± 70 ng/cm2. PMID:25280842

  6. Solvent and irradiation doses effects on the ion exchange capacity of sulfonated styrene grafted PVDF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, Henrique P.; Parra, Duclerc F.; Lugao, Ademar B. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)


    Polymers exhibiting ion exchange capacity are studied for many years due to their application in several fields, such as membranes for proton exchange fuel cells, filtration membranes, heavy ions recovery and artificial muscles and sensors. Radiation induced grafting followed by sulfonation is a well-known way to obtain ion exchange polymers. Fluorinated polymers are frequently used as polymeric matrix for grafting due to their excellent physicochemical properties. Radiation induced grafting of styrene into poly (vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) by simultaneous method in 1:1 styrene/toluene or styrene/N,N-dimethylformamide solutions was studied. Irradiations were performed under nitrogen atmosphere, room temperature and at doses of 5, 10 and 20 kGy with dose rate of 5 kGy.h{sup -1} from a {sup 60}Co gamma source. After washing, grafted materials were sulfonated in 10% chlorosulfonic acid/1,2-dichloroethane solutions for 4 h at room temperature. Characterization shows that increasing irradiation dose corresponds to increases in the grafting yield (GY %) gravimetrically calculated and these different solvents shows different grafting behaviors. Toluene allows no more than 3 % of grafting while DMF allows up to 55 % of grafting in the same condition. Grafting in toluene solution occurs on the surface and in DMF solution it occurs in the bulk, as confirmed by SEM. Both irradiation doses and solvent used have direct effects in the ion exchange capacities (calculated after titrations). FT-IR spectra exhibit new peaks after grafting and after sulfonation, attributed to grafted monomer and sulfonic groups attached to the styrene. DSC shows differences in thermal behavior of the polymer before and after each step. (author)

  7. Radiation-induced crosslinking of poly(styrene–butadiene–styrene) block copolymers and their sulfonation

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    Lee, Sun-Young [Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 29 Geumgu-gil, Jeongeup-si, Jeollabuk-do 580-185 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Yonsei University, 50 Yonsei-ro, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Song, Ju-Myung; Sohn, Joon-Yong [Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 29 Geumgu-gil, Jeongeup-si, Jeollabuk-do 580-185 (Korea, Republic of); Shul, Yong-Gun [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Yonsei University, 50 Yonsei-ro, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Junhwa, E-mail: [Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 29 Geumgu-gil, Jeongeup-si, Jeollabuk-do 580-185 (Korea, Republic of)


    Highlights: • The c-SBS films were prepared using a gamma ray or electron beam. • The crosslinking degree of the c-SBS films were increased with the irradiation dose. • The prepared c-SBS films were sulfonated with various concentration of CSA. • The sulfonation of the c-SBS film is largely dependent on the concentration of CSA. • The sulfonation process is progressed from the surface to the inner part of c-SBS film. -- Abstract: Several crosslinked poly(styrene–butadiene–styrene) (c-SBS) block copolymer films were prepared using a gamma ray or electron beam with various irradiation doses and the prepared c-SBS film was then subjected to sulfonation using a chlorosulfonic acid (CSA) solution to introduce a sulfonic acid group. To estimate the degree of crosslinking, the gel fractions and FT-IR spectra of the c-SBS films were used and the results indicate that the degree of crosslinking is increased with an increase in the radiation dose. The surface morphology and mechanical property of the c-SBS films were observed using SEM and UTM instruments, respectively. The sulfonated c-SBS films were investigated by measuring the ion exchange capacity (IEC) and by observing the cross-sectional distribution patterns of sulfonic acid group using an SEM-EDX instrument. The IEC and SEM-EDX studies indicate that the sulfonated c-SBS membranes can be successfully prepared through the radiation crosslinking of the SBS film and the subsequent sulfonation with a diluted CSA solution.

  8. Sulfonation of cPTFE Film grafted Styrene for Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell

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    Yohan Yohan


    Full Text Available Sulfonation of γ-ray iradiated and styrene-grafted crosslinked polytetrafluoroethylene film (cPTFE-g-S film have been done. The aim of the research is to make hydropyl membrane as proton exchange membrane fuel cell. Sulfonation was prepared with chlorosulfonic acid in chloroethane under various conditions. The impact of the percent of grafting, the concentration of chlorosulfonic acid, the reaction time,and the reaction temperature on the properties of sulfonated film is examinated. The results show that sulfonation of surface-grafted films is incomplete at room  temperature. The increasing of concentration of chlorosulfonic acid and reaction temperature accelerates the reaction but they also add favor side reactions. These will lead to decreasing of the ion-exchange capacity, water uptake, and proton conductivity but increasing the resistance to oxidation in a perhidrol solution. The cPTFE-g-SS membrane which is resulted has stability in a H2O2 30% solution for 20 hours.

  9. Disruption of the Electrical Conductivity of Highly Conductive Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) : Poly(styrene sulfonate) by Hypochlorite

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oostra, A. Jolt; Bos, Karel H.W. van den; Blom, Paul W.M.; Michels, Jasper J.


    The effect of hypochlorite treatment on the layer thickness and conductivity of a state-of-the-art high conducting poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrene sulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) is investigated as a function of exposure time and hypochlorite concentration. Because of overoxidation by the

  10. Magnetic and dielectric properties of sulfonated (S) poly[(styrene)-(ethylene-co-butylene)]-styrene (SEBS) block copolymer/magnetic metal oxide nanocomposites synthesized via an in-situ precipitation method (United States)

    Peddini, Sateesh Kumar

    Block copolymer/magnetic metal oxide nanocomposites were synthesized by growing metal oxide nanoparticles (cobalt ferrite, CoFe2O 4 and iron oxide, alpha-Fe2O3) in sulfonated (s) poly (styrene) (PS) block domains of sulfonated poly [(styrene)-(ethylene-co-butylene)-(styrene)] (SEBS) BCP preformed films via an in-situ precipitation method by dissolving the salts of respective metal chloride (s) in a suitable solvent that selectively swells the sPS regions. Inorganic uptake was determined using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and it was observed that none of the samples incorporated more than 5 wt % of the inorganic component. Dynamical mechanical analysis was used to observe the changes in the glass transition temperatures (T g) in both blocks of the BCP by plotting tan delta vs. temperature responses in tensile mode on all samples. The results showed that the T g of the sPS block domains increased with sulfonation level and further increased with the incorporation of both nanoparticles in the same blocks, indicating that growth of nanoparticles takes place only in sPS blocks. The crystalline structure of the nanoparticles was observed using wide angle X-ray diffractometry (WAXD), and it was determined that cobalt iron oxide nanoparticles in 20 mole % sulfonated SEBS exhibited an inverse spinel structure confirming the structure to be CoFe2O4. And with iron oxide nanoparticles in 10 mole % sulfonated SEBS exhibiting a hematite (alpha-Fe2O 3) phase. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was used to investigate the particle size and distribution of nanoparticles in sBCP matrices at all sulfonation levels. Select area electron diffraction in TEM was used to determine crystalline structures of individual nanoparticles to compare with the structure observed from WAXD. The changes in thickness of interfaces between the individual PS and EB block domains with increase in sulfonation of PS blocks were investigated semi-quantitatively using tapping mode atomic force

  11. Electromechanical properties of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)/poly(4-styrene sulfonate) films. (United States)

    Okuzaki, Hidenori; Suzuki, Hiroki; Ito, Takamichi


    Free-standing films made of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) doped with poly(4-styrene sulfonate) (PEDOT/PSS) were prepared by casting water dispersion of its colloidal particles. Morphology, water vapor sorption, and electro-active polymer actuating behavior of the resulting films were investigated by means of atomic force microscopy, sorption isotherm, thermal mechanical analysis, and electromechanical analysis. It was found that the PEDOT/PSS film sorbed 60% of moisture at relative water vapor pressure of 0.95. Upon application of 10 V, the film underwent contraction of 2.4% in air at 50% relative humidity (RH) which significantly increased to 4.5% at 90% RH. The principle lay in desorption of water vapor sorbed in the film due to Joule heating, where electric field was capable of controlling the equilibrium of water vapor sorption. The film generated contractile stress as high as 17 MPa under isometric conditions and work capacity attained 174 kJ m(-3), where Young's modulus of the film increased from 1.8 to 2.6 GPa by application of 6 V at 50% RH.

  12. Analysis of recycled poly (styrene-co-butadiene) sulfonation: a new approach in solid catalysts for biodiesel production. (United States)

    Aguilar-Garnica, Efrén; Paredes-Casillas, Mario; Herrera-Larrasilla, Tito E; Rodríguez-Palomera, Felicia; Ramírez-Arreola, Daniel E


    The disposal of solid waste is a serious problem worldwide that is made worse in developing countries due to inadequate planning and unsustainable solid waste management. In Mexico, only 2% of total urban solid waste is recycled. One non-recyclable material is poly (styrene-co-butadiene), which is commonly used in consumer products (like components of appliances and toys), in the automotive industry (in instrument panels) and in food services (e.g. hot and cold drinking cups and glasses). In this paper, a lab-scale strategy is proposed for recycling poly (styrene-co-butadiene) waste by sulfonation with fuming sulfuric acid. Tests of the sulfonation strategy were carried out at various reaction conditions. The results show that 75°C and 2.5 h are the operating conditions that maximize the sulfonation level expressed as number of acid sites. The modified resin is tested as a heterogeneous catalyst in the first step (known as esterification) of biodiesel production from a mixture containing tallow fat and canola oil with 59% of free fatty acids. The preliminary results show that esterification can reach 91% conversion in the presence of the sulfonated polymeric catalyst compared with 67% conversion when the reaction is performed without catalyst.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yohan Yohan


    Full Text Available Sulfonation of g-ray iradiated and styrene-grafted crosslinked polytetrafluoro ethylene film (cPTFE-g-S film have been done. The aim of the research was to make hydrophyl membrane as proton exchange membrane fuel cell. Sulfonation was prepared by using chlorosulfonic acid in chloroethane under various conditions. The impact of the percentage of grafting, the concentration of chlorosulfonic acid, the reaction time,and the reaction temperature on the properties of sulfonated film were examined. The results show that sulfonation of surface-grafted films was incomplete at room temperature. Increasing concentration of chlorosulfonic acid and reaction temperature accelerate the reaction but they also favor side reactions. These lead to the decrease of the ion-exchange capacity, water uptake, and proton conductivity but the increase of the resistance to oxidation in a perhydrol solution. The resulted cPTFE-g-SS membraneis stabile in a H2O2 30% solution for 20 h.   Keywords: Chorosulfonic acid, sulfonation, PTFE film, proton excange membrane.

  14. Transport Properties of Sulfonated Poly (Styrene-b-isobutylene-b-styrene) Triblock Copolymers at High Ion-Exchange Capacities

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Winey, Karen I; Elabd, Yossef A; Napadensky, Eugene; Walker, Charles W


    ... (IEC), specifically at high IECs (up to -2 mequiv/g). The proton conductivity of S-SIBS was -1 order of magnitude higher than sulfonated polystyrene at similar IECs and 3-fold higher than Nafion 117 at an IEC of 2 mequiv/g...

  15. Liquid-liquid phase separation in dilute solutions of poly(styrene sulfonate) with multivalent cations: Phase diagrams, chain morphology, and impact of temperature. (United States)

    Hansch, Markus; Hämisch, Benjamin; Schweins, Ralf; Prévost, Sylvain; Huber, Klaus


    The dilute solution behavior of sodium poly(styrene sulfonate) is studied in the presence of trivalent Al3+ and bivalent Ba2+ cations at various levels of excess NaCl. The study evaluates the phase behavior and the morphology of the polyelectrolyte chains with increasing extent of decoration with the Al3+ and Ba2+ cations and analyses the effect of temperature on these decorated chains. The phase behavior is presented in the form of the cation concentration versus the respective poly(styrene sulfonate) concentration, recorded at the onset of precipitation. Whereas poly(styrene sulfonate) with Al3+ exhibits a linear phase boundary, denoted as the "threshold line," which increases with increasing poly(styrene sulfonate) concentration, Ba2+ cations show a threshold line which is independent of the poly(styrene sulfonate) concentration. An additional re-entrant phase, at considerably higher cation content than those of the threshold lines, is observed with Al3+ cations but not with Ba2+ cations. The threshold line and the re-entrant phase boundary form parts of the liquid-liquid phase boundary observed at the limit of low polymer concentration. The dimensions of the polyelectrolyte chains shrink considerably while approaching the respective threshold lines on increase of the Al3+ and Ba2+ cation content. However, subtle differences occur between the morphological transformation induced by Al3+ and Ba2+. Most strikingly, coils decorated with Al3+ respond very differently to temperature variations than coils decorated with Ba2+ do. As the temperature increases, the poly(styrene sulfonate) chains decrease their size in the presence of Al3+ cations but increase in size in the presence of Ba2+ cations.

  16. -Styrene)

    KAUST Repository

    Sutisna, Burhannudin


    Membranes are prepared by self-assembly and casting of 5 and 13 wt% poly(styrene-b-butadiene-b-styrene) (PS-b-PB-b-PS) copolymers solutions in different solvents, followed by immersion in water or ethanol. By controlling the solution-casting gap, porous films of 50 and 1 µm thickness are obtained. A gradient of increasing pore size is generated as the distance from the surface increased. An ordered porous surface layer with continuous nanochannels can be observed. Its formation is investigated, by using time-resolved grazing incident small angle X-ray scattering, electron microscopy, and rheology, suggesting a strong effect of the air-solution interface on the morphology formation. The thin PS-b-PB-b-PS ordered films are modified, by promoting the photolytic addition of thioglycolic acid to the polybutadiene groups, adding chemical functionality and specific transport characteristics on the preformed nanochannels, without sacrificing the membrane morphology. Photomodification increases fivefold the water permeance to around 2 L m(-2) h(-1) bar(-1) , compared to that of the unmodified one. A rejection of 74% is measured for methyl orange in water. The membranes fabrication with tailored nanochannels and chemical functionalities can be demonstrated using relatively lower cost block copolymers. Casting on porous polyacrylonitrile supports makes the membranes even more scalable and competitive in large scale.

  17. Toltrazuril sulfone sodium salt: synthesis, analytical detection, and pharmacokinetics in the horse. (United States)

    Dirikolu, L; Karpiesiuk, W; Lehner, A F; Tobin, T


    Toltrazuril sulfone (ponazuril) is a triazine-based antiprotozoal agent with clinical application in the treatment of equine protozoal myeloencephalomyelitis (EPM). In this study, we synthesized and determined the bioavailability of a sodium salt formulation of toltrazuril sulfone that can be used for the treatment and prophylaxis of EPM in horses. Toltrazuril sulfone sodium salt was rapidly absorbed, with a mean peak plasma concentration of 2400 ± 169 (SEM) ng/mL occurring at 8 h after oral-mucosal dosing and was about 56% bioavailable compared with the i.v. administration of toltrazuril sulfone in dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO). The relative bioavailability of toltrazuril sulfone suspended in water compared with toltrazuril sulfone sodium salt was 46%, indicating approximately 54% less oral bioavailability of this compound suspended in water. In this study, we also investigated whether this salt formulation of toltrazuril sulfone can be used as a feed additive formulation without significant reduction in oral bioavailability. Our results indicated that toltrazuril sulfone sodium salt is relatively well absorbed when administered with feed with a mean oral bioavailability of 52%. Based on these data, repeated oral administration of toltrazuril sulfone sodium salt with or without feed will yield effective plasma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) concentrations of toltrazuril sulfone for the treatment and prophylaxis of EPM and other protozoal diseases of horses and other species. As such, toltrazuril sulfone sodium salt has the potential to be used as feed additive formulations for both the treatment and prophylaxis of EPM and various other apicomplexan diseases. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  18. Synthesis and characterization of sulfonated polymers for ionomeric membranes based on styrene copolymers; Sintese e caracterizacao de precursores sulfonados para membranas polimericas a base de copolimeros estirenicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, C.M.; Forte, M.M.C.; Amico, S.C. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Escola de Engenharia. Lab. de Materiais Polimericos (LAPOL)], e-mail:, e-mail:, e-mail:; Vargas, J.V.C. [Universidade Federal do Parana (UFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica], e-mail:


    Polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) have emerged strongly as a viable alternative for power source owing to their high energy efficiency and environmental friendliness. Currently, Nafion is the most frequently used membrane even though it has a high cost. The objective of this work is to synthesize sulfonated polymers, based on styrene copolymers, with different sulfonation degrees as an alternative material for fuel cell membranes. Acetyl sulfate was used to carry out the sulfonation and the resulting polymers were characterized by Fourier Transform Infra-red (FTIR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and degree of substitution or sulfonation (DS). The polyelectrolytes were evaluated regarding their ion exchange capacity (IEC) and conductivity. The results demonstrated that increasing the sulfonic acid content of the polymer results in higher IEC, conductivity and water uptake. (author)

  19. Preparation of graphene oxide/poly (3,4-ethylenedioxytriophene): Poly (styrene sulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) electrospun nanofibers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Efelina, Vita; Widianto, Eri [Department of Physics, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Sekip Utara BLS.21 Yogyakarta, 55281 Indonesia (Indonesia); Rusdiana, Dadi [Department of Physical Education, Universitas Pendidikan Indonesia, Bandung (Indonesia); Nugroho, A. A. [Department of Physics, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Jl. Ganesha 10 Bandung (Indonesia); Kusumaatmaja, Ahmad; Triyana, Kuwat; Santoso, Iman, E-mail: [Department of Physics, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Sekip Utara BLS.21 Yogyakarta, 55281 Indonesia (Indonesia); Nanomaterials Research Group, Universitas Gadjah Mada,, Sekip Utara, Yogyakarta (Indonesia)


    Graphene oxide (GO)/Poly (3,4-Ethylenedioxytriophene):Poly (styrene Sulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) nanofibers have been successfully fabricated by a simple electrospinning technique to develop conductive nanofibers with polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) act as a carrier solution. Graphene oxide has been synthesized by Hummer’s method and has been confirmed by Raman Spectroscopy, FTIR and UV-Vis Spectroscopy. GO/PEDOT:PSS composite nanofibers. The structural and morphological properties were characterized by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The result of SEM show that GO/PEDOT:PSS nanofibers has a relatively uniform morphology nanofiber with diameter between 180 nm - 340 nm with smooth nanofiber surface. The produced nanofibers from this study can be utilized for various applications such as flexible, conductive and transparent electrode.

  20. Electrically conductive poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)-poly(styrene sulfonate)/polyacrylonitrile fabrics for humidity sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panapoy, Manop; Singsang, Witawat; Ksapabutr, Bussarin, E-mail:, E-mail: [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Industrial Technology, Silpakorn University, Nakhon Pathom 73000 (Thailand)


    Humidity sensors based on poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)-poly(styrene sulfonate) (PEDOT-PSS)/polyacrylonitrile (PAN) nanofiber fabric were fabricated by a dip coating of nonwoven PAN nanofiber mat, which was prepared via an electrospinning method, in PEDOT-PSS solution. The influence of PAN solution concentration on their responsiveness to humidity on dynamic testing was monitored as the device was exposed to humidity. With the relative humidity (RH) changing from 0 to 100%, a resistance device response over 110% was achieved, and the curve of the resistance response with RH is of high linearity at the humidity working range of 0-100% RH. The high device reproducibility was demonstrated by carrying out vapor adsorption-desorption dynamic cycles, and the response and recovery times were determined to be of the order of 2-46 and 7-34 s, respectively. These hybrid polymer sensors can be used as disposable handheld instruments due to low cost and light weight.

  1. Water and Salt Transport Properties of Triptycene-Containing Sulfonated Polysulfone Materials for Desalination Membrane Applications. (United States)

    Luo, Hongxi; Aboki, Joseph; Ji, Yuanyuan; Guo, Ruilan; Geise, Geoffrey M


    A series of triptycene-containing sulfonated polysulfone (TRP-BP) materials was prepared via condensation polymerization, and the desalination membrane-relevant fundamental water and salt transport properties (i.e., sorption, diffusion, and permeability coefficients) of the polymers were characterized. Incorporating triptycene into sulfonated polysulfone increased the water content of the material compared to sulfonated polysulfone materials that do not contain triptycene. No significant difference in salt sorption was observed between TRP-BP membranes and other sulfonated polysulfone membranes, suggesting that the presence of triptycene in the polymer did not dramatically affect thermodynamic interactions between salt and the polymer. Both water and salt diffusion coefficients in the TRP-BP membranes were suppressed relative to other sulfonated polysulfone materials with comparable water content, and these phenomena may result from the influence of triptycene on polymer chain packing and/or free-volume distribution, which could increase the tortuosity of the transport pathways in the polymers. Enhanced water/salt diffusivity selectivity was observed for some of the TRP-BP membranes relative to those materials that did not contain triptycene, and correspondingly, incorporation of triptycene into sulfonated polysulfone resulted in an increase, particularly for acid counterion form TRP-BP materials, in water/salt permeability selectivity, which is favorable for desalination membrane applications.

  2. Protons conductive membranes from sulfonated styrenic copolymers; Membranas conductoras de protons a partir de copolimeros estirenicos sulfonados

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brum, F.J.B.; Silva, M.A.G.; Amico, S.C.; Malfatti, C.F.; Forte, M.M.C. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (EE/UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Escola de Engenharia], e-mail:; Vargas, J.V.C. [Universidade Federal do Parana (DEM/UFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica


    Fuel cells working with polymeric electrolyte known as Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC) have become a promising source for energy generation since they can produce high density electric current in an effective way. In this work, a polymeric precursor based on sulfonated styrenic copolymer (RHS) was used with the aim of producing ion-exchange membranes thermally stable at 80 deg C and over. Films of RHS and poly(vinylalcohol) (PVA) mixtures with different polyelectrolyte content were prepared, using glutaraldehyde as a crosslinking agent and antimonic acid. The films or membranes were analyzed by infrared and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, thermogravimetry and water absorption content. The impedance studies showed that the ionic conductivity of the RHS/PVA membranes was highly dependent on the electrolyte polymer in a way that the higher the content, the higher the membrane ionic conductivity. The RHS66{sub G}1 showed ionic conductivity similar to the Nafion membrane analyzed at the same conditions. (author)

  3. Transparent Wood Smart Windows: Polymer Electrochromic Devices Based on Poly(3,4-Ethylenedioxythiophene):Poly(Styrene Sulfonate) Electrodes. (United States)

    Lang, Augustus W; Li, Yuanyuan; De Keersmaecker, Michel; Shen, D Eric; Österholm, Anna M; Berglund, Lars; Reynolds, John R


    Transparent wood composites, with their high strength and toughness, thermal insulation, and excellent transmissivity, offer a route to replace glass for diffusely transmitting windows. Here, conjugated-polymer-based electrochromic devices (ECDs) that switch on-demand are demonstrated using transparent wood coated with poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrene sulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) as a transparent conducting electrode. These ECDs exhibit a vibrant magenta-to-clear color change that results from a remarkably colorless bleached state. Furthermore, they require low energy and power inputs of 3 mWh m-2 at 2 W m-2 to switch due to a high coloration efficiency (590 cm2  C-1 ) and low driving voltage (0.8 V). Each device component is processed with high-throughput methods, which highlights the opportunity to apply this approach to fabricate mechanically robust, energy-efficient smart windows on a large scale. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. 40 CFR 721.1625 - Alkylbenzene sulfonate, amine salt. (United States)


    .... 721.1625 Section 721.1625 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC... subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as alkylbenzene sulfonate, amine... this part apply to this section except as modified by this paragraph. (1) Recordkeeping. The following...

  5. Low Work-function Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxylenethiophene): Poly(styrene sulfonate) as Electron-transport Layer for High-efficient and Stable Polymer Solar Cells


    Yong Zhang; Lie Chen; Xiaotian Hu; Lin Zhang,; Yiwang Chen


    Low-work-function poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrene sulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) modified with polyethylenimine (PEIE) was used as an electron transport layer (ETL) for polymer solar cells (PSCs). A thin layer of PEIE film was spin-coated onto the surface on the PEDOT:PSS films, thus substantially changing their charge selectivity from supporting hole transport to supporting electron transport. It was also found that the PEDOT:PSS/PEIE ETL exhibited higher interfacial contact, a more fa...

  6. 40 CFR 721.950 - Sodium salt of an alkylated, sulfonated aromatic (generic name). (United States)


    ... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES... chemical substance identified generically as a sodium salt of an alkylated, sulfonated aromatic (PMN P-84... requirements. The provisions of subpart A of this part apply to this section except as modified by this...

  7. 40 CFR 721.9674 - Sulfonated-copper phthalocyanine salt of a triarylmethane dye (generic). (United States)


    ... of a triarylmethane dye (generic). 721.9674 Section 721.9674 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... triarylmethane dye (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as sulfonated-copper phthalocyanine salt of a triarylmethane dye...

  8. Synthesis, structural, solubility and anticancer activity studies of salts using nucleobases and sulfonic acids coformer (United States)

    Singh, Neetu; Singh, Udai P.; Nikhil, Kumar; Roy, Partha; Singh, Hariji


    The reactions of natural and unnatural nucleobases (cytosine (Cyt), adenine (Ade), 5-aminouracil (AU) and caffeine (Caff)) with sulfonic acids coformer (1,5-naphthalenedisulfonic acid, NDSA; 5-sulfosalicylic acid, SSA) resulted in the formation of salts viz. [NDSA.Cyt] (1), [NDSA.Ade] (2), [NDSA.AU] (3), [NDSA.Caff] (4), [SSA.Cyt] (5), [SSA.Ade] (6), [SSA.AU] (7), and [SSA.Caff] (8). The structural analysis revealed that salts 1, 4, 6 and 7 have intermolecular interactions between adjacent nucleobases which form two different homodimer shown in R22 (8) motif and assembled via complementary Nsbnd H⋯O and Nsbnd H⋯N interactions. However, in all other salts an intermediate supramolecular synthon pattern was observed between nucleobases and sulfonic acids. The lattice energy was also calculated by DFT to investigate whether salts were thermodynamically more stable than its coformer. The same was further confirmed by differential scanning calorimetry-thermogravimetric (DSC-TG) analysis. The anticancer activity study of individual nucleobases and their NDSA salts were also performed on human breast (MCF-7) and lung (A 549) cancer cell. The salts formation of nucleobases with sulfonic acids improved their solubility, thereby demonstrating up to 8-fold increase in solubility of nucleobases.

  9. Preparation, characterization and evaluation of proton-conducting hybrid membranes based on sulfonated hydrogenated styrene-butadiene and polysiloxanes for fuel cell applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monroy-Barreto, M.; Aguilar, J.C.; Rodriguez de San Miguel, E.; de Gyves, J. [Departamento de Quimica Analitica, Facultad de Quimica, UNAM, Ciudad Universitaria, 04360 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Acosta, J.L.; del Rio, C.; Ojeda, M.C. [Instituto de Ciencia y Tecnologia de Polimeros (CSIC), c/Juan de la Cierva 3, 28006 Madrid (Spain); Munoz, M. [Departament de Quimica Analitica, Facultat de Ciencies, U.A.B., Bellaterra 08193 Barcelona (Spain)


    This paper describes the preparation of proton-conducting hybrid membranes (HMs) obtained by a solvent casting procedure using a solution containing sulfonated hydrogenated styrene-butadiene (HSBS-S) and an inorganic-organic mixture (polysiloxanes) previously prepared by a sol-gel route. HSBS-S copolymers with different sulfonation degrees were obtained and characterized by means of elemental analysis (EA), chemical titration and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). HSBS-S with the best properties in terms of proton conductivity and solubility for the casting procedure was selected to prepare the HMs. The solvent casting procedure permitted the two phases to be homogeneously distributed while maintaining a relatively high proton conductivity in the membrane. HMs with different blend ratios were characterized using structural (Fourier transform infrared-attenuated total reflectance (FTIR-ATR), dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC)), electrical (EIS), physicochemical (water uptake, ion-exchange capacity) and thermal (TGA-MS) methods. Finally, the optimized HSBS-S membrane and HMs were tested in hydrogen single fuel cells to obtain the polarization and power curves at different cell temperatures and gas pressures. Results indicate that HMs show a considerable improvement in performance compared to the optimized HSBS-S membrane denoting the benefit of incorporating the inorganic-organic network in the hydrogenated styrene-butadiene matrix. A Nafion membrane was used as reference material throughout this work. (author)

  10. Subcritical mineralization of sodium salt of dodecyl benzene sulfonate using sonication-wet oxidation (SONIWO) technique. (United States)

    Dhale, A D; Mahajani, V V


    Subcritical mineralization of sodium salt of dodecyl benzene sulfonate via hybrid process-sonication followed by wet oxidation (SONIWO) has been investigated. Sonication of the compound enhanced the rates and % COD reduction during wet oxidation. In this process, homogenous CuSO4 catalyst was found to be effective. In wet oxidation studies, phenol, hydroquinone, maleic acid, oxalic acid, propionic acid, and acetic acid were identified as intermediates. The global rate equations for wet oxidation in terms of COD reduction were developed.

  11. Complexation of AB+, AB+C, ACB+, and A(B+-stat-C) block copolymer micelles with poly(styrene sulfonate) as models for tunable gene delivery vectors (United States)

    Laaser, Jennifer; Jiang, Yaming; Lohmann, Elise; Reineke, Theresa; Lodge, Timothy

    We investigate the complexation of poly(styrene sulfonate) with micelles with mixed cationic/hydrophilic coronas as models for tunable gene delivery vectors. The micelles are self-assembled from AB+, AB+C, ACB+, and A(B+-stat-C) block polymer architectures, where the hydrophobic A blocks (poly(styrene)) form the micelle cores, and the cationic B blocks (poly(dimethylamino ethyl methacrylate)) and hydrophilic, nonionic C blocks (poly(poly(ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate)) form the coronas. We find that hydrophilic units do not change the colloidal stability of the complexes, and complexes based on all four micelle architectures form broad, multimodal size distributions. While complexes based on the AB+, AB+C, and ACB+polymer architectures are kinetically trapped at low ionic strength, however, those based on the A(B+-stat-C) architecture rapidly rearrange into single-micelle complexes when the linear polyanion is in excess. This suggests that the randomly-placed hydrophilic units break up the ion pairing between the cationic and anionic chains and promote formation of over-charged complexes. Design of the micelle architecture may thus provide a powerful way control the structure and stability of micelle-polyelectrolyte complexes for gene delivery applications.

  12. [Bonding of MMA-BPO. DMPT resin to bovine tooth coated by poly (methyl methacrylate-co-p-styrene sulfonic acid)]. (United States)

    Kinoshita, T; Yamamoto, T; Nagata, K; Nakabayashi, N


    The objective of this study was to prepare a new type water-soluble bonding agent, methyl methacrylate (MMA)-p-styrene sulfonic acid copolymer (MS), and to investigate the effect of MS on bonding between resins and tooth substrates. MS is cross-linked with Ca2+ released from ground enamel and dentin and could be immobilized on their surface. A sample was prepared by bonding an acrylic rod with a BPO-amine catalyzed self-curing resin to ground enamel and dentin coated with an aqueous mixture of FeCl3 and 10 wt% MS. After immersion in water for 24 hrs, the tensile bond strength was measured. The bond strength to both enamel and dentin was only 2 MPa and adhesive failure occurred at the interface between cured MS and self-curing resin. This suggested that cured MS could adversely effect the polymerization of self-curing resins. A second treatment of cured MS on the tooth surface with metallic cations was carried out to minimize the amount of free sulfonic acids in the MS disturbing radical formation in self-curing resin. The second treatment improved the bond strength to 6 MPa.

  13. Improved oral absorption of cilostazol via sulfonate salt formation with mesylate and besylate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seo JH


    Full Text Available Jae Hong Seo, Jung Bae Park, Woong-Kee Choi, Sunhwa Park, Yun Jin Sung, Euichaul Oh, Soo Kyung Bae College of Pharmacy and Integrated Research Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, The Catholic University of Korea, Bucheon, South Korea Objective: Cilostazol is a Biopharmaceutical Classification System class II drug with low solubility and high permeability, so its oral absorption is variable and incomplete. The aim of this study was to prepare two sulfonate salts of cilostazol to increase the dissolution and hence the oral bioavailability of cilostazol.Methods: Cilostazol mesylate and cilostazol besylate were synthesized from cilostazol by acid addition reaction with methane sulfonic acid and benzene sulfonic acid, respectively. The salt preparations were characterized by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The water contents, hygroscopicity, stress stability, and photostability of the two cilostazol salts were also determined. The dissolution profiles in various pH conditions and pharmacokinetic studies in rats were compared with those of cilostazol-free base.Results: The two cilostazol salts exhibited good physicochemical properties, such as nonhygroscopicity, stress stability, and photostability, which make it suitable for the preparation of pharmaceutical formulations. Both cilostazol mesylate and cilostazol besylate showed significantly improved dissolution rate and extent of drug release in the pH range 1.2–6.8 compared to the cilostazol-free base. In addition, after oral administration to rats, cilostazol mesylate and cilostazol besylate showed increases in Cmax and AUCt of approximately 3.65- and 2.87-fold and 3.88- and 2.94-fold, respectively, compared to cilostazol-free base.Conclusion: This study showed that two novel salts of cilostazol, such as cilostazol mesylate and cilostazol besylate, could be used to enhance its oral absorption. The findings warrant further preclinical and clinical studies on cilostazol mesylate and

  14. Flexible White Organic Light-Emitting Diodes Based on Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube:Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)/Poly(styrene sulfonate) Transparent Conducting Film (United States)

    Zhang, Beibei; Li, Fushan; Lin, Zhixiao; Wu, Chaoxing; Guo, Tailiang; Liu, Wenbin; Su, Yang; Du, Jinhong


    Single-walled carbon nanotube:poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)/poly(styrene sulfonate) hybrid film (SWCNT:PEDOT/PSS) hybrid conducting film was obtained by using spray-coating technique, based on which a white flexible organic light emitting diode (FOLED) was fabricated with the structure of SWCNT:PEDOT/PSS/N,N-diphenyl-N,N-bis(1-napthyl)-1,1-biphenyl-4,4-diamine/5,6,11,12-tetraphenylnaphthacene:4,4'-bis(2,2'-diphenylvinyl)-1,1'-biphenyl/4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline/LiF/Al. The hybrid film exhibited superior surface morphology, electrical conductivity to the pure SWCNT network. The as-fabricated FOLED showed a stable white emission that is close to the equi-energy white point upon bending, and the light-emitting efficiency of the device was significantly improved by using the hybrid film as anode. The hybrid film holds promise for application in flexible lighting and display.

  15. Flexible resistive switching device based on poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrene sulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS)/poly(4-vinylphenol) (PVP) composite and methyl red heterojunction (United States)

    Hassan, Gul; Ali, Shawkat; Bae, Jinho; Lee, Chong Hyun


    To obtain a desired performance of non-volatile memory applications, heterojunction-based resistive switching devices have tremendous attractions. In this paper, we demonstrate resistive switching characteristics for heterojunction of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrene sulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS)/poly(4-vinylphenol) (PVP) composite and methyl red sandwiched in between bottom and top silver (Ag) electrodes. The proposed heterojunction layers are fabricated through spin coater at 3000 rpm for 60 s each, and the Ag electrodes are deposited through a commercialized inkjet printer DMP-3000 on polyethyleneterephthalate (PET) substrate. To verify the proposed device, the resistive switching on dual polarity voltage of ±10.2 V is measured over more than 500 endurance cycles. The paper also presents an R off/ R on ratio which can adjust through an active layer's area and a blending ratio of the PEDOT:PSS and PVP. By applying the area of 100 μm2 and the blending ratio of 3:1, we achieve the higher R off/ R on ratio of 121, and its high resistance state (HRS) and low resistance state (LRS) are observed as 3000 kΩ and 24.7 kΩ, respectively. To maintain a long retention time, the device is encapsulated with PDMS, which changes a little variations of 52 Ω for HRS 498 Ω for LRS over 60 days. For the flexible realization to be utilized in wearable applications, it can be easily applied on a plastic substrate using printed technologies.

  16. DMFC Performance of Polymer Electrolyte Membranes Prepared from a Graft-Copolymer Consisting of a Polysulfone Main Chain and Styrene Sulfonic Acid Side Chains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobutaka Endo


    Full Text Available Polymer electrolyte membranes (PEMs for direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC applications were prepared from a graft-copolymer (PSF-g-PSSA consisting of a polysulfone (PSF main chain and poly(styrene sulfonic acid (PSSA side chains with various average distances between side chains (Lav and side chain lengths (Lsc. The polymers were synthesized by grafting ethyl p-styrenesulfonate (EtSS on macro-initiators of chloromethylated polysulfone with different contents of chloromethyl (CM groups, and by changing EtSS content in the copolymers by using atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP. The DMFC performance tests using membrane electrode assemblis (MEAs with the three types of the PEMs revealed that: a PSF-g-PSSA PEM (SF-6 prepared from a graft copolymer with short average distances between side chains (Lav and medium Lsc had higher DMFC performance than PEMs with long Lav and long Lsc or with short Lav and short Lsc. SF-6 had about two times higher PDmax (68.4 mW/cm2 than Nafion® 112 at 30 wt % of methanol concentration. Furthermore, it had 58.2 mW/cm2 of PDmax at 50 wt % of methanol concentration because of it has the highest proton selectivity during DMFC operation of all the PSF-g-PSSA PEMs and Nafion® 112.

  17. Low Work-function Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxylenethiophene): Poly(styrene sulfonate) as Electron-transport Layer for High-efficient and Stable Polymer Solar Cells (United States)

    Zhang, Yong; Chen, Lie; Hu, Xiaotian; Zhang, Lin; Chen, Yiwang


    Low-work-function poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrene sulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) modified with polyethylenimine (PEIE) was used as an electron transport layer (ETL) for polymer solar cells (PSCs). A thin layer of PEIE film was spin-coated onto the surface on the PEDOT:PSS films, thus substantially changing their charge selectivity from supporting hole transport to supporting electron transport. It was also found that the PEDOT:PSS/PEIE ETL exhibited higher interfacial contact, a more favorable active morphology, and improved charge mobility. By virtue of these beneficial properties, inverted PSCs based on low-bandgap semiconducting photoactive layers achieved a notably improved power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 7.94%, superior even to the corresponding performance of devices with only a ZnO layer. Surpassing our expectations, compared with the extreme degradation of device stability observed when pure PEDOT:PSS is used, PEIE-modified PEDOT:PSS can considerably suppress device degradation because of the hydrophobic and alkaline nature of PEIE, which not only reduces the hygroscopicity of the PEDOT:PSS but also neutralizes the acidic PEDOT:PSS and thus prevents the corrosion of the ITO cathode. These results demonstrate the potential of PEIE-modified PEDOT:PSS for use as an efficient ETL in commercial printed electronic devices.

  18. Graphite oxide incorporated crosslinked polyvinyl alcohol and sulfonated styrene nanocomposite membrane as separating barrier in single chambered microbial fuel cell (United States)

    Rudra, Ruchira; Kumar, Vikash; Pramanik, Nilkamal; Kundu, Patit Paban


    Different membranes with varied molar concentrations of graphite oxide (GO), 'in situ' polymerized sulfonated polystyrene (SS) and glutaraldehyde (GA) cross linked polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), have been analyzed as an effective and low cost nanocomposite barrier in single chambered microbial fuel cells (MFCs). The synthesized composite membranes, namely GO0.2, GO0.4 and GO0.6 exhibited comparatively better results with reduced water uptake (WU) and swelling ratios (SR) over the native PVA. The variation in properties is illustrated with membrane analyses, where GO0.4 showed an increased proton conductivity (PC) and ion exchange capacity (IEC) of 0.128 S cm-1 and 0.33 meq g-1 amongst all of the used membranes. In comparison, reduced oxygen diffusivity with lower water uptake showed a two-fold decrease in GO0.4 over pure PVA membrane (∼2.09 × 10-4 cm s-1). A maximum power density of 193.6 mW m-2 (773.33 mW m-3) with a current density of 803.33 mA m-2 were observed with GO0.4 fitted MFC, where ∼81.89% of chemical oxygen demand (COD) was removed using mixed firmicutes, as biocatalyst, in 25 days operation. In effect, the efficacy of GO incorporated crosslinked PVA and SS nanocomposite membrane has been evaluated as a polymer electrolyte membrane for harnessing bio-energy from single chambered MFCs.

  19. Surface properties of porous carbon obtained from polystyrene sulfonic acid-based organic salts. (United States)

    Hines, Deon; Bagreev, Andrey; Bandosz, Teresa J


    Pyrolysis ofpolysterene sulfonic acid-co-maleic acid salts at 800 degrees C resulted in formation of new materials consisting of porous carbon and metal species dispersed on the surface. After hydrochloric acid treatment, the metal oxides/salts were removed. Obtained materials were characterized using adsorption of nitrogen, thermogravimetric analysis, Raman spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive analysis of X-rays. The results showed highly developed porous structures in the range of micro- and mesopores. The porous features of new materials resemble those characteristics for carbon foams. The differences in the porous structure are linked to the type of transition metal used for the modification of the initial polymer and the chelation process. Macro- and mesopores are spherical/cylindrical in shape, and they are likely formed when release of pyrolysis gases, such as CO2, NO2, SO2, H2S, and CxHy, occurs. Moreover, reduction of metal, its migration to the surface, and agglomeration contribute to development of porosity. Depending on the reactivity of the metal used for cation exchange (Fe, Co, or Ni) either sulfides (nickel and cobalt) or oxides (cobalt and iron) are formed on the carbon surface.

  20. 40 CFR 721.9595 - Alkyl benzene sulfonic acids and alkyl sulfates, amine salts (generic). (United States)


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Alkyl benzene sulfonic acids and alkyl... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9595 Alkyl benzene sulfonic acids and alkyl...) The chemical substances identified generically as alkyl benzene sulfonic acids and alkyl sulfates...

  1. Complex phase separation in poly(acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene)-modified epoxy/4,4'-diaminodiphenyl sulfone blends: generation of new micro- and nanosubstructures. (United States)

    Jyotishkumar, P; Koetz, Joachim; Tiersch, Brigitte; Strehmel, Veronika; Ozdilek, Ceren; Moldenaers, Paula; Hässler, Rudiger; Thomas, Sabu


    The epoxy system containing diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A and 4,4'-diaminodiphenyl sulfone is modified with poly(acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene) (ABS) to explore the effects of the ABS content on the phase morphology, mechanism of phase separation, and viscoelastic properties. The amount of ABS in the blends was 5, 10, 15, and 20 parts per hundred of epoxy resin (phr). Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were employed to investigate the final morphology of ABS-modified epoxy blends. Scanning electron microscopic studies of 15 phr ABS-modified epoxy blends reveal a bicontinuous structure in which both epoxy and ABS are continuous, with substructures of the ABS phase dispersed in the continuous epoxy phase and substructures of the epoxy phase dispersed in the continuous ABS phase. TEM micrographs of 15 phr ABS-modified epoxy blends confirm the results observed by SEM. TEM micrographs reveal the existence of nanosubstructures of ABS in 20 phr ABS-modified epoxy blends. To the best of our knowledge, to date, nanosubstructures have never been reported in any epoxy/thermoplastic blends. The influence of the concentration of the thermoplastic on the generated morphology as analyzed by SEM and TEM was explained in detail. The evolution and mechanism of phase separation was investigated in detail by optical microscopy (OM) and small-angle laser light scattering (SALLS). At concentrations lower than 10 phr the system phase separates through nucleation and growth (NG). However, at higher concentrations, 15 and 20 phr, the blends phase separate through both NG and spinodal decomposition mechanisms. On the basis of OM and SALLS, we conclude that the phenomenon of complex substructure formation in dynamic asymmetric blends is due to the combined effect of hydrodynamics and viscoelasticity. Additionally, dynamic mechanical analysis was carried out to evaluate the viscoelastic behavior of the cross-linked epoxy/ABS blends. Finally

  2. Simultaneous decolorization of sulfonated azo dyes and reduction of hexavalent chromium under high salt condition by a newly isolated salt-tolerant strain Bacillus circulans BWL1061. (United States)

    Liu, Weijie; Liu, Cong; Liu, Liang; You, Yanting; Jiang, Jihong; Zhou, Zhengkun; Dong, Zhen


    The co-existence of dyes, Cr(VI) and high concentration of salt in dyeing wastewater causes serious and complex environmental problems. In this study, a salt-tolerant strain Bacillus circulans BWL1061 was reported to simultaneously remove 50mg/L methyl orange and 50mg/L Cr(VI) under the anaerobic condition with 60g/L NaCl. During the decolorization process, the Cr(VI) reduction occurred preferentially over the dye decolorization due to the dominate utilization of electron by Cr(VI). The analysis of enzyme activities suggested that azoreductase, NADH-DCIP reductase, and laccase were associated with decolorization of methyl orange. A possible degradation pathway was proposed based on the metabolites analysis. The decolorization of methyl orange is involved in the symmetric cleavage of azo bond, which formed N,N-dimethyl p-phenylenediamine and 4-amino sulfonic acid, or the asymmetric cleavage of azo bond, which formed 4-(dimethylamino) phenol and 4-diazenylbenzene sulfonic acid. Phytotoxicity assays showed that strain BWL1061 could decrease the toxicity of methyl orange to Triticum aestivum, Pogostemon cablin and Isatis indigotica Fort during the decolorization process. In this study, Bacillus circulans is reported for the first time that could simultaneously remove azo dyes and Cr (VI) under high salt condition. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. Recycle waste salt as reagent: a one-pot substitution/Krapcho reaction sequence to α-fluorinated esters and sulfones. (United States)

    Zhu, Feng; Xu, Peng-Wei; Zhou, Feng; Wang, Cui-Hong; Zhou, Jian


    A "one-pot" tandem substitution/Krapcho reaction is reported for the facile synthesis of α-fluorinated esters and sulfones, which utilizes the byproduct salt formed in the substitution step as an indispensible reagent to facilitate the Krapcho reaction step. This represents the first sustainable tandem reaction that internally recycles the waste salt formed in the upstream step as the reagent for the downstream step.

  4. A concise synthesis of substituted stilbenes and styrenes from propargylic phosphonium salts by a cobalt-catalyzed Diels-Alder/Wittig olefination reaction sequence. (United States)

    Hilt, Gerhard; Hengst, Christoph


    The cobalt(I)-catalyzed Diels-Alder reaction of propargylic phosphonium salts and longer chained alkyne-functionalized phosphonium salts with 1,3-dienes led to dihydroaromatic phosphonium salt intermediates which were directly used in a one-pot Wittig-type olefination reaction with aldehydes. Subsequent oxidation led to styrene- and stilbene-type products under formation of three new carbon-carbon bonds in a single synthetical step starting from three variable starting materials. The E/Z stereoselectivities of the products revealed that the dihydroaromatic phosphonium ylides behave as semistabilized ylides giving predominantly the E-configured products. The application of unsymmetrical 1,3-dienes as well as internal phosphonium functionalized alkynes is also described.

  5. Effect of alcohol vapor treatment on electrical and optical properties of poly(3,4-ethylene dioxythiophene):poly(styrene sulfonate) films for indium tin oxide-free organic light-emitting diodes (United States)

    Fallahzadeh, Ali; Saghaei, Jaber; Yousefi, Mohammad Hassan


    A simple alcohol vapor treatment (AVT) technique was proposed to improve the conductivity of poly(3,4-ethylene dioxythiophene):poly(styrene sulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) films. In this technique, various alcohols, i.e. methanol, ethanol, 2-propanol and ethylene glycol, were applied to treat the surface of the films formed and then they were annealed. The sheet resistance of PEDOT:PSS films was significantly reduced from 130 kΩ/sq to 60 Ω/sq when treated with methanol vapor. The investigation of the vertical resistance of the films showed that the sample treated with methanol vapor displayed the lowest resistance as well. The mechanism of conductivity enhancement of PEDOT:PSS films through AVT method was explained by surface phase images, UV and IR spectra of PEDOT:PSS films. Optical transmittance spectrum of treated films exhibited that AVT has even enhanced the optical transmittance slightly. Improvement in the morphology, electrical and optical properties of PEDOT:PSS films prompted their applications as a transparent anode in the fabrication of ITO-free organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). The OLED manufactured based on methanol-treated PEDOT:PSS films demonstrated the highest luminance.

  6. Direct methanol fuel cell based on poly(vinyl alcohol)/titanium oxide nanotubes/poly(styrene sulfonic acid) (PVA/nt-TiO 2/PSSA) composite polymer membrane (United States)

    Yang, Chun-Chen; Chien, Wen-Chen; Li, Yingjeng James

    The high performance poly(vinyl alcohol)/titanium oxide nanotubes/poly(styrene sulfonic acid) (PVA/nt-TiO 2/PSSA) proton-conducting composite membrane is prepared by a solution casting method. The characteristic properties of these blend composite membranes are investigated by thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM/EDX), micro-Raman spectroscopy, dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA), methanol permeability measurement and AC impedance method. It is found that the peak power densities of the DMFC with 1, 2, and 4 M CH 3OH fuels are 12.85, 23.72, and 10.99 mW cm -2, respectively, at room temperature and ambient air. Especially, among three methanol concentrations, the 2 M methanol shows the highest peak power density among three methanol concentrations. The results indicate that the air-breathing direct methanol fuel cell comprised of a novel PVA/nt-TiO 2/PSSA composite polymer membrane has excellent electrochemical performance and stands out as a viable candidate for applications in DMFC.

  7. Development of graphene oxide/poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)/poly(styrene sulfonate) thin film-based electrochemical surface plasmon resonance immunosensor for detection of human immunoglobulin G (United States)

    Pothipor, Chammari; Lertvachirapaiboon, Chutiparn; Shinbo, Kazunari; Kato, Keizo; Kaneko, Futao; Ounnunkad, Kontad; Baba, Akira


    An electrochemically synthesized graphene oxide (GO)/poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT)/poly(styrene sulfonate) (PSS) thin film-based electrochemical surface plasmon resonance (EC-SPR) sensor chip was developed and employed for the detection of human immunoglobulin G (IgG). GO introduced the carboxylic group on the film surface, which also allowed electrochemical control, for the immobilization of the anti-IgG antibody via covalent bonding through amide coupling reaction. The SPR sensitivity of the detection was improved under the control by applying an electrochemical potential, by which the sensitivity was increased by the increment in applied potential. Among the open-circuit and different applied potentials in the range of ‑1.0 to 0.50 V, the EC-SPR immunosensor at an applied potential of 0.50 V exhibited the highest sensitivity of 6.08 × 10‑3 mL µg‑1 cm‑2 and linearity in the human IgG concentration range of 1.0 to 10 µg mL‑1 with a relatively low detection limit of 0.35 µg mL‑1. The proposed sensor chip is promising for immunosensing at the physiological level.

  8. Ion-exclusion chromatographic behavior of aliphatic carboxylic acids and benzenecarboxylic acids on a sulfonated styrene--divinylbenzene co-polymer resin column with sulfuric acid containing various alcohols as eluent. (United States)

    Ohta, Kazutoku; Towata, Atsuya; Ohashi, Masayoshi


    The addition of C1-C7 alcohols (methanol, ethanol, propanol, butanol, heptanol, hexanol and heptanol) to dilute sulfuric acid as eluent in ion-exclusion chromatography using a highly sulfonated styrene-divinylbenzene co-polymer resin (TSKgel SCX) in the H+ form as the stationary phase was carried out for the simultaneous separations of both (a) C1-C7 aliphatic carboxylic acids (formic, acetic, propionic, isobutyric, butyric, isovaleric, valeric, 2-methylvaleric, isocaproic, caproic, 2,2-dimethyl-n-valeric, 2-methylhexanoic, 5-methylhexanoic and heptanoic acids) and (b) benzenecarboxylic acids (pyromellitic, hemimellitic, trimellitic, o-phthalic, m-phthalic, p-phthalic, benzoic and salicylic acids and phenol). Heptanol was the most effective modifier in ion-exclusion chromatography for the improvement of peak shapes and a reduction in retention volumes for higher aliphatic carboxylic acids and benzenecarboxylic acids. Excellent simultaneous separation and relatively highly sensitive conductimetric detection for these C1-C7 aliphatic carboxylic acids were achieved on the TSKgel SCX column (150 x 6 mm I.D.) in 30 min using 0.5 mM sulfuric acid containing 0.025% heptanol as eluent. Excellent simultaneous separation and highly sensitive UV detection at 200 nm for these benzenecarboxylic acids were also achieved on the TSKgel SCX column in 30 min using 5 mM sulfuric acid containing 0.075% heptanol as eluent.

  9. The role of hydrogen bonds in the melting points of sulfonate-based protic organic salts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luo, Jiangshui


    There are three main types of interactions inside organic salts - electrostatic interaction, hydrogen bonding and van der Waals force [1-4]. While van der Waals force is relatively weak, it is hydrogen bonding and particularly electrostatic interaction that determine the lattice energies of ionic...

  10. Sulfonate salts of the therapeutic agent dapsone: 4-[(4-aminophenyl)sulfonyl]anilinium benzenesulfonate monohydrate and 4-[(4-aminophenyl)sulfonyl]anilinium methanesulfonate monohydrate. (United States)

    Gaytán-Barrientos, Nancy Sarahy; Morales-Morales, David; Herrera-Ruiz, Dea; Reyes-Martínez, Reyna; Rivera-Islas, Jesús


    Dapsone, formerly used to treat leprosy, now has wider therapeutic applications. As is the case for many therapeutic agents, low aqueous solubility and high toxicity are the main problems associated with its use. Derivatization of its amino groups has been widely explored but shows no significant therapeutic improvements. Cocrystals have been prepared to understand not only its structural properties, but also its solubility and dissolution rate. Few salts of dapsone have been described. The title salts, C12H13N2O2S(+)·C6H5O3S(-)·H2O and C12H13N2O2S(+)·CH3SO3(-)·H2O, crystallize as hydrates and both compounds exhibit the same space group (monoclinic, P21/n). The asymmetric unit of each salt consists of a 4-[(4-aminophenyl)sulfonyl]anilinium monocation, the corresponding sulfonate anion and a water molecule. The cation, anion and water molecule form hydrogen-bonded networks through N-H...O=S, N-H...Owater and Owater-H...O=S hydrogen bonds. For both salts, the water molecules interact with one sulfonate anion and two anilinium cations. The benzenesulfonate salt forms a two-dimensional network, while the hydrogen bonding within the methanesulfonate salt results in a three-dimensional network.

  11. Effects of Temperature and Humidity History on Brittleness of α-Sulfonated Fatty Acid Methyl Ester Salt Crystals. (United States)

    Watanabe, Hideaki; Morigaki, Atsunori; Kaneko, Yukihiro; Tobori, Norio; Aramaki, Kenji


    α-Sulfonated fatty acid methyl ester salts (MES), which were made from vegetable sources, are attractive candidates for eco-friendly washing detergents because they have various special features like excellent detergency, favorable biodegradability, and high stability against enzymes. To overcome some disadvantages of powder-type detergents like caking, sorting, and dusting, we studied how temperature and humidity history, as a model for long-term storage conditions, can affect crystalline structures and reduce the brittleness of MES powder. We characterized the crystalline structure of MES grains using small-angle X-ray scattering, wide-angle X-ray scattering, differential scanning calorimetry, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy measurements and determined the yield values, which measure the brittleness of MES grains, in shear stress using dynamic viscoelasticity measurements. This study confirmed that MES crystals form three pseudo-polymorphs via thermal or humidity conditioning: metastable crystals (αsubcell), anhydrous crystals (β subcell), and dihydrate crystals (β' subcell). Further, we found that the yield value increases upon phase transition from the β subcell to the β' subcell and from the β' subcell to the αsubcell. Therefore, controlling the thermal and humidity conditioning of MES grains is an effective way to decrease the brittleness of MES powders and can be used to overcome the above mentioned disadvantages of powder-type detergents in the absence of co-surfactants.

  12. Significant vertical phase separation in solvent-vapor-annealed poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrene sulfonate) composite films leading to better conductivity and work function for high-performance indium tin oxide-free optoelectronics. (United States)

    Yeo, Jun-Seok; Yun, Jin-Mun; Kim, Dong-Yu; Park, Sungjun; Kim, Seok-Soon; Yoon, Myung-Han; Kim, Tae-Wook; Na, Seok-In


    In the present study, a novel polar-solvent vapor annealing (PSVA) was used to induce a significant structural rearrangement in poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrene sulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) films in order to improve their electrical conductivity and work function. The effects of polar-solvent vapor annealing on PEDOT:PSS were systematically compared with those of a conventional solvent additive method (SAM) and investigated in detail by analyzing the changes in conductivity, morphology, top and bottom surface composition, conformational PEDOT chains, and work function. The results confirmed that PSVA induces significant phase separation between excess PSS and PEDOT chains and a spontaneous formation of a highly enriched PSS layer on the top surface of the PEDOT:PSS polymer blend, which in turn leads to better 3-dimensional connections between the conducting PEDOT chains and higher work function. The resultant PSVA-treated PEDOT:PSS anode films exhibited a significantly enhanced conductivity of up to 1057 S cm(-1) and a tunable high work function of up to 5.35 eV. The PSVA-treated PEDOT:PSS films were employed as transparent anodes in polymer light-emitting diodes (PLEDs) and polymer solar cells (PSCs). The cell performances of organic optoelectronic devices with the PSVA-treated PEDOT:PSS anodes were further improved due to the significant vertical phase separation and the self-organized PSS top surface in PSVA-treated PEDOT:PSS films, which can increase the anode conductivity and work function and allow the direct formation of a functional buffer layer between the active layer and the polymeric electrode. The results of the present study will allow better use and understanding of polymeric-blend materials and will further advance the realization of high-performance indium tin oxide (ITO)-free organic electronics.

  13. Síntese de poliestireno sulfonado para aplicações no tratamento de água produzido a partir de copos e bandejas descartadas de poliestireno Synthesis of poly(styrene sulfonate from discarded polystyrene cups and expanded trays for application on water treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guimes Rodrigues Filho


    Full Text Available In the present paper, the use of poly(styrene sulfonate (PSS, produced from discarded polystyrene materials through heterogeneous and homogeneous processes, was investigated. The use of PSS for water treatment, using a kaolin suspension as wastewater model, reduced water turbidity for all the employed materials when compared to the blank analysis, without PSS. The most efficient polyelectrolyte was PSS cups obtained by homogeneous route. The same behavior was observed for real system. The homogeneous PSS cups showed a balance between a moderate molecular weight and high anionic character that improved flocks formation and water removal turbidity.

  14. Modulating the solubility of zwitterionic poly((3- methacrylamidopropyl)ammonioalkane sulfonate)s in water and aqueous salt solutions via the spacer group separating the cationic and the anionic moieties


    Hildebrand, Viet; Laschewsky, André; Wischerhoff, Erik


    Complementary to the well-established zwitterionic monomer 3-((3-methacrylamidopropyl)dimethylammonio) propane-1-sulfonate (SPP), the closely related monomers 2-hydroxy-3-((3-methacrylamidopropyl) dimethylammonio)propane-1-sulfonate (SHPP) and 4-((3-methacrylamidopropyl)dimethylammonio)-butane-1-sulfonate (SBP) were synthesised and polymerised by reversible addition–fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerisation, using a fluorophore labeled RAFT agent. The polyzwitterions of systematicall...

  15. Enhancing the phase segregation and connectivity of hydrophilic channels by blending highly sulfonated graft copolymers with fluorous homopolymers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mads Møller; Ching-Ching Yang, Ami; Jankova Atanasova, Katja


    The influence of tuning the ionic content of membranes by blending, as opposed to varying the degree of sulfonation, is evaluated. Membranes of fully sulfonated poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-chlorotrifluoroethylene)-g-poly(styrene sulfonic acid) blended with PVDF were prepared and investigated...

  16. Synthesis in pilot plant scale and physical properties of sulfonated polystyrene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martins Cristiane R.


    Full Text Available The homogenous sulfonation of polystyrene was developed in a pilot plant scale producing polymers with different sulfonation degrees (18 to 22 mole % of sulfonated styrene units. The reaction yield depends chiefly on the concentration ratio of acetyl sulfate and polystyrene. The morphological and thermal properties of the sulfonated polystyrene obtained by homogeneous sulfonation were studied by means of scanning electron microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry and thermogravimetry. The glass transition temperature of sulfonated polystyrene increases in relation to pure polystyrene and DCp was evaluated in order to confirm the strong interactions among the ~SO3H groups.

  17. New spectrophotometric method for determining nitrogen dioxide in air using 2,2-azino-bis(3-ethyl benzothiazoline)-6-sulfonic acid-diammonium salt and passive sampling. (United States)

    Salem, Alaa A; Soliman, Ahmed A; El-Haty, Ismail A


    A new simple and highly sensitive spectrophotometric method for determining nitrogen dioxide in air was developed. The method is based on converting atmospheric nitrogen dioxide to nitrite ions within the IVL passive samplers used for samples collection. Acidifying nitrite ions with concentrated HCl produced the peroxynitrous acid oxidizing agent which was measured using 2, 2-azino-bis(3-ethyl benzothiazoline)-6-sulfonic acid-diammonium salt (ABTS) as reducing coloring agent. A parallel series of collected samples were measured for its nitrite content using a validated ion chromatographic method.The results obtained using both methods were compared in terms of their sensitivity and accuracy. Developed spectrophotometric method was shown to be one order of magnitude higher in sensitivity compared to the ion chromatographic method. Quantitation limits of 0.05 ppm and 0.55 μg/m(3) were obtained for nitrite ion and nitrogen dioxid, respectively. Standard deviations in the ranges of 0.05-0.59 and 0.63-7.92 with averages of 0.27 and 3.11 were obtained for determining nitrite and nitrogen dioxide, respectively.Student-t test revealed t-values less than 6.93 and 4.40 for nitrite ions and nitrogen dioxide, respectively. These values indicated insignificant difference between the averages of the newly developed method and the values obtained by ion chromatography at 95% confidence level.Compared to continuous monitoring techniques, the newly developed method has shown simple, accurate, sensitive, inexpensive and reliable for long term monitoring of nitrogen dioxide in ambient air.

  18. Reaction of imidazole with toluene-4-sulfonate salts of substituted phenyl N-methylpyridinium-4-carboxylate esters: special base catalysis by imidazole. (United States)

    Colthurst, Matthew J; Williams, Andrew


    The reaction of imidazole in aqueous solution with toluene-4-sulfonate salts of substituted phenyl N-methylpyridinium-4-carboxylate esters obeys the rate law: k(obs) - k(background) = k2[Im] + k3[Im]2 where [Im] is the imidazole concentration present as free base. The parameters k2 and k3 fit Brønsted type free energy correlations against the pKa of the leaving phenol with betaLg values of -0.65 and -0.42 respectively. The imidazolysis is insensitive to catalysis by general bases and yet k3 for the 3-cyanophenyl ester possesses a deuterium oxide solvent isotope effect of 4.43 consistent with rate limiting proton transfer. A special catalytic function is proposed for decomposition of the tetrahedral addition intermediate (T+/-) via k3 whereby the catalytic imidazole interacts electrophilically with the leaving phenolate ion and removes a proton from the nitrogen in the rate limiting step with subsequent non-rate limiting ArO-C bond fission. This is consistent with the change in effective charge on the leaving oxygen in the transition structure of k3 which is more positive (-0.42) than that expected (-0.60) for the equilibrium formation of the zwitterion intermediate. The catalytic function at the leaving oxygen is likely to be an electrophilic role of the NH as a hydrogen bond donor. In the k2 step the deuterium oxide solvent isotope effect of 1.51 for the 3-cyanophenyl ester and the betaLg of -0.65 are consistent with rate limiting expulsion of the phenolate ion from the T+/- intermediate. The absence of general base catalysis of imidazolysis rules out the established mechanism for aminolysis of esters where T+/- is stabilised by a standard rate limiting proton transfer. The kinetically equivalent term for k3 where T- reacts with the imidazolium ion as an acid catalyst would require this step to be rate limiting and involve proton transfer not consistent with departure of the good aryl oxide leaving group.

  19. Preparation and characterization of sulfonated amine-poly(ether sulfone)s for proton exchange membrane fuel cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Dong-Wan; Lim, Young-Don; Lee, Soon-Ho; Jeong, Young-Gi; Kim, Whan-Gi [Department of Applied Chemistry/RIC-ReSEM, Konkuk University, Chungju-si, Chungbuk 380-701 (Korea, Republic of); Hong, Tae-Whan [Department of Materials Sci and Engineering/RIC-ReSEM, Chungju National University, Chungju, Chungbuk (Korea, Republic of)


    Sulfonated amine-poly(ether sulfone)s (S-APES)s were prepared by nitration, reduction and sulfonation of poly(ether sulfone) (ultrason {sup registered} -S6010). Poly(ether sulfone) was reacted with ammonium nitrate and trifluoroacetic anhydride to produce the nitrated poly(ether sulfone), and was followed by reduction using tin(II)chloride and sodium iodide as reducing agents to give the amino-poly(ether sulfone). The S-APES was obtained by reaction of 1,3-propanesultone and the amino-poly(ether sulfone) (NH{sub 2}-PES) with sodium methoxide. The different degrees of nitration and reduction of poly(ether sulfone) were successfully synthesized by an optimized process. The reduction of nitro group to amino was done quantitatively, and this controlled the contents of the sulfonic acid group. The films were converted from salt to acid forms with dilute hydrochloric acid. Different contents of sulfonated unit of the S-APES were studied by FT-IR, {sup 1}H NMR spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA). Sorption experiments were conducted to observe the interaction of sulfonated polymers with water and methanol. The ion exchange capacity (IEC), a measure of proton conductivity, was evaluated. The S-APES membranes exhibit conductivities (25 C) from 1.05 x 10{sup -3} to 4.83 x 10{sup -3} S/cm, water swell from 30.25 to 66.50%, IEC from 0.38 to 0.82 meq/g, and methanol diffusion coefficients from 3.10 x 10{sup -7} to 4.82 x 10{sup -7} cm{sup 2}/S at 25 C. (author)

  20. Radiation-chemical synthesis of polypropylene fabrics with sulfonic acid functional groups

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Hyun Kug; Park, Jung Soo; Han, Do Hung, E-mail:; Bondar, Iuliia, E-mail:


    A sorption-active material carrying sulfonic acid groups was synthesized by the radiation-induced graft polymerization of styrene monomer onto the surface of non-woven polypropylene fabric, followed by sulfonation of the grafted polystyrene chains. The effect of the main experimental parameters (absorbed dose, monomer concentration, reaction time) on the styrene degree of grafting was investigated. The sulfonation process with 5% chlorosulfonic acid at room temperature was investigated in detail and the optimal sulfonation conditions for the samples with a medium degree of grafting (70-140%) were determined. Densities of 3.5-5 meq/g were obtained by applying those sorption-active PP fabrics with a sulfonic acid group.

  1. 40 CFR 721.10045 - Diazotized substituted heteromonocycle coupled with naphthalene sulfonic acid derivative, nickel... (United States)


    ... coupled with naphthalene sulfonic acid derivative, nickel complex, alkaline salt (generic). 721.10045... derivative, nickel complex, alkaline salt (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject... heteromonocycle coupled with naphthalene sulfonic acid derivative, nickel complex, alkaline salt (PMN P-02-737) is...

  2. Water soluble poly(styrene sulfonate)-b-poly(vinylidene fluoride)-b-poly(styrene sulfonate) triblock copolymer nanoparticles

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Černoch, Peter; Černochová, Zulfiya; Petrova, Svetlana; Kaňková, Dana; Kim, J.-S.; Vasu, V.; Asandei, A. D.


    Roč. 6, č. 60 (2016), s. 55374-55381 ISSN 2046-2069 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LH14038 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : polystyrenesulfonate * poly(neopentyl styrenesulfonate) * PVDF Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 3.108, year: 2016

  3. The shape of cells adhering to sulfonated copolymer surfaces. (United States)

    Kowalczyńska, Hanna M; Nowak-Wyrzykowska, Małgorzata; Inkielman, Marcin; Stołowska, Liliana; Marciniak, Ewa


    We studied the shape of L1210 leukaemia cells adhering in a protein-free medium to sulfonated (styrene/methyl methacrylate) copolymer surfaces of two sulfonic group densities, and thus of differing wettability. The use of our image analysis method and the mathematical procedure [Kowalczynska, H.M. et al, Colloids Surfaces B: Biointerfaces, 30 (2003) 193-206.] allowed us to calculate the values of the so-called shape parameter, which quantitatively determines the three-dimensional cell shape. Here, we show that the values of the shape parameter of the adhering cells and the F-actin concentration, in the region near the cell-substratum interface, depend on the density of sulfonic groups present on the substratum surface.

  4. Functionalization of cross-linked poly(styrene) in the preparation of a PET target material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zippi, E.M.; Grover, John; Valiulis, M.B.; Tibbets, Cynthia [Louisiana State Univ., Shreveport, LA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry and Physics; Kabalka, G.W. [Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Chemistry


    In an effort to prepare an improved carbon-rich target material for the generation of [{sup 13}N]ammonia for use in PET, styrene was polymerized and cross-linked with various percentages of divinylbenzene(DVB). The resulting copolymers were then sulfonated and nitrated and the degree of substitution was determined by elemental analysis. As expected, increased levels of DVB sterically hindered substitution of the aromatic ring. (Author).

  5. Effects of surfactants on the properties of mortar containing styrene/methacrylate superplasticizer. (United States)

    Negim, El-Sayed; Kozhamzharova, Latipa; Khatib, Jamal; Bekbayeva, Lyazzat; Williams, Craig


    The physical and mechanical properties of mortar containing synthetic cosurfactants as air entraining agent are investigated. The cosurfactants consist of a combination of 2% dodecyl benzene sodium sulfonate (DBSS) and either 1.5% polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) or 1.5% polyoxyethylene glycol monomethyl ether (POE). Also these cosurfactants were used to prepare copolymers latex: styrene/butyl methacrylate (St/BuMA), styrene/methyl methacrylate (St/MMA), and styrene/glycidyl methacrylate (St/GMA), in order to study their effects on the properties of mortar. The properties of mortar examined included flow table, W/C ratio, setting time, water absorption, compressive strength, and combined water. The results indicate that the latex causes improvement in mortar properties compared with cosurfactants. Also polymer latex containing DBSS/POE is more effective than that containing DBSS/PVA.

  6. Effects of Surfactants on the Properties of Mortar Containing Styrene/Methacrylate Superplasticizer (United States)

    Negim, El-Sayed; Kozhamzharova, Latipa; Khatib, Jamal; Bekbayeva, Lyazzat; Williams, Craig


    The physical and mechanical properties of mortar containing synthetic cosurfactants as air entraining agent are investigated. The cosurfactants consist of a combination of 2% dodecyl benzene sodium sulfonate (DBSS) and either 1.5% polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) or 1.5% polyoxyethylene glycol monomethyl ether (POE). Also these cosurfactants were used to prepare copolymers latex: styrene/butyl methacrylate (St/BuMA), styrene/methyl methacrylate (St/MMA), and styrene/glycidyl methacrylate (St/GMA), in order to study their effects on the properties of mortar. The properties of mortar examined included flow table, W/C ratio, setting time, water absorption, compressive strength, and combined water. The results indicate that the latex causes improvement in mortar properties compared with cosurfactants. Also polymer latex containing DBSS/POE is more effective than that containing DBSS/PVA. PMID:24955426

  7. Effects of Surfactants on the Properties of Mortar Containing Styrene/Methacrylate Superplasticizer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Sayed Negim


    Full Text Available The physical and mechanical properties of mortar containing synthetic cosurfactants as air entraining agent are investigated. The cosurfactants consist of a combination of 2% dodecyl benzene sodium sulfonate (DBSS and either 1.5% polyvinyl alcohol (PVA or 1.5% polyoxyethylene glycol monomethyl ether (POE. Also these cosurfactants were used to prepare copolymers latex: styrene/butyl methacrylate (St/BuMA, styrene/methyl methacrylate (St/MMA, and styrene/glycidyl methacrylate (St/GMA, in order to study their effects on the properties of mortar. The properties of mortar examined included flow table, W/C ratio, setting time, water absorption, compressive strength, and combined water. The results indicate that the latex causes improvement in mortar properties compared with cosurfactants. Also polymer latex containing DBSS/POE is more effective than that containing DBSS/PVA.

  8. Analytical methodology for sulfonated lignins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brudin, S.; Schoenmakers, P.


    There is a significant need to characterize and classify lignins and sulfonated lignins. Lignins have so far received a good deal of attention, whereas this is not true for sulfonated lignins. There is a clear demand for a better understanding of sulfonated lignins on a chemical as well as physical

  9. Electrolytic membrane formation of fluoroalkyl polymer using a UV-radiation-based grafting technique and sulfonation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shironita, Sayoko; Mizoguchi, Satoko; Umeda, Minoru, E-mail: [Department of Materials Science and Technology, Nagaoka University of Technology, 1603-1 Kamitomioka, Nagaoka 940-2188, Niigata (Japan)


    A sulfonated fluoroalkyl graft polymer (FGP) membrane was prepared as a polymer electrolyte. First, the FGP membrane was grafted with styrene under UV irradiation. The grafted FGP was then sulfonated to functionalize it for proton conductivity. The grafting degree of the membrane increased with increasing grafting time during UV irradiation. The proton conductivity of the membrane increased with increasing grafting degree. The swelling ratio was independent of the grafting time, however, the water uptake increased with increasing grafting degree. Based on these results, it was found that the UV-initiated styrene grafting occurred along the membrane thickness direction. Moreover, the membrane was embedded within the glass fibers of the composite. This composite electrolytic membrane had 1.15 times the proton conductivity of a Nafion 117 membrane.

  10. Styrene-based shape memory foam: fabrication and mathematical modeling (United States)

    Yao, Yongtao; Zhou, Tianyang; Qin, Chao; Liu, Yanju; Leng, Jinsong


    Shape memory polymer foam is a promising kind of structure in the biomedical and aerospace field. Shape memory styrene foam with uniform and controlled open-cell structure was successfully fabricated using a salt particulate leaching method. Shape recovery capability exists for foam programming in both high-temperature compression and low-temperature compression (Shape recovery properties such as shape fixing property and shape recovery ratio were also characterized. In order to provide guidance for the future fabrication of shape memory foam, the theories of Gibson and Ashby as well as differential micromechanics theory were applied to predict Young’s modulus and the mechanical behavior of SMP styrene foams during the compression process.

  11. Surfactant and counter-ion distribution in styrene-butyl acrylate-acrylic acid dry latex submonolayers


    Keslarek Amauri José; Leite Carlos Alberto P; Galembeck Fernando


    Styrene-butyl acrylate-acrylic acid latex submonolayers prepared using a non-reactive phosphate surfactant together with a reactive sulfonate surfactant were examined in a transmission microscope using electron energy loss spectroscopy imaging (ESI-TEM). Phosphorus is nearly absent from the particles core but it is detected in a thick shell and in unusual, strongly scattering structures with a low carbon content, and largely made out of inorganic phosphate. P is also dispersed outside the par...

  12. Radiation grafting of styrene onto polypropylene fibres by a 10 MeV electron beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vahdat, A. [Textile Engineering Department, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Bahrami, Hajir [Textile Engineering Department, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)]. E-mail:; Ansari, N. [Textile Engineering Department, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ziaie, F. [Yazd Radiation Processing Centre, Yazd (Iran, Islamic Republic of)


    The radiation-induced graft copolymerization is an effective method for modification of the chemical and physical properties of polypropylene. Graft copolymerization of styrene onto polypropylene fibers has been studied by simultaneous irradiation method, using a 10 MeV electron beam. Samples were irradiated in an environment of nitrogen gas. The effects of radiation dose and styrene concentration in methanol, on the grafting yield were investigated. The effects of polyfunctional monomer, i.e., trimethylopropane trimethacrylate (TMPTMA) and acid (sulfuric acid) on the grafting yield were also examined. The grafted samples were then sulfonated and allowed to react with solution of a basic dye. The samples were characterized by mechanical properties and thermal stability. The mechanical properties of the radiated samples were reduced and the grafted samples had lower mechanical properties.

  13. Survey of volatile substances in kitchen utensils made from acrylonitrile–butadiene–styrene and acrylonitrile–styrene resin in Japan

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Abe, Yutaka; Yamaguchi, Miku; Mutsuga, Motoh; Kawamura, Yoko; Akiyama, Hiroshi


    Residual levels of 14 volatile substances, including 1,3‐butadiene, acrylonitrile, benzene, ethylbenzene, and styrene, in 30 kitchen utensils made from acrylonitrile–butadiene–styrene resin ( ABS ) and acrylonitrile–styrene resin...

  14. Preparation of Highly Sulfonated Ultra-Thin Proton-Exchange Polymer Membranes for Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells (United States)

    Jiang, Zhongqing; Meng, Yuedong; Jiang, Zhong-Jie; Shi, Yicai

    Sulfonated ultra-thin proton-exchange polymer membrane carrying pyridine groups was made from a plasma polymerization of styrene, 2-vinylpyridine, and trifluoromethanesulfonic acid by after-glow capacitively coupled discharge technique. Pyridine groups tethered to the polymer backbone acts as a medium through the basic nitrogen for transfer of protons between the sulfonic acid groups of proton exchange membrane. It shows that the method using present technology could effectively depress the degradation of monomers during the plasma polymerization. Spectroscopic analyses reveal that the obtained membranes are highly functionalized with proton exchange groups and have higher proton conductivity. Thus, the membranes are expected to be used in direct methanol fuel cells.

  15. Helbredsrisici ved eksponering for styren i glasfiberplastindustrien

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolstad, Henrik Albert; Ebbehøj, Nielse; Bonde, Jens Peter


    This is a summary of the health risks of occupational styrene exposure based on recent reviews. We conclude about the exposure levels that there is strong evidence that styrene causes acute irritation of eyes and respiratory tract above 25 ppm, genotoxic effects above 10 ppm, and persistent nervous...... or relevant exposure levels. We recommend reconsideration of the current Danish threshold limit value of 25 ppm, biological monitoring of styrene exposed workers, and epidemiological analyses of styrene exposure levels and long-term health effects among employees of the Danish reinforced plastics industry....... system effects with for instance reduced psychological performance, colour discrimination and hearing level following long-term styrene exposure above 10 ppm. There is moderate evidence of a causal association with cancer, but data are not sufficient to allow us to pinpoint specific cancers at risk...

  16. Acquired dyschromatopsia among styrene-exposed workers. (United States)

    Gobba, F; Galassi, C; Imbriani, M; Ghittori, S; Candela, S; Cavalleri, A


    We investigated the occurrence of color vision loss in 75 styrene-exposed workers and in 60 referents. Color vision was evaluated by adopting the Lanthony D 15 desaturated panel, a test specifically suited to detect mild acquired dyschromatopsia. The results of the test were expressed as Color Confusion Index. Styrene exposure was evaluated with both environmental and biological monitoring. Airborne levels of the solvent were 3.2 to 549.5 mg/m3. In styrene-exposed workers color vision was significantly impaired when compared with referents matched for age. A significative correlation was found between environmental and urinary levels of styrene and Color Confusion Index excluding the influence of age in multiple regression analysis, indicating the possibility of a dose-effect relationship. The findings suggest that styrene can induce an early appearance of a dose-dependent color vision loss.

  17. Helbredsrisici ved eksponering for styren i glasfiberplastindustrien

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolstad, Henrik Albert; Ebbehøj, Nielse; Bonde, Jens Peter


    or relevant exposure levels. We recommend reconsideration of the current Danish threshold limit value of 25 ppm, biological monitoring of styrene exposed workers, and epidemiological analyses of styrene exposure levels and long-term health effects among employees of the Danish reinforced plastics industry.......This is a summary of the health risks of occupational styrene exposure based on recent reviews. We conclude about the exposure levels that there is strong evidence that styrene causes acute irritation of eyes and respiratory tract above 25 ppm, genotoxic effects above 10 ppm, and persistent nervous...... system effects with for instance reduced psychological performance, colour discrimination and hearing level following long-term styrene exposure above 10 ppm. There is moderate evidence of a causal association with cancer, but data are not sufficient to allow us to pinpoint specific cancers at risk...

  18. 21 CFR 573.600 - Lignin sulfonates. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Lignin sulfonates. 573.600 Section 573.600 Food... Additive Listing § 573.600 Lignin sulfonates. Lignin sulfonates may be safely used in animal feeds in... feeds, as liquid lignin sulfonate, in an amount not to exceed 11 percent of the molasses. (4) As a...

  19. Study of the mechanical properties of Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene - High Impact Polystyrene blends with Styrene Ethylene Butylene Styrene


    PEYDRO Miguel Angel; JUAREZ David; Sanchez-Caballero, Samuel; PARRES Francisco


    A binary blend Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene ¿ High Impact Polystyrene (ABS-HIPS 50% wt) was prepared on a twin-screw extruder at 190-210 oC. The different mechanical properties were then analyzed using tensile strength and impact tests. The analysis of mechanical properties showed a decrease in elongation at break and impact strength. On the other hand, we have prepared ternary blends of ABS-HIPS- Styrene Ethylene Butylene Styrene (SEBS), varying the percentage of SEBS from 10 to 30 %wt us...

  20. Study of the Influence of adding styrene-ethylene/butadiene-styrene in acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene and polyethylene blends


    M.A. Peydro; F. Parres; Navarro Vidal, Raúl; Sanchez-Caballero, Samuel


    This work studies the recovery of two grades of acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) contaminated with low-density polyethylene (LDPE), by adding styrene ethylene/butadiene styrene (SEBS). To simulate contaminated ABS, virgin ABS was mixed with 1, 2, 4, and 8% of LDPE and then extruded at 220°C. After this, the ABS with the highest percentage of LDPE (8%) was mixed with 1, 2, 4, and 8% of SEBS and then extruded. Different blends were mechanically, rheologically, optically, and dimensionally ...

  1. 4-(4-Aminophenylsulfonylanilinium toluene-4-sulfonate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graham Smith


    Full Text Available In the title p-toluenesulfonate salt of the drug dapsone, C12H13N2O2S+·C7H7O3S−, the dihedral angle between the two aromatic rings of the dapsone monocation is 70.19 (17° and those between these rings and that of the p-toluenesulfonate anion are 72.34 (17 and 46.43 (17°. All amine and aminium H atoms are involved in intermolecular N—H...O hydrogen-bonding associations with sulfonyl O-atom acceptors as well as one of the sulfone O atoms, giving a three-dimensional structure.

  2. Synthesis and characterization of sulfonated poly (arylene ether sulfone) copolymers via direct copolymerization: Candidates for proton exchange membrane fuel cells (United States)

    Harrison, William Lamont

    A designed series of directly copolymerized homo- and disulfonated copolymers containing controlled degrees of pendant sulfonic acid groups have been synthesized via nucleophilic step polymerization. Novel sulfonated poly (arylene ether sulfone) copolymers using 4,4'-bisphenol A, 4,4'-biphenol, hexafluorinated (6F) bisphenol AF, and hydroquinone, respectively, with dichlorodiphenyl sulfone (DCDPS) and 3,3'-disodiumsulfonyl-4,4'-dichlorodiphenylsulfone (SDCDPS) were investigated. Molar ratios of DCDPS and SDCDPS were systematically varied to produce copolymers of controlled compositions, which contained up to 70 mol% of disulfonic acid moiety. The goal is to identify thermally, hydrolytically, and oxidatively stable high molecular weight, film-forming, ductile ion conducting copolymers, which had properties desirable for proton exchange membranes (PEM) in fuel cells. Commercially available bisphenols were selected to produce cost effective alternative PEMs. Partially aliphatic bisphenol A and hexafluorinated (6F) bisphenol AF produced amorphous copolymers with different thermal oxidative and surface properties. Biphenol and hydroquinone was utilized to produce wholly aromatic copolymers. The sulfonated copolymers were prepared in the sodium-salt form and converted to the acid moiety via two different methodologies and subsequently investigated as proton exchange membranes for fuel cells. Hydrophilicity increased with the level of disulfonation, as expected. Moreover, water sorption increased with increasing mole percent incorporation of SDCDPS. The copolymers' water uptake was a function of both bisphenol structure and degree of disulfonation. Furthermore, the acidification procedures were shown to influence the Tg values, water uptake, and conductivity of the copolymers. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) in the tapping mode confirmed that the morphology of the copolymers could be designed to display nanophase separation in the hydrophobic and hydrophilic (sulfonated

  3. Grafting of styrene onto fluoropolymers films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geraldes, Adriana N.; Zen, Heloisa A.; Parra, Duclerc F.; Lugao, Ademar B.; Linardi, Marcelo [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro de Quimica e Meio Ambiente], E-mail:


    Grafting of styrene onto poly(vinylidenefluoride) (PVDF) and poly(tetrafluoroethylene) (PTFE) films was studied for the synthesis of ion exchange membranes. Radiation-induced grafting of styrene onto PVDF and PTFE films was investigated by simultaneous method using a Co{sup 60} source. The films of PVDF and PTFE were irradiated at total dose of 20 to 120 kGy and chemical changes were monitored after contact with styrene. Films of PTFE and PVDF were immersed in styrene/toluene 1:1 and were submitted to gamma radiation. After irradiation the samples were evaluated at periods of 0, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days, at room temperature in order to measure the grafting degree. Results of infrared spectroscopic analysis (FTIR), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetry analysis (TGA) and the degree of grafting (DOG) were evaluated. The characterization techniques showed that irradiated PVDF and PTFE films exhibited a much higher grafting degree at 120 kGy. (author)

  4. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization sample preparation optimization for structural characterization of poly(styrene-co-pentafluorostyrene) copolymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tisdale, Evgenia; Kennedy, Devin; Wilkins, Charles, E-mail:


    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •We optimized sample preparation for MALDI TOF poly(styrene-copentafluorostyrene) co-polymers. •Influence of matrix choice was investigated. •Influence of matrix/analyte ratio was examined. •Influence of analyte/salt ratio (for Ag+ salt) was studied. -- Abstract: The influence of the sample preparation parameters (the choice of the matrix, matrix:analyte ratio, salt:analyte ratio) was investigated and optimal conditions were established for the MALDI time-of-flight mass spectrometry analysis of the poly(styrene-co-pentafluorostyrene) copolymers. These were synthesized by atom transfer radical polymerization. Use of 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid as matrix resulted in spectra with consistently high ion yields for all matrix:analyte:salt ratios tested. The optimized MALDI procedure was successfully applied to the characterization of three copolymers obtained by varying the conditions of polymerization reaction. It was possible to establish the nature of the end groups, calculate molecular weight distributions, and determine the individual length distributions for styrene and pentafluorostyrene monomers, contained in the resulting copolymers. Based on the data obtained, it was concluded that individual styrene chain length distributions are more sensitive to the change in the composition of the catalyst (the addition of small amount of CuBr{sub 2}) than is the pentafluorostyrene component distribution.

  5. Proton conductive membranes based on poly (styrene-co-allyl alcohol semi-IPN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Augusto Moro Loureiro


    Full Text Available The optimization of fuel cell materials, particularly polymer membranes, for PEMFC has driven the development of methods and alternatives to achieve systems with more adequate properties to this application. The sulfonation of poly (styrene-co-allyl alcohol (PSAA, using sulfonating agent:styrene ratios of 2:1, 1:1, 1:2, 1:4, 1:6, 1:8 and 1:10, was previously performed to obtain proton conductive polymer membranes. Most of those membranes exhibited solubility in water with increasing temperature and showed conductivity of approximately 10-5 S cm-1. In order to optimize the PSAA properties, especially decreasing its solubility, semi-IPN (SIPN membranes are proposed in the present study. These membranes were obtained from the diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A (DGEBA, curing reactions in presence of DDS (4,4-diaminodiphenyl sulfone and PSAA. Different DGEBA/PSAA weight ratios were employed, varying the PSAA concentration between 9 and 50% and keeping the mass ratio of DGEBA:DDS as 1:1. The samples were characterized by FTIR and by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Unperturbed bands of PSAA were observed in the FTIR spectra of membranes, suggesting that chemical integrity of the polymer is maintained during the synthesis. In particular, bands involving C-C stretching (1450 cm-1, C=C (aromatic, ~ 3030 cm-1 and C-H (2818 and 2928 cm-1 were observed, unchanged after the synthesis. The disappearance or reduction of the intensity of the band at 916 cm-1, attributed to the DGEBA epoxy ring, is evidenced for all samples, indicating the epoxy ring opening and the DGEBA crosslinking. Conductivity of H3PO4 doped membranes increases with temperature, reaching 10-4 S cm-1.

  6. Comparison of antioxidant activities of different parts from snow chrysanthemum (Coreopsis tinctoria Nutt.) and identification of their natural antioxidants using high performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode array detection and mass spectrometry and 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-sulfonic acid)diammonium salt-based assay. (United States)

    Chen, L X; Hu, D J; Lam, S C; Ge, L; Wu, D; Zhao, J; Long, Z R; Yang, W J; Fan, B; Li, S P


    Snow chrysanthemum (Coreopsis tinctoria Nutt.), a world-widely well-known flower tea material, has attracted more and more attention because of its beneficial health effects such as antioxidant activity and special flavor. In this study, a high performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode array detection and mass spectrometry (HPLC-DAD-MS) and 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-sulfonic acid)diammonium salt (ABTS) based assay was employed for comparison and identification of antioxidants in different samples of snow chrysanthemum. The results showed that snow chrysanthemum flowers possessed the highest while stems presented the lowest antioxidant capacities. Fourteen detected peaks with antioxidant activity were temporarily identified as 3,4',5,6,7-pentahydroxyflavanone-O-hexoside, chlorogenic acid, 2R-3',4',8-trihydroxyflavanone-7-O-glucoside, flavanomarein, flavanocorepsin, flavanokanin, quercetagitin-7-O-glucoside, 3',5,5',7-tetrahydroxyflavanone-O-hexoside, marein, maritimein, 1,3-dicaffeoylquinic acid, coreopsin, okanin and acetyl-marein by comparing their UV spectra, retention times and MS data with standards or literature data. Antioxidants existed in snow chrysanthemum are quite different from those reported in Chrysanthemum morifolium, a well-known traditional beverage in China, which indicated that snow chrysanthemum may be a promising herbal tea material with obvious antioxidant activity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Lignin Sulfonation - A different Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørkmann, Anders


    . It was found that lignin is very reactive, that is why the sulfonation chemistry alone does not necessarily determine its dissolution rate. It became evident that the ultrastructure dispersion of lignin in wood is beneficial for its dissolution. For W, the rate was much higher at pH 1.5 than at 6. MW lignin...... and MWL dissolved (after extraction of the "immediate" lignin) at higher rates than W lignin. For MWL, the rate difference between pH 1.5 and 6 was moderate, compared to W lignin. Borohydride reduction did not affect the lignin dissolution from W, but gave a large decrease of sulfonation rate for MWL...

  8. Reactive processing of recycled polycarbonate/acrylonitrile butadiene styrene. (United States)

    Jung, Woo-Hyuk; Choi, Yeon-Sil; Moon, Jung-Min; Tortorrela, Nathan; Beatty, Charles L; Lee, Jang-Oo


    Cellular phone housings were ground to make original particulates using a knife mill. Foams and adhesives with a lighter density than water were removed from ground mixtures using a sink-float process in water; ground metals, button rubbers, and wires were separated from desired materials by using a sink float process in salt All housing materials, consisting of seven thermoplastics included in cellular phone housings, showed better tensile properties than pure housing materials made of polycarbonate/acrylonitrile butadiene styrene, but they only had about half of the impact strength. In contrast, the low impact strength for all housing materials was improved by adding 25 wt % polyethylene elastomer and/or 2.4 wt % ground epoxy circuit boards for batch mixing. Impact strengths, tensile strengths, and the energy absorption ability of all housing materials were improved by adding 5.4wt% glycidyl methacrylate for twin screw extrusion.

  9. 78 FR 6213 - Styrene-2-Ethylhexyl Acrylate Copolymer; Tolerance Exemption (United States)


    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 180 Styrene-2-Ethylhexyl Acrylate Copolymer; Tolerance Exemption AGENCY: Environmental...; also known as styrene-2-ethylhexyl acrylate copolymer when used as an inert ingredient in a pesticide...-risk polymers are described in 40 CFR 723.250(d). Styrene-2-ethylhexyl acrylate copolymer conforms to...

  10. 21 CFR 177.1810 - Styrene block polymers. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Styrene block polymers. 177.1810 Section 177.1810... FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) INDIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES: POLYMERS Substances for Use as Basic Components of Single and Repeated Use Food Contact Surfaces § 177.1810 Styrene block polymers. The styrene...

  11. A durable alternative for proton-exchange membranes: sulfonated poly(benzoxazole thioether sulfone)s

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Dan [Center for Innovative Fuel Cell and Battery Technologies, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332-0245 (United States); Lab of PEMFC Key Materials and Technologies, Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 457 Zhongshan Road, Liaoning, Dalian 116023 (China); Graduate School of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039 (China); Li, Jinhuan [Center for Innovative Fuel Cell and Battery Technologies, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332-0245 (United States); College of Materials Science and Technology, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Nanjing 210016 (China); Song, Min-Kyu; Liu, Meilin [Center for Innovative Fuel Cell and Battery Technologies, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332-0245 (United States); Yi, Baolian; Zhang, Huamin [Lab of PEMFC Key Materials and Technologies, Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 457 Zhongshan Road, Liaoning, Dalian 116023 (China)


    To develop a durable proton-exchange membrane (PEM) for fuel-cell applications, a series of sulfonated poly(benzoxazole thioether sulfone)s (SPTESBOs) are designed and synthesized, with anticipated good dimensional stability (via acid-base cross linking), improved oxidative stability against free radicals (via incorporation of thioether groups), and enhanced inherent stability (via elimination of unstable end groups) of the backbone. The structures and the degree of sulfonation of the copolymers are characterized using Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy ({sup 1}H NMR and {sup 19}F NMR). The electrochemical stabilities of the monomers are examined using cyclic voltammetry in a typical three-electrode cell configuration. The physicochemical properties of the membranes vital to fuel-cell performance are also carefully evaluated under conditions relevant to fuel-cell operation, including chemical and thermal stability, proton conductivity, solubility in different solvents, water uptake, and swelling ratio. The new membranes exhibit low dimensional change at 25 C to 90 C and excellent thermal stability up to 250 C. Upon elimination of unstable end groups, the co-polymers display enhanced chemical resistance and oxidative stability in Fenton's test. Further, the SPTESBO-HFB-60 (HFB-60=hexafluorobenzene, 60 mol% sulfone) membrane displays comparable fuel-cell performance to that of an NRE 212 membrane at 80 C under fully humidified condition, suggesting that the new membranes have the potential to be more durable but less expensive for fuel-cell applications. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  12. A Durable Alternative for Proton-Exchange Membranes: Sulfonated Poly(Benzoxazole Thioether Sulfone)s

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Dan; Li, Jin Hui; Song, Min Kyu; Yi, Baolian; Zhang, Huamin; Liu, Meilin


    To develop a durable proton-exchange membrane (PEM) for fuel-cell applications, a series of sulfonated poly(benzoxazole thioether sulfone)s ( SPTESBOs) are designed and synthesized, with anticipated good dimensional stability (via acid–base cross linking), improved oxidative stability against free radicals (via incorporation of thioether groups), and enhanced inherent stability (via elimination of unstable end groups) of the backbone. The structures and the degree of sulfonation of the copolymers are characterized using Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy ({sup 1}H NMR and {sup 19}F NMR). The electrochemical stabilities of the monomers are examined using cyclic voltammetry in a typical three-electrode cell configuration. The physicochemical properties of the membranes vital to fuel-cell performance are also carefully evaluated under conditions relevant to fuel-cell operation, including chemical and thermal stability, proton conductivity, solubility in different solvents, water uptake, and swelling ratio. The new membranes exhibit low dimensional change at 25°C to 90°C and excellent thermal stability up to 250°C. Upon elimination of unstable end groups, the co-polymers display enhanced chemical resistance and oxidative stability in Fenton's test. Further, the SPTESBO-HFB-60 (HFB-60=hexafluorobenzene, 60 mol% sulfone) membrane displays comparable fuel-cell performance to that of an NRE 212 membrane at 80°C under fully humidified condition, suggesting that the new membranes have the potential to be more durable but less expensive for fuel-cell applications.

  13. Survey of volatile substances in kitchen utensils made from acrylonitrile–butadiene–styrene and acrylonitrile–styrene resin in Japan


    Abe, Yutaka; Yamaguchi, Miku; Mutsuga, Motoh; Kawamura, Yoko; Akiyama, Hiroshi


    Residual levels of 14 volatile substances, including 1,3-butadiene, acrylonitrile, benzene, ethylbenzene, and styrene, in 30 kitchen utensils made from acrylonitrile–butadiene–styrene resin (ABS) and acrylonitrile–styrene resin (AS) such as slicers, picks, cups, and lunch boxes in Japan were simultaneously determined using headspace gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy (HS-GC/MS). The maximum residual levels in the ABS and AS samples were found to be 2000 and 2800 μg/g of styrene, respectivel...

  14. Synthesis and characterization of sulfonated cardo poly(arylene ether sulfone)s for fuel cell proton exchange membrane application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Islam, M.M.; Jang, H.H.; Lim, Y.D.; Seo, D.W.; Kim, W.G. [Department of Applied Chemistry, Konkuk University, Chungju, Chungbuk (Korea, Republic of); Kim, T.H.; Hong, Y.T. [Energy Material Research Center, Korea Research Institute of Chemical Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, D.M. [Material Engineering and Science, Hongik Univ, Jochiwon-eup, Yeongi-gun, Chungnam (Korea, Republic of)


    Sulfonated cardo poly(arylene ether sulfone)s (SPPA-PES) with various degrees of sulfonation (DS) were prepared by post-sulfonation of synthesized phenolphthalein anilide (PPA; N-phenyl-3,3'-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)-1-isobenzopyrolidone) poly(arylene ether sulfone)s (PPA-PES) by using concentrated sulfuric acid. PPA-PES copolymers were synthesized by direct polycondensation of PPA with bis-(4-fluorophenyl)-sulfone and 4,4'-sulfonyldiphenol. The DS was varied with different mole ratios of PPA (24, 30, 40, 50 mol.%) in the polymer. The structure of the resulting SPPA-PES copolymers and the different contents of the sulfonated unit were studied by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, {sup 1}H NMR spectroscopy, and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). Sorption experiments were conducted to observe the interaction of sulfonated polymer with water. The ion exchange capacity (IEC) and proton conductivity of SPPA-PES were evaluated according to the increase of DS. The water uptake (WU) of the resulting SPPA-PES membranes was in the range of 20-72%, compared with 28% for Nafion 211 registered. The SPPA-PES membranes showed proton conductivities of 23-82 mS cm{sup -1}, compared with 194 mS cm{sup -1} for Nafion 211 registered, under 100% relative humidity (RH) at 80 C. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  15. New Fluorinated and Sulfonated Block Copolymers Final Report (United States)


    fossil fuels, are a pressing need in the world we live in today. One such promising alternative is a fuel cell. Fuel Cells are typically classified...1H NMR . Some samples were neutralized to the cesium salt form , and the balance left in the acid form. The cesium form facilitates contrast in the x...characteristics: Mw =31,200 ,PDI=1.05, 27mol% PS. The fluorinated samples cast into membranes were sulfonated to 23,28 and 50 mol%, as determined by 1H NMR

  16. Low metal loading catalysts used for the selective hydrogenation of styrene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Badano, Juan; Lederhos, Cecilia; Quiroga, Monica; L' Argentiere, Pablo [Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas, Santa Fe (Argentina). Universidad Nacional del Litoral. Inst. de Investigaciones en Catalisis y Petroquimica; Coloma-Pascual, Fernando [Universidad de Alicante (Spain). Facultad de Ciencias. Servicios Tecnicos de Investigacion


    A series of Group VIII metal catalysts was obtained for the semi-hydrogenation of styrene. Catalysts were characterized by Hydrogen Chemisorption, TPR and XPS. Palladium, rhodium and platinum low metal loading prepared catalysts presented high activity and selectivity (ca. 98%) during the semi-hydrogenation of styrene, being palladium the most active catalyst. The ruthenium catalyst also presented high selectivity (ca. 98%), but the lowest activity. For the palladium catalyst, the influence of the precursor salt and of the reduction temperature on the activity and selectivity were studied. The following activity series was obtained: PdN-423 > PdCl-673 > PdCl-373> PtCl-673 > RhCl-673 >> RuCl-673. As determined by XPS, differences in activity could be attributed, at least in part, to electronic effects (author)

  17. Polystyrene cups and containers: styrene migration. (United States)

    Tawfik, M S; Huyghebaert, A


    The level of styrene migration from polystyrene cups was monitored in different food systems including: water, milk (0.5, 1.55 and 3.6% fat), cold beverages (apple juice, orange juice, carbonated water, cola, beer and chocolate drink), hot beverages (tea, coffee, chocolate and soup (0.0, 0.5, 1, 2, and 3.6% fat), take away foods (yogurt, jelly, pudding and ice-cream), as well as aqueous food simulants (3% acetic acid, 15, 50, and 100% ethanol) and olive oil. Styrene migration was found to be strongly dependent upon the fat content and storage temperature. Drinking water gave migration values considerably lower than all of the fatty foods. Ethanol at 15% showed a migration level equivalent to milk or soup containing 3.6% fat. Maximum observed migration for cold or hot beverages and take-away foods was 0.025% of the total styrene in the cup. Food simulants were responsible for higher migration (0.37% in 100% ethanol). A total of 60 food samples (yogurt, rice with milk, fromage, biogardes, and cheese) packed in polystyrene containers were collected from retail markets in Belgium, Germany, and the Netherlands. The level of styrene detected in the foods was always fat dependent.

  18. Catalytic dehydrogenations of ethylbenzene to styrene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kapteijn, F.; Makkee, M.; Nederlof, C.

    This research work on the catalytic dehydrogenation of ethylbenzene (EB) to styrene (ST) had a primary goal of developing improved catalysts for dehydrogenation processes both in CO2 as well as with O2 that can compete with the conventional dehydrogenation process in steam. In order to achieve this

  19. Graft Copolymerization and Characterization of Styrene with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    May 24, 2017 ... 1Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Northwest University, P.M.B 3220, Kano, Nigeria. 2Department of Pure and ... In this study, styrene was successfully grafted onto chitosan by conventional free radical polymerization technique, using ..... radical species is very high, chain transfer and reaction ...

  20. Electric current-producing device having sulfone-based electrolyte (United States)

    Angell, Charles Austen; Sun, Xiao-Guang


    Electrolytic solvents and applications of such solvents including electric current-producing devices. For example, a solvent can include a sulfone compound of R1--SO2--R2, with R1 being an alkyl group and R2 a partially oxygenated alkyl group, to exhibit high chemical and thermal stability and high oxidation resistance. For another example, a battery can include, between an anode and a cathode, an electrolyte which includes ionic electrolyte salts and a non-aqueous electrolyte solvent which includes a non-symmetrical, non-cyclic sulfone. The sulfone has a formula of R1--SO2--R2, wherein R1 is a linear or branched alkyl or partially or fully fluorinated linear or branched alkyl group having 1 to 7 carbon atoms, and R2 is a linear or branched or partially or fully fluorinated linear or branched oxygen containing alkyl group having 1 to 7 carbon atoms. The electrolyte can include an electrolyte co-solvent and an electrolyte additive for protective layer formation.

  1. Modified hydrogenated PBLH copolymer synthesis with styrene for proton exchange membranes fuel cell application; Derivados de PBLH hidrogenado na sintese de copolimeros com estireno, para a producao de membranas cationicas para celulas a combustivel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferraz, Fernando A.; Oliveira, Angelo R.S.; Rodrigues, Maraiza F.; Groetzner, Mariana B.; Cesar-Oliveira, Maria Aparecida F. [Universidade Federal do Parana (UFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica. Lab. de Polimeros Sinteticos (LABPOL)]. E-mails:;;;;; Cantao, Mauricio P. [Instituto de Tecnologia para o Desenvolvimento (LACTEC), Curitiba, PR (Brazil)]. E-mail:


    Polymers used as electrolyte in fuel cells are expected to have functional groups in their structure which are responsible for proton conductivity. Since the use of hydroxylated liquid polybutadiene (PBLH) has not been mentioned in the literature as an ion exchange membrane for fuel cell application (PEMFC), and its structure can be modified for a later sulfonation, it has been studied. In this work, PBLH was modified through a hydrogenation reaction. Furthermore, hydrogenated polymeric esters were obtained by esterification and transesterification reactions (PBLH- estearate and PBLH- methacrylate). Reacting the PBLH methacrylate with styrene, it was generated a copolymer with appropriated structure for sulfonation, justifying researches for fuel cell. (author)

  2. Properties of polypyrrole doped with alkylbenzene sulfonates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bay, Lasse; Skaarup, Steen; West, Keld


    -standing 10 mu m thick film is prepared electrochemically at a constant current from an aqueous solution of pyrrole and sodium alkylbenzene sulfonate. The mechanical properties of the film (tensile strength and Young's modulus) and the reversible linear elongation between the oxidised and reduced states...... are measured. Alkylbenzene sulfonates with alkyl chain lengths between 1 and 22 carbon atoms are used as dopant anion. The films made with the different anions have highly different properties and are here compared to outline the influence of the size of the anion. A maximum in linear elongation is found for p......-(n-octyl)benzene sulfonate and in conductivity for p-(n-butyl)benzene sulfonate....

  3. Study of the thermal properties of Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene - High Impact Polystyrene blends with Styrene Ethylene Butylene Styrene


    PEYDRO Miguel Angel; JUAREZ David; Sanchez-Caballero, Samuel; PARRES Francisco


    A binary blend Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene ¿ High Impact Polystyrene (ABS-HIPS 50% wt) was prepared on a twin-screw extruder at 190-210 oC. The different properties were then analyzed using melt flow index (MFI), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). FTIR analysis indicated heterogeneous distribution of the blend in injected pieces and SEM micrographs show heterogeneous distribution of both phase (ABS and HIPS). On the other hand, we have pr...

  4. Cation permeable membranes from blends of sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone) and poly (ether sulfone)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilhelm, F.G.; Punt, Ineke G.M.; van der Vegt, N.F.A.; Strathmann, H.; Wessling, Matthias


    Sulfonated poly(aryl ether ether ketone), S-PEEK, is blended with non-sulfonated poly(ether sulfone) (PES) to adjust the properties of ion permeable and ion selective membranes. In this study, membranes are prepared from blends with (i) a S-PEEK content between 10 and 100 wt.% using one S-PEEK batch

  5. 4-Aminopyridinium-3-sulfonate monohydrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-Biao Zhu


    Full Text Available The reaction of 4-aminopyridine and oleum yielded the title hydrated zwitterion, C5H6N2O3S·H2O. There are two formula units in the asymmetric unit. The H and non-H atoms of both zwitterions lie on a mirror plane except for one sulfonate O atom. The water molecules are also situated on a mirror plane. In the crystal, the zwitterions and water molecules are linked by O—H...O and N—H...O hydrogen bonds, generating a three-dimensional network.

  6. Preparation of Sufonated Poly (ethylene-co-tetrafluoroethylene-graft-styrene Based Polymer Electrolyte Membranes for Fuel Cell by using Gamma Irradiation Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Suliwarno


    Full Text Available Poly (ethylene-co-tetrafluoroethylene-graft-styrene-sulfonate was successfully prepared by irradiation grafting of a styrene monomer into ethylenetetrafluoro-ethylene (ETFE films and followed by sulfonation of the graft chains. Five film sheets of ETFE which having a size of 3 cm  8 cm, thickness of 25 µm were packed in vacuum using a Y type tube filled with argon gas. The samples were irradiated using γ-rays with a dose of 15 kGy at 15 kGy/h. The iradiated samples were grafted by using styrene monomer at 60o C for 1, 3, 5, 7 and 9 h, respectively. The grafted samples (ETFE-g-St were washed with xylene to remove homopolymer of polystyrene, and then its degree of grafting (DG was determined. Sulfonation was carried out by using 0.2 M chlorosulfonic acid in dichloroethane solution at a water bath of 60oC for 6 h. Sulfonated samples (ETFE-g-St-SO3H were washed with water to neutralize its acidity, and dried in a vacuum drier at 40oC for 15 h. The dried sample was weighed as sulfonated sample in order to determine the degree of sulfonation (%DS. Membrane properties of EFTE-g-St-SO3H sample such as ion exchange capacity (IEC, proton conductivity in cross direction (σ1, and in-plane direction (σ11 were determined by using a HIOKI-3522 LCR HI tester. Durability test of samples were conducted in hot water and 3% H2O2 respectively.. The proton conductivity measurement and durability of the membrane were compared to Nafion 112® as standard. The experimental results showed that the degree of grafting was increased with time of reaction for copolymerization, while %DS gave excellent results with an average of 92.7%. The IEC value was more affected by the %DG as compared to that of %DS effect. The average of σl value of the sample was 0.055 S/cm, compared to σl of Nafion112® that was 0.066 S/cm. The average of ll of the sample was 0.18 S/cm, while the ll of Nafion 112® was = 0.36 S/cm. The sample of SA004 with 53.49% DG was more stable than

  7. Styrene polymerization in three-component cationic microemulsions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez-Luna, V.H.; Puig, J.E. (Universidad de Guadalajara (Mexico)); Castano, V.M. (Instituto de Fisica (Mexico)); Rodriguez, B.E.; Murthy, A.K.; Kaler, E.W. (Univ. of Delaware, Newark (USA))


    The polymerization of styrene in three-component dodecyltrimethylammonium bromide (DTAB) microemulsions is reported. The structure of the unpolymerized microemulsions, determined by conductimetry and quasielastic light scattering (QLS), is consistent with styrene-swollen micelles in equilibrium with regular micelles, both dispersed in an aqueous phase. Polymerization of these transparent microemulsions, monitored by QLS an dilatometry, produced stable, bluish monodisperse microlatices with particle radii ranging from 20 to 30 nm, depending on styrene content. Polymerization initiation appears to occur in the styrene-swollen micelles, and the polymer particles grow by recruiting monomer and surfactant from uninitiated droplets and small micelles.

  8. Hydrocarbon and partially fluorinated sulfonated copolymer blends as functional membranes for proton exchange membrane fuel cells (United States)

    Arnett, Natalie Y.; Harrison, William L.; Badami, Anand S.; Roy, Abhishek; Lane, Ozma; Cromer, Frank; Dong, Limin; McGrath, James E.

    Polymer blending is recognized as a valuable technique used to modify and improve the mechanical, thermal, and surface properties of two different polymers or copolymers. This paper investigated the solution properties and membrane properties of a biphenol-based disulfonated poly (arylene ether sulfone) random copolymer (BPS-35) with hexafluoroisopropylidene bisphenol based sulfonated poly (arylene ether sulfone) copolymers (6FSH) and an unsulfonated biphenol-based poly (arylene ether sulfone)s. The development of blended membranes with desirable surface characteristics, reduced water swelling and similar proton conductivity is presented. Polymer blends were prepared both in the sodium salt and acid forms from dimethylacetamide (DMAc). Water uptake, specific conductivity, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and contact angles were used to characterize the blended films. Surface enrichment of the fluorinated component is illustrated by an significant increase in the water-surface contact angle was observed when 10 wt.% 6FBPA-00 (106°) was added to BPS 35 (80°). Water weight gain was reduced by a factor of 2.

  9. Morphology and Phase Transitions in Styrene-Butadiene-Styrene Triblock Copolymer Grafted with Isobutyl Substituted Polyhedral Oligomeric Silsesquioxanes (Postprint)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Drazowski, Daniel B; Lee, Andre; Haddad, Timothy S


    Two symmetric triblock polystyrene-butadiene-polystyrene (SBS) copolymers with different styrene content were grafted with varying amounts of isobutyl-substituted polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (POSS) molecules...

  10. Styrene exposure during the manufacturing of reinforced fiberglass pipe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, K.E.


    Considering the large number of employees exposed to airborne styrene during the manufacturing of reinforced fiberglass pipe and the absence of appropriate information to define airborne styrene exposure and the resulting levels of urinary mandelic acid, it was necessary that these parameters be evaluated in an actual industrial setting in order to appropriately monitor and control health hazards in the work place. Styrene measurements were collected at eight work stations over a 5-year period at the world's largest manufacturer of styrenated reinforced fiberglass pipe. Pre- and post-shift urinary mandelic acid was measured for 16 employees for 3-consecutive days. The data obtained were statistically analyzed to determine the mean styrene exposure at each work station and the relationship between airborne styrene and pre-and post-shift urinary mandelic acid. The results of this study indicated that both the pre- and post-shift urinary mandelic acid measurements can be utilized to confirm human exposure to styrene. Post-shift measurements are more reflective of daily variations in styrene exposure, whereas pre-shift urinary mandelic acid was found to correlate best to the long-term airborne styrene concentrations (r = 0.787). The prediction equations of NIOSH and ACGIH for the arithmetic mean airborne styrene concentration from post-shift mandelic acid were not valid for the low levels of styrene exposure and urinary mandelic acid concentrations found in this study. Significant changes in the post-shift to pre-shift urinary mandelic acid concentrations were observed.

  11. Lipid-induced degradation in biocompatible poly(Styrene-Isobutylene-Styrene) (SIBS) thermoplastic elastomer. (United States)

    Fittipaldi, Mauro; Grace, Landon R


    The thermoplastic elastomer Poly(Styrene-block-Isobutylene-block-Styrene) (SIBS) is highly biocompatible, which has led to its use in several commercially-available implants. However, lipid-induced degradation has been previously identified as a primary cause of failure in long-term SIBS implants subject to mechanical loading. Thus, understanding the mechanisms and extent of lipid-induced damage and the role of styrene-isobutylene ratio and molecular weight is critical to improving longevity of SIBS-based implants in order to fully exploit the biocompatibility advantages. Samples of four different SIBS formulations were fabricated via compression molding, immersed to lipid saturation contents from 5 to 80% by weight, and tested in uniaxial tension, stress relaxation, and dynamic creep modes. Degradation mechanisms were investigated via infrared spectroscopy, chromatography, and microscopy. No evidence of lipid-induced chemical interactions or chain scissoring was observed. However, a decrease in tensile strength, loss of dynamic creep performance and faster relaxation with increasing lipid content is attributed to strong internal straining. The magnitude of these losses is inversely proportional to both molecular weight and styrene content, suggesting that selection of these variables during the design phase should be based not only on the mechanical requirements of the application, but the expected degree of lipid exposure. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. 40 CFR 721.10151 - Modified styrene, divinylbenzene polymer (generic). (United States)


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Modified styrene, divinylbenzene polymer (generic). 721.10151 Section 721.10151 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10151 Modified styrene, divinylbenzene polymer (generic). (a) Chemical...

  13. Otoacoustic emission sensitivity to exposure to styrene and noise. (United States)

    Sisto, R; Cerini, L; Gatto, M P; Gherardi, M; Gordiani, A; Sanjust, F; Paci, E; Tranfo, G; Moleti, A


    The ototoxic effect of the exposure to styrene is evaluated, also in the presence of simultaneous exposure to noise, using otoacoustic emissions as biomarkers of mild cochlear damage. Transient-evoked and distortion product otoacoustic emissions were recorded and analyzed in a sample of workers (15 subjects) exposed to styrene and noise in a fiberglass manufacturing facility and in a control group of 13 non-exposed subjects. Individual exposure monitoring of the airborne styrene concentrations was performed, as well as biological monitoring, based on the urinary concentration of two styrene metabolites, the Mandelic and Phenylglyoxylic acids. Noise exposure was evaluated using wearable phonometers, and hearing loss with pure tone audiometry. Due to their different job tasks, one group of workers was exposed to high noise and low styrene levels, another group to higher styrene levels, close to the limit of 20 ppm, and to low noise levels. A significant negative correlation was found between the otoacoustic emission levels and the concentration of the styrene urinary metabolites. Otoacoustic emissions, and particularly distortion products, were able to discriminate the exposed workers from the controls, providing also a rough estimate of the slope of the dose-response relation between otoacoustic levels and styrene exposure.

  14. Synthesis and antibacterial activities of cyclodimers of styrene oxides

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A simple synthetic procedure for preparation of 1,4-dioxanes or 1,3-dioxolanes from styrene oxides is described. Electron-donating groups on the aromatic ring of the styrene oxides were found to favour formation of 1,4-dioxanes while electron-withdrawing groups favoured formation of 1,3-dioxolanes. Antibacterial activities ...

  15. Antimalarial effects of vinyl sulfone cysteine proteinase inhibitors.


    Rosenthal, P J; Olson, J E; Lee, G K; Palmer, J T; Klaus, J L; Rasnick, D


    We evaluated the antimalarial effects of vinyl sulfone cysteine proteinase inhibitors. A number of vinyl sulfones strongly inhibited falcipain, a Plasmodium falciparum cysteine proteinase that is a critical hemoglobinase. In studies of cultured parasites, nanomolar concentrations of three vinyl sulfones inhibited parasite hemoglobin degradation, metabolic activity, and development. The antimalarial effects correlated with the inhibition of falcipain. Our results suggest that vinyl sulfones or...

  16. Chlorine resistant desalination membranes based on directly sulfonated poly(arylene ether sulfone) copolymers (United States)

    McGrath, James E [Blacksburg, VA; Park, Ho Bum [Austin, TX; Freeman, Benny D [Austin, TX


    The present invention provides a membrane, kit, and method of making a hydrophilic-hydrophobic random copolymer membrane. The hydrophilic-hydrophobic random copolymer membrane includes a hydrophilic-hydrophobic random copolymer. The hydrophilic-hydrophobic random copolymer includes one or more hydrophilic monomers having a sulfonated polyarylsulfone monomer and a second monomer and one or more hydrophobic monomers having a non-sulfonated third monomer and a fourth monomer. The sulfonated polyarylsulfone monomer introduces a sulfonate into the hydrophilic-hydrophobic random copolymer prior to polymerization.

  17. Enhancement of proton conductivity of sulfonated polystyrene ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Enhancement of proton conductivity of sulfonated polystyrene membrane prepared by plasma polymerization process. BHABESH KUMAR NATH, AZIZ KHAN, JOYANTI CHUTIA. ∗. , ARUP RATAN PAL,. HEREMBA BAILUNG, NEELOTPAL SEN SARMA, DEVASISH CHOWDHURY and NIRAB CHANDRA ADHIKARY.

  18. Sulfonated 1,3-bis(4-pyridylpropane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ore Kuyinu


    Full Text Available In the title compound, 4-[3-(3-sulfonatopyridin-1-ium-4-ylpropyl]pyridin-1-ium-3-sulfonate, C13H14N2O6S2, the molecule is zwitterionic, with the sulfonic acid proton transfered to the basic pyridine N atom. Also, the structure adopts a butterfly-like conformation with the sulfonate groups on opposite sides of the `wings'. The dihedral angle between the two pyridinium rings is 83.56 (7°, and this results in the molecule having a chiral conformation and packing. There is strong intermolecular hydrogen bonding between the pyridinium H and sulfonate O atoms of adjoining molecules. In addition, there are weaker intermolecular C—H...O interactions.

  19. Grafting of styrene onto polypropylene membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zen, Heloisa A.; Geraldes, Adriana N.; Parra, Duclerc F.; Lugao, Ademar B. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)], E-mail:


    The grafting of styrene onto polypropylene (PP) by simultaneous radiation was carried out. The effects of absorbed dose and the pos radiation period on the grafting yield were investigated. The experiment comprised PP films with 40{mu}m thickness exposed to gamma ionizing radiation at room temperature and nitrogen atmosphere. The films were immersed in styrene/toluene and then irradiated at total dose of 40, 80 and 100 kGy. After irradiation the samples were evaluated at periods of 0, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days at room temperature in order to observe the behavior of grafting degree. Structural, chemical changes and surface morphologies of the modified PP films were characterized by infrared spectroscopic analysis (FTIR), differential scanning calorimetry analysis (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and the degree of grafting (DOG) was gravimetrically determined. The simultaneous radiation indicated the dependency of the percent graft on the absorbed dose. The DOG values are higher when the film was submitted at 100 kGy dose. The thermal stability shows a decrease in the degradation temperature of the modified samples in comparison with the pure polymer. (author)

  20. 75 FR 9438 - Americas Styrenics, LLC-Marietta Plant a Subsidiary of Americas Styrenics, LLLC Formerly Known as... (United States)


    ... Americas Styrenics LLC, including on- site leased workers from Pioneer Pipe Co., Marietta, Ohio. The notice... Employment and Training Administration Americas Styrenics, LLC-Marietta Plant a Subsidiary of Americas... Pioneer Pipe Co.: Marietta, OH; Amended Certification Regarding Eligibility To Apply for Worker Adjustment...

  1. Biotrickling filtration of air-borne styrene: a comparison of filtration media. (United States)

    Chuang, Fu-Jen; Chou, Ming-Shean; Chang, Hsiao-Yu


    This study compares the performances of fern and plastic chips as packing media for the biofiltration of a styrene-laden waste gas stream emitted in a plant for the manufacture of plastic door plates. Fern chips (with a specific surface area of 1,090 m2 m-3) and plastic chips (with a specific surface area of 610 m2 m-3) were packed into a pilot-scale with a total media volume of 50 L for the performance test. Field waste gas with styrene concentrations in the range of 161-2390 mg Am-3 (@28-30oC) was introduced to the bed and a fixed EBRT (empty bed retention time) of 21 s, a volumetric gas flow rate of 8.57 m3 hr-1, and superficial gas velocity of 53.6 m hr-1 was maintained throughout the experimental period. Nutrients containing metal salts, nitrogen, phosphorus, and milk were supplemented to the filters for maintaining the microbial activities. Results reveal that the biotrickling filter developed in this study had the highest SM elimination capacities (170 g m-3 hr for fern-chip packing and 300 g m-3 hr-1 for plastic-chip packing) among those cited in the literature. The plastic medium is a favorable substitute for endangered fern chips. The thermal-setting nature of plastic chips limits their recycle and reuse as raw materials and the study provides an opportunity for the utilization of the materials. Biotreatment of contaminants in air streams offers an inexpensive and efficient alternative to conventional technologies. Biofiltration have a great potential for the degradation of gas-borne styrene . THC removal efficiency of around 80%. The objective of this research was to compare the performances of fern chips and a kind of plastic chips as packing media for biofiltration of the styrene-laden waste gas stream emitted from cutting operations of stripes of premixed unsaturated polyester (UP) and styrene paste before hot-pressing operations for making plastic door plates. From a practical point of view, the plastic media can be a good substitute

  2. Evaluation of urinary mercury excretion after administration of 2,3-dimercapto-1-propane sulfonic acid to occupationally exposed men. (United States)

    Torres-Alanís, O; Garza-Ocañas, L; Pineyro-Lopez, A


    The purpose of this study was to determine the clinical efficacy of 2,3-dimercapto-1-propane sulfonic acid, Na salt, on the urinary excretion of mercury as well as its possible adverse effects. Ten men with occupational mercury exposure (urinary level of 50 micrograms/g creatinine or more) were assigned to receive 2,3-dimercapto-1-propane sulfonic acid p.o. (DIMAVAL capsules, 100 mg) 300 mg/d for five days. Informed written consent was obtained from each subject. Hematology analyses, blood, chemistry, and urinalysis were obtained at the start of the study, at the end of the 2,3-dimercapto-1-propane sulfonic acid treatment and 72 hours after the administration of the final dose of 2,3-dimercapto-1-propane sulfonic acid. Twenty-four-hour urine mercury levels were closely monitored throughout therapy. All data and measurements before and during drug doses were evaluated by analyses of variance. In all subjects mean urine mercury was significantly increased (p propane sulfonic acid treatment. One subject had a moderate hypersensitivity reaction (rash) to 2,3-dimercapto-1-propane sulfonic acid but no other toxic effects were observed.

  3. Biocompatibility and characterization of polylactic acid/styrene-ethylene-butylene-styrene composites. (United States)

    Tsou, Chi-Hui; Kao, Bo-Jyue; Yang, Ming-Chien; Suen, Maw-Cherng; Lee, Yi-Hsuan; Chen, Jui-Chin; Yao, Wei-Hua; Lin, Shang-Ming; Tsou, Chih-Yuan; Huang, Shu-Hsien; De Guzman, Manuel; Hung, Wei-Song


    Polylactic acid (PLA)/styrene-ethylene-butylene-styrene (SEBS) composites were prepared by melt blending. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and wide angle X-ray diffraction (WXRD) were used to characterize PLA and PLA/SEBS composites in terms of their melting behavior and crystallization. Curves from thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) illustrated that thermostability increased with SEBS content. Further morphological analysis of PLA/SEBS composites revealed that SEBS molecules were not miscible with PLA molecules in PLA/SEBS composites. The tensile testing for PLA and PLA/SEBS composites showed that the elongation at the break was enhanced, but tensile strength decreased with increasing SEBS content. L929 fibroblast cells were chosen to assess the cytocompatibility; the cell growth of PLA was found to decrease with increasing SEBS content. This study proposes possible reasons for these properties of PLA/SEBS composites.

  4. Neurobehavioral effects of acute styrene exposure in fiberglass boatbuilders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Letz, R.; Mahoney, F.C.; Hershman, D.L.; Woskie, S.; Smith, T.J. (Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY (USA))


    A field investigation of the effects of acute exposure to styrene among fiberglass boatbuilders was performed. Personal samples of styrene in breathing zone air and postshift urinary mandelic acid were collected for 105 workers exposed and not exposed to styrene in 6 fiberglass boatbuilding companies in New England. Three tests from the computerized Neurobehavioral Evaluation System (NES) were performed by the subjects in the morning before exposure to styrene, near midday, and at the end of the work day. Duration of exposure averaged 2.9 years (SD = 4.6), 8-hour TWA styrene exposure averaged 29.9 ppm (SD = 36.2), and urinary mandelic acid averaged 347 mg/g creatinine (SD = 465). Regression analyses indicated a statistically significant relationship between postshift performance on the Symbol-Digit test and both acute styrene exposure and mandelic acid. Other analyses comparing workers exposed to less than 50 ppm and greater than 50 ppm styrene also showed a significant effect on Symbol-Digit performance. All three NES tests showed test-retest correlation coefficients above .80, and ease of use for collection of neurobehavioral data under field conditions was demonstrated.

  5. Sulfonation of vulcanized ethylene-propylene-diene terpolymer membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barroso-Bujans, F. [Instituto de Ciencia y Tecnologia de Polimeros, CSIC, Juan de la Cierva 3, 28006 Madrid (Spain)], E-mail:; Verdejo, R.; Lozano, A. [Instituto de Ciencia y Tecnologia de Polimeros, CSIC, Juan de la Cierva 3, 28006 Madrid (Spain); Fierro, J.L.G. [Instituto de Catalisis y Petroleoquimica, CSIC, Marie Curie 2, Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Lopez-Manchado, M.A. [Instituto de Ciencia y Tecnologia de Polimeros, CSIC, Juan de la Cierva 3, 28006 Madrid (Spain)


    In the present work, sulfonation of previously vulcanized ethylene propylene diene terpolymer (EPDM) membranes was developed in a swelling solvent with acetyl sulfate. This procedure avoids the need to pre-dissolve the raw polymer. The reaction conditions were optimized in terms of solvent type, reaction time, acetyl sulfate concentration and film thickness to obtain the maximum degree of sulfonation of the polymer. The sulfonation procedure presented in this study yields a degree of sulfonation comparable to the chlorosulfonic acid procedure. Sulfonic acid groups were detected by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and quantified by titrations. Proton conductivity and water uptake were measured by means of impedance spectroscopy and swelling measurements, respectively, and were correlated with the degree of sulfonation. Tensile strength and Young's modulus of sulfonated EPDM increased with the degree of sulfonation, while elongation at break remained constant. Thermal stability of the sulfonated EPDM was studied by simultaneous thermogravimetry-mass spectroscopy.

  6. Preliminary study of styrene grafting on polyethylene films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moraes, Gilberto de O.; Geraldes, Adriana N.; Zen, Heloisa A.; Parra, Duclerc F.; Lugao, Ademar B. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)], E-mail:


    Grafting of styrene on polyethylene was carried out as a preliminary study. The experiments covered a range from 5 to 20 kGy and intended to evaluate the absorbed dose that led to the best degree of grafting (DOG) under industrial dose rate. PE films 0,065 mm thick were exposed several times to radiation at room temperature and nitrogen atmosphere. The films were immersed in the solution content styrene/solvent then irradiated (5 to 20 kGy) dose. As an exploratory experiment, styrene grafting was gravimetrically evaluated and characterized by infrared spectroscopy (FTIR).The degree of grafting (DOG) was calculated. Concentrations of methanol/ Styrene at the rate of 80:20 were favorable at low dose of 10 kGy. In presence of acid, best result was achieved at 15 kGy in the range of 5 to 20 kGy. (author)

  7. Relation between colour vision loss and occupational styrene exposure level


    Gong, Y; Kishi, R.; Katakura, Y; Tsukishima, E; Fujiwara, K.; Kasai, S; Satoh, T.; Sata, F; Kawai, T.


    Aims: To investigate the relation between colour vision loss and the exposure level of styrene. Exposure level included the current exposure concentration, past cumulative exposure, and the maximum exposure level in the past.

  8. Dynamic response of acrylonitrile butadiene styrene under impact loading

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Owolabi, Gbadebo; Peterson, Alex; Habtour, Ed; Riddick, Jaret; Coatney, Michael; Olasumboye, Adewale; Bolling, Denzell


    ... rateloading.Tensile tests were conducted on 3-D printed acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) at differentstrain rates, according to the ASTM D638 standard, to assess its strain rate sensitivity under quasi-staticloads...

  9. Optimization of electrochemical and peroxide-driven oxidation of styrene with ultrathin polyion films containing cytochrome P450cam and myoglobin. (United States)

    Munge, Bernard; Estavillo, Carmelita; Schenkman, John B; Rusling, James F


    The catalytic and electrochemical properties of myoglobin and cytochrome P450(cam) in films constructed with alternate polyion layers were optimized with respect to film thickness, polyion type, and pH. Electrochemical and hydrogen peroxide driven epoxidation of styrene catalyzed by the proteins was used as the test reaction. Ionic synthetic organic polymers such as poly(styrene sulfonate), as opposed to SiO(2) nanoparticles or DNA, supported the best catalytic and electrochemical performance. Charge transport involving the iron heme proteins was achieved over 40-320 nm depending on the polyion material and is likely to involve electron hopping facilitated by extensive interlayer mixing. However, very thin films (ca. 12-25 nm) gave the largest turnover rates for the catalytic epoxidation of styrene, and thicker films were subject to reactant transport limitations. Classical bell-shaped activity/pH profiles and turnover rates similar to those obtained in solution suggest that films grown layer-by-layer are applicable to turnover rate studies of enzymes for organic oxidations. Major advantages include enhanced enzyme stability and the tiny amount of protein required.

  10. Styrene-Associated Health Outcomes at a Windblade Manufacturing Plant (United States)

    McCague, Anna-Binney; Cox-Ganser, Jean M.; Harney, Joshua M.; Alwis, K. Udeni; Blount, Benjamin C.; Cummings, Kristin J.; Edwards, Nicole; Kreiss, Kathleen


    Background Health risks of using styrene to manufacture windblades for the green energy sector are unknown. Methods Using data collected from 355 (73%) current windblade workers and regression analysis, we investigated associations between health outcomes and styrene exposure estimates derived from urinary styrene metabolites. Results The median current styrene exposure was 53.6 mg/g creatinine (interquartile range: 19.5–94.4). Color blindness in men and women (standardized morbidity ratios 2.3 and 16.6, respectively) was not associated with exposure estimates, but was the type previously reported with styrene. Visual contrast sensitivity decreased and chest tightness increased (odds ratio 2.9) with increasing current exposure. Decreases in spirometric parameters and FeNO, and increases in the odds of wheeze and asthma-like symptoms (odds ratios 1.3 and 1.2, respectively) occurred with increasing cumulative exposure. Conclusions Despite styrene exposures below the recommended 400 mg/g creatinine, visual and respiratory effects indicate the need for additional preventative measures in this industry. PMID:26305283

  11. Anaerobic degradation of linear alkylbenzene sulfonate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Anders Skibsted; Haagensen, Frank; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær


    Linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS) found in wastewater is removed in the wastewater treatment facilities by sorption and aerobic biodegradation. The anaerobic digestion of sewage sludge has not been shown to contribute to the removal. The concentration of LAS based on dry matter typically...... increases during anaerobic stabilization due to transformation of easily degradable organic matter. Hence, LAS is regarded as resistant to biodegradation under anaerobic conditions. We present data from a lab-scale semi-continuously stirred tank reactor (CSTR) spiked with linear dodecylbenzene sulfonate (C...

  12. Toxicity of the components of styrene polymers: polystyrene, acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS) and styrene-butadiene-rubber (SBR). Reactants and additives. (United States)

    Fishbein, L


    The toxicity of the components of styrene polymers, e.g., polystyrene, ABS and SBR, were reviewed with primary focus on the reactive monomers (except styrene) (e.g., acrylonitrile, butadiene) as well as on impurities and solvents such as benzene, hexane and methylethyl ketone, and additives such as phenyl-2-naphthylamine, di-n-butyl phthalate, and a number of peroxide initiators and flame retardants (e.g., 2,3-dibromopropanol, decadibromodiphenyl oxide and antimony trioxide). It is stressed that toxicity data are generally lacking for the majority of additives employed in the production of styrene polymers. Information is also lacking as to the numbers of individuals at potential risk and the extent of their exposure to the large number of additives employed.

  13. An investigation of proton conductivity of binary matrices sulfonated ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    SPSU) and polyvinyl triazole were studied as binary matrices. The sulfonation of polysulfone was performed with trimethylsilylchlorosulfonate and high degree of sulfonation (140%) was obtained. Ion exchange capacity of SPSU was determined ...

  14. An investigation of proton conductivity of binary matrices sulfonated ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The polymer electrolyte membranes were prepared by blending of sulfonated polysulfone with polyvinyl triazole and phosphoric acid. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy confirmed the sulfonation of the polysulfone and the ionic interaction between sulfonic acid and triazole units. Thermogravimetric analysis showed ...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. T. Justino

    Full Text Available Abstract The high octane number of pyrolysis gasoline (PYGAS explains its insertion in the gasoline pool. However, its use is troublesome due to the presence of gum-forming chemicals which, in turn, can be removed via hydrogenation. The use of Langmuir-Hinshelwood kinetic models was evaluated for hydrogenation of styrene, a typical gum monomer, using Pd/9%Nb2O5-Al2O3 as catalyst. Kinetic models accounting for hydrogen dissociative and non-dissociative adsorption were considered. The availability of one or two kinds of catalytic sites was analyzed. Experiments were carried out in a semi-batch reactor at constant temperature and pressure in the absence of transport limitations. The conditions used in each experiment varied between 16 - 56 bar and 60 - 100 ºC for pressure and temperature, respectively. The kinetic models were evaluated using MATLAB and EMSO software. Models using adsorption of hydrogen and organic molecules on the same type of site fitted the data best.

  16. Sulfonated graphenes catalyzed synthesis of expanded porphyrins ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A newer synthesis of sulfonic acid functionalized graphenes have been developed, which have been characterized, examined as heterogeneous solid acid carbocatalyst in the synthesis of selected expanded porphyrins in different reaction conditions. This environment-friendly catalyst avoids the use of toxic catalysts and ...

  17. Sulfonated graphenes catalyzed synthesis of expanded porphyrins ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. A newer synthesis of sulfonic acid functionalized graphenes have been developed, which have been characterized, examined as heterogeneous solid acid carbocatalyst in the synthesis of selected expanded porphyrins in different reaction conditions. This environment-friendly catalyst avoids the use of toxic ...

  18. Enhancement of proton conductivity of sulfonated polystyrene ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... water uptake, sulfonation rate, ion exchange capacity and thermal behaviour. The proton conductivity of the membranes is achieved up to 0.6 Scm-1, measured with the help of potentiostat/galvanostat. The thermogravimetric study of the plasma polymerized membrane shows the thermal stability up to 140 °C temperature.

  19. [Styrene migration into wine contained in polyester resin tanks]. (United States)

    Giffone, M; Brun, S


    The use of polyester resins in wine tanks manufacture or coating has widely spread during the past five years; this type of material has been and is still the source of organoleptic damage due to non polymerized sytrene migration into urine. Sytrene is a solvant often used in resin polymerization: it act as a reticulation agent of insaturated linear polyester. Polymerization at room temperature is allowed gy additives but has to be completed in warm air or in steam. An excess of styrene is often used for a polymerisation as complete as possible and remains on a free form. Then it migrates from the tank walls into the wine. For a better understanding of the styrene migration mechanism studies were performed on two levels: from small containers (4 l) kept in the laboratory and from tanks (30 hl) set up in an I.N.R.A. wine estate in all conditions usually realized in practice. Influence of time, temperature and alcohol content were studied. Styrene migration was interpreted as a diffusion phenomenom and styrene diffusion coefficients were calculated for several temperatures. Knowledge of these coefficients and of styrene content of the tank walls allow the prediction of a tank behaviour in time. Other substances that styrene were detected in wine and in tank walls, they are impurities either from resins like ethylbenzene, or from the catalyst like mesityl oxide. The lattest has never been mentioned in the litterature. From the results obtained it is possible to give some advices to manufacturers and users of polyester resin tanks, about the quality of raw materials, resins and additives along with the conditions carried and for their use and about the control of monomer styrene content in the walls of just manufactured tank.

  20. Functionalized Nanochannels from Self-Assembled and Photomodified Poly(Styrene-b-Butadiene-b-Styrene). (United States)

    Sutisna, Burhannudin; Polymeropoulos, George; Musteata, Valentina; Sougrat, Rachid; Smilgies, Detlef-M; Peinemann, Klaus-Viktor; Hadjichristidis, Nikolaos; Nunes, Suzana P


    Membranes are prepared by self-assembly and casting of 5 and 13 wt% poly(styrene-b-butadiene-b-styrene) (PS-b-PB-b-PS) copolymers solutions in different solvents, followed by immersion in water or ethanol. By controlling the solution-casting gap, porous films of 50 and 1 µm thickness are obtained. A gradient of increasing pore size is generated as the distance from the surface increased. An ordered porous surface layer with continuous nanochannels can be observed. Its formation is investigated, by using time-resolved grazing incident small angle X-ray scattering, electron microscopy, and rheology, suggesting a strong effect of the air-solution interface on the morphology formation. The thin PS-b-PB-b-PS ordered films are modified, by promoting the photolytic addition of thioglycolic acid to the polybutadiene groups, adding chemical functionality and specific transport characteristics on the preformed nanochannels, without sacrificing the membrane morphology. Photomodification increases fivefold the water permeance to around 2 L m(-2) h(-1) bar(-1) , compared to that of the unmodified one. A rejection of 74% is measured for methyl orange in water. The membranes fabrication with tailored nanochannels and chemical functionalities can be demonstrated using relatively lower cost block copolymers. Casting on porous polyacrylonitrile supports makes the membranes even more scalable and competitive in large scale. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Studies on the Electrical Properties of Graphene Oxide-Reinforced Poly (4-Styrene Sulfonic Acid) and Polyvinyl Alcohol Blend Composites (United States)

    Deshmukh, Kalim; Sankaran, Sowmya; Basheer Ahamed, M.; Khadheer Pasha, S. K.; Sadasivuni, Kishor Kumar; Ponnamma, Deepalekshmi; Al-Ali Almaadeed, Mariam; Chidambaram, K.

    In the present study, graphene oxide (GO)-reinforced poly (4-styrenesulfonic acid) (PSSA)/polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) blend composite films were prepared using colloidal blending technique at various concentrations of GO (0-3wt.%). The morphological investigations of the prepared composites were carried out using polarized optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The electrical properties of composites were evaluated using an impedance analyzer in the frequency range 50Hz to 20MHz and temperature in the range 40-150∘C. Morphological studies infer that GO was homogeneously dispersed in the PSSA/PVA blend matrix. Investigations of electrical property indicate that the incorporation of GO into PSSA/PVA blend matrix resulted in the enhancement of the impedance (Z) and the quality factor (Q-factor) values. A maximum impedance of about 4.32×106Ω was observed at 50Hz and 90∘C for PSSA/PVA/GO composites with 3wt.% GO loading. The Q-factor also increased from 8.37 for PSSA/PVA blend to 59.8 for PSSA/PVA/GO composites with 3wt.% GO loading. These results indicate that PSSA/PVA/GO composites can be used for high-Q capacitor applications.

  2. INNER SALTS (United States)

    been characterized include: (1) mesomeric phosphonium salts possessing phototropic properties; (2) pentavalent phosphorus compounds; and (3) a...Products that have been characterized include: (1) mesomeric phosphonium salts possessing phototropic properties; (2) pentavalent phosphorus compounds; and (3) a mesomeric inner salt . (Author)...Novel phosphonium and phosphorane compounds ere prepared by a variety of m hods from triphenylphosphine and methylene bromide. Products that have

  3. New styrene-b-isobutylene-b-styrene (SIBS) glaucoma drainage implant (United States)

    Orozco, Marcia A.; Acosta, Ana C.; Espana, Edgar M.; Pinchuk, Leonard; Weber, Bruce; Davis, Stewart; Arrieta, Esdras; Dubovy, Sander; Fantes, Francisco; Aly, Mohamed; Zhou, Yonghua; Parel, Jean-Marie


    Purpose: To design and test the Miami-InnFocus Drainage Implant (MiDi) as a glaucoma shunt that is biocompatible, flexible, and significantly smaller than existing commercial implants in order to prevent postoperative hypotony, inflammation, scarring, erosion, and extrusion. Methods: A new biomaterial composed of styrene-b-isobutylene-b-styrene (SIBS) was used in a novel design for a glaucoma drainage implant. The implant consists of a tube 11mm long with an inner diameter of 70, 100, and 150 μm and outer diameter of 250 μm with a 1mm2 tab located 4.5mm from the proximal tip to prevent migration. The device was implanted in 15 New Zealand White rabbits for biocompatibility and efficacy testing. A similarly designed implant made of polydimethylsiloxane was implanted in 6 other animals as a pseudo-control. Typical GDI implantation technique was modified for this device. The proximal end of the new SIBS implant was inserted 2mm into the anterior chamber and the distal end placed in a subconjunctival space created by the surgeon. Biocompatibility of the device was studied by slit-lamp follow-up and intraocular pressure (IOP) measurements recorded periodically. Results: Biocompatibility of the MiDi was excellent. A low and diffuse bleb was observed with these devices. All SIBS tubes were patent 9 months after insertion. Immunostaining demonstrated non-continuous deposition of collagen with virtually no encapsulation. No macrophages or myofibroblast were visible around the SIBS polymer which was found more bioinert than the control PDMS. Conclusion: This newly designed glaucoma implant is clinically biocompatible in the rabbit model and maintained 100% patency at 9 months.

  4. Conceptual process design of extractive distillation processes for ethylbenzene/styrene separation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongmans, Mark; Hermens, E.; Raijmakers, M.; Maassen, J.I.W.; Schuur, Boelo; de Haan, A.B.


    In the current styrene production process the distillation of the close-boiling ethylbenzene/styrene mixture to obtain an ethylbenzene impurity level of 100 ppm in styrene accounts for 75–80% of the energy requirements. The future target is to reach a level of 1–10 ppm, which will increase the

  5. 78 FR 20032 - Styrene-Ethylene-Propylene Block Copolymer; Tolerance Exemption (United States)


    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 180 Styrene-Ethylene-Propylene Block Copolymer; Tolerance Exemption AGENCY... from the requirement of a tolerance for residues of styrene-ethylene-propylene block copolymer (CAS Reg... permissible level for residues of styrene-ethylene-propylene block copolymer on food or feed commodities...

  6. Controlled Functionalization of Olefin/styrene Copolymers through Free Radical Processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Passaglia, Elisa; Aglietto, Mauro; Ciardelli, Francesco; Picchioni, Francesco


    The functionalization of styrene-b-(ethylene-co-1-butene)-b-styrene triblock copolymer (SEBS) and styrene-co-butadiene (SBR) random copolymer by free radical processes is presented. SEBS was functionalized in the melt with diethyl maleate (DEM) and dicumyl peroxide (DCP) as initiator. The

  7. Side chain alkylation of toluene with methanol over basic zeolites - novel production route towards styrene?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rep, M.; Rep, M.


    Styrene is an important monomer for the production of different types of (co-) polymers that are used in, e.g., toys, medical devices, food packaging, paper coatings etc. Styrene is produced with several different industrial processes. In 1998, the production of styrene monomer was approximately 21

  8. 40 CFR 721.9492 - Polymers of styrene, cyclohexyl methacrylate and substituted methacrylate. (United States)


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Polymers of styrene, cyclohexyl... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9492 Polymers of styrene, cyclohexyl methacrylate...) The chemical substances identified generically as polymers of styrene, cyclohexyl methacrylate and...

  9. 21 CFR 177.1040 - Acrylonitrile/styrene copoly-mer. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Acrylonitrile/styrene copoly-mer. 177.1040 Section... Basic Components of Single and Repeated Use Food Contact Surfaces § 177.1040 Acrylonitrile/styrene copoly-mer. Acrylonitrile/styrene copolymers identified in this section may be safely used as a component...

  10. In vitro evolution of styrene monooxygenase from Pseudomonas putida CA-3 for improved epoxide synthesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gursky, Lucas J.; Nikodinovic-Runic, Jasmina; Feenstra, K Anton; O'Connor, Kevin E.


    The styAB genes from Pseudomonas putida CA-3, which encode styrene monooxygenase, were subjected to three rounds of in vitro evolution using error-prone polymerase chain reaction with a view to improving the rate of styrene oxide and indene oxide formation. Improvements in styrene monooxygenase

  11. Sulfonate groups grafted on Ti6Al4V favor MC3T3-E1 cell performance in serum free medium conditions. (United States)

    Felgueiras, Helena; Migonney, Véronique


    Ten years ago, we synthesized "bioactive model polymers" bearing sulfonate groups and proposed a mechanism of their modulation effect at different steps of the cell response. Then, we set up the grafting of polymers bearing sulfonate on Ti6Al4V surfaces by a grafting "from" technique making sure of the creation of covalent bonds between the grafted polymer and the Ti6Al4V surface. We have checked and confirmed the positive effect of grafted sulfonate groups on the osteoblastic cell response in vivo and in vitro but we did not elucidate the mechanism. The aim of this basic work consists first in investigating the role of sulfonate groups in the presence and in the absence of proteins at early stages of the osteointegration process on poly(sodium styrene sulfonate) poly(NaSS) grafted and ungrafted Ti6Al4V surfaces, in vitro. To understand the role of poly(NaSS) grafted chains on osteoblast-like cell response and to confirm/elucidate the importance of fetal bovine serum (FBS) proteins in the culture medium, MC3T3-E1 cells were seeded onto poly(NaSS) grafted and non-grafted Ti6Al4V surfaces. Cultures were carried out in a complete (10% FBS) and in a non-complete medium (without FBS). Cell viability assay, cell attachment number and cell adhesion strength were followed up to 3days of culture. The presence of proteins enhanced cell growth and development whatever the surface and the presence of sulfonate groups enhanced the cell attachment even in the absence of proteins, which suggests and confirms that the sulfonate groups can modify the activity of cells such as the secretion of binding proteins. Statistical differences were found in the attachment strength tests on poly(NaSS) grafted and ungrafted surfaces and showed that the sulfonate groups play an important role in the cell resistance to shear stress. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Simultaneous production of biobased styrene and acrylates using ethenolysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spekreijse, J.; Notre, le J.E.L.; Haveren, van J.; Scott, E.L.; Sanders, J.P.M.


    Phenylalanine (1), which could be potentially obtained from biofuel waste streams, is a precursor of cinnamic acid (2) that can be converted into two bulk chemicals, styrene (3) and acrylic acid (4), via an atom efficient pathway. With 5 mol% of Hoveyda–Grubbs 2nd generation catalyst, 1 bar of

  13. Graft copolymerization and characterization of styrene with chitosan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, styrene was successfully grafted onto chitosan by conventional free radical polymerization technique, using potassium persulphate (KPS) as the initiator. The effect of various reaction conditions including chitosan:monomer weight ratio, polymerization temperature, reaction time and concentration of initiator ...

  14. Terpolymerization of 2-ethoxy ethylmethacrylate, styrene and maleic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Terpolymerization of 2-ethoxyethyl methacrylate (2-EOEMA), styrene (St) and maleic anhydride (Ma) initiated by benzoyl peroxide was carried out in acetone as common solvent for three monomers. The structure and composition of terpolymer were determined by FTIR spectroscopy by recording analytical absorption bands ...

  15. Detection, quantifications and pharmacokinetics of toltrazuril sulfone (Ponazuril) in cattle. (United States)

    Dirikolu, L; Yohn, R; Garrett, E F; Chakkath, T; Ferguson, D C


    Toltrazuril sulfone (Ponazuril) is a triazine-based anti-protozoal agent with highly specific actions against apicomplexan group of organisms, which are undergoing intensive investigation. Toltrazuril sulfone may have clinical application in the treatment of Neospora. caninum and other protozoal infections in cattle. To evaluate absorption, distribution, and elimination characteristics of toltrazuril sulfone in cattle, a sensitive validated quantitative high-pressure liquid chromatography method for toltrazuril sulfone in bovine biological fluids was developed. After a single oral dose of toltrazuril sulfone at 5 mg/kg (as 150 mg/g of Marquis; Bayer HealthCare, Shawnee Mission, KS, USA), samples from six cows showed good plasma concentrations of toltrazuril sulfone, which peaked at 4821 ng/mL +/- 916 (SD) at 48 h postadministration. Thereafter, plasma concentration declined to 1950 ng/mL +/- 184 (SD) at 192 h after administration with an average plasma elimination half-life of approximately 58 h. Following oral dose of toltrazuril sulfone, the observed peak plasma concentrations were in relatively close agreement ranging from the lowest 3925 ng/mL to the highest of 6285 ng/mL with the mean peak plasma concentration being 4821 ng/mL. This study shows that toltrazuril sulfone is relatively well absorbed after oral dose in cattle. These results are therefore entirely consistent with and support the reported clinical efficacy of toltrazuril sulfone in the treatment of experimentally induced clinical cases of N. caninum and other protozoal-mediated bovine diseases.

  16. Occupational Styrene Exposure on Auditory Function Among Adults: A Systematic Review of Selected Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francis T. Pleban


    Full Text Available A review study was conducted to examine the adverse effects of styrene, styrene mixtures, or styrene and/or styrene mixtures and noise on the auditory system in humans employed in occupational settings. The search included peer-reviewed articles published in English language involving human volunteers spanning a 25-year period (1990–2015. Studies included peer review journals, case–control studies, and case reports. Animal studies were excluded. An initial search identified 40 studies. After screening for inclusion, 13 studies were retrieved for full journal detail examination and review. As a whole, the results range from no to mild associations between styrene exposure and auditory dysfunction, noting relatively small sample sizes. However, four studies investigating styrene with other organic solvent mixtures and noise suggested combined exposures to both styrene organic solvent mixtures may be more ototoxic than exposure to noise alone. There is little literature examining the effect of styrene on auditory functioning in humans. Nonetheless, findings suggest public health professionals and policy makers should be made aware of the future research needs pertaining to hearing impairment and ototoxicity from styrene. It is recommended that chronic styrene-exposed individuals be routinely evaluated with a comprehensive audiological test battery to detect early signs of auditory dysfunction. Keywords: auditory system, human exposure, ototoxicity, styrene

  17. Survey of volatile substances in kitchen utensils made from acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene and acrylonitrile-styrene resin in Japan. (United States)

    Abe, Yutaka; Yamaguchi, Miku; Mutsuga, Motoh; Kawamura, Yoko; Akiyama, Hiroshi


    Residual levels of 14 volatile substances, including 1,3-butadiene, acrylonitrile, benzene, ethylbenzene, and styrene, in 30 kitchen utensils made from acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene resin (ABS) and acrylonitrile-styrene resin (AS) such as slicers, picks, cups, and lunch boxes in Japan were simultaneously determined using headspace gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy (HS-GC/MS). The maximum residual levels in the ABS and AS samples were found to be 2000 and 2800 μg/g of styrene, respectively. The residual levels of 1,3-butadiene ranged from 0.06 to 1.7 μg/g in ABS, and three of 15 ABS samples exceeded the regulatory limit for this compound as established by the European Union (EU). The residual levels of acrylonitrile ranged from 0.15 to 20 μg/g in ABS and from 19 to 180 μg/g in AS. The levels of this substance in seven ABS and six AS samples exceeded the limit set by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Furthermore, the levels of acrylonitrile in three AS samples exceeded the voluntary standard established by Japanese industries. These results clearly indicate that the residual levels of some volatile compounds are still high in ABS and AS kitchen utensils and further observations are needed.

  18. Morphology-properties relationship on nanocomposite films based on poly(styrene-block-diene-block-styrene copolymers and silver nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)


    Full Text Available A comparative study on the self-assembled nanostructured morphology and the rheological and mechanical properties of four different triblock copolymers, based on poly(styrene-block-diene-block-styrene and poly(styrene-block-diene-block-styrene matrices, and of their respective nanocomposites with 1 wt% silver nanoparticles, is reported in this work. In order to obtain well-dispersed nanoparticles in the block copolymer matrix, dodecanethiol was used as surfactant, showing good affinity with both nanoparticles and the polystyrene phase of the matrices as predicted by the solubility parameters calculated based on Hoftyzer and Van Krevelen theory. The block copolymer with the highest PS content shows the highest tensile modulus and tensile strength, but also the smallest elongation at break. When silver nanoparticles treated with surfactant were added to the block copolymer matrices, each system studied shows higher mechanical properties due to the good dispersion and the good interface of Ag nanoparticles in the matrices. Furthermore, it has been shown that semiempirical models such as Guth and Gold equation and Halpin-Tsai model can be used to predict the tensile modulus of the analyzed nanocomposites.

  19. Survey of volatile substances in kitchen utensils made from acrylonitrile–butadiene–styrene and acrylonitrile–styrene resin in Japan (United States)

    Abe, Yutaka; Yamaguchi, Miku; Mutsuga, Motoh; Kawamura, Yoko; Akiyama, Hiroshi


    Residual levels of 14 volatile substances, including 1,3-butadiene, acrylonitrile, benzene, ethylbenzene, and styrene, in 30 kitchen utensils made from acrylonitrile–butadiene–styrene resin (ABS) and acrylonitrile–styrene resin (AS) such as slicers, picks, cups, and lunch boxes in Japan were simultaneously determined using headspace gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy (HS-GC/MS). The maximum residual levels in the ABS and AS samples were found to be 2000 and 2800 μg/g of styrene, respectively. The residual levels of 1,3-butadiene ranged from 0.06 to 1.7 μg/g in ABS, and three of 15 ABS samples exceeded the regulatory limit for this compound as established by the European Union (EU). The residual levels of acrylonitrile ranged from 0.15 to 20 μg/g in ABS and from 19 to 180 μg/g in AS. The levels of this substance in seven ABS and six AS samples exceeded the limit set by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Furthermore, the levels of acrylonitrile in three AS samples exceeded the voluntary standard established by Japanese industries. These results clearly indicate that the residual levels of some volatile compounds are still high in ABS and AS kitchen utensils and further observations are needed. PMID:24936293

  20. Partially Fluorinated Sulfonated Poly(ether amide Fuel Cell Membranes: Influence of Chemical Structure on Membrane Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chulsung Bae


    Full Text Available A series of fluorinated sulfonated poly (ether amides (SPAs were synthesized for proton exchange membrane fuel cell applications. A polycondensation reaction of 4,4’-oxydianiline, 2-sulfoterephthalic acid monosodium salt, and tetrafluorophenylene dicarboxylic acids (terephthalic and isophthalic or fluoroaliphatic dicarboxylic acids produced SPAs with sulfonation degrees of 80–90%. Controlling the feed ratio of the sulfonated and unsulfonated dicarboxylic acid monomers afforded random SPAs with ion exchange capacities between 1.7 and 2.2 meq/g and good solubility in polar aprotic solvents. Their structures were characterized using NMR and FT IR spectroscopies. Tough, flexible, and transparent films were obtained with dimethylsulfoxide using a solution casting method. Most SPA membranes with 90% sulfonation degree showed high proton conductivity (>100 mS/cm at 80 °C and 100% relative humidity. Among them, two outstanding ionomers (ODA-STA-TPA-90 and ODA-STA-IPA-90 showed proton conductivity comparable to that of Nafion 117 between 40 and 80 °C. The influence of chemical structure on the membrane properties was systematically investigated by comparing the fluorinated polymers to their hydrogenated counterparts. The results suggest that the incorporation of fluorinated moieties in the polymer backbone of the membrane reduces water absorption. High molecular weight and the resulting physical entanglement of the polymers chains played a more important role in improving stability in water, however.

  1. Thermal and Dielectric Behavior Studies of Poly(Arylene Ether Sulfones with Sulfonated and Phosphonated Pendants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shimoga D. Ganesh


    Full Text Available The present paper discusses the aspects of the synthesizing valeric acid based poly(ether sulfones with active carboxylic acid pendants (VALPSU from solution polymerization technique via nucleophilic displacement polycondensation reaction among 4,4′-dichlorodiphenyl sulfone (DCDPS and 4,4′-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl valeric acid (BHPA. The conditions necessary to synthesize and purify the polymer were investigated in some detail. The synthesized poly(ether sulfones comprise sulfone and ether linkages in addition to reactive carboxylic acid functionality; these active carboxylic acid functional groups were exploited to hold the phenyl sulphonic acid and phenyl phosphonic acid pendants. The phenyl sulphonic acid pendants in VALPSU were easily constructed by altering active carboxylic acid moieties by sulfanilic acid using N,N′-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide (DCC mediated mild synthetic route, whereas the latter one was built in two steps. Initially, polyphosphoric acid condensation with VALPSU by 4-bromoaniline and next straightforward palladium catalyzed synthetic route, in both of which acidic pendants are clenched by polymer backbone via amide linkage. Without impairing the primary polymeric backbone modified polymers were prepared by varying the stoichiometric ratios of respective combinations. All the polymers were physicochemically characterized and pressed into tablets; electrical contacts were established to study the dielectric properties. Finally, the influence of the acidic pendants on the dielectric properties was examined.

  2. Synthesis and characterization of sulfonated poly(ether sulfone) copolymer membranes for fuel cell applications (United States)

    Krishnan, N. N.; Kim, H.-J.; Prasanna, M.; Cho, E.; Shin, E.-M.; Lee, S.-Y.; Oh, I.-H.; Hong, S.-A.; Lim, T.-H.

    Sulfonated poly(ether sulfone) copolymers (PESs) are synthesized using hydroquinone 2-potassium sulfonate (HPS) with other monomers (bisphenol A and 4-fluorophenyl sulfone). A series of PESs with different mol% of hydrophilic group is prepared by changing the mole ratio of HPS in the polymerization reaction. The chemical structure and thermal stability of the polymers are characterized by using 1H NMR, FT-IR and TGA techniques. The PES 60 membrane, which has 60 mol% of HPS unit in the polymer backbone, has a proton conductivity of 0.091 S cm -1 and good insolubility in boiling water. The TGA showed that PES 60 is stable up to 272 °C with a char yield of about 29% at 900 °C under a nitrogen atmosphere. To investigate single-cell performance, a catalyst-coated PES 60 membrane is used together with hydrogen and oxygen as the fuel and the oxidant, respectively. Cell performance is enhanced by increasing the temperature. A current density of 1400 mA cm -2 at 0.60 V is obtained at 70 °C.

  3. Removal of styrene from waste gas stream using a biofilter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Bina


    Full Text Available Background: Styrene is produced in large quantities in the chemical industries and it has been listed among the 189 hazardous and toxic atmospheric contaminants under Clean Air Act Amendments, 1990, due to its adverse effects on human health. The biofiltration has been widely and efficiently applied during recent decades for the treatment of air streams contaminated by volatile organic compounds at low concentrations. Also this technology has been applied widely and efficiently in the removal of styrene from waste gas streams. Methods: Biofiltration of waste gas stream polluted by styrene vapor was investigated in a three-stage bench scale reactor. Yard waste compost using shredded hard plastics as a bulking agent in a 75:25 v/v mix of plastics:compost was used to packing biofilter. The system inoculation was achieved by adding thickened activated sludge obtained from municipal wastewater treatment plant and the effects of loading rate, inlet concentration, and empty bed retention time variations on the performance and operation of biofilter were studied. Results: Microbial acclimation to styrene was achieved with inlet concentration of 65 ± 11 ppm and bed contact time of 360 s after 57 days of operation. Under steady state conditions experimental results showed equal average removal efficiency of about 84% at loading rates of 60 and 80 g m-3 h-1 with empty bed retention time of 60 s. Maximum elimination capacity was obtained up to 81 g m-3 h-1 with organic loading rate of about 120 g m-3 h-1. Reduction in performance was observed at inlet concentrations of upper than 650 ppm related to organic loading rates up to 160 g m-3 h-1 and then removal efficiency was decreased sharply. Evaluation of the concentration profile along the bed height of column indicated that the most value of elimination capacity occurred in the first section of biofilter. Elimination capacity also showed higher performance when empty bed retention time was reduced to 30 s

  4. Production and Application of Lignosulfonates and Sulfonated Lignin. (United States)

    Aro, Thomas; Fatehi, Pedram


    Lignin is the largest reservoir of aromatic compounds on earth and has great potential to be used in many industrial applications. Alternative methods to produce lignosulfonates from spent sulfite pulping liquors and kraft lignin from black liquor of kraft pulping process are critically reviewed herein. Furthermore, options to increase the sulfonate contents of lignin-based products are outlined and the industrial attractiveness of them is evaluated. This evaluation includes sulfonation and sulfomethylation of lignin. To increase the sulfomethylation efficiency of lignin, various scenarios, including hydrolysis, oxidation, and hydroxymethylation, were compared. The application of sulfonated lignin-based products is assessed and the impact of the properties of these products on the characteristics of their end-use application is critically evaluated. Sulfonated lignin-based products have been used as dispersants in cement admixtures and dye solutions more than other applications, and their molecular weight and degree of sulfonation were crucial in determining their efficiency. The use of lignin-based sulfonated products in composites may result in an increase in the hydrophilicity of some composites, but the sulfonated products may need to be desulfonated with an alkali and/or oxygen prior to their use in composites. To be used as a flocculant, sulfonated lignin-based products may need to be cross-linked to increase their molecular weight. The challenges associated with the use of lignin-based products in these applications are comprehensively discussed herein. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Preparation and Characterization of Sulfonated Poly (ether ether ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Proton-conducting membranes of organic–inorganic (sulfonated poly (ether ether ketone)/phosphated zirconia nanoparticles) composite were prepared by incorporating various ratios of phosphated zirconia nanoparticles (ZP) in sulfonated poly (ether ether ketone) (SPEEK). SPEEK/ZP showed an improvement of ...

  6. Crystallization analysis fractionation of poly(ethylene-co-styrene) produced by metallocene catalysts

    KAUST Repository

    Kamal, Muhammad Shahzad


    Ethylene homo polymer and ethylene-styrene copolymers were synthesized using Cp2ZrCl2 (1)/methyl aluminoxane (MAO) and rac-silylene-bis (indenyl) zirconium dichloride (2)/MAO catalyst systems by varying styrene concentration and reaction conditions. Crystallization analysis fractionation (CRYSTAF), DSC, FTIR and 1H NMR spectroscopy were used for characterizing the synthesized polymers. Interestingly, styrene was able to increase the activity of 1/MAO and 2/MAO catalyst systems at low concentrations, but at higher concentrations the activity decreases. The 1/MAO system at low and high pressure was unable to incorporate styrene, and the final product was pure polyethylene. On the other hand, with 2/MAO polymerization of ethylene and styrene yielded copolymer containing both styrene and ethylene. Results obtained from CRYSTAF and DSC reveal that on using 1/MAO system at high pressure, the resulting polymer in the presence of styrene has similar crystallinity as the polymer produced without styrene. Using both 1/MAO at low pressure and 2/MAO leads to decrease in crystallinity with increase in styrene concentration, even though the former does not incorporate styrene. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

  7. Styren a styren-7,8-oxid:metabolismus a analytické metody stanovení aduktů s proteiny

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jágr, Michal; Pacáková, V.; Petříček, Miroslav


    Roč. 103, č. 11 (2009), s. 902-910 ISSN 0009-2770 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : styren * adducts * styren-7,8-oxid Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 0.717, year: 2009

  8. Effect of ultrasonic pretreatment on emulsion polymerization of styrene. (United States)

    Nagatomo, Daichi; Horie, Takafumi; Hongo, Chizuru; Ohmura, Naoto


    This study investigated the effect of pretreatment of ultrasonic irradiation on emulsion polymerization of styrene to propose a process intensification method which gives high conversion, high reaction rate, and high energy efficiency. The solution containing styrene monomer was irradiated by a horn mounted on the ultrasonic transducer with the diameter of 5mm diameter and the frequency of 28 kHz before starting polymerization. The pretreatment of ultrasound irradiation as short as 1 min drastically improved monomer dispersion and increased reaction rate even under the agitation condition with low rotational speed of impeller. Furthermore, the ultrasonic pretreatment resulted in higher monomer concentration in polymer particles and produced larger polymer particles than conventional polymerization without ultrasonic pretreatment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Fall From High and Acute Styrene Exposure : A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferhat Ižcme


    Full Text Available Styrene is a benzene derivative of the aromatic hydrocarbon which is widely used in the manufacture of plastics industry, synthetic rubber and insulating materials. Its toxic effects occur by inhalation of its vapor or by direct contact. In acute intoxication irritation in the eye and skin may occur and chemical pneumonitis may develop in the lungs due to inhalation. It dissolves in ethanol, benzene, acetone and ether. Water solubility is low. In this paper we present the management of a patient who after falling down from the scaffold which is approximately 5 meters of height, a tin of styrene on the same scaffold spilled on him and we would like to draw attention to the need for decontamination chamber which is not available in the most of the emergency departments in our country.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jignasa N. Solanki


    Full Text Available Organic/inorganic membranes based on sulfonated poly(vinyl alcohol (SPVA and in situ prepared TiO2 nanoparticles nanocomposite membranes with various compositions were prepared to use as proton exchange membranes in direct membrane fuel cells. Poly(vinyl alcohol (PVA was sulfonated and cross-linked separately by 4-formylbenzene-1,3-disulfonic acid disodium salt hydrate and glutaraldehyde. The ion exchange capacity and proton conductivity of the membranes increased with increasing amount of TiO2 nanoparticles. The composite membranes with 15 wt% TiO2 exhibited excellent proton conductivity of 0.0822 S cm-1, as well as remarkably low methanol permeability of 1.11×10-9 cm2 s-1. The thermal stability and durability were also superior and performance in methanol fuel cell was also reasonably good

  11. Acute behavioral effects of styrene exposure: a further analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cherry, N.; Rodgers, B.; Venables, H.; Waldron, H.A.; Wells, G.G.


    Studies were carried out on two groups to styrene-based resin. Early morning urinary mandelic acid concentrations after two days without exposure correlated with reaction time measured on arrival at work. Men were found to differ considerably in their rate of clearance of mandelic acid-those with slow reaction times. After some months at reduced exposure, a small group of men with previously high mandelic acid concentrations has speeded up on the reaction time task.

  12. Confined space hazards: combined exposure to styrene, fiberglass, and silica. (United States)

    Shields, P G; McCunney, R J; Chase, K H


    Work in confined spaces continues to present hazards to workers. The magnitude of this problem was recently addressed by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration in its Final Rule for "Permit-Required Control Spaces for General Industry" (29 CFR Parts 1910). Although illness and injury are typically due to asphyxiation, explosion, and drowning, toxic exposures also are an important risk. We describe herein four workers engaged in erosion-proofing enclosed chemical tanks with minimal ventilation and no respiratory protection. They were exposed to styrene-based solvents, styrene-based resins, silica, and fiberglass dust. Each experienced acute neurological effects and bronchitis. One worker developed a life-threatening pneumonia that resulted in numerous complications. The severity of the illness, which would likely not have otherwise occurred, resulted from impaired lung defense mechanisms due to the combined exposures. Several studies support the association of styrene exposure and respiratory illness that may be compounded by co-exposure to fiberglass in unique circumstances. To prevent the hazards of confined space, recommended procedures should be followed, including those established by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health and the Occupational Safety and Health Administration.

  13. Styrene biofiltration in a trickle-bed reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Novak


    Full Text Available The biological treatment of styrene waste gas in a trickle-bed filter (TBF was investigated. The bioreactor consisted of a two-part glass cylinder (ID 150 mm filled with 25 mm polypropylene Pall rings serving as packing material. The bed height was 1m. Although the laboratory temperature was maintained at 22 ºC, the water temperature in the trickle-bed filter was slightly lower (about 18 ºC.The main aim of our study was to observe the effect of empty-bed residence time (EBRT on bioreactor performance at a constant pollutant concentration over an extended time period. The bioreactor was inoculated with a mixed microbial consortium isolated from a styrene-degrading biofilter that had been running for the previous two years. After three weeks of acclimation period, the bioreactor was loaded with styrene (100 mg.m-3. EBRT was in the range of 53 s to 13 s. A maximum elimination capacity (EC of 11.3 gC.m-3.h-1 was reached at an organic loading (OL rate of 18.6 gC.m-3.h-1.

  14. Synthesis and characterization of polymer blends of sulfonated polyethersulfone and sulfonated polyethersulfone octylsulfonamide for PEMFC applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mabrouk, W. [ERAS Labo, St Nazaire Les Eymes, Grenoble (France); Laboratoire des Materiaux Industriels, Conservatoire National des Arts et Metiers de Paris, 75003 Paris (France); Laboratoire de Chimie Analytique et Electrochimie, Faculte des Sciences de Tunis, Campus Universitaire, 1092 Tunis (Tunisia); Ogier, L.; Vidal, S. [ERAS Labo, St Nazaire Les Eymes, Grenoble (France); Sollogoub, C.; Fauvarque, J.F. [Laboratoire des Materiaux Industriels, Conservatoire National des Arts et Metiers de Paris, 75003 Paris (France); Matoussi, F.; Dachraoui, M. [Laboratoire de Chimie Analytique et Electrochimie, Faculte des Sciences de Tunis, Campus Universitaire, 1092 Tunis (Tunisia)


    Our goal in the present work was to synthesize a new proton exchange membrane that could be used in proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC), based on a blend of sulfonated polyethersulfone (S-PES) and sulfonated polyethersulfone octylsulfonamide (S-PESOS). Five blends, using S-PESOS with different grafting ratios of sulfonamide groups, have been elaborated, characterized, and tested in a PEMFC. The similar chemical structure between these two polymers favored their compatibility. The synthesized membranes showed a high water swelling capacity and an ionic conductivity equivalent to that of Nafion registered (0.1 S cm{sup -1}) in the same conditions. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  15. Salt cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Saha, Anirban


    If you are a professional associated with system and infrastructure management, looking at automated infrastructure and deployments, then this book is for you. No prior experience of Salt is required.

  16. Surfactant and counter-ion distribution in styrene-butyl acrylate-acrylic acid dry latex submonolayers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keslarek Amauri José


    Full Text Available Styrene-butyl acrylate-acrylic acid latex submonolayers prepared using a non-reactive phosphate surfactant together with a reactive sulfonate surfactant were examined in a transmission microscope using electron energy loss spectroscopy imaging (ESI-TEM. Phosphorus is nearly absent from the particles core but it is detected in a thick shell and in unusual, strongly scattering structures with a low carbon content, and largely made out of inorganic phosphate. P is also dispersed outside the particles, while S is uniformly distributed within then. The Na and N elemental maps show that the respective monovalent ions (Na+ and NH4+ have different distributions, in the latex: Na signal within the particles is stronger than in the background, while N is accumulated at the particle borders. The distributions of surfactant and counter-ions are thus different from some current assumptions, but they support recent results on the distribution of ionic constituents in latex films, by scanning electric potential microscopy.

  17. Inorganic-organic hybrid polymer electrolyte based on polysiloxane/poly(maleic imide-co-styrene) network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuo, P.-L.; Jheng, W.-H.; Chen, W.-F. [Department of Chemical Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan City 70101 (China); Liang, W.-J. [Fire Protection and Safety Research Center, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan City (China)


    Covalently cross-linked nonfluorinated hydrocarbon ionomers are synthesized by introducing sulfonate groups and a siloxane cross-linker through thermally and chemically stable imide bonding on poly(styrene-co-maleic anhydride). The three-dimensional polysiloxane framework, which does not only act as a robust scaffold but also provide sites for the hydrogen bonding with water, contribute to the increase in bound water degree, higher proton conductivity at lower ion exchange capacity, and greatly decreased methanol permeability. The spherical-shaped ionic clusters produce a comparable proton conductivity (10{sup -1} S cm{sup -1} above 60 C) to Nafion-117. The conductivity of the hybrid ionomer does not decrease to gain its selectivity, but instead increased. Methanol permeability is {proportional_to}70% lower than that of Nafion-117, but has a higher water uptake and IEC. The membrane with IEC values of 1.1 mequiv. g{sup -1} exhibits a constant conductivity for 200 h in hydrolytic stability test, and produce a power density 20% higher than Nafion-117 in single DMFC operation. (author)

  18. Preparation of new proton exchange membranes using sulfonated poly(ether sulfone) modified by octylamine (SPESOS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mabrouk, W. [Societe ERAS Labo, 222 RN 90, 38330, St Nazaire Les Eymes, Grenoble (France); Laboratoire des Materiaux Industriels, Conservatoire National des Arts et Metiers de Paris 75003, Paris (France); Laboratoire de Chimie Analytique et Electrochimie, Faculte des Sciences de Tunis, Campus Universitaire 1092, Tunis (Tunisia); Ogier, L. [Societe ERAS Labo, 222 RN 90, 38330, St Nazaire Les Eymes, Grenoble (France); Matoussi, F. [Laboratoire de Chimie Analytique et Electrochimie, Faculte des Sciences de Tunis, Campus Universitaire 1092, Tunis (Tunisia); Sollogoub, C., E-mail: [Laboratoire des Materiaux Industriels, Conservatoire National des Arts et Metiers de Paris 75003, Paris (France); Vidal, S. [Societe ERAS Labo, 222 RN 90, 38330, St Nazaire Les Eymes, Grenoble (France); Dachraoui, M. [Laboratoire de Chimie Analytique et Electrochimie, Faculte des Sciences de Tunis, Campus Universitaire 1092, Tunis (Tunisia); Fauvarque, J.F. [Laboratoire des Materiaux Industriels, Conservatoire National des Arts et Metiers de Paris 75003, Paris (France)


    Highlights: {yields} New, simple and cheap way to synthesize a membrane. {yields} The membranes combine good proton conductivities with good mechanical properties. {yields} The membrane performances in a fuel cell are similar to the Nafion 117. - Abstract: Sulfonated poly(arylene ether sulfone) (SPES) has received considerable attention in membrane preparation for proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC). But such membranes are brittle and difficult to handle in operation. We investigated new membranes using SPES grafted with various degrees of octylamine. Five new materials made from sulfonated polyethersulfone sulfonamide (SPESOS) were synthetized with different grades of grafting. They were made from SPES, with initially an ionic exchange capacity (IEC) of 2.4 meq g{sup -1} (1.3 H{sup +} per monomer unit). Pristine SPES with that IEC is water swelling and becomes soluble at 80 deg. C, its proton conductivity is in the range of 0.1 S cm{sup -1} at room temperature in aqueous H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} 1 M, similar to that of Nafion. After grafting with various amounts of octylamine, the material is water insoluble; membranes are less brittle and show sufficient ionic conductivity. Proton transport numbers were measured close to 1.

  19. Electrical conductivity of sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone) based composite membranes containing sulfonated polyhedral oligosilsesquioxane (United States)

    Celso, Fabricio; Mikhailenko, Serguei D.; Rodrigues, Marco A. S.; Mauler, Raquel S.; Kaliaguine, Serge


    Composite proton exchange membranes (PEMs) intended for fuel cell applications were prepared by embedding of various amounts of dispersed tri-sulfonic acid ethyl POSS (S-Et-POSS) and tri-sulfonic acid butyl POSS (S-Bu-POSS) in thin films of sulfonated poly ether-ether ketone. The electrical properties of the PEMs were studied by Impedance spectroscopy and it was found that their conductivity σ changes with the filler content following a curve with a maximum. The water uptake of these PEMs showed the same dependence. The investigation of initial isolated S-POSS substances revealed the properties of typical electrolytes, which however in both cases possessed low conductivities of 1. 17 × 10-5 S cm-1 (S-Et-POSS) and 3.52 × 10-5 S cm-1 (S-Bu-POSS). At the same time, the insoluble in water S-POSS was found forming highly conductive interface layer when wetted with liquid water and hence producing a strong positive impact on the conductivity of the composite PEM. Electrical properties of the composites were analysed within the frameworks of effective medium theory and bounding models, allowing to evaluate analytically the range of possible conductivity values. It was found that these approaches produced quite good approximation of the experimental data and constituted a fair basis for interpretation of the observed relationship.

  20. Hydroquinone based sulfonated poly (arylene ether sulfone copolymer as proton exchange membrane for fuel cell applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Kiran


    Full Text Available Synthesis of sulfonated poly (arylene ether sulfone copolymer by direct copolymerization of 4,4'-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl valeric acid, benzene 1,4-diol and synthesized sulfonated 4,4'-difluorodiphenylsulfone and its characterization by using FTIR (Fourier Transform Infrared and NMR (Nuclear Magnetic Resonance spectroscopic techniques have been performed. The copolymer was subsequently cross-linked with 4, 4!(hexafluoroisopropylidenediphenol epoxy resin by thermal curing reaction to synthesize crosslinked membranes. The evaluation of properties showed reduction in water and methanol uptake, ion exchange capacity, proton conductivity with simultaneous enhancement in oxidative stability of the crosslinked membranes as compared to pristine membrane. The performance of the membranes has also been evaluated in terms of thermal stability, morphology, mechanical strength and methanol permeability by using Thermo gravimetric analyzer, Differential scanning calorimetery, Atomic force microscopy, XPERT-PRO diffractometer, universal testing machine and diffusion cell, respectively. The results demonstrated that the crosslinked membranes exhibited high thermal stability with phase separation, restrained crystallinity, acceptable mechanical properties and methanol permeability. Therefore, these can serve as promising proton exchange membranes for fuel cell applications.

  1. Chromosomal aberrations in lymphocytes of workers exposed to low levels of styrene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nordenson, I.; Beckman, L.


    Chromosomal aberrations were studied in lymphocytes of 15 workers exposed to styrene and 13 controls. The average styrene concentration in the work room air was 24 ppm, and the levels of urinary mandelic acid were below 2 mmol/l. No significant increase in the rates of gaps and breaks was found. However, the rate of micronuclei was significantly increased, which indicates that the mitotic spindle mechanism may be more sensitive to styrene and its metabolites than DNA.

  2. Thermal Stability and Flammability of Styrene-Butadiene Rubber-Based (SBR) Ceramifiable Composites

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Anyszka, Rafał; Bieliński, Dariusz; Pędzich, Zbigniew; Rybiński, Przemysław; Imiela, Mateusz; Siciński, Mariusz; Zarzecka-Napierała, Magdalena; Gozdek, Tomasz; Rutkowski, Paweł


    Ceramifiable styrene-butadiene (SBR)-based composites containing low-softening-point-temperature glassy frit promoting ceramification, precipitated silica, one of four thermally stable refractory fillers...

  3. Grafting of copolymer styrene maleic anhydride on poly(ethylene terephthalate) film by chemical reaction and by plasma method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bigan, Muriel; Bigot, Julien [Laboratoire de Chimie Organique et Macromoleculaire (UMR 8009), Universite des Sciences et Technologies de Lille, 59655 Villeneuve d' Ascq Cedex (France); Mutel, Brigitte [Laboratoire de Genie des Procedes d' Interactions Fluides reactifs-Materiaux (UPRES-EA 3751), Batiment C5, Universite des Sciences et Technologies de Lille, 59655 Villeneuve d' Ascq Cedex (France)], E-mail:; Coqueret, Xavier [Laboratoire Reactions Selectives et Applications (UMR-CNRS 6519) Universite de Reims Champagne-Ardennes, B.P. 1039, 51687 Reims Cedex 2 (France)


    This work deals with the chemical grafting of a styrene maleic anhydride copolymer on the surface of a previously hydrolyzed polyethylene terephthalate (PET) film 12 {mu}m thick via covalent bond. Two different ways are studied. The first one involves an activation of the hydrolyzed PET by the triethylamine before the grafting step. In the second one, the copolymer reacts with the 4-dimethylaminopyridine in order to form maleinyl pyridinium salt which reacts with alcohol function of the hydrolyzed PET. Characterization and quantification of the grafting are performed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Factorial experiment designs are used to optimize the process and to estimate experimental parameters effects. The opportunity to associate the chemical process to a cold remote nitrogen plasma one is also examined.

  4. Synthesis of dodecyl lauroyl benzene sulfonate and its application in enhanced oil recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cui, Zhenggang; Wu, Le; Sun, Mingming; Jiang, Jian-zhong; Wang, Feng [Jiangnan Univ., Wuxi (China). School of Chemical and Material Engineering


    A new hydrophobic surfactant, dodecyl lauroyl benzene sulfonate (DLBS), was synthesized and its application in enhanced oil recovery by alkali-surfactant-polymer (ASP) flooding was studied. The results show that DLBS can be synthesized by reaction of industrial dodecyl benzene with lauroyl chloride in the presence of AlCl{sub 3}, followed by sulfonation with ClSO{sub 3}H and neutralization with NaOH. The lauroyl-group is confirmed to be connected to the para-position of the alkylbenzene by1HNMR spectrum. The synthesized DLBS is well soluble in pure water and reservoir (connate) water at 45 C. It is highly surface active which is indicated by its low CMC of 1.1 . 10{sup -5} mol/L, and its low surface tension, {gamma}{sub cmc} of 28.6 mN m{sup -1}. By mixing with heavy alkylbenzene sulfonates of relatively low average molar mass (387g mol{sup -1}) at a total surfactant concentration of 5 mM, DLBS can reduce the interfacial tension of Daqing crude oil/connate water to an order of 10{sup -3} mN/m at 45 C in the presence of 0.5-1.0 wt.% NaOH and 1000 mg L{sup -1} of polymer. If the NaOH was replaced by a gentle alkaline salt, Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}, certain amounts of dodecyl dimethyl carboxy betaine were added and the concentration of Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} was increased to 1.2-2.0 wt.%, the interfacial tension of Daqing crude oil/connate water can also be reduced to an ultralow value. Therefore DLBS is a good hydrophobic surfactant applicable in ASP flooding with either NaOH or Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} as alkaline agents. (orig.)

  5. Fully Aromatic Block Copolymers for Fuel Cell Membranes with Densely Sulfonated Nanophase Domains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Takamuku, Shogo; Jannasch, Patrick; Lund, Peter Brilner

    Two multiblock copoly(arylene ether sulfone)s with similar block lengths and ion exchange capacities (IECs) were prepared by a coupling reaction between a non-sulfonated precursor block and a highly sulfonated precursor block containing either fully disulfonated diarylsulfone or fully...... tetrasulfonated tetraaryldisulfone segments. The latter two precursor blocks were sulfonated via lithiation-sulfination reactions whereby the sulfonic acid groups were exclu- sively placed in ortho positions to the many sulfone bridges, giving these locks IECs of 4.1 and 4.6 meqg1, respectively. Copolymer...

  6. Room temperature synthesis of biodiesel using sulfonated graphitic carbon nitride (United States)

    Sulfonation of graphitic carbon nitride (g-CN) affords a polar and strongly acidic catalyst, Sg-CN, which displays unprecedented reactivity and selectivity in biodiesel synthesis and esterification reactions at room temperature.

  7. Sulfonated hydrocarbon graft architectures for cation exchange membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mads Møller; Jankova Atanasova, Katja; Hvilsted, Søren


    A synthetic strategy to hydrocarbon graft architectures prepared from a commercial polysulfone and aimed as ion exchange membrane material is proposed. Polystyrene is grafted from a polysulfone macroinitiator by atom transfer radical polymerization, and subsequently sulfonated with acetyl sulfate...

  8. Catalyst-free synthesis of 3-sulfone nitrile from sulfonyl hydrazides and acrylonitrile in water. (United States)

    Li, Wei; Gao, Lingfeng; Zhuge, Wenyun; Sun, Xu; Zheng, Gengxiu


    A novel catalyst-free sulfonation reaction for synthesizing 3-sulfone nitrile compounds from sulfonyl hydrazides and acrylonitriles in water, without any metal catalyst, ligand or organic solvent, was demonstrated. This catalyst-free protocol provides a new synthetic method for the construction of 3-sulfone nitrile compounds with excellent yields. The D2O experiment adequately proved that the catalyst-free sulfonation reaction occurs via a Michael addition mechanism and that the hydrogen of 3-sulfone nitrile comes from water.

  9. Calcium carbonate phase transformations during the carbonation reaction of calcium heavy alkylbenzene sulfonate overbased nanodetergents preparation. (United States)

    Chen, Zhaocong; Xiao, Shan; Chen, Feng; Chen, Dongzhong; Fang, Jianglin; Zhao, Min


    The preparation and application of overbased nanodetergents with excess alkaline calcium carbonate is a good example of nanotechnology in practice. The phase transformation of calcium carbonate is of extensive concern since CaCO(3) serves both as an important industrial filling material and as the most abundant biomineral in nature. Industrially valuable overbased nanodetergents have been prepared based on calcium salts of heavy alkylbenzene sulfonate by a one-step process under ambient pressure, the carbonation reaction has been monitored by the instantaneous temperature changes and total base number (TBN). A number of analytical techniques such as TGA, DLS, SLS, TEM, FTIR, and XRD have been utilized to explore the carbonation reaction process and phase transformation mechanism of calcium carbonate. An enhanced understanding on the phase transformation of calcium carbonate involved in calcium sulfonate nanodetergents has been achieved and it has been unambiguously demonstrated that amorphous calcium carbonate (ACC) transforms into the vaterite polymorph rather than calcite, which would be of crucial importance for the preparation and quality control of lubricant additives and greases. Our results also show that a certain amount of residual Ca(OH)(2) prevents the phase transformation from ACC to crystalline polymorphs. Moreover, a vaterite nanodetergent has been prepared for the first time with low viscosity, high base number, and uniform particle size, nevertheless a notable improvement on its thermal stability is required for potential applications. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Study of adjuvant effect of model surfactants from the groups of alkyl sulfates, alkylbenzene sulfonates, alcohol ethoxylates and soaps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, S K; Sobhani, S; Poulsen, O M


    The sodium salts of representatives of anionic surfactants, dodecylbenzene sulfonate (SDBS), dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and coconut oil fatty acids, and a nonionic surfactant, dodecyl alcohol ethoxylate, were studied for adjuvant effect on the production of specific IgE antibodies in mice...... showed a statistically significant increase in OVA specific IgE levels. After two boosters, a statistically significant suppression in OVA-specific IgE production occurred with SDS (1000 mg/l), SDBS (1000 and 100 mg/l), coconut soap (1000 mg/l) and the alcohol ethoxylate (10 mg/l). This study suggests...

  11. Amperometric urea biosensors based on sulfonated graphene/polyaniline nanocomposite


    Das G.; Yoon HH


    Gautam Das, Hyon Hee Yoon Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Gachon University, Seongnam, Gyeonggi-do, South Korea Abstract: An electrochemical biosensor based on sulfonated graphene/polyaniline nanocomposite was developed for urea analysis. Oxidative polymerization of aniline in the presence of sulfonated graphene oxide was carried out by electrochemical methods in an aqueous environment. The structural properties of the nanocomposite were characterized by Fourier-transform...

  12. Oil recovery with vinyl sulfonic acid-acrylamide copolymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norton, C.J.; Falk, D.O.


    An aqueous polymer flood containing sulfomethylated alkali metal vinyl sulfonate-acrylamide copolymers was proposed for use in secondary or tertiary enhanced oil recovery. The sulfonate groups on the copolymers sustain the viscosity of the flood in the presence of brine and lime. Injection of the copolymer solution into a waterflooded Berea core, produced 30.5 percent of the residual oil. It is preferred that the copolymers are partially hydrolyzed.

  13. Styrene exposure and biologic monitoring in FRP boat production plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikeda, M.; Koizumi, A.; Miyasaka, M.; Watanabe, T.


    A survey on styrene exposure was conducted in five small to medium-sized fiber-reinforced plastic (FRP) boat plants utilizing carbon felt dosimeters as personal and stationary samplers to measure 4h (TWA) exposure during workday afternoons. The heaviest exposure, up to 256 ppm by personal sampling and 174 ppm by stationary sampling, took place during the lamination on a mold to produce a boat shell, and the work inside narrow holds also resulted in exposures of a comparable degree. Styrene levels were much lower in other auxiliary works. The TWA of exposure in an entire boat production was estimated to be 40-50 ppm. Installation of several flexible hoses as an exhaust system was proved to be effective in decreasing the vapor concentration. Gas masks were also useful in reducing the exposure. Urine samples were collected from 96 male workers at the end of 8h work (4h in the morning and 4h in the afternoon) and also from 22 nonexposed male subjects, and analyzed for mandelic acid (MA), phenylglyoxylic acid (PhGA), and hippuric acid (HA). When the results of urinalyses were compared with 4-h styrene TWA as monitored by personal sampling, the best correlation was obtained with MA + PhGA/creatinine (the correlation coefficient, 0.88), followed by MA (0.84). For these two cases, regression lines and 95% confidence limits for the group means and for the individual values were calculated. The urinary level of MA, PhGA, and HA in the 22 nonexposed male subjects were also tabulated.

  14. Devulcanization of styrene butadiene (SBR) waste tire by controlled oxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rios, Rachel R.V.A.; Gontijo, Manuela; Ferraz, Vany P.; Lago, Rochel M.; Araujo, Maria Helena [Minas Gerais Univ., Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica]. E-mail:


    This work describes the devulcanization of vulcanized SBR (Styrene Butadiene Rubber) based on controlled oxidation with nitric acid. IR, {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C-NMR, CHN elemental analyses, TG, GPC and TPD-MS (Temperature Programmed Decomposition-Mass Spectrometry) experiments suggest that nitric acid promotes two processes: devulcanization by oxidation of the sulfide crosslinks and oxidation of the carbon framework leading to the formation of -COOH and -NO{sub 2} groups. Under aggressive conditions (HNO{sub 3}, reflux) the polymer chain is strongly oxidized and fragmented to a highly oxygenated low molecular weight fraction, which is soluble in water. (author)

  15. Characterization of a sulfonated polycarbonate resistive humidity sensor. (United States)

    Rubinger, Carla P L; Calado, Hallen D R; Rubinger, Rero M; Oliveira, Henrique; Donnici, Claudio L


    In this work; resistive moisture sensors were obtained by dip coating sulfonated polycarbonate (SPC) onto silver interdigitated electrodes. Commercial polycarbonate was sulfonated with acetyl sulphate at two different sulfonation degrees corresponding to 9.0 and 18.0 mole %. Impedance spectroscopy was used to investigate the humidity sensing properties at controlled relative humidity (RH%) environments generated from standard saline solutions in the range of 11-90 RH%. For the highest sulfonated sample; in the RH% range investigated (11 to 90%); the sensor impedance changed from 4.7 MΩ to 18 kΩ. Humidity sensors made from sulfonated polycarbonate showed exponential decay behavior of the impedance at constant frequency with the environmental relative humidity. Sample 9SPC presented dielectric relaxation response for environmental humidity between 58 and 90 RH% while sample 18SPC presented dielectric relaxation response for the entire measured range between 11 and 90 RH%. Sulfonated polycarbonate could be a promising material for the fabrication of simple and cheap humidity-sensing sensors for the assessment of relative humidity of the surrounding environment, as suggested by experimental results.

  16. 40 CFR 721.6920 - Butyl acrylate, polymer with substituted methyl styrene, methyl methacrylate, and substituted... (United States)


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Butyl acrylate, polymer with... acrylate, polymer with substituted methyl styrene, methyl methacrylate, and substituted silane. (a... butyl acrylate, polymer with substituted methyl styrene, methyl methacrylate, and substituted silane...

  17. 76 FR 77709 - Butyl acrylate-methacrylic acid-styrene polymer; Tolerance Exemption (United States)


    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 180 Butyl acrylate-methacrylic acid-styrene polymer; Tolerance Exemption AGENCY...-propenoate and ethenylbenzene (CAS Reg. No. 25036-16-2); also known as butyl acrylate-methacrylic acid...-risk polymers are described in 40 CFR 723.250(d). Butyl acrylate-methacrylic acid-styrene polymer...


    The report gives results of emissions measurements carried out at a representative facility (Eljer Plumbingware in Wilson, NC) that manufactures polyester-resin-reinforced shower stalls and bathtubs by spraying styrene-based resins onto molds in vented, open, spray booths. Styren...


    This report is an addendum to a 1996 report, Assessment of Styrene Emission Controls for FRP/C and Boat Building Industries. It presents additional evaluation of the biological treatment of styrene emissions, Dow Chemical Company's Sorbathene solvent vapor recovery system, Occupa...

  20. 21 CFR 177.2710 - Styrene-divinylbenzene resins, cross-linked. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Styrene-divinylbenzene resins, cross-linked. 177.2710 Section 177.2710 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... resins, cross-linked. Styrene-divinylbenzene cross-linked copolymer resins may be safely used as articles...

  1. 40 CFR 721.3800 - Formaldehyde, condensated polyoxyethylene fatty acid, ester with styrenated phenol, ethylene... (United States)


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Formaldehyde, condensated... Formaldehyde, condensated polyoxyethylene fatty acid, ester with styrenated phenol, ethylene oxide adduct. (a... generically as formaldehyde, condensated polyoxyethylene fatty acid, ester with styrenated phenol, ethylene...

  2. 21 CFR 173.70 - Chloromethylated aminated styrene-divinylbenzene resin. (United States)


    ... resin. 173.70 Section 173.70 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... Chloromethylated aminated styrene-divinylbenzene resin. Chloromethylated aminated styrene-divinylbenzene copolymer... resin dispersion. (c) The additive is used as a decolorizing and clarification agent for treatment of...

  3. Utilizing the phenol byproducts of coke production: 3. Phenols as coinhibitors of thermopolymerization during styrene production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    I.I. Batura; A.F. Gogotov; V.I. Cherepanov; O.I. Baranov; A.A. Levchuk; M.V. Parilova [Irkutsk State Technical University, Irkutsk (Russian Federation)


    A new oligomerization procedure for phenol byproducts from coke production is experimentally studied. This method, oxidative combination, is intended to produce an effective coinhibitor of styrene thermopolymerization. When combined with a Mannich base, the new oligomer exhibits excellent inhibiting properties in the heat treatment of styrene and matches the effectiveness of imported inhibitors based on nitroxyl radicals. 15 refs., 1 tab.

  4. Exploiting Framework Flexibility of a Metal-Organic Framework for Selective Adsorption of Styrene over Ethylbenzene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mukherjee, S.; Joarder, B.; Desai, A.V.; Manna, B.; Krishna, R.; Ghosh, S.K.


    The separation of styrene and ethylbenzene mixtures is industrially important and is currently performed in highly energy-intensive vacuum distillation columns. The primary objective of our investigation is to offer an energy-efficient alternative for selective adsorption of styrene by a flexible

  5. Ion Exchange Formation via Sulfonated Bicomponent Nonwovens (United States)

    Stoughton, Hannah L.

    For many years ion exchange resins were used to: remove heavy metals from water, recover materials from wastewater, and eliminate harmful gases from the air. While use of these resin beads dominates the ion exchange industry, the beads have limitations that should be considered when decisions are made to employ them. For instance, officials must balance the inherent zero sum surface area and porosity of the materials. This series of studies investigates the use of bicomponent nonwovens as a base substrate for producing high surface area ion exchange materials for the removal of heavy metal ions. Functionalized materials were produced in a two-step process: (1) PET/PE spunbond bicomponent fibers were fractured completely, producing the high surface area nonwoven to be used as the base ion exchange material, and (2) the conditions for functionalizing the PET fibers of the nonwoven webs were investigated where an epoxy containing monomer was grafted to the surface followed by sulfonation of the monomer. The functionalization reactions of the PET fibers were monitored based on: weight gain, FTIR, TOF-SIMS, and SEM. Ion exchange properties were evaluated using titration and copper ion removal capacity from test solutions. The relationship between web structure and removal efficiency of the metal ions was defined through a comparison of the bicomponent and homocomponent nonwovens for copper ion removal efficiency. The investigation revealed that utilizing the high surface area, fractured bicomponent nonwoven ion exchange materials with capacities comparable to commercially available ion exchange resins could be produced.

  6. Crystal structure of bis[bis(4-azaniumylphenyl sulfone] tetranitrate monohydrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amani Hind Benahsene


    Full Text Available In the title compound, the hydrated tetra(nitrate salt of dapsone (4,4′-diaminodiphenylsulfone, 2C12H14N2O2S2+·4NO3−·H2O {alternative name: bis[bis(4,4′-diazaniumylphenyl sulfone] tetranitrate monohydrate}, the cations are conformationally similar, with comparable dihedral angles between the two benzene rings in each of 70.03 (18 and 69.69 (19°. In the crystal, mixed cation–anion–water molecule layers lying parallel to the (001 plane are formed through N—H...O, O—H...O and C—H...O hydrogen-bonding interactions and these layers are further extended into an overall three-dimensional supramolecular network structure. Inter-ring π–π interactions are also present [minimum ring centroid separation = 3.693 (3 Å].

  7. Polystyrene Sulfonate Threaded through a Metal-Organic Framework Membrane for Fast and Selective Lithium-Ion Separation. (United States)

    Guo, Yi; Ying, Yulong; Mao, Yiyin; Peng, Xinsheng; Chen, Banglin


    Extraction of lithium ions from salt-lake brines is very important to produce lithium compounds. Herein, we report a new approach to construct polystyrene sulfonate (PSS) threaded HKUST-1 metal-organic framework (MOF) membranes through an in situ confinement conversion process. The resulting membrane PSS@HKUST-1-6.7, with unique anchored three-dimensional sulfonate networks, shows a very high Li(+) conductivity of 5.53×10(-4)  S cm(-1) at 25 °C, 1.89×10(-3)  S cm(-1) at 70 °C, and Li(+) flux of 6.75 mol m(-2)  h(-1) , which are five orders higher than that of the pristine HKUST-1 membrane. Attributed to the different size sieving effects and the affinity differences of the Li(+) , Na(+) , K(+) , and Mg(2+) ions to the sulfonate groups, the PSS@HKUST-1-6.7 membrane exhibits ideal selectivities of 78, 99, and 10296 for Li(+) /Na(+) , Li(+) /K(+) , Li(+) /Mg(2+) and real binary ion selectivities of 35, 67, and 1815, respectively, the highest ever reported among ionic conductors and Li(+) extraction membranes. © 2016 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Organocatalytic chemo- and regioselective oxyarylation of styrenes via a cascade reaction: remote activation of hydroxyl groups. (United States)

    Zhang, Yu-Chen; Jiang, Fei; Wang, Shu-Liang; Shi, Feng; Tu, Shu-Jiang


    The first organocatalytic oxyarylation of styrenes has been established through a cascade of vinylogous Michael addition/alkoxyl transfer reactions of o- or p-hydroxylstyrenes with quinone imine ketals. The process leads to a highly chemo- and regioselective oxyarylation of styrenes and provides access to m-alkylated anilines in generally high yields and excellent diastereoselectivity (up to 99% yield, >95:5 dr). An investigation of the reaction pathway revealed that the existence and position of the hydroxyl group of styrene played crucial roles in the cascade reaction, suggesting that the two reactants were simultaneously activated by binaphthyl-derived phosphoric acid via hydrogen bonding interactions and long-distance conjugative effects. In addition, the activating group of the hydroxyl functionality in the products can be easily removed or transformed, demonstrating the applicability and utility of this strategy in styrene oxyarylation and in the synthesis of styrene-based compounds.

  9. Human exposure to styrene. IV. Industrial hygiene investigations and biological monitoring in the polyester industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guillemin, M.P.; Bauer, D.; Martin, B.; Marazzi, A.


    An industrial hygiene study of 10 glassfiber reinforced polyester plants (including 90 workers) was undertaken to investigate the styrene exposure in this industry and to estimate biological limit values (BLV's) for the urinary metabolites of styrene: mandelic (MA) and phenylglyoxylic acids (PGA). Time weighted average (TWA) styrene exposures were found ranging from 2 to 200 ppm. The urinary elimination of metabolites correlated well with exposure and the BLV's corresponding to an 8-h exposure at 100 ppm were consistent with earlier laboratory findings (end-of-shift sample: MA 1640, PGA 510, MA + PGA 2150; next-morning sample: MA 330, PGA 330, MA + PGA 660 mg/g creat.). Total metabolites (MA + PGA) in the next-morning sample or mandelic acid in the end-of-shift sample are recommended for routine monitoring of exposure to styrene. The study revealed the need for further research on how to reduce styrene exposure in this industry.

  10. No acute behavioral effects of exposure to styrene: a safe level of exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edling, C.; Ekberg, K.


    To determine whether exposure to low levels of styrene (below 110 mg/m3) causes acute behavioral effects and symptoms that may be related to concentrations of styrene in air or urinary mandelic acid or both, 12 men occupationally exposed to styrene were studied and compared with a reference group of 10 unexposed men. Simple reaction time was measured before and after work and information about symptoms was obtained by questionnaire. Active and passive sampling of airborne styrene was carried out and urinary mandelic acid concentrations were measured. Although the size of the study groups is small, the results indicate that exposure to styrene below 110 mg/m3 does not cause any acute adverse effects on the central nervous system.

  11. 40 CFR 63.500 - Back-end process provisions-carbon disulfide limitations for styrene butadiene rubber by emulsion... (United States)


    ... disulfide limitations for styrene butadiene rubber by emulsion processes. 63.500 Section 63.500 Protection... limitations for styrene butadiene rubber by emulsion processes. (a) Owners or operators of sources subject to this subpart producing styrene butadiene rubber using an emulsion process shall operate the process...

  12. 40 CFR 721.7020 - Distillates (petroleum), C(3-6), polymers with styrene and mixed terpenes (generic name). (United States)


    ...), polymers with styrene and mixed terpenes (generic name). 721.7020 Section 721.7020 Protection of...), C(3-6), polymers with styrene and mixed terpenes (generic name). (a) Chemical substance and...), polymers with styrene and mixed terpenes (PMN P-89-676) is subject to reporting under this section for the...

  13. Multiblock copolymers with highly sulfonated blocks containing di- and tetrasulfonated arylene sulfone segments for proton exchange membrane fuel cell applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takamuku, Shogo; Jannasch, Patric [Polymer and Materials Chemistry, Department of Chemistry, Lund University (Sweden)


    Multiblock copoly(arylene ether sulfone)s with different block lengths and ionic contents are tailored for durable and proton-conducting electrolyte membranes. Two series of fully aromatic copolymers are prepared by coupling reactions between non-sulfonated hydrophobic precursor blocks and highly sulfonated hydrophilic precursor blocks containing either fully disulfonated diarylsulfone or fully tetrasulfonated tetraaryldisulfone segments. The sulfonic acid groups are exclusively introduced in ortho positions to the sulfone bridges to impede desulfonation reactions and give the blocks ion exchange capacities (IECs) of 4.1 and 4.6 meq. g{sup -1}, respectively. Solvent cast block copolymer membranes show well-connected hydrophilic nanophase domains for proton transport and high decomposition temperatures above 310 C under air. Despite higher IEC values, membranes containing tetrasulfonated tetraaryldisulfone segments display a markedly lower water uptake than the corresponding ones with disulfonated diarylsulfone segments when immersed in water at 100 C, presumably because of the much higher chain stiffness and glass transition temperature of the former segments. The former membranes have proton conductivities in level of a perfluorosulfonic acid membrane (NRE212) under fully humidified conditions. A membrane with an IEC of 1.83 meq. g{sup -1} reaches above 6 mS cm{sup -1} under 30% relative humidity at 80 C, to be compared with 10 mS cm{sup -1} for NRE212 under the same conditions. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  14. Simultaneous determination of the styrene unit content and assessment of molecular weight of triblock copolymers in adhesives by a size exclusion chromatography method. (United States)

    Wang, Mingfang; Wang, Yuerong; Luo, Pei; Zhang, Hongyang; Zhang, Min; Hu, Ping


    The content of styrene units in nonhydrogenated and hydrogenated styrene-butadiene-styrene and styrene-isoprene-styrene triblock copolymers significantly influences product performance. A size exclusion chromatography method was developed to determine the average styrene content of triblock copolymers blended with tackifier in adhesives. A complete separation of the triblock copolymer from the other additives was realized with size exclusion chromatography. The peak area ratio of the UV and refraction index signals of the copolymers at the same effective elution volume was correlated to the average styrene unit content using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy with commercial copolymers as standards. The obtained calibration curves showed good linearity for both the hydrogenated and nonhydrogenated styrene-butadiene-styrene and styrene-isoprene-styrene triblock copolymers (r = 0.974 for styrene contents of 19.3-46.3% for nonhydrogenated ones and r = 0.970 for the styrene contents of 23-58.2% for hydrogenated ones). For copolymer blends, the developed method provided more accurate average styrene unit contents than nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy provided. These results were validated using two known copolymer blends consisting of either styrene-isoprene-styrene or hydrogenated styrene-butadiene-styrene and a hydrocarbon tackifying resin as well as an unknown adhesive with styrene-butadiene-styrene and an aromatic tackifying resin. The methodology can be readily applied to styrene-containing polymers in blends such as poly(acrylonitrile-butadiene styrene). © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Salt Effect on Osmotic Pressure of Polyelectrolyte Solutions: Simulation Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan-Michael Y. Carrillo


    Full Text Available Abstract: We present results of the hybrid Monte Carlo/molecular dynamics simulations of the osmotic pressure of salt solutions of polyelectrolytes. In our simulations, we used a coarse-grained representation of polyelectrolyte chains, counterions and salt ions. During simulation runs, we alternate Monte Carlo and molecular dynamics simulation steps. Monte Carlo steps were used to perform small ion exchange between simulation box containing salt ions (salt reservoir and simulation box with polyelectrolyte chains, counterions and salt ions (polyelectrolyte solution. This allowed us to model Donnan equilibrium and partitioning of salt and counterions across membrane impermeable to polyelectrolyte chains. Our simulations have shown that the main contribution to the system osmotic pressure is due to salt ions and osmotically active counterions. The fraction of the condensed (osmotically inactive counterions first increases with decreases in the solution ionic strength then it saturates. The reduced value of the system osmotic coefficient is a universal function of the ratio of the concentration of osmotically active counterions and salt concentration in salt reservoir. Simulation results are in a very good agreement with osmotic pressure measurements in sodium polystyrene sulfonate, DNA, polyacrylic acid, sodium polyanetholesulfonic acid, polyvinylbenzoic acid, and polydiallyldimethylammonium chloride solutions.

  16. The tonotopicity of styrene-induced hearing loss depends on the associated noise spectrum. (United States)

    Venet, Thomas; Campo, Pierre; Thomas, Aurélie; Cour, Chantal; Rieger, Benoît; Cosnier, Frédéric


    The neuropharmacological and cochleotoxic effects of styrene can exacerbate the impact of noise on the peripheral auditory receptor. The mechanisms through which co-exposure to noise and styrene impairs hearing are complex as the slowly developing cochleotoxic process can be masked in the short-term by the rapid pharmacological effect on the central nervous system. The current investigation was therefore designed to delineate the auditory frequency range sensitive to noise, to styrene, and to noise and styrene combined. In case of different frequency ranges targeted by noise and styrene, it would be possible to point out the main factor responsible for cases of deafness by looking at the location of the audiometric deficits. Male Brown-Norway rats were exposed to 600-ppm styrene, to an octave band noise centered at 8 kHz, or to both noise and styrene. The noise exposure was of two different types: impulse noise with a LEX,8h (equivalent continuous noise level averaged over 8 h) of 80 dB and continuous noise with a LEX,8 h of 85 dB SPL. Hearing was tested using a non-invasive technique based on distortion product otoacoustic emissions. Hearing data were completed with histological analysis of cochleae. The results showed that exposure to styrene alone caused outer hair cell losses in the apical cochlear region, which discriminates low frequencies. In contrast, noise-induced hearing loss was located at half an octave above the central frequency of the spectrum, around 10-12 kHz. Damage due to impulse noise was significantly exacerbated by styrene, and the noise spectrum defined the location of the cochlear trauma. Combined exposure caused greater cell losses than the sum of losses measured with the impulse noise and styrene alone. The fact that the tonotopicity of the styrene-induced damage depends on the associated noise spectrum complicates the diagnosis of styrene-related hearing loss with a tone-frequency audiometric approach. In conclusion, there is not really a

  17. Surfactant effects on morphology-properties relationships of silver-poly(styrene-b-isoprene-b-styrene) block copolymer nanocomposites. (United States)

    Peponi, Laura; Tercjak, Agnieszka; Torre, Luigi; Kenny, Josè M; Mondragon, Iñaki


    Good dispersion of silver nanoparticles in poly(styrene-b-isoprene-b-styrene) block copolymer matrix has been achieved by adding dodecanethiol as surfactant to lower the high surface energy of metal nanoparticles. First, the influence of surfactant in the cylindrical nanostructure of neat block copolymer matrix has been analyzed. Taking into account the high solubility between dodecanethiol and the PS block of the SIS block copolymer, when silver nanoparticles and surfactant have been added to the block copolymer matrix its morphology changes from cylindrical to lamellar nanostructure. For the nanocomposite without surfactant, the block copolymer matrix loses its capability to self-assemble in lamellar nanostructure and in this case, agglomeration of silver nanoparticles occurs. Rheological, mechanical and morphological analysis were carried out in order to study the optimal content of surfactant necessary to obtain well-dispersed nanoparticles without worsen the final properties of the nanocomposite. The best silver/dodecanethiol w/w ratio appears to be 1, as confirmed by UV-Vis analysis. Moreover, semi-empirical models, such as Guth and Gold, and Halpin-Tsai, have been used in order to both predict and verify experimental tensile modulus of the obtained nanocomposites. The Guth and Gold equation, applicable to elastomers filled with spherical nanoparticles, provides a result closer to the experimental values than Halpin-Tsai model.

  18. Potassium (1R,4R,5S,8S-4,5,8-trihydroxy-3-oxo-2,6-dioxabicyclo[3.3.0]octane-4-sulfonate dihydrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David L. Hughes


    Full Text Available The title salt, K+·C6H7O9S−·2H2O, formed by reaction of dehydro-l-ascorbic acid with potassium hydrogen sulfite in water, crystallizes as colourless plates. The potassium ion is coordinated by eight O atoms arising from hydroxy or sulfonate groups. The sulfonate group is bonded to the C atom neighbouring that of the lactone carbonyl group. As is commonly observed in crystalline l-ascorbic acid derivatives, the O atom of the primary hydroxy group is linked to the second C atom from the lactone C atom, forming a hemi-acetal function, thereby creating a bicyclic system of two fused five-membered rings, both of which have envelope conformations with one of the shared C atoms as the flap. Addition of the sulfur nucleophile occurs from the less hindered face. One of the two independent lattice water molecules has hydrogen bonds to sulfonate O atoms of two different anions and is the acceptor of bonds from hydroxy groups of two further anions; the second lattice water molecule donates to the carbonyl and a hydroxy O atom in different anions, and accepts from a hydroxy O atom in a further anion. Thus, through K—O coordination and hydrogen bonds, the potassium cations, sulfonate anions and water molecules are linked in a three-dimensional network.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Firsova


    Full Text Available The article discusses the use of organomagnesium initiators in the synthesis of styrene-butadiene random copolymer (SBR obtained solution polymerization and their influence on the properties of rubber. Selected organic magnesium dialkyl initiator is combined with a modifier, which is a mixed alkoxide of an alkali and alkaline earth metals, which allows to control the micr ostructure of the diene polymer and its molecular weight characteristics. Alcohol derivatives selected high-boiling alcohols tetra (hydroxypropyl ethylenediamine (lapromol 294 and tetrahydrofurfuryl alcohol (TGFS. Selection of high-boiling alcohols due to the fact that the destruction of alkoxide with aqueous polymer degassing they do not fall into the return solvent and almost fall into the exact water. The metal components of alkoxides are lithium, sodium, potassium, magnesium and calcium. The resulting solutions are stable when stored modifier t hroughout the year even at -40 °C. The scheme of obtaining the new catalyst systems based organomagnesium and alcoxide of alkali and alkaline earth metals, which yields as functionalized SBR with a statistical and a distribution block of butadiene and styrene was developed. The process of copolymerization with styrene to butadiene organomagnesium initiators as using an organolithium compound (n-butyllithium was carried out, and without it. Found that the addition of n-butyllithium in the reaction mixture leads to a sharp increase in the rate of reaction. The results of studies of the effect of composition of the initiator system on the structure of diene polymers. It was revealed that a mixed initiator system affords a high conversion of monomers (to 90 % in 1 hour 1,2-polybutadiene content increased to 60 %. The process of polymerization of only a mixture of organomagnesium initiators and alcoxide of alkali and alkaline earth metals are not actively proceeds, conversion of the monomers reaches to 90 % in 4 hours, the microstructure

  20. Low level occupational exposure to styrene: its effects on DNA damage and DNA repair. (United States)

    Wongvijitsuk, Sirilak; Navasumrit, Panida; Vattanasit, Udomratana; Parnlob, Varabhorn; Ruchirawat, Mathuros


    The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of styrene exposure at levels below the recommended standards of the Threshold Limit Value (TLV-TWA(8)) of 20 ppm (ACGIH, 2004) in reinforced-fiberglass plastics workers. Study subjects comprised 50 exposed workers and 40 control subjects. The exposed workers were stratified by styrene exposure levels, i.e. group I (20 ppm, >84.40 mg/m(3)). The mean styrene exposure levels of exposed workers were significantly higher than those of the control workers. Biomarkers of exposure to styrene, including blood styrene and the urinary metabolites, mandelic acid (MA) and phenylglyoxylic acid (PGA), were significantly increased with increasing levels of styrene exposure, but were not detected in the control group. DNA damage, such as DNA strand breaks, 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), and DNA repair capacity, were used as biomarkers of early biological effects. DNA strand breaks and 8-OHdG/10(5)dG levels in peripheral leukocytes of exposed groups were significantly higher compared to the control group (Prisk from occupational styrene exposure, even at levels below the recommended TLV-TWA(8) of 20 ppm. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  1. A multicenter study on the audiometric findings of styrene-exposed workers. (United States)

    Morata, Thais C; Sliwinska-Kowalska, Mariola; Johnson, Ann-Christin; Starck, Jukka; Pawlas, Krystyna; Zamyslowska-Szmytke, Ewa; Nylen, Per; Toppila, Esko; Krieg, Edward; Pawlas, Natalia; Prasher, Deepak


    The objective of this study was to evaluate hearing loss among workers exposed to styrene, alone or with noise. This cross-sectional study was conducted as part of NoiseChem, a European Commission 5th Framework Programme research project, by occupational health institutes in Finland, Sweden, and Poland. Participants' ages ranged from 18-72 years (n = 1620 workers). Participants exposed to styrene, alone or with noise, were from reinforced fiberglass products manufacturing plants (n = 862). Comparison groups were comprised of workers noise-exposed (n = 400) or controls (n = 358). Current styrene exposures ranged from 0 to 309 mg/m(3), while mean current noise levels ranged from 70-84 dB(A). Hearing thresholds of styrene-exposed participants were compared with Annexes A and B from ANSI S3.44, 1996. The audiometric thresholds of styrene exposed workers were significantly poorer than those in published standards. Age, gender, and styrene exposure met the significance level criterion in the multiple logistic regression for the binary outcome 'hearing loss' (P = 0.0000). Exposure to noise (risk factor for hearing loss, and styrene-exposed workers should be included in hearing loss prevention programs.

  2. Leaching of styrene and other aromatic compounds in drinking water from PS bottles. (United States)

    Ahmad, Maqbool; Bajahlan, Ahmad S


    Bottled water may not be safer, or healthier, than tap water. The present studies have proved that styrene and some other aromatic compounds leach continuously from polystyrene (PS) bottles used locally for packaging. Water sapmles in contact with PS were extracted by a preconcentration technique called as "purge and trap" and analysed by gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer (GC/MS). Eleven aromatic compounds were identified in these studies. Maximum concentration of styrene in PS bottles was 29.5 microg/L. Apart from styrene, ethyl benzene, toluene and benzene were also quantified but their concentrations were much less than WHO guide line values. All other compounds were in traces. Quality of plastic and storage time were the major factor in leaching of styrene. Concentration of styrene was increased to 69.53 microg/L after one-year storage. In Styrofoam and PS cups studies, hot water was found to be contaminated with styrene and other aromatic compounds. It was observed that temperature played a major role in the leaching of styrene monomer from Styrofoam cups. Paper cups were found to be safe for hot drinks.

  3. Technoeconomic evaluation of bio-based styrene production by engineered Escherichia coli. (United States)

    Claypool, Joshua T; Raman, D Raj; Jarboe, Laura R; Nielsen, David R


    Styrene is an important commodity chemical used in polymers and resins, and is typically produced from the petrochemical feedstocks benzene and ethylene. Styrene has recently been produced biosynthetically for the first time using engineered Escherichia coli, and this bio-based route may represent a lower energy and renewable alternative to petroleum-derived styrene. However, the economics of such an approach has not yet been investigated. Using an early-stage technoeconomic evaluation tool, a preliminary economic analysis of bio-based styrene from C(6)-sugar feedstock has been conducted. Owing to styrene's limited water solubility, it was assumed that the resulting fermentation broth would spontaneously form two immiscible liquid phases that could subsequently be decanted. Assuming current C(6) sugar prices and industrially achievable biokinetic parameter values (e.g., product yield, specific growth rate), commercial-scale bio-based styrene has a minimum estimated selling price (MESP) of 1.90 USD kg(-1) which is in the range of current styrene prices. A Monte Carlo analysis revealed a potentially large (0.45 USD kg(-1)) standard deviation in the MESP, while a sensitivity analysis showed feedstock price and overall yield as primary drivers of MESP.

  4. Trends in occupational exposure to styrene in the European glass fibre-reinforced plastics industry. (United States)

    Van Rooij, J G M; Kasper, A; Triebig, G; Werner, P; Jongeneelen, F J; Kromhout, H


    This study presents temporal trends of styrene exposure for workers in the European glass fibre-reinforced plastics (GRP) industry during the period 1966-2002. Data of personal styrene exposure measurements were retrieved from reports, databases and peer-reviewed papers. Only sources with descriptive statistics of personal measurements were accepted. The styrene exposure data cover personal air samples and biological monitoring data, that is, urinary styrene metabolites (mandelic acid and/or phenylglyoxylic acid) and styrene in blood. Means of series of measurements were categorized by year, country, production process, job and sampling strategy. Linear mixed models were used to identify temporal trends and factors affecting exposure levels. Personal exposure measurements were available from 60 reports providing data on 24145 1-8-h time-weighted average shift personal air samples. Available data of biological exposure indicators included measurements of mandelic acid in post-shift urine (6361 urine samples being analysed). Trend analyses of the available styrene exposure data showed that the average styrene concentration in the breathing zone of open-mould workers in the European GRP industry has decreased on average by 5.3% per year during the period 1966-1990 and by only 0.4% annually in the period after 1990. The highest exposures were measured in Southern Europe and the lowest exposures in Northern Europe with Central Europe in between. Biological indicators of styrene (mandelic acid in post-shift urine) showed a somewhat steeper decline (8.9%), most likely because urine samples were collected in companies that showed a stronger decrease of styrene exposure in air than GRP companies where no biological measurements were carried out.

  5. Inhibition of the anaerobic digestion process by linear alkylbenzene sulfonates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gavala, Hariklia N.; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær


    Linear Alkylbenzene Sulfonates (LAS) are the most widely used synthetic anionic surfactants. They are anthropogenic, toxic compounds and are found in the primary sludge generated in municipal wastewater treatment plants. Primary sludge is usually stabilized anaerobically and therefore it is impor......Linear Alkylbenzene Sulfonates (LAS) are the most widely used synthetic anionic surfactants. They are anthropogenic, toxic compounds and are found in the primary sludge generated in municipal wastewater treatment plants. Primary sludge is usually stabilized anaerobically and therefore...... it is important to investigate the effect of these xenobiotic compounds on an anaerobic environment. The inhibitory effect of Linear Alkylbenzene Sulfonates (LAS) on the acetogenic and methanogenic step of the anaerobic digestion process was studied. LAS inhibit both acetogenesis from propionate...

  6. Simulation of styrene polymerization reactors: kinetic and thermodynamic modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Almeida


    Full Text Available A mathematical model for the free radical polymerization of styrene is developed to predict the steady-state and dynamic behavior of a continuous process. Special emphasis is given for the kinetic and thermodynamic models, where the most sensitive parameters were estimated using data from an industrial plant. The thermodynamic model is based on a cubic equation of state and a mixing rule applied to the low-pressure vapor-liquid equilibrium of polymeric solutions, suitable for modeling the auto-refrigerated polymerization reactors, which use the vaporization rate to remove the reaction heat from the exothermic reactions. The simulation results show the high predictive capability of the proposed model when compared with plant data for conversion, average molecular weights, polydispersity, melt flow index, and thermal properties for different polymer grades.

  7. Preparation of acrylonitrile butadiene styrene fibers by pulse electrospinning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilyara Igimbayeva


    Full Text Available The paper represents the results on the preparation of polymer fibers of acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS with the addition of iron as a modifying additives by pulse electrospinning. The virtue of the method of pulse electrospinning in comparison with classical electrospinning is to obtain fibers with a controlled length. To study the morphology of the fibers obtained samples were used the optical and scanning electron microscopy. To prove the presence of iron inside the fibers methods of elemental analysis and electron paramagnetic resonance were used. The technique and optimal conditions for obtaining fibers have been determined. The effect of technological parameters, concentrations of polymer solutions and modifying additives on the structure and morphology of the fibers were shown.

  8. Interacting Blends of Novel Unsaturated Polyester Amide Resin with Styrene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasmukh S. Patel


    Full Text Available Novel unsaturated poly (ester-amide resins (UPEAs were prepared by the reaction between an epoxy resin, namely diglycidyl ether of bisphenol–A (DGEBA and unsaturated aliphatic bisamic acids using a base catalyst. These UPEAs were then blended with a vinyl monomer namely, Styrene (STY. to produce a homogeneous resin syrup. The curing of these UPEAs-STY. resin blends was carried out by using benzoyl peroxide (BPO as a catalyst and was monitored by using a differential scanning calorimeter (DSC. The glass fibre reinforced composites (i.e. laminates of these UPEA-STY. resin blends were fabricated using the DSC data. The chemical, mechanical and electrical properties of the glass fibre composites have also been evaluated. The unreinforced cured samples of the UPEA-STY. resin blends were also analyzed by thermogravimetry (TGA.

  9. Impaired colour discrimination among workers exposed to styrene: relevance of a urinary metabolite.


    Eguchi, T.; Kishi, R.; Harabuchi, I; Yuasa, J; Arata, Y; Katakura, Y; Miyake, H.


    OBJECTIVES--To survey the loss of colour vision among Japanese workers who have been exposed to styrene concentrations currently considered low (about 20 ppm). Also to assess the effects of styrene by examination of the nature of the relation between disorder of colour vision and age, alcohol consumption, and other variables. METHODS--Colour discrimination was examined in 64 male workers exposed to styrene (mean age; 38.0, mean exposed years; 7.0) and in 69 controls (mean age; 38.0). A standa...

  10. Perfluoroalkyl sulfonates cause alkyl chain length-dependent hepatic steatosis and hypolipidemia mainly by impairing lipoprotein production in APOE*3-leiden CETP mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijland, S.; Rensen, P.C.N.; Pieterman, E.J.; Maas, A.C.E.; Hoorn, J.W. van der; Erk, M.J. van; Havekes, L.M.; Dijk, K.W. van; Chang, S.C.; Ehresman, D.J.; Butenhoff, J.L.; Princen, H.M.G.


    Perfluorobutane sulfonate (PFBS), perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS), and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) are stable perfluoroalkyl sulfonate (PFAS) surfactants, and PFHxS and PFOS are frequently detected in human biomonitoring studies. Some epidemiological studies have shown modest positive

  11. Composite Membranes Based on Polyether Sulfone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Soroush


    Full Text Available The role of polymeric additives such as PVP and PEG is studied with respect to the morphology of PES porous layer as a sublayer of nanofiltration composite membranes based on PES/PA. Results show that by phase inversionprocess of quaternary systems comprised of four components of polymer/solvent/non-solvent/additive and the diffusion of intertwined polymers some changes occur in membrane morphology with changes in their concentration. With addition of PVP, tear-like pores, finger-like and channel-like morphology change to enlarged channel cavities and by adding more PVP, membrane morphology changes further and spongy regions are extended in the membrane. Presence of PEG in casting solution delayed the precipitation time. By adding PEG, the solution viscosity is increased which is followed by decreases in diffusion rates of solvent/non-solvent in coagulation bath.Therefore, membrane morphology shifts to small pores and spongier region. Another effect of increased PEG content would be deformed PA layer formation in PES sublayer which affects membrane performance. However, PVP as an additive does not change membrane salt rejection very much while it leads to higher fluxes. A membrane with 2.5 percent PVP would perform by 40 percent flux increases, while a membrane with 5% PVP shows flux reductions even below the initial value. Contrary to PVP, the PEG content of 20 percent leads to 4 folds flux increases and in a membrane with 50 percent PEG, there is a flux increase by 7 folds and drop in salt rejection occurs by 50 percent and 70 percent, respectively.

  12. Phase behavior of a pure alkyl aryl sulfonate surfactant. [Sodium 8-phenyl-n-hexadecyl-p-sulfonate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franses, E.I.; Davis, H.T.; Miller, W.G.; Scriven, L.E.


    Specctroturbidimetry, visual and microscopic observations, ultracentrifugation and ultrafiltration, conductimetry, and /sup 13/C NMR were used to study the phase behavior of pure sodium 8-phenyl-n-hexadecyl-p-sulfonate in water--NaCl, decane, and water--decane. Solubility of the sulfonate in water is 0.06 wt % at 25/sup 0/C and 0.7 wt % at 90/sup 0/C, and it drops to 0.0002 wt % in 3 wt % NaCl (25/sup 0/C). A liquid crystalline phase in equilibrium with aqueous solution contains 25 wt % water. Nucleation of supersaturated solutions is slow. Dispersability of the sulfonate is high, but NaCl has an adverse effect. 39 references, 13 figs., 5 tables. (DLC)

  13. The influence of mechanical properties in the electrical breakdown in poly-styrene-ethylene-butadiene-styrene thermoplastic elastomer (United States)

    Kollosche, Matthias; Melzer, Michael; Becker, Andre; Stoyanov, Hristian; McCarthy, Denis N.; Ragusch, Hülya; Kofod, Guggi


    Dielectric elastomer actuators (DEA) are a class of eletro-active polymers with promising properties for a number of applications, however, such actuators are prone to failure. One of the leading failure mechanisms is the electrical breakdown. It is already well-known that the electro-mechanical actuation properties of DEA are strongly influenced by the mechanical properties of the elastomer and compliant electrodes. It was recently suggested that also the electrical breakdown in such soft materials is influenced by the mechanical properties of the elastomer. Here, we present stress-strain measurements obtained on two tri-block thermoplastic elastomers (SEBS 500040 and SEBS 500120, poly-styrene-ethylene-butadiene-styrene), with resulting large differences in mechanical properties, and compare them to measurements on the commonly used VHB 4910. Materials were prepared by either direct heat-pressing of the raw material, or by dissolving in toluene, centrifuging and drop-casting. Experiments showed that materials prepared with identical processing steps showed a difference in stiffness of about 20%, where centrifuged and drop-casted films were seen to be softer than heat-pressed films. Electric breakdown measurements showed that for identically processed materials, the stiffness seemed to be a strong indicator of the electrical breakdown strength. It was therefore found that processing leads to differences in both stiffness and electrical breakdown strength. However, unexpectedly, the softer drop-cast films had a much higher breakdown strength than the heatpressed films. We attribute this effect to impurities still present in the heat-pressed films, since these were not purified by centrifuging.

  14. In-situ Polymerization of Styrene to Produce Polystyrene / Montmorillonite Nanocomposites

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lahouari Mrah; Rachid Meghabar; Mohammed Belbachir


    .... CTAB-intercalated Mmt particles were easily dispersed and swollen in styrene monomer, PS/Mmt-CTAB nanocomposites were synthesized via in-situ polymerization, in-situ polymerization, this method...

  15. Exposure to styrene in fiberglass-reinforced plastic manufacture: still a problem. (United States)

    Papaleo, Bruno; Caporossi, Lidia; Bernardini, Francesca; Cristadoro, Luisa; Bastianini, Lucia; De Rosa, Mariangela; Capanna, Silvia; Marcellini, Laura; Loi, Francesco; Battista, Giuseppe


    The aim of the work is to define occupational exposure to styrene in fiberglass manufacture; the phase of stretching styrene resins needs some manual handling and leads workers to be exposed to styrene. We surveyed 20 workers in two companies manufacturing fiberglass, checking environmental levels and urinary concentrations of mandelic acid (MA), and phenylglioxylic acid (PGA). Workers completed a questionnaire collecting their medical history. Environmental monitoring showed some styrene concentrations higher than the threshold limit value-time-weighted average. Biological monitoring confirmed these findings and four workers had levels of urinary PGA and MA concentrations higher than the Biological Exposure Indices of the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists. This picture confirms that, even though the risk is known and the manufacturing cycle is well-defined, workers nevertheless risk exposure. More research is needed to optimize the work processes and the protection systems to lower this risk.

  16. Formation of styrene dependent on fermentation management during wheat beer production. (United States)

    Schwarz, Katrin J; Stübner, René; Methner, Frank-Jürgen


    Styrene is formed by the thermal decarboxylation of cinnamic acid during wort boiling or by enzymatic decarboxylation during fermentation. The enzymatic reactions proceed in parallel to the decarboxylation of ferulic- and p-cumaric acid to 4-vinylguaiacol and 4-vinylphenol by the same decarboxylase enzyme. However, the formation of styrene occurs much faster and all available cinnamic acid in wort was converted completely within a few hours. Moreover, the comparison of various manufacturing parameters shows that a higher fermentation temperature of 25 °C compared to 16 °C and an open fermentation management lead to a rapid decrease of styrene. This allows minimising the content of styrene in beer while maintaining the typical wheat beer flavours. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Crack initiation and propagation on the polymeric material ABS (Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene), under ultrasonic fatigue testing

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    G M Domínguez Almaraz; E Correa Gómez; JC Verduzco Juárez; JL Avila Ambriz


    ... (Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene), under ultrasonic fatigue testing. Three controlled actions were implemented in order to carry out fatigue tests at very high frequency on this material of low thermal conductivity, they are: a...

  18. EPR investigation on radiation-induced graft copolymerization of styrene onto polyethylene: Energy transfer effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salih, M.A. [Dipartimento di Chimica Generale, Universita di Pavia, 27100 Pavia (Italy); Buttafava, A. [Dipartimento di Chimica Generale, Universita di Pavia, 27100 Pavia (Italy); Ravasio, U. [Dipartimento di Chimica Generale, Universita di Pavia, 27100 Pavia (Italy); Dipartimento di Ingegneria Nucleare, Politecnico di Milan (Italy); Mariani, M. [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Nucleare, Politecnico di Milan (Italy); Faucitano, A. [Dipartimento di Chimica Generale, Universita di Pavia, 27100 Pavia (Italy)]. E-mail:


    In this paper, energy transfer phenomena concerning the in-source graft copolymerization of styrene onto LDPE were investigated through the EPR analysis of the radical intermediates. The model solution experiments have shown a substantial deviation of the experimental G (radicals) values with respect to the additivity law, which reflect the negative effect of the styrene monomer concentration on the initiation rate of the graft copolymerization. The EPR measurements performed on polyethylene-co-styrene graft copolymers of various composition following low-temperature vacuum gamma irradiation have confirmed the decrease of the total radical yields with increasing the styrene concentration. The effect was partly attributed to the heterogeneity of the graft copolymer matrix and to the lack of molecular mobility in the solid state at low temperature, which prevents the attainment of the favourable geometrical configurations in intermolecular energy and charge transfer events.

  19. Updated evaluation of the migration of styrene monomer and oligomers from polystyrene food contact materials to foods and food simulants. (United States)

    Genualdi, Susan; Nyman, Patricia; Begley, Timothy


    Due to the 2011 labelling of styrene monomer as "reasonably anticipated to be a human carcinogen" by the National Institutes of Health's National Toxicology Program (NTP) and the controversy over whether styrene oligomers mimic the physiological effects of estrogen, an updated review of styrene monomer and oligomers in food and food contact materials (FCMs) was performed. The concentrations of styrene monomer and oligomers were determined in 24 polystyrene (PS) products and ranged from 9.3 to 3100 mg kg(-1) for the styrene monomer, 130-2900 mg kg(-1) for the sum of three styrene dimers, and 220-16,000 mg kg(-1) for the sum of six styrene trimers. Foods in contact with PS packaging had styrene monomer concentrations ranging from 2.6 to 163 ng g(-1); dimer concentrations from the limit of quantitation (LOQ) to 4.8 ng g(-1) and trimer concentrations were all below the LOQ (2 ng g(-1)). Diffusion coefficients (Dp) and partition coefficients (K) were also calculated for styrene dimers and trimers. The results presented here indicate that styrene monomer concentrations in foods have not significantly changed since the 1980s and monomer concentrations in food packaging quantified in this study were all below USFDA limits. Although styrene dimers and trimers are present in higher concentrations in PS FCMs than the monomer, their migration to food is limited because of their high K values (4 × 10(2) to 2 × 10(6)) and their low diffusion coefficients in PS products. Additionally, diffusion coefficients calculated using USFDA-recommended food simulants and Arrhenius plots describing the temperature dependence of styrene dimers and trimers can be used in future calculations of dietary intake of the styrene oligomers.

  20. Poly(styrene-co-divinylbenzene-co-2-ethylhexyl)acrilate membranes with interconnected macroporous structure


    Sevšek, Urška; Stropnik, Črtomir; Krajnc, Peter; Pulko, Irena; Seifried, Silvo


    A combination of doctor blading and emulsion templating was used to prepare macroporous poly(styrene-co-divinylbenzene-co-2-ethylhexylacrylate) and poly(styrene-co-divinylbenzene) membranes with an interconnected porous structure. Water in oil high internal phase emulsions including monomers in the oil phase were cast onto a glass plate and polymerised at elevated temperature. After purification porous polyHIPE membranes were obtained. The volume ratio of aqueous phase (75 % or 85 %) and the ...

  1. Impact behaviour of acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene after temperature and humidity load


    Hylova Lenka; Manas Miroslav


    This study deals with acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS) which was subjected the drop-weight test before and after temperature and humidity load. ABS is an engineering plastic and also an important engineering terpolymer, which has butadiene part uniformly distributed through the acrylonitrile-styrene matrix and is commonly used in production of automotive interior components. The injection moulded ABS samples were subjected the penetration test at fall height 100 J before and after temper...

  2. Fast atom bombardment mass spectrometry of condensed tannin sulfonate derivatives (United States)

    J.J. Karchesy; L.Y. Foo; Richard W. Hemingway; E. Barofsky; D.F. Barofsky


    Condensed tannin sulfonate derivatives were studied by fast atom bombardment mass spectrometry (FAB-MS) to assess the feasibility of using this technique for determining molecular weight and structural information about these compounds. Both positive- and negative-ion spectra provided useful data with regard to molecular weight, cation species present, and presence of...

  3. Sorption of perfluorooctane sulfonate to carbon nanotubes in aquatic sediments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kwadijk, C.J.A.F.; Velzeboer, I.; Koelmans, A.A.


    To date, sorption of organic compounds to nanomaterials has mainly been studied for the nanomaterial in its pristine state. However, sorption may be different when nanomaterials are buried in sediments. Here, we studied sorption of Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) to sediment and to sediment with 4%

  4. Solid-supported sulfonic acid-containing catalysts efficiently ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Silica-functionalized sulfonic acid (SFSA) and sulfuric acid-modified polyethylene glycol-6000 (PEG-OSO3H) efficiently catalysed one-pot multi-component condensation of enolizable ketones or alkyl acetoacetates with arylaldehydes, acetonitrile and acetyl chloride to afford the corresponding -acetamido ketone or ester ...

  5. Electronic Conductivity of Polypyrrole−Dodecyl Benzene Sulfonate Complexes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    West, Keld; Bay, Lasse; Nielsen, Martin Meedom


    The electronic conductivity of the electroactive polymer polypyrrole-dodecyl benzene sulfonate (PPy-DBS) has been characterized as function of the redox level. The polymer was synthesized with different isomers of the dopant anions: the common mixed DBS tenside and three well-defined synthetic...

  6. Sulfonated polyimides containing triphenylphosphine oxide for proton exchange membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mandal, Arun Kumar; Bera, Debaditya; Banerjee, Susanta, E-mail:


    A series of sulfonated co-polyimides (co-SPI) were prepared by one pot polycondensation reaction of a combination of diamines namely; 4,4′-diaminostilbene-2,2′-disulfonic acid (DSDSA) and prepared non-sulfonated diamine (DATPPO) containing triphenylphosphine oxide with 1,4,5,8-naphthalenetetracarboxylic dianhydride (NTDA). All these soluble co-SPI gave flexible membranes with high thermal stability and showed good mechanical property. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis revealed the microphase separated morphology with well-dispersed hydrophilic (cluster size in the range of 5–55 nm) domains. The co-SPI membranes showed high oxidative and hydrolytic stability with higher proton conductivity. All these co-SPI membranes exhibited low water uptake and swelling ratio. The co-SPI membrane TPPO-60 (60% degree of sulfonation) with IEC{sub W} = 1.84 mequiv g{sup −1} showed high proton conductivity (99 mS cm{sup −1} at 80 °C and 107 mS cm{sup −1} at 90 °C) in water with high oxidative (20 h) and hydrolytic stability (only 5% degradation in 24 h). - Highlights: • Triphenylphosphine oxide containing sulfonated polyimides (SPIs) was synthesized. • The SPIs showed good oxidative and hydrolytic stability and high proton conductivity. • TEM analysis revealed well separated morphology of the SPIs.

  7. Response of weeping willows to linear alkylbenzene sulfonate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, X.; Trapp, Stefan; Zhou, P.


    Linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS) is the most commonly used anionic surfactant in laundry detergents and cleaning agents. LAS compounds are found in surface waters and soils. The short-term acute toxicity of LAS to weeping willows (Salix babylonica L.) was investigated. Willow cuttings were grown...

  8. Polyether sulfone membrane modeling and construction for the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was constructed the polyether sulfone membrane and modelling it, and for checking impact pressure, the amount of iron nanoparticles and sulfate iron intervention in reducing nitrate irons from water. For the removal ion of nitrate at 50 ppm concentration of nitrate potassium, we made three membranes ...

  9. Intrinsic and Ionic Conduction in Humidity-Sensitive Sulfonated Polyaniline

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doan, D.C.T.; Ramaneti, R.; Baggerman, J.; Tong, H.D.; Marcelis, A.T.M.; Rijn, van C.J.M.


    The influence of humidity on the conductivity of sulfonated polyaniline (SPANI) and polyaniline (PANI) is investigated with electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Separation of intrinsic (q) and ionic charge (i) mobility was observed using combination of ac and dc impedance measurements at

  10. Uptake of 4-Toluene Sulfonate by Comamonas testosteroni T-2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)


    The mechanism of transport of the xenobiotic 4-toluene sulfonate (TS) in Comamonas testosteroni T-2 was investigated. Rapid uptake of TS was observed only in cells grown with TS or 4-methylbenzoate as a carbon and energy source. Initial uptake rates under aerobic conditions showed substrate

  11. Fate of linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS) in activated sludge plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Temmink, B.G.; Klapwijk, A.


    Monitoring data were collected in a pilot-scale municipal activated sludge plant to assess the fate of the C12-homologue of linear alkyl benzene sulfonate (LAS-C12). The pilot-plant was operated at influent LAS-C12 concentrations between 2 and 12 mg/l and at sludge retention times of 10 and 27

  12. Epoxy-crosslinked sulfonated poly (phenylene) copolymer proton exchange membranes (United States)

    Hibbs, Michael; Fujimoto, Cy H.; Norman, Kirsten; Hickner, Michael A.


    An epoxy-crosslinked sulfonated poly(phenylene) copolymer composition used as proton exchange membranes, methods of making the same, and their use as proton exchange membranes (PEM) in hydrogen fuel cells, direct methanol fuel cell, in electrode casting solutions and electrodes, and in sulfur dioxide electrolyzers. These improved membranes are tougher, have higher temperature capability, and lower SO.sub.2 crossover rates.

  13. Genotoxicity of styrene oligomers extracted from polystyrene intended for use in contact with food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makoto Nakai


    Full Text Available Here, we conducted in vitro genotoxicity tests to evaluate the genotoxicity of styrene oligomers extracted from polystyrene intended for use in contact with food. Styrene oligomers were extracted with acetone and the extract was subjected to the Ames test (OECD test guideline No. 471 and the in vitro chromosomal aberration test (OECD test guideline No. 473 under good laboratory practice conditions. The concentrations of styrene dimers and trimers in the concentrated extract were 540 and 13,431 ppm, respectively. Extraction with acetone provided markedly higher concentrations of styrene oligomers compared with extraction with 50% ethanol aqueous solution, which is the food simulant currently recommended for use in safety assessments of polystyrene by both the United States Food and Drug Administration and the European Food Safety Authority. And these high concentrations of styrene dimers and trimers were utilized for the evaluation of genotoxicity in vitro. Ames tests using five bacterial tester strains were negative both in the presence or absence of metabolic activation. The in vitro chromosomal aberration test using Chinese hamster lung cells (CHL/IU was also negative. Together, these results suggest that the risk of the genotoxicity of styrene oligomers that migrate from polystyrene food packaging into food is very low.

  14. Influence of morphology on electrical breakdown characteristics of ethylen-styrene copolymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikeda, Masaaki; Matsuo, Katsuya; Oki, Yoshimichi; Hozumi, Naohiro; Harashige, Masahiro


    For developing the insulating material of ethylene-styrene copolymer to be applicable to 500 Kv electric cable, a study was conducted on the relation between higher order molecular structure and breakdown characteristics of insulator. The experiment was composed of measurement of intensity of electric field at breakdown, of its dependency on the wave shape of voltage, of melting behavior of crystal by differential scanning calorimeter, of degree of crystallinity by x-ray diffraction, and of the observation by transmission type electronic microscope. As the result of experiment, dependency of crystallinity on styrene content, linear correlation of total absorbed heat with ethylene content, and of hardness and styrene content, were shown as graphs. Relation between the intensity of breakdown electric field and styrene content was approximated by two broken straight lines. As the consideration, it was obtained that the breakdown occurred at the weak point of polyethylene structure, that the intensity of breakdown electric field was increased proportionally with styrene content, and that, for achieving higher breakdown voltage by increasing the energy absorbing capacity of benzene ring, randomly copolymerized copolymer with uniform dispersion of styrene molecule was better than graft polymer of the same components. (13 figs, 8 refs)

  15. Surface modification of poly(styrene-b-(ethylene-co-butylene)-b-styrene) elastomer via photo-initiated graft polymerization of poly(ethylene glycol)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Xiaomeng [State Key Laboratory of Polymer Physics and Chemistry, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130022 (China); Luan Shifang, E-mail: [State Key Laboratory of Polymer Physics and Chemistry, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130022 (China); Yang Huawei; Shi Hengchong; Zhao Jie; Jin Jing [State Key Laboratory of Polymer Physics and Chemistry, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130022 (China); Yin Jinghua, E-mail: [State Key Laboratory of Polymer Physics and Chemistry, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130022 (China); Stagnaro, Paola [Istituto per Io Studio delle Macromolecole, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Via de Marini 6, 16149 Genova (Italy)


    Poly(styrene-b-(ethylene-co-butylene)-b-styrene) (SEBS) copolymer biomedical elastomer was covalently grafted with poly(ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate (PEGMA) via a photo-initiated graft polymerization technique. The surface graft polymerization of SEBS with PEGMA was verified by ATR-FTIR and XPS. Effect of graft polymerization parameters, i.e., monomer concentration, UV irradiation time and initiator concentration on the grafting density was investigated. Comparing with the virgin SEBS film, the PEGMA-modified SEBS film presented an enhanced wettability and a larger surface energy. Besides, the surface grafting of PEGMA imparted excellent anti-platelet adhesion and anti-protein adsorption to the SEBS surface.

  16. Sodium 2-mercaptoethanesulfonate monohydrate (coenzyme M sodium salt monohydrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Mayr


    Full Text Available The 2-thioethanesulfonate anion is the smallest known coenzyme in nature (HS–CoM and plays a key role in methanogenesis by anaerobic archaea, as well as in the oxidation of alkenes by Gram-negative and Gram-positive eubacteria. The title compound, Na+·C2H5O3S2−·H2O, is the Na+ salt of HS–CoM crystallized as the monohydrate. Six O atoms form a distorted octahedral coordination geometry around the Na atom, at distances in the range 2.312 (4–2.517 (3 Å. Two O atoms of the sulfonate group, one O atom of each of three other symmetry-related sulfonate groups plus the water O atom form the coordination environment of the Na+ ion. This arrangement forms Na–O–Na layers in the crystal structure, parallel to (100.

  17. Aligned electrospun nanofibers as proton conductive channels through thickness of sulfonated poly (phthalazinone ether sulfone ketone) proton exchange membranes (United States)

    Gong, Xue; He, Gaohong; Wu, Yao; Zhang, Shikai; Chen, Bo; Dai, Yan; Wu, Xuemei


    A novel approach is proposed to fabricate sulfonated poly (phthalazinone ether sulfone ketone) (SPPESK) proton exchange membranes with ordered through-plane electrospinning nanofibers, which provide nano-scale through-plane proton conductive channels along the thickness direction of the membranes, aiming to satisfy the challenging requirement of high through-plane proton conductivity in fuel cell operations. Induced by electrostatic attraction of strong electric field, the negatively charged sulfonic acid groups tend to aggregate towards surface of the electrospun fibers, which is evidenced by TEM and SAXS and further induces aggregation of the sulfonic acid groups in the SPPESK inferfiber voids filler along the surface of the nanofibers. The aligned electrospun nanofibers carries long-range ionic clusters along the thickness direction of the membrane and results in much higher total through-plane conductivity in the thickness aligned electrospun membranes, nearly twice as much as that of the cast SPPESK membrane. With smooth treatment, the thickness aligned electrospun SPPESK membranes exhibit higher single cell power density and tensile strength as compared with Nafion 115 (around 1.2 and 1.5 folds, respectively). Such a design of thickness aligned nano-size proton conductive channels provide feasibility for high performance non-fluorinated PEMs in fuel cell applications.

  18. Morphology and contact angle studies of poly(styrene-co-acrylonitrile modified epoxy resin blends and their glass fibre reinforced composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)


    Full Text Available In this study, the surface characteristics of blends and composites of epoxy resin were investigated. Poly(styrene-co-acylonitrile (SAN was used to modify diglycedyl ether of bisphenol-A (DGEBA type epoxy resin cured with diamino diphenyl sulfone (DDS and the modified epoxy resin was used as the matrix for fibre reinforced composites (FRP’s. E-glass fibre was used as the fibre reinforcement. The scanning electron micrographs of the fractured surfaces of the blends and composites were analyzed. Morphological analysis revealed different morphologies such as dispersed, cocontinuous and phase-inverted structures for the blends. Contact angle studies were carried out using water and methylene iodide at room temperature. The solid surface energy was calculated using harmonic mean equations. Blending of epoxy resin increases its contact angle. The surface free energy, work of adhesion, interfacial free energy, spreading coefficient and Girifalco-Good’s interaction parameter were changed significantly in the case of blends and composites. The incorporation of thermoplastic and glass fibre reduces the wetting and hydrophilicity of epoxy resin.

  19. DFT analysis of the structure and IR spectrum of potassium salt of diphenylsulfophthalide - A model compound for polydiphenylenesulfophthalide salts (United States)

    Shishlov, N. M.; Akhmetzyanov, Sh S.; Khursan, S. L.


    Experimental IR spectra of crystalline dried and non-dried potassium diphenylsulfophthalide (TAC-K) as a model compound for polymeric salts are presented. DFT analysis (B3LYP/6-311G(d,p)) of the structure and IR spectra of a series of compounds similar in structure to TAC-K as well as their dimers indicates that the sulfonate group environment strongly affects the positions of absorption bands (ABs) of vibrations of Ssbnd O bonds and demonstrates that information on the exact structure of ion clusters is needed for reliable and unambiguous assignment of the ABs in experimental IR spectra of real sulfonate ion containing systems to particular vibrational modes. Various ways of metal ion coordination with sulfonate ion, as well as their reflection in IR spectra of model compounds, are considered and discussed. Using TAC-K as an example, the effect of an intramolecular hydrogen bond on the vibrational modes of sulfonate group and hydroxy group is considered. The effect of ion aggregation on the shape of the IR spectrum of TAC-K is analyzed for an energetically favorable dimer of this salt as an example. Based on a combination of calculated, literature and reference data, a number of ABs in the IR spectra of TAC-K have been tentatively assigned. In particular, the bands in the region of 3230-3180 cm-1 have been assigned to ν(Osbnd H); those at 1240-1160 cm-1, to νas(SO3-); the AB at 1080 cm-1, to νs(SO3-); that at 616 cm-1, to δ(oop)s(SO3-); and that at 570 cm-1, to δ(ip)as(SO3-).

  20. Controlled Release of Imidacloprid from Poly Styrene-Diacetone - Nanoformulation (United States)

    Qian, Kun; Guo, Yanzhen; He, Lin


    Imidacloprid is a neonicotinoids insecticide, which is important for the cash crops such as tomato, rape and so on. The conventional formulation does not only increase the loss of pesticide but also leads to environmental pollution. Controlled-release formulations of pesticide are highly desirable not only for attaining the most effective utilization of the pesticide, but also for reducing environmental pollution. Pesticide imidacloprid was incorporated in poly (styrene-diacetone crylamide)-based formulation to obtain controlled release properties, and the imidacloprid nanocontrolled release formulation was characterized by infrared (IR) and field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM). Factors related to loading efficiency, swelling and release behaviors of the formulation were investigated. It showed that the loading efficiency could reach about 40% (w/w). The values for the diffusion exponent "n" were in the range of 0.31-0.58, which indicated that the release of imidacloprid was diffusion-controlled. The time taken for 50% of the active ingredient to be released into water, T50, was also calculated for the comparison of formulations in different conditions. The results showed that the formulation with higher temperature and more diacetone crylamide had lower value of T50, which means a quicker release of the active ingredient. This study highlighted some pieces of evidence that improved pesticide incorporation and slower release were linked to potential interactions between the pesticide and the polymer.

  1. Fatigue Characteristics of 3D Printed Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene (ABS) (United States)

    Padzi, M. M.; Bazin, M. M.; Muhamad, W. M. W.


    Recently, the use of 3D printer technology has become significant to industries, especially when involving the new product development. 3D printing is a technology, which produces the 3D product or prototype using a layer-by-layer technique. However, there becomes less research on the mechanical performance of the 3D printed component. In the present work, fatigue characteristics of 3D printed specimen have been studied. Acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) has been chosen as a material research due to its wide applications. Two types of specimen used, which is the 3D printing and moulding specimens. Fused deposition modelling (FDM) technique was used to produce the specimens. The dog bone shape part was produced based on ASTM D638 standard and the tensile test has been carried out to get the mechanical properties. Fatigue test was carried out at 40%, 60% and 80% of the tensile strength. The moulded part shows higher fatigue cycles compared to 3D printed part for all loading percentages. Fatigue lives for 40%, 60% and 80%, were 911, 2645 and 26948 cycles, respectively. The results indicated that 3D printed part has a lower fatigue life, which may not suitable for industrial applications. However, the 3D printed part could be improved by using various parameters and may be introduced in low strength application.

  2. Binary and ternary LLE data of the system (ethylbenzene + styrene + 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium thiocyanate) and binary VLE data of the system (styrene + 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium thiocyanate)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongmans, Mark; Schuur, Boelo; de Haan, A.B.


    The distillation of close boiling mixtures may be improved by adding a proper affinity solvent, and thereby creating an extractive distillation process. An example of a close boiling mixture that may be separated by extractive distillation is the mixture ethylbenzene/styrene. The ionic liquid

  3. In Situ Investigation of the Adsorption of Styrene Phosphonic Acid on Cassiterite (110) Surface by Molecular Modeling

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Guichen Gong; Yuexin Han; Jie Liu; Yimin Zhu; Yanfeng Li; Shuai Yuan


    The flotation, adsorption and bonding mechanisms of styrene phosphonic acid (SPA) to cassiterite were studied using microflotation tests, zeta potential measurements, solution chemistry analysis and density functional theory...

  4. Differently substituted sulfonated polyanilines: the role of polymer compositions in electron transfer with pyrroloquinoline quinone-dependent glucose dehydrogenase. (United States)

    Sarauli, David; Xu, Chenggang; Dietzel, Birgit; Schulz, Burkhard; Lisdat, Fred


    Sulfonated polyanilines have become promising building blocks in the construction of biosensors, and therefore we use here differently substituted polymer forms to investigate the role of their structural composition and properties in achieving a direct electron transfer with the redox enzyme pyrroloquinoline quinone-dependent glucose dehydrogenase (PQQ-GDH). To this end, new copolymers containing different ratios of 2-methoxyaniline-5-sulfonic acid (MAS), 3-aminobenzenesulfonic acid (ABS) and 3-aminobenzoic acid (AB) units have been chemically synthesized. All polymers have been studied with respect to their ability to react directly with PQQ-GDH. This interaction has been monitored initially in solution, and subsequently on electrode surfaces. The results show that only copolymers with MAS and aniline units can directly react with PQQ-GDH in solution; the background can be mainly ascribed to the emeraldine salt redox state of the polymer, allowing rather easy reduction. However, when polymers and the enzyme are immobilized on the surface of carbon nanotube-containing electrodes, direct bioelectrocatalysis is also feasible in the case of copolymers composed of ABS/AB and MAS/AB units, existing initially in pernigraniline base form. This verifies that a productive interaction of the enzyme with differently substituted polymers is feasible when the electrode potential can be used to drive the reaction towards the oxidation of the substrate-reduced enzyme. These results clearly demonstrate that enzyme electrodes based on sulfonated polyanilines and direct bioelectrocatalysis can be successfully constructed. Copyright © 2013 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Occupational exposure to styrene in the fibreglass reinforced plastic industry: comparison between two different manufacturing processes. (United States)

    Tranfo, Giovanna; Gherardi, Monica; Paci, E; Gatto, Mariapia; Gordiani, A; Caporossi, Lidia; Capanna, Silvia; Sisto, Renata; Papaleo, B; Fiumalbi, Carla; Garofani, Patrizia


    Styrene is used in manufacturing fiberglass reinforced plastics: and occupational exposure was related to neurotoxicology and genotoxicity. The sum of the metabolites mandelic and phenylglyoxylic acids is the ACGIH biomarker for occupational exposure with a BEI of 400 mg/g of creatinine in end shift urine corresponding to a airborne styrene concentration of 85 mg/m3. There are two main molding processes, open and closed, the last more effective at controlling worker's styrene exposure. To compare the open molding process to the compression of fiber reinforced resin foils, a kind of closed molding, monitoring the styrene exposure of workers in two production sites (A and B). Environmental Monitoring was carried out by Radiello samplers and Biological Monitoring by means of the determination of MA and PGA with HPLC/MS/MS in 10 workers at Site A and 14 at Site B. The median values for styrene exposure resulted 31.1 mg/m3 for Site A and 24.4 mg/m for Site B, while the medians for the sum of the two metabolites in the end shift urine were 86.7 e 33.8 mg/g creatinine respectively. There is a significant linear correlation between personal styrene exposure and the excretion of styrene metabolites (R = 0.74). As expected the exposure markers of the workers of the two production sites resulted higher in the open process. The analytical results of both environmental and biological monitoring were all below the occupational exposure limits, confirming the efficacy of the protective devices.

  6. Synthesis and spectroscopic behavior of some oxovanadium(IV and oxovanadium(V complexes of 7-iodo-8-hydroxyquinoline-5-sulfonate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    González-Baró Ana C.


    Full Text Available The oxovanadium (IV complex [VOL2].5H2O (1 and the oxovanadium(V complexes K[VOL2O].4H2O (2, [VOL2OH] (3 and [VOL2OCH3] (4 (L = potassium salt of 7-iodo-8-hydroxyquinoline-5-sulfonic acid were prepared and characterized. The IR spectra of the solids were recorded and discussed in comparison with those of other similar compounds. The electronic absorption spectra, in different solvents, were also analyzed. Pre-resonance Raman measurements, performed with the first two mentioned complexes, reinforce some of the spectroscopic assignments.

  7. Hypernatremia in a patient treated with sodium polystyrene sulfonate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manish Nepal


    Full Text Available Manish Nepal, Ion Dan Bucaloiu, Evan R NorfolkGeisinger Medical Center, Department of Nephrology, Danville, PA, USAAbstract: Severe hyperkalemia requires urgent medical attention and correction in order to prevent arrhythmic complications. Sodium polystyrene sulfonate (SPS is a cation exchange resin commonly used in the management of hyperkalemia. A recent review raised concerns regarding its effectiveness and potential adverse effects. Hypernatremia in adults in the setting of sodium polystyrene sulfonate therapy has not been described in the literature. We report the case of a woman who developed hypernatremia in the setting of excessive SPS administration and hope to increase awareness among clinicians regarding this potential side effect of SPS therapy.Keywords: SPS, hyperkalemia 

  8. Mortar modified with sulfonated polystyrene produced from waste plastic cups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. A. C. MOTTA

    Full Text Available Abstract In this work, we studied the addition of sulfonated polystyrene produced from waste plastic cups as an admixture for mortars. Mortars were analyzed with polystyrene content of 0.0; 0.2; 0.6; 1.0 and 1.4% in relation to the cement mass. The influence of polystyrene on the mortars' properties was evaluated by the consistency index, water retention, water absorption, porosity, elasticity modulus, compressive strength, flexural strength, bond tensile strength and microscopy. The increase in the sulfonated polystyrene content decreased the elasticity modulus of the mortar and, despite higher porosity, there was a reduction of water absorption by capillarity. In relation to mortar without admixture, the modified mortar showed an increase in water retention and consistency index, and a large increase in flexural strength and bond tensile strength. The significant increase of bond tensile strength (214% with admixture 1% highlights the potential of the produced material as an adhesive mortar.

  9. Proton conductive membranes based on doped sulfonated polytriazole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boaventura, M.; Brandao, L.; Mendes, A. [Laboratorio de Engenharia de Processos, Ambiente e Energia (LEPAE), Faculdade de Engenharia da Universidade do Porto, Rua Roberto Frias, 4200-465 Porto (Portugal); Ponce, M.L.; Nunes, S.P. [GKSS Research Centre Geesthacht GmbH, Max Planck Str. 1, D-21502, Geesthacht (Germany)


    This work reports the preparation and characterization of proton conducting sulfonated polytriazole membranes doped with three different agents: 1H-benzimidazole-2-sulfonic acid, benzimidazole and phosphoric acid. The modified membranes were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), infrared spectra, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), dynamical mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The addition of doping agents resulted in a decrease of the glass transition temperature. For membranes doped with 85 wt.% phosphoric acid solution proton conductivity increased up to 2.10{sup -3} S cm{sup -1} at 120 C and at 5% relative humidity. The performance of the phosphoric acid doped membranes was evaluated in a fuel cell set-up at 120 C and 2.5% relative humidity. (author)

  10. Use of an acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS) plastic ring as a matrix in the recovery of bite mark evidence. (United States)

    Sweet, D J; Bastien, R B


    Valuable forensic information can be obtained from analysis of human bite mark injuries after careful retrieval of such evidence from living or deceased victims. It is difficult, however, to maintain the anatomical configuration of the skin, especially where body contours complicate the recovery process. Transillumination of the injury pattern in the skin after removal and preservation of the tissue from a deceased victim can provide significant information in the investigation process. A dimensionally stable matrix is required to support the skin's anatomical configuration during and after its removal. The authors have developed a unique and convenient method of heating and contouring a ring of acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS) plastic using table salt over a heat source. When this ring is applied to the deceased victim's skin, and a backing material is added for support, removal of the skin and the bite mark can be accomplished more predictably while maintaining the anatomical contour. It is important to record bite marks accurately as soon after discovery as possible; the authors believe that this technique will significantly aid recovery of such evidence either at the crime scene or in the laboratory. A method of inscribing appropriate anatomical markers and case numbers on the rings is also described.

  11. Nucleophilic tetrafluoroethylation of carbonyl compounds with fluorinated sulfones

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Václavík, Jiří; Chernykh, Yana; Jurásek, Bronislav; Beier, Petr


    Roč. 169, Jan (2015), s. 24-31 ISSN 0022-1139 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP207/11/0421 Grant - others:GA MŠk(CZ) ED3.2.00/08.0144; GA MŠk(CZ) LM2010005 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : fluorine * tetrafluoroethylation * sulfones * nucleophilic addition * carbonyl compounds Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 2.213, year: 2015

  12. Monovinyl sulfone β-cyclodextrin. A flexible drug carrier system. (United States)

    del Castillo, Teresa; Marales-Sanfrutos, Julia; Santoyo-González, Francisco; Magez, Stefan; Lopez-Jaramillo, F Javier; Garcia-Salcedo, Jose A


    Cyclodextrins have been conjugated to target various receptors and have also been functionalized with carbohydrates for targeting specific organs. However, this approach is based on a rigid design that implies the ad hoc synthesis of each cyclodextrin-targeting agent conjugate. We hypothesized that: 1)a modular design that decouples the carrier function from the targeting function leads to a flexible system, 2) combining the reactivity of the vinyl sulfone group toward biomolecules that act as targeting agents with the ability of cyclodextrin to form complexes with a wide range of drugs may yield a versatile system that allows the targeting of different organs with different drugs, and 3) the higher reactivity of histidine residues toward the vinyl sulfone group can be exploited to couple the cyclodextrin to the targeting system with a degree of regioselectivity. As a proof of concept, we synthesized a monovinyl sulfone β-cyclodextrin (module responsible for the payload), which, after coupling to recombinant antibody fragments raised against Trypanosoma brucei (module responsible for targeting) and loading with nitrofurazone (module responsible for therapeutic action) resulted in an effective delivery system that targets the surface of the parasites and shows trypanocidal activity. Copyright © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Synthesis of proton conducting sulfonated and phosphonated polybenzimidazoles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ng, F.; Peron, J.; Salunke, A.; Jones, D.J.; Roziere, J. [Montpellier Univ., Montpellier (France). Lab. des Agregats Moleculaires et Materiaux Inorganiques


    A study was conducted in which a new flexible polybenzimidazoles (PBI) was synthesized with a proton conductivity higher than 10-3 S/cm at room temperature, in the absence of any unbound acid. Polybenzimidazoles are particularly robust polymers that are stable under various chemical and thermal environments. It is difficult to achieve direct sulfonation in solution of commercially available PBI, although alternative types of PBI with different solubility properties may be modified in this way. Reaction at high temperature of sulfuric acid-doped PBI membranes results in cross-linked and poorly conducting systems. Although acid-doped PBI membranes have high conductivity, acid loss occurs at temperature and load cycling in an operating fuel cell. Alternative approaches have been suggested, such as direct sulfonation and polycondensation reaction involving building blocks functionalized with protogenic groups that lead to new functionalized polybenzimidazoles with suitable properties for fuel cell application. The membrane microstructure can be modified by controlling the position, number and distribution of the sulfonic (phosphonic) acid groups along the backbone. This also affects membrane swelling and conductivity. This study also investigated the influence of the degree of protogenic group functionalization of polymer and membrane properties such as Tg, film forming properties, membrane water uptake and conductivity, and surface hydrophobic/philic properties. It was concluded that the polymer's conductivity depends on the ion exchange capacity and on the nature of the component diacids that give flexibility to the functionalized polybenzimidazole chains.

  14. Proton conducting sulphonated fluorinated poly(styrene) crosslinked electrolyte membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soules, A.; Ameduri, B.; Boutevin, B.; David, G. [Institut Charles Gerhardt UMR CNRS 5253 Equipe, Ingenierie et Architectures Macromoleculaires,' ' Ecole Nationale Superieure de Chimie de Montpellier, 8 rue de l' Ecole Normale, 34296 Montpellier, Cedex 05 (France); Perrin, R. [CEA Le Ripault Departement des Materiaux, DMAT/SCMF/LSTP, BP16 - 37260 Monts (France); Gebel, G. [Structure et Proprietes des Architectures Moleculaires UMR 5819 (CEA-CNRS-UJF), INAC, SPrAM, CEA Grenoble, 17 Rue des Martyrs, 38054 Grenoble, Cedex 9 (France)


    Potential membranes for polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell based on crosslinked sulphonated fluorinated polystyrenes (PS) were synthesised in two steps. First, azide-telechelic polystyrene was obtained by iodine transfer polymerisation of styrene in the presence of 1,6-diiodoperfluorohexane followed by azido chain-end functionalisation. Then azide-telechelic polystyrene was efficiently crosslinked with 1,10-diazido-1H,1H,2H,2H,9H,9H,10H,10H-perfluorodecane under UV irradiation. After 45 min only, almost completion of azide crosslinking could be achieved, resulting in crosslinked membranes with insoluble fractions higher than 95%. The sulphonation of the crosslinked membranes afforded ionic exchange capacities (IECs) ranging from 2.2 to 3.2 meq g{sup -1}. The hydration number was shown to be very high (from 30 to 75), depending on both the content of perfluorodecane and of sulphonic acid groups. The morphology of the membranes, assessed by small-angle X-ray scattering, was found to be a lamellar-type structure with two types of ionic domains. For the membrane that exhibited an IEC value of 2.2 meq.g{sup -1}, proton conductivity was in the same range as that of Nafion {sup registered} (120-135{sup -1}), whereas the membrane IEC value of 3.2 meq.g{sup -1} showed a proton conductivity higher than that of Nafion {sup registered} in liquid water from 25 to 80 C, though a high water uptake. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  15. Application of Lignin as Antioxidant in Styrene Butadiene Rubber Composite (United States)

    Liu, Shusheng; Cheng, Xiansu


    Lignin isolated from enzymatic hydrolyzed cornstalks (EHL) is a renewable natural polymer, and rubber is one of the most important polymer materials. The application of EHL in rubber industry is of great significance. The influence of EHL and antioxidant RD on the vulcanizing characteristics, thermal oxidative aging stability under free condition, and water extraction resistance of styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR) were investigated. The effect of EHL/antioxidant D composite antioxidant on the thermal oxidative ageing of SBR was also evaluated. Results showed that the protection of SBR from thermal oxidative aging by EHL/antioxidant D composite antioxidant was superior to that of antioxidant D. This is because EHL molecules have hindered phenol group and have excellent auxiliary antioxidant role with antioxidant D. Moreover, the influence of EHL on the vulcanizing characteristics of SBR compounds was better than that of antioxidant RD, and EHL can reduce the cure rate and increase the optimum cure time. It is because that the EHL molecules have hindered phenol group and methoxy group, which can form a special structure to capture free radical and terminate the chain reaction. The retained tensile strength of SBR compounds with EHL was similar to that of the samples with antioxidant RD, while the retained elongation at break of SBR compounds with EHL was higher than that of the samples with antioxidant RD. In addition, the SBR compounds with EHL have a good water extraction resistance property, which was similar to the samples with antioxidant RD. This is because EHL have large molecular weight, good stability and low solubility in water. In conclusion, due to the low price, abundant resources, non-toxic and pollution-free, etc., EHL will have broad application prospect.

  16. Anthraquinone-2-sulfonate immobilized to conductive polypyrrole hydrogel as a bioanode to enhance power production in microbial fuel cell. (United States)

    Tang, Xinhua; Ng, How Yong


    In this study, anthraquinone-2-sulfonate (AQS), a redox mediator, was covalently bound to conductive polypyrrole hydrogel (CPH) via electrochemical reduction of the in-situ-generated AQS diazonium salts. The porous structure and hydrophilic surface of this CPH/AQS anode enhanced biofilm formation while the AQS bound on the CPH/AQS anode worked as a redox mediator. The CPH/AQS bioanode reduced the charge transfer resistance from 28.3Ω to 4.1Ω while increased the maximum power density from 762±37mW/m2 to 1919±69mW/m2, compared with the bare anode. These results demonstrated that the facile synthesis of the CPH/AQS anode provided an efficient route to enhance the power production of microbial fuel cell (MFC). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. DFT Study of Binding and Electron Transfer from a Metal-Free Dye with Carboxyl, Hydroxyl, and Sulfonic Anchors to a Titanium Dioxide Nanocluster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corneliu I. Oprea


    Full Text Available We report results of density functional theory (DFT calculations of a metal-free dye, 5-(4-sulfophenylazosalicylic acid disodium salt, known as Mordant Yellow 10 (MY-10, used as sensitizer for TiO2 dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs. Given the need to better understand the behavior of the dyes adsorbed on the TiO2 nanoparticle, we studied various single and double deprotonated forms of the dye bound to a TiO2 cluster, taking advantage of the presence of the carboxyl, hydroxyl, and sulfonic groups as possible anchors. We discuss various binding configurations to the TiO2 substrate and the charge transfer from the pigment to the oxide by means of DFT calculations. In agreement with other reports, we find that the carboxyl group tends to bind in bidentate bridging configurations. The salicylate uses both the carboxyl and hydroxyl substituent groups for either a tridentate binding to adjacent Ti(IV ions or a bidentate Ti-O binding together with an O-H-O binding, due to the rotation of the carboxyl group out of the plane of the dye. The sulfonic group prefers a tridentate binding. We analyze the propensity for electron transfer of the various dyes and find that for MY-10, as a function of the anchor group, the DSSC performance decreases in the order hydroxyl + carboxyl > carboxyl > sulfonate.

  18. Final Technical Report - Autothermal Styrene Manufacturing Process with Net Export of Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trubac, Robert , E.; Lin, Feng; Ghosh, Ruma: Greene, Marvin


    The overall objectives of the project were to: (a) develop an economically competitive processing technology for styrene monomer (SM) that would reduce process energy requirements by a minimum 25% relative to those of conventional technology while achieving a minimum 10% ROI; and (b) advance the technology towards commercial readiness. This technology is referred to as OMT (Oxymethylation of Toluene). The unique energy savings feature of the OMT technology would be replacement of the conventional benzene and ethylene feedstocks with toluene, methane in natural gas and air or oxygen, the latter of which have much lower specific energy of production values. As an oxidative technology, OMT is a net energy exporter rather than a net energy consumer like the conventional ethylbenzene/styrene (EB/SM) process. OMT plants would ultimately reduce the cost of styrene monomer which in turn will decrease the costs of polystyrene making it perhaps more cost competitive with competing polymers such as polypropylene.

  19. Occupational styrene exposure and acquired dyschromatopsia: A systematic review and meta-analysis. (United States)

    Choi, Ariel R; Braun, Joseph M; Papandonatos, George D; Greenberg, Paul B


    Styrene is a chemical used in the manufacture of plastic-based products worldwide. We systematically reviewed eligible studies of occupational styrene-induced dyschromatopsia, qualitatively synthesizing their findings and estimating the exposure effect through meta-analysis. PubMed, EMBASE, and Web of Science databases were queried for eligible studies. Using a random effects model, we compared measures of dyschromatopsia between exposed and non-exposed workers to calculate the standardized mean difference (Hedges'g). We also assessed between-study heterogeneity and publication bias. Styrene-exposed subjects demonstrated poorer color vision than did the non-exposed (Hedges' g = 0.56; 95%CI: 0.37, 0.76; P dyschromatopsia, suggesting a modest effect size with mild heterogeneity between studies. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Removal of petroleum sulfonate from aqueous solutions using freshly generated magnesium hydroxide. (United States)

    Huang, Xinghai; Wu, Tao; Li, Yujiang; Sun, Dejun; Zhang, Guochen; Wang, Yan; Wang, Guopeng; Zhang, Miaoli


    Freshly generated magnesium hydroxide (FGMH), produced by adding water-soluble magnesium salts to highly alkaline solutions, was used to remove anionic surfactant petroleum sulfonate (PS) from aqueous solutions. Adsorption experiments were carried out to investigate the effects of pH, adsorbent dosage, contact time, PS concentration, and temperature. The results showed that FGMH displayed excellent treatment efficiency for PS in the pH range 12.0-13.0. The maximum PS removal efficiency was reached within 60 s. The best dosage of magnesium chloride was 2.0 g/L. The adsorption capacity of FGMH for PS decreased as the temperature increased from 303 K to 333 K. The adsorption process was exothermic. The removal mechanism of PS by FGMH may be a coagulation-adsorption process involving a combination of flocculation, adsorption, charge neutralization, and netting catch affection. The results of this study showed that FGMH can be effectively used to treat surfactant wastewaters. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Measurement of styrene oxide in polystyrenes, estimation of migration to foods, and reaction kinetics and products in food simulants. (United States)

    Philo, M R; Fordham, P J; Damant, A P; Castle, L


    The concentration of styrene-7,8-oxide has been measured in nine base resins and 16 samples of polystyrene articles intended for food contact. The epoxide was not detected in the resins (limit of detection 0.5 mg/kg) but was found in 11 of the 16 packaging samples at up to 2.9 mg/kg. Assuming that the propensity of styrene oxide to migrate is the same as styrene monomer, and using existing survey data for styrene monomer in packaging and foods, the migration levels expected for styrene oxide were calculated. Estimates were from 0.002 to 0.15 microgram/kg styrene oxide in foods. The stability of styrene oxide in the four standard EU food simulants was studied at 40, 100, 150 and 175 degrees C, to establish the transformation products to be expected following migration testing. The half-life at 40 degrees C in distilled water, 15% aqueous ethanol, 3% aqueous acetic acid and olive oil was 15, 23, 2000 hr, respectively. The principal product was the diol from hydrolysis of the epoxide group. Ring opening in aqueous ethanol simulant gave the diol and also the glycol monoethyl ether. It is concluded that this instability of styrene oxide will reduce concentrations in foods, from an already low migration level to even lower levels with the formation of hydrolysis products that are less toxic than the parent epoxide.


    The paper gives results of an investigation of the impact of an ozone generator air cleaner on vapor-phase styrene concentrations in a full-scale indoor air quality test chamber. The time history of the concentrations of styrene and ozone is well predicted by a simulation model u...

  3. Kinetics and mechanism of styrene epoxidation by chlorite: role of chlorine dioxide. (United States)

    Leigh, Jessica K; Rajput, Jonathan; Richardson, David E


    An investigation of the kinetics and mechanism for epoxidation of styrene and para-substituted styrenes by chlorite at 25 °C in the pH range of 5-6 is described. The proposed mechanism in water and water/acetonitrile includes seven oxidation states of chlorine (-I, 0, I, II, III, IV, and V) to account for the observed kinetics and product distributions. The model provides an unusually detailed quantitative mechanism for the complex reactions that occur in mixtures of chlorine species and organic substrates, particularly when the strong oxidant chlorite is employed. Kinetic control of the reaction is achieved by the addition of chlorine dioxide to the reaction mixture, thereby eliminating a substantial induction period observed when chlorite is used alone. The epoxidation agent is identified as chlorine dioxide, which is continually formed by the reaction of chlorite with hypochlorous acid that results from ClO produced by the epoxidation reaction. The overall stoichiometry is the result of two competing chain reactions in which the reactive intermediate ClO reacts with either chlorine dioxide or chlorite ion to produce hypochlorous acid and chlorate or chloride, respectively. At high chlorite ion concentrations, HOCl is rapidly eliminated by reaction with chlorite, minimizing side reactions between HOCl and Cl2 with the starting material. Epoxide selectivity (>90% under optimal conditions) is accurately predicted by the kinetic model. The model rate constant for direct reaction of styrene with ClO2(aq) to produce epoxide is (1.16 ± 0.07) × 10(-2) M(-1) s(-1) for 60:40 water/acetonitrile with 0.20 M acetate buffer. Rate constants for para substituted styrenes (R = -SO3(-), -OMe, -Me, -Cl, -H, and -NO2) with ClO2 were determined. The results support the radical addition/elimination mechanism originally proposed by Kolar and Lindgren to account for the formation of styrene oxide in the reaction of styrene with chlorine dioxide.

  4. Increased frequency of lymphocyte micronuclei in workers producing reinforced polyester resin with low exposure to styrene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoegstedt, B.; Akesson, B.; Axell, K.; Gullberg, B.; Mitelman, F.; Pero, R.W.; Skerfving, S.; Welinder, H.


    A new micronucleus method based on the analysis of lymphocytes with preserved cytoplasm revealed an increased frequency of micronuclei in 38 workers employed in a plant producing styrene-modified polyester resin as compared to the frequency in 20 referents (5.9 vs 3.6%). The time-weighted average of the styrene concentration in the workroom air varied between 1 and 36 ppm (mean 13 ppm) during the last year and correlated well to low urinary levels of mandelic acid, which ranged from 9 to 316 mg/g of creatinine (mean 65 mg/g of creatinine).

  5. Impact behaviour of acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene after temperature and humidity load

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hylova Lenka


    Full Text Available This study deals with acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS which was subjected the drop-weight test before and after temperature and humidity load. ABS is an engineering plastic and also an important engineering terpolymer, which has butadiene part uniformly distributed through the acrylonitrile-styrene matrix and is commonly used in production of automotive interior components. The injection moulded ABS samples were subjected the penetration test at fall height 100 J before and after temperature and humidity load and the results were subsequently evaluated and discussed. It was found out that ABS after temperature and humidity load has lower impact resistance.

  6. Influence of the Nanoclay Cloisite 20A Incorporation on Properties of Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene (ABS) (United States)

    Sales, Jorge N.; Silva, Andressa A.; Valenzuela-Diaz, Francisco R.; Moura, Esperidiana A. B.

    This work aims to study the influence of the nanoclay Cloisite 20A incorporation on mechanical properties of ABS (acrylonitrile butadiene styrene). The incorporation of Cloisite 20A was made in two steps; firstly, a masterbatch was preparated and then, it was incorporated in ABS. The Cloisite 20A masterbatch using 40 % of nanoclay and 60 % of SAN (Styrene Acrylonitrile) was prepared in an adiabatic mill. After that, Cloisite 20A masterbarch at 1 and 5 % (wt) was added in ABS. The resulting nanocomposites were characterized by tensile tests and the correlation between properties was discussed.

  7. Kinetic study of the selective hydrogenation of styrene over a Pd egg-shell composite catalyst


    Betti,Carolina; Badano,Juan; Lederhos,Cecilia; Maccarrone, María; Carrara, Nicolás; Coloma, Fernando; Quiroga, Mónica; Vera, Carlos


    This is a study on the kinetics of the liquid-phase hydrogenation of styrene to ethylbenzene over a catalyst of palladium supported on an inorganic–organic composite. This support has a better mechanical resistance than other commercial supports, e.g. alumina, and yields catalysts with egg-shell structure and a very thin active Pd layer. Catalytic tests were carried out in a batch reactor by varying temperature, total pressure and styrene initial concentration between 353–393 K, 10–30 bar, an...

  8. Two-step sulfonation process for the conversion of polymer fibers to carbon fibers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barton, Bryan E.; Patton, Jasson T.; Hukkanen, Eric J.; Bernius, Mark T.


    Disclosed herein are processes for preparing carbon fibers, comprising: sulfonating a polymer fiber with a sulfonating agent that is fuming sulfuric acid, sulfuric acid, chlorosulfonic acid, or a combination thereof; treating the sulfonated polymer with a heated solvent, wherein the temperature of the heated solvent is at least C.; and carbonizing the resulting product by heating it to a temperature of C. Carbon fibers prepared according to these methods are also disclosed herein.

  9. 3?-Daidzein sulfonate sodium improves mitochondrial functions after cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury


    Wa Yuan; Qin Chen; Jing Zeng; Hai Xiao; Zhi-hua Huang; Xiao Li; Qiong Lei


    3′-Daidzein sulfonate sodium is a new synthetic water-soluble compound derived from daidzein (an active ingredient of the kudzu vine root). It has been shown to have a protective effect on cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury in rats. We plan to study the mechanism of its protective effect. 3′-Daidzein sulfonate sodium was injected in rats after cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury. Results showed that 3′-daidzein sulfonate sodium significantly reduced mitochondrial swelling, significantly el...

  10. The behaviour of salt and salt caverns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fokker, P.A.


    Salts are mined for both storage and extraction purposes, either via dry or solution mining techniques. For operational, environmental and geological purposes, it is important to understand and predict the in situ behaviour of salt, in particular the creep and strength characteristics. A

  11. Effect of Low Salt Diet on Insulin Resistance in Salt Sensitive versus Salt Resistant Hypertension


    Garg, Rajesh; Sun, Bei; Williams, Jonathan


    Accumulating evidence shows an increase in insulin resistance on salt restriction. We compared the effect of low salt diet on insulin resistance in salt sensitive versus salt resistant hypertensive subjects. We also evaluated the relationship between salt sensitivity of blood pressure and salt sensitivity of insulin resistance in a multivariate regression model. Studies were conducted after one week of high salt (200 mmol/day Na) and one week of low salt (10 mmol/day Na) diet. Salt sensitivit...

  12. Sulfonated phenolic material and its use in post primary oil recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pardue, J. E.; Stapp, P. R.


    Sulfonated phenolic compounds as well as sulfomethylated phenolic compounds, surfactant systems containing such compound and the use of such surfactant systems in post primary oil recovery are disclosed.

  13. Low-salt diet (United States)

    Low-sodium diet; Salt restriction ... control many functions. Too much sodium in your diet can be bad for you. For most people, ... you limit salt. Try to eat a balanced diet. Buy fresh vegetables and fruits whenever possible. They ...

  14. Octahedral molybdenum cluster complexes with aromatic sulfonate ligands


    Efremova, Olga A.; Vorotnikov, Yuri A.; Brylev, Konstantin A.; Vorotnikova, Natalya A.; Novozhilov, Igor N.; Kuratieva, Natalia V.; Edeleva, Mariya V.; Benoit, David M.; Kitamura, Noboru; Mironov, Yuri V.; Shestopalov, Michael A.; Sutherland, Andrew J.


    This article describes the synthesis, structures and systematic study of the spectroscopic and redox properties of a series of octahedral molybdenum metal cluster complexes with aromatic sulfonate ligands (nBu4N)2[{Mo6X8}(OTs)6] and (nBu4N)2[{Mo6X8}(PhSO3)6] (where X- is Cl-, Br- or I-; OTs- is p-toluenesulfonate and PhSO3 - is benzenesulfonate). All the complexes demonstrated photoluminescence in the red region and an ability to generate singlet oxygen. Notably, the highest quantum yields (>...

  15. Swelling of organoclays in styrene. Effect on flammability in polystyrene nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)


    Full Text Available In this work the effect of the compatibility between organoclays and styrene on the flammability of polystyrene/clay nanocomposites obtained through in situ incorporation was investigated. The reactions were carried out by bulk polymerization. The compatibility between organoclays and styrene was inferred from swelling of the organoclay in styrene. The nanocomposites were characterized by X-ray diffraction and Transmission Electron Microscopy. The heat release rate was obtained by Cone Calorimeter and the nanocomposites were tested by UL94 horizontal burn test. Results showed that intercalated and partially exfoliated polystyrene/clay nanocomposites were obtained depending on the swelling behavior of the organoclay in styrene. The nanocomposites submitted to UL94 burning test presented a burning rate faster than the virgin polystyrene (PS, however an increase of the decomposition temperature and an accentuated decrease on the peak of heat release of the nanocomposites were also observed compared to virgin PS. These results indicate that PS/clay nanocomposites, either intercalated or partially exfoliated, reduced the flammability approximately by the same extent, although reduced the ignition resistance of the PS.

  16. 0177 Exposure to styrene and the risk of cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Mette Skovgaard; Hansen, J; Ramlau-Hansen, Cecilia


    following occupational styrene exposure. METHOD: The cohort consists of 74 902 workers (84% men) in the Danish reinforced plastics industry, originating from 481 companies ever producing reinforced plastics in Denmark 1964-2009. We identified all workers in the National Supplementary Pension Fund Registry...

  17. Cyclodimerization of Stilbenes and Styrenes Catalyzed by Heteropolyacid Supported on Silica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Lantaño


    Full Text Available Several stilbenes and styrenes have been treated with heteropolyacid] (HPA supported over silice. The compounds obtained were characterized by 1H and 13C- NMR and the yields were compared with those obtained using H2SO4 (c and ethyl poliphosphate] (PPE.


    The report gives results of an evaluation of several conventional and novel emission control technologies that have been used or could be used to treat styrene emissions from open molding processes in fiberglass-reinforced plastics/composites (FRP/C) and fiberglass boat building ...

  19. Development of bioconjugated dye-doped poly(styrene-co-maleimide) nanoparticles as a new bioprobe

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Swanepoel, A


    Full Text Available -1 Journal of Materials Chemistry B Development of bioconjugated dye-doped poly(styrene-co- maleimide) nanoparticles as a new bioprobe A. Swanepoel, I. du Preez, T. Mahlangu, A. Chetty and B. Klumperman Abstract Fluorescent dye-doped poly...

  20. 40 CFR 721.3700 - Fatty acid, ester with styrenated phenol, ethylene oxide adduct. (United States)


    ... phenol, ethylene oxide adduct. 721.3700 Section 721.3700 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL..., ethylene oxide adduct. (a) Chemical substances and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as fatty acid, ester with styrenated phenol, ethylene oxide...

  1. Expanding Upon Styrene Biosynthesis to Engineer a Novel Route to 2-Phenylethanol. (United States)

    Machas, Michael S; McKenna, Rebekah; Nielsen, David R


    2-Phenylethanol (2PE) is a key molecule used in the fragrance and food industries, as well as a potential biofuel. In contrast to its extraction from plant biomass and/or more common chemical synthesis, microbial 2PE production has been demonstrated via both native and heterologous expression of the yeast Ehrlich pathway. Here, a novel alternative to this established pathway is systematically engineered in Escherichia coli and evaluated as a more robust and efficient route. This novel pathway is constructed via the modular extension of a previously engineered styrene biosynthesis pathway, proceeding from endogenous l-phenylalanine in five steps and involving four heterologous enzymes. This "styrene-derived" pathway boasts nearly a 10-fold greater thermodynamic driving force than the Ehrlich pathway, and enables reduced accumulation of acetate byproduct. When directly compared using a host strain engineered for l-phenylalanine over-production, preservation of phosphoenolpyruvate, and reduced formation of byproduct 2-phenylacetic acid, final 2PE titers via the styrene-derived and Ehrlich pathways reached 1817 and 1164 mg L-1 , respectively, at yields of 60.6 and 38.8 mg g-1 . Following optimization of induction timing and initial glucose loading, 2PE titers by the styrene-derived pathway approached 2 g L-1 - nearly a two-fold twofold increase over prior reports for 2PE production by E. coli employing the Ehrlich pathway. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Breath and blood levels of benzene, toluene, cumene and styrene in non-occupational exposure. (United States)

    Brugnone, F; Perbellini, L; Faccini, G B; Pasini, F; Maranelli, G; Romeo, L; Gobbi, M; Zedde, A


    Benzene, toluene, cumene and styrene were measured in the breath and blood of two groups of individuals. The first group included individuals belonging to a hospital staff, the second group included chemical workers who were not exposed to the abovementioned chemicals. The chemical workers were examined in plant infirmaries on the morning before the start of the workshift, and the hospital staff in the hospital infirmaries. One environmental air sample was taken in the infirmaries for each individual at the moment of the biological samplings. The environmental concentrations of benzene and styrene were significantly higher in the infirmaries of the chemical plant than in the infirmaries of the hospital. On the other hand, the environmental concentrations of toluene and cumene were not significantly different in the plant infirmaries and in the hospital infirmaries. In the hospital staff the alveolar concentrations of benzene, toluene and styrene were significantly lower than those in the chemical workers. In the hospital staff the blood concentrations of benzene, toluene and styrene were not significantly different from those in the chemical workers. Only the blood cumene concentration was significantly higher in the chemical workers. In hospital staff, smokers showed alveolar and blood concentrations of benzene and toluene that were significantly higher than those measured in the non smoker hospital staff. With reference to chemical workers, only alveolar benzene concentration was significantly higher in smokers than in non smokers.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  3. Embryotoxic and teratogenic effects of styrene derivatives on sea urchin development. (United States)

    Pagano, G; Esposito, A; Giordano, G G; Hagström, B E


    The effects of styrene and some of its derivatives on the fertilization and differentiation of sea urchins was investigated. When one of the gametes was pretreated for a few minutes, it was ascertained that the test substances act on the haploid nucleus, producing specific changes in the differentiation of the embryo. By this test system directly acting, weak mutagens may be detected.

  4. Global styrene oligomers monitoring as new chemical contamination from polystyrene plastic marine pollution. (United States)

    Kwon, Bum Gun; Koizumi, Koshiro; Chung, Seon-Yong; Kodera, Yoichi; Kim, Jong-Oh; Saido, Katsuhiko


    Polystyrene (PS) plastic marine pollution is an environmental concern. However, a reliable and objective assessment of the scope of this problem, which can lead to persistent organic contaminants, has yet to be performed. Here, we show that anthropogenic styrene oligomers (SOs), a possible indicator of PS pollution in the ocean, are found globally at concentrations that are higher than those expected based on the stability of PS. SOs appear to persist to varying degrees in the seawater and sand samples collected from beaches around the world. The most persistent forms are styrene monomer, styrene dimer, and styrene trimer. Sand samples from beaches, which are commonly recreation sites, are particularly polluted with these high SOs concentrations. This finding is of interest from both scientific and public perspectives because SOs may pose potential long-term risks to the environment in combination with other endocrine disrupting chemicals. From SOs monitoring results, this study proposes a flow diagram for SOs leaching from PS cycle. Using this flow diagram, we conclude that SOs are global contaminants in sandy beaches around the world due to their broad spatial distribution. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Prognosis and determination of the threshold of chronic effect of carbon disulfide and styrene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Popov, T.; Zaprianov, Z.; Benchev, I.; Spasovski, M.


    Two series of studies were carried out: I--in workers exposed to four different mean annual CS/sub 2/ concentrations(6 mg/m3m3; 12 mg/m3; 51 mg/m3 and 247 mg/m3 and II series) in workers exposed to three styrene concentrations-(-I mg/m3; 40 mg/m3 and 400 mg/m3). The results obtained in series I show the role of the primary toxic effect (inhibition of oxidases with mixed function) and of the adaptation reactions to it with a view to accurate specifying the threshold of chronic CS/sub 2/ effect. The mathematical expression of the correlation between styrene concentration in air and blood, of phenyl-glyoxylic and mandelic acid in the urine of the exposed subjects enables the prognosis that the threshold of the noxious styrene effect is within the range of 150 mg/m3 to 250 mg/m3. A reduction on CS/sub 2/ MAC is proposed-(-from 10 mg/m3 to I mg/m3) and the correction of styrene MAC-(-from 5 mg/m3 to 30-50 mg/m3).

  6. Development of Styrene-Grafted Polyurethane by Radiation-Based Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Oh Jeong


    Full Text Available Polyurethane (PU is the fifth most common polymer in the general consumer market, following Polypropylene (PP, Polyethylene (PE, Polyvinyl chloride (PVC, and Polystyrene (PS, and the most common polymer for thermosetting resins. In particular, polyurethane has excellent hardness and heat resistance, is a widely used material for electronic products and automotive parts, and can be used to create products of various physical properties, including rigid and flexible foams, films, and fibers. However, the use of polar polymer polyurethane as an impact modifier of non-polar polymers is limited due to poor combustion resistance and impact resistance. In this study, we used gamma irradiation at 25 and 50 kGy to introduce the styrene of hydrophobic monomer on the polyurethane as an impact modifier of the non-polar polymer. To verify grafted styrene, we confirmed the phenyl group of styrene at 690 cm−1 by Attenuated Total Reflection Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR and at 6.4–6.8 ppm by 1H-Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (1H-NMR. Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM, X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS, Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA and contact angle analysis were also used to confirm styrene introduction. This study has confirmed the possibility of applying high-functional composite through radiation-based techniques.

  7. Particle reinforced composites from acrylamide modified blend of styrene-butadiene and natural rubber (United States)

    Blends of styrene-butadiene rubber and natural rubber that provide balanced properties were modified with acrylamide and reinforced with soy protein particles. The rubber composites show improved mechanical properties. Both modified rubber and composites showed a faster curing rate. The crosslinking...

  8. Nanofiltration membranes of poly(styrene- co-chloro-methylstyrene)- grafted-DGEBA reinforced with gold and polystyrene nanoparticles for water purification (United States)

    Kausar, Ayesha; Siddiq, Muhammad


    The matrix material for nanofiltration membranes was prepared through chemical grafting of poly(styrene- co-chloromethylstyrene) (PSCMS) to DGEBA using hexamethylenediamine as linker. The phase inversion technique was used to form PSCMS- g-DGEBA membranes. This effort also involves the designing of gold nanoparticles and its composite nanoparticles with polystyrene microspheres as matrix reinforcement. The nanoporous morphology was observed at lower filler content and there was formation of nanopattern at increased nanofiller content. The tensile strength was improved from 32.5 to 35.2 MPa with the increase in AuNPs-PSNPs loading from 0.1 to 1 wt%. The glass transition temperature was also enhanced from 132 to 159 °C. The membrane properties were measured via nanofiltration set-up. Higher pure water permeation flux, recovery, and salt rejection were measured for novel membranes. PSCMS- g-DGEBA/AuNPs-PSNPs membrane with 1 wt% loading showed flux of 2.01 mL cm-2 min-1 and salt rejection ratio of 70.4 %. Efficiency of the gold/polystyrene nanoparticles reinforced membranes for the removal of Hg2+ and Pb2 was found to be 99 %. Novel hybrid membranes possess fine characteristics to be utilized in industrial water treatment units.

  9. Nanoparticle and Gelation Stabilized Functional Composites of an Ionic Salt in a Hydrophobic Polymer Matrix (United States)

    Kanyas, Selin; Aydın, Derya; Kizilel, Riza; Demirel, A. Levent; Kizilel, Seda


    Polymer composites consisted of small hydrophilic pockets homogeneously dispersed in a hydrophobic polymer matrix are important in many applications where controlled release of the functional agent from the hydrophilic phase is needed. As an example, a release of biomolecules or drugs from therapeutic formulations or release of salt in anti-icing application can be mentioned. Here, we report a method for preparation of such a composite material consisted of small KCOOH salt pockets distributed in the styrene-butadiene-styrene (SBS) polymer matrix and demonstrate its effectiveness in anti-icing coatings. The mixtures of the aqueous KCOOH and SBS-cyclohexane solutions were firstly stabilized by adding silica nanoparticles to the emulsions and, even more, by gelation of the aqueous phase by agarose. The emulsions were observed in optical microscope to check its stability in time and characterized by rheological measurements. The dry composite materials were obtained via casting the emulsions onto the glass substrates and evaporations of the organic solvent. Composite polymer films were characterized by water contact angle (WCA) measurements. The release of KCOOH salt into water and the freezing delay experiments of water droplets on dry composite films demonstrated their anti-icing properties. It has been concluded that hydrophobic and thermoplastic SBS polymer allows incorporation of the hydrophilic pockets/phases through our technique that opens the possibility for controlled delivering of anti-icing agents from the composite. PMID:24516593

  10. Nanoparticle and gelation stabilized functional composites of an ionic salt in a hydrophobic polymer matrix.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selin Kanyas

    Full Text Available Polymer composites consisted of small hydrophilic pockets homogeneously dispersed in a hydrophobic polymer matrix are important in many applications where controlled release of the functional agent from the hydrophilic phase is needed. As an example, a release of biomolecules or drugs from therapeutic formulations or release of salt in anti-icing application can be mentioned. Here, we report a method for preparation of such a composite material consisted of small KCOOH salt pockets distributed in the styrene-butadiene-styrene (SBS polymer matrix and demonstrate its effectiveness in anti-icing coatings. The mixtures of the aqueous KCOOH and SBS-cyclohexane solutions were firstly stabilized by adding silica nanoparticles to the emulsions and, even more, by gelation of the aqueous phase by agarose. The emulsions were observed in optical microscope to check its stability in time and characterized by rheological measurements. The dry composite materials were obtained via casting the emulsions onto the glass substrates and evaporations of the organic solvent. Composite polymer films were characterized by water contact angle (WCA measurements. The release of KCOOH salt into water and the freezing delay experiments of water droplets on dry composite films demonstrated their anti-icing properties. It has been concluded that hydrophobic and thermoplastic SBS polymer allows incorporation of the hydrophilic pockets/phases through our technique that opens the possibility for controlled delivering of anti-icing agents from the composite.

  11. Heterogeneous catalytic oxidative dehydrogenation of ethylbenzene to styrene with carbon dioxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Badstube, T.; Papp, H. [Leipzig Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Technische Chemie; Kustrowski, P.; Dziembaj, R. [Jagiellonian Univ., Crakow (Poland). Faculty of Chemistry


    Alkaline promoted active carbon supported iron catalysts are very active in the oxidative dehydrogenation of ethylbenzene to styrene in the presence of carbon dioxide. The best results were obtained at 550 C for a Li-promoted catalyst with a conversion of ethylbenzene of 75% and a selectivity towards styrene of nearly 95%. These results are better than those obtained with industrial catalysts which perform the dehydrogenation process with an excess of water. The main product of the dehydrogenation reaction with CO{sub 2} was styrene, but the following by-products were detected - benzene and toluene. The selectivity towards toluene was always higher than towards benzene. We observed also the formation of carbon monoxide and water, which were produced with a constant molar ratio of about 0.8. The weight of the catalysts increased up to 20% during the reaction due to deposition of carbon. Using a too large excess of CO{sub 2} (CO{sub 2}/EB>10) was harmful for the styrene yield. The most favorable molar ratio of CO{sub 2} to EB was 10:1. No correlation between the molar ratios of reactants and the amount of deposited coke on the surface of catalysts was observed. The highest catalytic activity showed iron loaded D-90 catalysts which were promoted with alkali metals in a molar ratio of 1:10. Iron, nickel and cobalt loaded carbonized PPAN, PC, inorganic supports like Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, SiO{sub 2}/ZrO{sub 2} or TiO{sub 2} respectively and commercial iron catalysts applied for styrene production did not show comparable catalytic activity in similar conditions. (orig.)

  12. Simulation of the styrene production process via catalytic dehydrogenation of ethylbenzene using CHEMCAD® process simulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amaury Pérez Sánchez


    Full Text Available Background: Process simulation has been extensively used in recent years to design, evaluate or optimize processes, systems and specific operations of the chemical industry and its related disciplines. Currently, CHEMCAD® constitute one of the most used process simulators because of the great number of chemical and petrochemical processes that can be simulated. Method: The simulation of the production process of styrene via catalytic dehydrogenation of ethyl-benzene is carried out by using the process simulator CHEMCAD® version 5.2.0, in order to determine the composition and mass flow-rate of each process involved in the production, as well as the main operating parameters of the equipment used. Two sensitivity studies were carried out: firstly, the influence of the temperature and pressure values applied at the LLV Separator on the amounts of ethyl-benzene and styrene to be obtained by the intermediate and top currents of this equipment; secondly, the influence of the operating pressure of the Distillation Column No. 1 (benzene-toluene column on the quantity of ethyl-benzene and styrene obtained at the bottom stream. The simulating software MATLAB® version 7.8.0 was used to process the results obtained. Results: Around 9234.436 kg/h of styrene is obtained in the last distillation column with 99.6% purity. Additionally, it was found that the water is the main impurity found on this stream, which represents 0.35% of the weight. Conclusions: The LLV Separator must operate at a low temperature (5 – 10 ºC and at a relatively high pressure (10 bar, whereas the Distillation Column No. 1 must work at a pressure near atmospheric (1.0 bar, or preferably under vacuum conditions in order to obtain the highest yields of styrene and ethyl-benzene.

  13. Polyaniline synthesized with functionalized sulfonic acids for blends manufacture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mara Joelma Raupp Cardoso


    Full Text Available Polyaniline (PAni, an electronic conductive polymer, has poor mechanical properties, such as low tensile, compressive and flexural strength that render PAni a non-ideal material to be processed for practical applications. Desired properties of polyaniline can be enhanced by mixing it with a polymer that has good mechanical properties. In this work, PAni was synthesised using functionalized sulfonic acids like camphorsulfonic acid (CSA and dodecilbenzene sulfonic acid (DBSA in order to promote PAni doping and improve its solubility, making possible conductive blends manufacture. The different forms of PAni were characterized by infra-red spectroscopy, thermal analysis, scanning electron microscopy and conductivity measurements. A conductive blend composed of PAni/DBSA and lower density polyethylene (LDPE was obtained via solubilization method and its thermal, morphological and electrical properties were investigated. Concentrations as low as 5 wt. (% of PAni was able to lead to electrical conductivities of PAni/LDPE blends in the range of 10-3, showing great potential to be used in antistatic packing, electromagnetic shielding, anti-corrosion shielding or as a semiconductor.

  14. Nanostructured membranes and electrodes with sulfonic acid functionalized carbon nanotubes

    KAUST Repository

    Tripathi, Bijay Prakash


    Herein we report the covalent functionalization of multiwall carbon nanotubes by grafting sulfanilic acid and their dispersion into sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone). The nanocomposites were explored as an option for tuning the proton and electron conductivity, swelling, water and alcohol permeability aiming at nanostructured membranes and electrodes for application in alcohol or hydrogen fuel cells and other electrochemical devices. The nanocomposites were extensively characterized, by studying their physicochemical and electrochemical properties. They were processed as self-supporting films with high mechanical stability, proton conductivity of 4.47 × 10 -2 S cm-1 at 30 °C and 16.8 × 10-2 S cm-1 at 80 °C and 100% humidity level, electron conductivity much higher than for the plain polymer. The methanol permeability could be reduced to 1/20, keeping water permeability at reasonable values. The ratio of bound water also increases with increasing content of sulfonated filler, helping in keeping water in the polymer in conditions of low external humidity level. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.

  15. Synthesis and Structure-Property Relationships of Poly(sulfone)s for Anion Exchange Membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, JL; Moore, HD; Hibbs, MR; Hickner, MA


    Membranes based on cationic polymers that conduct anions are important for enabling alkaline membrane fuel cells and other solid-state electrochemical devices that operate at high pH. Anion exchange membranes with poly(arylene ether sulfone) backbones are demonstrated by two routes: chloromethylation of commercially available poly(sulfone)s or radical bromination of benzylmethyl moieties in poly(sulfone)s containing tetramethylbisphenol A monomer residues. Polymers with tethered trimethylbenzyl ammonium moieties resulted from conversion of the halomethyl groups by quaternization with trimethyl amine. The water uptake of the chloromethylated polymers was dependent on the type of poly(sulfone) backbone for a given IEC. Bisphenol A-based Udel (R) poly(sulfone) membranes swelled in water to a large extent while membranes from biphenol-based Radel (R) poly(sulfone), a stiffer backbone than Udel, only showed moderate water uptake. The water uptake of cationic poly(sulfone)s was further reduced by synthesizing tetramethylbisphenol A and 4,4-biphenol-containing poly(sulfone) copolymers where the ionic groups were clustered on the tetramethylbisphenol A residues. The conductivity of all samples scaled with the bulk water uptake. The hydration number of the membranes could be increased by casting membranes from the ionic form polymers versus converting the halomethyl form cast polymers to ionic form in the solid state. (c) 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J. Polym. Sci., Part B: Polym. Phys. 2013, 51, 1790-1798, 2013

  16. Colonic necrosis due to calcium polystyrene sulfonate (Kalimate not suspended in sorbitol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Dolores Castillo-Cejas


    Full Text Available Cation-exchange resins are used in the management of hyperkalemia, particularly in patients with end-stage renal disease. These resins were associated with gastrointestinal tract lesions, especially sodium polystyrene sulfonate (Kayexalate mixed with sorbitol. We present a case of colonic necrosis after the administration of calcium polystyrene sulfonate (Kalimate not suspended in sorbitol.

  17. Sulfonate Functionalisation of Transition Metal Complexes: A Versatile Tool Towards Catalyst Recovery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Virboul, M.A.N.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304837709


    This thesis describes the synthesis and application of sulfonate-functionalised ligands in organometallic chemistry and (aqueous) catalysis. Due to their ability to trigger specific solubility, different NHC ligand precursors bearing a butyl-sulfonate chain were synthesised. The formation of

  18. Ação promotora do berílio em catalisadores da síntese do estireno Promotor action of beryllium in catalysts for styrene production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mário Nilo Mendes Barbosa


    Full Text Available The catalytic dehydrogenation of ethylbenzene in presence of steam is the main commercial route to produce styrene. The industrial catalysts are potassium- and chromia-doped hematite which show low surface areas leading to bad performance and short life. In order to develop catalysts with high areas, the effect of beryllium on the textural properties and on the catalytic performance of this iron oxide was studied. The influence of the amount of the dopant, the starting material and the calcination temperature were also studied. In sample preparations, iron and beryllium salts (nitrate or sulfate were hydrolyzed with ammonia and then calcinated. The experiments followed a factorial design with two variables in two levels (Fe/Be= 3 and 7; calcination temperature= 500 and 700ºC. Solids without any dopant were also prepared. Samples were characterized by elemental analysis, infrared spectroscopy, surface area and porosity measurements, X-ray diffraction, DSC and TG. The catalysts were tested in a microreactor at 524ºC and 1 atm, by using a mole ratio of steam/ ethylbenzene=10. The selectivity was measured by monitoring styrene, benzene and toluene formation. It was found that the effect of beryllium on the characteristics of hematite and on its catalytic performance depends on the starting material and on the amount of dopant. Surface areas increased due to the dopant as well as the nature of the precursor; samples produced by beryllium sulfate showed higher areas. Beryllium-doped solids showed a higher catalytic activity when compared to pure hematite, but no significant influence of the anion of starting material was noted. It can be concluded that beryllium acts as both textural and structural promoter. Samples with Fe/Be= 3, heated at 500ºC, lead to the highest conversion and were the most selective. However, catalysts prepared from beryllium sulfate are the most promising to ethylbenzene dehydrogenation due to their high surface area which

  19. Electrolyte Mixtures Based on Ethylene Carbonate and Dimethyl Sulfone for Li-Ion Batteries with Improved Safety Characteristics. (United States)

    Hofmann, Andreas; Migeot, Matthias; Thißen, Eva; Schulz, Michael; Heinzmann, Ralf; Indris, Sylvio; Bergfeldt, Thomas; Lei, Boxia; Ziebert, Carlos; Hanemann, Thomas


    In this study, novel electrolyte mixtures for Li-ion cells are presented with highly improved safety features. The electrolyte formulations are composed of ethylene carbonate/dimethyl sulfone (80:20 wt/wt) as the solvent mixture and LiBF4 , lithium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)azanide, and lithium bis(oxalato)borate as the conducting salts. Initially, the electrolytes are characterized with regard to their physical properties, their lithium transport properties, and their electrochemical stability. The key advantages of the electrolytes are high flash points of >140 °C, which enhance significantly the intrinsic safety of Li-ion cells containing these electrolytes. This has been quantified by measurements in an accelerating rate calorimeter. By using the newly developed electrolytes, which are liquid down to T=-10 °C, it is possible to achieve C-rates of up to 1.5 C with >80 % of the initial specific capacity. During 100 cycles in cell tests (graphite||LiNi1/3 Co1/3 Mn1/3 O2 ), it is proven that the retention of the specific capacity is >98 % of the third discharge cycle with dependence on the conducting salt. The best electrolyte mixture yields a capacity retention of >96 % after 200 cycles in coin cells. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Novel electrolyte mixtures based on dimethyl sulfone, ethylene carbonate and LiPF6 for lithium-ion batteries (United States)

    Hofmann, Andreas; Hanemann, Thomas


    In this study, novel electrolyte mixtures for Li-ion cells are presented which are composed of ethylene carbonate/dimethyl sulfone (80:20 wt./wt.) as a solvent mixture and LiPF6, lithium bis(oxalato)borate and lithium difluoro(oxalato)borate as conducting salts. The main advantages of the solvent mixture are high flash points of >140 °C which enhance the intrinsic safety of Li-ion cells while maintaining good cell performance above 0-5 °C. The movability of the lithium ions in the electrolyte is investigated via programmed current derivative chronopotentiometry. It is found that pure electrolyte properties cannot necessarily predict the electrolyte behavior in real Li-ion cells but the complex interplay between electrolytes, electrode materials and separators has to be taken into account. Using the newly developed electrolytes, it is possible to achieve C-rates up to 1.5C with >80% of the initial specific discharge capacity (25 °C). Within 200 cycles during one month in cell tests (C||NMC) it is proven that the retention of the specific capacity is >98% of the third discharge cycle in dependence of the conducting salt.

  1. New determination method for sulfonation degree of phthalic anhydride by RP-HPLC. (United States)

    Zhu, Lijun; Song, Lechun; Liu, Bin; Zhou, Yulu; Xiang, Yuzhi; Xia, Daohong


    A novel method was developed to monitor the reaction process and evaluate the sulfonation level in the sulfonation of phthalic anhydride by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC). The product peak was identified in chromatograms through product analysis and by comparing its retention time with that of standard compounds. By comparing the hydrolysis and alcoholysis methods, optimized pretreatment of the sample was found for RP-HPLC. Based on the determined percentages of phthalic anhydride and sulfonated phthalic anhydride in the mixture, the degree of sulfonation was calculated. When the sulfonation degree of phthalic anhydride was in the range of 2.8-71%, the recovery of 97-104% was achieved, and the procedure was rapid and accurate.

  2. Submarine Salt Karst Terrains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nico Augustin


    Full Text Available Karst terrains that develop in bodies of rock salt (taken as mainly of halite, NaCl are special not only for developing in one of the most soluble of all rocks, but also for developing in one of the weakest rocks. Salt is so weak that many surface-piercing salt diapirs extrude slow fountains of salt that that gravity spread downslope over deserts on land and over sea floors. Salt fountains in the deserts of Iran are usually so dry that they flow at only a few cm/yr but the few rain storms a decade so soak and weaken them that they surge at dm/day for a few days. We illustrate the only case where the rates at which different parts of one of the many tens of subaerial salt karst terrains in Iran flows downslope constrains the rates at which its subaerial salt karst terrains form. Normal seawater is only 10% saturated in NaCl. It should therefore be sufficiently aggressive to erode karst terrains into exposures of salt on the thousands of known submarine salt extrusions that have flowed or are still flowing over the floors of hundreds of submarine basins worldwide. However, we know of no attempt to constrain the processes that form submarine salt karst terrains on any of these of submarine salt extrusions. As on land, many potential submarine karst terrains are cloaked by clastic and pelagic sediments that are often hundreds of m thick. Nevertheless, detailed geophysical and bathymetric surveys have already mapped likely submarine salt karst terrains in at least the Gulf of Mexico, and the Red Sea. New images of these two areas are offered as clear evidence of submarine salt dissolution due to sinking or rising aggressive fluids. We suggest that repeated 3D surveys of distinctive features (± fixed seismic reflectors of such terrains could measure any downslope salt flow and thus offer an exceptional opportunity to constrain the rates at which submarine salt karst terrains develop. Such rates are of interest to all salt tectonicians and the many

  3. Volume shrinkage and rheological studies of epoxidised and unepoxidised poly(styrene-block-butadiene-block-styrene) triblock copolymer modified epoxy resin-diamino diphenyl methane nanostructured blend systems. (United States)

    George, Sajeev Martin; Puglia, Debora; Kenny, Josè M; Parameswaranpillai, Jyotishkumar; Vijayan P, Poornima; Pionteck, Jűrgen; Thomas, Sabu


    Styrene-block-butadiene-block-styrene (SBS) copolymers epoxidised at different epoxidation degrees were used as modifiers for diglycidyl ether of the bisphenol A-diamino diphenyl methane (DGEBA-DDM) system. Epoxy systems containing modified epoxidised styrene-block-butadiene-block-styrene (eSBS) triblock copolymer with compositions ranging from 0 to 30 wt% were prepared and the curing reaction was monitored in situ using rheometry and pressure-volume-temperature (PVT) analysis. By controlling the mole percent of epoxidation, we could generate vesicles, worm-like micelles and core-shell nanodomains. At the highest mole percent of epoxidation, the fraction of the epoxy miscible component in the triblock copolymer (epoxidised polybutadiene (PB)) was maximum. This gave rise to core-shell nanodomains having a size of 10-15 nm, in which the incompatible polystyrene (PS) becomes the core, the unepoxidised PB becomes the shell and the epoxidised PB interpenetrates with the epoxy phase. On the other hand, the low level of epoxidation gave rise to bigger domains having a size of ∼1 μm and the intermediate epoxidation level resulted in a worm-like structure. This investigation specifically focused on the importance of cure rheology on nanostructure formation, using rheometry. The reaction induced phase separation of the PS phase in the epoxy matrix was carefully explored through rheological measurements. PVT measurements during curing were carried out to understand the volume shrinkage of the blend, confirming that shrinkage behaviour is related to the block copolymer phase separation process during curing. The volume shrinkage was found to be maximum in the case of blends with unmodified SBS, where a heterogeneous morphology was observed, while a decrease in the shrinkage was evidenced in the case of SBS epoxidation. It could be explained by two effects: (1) solubility of the epoxidised block copolymer in the DGEBA leads to the formation of nanoscopic domains upon

  4. Poly (ether imide sulfone) membranes from solutions in ionic liquids

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Dooli


    A membrane manufacture method based on non-volatile solvents and a high performance polymer, poly (ether imide sulfone) (EXTEM™), is proposed, as greener alternative to currently industrial process. We dissolved EXTEM™ in pure ionic liquids: 1-ethyl-3-methylimidalzolium thiocyanate ([EMIM]SCN), 1-butyl-3-methylimidalzolium thiocyanate ([BMIM]SCN), and 1-ethyl-3-methylimidalzolium acetate ([EMIM]OAc). The following polymer solution parameters were evaluated to optimize the manufacture: Gibbs free energy of mixing (G), intrinsic viscosity ([]) and hydrodynamic diameter. Membranes with sponge-like structure and narrow pore size distribution were obtained from solutions in [EMIM]SCN. They were tested for separation of proteins and deoxyribonucleic acids (DNA). Due to the polymer stability, we foresee that applications in more demanding chemical separations would be possible. [EMIM]SCN was 96 % purified and recovered after the membrane fabrication, contributing to the sustainability of the whole manufacturing process.

  5. Transesterification of soybean oil over sulfonic acid functionalised polymeric membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerreiro, L.; Castanheiro, J.E.; Fonseca, I.M.; Ramos, A.M.; Vital, J. [REQUIMTE, CQFB, Departamento de Quimica, FCT, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal); Martin-Aranda, R.M. [Departamento de Quimica Inorganica y Quimica Tecnica, UNED, Paseo Senda del Rey, 9, 28040 Madrid (Spain)


    The transesterification of soybean oil with methanol was studied using solid acid catalysts, at 60{sup o}C and atmospheric pressure. Nafion membranes, ion-exchange resins and poly(vinyl alcohol) membranes containing sulfonic groups were used as catalysts for the transesterification reaction studied. The reactions were carried out in a three-necked reactor using all the catalysts in the form of pellets. Nafion and PVA membranes in the form of film were also used in a membrane reactor. The PVA membrane modified with sulfossucinic acid was, in both cases, the most active catalyst. The concentration profiles obtained with the catalysts in the form of pellets exhibited an initial induction period, which disappears when the reaction is performed in the membrane reactor. (author)

  6. Poly(arylene sulfide sulfone) polymer containing ether groups

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edmonds, J.T. Jr.; Geibel, J.; Bobsein, R.L.; Straw, J.J.


    This patent describes a process comprising: (a) reacting in an organic solvent a dihalo aromatic sulfone with an aromatic diphenol at a mole ratio of about 8/1 to about 20/1 in the presence of an alkali metal base to form a mixture comprising dihalo-terminated oligomers, and subsequently (b) adding a sulfur source selected from the group consisting of hydrogen sulfide, alkali metal hydrosulfides, alkali metal sulfides, acyclic and cyclic thioamides and mixtures, thereof, to the mixture resulting from (a) and continuing the reaction at a temperature and for a sufficient time to form a recoverable polymeric solid, characterized as having a polymer melt temperature in excess of 250/sup 0/C.

  7. Hydrothermal Synthesis of Fe3O4 Nanoparticles and Flame Resistance Magnetic Poly styrene Nanocomposite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kambiz Hedayati


    Full Text Available Fe3O4 nanostructures were synthesized via a facile hydrothermal reaction. The effect of various surfactants such as cationic and anionic on the morphology of the product was investigated. Magnetic nanoparticles were added to poly styrene for preparation of magnetic nanocomposite. Nanostructures were then characterized using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The magnetic properties of the samples were also investigated using vibrating sample magnetometer. The magnesium ferrite nanoparticles exhibit super paramagnetic behaviour at room temperature, with a saturation magnetization of 66 emu/g and a coercivity less than 5 Oe. Distribution of the magnetic nanoparticles into poly styrene matrix increases the coercivity. Nanoparticles appropriately enhanced flame retardant property of the PS matrix. Nanoparticles act as barriers which decrease thermal transport and volatilization during decomposition of the polymer.

  8. Hemocompatibility of styrenic block copolymers for use in prosthetic heart valves. (United States)

    Brubert, Jacob; Krajewski, Stefanie; Wendel, Hans Peter; Nair, Sukumaran; Stasiak, Joanna; Moggridge, Geoff D


    Certain styrenic thermoplastic block copolymer elastomers can be processed to exhibit anisotropic mechanical properties which may be desirable for imitating biological tissues. The ex-vivo hemocompatibility of four triblock (hard-soft-hard) copolymers with polystyrene hard blocks and polyethylene, polypropylene, polyisoprene, polybutadiene or polyisobutylene soft blocks are tested using the modified Chandler loop method using fresh human blood and direct contact cell proliferation of fibroblasts upon the materials. The hemocompatibility and durability performance of a heparin coating is also evaluated. Measures of platelet and coagulation cascade activation indicate that the test materials are superior to polyester but inferior to expanded polytetrafluoroethylene and bovine pericardium reference materials. Against inflammatory measures the test materials are superior to polyester and bovine pericardium. The addition of a heparin coating results in reduced protein adsorption and ex-vivo hemocompatibility performance superior to all reference materials, in all measures. The tested styrenic thermoplastic block copolymers demonstrate adequate performance for blood contacting applications.

  9. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-collision induced dissociation of poly(styrene). (United States)

    Jackson, A T; Yates, H T; Scrivens, J H; Green, M R; Bateman, R H


    Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-collision induced dissociation (MALDI-CID) has been employed for the analysis of poly(styrene) in a tandem hybrid sector-time of flight instrument. Spectra are shown for adducts of poly(styrene) with copper and silver ions. The distributions of fragment ion peaks were found to be consistent from precursor ions containing both metal ions. It is shown how the masses of the end groups of the polymer may be inferred from the mass-to-charge ratios of two of the series of ion peaks that are seen in the MALDI-CID spectra. Mechanisms are proposed for the formation of some of the other series of ion peaks that are observed in the spectra.

  10. Styrene revisited--exposure assessment and risk estimation in reinforced plastics industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sorsa, M.; Anttila, A.; Jaerventaus, H.K.; Kubiak, R.; Norppa, H.; Nylander, L.; Pekari, K.; Pfaeffli, P.V.; Vainio, H. (Institute of Occupational Health, Department of Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology, Helsinki (Finland))


    A survey performed in 32 workshops in reinforced plastics industry showed the mean TWA 8 h concentration of styrene in personal air to be 43 ppm (range 5-182 ppm) among laminators and 11 ppm (range 1-133 ppm) among other workers. The biological measurement of urinary mandelic acid + phenylglyoxylic acid showed mean values of 2.4 mmol/l among laminators without respirators and 1.3 mmol/l when respirators were used. No effects of work related exposure were detected in the cytogenetic parameters, chromosome aberrations, sister chromatid exchanges or micronuclei analyzed in peripheral blood lymphocytes. Grading of the exposure on the basis of lamination method, years of exposure, daily laminating time, air styrene concentration and urinary mandelic acid among laminators, neither revealed any dose dependency.

  11. Production of Natural Rubber Grafted Styrene Copolymer Latex as Water Base Coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Utama


    Full Text Available Twelve kinds formulation of natural rubber grafted copolymer styrene (NR-g-S prepared by gamma radiation co-polymerization technique has been carried out. The characteristic of NR-g-S and its water base coating such as molecular structure, particle size, and the properties of latex and its film were evaluated. The results showed that the NR-g-S latex as a water base coating has low viscosity, height strength, good grease resistance, good flexibility, good aging and corrosion resistance on concrete cement and metal. The average particle size is between 270-300 nm, and the bonding between poly-isoprene of NRL and styrene molecules were grafted copolymer

  12. Glycophorin A somatic cell mutation frequencies in Finnish reinforced plastics workers exposed to styrene. (United States)

    Bigbee, W L; Grant, S G; Langlois, R G; Jensen, R H; Anttila, A; Pfäffli, P; Pekari, K; Norppa, H


    We have used the glycophorin A (GPA) in vivo somatic cell mutation assay to assess the genotoxic potential of styrene exposure in 47 reinforced plastics workers occupationally exposed to styrene and 47 unexposed controls matched for age, gender, and active smoking status. GPA variant erythrocyte frequencies (Vf), reflecting GPA allele loss (phi/N) and allele loss and duplication (N/N) somatic mutations arising in vivo in the erythroid progenitor cells of individuals of GPA M/N heterozygous genotype, were flow cytometrically determined in peripheral blood samples from these subjects. Measurements of styrene exposure of the workers at the time of blood sampling showed a mean 8-h time-weighted average (TWA8-h) styrene concentration of 155 mg/m3 (37 ppm) in the breathing zone. Mean urinary concentrations of the styrene metabolites mandelic acid (MA) and mandelic acid plus phenyl glyoxylic acid (MA+PGA) were 4.4 mmol/liter (after workshift) and 2.1 mmol/liter (next morning), respectively. Multivariate analysis of covariance on log-transformed GPA Vf data with models allowing adjustment for age, gender, smoking status, and styrene exposure showed that N/N Vf were nearly significantly increased among all of the exposed workers (adjusted geometric mean, 6.3 per million versus 5.0 in the controls; P = 0.058) and were statistically significantly elevated (adjusted geometric mean, 6.8 versus 5.0 in the controls; P = 0.036) among workers classified into a high-exposure group according to personal TWA8-h concentration of styrene in the breathing zone of > or = 85 mg/m3 (20 ppm; Finnish threshold limit value). Women in this high exposure group showed especially elevated N/N Vf (adjusted geometric mean 8.5 versus 5.3 in control women; P = 0.020); this elevation was also significant if urinary MA+PGA of > or = 1.2 mmol/liter was used as the basis of classification (adjusted geometric mean, 8.3; P = 0.030). The occupational exposure could not be shown to influence phi/N Vf



    Abdelzaher E. A. Mostafa; Nasser, A M


    According to the most recent surveys, the European area produced 265 mil tons of asphalt for road applications in 2014, while the amount of available Reclaimed Asphalt Pavement (RAP) was more than 50 mil tons. The use of RAP in new blended mixes reduces the need of neat bitumen, making RAP recycling economically attractive. This study investigates the potential use of styrene-bacrylate polymer and extracted Reclaimed Asphalt Pavement (RAP) in Hot Mix Asphalt (HMA) with different percentages b...

  14. High Solid Contents Copoly (Styrene/Butyl Acrylate)-Cloisite 30B Nanocomposites


    M. Mirzataheri


    Higher solid contents (20 % and 40 %) nanocomposites of poly (styrene-co-butyl acrylate) including higher content of Cloisite 30B (7 wt% and 10 wt %) were prepared via miniemulsion polymerization. Stability of the final latexes proved outstanding combination of polymerization procedure and surfactants. Morphological studies revealed by TEM, SAX and XRD showed three structures of core-shell, armored and individual dispersion of clay layers within the polymer particles. The effect of Cloisite 3...

  15. Dielectric study of Poly(styrene- co -butadiene) Composites with Carbon Black, Silica, and Nanoclay

    KAUST Repository

    Vo, Loan T.


    Dielectric spectroscopy is used to measure polymer relaxation in styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR) composites. In addition to the bulk polymer relaxation, the SBR nanocomposites also exhibit a slower relaxation attributed to polymer relaxation at the polymer-nanoparticle interface. The glass transition temperature associated with the slower relaxation is used as a way to quantify the interaction strength between the polymer and the surface. Comparisons were made among composites containing nanoclay, silica, and carbon black. The interfacial relaxation glass transition temperature of SBR-clay nanocomposites is more than 80 °C higher than the SBR bulk glass transition temperature. An interfacial mode was also observed for SBR-silica nanocomposites, but the interfacial glass transition temperature of SBR-silica nanocomposite is somewhat lower than that of clay nanocomposites. An interfacial mode is also seen in the carbon black filled system, but the signal is too weak to analyze quantitatively. The interfacial polymer relaxation in SBR-clay nanocomposites is stronger compared to both SBR-carbon black and SBR-silica composites indicating a stronger interfacial interaction in the nanocomposites containing clay. These results are consistent with dynamic shear rheology and dynamic mechanical analysis measurements showing a more pronounced reinforcement for the clay nanocomposites. Comparisons were also made among clay nanocomposites using different SBRs of varying styrene concentration and architecture. The interfacial glass transition temperature of SBR-clay nanocomposites increases as the amount of styrene in SBR increases indicating that styrene interacts more strongly than butadiene with clay. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  16. Feasibility of Using Foamed Styrene Maleic Anhydride (SMA) Co-polymer in Wood Based Composites


    Mustafa Zor; Nurgul Tankut; Alper Kiziltas; Douglas Gardner; Hikmet Yazici


    Wood plastic composites (WPCs) have often been used in consumer applications, automotive industry and exterior construction. WPCs consist mostly of wood and thermoplastic polymer. WPCs can have superior outdoor durability and much lower maintenance costs than regular wood. WPCs can be used instead of wood. Styrene maleic anhydride (SMA) is used in plastic composites for the automotive industry and also in engineering applications. SMA wood composites, as one of the WPCs using wood fibers as r...

  17. Impact of noise or styrene exposure on the kinetics of presbycusis. (United States)

    Campo, Pierre; Venet, Thomas; Rumeau, Cécile; Thomas, Aurélie; Rieger, Benoît; Cour, Chantal; Cosnier, Frédéric; Parietti-Winkler, Cécile


    Presbycusis, or age-related hearing loss is a growing problem as the general population ages. In this longitudinal study, the influence of noise or styrene exposure on presbycusis was investigated in Brown Norway rats. Animals were exposed at 6 months of age, either to a band noise centered at 8 kHz at a Lex,8h = 85 dB (86.2 dB SPL for 6 h), or to 300 ppm of styrene for 6 h per day, five days per week, for four weeks. Cubic distortion product otoacoustic emissions (2f1-f2 DPOAEs) were used to test the capacity of the auditory receptor over the lifespan of the animals. 2f1-f2DPOAE measurements are easy to implement and efficiently track the age-related deterioration of mid- and high-frequencies. They are good indicators of temporary auditory threshold shift, especially with a level of primaries close to 60 dB SPL. Post-exposure hearing defects are best identified using moderate, rather than high, levels of primaries. Like many aging humans, aging rats lose sensitivity to high-frequencies faster than to medium-frequencies. Although the results obtained with the styrene exposure were not entirely conclusive, histopathological data showed the presbycusis process to be enhanced. Noise-exposed rats exhibit a loss of spiral ganglion cells from 12 months and a 7 dB drop in 2f1-f2DPOAEs at 24 months, indicating that even moderate-intensity noise can accelerate the presbycusis process. Even though the results obtained with the styrene exposure are less conclusive, the histopathological data show an enhancement of the presbycusis process. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Performance Analysis of Styrene Butadiene Rubber-Latex on Cement Concrete Mixes.


    Er. Kapil Soni; Dr. Y.P Joshi


    To improve the performance of concrete, polymers are mixed with concrete. It has been observed that polymer-modified concrete (PMC) is more durable than conventional concrete due to superior strength and high durability. In this research, effect of Styrene-Butadiene Rubber (SBR) latex on compressive strength and flexural strength of concrete has been studied and also the optimum polymer (SBR-Latex) content for concrete is calculated. This research was carried out to establish t...

  19. Microstructural analysis of carbon nanomaterials produced from pyrolysis/combustion of Styrene-Butadiene-Rubber (SBR)


    Alves, Joner Oliveira; Zhuo, Chuanwei; Levendis, Yiannis Angelo; Tenório, Jorge Alberto Soares


    Styrene-Butadiene-Rubber (SBR) is a synthetic rubber copolymer used to fabricate several products. This study aims to demonstrate the use of SBR as feedstock for carbon nanomaterials (nanofibers and nanotubes) growth, and therefore to establish a novel process for destination of waste products containing SBR. A three stage electrically heated flow reactor was used. Small pellets of rubber were pyrolyzed at a temperature of 1000 ºC. The pyrolyzates were mixed with oxygen-containing gases and w...

  20. Mechanical and Electrical Properties of Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene/Melamine-Functionalized Reduced Graphene Oxide Nanocomposites. (United States)

    Oh, Miae; Rajagopalan, Balasubramaniyan; Chung, Jin Suk


    Nanocomposite of acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) and melamine functionalized reduced graphene oxide (M-RGO) was prepared by solution blending. The functionalization of graphene oxide was performed with melamine to increase the compatibility between graphene sheets and the ABS matrix. The ABS/M-RGO showed improved storage modulus by 55% at 4.0 wt% of M-RGO in the glassy region and exhibited a low percolation threshold with a high electrical conductivity.

  1. Genetic Characterization of Accumulation of Polyhydroxyalkanoate from Styrene in Pseudomonas putida CA-3 (United States)

    O'Leary, Niall D.; O'Connor, Kevin E.; Ward, Patrick; Goff, Miriam; Dobson, Alan D. W.


    Pseudomonas putida CA-3 is capable of accumulating medium-chain-length polyhydroxyalkanoates (MCL-PHAs) when growing on the toxic pollutant styrene as the sole source of carbon and energy. In this study, we report on the molecular characterization of the metabolic pathways involved in this novel bioconversion. With a mini-Tn5 random mutagenesis approach, acetyl-coenzyme A (CoA) was identified as the end product of styrene metabolism in P. putida CA-3. Amplified flanking-region PCR was used to clone functionally expressed phenylacetyl-CoA catabolon genes upstream from the sty operon in P. putida CA-3, previously reported to generate acetyl-CoA moieties from the styrene catabolic intermediate, phenylacetyl-CoA. However, the essential involvement of a (non-phenylacetyl-CoA) catabolon-encoded 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase is also reported. The link between de novo fatty acid synthesis and PHA monomer accumulation was investigated, and a functionally expressed 3-hydroxyacyl-acyl carrier protein-CoA transacylase (phaG) gene in P. putida CA-3 was identified. The deduced PhaG amino acid sequence shared >99% identity with a transacylase from P. putida KT2440, involved in 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA MCL-PHA monomer sequestration from de novo fatty acid synthesis under inorganic nutrient-limited conditions. Similarly, with P. putida CA-3, maximal phaG expression was observed only under nitrogen limitation, with concomitant PHA accumulation. Thus, β-oxidation and fatty acid de novo synthesis appear to converge in the generation of MCL-PHA monomers from styrene in P. putida CA-3. Cloning and functional characterization of the pha locus, responsible for PHA polymerization/depolymerization is also reported and the significance and future prospects of this novel bioconversion are discussed. PMID:16085828

  2. Fe(II)/Fe(III)-Catalyzed Intramolecular Didehydro-Diels-Alder Reaction of Styrene-ynes. (United States)

    Mun, Hyeon Jin; Seong, Eun Young; Ahn, Kwang-Hyun; Kang, Eun Joo


    The intramolecular didehydro-Diels-Alder reaction of styrene-ynes was catalyzed by Fe(II) and Fe(III) to produce various naphthalene derivatives under microwave heating conditions. Mechanistic calculations found that the Fe(II) catalyst activates the styrenyl diene in an inverse-electron-demand Diels-Alder reaction, and the consecutive dehydrogenation reaction can be promoted by either Fe(II)-catalyzed direct dehydrogenation or an Fe(III)-catalyzed rearomatization/dehydrogenation pathway.

  3. Raman and Luminescent Spectra of Sulfonated Zn Phthalocyanine Enhanced by Gold Nanoparticles (United States)

    Kavelin, V.; Fesenko, O.; Dubyna, H.; Vidal, C.; Klar, T. A.; Hrelescu, C.; Dolgov, L.


    Sulfonated Zn phthalocyanine, as a prospective photosensitizer in the photodynamic therapy of tumors, is investigated by means of Raman, infrared, and fluorescence spectroscopies. Conventional and surface-enhanced spectra from this photosensitizer are obtained and compared. Gold nano-islands attached to silica cores (Au-SiO2) are proposed as nanostructures providing plasmonically enhanced signals. Pronounced enhancement of Raman and infrared spectral bands from sulfonated Zn phthalocyanine allows their more convenient assignment with vibrational modes of sulfonated Zn phthalocyanine. In comparison to Raman and IR, the fluorescence is less enhanced by Au-SiO2 particles.

  4. Derivatives of phenyl tribromomethyl sulfone as novel compounds with potential pesticidal activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof M. Borys


    Full Text Available A halogenmethylsulfonyl moiety is incorporated in numerous active herbicides and fungicides. The synthesis of tribromomethyl phenyl sulfone derivatives as novel potential pesticides is reported. The title sulfone was obtained by following three different synthetic routes, starting from 4-chlorothiophenol or 4-halogenphenyl methyl sulfone. Products of its subsequent nitration were subjected to the SNAr reactions with ammonia, amines, hydrazines and phenolates to give 2-nitroaniline, 2-nitrophenylhydrazine and diphenyl ether derivatives. Reduction of the nitro group of 4-tribromomethylsulfonyl-2-nitroaniline yielded the corresponding o-phenylenediamine substrate for preparation of structurally varied benzimidazoles.

  5. Sulfonated copolyimide membranes derived from a novel diamine monomer with pendant benzimidazole groups for fuel cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Wei; Guo, Xiaoxia; Aili, David


    Sulfonated polyimides are among the most interesting proton exchange membrane materials with high proton conductivity and good mechanical characteristics. As a major challenge the hydrolytic instability of the polymer backbone is addressed by introducing basic moieties in the polymer main chain....... A series of sulfonated copolyimides (SPI) are prepared via random copolymerizatio of 1,4,5,8-naphthalenetetracarboxylic dianhydride (NTDA) with a new diamine monomer with pendant benzimidazole groups, 2,2'-bis(4-(1H-benzo[d]imidazol-2-yl)phenoxy)benzidine (BIPOB), and a sulfonated diamine monomer 4,4'-bis...

  6. Degradation and contamination of perfluorinated sulfonic acid membrane due to swelling-dehydration cycles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Shuang Ma; Morgen, Per; Skou, Eivind Morten

    Formation of sulfonic anhydride S-O-S (from the condensation of sulfonic acids) was known one of the important degradation mechanisms [i] for Nafion membrane under hydrothermal aging condition, which is especially critical for hydrogen fuel cells. Similar mechanism would also have be desirable...... to the membrane degradation in direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs), where liquid water has direct contact with the electrolyte. An ex-situ experiment was established with swelling-dehydration cycles on the membrane. However, formation of sulfonic anhydride was not detected during the entire treatment; instead...

  7. Use of an automatic control system for the production of sulfonate additives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnaev, V.A.; Cherednichenko, G.I.; Gordash, Iu.T.; Manoilo, A.M.


    On the bases of industrial means for local information control systems, a system for the automatic control of industrial operations of periodic processes of volumetric decomposition of ammonium sulfonates with lime and the preparation of reagent for methanol carbonation, taking place at an improved stage of the production of sulfonate additives for motor oils in devices having periodic functioning has been worked out. The technical process, the structure and the industrial data on the control system are briefly described. A ''Carboncycle'' system, which makes it possible to intensify the production of sulfonate additives, has been developed.

  8. Effect of sulfonated steroids on steroidogenic cytochrome P450-dependent steroid hydroxylases. (United States)

    Neunzig, J; Bernhardt, R


    In the last decades, sulfonated steroids evolved from inactive metabolites intended for excretion to highly relevant compounds involved in many physiological processes. Investigations of the impact of sulfonated steroids on the steroid hormone biosynthesis revealed that, on the one hand, these can serve as substrate for steroidogenic cytochromes P450 and, on the other hand, these are able to influence the catalytic properties of these enzymes. In this review the relevance of sulfonated steroids for the steroid hormone biosynthesis will be discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Hydroxycarboxylic acids and salts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiely, Donald E; Hash, Kirk R; Kramer-Presta, Kylie; Smith, Tyler N


    Compositions which inhibit corrosion and alter the physical properties of concrete (admixtures) are prepared from salt mixtures of hydroxycarboxylic acids, carboxylic acids, and nitric acid. The salt mixtures are prepared by neutralizing acid product mixtures from the oxidation of polyols using nitric acid and oxygen as the oxidizing agents. Nitric acid is removed from the hydroxycarboxylic acids by evaporation and diffusion dialysis.

  10. SALT for Language Acquisition. (United States)

    Bancroft, W. Jane


    Discusses Schuster's Suggestive-Accelerative Learning Techniques (SALT) Method, which combines Lozanov's Suggestopedia with such American methods as Asher's Total Physical Response and Galyean's Confluent Education. The article argues that students trained with the SALT Method have higher achievement scores and better attitudes than others. (14…

  11. The effect of multifunctional monomers/oligomers Additives on electron beam radiation crosslinking of poly (styrene-block-isoprene/butadiene-block-styrene) (SIBS) (United States)

    Wu, Jinping; Soucek, Mark D.


    The effect of multifunctional monomers or oligomers (MFM/O) additives on electron beam (E-beam) radiation induced crosslinking of poly (styrene-block-isoprene/butadiene-block-styrene) (SIBS) was studied. Ten types of MFM/O were investigated, including trimethylolpropane trimethacrylate (TMPTMA), trimethylolpropane triacrylate (TMPTA), triallyl cyanurate (TAC), polybutadiene diacrylate (PB-diacrylate), ethylene glycol dimethylacrylate (EGDMA), butylene glycol dimethacrylate (BGDMA), 1,2-polybutadiene. The effects of MFM/O concentration and E-beam radiation dose on properties of SIBS were studied including tensile strength, elongation-at-break, modulus, gel content, equilibrium swelling and crosslink density. TMPTA significantly improved the tensile modulus and crosslink density of SIBS. SIBS with TMPTMA and TMTPMA with inhibitor showed a 50% increase in tensile strength. The solubility of MFM/O in SIBS was also investigated by a selective swelling method. The MFM/O were found to be soluble in both phases of SIBS. The viscosity of SIBS with methacrylate type MFM/O was stable at 200 °C.

  12. Shape Memory Polymer Composites of Poly(styrene-b-butadiene-b-styrene Copolymer/Liner Low Density Polyethylene/Fe3O4 Nanoparticles for Remote Activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongkun Wang


    Full Text Available Magnetically sensitive shape memory poly(styrene-b-butadiene-b-styrene copolymer (SBS/liner low density polyethylene (LLDPE composites filled with various contents of Fe3O4 nanoparticles were prepared. The influence of the Fe3O4 nanoparticles content on the thermal properties, mechanical properties, fracture morphology, magnetic behavior, and shape memory effect of SBS/LLDPE/Fe3O4 composites was systematically studied in this paper. The results indicated that homogeneously dispersed Fe3O4 nanoparticles ensured the uniform heat generation and transfer in the alternating magnetic field, and endowed the SBS/LLDPE/Fe3O4 composites with an excellent magnetically responsive shape memory effect. When the shape memory composites were in the alternating magnetic field (f = 60 kHz, H = 21.21 kA·m−1, the best shape recovery ratio reached 99%, the shape retention ratio reached 99.4%, and the shape recovery speed increased significantly with the increment of Fe3O4 nanoparticles. It is anticipated that tagging products with this novel shape memory composite is helpful for the purpose of an intravascular delivery system in Micro-Electro-Mechanical System (MEMS devices.

  13. Effect of operating temperature on styrene mass transfer characteristics in a biotrickling filter. (United States)

    Parnian, Parham; Zamir, Seyed Morteza; Shojaosadati, Seyed Abbas


    To study the effect of operating temperature on styrene mass transfer from gas to liquid phase in biotrickling filters (BTFs), overall mass transfer coefficient (KL a) was calculated through fitting test data to a general mass balance model under abiotic conditions. Styrene was used as the volatile organic compound and the BTF was packed with a mixture of pall rings and pumice. Operating temperature was set at 30°C and 50°C for mesophilic and thermophilic conditions, respectively. KL a values increased from 54 to 70 h-1 at 30°C and from 60 to 90 h-1 at 50°C, respectively, depending on the countercurrent gas to liquid flow ratio that varied in the range of 7.5-32. Evaluation of styrene mass transfer capacity (MTC) showed that liquid-phase mass transfer resistance decreased as the flow ratio increased at constant temperature. MTC also decreased with an increase in operating temperature. Both gas-liquid partition coefficient and KL a increased with increasing temperature; however the effect on gas-liquid partition coefficient was more significant and served to increase mass transfer limitations. Thermophilic biofiltration on the one hand increases mass transfer limitations, but on the other hand may enhance the biodegradation rate in favor of enhancing BTFs' performance.

  14. The electrospinning of the copolymer of styrene and butyl acrylate for its application as oil absorbent. (United States)

    Xu, Naiku; Cao, Jipeng; Lu, Yuyao


    Electrospun polystyrene materials have been employed as oil absorbents, but they have visible drawbacks such as poor strength at low temperature and unreliable integrity because of brittleness and insufficient cohesive force among fibers. Butyl acrylate can polymerize into flexible chains, and its polymer can be used as elastomer and adhesive material. Thereby it is possible to obtain the material that has better performance in comparison with electrospun polystyrene material through the electrospinning of the copolymer of styrene and butyl acrylate. In this work, a polymer was synthesized through suspension polymerization by using styrene and butyl acrylate as comonomers. The synthesis of the copolymer of styrene and butyl acrylate was verified through dissolution and hydrolysis experimental data; as well through nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry. The viscous flow activation energy of the solution consisting of copolymer and N, N-dimethylformamide was determined via viscosity method and then adopted to establish the entanglement characteristics of butyl acrylate's chain segments. Finally, in order to electrospin the copolymer solution into fibrous membrane, the effects of monomer feed ratio and spinning parameters were investigated. The prepared fibrous membrane was found to have a potential use as oil absorbent.

  15. Copolymerization kinetics of methyl methacrylate-styrene obtained by PLP-MALDI-ToF-MS. (United States)

    Willemse, Robin X E; van Herk, Alex M


    The combination of MALDI-ToF-MS and pulsed laser polymerization has been used to study the propagation rate coefficients for the copolymer system styrene-methyl methacrylate. For the first time, complete information regarding mode of termination, reactivity of photoinitiator-derived radicals, copolymer molecular mass, chemical composition, and copolymerization rates is obtained interrelated. The polymerizations were carried out in bulk with varying styrene concentrations at a temperature of 15.2 degrees C by an excimer pulsed laser with varying frequencies. Both chemical composition distributions and molecular weight distributions were determined by MALDI-ToF-MS. The data were fitted to the implicit penultimate unit model and have resulted in new point estimates of the monomer and radical reactivity ratios for the copolymer system styrene-methyl methacrylate: r(St) = 0.517, r(MMA) = 0.420, s(St) = 0.296, s(MMA) = 0.262. Comparison between Monte Carlo simulations and the obtained results further confirmed the very successful combination of pulsed laser copolymerization experiments with MALDI-ToF-MS. The obtained results are believed to be the most accurate and complete set of copolymerization parameters to date.

  16. New highly fluorinated styrene-based materials with low surface energy prepared by ATRP

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borkar, Sachin; Jankova Atanasova, Katja; Siesler, Heinz W


    2,3,5,6-Tetrafluoro-4-(2,2,3,3,3-pentafluoropropoxy)styrene (TF(F-5)S) and 2,3,5,6-tetrafluoro-4-(2,2,3,3,4,4,5,5,6,6,7,7,8,8,8-pentadecafluorooctaoxy)styrene (TF(F,5)S) are prepared by nucleophilic substitution of 2,3,4,5,6-pentafluorostyrene. The neat monomers are subjected to atom transfer...... radical polymerization (ATRP) at 110 degreesC to high conversions in relatively short times, 10-120 min; TF(F-5)S is additionally polymerized at 70 and 90 degreesC. Block copolymers with styrene are prepared by the macroinitiator approach. All polymers, in the number-average molecular weight range from...... than 10 mol %. The fluorinated side chains of P(TF(F-5)S) and P(TF(F-15)S) enrich the surface of thin films, which results in an advancing water contact angle of 117degrees and 122degrees, respectively. Both XPS analyses and contact angle measurements strongly imply that the fluorinated parts...

  17. Polybutadiene and Styrene-Butadiene rubbers for high-dose dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Lucas N. [Instituto Federal de Educacao, Ciencia e Tecnologia de Goias-IFG,Campus Goiania, Goiania -GO (Brazil); Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares -IPEN, Sao Paulo-SP (Brazil); Vieira, Silvio L. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal de Goias-UFG, Campus Samambaia, Goiania-GO (Brazil); Schimidt, Fernando [Instituto Federal de Educacao, Ciencia e Tecnologia de Goias-IFG,Campus Inhumas, Inhumas-GO (Brazil); Antonio, Patricia L.; Caldas, Linda V.E. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares -IPEN, Sao Paulo-SP (Brazil)


    Polybutadiene and Styrene-Butadiene are synthetical rubbers used widely for pneumatic tires manufacturing. In this research, the dosimeter characteristics of those rubbers were studied for application in high-dose dosimetry. The rubber samples were irradiated with doses of 10 Gy up to 10 kGy, using a {sup 60}Co Gamma Cell-220 system (dose rate of 1.089 kGy/h) and their readings were taken on a Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy-FTIR system (model Frontier/Perkin Elmer). The ratios of two absorbance peaks were taken for each kind of rubber spectrum, Polybutadiene (1306/1130 cm{sup -1}) and Styrene-Butadiene (1449/1306 cm{sup -1}). The ratio calculated was used as the response to the irradiation, and is not uniform across the sample. From the results, it can be concluded for both rubbers: a) the dose-response curves may be useful for high-dose dosimetry (greater than 250 Gy); b) their response for reproducibility presented standard deviations lower than 2.5%; c) the relative sensitivity was higher for Styrene-Butadiene (1.86 kGy{sup -1}) than for Polybutadiene (1.81 kGy{sup -1}), d) for doses of 10 kGy to 200 kGy, there was no variation in the dosimetric response. Both types of rubber samples showed usefulness as high-dose dosimeters. (authors)

  18. Studies of electron-beam irradiation on ethylene-styrene interpolymers

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, I C


    Electron-beam irradiation-induced structural and properties changes on ethylene-styrene interpolymers (ESI) have been studied at electron doses ranging from 0 to 200 kGy. The amounts of species generated by irradiation such as hydroxyls, hydroperoxides, carbonyls and unsaturated double bonds have been analyzed using ATR-FTIR. While the structural changes are minimal for ESI69 comprising 69 wt.% styrene regardless of the dose level, the changes for ESI40 comprising 40 wt.% styrene are dose dependent and reaches a maximum at a dose of 100 kGy. Gel permeation chromatography analysis indicates that macromolecular chain scission occurs at low irradiation dose and crosslinking dominates at high irradiation doses. The average molecular weights between crosslinks, M sub C 's, have been calculated using the Flory-Rehner equation based on data collected from solvent extraction experiments. The M sub C 's of ESI40 samples are much smaller than those of ESI69 samples. Irradiated ESI samples have higher glass transition t...

  19. Thermodynamics of coil-hyperbranched poly(styrene-b-acrylated epoxidized soybean oil) block copolymers (United States)

    Lin, Fang-Yi; Hohmann, Austin; Hernández, Nacú; Cochran, Eric

    Here we present the phase behavior of a new type of coil-hyperbranched diblock copolymer: poly(styrene- b-acrylated epoxidized soybean oil), or PS-PAESO. PS-PAESO is an example of a biorenewable thermoplastic elastomer (bio-TPE). To date, we have shown that bio-TPEs can be economical commercial substitutes for their petrochemically derived analogues--such as poly(styrene- b-butadiene- b-styrene) (SBS)--in a range of applications including pressure sensitive adhesives and bitumen modification. From a polymer physics perspective, PS-PAESO is an interesting material in that it couples a linear coil-like block with a highly branched block. Thus in contrast to the past five decades of studies on linear AB diblock copolymers, coil-hyperbranched block copolymers are relatively unknown to the community and can be expected to deviate substantially from the standard ``universal'' phase behavior in the AB systems. To explore these new materials, we have constructed a library of PS-PAESO materials spanning a range of molecular weight and composition values. The phase transition behavior and the morphology information will be interpreted by isochronal temperature scanning in dynamic shear rheology, small angle X-ray scattering and the corresponding transmission electron microscopy.

  20. Resedimented salt deposits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slaczka, A.; Kolasa, K. (Jagiellonian Univ., Krakow (Poland))


    Carparthian foredeep's Wieliczka salt mine, unique gravity deposits were lately distinguished. They are mainly built of salt particles and blocks with a small admixture of fragments of Miocene marls and Carpathian rocks, deposited on precipitated salt. The pattern of sediment distribution is similar to a submarine fan. Gravels are dominant in the upper part and sands in lower levels, creating a series of lobes. Coarse-grained deposits are represented by disorganized, self-supported conglomerates passing into matrix-supported ones, locally with gradation, and pebbly sandstones consisting of salt grains and scattered boulder-size clasts. The latter may show in the upper part of a single bed as indistinct cross-bedding and parallel lamination. These sediments are interpreted as debris-flow and high-density turbidity current deposits. Salt sandstones (saltstones) which build a lower part of the fan often show Bouma sequences and are interpreted as turbidity-current deposits. The fan deposits are covered by a thick series of debrites (olistostromes) which consist of clay matrix with salt grains and boulders. The latter as represented by huge (up to 100,000 m{sup 3}) salt blocks, fragments of Miocene marls and Carpathian rocks. These salt debrites represent slumps and debris-flow deposits. The material for resedimented deposits was derived from the southern part of the salt basin and from the adjacent, advancing Carpathian orogen. The authors believe the distinct coarsening-upward sequence of the series is the result of progressive intensification of tectonic movements with paroxysm during the sedimentation of salt debrites (about 15 Ma).

  1. Water purification using organic salts (United States)

    Currier, Robert P.


    Water purification using organic salts. Feed water is mixed with at least one organic salt at a temperature sufficiently low to form organic salt hydrate crystals and brine. The crystals are separated from the brine, rinsed, and melted to form an aqueous solution of organic salt. Some of the water is removed from the aqueous organic salt solution. The purified water is collected, and the remaining more concentrated aqueous organic salt solution is reused.

  2. Color vision loss among styrene-exposed workers neurotoxicological threshold assessment. (United States)

    Campagna, D; Gobba, F; Mergler, D; Moreau, T; Galassi, C; Cavalleri, A; Huel, G


    Styrene represents nowadays one of the most used organic solvent. The current exposure limit proposed for this chemical differs significantly from country to country: the Threshold Limit Value-Time Weighted Average (TLV-TWA) proposed by the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) is 50 ppm while the German, Finnish and Swedish occupational exposure limit is 20 ppm. Nevertheless, effects on the nervous system were recently reported in workers exposed at TWA styrene levels below the current TLV. Neuro-optic pathways have been shown to be particularly vulnerable to organic solvent exposure. Analysis and measurements of visual functions can provide important information on early neurotoxic effects. Previous studies support the hypothesis that styrene exposure can induce a dose-dependent color vision loss. The aim of this study is to assess a threshold level below which no detectable effect occurs for color vision. We applied a sub-application of the change point problem in two-phase regression considering one phase as a constant line. In accordance with this model the maximum-likelihood technique was used as a method to examine the dose- effect relationship between external styrene exposure and chromatic discrimination. The present article presents a joint analysis of data from two previously published studies, one carried out in Canada and the other in Italy. The age and seniority of the workers from both countries were remarkably similar, as were the process type, the chemicals used and the work-tasks of exposed subjects. The mathematical method presented here shows the existence of a statistically significant threshold. This finding shows that, in fiberglass-reinforced plastics industry, visual color impairment could be significantly detected above 4 ppm (upper limit of the confidence interval at 5% = 26 ppm). The exact clinical meaning of this effect, and also the progress of the impairment in exposed workers, is still to be assessed in

  3. Sulfonated Polyimide-Clay Thin Films for Energy Application. (United States)

    Ali, Farman; Saeed, Shaukat; Shah, Syed Sakhawat; Rahim, Fazal; Duclaux, Laurent; Levêque, Jean-Marc; Reinert, Laurence


    Sulfonated polyimides (SPIs) are considered as the promising alternatives to Nafion as membrane materials for the polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM). They generally exhibit high ionic conductivity, good mechanical properties, excellent thermal and chemical stabilities. The six-membered ring, naphthalenic anhydride-based SPIs, not only exhibit superior chemical and thermo-oxidative stabilities but are also more resistant to hydrolysis than their five-membered phthalic anhydride-based SPIs. The composites based on napthalenic polyimides are also significantly stable in high temperature environment and show better stability to hydrolysis. Incorporation of inorganic fillers into organic polymers has gained tremendous attention and these new materials are called organic-inorganic hybrids. Few patents related to the synthesis and performance PEM materials have been reviewed and cited. Keeping in view the importance of sulfonated polyimide based nanocomposites as potential membrane materials for PEM in fuel cell, we have synthesized SPIs clay based nanocomposite as potential membrane material. The objective of this work was to synthesize clay based SPIs thin films which could be used as membrane materials in PEM fuel cell for energy applications. Methods/Experimental: At the first step the nanometric sheets of vermiculite clay prepared via sonication was surface modified by grafting 3-APTES. Then the SPI was synthesized via one-step high temperature direct imidization method, which serve as a matrix material. The organo modified VMT was dispersed via sonication in the SPI matrix. Four different sets of organic-inorganic nanocomposite membranes thin films, having VMT contents in the range of 1 to 7 wt.% were prepared by casting, curing and acidification route. The synthesis of SPIs clay based thin films were carried out at three different steps and fully characterized. The synthesis of SPIs and SPIs clay based thin films were analyzed via different analytical techniques

  4. The effect of salt on the morphologies of compositionally asymmetric block copolymer electrolytes (United States)

    Loo, Whitney; Maslyn, Jacqueline; Oh, Hee Jeung; Balsara, Nitash

    Block copolymer electrolytes are promising for applications in lithium metal solid-state batteries. Due to their ability to microphase separate into distinct morphologies, their ion transport and mechanical properties can be decoupled. The addition of lithium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (LiTFSI) salt to poly(styrene)-block-poly(ethylene oxide) (SEO) has been shown to increase microphase separation in symmetric block copolymer systems due to an increase in the effective interaction parameter (χeff) ; however the effect of block copolymer compositional asymmetry is not well-understood. The effect of compositional asymmetry on polymer morphology was investigated through small and wide angle X-ray scattering (SAXS/WAXS). The effective Flory-Huggins interaction parameter was extracted from the scattering profiles in order to construct a phase diagram to demonstrate the effect of salt and compositional asymmetry on block copolymer morphology.

  5. Proton-Conducting Sulfonated Ionomers by Chemical Modification and Atom Transfer Radical Polymerization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mads Møller

    (PSU), Udel, is chosen as backbone due to its mechanical and thermal properties. Sulfonic acid functionalized, dendronised side chains are attached by click chemistry in the study of hydrocarbon structures with highly flexible spacers. Various degrees of sulfonation (DS) are used in the perspectivation...... to a partially fluorinated system that is based on a poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF)-containing backbone with fully sulfonated PS grafts. To counteract the dimensional change upon water contact that is a result of the increased IEC, the ionomer is blended with a high molecular weight PVDF, which contributes....... The blends are highly humidity sensitive, yet, despite lower absolute conductivities than Nafion, they display a reduced dependence on both humidity and temperature. Under fully humidified conditions the blends perform superior to fully sulfonated graft copolymer analogues. The combination of a high degree...

  6. Preparation of a Sulfonated Carbonaceous Material from Lignosulfonate and Its Usefulness as an Esterification Catalyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duckhee Lee


    Full Text Available Sulfonated carbonaceous material useful as a solid acid catalyst was prepared from lignosulfonate, a waste of the paper-making industry sulfite pulping process, and characterized by 13C-NMR, FT-IR, TGA, SEM and elemental analysis, etc. The sulfonic acid group density and total density of all acid groups in the sulfonated carbonaceous material was determined by titration to be 1.24 mmol/g and 5.90 mmol/g, respectively. Its catalytic activity in the esterification of cyclohexanecarboxylic acid with anhydrous ethanol was shown to be comparable to that of the ionic exchange resin Amberlyst-15, when they were used in the same amount. In the meantime, the sulfonic acid group was found to be leached out by 26%–29% after it was exposed to hot water (95 °C for 5 h. The catalytic usefulness of the prepared carbonaceous material was investigated by performing esterifications.

  7. Magnetite-supported sulfonic acid: a retrievable nanocatalyst for the Ritter reaction and multicomponent reactions (United States)

    Magnetite-sulfonic acid (NanocatFe-OSO3H), prepared by wet-impregnation method, serves as a magnetically retrievable sustainable catalyst for the Ritter reaction which can be used in several reaction cycles without any loss of activity.

  8. Preparation of a sulfonated carbonaceous material from lignosulfonate and its usefulness as an esterification catalyst. (United States)

    Lee, Duckhee


    Sulfonated carbonaceous material useful as a solid acid catalyst was prepared from lignosulfonate, a waste of the paper-making industry sulfite pulping process, and characterized by 13C-NMR, FT-IR, TGA, SEM and elemental analysis, etc. The sulfonic acid group density and total density of all acid groups in the sulfonated carbonaceous material was determined by titration to be 1.24 mmol/g and 5.90 mmol/g, respectively. Its catalytic activity in the esterification of cyclohexanecarboxylic acid with anhydrous ethanol was shown to be comparable to that of the ionic exchange resin Amberlyst-15, when they were used in the same amount. In the meantime, the sulfonic acid group was found to be leached out by 26%-29% after it was exposed to hot water (95 °C) for 5 h. The catalytic usefulness of the prepared carbonaceous material was investigated by performing esterifications.

  9. Microbial production of the aromatic building-blocks (S)-styrene oxide and (R)-1,2-phenylethanediol from renewable resources. (United States)

    McKenna, Rebekah; Pugh, Shawn; Thompson, Brian; Nielsen, David R


    (S)-Styrene oxide and (R)-1,2-phenylethanediol are chiral aromatic molecular building blocks used commonly as precursors to pharmaceuticals and other specialty chemicals. Two pathways have been engineered in Escherichia coli for their individual biosynthesis directly from glucose. The novel pathways each constitute extensions of the previously engineered styrene pathway, developed by co-expressing either styrene monooxygenase (SMO) or styrene dioxygenase (SDO) to convert styrene to (S)-styrene oxide and (R)-1,2-phenylethanediol, respectively. StyAB from Pseudomonas putida S12 was determined to be the most effective SMO. SDO activity was achieved using NahAaAbAcAd of Pseudomonas sp. NCIB 9816-4, a naphthalene dioxygenase with known broad substrate specificity. Production of phenylalanine, the precursor to both pathways, was systematically enhanced through a number of mutations, most notably via deletion of tyrA and over-expression of tktA. As a result, (R)-1,2-phenylethanediol reached titers as high as 1.23 g/L, and at 1.32 g/L (S)-styrene oxide titers already approach their toxicity limit. As with other aromatics, product toxicity was strongly correlated with a model of membrane accumulation and disruption. This study additionally demonstrates that greater flux through the styrene pathway can be achieved if its toxicity is addressed, as achieved in this case by reacting styrene to less toxic products. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Destructive effect of polystyrene sulfonate on the structure of hemoproteins (United States)

    Saburova, E. A.; Basova, L. V.; Dybovskaya, Yu. N.; Sukhorukov, B. I.


    The mechanism of the destruction of horse heart hemoglobin (Hb) and spermwhale muscle myoglobin (Mb), two hem-containing proteins, by polystyrene sulfonate, an anionic polyelectrolyte, was studied. Measurements of the optical absorption of the prostetic group of the hem in the visible spectrum and of the circular dichroism in the absorption bands of the peptide groups and aromatic amino acid residues demonstrated that the compact structure of both proteins experiences destruction in the presence of polystyrene sulfonate (PSS) at PSS concentrations ten times as low as that of the protein (in wt %) and that the content of α-helix structure in Hb and Mb decreases from 81% in the native state to 43% in their complexes with PSS. The distinctions in the mechanisms of the destruction of Hb and Mb by PSS were found to be as follows: (1) in contrast to Mb, Hb forms insoluble complexes with PSS at low PSS concentrations and (2) Mb-PSS solutions at Mb-to-PSS ratios >1 were found to contain free hems (that absorb at 397 nm), a feature not observed for Hb; the kinetics of the destruction of both the proteins by the polyelectrolyte was demonstrated to be a two-stage process. The first stage of the destruction of Hb (τ ≈ 24.5 s) was found to be four times as slow as that of Mb (τ ≈ 6 s); the second (slow) stage had a halftime of ˜6 h for both the proteins under study. To determine the localization of regions at the protein molecule surface that are capable of binding polyelectrolyte molecules, the distribution of the electrostatic potential over the surface of the Hb and Mb molecules was numerically calculated with the help of the Poisson-Boltzmann equation at pH 6.2 and an ionic strength of 100 mmol/l. Based on experimental and theoretical studies of the mechanism of the interaction of the polyelectrolyte with the proteins, the structural-functional properties of proteins responsible for their destruction by the polyelectrolyte are determined.

  11. Urea-hydrogen peroxide prompted the selective and controlled oxidation of thioglycosides into sulfoxides and sulfones. (United States)

    Singh, Adesh Kumar; Tiwari, Varsha; Mishra, Kunj Bihari; Gupta, Surabhi; Kandasamy, Jeyakumar


    A practical method for the selective and controlled oxidation of thioglycosides to corresponding glycosyl sulfoxides and sulfones is reported using urea-hydrogen peroxide (UHP). A wide range of glycosyl sulfoxides are selectively achieved using 1.5 equiv of UHP at 60 °C while corresponding sulfones are achieved using 2.5 equiv of UHP at 80 °C in acetic acid. Remarkably, oxidation susceptible olefin functional groups were found to be stable during the oxidation of sulfide.

  12. Urea–hydrogen peroxide prompted the selective and controlled oxidation of thioglycosides into sulfoxides and sulfones


    Adesh Kumar Singh; Varsha Tiwari; Kunj Bihari Mishra; Surabhi Gupta; Jeyakumar Kandasamy


    A practical method for the selective and controlled oxidation of thioglycosides to corresponding glycosyl sulfoxides and sulfones is reported using urea–hydrogen peroxide (UHP). A wide range of glycosyl sulfoxides are selectively achieved using 1.5 equiv of UHP at 60 °C while corresponding sulfones are achieved using 2.5 equiv of UHP at 80 °C in acetic acid. Remarkably, oxidation susceptible olefin functional groups were found to be stable during the oxidation of sulfide.

  13. Urea?hydrogen peroxide prompted the selective and controlled oxidation of thioglycosides into sulfoxides and sulfones


    Singh, Adesh Kumar; Tiwari, Varsha; Mishra, Kunj Bihari; Gupta, Surabhi; Kandasamy, Jeyakumar


    A practical method for the selective and controlled oxidation of thioglycosides to corresponding glycosyl sulfoxides and sulfones is reported using urea?hydrogen peroxide (UHP). A wide range of glycosyl sulfoxides are selectively achieved using 1.5 equiv of UHP at 60 ?C while corresponding sulfones are achieved using 2.5 equiv of UHP at 80 ?C in acetic acid. Remarkably, oxidation susceptible olefin functional groups were found to be stable during the oxidation of sulfide.

  14. Gases in molten salts

    CERN Document Server

    Tomkins, RPT


    This volume contains tabulated collections and critical evaluations of original data for the solubility of gases in molten salts, gathered from chemical literature through to the end of 1989. Within the volume, material is arranged according to the individual gas. The gases include hydrogen halides, inert gases, oxygen, nitrogen, hydrogen, carbon dioxide, water vapor and halogens. The molten salts consist of single salts, binary mixtures and multicomponent systems. Included also, is a special section on the solubility of gases in molten silicate systems, focussing on slags and fluxes.

  15. Chronic perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) exposure induces hepatic steatosis in zebrafish

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Jiangfei; Lv, Suping; Nie, Shangfei; Liu, Jing; Tong, Shoufang; Kang, Ning; Xiao, Yanyan; Dong, Qiaoxiang [Zhejiang Provincial Key Laboratory for Technology and Application of Model Organisms (China); Institute of Environmental Safety and Human Health, Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, 325035 (China); Huang, Changjiang, E-mail: [Zhejiang Provincial Key Laboratory for Technology and Application of Model Organisms (China); Institute of Environmental Safety and Human Health, Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, 325035 (China); Yang, Dongren, E-mail: [Zhejiang Provincial Key Laboratory for Technology and Application of Model Organisms (China); Institute of Environmental Safety and Human Health, Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, 325035 (China)


    Highlights: • PFOS chronic exposure induces sex-dependent hepatic steotosis in zebrafish. • PFOS interferes with β-oxidation, lipid synthesis, and lipid hepatic export process. • Zebrafish could be used as an alternative model for PFOS chronic toxicity screening. - Abstract: Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), one persistent organic pollutant, has been widely detected in the environment, wildlife and human. Currently few studies have documented the effects of chronic PFOS exposure on lipid metabolism, especially in aquatic organisms. The underlying mechanisms of hepatotoxicity induced by chronic PFOS exposure are still largely unknown. The present study defined the effects of chronic exposure to low level of PFOS on lipid metabolism using zebrafish as a model system. Our findings revealed a severe hepatic steatosis in the liver of males treated with 0.5 μM PFOS as evidenced by hepatosomatic index, histological assessment and liver lipid profiles. Quantitative PCR assay further indicated that PFOS significantly increase the transcriptional expression of nuclear receptors (nr1h3, rara, rxrgb, nr1l2) and the genes associated with fatty acid oxidation (acox1, acadm, cpt1a). In addition, chronic PFOS exposure significantly decreased liver ATP content and serum level of VLDL/LDL lipoprotein in males. Taken together, these findings suggest that chronic PFOS exposure induces hepatic steatosis in zebrafish via disturbing lipid biosynthesis, fatty acid β-oxidation and excretion of VLDL/LDL lipoprotein, and also demonstrate the validity of using zebrafish as an alternative model for PFOS chronic toxicity screening.

  16. Pre-treatment of biomasses using magnetised sulfonic acid catalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yane Ansanay


    Full Text Available There is a significant interest in employing solid acid catalysts for pre-treatment of biomasses for subsequent hydrolysis into sugars, because solid acid catalysts facilitate reusability, high activity, and easier separation. Hence the present research investigated pretreatment of four lignocellulosic biomasses, namely Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L ‘Alamo’, Gamagrass (Tripsacum dactyloides, Miscanthus (Miscanthus × giganteus and Triticale hay (Triticale hexaploide Lart. at 90°C for 2 h using three carbon-supported sulfonic acid catalysts. The catalysts were synthesized via impregnating p-Toluenesulfonic acid on carbon (regular and further impregnated with iron nitrate via two methods to obtain magnetic A and magnetic B catalysts. When tested as pre-treatment agents, a maximum total lignin reduction of 17.73±0.63% was observed for Triticale hay treated with magnetic A catalyst. Furthermore, maximum glucose yield after enzymatic hydrolysis was observed to be 203.47±5.09 mg g–1 (conversion of 65.07±1.63% from Switchgrass treated with magnetic A catalyst. When reusability of magnetised catalysts were tested, it was observed that magnetic A catalyst was consistent for Gamagrass, Miscanthus × Giganteus and Triticale hay, while magnetic B catalyst was found to maintain consistent yield for switchgrass feedstock. Our results suggested that magnetised solid acid catalyst could pre-treat various biomass stocks and also can potentially reduce the use of harsh chemicals and make bioenergy processes environment friendly.

  17. Thyroid disruption by perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA). (United States)

    Coperchini, F; Awwad, O; Rotondi, M; Santini, F; Imbriani, M; Chiovato, L


    Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) are two fluorinated compounds widely used in industry because of their useful chemical characteristics. They were identified as endocrine disruptors due to their ability to interfere with thyroid function. The resistance of PFOA and PFOS to environmental degradation, their bio-accumulation in food chains, and their long half-life raised concern in the scientific community, and several studies were performed with the aim to establish the real dangerousness of these compounds for the human health. The present review will focus on the effects of PFOA and PFOS on the thyroid gland taking into account in vitro experiments, animal studies, and human data. PFOS and PFOA reduce the circulating levels of thyroid hormones in diet-exposed animals, mainly by increasing their metabolic clearance rate. An accumulation of PFOS and PFOA was documented in thyroid cells, and a cytotoxic effect was observed after exposure to extremely high concentrations of these compounds. In environmentally exposed communities and in the general population, the most consistent effect of exposure to PFOA, and to a less extent to PFOS, is the occurrence of hypothyroidism. Women and children appear to be more at risk of developing mild thyroid failure. Pregnant women with circulating thyroid antibodies might be at risk of developing subclinical hypothyroidism, mainly when exposed at high doses of PFOS. The relative risks for thyroid cancer in people exposed to PFOA and PFOS were low and based on a few cases. Moreover, there was no consistent finding across all or even most studies.

  18. Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) contamination from textiles. (United States)

    Supreeyasunthorn, Phenpimuk; Boontanon, Suwanna K; Boontanon, Narin


    The goals of this study were to determine the concentrations of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) in textiles and to determine PFOS and PFOA contamination in textile washing water. Quantification analysis was performed by high performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry. Analysis of 32 textile samples by methanol extraction revealed that the average concentrations of PFOS and PFOA were 0.18 µg m(-2) (0.02 to 0.61 µg m(-2)) and 2.74 µg m(-2) (0.31 to 14.14 µg m(-2)), respectively. Although the average concentration of PFOS found in textile samples was below European Union (EU) Commission regulations (textile samples had PFOA concentrations exceeding 1 µg m(-2). Thus, based on these results, the concentration of PFOA in products should also be regulated. Experiments on PFOS and PFOA leaching into washing water were conducted. The maximum concentrations of PFOS and PFOA were measured after the first washing; the concentrations gradually decreased with each subsequent washing. PFOS and PFOA migrated from textiles and were released into the environment, with disappearance percentages of 29.8% for PFOS and 99% for PFOA. The data presented in this study showed that textiles could be a significant direct and indirect source of PFOS and PFOA exposure for both humans and the environment.

  19. Amine salts of nitroazoles (United States)

    Kienyin Lee; Stinecipher, M.M.


    Compositions of matter, a method of providing chemical energy by burning said compositions, and methods of making said compositions are described. These compositions are amine salts of nitroazoles. 1 figure.

  20. What Are Bath Salts? (United States)

    ... reports of people becoming psychotic (losing touch with reality) and violent. Although it is rare, there have ... in bath salts can produce: feelings of joy increased social interaction increased sex drive paranoia nervousness hallucinations ( ...

  1. Development of microporous drug-releasing films cast from artificial nanosized latexes of poly(styrene-co-methyl methacrylate) or poly(styrene-co-ethyl methacrylate). (United States)

    Otto, Daniel P; Vosloo, Hermanus C M; Liebenberg, Wilna; de Villiers, Melgardt M


    Two sets of copolymers comprising of styrene and either methyl or ethyl methacrylate as comonomer were conveniently synthesized by microemulsion copolymerization. The purified materials were characterized by GPC-MALLS and were shown to form artificial nanolatexes in THF. ATR-FTIR analysis revealed differences in copolymer composition and based on the copolymer properties, a selection of copolymers was chosen to cast drug-loaded, microporous films that exhibit microencapsulation of drug agglomerates. The contact angles of the copolymers suggested potential applications in medical devices to prevent the formation of bacterial biofilms that commonly result in infections. Additionally, the different copolymeric films showed two phases of drug release characterized by a rapid initial drug release followed by a zero-order phase. Depending on the application, one could select the copolymer films that best suited the application i.e. for short-term drug release applications such as urinary catheters or long-term applications such as artificial implants.

  2. Responses of conventional and molecular biomarkers in turbot Scophthalmus maximus exposed to heavy fuel oil no. 6 and styrene. (United States)

    Ruiz, Pamela; Ortiz-Zarragoitia, Maren; Orbea, Amaia; Theron, Michael; Le Floch, Stéphane; Cajaraville, Miren P


    Several accidental spills in European coastal areas have resulted in the release of different toxic compounds into the marine environment, such as heavy fuel oil type no. 6 in the "Erika" and "Prestige" oil spills and the highly toxic styrene after the loss of the "Ievoli Sun". There is a clear need to develop tools that might allow assessing the biological impact of these accidental spills on aquatic organisms. The aim of the present study was to determine the short-term effects and recovery after exposure of juvenile fish (Scophthalmus maximus) to heavy fuel oil no. 6 and styrene by using a battery of molecular, cell and tissue level biomarkers. Turbots were exposed to styrene for 7 days and to the diluted soluble fraction of the oil (10%) for 14 days, and then allowed to recover in clean seawater for the same time periods. cyp1a1 transcript was overexpressed in turbots after 3 and 14 days of exposure to heavy fuel oil, whereas ahr transcription was not modulated after heavy fuel oil and styrene exposure. pparα transcription level was significantly up-regulated after 3 days of treatment with styrene. Liver activity of peroxisomal acyl-CoA oxidase (AOX) was significantly induced after 14 days of oil exposure, but it was not affected by styrene. Hepatocyte lysosomal membrane stability (LMS) was significantly reduced after exposure to both treatments, indicating that the tested compounds significantly impaired fish health. Both AOX and LMS values returned to control levels after the recovery period. No differences in gamete development were observed between fuel- or styrene- exposed fish and control fish, and vitellogenin plasma levels were low, suggesting no xenoestrogenic effects of fuel oil or styrene. While styrene did not cause any increase in the prevalence of liver histopathological alterations, prevalence of extensive cell vacuolization increased after exposure to heavy fuel oil for 14 days. In conclusion, the suite of selected biomarkers proved to be

  3. Iodized Salt Use and Salt Iodine Content among Household Salts from Six Districts of Eastern Nepal. (United States)

    Khatiwada, S; Gelal, B; Tamang, M K; Kc, R; Singh, S; Lamsal, M; Baral, N


    Universal salt iodization is considered the best strategy for controlling iodine deficiency disorders in Nepal. This study was done to find iodized salt use among Nepalese population and the iodine content of household salts. Six districts (Siraha, Saptari, Jhapa, Udayapur, Ilam and Panchthar) were chosen randomly from 16 districts of eastern Nepal for the study. In each district, three schools (private and government) were chosen randomly for sample collection. A total of 1803 salt samples were collected from schools of those districts. For sample collection a clean air tight plastic pouch was provided to each school child and was asked to bring approximately 15 gm of their kitchen salt. The information about type of salt used; 'two child logo' iodized salt or crystal salt was obtained from each child and salt iodine content was estimated using iodometric titration. At the time of study, 85% (n=1533) of Nepalese households were found to use iodized salt whereas 15% (n=270) used crystal salt. The mean iodine content in iodized and crystal salt was 40.8±12.35 ppm and 18.43±11.49 ppm respectively. There was significant difference between iodized and crystal salts use and salt iodine content of iodized and crystal salt among different districts (p value <0.001 at confidence level of 95%). Of the total samples, only 169 samples (9.4% of samples) have iodine content<15 ppm. Most Nepalese households have access to iodized salt most salt samples have sufficient iodine content.

  4. Not salt taste perception but self-reported salt eating habit predicts actual salt intake. (United States)

    Lee, Hajeong; Cho, Hyun-Jeong; Bae, Eunjin; Kim, Yong Chul; Kim, Suhnggwon; Chin, Ho Jun


    Excessive dietary salt intake is related to cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Although dietary salt restriction is essential, it is difficult to achieve because of salt palatability. However, the association between salt perception or salt eating habit and actual salt intake remains uncertain. In this study, we recruited 74 healthy young individuals. We investigated their salt-eating habits by questionnaire and salt taste threshold through a rating scale that used serial dilution of a sodium chloride solution. Predicted 24-hr urinary salt excretions using Kawasaki's and Tanaka's equations estimated dietary salt intake. Participants' mean age was 35 yr, and 59.5% were male. Salt sense threshold did not show any relationship with actual salt intake and a salt-eating habit. However, those eating "salty" foods showed higher blood pressure (P for trend=0.048) and higher body mass index (BMI; P for trend=0.043). Moreover, a salty eating habit was a significant predictor for actual salt intake (regression coefficient [β] for Kawasaki's equation 1.35, 95% confidence interval [CI] 10-2.69, P=0.048; β for Tanaka's equation 0.66, 95% CI 0.01-1.31, P=0.047). In conclusion, a self-reported salt-eating habit, not salt taste threshold predicts actual salt intake.

  5. Characterisation of recycled acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene and high-impact polystyrene from waste computer equipment in Brazil. (United States)

    Hirayama, Denise; Saron, Clodoaldo


    Polymeric materials constitute a considerable fraction of waste computer equipment and polymers acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene and high-impact polystyrene are the main thermoplastic polymeric components found in waste computer equipment. Identification, separation and characterisation of additives present in acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene and high-impact polystyrene are fundamental procedures to mechanical recycling of these polymers. The aim of this study was to evaluate the methods for identification of acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene and high-impact polystyrene from waste computer equipment in Brazil, as well as their potential for mechanical recycling. The imprecise utilisation of symbols for identification of the polymers and the presence of additives containing toxic elements in determinate computer devices are some of the difficulties found for recycling of acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene and high-impact polystyrene from waste computer equipment. However, the considerable performance of mechanical properties of the recycled acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene and high-impact polystyrene when compared with the virgin materials confirms the potential for mechanical recycling of these polymers. © The Author(s) 2015.

  6. Chronic toxicity and three-generation reproduction study of styrene monomer in the drinking water of rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beliles, R.P.; Butala, J.H.; Stack, C.R.; Makris, S.


    Chronic toxicity and reproductive performance were evaluated in groups of rats receiving styrene monomer in their drinking water at nominal concentrations of 0, 125, or 250 ppm. Fifty male and 70 female rats in each test group and 76 males and 104 females in the control group were placed on a 2-year study and followed for observations of general health which included measurement of body weight, food and water consumption, hemograms, clinical chemistries, urinalysis, and histopathological examination. Ten males and 20 females from each group in the study were mated to produce F1 pups. These pups were subsequently mated to produce three generations of offspring, all maintained on styrene-treated drinking water. For each generation, the following were evaluated: fertility, litter size, pup viability, pup survival, sex ratio, pup body weight, weanling liver and kidney weight, and marrow cytogenetics. Except for a statistically significant reduction in water consumption for styrene-treated rats, no treatment-related changes, including mortality patterns, were reported for animals in the chronic study. The data evaluated for reproductive performance also showed no evidence of styrene-related changes. It was concluded that the administration of styrene in the drinking water of rats for 2 years produced no deleterious dose-related effects or decrements in reproductive performance.

  7. Mechanism of isotactic styrene polymerization with a C 6F 5-substituted bis(phenoxyimine) titanium system

    KAUST Repository

    Caporaso, Lucia


    We report a combined, experimental and theoretical, study of styrene polymerization to clarify the regio- and stereocontrol mechanism operating with a C 6F 5-substituted bis(phenoxyimine) titanium dichloride complex. Styrene homopolymerization, styrene-propene and styrene-ethene-propene copolymerizations have been carried out to this aim. A combination of 13C NMR analysis of the chain-end groups and of the microstructure of the homopolymers and copolymers reveals that styrene polymerization is highly regioselective and occurs prevalently through 2,1-monomer insertion. DFT calculations evidenced that steric interaction between the growing chain and the monomer in the transition state insertion stage is at the origin of this selectivity. The formation of isotactic polystyrene with a chain-end like microstructure is rationalized on the base of a mechanism similar to that proposed for the syndiospecific propene polymerization catalyzed by bis(phenoxyimine) titanium dichloride complexes. Finally, a general stereocontrol mechanism operative in olefin polymerization with this class of complexes is proposed. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  8. Metallic reductant-free synthesis of α-substituted propionic acid derivatives through hydrocarboxylation of alkenes with a formate salt. (United States)

    Takaya, Jun; Miyama, Ko; Zhu, Chuan; Iwasawa, Nobuharu


    A PGeP-pincer palladium-catalyzed hydrocarboxylation of styrenes to obtain pharmaceutically important α-arylpropionic acid derivatives was achieved using a formate salt as both a reductant and a CO 2 source. The reaction was also applicable to vinylsulfone and acrylates. Isotope labeling experiments demonstrated that a CO 2 -recycling mechanism is operative through generation and reaction of a benzylpalladium complex as a carbon nucleophile. This protocol has realized a mild and atom economical CO 2 -fixation reaction without the necessity of using strong metallic reductants.

  9. Binding of the Fluorescent probes 1-anilinonaphthalene-8-sulfonate and N-phenyl-1-naphthylamine to bacteria. (United States)



    Changes in fluorescence intensities in Pseudomonas fluorescens, Escherichia coli, Streptococcus thermophilus, and Bacillus subtilis were investigated by means of the fluorescence probes (1-anilinonaphthalene-8-sulfonate and N-phenyl-1-naphthylamine) during a temperature programmed run. A decrease in fluorescence intensity was observed in all investigated organisms when the temperature was elevated from 4 to about 40 degrees C. A strong increase in fluorescence intensity was found in gram-negative Ps. fluorescens and E. coli when the temperature was elevated over 40 degrees C. On the other hand, only a slight enhancement in fluorescence intensities was observed in gram-positive Str. thermophilus and B. subtilis when the lipid specific dye NPN was applied at elevated temperatures. Discontinuities in all the fluorescence temperature profiles were found between 20 and 30 degrees C in the case of both ANS and NPN. With ANS the fluorescence profiles turned upwards and with NPN downwards after the inflection points. The effects of KCl, NH4Cl, NaCl and LiCl on ANS binding differed from those detected for NPN. Saturation of probe binding was reached at lower salt concentrations in the case of NPN than ANS, but depended somewhat on temperature.

  10. Spectrofluorometric determination of some beta-blockers in tablets and human plasma using 9,10-dimethoxyanthracene-2-sodium sulfonate. (United States)

    Abdine, H; Sultan, M A; Hefnawy, M M; Belal, F


    A simple and sensitive spectrofluorometric method was developed for the quantitative determination of some beta-blockers, namely arotinolol, atenolol and labetalol as hydrochloride salts. The method is based on the reaction of these drugs as n-electron donors with the fluorogenic reagent 9,10-dimethoxy-2-anthracene sulfonate (DMAS) as pi-acceptor in acidic medium. The obtained ion-pairs were extracted into chloroform and measured spectrofluorometrically at 452 nm after excitation at 385 nm. The fluorescence intensity-concentration plots are rectilinear over the ranges of 0.5-5 microg x ml(1), 1.0-11.0 microg x ml(1) and 0.6-6.4 microg x ml(1) for labetalol, atenolol and arotinolol, respectively. The different parameters affecting the reaction pathway were thoroughly studied and optimized. No interference was observed from the common pharmaceutical excipients. The proposed method was successfully applied to the analysis of tablets and the results were statistically compared with those obtained by reference methods. The method was further extended to the in vitro determination of the drugs in spiked human plasma, the % recoveries (n = 3) ranged from 96.98 +/- 1.55 to 98.28 +/- 2.19. A proposal of the reaction pathway was postulated.

  11. Formulating a Sulfonated Anti-Viral Dendrimer in a Vaginal Microbicidal Gel having Dual Mechanisms of Action (United States)

    Mumper, Russell J.; Bell, Michael A.; Worthen, David R.; Cone, Richard A.; Lewis, Gareth R.; Moench, Thomas R.


    SPL7013 is the sodium salt of a sulfonated dendrimer that has potent antiviral properties. VivaGel®, a topical gel containing 3% w/w SPL7013, has been shown to be safe and well-tolerated in human clinical studies. BufferGel® is a Carbopol®-based acidic buffering gel that enhances the natural protective action of the vagina to produce a broad-spectrum microbicidal environment. The positive attributes of both gels were combined into a combination vaginal microbicidal gel having dual mechanisms of action. A 3% w/w SPL7013 combination gel, pH 3.7, was developed and fully characterized, and was shown to have more than 2-fold greater acidic buffering capacity than BufferGel. Ultracentrifugation experiments demonstrated that SPL7013 was not sequestered or entropically trapped in the viscous gel, thereby confirming, along with viral challenge studies, that SPL7013 has sufficient mobility in the viscous gel to exert antiviral properties. PMID:19040181

  12. Adsorption mechanism of sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate on carbon blacks by adsorption isotherm and zeta potential determinations. (United States)

    Zhao, Yapei; Lu, Pei; Li, Caiting; Fan, Xiaopeng; Wen, Qingbo; Zhan, Qi; Shu, Xin; Xu, Tieliang; Zeng, Guangming


    Surfactant solutions were propounded to remove fine and hydrophobic carbon black particles from coal-fired flue gas. The adsorption mechanisms between sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate (SDBS, an anionic surfactant) and carbon black particles in suspension were investigated. The influence of inorganic salt (NaCl) was also considered. As results showed, hydrophobic interactions contributed to the strong adsorption between SDBS and carbon black particles in the absence of NaCl, and adding NaCl affected the adsorption process. The adsorption amount of SDBS significantly increased when NaCl was added into the SDBS solution; however, when SDBS was in low concentration, the amount of adsorbed SDBS, which was responsible for the shift of zeta potentials, varied little under different concentrations of NaCl. This indicated that the adsorption of SDBS was mainly caused by hydrophobic interaction and Na+ could not change the adsorption of SDBS on adsorption site when SDBS was in low concentration. Moreover, the adsorbed SDBS and Na+ were retained in the Stern layer.

  13. Anion exchange membranes based on terminally crosslinked methyl morpholinium-functionalized poly(arylene ether sulfone)s (United States)

    Kwon, Sohyun; Rao, Anil H. N.; Kim, Tae-Hyun


    Azide-assisted terminal crosslinking of methyl morpholinium-functionalized poly(arylene ether sulfone) block copolymers yields products (xMM-PESs) suitable for use as anion exchange membranes. By combining the advantages of bulky morpholinium conductors and our unique polymer network crosslinked only at the termini of the polymer chains, we can produce AEMs that after the crosslinking show minimal loss in conductivity, yet with dramatically reduced water uptake. Terminal crosslinking also significantly increases the thermal, mechanical and chemical stability levels of the membranes. A high ion conductivity of 73.4 mS cm-1 and low water uptake of 26.1% at 80 °C are obtained for the crosslinked membrane with higher amount of hydrophilic composition, denoted as xMM-PES-1.5-1. In addition, the conductivity of the crosslinked xMM-PES-1.5-1 membrane exceeds that of its non-crosslinked counterpart (denoted as MM-PES-1.5-1) above 60 °C at 95% relative humidity because of its enhanced water retention capacity caused by the terminally-crosslinked structure.

  14. Novel proton exchange membranes based on cardo poly(arylene ether sulfone/nitrile)s with perfluoroalkyl sulfonic acid moieties for passive direct methanol fuel cells (United States)

    Zheng, Jifu; He, Qingyi; Gao, Nian; Yuan, Ting; Zhang, Suobo; Yang, Hui


    A new series of cardo poly(arylene ether sulfone/nitrile)s FSPES-x with perfluoroalkyl sulfonic acid groups have been successfully prepared by the perfluorosulfonic acid lactone ring-opening reaction without using any metal or base catalysts. These materials have been characterized by IR, NMR and TGA. The results indicate that this simple and metal-free method of preparation is highly efficient for controlling both the degree of perfluorosulfonation and the position of the sulfonate group and no side reactions such as crosslinking is observed. The FSPES-x membranes (IEC = 1.17-1.64 m equiv g-1) show the desired characteristics such as good film-forming ability, excellent thermal and mechanical properties, low methanol permeability, high conductivity (up to 0.083 S cm-1 at room temperature), as well as appropriate cell performance compared to Nafion®117. With these properties, such fluorinated sulfonic acid side-chain-type polymers are promising PEM materials for application in fuel cells.

  15. Nitric Acid Dehydration Using Perfluoro Carboxylate and Mixed Sulfonate/Carboxylate Membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ames, Richard L. [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States)


    Perfluoro ionomer membranes are tetrafluoro ethylene-based materials with microheterogeneous structures consisting of a hydrophobic polymer backbone and a hydrophilic side-chain cluster region. Due to the ionomer cluster morphology, these films exhibit unique transport properties. Recent investigations with perfluoro sulfonate and perfluoro sulfonate/carboxylate composite polymers have demonstrated their value in the dehydration of nitric acid and they show potential as an alternative to conventional, energy intensive unit operations in the concentration of acid feeds. As a result, investigations were conducted to determine the feasibility of using pure perfluoro carboxylate and mixed perfluoro sulfonate/carboxylate films for the dehydration of nitric acid because of the speculation of improved water selectivity of the carboxylate pendant chain. During the first phase of these investigations the effort was focused on generating a thin, solution cast perfluoro carboxylate ionomer film, to evaluate the general, chemical and physical characteristics of the polymer, and to assess the material's aqueous transport performance (flux and nitrate separation efficiencies) in pervaporation and high-pressure environments. Results demonstrated that generating robust solution-cast films was difficult yet a number of membranes survived high trans-membrane pressures up to 700 psig. General characterization of the solution cast product showed reduced ion exchange capacities when compared with thicker, ''as received'' perfluoro carboxylate and similar sulfonate films. Small angle x-ray scattering analysis results suggested that the solution cast carboxylate films contained a small fraction of sulfonate terminated side-chains. Aqueous transport experimentation showed that permeate fluxes for both pure water and nitric acid were approximately two orders of magnitude smaller for the carboxylate solution cast membranes when compared to their sulfonate

  16. Thermotropic properties of phosphatidylcholine nanodiscs bounded by styrene-maleic acid copolymers. (United States)

    Dominguez Pardo, J J; Dörr, J M; Renne, M F; Ould-Braham, T; Koorengevel, M C; van Steenbergen, M J; Killian, J A


    Styrene-maleic acid copolymers (SMA) have been gaining interest in the field of membrane research due to their ability to solubilize membranes into nanodics. The SMA molecules act as an amphipathic belt that surrounds the nanodiscs, whereby the hydrophobic styrene moieties can insert in between the lipid acyl chains. Here we used SMA variants with different styrene-to-maleic acid ratio (i.e. 2:1, 3:1 and 4:1) to investigate how lipid packing in the nanodiscs is affected by the presence of the polymers and how it depends on polymer composition. This was done by analyzing the thermotropic properties of a series of saturated phosphatidylcholines in nanodiscs using laurdan fluorescence and differential scanning calorimetry. In all cases it was found that the temperature of the main phase transition (Tm) of the lipids in the nanodiscs is downshifted and that its cooperativity is strongly reduced as compared to the situation in vesicles. These effects were least pronounced for lipids in nanodiscs bounded by SMA 2:1. Unexpected trends were observed for the calorimetric enthalpy of the transition, suggesting that the polymer itself contributes, possibly by rearranging around the nanodiscs when the lipids adopt the fluid phase. Finally, distinct differences in morphology were observed for nanodiscs at relatively high polymer concentrations, depending on the SMA variant used. Overall, the results suggest that the extent of preservation of native thermodynamic properties of the lipids as well as the stability of the nanodiscs at high polymer concentrations is better for SMA 2:1 than for the other SMA variants. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Copolymerization of Carbon–carbon Double-bond Monomer (Styrene with Cyclic Monomer (Tetrahydrofuran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sari Fouad


    Full Text Available We reported in this work that the cationic copolymerization in one step takes place between carbon–carbon double-bond monomer styrene with cyclic monomer tetrahydrofuran. The comonomers studied belong to different families: vinylic and cyclic ether. The reaction is initiated with maghnite-H+ an acid exchanged montmorillonite as acid solid ecocatalyst. Maghnite-H+ is already used as catalyst for polymerization of many vinylic and heterocyclic monomers. The oxonium ion of tetrahydrofuran and carbonium ion of styrene propagated the reaction of copolymerization. The acetic anhydride is essential for the maintenance of the ring opening of tetrahydrofuran and the entry in copolymerization. The temperature was kept constant at 40°C in oil bath heating for 6 hours. A typical reaction product was analyzed by 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR and IR and the formation of the copolymer was confirmed. The reaction was proved by matched with analysis. The maghnite-H+ allowed us to obtain extremely pure copolymer in good yield by following a simples operational conditions. Copyright © 2012 by BCREC UNDIP. All rights reservedReceived: 29th October 2012; Revised: 29th November 2012; Accepted: 29th November 2012[How to Cite: S. Fouad, M.I. Ferrahi, M. Belbachir. (2012. Copolymerization of Carbon–carbon Double-bond Monomer (Styrene with Cyclic Monomer (Tetrahydrofuran. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis, 7(2: 165-171. (doi:10.9767/bcrec.7.2.4074.165-171][How to Link / DOI: ] | View in 

  18. Effect of Low Salt Diet on Insulin Resistance in Salt Sensitive versus Salt Resistant Hypertension (United States)

    Garg, Rajesh; Sun, Bei; Williams, Jonathan


    Accumulating evidence shows an increase in insulin resistance on salt restriction. We compared the effect of low salt diet on insulin resistance in salt sensitive versus salt resistant hypertensive subjects. We also evaluated the relationship between salt sensitivity of blood pressure and salt sensitivity of insulin resistance in a multivariate regression model. Studies were conducted after one week of high salt (200 mmol/day Na) and one week of low salt (10 mmol/day Na) diet. Salt sensitivity was defined as the fall in systolic blood pressure >15mmHg on low salt diet. The study includes 389 subjects (44% Females, 16% Blacks, BMI 28.5±4.2 Kg/m2). As expected, blood pressure was lower on low salt (129±16/78±9 mmHg) as compared to high salt diet (145±18/86±10 mmHg). Fasting plasma glucose, insulin and HOMA were higher on low salt diet (95.4±19.4 mg/dl, 10.8±7.3 mIU/L and 2.6±1.9) as compared to high salt diet (90.6±10.8 mg/dl, 9.4±5.8 mIU/L and 2.1±1.4) (p salt sensitive (N=193) versus salt resistant (N=196) subjects on either diet. Increase in HOMA on low salt diet was 0.5±1.4 in salt sensitive and 0.4±1.5 in salt resistant subjects (p=NS). On multivariate regression analysis, change in systolic blood pressure was not associated with change in HOMA after including age, BMI, sex, change in serum and urine aldosterone and cortisol into the model. We conclude that the increase in insulin resistance on low salt diet is not affected by salt sensitivity of blood pressure. PMID:25185125

  19. Sulfonation Process and Desalination Effect of Polystyrene/PVDF Semi-Interpenetrating Polymer Network Cation Exchange Membrane


    Yin-lin Lei; Yun-jie Luo; Fei Chen; Le-he Mei


    With the classical sulfonation method of polystyrene-based strongly acidic cation exchange resins, polystyrene/polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) alloy particles were sulfonated to obtain a cation exchange resin, which was then directly thermoformed to prepare a semi-interpenetrating polymer network (semi-IPN) cation exchange membrane. The effects of the swelling agent, sulfonation time and temperature and the relative contents of polystyrene and divinylbenzene (DVB) in the alloy particles on the...

  20. Dimensional accuracy of Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene injection molded parts produced in a pilot produc

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mischkot, Michael; Davoudinejad, Ali; Charalambis, Alessandro

    Injection molding inserts manufactured additively by vat photopolymerization have become a serious option for significantly faster and more economical prototyping and pilot production due to technological progress and advancements in photopolymer materials in the recent years. 10 000 parts...... of a geometry including micro-features have been injection-molded in Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene (ABS) with a single 20x20x2.5 mm^3 injection molding insert manufactured in a photopolymer composite material. This research investigates the dimensional accuracy of the injection molded parts as a function...

  1. Oxidative Nitration of Styrenes for the Recycling of Low-Concentrated Nitrogen Dioxide in Air. (United States)

    Hofmann, Dagmar; de Salas, Cristina; Heinrich, Markus R


    The oxidative nitration of styrenes in ethyl acetate represents a metal-free, environmentally friendly, and sustainable technique to recover even low concentrations of NO2 in air. Favorable features are that the product mixture comprising nitroalcohols, nitroketones, and nitro nitrates simplifies at lower concentrations of NO2 . Experiments in a miniplant-type 10 L wet scrubber demonstrated that the recycling technique is well applicable on larger scales at which initial NO2 concentrations of >10 000 ppm were reliably reduced to less than 40 ppm. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Star polymers by ATRP of styrene and acrylates employing multifunctional initiators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jankova, Katja Atanassova; Bednarek, Melania; Hvilsted, Søren


    Multifunctional initiators for atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) are prepared by converting ditrimethylolpropane with four hydroxyl groups, dipentaerythritol with six hydroxyl groups, and poly(3-ethyl-3-hydroxymethyl-oxetane) with similar to 11 hydroxyl groups to the corresponding 2......-bromoisobutyrates or 2-bromopropionates as obtained by reaction with acid bromides. Star polystyrene (PS) is produced by using these macroinitiators and neat styrene in a controlled manner by ATRP at 110 degrees C, employing the catalytic system CuBr and bipyridine. M. up to 51,000 associated with narrow molecular...

  3. Biodegradation of airborne acetone/styrene mixtures in a bubble column reactor. (United States)

    Vanek, T; Silva, A; Halecky, M; Paca, J; Ruzickova, I; Kozliak, E; Jones, K


    The ability of a bubble column reactor (BCR) to biodegrade a mixture of styrene and acetone vapors was evaluated to determine the factors limiting the process efficiency, with a particular emphasis on the presence of degradation intermediates and oxygen levels. The results obtained under varied loadings and ratios were matched with the dissolved oxygen levels and kinetics of oxygen mass transfer, which was assessed by determination of k L a coefficients. A 1.5-L laboratory-scale BCR was operated under a constant air flow of 1.0 L.min -1 , using a defined mixed microbial population as a biocatalyst. Maximum values of elimination capacities/maximum overall specific degradation rates of 75.5 gC.m -3 .h -1 /0.197 gC.gdw -1 .h -1 , 66.0 gC.m -3 .h -1 /0.059 gC.gdw -1 .h -1 , and 45.8 gC.m -3 .h -1 /0.027 gC.gdw -1 .h -1 were observed for styrene/acetone 2:1, styrene-rich and acetone-rich mixtures, respectively, indicating significant substrate interactions and rate limitation by biological factors. The BCR removed both acetone and styrene near-quantitatively up to a relatively high organic load of 50 g.m -3 .h -1 . From this point, the removal efficiencies declined under increasing loading rates, accompanied by a significant drop in the dissolved oxygen concentration, showing a process transition to oxygen-limited conditions. However, the relatively efficient pollutant removal from air continued, due to significant oxygen mass transfer, up to a threshold loading rate when the accumulation of acetone and degradation intermediates in the aqueous medium became significant. These observations demonstrate that oxygen availability is the limiting factor for efficient pollutant degradation and that accumulation of intermediates may serve as an indicator of oxygen limitation. Microbial (activated sludge) analyses revealed the presence of amoebae and active nematodes that were not affected by variations in operational conditions.

  4. Reactivity and Regioselectivity in the Heck Reaction - A Hammett Study of 4-Substituted Styrenes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fristrup, Peter; Le Quement, Sebastian; Tanner, David Ackland


    The regioselectivity in the cationic Heck reaction of 4-substituted styrenes was addressed by a Hammett study. In this branching reaction, plots based on the substrate reactivity did not give meaningful data, whereas the product distribution was variable due to differing preferences for further...... substitution under the reaction conditions and, thus, unsuitable for Hammett plots. Mechanistically meaningful graphs were obtained by combination of the measured initial branching ratio with the approximately constant substrate reactivity. For the alpha-substitution a clear Hammett relation is observed...

  5. Metabolic activation and mutagenicity of 4 vinylic monomers (vinyl chloride, styrene, acrylonitrile, butadiene). (United States)

    Duverger, M; Lambotte, M; Malvoisin, E; de Meester, C; Poncelet, F; Mercier, M


    The mutagenic activity and the metabolism of four vinylic monomers; vinyl chloride, styrene, acrylonitrile and butadiene are reviewed. Those chemicals are converted by the mixed function oxidases system of the endoplasmic reticulum into reactive intermediates which can interact with macromolecules within the cell. In order to examine the mutagenic activity of these compounds and their metabolites, different mutagenicity testing systems have been used: tests with S. typhimurium, E. coli, Schizosaccharomyces pombe, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, V79 Chinese Hamster cells, CHO cells, Drosophila melanogaster as well as evaluations of chromosome aberrations.

  6. High Solid Contents Copoly (Styrene/Butyl Acrylate-Cloisite 30B Nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mirzataheri


    Full Text Available Higher solid contents (20 % and 40 % nanocomposites of poly (styrene-co-butyl acrylate including higher content of Cloisite 30B (7 wt% and 10 wt % were prepared via miniemulsion polymerization. Stability of the final latexes proved outstanding combination of polymerization procedure and surfactants. Morphological studies revealed by TEM, SAX and XRD showed three structures of core-shell, armored and individual dispersion of clay layers within the polymer particles. The effect of Cloisite 30B content on the barrier properties presents excellent and wide use of these films for packaging and nanocoatings industries.

  7. TLC separation of hippuric, mandelic, and phenylglyoxylic acids from urine after mixed exposure to toluene and styrene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bieniek, G.; Palys, E.; Wilczok, T.


    A method using thin-layer chromatography is described to determine the concentration of hippuric acid, mandelic acid, and phenylglyoxylic acid present in the urine after occupational mixed exposure to toluene and styrene. These substances are known metabolites of toluene and styrene, and therefore the evaluation to mixed exposure to toluene and styrene may be carried out separating these metabolites beforehand. Procedures are proposed to separate the metabolites as follows: separation of hippuric acid from mandelic acid, separation of mandelic acid from phenylglyoxylic acid, and separation of hippuric acid and mandelic acid from phenylglyoxylic acid. The developing reagent p-dimethylaminobenzaldehyde in acetic acid anhydride was used after separation on Kieselgel and Silicagel. The sensitivity of the method was 6 microgram of hippuric acid, 10 microgram of mandelic acid, and 7 microgram of phenylglyoxylic acid with an average recovery of 94.

  8. Molecular analysis on the utilization of oil palm empty fruit bunches fiber as reinforcement for acrylonitrile butadiene styrene biocomposites (United States)

    Hermawan, B.; Nikmatin, S.; Alatas, H.; Sudaryanto; Sukaryo, S. G.


    Oil palm empty fruit bunches (OPEFB) was one of the solid waste produced by the palm oil factory and were totally plentiful in biomass. OPEFB fiber used as reinforcement of polymer matrix acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS). The use of FTIR is to see that there is no changes in the molecules of the constituent biocomposite ABS and OPEFB. The reactivity of butadiene and styrene through the double bond- π conjugated system, contributed to the bond reaction with the maleic acid as compatibilizer witch is grafted to the system. It is concluded that the posible grafting reaction occurs by the addition of the MAH to the double bond of the butadiene and styrene. The hydroxyl group of cellulose can interact with this maleic acid to form a bond through the carboxyl group.

  9. Highly selective Wacker reaction of styrene derivatives: a green and efficient aerobic oxidative process promoted by benzoquinone/NaNO2/HClO4 under mild conditions. (United States)

    Zhang, Guofu; Xie, Xiaoqiang; Wang, Yong; Wen, Xin; Zhao, Yun; Ding, Chengrong


    A green and efficient catalytic redox system for the aerobic oxidative Wacker oxidation of styrene derivatives at room temperature using molecular oxygen as the terminal oxidant without copper chloride has been developed. The newly developed system exhibited excellent catalytic activity for the smooth transformation of terminal styrene derivatives to the desired methyl ketones with up to 96% yield and >99% selectivity.

  10. Synthesis and characterization of sulfonated polyesters derived from glycerol; Sintese e caracterizacao de poliesteres sulfonados obtidos a partir do glicerol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fiuza, R.A.; Jose, N.M.; Boaventura, J.S. [Universidade Federal da Bahia (IQ/UFBA), Salvador, BA (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica; Fiuza, R.P. [Universidade Federal da Bahia (EP/UFBA), Salvador, BA (Brazil). Escola Politecnica. Curso de Mestrado em Engenharia Quimica


    In this work were synthesized polyesters from glycerol and acid sulfonated phthalic previously. The materials were characterized by DSC, TGA, FTIR, SEM, XRD and XRF. The results showed effective sulfonation of phthalic acid. The presence of sulfonic groups promoted strong changes in the crystallinity of the new material makes the lens. The polyesters made from phthalic acid sulfonated combine characteristics such as heat resistance and groups that drivers potentiate the electrolyte for application in fuel cells proton exchange membrane and also for gas separation. (author)

  11. Phosphoric Acid-Mediated Synthesis of Vinyl Sulfones through Decarboxylative Coupling Reactions of Sodium Sulfinates with Phenylpropiolic Acids. (United States)

    Rong, Guangwei; Mao, Jincheng; Yan, Hong; Zheng, Yang; Zhang, Guoqi


    A novel phosphoric acid -mediated synthesis of vinyl sulfones through decarboxylative coupling reactions of sodium sulfinates with phenylpropiolic acids is described. This transformation is efficient and environmentally friendly.

  12. Great Salt Lake, Utah (United States)

    Stephens, Doyle W.; Gardner, Joe F.


    This document is intended as a source of general information and facts about Great Salt Lake, Utah. This U.S. Geological Survey information sheet answers frequently asked questions about Great Salt Lake. Topics include: History, salinity, brine shrimp, brine flies, migratory birds, and recreation. Great Salt Lake, the shrunken remnant of prehistoric Lake Bonneville, has no outlet. Dissolved salts accumulate in the lake by evaporation. Salinity south of the causeway has ranged from 6 percent to 27 percent over a period of 22 years (2 to 7 times saltier than the ocean). The high salinity supports a mineral industry that extracts about 2 million tons of salt from the lake each year. The aquatic ecosystem consists of more than 30 species of organisms. Harvest of its best-known species, the brine shrimp, annually supplies millions of pounds of food for the aquaculture industry worldwide. The lake is used extensively by millions of migratory and nesting birds and is a place of solitude for people. All this occurs in a lake that is located at the bottom of a 35,000-square-mile drainage basin that has a human population of more than 1.5 million.

  13. Fundamental Properties of Salts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toni Y Gutknecht; Guy L Fredrickson


    Thermal properties of molten salt systems are of interest to electrorefining operations, pertaining to both the Fuel Cycle Research & Development Program (FCR&D) and Spent Fuel Treatment Mission, currently being pursued by the Department of Energy (DOE). The phase stability of molten salts in an electrorefiner may be adversely impacted by the build-up of fission products in the electrolyte. Potential situations that need to be avoided, during electrorefining operations, include (i) fissile elements build up in the salt that might approach the criticality limits specified for the vessel, (ii) electrolyte freezing at the operating temperature of the electrorefiner due to changes in the liquidus temperature, and (iii) phase separation (non-homogenous solution). The stability (and homogeneity) of the phases can be monitored by studying the thermal characteristics of the molten salts as a function of impurity concentration. Simulated salt compositions consisting of the selected rare earth and alkaline earth chlorides, with a eutectic mixture of LiCl-KCl as the carrier electrolyte, were studied to determine the melting points (thermal characteristics) using a Differential Scanning Calorimeter (DSC). The experimental data were used to model the liquidus temperature. On the basis of the this data, it became possible to predict a spent fuel treatment processing scenario under which electrorefining could no longer be performed as a result of increasing liquidus temperatures of the electrolyte.

  14. The remarkable effect of organic salts on 1,3,5-trioxane synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu-Yi Yin


    Full Text Available Abstract The effects of organic salts on 1,3,5-trioxane synthesis were investigated through batch reaction and continuous production experiments. The organic salts used include sodium methanesulfonate (CH3NaO3S, sodium benzenesulfonate (C6H5NaO3S, sodium 4-methylbenzenesulfonate (C7H7NaO3S, and sodium 3-nitrobenzene sulfonate (C6H4NNaO5S. It was shown that the effects of organic salts on the yield of 1,3,5-trioxane in reaction solution and distillate follow the order CH3NaO3S < C6H5NaO3S < C7H7NaO3S < C6H4NNaO5S, which is inversely related to the charge density of the anions of the organic salts. In comparison with Cl−-based salts such as magnesium chloride, organic salts have the advantages of less formic acid generation and low corrosion. Studies on water activity revealed that the effect of organic salts on the activity of water was quite small at low concentration of organic salts. UV–visible spectroscopy and vapor–liquid equilibrium experiments were performed to uncover the mechanisms that govern such effects. The results showed that the effect of organic salts on the yield of 1,3,5-trioxane relies primarily on their ability to increase the catalytic activity of sulfuric acid and increase the relative volatilities of 1,3,5-trioxane and water and of 1,3,5-trioxane and oligomers.

  15. 40 CFR 721.1225 - Benzene, 1,2-dimethyl-, poly-propene derivatives, sulfonated, po-tas-sium salts. (United States)


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Benzene, 1,2-dimethyl-, poly-propene... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.1225 Benzene, 1,2-dimethyl-, poly-propene... reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as benzene, 1,2-dimethyl-, polypropene derivatives...

  16. Evaluation of 1, 3, 6, 8-Pyrene Tetra Sulfonic Acid tetra sodium salt (PTSA) as an agricultural spray tracer dye (United States)

    The ability to measure spray deposition and movement with the use of tracer materials is a necessity for agricultural application research. Ideally, any tracer material used is highly soluble in the solution being sprayed, easily recoverable from both artificial and plant samples, stable in solutio...

  17. β-alanine spectrophotometric determination in reaction with sodium salt of 1,2-naphthoquinone-4-sulfonic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. P. Portna


    Full Text Available Aim. The new spectrophotometric method for the quantitative determination of β-alanine in pharmaceutical formulations has been developed. Methods and results. This method is based on the measurement of aqueous β-alanine solutions absorption at 470 nm. The proposed method is actual according to the validation requirements of Ukrainian Pharmacopeia. The analytical method was optimized and validated by establishing the linearity (the correlation coefficient r = 1,000, precision (RSD% = 0,806, n = 9 and the accuracy ( = 100,8 %. Conclusion. According to the experimental data, the technique can be correctly reproduced and it is suitable for using in laboratories of the State Inspection for Quality Control of Medicines and QCD of the chemical-pharmaceutical enterprises.

  18. Mineral resource of the month: salt (United States)

    Kostick, Dennis S.


    The article presents information on various types of salt. Rock salt is either found from underground halite deposits or near the surface. Other types of salt include solar salt, salt brine, and vacuum pan salt. The different uses of salt are also given including its use as a flavor enhancer, as a road deicing agent, and to manufacture sodium hydroxide.

  19. Highly Sulfonated Diamine Synthesized Polyimides and Protic Ionic Liquid Composite Membranes Improve PEM Conductivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bor-Kuan Chen


    Full Text Available A novel sulfonated diamine was synthesized from 1,4-bis(4-aminophenoxy benzene [pBAB]. Sulfonated polyimides (SPIs were synthesized from sulfonated pBAB, 1,4-bis(4-aminophenoxy-2-sulfonic acid benzenesulfonic acid [pBABTS], various diamines and aromatic dianhydrides. Composite proton exchange membranes (PEMs made of novel SPIs and a protic ionic liquid (PIL 1-vinyl-3-H-imidazolium trifluoromethanesulfonate [VIm][OTf] showed substantially increased conductivity. We prepared an SPI/PIL composite PEM using pBABTS, 4,4′-(9-fluorenylidene dianiline (9FDA as diamine, 3,3′,4,4′-diphenylsulfone tetracarboxylic dianhydride (DSDA as dianhydride and 40 wt % [VIm][OTf] with a high conductivity of 16 mS/cm at 120 °C and anhydrous condition. pBABTS offered better conductivity, since the chemical structure had more sulfonated groups that provide increased conductivity. The new composite membrane could be a promising anhydrous or low-humidity PEM for intermediate or high-temperature fuel cells.

  20. Copoly(arlene ether)s containing pendant sulfonic acid groups as proton exchange membrane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yu Seung [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Kim, Dae Sik [CANADA NRC; Robertson, Gilles [CANADA NRC; Guiver, Michael [CANADA NRC


    A copoly(arylene ether) (PAE) with high fluorine content and a copoly(arylene ether nitrile) (PAEN) with high nitrile content, each containing pendant phenyl sulfonic acids were synthesized. The P AE and PAEN were prepared from decafluorobiphenyl (DFBP) and difluorobenzonitrile (DFBN) respectively, by polycondensation with 2-phenylhydroquinone (PHQ) by conventional aromatic nucleophilic substitution reactions. The sulfonic acid groups were introduced by mild post-sulfonation exclusively on the para-position of the pendant phenyl ring in PHQ. The membrane properties of the resulting sulfonated copolymers sP AE and sP AEN were compared for fuel cell applications. The copolymers sPAE and sPAEN, each having a degree of sulfonation (DS) of 1.0 had high ion exchange capacities (IEC{sub v}(wet) (volume-based, wet state)) of 1.77 and 2.55 meq./cm{sup 3}, high proton conductivities of 135.4 and 140.1 mS/cm at 80 C, and acceptable volume-based water uptake of 44.5-51.9 vol% at 80 C, respectively, compared to Nafion. The data points of these copolymer membranes are located in the area of outstanding properties in the trade-off plot of alternative hydrocarbon polyelectrolyte membranes (PEM) for the relationship between proton conductivity versus water uptake (weight based or volume based). Furthermore, the relative selectivity derived from proton conductivity and methanol permeability is higher than that of Nafion.

  1. The host cell sulfonation pathway contributes to retroviral infection at a step coincident with provirus establishment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James W Bruce


    Full Text Available The early steps of retrovirus replication leading up to provirus establishment are highly dependent on cellular processes and represent a time when the virus is particularly vulnerable to antivirals and host defense mechanisms. However, the roles played by cellular factors are only partially understood. To identify cellular processes that participate in these critical steps, we employed a high volume screening of insertionally mutagenized somatic cells using a murine leukemia virus (MLV vector. This approach identified a role for 3'-phosphoadenosine 5'-phosphosulfate synthase 1 (PAPSS1, one of two enzymes that synthesize PAPS, the high energy sulfate donor used in all sulfonation reactions catalyzed by cellular sulfotransferases. The role of the cellular sulfonation pathway was confirmed using chemical inhibitors of PAPS synthases and cellular sulfotransferases. The requirement for sulfonation was mapped to a stage during or shortly after MLV provirus establishment and influenced subsequent gene expression from the viral long terminal repeat (LTR promoter. Infection of cells by an HIV vector was also shown to be highly dependent on the cellular sulfonation pathway. These studies have uncovered a heretofore unknown regulatory step of retroviral replication, have defined a new biological function for sulfonation in nuclear gene expression, and provide a potentially valuable new target for HIV/AIDS therapy.

  2. Potential contact and intraocular lenses based on hydrophilic/hydrophobic sulfonated syndiotactic polystyrene membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Zuppolini


    Full Text Available Crystalline films of syndiotactic polystyrene (s-PS, a commercially available thermoplastic polymer, having a highly hydrophilic amorphous phase, were achieved by using a mild solid-state sulfonation procedure. Despite the used mild process conditions, an easy and uniform sulfonation of the phenyl rings of the amorphous phase is obtained. The crystallinity of the polymer was not affect by the sulfonation degree (S, at least at S less than 20%, and the obtained polymer films show the nanoporous crystalline form of s-PS. As widely reported in literature, the nanoporous nature of the polymer crystalline phase gives to these materials the ability to absorb and release organic molecules of appropriate size and polarity. This property, coupled to transparency, makes these materials potentially useful intraocular lens (IOLs and contact lens applications. Sulfonation procedure and sulfonated film samples characterization by using wide-angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD, Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR and ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis spectroscopy techniques and water sorption tests were reported. Furthermore, the biocompatibility study demonstrated no cytotoxicity and appropriate cell interaction properties for the specific applications.

  3. Conformational-induced doping effect of sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate on single walled carbon nanotubes. (United States)

    Lee, Jin-Hyon; Yoon, Seon-Mi; Park, Sam-Jin; Cha, In-Sung; Shin, Hyeon-Jin; Choi, Jae-Young; Kim, Jong Min; Paik, Ungyu


    The doping behavior of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) was investigated with an emphasis on the control of the conformation of sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonate (NaDDBS) with sulfonate groups acting as an electro-withdrawing group. The conformation of adsorbed NaDDBS on SWCNTs was controlled as a function of the amount of NaDDBS. The doping behavior of SWCNTs was significantly affected by the dosing amount of NaDDBS due to the conformational change of NaDDBS adsorbed on the SWCNT surface, which affected the spatial distance between the SWCNT surface and the sulfonate groups in NaDDBS. At a higher concentration, the spatial distance between the sulfonate group in NaDDBS and SWCNT was not sufficiently close enough to dope SWCNT due to the repulsive forces between the sulfonate groups in NaDDBS. Alternatively, at a lower concentration, NaDDBS acted as a p-type dopant for SWCNTs. To this end, this paper demonstrates a new tendency of doping that is related to the adsorbed behavior of a dispersant.

  4. Preparation of Sulfonated PVA-TMSP Membranes for Direct Methanol Fuel Cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Novel preparation and characterization of sulfonated polyvinyl alcohol (PVA–trimethoxysilyl propanethiol (TMSP membranes for direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC application have been investigated. Preparation of sulfonated PVA-TMSP membrane was conducted by crosslinking steps using sol-gel method and a catalyst of concentrated HCl. TMSP concentrations were varied from 1% to 3%. The gel solution was cast on to the membrane metal plate to obtain membrane sheets. The membrane was then oxidized in H2O2 concentrations of (10-30% to convert the mercapto groups into sulfonate group. Investigations of the cross-linking process and the existence of sulfonate group were conducted by infrared spectroscopy as shown for frequencies at 1140–1200/cm and 1200–1145/cm respectively. The scanning electron microscope–energy dispersive X-rays (SEM–EDX of the membranes indicated that the distribution of silica particles from sol–gel reaction products was uneven due to the fast exchange rate of condensation. The degree of swelling decreased as methanol concentrations increase for sulfonated PVA–TMSP membrane which opposed toward the value of commercial Nafion membrane. The maximum value of ion exchange capacity of the membrane was 1.82 mmol/g whereas the highest proton conductivity was 3.9 x 10-4 S/cm. Therefore it can be concluded that the membrane was a potential candidate for application in DMFC.

  5. Gas releases from salt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehgartner, B.; Neal, J.; Hinkebein, T.


    The occurrence of gas in salt mines and caverns has presented some serious problems to facility operators. Salt mines have long experienced sudden, usually unexpected expulsions of gas and salt from a production face, commonly known as outbursts. Outbursts can release over one million cubic feet of methane and fractured salt, and are responsible for the lives of numerous miners and explosions. Equipment, production time, and even entire mines have been lost due to outbursts. An outburst creates a cornucopian shaped hole that can reach heights of several hundred feet. The potential occurrence of outbursts must be factored into mine design and mining methods. In caverns, the occurrence of outbursts and steady infiltration of gas into stored product can effect the quality of the product, particularly over the long-term, and in some cases renders the product unusable as is or difficult to transport. Gas has also been known to collect in the roof traps of caverns resulting in safety and operational concerns. The intent of this paper is to summarize the existing knowledge on gas releases from salt. The compiled information can provide a better understanding of the phenomena and gain insight into the causative mechanisms that, once established, can help mitigate the variety of problems associated with gas releases from salt. Outbursts, as documented in mines, are discussed first. This is followed by a discussion of the relatively slow gas infiltration into stored crude oil, as observed and modeled in the caverns of the US Strategic Petroleum Reserve. A model that predicts outburst pressure kicks in caverns is also discussed.

  6. Mechanism for salt scaling (United States)

    Valenza, John J., II

    Salt scaling is superficial damage caused by freezing a saline solution on the surface of a cementitious body. The damage consists of the removal of small chips or flakes of binder. The discovery of this phenomenon in the early 1950's prompted hundreds of experimental studies, which clearly elucidated the characteristics of this damage. In particular it was shown that a pessimum salt concentration exists, where a moderate salt concentration (˜3%) results in the most damage. Despite the numerous studies, the mechanism responsible for salt scaling has not been identified. In this work it is shown that salt scaling is a result of the large thermal expansion mismatch between ice and the cementitious body, and that the mechanism responsible for damage is analogous to glue-spalling. When ice forms on a cementitious body a bi-material composite is formed. The thermal expansion coefficient of the ice is ˜5 times that of the underlying body, so when the temperature of the composite is lowered below the melting point, the ice goes into tension. Once this stress exceeds the strength of the ice, cracks initiate in the ice and propagate into the surface of the cementitious body, removing a flake of material. The glue-spall mechanism accounts for all of the characteristics of salt scaling. In particular, a theoretical analysis is presented which shows that the pessimum concentration is a consequence of the effect of brine pockets on the mechanical properties of ice, and that the damage morphology is accounted for by fracture mechanics. Finally, empirical evidence is presented that proves that the glue-small mechanism is the primary cause of salt scaling. The primary experimental tool used in this study is a novel warping experiment, where a pool of liquid is formed on top of a thin (˜3 mm) plate of cement paste. Stresses in the plate, including thermal expansion mismatch, result in warping of the plate, which is easily detected. This technique revealed the existence of

  7. Investigation on physical behavior of styrene wood-polymer in different concentrations of monomer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    maryam ghorbani


    Full Text Available This research was conducted to study the effect of different concentrations of styrene lumen monomer on the physical properties of beech wood. Physical test samples were prepared according to ASTM-D1037 standard and treated with vacuum-pressure method at five concentration levels; 0, 40, 60, 80 and 100 percent of soluble monomer. For polymerization, treated samples were heated in oven for two 24-hour period at 90 and 103ºC respectively. Monomer and polymer absorption, density variation, water absorption, swelling and anti-swelling efficiency (ASE were determined. According to the results, Monomer and polymer absorption were increment by monomer concentration increase, and they were reported 38.2% and 26% in highest level. With polymer absorption enhancement, density of wood increased from 0/63g/cm³ in control to 0/91g/cm³ in the highest monomer concentration level that reduces pores in wood-polymer structure. Absorbed polymer enhancement decreased hydrophilicity and dimensional changes of treated samples, so that water absorption and swelling volume of the samples saturated with 100% concentration of monomer were decreased 64% and 45.3% after the longest immersion time. Highest Anti-swelling efficiency of Styrene-saturated samples was determined 56.15% in the maximum concentration level of treatment.

  8. GPCR-styrene maleic acid lipid particles (GPCR-SMALPs): their nature and potential. (United States)

    Wheatley, Mark; Charlton, Jack; Jamshad, Mohammed; Routledge, Sarah J; Bailey, Sian; La-Borde, Penelope J; Azam, Maria T; Logan, Richard T; Bill, Roslyn M; Dafforn, Tim R; Poyner, David R


    G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) form the largest class of membrane proteins and are an important target for therapeutic drugs. These receptors are highly dynamic proteins sampling a range of conformational states in order to fulfil their complex signalling roles. In order to fully understand GPCR signalling mechanisms it is necessary to extract the receptor protein out of the plasma membrane. Historically this has universally required detergents which inadvertently strip away the annulus of lipid in close association with the receptor and disrupt lateral pressure exerted by the bilayer. Detergent-solubilized GPCRs are very unstable which presents a serious hurdle to characterization by biophysical methods. A range of strategies have been developed to ameliorate the detrimental effect of removing the receptor from the membrane including amphipols and reconstitution into nanodics stabilized by membrane scaffolding proteins (MSPs) but they all require exposure to detergent. Poly(styrene-co-maleic acid) (SMA) incorporates into membranes and spontaneously forms nanoscale poly(styrene-co-maleic acid) lipid particles (SMALPs), effectively acting like a 'molecular pastry cutter' to 'solubilize' GPCRs in the complete absence of detergent at any stage and with preservation of the native annular lipid throughout the process. GPCR-SMALPs have similar pharmacological properties to membrane-bound receptor, exhibit enhanced stability compared with detergent-solubilized receptors and being non-proteinaceous in nature, are fully compatible with downstream biophysical analysis of the encapsulated GPCR. © 2016 Authors; published by Portland Press Limited.

  9. Preliminary results on the fatigue life characterization of a styrenic dielectric elastomer (Conference Presentation) (United States)

    Chen, Yi; Vertechy, Rocco; Fontana, Marco


    Recently, a styrenic rubber membrane (commercialized under the name of "THERABAND YELLOW 11726") demonstrated excellent electromechanical properties for the development of high power density and highly efficient dielectric elastomer transducers (DETs). In particular, in an experimental application as generator, an inflated circular diaphragm DET based on this material made it possible to consistently convert pneumatic energy into electricity at a maximum energy density per cycle and power density greater than 400 J/kg and 650 W/kg, respectively, with even higher numbers being expected for DETs configured so as to have the material working in uniform states of deformation. As for any other existing dielectric elastomer material, these experimented performances can however be sustained for a limited number of cycles only, after which the DET will fail irreversibly. To date, very little information is available on the fatigue life performances of dielectric elastomer materials and of the transducers made thereof. Having identified the electrical breakdown as the most probable mode of DET failure, this paper reports for the first time on a set of lifetime constant-electric-stress tests conducted on the considered styrenic dielectric elastomer membrane. Specifically, the paper starts with a description of the employed experimental set-up and procedures. Then, it summarizes the obtained experimental results. Finally, it concludes with a discussion on how the acquired data could be used in a design procedure to find optimal tradeoffs between DET performance and lifetime/reliability.

  10. Ag-Cu Bimetallic Nanoparticles Prepared by Microemulsion Method as Catalyst for Epoxidation of Styrene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Kui Wang


    Full Text Available Ag/Cu bimetallic nanocatalysts supported on reticulate-like γ-alumina were prepared by a microemulsion method using N2H4·H2O as the reducing agent. The catalysts were activated by calcination followed with hydrogen reduction at 873K, and the properties were confirmed using various characterization techniques. Compared with metal oxides particles, Ag-Cu particles exhibited smaller sizes (<5 nm after calcination in H2 at 873K. XPS results indicated that the binding energies changed with the Ag/Cu ratios, suggesting that increasing the copper content gave both metals a greater tendency to lose electrons. Furthermore, Ag-Cu bimetallic nanoparticles supported on γ-alumina showed better catalytic activity on the epoxidation of styrene as compared with the corresponding monometallic silver or copper. The styrene oxide selectivity could reach 76.6% at Ag/Cu molar ratio of 3/1, while the maximum conversion (up to 94.6% appeared at Ag/Cu molar ratio of 1/1 because of the maximum interaction between silver and copper.

  11. Confirmation of Monod Model for Biofiltration of Styrene Vapors from Waste Flue Gas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Dehghanzadeh


    Full Text Available Background: The objective of this research was to investigate the kinetic behavior of the biofil-tration process for the removal of styrene.Methods: A three stage compost based biofilter was inoculated with thickened activated sludge. The reaction order rate constants were obtained from continuous experiments and used as the specific growth rate for the Monod equation.Results: The measured concentration profiles show a linear dependence on the bed height in the biofilter at higher loadings, such as 75 and 45 g m-3 h-1. This is the condition of reaction limitation for a reaction with zero-order kinetics. From the experimental data, maximum elimination capac-ity (ECmax was estimated to be 44, 40 and 26 g m-3 h-1 at empty bed retention times (EBRTs of 120, 60 and 30 s, respectively. However, at lower loadings, the measured concentration profile of the biofilter is one of exponential increase, which is the condition of both reaction and diffusion limitations for a reaction with zero-order kinetics. Maximum elimination capacities found from the experimental results were the same as Monod model predictions. Both the experimental re-sults and the model predictions showed the influence of EBRT on the removal rate of styrene, particularly for the highest loading rate.Conclusion: In terms of the practical applications of the proposed models have the advantage of being simpler than Monod kinetics and Monod kinetics requires a numerical solution.

  12. Structure of poly(styrene-b-ethylene-alt-propylene) diblock copolymer micelles in squalane. (United States)

    Choi, Soo-Hyung; Bates, Frank S; Lodge, Timothy P


    The temperature dependence of the micellar structures formed by poly(styrene-b-ethylene-alt-propylene) (SEP) diblock copolymers in squalane, a highly selective solvent for the PEP blocks, has been studied using dynamic light scattering (DLS) and small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS). Four SEP diblock copolymers were prepared by sequential anionic polymerization of styrene and isoprene, followed by hydrogenation of the isoprene blocks, to yield SEP(17-73), SEP(26-66), SEP(36-69), and SEP(42-60), where the numbers indicate block molecular weights in kDa. All four polymers formed well-defined spherical micelles. In dilute solution, DLS provided the temperature-dependent mean hydrodynamic radius, R(h), and its distribution, while detailed fitting of the SAXS profiles gave the core radius, R(c), the equivalent hard sphere radius, R(hs), and an estimate of the aggregation number, N(agg). In general, the micelles became smaller as the critical micelle temperature (CMT) was approached, which was well above the glass transition of the core block. As concentration increased the micelles packed onto body centered cubic lattices for all four copolymers, which underwent order-disorder transitions upon heating near the dilute solution CMTs. The results are discussed in terms of current understanding of block copolymer solution self-assembly, and particular attention is paid to the issue of equilibration, given the high glass transition temperature of the core block.

  13. Confirmation of monod model for biofiltration of styrene vapors from waste flue gas. (United States)

    Dehghanzadeh, Reza; Roshani, Babak; Asadi, Mahzar; Fahiminia, Mohammad; Aslhashemi, Ahmad


    The objective of this research was to investigate the kinetic behavior of the biofil¬tration process for the removal of styrene. A three stage compost based biofilter was inoculated with thickened activated sludge. The reaction order rate constants were obtained from continuous experiments and used as the specific growth rate for the Monod equation. The measured concentration profiles show a linear dependence on the bed height in the biofilter at higher loadings, such as 75 and 45 g m-3 h-1. This is the condition of reaction limitation for a reaction with zero-order kinetics. From the experimental data, maximum elimination capac¬ity (ECmax) was estimated to be 44, 40 and 26 g m-3 h-1 at empty bed retention times (EBRTs) of 120, 60 and 30 s, respectively. However, at lower loadings, the measured concentration profile of the biofilter is one of exponential increase, which is the condition of both reaction and diffusion limitations for a reaction with zero-order kinetics. Maximum elimination capacities found from the experimental results were the same as Monod model predictions. Both the experimental re¬sults and the model predictions showed the influence of EBRT on the removal rate of styrene, particularly for the highest loading rate. In terms of the practical applications of the proposed models have the advantage of being simpler than Monod kinetics and Monod kinetics requires a numerical solution.

  14. Oxygen sparging of residue salts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, E.; Griego, W.J.; Owens, S.D.; Thorn, C.W.; Vigil, R.A.


    Oxygen sparge is a process for treating salt residues at Los Alamos National Laboratory by sparging oxygen through molten salts. Oxygen reacts with the plutonium trichloride in these salts to form plutonium dioxide. There is further reaction of the plutonium dioxide with plutonium metal and the molten salt to form plutonium oxychloride. Both of the oxide plutonium species are insoluble in the salt and collect atthe bottom of the crucible. This results in a decrease of a factor of 2--3 in the amount of salt that must be treated, and the amount of waste generated by aqueous treatment methods.

  15. Occupational exposures to styrene vapor in a manufacturing plant for fiber-reinforced composite wind turbine blades. (United States)

    Hammond, Duane; Garcia, Alberto; Feng, H Amy


    A utility-scale wind turbine blade manufacturing plant requested assistance from the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) in controlling worker exposures to styrene at a plant that produced 37 and 42 m long fiber-reinforced wind turbine blades. The plant requested NIOSH assistance because previous air sampling conducted by the company indicated concerns about peak styrene concentrations when workers entered the confined space inside of the wind turbine blade. NIOSH researchers conducted two site visits and collected personal breathing zone and area air samples while workers performed the wind turbine blade manufacturing tasks of vacuum-assisted resin transfer molding (VARTM), gelcoating, glue wiping, and installing the safety platform. All samples were collected during the course of normal employee work activities and analyzed for styrene using NIOSH Method 1501. All sampling was task based since full-shift sampling from a prior Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) compliance inspection did not show any exposures to styrene above the OSHA permissible exposure limit. During the initial NIOSH site visit, 67 personal breathing zone and 18 area air samples were collected while workers performed tasks of VARTM, gelcoating, glue wipe, and installation of a safety platform. After the initial site visit, the company made changes to the glue wipe task that eliminated the need for workers to enter the confined space inside of the wind turbine blade. During the follow-up site visit, 12 personal breathing zone and 8 area air samples were collected from workers performing the modified glue wipe task. During the initial site visit, the geometric means of the personal breathing zone styrene air samples were 1.8 p.p.m. (n = 21) for workers performing the VARTM task, 68 p.p.m. (n = 5) for workers installing a safety platform, and 340 p.p.m. (n = 14) for workers performing the glue wipe task, where n is the number of workers sampled for a

  16. Analysis of sulfonated compounds by ion-exchange high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. (United States)

    Socher, G; Nussbaum, R; Rissler, K; Lankmayr, E


    Ion-exchange high-performance liquid chromatography (HPIEC)-mass spectrometry (MS) was used for the analysis of different sulfonated compounds. HPIEC was performed on an aminopropyl column applying a gradient with increasing concentration of a buffer consisting of ammonium acetate-acetic acid and acetonitrile as the organic modifier. HPIEC is well suited to highly efficient separation of sulfonated compounds and furthermore, due to the volatility of ammonium acetate, the method is also appropriate for LC-MS coupling by the means of either atmospheric pressure chemical ionization or electrospray ionization. The applicability range of HPIEC-MS is demonstrated on the basis of a complex mixture of model substances consisting of sulfonated aromatics and textile dyes largely differing from each other in their structural properties.

  17. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Identification of New Sulfonic Acid Metabolites of Chloroacetanilide Herbicides (United States)

    Morton, M.D.; Walters, F.H.; Aga, D.S.; Thurman, E.M.; Larive, C.K.


    The detection of the sulfonic acid metabolites of the chloroacetanilide herbicides acetochlor, alachlor, butachlor, propachlor, and, more recently, metolachlor in surface and ground water suggests that a common mechanism for dechlorination exists via the glutathione conjugation pathway. The identification of these herbicides and their metabolites is important due to growing public awareness and concern about pesticide levels in drinking water. Although these herbicides are regulated, little is known about the fate of their metabolites in soil. The sulfonic acid metabolites were synthesized by reaction of the parent compounds with an excess of sodium sulfite. Acetochlor, alachlor, butachlor, metolachlor, and propachlor and their sulfonic acid metabolites were studied by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and fast atom bombardment mass spectrometry. This paper provides a direct method for the preparation and characterization of these compounds that will be useful in the analysis and study of chloracetanilide herbicides and their metabolites.

  18. Synthesis and Process Optimization of Electrospun PEEK-Sulfonated Nanofibers by Response Surface Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Boaretti


    Full Text Available In this study electrospun nanofibers of partially sulfonated polyether ether ketone have been produced as a preliminary step for a possible development of composite proton exchange membranes for fuel cells. Response surface methodology has been employed for the modelling and optimization of the electrospinning process, using a Box-Behnken design. The investigation, based on a second order polynomial model, has been focused on the analysis of the effect of both process (voltage, tip-to-collector distance, flow rate and material (sulfonation degree variables on the mean fiber diameter. The final model has been verified by a series of statistical tests on the residuals and validated by a comparison procedure of samples at different sulfonation degrees, realized according to optimized conditions, for the production of homogeneous thin nanofibers.

  19. Periodic Mesoporous Organosilica Functionalized with Sulfonic Acid Groups as Acid Catalyst for Glycerol Acetylation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascal Van Der Voort


    Full Text Available A Periodic Mesoporous Organosilica (PMO functionalized with sulfonic acid groups has been successfully synthesized via a sequence of post-synthetic modification steps of a trans-ethenylene bridged PMO material. The double bond is functionalized via a bromination and subsequent substitution obtaining a thiol functionality. This is followed by an oxidation towards a sulfonic acid group. After full characterization, the solid acid catalyst is used in the acetylation of glycerol. The catalytic reactivity and reusability of the sulfonic acid modified PMO material is investigated. The catalyst showed a catalytic activity and kinetics that are comparable with the commercially available resin, Amberlyst-15, and furthermore our catalyst can be recycled for several subsequent catalytic runs and retains its catalytic activity.

  20. [Sensitivity to sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate: a supplementary test for bacterial identification]. (United States)

    Serov, G D


    The susceptibility to sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonate, an anion-active detergent, was studied with 10 Gram-positive and 18 Gram-negative bacterial cultures. According to this susceptibility, the cultures were subdivided into two groups identical in their tinctorial properties. The bacteria growing at a 0.05% concentration of sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonate or at its higher concentrations were Gram-negative. The threshold concentration of this compound in the medium at which Gram-positive cultures could grow was 0.008%; some of the bacteria ceased growing even at a 0.002% concentration. The bacteria varied in their susceptibility to the detergent also within one and the same group, and even within one and the same species. The subdivision of bacteria on the basis of their susceptibility to sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonate may be considered as a taxonomic feature.

  1. 21 CFR 100.155 - Salt and iodized salt. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Salt and iodized salt. 100.155 Section 100.155 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION GENERAL Specific Administrative Rulings and Decisions § 100.155 Salt and iodized...

  2. Learning SaltStack

    CERN Document Server

    Myers, Colton


    If you are a system administrator who manages multiple servers, then you know how difficult it is to keep your infrastructure in line. If you've been searching for an easier way, this book is for you. No prior experience with SaltStack is required.

  3. Synthesis and detection of toltrazuril sulfone and its pharmacokinetics in horses following administration in dimethylsulfoxide. (United States)

    Dirikolu, L; Karpiesiuk, W; Lehner, A F; Hughes, C; Granstrom, D E; Tobin, T


    Triazine-based antiprotozoal agents are known for their lipophylic characteristics and may therefore be expected to be well absorbed following oral administration. However, although an increase in lipid solubility generally increases the absorption of chemicals, extremely lipid-soluble chemicals may dissolve poorly in gastrointestinal (GI) fluids, and their corresponding absorption and bioavailability would be low. Also, if the compound is administered in solid form and is relatively insoluble in GI fluids, it is likely to have limited contact with the GI mucosa, and therefore, its rate of absorption will be low. Based on the above considerations, we sought a solvent with low or no toxicity that would maintain triazine agents in solution. As the oral route is most preferred for daily drug therapy, such a solvent would allow an increased rate of absorption following oral administration. In present study, it was demonstrated that dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) increased the oral bioavailability of toltrazuril sulfone (Ponazuril) threefold, relative to oral administrations of toltrazuril sulfone suspended in water. The cross-over study of toltrazuril sulfone formulated in DMSO indicated that the absolute oral bioavailability of toltrazuril sulfone in DMSO is 71%. The high bioavailability of the DMSO-preparation suggests that its daily oral administration will routinely yield effective plasma and cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) concentrations in all horses treated. Also, this improved formulation would allow clinicians to administer loading doses of toltrazuril sulfone in acute cases of Equine Protozoal Myeloencephalitis. Another option would involve administration of toltrazuril sulfone in DMSO mixed with feed (1.23 kg daily dose) meeting the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) recommendations for the levels of DMSO permissible in pharmaceutical preparations.

  4. Study of high-anionic conducting sulfonated microporous membranes for zinc-air electrochemical cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, G.M. [Institute of Electro-Optical Engineering, Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan 333, Taiwan (China)], E-mail:; Lin, S.J.; You, J.H. [Institute of Electro-Optical Engineering, Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan 333, Taiwan (China); Yang, C.C. [Ming Chi University of Technology, Taipei 243, Taiwan (China)


    High-performance electrochemical membranes have been in great demand due to the rapid market growth in the portable power source devices. The electrochemical characteristics of high-anionic conducting membrane separators were studied in this report using microporous membranes with different sulfonation degrees obtained by changing the sulfonation reaction time. The degree of sulfonation treatment and the effects on the membrane separators were carefully investigated. The room temperature anionic conductivity of the membranes was improved by 132% to 3.52 x 10{sup -2} S cm{sup -1} when the sulfonation treatment time was 128 h. It was about 1.52 x 10{sup -2} S cm{sup -1} for the unsulfonated membranes. The anionic transport number in 1 M KOH aqueous solution was also improved to 0.89 from 0.79. The characteristic properties of these membrane separators were studied by infrared spectroscopy (IR), elemental analysis (EA), X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), AC impedance, contact angle measuring system and stress-strain tests. In addition, the solid-state zinc-air cells assembled from the sulfonated membrane separators showed enhanced battery power density of 38 mW cm{sup -2} while the discharge current density was higher at 45 mA cm{sup -2}. The battery power density was around 20 mW cm{sup -2} and the discharge current density was 25 mA cm{sup -2} for the unsulfonated samples. Therefore, the sulfonated microporous membranes could be tailored for the different electrochemical cell applications.

  5. Lowering Salt in Your Diet (United States)

    ... For Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Lowering Salt in Your Diet Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... and can be used by individuals to replace salt in their diet. There are no known undesirable effects in healthy ...

  6. Carpinteria Salt Marsh Habitat Polygons (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — We identified five common habitat types in Carpinteria Salt Marsh: channels, pans (flats), marsh, salt flat and upland. We then drew polygons around each habitat...

  7. Salt ingestion caves.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lundquist Charles A.


    Full Text Available Large vertebrate herbivores, when they find a salt-bearing layer of rock, say in a cliff face, can produce sizable voids where, overgenerations, they have removed and consumed salty rock. The cavities formed by this natural animal process constitute a uniqueclass of caves that can be called salt ingestion caves. Several examples of such caves are described in various publications. Anexample in Mississippi U.S.A., Rock House Cave, was visited by the authors in 2000. It seems to have been formed by deer orbison. Perhaps the most spectacular example is Kitum Cave in Kenya. This cave has been excavated to a length over 100 metersby elephants. An ancient example is La Cueva del Milodon in Chile, which is reported to have been excavated by the now extinctmilodon, a giant ground sloth. Still other possible examples can be cited. This class of caves deserves a careful definition. First, thecavity in rock should meet the size and other conventions of the locally accepted definition of a cave. Of course this requirement differsin detail from country to country, particularly in the matter of size. The intent is to respect the local conventions. The characteristicthat human entry is possible is judged to be a crucial property of any recognized cave definition. Second, the cavity should besignificantly the result of vertebrate animal consumption of salt-bearing rock. The defining process is that rock removed to form thecave is carried away in the digestive track of an animal. While sodium salts are expected to be the norm, other salts for which thereis animal hunger are acceptable. Also some other speleogenesis process, such as solution, should not be excluded as long as it issecondary in formation of a cave in question.

  8. Synthesis and ATRP of novel fluorinated aromatic monomer with pendant sulfonate group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dimitrov, Ivaylo; Jankova Atanasova, Katja; Hvilsted, Søren


    Novel, fluorinated monomer with pendant sulfonate group was synthesized utilizing a two-step derivatization of 2,3,4,5,6-pentafluorostyrene (FS). The first step was a nucleophilic substitution of the fluorine atom in para position by hydroxyl group followed by sulfopropylation. The monomer...... was polymerized under aqueous ATRP conditions to yield phenyl-fluorinated aromatic homopolymer bearing pendant sulfonates on each repeating unit. Furthermore, this polymer was used as macroinitiator for the ATRP of poly(ethylene glycol) methacrylate. The polymers were characterized by 1H NMR, SEC and FTIR...

  9. Microwave Assisted Hydrolysis of Holocellulose Catalyzed with Sulfonated Char Derived from Lignin-Rich Residue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kui Wang


    Full Text Available A microwave assisted green process has been developed for production of sugars through liquefying holocellulose catalyzed with sulfonated char derived from the lignin-rich residue produced during pretreatment of lignocellulose. Various reaction parameters including the hydrolysis temperature, hydrolysis time, catalyst content, and the ratio of water to feedstock were evaluated. The maximum sugars yield of 82.6% (based on the dry mass of holocellulose was obtained under the optimum reaction conditions. The sulfonated char showed superior catalytic performance to that of dilute sulfuric acid in converting holocellulose into sugars under microwave irradiation.

  10. Urea–hydrogen peroxide prompted the selective and controlled oxidation of thioglycosides into sulfoxides and sulfones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adesh Kumar Singh


    Full Text Available A practical method for the selective and controlled oxidation of thioglycosides to corresponding glycosyl sulfoxides and sulfones is reported using urea–hydrogen peroxide (UHP. A wide range of glycosyl sulfoxides are selectively achieved using 1.5 equiv of UHP at 60 °C while corresponding sulfones are achieved using 2.5 equiv of UHP at 80 °C in acetic acid. Remarkably, oxidation susceptible olefin functional groups were found to be stable during the oxidation of sulfide.

  11. Sulfonic-based precursors (SAPs for silica mesostructures: Advances in synthesis and applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadegh Rostamnia*


    Full Text Available Sulfonic acid-based precursors (SAP play an important role in tailoring mesoporous silica’s and convert them to a solid acid catalyst with a Bronsted-type nature. These kinds of solid acids contribute to sustainable and green chemistry by their heterogeneous, recyclable, and high efficiency features. Therefore, knowing the properties and reactivity of SAPs can guide us to manufacture a sulfonated mesostructures compatible with reaction type and conditions. In the present review, some of the important SAPs, their reactivity and mechanism of functionalization are discussed.

  12. [3,3]-Sigmatropic rearrangement of allenic alcohols: stereoselective synthesis of 1,3-diene-2-ol sulfonates. (United States)

    Zhao, Yuyang; Wang, Yurong; Gu, Zhanshou; Wang, Zhiming


    An efficient synthetic pathway to 1,3-diene-2-ol sulfonates involving the [3,3]-sigmatropic rearrangement of allenic alcohols with sulfonic acids under mild reaction conditions is described. These products can easily undergo reduction or transition-metal catalyzed cross-coupling reactions to yield a series of stereodefined multisubstituted 1,3-dienes.

  13. Microbial Diversity of Culinary Salts


    Muske, Galen; Baxter, Bonnie


    Extremophiles are exceptional microorganisms that live on this planet in extraordinarily harsh environments. One such extremophiles are Halophiles, salt-loving microorganisms that can survive in extreme salinity levels, and have been found to survive inside salt crystals. We were curious is about the potential diversity of halophiles surviving in salts harvested from around the world. For this experiment various culinary salts were suspended in a 23 % NaCL growth media broth and allowed to gr...

  14. Fracture morphologies of carbon-black-loaded SBR (styrene-butadiene rubber) subjected to low-cycle, high-stress fatigue. [Styrene-butadiene rubber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldberg, A.; Lesuer, D.R.; Patt, J.


    Experimental results, together with an analytical model, related to the loss in tensile strength of styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR) loaded with carbon black (CB) that had been subjected to low-cycle, high-stress fatigue tests were presented in a prior paper. The drop in tensile strength relative to that of a virgin sample was considered to be a measure of damage induced during the fatigue test. The present paper is a continuation of this study dealing with the morphological interpretations of the fractured surfaces, whereby the cyclic-tearing behavior, resulting in the damage, is related to the test and material parameters. It was found that failure is almost always initiated in the bulk of a sample at a material flaw. The size and definition of a flaw increase with an increase in carbon-black loading. Initiation flaw sites are enveloped by fan-shaped or penny-shaped regions which develop during cycling. The size and morphology of a fatigue-tear region appears to be independent of the fatigue load or the extent of the damage (strength loss). By contrast, either an increase in cycling load or an increase in damage at constant load increases the definition of the fatigue-region morphology for all formulations of carbon-black. On the finest scale, the morphology can be described in terms of tearing of individual groups of rubber strands, collapsing to form a cell-like structure. 18 refs., 13 figs.

  15. Determining the efficiency of ZSM-5 zeolite impregnated with nanoparticles of titanium dioxide in the photocatalytic removal of styrene vapors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojtaba Nakhaei pour


    Full Text Available Introduction: Styrene monomer is a volatile organic compound that has many applications particularly in plastic, rubber and paint industries. According to the harmful effects of these compounds on human and environment, reducing and controling of them seem necessary. Therefore, in this study removal of styrene was investigated using photocatalytic process of titanium dioxide nanoparticles stabilized on ZSM-5. Methods: After stabilization of titanium dioxide nanoparticles on ZSM-5 zeolite, BET, SEM and XRD analysis were used to determine the characteristics of nanoparticles. Experiments were conducted at ambient temperature in laboratory scale. Concentration of produced styrene in the experiments was 50 and 300 ppm, and input flow rate was 1 l/min. Results: images and spectra obtained through XRD and SEM-EDAX showed that  nano-catalysts are well- stabilized. The results showed that by increasing of input concentration of styrene from 50 to 300 ppm, photocatalytic removal efficiency are reduced. Also, adsorption capacity of the catalyst bed in concentrations of 50 and 300 ppm was calculated 16.3 and19.4 mg/gr of adsorbent respectively. Conclusion: The results show that the use of hybrid bed can increase the removal efficiency of contaminants. And due to low cost of application of these systems compared to conventional methods, it is recommended that more comprehensive studies to be done regarding the optimization of the parameters affecting the process of photocatalytic removal.

  16. Stepwise Swelling of a Thin Film of Lamellae-Forming Poly(styrene-b-butadiene) in Cyclohexane Vapor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di, Zhenyu; Posselt, Dorthe; Smilgies, Detlef-M.


    We investigated the swelling of a thin film of lamellae-forming poly(styrene-b-butadiene) in cyclohexane vapor. The vapor pressure and thus the degree of swelling of the film are increased in a stepwise manner using a custom-built sample cell. The resulting structural changes during and after eac...

  17. N-Heterocyclic carbene-palladium(II)-1-methylimidazole complex catalyzed Mizoroki-Heck reaction of aryl chlorides with styrenes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gao, Ting-Ting; Jin, Ai-Ping; Shao, Li-Xiong


    A well-defined N-heterocyclic carbene-palladium(II)-1-methylimidazole [NHC-Pd(II)-Im] complex 1 was found to be an effective catalyst for the Mizoroki-Heck reaction of a variety of aryl chlorides with styrenes...

  18. Solute recovery from ionic liquids: a conceptual design study for recovery of styrene monomer from [4-mebupy][BF4

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongmans, Mark; Trampe, J.; Schuur, Boelo; de Haan, A.B.


    Extractive distillation using ionic liquids (ILs) is a promising technology to separate the close-boiling mixture ethylbenzene/styrene. A proper solvent regeneration is crucial to obtain a technical and economic feasible process. In this work, several regeneration technologies were studied to

  19. Highly selective oxidation of styrene to benzaldehyde over a tailor-made cobalt oxide encapsulated zeolite catalyst. (United States)

    Liu, Jiangyong; Wang, Zihao; Jian, Panming; Jian, Ruiqi


    A tailor-made catalyst with cobalt oxide particles encapsulated into ZSM-5 zeolites (Co 3 O 4 @HZSM-5) was prepared via a hydrothermal method with the conventional impregnated Co 3 O 4 /SiO 2 catalyst as the precursor and Si source. Various characterization results show that the Co 3 O 4 @HZSM-5 catalyst has well-organized structure with Co 3 O 4 particles compatibly encapsulated in the zeolite crystals. The Co 3 O 4 @HZSM-5 catalyst was employed as an efficient catalyst for the selective oxidation of styrene to benzaldehyde with hydrogen peroxide as a green and economic oxidant. The effect of various reaction conditions including reaction time, reaction temperature, different kinds of solvents, styrene/H 2 O 2 molar ratio and catalyst dosage on the catalytic performance were systematically investigated. Under the optimized reaction condition, the yield of benzaldehyde can achieve 78.9% with 96.8% styrene conversion and 81.5% benzaldehyde selectivity. Such an excellent catalytic performance can be attributed to the synergistic effect between the confined reaction environment and the proper acidic property. In addition, the reaction mechanism with Co 3 O 4 @HZSM-5 as the catalyst for the selective oxidation of styrene to benzaldehyde was reasonably proposed. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Entropic Separation of Styrene/Ethylbenzene Mixtures by Exploitation of Subtle Differences in Molecular Configurations in Ordered Crystalline Nanoporous Adsorbents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Torres-Knoop, A.; Heinen, J.; Krishna, R.; Dubbeldam, D.


    The separation of styrene/ethylbenzene mixture is of great importance in the petrochemical industry. Current technology uses distillation; this separation is difficult because of the small, 9 K, difference in the boiling points. An alternative separation method uses selective adsorption in

  1. On the form of the strain energy function for a family of SBR materials. [Styrene-Butadiene Rubber (United States)

    Arenz, R. J.


    Styrene-butadiene materials with varying crosslink densities are analyzed through use of a strain energy function of the type introduced by Valanis and Landel (1967). A form of the strain energy function derived from strip biaxial tests proves to be accurate when checked against uniaxial and other biaxial test results.

  2. Reactive blending of poly(styrene-maleic) anhydride with poly(phenylene oxide) by addition of `-amino-polystyrene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koning, Cor; Ikker, Andreas; Ikker, A.; Borggreve, Rein; Leemans, Luc; Möller, Martin; Moller, M.


    -(3-Aminopropyl-l-amino)polystyrene (-amino-PS) was melt-blended with styrene/maleic anhydride copolymers (SMA) containing 28 wt% maleic anhydride groups. The terminal primary amino group can react with the maleic anhydride monomer units in SMA, forming imides. The resulting product turned out to be

  3. Modelling the steady state and dynamic conditions of a biotrickling filter treating styrene and acetone in air

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Mark Gerrard


    Full Text Available The aim of this work was the study a trickling biofilter, where water was circulated throughout the bed. In the first steady state experiment, the packing materials used were 25mm Pall rings. The airflow rate was increased gradually and the concentration of styrene in the air stream was held constant. In the second experiment, 15mm Pall rings were used. In this case, the feed contained both styrene and a small amount of acetone. The concentration of acetone and the air flow rate were kept constant, but the styrene inlet concentration was increased. The concentrations were measured at the input, and also at an intermediate and the outlet position in the biotrickling filter to determine the concentration profile along the reactor. Using the values of coefficient of determination (R² and the coefficient of variation of the fitted constant as criteria, a zero order model with diffusional limitation was chosen as the best representation of the data. Then a further, third, set of experiments were done at unsteady state, using step changes of the inlet concentration levels of both styrene and acetone at a steady air flow-rate . Inlet and outlet concentrations were measured as a function of time and the results were adequately described using a simple first order model.


    Pollution prevention (P2) options to reduce styrene emissions, such as new materials, and application equipment, are commercially available to the operators of open molding processes. However, information is lacking on the emissions reduction that these options can achieve. To me...

  5. Recent Advances in Rare Earth Complexes Bearing Allyl Ligands and Their Reactivity towards Conjugated Dienes and Styrene Polymerization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jashvini Jothieswaran


    Full Text Available This mini-review focuses on recent advances on the synthesis, structure, and characterization of allyl-based rare earth organometallic complexes, with emphasis on their ability to catalyze the polymerization of non-polar monomers such as conjugated dienes, styrene, and their related copolymerization.

  6. Influence of the degree of hydrolysis of poly(styrene-alt-maleic anhydride) on miscibility with poly(vinyl acetate)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosma, M.; Vorenkamp, E.J.; Brinke, G. ten; Challa, G.


    The influence of the hydrolysis of anhydride groups in poly(styrene-alt-maleic anhydride) (PSMA) on its miscibility with poly(vinyl acetate) (PVAc) is investigated. The cloudpoint curves of these blends are determined as a function of the degree of hydrolysis. The miscibility is shown to improve

  7. Probing competitive enantioselective approach vectors operating in the Jacobsen-Katsuki epoxidation: a kinetic study of methyl-substituted styrenes. (United States)

    Fristrup, Peter; Dideriksen, Brian B; Tanner, David; Norrby, Per-Ola


    This paper describes a study of reactivity and enantioselectivity for a series of methyl-substituted styrenes in the Jacobsen-Katsuki (Mn(salen)-catalyzed) epoxidation reaction. Competition experiments provided kinetic data for the reactivity of the seven possible methyl-substituted styrenes (mono-, di- and trisubstituted) relative to styrene itself, ee values were measured by chiral GC, and absolute configurations were secured by chemical correlation. Of particular interest was the switch in absolute configuration at the benzylic position of the epoxides derived from (Z)- and (E)-alpha,beta-dimethylstyrene, respectively. The results could be rationalized in terms of an approach vector with the phenyl substituent proximal to the salen. As opposed to alkyl groups, a proximal phenyl group has very little effect on the rate of the reaction. Consideration of distal vs proximal approach allows prediction of absolute stereochemistry as a function of alkene substitution pattern. Trisubstituted alkenes with one phenyl group cis to the alkene hydrogen can be identified as a favored substrate class in the title reaction, with both rate and selectivity close to the classic (Z)-beta-substituted styrene substrates.

  8. Risk of cancer in workers exposed to styrene at eight British companies making glass-reinforced plastics. (United States)

    Coggon, David; Ntani, Georgia; Harris, E Clare; Palmer, Keith T


    To provide further information on the risks of lymphohaematopoietic (LH) and other cancers associated with styrene. We extended follow-up to December 2012 for 7970 workers at eight companies in England which used styrene in the manufacture of glass-reinforced plastics. Mortality was compared with that for England and Wales by the person-years method, and summarised by SMRs with 95% CIs. A supplementary nested case-control analysis compared styrene exposures, lagged by 5 years, in 122 incident or fatal cases of LH cancer and 1138 matched controls. A total of 3121 cohort members had died (2022 since the last follow-up). No elevation of mortality was observed for LH cancer, either in the full cohort (62 deaths, SMR 0.90, 95% CI 0.69 to 1.15), or in those with more than background exposure to styrene (38 deaths, SMR 0.82, 95% CI 0.58 to 1.14). Nor did the case-control analysis suggest any association with LH cancer. In comparison with background exposure, the OR for non-Hodgkin's lymphoma/chronic lymphocytic leukaemia in workers with high exposure (estimated 8-h time-weighted average of 40-100 ppm) for ≥1 year was 0.54 (95% CI 0.23 to 1.27). Mortality from lung cancer was significantly elevated, and risk increased progressively across exposure categories, with an SMR of 1.44 (95% CI 1.10 to 1.86) in workers highly exposed for ≥1 year. We found no evidence that styrene causes LH cancer. An association with lung cancer is not consistently supported by other studies. It may have been confounded by smoking, but would be worth checking further. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to

  9. Influence of degree of sulfonation of BDPP upon enantioselectivity in rhodium-BDPP catalyzed hydrogenation reactions in a two phase system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lensink, Cornelis; Rijnberg, Evelien; Vries, Johannes G. de


    Asymmetric hydrogenation experiments were carried out with catalysts prepared in situ from [Rh(COD)Cl]2 and 2 eq. of a sulfonated (2S,4S)-bis-2,4-(diphenylphosphino)pentane carrying 0-4 sulfonate groups, in a two phase aqueous organic system. The effect of degree of sulfonation on enantioselectivity

  10. Mixed salt crystallisation fouling

    CERN Document Server

    Helalizadeh, A


    The main purpose of this investigation was to study the mechanisms of mixed salt crystallisation fouling on heat transfer surfaces during convective heat transfer and sub-cooled flow boiling conditions. To-date no investigations on the effects of operating parameters on the deposition of mixtures of calcium sulphate and calcium carbonate, which are the most common constituents of scales formed on heat transfer surfaces, have been reported. As part of this research project, a substantial number of experiments were performed to determine the mechanisms controlling deposition. Fluid velocity, heat flux, surface and bulk temperatures, concentration of the solution, ionic strength, pressure and heat transfer surface material were varied systematically. After clarification of the effect of these parameters on the deposition process, the results of these experiments were used to develop a mechanistic model for prediction of fouling resistances, caused by crystallisation of mixed salts, under convective heat transfer...

  11. Preparing cellulose nanocrystal/acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene nanocomposites using the master-batch method. (United States)

    Ma, Libo; Zhang, Yang; Meng, Yujie; Anusonti-Inthra, Phuriwat; Wang, Siqun


    The master-batch method provides a simple way to apply cellulose nanocrystal (CNC) as reinforcement in a hydrophobic matrix. The two-stage process includes making high-CNC content (70 wt%) master batch pellets, then mixing acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS) and maleic anhydride grafted polyethylene with the master batch pellets to prepare the ABS/CNC nanocomposite in extruder. SEM image indicates that self-assembled CNC nanosheets disperse evenly throughout the polymer matrix. The improved mechanical properties shown in tensile and DMA tests reveal that the CNC combines well with the ABS. TGA results show that the thermal degradation temperature of CNC in the master batch increases because of the protection of the ABS coating. This approach not only improves the dispersion ability and the thermal stability of CNC, but it is also applicable to use with other hydrophobic thermoplastics in industrial scale production. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Biodegradation behavior of styrene butadiene rubber (SBR) reinforced with modified coconut shell powder (United States)

    Sreejith, M. P.; Balan, Aparna K.; Shaniba, V.; Jinitha, T. V.; Subair, N.; Purushothaman, E.


    Biodegradation behavior of styrene butadiene rubber composites reinforced with natural filler, coconut shell powder (CSP), with different filler loadings were carried out under soil burial conditions for three to six months. The extent of biodegradation of the composites was evaluated through weight loss, tensile strength and hardness measurements. It was observed that the permanence of the composites was remarkably dependent on filler modification, size of the filler particle and filler content. Composites containing silane modified filler were found to be more resistant to attack by the microbes present in the soil. Mechanical properties such as tensile strength, Young's modulus and hardness were decreased after soil burial testing due to the microbial attack onto the samples.

  13. Nitroxide-Mediated Radical Polymerization of Styrene Initiated from the Surface of Titanium Oxide Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Abbasian


    Full Text Available Titanium dioxide (TiO2 nanoparticles, with an average size of about 45 nm, were encapsulated by polystyrene using in situ nitroxide mediated radical polymerization   in the presence of 3-aminopropyl triethoxy silane (APTES as a coupling agent and 2, 2, 6, 6-tetramethylpiperidinyl-1-oxy  as a initiator. First, the initiator for NMRP was covalently bonded onto the surface of Titanium dioxide nanoparticles through our novel method. For this purpose, the surface of TiO2 nanoparticle was treated with 3-aminopropyl triethoxy silane, a silane coupling agent, and then these functionalized nanoparticles was reacted with ±-chloro phenyl acetyl chloride. The chlorine groups were converted to nitroxide mediated groups by coupling with 1-hydroxy-2, 2, 6, 6-tetramethyl piperidine. These modified TiO2 nanoparticles were then dispersed in styrene (St monomers to carry out the in situ free radical polymerization.

  14. Prediction of the Styrene Butadiene Rubber Performance by Emulsion Polymerization Using Backpropagation Neural Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-jiang Jin


    Full Text Available The effect of the amounts of initiator, emulsifier, and molecular weight regulator on the styrene butadiene rubber performance was investigated, based on the industrial original formula. It was found that the polymerization rate was increased with the increased dosage of initiator and emulsifier, and together with replenishing molecular weight regulator will make the Mooney viscosity of rubber meet the national standard when the conversion rate reaches 70%. The backpropagation neural network was trained by the original formula and ameliorated formula on the basis of Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm, and the relative error between the simulation results and experimental data is less than 1%. The good consistency shows that the BP neural network could predict the product performances in different formula conditions. It would pave the way for adjustment of the SBR formulation and prediction of the product performances.

  15. Co-metabolic formation of substituted phenylacetic acids by styrene-degrading bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Oelschlägel


    The styrene-degrading strains Rhodococcus opacus 1CP, Pseudomonas fluorescens ST, and the novel isolates Sphingopyxis sp. Kp5.2 and Gordonia sp. CWB2 were investigated with respect to their applicability to co-metabolically produce substituted phenylacetic acids. Isolates were found to differ significantly in substrate tolerance and biotransformation yields. Especially, P. fluorescens ST was identified as a promising candidate for the production of several phenylacetic acids. The biotransformation of 4-chlorostyrene with cells of strain ST was shown to be stable over a period of more than 200 days and yielded about 38 mmolproduct gcelldryweight−1 after nearly 350 days. Moreover, 4-chloro-α-methylstyrene was predominantly converted to the (S-enantiomer of the acid with 40% enantiomeric excess.

  16. Kinetic Investigation of Styrene Free Radical Polymerization by Using Binary Mixtures of Monofunctional Initiators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farshid Ziaee


    Full Text Available Polymerization of styrene in presence of two monofunctional initiators is studied kinetically in an ampoule scale. Polymerizations were ceased at different conversions for each ampoule while the temperature was increased almost linearly during the reaction. Three different initiator mixtures were used. The first mixtures were composed of benzoil peroxide (BPO and t-butyl perbenzoate (TBPB with various molar ratios and temperature programs. The second and third series were performed on mixtures of BPO and α,α'-azobisisobutyronitrile (AIBN and AIBN with TBPB, respectively. The experimental results for these series revealed thatincreasing the percentage of TBPB in the initiator mixtures at the same reaction temperature intervals enhanced polymerization rate and molecular weight of the resulting polymers. On the other hand the results from the second series indicated that reducing AIBN in the mixture would have reduction effect on the reaction temperatureintervals while both conversion and the polymer molecular weight are increased

  17. Going greener: Synthesis of fully biobased unsaturated polyesters for styrene crosslinked resins with enhanced thermomechanical properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. S. M. F. Costa


    Full Text Available The main goal of this work was the development of fully biobased unsaturated polyesters (UPs that upon crosslinking with unsaturated monomers (UM could lead to greener unsaturated polyester resins (UPRs with similar thermomechanical properties to commercial fossil based UPR. After the successful synthesis of the biobased UPs, those were crosslinked with styrene (Sty, the most commonly used monomer, and the influence of the chemical structure of the UPs on the thermomechanical characteristics of UPRs were evaluated. The properties were compared with those of a commercial resin (Resipur 9837©. The BioUPRs presented high gel contents and contact angles that are similar to the commercial resin. The thermomechanical properties were evaluated by dynamic mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA and it was found that the UPR synthesized using propylene glycol (PG, succinic acid (SuAc and itaconic acid (ItAc presented very close thermomechanical properties compared to the commercial resin.

  18. Performance of asphaltic concrete incorporating styrene butadiene rubber subjected to varying aging condition (United States)

    Salah, Faisal Mohammed; Jaya, Ramadhansyah Putra; Mohamed, Azman; Hassan, Norhidayah Abdul; Rosni, Nurul Najihah Mad; Mohamed, Abdullahi Ali; Agussabti


    The influence of styrene butadiene rubber (SBR) on asphaltic concrete properties at different aging conditions was presented in this study. These aging conditions were named as un-aged, short-term, and long-term aging. The conventional asphalt binder of penetration grade 60/70 was used in this work. Four different levels of SBR addition were employed (i.e., 0 %, 1 %, 3 %, and 5 % by binder weight). Asphalt concrete mixes were prepared at selected optimum asphalt content (5 %). The performance was evaluated based on Marshall Stability, resilient modulus, and dynamic creep tests. Results indicated the improving stability and permanent deformation characteristics that the mixes modified with SBR polymer have under aging conditions. The result also showed that the stability, resilient modulus, and dynamic creep tests have the highest rates compared to the short-term aging and un-aged samples. Thus, the use of 5 % SBR can produce more durable asphalt concrete mixtures with better serviceability.

  19. Morphological and mechanical properties of styrene butadiene rubber/nano copper nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Hadizadeh Harandi

    Full Text Available In this research, rubber based nanocomposites with presence of nanoparticle has been studied. Styrene butadiene rubber (SBR/nanocopper (NC composites were prepared using two-roll mill method. Transmission electron microscope (TEM and scanning electron microscope (SEM images showed proper dispersion of NC in the SBR matrix without substantial agglomeration of nanoparticles. To evaluate the curing properties of nanocomposite samples, swelling and cure rheometric tests were conducted. Moreover, the rheological studies were carried out over a range of shear rates. The effect of NC particles was examined on the thermal behavior of the SBR using thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA. Furthermore, tensile tests were employed to investigate the capability of nanoparticles to enhance mechanical behavior of the compounds. The results showed enhancement in tensile properties with incorporation of NC to SBR matrix. Moreover, addition of NC increased shear viscosity and curing time of SBR composites. Keywords: Nanocopper, Rubber, Curing behavior, Rheological properties, Thermal stability, Tensile characteristics

  20. Effect of gamma irradiation on the properties of natural rubber/styrene butadiene rubber blends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.B. Moustafa


    Full Text Available Blends of natural rubber (NR with styrene butadiene rubber (SBR with varying ratios have been prepared. Vulcanization of the prepared blends has been induced by irradiation of gamma rays with varying doses up to 250 kGy. Mechanical properties, namely tensile strength, tensile modulus at 100% elongation, elongation at break have been followed up as a function of irradiation dose as well as blend composition. Physical properties, namely gel fraction and swelling number have been followed up using benzene as a solvent. Thermal measurements namely thermogravimetric analysis were carried out. The results indicated that the addition of NR has improved the properties of NR / SBR blends. Also NR/SBR blend is thermally stable than NR alone.

  1. Microstructural analysis of carbon nanotubes produced from pyrolysis/combustion of styrene-butadiene rubber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alves, Joner O.; Zhuo, Chuanwei; Levendis, Yannis A. [Northeastern Univ., Boston, MA (United States). Coll. of Engineering. Dept. of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering; Tenorio, Jorge A.S. [University of Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Polytechnic School. Dept. of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering


    Styrene-Butadiene-Rubber (SBR) is a synthetic rubber copolymer used to fabricate several products. This study aims to demonstrate the use of SBR as feedstock for carbon nanotubes (CNTs) growth, and therefore to establish a novel process for destination for wastes produced from SBR. Pellets of this rubber were controlled burned at temperature of 1000 deg C, and a catalyst system was used to synthesize the nanomaterials. CNTs are materials with a wide range of potential applications due to their extraordinary mechanical, thermal and electrical properties. Produced materials were characterized by SEM and TEM, and the hydrocarbons emissions were measured using GC. Results showed that materials with diameters of 30-100 nm and lengths of about 30 {mu}m were formed. That materials presented similar structures of multi-walled CNTs. Therefore, the use of SBR to produce carbon nanotubes showed quite satisfactory and an interesting field for future investments. (author)

  2. The migration of acrylonitrile from acrylonitrile/butadiene/styrene polymers into food-simulating liquids. (United States)

    Lickly, T D; Markham, D A; Rainey, M L


    The correlation of residual acrylonitrile (AN) monomer concentration in AN-containing polymers with AN migration into food simulants is of interest because the US FDA regulates the use of these polymers on the basis of the amount of AN that may migrate into food simulants. Studies of the migration of AN into water from seven acrylonitrile/butadiene/styrene polymers with varying composition and residual AN levels showed that a linear relationship exists between the concentration of AN in the polymer and the amount of AN migrating, for a given set of exposure conditions. A linear relationship was also observed between the diffusion coefficients generated from the experimental data using a simple Fickian diffusion model and the inverse of the absolute temperature of exposure.

  3. N-containing carbons from styrene-divinylbenzene copolymer by urea treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhuravsky, Sergey V.; Kartel, Mykola T.; Tarasenko, Yuriy O. [Chuiko Institute of Surface Chemistry, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, 17 General Naumov Street, Kiev, 03164 (Ukraine); Villar-Rodil, Silvia [Instituto Nacional del Carbon, INCAR-CSIC, Apartado 73, 33080 Oviedo (Spain); Dobos, Gabor [Department of Atomic Physics, Budapest University of Technology and Economics, H-1521 Budapest (Hungary); Toth, Ajna [Department of Physical Chemistry and Materials Science, Budapest University of Technology and Economics, H-1521 Budapest, PO Box 92 (Hungary); Tascon, Juan M.D. [Instituto Nacional del Carbon, INCAR-CSIC, Apartado 73, 33080 Oviedo (Spain); Laszlo, Krisztina, E-mail: [Department of Physical Chemistry and Materials Science, Budapest University of Technology and Economics, H-1521 Budapest, PO Box 92 (Hungary)


    N-containing synthetic carbons with narrow porosity were prepared from a chlorinated styrene and divinylbenzene copolymer by a multistep method with a yield of 34 wt%. Surface chemical treatment and thermal carbonization of the starting copolymer was monitored by urea impregnation. Steam activation, oxidation and an additional heat treatment gave the final product. The synthesis route was designed in a cost-effective way. The porosity and the concentration of the introduced nitrogen atoms were determined at each step. The final product has a surface area of 1135 m{sup 2}/g. More than 70% of the pore volume comes from micropores with an average width of 0.7 nm. The 2.3 at.% surface nitrogen atoms are distributed among five detectable species, of which about 44% is quaternary nitrogen.

  4. Direct Synthesis of Polymer Nanotubes via Aqueous Dispersion Polymerization of Cyclodextrin/Styrene Complex. (United States)

    Chen, Xi; Liu, Lei; Huo, Meng; Zeng, Min; Peng, Liao; Feng, Anchao; Wang, Xiaosong; Yuan, Jinying


    We report a one-step synthesis of nanotubes by RAFT dispersion polymerization of cyclodextrin/styrene (CD/St) complexes directly in water. The resulted amphiphilic PEG-b-PS diblock copolymers self-assemble in situ into nanoparticles with various morphologies. Spheres, worms, lamellae, and nanotubes were controllably obtained. Because of the complexation, the swelling degree of polystyrene (PS) blocks by free St is limited, resulting limited mobility of PS chains. Consequently, kinetically trapped lamellae and nanotubes were obtained instead of spherical vesicles. During the formation of nanotubes, small vesicles firstly formed at the ends of the tape-like lamellae, then grew and fused into nanotubes with limited chain rearrangement. The introduction of host-guest interaction based on CDs enables the aqueous dispersion polymerization of water-immiscible monomers, and produces kinetically trapped nanostructures, which could be a powerful technique for nanomaterials synthesis. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Thermo-Physical Properties of Kenaf-Filled Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikmatin Siti


    Full Text Available Studies on advantageous of natural fillers incorporated into polymer composites on thermo-physical and mechanical properties are still intensively investigated. Several evidences suggest that the natural fillers with small contents combined with polymer increase their composite properties. We thus investigate thermo-physical properties of kenaf-filled acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS composites. ABS with 5% kenaf microparticle size (ABS/K5, ABS with 5% kenaf short fiber (ABS/KSF5, and recycled ABS with 5% kenaf microparticle size (RABS/K5 were manufactured. Granular composites were manufactured by the twin screw extruder. Composite properties in terms of X-ray diffractions, surface morphologies, and thermal behaviors were investigated. The present work found that ABS/KSF5 has the highest degree of crystallinity compared to others. No significant difference was found in terms of thermal properties of the composites.

  6. Radiation-induced degradation of poly(styrene-co-methylmethacrylate) and blends of polystyrene and polymethylmethacrylate (United States)

    Torikai, Ayako; Harayama, Ken-Ichi; Hayashi, Nobutomo; Mitsuoka, Takuya; Fueki, Kenji


    The γ-ray-induced degradation of poly(styrene-co-methyl-methacrylate) [poly(St-co-MMA)] and blends of polystyrene (PSt) and polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) was investigated by ultraviolet (UV), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and viscosity measurements. The optical density around 250 nm decreases linearly with the electron fraction of PSt in the blends, but this does not hold in case of the degradation of poly(St-co-MMA). Similar trends are seen for the decrease in the amount of ester groups, oxidation product formation and the number of chain scission (Cs). A protective effect due to the St component was observed in case of the degradation of poly(St-co-MMA), but it was not observed for the blends. The spatial extent of protection affected by St unit was deduced by assuming a random distribution of MMA and St throughout the copolymer molecule.

  7. Enantioselective resolution of racemic styrene oxide at high concentration using recombinant Pichia pastoris expressing epoxide hydrolase of Rhodotorula glutinis in the presence of surfactant and glycerol. (United States)

    Yoo, Seung Sik; Park, Sunghoon; Lee, Eun Yeol


    The reaction medium was optimized to accomplish epoxide hydrolase-catalyzed, batch enantioselective hydrolysis of racemic styrene oxide at high initial substrate concentrations. The recombinant Pichia pastoris containing the epoxide hydrolase gene of Rhodotorula glutinis was used as the biocatalyst. Enantiopure (S)-styrene oxide with 98% ee was obtained with 41% yield (maximum yield = 50%) from 1.8 M racemic styrene oxide at pH 8.0, 4 degrees C in the presence of 40% (v/v) Tween 20 and 5% (v/v) glycerol.

  8. Thermochemical Properties of Nicotine Salts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riggs DM


    Full Text Available The thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC results presented in this report clearly show that the thermal stability and the endothermic peak nicotine release temperatures are different for different nicotine salts and these temperatures appear to be linked to the general microstructural details of the salt itself. In addition, the peak nicotine release temperatures are highly dependent upon the sample size used. The heat of vaporization for neat (non-protonated nicotine is also sample-size dependent. The TGA data showed that the least stable of the salts tested at elevated temperatures was the liquid salt nicotine triacetate followed by the crystalline materials (e.g., nicotine gallate and finally, the amorphous salts (e.g., nicotine alginate. The DSC results revealed that the liquid and crystalline salts exhibit nicotine release endotherms that are strongly related to the sample weight being tested. The amorphous salts show nicotine endotherm peak temperatures that are nearly independent of the sample weight. The range of peak nicotine release temperatures varied depending upon the specific salts and the sample size from 83 oC to well over 200 oC. Based on these results, the evolution of nicotine from the nicotine salt should be expected to vary based on the composition of the salt, the details of its microstructure, and the amount of nicotine salt tested.

  9. Microemulsion of Molten Salts (United States)


    then to an oil-rich, upper phase as salinity increases in a system of brine/octane/ TRS surfactant/tertiary amyl alcohol . Borkovec et al. (1988) have...11 4. Partial Pseudotemary Phase Diagram .................................. 12 5. Micrograph of Molten Salts/SDS/Pentanol/Decane System...negligible interfacial tension between microdomains. Theoretical work in ternary and pseudotemary systems has shown that the middle phase is a

  10. Mechanical behavior of styrene grafted PVC films by electron beam irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardoso, Jessica R.; Moura, Eduardo; Somessari, Elisabeth S.R.; Silveira, Carlos G.; Paes, Helio A.; Souza, Carlos A.; Manzoli, Jose E.; Geraldo, Aurea B.C., E-mail:, E-mail: [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)


    The polyvinyl chloride (PVC) is a technological and low cost polymer, however it presents high sensitivity to high energy irradiation because of the weakness of carbon-chloride bond face to carbon-carbon and carbon-hydrogen bonds. Grafting is a type of co-polymerization process that can allow it an increase of mechanical characteristics. The aim of this work is to evaluate the mechanical properties of styrene grafted PVC by electron beam irradiation using mutual and pre-irradiation methods to verify the mechanical resistance changes of obtained product whether grafting process is applied from non-irradiated or from pre-irradiated substrates. The irradiation procedures were performed in atmosphere air or inert atmosphere and the irradiation conditions comprised doses from 10 kGy to 100 kGy and dose rates of 2.2 kGy/s and 22.4 kGy/s. The styrene grafted samples were analyzed by gravimetry to determinate the grafting yield; the final values have been averaged from a series of three measurements. The Mid-A TR-FTIR was the spectrophotometer technique used for qualitative/semi-quantitative analysis of grafted samples. The Young's module and tensile strength of pre-irradiated and grafted PVC samples at both methods were measured at a Lloyd LXR tensile tester at a cross-head speed of 10.00 mm/min. We observed the decrease of Young's module and tensile strength with the increase of absorbed dose at pre-irradiated PVC samples. These mechanical parameters results are discussed. (author)

  11. Anionic Polymerization of Styrene and 1,3-Butadiene in the Presence of Phosphazene Superbases

    KAUST Repository

    Ntetsikas, Konstantinos


    The anionic polymerization of styrene and 1,3-butadiene in the presence of phosphazene bases (t-BuP4, t-BuP2 and t-BuP1), in benzene at room temperature, was studied. When t-BuP1 was used, the polymerization proceeded in a controlled manner, whereas the obtained homopolymers exhibited the desired molecular weights and narrow polydispersity (Ð < 1.05). In the case of t-BuP2, homopolymers with higher than the theoretical molecular weights and relatively low polydispersity were obtained. On the other hand, in the presence of t-BuP4, the polymerization of styrene was uncontrolled due to the high reactivity of the formed carbanion. The kinetic studies from the polymerization of both monomers showed that the reaction rate follows the order of [t-BuP4]/[sec-BuLi] >>> [t-BuP2]/[sec-BuLi] >> [t-BuP1]/[sec-BuLi] > sec-BuLi. Furthermore, the addition of t-BuP2 and t-BuP1 prior the polymerization of 1,3-butadiene allowed the synthesis of polybutadiene with a high 1,2-microstructure (~45 wt %), due to the delocalization of the negative charge. Finally, the one pot synthesis of well-defined polyester-based copolymers [PS-b-PCL and PS-b-PLLA, PS: Polystyrene, PCL: Poly(ε-caprolactone) and PLLA: Poly(L-lactide)], with predictable molecular weights and a narrow molecular weight distribution (Ð < 1.2), was achieved by sequential copolymerization in the presence of t-BuP2 and t-BuP1.

  12. Stereoregularity evolution of isobornyl acrylate and styrene copolymers by 2D NMR spectroscopy (United States)

    Khandelwal, Deepika; Hooda, Sunita; Brar, A. S.; Shankar, Ravi


    Isobornyl acrylate/styrene (B/S) copolymers of different compositions have been prepared by Atom Transfer Radical Polymerization (ATRP) using methyl-2-bromopropionate as an initiator and PMDETA/CuBr as catalyst under nitrogen atmosphere at 60 °C. Copolymer compositions calculated from 1H NMR spectra are used to determine the reactivity ratios of monomers. Linear Kelen-Tudos (KT) and non-linear error in variable methods (EVM) have been employed for determination of monomer reactivity ratios in copolymers. The reactivity ratios obtained from KT and EVM are found to be rB = 0.41 ± 0.08, rS = 0.92 ± 0.13 and rB = 0.41 and rS = 0.93 respectively. These copolymers have been analyzed for their stereochemical structure using various 1D (1H, 13C{1H}, DEPT) and 2D (HSQC, TOCSY, NOESY, HMBC) NMR techniques. 2D HSQC and TOCSY NMR experiments are employed to resolve the highly overlapped and complex 1H and 13C{1H} NMR spectra of the copolymers. Spatial coupling of different types of protons are resolved by 2D NOESY NMR spectra. The configurational and compositional sequences of β-methylene carbons are assigned upto tetrad level whereas methine carbon is assigned as triad level of compositional sequences. The quaternary carbon of styrene and carbonyl carbon of isobornyl acrylate have been assigned as triad level of compositional sequences and are further confirmed by 2D HMBC NMR spectra.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mr Wiendartun


    Full Text Available Hydrophilic properties of organic polymer such as Poly (2-Vinylpyridine- Co-Styrene have been found to have a correlation with other physical properties especially the electric resistivity. In this work, we have studied one of the physical properties of a polymer material, Poly (2-Vinylpyridine- Co-Styrene, that is the electric resistivity. It was studied on the basis of its relation with the concentration, temperature, humidity and the distance between their electrodes. The sample fabricated consists of two types of consentration: 0.03 gr/ml and 0.05 gr/ml with the distance between the two electrodes are 0.40 mm and 0.80 mm respectively. Towards these samples, we investigated the resistance coefficient for every 2% change in humidity for both drying and watering processes. From the experiment we obtain the following results: 1 There is hysteresis during the watering and drying processes indicating the continuity of resistance of this material, 2 Sample with smaller distance of electrodes performs better than that of the longer ones, 3 Sample fabricated from solution with higher concentration performs better than that of the lower ones, 4 Room temperature plays a significant role on the performance of the polymer material between the associated electrodes. These results could be used as a stepping-stone toward the more advance research leading the determination of film stability, resistancy upon temperature variation etc, so that this polymer material could be further developed into the humidity sensor device material. Key words: Hydrophilic, electric resistance, humidity sensor and polymer.

  14. Kinetics modeling of ethylbenzene dehydrogenation to styrene over a mesoporous alumina supported iron catalyst

    KAUST Repository

    Hossain, Mohammad M.


    The kinetics of ethylbenzene (EB) dehydrogenation over a FeO x-meso-Al 2O 3 catalyst is studied. The models were developed based on physicochemical characterization and a CREC fluidized Riser Simulator data. N 2 adsorption shows that the synthesized FeO x-meso-Al 2O 3 catalyst is mesoporous with pore size between 9 and 35nm. TPR profile indicates that iron on meso-Al 2O 3 forms easily reducible nanostructured crystals which is confirmed by TEM image. NH 3- and CO-TPD analysis, respectively reveals the availability of both acidic and basic sites. The dehydrogenation of ethylbenzene on FeO x-meso-Al 2O 3 catalyst mainly gives styrene (∼99%) while a small amount of benzene, toluene and coke are also detected. Based on the experimental observations two Langmuir-Hinshelwood type kinetics models are formulated. The possible catalyst deactivation is expressed as function of EB conversion. Parameters are estimated by fitting of the experimental data implemented in MATLAB. Results show that one type site Langmuir-Hinshelwood model appropriately describes the experimental data, with adequate statistical fitting indicators and also satisfied the physical constraints. The activation energy for the formation of styrene (80kJ/mol) found to be significantly lower than that of the undesired products benzene (144kJ/mol) and toluene (164kJ/mol). The estimated heat of adsorptions of EB and ST are found to be 55kJ/mol and 19kJ/mol, respectively. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

  15. Compatibility, Morphology, Mechanical Properties and Biodegradability of Poly(styrene-ethylene-propylenestyrene/ Modified Thermoplastic Starch Blends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saaid Rahimi Bandarabadi


    Full Text Available The effect of modified starch on the properties of poly(styrene-ethylenepropylene- styrene tri-block copolymer was studied. Chemical treatment of starch with maleic anhydride was accomplished in an internal mixer in the presence of glycerol. The reaction was confirmed using Fourier infrared spectroscopy (FTIR and titration. The blend samples containing 10, 20, 30 and 50 wt% were obtained by melt blending and their mechanical, morphological and dynamic-mechanical properties were studied. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM images displayed droplet-matrix morphology and with increases in modified starch up to 50 wt% some partial co-continuous morphology was also observed. With increase of modified starch in the compound, the size of dispersed phase increased. DMTA results revealed that the partial compatibility was obtained because of slight difference between glass transition temperatures of two phases in the presence of modified starch. The peak of modified starch shifted to higher values and the differences between the two peaks decreased, indicating partial compatibility. Mechanical properties including tensile, elongation-at-break and modulus were also determined and the results showed that the mechanical properties of the sample were higher than those of neat TPS because of the higher compatibility. Tensile strength was decreased with increase in modified starch content due to the absence of strong interfacial adhesion. Moduli of the samples were increased with increase in modified starch content due to higher stiffness of starch. Biodegradability of the samples was evaluated by weight loss percentage using compost test. A rapid degradation was observed in the first 45 days and with increase of the modified starch content the degree of degradation was increased.

  16. Thermal degradation kinetics of polyketone based on styrene and carbon monoxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mu, Jiali, E-mail:; Fan, Wenjun; Shan, Shaoyun; Su, Hongying; Wu, Shuisheng; Jia, Qingming


    Highlights: • The PK were synthesized from carbon monoxide and styrene in the presence of PANI-PdCl{sub 2} catalyst and PdCl{sub 2} catalyst. • The structures and thermal behaviors of PK prepared by homogenous and the supported catalyst were investigated. • The microstructures of PK were changed in the supported catalyst system. • The alternating PK copolymer (PANI-PdCl{sub 2} catalyst) was more thermally stable than PK (PdCl{sub 2} catalyst). • The degradation activation energy values were estimated by Flynn–Wall–Ozawa method and Kissinger method. - Abstract: Copolymerization of styrene with carbon monoxide to give polyketones (PK) was carried out under homogeneous palladium catalyst and polyaniline (PANI) supported palladium(II) catalyst, respectively. The copolymers were characterized by {sup 1}H NMR, {sup 13}C NMR and GPC. The results indicated that the PK catalyzed by the supported catalyst has narrow molecular weight distribution (PDI = 1.18). For comparison purpose of thermal behaviors of PK prepared by the homogeneous and the supported catalyst, thermogravimetric (TG) analysis and derivative thermogravimetric (DTG) were conducted at different heating rates. The peak temperatures (396–402 °C) for PK prepared by the supported catalyst are higher than those (387–395 °C) of PK prepared by the homogeneous catalyst. The degradation activation energy (E{sub k}) values were estimated by Flynn–Wall–Ozawa method and Kissinger method, respectively. The E{sub k} values, as determined by two methods, were found to be in the range 270.72 ± 0.03–297.55 ± 0.10 kJ mol{sup −1}. Structures analysis and thermal degradation analysis revealed that the supported catalyst changed the microstructures of PK, resulting in improving thermal stability of PK.

  17. Perinatal Toxicity and Carcinogenicity Studies of Styrene –Acrylonitrile Trimer, A Ground Water Contaminant (United States)

    Behl, Mamta; Elmore, Susan A.; Malarkey, David E.; Hejtmancik, Milton R.; Gerken, Diane K.; Chhabra, Rajendra S.


    Styrene Acrylonitrile (SAN) Trimer is a by-product in the production of acrylonitrile styrene plastics. Following a report of a childhood cancer cluster in the Toms River section of Dover Township, New Jersey, SAN Trimer was identified as one of the groundwater contaminants at Reich Farm Superfund site in the township. The contaminants from the Reich Farm site’s ground water plume impacted two wells at the Parkway well field. The National Toxicology Program (NTP) studied the toxicity and carcinogenicity of SAN Trimer in rats exposed during their perinatal developmental period and adulthood. The chronic toxicity and carcinogenicity studies in F344/N rats were preceded by 7- and 18-week perinatal toxicity studies to determine the exposure concentrations for the 2-year studies. Subsequently, Fisher 344 pregnant dams were exposed to SAN Trimer containing diet at 400, 800, or 1600 ppm concentrations during gestation, nursing and weaning periods of offspring followed by two year of adult exposures to both male and female pups. There was no statistically significant evidence of carcinogenic activity following SAN-Trimer exposure; however, rare neoplasms in the brain and spinal cord were observed in males and to lesser extent in female rats. These incidences were considered within the range of historical background in the animal model used in the current studies. Therefore, the presence of a few rarely occurring CNS tumors in the treated groups were not judged to be associated with the SAN Trimer exposure. The major finding was a dose-related peripheral neuropathy associated with the sciatic nerves in females and spinal nerve roots in males and females thereby suggesting that SAN trimer is potentially a nervous system toxicant. PMID:24060431

  18. Perinatal toxicity and carcinogenicity studies of styrene-acrylonitrile trimer, a ground water contaminant. (United States)

    Behl, Mamta; Elmore, Susan A; Malarkey, David E; Hejtmancik, Milton R; Gerken, Diane K; Chhabra, Rajendra S


    Styrene acrylonitrile (SAN) trimer is a by-product in the production of acrylonitrile styrene plastics. Following a report of a childhood cancer cluster in the Toms River section of Dover Township, New Jersey, SAN Trimer was identified as one of the groundwater contaminants at Reich Farm Superfund site in the township. The contaminants from the Reich Farm site's ground water plume impacted two wells at the Parkway well field. The National Toxicology Program (NTP) studied the toxicity and carcinogenicity of SAN Trimer in rats exposed during their perinatal developmental period and adulthood. The chronic toxicity and carcinogenicity studies in F344/N rats were preceded by 7- and 18-week perinatal toxicity studies to determine the exposure concentrations for the 2-year studies. Subsequently, Fisher 344 pregnant dams were exposed to SAN Trimer containing diet at 400, 800, or 1600ppm concentrations during gestation, nursing and weaning periods of offspring followed by two year of adult exposures to both male and female pups. There was no statistically significant evidence of carcinogenic activity following SAN-Trimer exposure; however, rare neoplasms in the brain and spinal cord were observed in males and to lesser extent in female rats. These incidences were considered within the range of historical background in the animal model used in the current studies. Therefore, the presence of a few rarely occurring CNS tumors in the treated groups were not judged to be associated with the SAN Trimer exposure. The major finding was a dose-related peripheral neuropathy associated with the sciatic nerves in females and spinal nerve roots in males and females thereby suggesting that SAN Trimer is potentially a nervous system toxicant. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  19. Characterisation of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) in a terrestrial ecosystem near a fluorochemical plant in Flanders, Belgium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D'Hollander, W.; De Bruyn, L.; Hagenaars, A; de Voogt, P.; Bervoets, L.


    Bioaccumulation of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) in a restricted terrestrial food chain was investigated with the omnivorous wood mouse (Apodemus sylvaticus) on top of the studied food chain. The levels detected are very high compared with literature as a result of the presence of fluorochemical

  20. Cadmium ion sorption onto lignocellulosic biosorbent modified by sulfonation : the origin of sorption capacity improvement (United States)

    Eun Woo Shin; Roger M. Rowell


    Juniper (Juniperus monosperma), a small-diameter underutilized material, has been studied as a lignocellulosic bio-sorbent for removing heavy metals from water. In this study, juniper wood was modified by sulfonation to enhance sorption capacity for cadmium in water. The origin of the enhancement was investigated by observing the sorption behaviors and the change in...