WorldWideScience

Sample records for styles reported greater

  1. Promoting greater Federal energy productivity [Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hopkins, Mark; Dudich, Luther

    2003-03-05

    This document is a close-out report describing the work done under this DOE grant to improve Federal Energy Productivity. Over the four years covered in this document, the Alliance To Save Energy conducted liaison with the private sector through our Federal Energy Productivity Task Force. In this time, the Alliance held several successful workshops on the uses of metering in Federal facilities and other meetings. We also conducted significant research on energy efficiency, financing, facilitated studies of potential energy savings in energy intensive agencies, and undertook other tasks outlined in this report.

  2. Educating the Leader in the Use of Leadership Styles To Enable Greater Motivation of Followers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phipps, Maurice

    This paper discusses leadership styles and the stages of development of a group. Situational leadership is based on the amount of direction (task behavior) and the amount of socio-emotional support (relationship behavior) the leader must provide given the situation and level of maturity or readiness of the followers. Having gauged the maturity…

  3. CSR Strategies in Greater China: Global, East Asian, American, European Style?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heiduk Guenter

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The concept of Corporate Social Responsibility emerged in the United States and spread to Europe and Asia while being adapted to national/local characteristics. Since borders between markets and societies are blurring and globalization is promoting MNCs which find themselves acting in hybrid societies, international institutions put efforts into the development and moral acceptance of global CSR standards. The scientific interest in CSR focused on the conflicts between company returns and benefits for society. The resulting concepts of performance-oriented, awareness-oriented and welfare-oriented CSR should facilitate the evaluation of CSR strategies implemented by MNCs. In research on the cultural dimensions of economies, it might be possible to allocate geographically the three concepts. Regarding the newly emerging Chinese MNCs, the paper aims to shed light on which concept they follow. On the one hand, CSR concepts of American and/or European MNCs that are present in China might serve as a role model; on the other hand, by learning from Taiwanese/ Hong Kong MNCs, a “greater China CSR approach” might emerge. Empirical studies and own field research suggest that compared to American and European companies, CSR is less deeply rooted in Chinese companies. Furthermore, significant differences between Mainland China, Hong Kong and Taiwanese companies indicate that a Greater Chinese CSR approach does not yet exist. Therefore, it cannot be assumed that American and European CSR concepts will experience a Chinese influence in the near future.

  4. Greater-than-bulk melting temperatures explained: Gallium melts Gangnam style

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaston, Nicola; Steenbergen, Krista

    2014-03-01

    The experimental discovery of superheating in gallium clusters contradicted the clear and well-demonstrated paradigm that the melting temperature of a particle should decrease with its size. However the extremely sensitive dependence of melting temperature on size also goes to the heart of cluster science, and the interplay between the effects of electronic and geometric structure. We have performed extensive first-principles molecular dynamics calculations, incorporating parallel tempering for an efficient exploration of configurational phase space. This is necessary, due to the complicated energy landscape of gallium. In the nanoparticles, melting is preceded by a transitions between phases. A structural feature, referred to here as the Gangnam motif, is found to increase with the latent heat and appears throughout the observed phase changes of this curious metal. We will present our detailed analysis of the solid-state isomers, performed using extensive statistical sampling of the trajectory data for the assignment of cluster structures to known phases of gallium. Finally, we explain the greater-than-bulk melting through analysis of the factors that stabilise the liquid structures.

  5. Parenting style and conduct problems in children: A report of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A correlation between unhealthy parenting styles and child psychopathology has been established. This case report describes how chronic harsh paternal parenting caused a young boy to deliberately poison himself with organophosphate chemicals (rat poison). This report is intended to stimulate the interest of physicians ...

  6. Final Test Reports Format and Style Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-08-15

    Fuze Functionality Analysis Report MS Word SCG ARA 15 days 1 1 1 3 17 Taget Damage Assessment Report MS Word SCG ARA 75 days 1 1 0 2 18 Seismic Acoustic...Analysis Report MS Word SCG ARA 10 days 1 1 1 3 16 Weapons/Fuze Functionality Analysis Report MS Word SCG ARA 15 days 1 1 1 3 17 Taget Damage Assessment

  7. Style

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rösing, Lilian Munk

    2017-01-01

    Defined as the tropes, figures, and grammar of the text, style is quite concrete, quite analyzable. Pure detection and identification of the tropes and figures of a text is not very interesting to literary studies, though, unless it is combined with interpretation, that is, unless you ask: What...... is the effect of those tropes and figures, how do they contribute to the signification of the text?...

  8. Partners' Empathy Increases Pain Ratings: Effects of Perceived Empathy and Attachment Style on Pain Report and Display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurter, Sarah; Paloyelis, Yannis; de C. Williams, Amanda C.; Fotopoulou, Aikaterini

    2014-01-01

    Pain can be influenced by its social context. We aimed to examine under controlled experimental conditions how empathy from a partner and personal attachment style affect pain report, tolerance, and facial expressions of pain. Fifty-four participants, divided into secure, anxious, and avoidant attachment style groups, underwent a cold pressor task with their partners present. We manipulated how much empathy the participants perceived that their partners had for them. We observed a significant main effect of perceived empathy on pain report, with greater pain reported in the high perceived empathy condition. No such effects were found for pain tolerance or facial display. We also found a significant interaction of empathy with attachment style group, with the avoidant group reporting and displaying less pain than the secure and the anxious groups in the high perceived empathy condition. No such findings were observed in the low empathy condition. These results suggest that empathy from one's partner may influence pain report beyond behavioral reactions. In addition, the amount of pain report and expression that people show in high empathy conditions depends on their attachment style. Perspective Believing that one's partner feels high empathy for one's pain may lead individuals to rate the intensity of pain as higher. Individual differences in attachment style moderate this empathy effect. PMID:24953886

  9. Partners' empathy increases pain ratings: effects of perceived empathy and attachment style on pain report and display.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurter, Sarah; Paloyelis, Yannis; Williams, Amanda C de C; Fotopoulou, Aikaterini

    2014-09-01

    Pain can be influenced by its social context. We aimed to examine under controlled experimental conditions how empathy from a partner and personal attachment style affect pain report, tolerance, and facial expressions of pain. Fifty-four participants, divided into secure, anxious, and avoidant attachment style groups, underwent a cold pressor task with their partners present. We manipulated how much empathy the participants perceived that their partners had for them. We observed a significant main effect of perceived empathy on pain report, with greater pain reported in the high perceived empathy condition. No such effects were found for pain tolerance or facial display. We also found a significant interaction of empathy with attachment style group, with the avoidant group reporting and displaying less pain than the secure and the anxious groups in the high perceived empathy condition. No such findings were observed in the low empathy condition. These results suggest that empathy from one's partner may influence pain report beyond behavioral reactions. In addition, the amount of pain report and expression that people show in high empathy conditions depends on their attachment style. Believing that one's partner feels high empathy for one's pain may lead individuals to rate the intensity of pain as higher. Individual differences in attachment style moderate this empathy effect. Copyright © 2014 American Pain Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Anger and hostility in adolescents: relationships with self-reported attachment style and perceived parental rearing styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muris, Peter; Meesters, Cor; Morren, Mattijn; Moorman, Lidwine

    2004-09-01

    To examine relationships between self-reported attachment style and parental rearing behaviors, on the one hand, and anger/hostility, on the other hand, in a sample of nonclinical adolescents (N=441). Participants completed (a) a single-item measure of attachment style; (b) a questionnaire measuring perceptions of parental rearing behaviors; and (c) two scales assessing anger and hostility. Self-reported attachment style was related to anger/hostility. That is, adolescents who defined themselves as avoidantly or ambivalently attached displayed higher levels of anger/hostility than adolescents who classified themselves as securely attached. Furthermore, perceived parental rearing was also related to anger/hostility. More specifically, low levels of emotional warmth and high levels of rejection, control, and inconsistency were accompanied by high levels of anger/hostility. Finally, regression analyses showed that both attachment status and parental rearing behaviors accounted for a unique and significant proportion of the variance in anger/hostility. These findings are in keeping with the notion that family environment factors such as attachment style and parental rearing are involved in the development of anger/hostility in youths.

  11. Assessment of infant feeding styles among low income African American mothers: comparing reported and observed behaviors

    OpenAIRE

    Sacco, Lisa M.; Bentley, Margaret E.; Carby-Shields, Kenitra; Borja, Judith B.; Goldman, Barbara D.

    2007-01-01

    This study’s goal was to provide a detailed description of feeding styles adopted by a sample of African-American women in feeding their infants in North Carolina, and to examine the correspondence between reported and observed feeding styles. Cross-sectional semi-structured interview and videotaped data were gathered in the homes of 20 participating low-income mothers of infants aged 3-20 months. Feeding styles were characterized through a tailored coding scheme (the Infant Feeding Styles Vi...

  12. Child dental anxiety, parental rearing style and dental history reported by parents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krikken, J.B.; van Wijk, A.J.; ten Cate, J.M.; Veerkamp, J.S.

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To examine the relationship between self-reported parental rearing style, parent's assessment of their child's dental anxiety and the dental history of children. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Parents of primary school children were asked to complete questionnaires about their parenting style, using

  13. Predictive value of self-reported and observer-rated defense style in depression treatment.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van, H.L.; Dekker, J.J.M.; Peen, J.; Abraham, R.E.; Schoevers, R.

    2009-01-01

    This study explored the predictive value of observer-rated and self-reported defensive functioning on the outcome of psychotherapy for the treatment of depression. Defense styles were measured according to the Developmental Profile (DP) and the Defense Style Questionnaire (DSQ) in 81 moderately

  14. Associations between parenting style, physical discipline, and adjustment in adolescents' reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunnoe, Marjorie Lindner

    2013-06-01

    Recollections of physical discipline as absent, age-delimited (ages 2-11), or present into adolescence were associated with youths' evaluations of their mothers' and fathers' parenting styles and their own adjustment. Data were from the Portraits of American Life Study-Youth (PALS-Y) a diverse, national sample of 13- to 18-year-olds (N = 158). The modal experience of youth with authoritative parents was age-delimited spanking; the modal experience of youth with permissive parents was no spanking; the modal experience of youth with authoritarian or disengaged parents was physical discipline into adolescence. The age-delimited group reported the best adjustment (less maladjustment than the adolescent group; greater competence than both other groups). The positive association between fathers' age-delimited spanking and youths' academic rank persisted even after accounting for parenting styles. The eschewing of spanking should not be listed as a distinguishing characteristic of authoritative parenting, which was more often associated with age-delimited spanking than with zero-usage.

  15. Smokers report greater demand for alcohol on a behavioral economic purchase task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yurasek, Ali M; Murphy, James G; Clawson, Ashley Hum; Dennhardt, Ashley A; MacKillop, James

    2013-07-01

    Cigarette smokers have higher levels of alcohol consumption than nonsmokers and poorer response to alcohol treatment. It is possible that the greater severity of alcohol problems observed in smokers reflects a greater susceptibility to alcohol-related reinforcement. The present study used a behavioral economic purchase task to investigate whether heavy drinking smokers would have greater demand for alcohol than heavy drinking nonsmokers. Participants were 207 college students who reported at least one heavy drinking episode in the past month. Of the 207 participants, 33.2% (n = 67) reported smoking cigarettes at least 1 day in the past month. Participants completed the hypothetical alcohol purchase task, a simulation task that asked them to report how many drinks they would purchase at varying price increments. After the participants' reported alcohol consumption, gender, alcohol problems, and depression were controlled for, analyses of covariance revealed that heavy drinking smokers had significantly greater reported maximum alcohol expenditures (Omax), greater maximum inelastic price (Pmax), and higher breakpoint values (first price suppressing consumption to zero). College student heavy drinkers who also smoke cigarettes exhibit increased demand for alcohol. Smokers in this high-risk developmental stage may thus be less sensitive to price and other contingencies that would otherwise serve to modulate drinking and may require more intensive intervention approaches.

  16. Variations in band reporting rate and implications for kill rate in Greater Snow Geese

    OpenAIRE

    Guillaume Souchay; Olivier Gimenez; Gilles Gauthier; Roger Pradel

    2014-01-01

    We assessed spatial and temporal variation in reporting probability of banded Greater Snow Geese (Chen caerulescens atlantica) shot by hunters in eastern North America and evaluated potential residual biases in kill rate estimation. Adult Greater Snow Geese were marked with reward (value: US$10, $20, $30, $50, and $100) and standard bands ($0, control) in the Canadian Arctic from 2003 to 2005. We used a spatially explicit multinomial model based on 200 direct recoveries from 4256 banded geese...

  17. Predictive value of self-reported and observer-rated defense style in depression treatment.

    OpenAIRE

    Van, H.L.; Dekker, J.J.M.; Peen, J.; Abraham, R.E.; Schoevers, R.

    2009-01-01

    This study explored the predictive value of observer-rated and self-reported defensive functioning on the outcome of psychotherapy for the treatment of depression. Defense styles were measured according to the Developmental Profile (DP) and the Defense Style Questionnaire (DSQ) in 81 moderately severely depressed patients. All patients were treated with Short-term Psychodynamic Supportive Psychotherapy (SPSP). At baseline, women appeared to have a more mature level of overall defensive functi...

  18. A Sample Practical Report to Facilitate Writing in the Scientific Style

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corradi, Hazel Ruth

    2012-01-01

    The ability to write concise and accurate scientific reports is highly valued in university level science. From reflection on marking student final year reports, it was apparent that many students have had insufficient practice at writing complete "scientific paper" style reports by that time, although some do it very well. This is a previously…

  19. Potential Use of Food/Activity, Parenting Style, and Caregiver Feeding Style Measurement Tools with American Indian Families: A Brief Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Sheryl O; Hayes, Jenna T; Sigman-Grant, Madeleine; VanBrackle, Angela

    2017-02-01

    Objective To provide preliminary descriptive data on caregiver and child weight status, parenting styles, feeding styles, and feeding practices of a small American Indian sample. Methods Participants included a subsample of American Indian caregivers (n = 23) identified from a larger study that was conducted in five states. Using previously validated instruments, means, standard deviations, and ranges for general parenting styles, feeding styles, and feeding practices were explored. Results In general, most caregivers reported healthy feeding practices. Most caregivers scored higher on responsive compared to restrictive or permissive in general parenting. Of the sample, 12 caregivers (52.2 %) were classified in the indulgent feeding style category, 5 caregivers (21.7 %) were classified as authoritative, 5 (21.7 %) uninvolved, and 1 (4.3 %) authoritarian. Conclusions More investigations are needed to explore questions raised by this study about using common tools that measure childhood obesity with American Indian families.

  20. Chronic combined hyperandrogenemia and western-style diet in young female rhesus macaques causes greater metabolic impairments compared to either treatment alone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    True, C A; Takahashi, D L; Burns, S E; Mishler, E C; Bond, K R; Wilcox, M C; Calhoun, A R; Bader, L A; Dean, T A; Ryan, N D; Slayden, O D; Cameron, J L; Stouffer, R L

    2017-09-01

    Does developmental exposure to the combination of hyperandrogenemia and western-style diet (WSD) worsen adult metabolic function compared to either treatment alone? Young female rhesus macaques treated for 3 years, beginning at menarche, with combined testosterone (T) and WSD have increased weight gain and insulin resistance compared to controls and animals treated with either T or WSD alone. Hyperandrogenemia is a well-established component of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and can be observed in peripubertal girls, indicating a potential pubertal onset of the disease. Obesity is often associated with hyperandrogenemia in peripubertal girls, and overweight girls appear to be at higher risk for the development of PCOS later in life. Juvenile (2.5- year old) female rhesus macaques were divided into four groups (n = 10/group): control animals receiving cholesterol implants and a control diet with 15% of calories derived from fat (C), animals receiving T implants (mean serum levels: 1.35 ± 0.01 ng/ml) and a control diet (T), animals receiving a cholesterol implant and a WSD with 36% of calories derived from fat (WSD) and animals receiving a T implant and a WSD (T + WSD). Animals were maintained on the treatments for 36 months and were 5.5 years old at study completion. Metabolic testing consisted of body measurements including weight, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scans, activity monitoring, and glucose tolerance testing at zero months and at least once every 12 months for the remainder of the study. Indirect calorimetry and serum hormone assays were performed following 36 months of treatment. Body weight and fat mass gain were significantly increased in T + WSD at 24 and 36 months of treatment compared to the other three groups. Log transformed fasting insulin and Homeostatic Model Assessment of Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR) were significantly increased in T + WSD animals at 3 years of treatment compared to all other groups. T-treatment caused a greater rate of

  1. Coping styles in youth exposed to maltreatment: Longitudinal patterns reported by youth in foster care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Yo; Huffhines, Lindsay; Stone, Katie J; Fleming, Kandace; Gabrielli, Joy

    2017-08-01

    Coping styles in youth living in foster care with a history of maltreatment were examined to determine the nature and stability of self-reported coping behavior over time. Participants included 542 (time 1), 377 (time 2), and 299 (time 3) youth ages 8-22 years (M=13.28years, SD=3.04). Using the Behavioral Inventory of Strategic Control, a dimensional, continuous measure of coping, across four possible coping styles endorsed in reference to specific potentially stressful situations, the results indicated that direct action coping was the most frequently endorsed or preferred style for more than 50% of the sample at each time point. A number of youth endorsed using more than one coping style, indicating some flexibility in the approach to coping when problems occur. Although most youth endorsed a preferred style, coping style endorsed did vary somewhat over time. The coping style endorsed also varied depending on the type of problem referenced, but no statistically significant differences were noted across situations, including social, academic, general, and foster-specific situations. Effects for age were also examined and the results indicated no significant differences across the age range for type of coping most commonly endorsed. The present study is the first large-scale, longitudinal assessment of coping styles in youth in foster care and the results suggest that coping is not a simple, categorical-only construct and the implications for the endorsement of the direct approach for youth in foster care along with the other findings are discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Variations in band reporting rate and implications for kill rate in Greater Snow Geese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillaume Souchay

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available We assessed spatial and temporal variation in reporting probability of banded Greater Snow Geese (Chen caerulescens atlantica shot by hunters in eastern North America and evaluated potential residual biases in kill rate estimation. Adult Greater Snow Geese were marked with reward (value: US$10, $20, $30, $50, and $100 and standard bands ($0, control in the Canadian Arctic from 2003 to 2005. We used a spatially explicit multinomial model based on 200 direct recoveries from 4256 banded geese to estimate reporting rate and harvest rate. We found that reporting rate for standard bands varied over time whereas harvest rate was higher in Canada than in the U.S. The reporting probability increased from 0.40 ± 0.11 in the first year of the study to 0.82 ± 0.14 and 0.84 ± 0.13 the second and third years, respectively. Overall, these reporting rates are higher than two previous estimates for this population, which leads to lower estimates of kill rate. However, the large annual differences in reporting rates found in this study lead to uncertainty in the estimation of kill rate. We suggest that the increase in reporting rate in the last two year of the study may be due to the dissemination of information among hunters regarding the presence of reward bands on birds, resulting in increased reporting rate for all bands. This raises issues about the need to adequately inform the public in such large-scale studies to avoid undesirable temporal trends over the course of the study.

  3. Child dental anxiety, parental rearing style and dental history reported by parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krikken, J B; Vanwijk, A J; Tencate, J M; Veerkamp, J S

    2013-12-01

    To examine the relationship between self-reported parental rearing style, parent's assessment of their child's dental anxiety and the dental history of children. Parents of primary school children were asked to complete questionnaires about their parenting style, using four different questionnaires. Parents also completed the Child Fear Survey Schedule Dental Subscale (CFSS-DS) on behalf of their child and a questionnaire about the dental history of their child. 454 interview forms were available for analysis. Minor associations were found between dental anxiety and parenting style. Anxious parents were more permissive and less restrictive in their parenting style. Parents of children who did not visit their dentist for regular check-ups reported more laxness and less restrictiveness. Children who had a cavity at the time of investigation, children who had suffered from toothache in the past and children who did not have a nice and friendly dentist reported more dental anxiety. No clear associations between parenting style and dental anxiety were found. Known causes of dental anxiety were confirmed.

  4. Parenting style and conduct problems in children: Case report of deliberate self poisoning in a Nigerian child

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M F Tunde-Ayinmode

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The correlation between psychosocially unhealthy parenting styles and child psychopathology has been established. This case report describes how chronic harsh and overbearing paternal parenting style tipped a young boy into deliberate self poisoning with the aid of organo-phosphorous chemicals (rat poison. This report is purposed to increase the interest of physicians and psychiatrists in parenting style research and in how potentially its modification could be a therapeutic and preventive tool.

  5. Stepwise Approach to Writing Journal-Style Lab Reports in the Organic Chemistry Course Sequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wackerly, Jay Wm.

    2018-01-01

    An approach is described that gradually transitions second-year organic chemistry students to writing full "The Journal of Organic Chemistry" ("JOC") style lab reports. The primary goal was to introduce students to and build rhetorical skills in scientific and technical writing. This was accomplished by focusing on four main…

  6. Repressive Adaptive Style and Self-Reported Psychological Functioning in Adolescent Cancer Survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Sarah J.; Gerstle, Melissa; Montague, Erica Q.

    2008-01-01

    Low levels of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS), and psychosocial distress have been reported in pediatric cancer survivors. One explanation is the relatively high prevalence of the repressive adaptive style (low distress, high restraint) in this population. We investigated the relationship between this…

  7. Adaptive style and differences in parent and child report of health-related quality of life in children with cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurbergs, Nichole; Russell, Kathryn M W; Long, Alanna; Phipps, Sean

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the self-reported health-related quality of life (HRQL) of children with cancer, and the consistency between child and parent reports of child HRQL, as a function of the child's adaptive style. Participants included 199 children with cancer, 108 healthy children, and their parents. Children completed self-report measures of HRQL and adaptive style. Measures of adaptive style were used to categorize children as high anxious, low anxious, defensive high anxious or repressor. Parents completed measures reporting their children's HRQL. Adaptive style was a significant predictor of child-reported HRQL, particularly on the psychosocial scales, with children identified as repressors reporting the best HRQL. Adaptive style was also predictive of discrepancies between parent and child report of child HRQL. Repressor and low anxious children reported better HRQL than did their parents, while high anxious children reported poorer HRQL, regardless of health status. Adaptive style is a significant determinant of self-reported HRQL in children, particularly in psychosocial domains, while health status (i.e. cancer patient vs healthy control) is predictive only of physical health domains. Researchers and clinicians should be aware of the impact of child adaptive style when assessing HRQL outcomes using self- or parent report.

  8. Predictive value of self-reported and observer-rated defense style in depression treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Henricus, L; Dekker, Jack; Peen, Jaap; Abraham, Robert E; Schoevers, Robert

    2009-01-01

    This study explored the predictive value of observer-rated and self-reported defensive functioning on the outcome of psychotherapy for the treatment of depression. Defense styles were measured according to the Developmental Profile (DP) and the Defense Style Questionnaire (DSQ) in 81 moderately severely depressed patients. All patients were treated with Short-term Psychodynamic Supportive Psychotherapy (SPSP). At baseline, women appeared to have a more mature level of overall defensive functioning. A lower level of defensive function was found in patients with recurrent depressions. We also found a rather modest relationship between self-reported and observer-rated defense. Remitted patients had a more mature overall defensive functioning on the DP and the DSQ. In particular, patients with a symbiotic defense style (giving up, apathetic withdrawal) were at risk for poor outcome. This exploratory study provides further evidence of the relevance of defense styles for depression. It suggests a differential predictive value of separate defense levels, which may help to tailor psychotherapeutic strategies.

  9. Parents’ Self-Reported Attachment Styles: A Review of Links with Parenting Behaviors, Emotions, and Cognitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jason D.; Cassidy, Jude; Shaver, Phillip. R.

    2014-01-01

    For decades, attachment scholars have been investigating how parents’ adult attachment orientations relate to the ways in which they parent. Traditionally, this research has been conducted by developmental and clinical psychologists who typically employ the Adult Attachment Interview (AAI) to measure adult attachment. However, dating back to the mid-1990s, social and personality psychologists have been investigating how self-reported adult attachment styles relate to various facets of parenting. The literature on self-reported attachment and parenting has received less attention than AAI research on the same topic and, to date, there is no comprehensive review of this literature. In this article, we review over 60 studies of the links between self-reported attachment styles and parenting, integrate the findings to reach general conclusions, discuss unresolved questions, and suggest future directions. Finally, we discuss the potential benefits to the study of parenting of collaborations among researchers from the developmental and social attachment research traditions. PMID:25024278

  10. Does physician communication style impact patient report of decision quality for breast cancer treatment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Kathryn A; Resnicow, Ken; Williams, Geoffrey C; Silva, Marlene; Abrahamse, Paul; Shumway, Dean A; Wallner, Lauren P; Katz, Steven J; Hawley, Sarah T

    2016-12-01

    Provider communication that supports patient autonomy has been associated with numerous positive patient outcomes. However, to date, no research has examined the relationship between perceived provider communication style and patient-assessed decision quality in breast cancer. Using a population-based sample of women with localized breast cancer, we assessed patient perceptions of autonomy-supportive communication from their surgeons and medical oncologists, as well as patient-reported decision quality. We used multivariable linear regression to examine the association between autonomy-supportive communication and subjective decision quality for surgery and chemotherapy decisions, controlling for sociodemographic and clinical factors, as well as patient-reported communication preference (non-directive or directive). Among the 1690 women included in the overall sample, patient-reported decision quality scores were positively associated with higher levels of perceived autonomy-supportive communication from surgeons (β=0.30; pcommunication style preference moderated the association between physician communication style received and perceived decision quality. Autonomy-supportive communication by physicians was associated with higher subjective decision quality among women with localized breast cancer. These results support future efforts to design interventions that enhance autonomy-supportive communication. Autonomy-supportive communication by cancer doctors can improve patients' perceived decision quality. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Adrenal Rest Tumor from the Greater Omentum Mimicking Exophytic Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HCC): A Case Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Hyung Jo; Kim, Seong Hoon; Shin, Hyun Woong [Daegu Fatima Hospital, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jae Bok [Catholic University of Daegu, Gyeongsan (Korea, Republic of); Jo, Hyun Chul; Son, Mi Young; Kim, Tae Bong [Daegu Veterans Hospital, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-02-15

    Adrenal rest tumors are aberrant adrenocortical tissue which has been most commonly described in abdominal and pelvic sites. To our knowledge, there has been no previous description of an adrenal rest tumor of the greater omentum. We present a case of a pathologically confirmed adrenal rest tumor of the greater omentum in a 76-year- old man

  12. Style preference survey: a report on the psychometric properties and a cross-validation experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Sherri L; Ricketts, Todd; McArdle, Rachel A; Chisolm, Theresa H; Alexander, Genevieve; Bratt, Gene

    2013-02-01

    Several self-report measures exist that target different aspects of outcomes for hearing aid use. Currently, no comprehensive questionnaire specifically assesses factors that may be important for differentiating outcomes pertaining to hearing aid style. The goal of this work was to develop the Style Preference Survey (SPS), a questionnaire aimed at outcomes associated with hearing aid style differences. Two experiments were conducted. After initial item development, Experiment 1 was conducted to refine the items and to determine its psychometric properties. Experiment 2 was designed to cross-validate the findings from the initial experiment. An observational design was used in both experiments. Participants who wore traditional, custom-fitted (TC) or open-canal (OC) style hearing aids from 3 mo to 3 yr completed the initial experiment. One-hundred and eighty-four binaural hearing aid users (120 of whom wore TC hearing aids and 64 of whom wore OC hearing aids) participated. A new sample of TC and OC users (n = 185) participated in the cross-validation experiment. Currently available self-report measures were reviewed to identify items that might differentiate between hearing aid styles, particularly preference for OC versus TC hearing aid styles. A total of 15 items were selected and modified from available self-report measures. An additional 55 items were developed through consensus of six audiologists for the initial version of the SPS. In the first experiment, the initial SPS version was mailed to 550 veterans who met the inclusion criteria. A total of 184 completed the SPS. Approximately three weeks later, a subset of participants (n = 83) completed the SPS a second time. Basic analyses were conducted to evaluate the psychometric properties of the SPS including subscale structure, internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and responsiveness. Based on the results of Experiment 1, the SPS was revised. A cross-validation experiment was then conducted using the

  13. Hong Kong Chinese adolescents' self-reported smoking and perceptions of parenting styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yun; Ho, Sai Yin; Wang, Man Ping; Lo, Wing Sze; Lai, Hak Kan; Lam, Tai Hing

    2015-04-01

    Adolescent smoking has been associated with general parenting style, although potential differences between fathers and mothers were seldom investigated, especially in non-Western populations. The aim of this study is to investigate associations between Hong Kong adolescents' smoking and their perceptions of paternal and maternal parenting styles. In a school-based survey in 2006-2007, 33,408 adolescents (44.6 % boys; mean age 14.5 ± 1.3 years) provided information on smoking and the frequency of care and control by each parent, who was classified into one of four adolescent-reported parenting styles: authoritative (high care, high control), authoritarian (low care, high control), permissive (high care, low control), or neglectful (low care, low control). Logistic regression was used to calculate adjusted odds ratios (AORs) of current smoking (past 30 days) for parenting variables, considering potential effect modification by age, sex and parental smoking. Maternal care and control were strongly and significantly associated with lower odds of adolescent current smoking. However, such association was weak for paternal care and observed only in girls. Conversely, paternal control was positively associated with current smoking, especially if the father smoked. The lowest AORs of current smoking were associated with authoritative mothers, permissive fathers and combinations of maternal and paternal parenting styles with an authoritative mother whether or not the father was authoritative. Maternal care, control and authoritative parenting were associated with lower odds of adolescent smoking in Hong Kong. Paternal care was only weakly associated with lower odds of adolescent smoking, and paternal control was even associated with higher odds of smoking.

  14. Parents' self-reported attachment styles: a review of links with parenting behaviors, emotions, and cognitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jason D; Cassidy, Jude; Shaver, Phillip R

    2015-02-01

    For decades, attachment scholars have been investigating how parents' adult attachment orientations relate to the ways in which they parent. Traditionally, this research has been conducted by developmental and clinical psychologists who typically employ the Adult Attachment Interview (AAI) to measure adult attachment. However, dating back to the mid-1990s, social and personality psychologists have been investigating how self-reported adult attachment styles relate to various facets of parenting. The literature on self-reported attachment and parenting has received less attention than AAI research on the same topic and, to date, there is no comprehensive review of this literature. In this article, we review more than 60 studies of the links between self-reported attachment styles and parenting, integrate the findings to reach general conclusions, discuss unresolved questions, and suggest future directions. Finally, we discuss the potential benefits to the study of parenting of collaborations among researchers from the developmental and social attachment research traditions. © 2014 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.

  15. How report cards on physicians, physician groups, and hospitals can have greater impact on consumer choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinaiko, Anna D; Eastman, Diana; Rosenthal, Meredith B

    2012-03-01

    Public report cards with quality and cost information on physicians, physician groups, and hospital providers have proliferated in recent years. However, many of these report cards are difficult for consumers to interpret and have had little impact on the provider choices consumers are making. To gain a more focused understanding of why these reports cards have not been more successful and what improvements could be made, we interviewed experts and surveyed registrants at the March 2011 AHRQ National Summit on Public Reporting for Consumers in Health Care. We found broad agreement that public reporting has been disconnected from consumer decisions about providers because of weaknesses in report card content, design, and accessibility. Policy makers have an opportunity to change the landscape of public reporting by taking advantage of advances in measurement, data collection, and information technology to deliver a more consumer-centered report card. Overcoming the constraint of limited public funding, and achieving the acceptance of providers, is critical to realizing future success.

  16. Therapist’s interpersonal style and therapy benefit as the determinants of personality self-reports in clients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadžiahmetović Nina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. In (countertransference relationship therapist’s interpersonal style, implying the perceived relation of therapist to a client (patient in terms of control, autonomy, care and positive feedback, has been shown to be important. The aim of our study was to assess the relationship between therapist’s interpersonal style and clients’ personality self-reports. Within therapist’s interpersonal style, preliminary validation of the Therapist’s Interpersonal Style Scale has been conducted, which included double translation method, exploratory factor analysis, confirmatory factor analysis, as well as the reliability tests of the derived components. Methods. This research was conducted on a group of 206 clients, attending one of the four psychotherapy modalities: psychoanalysis, gestalt therapy, cognitive-behavioral and systemic family therapy. Beside Therapist’s Interpersonal Style Scale, Big Five Questionnaire and Therapy Benefit Scale were administered, showing good internal consistency. Results. Principal component analysis of therapist’s interpersonal style singled out two components Supportive Autonomy and Ignoring Control, explaining 42% of variance. Two-factor model of the therapist’s styles was better fitted in confirmatory factor analysis than the original 4-factor model. Structural model showing indirect and direct effects of therapist’s interpersonal styles on selfreports in clients indicates good fitness (χ2(12 = 8.932, p = 0.709; goodness-of-fit index = 0.989, with Ignoring Control having direct effect on Stability, Supportive Autonomy on Therapy Benefit, and Therapy Benefit on Plasticity. Conclusion. The results of this study indicate the importance of further research on therapist’s interpersonal style, as well as further validation of the instrument that measures this construct. Besides, a client’s perception that the therapy is being helpful could instigate more explorative and approach

  17. The Matter of Style: Manifestations of Personality in Cognition, Learning, and Teaching. Research Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messick, Samuel

    The historical roots of cognitive styles are traced in differential psychology, psychoanalytic ego psychology, gestalt and cognitive-developmental psychology to illuminate the varied theoretical issues that energize (and fragment) style research. Optimal measurement of cognitive styles as information-processing regularities and as intra-individual…

  18. College students who have an eveningness preference report lower self-control and greater procrastination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Digdon, Nancy L; Howell, Andrew J

    2008-11-01

    Previous research suggests a possible link between eveningness and general difficulties with self-regulation (e.g., evening types are more likely than other chronotypes to have irregular sleep schedules and social rhythms and use substances). Our study investigated the relationship between eveningness and self-regulation by using two standardized measures of self-regulation: the Self-Control Scale and the Procrastination Scale. We predicted that an eveningness preference would be associated with poorer self-control and greater procrastination than would an intermediate or morningness preference. Participants were 308 psychology students (mean age=19.92 yrs) at a small Canadian college. Students completed the self-regulation questionnaires and Morningness/Eveningness Questionnaire (MEQ) online. The mean MEQ score was 46.69 (SD=8.20), which is intermediate between morningness and eveningness. MEQ scores ranged from definite morningness to definite eveningness, but the dispersion of scores was skewed toward more eveningness. Pearson and partial correlations (controlling for age) were used to assess the relationship between MEQ score and the Self-Control Scale (global score and 5 subscale scores) and Procrastination Scale (global score). All correlations were significant. The magnitude of the effects was medium for all measures except one of the Self-Control subscales, which was small. A multiple regression analysis to predict MEQ score using the Self-Control Scale (global score), Procrastination Scale, and age as predictors indicated the Self-Control Scale was a significant predictor (accounting for 20% of the variance). A multiple regression analysis to predict MEQ scores using the five subscales of the Self-Control Scale and age as predictors showed the subscales for reliability and work ethic were significant predictors (accounting for 33% of the variance). Our study showed a relationship between eveningness and low self-control, but it did not address whether the

  19. Self-reported posttraumatic growth predicts greater subsequent posttraumatic stress amidst war and terrorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalta, Alyson K; Gerhart, James; Hall, Brian J; Rajan, Kumar B; Vechiu, Catalina; Canetti, Daphna; Hobfoll, Stevan E

    2017-03-01

    This study tested three alternative explanations for research indicating a positive, but heterogeneous relationship between self-reported posttraumatic growth (PTG) and posttraumatic stress symptoms (PSS): (a) the third-variable hypothesis that the relationship between PTG and PSS is a spurious one driven by positive relationships with resource loss, (b) the growth over time hypothesis that the relationship between PTG and PSS is initially a positive one, but becomes negative over time, and (c) the moderator hypothesis that resource loss moderates the relationship between PTG and PSS such that PTG is associated with lower levels of PSS as loss increases. A nationally representative sample (N = 1622) of Israelis was assessed at three time points during a period of ongoing violence. PTG, resource loss, and the interaction between PTG and loss were examined as lagged predictors of PSS to test the proposed hypotheses. Results were inconsistent with all three hypotheses, showing that PTG positively predicted subsequent PSS when accounting for main and interactive effects of loss. Our results suggest that self-reported PTG is a meaningful but counterintuitive predictor of poorer mental health following trauma.

  20. A Reliable and Valid Weighted Scoring Instrument for Use in Grading APA-Style Empirical Research Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, Kathleen Puglisi

    2012-01-01

    The scoring instrument described in this article is based on a deconstruction of the seven sections of an American Psychological Association (APA)-style empirical research report into a set of learning outcomes divided into content-, expression-, and format-related categories. A double-weighting scheme used to score the report yields a final grade…

  1. Multiple malignant extragastrointestinal stromal tumors of the greater omentum and results of immunohistochemistry and mutation analysis: A case report

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Jong-Han; Boo, Yoon-Jung; Jung, Cheol-Woong; Park, Sung-Soo; Kim, Seung-Joo; Mok, Young-Jae; Kim, Sang-Dae; Chae, Yang-Suk; Kim, Chong-Suk

    2007-01-01

    To report an extragastrointestinal stromal tumor (EGIST) that occurs outside the gastrointestinal tract and shows unique clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical features. In our case, we experienced multiple soft tissue tumors that originate primarily in the greater omentum, and in immunohistochemical analysis, the tumors showed features that correspond to malignant EGIST. Two large omental masses measured 15 cm x 10 cm and 5 cm × 4 cm sized and several small ovoid fragments were attached t...

  2. Adolescent Learning Styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titus, Thomas G.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Results are reported from a study of the learning styles of 306 high school students. The study examined learning style characteristics (abstraction, concreteness, reflection, activity); comparisons between adolescent and adult learning styles; and differences between freshmen and seniors, males and females, and slow-track and fast-track learners.…

  3. Style, content and format guide for writing safety analysis documents. Volume 1, Safety analysis reports for DOE nuclear facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-06-01

    The purpose of Volume 1 of this 4-volume style guide is to furnish guidelines on writing and publishing Safety Analysis Reports (SARs) for DOE nuclear facilities at Sandia National Laboratories. The scope of Volume 1 encompasses not only the general guidelines for writing and publishing, but also the prescribed topics/appendices contents along with examples from typical SARs for DOE nuclear facilities.

  4. Form and Style: Theses, Reports, Term Papers. Eighth Edition. Up-to-Date Information on Chicago, MLA, and APA Documentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, William Giles; And Others

    The eighth edition of this manual, which incorporates recent changes in bibliographical format made by "The Chicago Manual of Style" and the Modern Language Association of America, provides guidance to writers of research papers and reports in college, graduate school, business, government, and the professions. The review of the…

  5. Brief Report: The Identity Style Inventory--Validation in Italian Adolescents and College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crocetti, Elisabetta; Rubini, Monica; Berzonsky, Michael D.; Meeus, Wim

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the factor structure and convergent validity of an Italian translation of the Identity Style Inventory (ISI). Confirmatory factor analyses revealed a clear three-factor structure of identity style and a mono-factor structure of commitment, not only in the overall sample, but also in gender and age…

  6. Greater London.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-05-01

    Greater London, composed of 14 inner boroughs and 19 outer ones, covers 1,579 square kilometers and has a population density of 77.9 persons per hectare. From 1971-1981, Greater London decreased in population by 10%, declining from 7.45 million to 6.71 million. All outer boroughs and 13 inner boroughs lost population in the 1970s; only the historic financial and business center--the City of London--showed a population increase. 48% of the population is male and somewhat over 60% of the total population is between 16 and pensionable age. Inner London includes more 25-44 year olds than Outer London. In Greater London 18% of the population was born in foreign countries, with almost a quarter of Inner London's residents being foreign born. Men (15%) and women (16%) in Inner London and men (16%) and women (13%) in Outer London are likely to have more education than other Britons. Somewhat more working women are found in Greater London than in the rest of Great Britain, with the highest percentage in the City of London. 34% of British households include children under age 16, but only 29% of Greater London's households include children. Only 10% of the City of London's households have children, and 1/4 of mothers work, as compared to 13% for all of Britain. A majority of Greater London households have either no car or only 1 car since public transportation and walking to work are convenient. Greater London households declined by 5% to 2.5 million in 1981, with average household size declining from 2.8 to 2.6 persons; 26% are single-person households (55% of these are pensioners). As in the rest of Britain, more people are buying homes and renting them from local authorities. 1/3 of Greater London residents live in publicly owned housing. Some lifestyle variations exist between Greater London residents and other Britons in terms of household consumption, but these differences are not as great as geographic differences in the US, and Greater London demographic data may be

  7. Antecedents of Looming Cognitive Style: Associations With Reported Perceived Parenting and Attachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altan-Atalay, Ayşe; Ayvaşık, Halise Belgin

    2018-01-01

    Looming Cognitive Style, which was proposed as cognitive vulnerability model specific for anxiety disorders, suggests that anxiety-prone individuals have a tendency to perceive threats and dangers as getting closer, becoming larger, and more agonizing every passing minute. Yet, very few studies focused on the family-related variables that are associated with development of Looming Cognitive Style. This study aims to investigate the relationship of Looming Cognitive Style with measures perceived parenting and attachment. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 389 university students aged between 18 and 35 as participants. The participants were assessed through Looming Cognitive Style, perceived parenting, attachment anxiety, and avoidance. Hierarchical regression analyses indicated Looming Cognitive Style to be significantly predicted by maternal overprotection and anxiety dimension of attachment. The results are important in understanding how parenting-related variables are related to development of cognitive vulnerabilities specific to anxiety disorders.

  8. Social and institutional evaluation report for Greater-Than-Class C Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, T.L.; Lewis, B.E.; Turner, K.H.; Rozelle, M.A. [Dames and Moore, Denver, CO (United States)

    1993-10-01

    This report identifies and characterizes social and institutional issues that would be relevant to the siting, licensing, construction, closure, and postclosure of a Greater-Than-Class-C low-level radioactive waste (GTCC LLW) disposal facility. A historical perspective of high-level radioactive waste (HLW) and LLW disposal programs is provided as an overview of radioactive waste disposal and to support the recommendations and conclusions in the report. A characterization of each issue is provided to establish the basis for further evaluations. Where applicable, the regulatory requirements of 10 CFR 60 and 61 are incorporated in the issue characterizations. The issues are used to compare surface, intermediate depth, and deep geologic disposal alternatives. The evaluation establishes that social and institutional issues do not significantly discriminate among the disposal alternatives. Recommendations are provided for methods by which the issues could be considered throughout the lifecycle of a GTCC LLW disposal program.

  9. Leadership Styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzarella, Jo Ann; Smith, Stuart C.

    Chapter 2 of a revised volume on school leadership, this chapter reviews theories of leadership style--the way a leader leads. Although most experts agree that leadership style is important, they disagree concerning style components, leaders' capabilities for changing styles, the effects of personality traits on style, and the desirability of…

  10. Links between Perceived Leadership Styles and Self-reported Coping Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Boštjančič

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The focus of this study was the relatively unexplored link between perceived leadership styles and employees' current levels of workplace stress and coping strategies. The participants were 442 employees in five IT organisations in Slovenia. The theoretical background for leadership styles was taken from the full-range leadership model. Data were collected using three questionnaires: Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire, Ways of Coping Questionnaire, and a single questionnaire item on the current level of workplace stress. Correlations and linear regression were used to test whether leadership style influences the employees' stress-coping strategies.Lower levels of stress at work were found for employees whose leader showed more transformational or transactional leadership behaviours. The results showed low to moderate correlations between the three basic leadership styles and coping strategies such as positive reappraisal, seeking social assistance, and negative escape/avoidance. These coping strategies were more frequently used by employees whose leaders often used transformational and transactional leadership styles. Employees whose leaders frequently used passive-avoidant leadership style more often approach to stress situations with escape, avoidance, and rarely with positive reappraisal. But the regression models explained only 2% to 7% of the variance for certain coping strategie.

  11. Waste Management Facilities Cost Information report for Greater-Than-Class C and DOE equivalent special case waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feizollahi, F.; Shropshire, D.

    1993-07-01

    This Waste Management Facility Cost Information (WMFCI) report for Greater-Than-Class C low-level waste (GTCC LLW) and DOE equivalent special case waste contains preconceptual designs and planning level life-cycle cost (PLCC) estimates for treatment, storage, and disposal facilities needed for management of GTCC LLW and DOE equivalent waste. The report contains information on 16 facilities (referred to as cost modules). These facilities are treatment facility front-end and back-end support functions (administration support, and receiving, preparation, and shipping cost modules); seven treatment concepts (incineration, metal melting, shredding/compaction, solidification, vitrification, metal sizing and decontamination, and wet/air oxidation cost modules); two storage concepts (enclosed vault and silo); disposal facility front-end functions (disposal receiving and inspection cost module); and four disposal concepts (shallow-land, engineered shallow-land, intermediate depth, and deep geological cost modules). Data in this report allow the user to develop PLCC estimates for various waste management options. A procedure to guide the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and its contractor personnel in the use of estimating data is also included in this report.

  12. Potential use of food/activity, parenting style, and caregiver feeding style measurement tools with American Indian families: A brief report

    Science.gov (United States)

    To provide preliminary descriptive data on caregiver and child weight status, parenting styles, feeding styles, and feeding practices of a small American Indian sample. Participants included a subsample of American Indian caregivers (n = 23) identified from a larger study that was conducted in five ...

  13. Adults with Greater Weight Satisfaction Report More Positive Health Behaviors and Have Better Health Status Regardless of BMI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine E. Blake

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Prior studies suggest that weight satisfaction may preclude changes in behavior that lead to healthier weight among individuals who are overweight or obese. Objective. To gain a better understanding of complex relationships between weight satisfaction, weight-related health behaviors, and health outcomes. Design. Cross-sectional analysis of data from the Aerobics Center Longitudinal Study (ACLS. Participants. Large mixed-gender cohort of primarily white, middle-to-upper socioeconomic status (SES adults with baseline examination between 1987 and 2002 (n=19,003. Main Outcome Variables. Weight satisfaction, weight-related health behaviors, chronic health conditions, and clinical health indicators. Statistical Analyses Performed. Chi-square test, t-tests, and linear and multivariate logistic regression. Results. Compared to men, women were more likely to be dieting (32% women; 18% men and had higher weight dissatisfaction. Men and women with greater weight dissatisfaction reported more dieting, yo-yo dieting, and snacking and consuming fewer meals, being less active, and having to eat either more or less than desired to maintain weight regardless of weight status. Those who were overweight or obese and dissatisfied with their weight had the poorest health. Conclusion. Greater satisfaction with one’s weight was associated with positive health behaviors and health outcomes in both men and women and across weight status groups.

  14. Greater Caribbean Energy and Environment Future. Ad hoc working group report, Key Biscayne, Florida, October 26-28, 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thorhaug, A. (ed.)

    1980-01-01

    This report of Workshop I (presented in outline form) by the Greater Caribbean Energy and Environment Foundation begin an intensive focus on the energy problems of the Caribbean. The process by which environmental assessments by tropical experts can be successfully integrated into energy decisions is by: (1) international loan institutions requiring or strongly recommending excellent assessments; (2) engineering awareness of total effects of energy projects; (3) governmental environmental consciousness-raising with regard to natural resource value and potential inadvertent and unnecessary resource losses during energy development; and (4) media participation. Section headings in the outline are: preamble; introduction; research tasks: today and twenty years hence; needed research, demonstration and information dissemination projects to get knowledge about Caribbean energy-environment used; summary; recommendations; generalized conclusions; and background literature. (JGB)

  15. Brief report: the identity style inventory - validation in Italian adolescents and college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crocetti, Elisabetta; Rubini, Monica; Berzonsky, Michael D; Meeus, Wim

    2009-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the factor structure and convergent validity of an Italian translation of the Identity Style Inventory (ISI). Confirmatory factor analyses revealed a clear three-factor structure of identity style and a mono-factor structure of commitment, not only in the overall sample, but also in gender and age subgroups. Convergent validity was demonstrated by theoretically consistent associations between the ISI dimensions and measures of identity processes, self-esteem, and need for cognitive closure. The findings suggest that the Italian version of the ISI is a useful tool for assessing social-cognitive processes relevant to identity formation in Italian adolescents and college students.

  16. New reports, phylogenetic analysis, and a key to Lactarius Pers. in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem informed by molecular data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward G. Barge

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem (GYE, located in the Central Rocky Mountains of western North America, is one of the largest nearly intact temperate-zone ecosystems on Earth. Here, Lactarius is an important component of ectomycorrhizal communities in many habitat types, from low elevation riparian areas to high elevation conifer forests and alpine tundra. Molecular phylogenetic analyses of ITS and RPB2 gene sequences along with detailed morphological examination confirm at least 20 Lactarius species, as well as three varieties, and one unresolved species group in the GYE. Eight taxa are reported from the GYE for the first time, and nearly every major ectomycorrhizal host plant in the GYE appears to have at least one Lactarius species associated with it. Broad intercontinental distributions are suggested for alpine Salix and Betula associates, and for certain subalpine Picea and aspen (Populus spp. associates. Some species appear to be restricted to western North America with Pinus, Pseudotsuga or Abies. The distribution and/or host affinities of others is not clear due in part to ambiguous host assignment, taxonomic problems or the relative rarity with which they have been reported.

  17. Self-reported and physiologically measured dental anxiety, coping styles and personality traits.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benjamins, C.; Schuurs, A.H.B.; Kooreman, T.; Hoogstraten, J.

    1996-01-01

    Studied the relationship between verbal-cognitive and physiological measures of dental anxiety, coping styles, and personality traits among 53 undergraduate psychology students (aged 18-31 yrs). Data were collected during 2 separate sessions. The 1st (stress) session involved continuous and

  18. Attribution Style of Adolescents with School-Reported Social, Emotional and Behavioural Difficulties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maras, P. F.; Moon, A.; Gridley, N.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the relationships between attribution style and social, emotional and behavioural difficulties (SEBDs), and to explore differences in attribution tendencies between adolescents with and without SEBDs. In total, 72 adolescents attending a school in London were recruited; 27 were receiving support for SEBDs…

  19. Ecology of Greater Sage-Grouse in the Bi-State Planning Area Final Report, September 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casazza, Michael L.; Overton, Cory T.; Farinha, Melissa A.; Torregrosa, Alicia; Fleskes, Joseph P.; Miller, Michael R.; Sedinger, James S.; Kolada, Eric J.

    2009-01-01

    Conservation efforts for greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus), hereafter sage-grouse, are underway across the range of this species. Over 70 local working groups have been established and are implementing on-the-ground sage-grouse oriented conservation projects. Early on in this process, the California Department of Fish and Game (CDFG) recognized the need to join in these efforts and received funding from the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) under the Candidate Species Conservation Program to help develop a species conservation plan for sage-grouse in the Mono County area. This conservation plan covers portions of Alpine, Mono, and Inyo counties in California and Douglas, Esmeralda, Lyon, and Mineral counties in Nevada. A concurrent effort underway through the Nevada Governor's Sage-grouse Conservation Team established Local Area Working Groups across Nevada and eastern California. The Mono County populations of sage-grouse were encompassed by the Bi-State Local Planning Area, which was comprised of six population management units (PMUs). The state agencies from California (CDFG) and Nevada (Nevada Department of Wildlife; NDOW) responsible for the management of sage-grouse agreed to utilize the process that had begun with the Nevada Governor's Team in order to develop local plans for conservation planning and implementation. Resources from the USFWS were applied to several objectives in support of the development of the Bi-State Local Area Sage-grouse Conservation Plan through a grant to the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). Objectives included: (1) participate in the development of the Bi-State Conservation Plan, (2) compile and synthesize existing sage-grouse data, (3) document seasonal movements of sage-grouse, (4) identify habitats critical to sage-grouse, (5) determine survival rates and identify causal factors of mortality, (6) determine nest success and brood success of sage-grouse, and (7) identify sage-grouse lek sites. Progress reports

  20. Multiple malignant extragastrointestinal stromal tumors of the greater omentum and results of immunohistochemistry and mutation analysis: A case report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jong-Han; Boo, Yoon-Jung; Jung, Cheol-Woong; Park, Sung-Soo; Kim, Seung-Joo; Mok, Young-Jae; Kim, Sang-Dae; Chae, Yang-Suk; Kim, Chong-Suk

    2007-01-01

    To report an extragastrointestinal stromal tumor (EGIST) that occurs outside the gastrointestinal tract and shows unique clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical features. In our case, we experienced multiple soft tissue tumors that originate primarily in the greater omentum, and in immunohistochemical analysis, the tumors showed features that correspond to malignant EGIST. Two large omental masses measured 15 cm x 10 cm and 5 cm × 4 cm sized and several small ovoid fragments were attached to small intestine, mesentery and peritoneum. On histologic findings, the masses were separated from small bowel serosa and had high mitotic count (115/50 HPFs). In the results of immunohistochemical stains, the tumor showed CD117 (c-kit) positive reactivity and high Ki-67 labeling index. On mutation analysis, the c-kit gene mutation was found in the juxtamembrane domain (exon 11) and it was heterozygote. Platelet-derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR) gene mutation was also found in the juxtamemembrane (exon 12) and it was polymorphism. From above findings, we proposed that there may be several mutational pathways to malignant EGIST, so further investigations could be needed to approach this unfavorable disease entity. PMID:17659683

  1. Towards a greater understanding of the illicit tobacco trade in Europe: a review of the PMI funded 'Project Star' report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmore, Anna B; Rowell, Andy; Gallus, Silvano; Lugo, Alessandra; Joossens, Luk; Sims, Michelle

    2014-05-01

    Following a legal agreement with the European Union (EU), Philip Morris International (PMI) commissions a yearly report ('Project Star', PS) on the European illicit cigarette trade from KPMG, the global accountancy firm. Review of PS 2010 report. Comparison with data from independent sources including a 2010 pan-European survey (N=18,056). Within PS, data covering all 27 EU countries are entered into a model. While the model itself seems appropriate, concerns are identified with the methodologies underlying the data inputs and thus their quality: there is little transparency over methodologies; interview data underestimate legal non-domestic product partly by failing to account for legal cross-border sales; illicit cigarette estimates rely on tobacco industry empty pack surveys which may overestimate illicit; and there is an over-reliance on data supplied by PMI with inadequate external validation. Thus, PMI sales data are validated using PMI smoking prevalence estimates, yet PMI is unable to provide sales (shipment) data for the Greek islands and its prevalence estimates differ grossly from independent data. Consequently, comparisons with independent data suggest PS will tend to overestimate illicit cigarette levels particularly where cross-border shopping is frequent (Austria, Finland, France) and in Western compared with Eastern European countries. The model also provides data on the nature of the illicit cigarette market independent of seizure data suggesting that almost a quarter of the illicit cigarette market in 2010 comprised PMI's own brands compared with just 5% counterfeited PMI brands; a finding hidden in PMI's public representation of the data. PS overestimates illicit cigarette levels in some European countries and suggests PMI's supply chain control is inadequate. Its publication serves the interests of PMI over those of the EU and its member states. PS requires greater transparency, external scrutiny and use of independent data. Published by the BMJ

  2. The relationship of parenting style to self-reported mental health among two subcultures of Chinese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, G; Qian, M

    2001-04-01

    The results of this investigation with 127 youths (aged 16-22 years) from mainland China supported the association of recalled parent's styles (assessed by the EMBU) with adolescents' self-evaluated health status (measured by the SCL-90). Many psychosomatic symptoms and lower scores on indexes of general mental health were significantly related to higher levels of parental rejection and denial, punishing tendency, overprotection and overinvolvement and to lower levels of parental emotional warmth and comprehension. The association between parenting style and mental health status of adolescents can be generalized across genders and across the two Chinese subcultures studied (Han and Kejia ethnical groups) with moderate to fairly high confidence. The mental health status of participants suggests some differences between different subcultures or genders on several variables of the SCL-90. Copyright 2001 The Association for Professionals in Services for Adolescents.

  3. Progress report 1987: predator control to enhance the production of Greater Sandhill Cranes on Malheur National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The nesting population of greater sandhill cranes on Malheur National Wildlife Refuge, Oregon has declined from 236 pairs in 1971 to 181 pairs in 1986. Nesting...

  4. Progress Report 1986 : Predator Control to Enhance the Production of Greater Sandhill Cranes on Malheur National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The nesting population of greater sandhill cranes on Malheur National Wildlife Refuge, Oregon has declined from 236 pairs in 1971 to 181 pairs in 1986. Nesting...

  5. Progress Report 1990: predator control to enhance the production of Greater Sandhill Cranes on Malheur National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The nesting population of greater sandhill cranes on Malheur National Wildlife Refuge, Oregon had declined from 236 pairs in 1971 to 181 pairs in 1986 when predator...

  6. Progress report 1989: predator control to enhance the production of Greater Sandhill Cranes on Malheur National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The nesting population of greater sandhill cranes on Malheur National Wildlife Refuge, Oregon has declined from 236 pairs in 1971 to 181 pairs in 1986 when predator...

  7. Progress report 1988: predator control to enhance production of Greater Sandhill Cranes on Malheur National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The nesting population of greater sandhill cranes on Malheur National Wildlife Refuge, Oregon has declined from 181 pairs in 1986 when predator control began to 137...

  8. Progress report 1991: predator control to enhance the production of greater Sandhill Cranes on Malheur National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The nesting population of greater sandhill cranes on Malheur National Wildlife Refuge, Oregon had declined from 236 pairs in 1971 to 181 pairs in 1986 when predator...

  9. Self-reported discrimination and mental health among Asian Indians: Cultural beliefs and coping style as moderators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadimpalli, Sarah B.; Kanaya, Alka M.; McDade, Thomas W.; Kandula, Namratha R.

    2016-01-01

    The South Asian (SA) population has been underrepresented in research linking discrimination with health indicators; studies that focus on the unique cultural and psychosocial experiences of different SA subgroups are needed. The purpose of this study was to examine associations between self-reported discrimination and mental health among Asian Indians (AIs), and whether traditional cultural beliefs (believing that South Asian cultural traditions should be practiced in the US), coping style, and social support moderated these relationships. Asian Indians (N = 733) had been recruited from community-based sampling frames for the Mediators of Atherosclerosis in South Asians Living in America (MASALA) study were included in this analysis. Multiple linear regression analyses were employed to evaluate relationships between discrimination and depressive symptoms, anger, and anxiety. Participants (men = 54%) were on average 55 years of age and had high levels of English proficiency, education, and income. Higher reports of discrimination were significantly associated with higher depressive symptoms, B = .27 (.05) p discrimination and anger, B = −.005 (.002), p = .02, were weakest among those with stronger cultural beliefs. The link between discrimination and anxiety was attenuated by an active coping style, B = −.05 (.03), p = .04. In sum, self-reported discrimination appeared to adversely impact the mental health of AIs. Discrimination may be better coped with by having strong traditional cultural beliefs and actively managing experiences of discrimination. PMID:27668066

  10. Parenting styles and body mass index trajectories from adolescence to adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuemmeler, Bernard F; Yang, Chongming; Costanzo, Phil; Hoyle, Rick H; Siegler, Ilene C; Williams, Redford B; Ostbye, Truls

    2012-07-01

    Parenting styles such as authoritarian, disengaged, or permissive are thought to be associated with greater adolescent obesity risk than an authoritative style. This study assessed the relationship between parenting styles and changes in body mass index (BMI) from adolescence to young adulthood. The study included self-reported data from adolescents in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Factor mixture modeling, a data-driven approach, was used to classify participants into parenting style groups based on measures of acceptance and control. Latent growth modeling (LGM) identified patterns of developmental changes in BMI. After a number of potential confounders were controlled for, parenting style variables were entered as predictors of BMI trajectories. Analyses were also conducted for male and female individuals of 3 racial-ethnic groups (Hispanic, black, white) to assess whether parenting styles were differentially associated with BMI trajectories in these 6 groups. Parenting styles were classified into 4 groups: authoritarian, disengaged, permissive, and balanced. Compared with the balanced parenting style, authoritarian and disengaged parenting styles were associated with a less steep average BMI increase (linear slope) over time, but also less leveling off (quadratic) of BMI over time. Differences in BMI trajectories were observed for various genders and races, but the differences did not reach statistical significance. Adolescents who reported having parents with authoritarian or disengaged parenting styles had greater increases in BMI as they transitioned to young adulthood despite having a lower BMI trajectory through adolescence.

  11. Parenting Styles and Body Mass Index Trajectories From Adolescence to Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuemmeler, Bernard F.; Yang, Chongming; Costanzo, Phil; Hoyle, Rick H.; Ph.D.; Siegler, Ilene C.; Williams, Redford B.; Østbye, Truls

    2013-01-01

    Objective Parenting styles such as authoritarian, disengaged, or permissive are thought to be associated with greater adolescent obesity risk than an authoritative style. This study assessed the relationship between parenting styles and changes in body mass index (BMI) from adolescence to young adulthood. Methods The study included self-reported data from adolescents in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Factor mixture modeling, a data-driven approach, was used to classify participants into parenting style groups based on measures of acceptance and control. Latent growth modeling (LGM) identified patterns of developmental changes in BMI. After a number of potential cofounders were controlled for, parenting style variables were entered as predictors of BMI trajectories. Analyses were also conducted for males and females of three racial/ethnic groups (Hispanic, black, white) to assess whether parenting styles were differentially associated with BMI trajectories in these 6 groups. Results Parenting styles were classified into 4 groups: authoritarian, disengaged, permissive, and balanced. Compared with the balanced parenting style, authoritarian and disengaged parenting styles were associated with a less steep average BMI increase (linear slope) over time, but also less leveling off (quadratic) of BMI over time. Differences in BMI trajectories were observed for various genders and races, but the differences did not reach statistical significance. Conclusions Adolescents who reported having parents with authoritarian or disengaged parenting styles had greater increases in BMI as they transitioned to young adulthood despite having a lower BMI trajectory through adolescence. PMID:22545979

  12. Brief Report: Parenting Styles and Obesity in Mexican American Children: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, Thomas G.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To assess longitudinally the relations between four parenting styles (authoritative, authoritarian, uninvolved, and indulgent) and child weight status in Mexican American families. Methods Sixty-nine low-income Mexican American mothers and their 4- to 8-year-old children participated in a 4-year longitudinal study. Mothers completed demographic and parenting measures. Children's body weight and height were assessed annually. Body mass index was calculated to determine weight status. Results At baseline, 65% of children were found to be normal weight, 14% were overweight, and 21% were obese. Analyses examined how parenting styles at baseline predicted child's weight status 3 years later, controlling for initial weight status. Children of indulgent mothers were more likely to become overweight 3 years later than children of authoritative or authoritarian mothers. Conclusions This study provides longitudinal evidence for the role of indulgent parenting in predicting overweight in Mexican American children. Possible mediating factors that may account for this relationship (e.g., dietary patterns, physical activity patterns, and children's self-regulation) are considered. PMID:19726552

  13. Self-reported parenting style is associated with children's inflammation and immune activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, Michelle L; Badcock, Paul B; Simmons, Julian G; Whittle, Sarah; Pettitt, Adam; Olsson, Craig A; Mundy, Lisa K; Patton, George C; Allen, Nicholas B

    2017-04-01

    Family environments and parenting have been associated with inflammation and immune activation in children and adolescents; however, it remains unclear which specific aspects of parenting drive this association. In this study, we cross-sectionally examined the association between 5 discrete parenting styles and inflammation and immune activation in late childhood. Data were drawn from 102 families (55 with female children, mean age 9.50 years, SD = 0.34) participating in the Imaging Brain Development in the Childhood to Adolescence Transition Study. Children provided saliva samples from which inflammation (C-reactive protein) and immune competence/activation (secretory immunoglobulin A) were measured. Parents completed the Alabama Parenting Questionnaire, which measures 5 aspects of parenting style-positive parental involvement, positive disciplinary techniques, consistency in disciplinary techniques, corporal punishment, and monitoring and supervision. Results showed that higher scores on the poor parental monitoring scale were associated with higher levels of both inflammation and immune activation in children. This study highlights parental monitoring and supervision as a specific aspect of parenting behavior that may be important for children's physical and mental health. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. Brief report: parenting styles and obesity in Mexican American children: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olvera, Norma; Power, Thomas G

    2010-04-01

    To assess longitudinally the relations between four parenting styles (authoritative, authoritarian, uninvolved, and indulgent) and child weight status in Mexican American families. Sixty-nine low-income Mexican American mothers and their 4- to 8-year-old children participated in a 4-year longitudinal study. Mothers completed demographic and parenting measures. Children's body weight and height were assessed annually. Body mass index was calculated to determine weight status. At baseline, 65% of children were found to be normal weight, 14% were overweight, and 21% were obese. Analyses examined how parenting styles at baseline predicted child's weight status 3 years later, controlling for initial weight status. Children of indulgent mothers were more likely to become overweight 3 years later than children of authoritative or authoritarian mothers. This study provides longitudinal evidence for the role of indulgent parenting in predicting overweight in Mexican American children. Possible mediating factors that may account for this relationship (e.g., dietary patterns, physical activity patterns, and children's self-regulation) are considered.

  15. A validity study of self-reported daily texting frequency, cell phone characteristics, and texting styles among young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, Judith E; Rauscher, Kimberly J; Zhu, Motao

    2015-04-02

    Texting is associated with adverse health effects including musculoskeletal disorders, sleep disturbances, and traffic crashes. Many studies have relied on self-reported texting frequency, yet the validity of self-reports is unknown. Our objective was to provide some of the first data on the validity of self-reported texting frequency, cell phone characteristics including input device (e.g. touchscreen), key configuration (e.g., QWERTY), and texting styles including phone orientation (e.g., horizontal) and hands holding the phone while texting. Data were collected using a self-administered questionnaire and observation of a texting task among college students ages 18 to 24. To gauge agreement between self-reported and phone bill-derived categorical number of daily text messages sent, we calculated percent of agreement, Spearman correlation coefficient, and a linear weighted kappa statistic. For agreement between self-reported and observed cell phone characteristics and texting styles we calculated percentages of agreement. We used chi-square tests to detect significant differences (α = 0.05) by gender and study protocol. There were 106 participants; 87 of which had complete data for texting frequency analyses. Among these 87, there was 26% (95% CI: 21-31) agreement between self-reported and phone bill-derived number of daily text messages sent with a Spearman's rho of 0.48 and a weighted kappa of 0.17 (95% CI: 0.06-0.27). Among those who did not accurately report the number of daily texts sent, 81% overestimated this number. Among the full sample (n = 106), there was high agreement between self-reported and observed texting input device (96%, 95% CI: 91-99), key configuration (89%, 95% CI: 81-94), and phone orientation while texting (93%, 95% CI: 86-97). No differences were found by gender or study protocol among any items. While young adults correctly reported their cell phone's characteristics and phone orientation while texting, most incorrectly

  16. Preliminary report of a biometric analysis of greater pipefish Syngnathus acus Linnaeus, 1758 for the western Black Sea

    OpenAIRE

    YILDIZ, TANER; UZER, Uğur; KARAKULAK, FİRDES SAADET

    2015-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to analyze the differences and similarities in morphometric characteristics among specimens of greater pipefish Syngnathus acus Linnaeus, 1758 that were collected and described based on data from bottom-trawl surveys and commercial trawl fisheries in the western Black Sea between September 2010 and October 2011. A total of 280 specimens were analyzed, of which 191 were female and 89 were male. Female individuals ranged from 15.6 to 33.8 cm in total length,...

  17. A description of an 'obesogenic' eating style that promotes higher energy intake and is associated with greater adiposity in 4.5year-old children: Results from the GUSTO cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogel, Anna; Goh, Ai Ting; Fries, Lisa R; Sadananthan, Suresh Anand; Velan, S Sendhil; Michael, Navin; Tint, Mya Thway; Fortier, Marielle Valerie; Chan, Mei Jun; Toh, Jia Ying; Chong, Yap-Seng; Tan, Kok Hian; Yap, Fabian; Shek, Lynette P; Meaney, Michael J; Broekman, Birit F P; Lee, Yung Seng; Godfrey, Keith M; Chong, Mary Foong Fong; Forde, Ciarán G

    2017-07-01

    Recent findings confirm that faster eating rates support higher energy intakes within a meal and are associated with increased body weight and adiposity in children. The current study sought to identify the eating behaviours that underpin faster eating rates and energy intake in children, and to investigate their variations by weight status and other individual differences. Children (N=386) from the Growing Up in Singapore towards Healthy Outcomes (GUSTO) cohort took part in a video-recorded ad libitum lunch at 4.5years of age to measure acute energy intake. Videos were coded for three eating behaviours (bites, chews and swallows) to derive a measure of eating rate (g/min) and measures of eating microstructure: eating rate (g/min), total oral exposure (min), average bite size (g/bite), chews per gram, oral exposure per bite (s), total bites and proportion of active to total mealtime. Children's BMIs were calculated and a subset of children underwent MRI scanning to establish abdominal adiposity. Children were grouped into faster and slower eaters, and into healthy and overweight groups to compare their eating behaviours. Results demonstrate that faster eating rates were correlated with larger average bite size (r=0.55, pobesogenic eating style' that is characterised by faster eating rates, achieved through larger bites, reduced chewing and shorter oral exposure time. This obesogenic eating style supports acute energy intake within a meal and is more prevalent among, though not exclusive to, children with overweight. Clinical Trial Registry Number: NCT01174875; https://clinicaltrials.gov/. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Learning styles in otolaryngology fellowships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varela, David A Diaz Voss; Malik, Mohammad U; Laeeq, Kulsoom; Pandian, Vinciya; Brown, David J; Weatherly, Robert A; Cummings, Charles W; Bhatti, Nasir I

    2011-12-01

    Previous studies have identified a predominant learning style in trainees from different specialties, more recently in otolaryngology residents. The purpose of our study was to determine a predominant learning style within otolaryngology fellowships and to identify any differences between otolaryngology fellows and residents. We conducted a survey of otolaryngology fellows at 25 otolaryngology fellowship programs accredited by the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education. We emailed Kolb's Learning Style Index version 3.1 to 16 pediatric otolaryngology (PO) and 24 otology/neurotology (ON) fellows. This index is a widely used 12-item questionnaire. The participants answered each item in the questionnaire as it applied to their preferred learning style: accommodating, converging, diverging, or assimilating. Results were then analyzed and compared between each subspecialty and the previously reported preferred styles of otolaryngology residents. Ten PO and 20 ON fellows completed the survey, with an overall response rate of 75%. PO and ON fellows (60% of each group) preferred a learning style that was "balanced" across all four styles. For ON fellows, 35% preferred converging and 5% preferred accommodating styles. For PO fellows, converging and accommodating styles accounted for 20% each. It was previously reported that 74.4% of otolaryngology residents prefer either converging or accommodating styles. We believe that the fellowship training environment calls for fellows to use more than one learning style to become proficient physicians, hence the trend toward potentially developing a balanced style when at this level. Copyright © 2011 The American Laryngological, Rhinological, and Otological Society, Inc.

  19. Retrospective reports of parental physical affection and parenting style: a study of Finnish twins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harlaar, Nicole; Santtila, Pekka; Björklund, Johanna; Alanko, Katarina; Jern, Patrick; Varjonen, Markus; von der Pahlen, Bettina; Sandnabba, Kenneth

    2008-08-01

    Individual differences in parenting behaviors are due, in part, to genetic factors. In the present study, the authors sought to determine whether the degree of genetic influence varied according to the type of parental behavior under consideration. A population-based sample of 2,334 pairs of Finnish twins provided ratings on the physical affection, control, abusiveness, and indifference shown by their father and mother during childhood. Genetic influences, shared environmental influences, and nonshared environmental influences accounted for a small-to-medium proportion (17%-30%), a small-to-large proportion (22%-44%), and a medium-to-large proportion (37%-55%) of the variance in each parenting measure, respectively. There were no significant differences in effect sizes for mothers and fathers or across the 4 types of parental behavior. The genetic results may reflect characteristic styles with which parents respond to genetically influenced behaviors of individuals (gene-environment correlations) or individual perceptions of this relationship (gene-person correlation processes). The findings have implications for intervention and prevention work with families and for interpretation of evidence for interactions between genes and parenting behaviors.

  20. EnergyWorks Final Report: A Better Buildings Neighborhood Program in the Five-County Greater Philadelphia Region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gajewski, Katherine [City of Philadelphia

    2014-03-05

    This report covers the grant performance period of July 1, 2010-September 30, 2013 and discusses of the program design, outcomes and best practices as they relate to the following six areas: 1. Institutional Design and Business Model; 2. Program Design and Customer Experience; 3. Driving Demand; 4. Workforce Development; 5. Financing and Incentives; 6. Data and Evaluation.

  1. Do older people with visual impairment and living alone in a rural developing country report greater difficulty in managing stairs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hairi, Noran N; Bulgiba, Awang; Peramalah, Devi; Mudla, Izzuna

    2013-01-01

    Managing stairs is a challenging activity of daily living (ADL) for older people. This study aims to examine the association between visual impairment and difficulty in managing stairs among older people living alone and those living with others. A population-based cross sectional study was conducted in rural Malaysia from 2007 till 2008. Seven hundred and sixty five older people aged 60 years and over underwent eye examination for visual impairment. Visual acuity criteria were used to define visual impairment. Presenting visual acuity was assessed using a standard metric Snellen Chart of E type. Difficulty in managing stairs was measured according to a question drawn from the Barthel Index which asks "do you need help in climbing stairs". Overall, the prevalence of difficulty in managing stairs among older people in our population was 135 (18.3%, 95% CI 15.7-21.2). After adjusting for important confounders the odds ratio (OR) for visual impairment and difficulty in managing stairs among older people living alone was 5.04 (95% CI 2.27, 10.62). Among older people living with others, the adjusted OR for visual impairment and difficulty in managing stairs was 3.10 (95% CI 1.52, 6.80). In a sample of older people aged 60 years and over, those living alone with visual impairment had greater difficulty in managing stairs than those living with others. Identification of these groups of older people is useful for targeting interventions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. [A report of 463 in-hospital cardiopulmonary resuscitation based on the "Utstein Style"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Wei; Mo, De-Fan; Lan, Bao-Qiong; Gao, Yun-Suo

    2008-12-01

    Assessment of outcomes and outcome-related factors of in-hospital cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) based on the "Utstein Style". The study was designed as a prospective, single-institution, registry investigation of 463 patients (included adult and pediatric patients) for whom a CPR was attempted. The study population consisted of 320 (69.1%) male patients and 143 (30.9%) female patients. The age range of 45-54, 55-64, 65-74 were ranked the first, the second and third highest. In the past medical history, cardiovascular disease and cerebrovascular disorder were two main disorders, accounting for 36.3% (168/463) and 9.9% (46/463), respectively. Ventricular fibrillation (VF) was the initial electrocardiographic (ECG) change in 74 patients (16.0%). Two hundred and seventy-three patients received the in-hospital CPR, and 190 patients received the pre-hospital CPR. Spontaneous circulation returned in 34.6% (160/273) of the in-hospital patients after CPR, and 16.6% (77/273) survived for 24 hours and 10.4% (48/273) survived up to the time of discharge. The rates of restoration of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) and survival of the in-hospital CPR were higher than those of the pre-hospital CPR [47.6% (130/273) vs. 15.8% (30/190), 13.9% (38/273) vs. 5.3% (10/190), both Pcardiopulmonary arrest, but the rate of survival for in-hospital resuscitation still seems to be too low. The further improvement of CPR outcome is necessary.

  3. Measuring the leadership styles and scholarly productivity of nursing department chairpersons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Womack, R B

    1996-01-01

    Self-perceived leadership styles of nursing department chairpersons were correlated with their scholarly productivity. The sample consisted of the 106 nursing department chairpersons from National League for Nursing (NLN)-accredited baccalaureate and higher-degree programs in 10 midwestern states. Hersey and Blanchard's Situational Leadership Model was used as the conceptual framework. Their LEAD-Self instrument was used to measure leadership styles, range, and adaptability. In addition, the Scholarly Productivity Index (SPI) was used to measure the nursing chairpersons' involvement in prepublication and research, publication, editorial, and other scholarly activities. College size and status (public or private) were among the variables examined to assess a relationship or group differences. A majority of nursing department chairpersons viewed themselves as having a "participating" leadership style. Most of the remaining chairpersons viewed themselves as having a "selling" leadership style. Study participants viewed their backup leadership styles to be in a reverse order from their primary leadership styles with the "selling" leadership style the most frequently used backup style and "participating" the second most frequently used style. Chairpersons from public nursing schools reported significantly greater numbers of scholarly activities than did chairpersons from private nursing schools. Chairpersons who had held their positions for less than 5 years tended to have a "participating" leadership style. A majority of nursing department chairpersons in the study reported that they felt institutional pressure to engage in scholarly activities.

  4. Leadership Styles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Val, Carlin; Kemp, Jess

    2012-01-01

    This study examines how a group's dynamic changes under the influence of different leadership styles, and determines what leadership style works best in a large group expedition. The main question identified was "What roles can a leader play in affecting the dynamic of a large group while partaking in a field expedition?" The following…

  5. Natural Recharge to the Unconfined Aquifer System on the Hanford Site from the Greater Cold Creek Watershed: Progress Report 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waichler, Scott R.; Wigmosta, Mark S.; Coleman, Andre M.

    2004-09-14

    Movement of contaminants in groundwater at the Hanford Site is heavily dependent on recharge to the unconfined aquifer. As the effects of past artificial discharges dissipate, the water table is expected to return to more natural conditions, and natural recharge will become the driving force when evaluating future groundwater flow conditions and related contaminant transport. Previous work on the relationship of natural recharge to groundwater movement at the Hanford Site has focused on direct recharge from infiltrating rainfall and snowmelt within the area represented by the Sitewide Groundwater Model (SGM) domain. However, part of the groundwater recharge at Hanford is provided by flow from Greater Cold Creek watershed (GCC), a large drainage area on the western boundary of the Hanford Site that includes Cold Creek Valley, Dry Creek Valley, and the Hanford side of Rattlesnake Mountain. This study was undertaken to estimate the recharge from GCC, which is believed to enter the unconfined aquifer as both infiltrating streamflow and shallow subsurface flow. To estimate recharge, the Distributed Hydrology-Soil-Vegetation Model (DHSVM) was used to simulate a detailed water balance of GCC from 1956 to 2001 at a spatial resolution of 200~m and a temporal resolution of one hour. For estimating natural recharge to Hanford from watersheds along its western and southwestern boundaries, the most important aspects that need to be considered are 1)~distribution and relative magnitude of precipitation and evapotranspiration over the watershed, 2)~streamflow generation at upper elevations and infiltration at lower elevations during rare runoff events, and 3)~permeability of the basalt bedrock surface underlying the soil mantle.

  6. The perceived benefits of a virtual community: effects of learning style, race, ethnicity, and frequency of use on nursing students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogg, Louis; Carlson-Sabelli, Linnea; Carlson, Karen; Giddens, Jean

    2013-01-01

    It is important for nursing faculty to consider the variability in learning style among nursing students. The researchers sought to compare differences in perceived learning benefits among nursing students who had different learning styles and in frequency of use of a virtual community learning intervention. METHOD Using a comparative approach, learning style was measured with the Kolb Learning Style Inventory. Frequency of use and benefit were measured with an exit survey. No differences in perceived benefit were found according to learning style. Subjects with frequent use of the virtual community reported significantly greater learning benefits than those with infrequent use, regardless of learning style. Also found was a statistically significant relationship between Kolb learning-style scores and race or ethnicity. All nursing students may potentially benefit from virtual community use.

  7. Updating Assessment Styles: Website Development Rather than Report Writing for Project Based Learning Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Nicola

    2017-01-01

    While teaching methods tend to be updated frequently, the implementation of new innovative assessment tools is much slower. For example project based learning has become popular as a teaching technique, however, the assessment tends to be via traditional reports. This paper reports on the implementation and evaluation of using website development…

  8. THE EFFECTS OF NATIONAL SCIENTIFIC STYLE ON THE UNDERSTANDING OF SCIENTIFIC INNOVATION--SPECIAL RELATIVITY, A CASE HISTORY. FINAL REPORT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    GOLDBERG, STANLEY

    COMPARED ARE THE RESPONSES TO EINSTEIN'S THEORY OF RELATIVITY IN FOUR COUNTRIES BETWEEN THE YEARS 1905 AND 1911. THE COUNTRIES STUDIED ARE GERMANY, FRANCE, ENGLAND, AND THE UNITED STATES. ON THE BASIS OF THE RESPONSE, NATIONAL SCIENTIFIC STYLES ARE IDENTIFIED, AND THESE STYLES ARE RELATED TO PREVIOUS NATIONAL CHARACTERISTICS OF DOING SCIENCE AND…

  9. Grapheme-color synaesthesia is associated with a distinct cognitive style.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Beat; Rothen, Nicolas

    2013-01-01

    In this study we investigated whether synaesthesia is associated with a particular cognitive style. Cognitive style refers to preferred modes of information processing, such as a verbal style or a visual style. We reasoned that related to the enriched world of experiences created by synaesthesia, its association with enhanced verbal and visual memory, higher imagery and creativity, synaesthetes might show enhanced preference for a verbal as well as for a visual cognitive style compared to non-synaesthetes. In Study 1 we tested a large convenience sample of 1046 participants, who classified themselves as grapheme-color, sound-color, lexical-gustatory, sequence-space, or as non-synaesthetes. To assess cognitive style, we used the revised verbalizer-visualizer questionnaire (VVQ), which involves three independent cognitive style dimensions (verbal style, visual-spatial style, and vivid imagery style). The most important result was that those who reported grapheme-color synaesthesia showed higher ratings on the verbal and vivid imagery style dimensions, but not on the visual-spatial style dimension. In Study 2 we replicated this finding in a laboratory study involving 24 grapheme-color synaesthetes with objectively confirmed synaesthesia and a closely matched control group. Our results indicate that grapheme-color synaesthetes prefer both a verbal and a specific visual cognitive style. We suggest that this enhanced preference, probably together with the greater ease to switch between a verbal and a vivid visual imagery style, may be related to cognitive advantages associated with grapheme color synaesthesia such as enhanced memory performance and creativity.

  10. Grapheme-colour synaesthesia is associated with a distinct cognitive style

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beat eMeier

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study we investigated whether synaesthesia is associated with a particular cognitive style. Cognitive style refers to preferred modes of information processing, such as a verbal style or a visual style. We reasoned that related to the enriched world of experiences created by synaesthesia, its association with enhanced verbal and visual memory, higher imagery and creativity, synaesthetes might show enhanced preference for a verbal as well as for a visual cognitive style compared to non-synaesthetes. In Study 1 we tested a large convenience sample of 1046 participants, who classified themselves as grapheme-colour, sound-colour, lexical-gustatory, sequence-space or as non-synaesthetes. To assess cognitive style, we used the revised verbalizer-visualizer questionnaire, which involves three independent cognitive style dimensions (verbal style, visual-spatial style, and vivid imagery style. The most important result was that those who reported grapheme-colour synaesthesia showed higher ratings on the verbal and vivid imagery style dimensions, but not on the visual-spatial style dimension. In Study 2 we replicated this finding in a laboratory study involving 24 grapheme-colour synaesthetes with objectively confirmed synaesthesia and a closely matched control group. Our results indicate that grapheme-colour synaesthetes prefer both a verbal and a specific visual cognitive style. We suggest that this enhanced preference, probably together with the greater ease to switch between a verbal and a vivid visual imagery style, may be related to cognitive advantages associated with grapheme colour synaesthesia such as enhanced memory performance and creativity.

  11. A new style of news reporting : Wikileaks and data-driven journalism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baack, Stefan

    2011-01-01

    The coverage of Wikileaks' huge amounts of leaked data was a challenge for newspapers – they had to figure out how to get stories out of extensive and complex data sets and how to present their findings to readers. The result significantly differs from traditional news reporting; including

  12. Elaborative Talk during and after an Event: Conversational Style Influences Children's Memory Reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedrick, Amy M.; Haden, Catherine A.; Ornstein, Peter A.

    2009-01-01

    An experimental design was utilized to examine the effects of elaborative talk during and/or after an event on children's event memory reports. Sixty preschoolers were assigned randomly to one of four conditions that varied according to a researcher's use of high- or low- elaborative during- and/or post-event talk about a camping event. In a…

  13. PREPARATION OF UNIFORM TYPEWRITTEN REPORTS--A MANUAL OF STYLE FOR CUYAHOGA COMMUNITY COLLEGE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DALBY, J. PHILIP; ZOLDAK, HELEN LOUISE

    THIS TYPIST'S GUIDE INCLUDES INSTRUCTION ON THE PREPARATION OF A REPORT (TITLE PAGE, TABLES OF CONTENTS, TABLES, FIGURES, SUMMARY, ETC.), SPACING AND CAPITALIZATION OF HEADINGS AND MARGINS, PAGING, PARAGRAPHS, CITATIONS, FOOTNOTES, ABBREVIATIONS, SYMBOLS, ELLIPSES, BIBLIOGRAPHIES, APPENDIXES, AND OTHER ITEMS OF FORMAT OR USAGE. THE RULES ARE…

  14. Coping style in schizophrenia: associations with neurocognitive deficits and personality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lysaker, Paul H; Bryson, Gary J; Marks, Kriscinda; Greig, Tamasine C; Bell, Morris D

    2004-01-01

    It is widely recognized that persons with schizophrenia tend to cope with stress in a relatively avoidant and ineffectual manner. Less is understood, however, about the factors that affect coping style in schizophrenia. To determine the extent to which various neurocognitive deficits and personality dimensions are related to coping style in schizophrenia, measures of visual memory, verbal memory, executive function, neuroticism, and extroversion were correlated with concurrent self-reports of preference for a range of active and avoidant coping strategies. Participants were 71 persons with schizophrenia spectrum disorders enrolled in outpatient psychiatric care. Stepwise multiple regressions indicated that neurocognition and personality were independently related to coping style. Specifically, higher levels of various forms of neurocognitive impairment and neuroticism predicted greater reliance on passive avoidant strategies and reduced reliance on active problem solving. Higher levels of extroversion were related to greater social support seeking. Implications for understanding the genesis of psychosocial dysfunction and for the development of rehabilitative interventions are discussed.

  15. Elaborative Talk During and After an Event: Conversational Style Influences Children’s Memory Reports

    OpenAIRE

    Hedrick, Amy M.; Haden, Catherine A.; Ornstein, Peter A.

    2009-01-01

    An experimental design was utilized to examine the effects of elaborative talk during and/or after an event on children’s event memory reports. Sixty preschoolers were assigned randomly to one of four conditions that varied according to a researcher’s use of high or low elaborative during- and/or post-event talk about a camping event. In a memory conversation 1 day after the event, children who were engaged in high elaborative during-event talk and those whose memory conversation featured hig...

  16. Self-reported leadership styles of deans of baccalaureate and higher degree nursing programs in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broome, Marion E

    2013-01-01

    Over the past decade there has been a lack of attention in the discipline paid to developing strong academic leaders. It is widely acknowledged that the role of the dean has shifted dramatically over the past two decades, with an increasing emphasis on interaction with and accountability to external constituencies at the university, community, and national levels. The overall purpose of this study was to investigate the self-reported leadership styles, behaviors, and experiences of deans of schools of nursing in the United States. The Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire (MLQ) was sent to 655 deans who were members of the American Association of Colleges of Nursing; 344 returned completed surveys for a return rate of 52.5%. Scores on the transformational scale (n = 321; 20 items) ranged from 2.75 to 4.0, with a mean of 3.79; transactional scores ranged from 1.3 to 4.0, with a mean of 3.3 and mode of 3.5. The passive leadership component was lowest, with a range of 0 to 3.75, mean of 1.1, and mode of 1.0. The highest scores for each dean were then examined and compared across the three components. Seventy-seven percent of the deans' highest scores fell on the transformational, 21% on the transactional, and 2% on the passive-avoidant scale. There were no significant differences in the most commonly reported leadership behaviors by gender, ethnicity, or terminal degree. Deans of nursing, compared with over 3,000 other leaders who have completed the MLQ, ranked in the 80th percentile for self-reported transformative behaviors and outcomes effectiveness. The findings from this sample, who were predominantly female, are congruent with previous research on women leaders. Recommendations for future research leadership development programs are presented. © 2013.

  17. Yoga Meditation Practitioners Exhibit Greater Gray Matter Volume and Fewer Reported Cognitive Failures: Results of a Preliminary Voxel-Based Morphometric Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brett Froeliger

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Hatha yoga techniques, including physical postures (asanas, breathing exercises (pranayama, and meditation, involve the practice of mindfulness. In turn, yoga meditation practices may induce the state of mindfulness, which, when evoked recurrently through repeated practice, may accrue into trait or dispositional mindfulness. Putatively, these changes may be mediated by experience-dependent neuroplastic changes. Though prior studies have identified differences in gray matter volume (GMV between long-term mindfulness practitioners and controls, no studies to date have reported on whether yoga meditation is associated with GMV differences. The present study investigated GMV differences between yoga meditation practitioners (YMP and a matched control group (CG. The YMP group exhibited greater GM volume in frontal, limbic, temporal, occipital, and cerebellar regions; whereas the CG had no greater regional greater GMV. In addition, the YMP group reported significantly fewer cognitive failures on the Cognitive Failures Questionnaire (CFQ, the magnitude of which was positively correlated with GMV in numerous regions identified in the primary analysis. Lastly, GMV was positively correlated with the duration of yoga practice. Results from this preliminary study suggest that hatha yoga practice may be associated with the promotion of neuroplastic changes in executive brain systems, which may confer therapeutic benefits that accrue with repeated practice.

  18. Yoga Meditation Practitioners Exhibit Greater Gray Matter Volume and Fewer Reported Cognitive Failures: Results of a Preliminary Voxel-Based Morphometric Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froeliger, Brett; Garland, Eric L.; McClernon, F. Joseph

    2012-01-01

    Hatha yoga techniques, including physical postures (asanas), breathing exercises (pranayama), and meditation, involve the practice of mindfulness. In turn, yoga meditation practices may induce the state of mindfulness, which, when evoked recurrently through repeated practice, may accrue into trait or dispositional mindfulness. Putatively, these changes may be mediated by experience-dependent neuroplastic changes. Though prior studies have identified differences in gray matter volume (GMV) between long-term mindfulness practitioners and controls, no studies to date have reported on whether yoga meditation is associated with GMV differences. The present study investigated GMV differences between yoga meditation practitioners (YMP) and a matched control group (CG). The YMP group exhibited greater GM volume in frontal, limbic, temporal, occipital, and cerebellar regions; whereas the CG had no greater regional greater GMV. In addition, the YMP group reported significantly fewer cognitive failures on the Cognitive Failures Questionnaire (CFQ), the magnitude of which was positively correlated with GMV in numerous regions identified in the primary analysis. Lastly, GMV was positively correlated with the duration of yoga practice. Results from this preliminary study suggest that hatha yoga practice may be associated with the promotion of neuroplastic changes in executive brain systems, which may confer therapeutic benefits that accrue with repeated practice. PMID:23304217

  19. Are parenting style and controlling feeding practices related?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blissett, J; Haycraft, E

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the relationships between parenting styles, feeding practices and BMI in a non-clinical sample of mothers and fathers of UK preschool children. Ninety-six cohabiting parents of 48 children (19 male, 29 female, mean age 42 months) completed a series of self-report questionnaires assessing parenting style, feeding practices, eating psychopathology and a range of demographic information. There were no relationships between authoritarian parenting and controlling feeding practices. In both mothers and fathers, permissive parenting style was related to lower monitoring of children's unhealthy food intake. Permissive parenting was also associated with increased use of restriction by mothers and pressure to eat by fathers. Authoritative parenting style was also related to lower use of pressure to eat by fathers only. Parenting styles were not related to child BMI in this sample. Higher child BMI was best predicted by lower paternal application of pressure to eat and greater paternal reports of drive for thinness. Parenting style may not have a direct impact on child BMI until child food selection and consumption becomes more autonomous.

  20. Supervisory Styles: A Contingency Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehe, Dirk Michael

    2016-01-01

    While the contingent nature of doctoral supervision has been acknowledged, the literature on supervisory styles has yet to deliver a theory-based contingency framework. A contingency framework can assist supervisors and research students in identifying appropriate supervisory styles under varying circumstances. The conceptual study reported here…

  1. Style Wars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Handberg, Kristian

    2011-01-01

    Postmodernismen er kommet på museum i Victoria and Alberts stort anlagte udstilling Postmodernism. Style and Subversion 1970-1990. Reportage fra en udstilling, der spænder fra filosofi til firserpop og tager den nære fortid på museum....

  2. Remembered Parenting Styles and Adjustment in Middle and Late Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooney, Teresa M.; An, Jeong Shin

    2009-01-01

    Background Authoritative parenting is the parenting style often associated with positive outcomes for children and adolescents. This study considers whether remembered parenting styles in childhood predict multiple dimensions of functioning in adulthood. Methods We used the 1995 National Survey of Midlife Development in the United States data set (N = 2,232) to assess the association between parenting behaviors remembered from childhood—classified as authoritative, authoritarian, indulgent, and uninvolved—and psychological well-being, depressive symptoms, and substance abuse, in a subsample of mid- and later-life adults. Differences in outcomes by sex, race, and childhood socioeconomic status were also examined across parenting styles. Results Adults who remembered authoritative compared with authoritarian and uninvolved parents reported greater psychological well-being and fewer depressive symptoms, and those with uninvolved parents noted greater substance abuse. No outcome differences were found between remembered authoritative and indulgent parenting styles. A few sex and race interactions were identified: Authoritative parenting (compared with uninvolved) was more strongly associated with men's psychological well-being than women's, and authoritative parenting (compared with authoritarian) predicted reduced depressive symptoms for Whites more than non-Whites. Conclusions There is some support that remembered parenting styles continue to be related to functioning across the lifespan. There is also evidence of resiliency, flexibility, and malleability in human development. PMID:19176484

  3. Remembered parenting styles and adjustment in middle and late adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothrauff, Tanja C; Cooney, Teresa M; An, Jeong Shin

    2009-01-01

    Authoritative parenting is the parenting style often associated with positive outcomes for children and adolescents. This study considers whether remembered parenting styles in childhood predict multiple dimensions of functioning in adulthood. We used the 1995 National Survey of Midlife Development in the United States data set (N = 2,232) to assess the association between parenting behaviors remembered from childhood-classified as authoritative, authoritarian, indulgent, and uninvolved-and psychological well-being, depressive symptoms, and substance abuse, in a subsample of mid- and later-life adults. Differences in outcomes by sex, race, and childhood socioeconomic status were also examined across parenting styles. Adults who remembered authoritative compared with authoritarian and uninvolved parents reported greater psychological well-being and fewer depressive symptoms, and those with uninvolved parents noted greater substance abuse. No outcome differences were found between remembered authoritative and indulgent parenting styles. A few sex and race interactions were identified: Authoritative parenting (compared with uninvolved) was more strongly associated with men's psychological well-being than women's, and authoritative parenting (compared with authoritarian) predicted reduced depressive symptoms for Whites more than non-Whites. There is some support that remembered parenting styles continue to be related to functioning across the lifespan. There is also evidence of resiliency, flexibility, and malleability in human development.

  4. Study of the Relationship between Self-Reported Leadership Styles of Charter School Principals and Their Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alizor, John O.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this quantitative study, using the three-way repeated measures ANOVA, was to identify certain leadership styles used by effective and ineffective charter high school principals that impact the students' academic achievement. Principal ratings and school demographic characteristics were gathered from 19 charter schools. The study's…

  5. Correlates of self-reported adult attachment styles in a Dutch sample of married men and women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerlsma, C.; Buunk, Abraham (Bram); Mutsaers, W.C M

    The relationships between attachment style, recollections of the family of origin, working model of self and others and current relational satisfaction were examined in a Dutch sample of married subjects from the general community. Measures were adapted from those developed by Hazan & Shaver (1987).

  6. First report of a mixed infection of Trichinella nelsoni and Trichinella T8 in a leopard (Panthera pardus) from the Greater Kruger National Park, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Grange, Louis J; Reininghaus, Björn; Mukaratirwa, Samson

    2014-11-20

    At least three Trichinella species, namely Trichinella nelsoni, Trichinella britovi and Trichinella zimbabwensis, and one genotype (Trichinella T8), have been isolated from sylvatic carnivores on the African continent. With the exception of T. britovi, the other species are known to circulate in wildlife of the Kruger National Park (KNP), South Africa, and KNP neighbouring game reserves (collectively known as the greater KNP area). Lions (Panthera leo) and spotted hyenas (Crocuta crocuta) appear to be the most important reservoirs of T. nelsoni and Trichinella T8 in the KNP and surrounding areas. Interspecies predation between lions and hyenas has been implicated as a primary mode of maintaining the life cycles of these two Trichinella species. This is the first report of a mixed natural infection of T. nelsoni and Trichinella T8 in a leopard (Panthera pardus) from South Africa. Trichinella muscle larvae were identified to species level by multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Probable sources of infection, based on the known dietary preference and prey species' range of leopards, are also discussed. The described occurrence of Trichinella species in a leopard from the greater KNP area raises the question of possible sources of infection for this predator species.

  7. Client and Therapist Attachment Styles and Working Alliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucci, Sandra; Seymour-Hyde, Annily; Harris, Alison; Berry, Katherine

    2016-01-01

    Working alliance has been shown to be important in influencing the outcome of therapy. Research evidence suggests that characteristics of both clients and therapists impact on the development of the working alliance. Although attachment theory is well researched, there is relatively limited research on the relationship between both therapist and client attachment style and the working alliance; traditionally, research has placed greater emphasis on client characteristics. The current study examines the extent to which both client and therapist self-reported attachment styles are related to the working alliance. Thirty clients and 42 therapists were recruited from primary care psychology services. Thirty client-therapist dyads were examined. Participants completed self-report measures of anxiety and depression, attachment style and working alliance at a single time point. Client and therapist attachment security were not independently related to working alliance. However, there was a significant association between therapist insecure attachment and alliance in more symptomatic clients. There was also some evidence that therapists and clients with oppositional attachment styles reported more favourable alliances. The study suggests that the relationship between therapist attachment style and alliance is not straightforward. It is likely that the complexity of clients' presenting problems, coupled with interaction between client-therapist attachment styles, influences the therapeutic alliance. Therapist insecure attachment may negatively affect the therapeutic alliance in more symptomatic clients. It is important to consider the interaction between client and therapist attachment and how these interactions influence the therapeutic alliance. Therapists should be aware of their own personal attachment style and reflect on how this might manifest during the therapeutic process. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Communicator Style and Social Style: Similarities and Differences between the Sexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staley, Constance Courtney; Cohen, Jerry L.

    1988-01-01

    Investigates differences between males' and females' self-perceptions on Norton's Communicator Style Construct and on the Social Style Profile. Finds that males' and females' self-report responses do not differ significantly across these measures. (MS)

  9. Self-reported maternal parenting style and confidence and infant temperament in a multi-ethnic community: results from the Born in Bradford cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prady, Stephanie L; Kiernan, Kathleen; Fairley, Lesley; Wilson, Sarah; Wright, John

    2014-03-01

    Ethnic minority children in the United Kingdom often experience health disadvantage. Parenting influences children's current and future health, but little is known about whether parenting behaviours and mother's perception of her infant vary by ethnicity. Using the Born in Bradford (BiB) birth cohort, which is located in an ethnically diverse and economically deprived UK city, we conducted a cross-sectional analysis of mother's self-reported parenting confidence, self-efficacy, hostility and warmth, and infant temperament at six months of age. We examined responses from women of Pakistani (N = 554) and White British (N = 439) origin. Pakistani mothers reported feeling more confident about their abilities as a parent. Significantly fewer Pakistani women adopted a hostile approach to parenting, an effect that was attenuated after adjustment for socioeconomic status and mental health. Overall, women with more self-efficacious, warm and less hostile parenting styles reported significantly fewer problems with their infant's temperaments. Of women with higher self-efficacy parenting styles, Pakistani mothers were significantly more likely than White British mothers to report more problematic infant temperaments, although absolute differences were small. It is unlikely that the ethnic variation seen in children's cognitive and behavioural outcomes in childhood is attributable to differences in parenting or infant characteristics reported at six months.

  10. Gender differences in self-reported defense mechanisms: a study using the new Defense Style Questionnaire-60.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petraglia, Jonathan; Thygesen, Kylie Louise; Lecours, Serge; Drapeau, Martin

    2009-01-01

    Studies have shown that men and women differ in their use of defense mechanisms (e.g. Cramer, 1991; Watson and Sinha, 1998). However, how and why this difference exists is still open to debate. The present study explores the relationship between gender and defenses using the Defense Style Questionnaire (DSQ-60; Trijsburg Bond, & Drapeau, 2003). As expected, no significant differences were found in Overall Defensive Functioning (ODF); however, men and women differed in their choice of defense style, defense level, and individual defense mechanisms. Evidence is provided to support the notion that while overall adaptivity of defenses is comparable, men and women rely on different defensive organizations during conflict-laden situations. We discuss the clinical relevance of these results in light of previous findings.

  11. First year medical students' learning style preferences and their correlation with performance in different subjects within the medical course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Torrano, Daniel; Ali, Syed; Chan, Chee-Kai

    2017-08-08

    Students commencing their medical training arrive with different educational backgrounds and a diverse range of learning experiences. Consequently, students would have developed preferred approaches to acquiring and processing information or learning style preferences. Understanding first-year students' learning style preferences is important to success in learning. However, little is understood about how learning styles impact learning and performance across different subjects within the medical curriculum. Greater understanding of the relationship between students' learning style preferences and academic performance in specific medical subjects would be valuable. This cross-sectional study examined the learning style preferences of first-year medical students and how they differ across gender. This research also analyzed the effect of learning styles on academic performance across different subjects within a medical education program in a Central Asian university. A total of 52 students (57.7% females) from two batches of first-year medical school completed the Index of Learning Styles Questionnaire, which measures four dimensions of learning styles: sensing-intuitive; visual-verbal; active-reflective; sequential-global. First-year medical students reported preferences for visual (80.8%) and sequential (60.5%) learning styles, suggesting that these students preferred to learn through demonstrations and diagrams and in a linear and sequential way. Our results indicate that male medical students have higher preference for visual learning style over verbal, while females seemed to have a higher preference for sequential learning style over global. Significant associations were found between sensing-intuitive learning styles and performance in Genetics [β = -0.46, B = -0.44, p styles and performance in Genetics [β = 0.36, B = 0.43, p learning techniques. Instructors can also benefit by modifying and adapting more appropriate teaching approaches in these

  12. 2015 revised Utstein-style recommended guidelines for uniform reporting of data from drowning-related resuscitation: An ILCOR advisory statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idris, Ahamed H; Bierens, Joost J L M; Perkins, Gavin D; Wenzel, Volker; Nadkarni, Vinay; Morley, Peter; Warner, David S; Topjian, Alexis; Venema, Allart M; Branche, Christine M; Szpilman, David; Morizot-Leite, Luiz; Nitta, Masahiko; Løfgren, Bo; Webber, Jonathon; Gräsner, Jan-Thorsten; Beerman, Stephen B; Youn, Chun Song; Jost, Ulrich; Quan, Linda; Dezfulian, Cameron; Handley, Anthony J; Hazinski, Mary Fran

    2017-09-01

    Utstein-style guidelines use an established consensus process, endorsed by the international resuscitation community, to facilitate and structure resuscitation research and publication. The first "Guidelines for Uniform Reporting of Data From Drowning" were published over a decade ago. During the intervening years, resuscitation science has advanced considerably, thus making revision of the guidelines timely. In particular, measurement of cardiopulmonary resuscitation elements and neurological outcomes reporting have advanced substantially. The purpose of this report is to provide updated guidelines for reporting data from studies of resuscitation from drowning. An international group with scientific expertise in the fields of drowning research, resuscitation research, emergency medical services, public health, and development of guidelines met in Potsdam, Germany, to determine the data that should be reported in scientific articles on the subject of resuscitation from drowning. At the Utstein-style meeting, participants discussed data elements in detail, defined the data, determined data priority, and decided how data should be reported, including scoring methods and category details. The template for reporting data from drowning research was revised extensively, with new emphasis on measurement of quality of resuscitation, neurological outcomes, and deletion of data that have proved to be less relevant or difficult to capture. The report describes the consensus process, rationale for selecting data elements to be reported, definitions and priority of data, and scoring methods. These guidelines are intended to improve the clarity of scientific communication and the comparability of scientific investigations. Copyright © 2017 European Resuscitation Council, American Heart Association, Inc. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Leadership: Four Styles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, W. C.

    2005-01-01

    The Four Styles narrative of Leadership is written in three sections: (1) Overview of Leadership Styles; (2) Analysis of Leadership Styles; and (3) Applications of Leadership Styles. While the primary foundation for its development was generated from more than 30 years of research and studying leadership styles in education, the secondary…

  14. The moderating effects of parenting styles in the association between behavioral inhibition and parent-reported guilt and empathy in preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornell, Amy H; Frick, Paul J

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated interactions between children's temperament and parenting styles in their association with measures of guilt and empathy. Participants were 87 predominantly Caucasian, middle-class mothers and their children between the ages of 3 and 5 (M = 4.39, SD = .51). Children nominated by their preschool teachers as being behaviorally inhibited showed higher levels of parent-rated guilt and empathy than uninhibited children, irrespective of the type and quality of parenting they experienced. However, for uninhibited children, greater inconsistent discipline was associated with lower levels of guilt and lower levels of empathy, whereas higher levels of authoritarian parenting were associated with higher levels of guilt. These results support the presence of important interactions between temperament and parenting in explaining two critical dimensions of callous-unemotional traits.

  15. Affective Style, Humor Styles and Happiness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas E. Ford

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study examined the relationships between dispositional approach and avoidance motives, humor styles, and happiness. In keeping with previous research, approach motives and the two positive humor styles (self-enhancing and affiliative positively correlated with happiness, whereas avoidance motives and the two negative humor styles (self-defeating and aggressive negatively correlated with happiness. Also, we found support for three new hypotheses. First, approach motives correlated positively with self-enhancing and affiliative humor styles. Second, avoidance motives correlated positively with self-defeating humor style, and third, the positive relationship between approach motives and happiness was mediated by self-enhancing humor style.

  16. Physicians' communication of the common-sense self-regulation model results in greater reported adherence than physicians' use of interpersonal skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, L Alison; Leventhal, Howard; Leventhal, Elaine A

    2012-05-01

    Interventions that address patients' illness and treatment representations have improved patient adherence and outcomes when administered by psychologists and/or health educators and focused on a single chronic illness. The current study assesses the potential feasibility/effectiveness of an intervention based on the common-sense self-regulation model (CS-SRM) when administered by providers in a primary care setting. We designed a prospective, correlational study in order to optimize patients' and providers' time and to gain initial evidence of the CS-SRM-approach's feasibility/effectiveness. Patients (n= 243) were recruited from a primary care waiting room and reported on objective behaviours of their providers (providers' CS-SRM-related behaviours and interpersonal skills) and other theoretically related measures directly after the medical encounter and reported on adherence, presenting problem resolution, and emergency care usage 1 month later. The more providers gave their patients an adaptive understanding of their presenting problem/treatment (the greater the number of CS-SRM-related behaviours they engaged in), the more adherent were patients in the month following the encounter and the better was their problem resolution 1 month later. The CS-SRM-related behaviours were more predictive of these outcomes and emergency care usage than were the providers' interpersonal skills. In the time-limited encounter, interventions may have to prioritize theoretical approaches for attaining patient adherence. The current study, although correlational, indicates that addressing the patients' illness/treatment representations is more important than the providers' interpersonal skills for attaining patient adherence and provides preliminary evidence that a CSM-based intervention in the primary care setting may be both feasible and effective. ©2011 The British Psychological Society.

  17. Revisiting the concept of 'style match'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li-fang; Sternberg, Robert J; Fan, Jieqiong

    2013-06-01

    Intellectual style, an encompassing term for such constructs as learning style, teaching style, teaching approach, and thinking style, refers to one's preferred way of processing information. For the past several decades, whether or not there is a need for a match between teachers' teaching styles and students' learning styles has been the focal point for debate among researchers, educators, and the general public. The preliminary objective of this research was to investigate the psychometric properties of the Preferred Teaching Approach Inventory (PTAI). The research's primary objective was to re-examine the concept of 'style match' through testing the predictive power of students' thinking styles for their preferred teaching approaches. Data were collected from two samples of university students, one each from Shanghai, mainland China (N = 236), and Hong Kong (N = 123). Participants provided the required demographic information and responded to two self-report inventories: the Thinking Styles Inventory - Revised II and the PTAI. Acceptable reliability and good validity were found for the PTAI. All of the eight multiple regressions indicated that students' thinking styles significantly contributed to their preferences for teachers' teaching approaches. These contributions varied by gender among the Shanghai students and by academic discipline among the Hong Kong students. Students, especially Shanghai female students and Hong Kong natural science students, are open to teaching approaches that do not precisely match their thinking styles. The concept of 'style match' requires new understanding. Findings have implications for research and education. © 2013 The British Psychological Society.

  18. Learning Styles of Females and Implications for Vocational-Technical Education: A Review of the Literature. Final Report from July 1, 1981 to June 30, 1982.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthelot, Ronald J.

    Literature on female learning styles was reviewed to suggest implications for traditionally male vocational-technical education programs. The study focused on comparing and contrasting cognitive styles, a learning style dimension, between females and males. The field-dependent/independent distinction was found to be important for traditionally…

  19. Insight, distress and coping styles in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, Michael; Peters, Emmanuelle; Fannon, Dominic; Anilkumar, Anantha P P; Aasen, Ingrid; Kuipers, Elizabeth; Kumari, Veena

    2007-08-01

    The stigma and negative societal views attached to schizophrenia can make the diagnosis distressing. There is evidence that poor insight into symptoms of the disorder and need for treatment may reflect the use of denial as a coping style. However, the relationships between insight and other coping styles have seldom been investigated. We examined the associations between insight, distress and a number of coping styles in 65 outpatients with schizophrenia (final n=57) in a cross-sectional study. We found that (i) awareness of symptoms and problems correlated with greater distress, (ii) 'preference for positive reinterpretation and growth' coping style correlated with lower distress and with lower symptom awareness (re-labelling), (iii) 'preference for mental disengagement' coping style correlated with greater distress and lower awareness of problems, and (iv) 'social support-seeking' coping style correlated with greater awareness of illness, but not distress. No relationship occurred between the use of 'denial' as a coping style and insight or distress. Our findings demonstrate that awareness of illness and related problems is associated with greater distress in schizophrenia. However, this investigation has not supported a simple psychological denial explanation for this relationship, as complex relationships emerged between different dimensions of insight and coping styles. The negative association between 'positive reinterpretation and growth' and distress suggests that adopting this style may lead to re-labelling symptoms in a less distressing way. Avoidant and isolating styles of coping both appear unhelpful. Psychological interventions should aim to promote more active coping such as discussing a mental health problem with others.

  20. Leadership Styles, Organisational Culture and Learning Organisational Capability in Education Industry: Evidence from Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maha Ahmed Zaki Dajani

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We aim in this study to explore the interaction between three constructs: leadership style, organisational culture, and organisational learning capacity.  In addition to that, we investigated the validity of this trio relationship in both public and private Egyptian universities situated in Greater Cairo area. A quota sampling procedure was used to recruit 298 academicians - 186 from public universities and 112 from private universities. Significant correlations were obtained between transformational and transactional leadership style and organisational learning capacity dimensions. However, the moderating effect of organisational culture in the relationship between leadership styles and organisational learning capacity was not reported. Lastly, researchers recommended to Egyptian leaders and decision makers the leadership style and culture type that may enhance the learning capacity in higher education institutes.

  1. Peer Groups as a Context for School Misconduct: The Moderating Role of Group Interactional Style.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Wendy; Zarbatany, Lynne; Chen, Xinyin; Kinal, Megan; Boyko, Lisa

    2017-01-20

    Peer group interactional style was examined as a moderator of the relation between peer group school misconduct and group members' school misconduct. Participants were 705 students (Mage  = 11.59 years, SD = 1.37) in 148 peer groups. Children reported on their school misconduct in fall and spring. In the winter, group members were observed in a limited-resource task and a group conversation task, and negative and positive group interactional styles were assessed. Multilevel modeling indicated that membership in groups that were higher on school misconduct predicted greater school misconduct only when the groups were high on negative or low on positive interactional style. Results suggest that negative laughter and a coercive interactional style may intensify group effects on children's misconduct. © 2017 The Authors. Child Development © 2017 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  2. Comparing two self-report measures of coping--the Sense of Coherence Scale and the Defense Style Questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sammallahti, P R; Holi, M J; Komulainen, E J; Aalberg, V A

    1996-09-01

    Antonovsky's Sense of Coherence Scale (SOC) and Bond's Defense Style Questionnaire (DSQ) were compared in a sample of 334 community controls and 122 psychiatric outpatients. The major question was, whether the two coping inventories with different theoretical backgrounds-stress research vs. psycho-analysis-tap similar phenomena. The affinity of the two coping measures was evident: in multiple regression analysis defenses explained 68% of the variance in sense of coherence. Not surprisingly, the SOC scale-emerging out of the salutogenic orientation-showed more expertise in measuring how people manage when they do well, whereas the DSQ-with its theoretical roots deep in psychopathology-was most sensitive to how people manage when they do rather poorly.

  3. Parenting style impacts on quality of life in children with cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aran, Adi; Shalev, Ruth S; Biran, Gali; Gross-Tsur, Varda

    2007-07-01

    To assess the impact of parenting style and disease severity on quality of life (QOL) in children with cerebral palsy (CP). Thirty-nine children with CP, their siblings, and their parents participated in the study. Probands and siblings, ages 6 to 18 years, completed questionnaires on parenting style (accepting, rejecting, controlling, and autonomy allowing) using the Children's Report of Parental Behavior Inventory. Parents completed generic (Child Health Questionnaire [CHQ]) and disease-specific (Pediatric Outcomes Data Collecting Instrument [PODCI]) QOL questionnaires for both children. A physician determined disease severity with the Gross Motor Function Classification System. In children with CP, parenting style positively correlated with the CHQ scores: physical summary and psychosocial summary (r = 0.40, P = .01) and family activities scale (r = 0.34, P = .03). Autonomy allowing parenting style impacted on psychosocial aspects of QOL, as reflected by CHQ scores, more than the degree of disability. In other domains of QOL, the effect of parenting style was greater than IQ, anxiety, and socioeconomic status. Parenting style is a significant factor in QOL in CP and the only known factor to impact on the psychosocial domains of the CHQ, exceeding the effect of disease severity. Because QOL is an important treatment goal in children with CP, early family interventions, particularly those focusing on parenting style, should be considered.

  4. Other-Regarding Preferences and Leadership Styles

    OpenAIRE

    Kocher, Martin G.; Pogrebna, Ganna; Sutter, Matthias

    2009-01-01

    We use a laboratory experiment to examine whether and to what extent other-regarding preferences of team leaders influence their leadership style in choice under risk. We find that leaders who prefer efficiency or report high levels of selfishness are more likely to exercise an autocratic leadership style by ignoring preferences of the other team members. Yet, inequity aversion has no significant impact on leadership styles. Elected leaders have a higher propensity than exogenously assigned l...

  5. Resilience and active coping style: Effects on the self-reported quality of life in cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popa-Velea, Ovidiu; Diaconescu, Liliana; Jidveian Popescu, Mara; Truţescu, Carmen

    2017-03-01

    Objective This study aimed to assess the association between resilience, active coping styles and the self-perceived quality of life in cancer patients. Additionally, we evaluated the contribution brought to quality of life by demographic variables (age, gender, occupational status) and medical ones (tumour, node and metastasis [TNM] stage, time from diagnosis, number of treatment lines). Methods The study design was cross-sectional. One hundred and seventy-eight patients (94 males, 84 females; mean age 56.20, SD = 7.81) consecutively admitted to two specialty hospitals in Bucharest and displaying TNM cancer stages II-IV were administered the Brief COPE Questionnaire, the RS-14 Resilience Scale and the Rotterdam symptom checklist. Hierarchical regression was used to analyze the relationship between the study variables and the quality of life components (physical distress, psychological distress, and the ability to remain active). Results The quality of life scores were within the average limits, despite 87.6% of patients being in an advanced cancer stage. Both resilience and active coping scores were in the higher range (resilience mean = 78.10, SD = 13.31, 95%CI = 76.14-80.06; active coping mean = 18.33, SD = 4.39, 95%CI = 17.68-18.98). Resilience correlated significantly with all quality of life components (global: p life components, and TNM stage to all. Conclusions This study points out the importance of resilience in influencing the self-perception of quality of life in cancer patients. Considering that resilience can be improved through psychological intervention, our findings may be useful for the design, adjustment, and implementation of future psychotherapeutic protocols.

  6. Maternal Attachment Style and Responses to Adolescents’ Negative Emotions: The Mediating Role of Maternal Emotion Regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jason D.; Brett, Bonnie E.; Ehrlich, Katherine B.; Lejuez, Carl W.; Cassidy, Jude

    2014-01-01

    SYNOPSIS Objective Previous research has examined the developmental consequences, particularly in early childhood, of parents’ supportive and unsupportive responses to children’s negative emotions. Much less is known about factors that explain why parents respond in ways that may support or undermine their children’s emotions, and even less is known about how these parenting processes unfold with adolescents. We examined the associations between mothers’ attachment styles and their distress, harsh, and supportive responses to their adolescents’ negative emotions two years later and whether these links were mediated by maternal emotion regulation difficulties. Design Mothers in a longitudinal study (n = 230) reported on their attachment style, difficulties regulating their emotions, and their hypothetical responses to their adolescents’ negative emotions, respectively, at consecutive laboratory visits one year apart. Results Mothers who reported greater attachment-related avoidance and anxiety reported having greater difficulties with emotion regulation one year later. Emotion dysregulation, in turn, predicted more distressed, harsher, and less supportive maternal responses to adolescents’ negative emotions the following year. In addition, greater avoidance directly predicted harsher maternal responses two years later. Conclusions These findings extend previous research by identifying maternal attachment style as a predictor of responses to adolescent distress and by documenting the underlying role of emotion dysregulation in the link between adult attachment style and parenting. PMID:25568638

  7. Towards Generic Interaction Styles for Product Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buur, Jacob; Stienstra, Marcelle

    2008-01-01

    a wider range of interactive products. In this paper we report on five years of continued research into interaction styles for telephones, kitchen equipment, HiFi products and medical devices, and we show how it is indeed possible and beneficial to formulate a set of generic interaction styles....... qualities among designers in a team, and that the naming of interaction styles helps establish an aesthetics of interaction design. However, that research focused on one particular product field, namely industrial controllers, and it was yet to be proven, if interaction styles do have generic traits across...

  8. Eating disorder symptoms and parenting styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haycraft, Emma; Blissett, Jackie

    2010-02-01

    This study aimed to examine associations between symptoms of eating disorders and parenting style, in a non-clinical sample. One hundred and five mothers completed self-report measures of eating disorder symptoms and parenting style. Higher levels of eating disorder symptoms were associated with more authoritarian and permissive parenting styles. Authoritative parenting was not significantly related to eating disorder symptoms. The findings demonstrate that eating disorder symptoms in non-clinical individuals are related to less adaptive parenting styles. These findings have potential implications for clinicians working with mothers with eating disorders. 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Learning styles in two otolaryngology residency programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laeeq, Kulsoom; Weatherly, Robert A; Carrott, Alice; Pandian, Vinciya; Cummings, Charles W; Bhatti, Nasir I

    2009-12-01

    Kolb portrays four learning styles depending on how an individual grasps or transforms experience: accommodating, assimilating, diverging, and converging. Past studies in surgery, medicine, and anesthesia identified the predominant learning style in each of these specialties. The prevalence of different learning styles and existence of a predominant style, if any, has not been reported for otolaryngology residency programs. The purpose of our study was to determine if otolaryngology residents have a preferred learning style that is different from the predominant learning styles reported for other specialties. We conducted a survey of the otolaryngology-head and neck surgery residents at two residency programs. Kolb's Learning Style Index (LSI) version 3.1 was administered to 46 residents from Johns Hopkins University and Kansas University Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery programs. LSI is a widely used 12-item questionnaire, with each item followed by four options. The subjects graded the options depending on how the options applied to them. Forty-three otolaryngology residents completed the survey, with a response rate of 93.47%. The predominant learning style was converging (55.81%) followed by accommodating (18.61%), accounting for the learning styles of 74.42% of the total population. There were only 13.95% assimilating and 6.98% diverging learning styles. Two residents (4.65%) had their preference balanced across four learning styles. The predominant learning styles in otolaryngology were converging and accommodating, accounting for three fourths of the population. It would be desirable to modify our curriculum in a way that will optimize and facilitate learning.

  10. Cognitive Styles, Dynamic Geometry and Measurement Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitta-Pantazi, Demetra; Christou, Constantinos

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports the outcomes of an empirical study undertaken to investigate the effect of students' cognitive styles on achievement in measurement tasks in a dynamic geometry learning environment, and to explore the ability of dynamic geometry learning in accommodating different cognitive styles and enhancing students' learning. A total of 49…

  11. How to Choose a Leadership Style.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, Robert R.; Mouton, Jane Srygley

    1982-01-01

    Provides a basis for resolving the controversy as to what constitutes sound leadership. Reports a study in which situationalism has been evaluated in the context of one-best-style. Points to the soundness of the one-best-style approach. (CT)

  12. Assessment outcome is weakly correlated with lecture attendance: influence of learning style and use of alternative materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horton, Dane M; Wiederman, Steven D; Saint, David A

    2012-06-01

    The relation between lecture attendance and learning is surprisingly weak, and the role of learning styles in this is poorly understood. We hypothesized that 1) academic performance is related to lecture attendance and 2) learning style influences lecture attendance and, consequently, affects performance. We also speculated that the availability of alternative resources would affect this relationship. Second-year Bachelor of Science physiology students (n = 120) self-reported their lecture attendance in a block of 21 lectures (attendance not compulsory) and use of alternative resources. Overall self-reported lecture attendance was 73 ± 2%. Female students (n = 71) attended more lectures (16.4 ± 0.6) than male students (14.3 ± 0.08, n = 49) and achieved a higher composite mark in all assessments (73.6% vs. 69.3%, P learning style assessment (where V is visual, A is auditory, R is reading/writing, and K is kinesthetic), students were multimodal, although female students had a slightly higher average percentage of the R learning style (preferred read/write) compared with male students (28.9 ± 0.9%, n = 63, vs. 25.3 ± 1.3%, n = 32, P learning style. We concluded that lecture attendance is only weakly correlated with academic performance and is not related to learning style. The substitution of alternative materials for lecture attendance appears to have a greater role than learning style in determining academic outcomes.

  13. Style in Music

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dannenberg, Roger B.

    Because music is not objectively descriptive or representational, the subjective qualities of music seem to be most important. Style is one of the most salient qualities of music, and in fact most descriptions of music refer to some aspect of musical style. Style in music can refer to historical periods, composers, performers, sonic texture, emotion, and genre. In recent years, many aspects of music style have been studied from the standpoint of automation: How can musical style be recognized and synthesized? An introduction to musical style describes ways in which style is characterized by composers and music theorists. Examples are then given where musical style is the focal point for computer models of music analysis and music generation.

  14. Utstein-style guidelines on uniform reporting of in-hospital cardiopulmonary resuscitation in dogs and cats. A RECOVER statement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boller, Manuel; Fletcher, Dan J; Brainard, Benjamin M; Haskins, Steve; Hopper, Kate; Nadkarni, Vinay M; Morley, Peter T; McMichael, Maureen; Nishimura, Ryohei; Robben, Joris H; Rozanski, Elizabeth; Rudloff, Elke; Rush, John; Shih, Andre; Smarick, Sean; Tello, Luis H

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To provide recommendations for reviewing and reporting clinical in-hospital cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) events in dogs and cats and to establish nonambiguous operational definitions for CPR terminology. DESIGN: Consensus guidelines. SETTING: International, academia, referral

  15. Film Noir Style Genealogy

    OpenAIRE

    Dita Rietuma

    2012-01-01

    Annotation for the Doctoral Work Film Noir Style Genealogy (The Genealogy of the Film Noir Style) The doctoral work topic Film Noir Style Genealogy encompasses traditionally approved world film theory views on the concept of film noir and its related cinematographic heritage, and an exploration of its evolution and distinctive style, including – the development of film noir in the USA, Europe, and also in Latvia, within the context of both socio-political progression and the paradigm of m...

  16. Synchronizing Web Documents with Style

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.L. Guimarães (Rodrigo); D.C.A. Bulterman (Dick); P.S. Cesar Garcia (Pablo Santiago); A.J. Jansen (Jack)

    2014-01-01

    htmlabstractIn this paper we report on our efforts to define a set of document extensions to Cascading Style Sheets (CSS) that allow for structured timing and synchronization of elements within a Web page. Our work considers the scenario in which the temporal structure can be decoupled from the

  17. Principal Leadership Style and Teacher Commitment among a Sample of Secondary School Teachers in Barbados

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian Alwyn Marshall

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In Barbados, the issue of principal leadership and teacher productivity has occupied the attention of teacher unions and educational authorities alike.  The teachers have been calling for principals to be removed while the principals have been arguing for greater autonomy to discipline teachers. This state of affairs has, understandably, adversely impacted teacher commitment levels.  In the literature there is a clear correlation between principal leadership style and teacher commitment, however, it is important to know whether or not the relationship holds true in the context of Barbadian schools. This author is of the view that if teacher commitment levels are to return to those in evidence in effective schools, then attention must be given to the way in which principals exercise their leadership functions. This study was therefore designed to examine in greater detail the relationship between principal leadership style and teacher commitment.  The author employed purposive sampling to survey a cohort of ninety (90 teachers and eleven (11 principals drawn from eleven secondary schools. Results confirmed the relationship between principal leadership style and teacher commitment, and a statistically significant difference in the level of commitment reported by teachers at newer secondary schools and teachers at older secondary schools. Results also indicated that biographical variables moderated the relationship between principal leadership style and teacher commitment. Additionally, the regression model indicated that the principal leadership style sub-variables, in combination, accounted for some variance in the commitment demonstrated by teachers.

  18. The developmental origins of cognitive vulnerability to depression: temperament, parenting, and negative life events in childhood as contributors to negative cognitive style.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezulis, Amy H; Hyde, Janet Shibley; Abramson, Lyn Y

    2006-11-01

    Cognitive models of depression have been well supported with adults, but the developmental origins of cognitive vulnerability are not well understood. The authors hypothesized that temperament, parenting, and negative life events in childhood would contribute to the development of cognitive style, with withdrawal negativity and negative parental feedback moderating the effects of negative life events to predict more depressogenic cognitive styles. These constructs were assessed in 289 children and their parents followed longitudinally from infancy to 5th grade; a subsample (n = 120) also participated in a behavioral task in which maternal feedback to child failure was observed. Results indicated that greater withdrawal negativity in interaction with negative life events was associated with more negative cognitive styles. Self-reported maternal anger expression and observed negative maternal feedback to child's failure significantly interacted with child's negative events to predict greater cognitive vulnerability. There was little evidence of paternal parenting predicting child negative cognitive style.

  19. Coping Style Use Predicts Posttraumatic Stress and Complicated Grief Symptom Severity Among College Students Reporting a Traumatic Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnider, Kimberly R.; Elhai, Jon D.; Gray, Matt J.

    2007-01-01

    Problem-focused coping, and active and avoidant emotional coping were examined as correlates of grief and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) severity among 123 college students reporting the unexpected death of an immediate family member, romantic partner, or very close friend. The authors administered to participants, via the Internet, 5…

  20. Report style guide for subcontractors of the Efficiency and Renewables Research Section, Energy Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stone, T.A.; Bennett, M.N.

    1992-09-01

    This document has been paraphrased from the ORNL Document Preparation Guide (DPG). It is intended for use by Efficiency and Renewables Research Section, Energy Division, ORNL subcontractor reports so that review and editing effort can be minimized. Topics covered are typing instructions, document format, usage, abbreviations and acronyms, and standard editing marks.

  1. Style Analysis and Performance Evaluation of Dutch Mutual Funds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ter Horst, J.R.; Nijman, T.E.; de Roon, F.A.

    1998-01-01

    In this paper we show how style analysis of mutual funds can be used to circumvent the problem of self-reported investment styles, and to improve relative performance evaluation. Subsequently, we relate style analysis to performance evaluation and present results on the performance of Dutch mutual

  2. Learning Styles of Radiography Students during Clinical Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, L. Patrice

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify and describe the common learning styles of radiography students during clinical practice. Quantitative, descriptive research methodology identified the learning styles of radiography students. A single self-report questionnaire, developed to assess learning styles in clinical practice, was administered…

  3. Parenting styles and academic achievement in college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Anupama; Ferris, Jennifer C; Otto, Amy L; Regan, Pamela C

    2003-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between parenting styles and college academic achievement. An ethnically diverse group of college students reported their GPA and responded to the Parenting Style Index. Parenting style scores were unrelated to college GPA. Additional analyses of ethnic groups indicated differences in maternal involvement and strictness and relationship of these variables to GPA.

  4. Starlink Document Styles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawden, M. D.

    This document describes the various styles which are recommended for Starlink documents. It also explains how to use the templates which are provided by Starlink to help authors create documents in a standard style. This paper is concerned mainly with conveying the ``look and feel" of the various styles of Starlink document rather than describing the technical details of how to produce them. Other Starlink papers give recommendations for the detailed aspects of document production, design, layout, and typography. The only style that is likely to be used by most Starlink authors is the Standard style.

  5. Public acceptance of management actions and judgments of responsibility for the wolves of the southern Greater Yellowstone Area: Report to Grand Teton National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Jonathan G.; Johnson, S. Shea; Shelby, Lori B.

    2005-01-01

    Introduction Wolves of Grand Teton National Park and the Greater Yellowstone Area Gray wolves (Canis lupus) appeared in Grand Teton National Park (GRTE) in October of 1998, two years after being reintroduced to Yellowstone National Park (YNP). Since that time, five packs have been within the GRTE borders - Gros Ventre Pack, Nez Perce Pack, Yellowstone Delta Pack, Teton Pack, and Green River Pack (Table 1). Wolves in the Greater Yellowstone Area are increasing and spreading out geographically (USFWS and others, 2004). This dispersion was demonstrated recently by the death of a 2-year-old female wolf from the Swan Lake pack on I-70 in Colorado (June 7, 2004; http://mountain-prairie.USFWS.gov/pressrel /04-43.htm). The organization of wolf packs in the GYA is dynamic and highly structured. In 2003, for example, a wolf from the Teton Pack joined with the Green River Pack, and several young wolves left the Teton Pack and moved south (USFWS and others, 2004). Pack size (averaging five to ten members) is dependent on hunting efficiency, which depends on prey size, type, and density. Each pack defends home ranges of several hundred square miles. The social structure of the pack is based on a breeding pair (an alpha male and female). Other wolves in the pack can be categorized as betas (males and/or females second in rank to the alphas), subordinates, pups, and occasional omegas (outcasts). Because generally only the alpha pair breeds, subordinate wolves of reproductive age must disperse from their packs and form new associations in order to breed. (http://www.nps.gov/grte/wolf/biolo.htm). The reintroduced wolves are classified by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) as "nonessential experimental" under section 10(j) of the Endangered Species Act. The recovery criteria for the GYA wolves were met in 2002 for removing the wolves from the Endangered Species List (30 or more breeding pairs). Currently, the USFWS manages wolf populations in the GYA until delisting occurs

  6. Association of learning styles with research self-efficacy: study of short-term research training program for medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumbauld, Jill; Black, Michelle; Depp, Colin A; Daly, Rebecca; Curran, Maureen A; Winegarden, Babbi; Jeste, Dilip V

    2014-12-01

    With a growing need for developing future physician scientists, identifying characteristics of medical students who are likely to benefit from research training programs is important. This study assessed if specific learning styles of medical students, participating in federally funded short-term research training programs, were associated with research self-efficacy, a potential predictor of research career success. Seventy-five first-year medical students from 28 medical schools, selected to participate in two competitive NIH-supported summer programs for research training in aging, completed rating scales to evaluate learning styles at baseline, and research self-efficacy before and after training. We examined associations of individual learning styles (visual-verbal, sequential-global, sensing-intuitive, and active-reflective) with students' gender, ranking of medical school, and research self-efficacy. Research self-efficacy improved significantly following the training programs. Students with a verbal learning style reported significantly greater research self-efficacy at baseline, while visual, sequential, and intuitive learners demonstrated significantly greater increases in research self-efficacy from baseline to posttraining. No significant relationships were found between learning styles and students' gender or ranking of their medical school. Assessments of learning styles may provide useful information to guide future training endeavors aimed at developing the next generation of physician-scientists. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. A supplemental report to a randomized cluster trial of a 20-week Sun-style Tai Chi for osteoarthritic knee pain in elders with cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Pao-Feng; Chang, Jason Y; Beck, Cornelia; Kuo, Yong-Fang; Keefe, Francis J; Rosengren, Karl

    2015-08-01

    This was a secondary data analysis of a cluster-randomized clinical trial that tested the efficacy of a 20-week Sun-style Tai Chi (TC) program in reducing pain in community-dwelling elders with cognitive impairment and knee osteoarthritis (OA). The study also examined whether elders' level of cognitive function was related to the outcomes of the TC program. Elders (N=55) were recruited from 8 study sites. Each site was randomly assigned to participate in either a 20-week TC or an education program. Verbal report of pain was measured by a Verbal Descriptor Scale (VDS) at weeks 1, 5, 9, 13, 17 and 21 (designated as times 1-6). Pain behaviors and analgesic intake were also recorded at times 1-6. At post-test, scores on the VDS and observed pain behaviors were significantly better in the TC group than in the control group (p=0.008-0.048). The beneficial effects of TC were not associated with cognitive ability. These results suggest that TC can be used as an adjunct to pharmacological intervention to relieve OA pain in elders with cognitive impairment. Clinical Trial.gov NCT01528566. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Parent characteristics linked with daughters' attachment styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilmann, Peter R; Vendemia, Jennifer M C; Parnell, Michele M; Urbaniak, Geoffrey C

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated links between parent characteristics and daughters' attachment styles for 90 female undergraduates and their married biological parents. Parents with a secure attachment pattern were rated as more accepting, less controlling, more competent, and more consistent in showing love and affection to their daughter in contrast to parents with an insecure attachment pattern. Significant positive associations were found between mothers' fearful attachment scores and the fearful, preoccupied, and dismissive attachment scores of daughters. Daughters of matched secure parents were more likely to report a secure attachment style, while daughters of matched insecure parents were more likely to report an insecure attachment style.

  9. Trajectories of delinquency and parenting styles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoeve, M.; Blokland, A.; Dubas, J.S.; Loeber, R.; Gerris, J.R.M.; Laan, P.H. van der

    2008-01-01

    We investigated trajectories of adolescent delinquent development using data from the Pittsburgh Youth Study and examined the extent to which these different trajectories are differentially predicted by childhood parenting styles. Based on self-reported and official delinquency seriousness, covering

  10. Trajectories of Delinquency and Parenting Styles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoeve, M.; Blokland, A.A.J.; Dubas, J.S.; Loeber, R.; Gerris, J.R.M.; Laan, P.H. van der

    2008-01-01

    We investigated trajectories of adolescent delinquent development using data from the Pittsburgh Youth Study and examined the extent to which these different trajectories are differentially predicted by childhood parenting styles. Based on self-reported and official delinquency seriousness, covering

  11. FY96 Support to the Defense Information Systems Agency (DISA), Center for Standards (CFS) for continuing improvement of the DoD HCI Style Guide. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avery, L.W.; Donohoo, D.T.; Sanchez, J.A.; Gellert, D.A.

    1996-09-30

    PNNL successfully completed the three tasks: Task 1 - This task provided DISA with an updated set of design checklists that can be used to measure compliance with the Style Guide. These checklists are in Microsoft{reg_sign}Word 6.0 format. Task 2 - This task provided a discussion of two basic models for using the Style Guide and the Design Checklist, as a compliance tool and as a design tool.

  12. Attachment style and filial obligation in the burden of caregivers of dementia patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Juwon; Sohn, Bo Kyung; Lee, Hyunjoo; Seong, Su Jeong; Park, Soowon; Lee, Jun-Young

    2017-12-06

    Insecure attachment styles have been known to predict greater burden in caregivers of dementia patients. However, it has not been tested how filial obligation, which refers to one's sense of duty on helping elderly parents and is especially pronounced in Asian cultures, is involved in that relationship. We sought to identify whether the association between attachment style and caregiver burden differs according to the degree of filial obligation in caregivers of dementia patients. To assess filial obligation in Korean participants, a Korean filial obligation measure was developed. Ninety-eight Korean female caregivers of dementia patients reported their attachment style, filial obligation, burden, and patient behavioral symptoms. Patients' cognitive abilities, daily activity levels, and global dementia severities were obtained from hospital records. When adjusting for caregiver and patient characteristics, greater attachment anxiety predicted higher burden, corroborating literature findings. However, the association of attachment avoidance with burden was contingent on filial obligation: When obligation was high, greater avoidance associated with lower burden, which contrasts with previous negative implications of attachment insecurity. This implies a buffering role of attachment avoidance among those highly obligated. In addition, obligation positively predicted burden among those low in avoidance. This study is the first one to investigate and find conditional associations between attachment style, filial obligation, and caregiver burden. Given that filial obligation tends to be higher in caregivers of Eastern countries, this study provides quantitative evidence that the caregiving process may be different for them. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Evidence of Validity for the Portilho/Banas Teaching Style Questionnaire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovani de Paula Batista

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThe use of instruments with evidence of validity in education research brings advances to the production of knowledge. This article reports the stages of a survey of teaching style and the evidence for its validity. One thousand teachers participated in a study of different levels of education. An exploratory factor analysis indicated a structure of four factors in which 55 items had a factorial load greater than .30. The correlation steps made it possible to identify how the four factors are related to each other. As a final result, the questionnaire was composed of 40 items, distributed into groups of 10 items organized by teaching style. Evidence of factorial validity and internal consistency of the items that make up the instrument was seen. Analysis of variance indicated that the scale is sensitive to individual differences in the comparison among the four different teaching styles and the gender and teaching level variables.

  14. Social Desirability and Self-Reports: Testing a Content and Response-Style Model of Socially Desirable Responding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arta Dodaj

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Personality assessment as a pre-employment screening procedure receives great interest from both researchers and practitioners. One key concern for selection specialists is represented by the response distortion among job applicants completing personality inventories. There are different operationalizations of socially desirable responding. One of the most accepted operationalizations was provided by Paulhus who distinguished between two social desirability factors (the egoistic and moralistic bias as well as their conscious and unconscious aspects (management and enhancement. The aim of the study reported here is to test the basic assumption of the Paulhus model of socially desirable responding. A convenience sample of 200 students (N = 21.61; SD = 1.46 completed the Comprehensive Inventory of Desirable Responding (Paulhus, 2006 and the International Personality Item Pool Questionnaire (Goldberg, 1999; by Goldberg et al., 2006. Questionnaires were applied in three conditions: honest responding, responding as an ideal manager job applicant, and as an ideal teacher applicant. Results give partial support to the existence of egoistic and moralistic bias. However, conscious and unconscious aspects of distortion were not found. In conclusion it could be said that Paulhus’ model doesn’t provide a full answer to the problem of the nature of socially desirable responding.

  15. Learned helplessness, attributional style, and depression in epilepsy. Bozeman Epilepsy Surgery Consortium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermann, B P; Trenerry, M R; Colligan, R C

    1996-07-01

    We wished to examine the relevance of the theory of learned helplessness in general, and attributional style in particular, to the understanding of depression among patients with epilepsy. Patients with lateralized temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) (right = 73, left = 70) were administered two self-report depression inventories [Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression scale (CES-D)]. Depression scores were examined in relation to a key component of the revised theory of learned helplessness (attributional style) using the Optimism/Pessimism Scale. Attributional style was significantly associated with increased self-reported depression and remained significant when the effects of several confounding variables were controlled [age, age at onset, laterality of TLE, sex, and method variance]. The results indicate that the concept of learned helplessness in general, and attributional style in particular, are related to the genesis of depression in epilepsy. Because they are known to be related to depression in the general population, and because specific techniques for intervention and prevention are available, greater consideration of learned helplessness and attributional style in the genesis of depression in epilepsy may be worthwhile.

  16. Italian version of the defense style questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    San Martini, Pietro; Roma, Paolo; Sarti, Sara; Lingiardi, Vittorio; Bond, Michael

    2004-01-01

    The Defense Style Questionnaire (DSQ) assesses defensive behavior by empirically evaluating conscious derivatives of defense and coping mechanisms in everyday life. It was developed on the assumption that defenses can be ordered along a maturity-immaturity continuum and tend to group into clusters, or defensive styles. The original factor analytical study, by Bond et al. (1983) identified four styles, called maladaptive, image-distorting, self-sacrifice, and adaptive styles. Successive studies only partially confirmed this factor structure. We present the factor structure and the main psychometric features of the Italian version of the questionnaire. The DSQ was translated into Italian by the back-translation method and administered to a sample of 294 men (mean age, 33.33 years) and 333 women (mean age, 32.38 years). An exploratory factor analysis identified three factors largely corresponding to Bond's maladaptive, image-distorting, and adaptive defensive styles and to analogous factors identified by other authors. Accordingly, three defense style scales were constructed, containing respectively 37, 17, and 12 items. These scales showed intercorrelations compatible with the hierarchical model of defensive functioning at the base of the questionnaire, acceptable, though ameliorable, test-retest reliabilities (r's = .79, .63, and .81, respectively) and, with the exception of the Adaptive Style scale, sufficient internal consistencies (alphas: .85, .72, .57). However, only the Maladaptive Style scale, probably due to its greater length, showed values of reliability and internal consistency high enough to warrant clinical use in its present form. Further investigation is required to find new items that may improve the reliability of the Image-Distorting and the Adaptive Style scales.

  17. Leadership styles and theories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giltinane, Charlotte Louise

    It is useful for healthcare professionals to be able to identify the leadership styles and theories relevant to their nursing practice. Being adept in recognising these styles enables nurses to develop their skills to become better leaders, as well as improving relationships with colleagues and other leaders, who have previously been challenging to work with. This article explores different leadership styles and theories, and explains how they relate to nursing practice.

  18. Learning Style of Students and Practitioners in Five Health Professions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Noomi; Heimann, Nanci

    1991-01-01

    An Israeli sample of 378 students and 251 practitioners in occupational therapy (OT), social work, nursing, physical therapy, and clinical psychology completed Kolb's Learning Style Inventory. Findings suggest greater variance in learning style among students. OT students were least abstract. Both OT students and practitioners were predominantly…

  19. A preliminary study of the psychological differences in infertile couples and their relation to the coping styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musa, Ramli; Ramli, Roszaman; Yazmie, Abdul Wahab Azantee; Khadijah, Mohd Bustaman Siti; Hayati, Mohd Yatim; Midin, Marhani; Nik Jaafar, Nik Ruzyanei; Das, Srijit; Sidi, Hatta; Ravindran, Arun

    2014-01-01

    Studies from Western countries have observed that couples undergoing infertility treatment suffer various physical and psychological difficulties at a higher frequency than the comparable general population. These relate to treatment challenges and other psychosocial stressors, often influenced by coping style, personality factors and available support systems. There is paucity of studies in non-Western populations. The aim of this pilot investigation was to evaluate characteristics and gender differences in perceived psychological difficulties reported by infertile Malaysian couples. In particular, depression, anxiety and stress, along with correlated coping styles, were examined between spouses. Demographic information, including age, ethnicity and duration and causes of infertility, were collected from participants treated within a fertility clinic. The Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS) and Coping Inventory for Stressful Situation (CISS) were completed to measure psychological distress and coping styles. Depression, anxiety and stress-related difficulties were reported at significantly higher frequency by wives than husbands (pcoping styles between wives and husbands. However, emotional-oriented coping style was associated with significantly higher levels of depression, anxiety and stress (pemotional coping style was associated with greater distress in both genders. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. The relationship between clinical indicators, coping styles, perceived support and diabetes-related distress among adults with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsen, Bjørg; Oftedal, Bjørg; Bru, Edvin

    2012-02-01

    This article is a report of a cross-sectional study examining the degree to which clinical indicators, coping styles and perceived support from healthcare professionals and family are related to diabetes-related distress. Many people with type 2 diabetes experience high levels of distress stemming from concerns and worries associated with their disease. Diabetes-related distress has predominantly been studied in relation to diabetes management and metabolic control, and to some extent in relation to coping styles and perceived social support. To date, little is known about the relative contribution of clinical indicators, coping styles and perceptions of social support to perceived distress among people with type 2 diabetes. A sample comprising 425 Norwegian adults, aged 30-70, with type 2 diabetes, completed questionnaires assessing coping styles, perceived social support from health professionals and family and diabetes-related distress assessed by the Problem Areas in Diabetes Scale. Demographical and clinical data were collected by self-report. Data were collected in October 2008.   Results from the regression analyses showed a greater variance in emotional distress accounted for by coping styles (21·3%) and perceived support (19·7%) than by clinical indicators (5·8%). FINDINGS may indicate that healthcare providers should pay more attention to non-clinical factors such as coping styles and social support, when addressing diabetes-related distress. They should also be aware that interventions based on psychosocial approaches may primarily influence distress, and not necessarily metabolic control. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  1. Review of research literature on: "Parenting styles and childrearing practices among Poles : historical and contemporary perspectives" : report prepared in the framework of the Polish-Norwegian research project PARMigration Navigator

    OpenAIRE

    Ryndyk, Oleksander; Johannessen, Øystein Lund

    2015-01-01

    This report summarizes the findings of a literature review of existing research on issues pertaining to parenting styles and child rearing practices among Polish migrant families living abroad in different immigration contexts and under changing socio-economic conditions in Poland. The review was conducted in the scope of the international research project entitled ‘Socio-cultural and Psychological Predictors of Work-Life Balance and Gender Equality - Cross-Cultural Comparison of Polish a...

  2. Potentials for Heat Savings in Greater Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Jørgen; Karlsson, Kenneth

    1998-01-01

    This report describes methodologies for analysing heat saving potentials. The background for the lack of activities in that field is suggested. Various elements of heat savings are described, including changes in daily behaviour and life styles. Definition of various levels of potentials...... are suggested. Two scenarios for future heat savings are established, deviating in the rates of renovation, demolition, and construction of buildings, as well as in the thermal insulation standards, ventilation systems ,and in the daily behaviour. The results are that compared to the base year 1995, heat...

  3. Parenting Styles and Beliefs about Parental Authority.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smetana, Judith G.

    1994-01-01

    Suggests that models of parenting style, such as Baumrind's popular model, are insensitive to variations in parenting resulting from characteristics of the different situations in which the parenting is expressed. Argues that considering parenting in context adds greater specificity to the model and enhances the potential for predicting child…

  4. Design Assessment: "Consumer Reports" Style

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Todd R.

    2010-01-01

    Novices to the design process often struggle at first to understand the various stages of design. Learning to design is a process not easily mastered, and therefore requires multiple levels of exposure to the design process. It is helpful if teachers are able to implement various entry-level design assignments such as reverse-engineering…

  5. Style as Supplement - Supplement as Style

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Bent

    , and to aim for an almost Brechtian Verfremdung-effect, but the film also uses this device as a stylistic trait to characterize something ‘essential' about Derrida and his style. Derrida strikes the same chord by insisting on drawing attention to the artificiality of the making of the film, where questions...... and deferrals. This is of course another link in the infinite Derridean chain of supplements to supplements of supplements - in his writings, his persona and the legacy of images of him left behind in the archives. How does this perpetual deferral reflect itself in Derrida's visual and verbal style...

  6. Library Automation Style Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaylord Bros., Liverpool, NY.

    This library automation style guide lists specific terms and names often used in the library automation industry. The terms and/or acronyms are listed alphabetically and each is followed by a brief definition. The guide refers to the "Chicago Manual of Style" for general rules, and a notes section is included for the convenience of individual…

  7. Style and Sociolinguistic Variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckert, Penelope, Ed.; Rickford, John R., Ed.

    This collection of papers by leading experts from a range of disciplines is divided into four sections. Section 1, "Anthropological Approaches," includes: (1) "'Style' as Distinctiveness: The Culture and Ideology of Linguistic Differentiation" (Judith T. Irvine); (2) "Variety, Style-Shifting, and Ideology" (Susan…

  8. Is Cognitive Style Bipolar?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, David H.

    This study assessed the bipolarity of cognitive style for 970 clients of the Johnson O'Connor Research Foundation, a vocational guidance service. The 462 male and 508 female examinees were aged 14 to 65 years, with a median age of 24 years. Three cognitive style tests were investigated: (1) the Kagan Matching Familiar Figures Test (KMFFT); (2) the…

  9. Page Styles on steroids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Lars

    2008-01-01

    Designing a page style has long been a pain for novice users. Some parts are easy; others need strong LATEX knowledge. In this article we will present the memoir way of dealing with page styles, including new code added to the recent version of memoir that will reduce the pain to a mild annoyance...

  10. Influence of complaints and singing style in singers voice handicap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreti, Felipe; Ávila, Maria Emília Barros de; Rocha, Clara; Borrego, Maria Cristina de Menezes; Oliveira, Gisele; Behlau, Mara

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this research was to verify whether the difference of singing styles and the presence of vocal complaints influence the perception of voice handicap of singers. One hundred eighteen singing voice handicap self-assessment protocols were selected: 17 popular singers with vocal complaints, 42 popular singers without complaints, 17 classic singers with complaints, and 42 classic singers without complaints. The groups were similar regarding age, gender and voice types. Both protocols used--Modern Singing Handicap Index (MSHI) and Classical Singing Handicap Index (CSHI)--have specific questions to their respective singing styles, and consist of 30 items equally divided into three subscales: disability (functional domain), handicap (emotional domain) and impairment (organic domain), answered according to the frequency of occurrence. Each subscale has a maximum of 40 points, and the total score is 120 points. The higher the score, the higher the singing voice handicap perceived. For statistical analysis, we used the ANOVA test, with 5% of significance. Classical and popular singers referred higher impairment, followed by disability and handicap. However, the degree of this perception varied according to the singing style and the presence of vocal complaints. The classical singers with vocal complaints showed higher voice handicap than popular singers with vocal complaints, while the classic singers without complaints reported lower handicap than popular singers without complaints. This evidences that classical singers have higher perception of their own voice, and that vocal disturbances in this group may cause greater voice handicap when compared to popular singers.

  11. The relation between leadership style and empowerment on job satisfaction of nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, R S; Jones, L; Fuller, B

    1997-05-01

    The authors explore the relation between leadership style and empowerment and its effect on job satisfaction among the nursing staff of a regional medical center. Several empirical studies on transformational leadership-found that transformational leadership behaviors were positively related to work team success and leadership effectiveness. Transformational leadership processes have also been suggested to enhance followers' work-oriented values and shape the self-efficacies of followers. Employee empowerment may be influenced by the perception that the organization cares about its employees' well-being and that their work is valued. Empowering nurses may increase job satisfaction and improve patient care. Leadership style and empowerment influence job satisfaction among workers. All nursing department staff were invited to complete a self-report questionnaire with no identifying information. Leadership style was measured using Bass's Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire, empowerment was measured with items from Spreitzer's Psychological Empowerment instrument, and job satisfaction was measured by Warr, Cook, and Wall's job satisfaction questionnaire. Both transformational and transactional leadership were positively related to job satisfaction, as was empowerment. Differences in the contributions of empowerment and leadership style in predicting job satisfaction for licensed and unlicensed workers was evident. Designing interventions that allow for the relative influence of leadership style as well as empowerment on varying classifications of nursing personnel may be a more effective strategy and have a greater effect on staff attitudes and behaviors.

  12. AUTOMATIC ARCHITECTURAL STYLE RECOGNITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mathias

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Procedural modeling has proven to be a very valuable tool in the field of architecture. In the last few years, research has soared to automatically create procedural models from images. However, current algorithms for this process of inverse procedural modeling rely on the assumption that the building style is known. So far, the determination of the building style has remained a manual task. In this paper, we propose an algorithm which automates this process through classification of architectural styles from facade images. Our classifier first identifies the images containing buildings, then separates individual facades within an image and determines the building style. This information could then be used to initialize the building reconstruction process. We have trained our classifier to distinguish between several distinct architectural styles, namely Flemish Renaissance, Haussmannian and Neoclassical. Finally, we demonstrate our approach on various street-side images.

  13. Gender Differences in Factors Related to Parenting Styles: A Study of High Performing Science Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hein, Carol; Lewko, John H.

    1994-01-01

    Examined parenting styles within families of high performing science students and explored gender differences in the factors associated with authoritative parenting style. Found that the authoritative parenting style was predominant among study participants and that a greater number of family-related variables emerge for females, whereas more…

  14. Nursing leadership style and psychosocial work environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malloy, Terry; Penprase, Barbara

    2010-09-01

    This study examines the relationship between leadership style and the psychosocial work environment of registered nurses. Research consistently supports the positive relationship between transformational leadership style and job satisfaction. There is less evidence, which identifies the relationship between leadership style and psychosocial work environment. The Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire 5× was used to identify the leadership style. The Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire was used to measure psychosocial work environment dimensions. Statistical analysis included Pearson's r correlation between leadership style and psychosocial work environment and anova to analyse group means. There is a significant correlation between leadership style and 22 out of the 37 dimensions of the psychosocial work environment. This correlation was significant ranging from r = 0.88, P leadership scores of the immediate supervisor report significant differences in their psychosocial work environment. This study supports the significant correlation between leadership style and psychosocial work environment for registered nurses. The results of this study suggest that there would be an improvement in the nursing psychosocial work environment by implementation of transformational and contingent reward leadership behaviours. © 2010 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  15. The Forgotten Half: Two-Thirds: An Hispanic Perspective on Apprenticeship, European Style. Report of the National Council of La Raza Consultation on Apprenticeship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKay, Emily Gantz

    A Hispanic-based consultation on European-style apprenticeships was undertaken to add a Hispanic perspective to the current policy debate about apprenticeships as a school-to-work transition option providing effective career preparation for non-college bound American youth. In March 1992, a delegation of 10 specialists in Hispanic education and…

  16. The effects of cognitive-behavioural therapy on mood-related ruminative response style in depressed adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goodyer Ian M

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A mood-related ruminative response style increases the risk of onset and persistence of depression. This preliminary study investigated whether, in depressed adolescents, cognitive-behaviour therapy reduces mood-related ruminative response style. Whether specific factors within the rumination scale were differentially affected by CBT is also reported. Methods 26 depressed adolescents were randomised to receiving serotonin-specific reuptake inhibitor antidepressants (SSRI plus psychosocial treatment as usual or SSRI and psychosocial treatment as usual plus CBT. Ruminative response style and depressive symptoms were measured at baseline and after 30 weeks of treatment, with the Responses to Depression Questionnaire and Mood and Feelings Questionnaire. Results There were significantly greater reductions in ruminations in the CBT group compared to the non-CBT group (p = .002. There was no significant difference in the reduction in self-reported depressive symptoms between the groups. Rumination was reduced to levels of never-depressed controls in adolescents who had recovered from depression and received CBT. There were greater falls in the CBT group in the more pathological 'brooding' factor of rumination. Conclusion These findings suggest that adding CBT to SSRI medication in the presence of active clinical care causes a greater reduction in mood-related ruminative response style in depressed adolescents. This may reduce the risk of future relapse. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCNT83809224.

  17. Style representation in design grammars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmad, Sumbul; Chase, Scott Curland

    2012-01-01

    to be transformed according to changing design style needs. Issues of formalizing stylistic change necessitate a lucid and formal definition of style in the design language generated by a grammar. Furthermore, a significant aspect of the definition of style is the representation of aesthetic qualities attributed...... to the style. We focus on grammars for representing and generating styles of design and review the use of grammar transformations for modelling changes in style and design language. We identify a gap in knowledge in the representation of style in grammars and in driving strategic style change using grammar...

  18. Adaptive style and physiological reactivity during a laboratory stress paradigm in children with cancer and healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Natalie A; Allen, Michael T; Phipps, Sean

    2011-10-01

    Repressive adaptation has been conceptualized as one pathway to psychological resilience in children with cancer, but the physiological costs of maintaining a repressive adaptive style are currently unknown. The goal of this study was to examine physiological functioning as a function of adaptive style in children with cancer (N = 120) and healthy controls (N = 120). Children completed self-report measures of state anxiety and defensiveness prior to participating in three verbal stress tasks while monitoring blood pressure, electrocardiogram, and electrodermal response, and rated their anxiety following each task. Findings indicated no consistent differences in baseline indices and physiological reactivity as a function of adaptive style or health status (cancer vs. control). In addition, children identified as having a repressive adaptive style did not exhibit greater verbal-autonomic discrepancy than low-anxious children. In contrast to findings with adults, children with a repressive adaptive style do not appear to experience adverse effects of this coping style in terms of physiological reactivity.

  19. Attachment style, anxiety coping, and personality-styles in withdrawn alcohol addicted inpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wedekind, Dirk; Bandelow, Borwin; Heitmann, Soren; Havemann-Reinecke, Ursula; Engel, Kirsten R; Huether, Gerald

    2013-01-10

    Insecure early attachment experiences have been reported to play an important role in the manifestation in alcoholism. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship of attachment styles with anxiety, anxiety coping and dysfunctional personality styles, as well as with the prevalence of personality disorders, and adverse life-events in adolescence. 59 inpatient alcohol addicted male (n=43) and female (n=16) patients were characterized by an attachment style scale (Relationships-style-questionnaire-RSQ) and completed a questionnaire battery comprising the State-Trait-Anxiety-Inventory (STAI), the Anxiety-Coping-Inventory (ABI), Temperament-and-character-inventory (TCI), Personality-system-interaction-inventory (PSI), and gave information on sociodemography, alcohol history, and adolescent adverse events. A structured interview (SKID-II) was performed to diagnose personality disorders. Only 33% of subjects had a secure attachment style. Insecure attachment was associated with significantly higher trait-anxiety, higher cognitive avoidance to control anxiety, and higher values on most personality style dimensions directed to the pathological pole. Despite the limitation due to a small sample size, the results of this study show that the consideration of attachment styles is of significance in the diagnosis and therapy of alcohol addiction. Attachment may characterize different styles to control emotional aspects, anxiety cues and interpersonal relationships in individuals suffering from alcohol addiction.

  20. Thinking Styles: Teaching and Learning Styles in Graduate Education Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Tricia A.; Lesh, Jennifer J.; Trocchio, Jennie S.; Wolman, Clara

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between two intellectual styles approaches: Sternberg's thinking styles of teachers and Felder and Silverman's learning styles. Ninety-five graduate students majoring in special education, reading, educational leadership and curriculum, and elementary education completed the Thinking Styles in Teaching…

  1. Attachment styles and violence within couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, Sharon B; Bond, Michael

    2004-12-01

    This study examined whether an individual's attachment style and/or a couple's combination of attachment styles predicted violence within the marriage and explored whether other variables moderated the risk of violence. Measures of attachment style were administered to 41 discordant couples who presented to four different clinics. The couples' presenting complaints were not violence, and those who did report violence on questioning did not manifest severe violence, i.e., requiring shelters or legal intervention. Self-report measures of violence and marital satisfaction, including problem-solving communication, were also given. Using analysis of covariance and logistic regression, the relative contributions to strength of predicting being a victim of conjugal violence were calculated. An anxious attachment style was a significant predictor of females being victims of violence and of men not being victims. A dismissive style in men was predictive of men being victims when entered into the model with problem solving communication. The combination of anxiously attached females and dismissive males was a potent predictor of violence, and longer duration of marriage and poor problem-solving communication added power to the prediction. Marital interaction, which is influenced by couples' attachment styles and problem-solving communication, is a significant factor in marital partners experiencing physical violence. For couples with milder levels of violence, a more nuanced approach (compared with the legally based approach used for severe violence) seems indicated.

  2. Supervision: Substance and Style

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gellerman, Saul W.

    1976-01-01

    Argues that managerial style and substance are inextricably intertwined, illustrating the discussion with excerpts from an extensive study and job analysis of first-line supervisors in a food packaging plant. (JG)

  3. 'Learning Styles' and 'Approaches to Studying' in Sports-Related Programmes: Relationships to Academic Achievement and Implications for Successful Learning, Teaching and Assessment: Project Report Summary

    OpenAIRE

    Peters, D.M.; Jones, Gareth; Peters, John

    2005-01-01

    There are relatively few recent investigations that have addressed the issues of preferred learning styles and approaches to studying in sports-related disciplines such as: Sports Studies; Sports and Exercise Science; Coaching Science; Sport and Leisure Management and Outdoor Recreation Management. The purpose of this study was therefore to examine student learning across a range of sport-related programmes at a UK University College. It applied tools from two related, but different, educatio...

  4. Children's Responses to Literary Style.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henze, Mary Vance

    This study undertook to determine (1) whether teaching sixth grade children elements of style would increase their pleasure in listening to "The Hobbit," (2) whether children who learned the most about style would respond the most positively to Tolkien's style, and (3) what children's preferences would be for selected examples of Tolkien's style.…

  5. Parental sedentary restriction, maternal parenting style, and television viewing among 10- to 11-year-olds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jago, Russell; Davison, Kirsten K; Thompson, Janice L; Page, Angie S; Brockman, Rowan; Fox, Kenneth R

    2011-09-01

    To examine whether parenting styles or practices were associated with children's television (TV) viewing. A total of 431 parent-child dyads (10- to 11-year-old children) from Bristol, United Kingdom, were included. Child and parent TV viewing were self-reported and categorized as 4 hours/day. Children reported maternal parenting style (authoritarian, authoritative, or permissive). Child-reported maternal and paternal sedentary restriction scores were combined to create a family-level restriction score. Multinomial logistic regression was used to examine whether child TV viewing was predicted by parenting style or family restriction. A greater proportion of children with permissive mothers watched >4 hours of TV per day, compared with children with authoritarian or authoritative mothers (P = .033). A greater proportion of children for whom both parents demonstrated high restriction watched 4 hours (vs 4 hours of TV per day was 5.2 times higher for children with permissive (versus authoritative) mothers (P = .010). Clinicians need to talk directly with parents about the need to place limitations on children's screen time and to encourage both parents to reinforce restriction messages.

  6. Teaching style beliefs among U.S. and Israeli faculty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behar-Horenstein, Linda S; Mitchell, Gail S; Notzer, Netta; Penfield, Randy; Eli, Ilana

    2006-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if self-reported teaching style beliefs were different among faculty at a U.S. and an Israeli dental school. Teacher-centered practices refer to beliefs that the teacher holds the subject matter expertise and students are generally passive learners who must be told what to think. Student-centered practices refer to beliefs that students must learn how to construct their own understanding. Student-centered teaching is directed towards enabling students to think about complex issues. Twenty-seven of fifty-eight (47.37 percent) faculty at a dental school in the United States and thirty of thirty-four (88 percent) Israeli dental faculty teaching in basic science courses completed the Teaching Behavior Preferences Survey (TBPS). The TBPS is a thirty-item instrument that measures two domains of teaching styles--teacher-centered (TC) and student-centered (SC)--and four subdomains: methods of instruction (MI), classroom milieu (CM), use of questions (UQ), and use of assessment (UA). Findings revealed that there were no significant differences in student-centered and teacher-centered teaching practices and methods of instruction, classroom milieu, and use of questions. There was a significant difference between the U.S. and Israeli groups in their reported use of assessment. The U.S. faculty reported a greater preference for student-centered assessment practices than did the Israeli faculty.

  7. The relationship between women's attachment style and perinatal mood disturbance: implications for screening and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monk, Catherine; Leight, Kristin L; Fang, Yixin

    2008-06-01

    To investigate women's attachment style in relation to risk for pregnancy-specific distress and perinatal depression. During the 2nd trimester, 186 women were evaluated for Axis I psychiatric disorders. In the 3rd trimester they self-reported: attachment style, pregnancy experience, current life stress, and symptoms of depression and anxiety. At 4 months post partum, a sub-sample of them (n = 56) repeated the self-report questionnaires. Wariness of attachments (high on fear dimension) was associated with greater 'hassles' compared to 'uplifts' in the assessment of pregnancy (r = 0.31, p attachment security was negatively related to this ratio (r = -0.31, p attachment fear (t = (150) -2.32, p attachment style on prenatal depressive symptoms (beta = 1.7, p attachment styles for postpartum depression (beta = -2.88, p attachment security uniquely contributed to the risk for postpartum depression, beyond depression during pregnancy (R2 change from 0.25 to 0.35). An approach to perinatal psychiatric disorders that includes psychological factors such as attachment could improve screening, and provide pregnant women with specifically-tailored psychosocial interventions focused on modifying attachment schemas.

  8. Adult Attachment Style and Suicidality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miniati, Mario; Callari, Antonio; Pini, Stefano

    2017-09-01

    There is evidence in the literature that adverse early attachment experiences and subsequent attachment insecurities during adulthood would lead to pessimism, low self-esteem, hopelessness and, ultimately, to suicide risk. This paper aims to review finding on the link between attachment style and suicidality. We searched the literature using the database of the U.S. National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI)-MedLine/Pubmed system from January 1992 until December 2016. We started with 1992 because, as far as we know, there are no published studies exploring the relationship between suicide and insecure attachment before that year. We considered reports published on the relationship between attachment style and suicidality. We applied several combinations of the following search terms: attachment, adult attachment style and suicidality, suicide, suicidal ideation, suicidal behavior or suicidal thoughts, and suicide attempts. We selected only English language studies. Research suggests that insecure attachment style, mostly anxious, and unresolved traumas are associated with an increased suicide risk. Few studies prospectively examined clinical course, comorbid psychiatric disorders, familial suicidality or other psychosocial factors. Further research is needed to highlight the nature of the link between attachment and suicidality. The presence of suicidal ideation and attempts might be a consequence of an underlying interaction between the emergence of psychiatrics symptoms, and the long-lasting presence of inadequate patterns of attachment. Within this context, Separation Anxiety Disorder, categorized in the DSM-5 as a condition not confined to childhood but as an anxiety disorder that may occur through the entire lifespan, might be the a key for the comprehension of this link. From a neurobiological point of view, the role of oxytocin remains unclear.

  9. The influence of motivation and attentional style on affective, cognitive, and behavioral outcomes of an exercise class.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, L; Karageorghis, C I; Lane, A M; Bishop, D T

    2017-01-01

    Exercise classes are a popular form of physical activity. A greater understanding of the individual difference factors that might influence the outcomes of such classes could help to minimize the high dropout rates associated with exercise. The study explored the effects of dominant attentional style and degree of self-determination on affective, cognitive, and behavioral outcomes following structured exercise classes. Data from 417 female participants revealed that those with a dominant attentional style for association (Associators) reported significantly (P motivation. The combination of attentional style and degree of self-determination appear to be noteworthy individual difference factors that influence responses to exercise classes and could thus have a bearing on long-term exercise adherence. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Listening styles of undergraduate health students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, T; Boyle, M J; Williams, B; Molloy, A; McKenna, L; Palermo, C; Lewis, B; Molloy, L

    2010-11-01

    Concerns about poor communication in the medical and other healthcare professions are common in the empirical literature, with studies showing direct relationships between practitioners' effective listening and patients' satisfaction and less risk of litigation. Furthermore, people do not simply listen or not listen, rather they adopt particular listening styles, making the understanding and investigation of practitioner communication a complex topic. The objective of this study was to identify the listening styles of undergraduate health science students enrolled at one Australian university. A cross-sectional study using a paper-based version of the Listening Styles Profile (LSP-16) was administered to a cohort of students enrolled in undergraduate education programs in eight different health disciplines: emergency health (paramedics), nursing, midwifery, occupational therapy, physiotherapy, nursing/emergency health dual degree, health science and nutrition and dietetics. The LSP-16 is a validated and reliable scale that assesses participants' preferences for each of four distinct listening style constructs. There were 1459 health students eligible for inclusion in the study. Ethics approval was granted. A total of 860 students participated in the study (response rate of 58%), of whom 87.2% (n=750) were female. Across the group, a strong preference was shown for the People Listening Style (LS), which is a listening style characterised by a concern for people's feelings and emotions. Otherwise, an unexpected amount of homogeneity in preferred listening style was found within the group of health science students. Female students reported a slightly stronger preference for the People LS, whereas males reported slightly stronger preferences for the Action LS and Content LS. There were no statistical differences in preference for LS by students' age or year level of undergraduate enrolment. The health professional student participants of this study reported a

  11. Impact of behavioral inhibition and parenting style on internalizing and externalizing problems from early childhood through adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Lela Rankin; Degnan, Kathryn A; Perez-Edgar, Koraly E; Henderson, Heather A; Rubin, Kenneth H; Pine, Daniel S; Steinberg, Laurence; Fox, Nathan A

    2009-11-01

    Behavioral inhibition (BI) is characterized by a pattern of extreme social reticence, risk for internalizing behavior problems, and possible protection against externalizing behavior problems. Parenting style may also contribute to these associations between BI and behavior problems (BP). A sample of 113 children was assessed for BI in the laboratory at 14 and 24 months of age, self-report of maternal parenting style at 7 years of age, and maternal report of child internalizing and externalizing BP at 4, 7, and 15 years. Internalizing problems at age 4 were greatest among behaviorally inhibited children who also were exposed to permissive parenting. Furthermore, greater authoritative parenting was associated with less of an increase in internalizing behavior problems over time and greater authoritarian parenting was associated with a steeper decline in externalizing problems. Results highlight the importance of considering child and environmental factors in longitudinal patterns of BP across childhood and adolescence.

  12. Learning style preferences of surgical residency applicants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Roger H; Gilbert, Timothy

    2015-09-01

    The learning style preferences of general surgery residents have been previously reported; there is evidence that residents who prefer read/write learning styles perform better on the American Board of Surgery In-Training Examination (ABSITE). However, little is known regarding the learning style preferences of applicants to general surgery residency and their impact on educational outcomes. In this study, the preferred learning styles of surgical residency applicants were determined. We hypothesized that applicant rank data are associated with specific learning style preferences. The Fleming VARK learning styles inventory was offered to all general surgery residency applicants that were interviewed at a university hospital-based program. The VARK model categorizes learners as visual (V), aural (A), read/write (R), kinesthetic (K), or multimodal (MM). Responses on the inventory were scored to determine the preferred learning style for each applicant. Applicant data, including United States Medical Licensing Examination (USMLE) scores, class rank, interview score, and overall final applicant ranking, were examined for association with preferred learning styles. Sixty-seven applicants were interviewed. Five applicants were excluded due to not completing the VARK inventory or having incomplete applicant data. The remaining 62 applicants (92%) were included for analysis. Most applicants (57%) had a multimodal preference. Sixty-nine percent of all applicants had some degree of preference for kinesthetic learning. There were statistically significant differences between applicants of different learning styles in terms of USMLE step 1 scores (P = 0.001) and USMLE step 2 clinical knowledge scores (P = 0.01), but not for class ranks (P = 0.27), interview scores (P = 0.20), or final ranks (P = 0.14). Multiple comparison analysis demonstrated that applicants with aural preferences had higher USMLE 1 scores (233.2) than those with kinesthetic (211.8, P = 0.005) or multimodal

  13. When Do Adolescents Accept or Defy to Maternal Prohibitions? The Role of Social Domain and Communication Style.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Petegem, Stijn; Vansteenkiste, Maarten; Soenens, Bart; Zimmermann, Grégoire; Antonietti, Jean-Philippe; Baudat, Sophie; Audenaert, Elien

    2017-05-01

    Drawing upon both Social-Cognitive Domain Theory and Self-Determination Theory, the goal of the present multi-informant study was to test whether the correlates of maternal prohibitions depend on what is prohibited (i.e., the content of the social domain involved), thereby contrasting moral with friendship prohibitions, as well on how the prohibition is communicated, thereby contrasting an autonomy-supportive with a controlling communication style. In a sample of adolescents (N = 196; mean age = 13.9 years; 63 % female) and their mothers (N = 185; mean age = 44 years), we first examined mean-level differences between the two domains in terms of mothers' degree and style of prohibition, as well as on a number of developmental outcomes (i.e., adolescents' legitimacy perceptions, internalization, and oppositional defiance). Both adolescents and mothers reported more maternal involvement in the moral domain (e.g., higher scores for degree of prohibition and controlling communication style). In addition, adolescents reported greater perceived legitimacy and less oppositional defiance in the moral domain (as compared to the friendships domain). Second, we tested whether associations between degree and style of prohibition and the developmental outcomes were moderated by social domain. Whereas associations between degree of prohibition and developmental outcomes either were non-significant or moderated by domain, the associations with communication style were more domain-invariant, with an autonomy-supportive style generally yielding an adaptive pattern of correlates and with a controlling style relating to maladaptive outcomes. The discussion focuses on similarities and differences in the characteristics and correlates of both types of prohibitions.

  14. Children With Cochlear Implants and Their Parents: Relations Between Parenting Style and Children's Social-Emotional Functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ketelaar, Lizet; Wiefferink, Carin H; Frijns, Johan H M; Rieffe, Carolien

    Parenting a child who has a severe or profound hearing loss can be challenging and at times stressful, and might cause parents to use more adverse parenting styles compared with parents of hearing children. Parenting styles are known to impact children's social-emotional development. Children with a severe to profound hearing loss may be more reliant on their parents in terms of their social-emotional development when compared with their hearing peers who typically have greater opportunities to interact with and learn from others outside their family environment. Identifying the impact which parenting styles pertain on the social-emotional development of children who have cochlear implants (CIs) could help advance these children's well-being. Therefore, the authors compared parenting styles of parents with hearing children and of parents with children who have a CI, and examined the relations between parenting styles and two key aspects of children's social-emotional functioning: emotion regulation and empathy. Ninety-two hearing parents and their children (aged 1 to 5 years old), who were either hearing (n = 46) or had a CI (n = 46), participated in this cross-sectional study. Parents completed questionnaires concerning their parenting styles (i.e., positive, negative and uninvolved), and regarding the extent to which their children expressed negative emotions (i.e., anger and sadness) and empathy. Furthermore, an emotion-regulation task measuring negative emotionality was administered to the children. No differences in reported parenting styles were observed between parents of hearing children and parents of children with a CI. In addition, negative and uninvolved parenting styles were related to higher levels of negative emotionality in both groups of children. No relation was found between positive parenting and children's social-emotional functioning. Hearing status did not moderate these relationships. Language mediated the relationship between parenting

  15. Undergraduate nursing students' learning styles: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Sandra; McKee, Gabrielle; Huntley-Moore, Sylvia

    2011-07-01

    This paper reports on the main findings of a longitudinal study of the learning styles of one cohort of undergraduate pre-registration nursing students at an Irish university. The Honey and Mumford (2000a) Learning Styles Questionnaire was administered to a sample of students in their first (n=202) and final year of study (n=166), the final sample number (58) was based on matched pairs. The most common dominant learning style in first year was the dual learning category (35%) while a large proportion of the students (53%) in their final year had no dominant learning style. The preferred learning style of students in their first (69%) and final (57%) year was reflector. Learning styles were significantly different at the two time points and there was a significant relationship between some learning styles and students' age but not with academic achievement. Total scores of all learning styles showed significant improvements across the two time points of the study. An important implication for nurse education practice is the need for nurse educators to be aware of students' learning styles and in an attempt to maximise students' learning potential, utilise a range of teaching and learning methodologies and assessments that develop all learning styles. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Residents' leadership styles and effectiveness as perceived by nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCue, J D; Magrinat, G; Hansen, C J; Bailey, R S

    1986-01-01

    Although physicians are required to act as leaders in a variety of situations, leadership ability and leadership training have been largely ignored by medical educators. The leadership styles and leadership effectiveness of 17 residents in a community hospital were studied as part of a leadership training seminar. Self-ratings and ratings of the residents by nurses who had worked with them were used to assess the residents' leadership style and the nurses' perceptions of the effectiveness of those styles. Styles that emphasized relationships with co-workers (encouraging and coaching styles) predominated over low relationship-oriented styles (delegating and structuring). The nurses perceived individual residents who exhibited encouraging and coaching leadership styles as being distinctly more effective leaders than the residents who exhibited structuring and delegating styles. The residents, however, rated all four styles as similarly effective. Leadership training programs and studies of the type reported here may provide an opportunity for faculty members to help residents learn more appropriate and productive styles of leadership.

  17. Adult attachment styles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maša Žvelc

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Theory of attachment primarily described early relationships between a child and his caretakers. In the last twenty years there is a growing interest in adult attachment research. Theories and research findings of adult attachment stem from two different methodological approaches. The first approach measures adult attachment through Adult Attachment Interview (AAI; Main, 1991 where the attachment is assessed through the narratives of adult people of their early child experiences with their primary caretakers. The second approach measures adult attachment with the help of self-evaluative questionnaires, developed by (a Hazan and Shaver (1987 who started this approach in the field of personality and social psychology, and (b Bartholomew and Horowitz (1991. Research shows that there is significant correlation between early and adult attachment style. Attachment styles are passed from generation to generation. Basic adult attachment styles are: securely attached, preoccupied, fearful-avoidant, dismissing-avoidant and disorganized. Previous research using Barholomew and Horowitz (1991 Relationship Questionnaire on 176 Slovenian students showed that 48% students are securely attached, 29% are fearful-avoidant, 10% are dismissing-avoidant, and 13% have preoccupied attachment style. Theory of attachment is very useful for understanding the behavior and subjective experiences of children and adults. It is applicable to different contexts (psychotherapy, counseling, education .... The paper proposes further research focused on integration of adult attachment styles and types of object relations measured by Test of object relations (Žvelc, 1998 and Pictorial test of Separation and Individuation (Žvelc, 2003.

  18. Parenting style of women who conceived using in vitro fertilization: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu-Ming; Shu, Bih-Ching; Fetzer, Susan; Chang, Ying-Ju

    2014-06-01

    Research has shown that the mental health of women contributes to their parenting style. However, it remains unclear whether the experience of in vitro fertilization (IVF) affects parenting style. This study was designed to assess whether there is a difference in parenting styles between women who conceived using IVF and those who conceived naturally. This meta-analysis searched three electronic databases (MEDLINE, PsychInfo, and CINAHL) for relevant articles published between 1978 and 2011. Key words used included parenting, mothering, parent-child relations, childrearing, infertility, assisted reproductive technique, IVF, and intracytoplasmic sperm injection. Study inclusion criteria were as follows: published in an English-language peer-reviewed journal, with the definition of parenting style categorized as one of two dimensions: warmth and control; quantification of the parenting behaviors; use of a case-controlled study design to compare IVF and natural conceptions; and reported data sufficient to calculate the effect sizes. Studies that included women who conceived using a donor egg or sperm for IVF and those that included women who were either surrogates or in homosexual relationships were excluded. Three hundred ninety studies were identified. Fourteen studies met the inclusion criteria. The Newcastle-Ottawa Scale was used to appraise the quality of the data. The IVF participants used significantly greater controlling parenting behaviors than their natural conception participant peers (d = 0.148, p parenting behaviors related to warmth, rejection, or respect for autonomy. The homogeneity test for the effect size of warmth and controlling parenting behavior achieved significance. Women who conceive using IVF have slightly but still significantly greater controlling parenting behaviors than women who conceive naturally. The results of this study may help professionals to better understand the parenting style of IVF women and develop appropriate interventions

  19. The relationship between attachment style and placement of parents in adults' attachment networks over time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julal, F S; Carnelley, K B; Rowe, A

    2017-08-01

    Using a bull's-eye hierarchical mapping technique (HMT), the present study examined placement of parents in adults' attachment networks over time. We hypothesized that attachment style would predict distance at which network members (mother, father, and romantic partner) would be placed from the core-self over time. Participants completed the HMT on two occasions, 12 months apart. Concurrently and over time, fathers were placed further from the core-self than mothers. Attachment style explained unique variance, beyond that accounted for by individual and relationship characteristics. Specifically, network members with whom participants reported greater attachment insecurity were placed further from the core-self concurrently. Mothers with whom participants reported greater attachment insecurity were placed further from the core-self over time. Unsatisfactory attachment relationships with father and partner and those marked by higher attachment insecurity were more likely to be excluded from attachment networks over time. Findings suggest that attachment style, relationship quality, romantic relationship status, and parents' marital status determine the placement of parents in adults' attachment networks.

  20. Bases of social power, leadership styles, and organizational commitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierro, Antonio; Raven, Bertram H; Amato, Clara; Bélanger, Jocelyn J

    2013-01-01

    Affective organizational commitment reflects the extent to which organizational members are loyal and willing to work toward organizational objectives (Meyer & Allen, 1997). In particular, affective organizational commitment holds very important implications at all organizational levels (e.g., turnover rates, performance, and citizenship behavior). Whereas previous research has evinced the positive influence of transformational and charismatic leadership styles on affective commitment toward the organization (Bass & Avolio, 1994), little is known with regard to the nature of this relationship. In line with the interpersonal power/interaction model, the present investigation aimed to investigate the mechanism at play between transformational leadership style and affective organizational commitment. Specifically, we hypothesized that transformational leadership style would increase affective organizational commitment through its effect on willingness to comply with soft bases of power. In two studies, we subjected the foregoing hypotheses to empirical scrutiny. In Study 1, the proposed mediation model was empirically supported with Italian employees in the public sector. Attesting to the robustness of our findings, Study 2 replicated the findings of Study 1 with Italian employees from the public and private sectors. In addition, Study 2 replicated Study 1 using a different measure of transformational leadership. Both Study 1 and Study 2 provided results consistent with our hypotheses. Specifically, the present paper reports empirical evidence that (1) the more participants report having a transformational leader, the more willing they become to comply with soft (but not harsh) power bases, (2) in turn, greater willingness to comply with soft (but not harsh) power bases increases one's affective organizational commitment. These findings provide additional support for the interpersonal power/interaction model and pave the way for new research directions.

  1. Authoritarian and homophobic attitudes: gender and adult attachment style differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gormley, Barbara; Lopez, Frederick G

    2010-01-01

    This study explored the relations of gender and adult attachment styles to college students' scores on several measures of authoritarian attitudes (e.g., right-wing authoritarianism, ethnocentrism, homophobia, and religious fundamentalism). A multivariate analysis of authoritarian attitudes yielded significant main and interaction effects involving students' gender and their (categorical) attachment style scores. Relative to women, men reported higher levels of homophobia, ethnocentrism, and right-wing authoritarianism. Gender differences in homophobia were additionally conditioned by participants' adult attachment styles: Men with dismissing styles evidenced the highest levels of homophobia, whereas women with dismissing styles demonstrated the lowest levels; that is, a fear of intimacy seemed to contribute to homophobic attitudes found among heterosexual men. This was the first U.S. study of the relationship between adult attachment styles and right-wing authoritarianism, and further investigation is warranted.

  2. Manager and staff perceptions of the manager's leadership style.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Failla, Kim Reina; Stichler, Jaynelle F

    2008-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to look at manager and staff perceptions of the manager's leadership style and to determine what effect transformational leadership style has on job satisfaction. Nursing job satisfaction is a critical element in addressing the nursing shortage. Literature supports that job satisfaction is related to nurse manager leadership style. This fact has caused nurse managers to carefully consider their leadership style and the impact it has on the nurses they manage. A descriptive correlational, comparative design was used in a convenience sample of nurse managers and their direct report nursing staff (n = 92). A correlation was found between nurse manager transformational leadership style and nurse job satisfaction (r = 0.348, P leadership style was associated with higher levels of job satisfaction. The findings added to the knowledge about variables that are correlated with job satisfaction, which is a critical issue to nursing.

  3. Love Relationships: Attachment Style and the Investment Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pistole, Carole M.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Examined association of adult attachment styles and Rusbult's investment model of relationships. Responses from 239 participants indicated those who are securely attached experience greater satisfaction, fewer costs, and greater commitment in their relationships than do other attachment groups. Other findings and implications for counseling were…

  4. Trajectories of Delinquency and Parenting Styles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blokland, Arjan; Dubas, Judith Semon; Loeber, Rolf; Gerris, Jan R. M.; van der Laan, Peter H.

    2007-01-01

    We investigated trajectories of adolescent delinquent development using data from the Pittsburgh Youth Study and examined the extent to which these different trajectories are differentially predicted by childhood parenting styles. Based on self-reported and official delinquency seriousness, covering ages 10–19, we identified five distinct delinquency trajectories differing in both level and change in seriousness over time: a nondelinquent, minor persisting, moderate desisting, serious persisting, and serious desisting trajectory. More serious delinquents tended to more frequently engage in delinquency, and to report a higher proportion of theft. Proportionally, serious persistent delinquents were the most violent of all trajectory groups. Using cluster analysis we identified three parenting styles: authoritative, authoritarian (moderately supportive), and neglectful (punishing). Controlling for demographic characteristics and childhood delinquency, neglectful parenting was more frequent in moderate desisters, serious persisters, and serious desisters, suggesting that parenting styles differentiate non- or minor delinquents from more serious delinquents. PMID:17786548

  5. Trajectories of delinquency and parenting styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoeve, Machteld; Blokland, Arjan; Dubas, Judith Semon; Loeber, Rolf; Gerris, Jan R M; van der Laan, Peter H

    2008-02-01

    We investigated trajectories of adolescent delinquent development using data from the Pittsburgh Youth Study and examined the extent to which these different trajectories are differentially predicted by childhood parenting styles. Based on self-reported and official delinquency seriousness, covering ages 10-19, we identified five distinct delinquency trajectories differing in both level and change in seriousness over time: a nondelinquent, minor persisting, moderate desisting, serious persisting, and serious desisting trajectory. More serious delinquents tended to more frequently engage in delinquency, and to report a higher proportion of theft. Proportionally, serious persistent delinquents were the most violent of all trajectory groups. Using cluster analysis we identified three parenting styles: authoritative, authoritarian (moderately supportive), and neglectful (punishing). Controlling for demographic characteristics and childhood delinquency, neglectful parenting was more frequent in moderate desisters, serious persisters, and serious desisters, suggesting that parenting styles differentiate non- or minor delinquents from more serious delinquents.

  6. Management styles and motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shearer, Dana Ann

    2012-01-01

    According to a review of the current literature, common managerial styles are transformational, transactional, and laissez-faire. When managers expand their leadership skills to improve the staff's morale, they must use a combination of transformational leadership behaviors and transactional contingent rewards to maximize their effectiveness on employees. A motivation theory such as Herzberg and Maslow enhances employees' motivation, morale, and satisfaction. Being able to motivate, empower, and influence staff improves satisfaction and retention levels among the team. A manager's leadership style influences motivation, morale, and retention in staff. Leaders are influenced by their educational development and the organizational culture. Organizational culture has an impact on a manager's style, which is forwarded to their followers.

  7. Feeding styles and child weight status among recent immigrant mother-child dyads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tovar, Alison; Hennessy, Erin; Pirie, Alex; Must, Aviva; Gute, David M; Hyatt, Raymond R; Kamins, Christina Luongo; Hughes, Sheryl O; Boulos, Rebecca; Sliwa, Sarah; Galvão, Heloisa; Economos, Christina D

    2012-05-29

    Research has shown that parental feeding styles may influence children's food consumption, energy intake, and ultimately, weight status. We examine this relationship, among recent immigrants to the US. Given that immigrant parents and children are at greater risk for becoming overweight/obese with increased time in the US, identification of risk factors for weight gain is critical. Baseline data was collected on 383 mother-child dyads enrolled in Live Well, a community-based, participatory, randomized controlled lifestyle intervention to prevent weight gain in recent immigrant mothers. Socio-demographic information together with heights and weights were collected for both mother and child. Acculturation, behavioral data, and responses to the Caregiver's Feeding Styles Questionnaire (CFSQ) were also obtained from the mother. The children's average age was 6.2 ± 2.7 years, 58% male. Mothers had been in the country for an average of 6.0 ± 3.3 years, and are Brazilian (36%), Haitian (34%) and Latino (30%). Seventy-two percent of the mothers were overweight/obese, while 43% of the children were overweight/obese. Fifteen percent of mothers reported their feeding style as being high demanding/high responsive; 32% as being high demanding/low responsive; 34% as being low demanding/high responsive and 18% as being low demanding/low responsive. In bivariate analyses, feeding styles significantly differed by child BMIz-score, ethnic group, and mother's perceived stress. In multiple linear regression, a low demanding/high responsive feeding style was found to be positively associated (ß = 0.56) with a higher child weight as compared to high demanding/high responsive, controlling for known covariates (p = 0.01). Most mothers report having a low demanding/high responsive feeding style, which is associated with higher child weight status in this diverse immigrant population. This finding adds to the growing literature that suggests this type of feeding style may be a risk

  8. Feeding styles and child weight status among recent immigrant mother-child dyads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tovar Alison

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Research has shown that parental feeding styles may influence children’s food consumption, energy intake, and ultimately, weight status. We examine this relationship, among recent immigrants to the US. Given that immigrant parents and children are at greater risk for becoming overweight/obese with increased time in the US, identification of risk factors for weight gain is critical. Methods Baseline data was collected on 383 mother-child dyads enrolled in Live Well, a community-based, participatory, randomized controlled lifestyle intervention to prevent weight gain in recent immigrant mothers. Socio-demographic information together with heights and weights were collected for both mother and child. Acculturation, behavioral data, and responses to the Caregiver’s Feeding Styles Questionnaire (CFSQ were also obtained from the mother. Results The children’s average age was 6.2 ± 2.7 years, 58% male. Mothers had been in the country for an average of 6.0 ± 3.3 years, and are Brazilian (36%, Haitian (34% and Latino (30%. Seventy-two percent of the mothers were overweight/obese, while 43% of the children were overweight/obese. Fifteen percent of mothers reported their feeding style as being high demanding/high responsive; 32% as being high demanding/low responsive; 34% as being low demanding/high responsive and 18% as being low demanding/low responsive. In bivariate analyses, feeding styles significantly differed by child BMIz-score, ethnic group, and mother’s perceived stress. In multiple linear regression, a low demanding/high responsive feeding style was found to be positively associated (ß = 0.56 with a higher child weight as compared to high demanding/high responsive, controlling for known covariates (p = 0.01. Conclusions Most mothers report having a low demanding/high responsive feeding style, which is associated with higher child weight status in this diverse immigrant population. This finding adds to the growing

  9. Decision-Making Styles in the Workplace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Raffaldi

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Two procedures were adopted to assess decision-making styles in the workplace: (a the administration of traditional standardized self-report questionnaires and (b open-ended questions about the way respondents would take decisions in a critical business case. Seventy-four adults were given two questionnaires: the Preference for Intuition and Deliberation, which assesses “deliberative” or “intuitive” decision style, and the Style of Learning and Thinking, which assesses thinking styles as “left” (namely, analytical-systematic or “right” (that is, global-intuitive. Participants were also presented with a business case that involved taking a decision. Responses to the business case were used to classify approaches to decision making as “analytical-systematic” or “global-intuitive.” Results showed that the questionnaires correlated consistently with scores from the business case, thus supporting the notion that the assessment of decision style through self-report questionnaires is reliable and valid.

  10. Leadership styles in nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cope, Vicki; Murray, Melanie

    2017-06-21

    Nurses are often asked to think about leadership, particularly in times of rapid change in healthcare, and where questions have been raised about whether leaders and managers have adequate insight into the requirements of care. This article discusses several leadership styles relevant to contemporary healthcare and nursing practice. Nurses who are aware of leadership styles may find this knowledge useful in maintaining a cohesive working environment. Leadership knowledge and skills can be improved through training, where, rather than having to undertake formal leadership roles without adequate preparation, nurses are able to learn, nurture, model and develop effective leadership behaviours, ultimately improving nursing staff retention and enhancing the delivery of safe and effective care.

  11. Example based style classification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Welnicka, Katarzyna; Bærentzen, Jakob Andreas; Aanæs, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    We address the problem of analysis of families of shapes which can be classified according to two categories: the main one corresponding usually to the coarse shape which we call the function and the more subtle one which we call the style. The style and the function both contribute to the overal...... this similarity should be reflected across different functions. We show the usability of our methods first on the example of a number of chess sets which our method helps sort. Next, we investigate the problem of finding a replacement for a missing tooth given a database of teeth....

  12. Demystifying APA style.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuddy, Claudia M

    2002-01-01

    Many nursing schools and health care journals have adopted the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (APA stylebook) as their guide to achieve uniformity and consistency in manuscript preparation as well as in usage and writing style. Published in 2001, the fifth edition of the APA stylebook contains 440 pages and can overwhelm someone who tries to use it for the first time. This article delineates main points in the areas of manuscript preparation, reference lists, in-text citations, and style choices.

  13. Identifying learning styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Grace

    2016-12-14

    What was the nature of the CPD activity, practice-related feedback and/or event and/or experience in your practice? The article explored different learning styles and outlined some of the models that can be used to identify them. It discussed the limitations of these models, indicating that although they can be helpful in identifying a student's preferred learning style, this is not 'fixed' and might change over time. Learning is also influenced by other factors, such as culture and age.

  14. Childhood abuse and stress generation: the mediational effect of depressogenic cognitive styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Richard T; Choi, Jimmy Y; Boland, Elaine M; Mastin, Becky M; Alloy, Lauren B

    2013-04-30

    According to the stress generation hypothesis (Hammen, 1991), depressed and depression-prone individuals experience higher rates of negative life events influenced by their own behaviors and characteristics (i.e., dependent events), which in part may account for the often recurrent nature of depression. Relatively little is known about the interrelation between stress generation predictors, and distal risk factors for this phenomenon. This study examined whether childhood emotional, sexual, and physical abuse, each uniquely predicted negative dependent events in individuals with a history of depression. The role of negative inferential styles as a potential mediator was also assessed. A sample of 66 adults with a history of depression completed self-report measures of childhood abuse history and negative inferential styles at baseline. The "contextual threat" method was used to assess the occurrence of negative life events over a 4-month prospective follow-up period. Childhood emotional abuse, but not sexual or physical abuse, prospectively predicted greater stress generation. Negative inferential styles mediated this relation. These findings suggest that targeting negative cognitive styles in clinical settings, especially in patients with a history of childhood emotional abuse, may be important for reducing the occurrence of negative life events, thereby possibly decreasing risk for depression recurrence. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Relationship Between Leadership Styles and Organizational Creativity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Bratnicka

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Empirical research on entrepreneurship in organizations has brought disparate and often contradictory evidence related to the impact of leadership on creativity in organizations. The purpose of this paper is to explore and discuss the impact of different leadership styles on creativity, with the view to formulating an integrated conceptual model that links creative novelty and creative practicality with leadership. Methodology: The author applied the methodology of meta-theoretical review. In accordance with the principles of theoretical bricolage, a new conceptual model was built on the basis of the multidimensional creativity theory and the leadership theory. In her analysis, the author took into account leadership styles that have already been subject to research; each of them was mapped in the two-dimensional space of organizational creativity. Findings: In order to fully understand the reasons for differences in organizational creativity, the drivers of divergences in the space of creative novelty and creative practicality need to be clarified. Greater knowledge about the impact of leadership styles on the structure and configuration of organizational creativity is necessary. In this paper, the author provides a theoretical framework that illustrates manners in which leadership influences organizational creativity. The model clarifies the role that leadership plays in shaping a unique configuration of organizational creativity, and consequently in ensuring the necessary internal adaptation of an organization. Originality: The value of this research lies in the situational interpretation of various leadership styles in the context of their impact on organizational creativity. The analysis goes beyond the conventional discussion about leadership and creativity, focused on establishing whether a given leadership style proves beneficial or not for organizational creativity. The paper identifies particular effects that several key

  16. Instructional Strategies to Improve College Students' APA Style Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandernach, B. Jean; Zafonte, Maria; Taylor, Caroline

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify areas of APA formatting that college instructors view as most problematic in student writing. Using a Likert-style survey, the greatest areas of reported concern were problems with documentation, specifically, citations, references, and quoting; of lesser concern were various style and formatting errors in…

  17. Changes in learning styles induced by practical training

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, Henk

    2015-01-01

    In medical schools the learning environment changes from scholastic to teaching-on-the job during clerkships. Alterations in learning style during clerkships were studied and are reported. This study investigated whether practical training results in alterations in learning style and whether later

  18. Parenting Style: Effects on Children's Views of Authority.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxson, Thomas Z.

    Children's development and future views have been found to be affected dramatically by the actions and styles of parenting they experience. The relationship between parenting style and a person's later view of authority is explored in this study using two self-report measures (N=109). It was hypothesized that the college students who scored higher…

  19. The Relationship between Learning Style and Academic Achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell-Moskwa, Claire

    A study investigated the correlation between students' learning styles and their academic achievement on report cards and standardized tests. Subjects were 58 fifth-grade students in a suburban middle school. The "Learning Style Inventory" by Brown and Cooper was administered to this population, and students' academic averages and…

  20. Students' Perceptions of Parental Bonding Styles and Their Academic Burnout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Hyojung; Lee, Jayoung; Kim, Boyoung; Lee, Sang Min

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated how parental bonding style affects academic burnout in Korean adolescents. Participants were 447 middle school students, who completed the Parental Bonding Instrument and the Maslach Burnout Inventory-Student Survey. MANCOVA results confirmed that adolescents reporting the optimal bonding parental style, for both mother and…

  1. Gender Differences and Styles in the Use of Digital Games.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonanno, Philip; Kommers, Petrus A.M.

    2005-01-01

    This paper reports work in progress investigating gender difFerences and styles in the use of digital games amongst advanced level biology students. It is an elaboration on previous work exploring the relationship between cognitive style and academic performance in Maltese students taking biology ai

  2. Reward and Punishment Histories: A Way of Predicting Teaching Style?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Joan H.; Amidon, Edmund J.

    2004-01-01

    The authors used preservice teachers' (N = 172) reports of their childhood experiences involving reward and punishment within their families to identify ideal perceptions of direct or indirect teaching style. The most consistent relationship of childhood experience with reward and punishment and perceived teaching style was between the reward…

  3. A preliminary study of 24-hour post-cesarean patient controlled analgesia: postoperative pain reports and morphine requests/utilization are greater in abstaining smokers than non-smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marco, Alan P; Greenwald, Mark K; Higgins, Michael S

    2005-06-01

    Previous clinical studies have not examined the relationship between nicotine abstinence and opioid use for postoperative analgesia. This may be important because tobacco smokers are routinely required to abstain from smoking just before and during acute post-surgical recovery. This study investigated IV morphine self-administration [patient controlled analgesia (PCA)], subjective pain/drug effects and other measures during post-operative (elective Cesarean section) recovery. Seven females, selected to vary in nicotine use [4 non-using controls (CON), 3 users (NIC)], completed the protocol. Gender, time and type of surgery, and pre- and intra-operative medications were controlled. Subject assessments included the McGill Pain Questionnaire and the Profile of Mood States; drug effects were measured using the Addiction Research Center Inventory. Mean (M +/-SD) 24-hr morphine responding (button-pressing requests) was significantly higher for NIC (M=183+/-50) than CON (M=38+/-10). Weight-adjusted morphine use (mg/kg/24 hr) was significantly higher for NIC (M=1.80+/-0.23) than CON (M=0.64+/-0.14). Although the groups reported similar pain severity following morphine loading, NIC patients reported significantly greater pain severity than CON patients after 24 hr PCA. These preliminary data suggest that a history of nicotine use and/or short-term nicotine abstinence can modulate morphine use and analgesia during post-operative recovery. These procedures provide a model for studying patterns and determinants of analgesic self-administration in medical settings.

  4. Humor Styles and Leadership Styles: Community College Presidents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrica, Jennifer L.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between leadership styles (transformational, transactional, laissez-faire) and humor styles (affiliative, self-enhancing, aggressive, self-defeating) of community college presidents. Research has shown that humor and leadership styles are related and that humor may enhance interpersonal…

  5. Leadership Style: Attitudes and Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hersey, Paul; Blanchard, Kenneth H.

    1982-01-01

    Discusses significant differences between the Grid and Situational leadership styles. Examines the difference between attitudes and behaviors, gives examples, and explores the relationship between self-perception and leadership style. (CT)

  6. Style and creativity in design

    CERN Document Server

    Chan, Chiu-Shui

    2015-01-01

    This book looks at causative reasons behind creative acts and stylistic expressions. It explores how creativity is initiated by design cognition and explains relationships between style and creativity. The book establishes a new cognitive theory of style and creativity in design and provides designers with insights into their own cognitive processes and styles of thinking, supporting a better understanding of the qualities present in their own design.  An explanation of the nature of design cognition begins this work, with a look at how design knowledge is formulated, developed, structured and utilized, and how this utilization triggers style and creativity. The author goes on to review historical studies of style, considering a series of psychological experiments relating to the operational definition, degree, measurement, and creation of style. The work conceptually summarizes the recognition of individual style in products, as well as the creation of such styles as a process before reviewing studies on cr...

  7. Identity style and coping strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berzonsky, M D

    1992-12-01

    This study examined the relationship between identity style and strategies used to cope with stressors that potentially threaten one's sense of identity. Identity style refers to differences in the way individuals construct and revise or maintain their sense of identity. An informational style involves actively seeking out, evaluating, and utilizing self-relevant information. A normative style highlights the expectations and standards of significant others. A diffuse/avoidant style is characterized by procrastination and situation-specific reactions. Late-adolescent college subjects were administered measures of identity style, ways of coping with academic stressors, and test anxiety. Within this self-as-student context, subjects with diffuse and normative identity styles employed avoidant-oriented coping strategies (wishful thinking, distancing, and tension reduction). An informational style was associated with deliberate, problem-focused coping. Findings are discussed in terms of a process model of identity development.

  8. Styles and Voices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turkle, Sherry; Papert, Seymour

    1993-01-01

    Case studies of elementary school and college students are used to examine the different styles of approach taken to computer programing. Introduces the term "bricoleur" to describe programers who do not take a structured approach to programing. Discusses gender differences among programers. (MDH)

  9. Styles of success

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahlgaard, Jens Jørn; Nørgaard, Anders; Jakobsen, Søren

    1997-01-01

    Corporate success stories tend to emphasize the "great men" theory of history. But now a European research project established the managerial attributes that can turn an ordinary leader into one ideal for the pursuit of business excellence. The emergence of five leadership styles as crucial drivers...

  10. Policy in style

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huitema, Dave; Van Snellenberg, Ton

    Environmental policy directed at industry is changing course. 'Shared responsibility' and related concepts reflect the idea that industry and government can now work together to solve environmental problems. In our view, this change implies a shift towards a more consensual policy style. This is

  11. Policy in style

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huitema, D.; van Snellenberg, A.H.L.M.

    1999-01-01

    Environmental policy directed at industry is changing course. 'Shared responsibility' and related concepts reflect the idea that industry and government can now work together to solve environmental problems. In our view, this change implies a shift towards a more consensual policy style. This is

  12. Cultural Styles of Persuasion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenn, E. S.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    Offers an alternative methodology for studying persuasive strategies by examining the persuasive strategies selected by professional persuaders representing those cultures being studied. Analyzes the persuasive styles of United States, Soviet Union and Arab diplomats involved in international negotiations in the Security Council of the United…

  13. Creating a Leadership Style

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnici, Charles A.

    2011-01-01

    Many articles about school improvement talk about data-driven instruction and statistics. In the barrage of evaluative numbers, school leaders can forget that teaching and leading are arts, not sciences. Positive outcomes depend on the ambience of the school, which is a direct result of the leadership style of its principal and assistant…

  14. Perspective: Louisville Style

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lott, Debra

    2010-01-01

    Louisville, Kentucky is an eclectic town of architectural styles from Greek revival to Renaissance Revival to Post modernism, not to mention an entire street dedicated to artsy mom and pop stores. Louisville is second only to the New York City Soho district in terms of the number of its cast-iron facades. Many of these building's fronts have…

  15. Tigers with Artistic Style.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Maureen

    2003-01-01

    Presents an art lesson used with sixth-grade students in which they painted their school mascot (a tiger) in the style of a famous artist. Explains that students selected an artist, such as Andrew Wyeth or Edvard Munch. Describes how the students created their tigers. (CMK)

  16. Styles of Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camelia M. Cmeciu

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Styles of Communicationeste o nouărevistăinternaţionalăcare va fipublicatăanual de Facultatea detiinţe ale Comunicării, Universitatea„Danubius” din Galaţi, în colaborare cu Comitetul de Filologie al Academieidetiinţe din Polonia, filiala Wroclaw.

  17. Growing for wine style

    Science.gov (United States)

    An overview of grape metabolites from anabolism and catabolism during berry development, and their significance to different wine styles. For example, grape secondary metabolites, such as phenolics, have long been valuable for the organoleptic properties they impart to fruit and wine, but more recen...

  18. Childrearing style of anxiety-disordered parents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lindhout, Ingeborg; Markus, Monica; Hoogendijk, Thea; Borst, Sophie; Maingay, Ragna; Spinhoven, Philip; van Dyck, Richard; Boer, Frits

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated whether anxiety-disordered (AD) parents differ in their childrearing style from non-disordered parents. A clinical sample of 36 AD parents with children aged 6-18 was compared with a normal control sample of 36 parents. Childrearing was assessed through parent report and

  19. Comprehending APA Style through Manuscript Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Gabie E.; Eggleston, Tami J.

    2001-01-01

    Describes an activity designed to enhance undergraduate student comprehension of the American Psychological Association (APA) manual and style where students examined a poorly written paper for errors in relation to the APA guidelines. Reports the results of a study that tested the effectiveness of the activity. (CMK)

  20. The coping styles of adolescents with type 1 diabetes are associated with degree of metabolic control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graue, Marit; Wentzel-Larsen, Tore; Bru, Edvin; Hanestad, Berit Rokne; Søvik, Oddmund

    2004-06-01

    To systematically study the various coping styles in a population-based sample of adolescents with type 1 diabetes, exploring the association of different coping styles with metabolic control and adolescent self-reported diabetes-related quality of life. Of a total population of 116 adolescents with type 1 diabetes (age 13-18 years), 103 (89%) participated in the study, completing a questionnaire to obtain information on coping styles and perception of diabetes-specific quality of life. The mean age (+/-SD) was 14.9 +/- 1.6 years, diabetes duration 7.1 +/- 3.8 years, HbA(1c) 9.4 +/- 1.6%, and male-to-female ratio 52:51. There was a significant correlation between higher HbA(1c) values and higher degree of mental (r = 0.25, P < 0.05) and behavioral (r = 0.33, P < 0.01) disengagement and aggressive coping (r = 0.33, P < 0.01). Stepwise multiple regression analyses indicated that greater use of aggressive coping (P < 0.05) and behavioral disengagement (P < 0.05) were significantly related to increase in HbA(1c). Greater use of active coping (P < 0.05) was significantly related to a decrease in HbA(1c). Partial correlation analysis showed that lower scores on diabetes-specific quality of life were significantly related to greater use of emotion-focused coping (r = -0.22 to -0.49). Stepwise multiple regression analyses showed that greater use of mental disengagement was significantly related to lower degree of perceived diabetes-related impact. Poor metabolic control and lower degree of diabetes-related quality of life are associated with greater use of emotion-focused coping in adolescents with type 1 diabetes.

  1. Relationship of personal authoritarianism with parenting styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manuel, Laura

    2006-02-01

    This research investigated the relationship between the personality construct of right-wing authoritarianism and Baumrind's 1971 proposed parenting styles of authoritarian, authoritative, and permissive parenting. 68 youth ages 12-18 along with one of their parents participated. The children rated both parents on Buri's 1991 Parental Authority Questionnaire. One of the parents responded to Altemeyer's Right-Wing Authoritarian Scale. People with higher scores on Altemeyer's scale were more likely to prefer the authoritarian parenting style as their offspring reported (r = .33). Permissive parenting correlated negatively with the measure of authoritarianism as a personality variable (r = -.56).

  2. Leadership Styles and Their Consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warrick, D. D.

    1981-01-01

    Discusses leadership style theories and offers an integration of the theories by describing typical characteristics, skills, philosophies, and consequences associated with each major style. An experiential exercise is described which portrays the major styles and the productivity and satisfaction each is likely to produce. Nine figures accompany…

  3. Strategies for Bridging Learning Styles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birchman, J. A.; Sadowski, M. A.

    2007-01-01

    Regardless of the instrument used to determine learning styles, it is commonly accepted that people learn in different ways. As Professors, we tend to teach in a style that matches the way we ourselves learn. Tis may or may not match the learning styles of the students in our classroom. As Graphics educators, we cannot meet every student's…

  4. Parenting Style Transitions and Delinquency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Ryan D.; Mowen, Thomas J.

    2014-01-01

    Parenting style has been extensively analyzed as a contributor to juvenile delinquency in the criminological literature, but no research to date has assessed the prevalence of parenting style changes during adolescence or the influence of such parenting style changes on juvenile delinquency. Drawing from the life course theory, the results show…

  5. Style drift in private equity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cumming, D.; Fleming, G.; Schwienbacher, A.

    2009-01-01

    We introduce the concept of style drift to private equity investment. We present theory and evidence pertaining to style drifts in terms of a fund manager's stated focus on particular stages of entrepreneurial development. We develop a model that derives conditions under which style drifts are less

  6. Parenting styles and adolescents' achievement strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aunola, K; Stattin, H; Nurmi, J E

    2000-04-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the extent to which adolescents' achievement strategies are associated with the parenting styles they experience in their families. Three hundred and fifty-four 14-year-old adolescents completed a Strategy and Attribution Questionnaire and a family parenting style inventory. Analogous questionnaires were also completed by the adolescents' parents. Based on adolescents' report of the parenting styles, four types of families were identified: those with Authoritative, Authoritarian, Permissive, and Neglectful parenting styles. The results further showed that adolescents from authoritative families applied most adaptive achievement strategies characterized by low levels of failure expectations, task-irrelevant behaviour and passivity, and the use of self-enhancing attributions. Adolescents from neglectful families, in turn, applied maladaptive strategies characterized by high levels of task-irrelevant behaviour, passivity and a lack of self-enhancing attributions. The results provide a basis for understanding some of the processes by which parenting styles may influence adolescents' academic achievement and performance.

  7. [Kolb's learning styles in medical students].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borracci, Raúl A; Arribalzaga, Eduardo B

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this work was to study the relationship of Kolb's learning styles in academic success or failure in medical students. A prospective cohort study in 116 medical students of a private Argentine university was performed between March 2005 and March 2011. The follow-up included two cut-offs; during 2005-2006 the students' learning styles were determined and five years later, when individuals had to end their career, they were grouped into graduated, delayed or dropped status. At the end of the period, 50% of the students ended successfully, 24.1% abandoned and 25.9% was delayed. Learning styles were assimilator in 60.3% of cases, divergent in 14.7%, accommodator in 6.9%, convergent in 6.0% and undefined in 12.1%. In conclusion, the follow-up during the career demonstrated that convergent or undefined styles had a tendency to abandon the career, while delayed students had a more theoretical and reflexive style than successful individuals. The results observed in convergent students differed from other reports. This difference would be explained by a particular characteristic of the sample or by the teaching and evaluation profile of the university.

  8. Learning styles in vertically integrated teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brumpton, Kay; Kitchener, Scott; Sweet, Linda

    2013-10-01

    With vertical integration, registrars and medical students attend the same educational workshops. It is not known whether these learners have similar or different learning styles related to their level of education within the medical training schema. This study aims to collect information about learning styles with a view to changing teaching strategies. If a significant difference is demonstrated this will impact on required approaches to teaching. The VARK learning inventory questionnaire was administered to 36 general practice registrars and 20 medical students. The learning styles were compared as individuals and then related to their level of education within the medical training schema. Students had a greater preference for multimodal learning compared with registrars (62.5 per cent versus 33.3 per cent, respectively). More than half of the registrars preferred uni or bimodal learning modalities, compared with one-third of the medical students. The present workshop format based on visual and aural material will not match the learning needs of most learners. This small study has shown that the majority of medical students and registrars could have their learning preferences better met by the addition of written material to the workshop series. Surprisingly, a significantly larger number of medical students than registrars appeared to be broadly multimodal in their learning style, and this warrants further research. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Relation between birth order and interpersonal styles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro de Oliveira Magalhães

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Interpersonal style is an aspect of personality related to the particular way individuals participate and gain influence in social contexts. It has its origin in childhood’s first social interactions within the family group. It is suggested that the individual position in the family structure, namely birth order, is an important variable in this process. The present study investigated combined effects of sex and birth order on interpersonal style. A sample of 435 college students (196 men and 239 women with ranging in age from 18 to 40 years (M = 23,3 answered the BASIS-A (Basic Adlerian Scales of Interpersonal Styles and a brief demographic questionnaire. Interactions between sex and birth order were found. Lastborn women showed greater tendency to search for success and social approval than firstborn women and lastborn men. Among men, lastborn revealed less need for social approval compared to firstborn and only children. First born men showed a higher need to attend social conventions and obtain success. The interaction between sex and birth order was relevant for the understanding of personality development in the context of family relations.   Keywords: birth order; interpersonal styles; personality.

  10. Anthropometry and somatotypes of competitive DanceSport participants: a comparison of three different styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liiv, H; Wyon, M; Jürimäe, T; Purge, P; Saar, M; Mäestu, J; Jürimäe, J

    2014-04-01

    Anthropometry in dance and aesthetic sports has been shown to play an important role in selection and performance criteria. The aim of the present study was to examine variations in somatotype and anthropometry in three different competitive dance styles: DanceSport Standard, Latin American and Ten Dance. Anthropometry and somatotype data were collected from thirty couples competing in Standard (n=24 individuals), Latin American (n=14) and Ten Dance (n=22) styles. A single tester (ISAK Level 1) carried out all anthropometric measurements using the Heath-Carter protocol and somatotypes were calculated using the Heath-Carter's decimal equations. Results indicated that the mean somatotype for the male dancers was 2.4-3.9-3.2, whilst for females it was 2.7-2.7-3.5. Factorial analysis reported Standard dancers scored significantly higher for ectomorphy, sitting height and arm span than Latin dancers (psomatotypes differ among DanceSport participants by dance style. Compared with other aesthetic sports, male and female dancers were less mesomorphic and more ectomorphic. Standard dancers tend to be more ectomorphic with greater height, longer arm span and greater sitting height compared with Latin American dancers. Although Standard dancers were ectomorphic, those dancers who had higher mesomorphic ranking had higher places in the dancers' international ranking. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  11. The relationships among separation anxiety disorder, adult attachment style and agoraphobia in patients with panic disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pini, Stefano; Abelli, Marianna; Troisi, Alfonso; Siracusano, Alberto; Cassano, Giovanni B; Shear, Katherine M; Baldwin, David

    2014-12-01

    Epidemiological studies indicate that separation anxiety disorder occurs more frequently in adults than children. It is unclear whether the presence of adult separation anxiety disorder (ASAD) is a manifestation of anxious attachment, or a form of agoraphobia, or a specific condition with clinically significant consequences. We conducted a study to examine these questions. A sample of 141 adult outpatients with panic disorder participated in the study. Participants completed standardized measures of separation anxiety, attachment style, agoraphobia, panic disorder severity and quality of life. Patients with ASAD (49.5% of our sample) had greater panic symptom severity and more impairment in quality of life than those without separation anxiety. We found a greater rate of symptoms suggestive of anxious attachment among panic patients with ASAD compared to those without ASAD. However, the relationship between ASAD and attachment style is not strong, and adult ASAD occurs in some patients who report secure attachment style. Similarly, there is little evidence for the idea that separation anxiety disorder is a form of agoraphobia. Factor analysis shows clear differentiation of agoraphobic and separation anxiety symptoms. Our data corroborate the notion that ASAD is a distinct condition associated with impairment in quality of life and needs to be better recognized and treated in patients with panic disorder. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Faculty application of the American Psychological Association style.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morse, Gwen Goetz

    2009-10-01

    This article explores current faculty methods with the application and evaluation of the American Psychological Association (APA) style. Specific aims were to determine concerns related to APA style, review faculty grading practices, identify institutional resources, and report potential solutions for improving application of APA style. A survey with an exploratory descriptive research design was developed and distributed online to academic chairs and deans, requesting their support in distributing the survey to their faculty. Responses (N = 704) were grouped into five categories: departmental and personal concerns; faculty grading practices; institutional resources; format, writing style, and grammar; and suggestions and potential solutions. Sixty percent reported that application and evaluation of APA style is a concern in their department. Content analysis identified four categories as proposed solutions: consistency, education, resources, and dialogue. On the basis of the feedback of the participants, the CRED program is proposed for the issues that were identified. Copyright 2009, SLACK Incorporated.

  13. A Study of the Relationship between Cognitive Styles and Learning Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Changju

    2011-01-01

    This study focuses on the relationship between cognitive styles and learning strategies of 184 second-year English majors from the Foreign Language School of a university in Wuhan. In this study, quantitative data is presented. Two self-reported inventories are employed. Learning Style Survey is used to examine the learning styles of the…

  14. Exploring Cultural Effects on Teaching Styles of Chinese and American Professors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Ginny Q.; Moodie, Douglas R.; Wang, Bailing

    2015-01-01

    The current study examines cultural effects on college professors' teaching styles. Ninety-four Chinese university instructors participated in the study. A 40-item teaching style inventory was used in the study. The responses were compared with American professors' teaching styles reported by Grasha (2006). Results show that the Chinese…

  15. The role of parenting styles and teacher interactional styles in children's reading and spelling development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiuru, Noona; Aunola, Kaisa; Torppa, Minna; Lerkkanen, Marja-Kristiina; Poikkeus, Anna-Maija; Niemi, Pekka; Viljaranta, Jaana; Lyyra, Anna-Liisa; Leskinen, Esko; Tolvanen, Asko; Nurmi, Jari-Erik

    2012-12-01

    This study examined the associations between parenting styles, teacher interactional styles, and children's reading and spelling skills. The sample consisted of 864 Finnish-speaking children and their parents (864 mothers, 864 fathers) and teachers (N=123). Children's risk for reading disabilities and reader status were assessed in kindergarten. Children were also tested on reading and spelling skills in Grades 1 and 2. Parenting styles and teacher interactional styles were measured using parents' and teachers' self-reports in Grade 1. First, the results indicated that both an authoritative parenting style and authoritative teacher interactional style positively predicted children's spelling skill development. Second, authoritative parenting was particularly beneficial for the spelling skill development of children who were at risk for reading disabilities. Third, authoritative teaching promoted spelling skill development particularly among children who were nonreaders in kindergarten but had no risk for reading disabilities. Finally, some evidence was found that authoritative teaching could compensate for the negative impact of nonauthoritative parenting on reading development among kindergarten nonreaders. Copyright © 2012 Society for the Study of School Psychology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Put Your Style at Stake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnsen, Christian Garmann; Olaison, Lena; Meier Sørensen, Bent

    2017-01-01

    This article uses the concept of style to rethink sustainable entrepreneurship. Our point of departure is the conceptual distinction between organization as style made durable and entrepreneurship as the disruption of style. We show that style is not simply an aesthetic category, but rather what...... that sustainable entrepreneurship consists of making an environmentally friendly and socially conscious style durable, but also of disrupting such a style. In order to illustrate our argument, we use the example of the sustainable smartphone producer Fairphone. In conclusion, we argue that the concept of style may...... ties different social practices together. While organization makes the connections between social practices durable, entrepreneurship disrupts such patterns. We further elucidate how organization and entrepreneurship are two intermingled processes – those of durability and disruption – that together...

  17. Managerial style in Spanish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dra. Cristina Etayo Pérez

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to study the management style of the Spanish advertising agencies. For this purpose, it explores the way in which the dimensions that define the nature of this concept arise in the sector chosen. The analysis begins with the definition of management style as concept followed by an exposition of its main functions and its fundamental dimensions. Then, the paper presents the methodology used to verify how these dimensions appear among managers as well as the results obtained during the fieldwork. Such methodology includes the achievement of in-depth interviews, with the help of a questionnaire of semi-structured questions, and the descriptive analysis of qualitative and quantitative information obtained from those interviews. The revision of these aspects enriches the study of management at the advertising agencies since it contributes to understand why certain actions have as a consequence one particular kind of relationship between directors and collaborators or another.

  18. New Oxford style manual

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    The New Oxford Style Manual brings together two essential reference works in a single volume: New Hart's Rules and the New Oxford Dictionary for Writers and Editors. New Hart's Rules, Oxford's definitive guide to style, consists of 20 chapters that provide authoritative and expert advice on how to prepare copy for publication. Topics covered include how to use italic, roman, and other type treatments, numbers and dates, law and legal references, illustrations, notes and references, and bibliographies. The guidelines are complemented by the New Oxford Dictionary for Writers and Editors, which features 25,000 alphabetically arranged entries giving authoritative advice on those words and names which raise questions time and time again because of spelling, capitalization, hyphenation, or cultural and historical context. Entries give full coverage of recommended spellings, variant forms, confusable words, hyphenation, capitalization, foreign and specialist terms, proper names, and abbreviations. The dictionary a...

  19. Bus transport in Greater Manchester

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Claus Hedegaard; Gudmundsson, Henrik

    is that ‘organisation matters’ and that the reforms may have changed significantly the institutional conditions for the implementation of sustainable transport policies and easures. We have focused the research on public transport in larger cities and how their organisation has changed due to the reforms. At the NECTAR......, and will be elaborated by the time of the NECTAR workshop in May: • Deregulation and privatisation have not changed negative trends in modal split in Greater Manchester, but likely made it worse at least compared to London. • Deregulation and privatisation have worsened conditions for a greening of the bus fleets...

  20. Reported maladaptive decision-making in unipolar and bipolar depression and its change with treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Lara F; Oliver, Alison; Burdine, Lauren K; Tang, Yilang; Dunlop, Boadie W

    2017-11-01

    Mood disorder patients frequently experience difficulty making decisions and may make sub-optimal decisions with adverse life consequences. However, patients' styles for decision-making when ill and after treatment have received little study to date. We assessed healthy controls (HC, n = 69) and patients with major depressive disorder (MDD, n = 61) or bipolar disorder (BP, n = 26) in a current major depressive episode using the Melbourne Decision-making Questionnaire. A subset of participants was re-evaluated after completing six weeks of pharmacotherapy. HC demonstrated significantly greater use of the healthy vigilance style, and significantly lower use of maladaptive decision-making styles, than the MDD and depressed BP patients. After six weeks of treatment, neither the MDD nor BP patients reported meaningful improvements in the vigilance style of decision-making, but scores on most maladaptive decision-making styles declined. BP patients who remitted reported significantly lower buckpassing and procrastination scores than healthy controls. Among MDD patients, however, the maladaptive passive buckpassing style of decision-making did not significantly diminish. For MDD patients, reported decision-making styles may remain impaired even after achieving remission. Among BP patients, low levels of adaptive vigilance decision-making may be a trait component of the illness, whereas for MDD patients, reported maladaptive passive decision-making styles are persistent. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. XML Style Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-01

    Transfer Standard URI uniform resource identifier W3C World Wide Web Consortium XML extensible markup language XSD XML schema definition XML Style...XML Overview The XML standard is a specification produced by the World Wide Web Consortium ( W3C ), whose original intent was to provide a machine...15, July 2015 10 Figure 7. IHAL Use Schema Modularity and Composability 4.2 Schema Format Define the schema according to the W3C XML schema

  2. Parenting styles and economics

    OpenAIRE

    Zilibotti, Fabrizio

    2015-01-01

    Does the economy influence the way people bring up their children? How can we determine and measure a child’s utility? How can parenting styles be categorized in an economic model? These are the questions that Professor Fabricio Zilibotti of the University of Zurich addressed in his honorary lecture ‘Parenting with Style’, which he delivered at the April International Academic Conference during the 5th LCSR international workshop ‘Social and Cultural Changes in Cross-National Perspective: Sub...

  3. Rondocubism versus National Style

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hnídková, Vendula

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available There is a range of various terms used to refer to architectural production from the period after the First World War, among the most common being 'Rondocubism' and the 'National Style'. The terminological ambiguity clearly points to the problem with the very character of the style of expression that lies behind these diverse labels. In the 1920s, figures of the interwar avant-garde were already sharply critical of the post-war decorative style, the leading figures of which were the architects Pavel Janák and Josef Gočár. While this negative stigma was later overcome, following several thematic studies, it is still possible to look for other inspiring sources outside aesthetic categories that were directed at clarifying this theme. Extensive social projects had architects employed in all sorts of artistic activities, and therefore a possible answer to what the essence of the style was is offered by the wider political and cultural context. After the foundation of the Czechoslovak Republic, the former protagonists of architectural Cubism and their colleagues from the Czechoslovak Workshop Association, Artěl and the School of Decorative Arts attained such social standing that they could effectively influence local artistic development. Through the individual conception applied to official commissions they created a visual identity of the new state system. As is apparent from their theoretical writings, they found their sources of information for ornamental decoration of buildings and craft artefacts by bonding with local tradition. This did not of course mean directly borrowing from folk-art prototypes. Advanced forms of national art were intended to help establish Czechoslovakia in the international scene and were also a conscious attempt through a more folkish form of expression to appeal to the wider strata of the population.

  4. Framing Gangnam Style

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyunsun Catherine Yoon

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the way in which news about Gangnam Style was framed in the Korean press. First released on 15th July 2012, it became the first video to pass two billion views on YouTube. 400 news articles between July 2012 and March 2013 from two South Korean newspapers - Chosun Ilbo and Hankyoreh were analyzed using the frame analysis method in five categories: industry/economy, globalization, cultural interest, criticism, and competition. The right-left opinion cleavage is important because news frames interact with official discourses, audience frames and prior knowledge which consequently mediate effects on public opinion, policy debates, social movement and individual interpretations. Whilst the existing literature on Gangnam Style took rather holistic approach, this study aimed to fill the lacuna, considering this phenomenon as a dynamic process, by segmenting different stages - recognition, spread, peak and continuation. Both newspapers acknowledged Gangnam Style was an epochal event but their perspectives and news frames were different; globalization frame was most frequently used in Chosun Ilbo whereas cultural interest frame was most often used in Hankyoreh. Although more critical approaches were found in Hankyoreh, reflecting the right-left opinion cleavage, both papers lacked in critical appraisal and analysis of Gangnam Style’s reception in a broader context of the new Korean Wave.

  5. Identity styles, positive youth development, and civic engagement in adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crocetti, Elisabetta; Erentaitė, Rasa; Zukauskienė, Rita

    2014-11-01

    Identity formation is a core developmental task of adolescence. Adolescents can rely on different social-cognitive styles to seek, process, and encode self-relevant information: information-oriented, normative, and diffuse-avoidant identity styles. The reliance on different styles might impact adolescents' adjustment and their active involvement in the society. The purpose of this study was to examine whether adolescents with different identity styles report differences in positive youth development (analyzed with the Five Cs-Competence, Confidence, Character, Connection, and Caring-model) and in various forms of civic engagement (i.e., involvement in school self-government activities, volunteering activities, youth political organizations, and youth non-political organizations). The participants were 1,633 (54.1 % female) 14-19 year old adolescents (M age = 16.56, SD age = 1.22). The findings indicated that adolescents with different identity styles differed significantly on all the Five Cs and on two (i.e., involvement in volunteering activities and in youth non-political organizations) forms of civic engagement. Briefly, adolescents with an information-oriented style reported high levels of both the Five Cs and civic engagement; participants with a normative style reported moderate to high scores on the Five Cs but low rates of civic engagement; diffuse-avoidant respondents scored low both on the Five Cs and on civic engagement. These findings suggest that the information-oriented style, contrary to the diffuse-avoidant one, has beneficial effects for both the individual and the community, while the normative style has quite beneficial effects for the individual but not for his/her community. Concluding, adolescents with different identity styles display meaningful differences in positive youth development and in rates of civic engagement.

  6. Practiced musical style shapes auditory skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuust, Peter; Brattico, Elvira; Seppänen, Miia; Näätänen, Risto; Tervaniemi, Mari

    2012-04-01

    Musicians' processing of sounds depends highly on instrument, performance practice, and level of expertise. Here, we measured the mismatch negativity (MMN), a preattentive brain response, to six types of musical feature change in musicians playing three distinct styles of music (classical, jazz, and rock/pop) and in nonmusicians using a novel, fast, and musical sounding multifeature MMN paradigm. We found MMN to all six deviants, showing that MMN paradigms can be adapted to resemble a musical context. Furthermore, we found that jazz musicians had larger MMN amplitude than all other experimental groups across all sound features, indicating greater overall sensitivity to auditory outliers. Furthermore, we observed a tendency toward shorter latency of the MMN to all feature changes in jazz musicians compared to band musicians. These findings indicate that the characteristics of the style of music played by musicians influence their perceptual skills and the brain processing of sound features embedded in music. © 2012 New York Academy of Sciences.

  7. Parenting Style as a Moderator for Students' Academic Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishak, Zahari; Low, Suet Fin; Lau, Poh Li

    2012-08-01

    Parenting styles have always been a crucial factor in influencing all aspects of a person's development. The purpose of this study is to test the structural equation model of academic achievement among the students using parenting styles as a moderator. The sample comprised 493 students from eight schools. Parenting styles are determined using the Parental Authority Questionnaire (Buri in J Pers Assess 57:110-119, 1991). Academic achievement is measured based on the students' performance in the Lower Secondary Assessment. Data were analyzed using structural equation modelling. Results demonstrated that model of authoritative and model of authoritarian fit the data of this study well. Both authoritative and authoritarian parenting styles are the most common practice of the parents. Parenting styles have been found to be a moderator of this study. The results indicated that parenting styles moderated the effect of academic self-concept on academic achievement. The impact of academic self-concept on academic achievement is found to be greater for the authoritative than the authoritarian parenting style.

  8. Trait Verbal Aggressiveness and Argumentativeness: Relations with Parenting Style.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayer, Cherie L.; Cegala, Donald J.

    1992-01-01

    Finds that persons scoring positively on argumentativeness and negatively on aggressiveness reported behaviors consistent with the authoritative parenting style and that negative argumentativeness and positive aggressiveness is associated with the authoritarian prototype. (SR)

  9. Nursing Students’ Preferred Learning Styles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sh Salehi

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Background and purpose: Learning style is the processing of information and comprehension. If teachers present contents in a style that matches a student’s preferred learning style, academic performance and success will improve. If content retention improves it will result in an increase in thetest scores. It is also important to determine if students, as a group, fit into a particular style or a particular cycle as they move through an educational program.Methods: The study is a descriptive analytical research. Nursing Students at Isfahan Medical Sciences University completed a questionnaire  formulated to assess learning styles. Analysis of variance was used to investigate the possible relationship between learning cycle and student’s grades in the curriculum (i.e. freshman, sophomore, junior, or senior. Cross tabulation was used to test for a relationship between learning style and student academic year of study in the curriculum.Results: 294 students received the Kolb LSI questionnaire. The data demonstrated that juniors preferred a converger learning style and the senior students were in the abstract conceptualization cycle of learning. There were no relationships demonstrated between other groups in the study.Conclusion: The junior and senior students appear to prefer the stage of learning involving thinking and problem analysis. When a group of students demonstrate a preference for particular learning style teachers can develop their curriculum along their learning styleKey words: LEARNING STYLES, NURSING STUDENTS, FRESHMAN, SOPHOMORE, JUNIOR, SENIOR

  10. Entrepreneurs` Cognitive and Decision Making Styles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Motvaseli

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this study is to explore the relation between decision-making styles which are measured by the General decision-making style (GDMS test and information processing styles which are often termed cognitive styles and are, in this study, measured by Cognitive Style Inventory. The authors directed a survey research on 162 Iranian students. Structural equation modeling techniques were used to measure the impact of cognitive styles on decision-making styles. The authors found that cognitive styles have a positive impact on decision-making styles. In spite of the abundant research on factors that affect decision-making styles, few researches have tested the relationship between cognitive styles and decision-making styles. This study examines the impact of cognitive styles on decision-making styles in Iran. This study, like most research paper studies, cannot easily be generalized. Furthermore, the results of this study could be affected by economic conditions.

  11. Racial differences in parenting style typologies and heavy episodic drinking trajectories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Trenette T; Yang, Chongming; McClernon, F Joseph; Fuemmeler, Bernard F

    2015-07-01

    This study examines racial differences between Whites and Blacks in the association of parenting style typologies with changes in heavy episodic drinking from adolescence to young adulthood. The analytic sample consists of 9,942 adolescents drawn from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, which followed respondents from ages 12 to 31 years. Confirmatory factor analysis and factor mixture modeling are used to classify parenting style typologies based on measures of parental acceptance and control. Heavy Episodic Drinking (HED) trajectories are evaluated using a zero-inflated Poisson multigroup latent growth curve modeling approach. The mixture model identified 4 heterogeneous groups that differed based on the 2 latent variables (parental acceptance and control): balanced (65.8% of the sample), authoritarian (12.2%), permissive (19.4%), and uninvolved or neglectful (2.7%). Regardless of race, we found that at age 12 years, children of authoritarian parents have a higher probability of not engaging in HED than children of parents with balanced, permissive, or neglectful parenting styles. However, among Black youth who reported HED at age 12, authoritarian parenting was associated with greater level of HED at age 12 but a less steep increase in level of HED as age increased yearly as compared with balanced parenting. For White adolescents, uninvolved, permissive, and authoritarian parenting were not associated with a greater level of HED as age increased yearly as compared with adolescents exposed to balanced parenting. The influence of parenting styles on HED during adolescence persists into young adulthood and differs by race for youth engaging in HED. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.

  12. Racial Differences in Parenting Style Typologies and Heavy Episodic Drinking Trajectories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Trenette T.; Yang, Chongming; McClernon, F. Joseph; Fuemmeler, Bernard

    2014-01-01

    Objective This study examines racial differences between Caucasians and African Americans in the association of parenting style typologies with changes in heavy episodic drinking from adolescence to young adulthood. Methods The analytic sample consists of 9,942 adolescents drawn from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, which followed respondents from ages 12 to 31 years. Confirmatory factor analysis and factor mixture modeling are used to classify parenting style typologies based on measures of parental acceptance and control. HED trajectories are evaluated using a zero-inflated Poisson multigroup latent growth curve modeling approach. Results The mixture model identified four heterogeneous groups that differed based on the two latent variables (parental acceptance and control): balanced (65.8% of the sample), authoritarian (12.2%), permissive (19.4%), and uninvolved/neglectful (2.7%). Regardless of race, we found that at age 12 years, children of authoritarian parents have a higher probability of not engaging in HED than children of parents with balanced, permissive, or neglectful parenting styles. However, among African American youth who reported HED at age 12, authoritarian parenting was associated with greater level of HED at age 12 but a less steep increase in level of HED as age increased yearly as compared with balanced parenting. For Caucasian adolescents, uninvolved, permissive, and authoritarian parenting were not associated with a greater level of HED as age increased yearly as compared with adolescents exposed to balanced parenting. Conclusion The influence of parenting styles on HED during adolescence persists into young adulthood and differs by race for youth engaging in HED. PMID:25222086

  13. Kinematic analysis of three water polo front crawl styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Jesus, Karla; Figueiredo, Pedro; De Jesus, Kelly; Pereira, Filipa; Vilas-Boas, J Paulo; Machado, Leandro; Fernandes, Ricardo J

    2012-01-01

    During water polo matches, players use different front crawl styles. The purpose of this study was to conduct a kinematic analysis of three water polo front crawl styles: front crawl with head under water, front crawl with head above water, and front crawl when leading the ball. Ten proficient water polo players performed 3 × 15 m sprints in each front crawl style, which were recorded three-dimensionally by two surface and four underwater cameras. The results showed no differences in performance and several kinematic characteristics among the water polo front crawl styles. However, front crawl when leading the ball showed shorter stroke length and greater stroke frequency. Front crawl with head underwater presented greater maximal finger depth and elbow angle at mid-stroke position. Front crawl with head above water and when leading the ball showed greater trunk obliquity and maximal depth of right and left foot, and shorter kick stroke frequency. The findings suggest that proficient players learn to master front crawl with head above water to achieve top velocity. Despite the common use of the front crawl with head underwater as the basis for water polo fast displacement, coaches should emphasize the use of the specific water polo styles to attain high performance.

  14. Parenting styles, feeding styles and food-related parenting practices in relation to toddlers? eating styles: A cluster-analytic approach

    OpenAIRE

    van der Horst, Klazine; Sleddens, Ester F. C.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Toddlers? eating behaviors are influenced by the way parents interact with their children. The objective of this study was to explore how five major constructs of general parenting behavior cluster in parents of toddlers. These parenting clusters were further explored to see how they differed in the use of feeding strategies (i.e. feeding styles and food parenting practices) and by reported child eating styles. Methods An online survey with 1005 mothers/caregivers (legal guardian...

  15. Relation of parenting styles, feeding styles and feeding practices to child overweight and obesity. Direct and moderated effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbs-Tait, Laura; Dickin, Katherine L; Sigman-Grant, Madeleine; Jahns, Lisa; Mobley, Amy R

    2013-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the direct and interacting relations of parenting styles, feeding styles, and feeding practices to child overweight and obesity. Participants were 144 mothers and children under 6 years of age. Mothers completed questionnaires about parenting and feeding styles and feeding practices. Researchers weighed and measured mothers and children or obtained measurements from a recent health report. Feeding practices were not directly related to child weight status. Compared to the uninvolved feeding style, authoritative and authoritarian feeding style categories were linked to lower odds of overweight. Feeding practices interacted with authoritative and authoritarian parenting styles to predict obesity: (1) healthful modeling was associated with 61% (OR = 0.39) reduced odds of obesity in children of authoritative mothers but with 55% (OR = 1.55) increased odds in children of non-authoritative mothers and (2) covert control was linked to 156% (OR = 2.56) increased odds of obesity in children of authoritarian mothers but with 51% (OR = 0.49) decreased odds in children of non-authoritarian mothers. Healthful modeling interacted with feeding style demandingness to predict overweight and with responsiveness to predict obesity. Findings suggest the need for research and interventions on mechanisms mediating between feeding practices and obesity in families characterized by non-authoritative parenting styles. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  16. Does learning style influence academic performance in different forms of assessment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Tracey; Boohan, Mairead; Stevenson, Michael

    2014-03-01

    Educational research on learning styles has been conducted for some time, initially within the field of psychology. Recent research has widened to include more diverse disciplines, with greater emphasis on application. Although there are numerous instruments available to measure several different dimensions of learning style, it is generally accepted that styles differ, although the qualities of more than one style may be inherent in any one learner. But do these learning styles have a direct effect on student performance in examinations, specifically in different forms of assessment? For this study, hypotheses were formulated suggesting that academic performance is influenced by learning style. Using the Honey and Mumford Learning Style Questionnaire, learning styles of a cohort of first year medical and dental students at Queen's University Belfast were assessed. Pearson correlation was performed between the score for each of the four learning styles and the student examination results in a variety of subject areas (including anatomy) and in different types of assessments - single best answer, short answer questions and Objective Structured Clinical Examinations. In most of the analyses, there was no correlation between learning style and result and in the few cases where the correlations were statistically significant, they generally appeared to be weak. It seems therefore from this study that although the learning styles of students vary, they have little effect on academic performance, including in specific forms of assessment. © 2013 Anatomical Society.

  17. Process modeling style

    CERN Document Server

    Long, John

    2014-01-01

    Process Modeling Style focuses on other aspects of process modeling beyond notation that are very important to practitioners. Many people who model processes focus on the specific notation used to create their drawings. While that is important, there are many other aspects to modeling, such as naming, creating identifiers, descriptions, interfaces, patterns, and creating useful process documentation. Experience author John Long focuses on those non-notational aspects of modeling, which practitioners will find invaluable. Gives solid advice for creating roles, work produ

  18. The Effects of Mood, Cognitive Style, and Cognitive Ability on Implicit Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pretz, Jean E.; Totz, Kathryn Sentman; Kaufman, Scott Barry

    2010-01-01

    In an experiment with 109 undergraduates, we examined the effect of mood, cognitive style, and cognitive ability on implicit learning in the Artificial Grammar (AG) and Serial Reaction Time (SRT) tasks. Negative mood facilitated AG learning, but had no significant effect on SRT learning. Rational cognitive style predicted greater learning on both…

  19. Nurse Leadership Style, Nurse Satisfaction, and Patient Satisfaction: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCay, Rebecca; Lyles, Annmarie A; Larkey, Linda

    2017-12-20

    The purpose of this systematic review was to synthesize current evidence on nursing leadership styles, nurse satisfaction, and patient satisfaction. Results suggest that relational leadership traits contribute to greater nurse satisfaction whereas task-oriented styles may decrease nurse satisfaction. Minimal information for the connection between nursing leadership and patient satisfaction was found.

  20. Greater Trochanter Tuberculosis : MRI Findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    My Youssef Alaoui Lamrani

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis has been reported in almost all bones of body. The great trochanter tuberculosis (GTT installation is insidious and clinical symptoms are often vague with moderate painful swelling and stiffness. GTT is about 0,2 to 2% of all osteo-articular tuberculosis, occurring most commonly by hematogenous seeding secondary to primary focus elsewhere, more commonly in the lungs. Isolated GTT is unusual and thus its awareness is slow and diagnosis is often delayed.

  1. Parenting style and adolescent fruit consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kremers, Stef P J; Brug, Johannes; de Vries, Hein; Engels, Rutger C M E

    2003-08-01

    The importance of the social environment for dietary behaviour has been highlighted in the past decade. A type of environmental influence that has received increasing research attention in recent years is the influence that parents can have on their children's dietary behaviour through food-related parenting practices. Much of the work done so far, however, has reported inconsistent findings and poorly understood mechanisms of influence. The present study aimed to explore the possible environmental influence of general parenting style on adolescent food choice patterns. Data were collected at schools (N=643; mean age 16.5 years), using self-administered questionnaires on parenting style, fruit intake behaviour and fruit-specific cognitions. Consistent and theoretically predictable differences were found between adolescents who described their parents as authoritative, authoritarian, indulgent or neglectful. Fruit consumption and fruit-specific cognitions were most favourable among adolescents who were being raised with an authoritative parenting style. Children of parents with indulgent parenting styles consumed more fruit than adolescents from authoritarian or neglectful homes. Consequences of these results for the interpretation of earlier studies on the influence of parenting practices are discussed, and a research model is proposed for future studies of parental influences on adolescent dietary behaviours.

  2. Style in science communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucchi, Massimiano

    2013-11-01

    There is little doubt that during the past few decades science communication efforts aimed at non-expert audiences have increased in quantity and intensity on a global scale. Public engagement and outreach activities have now become a routine - when not a prominent - feature for several research institutions in Europe. However, it would be difficult for both scholars and those involved in science communication to agree on the impact of these activities, on the long-term implications of the 'science communication movement' and on the indicators we should develop and employ in order to assess impact. The paper argues that quality is a relevant issue and challenge for contemporary science communication. Style is relevant to addressing that challenge, insofar as it relates to discussions about how to strengthen the quality of science communication, suggesting a different perspective other than the traditional normative/prescriptive framework. The notion of style also fruitfully connects the debate on science communication with a rich tradition of studies in the history and sociology of science.

  3. Ward leadership styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, G

    1989-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to devise a leadership style scale based in the authoritarian/democratic concept of leadership and to test it with a group of nurses. The working hypothesis was that nurses, working by primary nursing methods, would have a more democratic attitude to leadership than those nurses working in a traditional task allocation system. Recent papers such as that of Henry & Tuxill (1) plead for the caring professions to take on board the concept of the 'person'. Not only is the traditional model of nursing care seen as bad for the patient; it is seen also as harmful to the nurses. Fretwell (2) describes the task system as essentially an industrial model rather than a professional one which tends to satisfy the needs of the doctor rather than the patient or nurse. Kinston (3) describes nursing decision-making and work as Level I work (tradesmen). Current models of care that individualize the nurse's response to work and decision-making become Level II type (professional). Primary nursing fulfils the need for professionalizing nursing and meeting the need for more independence as well as respecting the patient as a 'person' with the organisation there to facilitate interaction between qualified nurse and patient. Changes in attitude and relationships are essential if work is to change from task to person-centred. Styles of leadership in nurses need to alter as our orientation to care issues change (4).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  4. Traduction automatique et style (Machine Translation and Style).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loffler-Laurian, Anne-Marie

    1985-01-01

    Machine translation has been criticized for its inability to provide language style, but for specialized or technical texts, of which there are increasing numbers, machine translation with its obligatory post-editing may be effective, and the "style" of these translations may be a reflection of the error patterns caught in post-editing. (MSE)

  5. Coping Styles of Learning Disabled Adolescents and Their Parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shulman, Shmuel; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Coping styles of 50 learning-disabled and non-learning-disabled adolescents and their parents were compared. Learning-disabled adolescents showed less ability to appraise a source of stress and to seek information about their stressful situations and showed greater pessimism about academic concerns. Coping patterns of parents did not clearly…

  6. Structure of the style and pollen tube pathway in the Ziziphoid and Rhamnoid clades of Rhamnaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotelli, Marina M; Galati, Beatriz G; Zarlavsky, Gabriela; Medan, Diego

    2017-09-14

    The ultrastructure of the style and pollen tube pathway before, during and after anthesis were studied in 13 species belonging to the tribes Pomaderreae, Paliureae, Colletieae and Gouanieae (Ziziphoid clade) and Rhamneae (Rhamnoid clade) using light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The aim of this study is to provide new morphological characters useful for phylogenetic analysis at suprageneric level in Rhamnaceae. The patterns of pollen tube growth and the ultrastructural changes undergone by cells of the style were also described. Species of Rhamneae (Scutia buxifolia and Condalia buxifolia) have a solid style, with the transmitting tissue forming three independent strands (S. buxifolia) or a central, single horseshoe-shaped strand as seen in transversal section (C. buxifolia) which could derive from the fusion of formerly independent strands. In contrast, Pomaderreae, Gouanieae and Paliureae showed semi-solid styles, while in Colletieae, as previously reported, the style is hollow with two or three stylar canals. The style anatomy and the ultrastructure of the pollen tube pathway show that there is a tendency towards a solid style with a single strand of transmitting tissue within the family. The three-canalled hollow style could be the plesiomorphic state of the character "type of style" in the family, the semi-solid style the synapomorphic state and the solid style with three strands of transmitting tissue the apomorphic state, with the solid style with a single strand of transmitting tissue as the most derived state. Therefore, Colletieae would be the most basal tribe of the Ziziphoid clade.

  7. Musical Preferences are Linked to Cognitive Styles

    OpenAIRE

    Greenberg, David M.; Simon Baron-Cohen; Stillwell, David J.; Michal Kosinski; Rentfrow, Peter J.

    2015-01-01

    Why do we like the music we do? Research has shown that musical preferences and personality are linked, yet little is known about other influences on preferences such as cognitive styles. To address this gap, we investigated how individual differences in musical preferences are explained by the empathizing-systemizing (E-S) theory. Study 1 examined the links between empathy and musical preferences across four samples. By reporting their preferential reactions to musical stimuli, samples 1 and...

  8. Life Style Assessment: So What!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubry, William E.

    The construct life style was used by Alfred Adler to describe the characteristic way in which individuals act and think. Followers of his theories are now collecting evidence to support or validate his contentions. The assessment of client life styles serves: (1) to make the client aware of his misconceptions, (2) as a reference point for therapy,…

  9. Learning Styles and Native Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browne, Dauna Bell

    1990-01-01

    Reviews 5 models of learning or cognitive styles and the concept of brain hemispheric functions. Discusses the right hemisphere dominant learning style of many Native American children. Presents points to consider when modifying curricula or designing a reading program aimed at all learners. Contains 19 references. (SV)

  10. A positive view on road safety: Can 'car karma' contribute to safe driving styles?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleisen, Lucienne M B

    2013-01-01

    Many studies in the field of road safety are occupied with studying road unsafety since it generally concentrates on traffic crashes, crash, risk, and aberrant driving behaviour, especially in relation to young drivers. However, this study shows there is scope for thinking about driving and driver training from a different vantage point, that is in terms of safe or normal driving. The findings are reported from four group interviews with young drivers (18-25 years of age); the young drivers discussed their ideas of safe driving and their reasons for using (or not using) safe driving styles. The data show a type of optimistic thinking among young drivers which they call 'car karma'. This finding offers an opportunity to reconceptualise driving in a way that is focused on normal, safe driving styles, a topic that has received less attention in the past. The paper argues that greater focus on safe driving styles could be more conducive to young drivers actually driving safely than focusing on, for instance, crashes, which on an individual level are relatively rare (Elander et al., 1993, p. 277). Based on empirical research, the first positively stated definition of road safety is proposed based on the notion of 'car karma'. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Intercultural conflict styles: literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Batkhina A.A.

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Analytical review of foreign psychological research on the international conflict styles is presented in this article. Intercultural conflict is understood as an interpersonal conflict between representatives of different cultures. The main models describing the intercultural conflict styles are analyzed: the dual concern model, the intercultural conflict styles inventory model, the face negotiation model. The publication provides a brief review of modern studies’ results of behavior predictors in the intercultural conflict; special attention is paid to the analysis of the influence of culture and intercultural communication apprehension on the choice of conflict styles. The importance of assessing the conflict styles effectiveness used in the situation of intercultural interaction is noted. In conclusion, unresolved problems and actual trends in the study of behavior in the intercultural conflict are designated.

  12. Parenting Style and the Timing of Jewish Adolescents’ Sexual Debut

    OpenAIRE

    Robby Etzkin; Rosemary V. Barnett; Suzanna Smith; Stuart E. Schwartz; Eboni J. Baugh

    2010-01-01

    Parenting style and its effect on the timing of Jewish adolescents’ sexual debuts were examined in the reported study. One hundred sixty-eight research participants between the ages of 18 and 22 from a large university in the Southeast participated in the study. A survey instrument was administered at three fraternities and two sororities to examine parenting style and sexual debut retrospectively. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, frequency chi square tests, and Analysis of V...

  13. Towards a Custom-Made Whistleblowing Policy. Using Grid-Group Cultural Theory to Match Policy Measures to Different Styles of Peer Reporting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loyens, Kim

    To be effective, whistleblowing policies should be adapted to the organisational culture. They need to be custom-made and not follow a one-size-fits-all logic, specifically when they are installed to stimulate responsible peer reporting, a highly sensitive and value-laden type of whistleblowing.

  14. Influence of Parenting Style on Children’s Behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samiullah Sarwar

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This research determined the influence of parents and their parenting styles on children’s behavior. The author examined different parenting styles to understand which style leads the children to be juvenile delinquent, that ultimately makes the children low academic achievers. In this paper, the researcher attempts to bring an original contribution through the identification of what is missing in the literature thus offering recommendations for future research on the role of parents in shaping the future of their children. Much research has been done on the role of parents in shaping the future of their children; however, more comprehensive research needs to be conducted on the role of parents and different parenting styles on their children’s behavior. A qualitative paradigm was preffered using in-depth interviews with two mothers of children with delinquent behavior. The findings revealed that authoritarian parenting style leads the children to become rebellious and adopt problematic behavior due tomore than necessary power exercised on children by parents. In contrast, authoritative parenting style is effective for children, as it encourages moderate parenting style. There is a demonstrated need reported in the literature that parents who spend maximum time with their children reduce the probability of developing delinquent behavior among their children. Spending more time together with the adolescents reciprocate through

  15. The Associations among Psychological Distress, Coping Style, and Health Habits in Japanese Nursing Students: A Cross-Sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akio Tada

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Nursing students in many countries have been reported to experience high levels of stress and psychological distress. Health habits could potentially mediate the association between coping styles and psychological status. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the mediation effect of health habits in the relationship between stress coping styles and psychological distress in Japanese nursing students. Methods: A total of 181 nursing students completed anonymous self-reported questionnaires comprised of the General Health Questionnaire-12 (GHQ-12, the Brief Coping Orientation questionnaire, and an additional questionnaire on health behavior. A mediation analysis using path analysis with bootstrapping was used for data analysis. Results: Multivariate linear regression analysis showed that psychological distress was significantly and positively associated with “Avoidance coping” (β = 0.39, p < 0.001, and was negatively associated with “Active coping” (β = −0.30, p < 0.001, “exercise habit” (β = −0.25, p = 0.001, and “sleeping” (β = −0.24, p = 0.002. In the path model, “Active coping” and “Avoidance coping” had significant or marginally significant associations with “exercise habits” (active: β = 0.19, p = 0.008, avoidance: β = −0.12, p = 0.088, and psychological distress (active: β = −0.25, p < 0.001, avoidance: β = 0.363, p < 0.001. However, these coping style variables did not have a significant association with “sleep”. In general, the size of the correlations was below 0.4. Conclusions: Exercise habits mediated the relationship between coping styles and psychological distress to a greater extent than sleep. The present study suggests the possibility that complex interactions between health habits and coping styles may influence the psychological status of nursing students.

  16. The relationship between teaching styles and motivation to teach among physical education teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hein, Vello; Ries, Francis; Pires, Francisco; Caune, Agnese; Heszteráné Ekler, Judit; Emeljanovas, Arunas; Valantiniene, Irena

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to investigate how teachers' motivation to teach is related to different teaching styles. A hundred and seventy six physical education teachers from five European countries participated in the study. Teachers' motivation was measured using an instrument developed by Roth et al., 2007 based on the Self-Determination Theory (Deci and Ryan, 1985) which was tested for suitability for use with physical education teachers. The use of teaching styles was assessed through teachers' self-reported data according to the description of teaching styles presented by Curtner-Smith et al., 2001. The revised confirmatory factor model of the teachers' motivation instrument, with three factors, met the criteria for satisfactory fit indices. The results showed that teachers were more intrinsically motivated to teach than externally. Cross-cultural comparison indicated that the Spanish teachers were more intrinsically motivated whilst Lithuanian teachers were more externally motivated than teachers from the other four countries. Teachers from all five countries reported a more frequent use of reproductive styles than productive styles. The results of the present study confirmed the hypotheses that teachers' autonomous motivation is related to the student-centered or productive teaching styles whilst non-autonomously motivated teachers adopt more teacher-centered or reproductive teaching styles. Intrinsic and introjected motivation was significantly higher among teachers who more frequently employed productive teaching styles than teachers who used them less frequently. Intrinsically motivated teachers using more productive teaching styles can contribute more to the promotion physical activity among students. PE teachers were more intrinsically motivated to teach than externally.Spanish PE teachers were more intrinsically motivated, whereas Lithuanian PE teachers were more externally motivated.Teachers from all five countries reported a more frequent use of reproductive

  17. Patient communication self-efficacy, self-reported illness symptoms, physician communication style and mental health and illness in hospital outpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capone, Vincenza

    2016-07-01

    In this cross-sectional study, we investigated the associations between patient communication self-efficacy and self-reported symptoms in doctor-patient communication, as perceived by patients, and the mental health and illness of hospital outpatients. Using data from a sample of 74 outpatients (mean age = 37.58 years, standard deviation = 12.54), a structural equation model was calculated. The results showed that communication self-efficacy and respectful behaviour were associated with mental health and illness. Furthermore, self-reported symptoms were correlated with mental illness. Gender and educational differences also occurred. The findings suggest that enhancing patients' communication skills could benefit outpatients in general, but female and less educated patients in particular. © The Author(s) 2014.

  18. Social support coping style predicts women's cortisol in the laboratory and daily life: the moderating role of social attentional biases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sladek, Michael R; Doane, Leah D; Jewell, Shannon L; Luecken, Linda J

    2017-01-01

    Social stress and associated coping responses can profoundly influence women's stress physiology and health. Implicit social attentional biases can also influence psychological and physiological stress responses. The purpose of this study was to explore whether a coping style characterized by greater use of social support predicts indices of cortisol activity in laboratory and daily life contexts among female university students. We hypothesized that the relation of this coping style to cortisol activity would be moderated by women's attentional biases. Seventy-four women (Mage = 19.44, range: 17.8-27.8, 64% White) completed an interpersonal stress task and an attentional bias task in the lab, along with a self-report coping inventory. Participants provided five saliva samples during the lab protocol, followed by three saliva samples per day for three consecutive weekdays. Outcome measures included cortisol response to lab tasks (AUCg), diurnal cortisol slope, diurnal AUCg, and cortisol awakening response (CARi). A coping style characterized by greater use of social support predicted lower lab AUCg and lower, flatter average diurnal cortisol slope for women with attentional avoidance compared to women with attentional vigilance (ps stress by using social support is linked to lower cortisol responses to social stress and diurnal cortisol activity for women with implicit avoidance of social threat cues.

  19. The Impact of Preceptor and Student Learning Styles on Experiential Performance Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Craig D.; Seifert, Charles F.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. To identify preceptors’ and students’ learning styles to determine how these impact students’ performance on pharmacy practice experience assessments. Methods. Students and preceptors were asked to complete a validated Pharmacist’s Inventory of Learning Styles (PILS) questionnaire to identify dominant and secondary learning styles. The significance of “matched” and “unmatched” learning styles between students and preceptors was evaluated based on performance on both subjective and objective practice experience assessments. Results. Sixty-one percent of 67 preceptors and 57% of 72 students who participated reported “assimilator” as their dominant learning style. No differences were found between student and preceptor performance on evaluations, regardless of learning style match. Conclusion. Determination of learning styles may encourage preceptors to use teaching methods to challenge students during pharmacy practice experiences; however, this does not appear to impact student or preceptor performance. PMID:23049100

  20. The impact of preceptor and student learning styles on experiential performance measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robles, Janie; Cox, Craig D; Seifert, Charles F

    2012-09-10

    To identify preceptors' and students' learning styles to determine how these impact students' performance on pharmacy practice experience assessments. Students and preceptors were asked to complete a validated Pharmacist's Inventory of Learning Styles (PILS) questionnaire to identify dominant and secondary learning styles. The significance of "matched" and "unmatched" learning styles between students and preceptors was evaluated based on performance on both subjective and objective practice experience assessments. Sixty-one percent of 67 preceptors and 57% of 72 students who participated reported "assimilator" as their dominant learning style. No differences were found between student and preceptor performance on evaluations, regardless of learning style match. Determination of learning styles may encourage preceptors to use teaching methods to challenge students during pharmacy practice experiences; however, this does not appear to impact student or preceptor performance.

  1. Commercial Integrated Heat Pump with Thermal Storage --Demonstrate Greater than 50% Average Annual Energy Savings, Compared with Baseline Heat Pump and Water Heater (Go/No-Go) FY16 4th Quarter Milestone Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Bo [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Baxter, Van D. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Rice, C. Keith [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Abu-Heiba, Ahmad [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-03-01

    For this study, we authored a new air source integrated heat pump (AS-IHP) model in EnergyPlus, and conducted building energy simulations to demonstrate greater than 50% average energy savings, in comparison to a baseline heat pump with electric water heater, over 10 US cities, based on the EnergyPlus quick-service restaurant template building. We also assessed water heating energy saving potentials using ASIHP versus gas heating, and pointed out climate zones where AS-IHPs are promising.

  2. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN NEGATIVE COGNITIVE STYLE AND DEPRESSION AMONG MEDICAL STUDENTS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perveen, Shagufta; Kazmi, Syeda Farhana; ur Rehman, Atiq

    2016-01-01

    Depression is one of the major problems faced by medical students, which have significant adverse effects on their social, academic and occupational functioning. The objectives of the study were to estimate the prevalence of depression and to explore the gender differences and interrelationship between the depression and negative cognitive style among medical students of First year (FY) Last year (LY) MBBS. A Cross sectional questionnaire based study was conducted in Ayub medical college Abbottabad; Khyber medical college Peshawar; Bannu medical college; Rawalpindi medical college; Punjab medical college Faisalabad and Allama Iqbal medical college Lahore, Pakistan. Applying stratified sampling technique a battery of questionnaires naming depression screening test, self-report depression scale and cognitive style questionnaire was filed by a sample of 1000 (first and last year) medical students. The data was analysed by SPSS 16. Positive relationship exists between depression and negative cognitive style (r = .57, p < .05) among medical students. Forty one percent male and 61% female students of FY and 58% males and 69% female of LY students exhibited depressive symptoms. Females have higher scores on cognitive style questionnaire t (998) = 3.70, p < .05, and depression t (998) = 4.28, p < .05. The t-test analysis also revealed that FY students were holding more negative cognitive style t (998) = 6.21, p < .05, whereas LY medical students to be more depressed t (998) = 5.43, p < .05. The study revealed significant distress among medical students. Negative cognitive style positively correlates with depression among medical students. Furthermore, it is noticed that among female students the prevalence of depressive symptoms and negative cognitive style was higher. Moreover, it is concluded that the prevalence of depression in LY and negative cognitive styles among FY was higher respectively. Students should be provided proper counselling to avoid and cope with faulty

  3. Measuring the style of innovative thinking among engineering students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passig, David; Cohen, Lizi

    2014-01-01

    Background: Many tools have been developed to measure the ability of workers to innovate. However, all of them are based on self-reporting questionnaires, which raises questions about their validity Purpose: The aim was to develop and validate a tool, called Ideas Generation Implementation (IGI), to objectively measure the style and potential of engineering students in generating innovative technological ideas. The cognitive framework of IGI is based on the Architectural Innovation Model (AIM). Tool description: The IGI tool was designed to measure the level of innovation in generating technological ideas and their potential to be implemented. These variables rely on the definition of innovation as 'creativity, implemented in a high degree of success'. The levels of innovative thinking are based on the AIM and consist of four levels: incremental innovation, modular innovation, architectural innovation and radical innovation. Sample: Sixty experts in technological innovation developed the tool. We checked its face validity and calculated its reliability in a pilot study (kappa = 0.73). Then, 145 undergraduate students were sampled at random from the seven Israeli universities offering engineering programs and asked to complete the questionnaire. Design and methods: We examined the construct validity of the tool by conducting a variance analysis and measuring the correlations between the innovator's style of each student, as suggested by the AIM, and the three subscale factors of creative styles (efficient, conformist and original), as suggested by the Kirton Adaptors and Innovators (KAI) questionnaire. Results: Students with a radical innovator's style inclined more than those with an incremental innovator's style towards the three creative cognitive styles. Students with an architectural innovator's style inclined moderately, but not significantly, towards the three creative styles. Conclusions: The IGI tool objectively measures innovative thinking among students

  4. Kauffman Teen Survey. An Annual Report on Teen Health Behaviors: Use of Alcohol, Tobacco, and Other Drugs among 8th-, 10th-, and 12th-Grade Students in Greater Kansas City, 1991-92 to 2000-01.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewing Marion Kauffman Foundation, Kansas City, MO.

    The Ewing Marion Kauffman Foundation began surveying Kansas City area teens during the 1984-85 school year. The Kauffman Teen Survey now addresses two sets of issues for teens. Teen Health Behaviors, addressed in this report, have been a focus of the survey since its inception. The report focuses on teen use of alcohol, tobacco, and other drugs in…

  5. Does tailoring instructional style to a medical student's self-perceived learning style improve performance when teaching intravenous catheter placement? A randomized controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papanagnou, Dimitrios; Serrano, Antonio; Barkley, Kaitlyn; Chandra, Shruti; Governatori, Nicholas; Piela, Nicole; Wanner, Gregory K; Shin, Richard

    2016-08-12

    Students may have different learning styles. It is unclear, however, whether tailoring instructional methods for a student's preferred learning style improves educational outcomes when teaching procedures. The authors sought to examine whether teaching to a student's self-perceived learning style improved the acquisition of intravenous (IV) catheter placement skills. The authors hypothesized that matching a medical student's preferred learning style with the instructor's teaching style would increase the success of placing an IV catheter. Using the VARK model (i.e., visual [V], auditory [A], read/write [R] and kinesthetic [K]), third-year medical students reported their self-perceived learning style and were subsequently randomized to instructors who were trained to teach according to a specific learning format (i.e., visual, auditory). Success was gauged by: 1) the placement of an IV on the first attempt and 2) the number of attempts made until an IV line was successfully placed. The average number of attempts in the matched learning style group was 1.53, compared to 1.64 in the unmatched learning style group; however, results were not statistically significant. Both matched and unmatched groups achieved a similar success rate (57 and 58 %, respectively). Additionally, a comparison of success between the unmatched and matched students within each learning style modality yielded no statistical significance. Results suggest that providing procedural instruction that is congruent with a student's self-perceived learning style does not appear to improve outcomes when instructing students on IV catheter placement.

  6. Anxiety levels in clinically referred children and their parents: examining the unique influence of self-reported attachment styles and interview-based reflective functioning in mothers and fathers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esbjørn, Barbara H; Pedersen, Signe H; Daniel, Sarah I F; Hald, Helle H; Holm, Jon M; Steele, Howard

    2013-11-01

    Although much is known about childhood anxiety disorders, the differential contributions by mothers and fathers to child anxiety is poorly understood. This study examined the relation between child anxiety and parental level of psychopathology, attachment style, and reflective functioning (RF). Thirty-eight clinically anxious children aged 7-12 years (55.3% female) referred for treatment and their parents (37 mothers, 34 fathers) participated in the study. Reflective functioning was coded based on Adult Attachment Interviews. Self-report questionnaires on attachment and psychopathology were administered. Paternal psychopathology, attachment avoidance, and attachment anxiety as well as maternal attachment anxiety were associated with child anxiety. Mothers had higher RF abilities than fathers. Lower levels of RF in mothers and higher levels of attachment avoidance in fathers explained 42% of the variance in anxiety levels of the child. Mothers and fathers may provide unique contributions to the development of child anxiety. The findings highlight the importance of considering fathers as well as mothers in research and treatment for childhood anxiety disorders. © 2013 The British Psychological Society.

  7. Changes in self-reported pre- to postinjury coping styles in the first 3 years after traumatic brain injury and the effects on psychosocial and emotional functioning and quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregório, Gisela Wolters; Gould, Kate R; Spitz, Gershon; van Heugten, Caroline M; Ponsford, Jennie L

    2014-01-01

    To examine the influence of self-reported preinjury coping on postinjury coping, psychosocial functioning, emotional functioning, and quality of life at 1 year following traumatic brain injury (TBI). Inpatient hospital and community. One hundred seventy-four participants with TBI. Prospective, longitudinal design. Participants were assessed at 5 time points: after emerging from posttraumatic amnesia, and at 6, 12, 24, and 36 months postinjury. Coping Scale for Adults-Short Version; Quality of Life Inventory; Sydney Psychosocial Reintegration Scale; Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. High preinjury use of nonproductive coping style predicted high use of nonproductive coping, more anxiety, and lower psychosocial functioning at 1 year postinjury. Increased use of nonproductive coping and decreased use of productive coping predicted poorer psychosocial outcome at 1 year post-TBI. Use of both productive and nonproductive coping decreased in the first 6 to 12 months post-TBI relative to preinjury. Unlike productive coping, nonproductive coping reached preinjury levels within 3 years postinjury. The findings support identification of individuals at risk of relying on nonproductive coping and poorer psychosocial outcome following TBI. In addition, the results emphasize the need to implement timely interventions to facilitate productive coping and reduce the use of nonproductive coping in order to maximize favorable long-term psychosocial outcome.

  8. A prospective cohort study examining the preferred learning styles of acute care registered nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCrow, Judy; Yevchak, Andrea; Lewis, Peter

    2014-03-01

    This paper reports on the preferred learning styles of Registered Nurses practicing in acute care environments and relationships between gender, age, post-graduate experience and the identified preferred learning styles. A prospective cohort study design was used. Participants completed a demographic questionnaire and the Felder-Silverman Index of Learning Styles (ILS) questionnaire to determine preferred learning styles. Most of the Registered Nurse participants were balanced across the Active-Reflective (n = 77, 54%), and Sequential-Global (n = 96, 68%) scales. Across the other scales, sensing (n = 97, 68%) and visual (n = 76, 53%) were the most common preferred learning style. There were only a small proportion who had a preferred learning style of reflective (n = 21, 15%), intuitive (n = 5, 4%), verbal (n = 11, 8%) or global learning (n = 15, 11%). Results indicated that gender, age and years since undergraduate education were not related to the identified preferred learning styles. The identification of Registered Nurses' learning style provides information that nurse educators and others can use to make informed choices about modification, development and strengthening of professional hospital-based educational programs. The use of the Index of Learning Styles questionnaire and its ability to identify 'balanced' learning style preferences may potentially yield additional preferred learning style information for other health-related disciplines. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Longitudinal associations between parenting style and adolescent disordered eating behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubatsky, Max; Berge, Jerica; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2015-06-01

    The main purpose of this study was to identify the longitudinal association between specific parenting styles (authoritarian, authoritative, permissive, and neglectful) and adolescent disordered eating behaviors. The current study uses longitudinal data from a 5-year study to examine the associations between parenting style and disordered eating behaviors among adolescents. Data from adolescents (n = 2516) participating in Project EAT (Eating Among Teens), a population-based study from 31 Minnesota schools, were used in the analysis. Time 1 data were collected using in-class assessments of adolescents from Minneapolis/St. Paul schools, and Time 2 data were collected using mailed surveys 5 years later. General Linear Models were used to predict adolescent-reported disordered eating behaviors at Time 2 from adolescent-reported parenting style at Time 1. Adolescent boys and girls who had authoritarian mothers at Time 1 had a higher probability of extreme weight control behaviors 5 years later compared to adolescents with authoritative, permissive, or neglectful mothers. Adolescent girls with authoritarian mothers at Time 1 had a higher probability of engaging in binge-eating behaviors at Time 2 compared to adolescent girls with authoritative or permissive mothers. There were no significant associations between paternal parenting style and adolescent disordered eating behaviors. Although authoritarian parenting style served as a possible risk factor for disordered eating behaviors in adolescents, the findings were not conclusive. Future studies should investigate further the association between parenting style and weight control behaviors in adolescents.

  10. Nevralgia do occipital maior associada a lesão osteolítica occipital: relato de caso Greater occipital neuralgia associated to an occipital osteolytic lesion: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ELCIO JULIATO PIOVESAN

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available A distribuição anatômica do nervo occipital maior durante o seu trajeto permite íntima relação com estruturas musculares, tendinosas, vasculares e ósseas. A quebra deste relacionamento pode originar a sua irritação e cefaléia. Descrevemos uma associação rara: sexo feminino; 50 anos; cefaléia com evolução de 2 anos; localizada em região occipital direita irradiando-se para região hemicrânica e supraorbitária direita; espontânea e ou desencadeada pela digito compressão sobre a região de emergência do nervo occipital maior ao nível do trapézio; duração de 30 minutos; compressiva; moderada intensidade; sem fenômenos autonômicos associados; sem resposta terapêutica com o bloqueio anestésico do nervo occipital maior. Investigação radiológica mostrou lesão osteolítica localizada e aderida ao nível da inserção do tendão do músculo trapézio. A melhora total dos sintomas após descompressão cirúrgica do nervo permite relacionar esta lesão aos sintomas álgicos apresentados, compatíveis com nevralgia do occipital maior.The anatomic distribution of the greater occipital nerve during its path permits a close relationship with muscular structures, tendons, vessels and bones. The rupture of this relationship can origin its irritation and headache. We describe an uncommon association between an osteolytic lesion on occipital bone and greater occipital nerve. The patient, female 50, has been presenting headache for two years on the right occipital region spreading to the hemicranic and ipsilateral supraorbital region. The symptoms started spontanously or by pressure on the trapezius tendon. The pain lasted about 30 minutes, compressive, mild intensity, with no autonomic symptoms and no improvement after the infiltration in the greater occipital nerve. The total improvement of the symptoms after releasing the nerve has allowed us to associate this lesion to the presence of algic symptoms.

  11. Revision of IAU Style Manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkins, G. A.

    The 1989 edition of the "IAU Style Manual" is in need of revision to reflect the changes in practice that have taken place since its preparation. These changes include the use of desk-top systems for the production of high-quality copy, the electronic transmission of text with embedded typesetting codes and the electronic publication of papers and reports, which may contain numerical data and images. The Manual should give advice and recommendations about the new procedures and typographical formats, but it is more important than ever that it should give clear and appropriate recommendations on matters that affect the quality of the content of all astronomical publications. The Manual should provide especially for the needs of astronomers who do not have English as their first language and it should include advice to them on the oral presentation of their papers. The editor. G. A. Wilkins, would be pleased to have the assistance of astronomers and others who are concerned with the quality of astronomical publications and who would be willing to participate in any aspect of the revision.

  12. Breaking the Rules in Style.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, Tom

    1988-01-01

    Describes how allowing students to break the rules of standard writing can increase students' creativity in their written expression. Discusses several traits of this alternate style, or "Grammar B," including sentence fragments, double voice, lists, and spelling variations. (MM)

  13. Attachment Styles and Risky Behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeynab Mohammadalipoor

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Current challengeable life, faces young with varied damages. The Purpose of this research was appointment of role of attachment styles in the risky behaviors of students. Method: the method of the project was attachment in descriptive ones. 273 people of students were selected via several stage cluster sample, and answered to questionner of adult attachment and risky behaviors. Results: Results of analyses of data showed that secure attachment style related with risky behaviors negatively and ambivalence attachment style and avoidant attachment style related with risky behaviors positively. Conclusion: Therefore is emphasized on the importance of instruction of families in the field of creation of secure relationship with children and also importance of plans for heighten secure attachment by counseling centers of university.

  14. German Memo and Letter Style.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Arthur H.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Describes German correspondence styles in order to assist American managers. Explains typical conventions of both letter and memo formats, emphasizing the need to appreciate differences between formal and informal modes of communication. (RS)

  15. Advertising styles in different cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krasulja Nevena

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Modern consumer is inhabitant of a "Global Village" as well as of its own national culture which largely influences his creation of a system of values, beliefs and style of life in general. According to adopted values and styles, consumers from different cultures have different buying behavior, different needs and preferences related to a product and they have their favorite advertising styles. As advertising reflects culture, symbols and rituals which are used are even more emphasized and strengthen cultural values, which are then used as a strong advertising style characteristic. Global advertisers are increasingly faced with different environment meaning. A fact that has been proved in practice is that standardized approach to advertising does not transmit values in a correct way, so the advertisers that want to achieve long term success must differentiate their brands to competitors'. In modern market environment strategy "Think globally, act locally" proved to be adequate for advertising in modern international market.

  16. Humor in leader-follower relationships : Humor styles, similarity and relationship quality.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wisse, Barbara; Rietzschel, Eric

    2014-01-01

    The present study focuses on how humor may affect the quality of the relationship between leader and follower (LMX). More specifically, we examined the impact of follower self-reported humor style and leader self-reported humor style on the extent to which followers perceived their relationship with

  17. Evidence-Based Higher Education - Is the Learning Styles 'Myth' Important?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, Philip M; Miah, Mahallad

    2017-01-01

    The basic idea behind the use of 'Learning Styles' is that learners can be categorized into one or more 'styles' (e.g., Visual, Auditory, Converger) and that teaching students according to their style will result in improved learning. This idea has been repeatedly tested and there is currently no evidence to support it. Despite this, belief in the use of Learning Styles appears to be widespread amongst schoolteachers and persists in the research literature. This mismatch between evidence and practice has provoked controversy, and some have labeled Learning Styles a 'myth.' In this study, we used a survey of academics in UK Higher Education ( n = 114) to try and go beyond the controversy by quantifying belief and, crucially, actual use of Learning Styles. We also attempted to understand how academics view the potential harms associated with the use of Learning Styles. We found that general belief in the use of Learning Styles was high (58%), but lower than in similar previous studies, continuing an overall downward trend in recent years. Critically the percentage of respondents who reported actually using Learning Styles (33%) was much lower than those who reported believing in their use. Far more reported using a number of techniques that are demonstrably evidence-based. Academics agreed with all the posited weaknesses and harms of Learning Styles theory, agreeing most strongly that the basic theory of Learning Styles is conceptually flawed. However, a substantial number of participants (32%) stated that they would continue to use Learning Styles despite being presented with the lack of an evidence base to support them, suggesting that 'debunking' Learning Styles may not be effective. We argue that the interests of all may be better served by promoting evidence-based approaches to Higher Education.

  18. Humor Style and Motor Skills: Understanding Vulnerability to Bullying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Plenty

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine the role of humor style and motor skills in vulnerability to bullying. 729 adults responded to the Humor Style Questionnaire (HSQ and items retrospectively addressing their motor skills and bullying experiences during childhood. Consistent with recent research, poorer motor skills were associated with a greater extent of having been bullied. An association between stronger motor skills and affiliative humor was found, lending support to a shared biological basis theory underlying social and motor competency processes. Most importantly, being bullied was associated with higher self-defeating humor and lower affiliative humor. This supports earlier theoretical work by Klein and Kuiper (2006 and highlights the role that humor styles play in social interactions that can promote positive peer acceptance and wellbeing.

  19. Poor Parenting, Attachment Style, and Dating Violence Perpetration Among College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tussey, Brian Ermon; Tyler, Kimberly A; Simons, Leslie Gordon

    2018-02-01

    Although dating violence is prevalent among college students, little is known about how both attachment style and participation in risky behaviors contribute to this pattern of violence. To address this literature gap, we examine the role of poor parenting, child abuse, attachment style, and risky sexual and drug use behaviors on dating violence perpetration among 1,432 college students (51% female). Path analysis results revealed that females were more likely to report greater attachment anxiety but lower attachment avoidance compared with males. Correlates of attachment anxiety included child physical abuse, witnessing parental violence, and poorer maternal relationship quality whereas attachment avoidant behavior was linked to more physical abuse and poorer maternal relationship quality. Females were more likely to perpetrate dating violence as were those with greater attachment anxiety and lower attachment avoidance. Other correlates of dating violence perpetration included sexual and drug risk behaviors. Finally, distal factors (i.e., more child physical abuse and poorer maternal relationship quality) also were associated with dating violence perpetration. Study implications are also discussed.

  20. [Life style and affective disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raboch, Jiří

    2017-01-01

    Life style significantly affects the health status of each person. Life style medicine is an evidence based practice, which is trying to develop patterns of healthy behavior. Most evidence exists about the effect of suitable diet (eg. unsaturated fatty acids) and adequate aerobic exercise. Combination of lifestyle modification to standard psychopharmacologic and psychotherapeutic techniques can improve the results of preventive and therapeutic programs for people with depressive issues.

  1. A cognitive theory of style

    OpenAIRE

    C-S Chan

    1995-01-01

    The aim of this research is to set up a theory about style in architectural design from a cognitive point of view. It has been observed that the constant application of certain factors in a design process constitutes the formation of a style. Those factors include design constraints, search methods, goals, and the sequential order of applying them. Because of the constant application of these factors, constant cognitive phenomena appear and, consequently, produce constant forms by which a sty...

  2. Style and ideology in translation

    CERN Document Server

    Munday, Jeremy

    2013-01-01

    Adopting an interdisciplinary approach, this book investigates the style, or 'voice,' of English language translations of twentieth-century Latin American writing, including fiction, political speeches, and film. Existing models of stylistic analysis, supported at times by computer-assisted analysis, are developed to examine a range of works and writers, selected for their literary, cultural, and ideological importance. The style of the different translators is subjected to a close linguistic investigation within their cultural and ideological framework.

  3. Intercultural Communication and Speech Style

    OpenAIRE

    Haase, Fee-Alexandra

    2005-01-01

    In her article, "Intercultural Communication and Speech Style," Fee-Alexandra Haase discusses intercultural communication as a concept for the production and analysis of speeches and written texts. Starting with a theoretical and historical perspective, Haase exemplifies selected intercultural patterns found in different cultures. Further, based on definitions of style in rhetoric from different cultural backgrounds from the ancient Greek culture up to modern approaches of rhetoricians, Haase...

  4. Current research on parenting styles, dimensions, and beliefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smetana, Judith G

    2017-06-01

    For decades, parenting has been characterized in terms of broad global styles, with authoritative parenting seen as most beneficial for children's development. Concerns with greater sensitivity to cultural and contextual variations have led to greater specificity in defining parenting in terms of different parenting dimensions and greater consideration of the role of parenting beliefs in moderating links between parenting and adjustment. New research includes 'domain-specific' models that describe parents as flexibly deploying different practices depending on their goals, children's needs, and the types of behaviors towards which parenting is directed. These trends are described, and directions for future research are discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Original article Parenting style and locus of control, motivation, and school adaptation among students with borderline intellectual functioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Maria Jankowska

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background Parenting style impacts children’s psychosocial development. Students with borderline intellectual functioning (BIF are especially sensitive to the quality of parental care. The objective of this study was to compare parenting styles of mothers of children with BIF and mothers of typically developing peers, and establish associations between parenting styles and children’s psychosocial traits, which determine their school functioning. Participants and procedure Forty-two primary school students in Grades 4 to 6, their teachers, and mothers participated in the study. Based on their IQ level they comprised two groups: students with BIF (criterion group; n = 21 and students with average IQ (comparison group; n = 21. A series of measures were used to assess mothers’ parenting style and students’ psychosocial traits. Questionnaires measuring students’ psychosocial pro­perties were administered to children and their teachers in order to compare their perspectives. Results Mothers of children with BIF in comparison to mothers in the control group presented greater inclinations towards over-parenting. Based on self-reports, students with BIF did not differ from their typically developing classmates in terms of school motivation, anxiety, locus of control, or social adjustment, despite their lower academic performance. According to teachers, students with BIF had significantly lower school motivation and delayed socialization. For students with BIF but not for the comparison group, a negative correlation was found between mothers’ tendency to dominate over their child and students’ locus of control and school motivation. Conclusions Children with BIF are especially sensitive to the quality of mothers’ parenting style, which can have an adverse effect on their school adjustment.

  6. If Auditors Are Like Belgian Beers, Which Style Would You Prefer? : Discussion of “Auditor Style and Financial Statement Comparability” by Francis, Pinnuck, and Watanabe .

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruynseels, L.M.L.; Brenk, van H.M.

    2016-01-01

    Recent research by Francis, Pinnuck, and Watanabe (2014) has shown that financial reporting outcomes are influenced by the audit firm’s unique audit style. They argue that audit firm styles are driven by their “unique set of internal working rules that guide the auditor’s application of accounting

  7. Parenting styles and eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jáuregui Lobera, I; Bolaños Ríos, P; Garrido Casals, O

    2011-10-01

    The aim of the study was to analyse the parental bonding profiles in patients with eating disorders (ED), as well as the relationship among the different styles of parenting and some psychological and psychopathological variables. In addition, the association between the perceived parental bonding and different coping strategies was analysed. Perception of parenting styles was analysed in a sample of 70 ED patients. The Parental Bonding Instrument, Self-Esteem Scale of Rosenberg, Coping Strategies Inventory, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, Beck Depression Inventory and Eating Disorders Inventory-2 were used. Kruskal-Wallis test (comparisons), Spearman correlation coefficients (association among different variables) and χ(2)-test (parental bonding profiles differences) were applied. The stereotyped style among ED patients is low care-high control during the first 16 years, and the same can be said about current styles of the mothers. Between 8.6% and 12.9% of the patients perceive their parents' styles as neglectful. The neglectful parenting is the style mainly involved in the specific ED symptoms as drive for thinness, body dissatisfaction and bulimia. In order to achieve a better balanced parents' role during the treatment, it would be necessary to improve the role of the mothers as caregivers, decreasing their role mainly based on the overprotection. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing.

  8. Some students learning style particularities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana PETRUS-VANCEA

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The investigation aimed two objectives, namely to study the relationship between the learning styles, strategies, motivation, orientations and opinions with regard to learning, of Biology Domain students, comparative with those from double domain Biology – Chemistry, and particular learning styles of students from different specialties, which are in the first year of study, comparative with those which are in the last year of cycle I (age III of study, under the Bologna system. A version adapted by Trif, in 2007 [1], of the Learning Style Inventory (ILS, designed by Vermunt and Rijswijk (1998, was administrated to the total number of 77 students. Students of Biology specialization (Bologna system were largely learning style oriented to understanding and at those of the Biology-Chemistry (last generation of the old system we identified a style based on reproduction, but the differences of learning strategies and motivations, orientations and opinions were not statistically significant between the two groups of students. The second hypothesis formulated by us proved to be true, identifying significant statistically differences between the strategies, motives and opinions about learning of first academic year students, who prefer step by step learning or external guidance, learning orientation being to note, to obtain a degree, wishing much more support from teachers or colleagues (expressing an undirected learning style, compared with third academic year students, which use concrete processing of information, with getting a job motivation.

  9. Monitoring and research on the Bi-State Distinct Population Segment of greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) in the Pine Nut Mountains, California and Nevada—Study progress report, 2011–15

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coates, Peter S.; Andrle, Katie M.; Ziegler, Pilar T.; Casazza, Michael L.

    2016-09-29

    The Bi-State distinct population segment (DPS) of greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) that occurs along the Nevada–California border was proposed for listing as threatened under the Endangered Species Act (ESA) by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) in October 2013. However, in April 2015, the FWS determined that the Bi-State DPS no longer required protection under the ESA and withdrew the proposed rule to list the Bi-State DPS (U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, 2015). The Bi-State DPS occupies portions of Alpine, Mono, and Inyo Counties in California, and Douglas, Esmeralda, Lyon, Carson City, and Mineral Counties in Nevada. Unique threats facing this population include geographic isolation, expansion of single-leaf pinyon (Pinus monophylla) and Utah juniper (Juniperus osteosperma), anthropogenic activities, and recent changes in predator communities. Estimating population vital rates, identifying seasonal habitat, quantifying threats, and identifying movement patterns are important first steps in developing effective sage-grouse management and conservation plans. During 2011–15, we radio- and Global Positioning System (GPS)-marked (2012–14 only) 44, 47, 17, 9, and 3 sage-grouse, respectively, for a total of 120, in the Pine Nut Mountains Population Management Unit (PMU). No change in lek attendance was detected at Mill Canyon (maximum=18 males) between 2011 and 2012; however, 1 male was observed in 2014 and no males were observed in 2013 and 2015. Males were observed near Bald Mountain in 2013, making it the first year this lek was observed to be active during the study period. Males were observed at a new site in the Buckskin Range in 2014 during trapping efforts and again observed during surveys in 2015. Findings indicate that pinyon-juniper is avoided by sage-grouse during every life stage. Nesting females selected increased sagebrush cover, sagebrush height, and understory horizontal cover, and brood-rearing females selected similar areas

  10. News from the Library: Style matters!

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Library

    2010-01-01

    Our daily work almost always involves writing - articles, reports and documents of all kinds. And even if CERN's core activity is hard science, this doesn't mean our writing style and the language we use are not important. The CERN Library is here to help.   In addition to the Chicago Manual of Style mentioned some weeks ago in the Bulletin, the CERN Library now also has two paper copies of the latest edition of the Oxford Style Manual, which is an important reference work for the preparation of manuscripts for publication and includes guidelines on citations, spelling, punctuation and abbreviations. Thanks to the Library, you can also access important language-related tools in both CERN's official languages such as Oxford Reference Online, giving access to a large choice of dictionaries and handbooks, as well as the Oxford English Dictionary. French speakers can enjoy access to Le grand Robert, one of the most important dictionaries for the French language. All these dictionaries can be con...

  11. Interdependence of attachment styles and relationship quality in parent-adolescent dyads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Chong Man; Hart, Ellen; Ellis, Lillian; Tan, Cin Cin

    2017-12-01

    The current study examined how attachment styles of parents and adolescents may jointly influence the quality of their relationship. Parent-adolescent (N dyads  = 77) pairs were recruited from a Midwestern town in the United States. The mean of adolescents' age was 16.25. Both members reported their attachment styles, relationship closeness, and relationship discord. The Actor-Partner Interdependence Model (APIM) showed that both members' attachment avoidance was associated with self-report lower levels of closeness. Parents' attachment anxiety was related to relationship discord. Parents with higher avoidant attachment reported lower closeness when adolescents were higher in avoidant attachment. Higher parents' anxious attachment was related to higher relationship closeness when adolescents were higher on anxious attachment. Such an association was negative when adolescents had lower anxious attachment. Higher parents' anxious attachment was related to greater discord when adolescents were lower on anxiety attachment. This study reveals the complex dyadic dynamics of relationship quality in parent-adolescent pairs. Copyright © 2017 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Grant Monitoring: Department of Education Could Improve Its Processes with Greater Focus on Assessing Risks, Acquiring Financial Skills, and Sharing Information. Report to Congressional Requesters. GAO-10-57

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashby, Cornelia M.

    2009-01-01

    The Department of Education (Education) awards about $45 billion in grants each year to school districts, states, and other entities. In addition, the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 provided an additional $97 billion in grant funding. In a series of reports from 2002 to 2009, Education's Inspector General cited a number of grantees…

  13. Greater saphenous vein anomaly and aneurysm with subsequent pulmonary embolism

    OpenAIRE

    Ma, Truong; Kornbau, Craig

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Venous aneurysms often present as painful masses. They can present either in the deep or superficial venous system. Deep venous system aneurysms have a greater risk of thromboembolism. Though rare, there have been case reports of superficial aneurysms and thrombus causing significant morbidity such as pulmonary embolism. We present a case of an anomalous greater saphenous vein connection with an aneurysm and thrombus resulting in a pulmonary embolism. This is the only reported case o...

  14. Extreme Programming: Maestro Style

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, Jeffrey; Fox, Jason; Rabe, Kenneth; Shu, I-Hsiang; Powell, Mark

    2009-01-01

    "Extreme Programming: Maestro Style" is the name of a computer programming methodology that has evolved as a custom version of a methodology, called extreme programming that has been practiced in the software industry since the late 1990s. The name of this version reflects its origin in the work of the Maestro team at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory that develops software for Mars exploration missions. Extreme programming is oriented toward agile development of software resting on values of simplicity, communication, testing, and aggressiveness. Extreme programming involves use of methods of rapidly building and disseminating institutional knowledge among members of a computer-programming team to give all the members a shared view that matches the view of the customers for whom the software system is to be developed. Extreme programming includes frequent planning by programmers in collaboration with customers, continually examining and rewriting code in striving for the simplest workable software designs, a system metaphor (basically, an abstraction of the system that provides easy-to-remember software-naming conventions and insight into the architecture of the system), programmers working in pairs, adherence to a set of coding standards, collaboration of customers and programmers, frequent verbal communication, frequent releases of software in small increments of development, repeated testing of the developmental software by both programmers and customers, and continuous interaction between the team and the customers. The environment in which the Maestro team works requires the team to quickly adapt to changing needs of its customers. In addition, the team cannot afford to accept unnecessary development risk. Extreme programming enables the Maestro team to remain agile and provide high-quality software and service to its customers. However, several factors in the Maestro environment have made it necessary to modify some of the conventional extreme

  15. Neural correlates of cognitive style and flexible cognitive control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Gyeonghee; Kim, Chobok

    2015-06-01

    Human abilities of flexible cognitive control are associated with appropriately regulating the amount of cognitive control required in response to contextual demands. In the context of conflicting situations, for instance, the amount of cognitive control increases according to the level of previously experienced conflict, resulting in optimized performance. We explored whether the amount of cognitive control in conflict resolution was related to individual differences in cognitive style that were determined with the Object-Spatial-Verbal cognitive style questionnaire. In this functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study, a version of the color-word Stroop task, which evokes conflict between color and verbal components, was employed to explore whether individual preferences for distracting information were related to the increases in neural conflict adaptation in cognitive control network regions. The behavioral data revealed that the more the verbal style was preferred, the greater the conflict adaptation effect was observed, especially when the current trial type was congruent. Consistent with the behavioral data, the imaging results demonstrated increased neural conflict adaptation effects in task-relevant network regions, including the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, left fusiform gyrus, and left precuneus, as the preference for verbal style increased. These results provide new evidence that flexible cognitive control is closely associated with individuals' preference of cognitive style. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Modeling Leadership Styles in Human-Robot Team Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Gerardo E.

    2005-01-01

    The recent proliferation of robotic systems in our society has placed questions regarding interaction between humans and intelligent machines at the forefront of robotics research. In response, our research attempts to understand the context in which particular types of interaction optimize efficiency in tasks undertaken by human-robot teams. It is our conjecture that applying previous research results regarding leadership paradigms in human organizations will lead us to a greater understanding of the human-robot interaction space. In doing so, we adapt four leadership styles prevalent in human organizations to human-robot teams. By noting which leadership style is more appropriately suited to what situation, as given by previous research, a mapping is created between the adapted leadership styles and human-robot interaction scenarios-a mapping which will presumably maximize efficiency in task completion for a human-robot team. In this research we test this mapping with two adapted leadership styles: directive and transactional. For testing, we have taken a virtual 3D interface and integrated it with a genetic algorithm for use in &le-operation of a physical robot. By developing team efficiency metrics, we can determine whether this mapping indeed prescribes interaction styles that will maximize efficiency in the teleoperation of a robot.

  17. Cultural competency in medical education: demographic differences associated with medical student communication styles and clinical clerkship feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Katherine B; Vaishnavi, Sanjeev N; Lau, Steven K M; Andriole, Dorothy A; Jeffe, Donna B

    2009-02-01

    We tested the significance of associations among students' demographics, communication styles, and feedback received during clerkships. US medical students who completed at least one required clinical clerkship were invited between April and July 2006 to complete an anonymous, online survey inquiring about demographics, communication styles (assertiveness and reticence), feedback (positive and negative), and clerkship grades. The effects of self-identified race/ethnicity, gender, and generation (immigrant, first- or second-generation American) and their 2-way interactions on assertiveness, reticence, total positive and total negative feedback comments were tested using factorial analysis of covariance, controlling for age, clerkship grades, and mother's and father's education; pairwise comparisons used simple contrasts. Two-sided P values women; 57% white). Men reported more assertiveness than women (P = .001). Reticence (P differed by race/ethnicity; in pairwise contrasts, black, East Asian, and Native American/ Alaskan students reported greater reticence than white students (P differences in students' communication styles and feedback they received highlight a need for cultural competency training to improve medical student-teacher interactions, analogous to training currently advocated to improve physician-patient interactions.

  18. The Associations among Psychological Distress, Coping Style, and Health Habits in Japanese Nursing Students: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tada, Akio

    2017-11-22

    Background: Nursing students in many countries have been reported to experience high levels of stress and psychological distress. Health habits could potentially mediate the association between coping styles and psychological status. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the mediation effect of health habits in the relationship between stress coping styles and psychological distress in Japanese nursing students. Methods: A total of 181 nursing students completed anonymous self-reported questionnaires comprised of the General Health Questionnaire-12 (GHQ-12), the Brief Coping Orientation questionnaire, and an additional questionnaire on health behavior. A mediation analysis using path analysis with bootstrapping was used for data analysis. Results: Multivariate linear regression analysis showed that psychological distress was significantly and positively associated with "Avoidance coping" (β = 0.39, p psychological distress (active: β = -0.25, p psychological distress to a greater extent than sleep. The present study suggests the possibility that complex interactions between health habits and coping styles may influence the psychological status of nursing students.

  19. Dimensions of Leadership and Leadership Style among Group Intervention Specialists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinsley, Howard E. A.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Examined group leadership style using self-report questionnaire of experienced group leaders (N=204) in effort to build on work of Lieberman, Yalom, and Miles (1973). Found no support for factor structure previously reported by Lieberman et al. Results suggest that group leader questionnaire with modifications can tie leader behavior to outcome.…

  20. The Relationship between Self-Esteem and Coping Styles in Patients Undergoing Hemodialysis

    OpenAIRE

    Leila Rezaei; Shayesteh Salehi

    2016-01-01

    This paper is a report of a study of The Relationship between Self-Esteem and Coping Styles in patients undergoing hemodialysis in Iran. Hemodialysis patients face with multiple physical and psychological stressful factors; they use coping styles in order to cope with the challenges. A descriptive-correlation study was conducted based on the data collected from patients undergoing hemodialysis by census method in the city of Kerman using the Endler and Parker coping style, Self-es...

  1. A multidimensional intergenerational model of young males' driving styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil, Shani; Taubman-Ben-Ari, Orit; Toledo, Tomer

    2016-12-01

    This study examines the associations between fathers' driving styles, the family's general and driving-related atmosphere, and the young drivers' motivations, on one hand, and young males' driving styles, on the other. The 242 father and son pairs that participated in the study independently completed several self-report questionnaires at different points in time within the first year after licensure of the young drivers. A structural equation model (SEM) was developed, in which the contribution of fathers' driving style and their sons' perceptions of the general family relations, the family climate for road safety (FCRS), and costs and benefits of driving, to the driving styles of the young male drivers was examined. The SEM estimation results show direct as well as indirect significant effects between the various dimensions. The FCRS factors of non-commitment and messages, and the cost of thrill, were found to be the strongest mediators between the fathers' driving style and the family cohesion, on one hand, and the driving style of the young driver, on the other. These results may be useful in pointing out directions for the development of interventions that could assist in reducing the involvement of youngsters in risky driving and car crashes, and encourage safe and considerate driving. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Memory styles and related abilities in presentation of self.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sehulster, J R

    1995-01-01

    The notion of a person's memory style (elaborated in Sehulster, 1988) was investigated as it relates to the presentation of self. A memory style is defined as a combination of a subject's (perceived) ability in verbal memory, auto- biographical memory, and prospective memory, as measured by the Memory Scale (Sehulster, 1981b). In addition to filling out the Memory Scale, 325 subjects completed a 72-item questionnaire that tapped descriptions of abilities and experiences. The range of abilities and experiences was drawn loosely from Gardner's (1985) notion of multiple intelligences. Distinct patterns of self-report were observed for different memory styles. For instance, a love of listening to music was associated with the memory style that is high in both verbal and autobiographical memory but low in prospective memory; a love for numbers and mathematics was associated with the memory style that is high in both verbal and prospective memory but low in autobiographical memory. The results suggest broad individual differences in information processing. Gender differences are discussed in relation to memory styles.

  3. Using relationship styles based on attachment theory to improve understanding of specialty choice in medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russo Joan E

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patient-provider relationships in primary care are characterized by greater continuity and depth than in non-primary care specialties. We hypothesized that relationship styles of medical students based on attachment theory are associated with specialty choice factors and that such factors will mediate the association between relationship style and ultimately matching in a primary care specialty. Methods We determined the relationship styles, demographic characteristics and resident specialty match of 106 fourth-year medical students. We assessed the associations between 1 relationship style and specialty choice factors; 2 specialty choice factors and specialty match, and 3 relationship style and specialty match. We also conducted mediation analyses to determine if factors examined in a specialty choice questionnaire mediate the association between relationship style and ultimately matching in a primary care specialty. Results Prevalence of attachment styles was similar to that found in the general population and other medical school settings with 59% of students rating themselves as having a secure relationship style. Patient centeredness was directly associated, and career rewards inversely associated with matching in a primary care specialty. Students with a self-reliant relationship style were significantly more likely to match in a non-primary care specialty as compared to students with secure relationship style (OR = 5.3, 95% CI 1.8, 15.6. There was full mediation of the association between relationship style and specialty match by the specialty choice factor characterized by patient centeredness. Conclusion Assessing relationship styles based on attachment theory may be a potentially useful way to improve understanding and counsel medical students about specialty choice.

  4. Anger expression styles in schizophrenia spectrum disorders: associations with anxiety, paranoia, emotion recognition, and trauma history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ringer, Jamie M; Lysaker, Paul H

    2014-12-01

    Heightened levels of anger and dysregulated expression of anger have been associated with poorer outcomes and treatment response for persons with schizophrenia spectrum disorders. Less is known, however, about the psychological processes that determine the extent to which anger is expressed in a more versus less adaptive manner. To explore this issue, this study gathered reports of anger expression style in 88 persons with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder using the State-Trait Anger Expression Inventory, Second Edition. The authors additionally assessed anxiety, suspiciousness, emotion recognition, self-esteem, and cumulative trauma history. Correlations and multiple regression analyses showed that outward anger control, that is, the suppression of anger, was predicted by lower levels of suspiciousness, poorer emotion recognition, and reduced anxiety. Participants who endorsed greater anxiety and had experienced more traumatic events reported a heightened tendency to express anger both inwardly and outwardly.

  5. Reading Processes and Parenting Styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carreteiro, Rui Manuel; Justo, João Manuel; Figueira, Ana Paula

    2016-08-01

    Home literacy environment explains between 12 and 18.5 % of the variance of children's language skills. Although most authors agree that children whose parents encourage them to read tend to develop better and earlier reading skills, some authors consider that the impact of family environment in reading skills is overvalued. Probably, other variables of parent-child relationship, like parenting styles, might be relevant for this field. Nevertheless, no previous studies on the effect of parenting styles in literacy have been found. To analyze the role of parenting styles in the reading processes of children. Children's perceptions of parenting styles contribute significantly to the explanation of statistical variance of children's reading processes. 110 children (67 boys and 43 girls), aged between 7 and 11 years (M [Formula: see text] 9.22 and SD [Formula: see text] 1.14) from Portuguese schools answered to a socio-demographic questionnaire. To assess reading processes it was administered the Portuguese adaptation (Figueira et al. in press) of Bateria de Avaliação dos Processos Leitores-Revista (PROLEC-R). To assess the parenting styles Egna Minnen av Barndoms Uppfostran-parents (EMBU-P) and EMBU-C (children version) were administered. According to multiple hierarchical linear regressions, individual factors contribute to explain all reading tests of PROLEC-R, while family factors contribute to explain most of these tests. Regarding parenting styles, results evidence the explanatory power about grammatical structures, sentence comprehension and listening. Parenting styles have an important role in the explanation of higher reading processes (syntactic and semantic) but not in lexical processes, focused by main theories concerning dyslexia.

  6. Transformational Leadership Style as Predictor of Decision Making Styles: Moderating Role of Emotional Intelligence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rana Rashid Rehman

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The current study examines the relationship among transformational leadership style and decision making styles. It also determines the moderating role of emotional intelligence in predicting this relationship. Three hypotheses are generated for the study i.e., twohypotheses are to measure the relationship among transformational leadership style and decision making styles whereas third hypothesis is to assess the moderating effect of emotional intelligence. Questionnaire method is used to collect data from 113respondents. Regression analysis is utilized to study the relationship among transformational leadership style and decision making styles and step-wise regression analysis is used to study moderating effect of emotional intelligence. The study foundthat transformational leadership style strongly predicts rational and dependant decision making styles and weakly predict intuitive and spontaneous decision making styles while no association founds with avoidant decision making styles. Present research also foundthat emotional intelligence moderates the relationship among transformational leadership style and decision making styles.

  7. Dancer perceptions of the cognitive, social, emotional, and physical benefits of modern styles of partnered dancing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakes, Kimberley D; Marvin, Shesha; Rowley, Jessica; Nicolas, Malia San; Arastoo, Sara; Viray, Leo; Orozco, Amanda; Jurnak, Frances

    2016-06-01

    To study dancers' perceptions of the physical, cognitive, affective, and social benefits of partnered dancing. 225 dancers (71% female) were recruited through a community ballroom dance center and completed an online survey designed to measure their perceptions of the physical, cognitive, affective, and social benefits of modern, partnered dance styles (swing, Lindy Hop, and ballroom dancing). Subgroups were formed for analyses. For one set of analyses, groups based on length of dance participation were formed: experienced (dancing for more than 2 years) or novice (dancing for less than a year) dancers. For another set of analyses, groups based on frequency of dance practice were formed: committed (dancing at least one or more times per week) or occasional (dancing two or fewer times per month). The majority of participants reported perceived benefits in physical fitness, cognition, affect, and social functioning. Experienced dancers reported significantly greater self-perceived physical, social, and cognitive benefits than novice dancers. Committed dancers were more likely than occasional dancers to report improvements in physical fitness, U=6942, z=2.38, r=0.16, p<0.05. A Mann-Whitney test indicated that self-reported improvements in mood (i.e., feeling less depressed and more happy) were greater for women than for men, U=3945, z=-3.07, r=0.20, p<0.001. Length and frequency of dance participation significantly predicted perceived physical benefits [Χ(2) (1,6)=35.463, p <0.001, R(2)=0.16] and social benefits [Χ(2) (1,6)=15.776, p<0.05, R(2)=0.07], but not cognitive benefits. Results suggest that participation in partnered dance styles is associated with perceived improvements in physical fitness, cognitive functioning, social functioning, mood, and self-confidence, and that perceived benefits may increase as individuals dance more frequently and over longer periods of time. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Parenting styles, feeding styles and food-related parenting practices in relation to toddlers’ eating styles: A cluster-analytic approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleddens, Ester F. C.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Toddlers’ eating behaviors are influenced by the way parents interact with their children. The objective of this study was to explore how five major constructs of general parenting behavior cluster in parents of toddlers. These parenting clusters were further explored to see how they differed in the use of feeding strategies (i.e. feeding styles and food parenting practices) and by reported child eating styles. Methods An online survey with 1005 mothers/caregivers (legal guardians) with at least one child between 12 and 36 months old was conducted in the United States in 2012, assessing general parenting behavior, feeding style, food parenting practices and the child eating styles. Results A three cluster solution of parenting style was found and clusters were labelled as overprotective/supervising, authoritarian, and authoritative. The clusters differed in terms of general parenting behaviors. Both overprotective and authoritative clusters showed high scores on structure, behavioral control, and nurturance. The overprotective cluster scored high on overprotection. The ‘authoritarian’ cluster showed lowest levels of nurturance, structure and behavioral control. Overprotective and authoritative parents showed very similar patterns in the use of food parenting practices, e.g. monitoring food intake, modeling, and promoting healthy food intake and availability at home. Overprotective parents also reported higher use of pressure to eat and involvement. Authoritarian parents reported high use of giving the child control over their food behaviors, emotion regulation, using food as a reward, and controlling food intake for weight control. Children’s eating styles did not largely vary by parenting cluster. Conclusion This study showed that a relatively new parenting style of overprotection is relevant for children’s eating behaviors. Overprotective parents reported food parenting practices that are known to be beneficial for children’s food intake

  9. Parenting styles, feeding styles and food-related parenting practices in relation to toddlers' eating styles: A cluster-analytic approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klazine van der Horst

    Full Text Available Toddlers' eating behaviors are influenced by the way parents interact with their children. The objective of this study was to explore how five major constructs of general parenting behavior cluster in parents of toddlers. These parenting clusters were further explored to see how they differed in the use of feeding strategies (i.e. feeding styles and food parenting practices and by reported child eating styles.An online survey with 1005 mothers/caregivers (legal guardians with at least one child between 12 and 36 months old was conducted in the United States in 2012, assessing general parenting behavior, feeding style, food parenting practices and the child eating styles.A three cluster solution of parenting style was found and clusters were labelled as overprotective/supervising, authoritarian, and authoritative. The clusters differed in terms of general parenting behaviors. Both overprotective and authoritative clusters showed high scores on structure, behavioral control, and nurturance. The overprotective cluster scored high on overprotection. The 'authoritarian' cluster showed lowest levels of nurturance, structure and behavioral control. Overprotective and authoritative parents showed very similar patterns in the use of food parenting practices, e.g. monitoring food intake, modeling, and promoting healthy food intake and availability at home. Overprotective parents also reported higher use of pressure to eat and involvement. Authoritarian parents reported high use of giving the child control over their food behaviors, emotion regulation, using food as a reward, and controlling food intake for weight control. Children's eating styles did not largely vary by parenting cluster.This study showed that a relatively new parenting style of overprotection is relevant for children's eating behaviors. Overprotective parents reported food parenting practices that are known to be beneficial for children's food intake, such as modelling healthy food

  10. Parenting styles, feeding styles and food-related parenting practices in relation to toddlers' eating styles: A cluster-analytic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Horst, Klazine; Sleddens, Ester F C

    2017-01-01

    Toddlers' eating behaviors are influenced by the way parents interact with their children. The objective of this study was to explore how five major constructs of general parenting behavior cluster in parents of toddlers. These parenting clusters were further explored to see how they differed in the use of feeding strategies (i.e. feeding styles and food parenting practices) and by reported child eating styles. An online survey with 1005 mothers/caregivers (legal guardians) with at least one child between 12 and 36 months old was conducted in the United States in 2012, assessing general parenting behavior, feeding style, food parenting practices and the child eating styles. A three cluster solution of parenting style was found and clusters were labelled as overprotective/supervising, authoritarian, and authoritative. The clusters differed in terms of general parenting behaviors. Both overprotective and authoritative clusters showed high scores on structure, behavioral control, and nurturance. The overprotective cluster scored high on overprotection. The 'authoritarian' cluster showed lowest levels of nurturance, structure and behavioral control. Overprotective and authoritative parents showed very similar patterns in the use of food parenting practices, e.g. monitoring food intake, modeling, and promoting healthy food intake and availability at home. Overprotective parents also reported higher use of pressure to eat and involvement. Authoritarian parents reported high use of giving the child control over their food behaviors, emotion regulation, using food as a reward, and controlling food intake for weight control. Children's eating styles did not largely vary by parenting cluster. This study showed that a relatively new parenting style of overprotection is relevant for children's eating behaviors. Overprotective parents reported food parenting practices that are known to be beneficial for children's food intake, such as modelling healthy food intake, as well as

  11. A case of misconstrued Rock Military Style

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langkjær, Michael Alexander

    2012-01-01

    band member Brian Jones. The "little girl's white party frock" became the talking point in the press the next day. What some reporters styled "the frilly frock" was inspired by the fustanella, a skirt-like garment worn by the Evzone elite ceremonial unit of the Greek Royal (since 1974: Presidential...... about Jagger's motivations in thus 'cross-dressing'. A notable British precedent for wearing the fustanella, viz. that of Lord Byron back in the 1820s in the Greek War of Independence, which, although a myth (since Byron never actualy wore the fustanella apart from an 1814 London portrait-sitting of him...

  12. [Relationship between self-directed learning with learning styles and strategies in medical students].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Márquez U, Carolina; Fasce H, Eduardo; Pérez V, Cristhian; Ortega B, Javiera; Parra P, Paula; Ortiz M, Liliana; Matus B, Olga; Ibáñez G, Pilar

    2014-11-01

    Self-directed learning (SDL) skills are particularly important in medical education, considering that physicians should be able to regulate their own learning experiences. To evaluate the relationship between learning styles and strategies and self-directed learning in medical students. One hundred ninety nine first year medical students (120 males) participated in the study. Preparation for Independent Learning (EPAI) scale was used to assess self-direction. Schmeck learning strategies scale and Honey and Alonso (CHAEA) scales were used to evaluate learning styles and strategies. Theoretical learning style and deep processing learning strategy had positive correlations with self-direct learning. Medical students with theoretical styles and low retention of facts are those with greater ability to self-direct their learning. Further studies are required to determine the relationship between learning styles and strategies with SDL in medical students. The acquired knowledge will allow the adjustment of teaching strategies to encourage SDL.

  13. Dentist-assistant interaction styles in Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khader, Y S; Abu-Sharbain, G

    2009-05-01

    To assess dentist-assistant interaction and communication styles and their associated factors in Jordan. Three different areas in Amman where private dental clinics heavily cluster were chosen. The researcher visited all dental clinics in these areas and invited dentists to participate in this study. A structured self-administered questionnaire was designed and included the 22 items on staff communication that were used by Gorter and Freeman to assess communication styles. The culturally adapted items were analysed in such a way to reflect the structure that is used in the original study. There was a significant interaction between dentist's gender and communication styles (F = 3.8, P = 0.022). The only significant difference between men and women was for professional leadership style (P = 0.011) where men were more likely to adopt professional leadership style than women. For men, the average score for friendly leadership style was significantly lower than that for other styles. For women, the average score was the highest for gender interacting style which was significantly higher than that for friendly leadership style and professional interacting style, but not business leadership style. Communication and interaction styles between Jordanian dentists and their assistants differ according to gender. Jordanian dentists are less likely to adopt friendly leadership communication style compared with other styles.

  14. THE USE OF KF STYLE FLANGES IN LOW PARTICULATE APPLICATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kendziora, K. R. [Fermilab; Angelo, J. [Fermilab; Baffes, C. [Fermilab; Franck, D. [Fermilab; Kellett, R. [Fermilab

    2016-10-05

    As SCRF particle accelerator technology advances the need for “low particulate” and “particle free” vacuum sys-tems becomes greater and greater. In the course of the op-eration of these systems, there comes a time when various instruments have to be temporarily attached for diagnostic purposes: RGAs, leak detectors, and additional pumps. In an effort to make the additions of these instruments easier and more time effective, we propose to use KF style flanges for these types of temporary diagnostic connec-tions. This document will describe the tests used to com-pare the particles generated using the assembly of the, widely accepted for “particle free” use, conflat flange to the proposed KF style flange, and demonstrate that KF flanges produce comparable or even less particles

  15. Coping, Negative Cognitive Style and Depressive Symptoms in Children of Depressed Parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunbar, Jennifer P; McKee, Laura; Rakow, Aaron; Watson, Kelly H; Forehand, Rex; Compas, Bruce E

    2013-02-01

    Coping and negative cognitive style were studied in relation to depressive symptoms in children at risk for depression. In a sample of 165 children (ages 9-15) of depressed parents, the main and interaction effects of coping and negative cognitive style were examined in association with children's depressive symptoms measured by parent and child report on questionnaires and diagnostic interviews. Negative cognitive style was related to three types of coping (primary control, secondary control, and disengagement). Furthermore, coping and negative cognitive style made independent contributions to depressive symptoms. Little support emerged for interactive effects on depressive symptoms. Implications for future research with this high-risk population of children are considered.

  16. A Psychological Study of Relationship between Life-Style and Stress in University Students

    OpenAIRE

    高橋, 恵子

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the role of psychological factors in influencing life-style. We examined the relationships among emotion, stress-coping, and life-style. A survey of the health consciousness of university students reveals that most of the students feel that their life-style is undesirable and suffer much stress. However they are not conscious of their life-style. Students who have negative emotions (depression, anxiety, anger and languor) report that they do not sleep v...

  17. Cognitive style and Computer-Assisted Learning: problems and a possible solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John A. Clarke

    1993-12-01

    Full Text Available Although the notion of cognitive style has been around for some time, only in relatively recent times has there been a research interest in examining its effect on the performance of Computer-Assisted Learning (CAL users. There are a number of practical difficulties associated with catering for different cognitive styles of CAL users. This paper identifies not only a style which influences CAL-user performance and overcomes many of the difficulties, but also a possible suitable measure of that style. Data on the reliability of this measure is reported, along with preliminary work on its use to cater for CAL users with different cognitive styles. Future work will focus on the development of the package and the predictive validity of the style measure.

  18. Military leaders and followers--do they have different decision styles?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thunholm, Peter

    2009-08-01

    There are five different, although not mutually exclusive, styles exhibited by military officers when making decisions: rational, intuitive, dependent, avoidant, and spontaneous (Scott & Bruce, 1995). The purpose was to investigate if elected leaders of military planning teams had a different configuration of decision-making styles than their team members. Participants were 98 army captains organized in 16 brigade-level planning teams. The results indicate that team leaders tended to be more spontaneous and less rational, dependent and avoidant in their style configuration than their team members. One possible explanation is that the style configuration exhibited by many of the elected leaders comes through to others as forcefulness and decisiveness and that such a profile is in line with a general leadership culture. The results also provide support for the General Decision-Making Style inventory as a measurement of decision styles, because they suggest that the self-reports coincide with displayed, observable behavior.

  19. The chemists' style of thinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bensaude-Vincent, Bernadette

    2009-12-01

    This paper discusses the relevance of the notion of "styles of scientific thinking" introduced by Alistair Crombie and revisited by Ian Hacking, for understanding how chemistry shaped its identity. Although neither Crombie nor Hacking applied this notion to individual disciplines, it seems appropriate to use it in the case of chemistry because it helps to address a puzzling issue: how did chemists manage to shape an identity of their own, despite shifting territories and theoretical transformations? Following a presentation of the notion of style, I will argue that the stable identity of chemistry is rooted in laboratory practices, which determined the specific questions that chemists put to nature as well as the answers to their questions. The "chemical style of thinking" is characterized by (i) a specific way of knowing through making, (ii) the concern with individual materials rather than matter in general and (iii) a specific commitment to nature.

  20. Learning style preferences of undergraduate nursing students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rassool, Goolam Hussein; Rawaf, Salman

    To determine the predominant learning style preferences of undergraduate nursing students. A demographic questionnaire and Honey and Mumford's (2000a) learning styles questionnaire were administered to a purposive sample of 136 students. A response rate of 81% (110) was obtained. The results are congruent with U.K. studies, which show that the reflector is the preferred learning style of undergraduate nursing students. A 'dual' learning style category was also identified. A mismatch between teaching style and the learning styles of students has been found to have serious consequences. A variety of modes of teaching and learning should be used to meet the learning needs of students.

  1. A review of factors associated with greater likelihood of suicide attempts and suicide deaths in bipolar disorder: Part II of a report of the International Society for Bipolar Disorders Task Force on Suicide in Bipolar Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaffer, Ayal; Isometsä, Erkki T; Azorin, Jean-Michel; Cassidy, Frederick; Goldstein, Tina; Rihmer, Zoltán; Sinyor, Mark; Tondo, Leonardo; Moreno, Doris H; Turecki, Gustavo; Reis, Catherine; Kessing, Lars Vedel; Ha, Kyooseob; Weizman, Abraham; Beautrais, Annette; Chou, Yuan-Hwa; Diazgranados, Nancy; Levitt, Anthony J; Zarate, Carlos A; Yatham, Lakshmi

    2015-11-01

    Many factors influence the likelihood of suicide attempts or deaths in persons with bipolar disorder. One key aim of the International Society for Bipolar Disorders Task Force on Suicide was to summarize the available literature on the presence and magnitude of effect of these factors. A systematic review of studies published from 1 January 1980 to 30 May 2014 identified using keywords 'bipolar disorder' and 'suicide attempts or suicide'. This specific paper examined all reports on factors putatively associated with suicide attempts or suicide deaths in bipolar disorder samples. Factors were subcategorized into: (1) sociodemographics, (2) clinical characteristics of bipolar disorder, (3) comorbidities, and (4) other clinical variables. We identified 141 studies that examined how 20 specific factors influenced the likelihood of suicide attempts or deaths. While the level of evidence and degree of confluence varied across factors, there was at least one study that found an effect for each of the following factors: sex, age, race, marital status, religious affiliation, age of illness onset, duration of illness, bipolar disorder subtype, polarity of first episode, polarity of current/recent episode, predominant polarity, mood episode characteristics, psychosis, psychiatric comorbidity, personality characteristics, sexual dysfunction, first-degree family history of suicide or mood disorders, past suicide attempts, early life trauma, and psychosocial precipitants. There is a wealth of data on factors that influence the likelihood of suicide attempts and suicide deaths in people with bipolar disorder. Given the heterogeneity of study samples and designs, further research is needed to replicate and determine the magnitude of effect of most of these factors. This approach can ultimately lead to enhanced risk stratification for patients with bipolar disorder. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2015.

  2. Triatoma infestans in Greater Buenos Aires, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Gajate

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available The Health Administration Agencies of many municipalities in Greater Buenos Aires (GBA receive frequent reports on triatomines in houses. The aim of this work was to identify and describe the dispersal foci of Triatoma infestans in an urban neighborhood of GBA, and contribute to the knowledge of the epidemiological situation in the region. In June 1998, potentially infested places were entomologically evaluated. T. infestans was only detected in a hen building for egg production, which housed approximately 6,000 birds. A total of 2,930 insects were collected. Density was about 9 triatomines/m². The proportions of fifth instar nymphs and adults were significantly higher than those of the other stages (p<0.001. The number of triatomines collected largely exceeded the highest domestic infestation found in one house from rural endemic areas of Argentina. Though triatomines were negative for Trypanosoma cruzi, they could acquire the parasite by coming in contact with infected people living in GBA. Besides, the numerous and widely distributed places housing hens and chickens, would favor the settlement of the vector. Together, both facts may constitute a risk of parasitic vectorial transmission. It is recommended to intensify systematic activities of vector search and case detection in GBA.

  3. Triatoma infestans in Greater Buenos Aires, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajate, P; Pietrokovsky, S; Abramo Orrego, L; Pérez, O; Monte, A; Belmonte, J; Wisnivesky-Colli, C

    2001-05-01

    The Health Administration Agencies of many municipalities in Greater Buenos Aires (GBA) receive frequent reports on triatomines in houses. The aim of this work was to identify and describe the dispersal foci of Triatoma infestans in an urban neighborhood of GBA, and contribute to the knowledge of the epidemiological situation in the region. In June 1998, potentially infested places were entomologically evaluated. T. infestans was only detected in a hen building for egg production, which housed approximately 6,000 birds. A total of 2,930 insects were collected. Density was about 9 triatomines/m(2). The proportions of fifth instar nymphs and adults were significantly higher than those of the other stages (pparasite by coming in contact with infected people living in GBA. Besides, the numerous and widely distributed places housing hens and chickens, would favor the settlement of the vector. Together, both facts may constitute a risk of parasitic vectorial transmission. It is recommended to intensify systematic activities of vector search and case detection in GBA.

  4. The influences of sociosexuality and attachment style on reactions to emotional versus sexual infidelity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treger, Stanislav; Sprecher, Susan

    2011-09-01

    Although numerous studies have empirically supported the evolutionary-based prediction of sex differences in reactions to infidelity (men being more distressed by sexual infidelity and women being more distressed by emotional infidelity), little attention has been given to within-sex individual differences in the type of infidelity found to be more distressing. This article considers the effects of sociosexuality (Simpson & Gangestad, 1991 ) and attachment style (e.g., Bartholomew & Horowitz, 1991 ) with data from 3,879 college students collected over 14 years. In addition to replicating the robust sex differences, some evidence that sociosexuality and attachment style were related to infidelity reactions was found. Greater sexual permissiveness (i.e., high scores on sociosexuality) was associated with greater distress to sexual infidelity. In addition, a preoccupied attachment style was found to increase men's odds of selecting emotional infidelity, whereas an avoidant attachment style was found to increase women's odds of selecting sexual infidelity.

  5. Hygrophoraceae of the Greater Antilles : Hygrocybe subgenus Hygrocybe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharon A. Cantrell; D. Jean Lodge

    2000-01-01

    A key to six taxa of Hygrocybe, subgenus Hygrocybe, sections Chlorophanae and Hygrocybe is provided. One species is new and four species are reported for the first time from the Greater Antilles. The new species is H. chimaeroderma (section Chlarophanae). Hygrocybe acutoconica, H. calyptriformis and H. incolor (section Hygrocybe) are reported for the first time, and...

  6. [Patterns of dysfunctional parenting styles and psychological disturbances in offspring].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumnig, Martin; Höfer, Stefan; Huber, Alexandra; Messner, Carmen; Renn, Daniela; Mestel, Robert; Klingelhöfer, Jürgen; Kopp, Martin; Doering, Stephan; Schüßler, Gerhard; Rumpold, Gerhard

    2013-01-01

    Dysfunctional parenting styles represent a risk factor for the development of psychological disturbances. The present study investigated the differential validity of the German language Fragebogen zur Erfassung dysfunktionaler Erziehungsstile (FDEB; Measurement of Parental Styles, MOPS) and determined whether different forms of psychological disorders are associated with specific patterns of parenting styles. 145 inpatients, 108 outpatients and a control group of 633 representative individuals from the general population were investigated by adapting the FDEB. A comparison of dysfunctional parenting styles showed different distress levels within the diagnostic groups: Patients suffering from depression reported high levels of maternal indifference and over protectiveness together with an abusive rearing behavior on the part of both parents. Patients with anxiety disorders reported having overprotective mothers. Bulimic patients as well as those with personality disorders significantly exhibited stress in almost all areas. However, anorexic patients did not differ significantly from the control group, which appeared to be the least affected of all. The FDEB showed a satisfactory differential validity. There was evidence that specific patterns of dysfunctional parenting styles were associated with different diagnostic groups.

  7. Eating psychopathology amongst athletes: links to current attachment styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanmugam, Vaithehy; Jowett, Sophia; Meyer, Caroline

    2012-01-01

    The aims of the study were two-fold; first to determine the associations between current attachment styles, and eating psychopathology amongst athletes, and second to simultaneously assess the mediating effects of self-esteem, perfectionism, and depression in this association. Four hundred and eleven British athletes completed self-report instruments pertaining to eating psychopathology, attachment styles, self-esteem, depression, and perfectionism. Athletes who scored highly on both avoidant and anxious attachment styles, reported elevated eating psychopathology scores. However, such associations were indirect and mediated via athletes' levels of self-esteem, self-critical perfectionism, and depression, with self-esteem and depression identified as more salient mediators than self-critical perfectionism. The current findings provide evidence to suggest that insecure attachment styles influence athletes' eating psychopathology via their impact on self-esteem, depression, and self-critical perfectionism. Moreover, self-esteem and depression may play more significant role in transferring the impact of insecure attachment styles on elevated eating psychopathology. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Evaluating the Effect of Style in Information Visualization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vande Moere, A; Tomitsch, M; Wimmer, C; Christoph, B; Grechenig, T

    2012-12-01

    This paper reports on a between-subject, comparative online study of three information visualization demonstrators that each displayed the same dataset by way of an identical scatterplot technique, yet were different in style in terms of visual and interactive embellishment. We validated stylistic adherence and integrity through a separate experiment in which a small cohort of participants assigned our three demonstrators to predefined groups of stylistic examples, after which they described the styles with their own words. From the online study, we discovered significant differences in how participants execute specific interaction operations, and the types of insights that followed from them. However, in spite of significant differences in apparent usability, enjoyability and usefulness between the style demonstrators, no variation was found on the self-reported depth, expert-rated depth, confidence or difficulty of the resulting insights. Three different methods of insight analysis have been applied, revealing how style impacts the creation of insights, ranging from higher-level pattern seeking to a more reflective and interpretative engagement with content, which is what underlies the patterns. As this study only forms the first step in determining how the impact of style in information visualization could be best evaluated, we propose several guidelines and tips on how to gather, compare and categorize insights through an online evaluation study, particularly in terms of analyzing the concise, yet wide variety of insights and observations in a trustworthy and reproducable manner.

  9. Individual Learning Style and the Learning Style Inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heffler, Bo

    2001-01-01

    Focuses on the experience learning theory (ELT) that views learning as a process, explaining that it entails a four-stage process that includes four learning modes. Presents the results of a study that used the learning style inventory (LSI) that examines one's approach to learning situations. Includes references. (CMK)

  10. Brief Report: The Identity Style Inventory (ISI-3) and the Utrecht-Management of Identity Commitments Scale (U-MICS)--Factor Structure, Reliability, and Convergent Validity in French-Speaking University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, Gregoire; Mahaim, Elodie Biermann; Mantzouranis, Gregory; Genoud, Philippe A.; Crocetti, Elisabetta

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the factor structure and the reliability of the French versions of the Identity Style Inventory (ISI-3) and the Utrecht-Management of Identity Commitments Scale (U-MICS) in a sample of college students (N = 457, 18-25 years old). Confirmatory factor analyses confirmed the hypothesized three-factor solution…

  11. Brief report: The Identity Style Inventory (ISI-3) and the Utrecht-Management of Identity Commitments Scale (U-MICS): factor structure, reliability, and convergent validity in French-speaking university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, Grégoire; Mahaim, Elodie Biermann; Mantzouranis, Gregory; Genoud, Philippe A; Crocetti, Elisabetta

    2012-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the factor structure and the reliability of the French versions of the Identity Style Inventory (ISI-3) and the Utrecht-Management of Identity Commitments Scale (U-MICS) in a sample of college students (N = 457, 18-25 years old). Confirmatory factor analyses confirmed the hypothesized three-factor solution of the ISI-3 identity styles (i.e. informational, normative, and diffuse-avoidant styles), the one-factor solution of the ISI-3 identity commitment, and the three-factor structure of the U-MICS (i.e. commitment, in-depth exploration, and reconsideration of commitment). Additionally, theoretically consistent and meaningful associations among the ISI-3, U-MICS, and Ego Identity Process Questionnaire (EIPQ) confirmed convergent validity. Overall, the results of the present study indicate that the French versions of the ISI-3 and UMICS are useful instruments for assessing identity styles and processes, and provide additional support to the cross-cultural validity of these tools. Copyright © 2010 The Association for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Understanding Style, Language and Etiquette in Email Communication in Higher Education: A Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewin-Jones, Jenny; Mason, Victoria

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates academic staff and student attitudes to style and etiquette of emails. Data were collected through two online staff and student surveys. Reported use and acceptability of particular features of email style were assessed. Open-ended responses yielded four themes: the balance between formality and informality, relationships,…

  13. EFL Learners' Perspectives on ELT Materials Evaluation Relative to Learning Styles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Bokyung

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the relationship between Korean EFL learners' self-reporting learning style preferences and their perspectives on ELT materials evaluation. Quantitative data was acquired from 521 subjects' responses to a learning style survey and a questionnaire of materials evaluation checklist. The findings show that Korean EFL learners'…

  14. Interparental Conflict Styles and Parenting Behaviors: Associations with Overt and Relational Aggression among Chinese Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan; Putallaz, Martha; Su, Yanjie

    2011-01-01

    This study examined how interparental conflict styles related to Chinese children's overt and relational aggression directly and indirectly through parenting behaviors. Mothers (n = 670) and fathers (n = 570) reported their overt and covert interparental conflict styles and different parenting behaviors. Children's (n = 671) aggression was…

  15. Learning Styles and Their Relationship to Stress and Coping in College Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughn, L. M.; Hensley, B.; Baker, R. C.; Dearman, L.

    2010-01-01

    The authors examined the relationship between specific learning styles and stress and coping in a sample of female college students (N = 246). Participants in the study were assessed on the three variables by completing several self-report instruments measuring learning styles, life stress level, and coping skills. There were significant…

  16. Testing the alleged superiority of the indulgent parenting style among Spanish adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Osorio de Rebellón-Yohn, A. (Alfonso); González-Cámara, M. (Marta)

    2016-01-01

    Background: While international studies have reported the superiority of the authoritative style (which combines parental involvement with demandingness), some studies in Spain and in other countries have found that the indulgent style (involvement without demandingness) might be just as good or even better. This study aims to discern whether the differences are cultural or methodological. Method: 306 adolescents from high ...

  17. Convergence and Divergence in Attachment Style Across Male and Female College Students' Friendships and Romantic Relationships

    OpenAIRE

    Van Uitert, Victoria Jean

    2009-01-01

    Attachment representations in friendship and romantic relationship contexts were examined in a sample of 398 college students. Analyses examined patterns of attachment style in both relationship contexts, divergence and convergence in attachment style, and links between attachment representations and negative peer and romantic relationship experiences (i.e., relational and physical victimization and betrayal). The majority of participants reported more secure attachment representations, relat...

  18. The Looming Maladaptive Style Questionnaire: Measurement Invariance and Relations to Anxiety and Depression across 10 Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hong, Ryan; Riskind, John; Cheung, Mike

    2017-01-01

    The Looming Maladaptive Style Questionnaire (LMSQ) is a self-report measure designed to assess the looming cognitive style, a tendency to interpret threats as rapidly approaching and increasing in magnitude. To date, no systematic evaluation on the psychometric properties of the LMSQ across diverse...

  19. Parenting Styles: A Key Factor to Self Determination and Personal Growth of Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslam, Manika Arbab; Sultan, Sarwat

    2014-01-01

    The study was conducted to explore the impact of parenting styles of adolescents on their self-determination and personal growth. The data was collected from 300 adults evenly divided by gender, aged 23-38 years. To measure the parenting styles, level of self-determination and personal growth, the Caregivers Practices Report, Self Determination…

  20. Mothers' and Fathers' Parenting Styles and Associations with Toddlers' Externalizing, Internalizing, and Adaptive Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinaldi, Christina M.; Howe, Nina

    2012-01-01

    The two primary objectives of the present study were to (a) investigate mothers' and fathers' reports of their own as well as their partner's parenting styles, and (b) assess how mothers' and fathers' parenting styles uniquely and jointly predicted toddlers' externalizing, internalizing, and adaptive behaviors. Fifty-nine mothers and fathers…

  1. Cross-Contextual Variability in Parents' and School Tutors' Conflict Resolution Styles and Positive Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Ruiz, Beatriz; Rodrigo, María José; Martínez-González, Raquel-Amaya

    2015-01-01

    The authors examined how the variability in adult conflict resolution styles in family and school contexts was related to adolescents' positive development. Cluster analysis classified 440 fathers, 440 mothers, and 125 tutors into 4 clusters, based on self-reports of their conflict resolution styles. Adolescents exposed to Cluster 1 (inconsistency…

  2. Cognitive Style and GCSE Performance in Mathematics, English Language, and French.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riding, Richard; Caine, Tracey

    1993-01-01

    Reports on a preliminary study of cognitive style and performance of 182 secondary students on the British General Certificate of Secondary Education. Finds that students who tested at an intermediate position on both dimensions of the Wholist-Analytic cognitive style measure did best on the test. (CFR)

  3. Do Age and Gender Make a Difference in the Relationship between Intellectual Styles and Abilities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li-Fang

    2010-01-01

    This article reports two studies that aim at further distinguishing intellectual styles from abilities by taking into account the confounding effects of age and gender on the relationship between these two constructs. Two independent groups of secondary school students responded to the "Thinking Styles Inventory-Revised" and took the…

  4. Differentiating Between Attachment Styles and Behaviors and their Association with Marital Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandberg, Jonathan G; Bradford, Angela B; Brown, Andrew P

    2017-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to distinguish between the influence of attachment styles and behaviors on marital quality for couples. Data were gathered from 680 couples in a married relationship. Results showed attachment style and behaviors predicted marital quality for both men and women, with higher levels of attachment related to greater quality. Attachment behaviors predicted more of the variance in quality than did styles. Specific implications regarding how therapists may wish to foster behaviors that promote attachment security in marriages are discussed. © 2015 Family Process Institute.

  5. The Coexistence of Coping Resources and Specific Coping Styles in Stress: Evidence from Full Information Item Bifactor Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Meng; Wu, Qing; Zhu, Xia; Miao, Danmin; Zhang, Yan; Feng, Xi; Xiao, Wei

    2014-01-01

    Background Knowledge of coping styles is useful in clinical diagnosis and suggesting specific therapeutic interventions. However, the latent structures and relationships between different aspects of coping styles have not been fully clarified. A full information item bifactor model will be beneficial to future research. Objective One goal of this study is identification of the best fit statistical model of coping styles. A second goal is entails extended analyses of latent relationships among different coping styles. In general, such research should offer greater understanding of the mechanisms of coping styles and provide insights into coping with stress. Methods Coping Styles Questionnaire (CSQ) and Generalized Self-Efficacy Scale (GSES) were administrated to officers suffering from military stress. Confirmatory Factor Analyses was performed to indentify the best fit model. A hierarchical item response model (bifactor model) was adopted to analyze the data. Additionally, correlations among coping styles and self-efficacy were compared using both original and bifactor models. Results Results showed a bifactor model best fit the data. Item loadings on general and specific factors varied among different coping styles. All items loaded significantly on the general factor, and most items also had moderate to large loadings on specific factors. The correlation between coping styles and self-efficacy and the correlation among different coping styles changed significantly after extracting the general factor of coping stress using bifactor analysis. This was seen in changes from positive (r = 0.714, pcoping styles have a bifactor structure. They also provide direct evidence of coexisting coping resources and styles. This further clarifies that dimensions of coping styles should include coping resources and specific coping styles. This finding has implications for measurement of coping mechanisms, health maintenance, and stress reduction. PMID:24787952

  6. THE GREATER CANE RATS (THRYONOMIS SWINDERIANUS,

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-01-12

    Jan 12, 2017 ... ABSTRACT. The adrenal glands of domesticated greater cane rats (Thryonomys swinderianus), were studied using histological and ultrastructural techniques. A total of seven (7) adult male greater cane rats, aged from 10-14 months, with an average weight of 1.89 kg (range: 1.6 -2.2 kg) were used in this ...

  7. Perceived Relationship Between Leadership Style and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Perceived Relationship Between Leadership Style and Organizational Commitment at Defence University. ... Thus, the study suggested different approaches to improve the existing leadership skills and employees' organizational commitment in the university under study. Keywords: Leadership style, leadership behaviour, ...

  8. Improving Technical Instruction Using Personality Styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomal, Daniel R.

    2003-01-01

    Incorporating personality styles into technical instruction can enhance student learning. Four personality styles based on Jung--intuitor, feeler, thinker, and doer--have implications for individualizing technical instruction. (JOW)

  9. Reorienting Leadership Styles for Sustainable Education

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Oyetunji, Christianah Oluwatoyin

    2011-01-01

    .... The data suggests that the head-teacher's leadership style affects teachers' and pupils' attitude towards a job and studies and that a participatory leadership style promotes sustainable education in schools...

  10. Francis Bacon and the Technology of Style.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Christopher

    1983-01-01

    Examines Francis Bacon's intentionally devised style for scientific writings and the theoretical basis of that style. Discusses his emphasis on a truly objective point of view, and his use of aphorisms to adapt to his audience. (HTH)

  11. Managment Styles to Avoid: Some Observations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guttschalk, George E.; Cangemi, Joseph P.

    1987-01-01

    Analyzes management styles of numerous leaders who failed. Presents these categories of styles not associated with success: dictator, blocker, withholder, brownnoser, butcher, non-delegator, worrier, troublemaker, malcontent, weakling, jealous executive, and no-conscience administrator. (Author/ABL)

  12. Cognitive Style in Relation to Various Disciplines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saracho, Olivia, Ed.

    1998-01-01

    The 11 chapters of this theme issue explore important issues that relate cognitive style to educational concerns. They link cognitive style with reading comprehension, parental teaching, family qualities, teaching, distance learning, strategic learning, socialization, and athletic performance. (SLD)

  13. Individual Learning Styles and Creativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitar, Aleša Saša; Cerne, Matej; Aleksic, Darija; Mihelic, Katarina Katja

    2016-01-01

    Business schools are in need of developing creative graduates. This article explores how creativity among business students can be stimulated. Because a considerable amount of knowledge is required for creative ideas to emerge, the learning process has a significant impact on creativity. This, in turn, indicates that learning style is important…

  14. Cognitive styles and visual quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jumisko-Pyykkö, Satu; Strohmeier, Dominik

    2013-03-01

    Assessors are the main measurement instruments in subjective quality evaluation studies. Although the perceptual abilities and constrains are influenced by multiple demographic and psychographic factors, they are typically disregarded as a part of quality assessment. Cognitive styles refer to individual's consistent approaches to organize and represent information. Goal of this study is to explore the impact of cognitive styles on visual quality requirements. The data collection is conducted using the Style of Processing (SOP) questionnaire in three video quality experiments with a total of 72 participants. All participants were categorized into four groups according to sensorial preferences in information processing (visual, verbal, bimodal - high processing, and bimodal - low processing). The experiments were conducted in controlled circumstances when varying depth in video quality with several content types on the mobile device. The results show variation in quality requirements between these groups. Finally, these results also indicate that sensorial processing styles are essential to explore for sample characterization in quality evaluation experiments and for exploring more user-aware quality adjustments in future services and products.

  15. Reconsidering Styles of Regulatory Enforcement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    May, Peter J.; Winter, Søren

    2000-01-01

    This study addresses enforcement styles of regulatory inspectors, based on an examination of the municipal enforcement of agro-environmental policies in Denmark. Our findings make three contributions to the regulatory literature. One contribution is to add empirical support for theorizing about...

  16. Reconsidering Styles of Regulatory Enforcement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    J. May, Peter; Winter, Søren

    2007-01-01

    This study addresses enforcement styles of regulatory inspectors based on an examination of the municipal enforcement of agro-environmental policies in Denmark. Our findings make three contributions to the regulatory literature. One contribution is to add empirical support for theorizing about...

  17. Evidence-Based Higher Education – Is the Learning Styles ‘Myth’ Important?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, Philip M.; Miah, Mahallad

    2017-01-01

    The basic idea behind the use of ‘Learning Styles’ is that learners can be categorized into one or more ‘styles’ (e.g., Visual, Auditory, Converger) and that teaching students according to their style will result in improved learning. This idea has been repeatedly tested and there is currently no evidence to support it. Despite this, belief in the use of Learning Styles appears to be widespread amongst schoolteachers and persists in the research literature. This mismatch between evidence and practice has provoked controversy, and some have labeled Learning Styles a ‘myth.’ In this study, we used a survey of academics in UK Higher Education (n = 114) to try and go beyond the controversy by quantifying belief and, crucially, actual use of Learning Styles. We also attempted to understand how academics view the potential harms associated with the use of Learning Styles. We found that general belief in the use of Learning Styles was high (58%), but lower than in similar previous studies, continuing an overall downward trend in recent years. Critically the percentage of respondents who reported actually using Learning Styles (33%) was much lower than those who reported believing in their use. Far more reported using a number of techniques that are demonstrably evidence-based. Academics agreed with all the posited weaknesses and harms of Learning Styles theory, agreeing most strongly that the basic theory of Learning Styles is conceptually flawed. However, a substantial number of participants (32%) stated that they would continue to use Learning Styles despite being presented with the lack of an evidence base to support them, suggesting that ‘debunking’ Learning Styles may not be effective. We argue that the interests of all may be better served by promoting evidence-based approaches to Higher Education. PMID:28396647

  18. Learning Styles of Students of Secondary Schools

    OpenAIRE

    Chocholoušová, Michaela

    2013-01-01

    This thesis is focused on learning styles of students of secondary schools, particularly of secondary vocational schools. It is divided in two parts - theoretical and practical. The theoretical part deals with the definitions of basic terms as learning, learner and meaningful learning. It also analysis the term learning style and other related terms, such as cognitive style. Final section of the theoretical part is dedicated to mesurement and influencing od leraning styles as a preparation fo...

  19. Self-perception of leadership styles and behaviour in primary health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jodar I Solà, Glòria; Gené I Badia, Joan; Hito, Pilar Delgado; Osaba, M Antonia Campo; Del Val García, Jose Luís

    2016-10-12

    The concept of leadership has been studied in various disciplines and from different theoretical approaches. It is a dynamic concept that evolves over time. There are few studies in our field on managers' self-perception of their leadership style. There are no pure styles, but one or another style is generally favoured to a greater or lesser degree. In the primary health care (PHC) setting, managers' leadership style is defined as a set of attitudes, behaviours, beliefs and values. The objectives of this study were to describe and learn about the self-perception of behaviours and leadership styles among PHC managers; to determine the influence of the leadership style on job satisfaction, efficiency, and willingness to work in a team; and to determine the relationship between transformational and transactional styles according age, gender, profession, type of manager years of management experience, and the type of organization. To describe leadership styles as perceived by PHC managers, a cross sectional study was performed using an 82 items-self-administered Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire (MLQ). This questionnaire measures leadership styles, attitudes and behaviour of managers. The items are grouped into three first order variables (transformational, transactional and laissez-faire) and ten second order variables (which discriminate leader behaviours). Additionally, the questionnaire evaluates organizational consequences such as extra-effort, efficiency and satisfaction. One hundred forty responses from 258 managers of 133 PHC teams in the Barcelona Health Area (response rate: 54.26 %). Most participants were nurses (61.4 %), average age was 49 years and the gender predominantly female (75 %). Globally, managers assessed themselves as equally transactional and transformational leaders (average: 3.30 points). Grouped by profession, nurses (28.57 % of participants) showed a higher transactional leadership style, over transformational leadership style

  20. Emotional Competence and Leadership Styles of Managers in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Emotional Competence and Leadership Styles of Managers in Private Universities in Uganda. ... Makerere Journal of Higher Education ... Using data elicited from 240 respondents drawn from eight (8) private universities in the country, the paper reports a direct relationship between the emotional competence and ...

  1. Web-Based Learning: Cognitive Styles and Instructional Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alomyan, Hesham Raji

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports a study, which investigated whether different instructional strategies might interact with individual's cognitive style in learning. A web-based learning package was designed employing three strategies, Interactive Concept Maps, Illustration with Embedded Text and Text-Only. Group Embedded Figure Test was administered to 178…

  2. Coping Styles as Mediators of Teachers' Classroom Management Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Ramon; Roache, Joel; Romi, Shlomo

    2011-01-01

    This study reports the relationships between coping styles of Australian teachers and the classroom based classroom management techniques they use to cope with student misbehaviour. There is great interest internationally in improving educational systems by upgrading the quality of teachers' classroom management. However, the relationship between…

  3. Dyadic Perception of Communicator Style: Replication, Confirmation, and Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Larry D.

    An experimentl was designed to replicate and confirm previous research findings which suggest that the way persons communicate is related to their perceptions of communication behavior. The experiment was successful. Subjects with low Communicator Style Measure (CSM) scores do not report perceiving a significant difference. Three raters evaluated…

  4. Salesperson Communication Style: The Neglected Dimension in Sales Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dion, Paul A.; Notarantonio, Elaine M.

    1992-01-01

    Reports two studies investigating the relationship between communication style variables and sales performance. Relates findings which indicate that the "precise" dimension of communication is strongly associated with effective sales performance and that different combinations of the "precise" and "friendly"…

  5. Parenting Styles and Conceptions of Parental Authority during Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smetana, Judith G.

    1995-01-01

    Reports of parenting styles were assessed in 100 mostly white, middle-class, 6th, 8th, and 10th graders and their parents. Adolescents viewed their parents as more permissive and more authoritarian than parents viewed themselves, whereas parents viewed themselves as more authoritative than did adolescents. Differences were primarily over the…

  6. Parenting Style and Only Children's School Achievement in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Qing; And Others

    This report describes a study which examined the relation of Chinese parenting style to only-children's academic achievement. Subjects, 186 middle-class parents of fifth and sixth graders (10-13 years old) from one Beijing elementary school, completed a Chinese translation of the Parental Authority Questionnaire (PAQ). Four approximately equal…

  7. Gender, Leadership Style, and Subordinate Satisfaction: An Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushell, Elliot; Newton, Rae

    1986-01-01

    Reports on an experiment that analyzed the effects of gender and leadership style on subordinate satisfaction. While subjects were more satisfied in democratically led groups, gender of leader did not significantly affect satisfaction. Female subordinates were more dissatisfied than males in autocratically led groups. (KH)

  8. College Students' Ended Love Relationships: Attachment Style and Emotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pistole, Carole M.

    1995-01-01

    Probed attachment-related differences in emotional responses to ended romantic relationships. Multivariate analysis of variance revealed that securely attached students recalled a more positive emotional experience after a relationship concluded, whereas persons with fearful and preoccupied styles reported a more negative experience overall.…

  9. Children's Attributional Style Questionnaire-Revised: Psychometric Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Martie; Kaslow, Nadine J.; Weiss, Bahr; Nolen-Hoeksema, Susan

    1998-01-01

    The psychometric properties of the Children's Attributional Style Questionnaire-Revised (CASQ) (N. Kaslow and S. Nolen-Hoeksema, 1991) were studied with 1086 children, 9 to 12 years old. Results indicate the revised version to be somewhat less reliable than the original, but with equivalent criterion-related validity for self-reported depression.…

  10. Attributional Style in Clinically Depressed and Conduct Disordered Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curry, John F.; Craighead, W. Edward

    1990-01-01

    Tested reformulated learned helplessness theory of depression with adolescent inpatients (N=63) diagnosed as depressed, conduct disordered, or both. Adolescents with major depressive diagnosis differed from nondepressed adolescents with significantly lower attributional style scores for positive events. Subjects who reported more severe depression…

  11. Assessing Experiential Learning Styles: A Methodological Reconstruction and Validation of the Kolb Learning Style Inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manolis, Chris; Burns, David J.; Assudani, Rashmi; Chinta, Ravi

    2013-01-01

    To understand experiential learning, many have reiterated the need to be able to identify students' learning styles. Kolb's Learning Style Model is the most widely accepted learning style model and has received a substantial amount of empirical support. Kolb's Learning Style Inventory (LSI), although one of the most widely utilized instruments to…

  12. The Relationship between Decision Making Styles and Leadership Styles among Public Schools Principals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Omari, Aieman Ahmad

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined the relationships between leadership styles and decision-making styles among public schools principals. A total of 108 principals returned questionnaires from Russaifa Education District in Jordan. The Decision Style Inventory and the Administrative Styles Questionnaire were used in this study. "Directive decision…

  13. Cognitive Style and Adult Learning Principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joughin, Gordon

    1992-01-01

    Cognitive style constructs challenge learning theories or practices that presume a high degree of cognitive style similarity among adult learners. The cognitive style of field dependence/independence explains differences in adults' capacities for self-direction and indicates possible contradictions inherent in andragogical assumptions. (JOW)

  14. Predicting coping styles in adolescence following trauma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Dorte Mølgaard; Hansen, Maj; Elklit, Ask

    2013-01-01

    , there is a lack of research investigating the interplay between these individual characteristics and their combined effect on different coping styles. It is of special importance to identify maladaptive coping styles in adolescents because they may be prone to use these coping styles for the rest of their lives...

  15. Motivation to Learn Science and Cognitive Style

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeyer, Albert

    2010-01-01

    This article investigates the relation between cognitive style and motivation to learn science. The concept of cognitive style proposes the interplay of two core psychological dimensions, empathizing and systemizing. The cognitive style is defined as the interplay between the two abilities. We used the so-called EQ score (empathy quotient) and the…

  16. Parent Predictors of Adolescents' Explanatory Style

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vélez, Clorinda E.; Krause, Elizabeth D.; Brunwasser, Steven M.; Freres, Derek R.; Abenavoli, Rachel M.; Gillham, Jane E.

    2015-01-01

    The current study tested the prospective relations (6-month lag) between three aspects of the parent-child relationship at Time 1 (T1) and adolescents' explanatory styles at Time 2 (T2): caregiving behaviors, parents' explanatory style for their own negative events, and parents' explanatory style for their children's negative events. The sample…

  17. South Carolina Superintendents' Change Style Preferences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melton, Annette Ghent; Cox, Edward P.

    2010-01-01

    Little is known about the change style preferences of superintendents, and how they differ from school principals and from business leaders and whether a superintendent's change-style preference affects student achievement. The purpose of this study was to explore the change-style preferences of South Carolina superintendents, compare them with…

  18. Cognitive Learning Styles of EFL Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srichanyachon, Napaporn

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to study cognitive learning styles of EFL students, compare language learning styles among students categorized by their background, and investigate the relationship between English background knowledge and language learning styles. The samples were 210 undergraduate students enrolled in Fundamental English course at Bangkok…

  19. Key characteristics of different management styles

    OpenAIRE

    AGADZHANYAN A.S.

    2015-01-01

    The article reveals main management styles practiсed by managers all over the world. The author considers key characteristics of management styles, conditions of their using. The paper analyzes cultural differences in management styles in the West and in the East.

  20. Problems and Inconsistencies with Kolb's Learning Styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garner, Iain

    2000-01-01

    Argues that there are substantial problems with the theoretical foundations of David Kolb's Learning Style Inventory (LSI). Notes anomalies with the relationship between Carl Jung's style and Kolb's use of possibility processing. Argues that these anomalies make it impossible for defining firm conclusions about the nature of Kolb's learning style.…

  1. Divergent Cognitive Styles in Academic Overachievers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spotts, Nina R.

    This study explored the relationship of two distinctive types of divergent cognitive styles, "cold" creativity and "hot" creativity, to academic overachievement. The "cold" divergent cognitive style was found to be a controlled, problem-solving approach to stimuli, whereas the "hot" divergent cognitive style was a freer, more impulsive response to…

  2. Surgery resident learning styles and academic achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contessa, Jack; Ciardiello, Kenneth A; Perlman, Stacie

    2005-01-01

    To determine if surgical residents share a preferred learning style as measured by Kolb's Learning Style Inventory (LSI) and if a relationship exists between resident learning style and achievement as measured by a standardized examination (AME). Also, core faculty learning styles were assessed to determine if faculty and residents share a preferred learning style. Kolb's LSI, Version 3, was administered to 16 surgical residents and the residency program's core faculty of 6 attending physicians. To measure academic achievement, the American Medical Education (AME) examination was administered to residents. The Hospital of Saint Raphael, General Surgery Residency Program, New Haven, Connecticut. Both instruments were administered to residents during protected core curriculum time. Core faculty were administered the LSI on an individual basis. Surgical residents of the Hospital of Saint Raphael's General Surgery Residency Program and 6 core faculty members Analysis of resident learning style preference revealed Converging as the most commonly occurring style for residents (7) followed by Accommodating (5), Assimilating (3), and Diverging (1). The predominant learning style for core faculty was also Converging (4) with 2 Divergers. The average score for the Convergers on the AME was 62.6 compared with 42 for the next most frequently occurring learning style, Accommodators. In this surgical residency program, a preferred learning style for residents seems to exist (Converging), which confirms what previous studies have found. Additionally, residents with this learning style attained a higher average achievement score as measured by the AME. Also, core faculty share the same preferential learning style as this subset of residents.

  3. Communicator Style: A Study of College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilchrist, Eletra S.

    This study uses Norton's Communicator Style as an instrument to determine communication styles of college students in relation to grade point average (GPA), education level, extracurricular activity involvement, and gender. The communication styles eliciting more positive communicator images are also examined. The communication discipline benefits…

  4. LIFE-STYLE SEGMENTATION WITH TAILORED INTERVIEWING

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    KAMAKURA, WA; WEDEL, M

    The authors present a tailored interviewing procedure for life-style segmentation. The procedure assumes that a life-style measurement instrument has been designed. A classification of a sample of consumers into life-style segments is obtained using a latent-class model. With these segments, the

  5. The effects of field dependent/independent style awareness on learning strategies and outcomes in an instructional hypermedia module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fyle, Clifford Omodele

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether field-dependent/independent style awareness affects learning outcomes and learning strategies used in a hypermedia instructional module. Field-dependent/independent style was measured using the Global Embedded Figures Test. Style awareness meant that students were provided with information and explanations about their individual cognitive styles and the learning strategies that accommodate those styles. The study entailed examining students' achievement in a multiple-choice test and performance in a design task, and also their navigation patterns as they studied a science-oriented Webquest. The sample consisted of 149 eighth-grade students in 10 sections of a science class taught by two teachers in a public middle school. A two-group posttest-only design on one factor (style awareness) was used. Sixty-eight students in five sections of the class were assigned to the treatment group (field dependent/independent style awareness) while the other 81 students in five sections were assigned to the control group (no field dependent/independent style awareness). The study took place over a period of 6 days. On the first day, students in the treatment group were first tested and debriefed on their individual styles. Next, all students in both the treatment and control groups studied the hypermedia instructional module (Webquest) over a period of two days. On the fourth and fifth days students worked on the performance tasks, and on the sixth day students took the multiple-choice test and students in the control group were tested and debriefed on their individual styles. The findings indicate that style awareness significantly influenced the learning strategies of field-dependent students as they studied and carried out learning tasks in the Webquest. Field-dependent students with style awareness used hypertext links and navigated the menu sequentially a greater number of times than their counterparts with no style awareness

  6. Revisiting a neglected construct: parenting styles in a child-feeding context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Sheryl O; Power, Thomas G; Orlet Fisher, Jennifer; Mueller, Stephen; Nicklas, Theresa A

    2005-02-01

    The extent to which general parenting represents feeding styles in ethnically diverse populations is not well documented. Existing measures of child feeding have focused almost exclusively on specific behaviors of European-American parents. A valid and reliable instrument was developed to identify feeding styles in parents of low-income minority preschoolers. Two hundred thirty-one parents (130 Hispanic; 101 African-American) completed questionnaires on feeding practices and parenting styles. Based on self-reported feeding behavior, parents were assigned to four feeding styles (authoritarian, n=84; authoritative, n=34; indulgent, n=80; and uninvolved, n=33). Convergent validity was evaluated by relating feeding styles to independent measures of general parenting and authoritarian feeding practices. Authoritarian feeding styles were associated with higher levels of general parental control and authoritarian feeding practices. Alternatively, authoritative feeding styles were associated with higher levels of general parental responsiveness. Among the two permissive feeding styles, Hispanic parents were more likely to be indulgent, whereas African-American parents were more likely to be uninvolved. Further, differences were found among the feeding styles on an independent measure of child's body mass index.

  7. Parenting styles in a cultural context: observations of "protective parenting" in first-generation Latinos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domenech Rodríguez, Melanie M; Donovick, Melissa R; Crowley, Susan L

    2009-06-01

    Current literature presents four primary parenting styles: authoritative, authoritarian, permissive, and neglectful. These styles provide an important shortcut for a constellation of parenting behaviors that have been characterized as consisting of warmth, demandingness, and autonomy granting. Empirically, only warmth and demandingness are typically measured. Research reporting on parenting styles in Latino samples has been equivocal leading to questions about conceptualization and measurement of parenting styles in this ethnic/cultural group. This lack of consensus may result from the chasm between concepts (e.g., authoritarian parenting) and observable parenting behaviors (e.g., warmth) in this ethnic group. The present research aimed to examine parenting styles and dimensions in a sample of Latino parents using the two usual dimensions (warmth, demandingness) and adding autonomy granting. Traditional parenting styles categories were examined, as well as additional categorizations that resulted from adding autonomy granting. Fifty first-generation Latino parents and their child (aged 4-9) participated. Parent-child interactions were coded with the Parenting Style Observation Rating Scale (P-SOS). In this sample, the four traditional parenting categories did not capture Latino families well. The combination of characteristics resulted in eight possible parenting styles. Our data showed the majority (61%) of Latino parents as "protective parents." Further, while mothers and fathers were similar in their parenting styles, expectations were different for male and female children. The additional dimensions and implications are discussed. The importance of considering the cultural context in understanding parenting in Latino families is emphasized, along with directions for future research.

  8. Validity and feasibility of a learning style instrument for brain injury rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boosman, H; van Heugten, C M; Post, M W M; Lindeman, E; Visser-Meily, J M A

    2013-10-01

    Identifying learning styles of acquired brain injury (ABI) patients may aid the learning process by tailoring to the patient's learning needs and preferences. Currently, there is no learning style instrument for ABI patients. We therefore determined the validity and feasibility of the Adapted Learning Style Inventory (A-LSI) for patients with ABI. We included 99 patients with ABI and 42 healthy controls. Learning styles were determined and subgroups were used to evaluate the validity of the A-LSI. Furthermore, rehabilitation professionals' perceptions on learning style and the A-LSI were evaluated. In the patient group, the A-LSI yielded the following learning styles: 4 doers, 54 observers, 2 deciders and 39 thinkers. A similar distribution was found for the control group (3, 28, 0 and 11, respectively). Spearman correlations revealed moderate internal validity. Content validity of the A-LSI was also moderate; 11 out of 19 patients recognized themselves in their A-LSI learning style. Furthermore, 12 rehabilitation professionals reported positive and negative aspects of the A-LSI and suggestions for using learning style in rehabilitation. Rehabilitation professionals were generally positive about using learning style in ABI rehabilitation. This study, however, raises doubts about the validity and feasibility of the A-LSI for this population. Rehabilitation professionals are generally positive about the assessment and implementation of learning style in rehabilitation. The A-LSI seems to be an inappropriate learning style instrument for individuals with ABI. There is a need for a more practical instrument to assess learning style directly at start of rehabilitation.

  9. Ectopic decidua of the greater omentum: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biserka Pigac

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Ectopic decidua is defined as extrauterine deposits of decidual stromal cells. It occurs in 85-100% of pregnancies. Focal sites can be present in various locations, yet a peritoneal location is rare. A 24- year- old woman underwent a cesarean section in 39th week of her first pregnancy, during which adhesions of the omentum to the fundus, entire left side of the uterus, and a part of the right front abdominal wall were found. An operative specimen was taken for a pathohistological analysis under the assumption of being fibrous adhesive tissue. The analysis revealed ectopic decidual tissue composed of large, polygonal cells with eosinophilic cytoplasm, and large nuclei with conspicuous nucleoli infiltrated with mature fatty cells and lymphocytes. Strong staining for vimentin was observed in the decidual cell cytoplasm and for a progesterone- receptor in the cell nuclei, medium staining was detected for S-100, and negative staining for CK 5/ 6, HMB-45, desmin, smooth muscle actin, estrogen and androgen- receptors. We present this case in order to educate clinicians and pathologists about the phenomenon of ectopic deciduosis. Although it can exist as asymptomatic condition, we point out the importance of considering this condition since it can result in serious pathology, like intraperitoneal hemorrhage and labour obstruction, if remains unrecognized. Another pitfall is possible confusion of this entity with other conditions. A resemblance to adhesions of the omentum and malignant neoplastic lesions, like squamous cell and metastatic carcinoma, metastatic melanoma, malignant decidual mesothelioma, metastatic mucin -producing adenocarcinoma, can be deceiving. These obstacles may present a pitfall to clinicians and pathologists, with a negative impact on patient treatment and outcome.

  10. Humor style similarity and difference in friendship dyads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Simon C; Fox, Claire L; Jones, Siân E

    2016-01-01

    This study assessed the concurrent and prospective (fall to spring) associations between four different humor styles to assess the degree to which stable friendships are characterized by similarity, and to assess whether best friends' humor styles influence each other's later use of humor. Participants were aged 11-13 years, with 87 stable, reciprocal best friend dyads. Self-report assessments of humor styles were completed on both occasions. Results indicated that there was no initial similarity in dyads' levels of humor. However, dyads' use of humor that enhances interpersonal relationships (Affiliative humor) became positively correlated by spring. Additionally, young people's use of this humor style was positively associated with their best friend's later use of the same. No such effects were present for humor which was aggressive, denigrating toward the self, or used to enhance the self. These results have clear implications for theories of humor style development, highlighting an important role for Affiliative humor within stable friendship dyads. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  11. A Comparative Analysis of Swimming Styles in Competitive Swimming

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Loebbecke, Alfred; Mittal, Rajat; Gupta, Varun; Mark, Russell

    2007-11-01

    High-fidelity numerical simulations are being used to conduct a critical evaluation of swimming strokes in competitive swimming. We combine computational fluid dynamics (CFD), laser body scans, animation software, and video footage to develop accurate models of Olympic level swimmers and use these to examine contrasting styles of the dolphin kick as well as the arm strokes in back and front crawl stroke. In the dolphin kick, the focus is on examining the effects of Strouhal number, kick amplitude, frequency, and technique on thrust production. In the back stroke, we examine the performance of the so called ``flat stroke'' versus the ``deep catch,'' The most important aspect that separates the two major types of back stroke is the alignment or angle of attack of the palm during the stroke. In one style of front crawl arm stroke, there is greater elbow joint flexion, shoulder abduction and sculling whereas the other style consists of a straight arm pull dominated by simple shoulder flexion. Underlying the use of these two styles is the larger and more fundamental issue of the role of lift versus drag in thrust production and we use the current simulations to examine this issue in detail.

  12. Decision-making styles and depressive symptomatology: Development of the Decision Styles Questionnaire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Leykin

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Difficulty making decisions is one of the symptoms of the depressive illness. Previous research suggests that depressed individuals may make decisions that differ from those made by the non-depressed, and that they use sub-optimal decision-making strategies. For this study we constructed an instrument that aims to measure a variety of decision-making styles as well as the respondent's view of him or herself as a decision-maker (decisional self-esteem. These styles and estimates of decisional self-esteem were then related to depressive symptoms. Depressive symptomatology correlated negatively with perception of self as a decision-maker. Those with higher depression severity scores characterized themselves as being more anxious about decisions, and more likely to procrastinate. They also reported using fewer productive decision-making strategies, depending more on other people for help with decisions, and relying less on their own intuitions when making decisions. Further research is needed to determine the extent to which these decision-making styles are antecedents to depressive symptomatology or are instead products of, or aspects of, the phenomenology associated with depression.

  13. Parenting styles and conceptions of parental authority during adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smetana, J G

    1995-04-01

    Reports of parenting styles were assessed in 110 primarily white, middle-class sixth, eighth, and tenth graders (M = 11.98, 13.84, and 16.18 years of age) and their parents (108 mothers and 92 fathers). Parents judged the legitimacy of parental authority and rated family conflict and rules regarding 24 hypothetical moral, conventional, personal, multifaceted (containing conventional and personal components), prudential, and friendship issues. Adolescents viewed their parents as more permissive and more authoritarian than parents viewed themselves, whereas parents viewed themselves as more authoritative than did adolescents. Parents' parenting styles differentiated their conceptions of parental authority, but adolescents' perceptions did not. Differences were primarily over the boundaries of adolescents' personal jurisdiction. Furthermore, conceptions of parental authority and parenting styles both contributed significantly to emotional autonomy and adolescent-parent conflict. The implications of the findings for typological models of parenting and distinct domain views of social-cognitive development are discussed.

  14. The relationship between leadership styles and empathy among student nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunther, Mary; Evans, Ginger; Mefford, Linda; Coe, Thomas R

    2007-01-01

    Much of the nursing literature on leadership describes the qualities of existing nursing leaders, while emphasizing the need for leadership development in student nurses for both managerial and clinical practice. However, there is a lack of research literature on the characteristics of current students. Conducted by the University of Tennessee College of Nursing Empathy Research Group, this pilot study explores the relationship between leadership styles and empathy (cognitive and affective) levels. This correlational descriptive study involved self-report using 3 instruments. Hogan Empathy Scale (HES) and Emotional Empathy Tendency Scale (EETS) measured cognitive and affective empathy levels. The Multifactoral Leadership Questionnaire (MLQ-5x) was used to determine leadership style. Data analysis yielded evidence of a weak positive correlation between the predominant transformational leadership style and empathy levels in both junior and senior students. This correlation has implications for both nurse educators and future employers.

  15. Prescribing style and variation in antibiotic prescriptions for sore throat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cordoba Currea, Gloria Cristina; Siersma, Volkert Dirk; Lopez-Valcarcel, Beatriz Gonzalez

    2015-01-01

    Background: Variation in prescription of antibiotics in primary care can indicate poor clinical practice that contributes to the increase of resistant strains. General Practitioners (GPs), as a professional group, are expected to have a fairly homogeneous prescribing style. In this paper, we...... describe variation in prescribing style within and across groups of GPs from six countries. Methods: Cross-sectional study with the inclusion of 457 GPs and 6394 sore throat patients. We describe variation in prescribing antibiotics for sore throat patients across six countries and assess whether variation...... in “prescribing style” – understood as a subjective tendency to prescribe – has an important effect on variation in prescription of antibiotics by using the concept of prescribing style as a latent variable in a multivariable model. We report variation as a Median Odds Ratio (MOR) which is the transformation...

  16. Love styles and desire for closeness in romantic relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodboy, Alan K; Booth-Butterfield, Melanie

    2009-08-01

    This study investigated differences in love styles (i.e., eros, ludus, storge, pragma, agape, mania) associated with the romantic desire for closeness. Participants were 197 undergraduate students (M age = 19.8 yr., SD = 1.9; 92 men, 104 women) currently in a romantic relationship who completed a survey assessing their love styles and current desire for closeness with their partner (i.e., desired less closeness, the same level of closeness, or more closeness). Results indicated small significant differences in individuals' preferences for closeness with the eros and ludus love styles. Specifically, individuals who desired less closeness scored lower on eros love and higher on ludus love than partners who reported an ideal level of closeness or who desired more closeness.

  17. Leadership styles of nurse managers in a multinational environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suliman, Wafika A

    2009-01-01

    This is a descriptive study conducted at a multinational working environment, where 1500 nurses representing 52 nationalities are employed. The study aimed at exploring the predominant leadership style of nurse managers through self-evaluation and staff nurses' evaluation and the impact of working in a multinational environment on their intention to stay or quit. The value lies in its focus on leadership styles in an environment where national diversity among managers, staff, and patients is very challenging. The study included 31 nurse managers and 118 staff nurses using Bass and Avolio's (1995) Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire. The results showed that nurse managers and staff nurses reported transformational leadership as predominant with significant difference in favor of nurse managers. Participants' nationality and intention to stay or quit affected their perception of transformational leadership as a predominant style. The implications highlight the need for senior nursing management to set effective retention strategies for transformational nurse managers who work at multinational environments.

  18. Perceived parenting styles differ between genders but not between elite athletes and controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Serge; Gerber, Markus; Beck, Johannes; Kalak, Nadeem; Hatzinger, Martin; Pühse, Uwe; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith

    2011-01-01

    For adolescent elite athletes, parental financial and emotional support is crucial. However, parents of elite athletes may be critical and demanding. Moreover, there is evidence that girls report more favorable perceived parenting styles compared with boys. The aim of the present study was to investigate perceived parenting styles among female and male adolescent elite athletes and controls. We sampled 258 adolescent elite athletes (139 females, 119 males) and 176 controls (139 females, 37 males). Participants completed a questionnaire to assess perceived parenting styles (support, commendation, reproach, restriction, inconsistency). Results showed that parenting styles did not differ between athletes and controls, except for restriction, for which athletes reported lower levels. Female adolescents had higher scores for positive and lower scores for negative perceived parenting styles.

  19. Suitable Learning Styles for Intelligent Tutoring Technologies (Styles d’Apprentissage Appropries pour les Technologies Tuteurs Intelligents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-01

    Myers-Briggs Type Indicator ( MBTI ) .......................................................... 17 2.2.6.1 Overview and design of model...States defence and North Atlantic Treaty Organization reports), government (e.g., DRDC archives) and internet-based sources were searched for...cognitive and behavioural neuroscience. Cognitive style can be defined as “an individual’s characteristic and consistent approach to organizing and

  20. Examination of the salutogenic model, support resources, coping style, and stressors among Israeli university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heiman, Tali

    2004-11-01

    The author investigated A. Antonovsky's (1979) concept of the sense of coherence (SOC) in relation to social support, coping styles, and the stress experiences of college students. A multivariate model was used to assess the relationships between the psychosocial resources, perceived stress, and the effect of different coping styles among 261 undergraduate students in three Israeli institutions of higher education. Results of a multivariate analysis of variance revealed that younger students used more emotional strategies and perceived having greater social support from friends than did older students. Students who did not work reported experiencing higher levels of stress associated with daily life and work-related issues. Women used more emotional and avoidance coping strategies. The findings of the regression analysis demonstrated that task-oriented and emotional coping modes, work stress, and family support explained 30% of the variance of SOC. These results increase our understanding of the salutogenic model of students within university settings and suggest focusing on the students and their interaction with the environment, using the concepts of stress, coping, and social support as inseparable characteristics of systems models.

  1. How National Culture and Parental Style Affect the Process of Adolescents’ Ecological Resocialization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elodie Gentina

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The role of adolescents as influencers on their families’ environmental behavior is potentially a catalyst for change towards increasing eco-friendly actions. In this paper, the authors report on a cross-cultural study of ecological resocialization in France and India. Using in-depth dyadic interviews, they investigated parental styles, cultural attributes and extent of adolescents’ influence over parental eco-behavior. The study reveals that ecological resocialization across countries differs substantially, according to a combination of national cultural values, parental style and influence strategy. French teens exhibit a greater impact than Indian teens on their parents’ eco-behavior and use bilateral influence strategies. In India, not all mothers engage in ecological resocialization, but those who do are susceptible to unilateral strategies. The role of environmental knowledge, and the context and effectiveness of each kind of strategy is discussed. The findings have implications for how public policy officials and agencies can encourage adolescents as key resocialization agents to influence their parents’ pro-environmental consumption by using the most adapted influence strategy across cultures.

  2. The Relationship between Parenting Styles and Adult Attachment Styles from Jordan University Students

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad M. Mahasneh; Zohair H. Al-Zoubi; Omar T. Batayenh; Mohammad S. Jawarneh

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between parenting styles and adult attachment styles. A random sample of (564) male and female students at the faculty of educational sciences was chosen selected. Two questionnaires on attachment styles and parenting styles were administered to the selected sample population during the academic year of 2012-2013. Results indicated significant positive correlations between the authoritative, negligent and authoritarian parenting styles...

  3. The neural correlates of visual and verbal cognitive styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraemer, David J M; Rosenberg, Lauren M; Thompson-Schill, Sharon L

    2009-03-25

    It has long been thought that propensities for visual or verbal learning styles influence how children acquire knowledge successfully and how adults reason in everyday life. There is no direct evidence to date, however, linking these cognitive styles to specific neural systems. In the present study, visual and verbal cognitive styles are measured by self-report survey, and cognitive abilities are measured by scored tests of visual and verbal skills. Specifically, we administered the Verbalizer-Visualizer Questionnaire (VVQ) and modality-specific subtests of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) to 18 subjects who subsequently participated in a functional magnetic resonance imaging experiment. During the imaging session, participants performed a novel psychological task involving both word-based and picture-based feature matching conditions that was designed to permit the use of either a visual or a verbal processing style during all conditions of the task. Results demonstrated a pattern of activity in modality-specific cortex that distinguished visual from verbal cognitive styles. During the word-based condition, activity in a functionally defined brain region that responded to viewing pictorial stimuli (fusiform gyrus) correlated with self-reported visualizer ratings on the VVQ. In contrast, activity in a phonologically related brain region (supramarginal gyrus) correlated with the verbalizer dimension of the VVQ during the picture-based condition. Scores from the WAIS subtests did not reliably correlate with brain activity in either of these regions. These findings suggest that modality-specific cortical activity underlies processing in visual and verbal cognitive styles.

  4. Association between morningness-eveningness and the severity of compulsive Internet use: the moderating role of gender and parenting style.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yu-Hsuan; Gau, Susan Shur-Fen

    2013-12-01

    Eveningness and Internet addiction are major concerns in adolescence and young adulthood. We investigated the relationship between morningness-eveningness and compulsive Internet use in young adults and explored the moderating effects of perceived parenting styles and family support on such relationships. The participants consisted of 2731 incoming college students (men, 52.4%; mean age, 19.4±3.6years) from a National University in Taiwan. Each participant completed the questionnaires, which included the Morningness-Eveningness Scale (MES), the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale modified for Internet use (YBOCS-IU), the Parental Bonding Instrument for parenting style, the Family Adaptation, Partnership, Growth, Affection, and Resolve questionnaire (APGAR) for perceived family support, and the Adult Self-Report Inventory-4 (ASRI-4) for psychopathology. The morning (n=459), intermediate (n=1878), and evening (n=394) groups were operationally defined by the MES t scores. The results showed that eveningness was associated with greater weekend sleep compensation, increased compulsive Internet use, more anxiety, poorer parenting styles, and less family support; additionally, the most associated variables for increased compulsive Internet use were the tendency of eveningness, male gender, more anxiety symptoms, less maternal affection/care, and a lower level of perceived family support. The negative association between the morning type and compulsive Internet use severity escalated with increased maternal affection/care and decreased with increased perceived family support. The positive association between the evening type and compulsive Internet use severity declined with increased maternal protection. However, the father's parenting style did not influence the relationship between morningness-eveningness and compulsive Internet use severity. Our findings imply that sleep schedule and the parental and family process should be part of specific measures for prevention

  5. Measuring adolescents' perceptions of parenting style during childhood: psychometric properties of the parenting styles and dimensions questionnaire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Semira Tagliabue

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes the psychometric properties of the G1 version of the Parenting Styles and Dimensions Questionnaire, a self-report instrument designed to investigate how adolescents or adults were parented during childhood. The sample included 1451 Italian adolescents in high school. Three studies tested the scale's structure, invariance, and convergent validity. The first found slightly acceptable fit indexes for a 40-item scale measuring three factors (authoritative, authoritarian, and permissive styles; the factors presented good reliability (ρc .62-.96. Multigroup confirmative analyses found factor loadings invariant in the father version, whereas 12 items resulted not invariant in the mother version (second study. Good convergent validity was found with the Parental Bonding Index and the Parental Monitoring Scale (third study. Discussion of results is provided within the parenting styles literature.

  6. How learning style affects evidence-based medicine: a survey study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwolsman, Sandra E; van Dijk, Nynke; Verhoeven, Anita A H; de Ruijter, Wouter; Wieringa-de Waard, Margreet

    2011-10-08

    Learning styles determine how people manage new information. Evidence-based medicine (EBM) involves the management of information in clinical practice. As a consequence, the way in which a person uses EBM can be related to his or her learning style. In order to tailor EBM education to the individual learner, this study aims to determine whether there is a relationship between an individual's learning style and EBM competence (knowledge/skills, attitude, behaviour). In 2008, we conducted a survey among 140 novice GP trainees in order to assess their EBM competence and learning styles (Accommodator, Diverger, Assimilator, Converger, or mixed learning style). The trainees' EBM knowledge/skills (scale 0-15; mean 6.8; 95%CI 6.4-7.2) were adequate and their attitudes towards EBM (scale 0-100; mean 63; 95%CI 61.3-64.3) were positive. We found no relationship between their knowledge/skills or attitudes and their learning styles (p = 0.21; p = 0.19). Of the trainees, 40% used guidelines to answer clinical questions and 55% agreed that the use of guidelines is the most appropriate way of applying EBM in general practice. Trainees preferred using evidence from summaries to using evidence from single studies. There were no differences in medical decision-making or in EBM use (p = 0.59) for the various learning styles. However, we did find a link between having an Accommodating or Converging learning style and making greater use of intuition. Moreover, trainees with different learning styles expressed different ideas about the optimal use of EBM in primary care. We found that EBM knowledge/skills and EBM attitudes did not differ with respect to the learning styles of GP trainees. However, we did find differences relating to the use of intuition and the trainees' ideas regarding the use of evidence in decision-making.

  7. Leadership styles, emotion regulation, and burnout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Kara A; Connelly, Catherine E; Walsh, Megan M; Martin Ginis, Kathleen A

    2015-10-01

    This study investigated the potential impact of leadership style on leaders' emotional regulation strategies and burnout. Drawing on the full-range model of leadership and Conservation of Resources (COR) theory, we tested whether transformational, contingent reward, management by exception-active and -passive, or laissez-faire leadership exert direct effects on leaders' reported use of surface acting, deep acting, and genuine emotion. In turn, we hypothesized and tested the indirect effect of leadership on burnout through surface acting. Three waves of data from 205 leaders were analyzed using OLS regression. Transformational leadership predicted deep acting and genuine emotion. Contingent reward predicted both surface and deep acting. Management by exception-active and -passive predicted surface acting, and laissez faire predicted genuine emotion. The indirect effects of management by exception-active and -passive on burnout through surface acting were not significant. Indirect effects of transformational leadership and laissez-faire on burnout through genuine emotion, however, were significant. This study provides empirical evidence for the hypothesized relationships between leadership style, emotion regulation, and burnout, and provides the basis for future research and theory building on this topic. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. ANATOMICAL VARIATIONS OF THE GREATER PALATINE NERVE IN THE GREATER PALATINE CANAL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafeez, Najmus Sahar; Ganapathy, Sugantha; Sondekoppam, Rakesh; Johnson, Marjorie; Merrifield, Peter; Galil, Khadry A

    2015-01-01

    The greater palatine nerve and the greater palatine canal are common sites for maxillary anesthesia during dental and maxillo-facial procedures. The greater palatine nerve is thought to course as a single trunk through the greater palatine canal, branching after its exit from the greater palatine foramen. We describe intra-canalicular branching variations of the greater palatine nerve found in 8 of 20 embalmed dissection specimens. Such variation is previously unreported in the literature. We characterize the variations in branching pattern and discuss the possible implications for clinical practice.

  9. Alcohol-Specific Coping Styles of Adult Children of Individuals with Alcohol Use Disorders and Associations with Psychosocial Functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drapkin, Michelle L; Eddie, David; Buffington, Angela J; McCrady, Barbara S

    2015-07-01

    Parental alcohol use disorders (AUDs) have been conceptualized as a chronic stressor that can lead to deleterious long-term outcomes in children of individuals with AUDs. Yet, while many individuals are detrimentally affected by their parents' problematic alcohol use, and go on to manifest psychological problems, others do not. How individuals cope with the stress of having a parent with an AUD is believed to be an important moderator of this differential outcome. This study assessed whether individuals' alcohol-specific coping styles predicted alcohol use, positive or negative life events, and depression, using a sample of 465 college students, of whom 20% were adult children of individuals with alcohol use disorders, colloquially known as adult children of alcoholics (ACOAs), and a battery of well-validated, self-report measures. Participant ACOAs reported less 'engaged' and 'total' alcohol-specific coping strategies and more 'withdrawal' alcohol-specific coping strategies than their non adult children of alcoholics (NACOAs) counterparts. Across participants, women reported more 'engaged', 'tolerant/inactive', and 'total' coping than men. Although ACOAs reported significantly more negative life events, which predicted more passive coping styles, they did not differ significantly from NACOAs on measures of problematic alcohol use or depression, supporting theories of resilience in ACOAs regardless of their alcohol-specific coping styles. For NACOAs, 'tolerant' coping predicted greater depression and alcohol-related problems; 'engaged' coping predicted fewer alcohol problems. Results suggest that ACOAs cope differently with problematic alcohol use among relatives and friends compared with NACOAs and are more likely to experience negative life events. Additionally, alcohol-related coping strategies have more predictive utility in NACOAs than ACOAs. © The Author 2015. Medical Council on Alcohol and Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.

  10. Analytic information processing style in epilepsy patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buonfiglio, Marzia; Di Sabato, Francesco; Mandillo, Silvia; Albini, Mariarita; Di Bonaventura, Carlo; Giallonardo, Annateresa; Avanzini, Giuliano

    2017-08-01

    Relevant to the study of epileptogenesis is learning processing, given the pivotal role that neuroplasticity assumes in both mechanisms. Recently, evoked potential analyses showed a link between analytic cognitive style and altered neural excitability in both migraine and healthy subjects, regardless of cognitive impairment or psychological disorders. In this study we evaluated analytic/global and visual/auditory perceptual dimensions of cognitive style in patients with epilepsy. Twenty-five cryptogenic temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) patients matched with 25 idiopathic generalized epilepsy (IGE) sufferers and 25 healthy volunteers were recruited and participated in three cognitive style tests: "Sternberg-Wagner Self-Assessment Inventory", the C. Cornoldi test series called AMOS, and the Mariani Learning style Questionnaire. Our results demonstrate a significant association between analytic cognitive style and both IGE and TLE and respectively a predominant auditory and visual analytic style (ANOVA: p values style and its neurophysiological correlates in epilepsy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Hailstones across the Greater Sydney Metropolitan Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasuly, A. A.; Cheung, K. K. W.; McBurney, B.

    2014-11-01

    This study addresses the recent climatology of hail occurrence in the Greater Metropolitan Severe Thunderstorm Warning Area (GMSTWA) of New South Wales, Australia, which is a sprawling suburban area, with a population of nearly 4.7 million and one of Australia's largest metropolis. The main objective is to highlight the recent temporal-spatial fluctuations of hailstone frequencies and magnitudes for each of recognized and vastly inhabited Local Government Areas (LGAs). The relevant hail event data from 1989 to 2013 were initially derived from the severe storm archive of Australian Bureau of Meteorology. A climatologically oriented GIS technique was applied in the examining and mapping procedure of all hail events and hail days reported throughout the study area. By applying a specific criterion, all severe hails (defined as 2 cm or more in diameter) were cautiously selected and then imported into the ArcGIS software for relevant analysis. Appropriate data layers were stored in a unique database to allow logical integration of the data directly into some geoprocessing functions, mainly for querying, analyzing and mapping purposes in a model-builder setting. The database includes 357 hailstones with sizes 2-11 cm and occurred in 169 hail days across the region during the past 25 years. The models have established that hailstones are neither temporally nor spatially uniform in magnitude throughout the study area. Temporal analysis indicated that most of hail events occurred predominately in the afternoons with peak time of 1-5 p.m. EST. They were particularly common in spring and summer, and reached maximum frequency in November and December. There was an average of 14.3 events each year, but a significant decreasing trend in terms of hail frequency and associated magnitude in the recent years has been identified. In turn, spatial models also established three main distribution patterns over the study area, which include the Sydney Metropolitan, coastal and pronounced

  12. Reading Processes and Parenting Styles

    OpenAIRE

    Carreteiro, Rui; Justo, João; Figueira, Ana

    2015-01-01

    Home literacy environment explains between 12 and 18.5% of the variance of children’s language skills. Although most authors agree that children whose parents encourage them to read tend to develop better and earlier reading skills, some authors consider that the impact of family environment in reading skills is overvalued. Probably, other variables of parent–child relationship, like parenting styles, might be relevant for this field. Nevertheless, no previous studies on the ef...

  13. Robust Face Sketch Style Synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shengchuan Zhang; Xinbo Gao; Nannan Wang; Jie Li

    2016-01-01

    Heterogeneous image conversion is a critical issue in many computer vision tasks, among which example-based face sketch style synthesis provides a convenient way to make artistic effects for photos. However, existing face sketch style synthesis methods generate stylistic sketches depending on many photo-sketch pairs. This requirement limits the generalization ability of these methods to produce arbitrarily stylistic sketches. To handle such a drawback, we propose a robust face sketch style synthesis method, which can convert photos to arbitrarily stylistic sketches based on only one corresponding template sketch. In the proposed method, a sparse representation-based greedy search strategy is first applied to estimate an initial sketch. Then, multi-scale features and Euclidean distance are employed to select candidate image patches from the initial estimated sketch and the template sketch. In order to further refine the obtained candidate image patches, a multi-feature-based optimization model is introduced. Finally, by assembling the refined candidate image patches, the completed face sketch is obtained. To further enhance the quality of synthesized sketches, a cascaded regression strategy is adopted. Compared with the state-of-the-art face sketch synthesis methods, experimental results on several commonly used face sketch databases and celebrity photos demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  14. Translation and cross-cultural adaptation into Brazilian Portuguese of the Measure of Parental Style (MOPS - a self-reported scale - according to the International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR recommendations Tradução e adaptação transcultural para o português brasileiro do instrumento autoaplicável Measure of Parental Style (MOPS utilizando as recomendações da International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda L. C. Baeza

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To describe the translation and adaptation methodology for the Measure of Parental Style, a self-report instrument developed originally in English, following the International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research guidelines, comparing this to other methodologies used for the same purposes. METHOD: Translation and Cultural Adaptation group International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research guidelines were followed (preparation, first forward translation, reconciliation, back translation, revision of back translation, harmonization, cognitive debriefing, revision of debriefing results, syntax and orthographic revision, final report. CONCLUSION: A careful and qualified cross-cultural translation and adaptation of an instrument contribute for measuring what it is designed to measure across cultures. Presenting this process, besides its final product, provides the opportunity that this experience could be replicated for adaptation of other instruments.OBJETIVO: Descrever a metodologia de tradução e adaptação do Measure of Parental Style, instrumento autoaplicável desenvolvido originalmente em inglês, segundo as recomendações da International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research, analisando-a criticamente em relação a outras metodologias utilizadas para o mesmo fim. MÉTODO: Foram utilizadas as diretrizes do Translation and Cultural Adaptation group, vinculado à International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research, seguindo os passos: preparação; primeira tradução; reconciliação; retrotradução; revisão da retrotradução; harmonização; estudo piloto; revisão dos resultados do estudo piloto; revisão sintática e ortográfica; relato final. CONCLUSÃO: Uma tradução e adaptação transcultural criteriosa e de qualidade contribui para que o instrumento possa medir o que se propõe em diversas culturas. Apresentar este processo, assim como seu produto final

  15. Affect mediates the association between mental adjustment styles and quality of life among Chinese cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeung, Nelson C Y; Lu, Qian

    2014-11-01

    This study examined the association between mental adjustment styles and quality of life, and affect as a mediator among 238 Chinese cancer survivors. Regression analysis showed that quality of life was positively associated with fighting spirit and negatively associated with fatalism. Path analysis showed that greater fighting spirit was associated with more positive affect, which in turn was associated with higher quality of life. Greater fatalism was associated with less positive affect and more negative affect, which in turn was associated with lower quality of life. Findings suggest that positive affect and negative affect are important in understanding mental adjustment styles and its health implications. © The Author(s) 2013.

  16. Community Based Natural Resource Management in the Greater ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    In 2002, Mozambique, South Africa and Zimbabwe signed an agreement establishing the enlarged Greater Limpopo Trans Frontier Conservation Area. The area includes ... Local level scenario planning, iterative assessment and adaptive management : final technical report, July 2006 to November 2011. Download PDF.

  17. Differential effects of self-esteem and interpersonal competence on humor styles

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCosker, Bernadette; Moran, Carmen C

    2012-01-01

    Background In contrast with an early implicit “facilitative hypothesis” of humor, a revised specificity hypothesis predicts that the benefits of humor depend on the specific style of humor used. Information on predictors of these humor styles in turn enhances the ability to predict the effect on well-being. Methods We examined the relationships between interpersonal competence, self-esteem, and different styles of humor, while also examining the contributions of age and gender. Participants (n = 201) aged 18–63 years completed the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Inventory, the Interpersonal Competence Questionnaire, and the Humor Styles Questionnaire, and gave demographic information. Results High self-esteem was associated with higher use of affiliative, aggressive, and self-enhancing humor styles, but lower use of self-defeating humor. High interpersonal competence predicted greater use of affiliative humor, whereas low interpersonal competence predicted greater use of aggressive humor. Further analyses showed that initiation competence predicted affiliative humor (positively) but both initiation competence (positively) and conflict management competence (negatively) predicted aggressive humor. Conclusion The findings that both self-esteem and initiation competence contribute to use of aggressive humor add to knowledge of who is likely to use this potentially harmful humor style. We conclude that a readiness to initiate humorous interactions is not on its own a general and positive attribute contributing to “good” humor. PMID:23180973

  18. ONE-DIMENSIONAL AND TWO-DIMENSIONAL LEADERSHIP STYLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikola Stefanović

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to motivate their group members to perform certain tasks, leaders use different leadership styles. These styles are based on leaders' backgrounds, knowledge, values, experiences, and expectations. The one-dimensional styles, used by many world leaders, are autocratic and democratic styles. These styles lie on the two opposite sides of the leadership spectrum. In order to precisely define the leadership styles on the spectrum between the autocratic leadership style and the democratic leadership style, leadership theory researchers use two dimensional matrices. The two-dimensional matrices define leadership styles on the basis of different parameters. By using these parameters, one can identify two-dimensional styles.

  19. Navigational Style Influences Eye Movement Pattern during Exploration and Learning of an Environmental Map.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piccardi, Laura; De Luca, Maria; Nori, Raffaella; Palermo, Liana; Iachini, Fabiana; Guariglia, Cecilia

    2016-01-01

    During navigation people may adopt three different spatial styles (i.e., Landmark, Route, and Survey). Landmark style (LS) people are able to recall familiar landmarks but cannot combine them with directional information; Route style (RS) people connect landmarks to each other using egocentric information about direction; Survey style (SS) people use a map-like representation of the environment. SS individuals generally navigate better than LS and RS people. Fifty-one college students (20 LS; 17 RS, and 14 SS) took part in the experiment. The spatial cognitive style (SCS) was assessed by means of the SCS test; participants then had to learn a schematic map of a city, and after 5 min had to recall the path depicted on it. During the learning and delayed recall phases, eye-movements were recorded. Our intent was to investigate whether there is a peculiar way to explore an environmental map related to the individual's spatial style. Results support the presence of differences in the strategy used by the three spatial styles for learning the path and its delayed recall. Specifically, LS individuals produced a greater number of fixations of short duration, while the opposite eye movement pattern characterized SS individuals. Moreover, SS individuals showed a more spread and comprehensive explorative pattern of the map, while LS individuals focused their exploration on the path and related targets. RS individuals showed a pattern of exploration at a level of proficiency between LS and SS individuals. We discuss the clinical and anatomical implications of our data.

  20. Parent-child aggression: association with child abuse potential and parenting styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Christina M

    2010-01-01

    The present investigation predicted that greater use of corporal punishment as well as physical maltreatment would be associated with child abuse potential and selected parenting styles. Three independent studies were examined, two with community samples and a third with a clinical at-risk sample of parents. Parents across all studies anonymously completed the Child Abuse Potential Inventory, the Parent-Child Conflict Tactics Scale to assess physical discipline and maltreatment, as well as the Parenting Scale to measure dysfunctional parenting styles. Findings support that overall parent-child aggression, as well as physical maltreatment behaviors specifically, were associated with child abuse potential. Parent-child aggression was also related to dysfunctional parenting styles, particularly an overreactive, authoritarian parenting style. Permissive parenting was also identified as potentially associated with physical maltreatment, although the findings regarding such lax parenting styles are less clear. Intriguing findings emerged regarding the connection of psychological aggression to both child abuse potential and dysfunctional parenting style. Child abuse potential was also associated with dysfunctional parenting style, particularly harsh, overreactive approaches. Recommendations for future study with at-risk samples and additional research on permissive parenting and psychological aggression are discussed.

  1. Stress and coping styles in Japanese nursing students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Kanae; Saito, Miwa; Takao, Toshihiro

    2012-10-01

    The objective of this investigation was to examine the stress and coping styles in Japanese nursing students. The principal measures of the stress and coping styles were the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ)-12 and Brief Coping Orientations to Problems Experienced scale. In a cross-sectional analysis, 1324 students completed the anonymous self-administered questionnaires including the scales earlier. Feeling stress, living with family, not eating breakfast every day, having no regular exercise and poor sleep were associated with GHQ responder (psychological distressed group). The most commonly reported source of stress was taking examinations, followed by relationships with friends, engaging in clinical practice and presenting reports. The three most common coping styles adopted by the nursing students were acceptance, self-distraction and using instrumental support. By logistic regression analysis of coping styles with GHQ responder, self-blame, active coping, acceptance and behavioural disengagement were highly associated with GHQ responder. The nursing school educators as well as students should be aware of stress management strategies (e.g. using active coping and avoiding self-blame) that may help prevent depression. © 2012 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  2. Attachment Styles of Dermatological Patients in Europe: A Multi­centre Study in 13 Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Csanád Szabó

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Attachment styles of dermatological outpatients and satisfaction with their dermatologists were investigated within the framework of a multicentre study conducted in 13 European countries, organized by the European Society for Dermatology and Psychiatry. Attachment style was assessed with the Adult Attachment Scale. Patient satisfaction with the dermatologist was assessed with an 11-degree scale. A total of 3,635 adult outpatients and 1,359 controls participated in the study. Dermatological outpatients were less able to depend on others, were less comfortable with closeness and intimacy, and experienced similar rates of anxiety in relationships as did the controls. Participants who had secure attachment styles reported stressful life events during the last 6 months significantly less often than those who had insecure attachment styles. Patients with secure attachment styles tended to be more satisfied with their dermatologist than did insecure patients. These results suggest that secure attachment of dermatological outpatients may be a protective factor in the management of stress.

  3. Attachment Styles of Dermatological Patients in Europe: A Multi-centre Study in 13 Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabó, Csanád; Altmayer, Anita; Lien, Lars; Poot, Françoise; Gieler, Uwe; Tomas-Aragones, Lucía; Kupfer, Jörg; Jemec, Gregor B E; Misery, Laurent; Linder, M Dennis; Sampogna, Francesca; van Middendorp, Henriët; Halvorsen, Jon Anders; Balieva, Flora; Szepietowski, Jacek C; Romanov, Dmitry; Marron, Servando E; Altunay, Ilknur K; Finlay, Andrew Y; Salek, Sam S; Dalgard, Florence

    2017-07-06

    Attachment styles of dermatological outpatients and satisfaction with their dermatologists were investigated within the framework of a multicentre study conducted in 13 European countries, organized by the European Society for Dermatology and Psychiatry. Attachment style was assessed with the Adult Attachment Scale. Patient satisfaction with the dermatologist was assessed with an 11-degree scale. A total of 3,635 adult outpatients and 1,359 controls participated in the study. Dermatological outpatients were less able to depend on others, were less comfortable with closeness and intimacy, and experienced similar rates of anxiety in relationships as did the controls. Participants who had secure attachment styles reported stressful life events during the last 6 months significantly less often than those who had insecure attachment styles. Patients with secure attachment styles tended to be more satisfied with their dermatologist than did insecure patients. These results suggest that secure attachment of dermatological outpatients may be a protective factor in the management of stress.

  4. Psychometric properties of the defense style questionnaire (DSQ-40) in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruuttu, Titta; Pelkonen, Mirjami; Holi, Matti; Karlsson, Linnea; Kiviruusu, Olli; Heilä, Hannele; Tuisku, Virpi; Tuulio-Henriksson, Annamari; Marttunen, Mauri

    2006-02-01

    This study examined the psychometric properties of the Defense Style Questionnaire (DSQ-40) in adolescents. Internal consistency, factor structure, and discriminant and concurrent validity of the DSQ-40 were studied in 211 adolescent psychiatric outpatients aged 13 to 19 years and 199 age-matched and sex-matched controls. Principal components analysis yielded four internally consistent components: mature, neurotic, image-distorting, and immature defense styles. The outpatients reported more immature, image-distorting, and neurotic styles and less mature style than did the controls, suggesting adequate discriminant validity. As a demonstration of convergent and concurrent validity, the severity of psychiatric symptoms assessed by the General Health Questionnaire and psychosocial adjustment assessed by the Global Assessment of Functioning Scale correlated theoretically meaningfully with the different defense styles. The DSQ-40 appears to be a reliable and valid instrument for adolescents.

  5. Setting the Greater Mekong Subregion - Development Analysis ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... in 1997-98, its primary goal is to foster a greater understanding of development issues and equip its member institutes and researchers with expertise, skills, and knowledge using a peer-to-peer approach. ... It will allow GMS-DAN to continue to contribute leadership and expertise to development research in the region.

  6. Greater Sao Paulo Newer Library Automation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLean, Dulce Didio

    1991-01-01

    This followup to a 1981 study presents descriptions of automated projects or activities in academic, public, and special libraries or information centers in the Greater Sao Paulo region that developed from 1981 through 1987. It is noted that an overall increase in the level of automation since 1981 has been observed. (four references) (Author/MAB)

  7. Greater Somalia, the never-ending dream?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zoppi, Marco

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides an historical analysis of the concept of Greater Somalia, the nationalist project that advocates the political union of all Somali-speaking people, including those inhabiting areas in current Djibouti, Ethiopia and Kenya. The Somali territorial unification project of “lost ter...

  8. Communication styles of undergraduate health students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Ted; Williams, Brett; Boyle, Malcolm; Molloy, Andrew; McKenna, Lisa; Palermo, Claire; Molloy, Liz; Lewis, Belinda

    2011-05-01

    Few empirical studies have been undertaken on the communication styles of specific health-related disciplines. The objective of this study is to identify the communication styles of undergraduate health students at an Australian university. A cross-sectional study using a paper-based version of the Communicator Style Measure (CSM) was administered to a cohort of students enrolled in eight different undergraduate health-related courses. There were 1459 health students eligible for inclusion in the study. 860 students (response rate of 59%) participated in the study. Participants overall preferred the Friendly and Attentive communicator styles and gave least preference to the Contentious and Dominant styles. There was considerable similarity between participants from each of the health-related courses. There was no statistical difference in relation to communicator styles between the age of the participant or the year level they were enrolled in. These results show a preference for communicator styles which are facilitative of a client-centred approach, empathetic, and positive with interpersonal relationships. The lack of significant difference in communicator styles by year level further suggests that people disposed to such communicator styles are drawn to these health-related courses, rather than the specific field of study affecting their style. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. LINKING PERSONAL COMPETENCIES WITH TRANSFORMATIONAL LEADERSHIP STYLE EVIDENCE FROM THE CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY IN THAILAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kedsuda Limsila

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available This study explored the linkage between personal competencies and leadership behaviours as well as their influences on leadership outcomes and subordinates’ work performance. Personal competencies were measured using the Project Manager Competency Development (PMCD tool. Leadership behaviours and outcomes were measured using Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire (MLQ. Data was collected from construction projects in Thailand. Findings revealed that leadership outcomes have significant positive relationship with all personal competencies specified in the PMCD framework, every factor in the transformational style and contingent reward factor in the transactional style. Transformational leaders tend to produce high work quality, work quantity, and problem solving creativity from subordinates. Findings further verified that all PMCD personal competencies have significant positive relationship with every factor in the transformational style. It implies that project managers who apply the transformational style and/or have high personal competencies indicated in PMCD framework are likely to generate greater leadership outcomes and work performance on construction projects.

  10. Thinking Styles and Quality of University Life Among Deaf or Hard of Hearing and Hearing Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Sanyin; Zhang, Li-Fang

    2017-01-01

    The authors explored how thinking styles relate to quality of university life among deaf or hard of hearing (DHH) and hearing university students in mainland China. The first of two studies affirmed the validity and reliability of a modified version of the Quality of University Life Measure (QULM; Sirgy, Grezskowiak, & Rahtz, 2007) among 833 university students (366 DHH, 467 hearing). The second investigated relationships between thinking styles and quality of university life; the Thinking Styles Inventory-Revised II (Sternberg, Wagner, & Zhang, 2007) and modified QULM were administered to 542 students (256 DHH, 286 hearing). Students scoring higher on Type I styles (i.e., more creativity-generating, less structured, cognitively more complex) tended toward greater satisfaction with university life; those scoring higher on Type II (i.e., more norm-favoring, more structured, cognitively more simplistic) tended toward less satisfaction. Contributions, limitations, and implications of the research are discussed.

  11. Cognitive Style as Environmentally Sensitive Individual Differences in Cognition: A Modern Synthesis and Applications in Education, Business, and Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozhevnikov, Maria; Evans, Carol; Kosslyn, Stephen M

    2014-05-01

    The key aims of this article are to relate the construct of cognitive style to current theories in cognitive psychology and neuroscience and to outline a framework that integrates the findings on individual differences in cognition across different disciplines. First, we characterize cognitive style as patterns of adaptation to the external world that develop on the basis of innate predispositions, the interactions among which are shaped by changing environmental demands. Second, we show that research on cognitive style in psychology and cross-cultural neuroscience, on learning styles in education, and on decision-making styles in business and management all address the same phenomena. Third, we review cognitive-psychology and neuroscience research that supports the validity of the concept of cognitive style. Fourth, we show that various styles from disparate disciplines can be organized into a single taxonomy. This taxonomy allows us to integrate all the well-documented cognitive, learning, and decision-making styles; all of these style types correspond to adaptive systems that draw on different levels of information processing. Finally, we discuss how the proposed approach might promote greater coherence in research and application in education, in business and management, and in other disciplines. © The Author(s) 2014.

  12. Adult Attachment Style and Stress as Risk Factors for Early Maternal Sensitivity and Negativity

    OpenAIRE

    Mills-Koonce, W. Roger; Appleyard, Karen; Barnett, Melissa; Deng, Min; Putallaz, Martha; Cox, Martha

    2011-01-01

    The current study examined the individual and joint effects of self-reported adult attachment style, psychological distress, and parenting stress on maternal caregiving behaviors at 6 and 12 months of child age. We proposed a diathesis-stress model to examine the potential deleterious effects of stress for mothers with insecure adult attachment styles. Data from 137 mothers were gathered by the longitudinal Durham Child Health and Development Study. Mothers provided self-reports using Hazan a...

  13. Cross-sectional associations between maternal parenting styles, physical activity and screen sedentary time in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van der Geest, K E; Mérelle, S Y M; Rodenburg, G; Van de Mheen, D; Renders, C M

    2017-09-29

    Children's activity level, including physical activity (PA) and screen sedentary time (SST), is influenced by environmental factors in which parents play a critical role. Different types of parenting styles may influence children's activity level. Inconsistent results were found on the association between parenting styles and PA, and few studies tested the association between parenting styles and SST. This study examined the association between parenting styles, PA and SST and the modifying effect of children's gender and maternal educational level on these associations. Cross-sectional data were collected from parents of children aged 8-11 years old who completed a web-based non-standardized questionnaire (N = 4047). Since 85% of the questionnaires were filled in by mothers, parenting styles are mainly reported by mothers. Multiple linear regression techniques were used to assess the associations between parenting styles (authoritative, permissive, authoritarian and neglectful), and PA and SST (mean min/day). The modifying effect of children's gender and maternal educational level on these associations was explored. P values ≤.0125 were considered as statistically significant based on the Bonferroni correction for four primary analyses. The neglectful parenting style was most widely used (35.3%), while the authoritarian style was least common (14.8%). No significant association was found between parenting styles and PA level. As regards SST, an authoritative parenting style was significantly associated with lower SST in boys while a neglectful parenting style was significantly associated with higher SST in both boys and girls. When the mother had a medium educational level, an authoritative parenting style was significantly associated with lower SST while neglectful parenting was significantly associated with higher SST. No association was found between parenting styles and PA. However, an authoritative parenting style was associated with a reduction in SST

  14. Cross-sectional associations between maternal parenting styles, physical activity and screen sedentary time in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. E. Van der Geest

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Children’s activity level, including physical activity (PA and screen sedentary time (SST, is influenced by environmental factors in which parents play a critical role. Different types of parenting styles may influence children’s activity level. Inconsistent results were found on the association between parenting styles and PA, and few studies tested the association between parenting styles and SST. This study examined the association between parenting styles, PA and SST and the modifying effect of children’s gender and maternal educational level on these associations. Methods Cross-sectional data were collected from parents of children aged 8–11 years old who completed a web-based non-standardized questionnaire (N = 4047. Since 85% of the questionnaires were filled in by mothers, parenting styles are mainly reported by mothers. Multiple linear regression techniques were used to assess the associations between parenting styles (authoritative, permissive, authoritarian and neglectful, and PA and SST (mean min/day. The modifying effect of children’s gender and maternal educational level on these associations was explored. P values ≤.0125 were considered as statistically significant based on the Bonferroni correction for four primary analyses. Results The neglectful parenting style was most widely used (35.3%, while the authoritarian style was least common (14.8%. No significant association was found between parenting styles and PA level. As regards SST, an authoritative parenting style was significantly associated with lower SST in boys while a neglectful parenting style was significantly associated with higher SST in both boys and girls. When the mother had a medium educational level, an authoritative parenting style was significantly associated with lower SST while neglectful parenting was significantly associated with higher SST. Conclusions No association was found between parenting styles and PA. However, an

  15. Maternal coping styles and adjustment in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atlas, J G; Rickel, A U

    1988-06-01

    A comprehensive examination of children's social-emotional adjustment as related to maternal coping styles was performed. Subjects were 186 black mothers from lower-income families, and their children who were enrolled in the Detroit Public Schools Area F, Title I Preschool Program. Maternal nurturant and restrictive child rearing practices, life stress, locus of control and marital status were evaluated with respect to each of the child variables of school adjustment, self-concept and social problem solving skills. Maternal life stress was significantly related to children's lower self-concept, higher aggression, use of finagling and nondirective problem-solving strategies. Significant negative relationships were found between maternal nurturance and child moodiness and learning problems in school, further validating the Modified Child Rearing Practices Report. These findings provide support for expanding the current child developmental focus of preventive parenting programs to include maternal coping strategies such as improved communication and assertiveness training.

  16. Disability status, disease parameters, defense styles, and ego strength associated with psychiatric complications of multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyphantis, Thomas N; Christou, Konstantinos; Kontoudaki, Stavroula; Mantas, Christos; Papamichael, George; Goulia, Panagiota; Konitsiotis, Spyros; Mavreas, Venetsanos

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to identify disease parameters, defensive styles and ego strength measurements associated with various forms of psychiatric complications in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). Seventy-nine patients with MS participated in the study and 158 healthy subjects matched for age and sex served as controls. A wide range of clinical information was collected and the following self-report instruments were used: General Health Questionnaire, Symptom Distress Check List, Defense Style Questionnaire, MMPI Ego Strength Scale and Hostility and Direction of Hostility Questionnaire. The odds of being assessed with a psychiatric diagnosis upon interview were 6.7 times greater among patients compared to controls and 9.3 times greater among patients with recent-onset MS compared to patients with long-term disease. Psychiatric complications of MS were closely associated with age of the disease onset and the degree of disability due to MS. Additionally, higher rates of introverted hostility, adoption of maladaptive ego defenses and weakened ego strength were also closely associated with several forms of psychological distress, especially depressive symptoms. MS patients experience elevated symptoms of psychological distress, especially depressive symptoms, which are most closely associated with disease parameters. However, the crucial role of various personality traits such as ego defenses and hostility features in the psychiatric symptom formation also appear to contribute to the development of depressive symptoms. Clinicians involved in the clinical management of patients with MS should identify and modify treatment if these specific personality markers that indicate the exhaustion of the patient's resources to cope with the physical and psychological stress of the illness are present.

  17. Coping style as a predictor of compliance with referral to active rehabilitation in whiplash patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Robert; Louw, Deon

    2011-09-01

    The objective of the study was to determine the odds ratio for compliance with referral to an active treatment program according to coping style in a cohort of acute whiplash-injured subjects. Sixty whiplash patients were assessed within 1 week of their collision for their coping styles and were then questioned 3 weeks later to determine if they had complied with a referral for an active treatment program. Coping style was assessed with the Vanderbilt Pain Management Inventory. Adjusting for age, gender, and initial whiplash disability questionnaire scores, the odds ratio for compliance with therapy for subjects who had a low active/high passive coping style was 0.15 (P=0.03) (95% CI, 0.03-0.86) relative to all other coping style patterns, whose odds ratios did not differ from each other. As a secondary outcome, the odds ratio for reporting prescription medication use for subjects who had a low active/high passive coping style was 6.7 (P=0.038) (95% CI, 1.1-40.4). Those whiplash patients who have a low active/high passive coping style are less likely to attend an active exercise-based rehabilitation program and more likely to use prescription medications in the first 3 weeks following injury. Coping style may affect recovery from whiplash injury through issues of compliance with active therapy and increased reliance on prescription medications.

  18. Parenting style of Chinese fathers in Hong Kong: correlates with children's school-related performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, Vicky C W; Lam, Rebecca S Y

    2003-01-01

    This study investigates parenting styles among Chinese fathers in Hong Kong as perceived by their school-age children. Four parenting styles, namely inductive, indulgent, indifferent, and dictatorial parenting, are assessed using the Parent Behavior Report (1988). Data were collected through a questionnaire survey on a sample of 1011 Primary Three to Five Chinese students from six schools in Hong Kong and 471 fathers. Findings show that among Chinese fathers, the least common parenting style is inductive, while the other three styles are of similar occurrence. Chi-square analysis shows no significant association between children's grade level and father's parenting style. However, there is a significant association with gender, with fathers more likely to be perceived as dictatorial with boys and indulgent with girls. The effect of paternal styles on children's school-related performance is also examined. MANOVA results show that significant differences are found among children of the four paternal style groups with respect to academic performance, interest in school work, aspiration for education, involvement in extracurricular activities, and efficacy for self-regulated learning. Post-hoc tests reveal that children's performance is similar between the groups with indulgent and inductive fathers, and between children of indifferent and dictatorial fathers, with the former groups performing better than the latter in general. Findings are discussed with regard to research on parenting style and paternal behavior, as well as understanding the roles of fathers in Chinese families in the socio-cultural context in Hong Kong.

  19. ONE-DIMENSIONAL AND TWO-DIMENSIONAL LEADERSHIP STYLES

    OpenAIRE

    Nikola Stefanović

    2007-01-01

    In order to motivate their group members to perform certain tasks, leaders use different leadership styles. These styles are based on leaders' backgrounds, knowledge, values, experiences, and expectations. The one-dimensional styles, used by many world leaders, are autocratic and democratic styles. These styles lie on the two opposite sides of the leadership spectrum. In order to precisely define the leadership styles on the spectrum between the autocratic leadership style and the democratic ...

  20. Predicting Child Physical Activity and Screen Time: Parental Support for Physical Activity and General Parenting Styles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crain, A. Lauren; Senso, Meghan M.; Levy, Rona L.; Sherwood, Nancy E.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To examine relationships between parenting styles and practices and child moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and screen time. Methods: Participants were children (6.9 ± 1.8 years) with a body mass index in the 70–95th percentile and their parents (421 dyads). Parent-completed questionnaires assessed parental support for child physical activity (PA), parenting styles and child screen time. Children wore accelerometers to assess MVPA. Results: Parenting style did not predict MVPA, but support for PA did (positive association). The association between support and MVPA, moreover, varied as a function of permissive parenting. For parents high in permissiveness, the association was positive (greater support was related to greater MVPA and therefore protective). For parents low in permissiveness, the association was neutral; support did not matter. Authoritarian and permissive parenting styles were both associated with greater screen time. Conclusions: Parenting practices and styles should be considered jointly, offering implications for tailored interventions. PMID:24812256

  1. Predicting child physical activity and screen time: parental support for physical activity and general parenting styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langer, Shelby L; Crain, A Lauren; Senso, Meghan M; Levy, Rona L; Sherwood, Nancy E

    2014-07-01

    To examine relationships between parenting styles and practices and child moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and screen time. Participants were children (6.9 ± 1.8 years) with a body mass index in the 70-95th percentile and their parents (421 dyads). Parent-completed questionnaires assessed parental support for child physical activity (PA), parenting styles and child screen time. Children wore accelerometers to assess MVPA. Parenting style did not predict MVPA, but support for PA did (positive association). The association between support and MVPA, moreover, varied as a function of permissive parenting. For parents high in permissiveness, the association was positive (greater support was related to greater MVPA and therefore protective). For parents low in permissiveness, the association was neutral; support did not matter. Authoritarian and permissive parenting styles were both associated with greater screen time. Parenting practices and styles should be considered jointly, offering implications for tailored interventions. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Pediatric Psychology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Association between maternal depressogenic cognitive style during pregnancy and offspring cognitive style 18 years later.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Rebecca M; Fernyhough, Charles; Bentall, Richard; Evans, Jonathan; Heron, Jon; Joinson, Carol; Stein, Alan L; Lewis, Glyn

    2013-04-01

    Understanding the origins of negative cognitive style could provide a means to prevent adult depression. Cognitive style is an important target for intervention because although it is not possible to remove the stress and adversities in people's lives, it may be possible to modify interpretation of such adversities through cognitive style. Children may develop a negative cognitive style through modeling the style of their mothers. However, findings have been inconsistent on the association. The authors tested the hypothesis that there is an independent association between maternal and offspring depressogenic cognitive style. Data from over 4,000 mothers and children from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children cohort study in the United Kingdom were used to investigate the association between maternal depressogenic cognitive style before the offspring's birth and the offspring's depressogenic cognitive style at age 18. A positive association was observed between maternal and offspring cognitive styles: a one-standard-deviation increase in maternal depressogenic cognitive style score during pregnancy was significantly associated with a mean increase of 0.1 standard deviations in offspring depressogenic cognitive style score at age 18. This effect remained after adjusting for maternal and offspring depression and explained 21% of the association between maternal and offspring depression. Although the mechanisms remain to be elucidated, the findings are consistent with the idea that a mother's cognitive style (irrespective of her depression status) influences that of her child. This suggests that interventions to improve a mother's cognitive style could help prevent her offspring from developing depression during adulthood.

  3. Nurse Managers' Leadership Styles in Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vesterinen, Soili; Suhonen, Marjo; Isola, Arja; Paasivaara, Leena

    2012-01-01

    Nurse managers who can observe their own behaviour and its effects on employees can adjust to a better leadership style. The intention of this study was to explore nurses' and supervisors' perceptions of nurse managers' leadership styles. Open-ended interviews were conducted with 11 nurses and 10 superiors. The data were analysed by content analysis. In the study, six leadership styles were identified: visionary, coaching, affiliate, democratic, commanding, and isolating. Job satisfaction and commitment as well as operation and development work, cooperation, and organizational climate in the work unit were the factors, affected by leadership styles. The nurse managers should consider their leadership style from the point of view of employees, situation factors, and goals of the organization. Leadership styles where employees are seen in a participatory role have become more common. PMID:23008767

  4. Nurse managers' leadership styles in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vesterinen, Soili; Suhonen, Marjo; Isola, Arja; Paasivaara, Leena

    2012-01-01

    Nurse managers who can observe their own behaviour and its effects on employees can adjust to a better leadership style. The intention of this study was to explore nurses' and supervisors' perceptions of nurse managers' leadership styles. Open-ended interviews were conducted with 11 nurses and 10 superiors. The data were analysed by content analysis. In the study, six leadership styles were identified: visionary, coaching, affiliate, democratic, commanding, and isolating. Job satisfaction and commitment as well as operation and development work, cooperation, and organizational climate in the work unit were the factors, affected by leadership styles. The nurse managers should consider their leadership style from the point of view of employees, situation factors, and goals of the organization. Leadership styles where employees are seen in a participatory role have become more common.

  5. Nurse Managers’ Leadership Styles in Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soili Vesterinen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Nurse managers who can observe their own behaviour and its effects on employees can adjust to a better leadership style. The intention of this study was to explore nurses’ and supervisors’ perceptions of nurse managers’ leadership styles. Open-ended interviews were conducted with 11 nurses and 10 superiors. The data were analysed by content analysis. In the study, six leadership styles were identified: visionary, coaching, affiliate, democratic, commanding, and isolating. Job satisfaction and commitment as well as operation and development work, cooperation, and organizational climate in the work unit were the factors, affected by leadership styles. The nurse managers should consider their leadership style from the point of view of employees, situation factors, and goals of the organization. Leadership styles where employees are seen in a participatory role have become more common.

  6. Holocene peatland initiation in the Greater Everglades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekker, Stefan; de Boer, Hugo; Dermody, Brian; Wagner-Cremer, Friederike; Wassen, Martin; Eppinga, Maarten

    2015-04-01

    The mechanisms involved in the initiation and development of the Greater Everglades peatland ecosystems in South Florida (USA) remain a topic of discussion. In this study, we present an overview of basal ages of peat deposits in South Florida, which shows two major episodes of peatland initiation between 7.0-4.5 kyr and 3.5-2.0 kyr. Our analysis of regional climate proxy datasets led to three alternative hypotheses that may explain the timing and duration of these two peatland initiation episodes: (1) decreased drainage due to relative sea level (RSL) rise during the Holocene (2) gradual increase in precipitation throughout the Holocene, and (3) a combination of increasing precipitation, rising RSL and oscillations in the climate system. We test whether these three hypotheses can explain the pattern of initiation and development of the Greater Everglades peatlands using models that simulate the non-linear processes involved in peat production and decomposition in combination with the local drainage conditions of Southern Florida. The model results suggest that RSL-rise alone cannot predict the onset of peat initiation in the Greater Everglades using our model setup. The model also implies that the climate was wet enough for peat development also during the early Holocene. The first two hypothesized mechanisms in combination with climate oscillations may explain the onset of peat accumulation at 8.2 kyr BP. The two-phased character of peat land initiation may be explained by the spatial distribution of local drainage conditions. As peatland development is highly non-linear, our model uncovers a mechanistic way how peats can suddenly shift from a dry high equilibrium to a wet low equilibrium resulting in lake formation as observed in paleo-ecological studies in the Greater Everglades.

  7. Language Style In King's Speech Movie

    OpenAIRE

    Somia, Emilya; Meisuri, Meisuri

    2012-01-01

    One aim of this article is to show through a concrete example how language style used in movie. The illustrative example is taken from the dialogue of King's Speech movie. Central to the analysis proper form of dialogue in King's Speech movie that contain of language style; i.e. frozen, formal, consultative, casual, and intimate. 339 dialogue were interpreted by actor, and it was found that the use of language style.

  8. Cognitive characteristics affecting rational decision making style

    OpenAIRE

    Rosenberg, Charlotte

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Decision making is one of the most important and frequent tasks among managers and employees in an organization. Knowledge about more stable cognitive characteristics underlying decision making styles has been requested. This study aimed to examine the relationship between rational decision making style, cognitive style, self efficacy and locus of control. Possible interaction effects in relation to gender were also analyzed. 186 employees at the Ministry of Defence were surveyed...

  9. Motivation to learn science and cognitive style

    OpenAIRE

    Zeyer, A

    2010-01-01

    This article investigates the relation between cognitive style and motivation to learn science. The concept of cognitive style proposes the interplay of two core psychological dimensions, empathizing and systemizing. The cognitive style is defined as the interplay between the two abilities. We used the so-called EQ score (empathy quotient) and the SQ score (systemizing quotient) to measure the empathizing and the systemizing dimension respectively. The motivation to learn science was measu...

  10. Nurse Managers’ Leadership Styles in Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Soili Vesterinen; Marjo Suhonen; Arja Isola; Leena Paasivaara

    2012-01-01

    Nurse managers who can observe their own behaviour and its effects on employees can adjust to a better leadership style. The intention of this study was to explore nurses’ and supervisors’ perceptions of nurse managers’ leadership styles. Open-ended interviews were conducted with 11 nurses and 10 superiors. The data were analysed by content analysis. In the study, six leadership styles were identified: visionary, coaching, affiliate, democratic, commanding, and isolating. Job satisfaction and...

  11. Investigating Language Proficiency and Learning Style Preference

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Bradford; Pirotto, Christopher

    2017-01-01

    Individual differences (ID) among language learners (e.g. language aptitude or motivation), are variables that are theorized to affect the degree of success one will have in acquiring a second language (L2). This study sought to add to the body of literature on learning style. 225first year students (divided into two groups based on English proficiency) at a private Japanese university were surveyed to determine their preferred learning style(s). The data obtained were then examined in relati...

  12. Leadership Style Right in the Democratic

    OpenAIRE

    Harlen, Togu

    2015-01-01

    Each leader has a leadership style that is different tobe adapted to the work environment so as to avoidinternal conflicts between superiors and subordinates.No leadership style that has been attached since theman was still in the womb, but some are derived fromexperience and knowledge about leadership.In an era of democratization takes leaders who have ademocratic leadership style that promotes democraticvalues that exist so that the subordinate was given theopportunity to cooperate and coor...

  13. Insight, distress and coping styles in schizophrenia

    OpenAIRE

    Cooke, Michael; Peters, Emmanuelle; Fannon, Dominic; Anilkumar, Anantha P.P.; Aasen, Ingrid; Kuipers, Elizabeth; Kumari, Veena

    2007-01-01

    Background The stigma and negative societal views attached to schizophrenia can make the diagnosis distressing. There is evidence that poor insight into symptoms of the disorder and need for treatment may reflect the use of denial as a coping style. However, the relationships between insight and other coping styles have seldom been investigated. Method We examined the associations between insight, distress and a number of coping styles in 65 outpatients with schizophrenia (final n = 57) in a ...

  14. The influence of learning styles preference of undergraduate nursing students on educational outcomes in substance use education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rassool, G Hussein; Rawaf, Salman

    2008-09-01

    This paper reports a study identifying the learning styles preference of undergraduate nursing students and examining its influence on educational outcomes. There are limited recent studies in the UK on the learning styles preference of undergraduate and its influence on educational outcomes. A purposive sample of 110 undergraduate nursing students completed a demographic questionnaire and the Honey and Mumford's learning styles inventory. A pre-post-test design was used to evaluate the educational outcomes. Reflector learning styles preference was the dominant learning styles among the majority of undergraduate nursing students. An interesting phenomenon about the distribution of the learning styles preference is the additional "dual" learning style category. The hypothesis that learning styles preference will determine knowledge acquisition, changes in attitude and intervention confidence skills was rejected. However, as this is a multi-layered hypothesis the findings showed that only the dual learning styles preference group was found to have a significant influence in intervention confidence skills. Further research is warranted to replicate this study using the same methodology but with several different population samples specialising in different branch of nursing. As there are limited literature on the dual learning styles preferences, this dual preference phenomenon needs further investigation to establish its acceptability in nursing education.

  15. Conflict management styles in the health professions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sportsman, Susan; Hamilton, Patti

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine prevalent conflict management styles chosen by students in nursing and to contrast these styles with those chosen by students in allied health professions. The associations among the level of professional health care education and the style chosen were also determined. A convenience sample of 126 students in a comprehensive university completed the Thomas-Kilmann Conflict Mode Instrument (TKI), which requires respondents to choose behaviors most characteristic of their response to conflict and classifies these behaviors as one of five styles. There was no significant difference between the prevalent conflict management styles chosen by graduate and undergraduate nursing students and those in allied health. Some of the students were already licensed in their discipline; others had not yet taken a licensing exam. Licensure and educational level were not associated with choice of styles. Women and men had similar preferences. The prevalent style for nursing students was compromise, followed by avoidance. In contrast, avoidance, followed by compromise and accommodation, was the prevalent style for allied health students. When compared to the TKI norms, slightly more than one half of all participants chose two or more conflict management styles, commonly avoidance and accommodation at the 75th percentile or above. Only 9.8% of the participants chose collaboration at that level. Implications for nurse educators, researchers, and administrators are discussed.

  16. Parenting Style and the Timing of Jewish Adolescents’ Sexual Debut

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robby Etzkin

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Parenting style and its effect on the timing of Jewish adolescents’ sexual debuts were examined in the reported study. One hundred sixty-eight research participants between the ages of 18 and 22 from a large university in the Southeast participated in the study. A survey instrument was administered at three fraternities and two sororities to examine parenting style and sexual debut retrospectively. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, frequency chi square tests, and Analysis of Variance (ANOVA; while post hoc results were determined through Tukey’s honestly significant difference. Results found that authoritative parenting provides a delay in the age of sexual debut for Jewish adolescents. All other parenting styles had mean ages less than the overall mean age of sexual debut, 17.10 years old, with indifferent parenting having the earliest debut. These findings suggest that parenting style may affect the timing of Jewish adolescents’ sexual debut. The study has implications for understanding factors that may affect the timing of a Jewish adolescent’s sexual debut and may help parents protect their adolescent from the negative effects associated with early sexual debut, such as low academic achievement. Recommendations for future research include exploring the effects of family structure and peer networks to understand fully the many factors that affect the timing of adolescents’ sexual debut.

  17. An experiential thinking style: its facets and relations with objective and subjective criterion measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, Paul; Epstein, Seymour

    2011-10-01

    In Study 1, an experiential factor divided into the following 3 factors when 3 or more factors were extracted: intuition, emotionality, and imagination; whereas a rational factor retained its coherence. In Study 2, an experiential but not a rational thinking style was positively associated with performance measures of creativity, humor, aesthetic judgment, and intuition and with self-report measures of empathy and social popularity. A rational thinking style was associated with several measures of adjustment. Both thinking styles were positively related to personal growth. Support was provided from several sources for the discriminant validity of the experiential facets. In a third study, the independence of the 2 thinking styles and of gender differences in self-reported data were verified by observations by others of participants' thinking styles. The importance of identifying facets of an experiential thinking style and of discovering previously unrecognized favorable attributes of this thinking style was discussed. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Personality © 2011, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. The Perfect Learner: An Expert Debate on Learning Styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delahoussaye, Martin

    2002-01-01

    Presents a discussion of learning styles by Lynn Curry, Rick Daly, Ashley Fields, Peter Honey, David Kolb, Patrick O'Brien and Gary Salton. Addresses learning style theories, style predictability, whether to teach exclusively to one style, and ways to make use of learning styles in corporate settings. (Author/JOW)

  19. Relationship between management styles and nurses' retention at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... to measure nurses' perception for management styles in their work unit. The questionnaire consists of 16 items classified into four parts called systems, which are exploitative/authoritative management style, benevolent/authoritative management style, consultative management style, and participative management style.

  20. Development of an Instrument to Measure Teaching Style in Japan: The Teaching Style Assessment Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Fumiko; Conti, Gary J.; Yamauchi, Toyoaki; Iwasaki, Takaaki

    2014-01-01

    Teaching style has been a popular concept for many years. Teaching style refers to the distinct qualities displayed by a teacher that are persistent from situation to situation regardless of the content. The Principles of Adult Learning Scale (PALS) has been used extensively in the West for measuring teaching style in relationship to the adult…