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Sample records for style termed motivational

  1. Management styles and motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shearer, Dana Ann

    2012-01-01

    According to a review of the current literature, common managerial styles are transformational, transactional, and laissez-faire. When managers expand their leadership skills to improve the staff's morale, they must use a combination of transformational leadership behaviors and transactional contingent rewards to maximize their effectiveness on employees. A motivation theory such as Herzberg and Maslow enhances employees' motivation, morale, and satisfaction. Being able to motivate, empower, and influence staff improves satisfaction and retention levels among the team. A manager's leadership style influences motivation, morale, and retention in staff. Leaders are influenced by their educational development and the organizational culture. Organizational culture has an impact on a manager's style, which is forwarded to their followers.

  2. Achievement Motivation of Primary Mathematics Education Teacher Candidates According to Their Cognitive Styles and Motivation Styles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaman, Hakan; Dündar, Sefa; Ayvaz, Ülkü

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to reveal whether there is relation between achievement motivations of teacher candidates according to their cognitive styles and motivation styles or not. This study was designed as a quantitative study due to collecting quantitative data and running statistical analyses. Both comparative and correlational survey methods…

  3. Examining Teachers' Motivation Level According to School Principals' Humor Styles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recepoglu, Ergun; Kilinc, Ali Cagatay; Cepni, Osman

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to examine the motivation level of teachers according to school principals' humor styles. The humor styles survey and job motivation scale were used to gather data from 305 randomly selected teachers employed in primary schools in Karabuk. Results indicated that 141 of the teachers claimed school principal had…

  4. Strategically Funny: Romantic Motives Affect Humor Style in Relationship Initiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theresa E. DiDonato

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Not all humor is the same, yet little is known about the appeal of specific humor styles in romantic initiation. The current experimental study addresses this gap by investigating how romantic motives (short-term or long-term affect individuals’ anticipated use of, and response to, positive humor and negative humor. Heterosexual participants (n = 224 imagined the pursuit of either a desired short-term or long-term relationship, indicated the extent to which they would produce positive and negative humor, and reported how their own interest would change in response to the imaginary target’s use of positive or negative humor. Results revealed that individuals are strategic in their humor production as a function of relational motives. Individuals produced positive humor in both contexts but limited their use of negative humor when pursuing a long-term relationship. The target’s positive humor increased individuals’ attraction, especially women’s, and although negative humor boosted attraction, it did not boost attraction more for short-term than long-term relationships. Findings extend a trait-indicator model of humor and their implications are discussed in light of other theoretical perspectives.

  5. Strategically Funny: Romantic Motives Affect Humor Style in Relationship Initiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiDonato, Theresa E; Jakubiak, Brittany K

    2016-08-01

    Not all humor is the same, yet little is known about the appeal of specific humor styles in romantic initiation. The current experimental study addresses this gap by investigating how romantic motives (short-term or long-term) affect individuals' anticipated use of, and response to, positive humor and negative humor. Heterosexual participants (n = 224) imagined the pursuit of either a desired short-term or long-term relationship, indicated the extent to which they would produce positive and negative humor, and reported how their own interest would change in response to the imaginary target's use of positive or negative humor. Results revealed that individuals are strategic in their humor production as a function of relational motives. Individuals produced positive humor in both contexts but limited their use of negative humor when pursuing a long-term relationship. The target's positive humor increased individuals' attraction, especially women's, and although negative humor boosted attraction, it did not boost attraction more for short-term than long-term relationships. Findings extend a trait-indicator model of humor and their implications are discussed in light of other theoretical perspectives.

  6. Driving styles and their associations with personality and motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taubman-Ben-Ari, Orit; Yehiel, Dalia

    2012-03-01

    The associations between driving styles and the Big-Five personality factors and perceived costs and benefits of driving were examined in order to obtain a more comprehensive understanding of driving styles. Questionnaires tapping driving style, personality traits, motivations for driving, and background variables were completed by 320 drivers (150 men and 170 women). The results show that each driving style is associated with a unique set of sociodemographic, personality, and motivational factors. The reckless and angry styles were both endorsed more by men than women, by younger drivers, and by those displaying higher levels of Extroversion and thrill seeking, and lower levels of Agreeableness and Conscientiousness. However, whereas the reckless style was also predicted by the perceived costs of driving-related distress, as well as higher perceived risk to life among those with higher education, the angry style was also predicted by perceptions of both control and annoyance among more educated drivers. The anxious style was endorsed more by women, and by drivers lower on Conscientiousness and higher on Neuroticism. Individuals reporting this style regard driving as a cause of distress and annoyance, and, depending on their level of education, perceive it as entailing more risk to life and as a potential damage to their self-image (higher education), or as providing more opportunities for impression management (lower education). The careful driving style was endorsed more by women, and associated with higher Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, and Openness, along with higher pleasure (especially among younger drivers), but lower thrill seeking and worries about damage to self-esteem. The discussion focuses on the importance of looking at driving styles and their predictors holistically in order to design practical interventions suited to different profiles of drivers. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The relationship between teaching styles and motivation to teach among physical education teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hein, Vello; Ries, Francis; Pires, Francisco; Caune, Agnese; Heszteráné Ekler, Judit; Emeljanovas, Arunas; Valantiniene, Irena

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to investigate how teachers' motivation to teach is related to different teaching styles. A hundred and seventy six physical education teachers from five European countries participated in the study. Teachers' motivation was measured using an instrument developed by Roth et al., 2007 based on the Self-Determination Theory (Deci and Ryan, 1985) which was tested for suitability for use with physical education teachers. The use of teaching styles was assessed through teachers' self-reported data according to the description of teaching styles presented by Curtner-Smith et al., 2001. The revised confirmatory factor model of the teachers' motivation instrument, with three factors, met the criteria for satisfactory fit indices. The results showed that teachers were more intrinsically motivated to teach than externally. Cross-cultural comparison indicated that the Spanish teachers were more intrinsically motivated whilst Lithuanian teachers were more externally motivated than teachers from the other four countries. Teachers from all five countries reported a more frequent use of reproductive styles than productive styles. The results of the present study confirmed the hypotheses that teachers' autonomous motivation is related to the student-centered or productive teaching styles whilst non-autonomously motivated teachers adopt more teacher-centered or reproductive teaching styles. Intrinsic and introjected motivation was significantly higher among teachers who more frequently employed productive teaching styles than teachers who used them less frequently. Intrinsically motivated teachers using more productive teaching styles can contribute more to the promotion physical activity among students. PE teachers were more intrinsically motivated to teach than externally.Spanish PE teachers were more intrinsically motivated, whereas Lithuanian PE teachers were more externally motivated.Teachers from all five countries reported a more frequent use of reproductive

  8. The Relationship Between Teaching Styles and Motivation to Teach Among Physical Education Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hein, Vello; Ries, Francis; Pires, Francisco; Caune, Agnese; Heszteráné Ekler, Judit; Emeljanovas, Arunas; Valantiniene, Irena

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to investigate how teachers' motivation to teach is related to different teaching styles. A hundred and seventy six physical education teachers from five European countries participated in the study. Teachers' motivation was measured using an instrument developed by Roth et al., 2007 based on the Self-Determination Theory (Deci and Ryan, 1985) which was tested for suitability for use with physical education teachers. The use of teaching styles was assessed through teachers' self-reported data according to the description of teaching styles presented by Curtner-Smith et al., 2001. The revised confirmatory factor model of the teachers' motivation instrument, with three factors, met the criteria for satisfactory fit indices. The results showed that teachers were more intrinsically motivated to teach than externally. Cross-cultural comparison indicated that the Spanish teachers were more intrinsically motivated whilst Lithuanian teachers were more externally motivated than teachers from the other four countries. Teachers from all five countries reported a more frequent use of reproductive styles than productive styles. The results of the present study confirmed the hypotheses that teachers' autonomous motivation is related to the student-centered or productive teaching styles whilst non-autonomously motivated teachers adopt more teacher-centered or reproductive teaching styles. Intrinsic and introjected motivation was significantly higher among teachers who more frequently employed productive teaching styles than teachers who used them less frequently. Intrinsically motivated teachers using more productive teaching styles can contribute more to the promotion physical activity among students. Key points PE teachers were more intrinsically motivated to teach than externally. Spanish PE teachers were more intrinsically motivated, whereas Lithuanian PE teachers were more externally motivated. Teachers from all five countries reported a more frequent use of

  9. Different Combinations of Perceived Autonomy Support and Control: Identifying the Most Optimal Motivating Style

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haerens, L.; Vansteenkiste, M.; De Meester, A.; Delrue, J.; Tallir, I.; Vande Broek, G.; Goris, W.; Aelterman, N.

    2018-01-01

    Background: According to Self-Determination Theory, teachers and sport coaches can differ in the motivating style they rely upon to motivate young people. When endorsing an autonomy-supportive motivating style, instructors try to identify, vitalize, and nurture youngsters' inner motivational resources. In contrast, instructors with a dominant…

  10. Motivations for Health and Their Associations With Lifestyle, Work Style, Health, Vitality, and Employee Productivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheppingen, A.R. van; Vroome, E.M.M. de; Have, K.C.J.M. ten; Zwetsloot, G.I.J.M.; Bos, E.H.; Mechelen, W. van

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Investigate employees' underlying motivational regulatory styles toward healthy living and their associations with lifestyle, work style, health, vitality, and productivity. Methods: Regression analyses on cross-sectional data from Dutch employees (n = 629), obtained as baseline

  11. Motivations for Health and Their Associations With Lifestyle, Work Style, Health, Vitality, and Employee Productivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Scheppingen, A.R.; de Vroome, E.M.M.; ten Have, K.C.J.M.; Zwetsloot, G.I.J.M.; Bos, E.H.; van Mechelen, W.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE:: Investigate employees' underlying motivational regulatory styles toward healthy living and their associations with lifestyle, work style, health, vitality, and productivity. METHODS:: Regression analyses on cross-sectional data from Dutch employees (n = 629), obtained as baseline

  12. What Makes a Motivating Teacher? Teachers' Motivation and Beliefs as Predictors of Their Autonomy-Supportive Style

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Idit; Shahar, Bat-Hen

    2015-01-01

    Findings from several studies suggest that teachers who embrace an autonomy-supportive style vis-à-vis their students promote student motivation. However, the question of what makes teachers adopt this supportive style remains unanswered. Using Self-Determination Theory as a framework, we suggest that teachers' own motivation and their beliefs…

  13. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN TEACHING STYLES AND MOTIVATION TO TEACH AMONG PHYSICAL EDUCATION TEACHERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vello Hein

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to investigate how teachers' motivation to teach is related to different teaching styles. A hundred and seventy six physical education teachers from five European countries participated in the study. Teachers' motivation was measured using an instrument developed by Roth et al., 2007 based on the Self-Determination Theory (Deci and Ryan, 1985 which was tested for suitability for use with physical education teachers. The use of teaching styles was assessed through teachers' self-reported data according to the description of teaching styles presented by Curtner-Smith et al., 2001. The revised confirmatory factor model of the teachers' motivation instrument, with three factors, met the criteria for satisfactory fit indices. The results showed that teachers were more intrinsically motivated to teach than externally. Cross-cultural comparison indicated that the Spanish teachers were more intrinsically motivated whilst Lithuanian teachers were more externally motivated than teachers from the other four countries. Teachers from all five countries reported a more frequent use of reproductive styles than productive styles. The results of the present study confirmed the hypotheses that teachers' autonomous motivation is related to the student-centered or productive teaching styles whilst non-autonomously motivated teachers adopt more teacher-centered or reproductive teaching styles. Intrinsic and introjected motivation was significantly higher among teachers who more frequently employed productive teaching styles than teachers who used them less frequently. Intrinsically motivated teachers using more productive teaching styles can contribute more to the promotion physical activity among students

  14. [Motivation to change unhealthy life styles and cardiovascular risk].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Manchón, David; Alvarez-García, Gema María; González-López, Esteban

    2014-01-01

    Study the relationship between motivation to change unhealthy life styles and cardiovascular risk. Cross sectional study, random, stratified by age, carried out in the field of primary care with a sample of 369 people. It was felt that with smoking or smoking cessation active consumption less than a year, the physical habit was valued at work and leisure, food habits were assessed in adherence to mediterranean diet and the stages of motivation were categorized precontemplative phase to maintenance phase. The cardiovascular risk was stratified with the SCORE table calibrated in Spain. The 49.6% were men and 50.4% were women, with an average age of 41.2 years. The prevalence of smoking was 31.4% (95% CI 26.56-36,30), 58% in sedentary lifestyle (95% CI 52.27-62,63) and 68% for bad diet (95% CI 63.97-73,69). The 69.8% of smokers, 77.8% of sedentary and 48.4% of people without proper diet was precontemplative to change their lifestyles. Precontemplative stages in unhealthy life styles have association with risk factors and increase the global cardiovascular risk. The transtheoretical model is a useful tool for the assessment of unhealthy behaviors in lifestyles. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  15. Parenting Styles, Motivational Orientations, and Self-Perceived Academic Competence: A Mediational Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Patrick W. L.; Kwan, Kim S. F.

    1998-01-01

    Surveyed Hong Kong high schoolers to test model stipulating motivational orientations as mediators between parenting styles and self-perceived academic competence: authoritarian parenting leading to extrinsic motivation, authoritative parenting to intrinsic motivation, and neglectful parenting to amotivation, and each motivation in turn related to…

  16. The Predictive Role of Teaching Styles on Omani Students' Mathematics Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldhafri, Said; Alrajhi, Marwa

    2014-01-01

    The current study explored the effects of two teaching styles, authoritative and authoritarian, on students' mathematics motivation. The two motivational constructs examined were intrinsic and extrinsic motivation. Data were collected from 425 Omani 8th grade students (males = 202/females = 223, mean age = 13.44, SD = 0.79). Through two…

  17. Effects of Spectrum Teaching Styles on College Students' Psychological Needs Satisfaction and Self-Determined Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirby, Stephanie; Byra, Mark; Readdy, Tucker; Wallhead, Tristan

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the effect of two landmark spectrum styles, practice and inclusion, on students' basic psychological needs satisfaction and self-determined motivation. Twelve classes of college-aged students (n = 149) participated in two badminton lessons taught under the conditions of the practice and inclusion styles.…

  18. Study of Styles of Creativity and Achievement Motivation among Iranian EFL and Non- EFL Learners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hengameh Haniefi

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study was an attempt to investigate the relationship between styles of creativity and achievement motivation in EFL and Non- EFL learners. There were few studies conducted on the relationship between styles of creativity and achievement motivation among nursing, midwifery and foreign language learners. To this end, an ex-post facto study was done. Ninety EFL and Non- EFL learners took part in the study. It was a correlational descriptive study and sampling method was convenient. The values of these variables were measured through- Creativity Questionnaire (Duckworth, 2007; Runco, 2001 and Motivation Questionnaire (Vallerand, 1992. Cronbach's alpha coefficient for achievement motivation was 0.713, and for styles of creativity was 0.818. Based on the results, it can be said that there was a significant correlation between the RIBS and achievement motivation among Non- EFL learners. However, another creativity styles and achievement motivation were not statistically significant. The results also revealed that there were significant differences between learner's creativity in two groups on RIBS scale, avoiding novelty scale and academic selfefficacy scale. The results of the test have also shown that there were significant differences between learners' creativity in two groups in RIBS Scale. Therefore, the creativity of individuals changes the direction of achievement motivation. As implications, educators and teachers can apply efficient strategies and techniques in language classes in order to promote positive motivation and increase creativity among the students to learn language and raise the proficiency of their learners.

  19. How do rewards and management styles influence the motivation to share knowledge?

    OpenAIRE

    Harder, Mie

    2008-01-01

    How to motivate knowledge sharing is of crucial importance to many companies. This paper analyzes individual knowledge sharing behavior in a self-determination theory (SDT) perspective. The primary aim is to explore what type of motivation predicts knowledge sharing behavior and how this type of motivation is affected by reward structures and management styles in organizations. The paper builds on survey and interview data from a pilot case study and provides statistical evidence of a strong ...

  20. Sources of motivation, interpersonal conflict management styles, and leadership effectiveness: a structural model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbuto, John E; Xu, Ye

    2006-02-01

    126 leaders and 624 employees were sampled to test the relationship between sources of motivation and conflict management styles of leaders and how these variables influence effectiveness of leadership. Five sources of motivation measured by the Motivation Sources Inventory were tested-intrinsic process, instrumental, self-concept external, self-concept internal, and goal internalization. These sources of work motivation were associated with Rahim's modes of interpersonal conflict management-dominating, avoiding, obliging, complying, and integrating-and to perceived leadership effectiveness. A structural equation model tested leaders' conflict management styles and leadership effectiveness based upon different sources of work motivation. The model explained variance for obliging (65%), dominating (79%), avoiding (76%), and compromising (68%), but explained little variance for integrating (7%). The model explained only 28% of the variance in leader effectiveness.

  1. Motivations for health and their associations with lifestyle, work style, health, vitality, and employee productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Scheppingen, Arjella R; de Vroome, Ernest M M; ten Have, Kristin C J M; Zwetsloot, Gerard I J M; Bos, Ellen H; van Mechelen, Willem

    2014-05-01

    Investigate employees' underlying motivational regulatory styles toward healthy living and their associations with lifestyle, work style, health, vitality, and productivity. Regression analyses on cross-sectional data from Dutch employees (n = 629), obtained as baseline measurement before a workplace health promotion project. Controlled regulation was not associated with smoking and alcohol use, and negatively associated with physical activity, healthy dietary habits, relaxation, and a balanced work style. Autonomous regulation was positively associated with physical activity, healthy dietary habits, and relaxation, and negatively associated with smoking and alcohol use. Healthy lifestyle and work style were associated with perceived health and vitality, which in turn were associated with employees' productivity (absenteeism and presenteeism). Internalization of the value of health is important to promote a healthy lifestyle and work style among employees, and has meaningful business implications.

  2. Coping style and ecstasy use motives as predictors of current mood symptoms in ecstasy users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Rebecca M; Hides, Leanne; Allen, J Sabura; Lubman, Dan I

    2013-10-01

    Elevated depressive and anxiety symptoms during childhood and adolescence have been associated with greater risk of later ecstasy use. Ecstasy users have reported using ecstasy to reduce depression or worry, or to escape. While these findings suggest that some people use ecstasy as a form of self-medication, limited research has been conducted examining the relationship between affective symptoms, coping styles and drug use motives in ecstasy users. This cross-sectional study aimed to determine if coping style and/or ecstasy use motives are associated with current mood symptoms in ecstasy users. A community sample (n=184) of 18-35 year olds who had taken ecstasy at least once in the past 12 months completed self-report measures of depression, anxiety, ecstasy use motives and coping styles. Timeline follow back methods were used to collect information on lifetime ecstasy, recent drug use and life stress. Trauma exposure was measured using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview-Trauma List. Coping motives for ecstasy use and an emotion-focused coping style were significantly associated with current depressive and anxiety symptoms. Emotion-focused coping mediated the relationship between a history of trauma and current anxiety symptoms and moderated the relationship between recent stressful life events and current depressive symptoms. These findings highlight the importance of interventions targeting motives for ecstasy use, and providing coping skills training for managing stressful life events among people with co-occurring depressive/anxiety symptoms and ecstasy use. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Original article Parenting style and locus of control, motivation, and school adaptation among students with borderline intellectual functioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Maria Jankowska

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background Parenting style impacts children’s psychosocial development. Students with borderline intellectual functioning (BIF are especially sensitive to the quality of parental care. The objective of this study was to compare parenting styles of mothers of children with BIF and mothers of typically developing peers, and establish associations between parenting styles and children’s psychosocial traits, which determine their school functioning. Participants and procedure Forty-two primary school students in Grades 4 to 6, their teachers, and mothers participated in the study. Based on their IQ level they comprised two groups: students with BIF (criterion group; n = 21 and students with average IQ (comparison group; n = 21. A series of measures were used to assess mothers’ parenting style and students’ psychosocial traits. Questionnaires measuring students’ psychosocial pro­perties were administered to children and their teachers in order to compare their perspectives. Results Mothers of children with BIF in comparison to mothers in the control group presented greater inclinations towards over-parenting. Based on self-reports, students with BIF did not differ from their typically developing classmates in terms of school motivation, anxiety, locus of control, or social adjustment, despite their lower academic performance. According to teachers, students with BIF had significantly lower school motivation and delayed socialization. For students with BIF but not for the comparison group, a negative correlation was found between mothers’ tendency to dominate over their child and students’ locus of control and school motivation. Conclusions Children with BIF are especially sensitive to the quality of mothers’ parenting style, which can have an adverse effect on their school adjustment.

  4. The Swedish Principal: Leadership Style, Decision-Making Style, and Motivation Profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansson, Per H.; Andersen, Jon Aarum

    2007-01-01

    The Swedish schools have been under pressure for change for several decades. How leaders behave can be of vital importance in times of change. The principal is responsible for both the educational program and for the school budget. Two hundred Swedish principals (male and female) responded to questionnaires concerning their leadership style,…

  5. Effect of Leadership Style, Motivation, and Giving Incentives on the Performance of Employees--PT. Kurnia Wijaya Various Industries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elqadri, Zaenal Mustafa; Priyono; Suci, Rahayu Puji; Chandra, Teddy

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to identify and examine the importance of leadership style, motivation, and incentives to improve employee performance. Variables examined as factors that affect performance of employees were style of leadership (X1), motivation (X2), and the provision of incentives (X3). The population of this study was all employees in the Sales…

  6. The Relationship among Parenting Styles Experienced during Childhood, Anxiety, Motivation, and Academic Success in College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Marc; Dorso, Erin; Azhar, Aisha; Renk, Kimberly

    2008-01-01

    The current study examined the relationships among parenting styles experienced in childhood, anxiety, motivation, and academic success in college students. Results suggested that fathers' authoritative parenting was related to decreases, whereas mothers' authoritarian parenting was related to increases, in college students' anxiety. Further,…

  7. Intellectual ability, learning style, personality, achievement motivation and academic success of psychology students in higher education.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Busato, V.V.; Prins, F.J.; Elshout, J.J.; Hamaker, C.

    2000-01-01

    This study is directed towards an integration of intellectual ability, learning style, personality and achievement motivation as predictors of academic success in higher education. Correlational analyses partly confirmed and partly disconfirmed our expectations in a sample of 409 first-year

  8. Student Characteristics and Motivational and Process Factors in Relation to Styles of Career Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lokan, Janice J.; Biggs, John B.

    1982-01-01

    Investigated student characteristics in relation to affective and cognitive aspects of adolescent career development. Questionnaire results indicated three styles of career development: intellective or deliberative; concerned and personally involved with high or low aspirations; and uncertain or confused. Suggests motives and strategies that might…

  9. The relationship between leadership style and health worker motivation, job satisfaction and teamwork in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musinguzi, Conrad; Namale, Leticia; Rutebemberwa, Elizeus; Dahal, Aruna; Nahirya-Ntege, Patricia; Kekitiinwa, Adeodata

    2018-01-01

    Leadership is key to strengthening performance of Health Systems. Leadership styles are important organizational antecedents, especially in influencing employee's motivation, job satisfaction, and teamwork. There is limited research exploring this relationship among health workers in resource-limited settings such as Uganda. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between transformational, transactional, and laissez-faire leadership styles and motivation, job satisfaction, and teamwork of health workers in Uganda. We conducted a cross-sectional study in 3 geographic regions of Uganda in November 2015, using self-administered questionnaires with 564 health workers from 228 health facilities. Data were collected on health workers' perception of leadership styles displayed by their facility leaders, their level of motivation, job satisfaction, and team work. Using Pearson correlation, relationships among variables were identified and associations of the components of leadership styles with motivation, job satisfaction, and teamwork was found using multivariable logistic regression. Health workers in Uganda preferred leaders who were transformational (62%) compared with being transactional (42%) or laissez-faire (14%). Transformational leadership was positively correlated with motivation ( r =0.32), job satisfaction ( r =0.38), and team work ( r =0.48), while transactional leadership was positively correlated with job satisfaction ( r =0.21) and teamwork ( r =0.18). Motivation was positively associated with leaders who displayed idealized influence-behavior (odds ratio [OR]=3.7; 95% CI, 1.33-10.48) and intellectual stimulation (OR=2.4; 95% CI, 1.13-5.15) but negatively associated with management by exception (OR=0.4; 95% CI, 0.19-0.82). Job satisfaction was positively associated with intellectual stimulation (OR=5.7; 95% CI, 1.83-17.79). Teamwork was positively associated with idealized influence-behavior (OR=1.07-8.57), idealized influence-attributed (OR

  10. The relationship between leadership style and health worker motivation, job satisfaction and teamwork in Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musinguzi, Conrad; Namale, Leticia; Rutebemberwa, Elizeus; Dahal, Aruna; Nahirya-Ntege, Patricia; Kekitiinwa, Adeodata

    2018-01-01

    Background Leadership is key to strengthening performance of Health Systems. Leadership styles are important organizational antecedents, especially in influencing employee’s motivation, job satisfaction, and teamwork. There is limited research exploring this relationship among health workers in resource-limited settings such as Uganda. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between transformational, transactional, and laissez-faire leadership styles and motivation, job satisfaction, and teamwork of health workers in Uganda. Method We conducted a cross-sectional study in 3 geographic regions of Uganda in November 2015, using self-administered questionnaires with 564 health workers from 228 health facilities. Data were collected on health workers’ perception of leadership styles displayed by their facility leaders, their level of motivation, job satisfaction, and team work. Using Pearson correlation, relationships among variables were identified and associations of the components of leadership styles with motivation, job satisfaction, and teamwork was found using multivariable logistic regression. Results Health workers in Uganda preferred leaders who were transformational (62%) compared with being transactional (42%) or laissez-faire (14%). Transformational leadership was positively correlated with motivation (r=0.32), job satisfaction (r=0.38), and team work (r=0.48), while transactional leadership was positively correlated with job satisfaction (r=0.21) and teamwork (r=0.18). Motivation was positively associated with leaders who displayed idealized influence-behavior (odds ratio [OR]=3.7; 95% CI, 1.33–10.48) and intellectual stimulation (OR=2.4; 95% CI, 1.13–5.15) but negatively associated with management by exception (OR=0.4; 95% CI, 0.19–0.82). Job satisfaction was positively associated with intellectual stimulation (OR=5.7; 95% CI, 1.83–17.79). Teamwork was positively associated with idealized influence-behavior (OR=1.07–8

  11. The relationship between learning styles and motivation to transfer of learning in a vocational training programme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Olivos

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Although there is ample research about Kolb's learning styles, few studies have examined their relationship with motivations to transfer, a concept used to assess whether the content and competencies learned through professional training activities are transferred to the workplace context. Ninety-six students (M = 24.58 years old; 99% males from three vocational training institutes participated in laboratory activities at the Renewable Energy Research Institute of the University of Castilla-La Mancha, Spain. They completed a self-administered questionnaire that included the Kolb's Learning Styles Inventory; two scales adapted to measure student motivation to transfer their learning from training experiences; and a scale of satisfaction with the activities. A correlation analysis showed positive and moderately strong correlations (r = .708; p < .01 between motivations to transfer and “the relevance of the activities to academic performance”. A discriminant analysis between transfer and learning styles revealed that the “Student training motivation” item resulted in a distinct difference between assimilators and convergers, explaining 97.1% of the model variance (Wilks’ λ = .459; χ2 = 21.028; Sig. = .002 and classifying 56.4% of the cases. A discussion is presented as to the implications of these results for the theory of learning styles and the ways in which the design of the educational activities described in the study can be improved.

  12. LEADERSHIP STYLE, DISCIPLINE, MOTIVATION AND THE IMPLICATIONS ON TEACHERS’PERFORMANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cicih Ratnasih

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to determine the effect of leadership style, discipline, motivation, and performance either partially or simultaneously in East Jakarta area.This study is using a quantitative method. Total population in the human resource development as the study sample counted as many as 112 respondents. The sampling technique is using purposive sampling.The variables in this study are an independent variable, consist of leadership style, discipline, motivation and performance, and the dependent variable consist. Tests proved that motivation has a positive influence on the performance of teachers. Looking at the calculations that have been done the coefficient values obtained is 0.416 and t-count value is 5.984 with a significance level of 0.000 which less than 0.05, means that this hypothesis accepts Ha and reject Ho, Tests proved that the style of leadership has a positive impact on teacher performance. Judging from the calculations that have been done obtained coefficient value of 0.421 and t-count value of6.446 with a significance value of 0.000, smaller than 0.05. Thus, Ha is accepted and Ho is rejected., The tests proved that the discipline of work has a positive influence on the performance of teachers. Judging from the calculations that has been done obtained coefficient value of 0.151 and the t-count value of 2.055 with a significance level of 0,042 which smaller than 0.05, means that the hypothesis in this research reject Ho and accept Ha. The results showed that the leadership style, discipline, and motivation partially have significant effect on performance of audit quality in East Jakarta area.Leadership style, discipline, motivationsimultaneously have significant effect on performance with coefficient of determination 81.6%.

  13. Effects of Webquest on the achievement and motivation on Jordanian university students of (Independent & Dependent cognitive style

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    Osamah Mohammad Ameen Aldalalah

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of webquest on the jordanian students’ of different cognitive style. The independent variables were the instruction (conventional & webquest. The dependent variables were the students’ achievement and motivation. The instructionrating variable is cognitive style (independent & dependent. The study sample consisted of 72 undergraduate educational technology students, information and communication technology students and graphic design students. Inferential statistics were conducted to analyze the data. An analysis of covariance (ANCOVA and T-TEST was carried out to examine the main effects of the independent variables on the dependent variables. The findings of this study showed that students using the webquest instruction performed significantly better on achievement and motivation than students using the conventional instruction. Independent cognitive style students performed significantly better on achievement and motivation than dependent cognitive style students. The webquest instruction was found to help students with dependent cognitive style on achievement and motivation

  14. Principals’ Leadership Styles and Strategies Employed to Motivate Teachers in Ronaki Hawler Educational Institutions, Erbil, Iraq

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    Selcuk Koran

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Effective management is one of the determining factors that play a critical role in teacher motivation. It is also the main factor behind a successful educational institution. Moreover, effective management is necessary to motivate people into action and propel an institution to reach its established objectives. In an educational institution, where managerial structure fails to function well, teachers obviously lose their motivation to teach as well as their commitment to the organization. Therefore, administrators’ leadership styles can affect teacher motivation which will eventually affect learners’ performance. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the administrators’ leadership styles, their awareness of teacher motivation peculiarities and strategies they use to motivate the teaching staff at Ronaki Educational Institutions in Erbil, Iraq. It further aims to investigate what makes an effective administrator. To achieve the research goal, the study firstly uses the theoretical analysis of the scientific and methodological literature on the research problem and makes use of a semi-structured interview with Ronaki Hawler Educational Institutions’ administrators. In the interview with 24 administrators, the information on organizational practices and their frequencies, employed by administrators, was obtained. It included elements such as; whether/how often advancement opportunities, promotion, autonomy, bonuses were granted to the teaching staff, what sort of responsibility they possessed, how their recognition as teachers was expressed, and how secure they felt their jobs were. The findings were analyzed and discussed in the discussion part of this research study.

  15. Motivation and learning styles in young children with Down syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wishart, J

    2001-10-01

    There are both psychological and biological reasons to expect that certain areas of learning will present young children with Down syndrome with significant problems. Knowledge of the neurological underpinnings of these specific difficulties can often allow compensatory teaching strategies to be put in place, however, and some of these have proved highly effective. The impact of the psychological environment on the progress of development in children with Down syndrome is less well understood. Experience of how others respond to their attempts at understanding the physical and social world and the balance of successes and failures they experience in their early learning are both likely to influence the approach to learning adopted when faced with mastering new skills. Findings from inter-linking studies of cognitive and socio-cognitive development which have explored learning behaviours at different ages and at different developmental stages illustrate how a learning style can sometimes evolve over time in which less than efficient use is made of current levels of cognitive ability. Social ploys are sometimes used to avoid engagement in learning, with the net effect that opportunities to learn new skills are not fully exploited and old skills are sometimes inadequately consolidated. Findings of a misuse of social skills in cognitive contexts do not necessarily provide support for the widely-held view that social understanding is an area of strength in children with Down syndrome and less vulnerable to disruption than cognitive development. Data from a recent study of face-processing abilities suggest that there may in fact be a specific weakness in a fundamental skill normally underpinning the development of social understanding: the ability to recognise differences in emotional expressions. The children with Down syndrome in this study had few problems in correctly identifying individual faces but evidenced difficulties in reliably interpreting the emotional

  16. Why do adolescents gather information or stick to parental norms? Examining autonomous and controlled motives behind adolescents' identity style.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smits, Ilse; Soenens, Bart; Vansteenkiste, Maarten; Luyckx, Koen; Goossens, Luc

    2010-11-01

    Self-determination theory (SDT) distinguishes between autonomous and controlled reasons for people's behavior and essentially states that beneficial effects for individuals' psychosocial adjustment will accrue when behavior is guided by autonomous (rather than controlled) motives. The present study tested this assumption in the area of adolescents' identity styles. In a sample of mid-adolescents (N = 247; 53% female), it was found that the motives for using an information-oriented or a normative identity style explained additional variance beyond the identity styles as such in two of the adjustment outcomes examined. Specifically, autonomous motives underlying these two identity styles were positively related to commitment and personal well-being, whereas controlled motives were negatively related to these same adjustment outcomes. Perceived autonomy-supportive parenting was examined as a possible antecedent of the motives behind identity styles. Consistent with hypotheses, it was found that autonomy-supportive parenting was positively related to autonomous motives and negatively to controlled motives underlying identity styles. Implications for future research on the motivational dynamics behind identity development are discussed.

  17. Linking Individual Learning Styles to Approach-Avoidance Motivational Traits and Computational Aspects of Reinforcement Learning.

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    Kristoffer Carl Aberg

    Full Text Available Learning how to gain rewards (approach learning and avoid punishments (avoidance learning is fundamental for everyday life. While individual differences in approach and avoidance learning styles have been related to genetics and aging, the contribution of personality factors, such as traits, remains undetermined. Moreover, little is known about the computational mechanisms mediating differences in learning styles. Here, we used a probabilistic selection task with positive and negative feedbacks, in combination with computational modelling, to show that individuals displaying better approach (vs. avoidance learning scored higher on measures of approach (vs. avoidance trait motivation, but, paradoxically, also displayed reduced learning speed following positive (vs. negative outcomes. These data suggest that learning different types of information depend on associated reward values and internal motivational drives, possibly determined by personality traits.

  18. Linking Individual Learning Styles to Approach-Avoidance Motivational Traits and Computational Aspects of Reinforcement Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carl Aberg, Kristoffer; Doell, Kimberly C.; Schwartz, Sophie

    2016-01-01

    Learning how to gain rewards (approach learning) and avoid punishments (avoidance learning) is fundamental for everyday life. While individual differences in approach and avoidance learning styles have been related to genetics and aging, the contribution of personality factors, such as traits, remains undetermined. Moreover, little is known about the computational mechanisms mediating differences in learning styles. Here, we used a probabilistic selection task with positive and negative feedbacks, in combination with computational modelling, to show that individuals displaying better approach (vs. avoidance) learning scored higher on measures of approach (vs. avoidance) trait motivation, but, paradoxically, also displayed reduced learning speed following positive (vs. negative) outcomes. These data suggest that learning different types of information depend on associated reward values and internal motivational drives, possibly determined by personality traits. PMID:27851807

  19. Teacher's motivational style and students' intrinsic motivation: the self-determination perspective / O estilo motivacional do professor e a motivação intrínseca dos estudantes: uma perspectiva da Teoria da Autodeterminação

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    Sueli Édi Rufini Guimarães

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The Self-determination Theory has the purpose of understanding the intrinsic and extrinsic components of motivation, and the factors that contribute for its promotion. In this perspective personality and human motivation are considered in terms of developmental tendencies, innate psychological needs and contextual variables which favour motivation, social functioning and personal well-being. In the context of educational research, intrinsic motivation has been characterized by students' involvement in learning tasks due to their preference for challenges, persistence, effort, as well as by their use of learning strategies. In line with that, the objectives of this paper are not only present and analyze the concepts related to intrinsic motivation according to the Self-determination Theory, but also reflect upon the teacher's role and style in the promotion of students' intrinsic motivation. Educational implications are also discussed.

  20. EFFECT OF TRANSACTIONAL AND TRANSFORMATIONAL LEADERSHIP STYLE, MOTIVATION AND COMPETENCE TO PERFORMANCE OF EMPLOYEES PT. SANJAYATAMA LESTARI

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    Jublina Oktora

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the objective is to conduct a systematic examination Effect of Transactional and Transformational Leadership Style, Motivation and Competence to Employee Performance PT. Sanjayatama Lestari. The samples used were employees of PT. Sanjayatama Lestari the number of respondents as many as 95 people. The analysis used is multiple linear regression. This study examined five variables: Transactional Leadership Style (X1, Transformational Leadership Style (X2, motivation (X3 and Competence (X4 as the independent variable and the performance (Y as the dependent variable. Partial test shows that the transactional leadership style influenced by 3.876 (positive and significant on the performance. Transformational leadership style also influenced significantly by 3.128. Furthermore, the motivation also has a significant influence amounted to 4.210 and the latter is the competence of significant influence amounted to 6.283.

  1. The relationship between leadership style and health worker motivation, job satisfaction and teamwork in Uganda

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    Musinguzi C

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Conrad Musinguzi,1 Leticia Namale,1 Elizeus Rutebemberwa,2 Aruna Dahal,1 Patricia Nahirya-Ntege,1 Adeodata Kekitiinwa1 1Directorate of Health Systems Strengthening, Baylor College of Medicine Children’s Foundation, Kampala, Uganda; 2Department of Health Policy, Planning and Management, School of Public Health Uganda, College of Health Sciences, Makerere University, Kampala, Uganda Background: Leadership is key to strengthening performance of Health Systems. Leadership styles are important organizational antecedents, especially in influencing employee’s motivation, job satisfaction, and teamwork. There is limited research exploring this relationship among health workers in resource-limited settings such as Uganda. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between transformational, transactional, and laissez-faire leadership styles and motivation, job satisfaction, and teamwork of health workers in Uganda. Method: We conducted a cross-sectional study in 3 geographic regions of Uganda in November 2015, using self-administered questionnaires with 564 health workers from 228 health facilities. Data were collected on health workers’ perception of leadership styles displayed by their facility leaders, their level of motivation, job satisfaction, and team work. Using Pearson correlation, relationships among variables were identified and associations of the components of leadership styles with motivation, job satisfaction, and teamwork was found using multivariable logistic regression. Results: Health workers in Uganda preferred leaders who were transformational (62% compared with being transactional (42% or laissez-faire (14%. Transformational leadership was positively correlated with motivation (r=0.32, job satisfaction (r=0.38, and team work (r=0.48, while transactional leadership was positively correlated with job satisfaction (r=0.21 and teamwork (r=0.18. Motivation was positively associated with leaders who displayed idealized

  2. Effect of Type of Curriculum on Educational Outcomes and Motivation among Marketing Students with Different Learning Styles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerman, David S.; Hu, Jing

    2011-01-01

    Using an active learning approach to motivate students to learn has been advocated by many educators. It has been an ongoing discussion on whether marketing educators should customize their teaching activities based on the learning styles found in their classes recently. This study uses a scale of learning styles that includes a measure of the…

  3. Parental Mediation Regarding Children's Smartphone Use: Role of Protection Motivation and Parenting Style.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Yoori; Choi, Inho; Yum, Jung-Yoon; Jeong, Se-Hoon

    2017-06-01

    Parental mediation is a type of behavior that could protect children against the negative uses and effects of smartphones. Based on protection motivation theory, this research (a) predicted parental mediation based on parents' threat and efficacy perceptions and (b) predicted threat and efficacy perceptions based on parenting styles and parents' addiction to smartphone use. An online survey of 448 parents of fourth to sixth graders was conducted. Results showed that both restrictive and active parental mediation were predicted by perceived severity, response efficacy, and self-efficacy. With regard to parenting styles, (a) authoritative parenting was positively related to perceived severity as well as response- and self-efficacy, whereas (b) permissive parenting was negatively related to self-efficacy. In addition, parents' addiction was a negative predictor of perceived severity, but a positive predictor of perceived susceptibility.

  4. More than reflections: Empathy in motivational interviewing includes language style synchrony between therapist and client

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lord, Sarah Peregrine; Sheng, Elisa; Imel, Zac E.; Baer, John; Atkins, David C.

    2016-01-01

    Empathy is a basic psychological process that involves the development of synchrony in dyads. It is also a foundational ingredient in specific, evidence-based behavioral treatments like motivational interviewing (MI). Ratings of therapist empathy typically rely on a gestalt, “felt sense” of therapist understanding and the presence of specific verbal behaviors like reflective listening. These ratings do not provide a direct test of psychological processes like behavioral synchrony that are theorized to be an important component of empathy in psychotherapy. To explore a new objective indicator of empathy, we hypothesized that synchrony in language style (i.e., matching how statements are phrased) between client and therapists would predict gestalt ratings of empathy over and above the contribution of reflections. We analyzed 122 MI transcripts with high and low empathy ratings based on the Motivational Interviewing Treatment Integrity (MITI) global rating scale. Linguistic inquiry and word count was used to estimate language style synchrony (LSS) of adjacent client and therapist talk turns. High empathy sessions showed greater LSS across 11 language style categories compared to low empathy sessions (p empathy vs. low empathy sessions (d = 0.62). Regression analyses showed that LSS was predictive of empathy ratings over and above reflection counts; a 1 SD increase in LSS is associated with 2.4 times increase in the odds of a high empathy rating, controlling for therapist reflections (odds ratio = 2.4, 95% CI: 1.36, 4.24, p empathy ratings are related to synchrony in language style, over and above synchrony of content as measured by therapist reflections. Novel indicators of therapist empathy may have implications for the study of MI process as well as the training of therapists. PMID:25892166

  5. The effects of training group exercise class instructors to adopt a motivationally adaptive communication style.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ntoumanis, N; Thøgersen-Ntoumani, C; Quested, E; Hancox, J

    2017-09-01

    Drawing from self-determination theory (Deci & Ryan, 2002), we developed and tested an intervention to train fitness instructors to adopt a motivationally adaptive communication style when interacting with exercisers. This was a parallel group, two-arm quasi-experimental design. Participants in the intervention arm were 29 indoor cycling instructors (n = 10 for the control arm) and 246 class members (n = 75 for the control arm). The intervention consisted of face-to-face workshops, education/information video clips, group discussions and activities, brainstorming, individual planning, and practical tasks in the cycling studio. Instructors and exercisers responded to validated questionnaires about instructors' use of motivational strategies and other motivation-related variables before the first workshop and at the end of the third and final workshop (4 months later). Time × arm interactions revealed no significant effects, possibly due to the large attrition of instructors and exercisers in the control arm. Within-group analyses in the intervention arm showed that exercisers' perceptions of instructor motivationally adaptive strategies, psychological need satisfaction, and intentions to remain in the class increased over time. Similarly, instructors in the intervention arm reported being less controlling and experiencing more need satisfaction over time. These results offer initial promising evidence for the positive impact of the training. © 2016 The Authors Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Authentic Leadership Style and Academia’s Creativity in Higher Education Institutions: Intrinsic Motivation and Mood as Mediators

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    Ifzal AHMAD

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Using multisource data of 302 paired responses (supervisor-employee dyads, this study examined the effect of Authentic Leadership Style (ALS on academia’s creativity with mediating role of their intrinsic motivation and mood in higher education institutions (HEIs of Pakistan. Heads of departments (HoDs in HEIs were asked to report their leadership style and creativity of their academic staff, whereas academia rated their intrinsic motivation and mood at work. ALS was regressed with creativity, intrinsic motivation and mood of academia to measure the direct relationships, whereas mediations were tested using bootstrapping technique. A strong infl uence of ALS on academic staff’s creativity, their intrinsic motivation and mood were found. Additionally, a partial mediating role of intrinsic motivation and mood was found between ALS and creativity of academic staff.

  7. Effects of an Interpersonal Style Intervention for Coaches on Young Soccer Players’ Motivational Processes

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    Pulido Juan J.

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of the study was to assess the effects of an intervention programme developed with soccer coaches, based on promoting strategies to optimise the satisfaction of the basic psychological needs of athletes. Eight soccer coaches, aged between 19 and 50 years (M = 32.5; SD = 14.34, participated in the study. They were selected intentionally (without academic or federative training and divided equally into a control and an experimental group by random peer selection. Also, 109 soccer players, aged between 11 and 15 years (M = 13.78; SD = 1.38, divided into a control group (CG; n = 56 and an experimental group (EG; n = 53, participated in the experiment. The training programme (12 hours was aimed to develop methodological and motivational strategies to promote autonomy, competence and relatedness need satisfaction among the players. The results showed that the participants in the EG decreased competence and relatedness control, while significantly increased (post-intervention competence and relatedness needs satisfaction. Moreover, values for the EG did not decrease for autonomy, competence frustration and amotivation, while they increased for the sport commitment. Also, intrinsic motivation decreased in both groups (greater decrease in the CG. In conclusion, we can affirm the effectiveness of the training programme to create an environment of “bright side” motivation, and reduce thwarting styles, needs frustration and low self-determination levels.

  8. The impact of perception of consistency and inconsistency in parenting style on pro-social motives of adolescents

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    Karmakar R.

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Adolescence is the most dynamic and eventful period of human development. During this crucial period of life, adolescents encounter challenges in life and constantly adapting to the relationship dynamics with friends, family, school and society. There is tendency of adolescents to engage in antisocial or pro-social behaviour. Adolescents’ relationship with parents and guardian significantly influence their antisocial and prosocial behavior. Pro-social behavior is defined as a behavior that is primarily aimed at benefiting others. Some pro-social behaviour is extrinsically motivated whereas some are intrinsically motivated. The present study investigated the nature of prosocial behaviour among adolescents and impact of consistency and inconsistency of parenting style on prosocial behaviour. A group of 610 adolescents (310 boys and 300 girls aged between 16—18 years (mean = 17.07 and standard deviation = 1.02 was selected for the present study. Pro-social Motivation Questionnaire and Parental Authority Questionnaire were used to measure pro-social motive and parenting style, respectively. The results indicate that adolescents generally show higher level of intrinsic pro-social motive. Adolescent girls prefer to display internalised and empathetic pro-social motives whereas adolescent boys tend to gain others’ approval by displaying heroic activities. Consistency in parenting style facilitates intrinsic pro-social motive only when both parents are authoritative in nature. The result interestingly reveals that inconsistent parenting style is not always bad. Authoritative and permissive dyad facilitates intrinsic pro-social motive among adolescents. Implications for parental socialisation in families and pro-social motive among adolescents are discussed.

  9. Analysis of problem solving in terms of cognitive style

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthycamurty, Rr C. C.; Mardiyana; Saputro, D. R. S.

    2018-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the problem solving based on the type of cognitive style. Subjects used in this study are students of class X SMK located in Purworejo. The method used in this research is qualitative descriptive. Data collection techniques used in this research is a problem-solving test to determine student problem solving and GEFT to determine the type of cognitive style possessed by students. The result of this research is to determine the mastery of each type in cognitive style, that is Field Independent type and Field Dependent type on problem solving indicator. The impact of this research is the teacher can know the mastery of student problem solving on each type of cognitive style so that teacher can determine the proper way of delivering to student at next meeting.

  10. Testing knowledge sharing effectiveness: trust, motivation, leadership style, workplace spirituality and social network embedded model

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    Rahman Muhammad Sabbir

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this inquiry is to investigate the relationships among the antecedents of knowledge sharing effectiveness under the position of non-academic staff of higher learning institutions through an empirical test of a conceptual model consisting of trust, extrinsic and intrinsic motivation, leadership style, workplace spirituality and online social network. This study used the respondents from the non-academic staff of higher learning institutions in Malaysia (n = 200, utilizing a self-administered survey questionnaire. The structural equation modeling approach was used to test the proposed hypotheses. The outcomes indicate that all the antecedents play a substantial function in knowledge sharing effectiveness. In addition, perceived risk plays a mediating role between trust and knowledge sharing effectiveness. On the other hand, this research also proved the communication skill also plays a mediating role between leadership style and knowledge sharing effectiveness. This study contributes to pioneering empirical findings on knowledge sharing literature under the scope of the non-academic staff perspective.

  11. Style

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rösing, Lilian Munk

    2017-01-01

    Defined as the tropes, figures, and grammar of the text, style is quite concrete, quite analyzable. Pure detection and identification of the tropes and figures of a text is not very interesting to literary studies, though, unless it is combined with interpretation, that is, unless you ask: What i...

  12. Supervisory Styles and Graduate Student Creativity: The Mediating Roles of Creative Self-Efficacy and Intrinsic Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Jibao; He, Changqing; Liu, Hefu

    2017-01-01

    Based on social cognitive theory and leadership theory, the current study tests a theoretical model linking supervisory styles (i.e. supportive and directive) with graduate student creativity via psychological cognitive factors (specifically, creative self-efficacy and intrinsic motivation). Results from a sample of 216 graduate students of 1…

  13. Effect of Motivational Scaffolding on E-Learning Environments: Self-Efficacy, Learning Achievement, and Cognitive Style

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valencia-Vallejo, Nilson; López-Vargas, Omar; Sanabria-Rodríguez, Luis

    2018-01-01

    The present research studies the effects of motivational scaffolding that favor self-efficacy and improve learning achievement in students with different cognitive styles in the Field Dependence/Independence (FDI) dimension, when they interact in an e-learning environment on mathematics. The research has an experimental design with two groups and…

  14. Features in Grocery Stores that Motivate Shoppers to Buy Healthier Foods, ConsumerStyles 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Latetia V; Pinard, Courtney A; Yaroch, Amy L

    2016-08-01

    We examined nine features in grocery stores shoppers reported motivated them to purchase more healthful foods in the past month. Features were compiled from common supermarket practices for each of the 4 Ps of marketing: pricing, placement, promotion, and product. We examined percentages of the features overall and by shopping frequency using Chi square tests from a 2014 cross sectional web-based health attitudes and behaviors survey, ConsumerStyles. The survey was fielded from June to July in 2014. Participants were part of a market research consumer panel that were randomly recruited by probability-based sampling using address-based sampling methods to achieve a sample representative of the U.S. Data from 4242 adults ages 18 and older were analyzed. About 44 % of respondents indicated at least one feature motivated them to purchase more healthful foods. Top choices included in-store coupons or specials (20.1 %), availability of convenient, ready-to-eat more healthful foods (18.8 %), product labels or advertising on packages (15.2 %), and labels or signs on shelves that highlighted more healthful options (14.6 %). Frequent shoppers reported being motivated to purchase more healthful foods by in-store tastings/recipe demonstrations and coupons/specials more often than infrequent shoppers. Enhancing the visibility and appeal of more healthful food items in grocery stores may help improve dietary choices in some populations but additional research is needed to identify the most effective strategies for interventions.

  15. Prosocial and antisocial behavior in sport: the role of coaching style, autonomous vs. controlled motivation, and moral disengagement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodge, Ken; Lonsdale, Chris

    2011-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether the relationships between contextual factors (i.e., autonomy-supportive vs. controlling coaching style) and person factors (i.e., autonomous vs. controlled motivation) outlined in self-determination theory (SDT) were related to prosocial and antisocial behaviors in sport. We also investigated moral disengagement as a mediator of these relationships. Athletes' (n = 292, M = 19.53 years) responses largely supported our SDT-derived hypotheses. Results indicated that an autonomy-supportive coaching style was associated with prosocial behavior toward teammates; this relationship was mediated by autonomous motivation. Controlled motivation was associated with antisocial behavior toward teammates and antisocial behavior toward opponents, and these two relationships were mediated by moral disengagement. The results provide support for research investigating the effect of autonomy-supportive coaching interventions on athletes' prosocial and antisocial behavior.

  16. Motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, David W

    2007-01-01

    Motivation is short-term focused energy. The oldest theories of motivation explain motivated activity as effort to overcome primary deficiencies, such as hunger or boredom. Such theories are difficult to apply because individuals learn idiosyncratic secondary motives as alternative ways of responding to these needs. Three prominent needs theories are discussed: Herzberg's theory of hygiene and motivational factors; McClelland's needs for achievement, power, and affiliation; and Maslow's hierarchy and theory of self-actualization. A second approach to motivation holds that individuals may be thought of as engaging in rational processes to maximize their self-interests. The presented examples of this approach include Vroom's expectancy theory, Adam's theory of inequality, and the Porter-Lawler model that addresses the question of whether satisfaction leads to high performance or vice versa. Finally, several theories of motivation as life orientation are developed.

  17. Ayahuasca Tourism: Participants in Shamanic Rituals and their Personality Styles, Motivation, Benefits and Risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavenská, Veronika; Simonová, Hana

    2015-01-01

    Ayahuasca continues to attract tourists to South America, where there has been a growth in the number of centers offering hallucinogenic ayahuasca experiences. The aims of this study were to (1) discover the reasons foreigners seek this type of experience; (2) define what an ayahuasca experience entails; (3) discover subjective perceptions of ayahuasca's benefits and risks; and (4) describe personality styles of participants using the personality questionnaire (PSSI). Participants (N=77) were persons who had travelled to South America to use ayahuasca. Among the most frequent motivations were curiosity, desire to treat mental health problems, need for self-knowledge, interest in psychedelic medicine, spiritual development, and finding direction in life. Frequently mentioned benefits included self-knowledge, change in the way one relates to oneself, spiritual development, improved interpersonal relations, overcoming mental and physical problems, and gaining a new perspective on life. Stated potential risks included lack of trust in the shaman or organizer, inaccurate information provided by the shaman or organizer, and exposure to dangerous situations. PSSI results showed that people using ayahuasca scored significantly above the norm on the scales of intuition, optimism, ambition, charm, and helpfulness and significantly lower on the scales of distrust and quietness.

  18. 203: THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN LEADERSHIP STYLES AND HEALTH WORKER MOTIVATION, TEAMWORK AND JOB SATISFACTION IN HEALTH FACILITIES IN UGANDA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musinguzi, Conrad; Rutebemberwa, Elizeus; Namale, Leticia; Dahal, Aruna

    2017-01-01

    Background and aims Some studies have shown that poor leadership is associated with lack of effective teamwork and a demotivated workforce leading to poor service delivery. There is scanty data in Uganda on how leadership styles relate to service delivery. This study was done to identify the leadership style in health facilities in Uganda and their relationship with health workers' motivation, job satisfaction and teamwork. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in eastern, Rwenzori and west Nile regions of Uganda in November 2015 using self-administered questionnaires distributed and picked the same day from 564 health workers in 270 health facilities. These questionnaires collected information on the health workers' perception of leadership styles of their facility in-charges, their level of motivation and job satisfaction; and the level of team work. Factor analysis was used to identify and confirm latent variables for constructs on leadership styles, motivation, job satisfaction and team work. Relationships were assessed using Pearson correlation. Results A total of 368/564 (64.3%) health workers indicated that transformational leadership was frequent or fairly often, while for transactional leadership it was 304/564 (54.4%) and laissez faire, it was 64/564 (11.4%). There was high correlation between transformational leadership with job satisfaction (r=0.31) and team work (r=0.47) and less correlation with motivation (r=0.18). Transactional leadership was highly correlated with teamwork (r=0.45) but low correlation with motivation (r=0.20) and job satisfaction (r=0.25). Laissez was negatively correlated with motivation at (r=−0.0002), job satisfaction (r=−0.21) and team work (r=−0.19). Conclusion Health workers who perceived their leaders to display transformational leadership had a strong likelihood of being satisfied with their jobs and working in teams. However, those who perceived their in-charges as having a laissez faire leadership style were

  19. Self-reported immature defense style as a predictor of outcome in short-term and long-term psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laaksonen, Maarit A; Sirkiä, Carlos; Knekt, Paul; Lindfors, Olavi

    2014-07-01

    Identification of pretreatment patient characteristics predictive of psychotherapy outcome could help to guide treatment choices. This study evaluates patients' initial level of immature defense style as a predictor of the outcome of short-term versus long-term psychotherapy. In the Helsinki Psychotherapy Study, 326 adult outpatients with mood or anxiety disorder were randomized to individual short-term (psychodynamic or solution-focused) or long-term (psychodynamic) psychotherapy. Their defense style was assessed at baseline using the 88-item Defense Style Questionnaire and classified as low or high around the median value of the respective score. Both specific (Beck Depression Inventory [BDI], Hamilton Depression Rating Scale [HDRS], Symptom Check List Anxiety Scale [SCL-90-Anx], Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale [HARS]) and global (Symptom Check List Global Severity Index [SCL-90-GSI], Global Assessment of Functioning Scale [GAF]) psychiatric symptoms were measured at baseline and 3-7 times during a 3-year follow-up. Patients with high use of immature defense style experienced greater symptom reduction in long-term than in short-term psychotherapy by the end of the 3-year follow-up (50% vs. 34%). Patients with low use of immature defense style experienced faster symptom reduction in short-term than in long-term psychotherapy during the first year of follow-up (34% vs. 19%). Knowledge of patients' initial level of immature defense style may potentially be utilized in tailoring treatments. Further research on defense styles as outcome predictors in psychotherapies of different types is needed.

  20. Describing the on-line graduate science student: An examination of learning style, learning strategy, and motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spevak, Arlene J.

    Research in science education has presented investigations and findings related to the significance of particular learning variables. For example, the factors of learning style, learning strategy and motivational orientation have been shown to have considerable impact upon learning in a traditional classroom setting. Although these data have been somewhat generous for the face-to-face learning situation, this does not appear to be the case for distance education, particularly the Internet-based environment. The purpose of this study was to describe the on-line graduate science student, regarding the variables of learning style, learning strategy and motivational orientation. It was believed that by understanding the characteristics of adult science learners and by identifying their learning needs, Web course designers and science educators could create on-line learning programs that best utilized students' strengths in learning science. A case study method using a questionnaire, inventories, telephone interviews and documents was applied to nine graduate science students who participated for ten weeks in an asynchronous, exclusively Internet mediated graduate science course at a large, Northeastern university. Within-case and cross-case analysis indicated that these learners displayed several categories of learning styles as well as learning strategies. The students also demonstrated high levels of both intrinsic and extrinsic motivation, and this, together with varying strategy use, may have compensated for any mismatch between their preferred learning styles and their learning environment. Recommendations include replicating this study in other online graduate science courses, administration of learning style and learning strategy inventories to perspective online graduate science students, incorporation of synchronous communication into on-line science courses, and implementation of appropriate technology that supports visual and kinesthetic learners. Although

  1. Affective Style, Humor Styles and Happiness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas E. Ford

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study examined the relationships between dispositional approach and avoidance motives, humor styles, and happiness. In keeping with previous research, approach motives and the two positive humor styles (self-enhancing and affiliative positively correlated with happiness, whereas avoidance motives and the two negative humor styles (self-defeating and aggressive negatively correlated with happiness. Also, we found support for three new hypotheses. First, approach motives correlated positively with self-enhancing and affiliative humor styles. Second, avoidance motives correlated positively with self-defeating humor style, and third, the positive relationship between approach motives and happiness was mediated by self-enhancing humor style.

  2. Food risk perceptions, gender, and individual differences in avoidance and approach motivation, intuitive and analytic thinking styles, and anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leikas, Sointu; Lindeman, Marjaana; Roininen, Katariina; Lähteenmäki, Liisa

    2007-03-01

    Risks appear to be perceived in two different ways, affectively and rationally. Finnish adult internet users were contacted via e-mail and asked to fill an internet questionnaire consisting of questions of food risks and measures of avoidance and approach motivation, analytic and intuitive information processing style, trait anxiety, and gender in order to find out (1) whether food risks are perceived two-dimensionally, (2) how individual differences in motivation, information processing, and anxiety are associated with the different dimensions of food risk perceptions, and (3) whether gender moderates these associations. The data were analyzed by factor, correlation and regression analyses. Three factors emerged: risk scariness, risk likelihood, and risks of cardiovascular disease. Personality and gender x personality interactions predicted food risk perceptions. Results showed that food risk perceptions generally form two dimensions; scariness and likelihood, but that this may depend on the nature of the risk. In addition, results imply that individuals with high avoidance motivation perceive food risks as scarier and more likely than others, and that individuals with an analytic information processing style perceive food risks as less likely than others. Trait anxiety seems to be associated with higher food risk perceptions only among men.

  3. Analyzing Interpersonal Problem Solving in Terms of Solution Focused Approach and Humor Styles of University Student

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koc, Hayri; Arslan, Coskun

    2017-01-01

    In this study university students interpersonal problem solving approaches were investigated in terms of solution focused approach and humor styles. The participants were 773 (542 female and 231 male, between 17-33 years old) university students. To determine the university students' problem solving approaches "Interpersonal Problem Solving…

  4. The Effect of Leadership Style and Organizational Culture Toward Teacher Motivation of MTs Arrohman Jombang in Academic of 2016/2017

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khudriyah Khudriyah

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Leadership style and organizational culture in an organization has big effect toward the growth of employee motivation to work. In education as well as, the school leadership style and  organizational culture have influence of teachers’ motivation in conducting their tasks. The study is aimed to describe how far the school leadership style and  organizational culture influence teachers’ motivation to work at MTs Arrohman Jombang. This study is quantitative and questionnaire as the instrument. The result shows that the leadership style and organizational culture partially or simultaneously influence significantly on the teachers’ motivation in MTs Arrohman Jombang in academic year of 2015/2016 proved by t-test results t test > t table (3,358 > 2,023 with a significant level of t < 5% (0,002 < 0,05 and Ftest of 79,228 and a significance level of F < 5% (0.000 <0,05. Whereas, the influence of variables of leadership style and organizational culture on the teachers’ motivation was 80,2% and the rest of 19,8% is influenced by other factors

  5. Leadership Education Reconsidered: Examining Self-Perceived Leadership Styles and Motivation Sources among Undergraduate Leaders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, David N.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the relationships between undergraduate leaders' self-perceptions of their transformational and transactional leadership behaviors and their sources of work motivation. The sample was comprised of 145 elected and appointed leaders at a mid-west university. The survey included both the Motivation Sources Inventory and the…

  6. Motivation, self-determination, and long-term weight control

    OpenAIRE

    Teixeira, Pedro J; Silva, Marlene N; Mata, Jutta; Palmeira, António L; Markland, David

    2012-01-01

    Abstract This article explores the topics of motivation and self-regulation in the context of weight management and related behaviors. We focus on the role of a qualitative approach to address motivation - not only considering the level but also type of motivation - in weight control and related behaviors. We critically discuss the operationalization of motivation in current weight control programs, present a complementary approach to understanding motivation based on self-determination theor...

  7. Motivational Regulatory Styles of Graduate Students Enrolled in Online Prescribed and Elective Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasmanski, Stephanie Lynn

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the regulatory styles, as identified in Ryan and Deci's Self-Determination Theory, of graduate students enrolled in prescribed and elective courses, in a fully online Master of Education degree program. A sample consisting of 53 participants, enrolled in a master's degree program in education at a state…

  8. Relations of Perceived Maternal Parenting Style, Practices, and Learning Motivation to Academic Competence in Chinese Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Cecilia S.; McBride-Chang, Catherine

    2008-01-01

    A measure of academic parenting practices was developed through parent and teacher interviews and subsequently administered to 91 Hong Kong Chinese fifth graders, who also rated their mothers' restrictiveness and concern, school motivation, and self-perceived academic competence. Children's actual school grades were obtained from school records.…

  9. [Physical improvements and rising motivation following the "school style" technique in the residents of a nursing home].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiota, Kozue; Goto, Shinichi; Tanenaga, Satoshi; Koyama, Keiko

    2014-01-01

    After five years of using our unique "school style" technique, we were able to increase the number of home discharges and decrease the number of days spent in the facility. In order to identify the factors underlying these results, a survey was conducted regarding changes of the physical and cognitive function while in the facility. The subjects included 41 patients who newly began using our facility. All subjects participated in both group and individual programs and were evaluated using the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE), Frontal Assessment Battery at the bedside (FAB), Vitality Index and Functional Independence Measure (FIM) determined monthly starting the first day of entry into our facility. We compared the results using the Friedman test. The rate of participation in the group program was 81.9%. The average duration of participation in functional training as an individual program was 5.94 days, while that for Kumon learning therapy was 3.27 days. Effective improvements were noted in all four evaluation measurements: MMSE・FAB・Vitality Index・FIM. Improvements in the physical and cognitive function were obtained despite the status of the subjects as elderly individuals with chronic disease. Against this background, we applied interventions with rehabilitation using an intensive program for individuals and noted a pleasant experience during all activities in our unique "school style" protocol, which seeks to improve the subject's motivation. These factors are therefore important for improving the physical and cognitive function.

  10. Motivation, self-determination, and long-term weight control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Pedro J; Silva, Marlene N; Mata, Jutta; Palmeira, António L; Markland, David

    2012-03-02

    This article explores the topics of motivation and self-regulation in the context of weight management and related behaviors. We focus on the role of a qualitative approach to address motivation--not only considering the level but also type of motivation--in weight control and related behaviors. We critically discuss the operationalization of motivation in current weight control programs, present a complementary approach to understanding motivation based on self-determination theory, and review empirical findings from weight control studies that have used self-determination theory measures and assessed their association with weight outcomes. Weight loss studies which used Motivational Interviewing (MI) are also reviewed, considering MI's focus on enhancing internal motivation. We hypothesize that current weight control interventions may have been less successful with weight maintenance in part due to their relative disregard of qualitative dimensions of motivation, such as level of perceived autonomy, often resulting in a motivational disconnect between weight loss and weight-related behaviors. We suggest that if individuals fully endorse weight loss-related behavioral goals and feel not just competent but also autonomous about reaching them, as suggested by self-determination theory, their efforts are more likely to result in long-lasting behavior change.

  11. Motivation, self-determination, and long-term weight control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teixeira Pedro J

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This article explores the topics of motivation and self-regulation in the context of weight management and related behaviors. We focus on the role of a qualitative approach to address motivation - not only considering the level but also type of motivation - in weight control and related behaviors. We critically discuss the operationalization of motivation in current weight control programs, present a complementary approach to understanding motivation based on self-determination theory, and review empirical findings from weight control studies that have used self-determination theory measures and assessed their association with weight outcomes. Weight loss studies which used Motivational Interviewing (MI are also reviewed, considering MI's focus on enhancing internal motivation. We hypothesize that current weight control interventions may have been less successful with weight maintenance in part due to their relative disregard of qualitative dimensions of motivation, such as level of perceived autonomy, often resulting in a motivational disconnect between weight loss and weight-related behaviors. We suggest that if individuals fully endorse weight loss-related behavioral goals and feel not just competent but also autonomous about reaching them, as suggested by self-determination theory, their efforts are more likely to result in long-lasting behavior change.

  12. Motivation, self-determination, and long-term weight control

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    This article explores the topics of motivation and self-regulation in the context of weight management and related behaviors. We focus on the role of a qualitative approach to address motivation - not only considering the level but also type of motivation - in weight control and related behaviors. We critically discuss the operationalization of motivation in current weight control programs, present a complementary approach to understanding motivation based on self-determination theory, and review empirical findings from weight control studies that have used self-determination theory measures and assessed their association with weight outcomes. Weight loss studies which used Motivational Interviewing (MI) are also reviewed, considering MI's focus on enhancing internal motivation. We hypothesize that current weight control interventions may have been less successful with weight maintenance in part due to their relative disregard of qualitative dimensions of motivation, such as level of perceived autonomy, often resulting in a motivational disconnect between weight loss and weight-related behaviors. We suggest that if individuals fully endorse weight loss-related behavioral goals and feel not just competent but also autonomous about reaching them, as suggested by self-determination theory, their efforts are more likely to result in long-lasting behavior change. PMID:22385818

  13. Blended Learning Experience in a Programming Language Course and the Effect of the Thinking Styles of the Students on Success and Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yagci, Mustafa

    2016-01-01

    High-level thinking and problem solving skill is one requirement of computer programming that most of the students experience problems with. Individual differences such as motivation, attitude towards programming, thinking style of the student, and complexity of the programming language have influence on students' success on programming. Thus,…

  14. The Relationships between Perceived Parenting Style, Learning Motivation, Friendship Satisfaction, and the Addictive Use of Smartphones with Elementary School Students of South Korea: Using Multivariate Latent Growth Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Sung Man

    2015-01-01

    We examined how perceived parenting style, friendship satisfaction, and academic motivation influence the addictive use of smartphones longitudinally. We utilized the panel data (from 2010-2012) of Korean children and youth panel survey of the National Youth Policy Institute. Data were collected from 2,376 individuals in the first year (boys:…

  15. The Effect of Leadership Style on Motivation to Improve the Employee Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Hanifah, Hanifah; Susanthi, Novi Indah; Setiawan, Agus

    2014-01-01

    Human resources (HR) is one of the most important factor in an organization, especially for PT. PELNI, a prominent goverment-owned marine transportation company.This study aims to determine the factors which can improve the performance of employees at PT.PELNI. Upon getting feed back from 78 employees, it is obvious that the company has apparently been successful in motivating its employees to demonstrate good performance. Success indication can be seen from the regression coefficient X2 (Wor...

  16. O estilo motivacional do professor e a motivação intrínseca dos estudantes: uma perspectiva da Teoria da Autodeterminação Teacher's motivational style and students' intrinsic motivation: the self-determination perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sueli Édi Rufini Guimarães

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available A Teoria da Autodeterminação foi proposta com o objetivo de compreender os componentes da motivação intrínseca e extrínseca e os fatores relacionados com a sua promoção. Nessa perspectiva, são abordadas a personalidade e a motivação humana, concentrando-se nas tendências evolutivas, nas necessidades psicológicas inatas e nas condições contextuais favoráveis à motivação, ao funcionamento social e ao bem estar pessoal. No contexto da pesquisa educacional, a motivação intrínseca tem sido relacionada ao envolvimento dos alunos com as tarefas de aprendizagem, pela preferência por desafios, persistência, esforço, uso de estratégias de aprendizagem, entre outros resultados positivos. Partindo da Teoria da Autodeterminação, este artigo tem como objetivos analisar os conceitos relativos à motivação intrínseca, postulados nessa teoria, refletir sobre o papel do professor, mas especificamente sobre seu estilo na promoção desse padrão motivacional no aluno, bem como discutir as implicações educacionais deste tema.The Self-determination Theory has the purpose of understanding the intrinsic and extrinsic components of motivation, and the factors that contribute for its promotion. In this perspective personality and human motivation are considered in terms of developmental tendencies, innate psychological needs and contextual variables which favour motivation, social functioning and personal well-being. In the context of educational research, intrinsic motivation has been characterized by students' involvement in learning tasks due to their preference for challenges, persistence, effort, as well as by their use of learning strategies. In line with that, the objectives of this paper are not only present and analyze the concepts related to intrinsic motivation according to the Self-determination Theory, but also reflect upon the teacher's role and style in the promotion of students' intrinsic motivation. Educational

  17. MOTIVATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1994-01-01

    Introduction What is the difference between instrumental and integrative motivation? What kind of motivations do students have? How can our knowledge of motivation help the language learning process? Motivation can be very important in language teaching. Students can do very well when they are motivated. Teachers, with their knowledge of motivation, can make their classes more efficient and successful. Middle school teachers, in addition to learning about the English language itself, and about teaching methods, should also learn more about motivation and how this affects our students. "When we consider language teaching, motivation can be classified as either integrative or instrumental motivation" (Luxon)

  18. The influence of coping styles on long-term employment in multiple sclerosis: A prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grytten, Nina; Skår, Anne Br; Aarseth, Jan Harald; Assmus, Jorg; Farbu, Elisabeth; Lode, Kirsten; Nyland, Harald I; Smedal, Tori; Myhr, Kjell Morten

    2017-06-01

    The aim was to investigate predictive values of coping styles, clinical and demographic factors on time to unemployment in patients diagnosed with multiple sclerosis (MS) during 1998-2002 in Norway. All patients ( N = 108) diagnosed with MS 1998-2002 in Hordaland and Rogaland counties, Western Norway, were invited to participate in the long-term follow-up study in 2002. Baseline recordings included disability scoring (Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS)), fatigue (Fatigue Severity Scale (FSS)), depression (Beck Depression Inventory (BDI)), and questionnaire assessing coping (the Dispositional Coping Styles Scale (COPE)). Logistic regression analysis was used to identify factors associated with unemployed at baseline, and Cox regression analysis to identify factors at baseline associated with time to unemployment during follow-up. In all, 41 (44%) were employed at baseline. After 13 years follow-up in 2015, mean disease duration of 22 years, 16 (17%) were still employed. Median time from baseline to unemployment was 6 years (±5). Older age at diagnosis, female gender, and depression were associated with patients being unemployed at baseline. Female gender, long disease duration, and denial as avoidant coping strategy at baseline predicted shorter time to unemployment. Avoidant coping style, female gender, and longer disease duration were associated with shorter time to unemployment. These factors should be considered when advising patients on MS and future employment.

  19. The impact of feedback valence and communication style on intrinsic motivation in middle childhood: Experimental evidence and generalization across individual differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mabbe, Elien; Soenens, Bart; De Muynck, Gert-Jan; Vansteenkiste, Maarten

    2018-06-01

    Prior research among adolescents and emerging adults has provided evidence for the beneficial effects of positive (relative to negative) feedback and an autonomy-supportive (relative to a controlling) communication style on students' intrinsic motivation. Unfortunately, similar experimental research in middle childhood is lacking. Moreover, little attention has been paid to the question of whether individual differences in personality and perceived parenting play a role in these effects. In the current experimental study (N = 110; M age  = 10.71 years), children completed puzzles at school under one of four experimental conditions, thereby crossing normative feedback valence (i.e., positive vs. negative) with communication style (i.e., autonomy supportive vs. controlling). Prior to the experiment, children filled out questionnaires tapping into the Big Five personality traits and into perceived maternal autonomy support and psychological control. After the experimental induction, children rated several motivational constructs (i.e., intrinsic motivation and need-based experiences). In addition, their voluntary behavioral persistence in a subsequent challenging puzzle task was recorded objectively. Providing positive normative feedback in an autonomy-supportive way yielded the most favorable motivational outcomes. Both feedback valence and communication style yielded an independent impact on children's experiences of competence and autonomy during task engagement, which in turn helped to explain children's elevated intrinsic motivation, as reflected by their perceived interest and behavioral persistence. A few effects were moderated by children's perceived parenting and personality traits, but the number of interactions was limited. The discussion focuses on the motivating role of positive normative feedback and an autonomy-supportive communication style for children. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Short-term fluctuations in motivation to quit smoking in a sample of smokers in Hawaii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzog, Thaddeus; Pokhrel, Pallav; Kawamoto, Crissy T

    2015-01-01

    Despite its potential for usefulness in informing the development of smoking cessation interventions, short-term fluctuations in motivation to quit is a relatively understudied topic. To assess the prevalence of smokers' day-to-day fluctuations in motivation to quit, and to assess associations of day-to-day fluctuations in motivation to quit with several established cessation-related variables. A cross-sectional survey was administered to smokers in Hawaii (N = 1,567). To assess short-term fluctuations in motivation to quit smoking, participants were asked to respond "True" or "False" to the statement: "My motivation to quit smoking changes from one day to the next." Other items measured desire to quit smoking, intention to quit, confidence in quitting, cigarette dependence, and other cessation-related variables. "My motivation to quit smoking changes from one day to the next" was endorsed as true by 64.7% of smokers, and false by 35.3%. Analyses revealed that smokers who indicated fluctuating motivation were significantly more interested in quitting as compared to smokers without fluctuations. Fluctuations in motivation to quit also were associated with greater confidence in quitting, lesser cigarette dependence, and more recent quitting activity (all p motivation to quit are common. Day-to-day fluctuations in motivation to quit are strongly associated with higher motivation to quit, greater confidence in future quitting, and other positive cessation-relevant trends.

  1. A Qualitative Exploration of Motivation to Self-Manage and Styles of Self-Management amongst People Living with Type 2 Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, Paul; Asimakopoulou, Koula; Scambler, Sasha

    2015-01-01

    The study examined the motives that people living with type 2 diabetes (T2D) had for self-managing their condition and ways they used to assess the success of their self-management efforts. Using semistructured interviews (N = 25), focus groups (3 × N = 12 participants), and open-ended questionnaires (N = 6), people living with and self-managing T2D were recruited from a community-based T2D participation group. Most participants were older (aged 60+) and lived in a socioeconomically deprived area in the United Kingdom. Data were analysed thematically using framework analysis. Patients' motives for self-management included (i) concern about the anticipative effects of T2D; (ii) wishing to "stay well"; (iii) maintaining independence; (iv) reducing the need for healthcare professionals; and (v) improving quality of life. Six self-management styles were found and pertained to self-managing: (i) through routinisation; (ii) as a burden; (iii) as maintenance; (iv) through delegation; (v) through comanagement; and (vi) through autonomy. Motivators for self-management shaped the criteria people used to judge the success of their self-management practices and influenced their self-management style. The findings show that styles of T2D self-management are mediated and moderated by sociocontextual issues. Healthcare professionals should take these into account when supporting people living with T2D.

  2. A Qualitative Exploration of Motivation to Self-Manage and Styles of Self-Management amongst People Living with Type 2 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Newton

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The study examined the motives that people living with type 2 diabetes (T2D had for self-managing their condition and ways they used to assess the success of their self-management efforts. Using semistructured interviews (N=25, focus groups (3 ×  N=12 participants, and open-ended questionnaires (N=6, people living with and self-managing T2D were recruited from a community-based T2D participation group. Most participants were older (aged 60+ and lived in a socioeconomically deprived area in the United Kingdom. Data were analysed thematically using framework analysis. Patients’ motives for self-management included (i concern about the anticipative effects of T2D; (ii wishing to “stay well”; (iii maintaining independence; (iv reducing the need for healthcare professionals; and (v improving quality of life. Six self-management styles were found and pertained to self-managing: (i through routinisation; (ii as a burden; (iii as maintenance; (iv through delegation; (v through comanagement; and (vi through autonomy. Motivators for self-management shaped the criteria people used to judge the success of their self-management practices and influenced their self-management style. The findings show that styles of T2D self-management are mediated and moderated by sociocontextual issues. Healthcare professionals should take these into account when supporting people living with T2D.

  3. Media image of sport volunteering during the UEFA Euro 2012™ and the motives for social work and its style of volunteers working in Poznan and in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Brdak

    2015-11-01

    Abstract   Background: Volunteering in sport is the most popular and media form of pro-social work in Europe. In Poland, to such activity the conditions are still creating by the largest growth of numbers of institutions active in the public sector in the field of sport, recreation, tourism and hobbies. Interest in volunteering at sport events is increasing, especially among young people. The media image of sport volunteering is adopted by the organizer with chosen promotional strategy. The associated expectations of the participants, their motivation and style of behaving during participation in volunteer project as a consequence are also factors determining the media image of sport volunteering.   Aim: The aim of the study is to compare the style of engaging in social work of their participants and motives of taking that kind of work by volunteers working in Poznan. Material and Method: The analysis included data available on the Internet regarding to organization of volunteer work during the UEFA Euro 2012™ in Poland and Ukraine as well as literature review regarding to the motivation to unpaid work in Poland. The motives of engaging in to volunteering as well as style of that work was compared between groups of participants of volunteering at UEFA Euro 2012™ in Poznan and Poland.   Results: Volunteering at UEFA Euro 2012™ was separated on two areas, sports and urban and was coordinated by different organizers. The convergence between the motivational climate created by organizers of two independent volunteer projects at UEFA Euro 2012™ and motives for social work of its participants is visible. Encouraging volunteers to unpaid work in sport area of tournament by presenting it as a possibility to feel the sports atmosphere was similar to motives and significant more often reported by its volunteers than volunteers working in urban zone. Altruistic motives underlying in social activities significantly more often were reported by volunteers working in

  4. Investigation of Primary Education Second Level Students' Motivations toward Science Learning in Terms of Various Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sert Çibik, Ayse

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to investigate the primary education second level students' motivations towards science learning in terms of various factors. Within the research, the variation of the total motivational scores in science learning according to the gender, class, socio-economic levels, success in science-technology course and…

  5. Varieties of propositional and dictum motivation analytical terms of scientifictechnical terminology

    OpenAIRE

    Garashchenko, Liliya

    2014-01-01

    The article focuses on cognitive-onomasiological analysis of analytical terms of scientific-technical terminology. The motivational features of terminological construction predicate-thematic and hyperonym varieties are defined.

  6. Relationships among student attitudes, motivation, learning styles, learning strategies, patterns of learning, and achievement: A formative evaluation of distance education via Web-based courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Ching-Chun

    The World Wide Web (WWW) is the latest in a long line of educational technologies, and the list of courses on it is growing daily. Formative evaluations would help educators enhance teaching and learning in Web-based courses. This study analyzed the relationships between student achievement and the following variables: attitudes, motivation, learning strategies, patterns of learning, learning styles, and selected demographics. It was a population study that included 99 students taking two non-major introductory biology courses offered over the WWW by Iowa State University in the fall of 1997. Seventy-four (75%) students completed a learning style test, an on-line questionnaire, and received a grade by the end of the semester. The learning style test was the Group Embedded Figures Test (GEFT), which classified students as either field-dependent or field-independent. The on-line questionnaire consisted of four scales (attitude, motivation, learning strategies, and patterns of learning), whose pilot-test reliabilities ranged from .71 to .91. The selected demographic variables were gender, class level, previous experience in subject area, hours per week studying and working, computer access, and types of students as off-campus, on-campus, or adult students. Over two-thirds of the students taking the Web-based courses were field-independent learners; however, there were no significant differences (.05 level) in achievement by learning style. Also, different backgrounds of students with different learning styles learned equally well in Web-based courses. The students enjoyed the convenience and self-controlled learning pace and were motivated by competition and high expectations in Web-based learning. They used most the learning strategies of finding important ideas from lectures and memorizing key words of important concepts and least the learning strategy of making charts or tables to organize the material. They seemed more interested in checking their grades than in

  7. Association of learning styles with research self-efficacy: study of short-term research training program for medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumbauld, Jill; Black, Michelle; Depp, Colin A; Daly, Rebecca; Curran, Maureen A; Winegarden, Babbi; Jeste, Dilip V

    2014-12-01

    With a growing need for developing future physician scientists, identifying characteristics of medical students who are likely to benefit from research training programs is important. This study assessed if specific learning styles of medical students, participating in federally funded short-term research training programs, were associated with research self-efficacy, a potential predictor of research career success. Seventy-five first-year medical students from 28 medical schools, selected to participate in two competitive NIH-supported summer programs for research training in aging, completed rating scales to evaluate learning styles at baseline, and research self-efficacy before and after training. We examined associations of individual learning styles (visual-verbal, sequential-global, sensing-intuitive, and active-reflective) with students' gender, ranking of medical school, and research self-efficacy. Research self-efficacy improved significantly following the training programs. Students with a verbal learning style reported significantly greater research self-efficacy at baseline, while visual, sequential, and intuitive learners demonstrated significantly greater increases in research self-efficacy from baseline to posttraining. No significant relationships were found between learning styles and students' gender or ranking of their medical school. Assessments of learning styles may provide useful information to guide future training endeavors aimed at developing the next generation of physician-scientists. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Training Corporate Managers to Adopt a More Autonomy-Supportive Motivating Style toward Employees: An Intervention Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardre, Patricia L.; Reeve, Johnmarshall

    2009-01-01

    Management style is treated in a variety of ways across the training and development literature. Yet few studies have tested the training-based malleability of management style in a for-profit, authentic work context. The present research tested whether or not training intervention would help managers adopt a more autonomy-supportive motivating…

  9. The Influence of Parenting Styles, Achievement Motivation, and Self-Efficacy on Academic Performance in College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Erlanger A.; Chandler, Megan; Heffer, Robert W.

    2009-01-01

    Parenting styles have consistently been shown to relate to various outcomes such as youth psychopathology, behavior problems, and academic performance. Building on the research in the parenting style literature, along with examining components of self-determination theory, the present study examined the relations among authoritative parenting…

  10. Investigating Opinions of Mothers on Different Socioeconomic Status in Terms of Perceived Maternal Styles

    OpenAIRE

    VAR, Esra ÇALIK; Kılıç, Şükran; Kumandaş, Hatice

    2017-01-01

    Problem Statement: There are various environmental factors such as culture, socioeconomic status, family patterns, parental personality, family size, and education system among others, which affect development of individuals. Especially in the childhood period, parenting style is an important variable in forming physical, emotional, cognitive, and social development. Parenting style affects the capacity of children to interact with others, psychological wellbeing, and life skills; therefore, ...

  11. Descriptor Based Classification of Shapes in Terms of Style and Function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Welnicka, Katarzyna; Bærentzen, Jakob Andreas; Aanæs, Henrik

    of a specific human being have some commonality that separate them from those of another person. Thus, one could argue that an individual represents a style. Style in the context of biological variation is something that we explore in the work presented here. Specifically, we investigate whether we can define...... of functions, since, as we discuss below, the function of the object (what it is) clearly also has a profound impact on shape. Thus, our work can be summed up as example based classification of digital 3D shapes in both style and function categories....

  12. Investigation of transformational and transactional leadership styles of school principals, and evaluation of them in terms of educational administration

    OpenAIRE

    Avcı, Ahmet

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the transformational and transactional leadership styles of school principals, and to evaluate them in terms of educational administration. Descriptive survey model was used in the research. The data of the research were obtained from a total of 1,117 teachers working in public and private schools subjected to ministry of national education in Avcılar district of Istanbul province in 2014. In this study, data were obtained from the "personal informat...

  13. Predicting Long-Term Growth in Students' Mathematics Achievement: The Unique Contributions of Motivation and Cognitive Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murayama, Kou; Pekrun, Reinhard; Lichtenfeld, Stephanie; vom Hofe, Rudolf

    2013-01-01

    This research examined how motivation (perceived control, intrinsic motivation, and extrinsic motivation), cognitive learning strategies (deep and surface strategies), and intelligence jointly predict long-term growth in students' mathematics achievement over 5 years. Using longitudinal data from six annual waves (Grades 5 through 10;…

  14. How Do You Motivate Long-Term Behavior Change to Prevent Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    John P. Pierce PhD, a professor in the Department of Family and Preventive Medicine at the University of California, San Diego and Director of Population Science at Moores Cancer Center, presented "How Do You Motivate Long-Term Behavior Change to Prevent Cancer?" 

  15. Leading Short-Term Study Abroad Courses: Motivations and Outcomes for Community College Faculty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hull, Melinda Leigh

    2013-01-01

    This case study explored faculty motivations for choosing to lead short-term study abroad courses and the personal and professional outcomes of the undertaking as reported by the faculty members themselves. This study also identified specific instances of internationalized practice in the development and implementation of the course. Three faculty…

  16. Examining the impact of modality and learning style preferences on recall of psychiatric nursing and pharmacology terms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieland, Patience S; Willis, Jana; Peters, Michelle L; O'Toole, Robin S

    2018-07-01

    The purpose of this experimental research study was to explore how modality and learning style preferences impact non-prescribing, first-year Licensed Vocational Nurse (LVN) students' recall of vocabulary. Independent t-test results indicated a statistically significant mean difference in short-term recall of pharmacological and psychiatric terms, with learners receiving visual text instruction recalling significantly more vocabulary than learners receiving audio text instruction. A correlation was not found between learning preferences and vocabulary recall. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Impact of Long-Term Communication Training on Managerial Style and Perceptions of Organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullinane, Laura E.; Stacks, Don W.

    A study examined the impact of a working commitment to corporate communication and corporate communication education on perceptions of management and managerial style and the more general perceptions of the organization. Subjects, 15 male mid-level managers at a large southeastern chemical plant that had in place a continuing corporate…

  18. Investigating Opinions of Mothers on Different Socioeconomic Status in Terms of Perceived Maternal Styles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çalik Var, Esra; Kiliç, Sükran; Kumandas, Hatice

    2015-01-01

    Problem Statement: There are various environmental factors such as culture, socioeconomic status, family patterns, parental personality, family size, and education system among others, which affect development of individuals. Especially in the childhood period, parenting style is an important variable in forming physical, emotional, cognitive, and…

  19. Long-Term Effect of Motivational Interviewing on Dietary Intake and Weight Loss in Iranian Obese/Overweight Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Saffari

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study aimed to determine whether motivational interviewing (MI could change dietary habit and body mass index (BMI in obese/overweight women. Methods: A cluster-randomized controlled study was performed in four health centers in Qazvin, central Iran. In total, 327 obese/overweight women were selected by a multi-stage sampling method and randomly assigned into control and experimental groups. Food frequency (using questionnaire; FFQ, BMI, and metabolic markers including blood pressure, total serum cholesterol and fasting blood glucose levels were measured in all participants. Data were collected twice (before and one year after the MI interventions. Data were analyzed using student t-test, and Stepwise Linear Regression. Results: There was a significant increase in daily consumption of dietary fiber, whole grain products, fruits and vegetables in the MI group (P<0.05. The consumption of meat product, total fat, saturated fat, carbohydrate and total energy intake were also significantly reduced after MI intervention (P<0.05. As a result, body weight and BMI were significantly reduced in the intervention group compared to the control group (P<0.05. Conclusion: MI is suggested to be an effective strategy to change life style and reduce BMI in overweight/obese women in the long term. This effect needs to be further investigated in different gender and age populations.

  20. The role of intolerance of uncertainty in terms of alcohol use motives among college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraemer, Kristen M; McLeish, Alison C; O'Bryan, Emily M

    2015-03-01

    Hazardous drinking rates among college students are exceedingly high. Despite the link between worry and alcohol use problems, there has been a dearth of empirical work examining worry-related risk factors in terms of motivations for alcohol use. Therefore, the aim of the present investigation was to examine the unique predictive ability of intolerance of uncertainty in terms of alcohol use motives. Participants were 389 college students (72.2% female, Mage=19.92, SD=3.87, Range=18-58 years) who completed self-report measures for course credit. As hypothesized, after controlling for the effects of gender, smoking status, marijuana use status, alcohol consumption, negative affect, and anxiety sensitivity, greater levels of intolerance of uncertainty were significantly predictive of greater coping (1.5% unique variance) and conformity (4.7% unique variance) drinking motives, but not social or enhancement drinking motives. These results suggest that intolerance of uncertainty is associated with drinking to manage or avoid negative emotions, and interventions aimed at reducing intolerance of uncertainty may be helpful in reducing problematic alcohol consumption among college students. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Relative influence of age, resting heart rate and sedentary life style in short-term analysis of heart rate variability

    OpenAIRE

    E.R. Migliaro; P. Contreras; S. Bech; A. Etxagibel; M. Castro; R. Ricca; K. Vicente

    2001-01-01

    In order to assess the relative influence of age, resting heart rate (HR) and sedentary life style, heart rate variability (HRV) was studied in two different groups. The young group (YG) consisted of 9 sedentary subjects aged 15 to 20 years (YG-S) and of 9 nonsedentary volunteers (YG-NS) also aged 15 to 20. The elderly sedentary group (ESG) consisted of 16 sedentary subjects aged 39 to 82 years. HRV was assessed using a short-term procedure (5 min). R-R variability was calculated in the time-...

  2. Low- and High-Resistance Exercise: Long-Term Adherence and Motivation among Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Roie, Evelien; Bautmans, Ivan; Coudyzer, Walter; Boen, Filip; Delecluse, Christophe

    2015-01-01

    In terms of motivation and long-term adherence, low-resistance exercise might be more suitable for older adults than high-resistance exercise. However, more data are needed to support this claim. The objective was to investigate the effect of low- and high-resistance exercise protocols on long-term adherence and motivation. This study was designed as an exploratory 24-week follow-up of a randomized 12-week resistance training intervention in older adults. Participants were free to decide whether or not they continued resistance training at their own expense following the intervention. Fifty-six older adults were randomly assigned to HIGH [2 × 10-15 repetitions at 80% of one repetition maximum (1RM)], LOW (1 × 80-100 repetitions at 20% of 1RM), or LOW+ (1 × 60 repetitions at 20% of 1RM + 1 × 10-20 repetitions at 40% 1RM). Motivation, self-efficacy and the perceived barriers for continuing resistance exercise were measured after cessation of each supervised intervention and at follow-up, while long-term adherence was probed retrospectively at follow-up. Participants reported high levels of self-determined motivation before, during, and after the supervised intervention, with no differences between groups (p > 0.05). Nevertheless, only few participants continued strength training after the intervention: 17% in HIGH, 21% in LOW+, and 11% in LOW (p > 0.05). The most commonly reported barriers for continuing resistance exercise were perceived lack of time (46%), being more interested in other physical activities (40%), seasonal reasons (40%), and financial cost (28%). The results suggest no difference in long-term adherence after the end of a supervised exercise intervention at high or low external resistances. Long-term adherence was limited despite high levels of self-determined motivation during the interventions. These findings highlight the importance of further research on developing strategies to overcome barriers of older adults to adhere to resistance

  3. Relative influence of age, resting heart rate and sedentary life style in short-term analysis of heart rate variability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.R. Migliaro

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to assess the relative influence of age, resting heart rate (HR and sedentary life style, heart rate variability (HRV was studied in two different groups. The young group (YG consisted of 9 sedentary subjects aged 15 to 20 years (YG-S and of 9 nonsedentary volunteers (YG-NS also aged 15 to 20. The elderly sedentary group (ESG consisted of 16 sedentary subjects aged 39 to 82 years. HRV was assessed using a short-term procedure (5 min. R-R variability was calculated in the time-domain by means of the root mean square successive differences. Frequency-domain HRV was evaluated by power spectrum analysis considering high frequency and low frequency bands. In the YG the effort tolerance was ranked in a bicycle stress test. HR was similar for both groups while ESG showed a reduced HRV compared with YG. Within each group, HRV displayed a negative correlation with HR. Although YG-NS had better effort tolerance than YG-S, their HR and HRV were not significantly different. We conclude that HRV is reduced with increasing HR or age, regardless of life style. The results obtained in our short-term study agree with others of longer duration by showing that age and HR are the main determinants of HRV. Our results do not support the idea that changes in HRV are related to regular physical activity.

  4. Relative influence of age, resting heart rate and sedentary life style in short-term analysis of heart rate variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migliaro, E R; Contreras, P; Bech, S; Etxagibel, A; Castro, M; Ricca, R; Vicente, K

    2001-04-01

    In order to assess the relative influence of age, resting heart rate (HR) and sedentary life style, heart rate variability (HRV) was studied in two different groups. The young group (YG) consisted of 9 sedentary subjects aged 15 to 20 years (YG-S) and of 9 nonsedentary volunteers (YG-NS) also aged 15 to 20. The elderly sedentary group (ESG) consisted of 16 sedentary subjects aged 39 to 82 years. HRV was assessed using a short-term procedure (5 min). R-R variability was calculated in the time-domain by means of the root mean square successive differences. Frequency-domain HRV was evaluated by power spectrum analysis considering high frequency and low frequency bands. In the YG the effort tolerance was ranked in a bicycle stress test. HR was similar for both groups while ESG showed a reduced HRV compared with YG. Within each group, HRV displayed a negative correlation with HR. Although YG-NS had better effort tolerance than YG-S, their HR and HRV were not significantly different. We conclude that HRV is reduced with increasing HR or age, regardless of life style. The results obtained in our short-term study agree with others of longer duration by showing that age and HR are the main determinants of HRV. Our results do not support the idea that changes in HRV are related to regular physical activity.

  5. [Health promotion for long-term unemployed. Effects on motivation for a healthy lifestyle].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horns, K; Seeger, K; Heinmüller, M; Limm, H; Waldhoff, H-P; Salman, R; Gündel, H; Angerer, P

    2012-05-01

    Among the long-term unemployed ill health is often a hindrance to successful reintegration in the job market. In a quasi-experimental controlled study we examined the effects of a health promotion intervention program tailored to the specific needs of the long-term unemployed combining individual sessions based on motivational interviewing and participatory group sessions including physical activity. Over a period of 3 months the participants of the intervention group (n = 179) showed more improvement compared to the control group (n = 108) in terms of motivation for lifestyle changes towards more physical activity and healthier nutrition. Participants of the intervention group developed an intention to act significantly more often (active lifestyle: odds ratio 4.44; 95% CI: 2.00-9.83; healthy nutrition: odds ratio 3.94; 95% CI: 1.55-10.00) and actually implemented a behavior change significantly more often (active lifestyle: odds ratio 2.77; 95% CI: 1.35-5.71; healthy nutrition: odds ratio 4.34; 95% CI: 1.92-9.78). In terms of smoking and alcohol consumption no significant intervention effects were detected. The results of the study show the effectiveness of the described health promotion program regarding a lifestyle change towards more healthy nutrition and more physical activity.

  6. Predicting long-term growth in students' mathematics achievement: the unique contributions of motivation and cognitive strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murayama, Kou; Pekrun, Reinhard; Lichtenfeld, Stephanie; Vom Hofe, Rudolf

    2013-01-01

    This research examined how motivation (perceived control, intrinsic motivation, and extrinsic motivation), cognitive learning strategies (deep and surface strategies), and intelligence jointly predict long-term growth in students' mathematics achievement over 5 years. Using longitudinal data from six annual waves (Grades 5 through 10; Mage  = 11.7 years at baseline; N = 3,530), latent growth curve modeling was employed to analyze growth in achievement. Results showed that the initial level of achievement was strongly related to intelligence, with motivation and cognitive strategies explaining additional variance. In contrast, intelligence had no relation with the growth of achievement over years, whereas motivation and learning strategies were predictors of growth. These findings highlight the importance of motivation and learning strategies in facilitating adolescents' development of mathematical competencies. © 2012 The Authors. Child Development © 2012 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  7. Folk music style modelling by recurrent neural networks with long short term memory units

    OpenAIRE

    Sturm, Bob; Santos, João Felipe; Korshunova, Iryna

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate two generative models created by training a recurrent neural network (RNN) with three hidden layers of long short-term memory (LSTM) units. This extends past work in numerous directions, including training deeper models with nearly 24,000 high-level transcriptions of folk tunes. We discuss our on-going work.

  8. Turkish Pre-Service Physics Teachers' Preferred Learning Styles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandil Ingec, Sebnem

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to determine the dominant learning styles of pre-service physics teachers and to examine them in terms of variables such as gender, information and communication technologies skills, academic achievement and type of motivation. Survey model was used. The sample composed of 50 pre-service physics teachers. The data were collected…

  9. "Pushing the Boundaries": Participant Motivation and Self-Reported Benefits of Short-Term International Study Tours

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bretag, Tracey; van der Veen, Robert

    2017-01-01

    Short-term overseas study tours serve as a means of developing students' global competencies. The authors conducted pre-departure and post-return focus groups with three groups of students at an Australian university who had participated in short-term study tours to Asia to explore their motivations for participating and their self-reported…

  10. ASSESSMENT OF TRAIT ANGER AND LEVEL OF ANGER EXPRESSION STYLES OF STUDENTS WHO STUDIED AT SCHOOL OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION AND SPORTS IN TERMS OF SOME VARIABLES

    OpenAIRE

    Çağatay Dereceli; Hüseyin Kırımoğlu; Mehmet Dallı

    2017-01-01

    This study focused on reviewing trait anger and level of anger expression styles of students who studied at School of Physical Education and Sports of Adnan Menderes University during 2016-2017 academic year in terms of some variables. As data collection tools; “Personal Information Form” and “Trait Anger and Anger Expression Scale” –designed by Spielberger et al. (1988) and adapted by Özer (1994) into Turkish- were employed. Participants’ trait anger and anger expression styles were compared...

  11. Motivation and short-term memory in visual search: Attention's accelerator revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Daniel; Bonmassar, Claudia; Hickey, Clayton

    2018-05-01

    A cue indicating the possibility of cash reward will cause participants to perform memory-based visual search more efficiently. A recent study has suggested that this performance benefit might reflect the use of multiple memory systems: when needed, participants may maintain the to-be-remembered object in both long-term and short-term visual memory, with this redundancy benefitting target identification during search (Reinhart, McClenahan & Woodman, 2016). Here we test this compelling hypothesis. We had participants complete a memory-based visual search task involving a reward cue that either preceded presentation of the to-be-remembered target (pre-cue) or followed it (retro-cue). Following earlier work, we tracked memory representation using two components of the event-related potential (ERP): the contralateral delay activity (CDA), reflecting short-term visual memory, and the anterior P170, reflecting long-term storage. We additionally tracked attentional preparation and deployment in the contingent negative variation (CNV) and N2pc, respectively. Results show that only the reward pre-cue impacted our ERP indices of memory. However, both types of cue elicited a robust CNV, reflecting an influence on task preparation, both had equivalent impact on deployment of attention to the target, as indexed in the N2pc, and both had equivalent impact on visual search behavior. Reward prospect thus has an influence on memory-guided visual search, but this does not appear to be necessarily mediated by a change in the visual memory representations indexed by CDA. Our results demonstrate that the impact of motivation on search is not a simple product of improved memory for target templates. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Parametric and genetic analysis of Drosophila appetitive long-term memory and sugar motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colomb, J; Kaiser, L; Chabaud, M-A; Preat, T

    2009-06-01

    Distinct forms of memory can be highlighted using different training protocols. In Drosophila olfactory aversive learning, one conditioning session triggers memory formation independently of protein synthesis, while five spaced conditioning sessions lead to the formation of long-term memory (LTM), a long-lasting memory dependent on de novo protein synthesis. In contrast, one session of odour-sugar association appeared sufficient for the fly to form LTM. We designed and tuned an apparatus that facilitates repeated discriminative conditioning by alternate presentations of two odours, one being associated with sugar, as well as a new paradigm to test sugar responsiveness (SR). Our results show that both SR and short-term memory (STM) scores increase with starvation length before conditioning. The protein dependency of appetitive LTM is independent of the repetition and the spacing of training sessions, on the starvation duration and on the strength of the unconditioned stimulus. In contrast to a recent report, our test measures an abnormal SR of radish mutant flies, which might initiate their STM and LTM phenotypes. In addition, our work shows that crammer and tequila mutants, which are deficient for aversive LTM, present both an SR and an appetitive STM defect. Using the MB247-P[switch] system, we further show that tequila is required in the adult mushroom bodies for normal sugar motivation.

  13. Learning Styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Missouri Univ., Columbia. Coll. of Education.

    Information is provided regarding major learning styles and other factors important to student learning. Several typically asked questions are presented regarding different learning styles (visual, auditory, tactile and kinesthetic, and multisensory learning), associated considerations, determining individuals' learning styles, and appropriate…

  14. 父母教养方式和青少年成就动机、竞争心理的关系%The Relationship between Parental Rearing Styles and Adolescents Achievement Motivation, Competitive Psychology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶颖瑜; 应湘

    2012-01-01

    To explore adolescent parents parenting style, achievement motivation and competitive psychology. The parents' rearing style rating scale (EMBU), Achievement Motivation Scale (AMS), college students compete psychological scale and high school students compete psychological scale of 397 young people. Results: (1), adolescents' parenting styles mainly to positive parenting, care to understand more severely punished less, and due to the gender of their children, whether begotten and grade differences. (2), parents' some factors and achievement motivation, competitive psychological and significantly related. (3), the parents of some of the factors and achievement motivation, competitive psychological predictive ability.%为探索青少年父母教养方式、成就动机和竞争心理的关系。采用父母教养方式评价量表(EMBU)、成就动机量表(AMS)、大学生竞争心理量表和中学生竞争心理量表对397名青少年进行研究。结果表明:(1)青少年父母教养方式以积极养育方式为主,关爱理解较多,严厉惩罚较少,并因子女的性别、是否独生和年级而有所差异。(2)父母的某些因子与成就动机、竞争心理有显著相关。(3)父母的某些因子与成就动机、竞争心理有预测能力。

  15. Psychosocial mediation of religious coping styles: a study of short-term psychological distress following cardiac surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ai, Amy L; Park, Crystal L; Huang, Bu; Rodgers, Willard; Tice, Terrence N

    2007-06-01

    Although religiousness and religious coping styles are well-documented predictors of well-being, research on the mechanisms through which religious coping styles operate is sparse. This prospective study examined religious coping styles, hope, and social support as pathways of the influence of general religiousness (religious importance and involvement) on the reduced postoperative psychological distress of 309 cardiac patients. Results of structural equation modeling indicated that controlling for preoperative distress, gender, and education, religiousness contributed to positive religious coping, which in turn was associated with less distress via a path fully mediated by the secular factors of social support and hope. Furthermore, negative religious coping styles, although correlated at the bivariate level with preoperative distress but not with religiousness, were associated both directly and indirectly with greater post-operative distress via the same mediators.

  16. ONE-DIMENSIONAL AND TWO-DIMENSIONAL LEADERSHIP STYLES

    OpenAIRE

    Nikola Stefanović

    2007-01-01

    In order to motivate their group members to perform certain tasks, leaders use different leadership styles. These styles are based on leaders' backgrounds, knowledge, values, experiences, and expectations. The one-dimensional styles, used by many world leaders, are autocratic and democratic styles. These styles lie on the two opposite sides of the leadership spectrum. In order to precisely define the leadership styles on the spectrum between the autocratic leadership style and the democratic ...

  17. Impacts of Different Culture on Management Style

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈国君

    2015-01-01

    cultural differences affect the management behavior and management style.Participatory management style in the United States and instructional management style in China has a deep cultural roots.In terms of the type of management style,they are equal.As long as management style is consistent with its culture accordingly,the leadership will be effective.

  18. How staff nurses perceive the impact of nurse managers' leadership style in terms of job satisfaction: a mixed method study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morsiani, Giuliana; Bagnasco, Annamaria; Sasso, Loredana

    2017-03-01

    To describe staff nurses' perceptions related to the leadership styles adopted by their nurse managers, identify which leadership style ensured job satisfaction in staff nurses and describe which behaviours nurse managers should change. Empirical literature suggests that leadership styles of nurse managers significantly influence staff satisfaction. However, few studies investigate how staff nurses perceive the leadership styles of their nurse managers, and how these impact upon the staff nurses' job satisfaction. This was a mixed method study, which included the administration of the Multi-factor Leadership Questionnaire and three focus groups. Ward nurse managers mostly adopted a transactional leadership style ('Management by exception active') aimed at monitoring errors and intervening to correct errors and punish, which had a negative impact on staff nurses' levels of job satisfaction. In contrast, the transformational leadership style, which is mostly correlated with satisfaction ('Idealized Influence Attributed', which staff nurses perceived as 'respect', 'caring for others', 'professional development' and 'appreciation'), was rarely practiced by nurse managers. The transformational leadership skills of Italian nurse managers need to be improved through behaviours based on greater respect, caring for others, professional development and appreciation. The present study could also serve as model to improve the leadership style of nurse managers in other countries. The themes of transformational leadership could serve as a guide for nurse managers to help them improve their leadership style, and improve the levels of job satisfaction in staff nurses. Owing to the complexity and the importance of this issue, classroom educational interventions would not be sufficient: it should be dealt as a strategic priority by nursing directors. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Entrepreneurs` Cognitive and Decision Making Styles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Motvaseli

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this study is to explore the relation between decision-making styles which are measured by the General decision-making style (GDMS test and information processing styles which are often termed cognitive styles and are, in this study, measured by Cognitive Style Inventory. The authors directed a survey research on 162 Iranian students. Structural equation modeling techniques were used to measure the impact of cognitive styles on decision-making styles. The authors found that cognitive styles have a positive impact on decision-making styles. In spite of the abundant research on factors that affect decision-making styles, few researches have tested the relationship between cognitive styles and decision-making styles. This study examines the impact of cognitive styles on decision-making styles in Iran. This study, like most research paper studies, cannot easily be generalized. Furthermore, the results of this study could be affected by economic conditions.

  20. ONE-DIMENSIONAL AND TWO-DIMENSIONAL LEADERSHIP STYLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikola Stefanović

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to motivate their group members to perform certain tasks, leaders use different leadership styles. These styles are based on leaders' backgrounds, knowledge, values, experiences, and expectations. The one-dimensional styles, used by many world leaders, are autocratic and democratic styles. These styles lie on the two opposite sides of the leadership spectrum. In order to precisely define the leadership styles on the spectrum between the autocratic leadership style and the democratic leadership style, leadership theory researchers use two dimensional matrices. The two-dimensional matrices define leadership styles on the basis of different parameters. By using these parameters, one can identify two-dimensional styles.

  1. In regard to Levi-Strauss’s "motive of oblivion". Structure of disturbed communication and styles of thoughts in transitory Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragana Antonijević

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper starts with Levi-Strauss’s semantic concept that consists of oblivion, misunderstanding, indiscretion and nostalgia. Through his analysis of North American and Greek myths, Levi-Strauss concluded that "semantic filed of oblivion" has an important meaning especially in the construction of particular rules and rituals; or, in other words, it has an important part in the introduction of culture to the nature of cognitive and social processes. After the introduction of concept Structure of disturbed communication and some corrections to the Levi-Strauss’s concept, I start with the proposition that the period of transition represents unstable and ‘slippery’ time in which society negotiates different meanings. That is the time when different styles of thoughts, represented by different and powerful groups that have an impact on current social, political and ideological processes, compete with each other fighting for supremacy. Their field of communication can be seen as a field of "disturbed communication", which in the final instance has a normative function: to reinforce and regulate certain attitudes, ideas and knowledge. This is achieved through the narratives which symbolise a community of newly established order in the moment of its supposed sociohistorical stabilisation. Finally, combining two different theoretical models – Levi-Strauss’s one described above with Greimas’s ideas about structures of modes of veridiction, this paper predicts chances of particular paradigmatic forms of thought in transitory Serbia to became dominant modes of thought, despite of their current low visibility in the public sphere. In mythical terms, it seems though that their domineering efforts are predetermined to success or fail, since they position themselves according to the laws immanent to these structures themselves, which on their part a priori position these structures as powerful orpowerless, influential or non

  2. Understanding individual differences in school achievement : the specific and joint impact of motivation and parenting style independent of children's measured intelligence

    OpenAIRE

    Su, Ying

    2015-01-01

    Intelligence explains some variance in students’ school achievement, but not all. Motivation and parenting have been well-documented as non-cognitive predictors and are crucial to students’ school achievement. Better performance of students under Eastern culture could be attributed to motivation and parenting. The present research is dedicated to exploring the associations among motivation and parenting, as well as their specific and joint predictive power for school achievement, independent ...

  3. Style drift in private equity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cumming, D.; Fleming, G.; Schwienbacher, A.

    2009-01-01

    We introduce the concept of style drift to private equity investment. We present theory and evidence pertaining to style drifts in terms of a fund manager's stated focus on particular stages of entrepreneurial development. We develop a model that derives conditions under which style drifts are less

  4. The long-term effect of a population-based life-style intervention on smoking and alcohol consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baumann, Sophie; Toft, Ulla Marie Nørgaard; Aadahl, Mette

    2015-01-01

    AIMS: To examine whether improvements in smoking and alcohol consumption throughout the 5-year course of a population-based multi-factorial life-style intervention were sustained 5 years after its discontinuation. DESIGN: Population-based randomized controlled trial. SETTING: Suburbs of Copenhage...

  5. Form and Style: Theses, Reports, Term Papers. Eighth Edition. Up-to-Date Information on Chicago, MLA, and APA Documentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, William Giles; And Others

    The eighth edition of this manual, which incorporates recent changes in bibliographical format made by "The Chicago Manual of Style" and the Modern Language Association of America, provides guidance to writers of research papers and reports in college, graduate school, business, government, and the professions. The review of the…

  6. Motivating pharmacy employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, S J; Generali, J A

    1984-07-01

    Concepts from theories of motivation are used to suggest methods for improving the motivational environment of hospital pharmacy departments. Motivation--the state of being stimulated to take action to achieve a goal or to satisfy a need--comes from within individuals, but hospital pharmacy managers can facilitate motivation by structuring the work environment so that it satisfies employees' needs. Concepts from several theories of motivation are discussed, including McGregor's theory X and theory Y assumptions, Maslow's hierarchy of needs theory, Herzberg's motivation hygiene theory, and Massey's value system theory. Concepts from the Japanese style of management that can be used to facilitate motivation, such as quality circles, also are described. The autocratic, participative, and laissez faire styles of leadership are discussed in the context of the motivation theories, and suggested applications of theoretical concepts to practice are presented.

  7. The Effect of an Intervention to Improve Newly Qualified Teachers' Interpersonal Style, Students Motivation and Psychological Need Satisfaction in Sport-Based Physical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tessier, Damien; Sarrazin, Philippe; Ntoumanis, Nikos

    2010-01-01

    Recent developments in self-determination theory research in the educational setting (e.g., Reeve, Deci, & Ryan, 2004), suggest that teachers' interpersonal style should be considered as consisting of three dimensions: autonomy support, structure and interpersonal involvement. Based on this theoretical proposition, the purpose of the present study…

  8. A cross-cultural study of explicit and implicit motivation for long-term volunteering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aydinli, A.; Bender, M.; Chasiotis, A.; van de Vijver, F.J.R.; Cemalcilar, Z.; Chong, A.; Yue, X.

    2016-01-01

    We propose a model of volunteering and test its validity across four cultural groups. We hypothesize that individuals’ explicit prosocial motivation relates positively to sustained volunteering, which is conceptualized as a latent factor comprising activity as a volunteer, service length, service

  9. Family forest owners’ motivations in forest management activities: a case study in Recoaro Terme municipality (north-east Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Canton A

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available In Italy 67% of forestlands belong to private, usually small-scale, owners. Understanding landowners’ motivations is a crucial element to promote better and more active forest stewardship. This paper describes private forest owners’ managerial motivations. After a literature review on the issue, motivations are analyzed through a case study in the municipality of Recoaro Terme, located in the outer Alps range, Veneto Region, north-east Italy. Stated reasons for forest management are empirically identified by means of structured interviews to a statistically representative sample of local forest owners. Results show that forests are much more important for their intangible values and firewood self-consumption than for timber selling or other financial benefits. Different classifications of family forest owners are presented. The more helpful one is based on a cluster analysis and leads to the identification of three owners types with different motivations: a group of owners characterized by “Intangible Values”, a cluster of the “Multiobjective” owners and a group of “Un-interested” owners. These types show different socio-demographic features, various management, aims and information-seeking behaviour. Communication strategies, and management and assistance programs that might appeal to each type are discussed.

  10. The Relationship between Gifted Students’ Attitudes towards Science and Technology and their Learning and Motivation Styles (Üstün Yetenekli Öğrencilerin Fen ve Teknolojiye Yönelik Tutumları, Öğrenme ve Motivasyon Stilleri Arasındaki İlişki

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Kahyaoğlu

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the re-lationship between gifted students’ learning and motivation styles towards science learn-ing and their attitudes towards science and technology courses. Participants included 30 gifted students who were identified by a spe-cial exam and were accepted to the Science and Art Centers for special education. In the research, Learning Style Scales, Motivation to-ward Science Learning Questionnaire and At-titude towards Science Courses Scales were used to collect data. The results showed that there was a significant relationship between gifted students’ attitude towards science and technology courses and their learning and motivation styles towards science learning.

  11. Identity style and coping strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berzonsky, M D

    1992-12-01

    This study examined the relationship between identity style and strategies used to cope with stressors that potentially threaten one's sense of identity. Identity style refers to differences in the way individuals construct and revise or maintain their sense of identity. An informational style involves actively seeking out, evaluating, and utilizing self-relevant information. A normative style highlights the expectations and standards of significant others. A diffuse/avoidant style is characterized by procrastination and situation-specific reactions. Late-adolescent college subjects were administered measures of identity style, ways of coping with academic stressors, and test anxiety. Within this self-as-student context, subjects with diffuse and normative identity styles employed avoidant-oriented coping strategies (wishful thinking, distancing, and tension reduction). An informational style was associated with deliberate, problem-focused coping. Findings are discussed in terms of a process model of identity development.

  12. Informing the Long-Term Learner Model: Motivating the Adult Learner (Phase 1)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-28

    memory systems: 1) short - term memory , 2) working memory , and 3) long - term memory . The short - term memory stores the information for brief periods of...and the episodic buffer, which is linked to long - term memory . The visual working memory shares parts and interacts with attention (Gazzaley and...Nobre 2012; Zanto et al. 2011). Short - term memory is limited in its importance to

  13. Physiotherapists' perceived motivators and barriers for organizing physical activity for older long-term care facility residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baert, Veerle; Gorus, Ellen; Guldemont, Nele; De Coster, Sofie; Bautmans, Ivan

    2015-05-01

    Information regarding factors that hinder or stimulate older adults in long-term care facilities (LTCF) for being physically active is available in the literature, but much less is known regarding perceived motivators and barriers among physiotherapists (PTs) to organize physical activity (PA) in LTCF. The main purpose of this study was to examine factors influencing PTs to organize PA in LTCF for older adults. A secondary goal was to examine the PTs' knowledge about and their barriers at the PA guidelines for older adults of the World Health Organization (WHO). A mixed qualitative and quantitative study was carried out using semistructured interviews (n = 24) followed by an online survey (n = 254). As a frame the social-ecological model (McLeroy) was used, distinguishing factors at the intrapersonal, interpersonal, and community level. In the qualitative component the PTs reported 41 motivators and 35 barriers for organizing PA in LTCF. The survey revealed that although the majority of the respondents (71%) are convinced of the usefulness of PA in LTCF, 84% are not familiar with the WHO-guidelines. Seventy-five percent of the respondents believe that the WHO-guidelines are not feasible for LTCF-residents. The strongest motivators on the intrapersonal level were maintaining the independence of the residents (98%), reducing the risk of falling (98%), and improving the physical (93%) and psychological (90%) wellbeing of LTCF-residents. The social interaction among LTCF-residents (91%) during PA was the strongest motivator on the interpersonal level. Motivators on the community level are the belief that PA is the basis of their physiotherapeutic work (89%) and that offering varied activities avoids PA becoming monotonous (71%). Barriers on the intra- and interpersonal level were of less influence. On the community level, they felt hindered to organize PA because of lack of time (38%) and the overload of paperwork (33%). This study described different motivators

  14. BioCraft: Using Gamification to Stimulate Students' Motivation and Acquisition of Scientific Terms in a Bilingual Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Kent Alan

    Gamification is the act of introducing game elements in any aspect of life. In this case, it is a classroom. The operating model of BioCraft was a role-playing game that reinforced deaf students' use of new vocabulary in a gamified environment. BioCraft addressed the problem of deaf students acquiring scientific terms and using these scientific terms bilingually in academic language. BioCraft also established a student-centered learning atmosphere that promoted intersubjectivity, appropriation, and self-determination. In BioCraft, students became avatars of new organisms living on a new planet who needed to learn about living systems, adaptations, and genetics in order to survive. The results of the operating model suggested that gamification had an effect on deaf students' motivation and frequency of using new scientific terms with minimal persuasion from the teacher.

  15. 中文維基百科管理員參與動機與工作型態之研究 The Participation Motivation and Work Styles of the Administrators for Chinese Wikipedia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao-Yun Liang

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available 本研究以兩岸三地中文維基百科的管理員為對象,探討其參與動機與工作型態。研究群依據研究目的,進行相關文獻探討並編製調查問卷,該問卷共分為四個部分:第一部分為改編之參與動機量表;第二部分為擔任中文維基百科管理員情況;第三部分是日常工作型態;第四部分為受調者基本資料。研究結果顯示:(一)兩岸三地中文維基百科管理員之參與動機主要為「自我成長」、「使命感」、「相近性」,且不因居住地區不同而有差異;(二)在「工作時數」及「僱用合約的型態」兩方面,有部分管理員符合非典型工作型態的特徵;另三地管理員日常工作型態在「全職學生的比例」、「工作時段是否彈性」、「工作合約明訂僱用期限」三方面有顯著的差異。(三)擁有較多自主時間者、人際歸屬較弱者,以及使用網路時間較長者,其參與動機均顯較高。研究群最後根據研究結果,提出對中文維基百科及其管理員制度之系列建議。The purpose of this study is to explore the participation motivations and work styles of administrators of Chinese Wikipedia among Taiwan, Hong Kong, and Mainland China. A questionnaire was designed based on literature reviews and expert consultations from related fields. The questionnaire for administrators is divided into three sections: revised scale of participation motivation; daily works and performance; and work styles. The findings of this study include: 1. The major motivations of the administrators to participate in Chinese Wikipedia are: self-growth, sense of mission, and similarity. 2. For work style, in the aspects of working hours and employment type, some of the administrators have atypical work styles. On the other hand, all of them showed a major difference in the following aspects: ratio of full-time student, flexibility of working

  16. Why do they care? Narratives of physician volunteers on motivations for participation in short-term medical missions abroad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldron, Paul H; Impens, Ann; Pavlova, Milena; Groot, Wim

    2018-01-01

    Short-term medical missions (STMMs) refer to the provision of direct pro bono medical services in lower and middle income countries for periods ranging from days to a few weeks by physicians from rich countries. Survey data have provided limited information on demographic and professional profiles of physicians as well as monetary and manpower inputs. Understanding why physicians participate, however, remains incomplete. The study's objective was to elicit physicians' motivations directly. Semi-structured interviews of physicians identified through snowball recruiting were conducted to explore motivational themes and then analyzed using narrative software employing directed content analysis methodology. Twenty physicians from varying backgrounds and specialties were interviewed. Responses identified aspects of the decision to participate and the relative influence of economic, diplomatic, value-related, and emotive constructs. Personality traits may be more influential to participation than demographic, professional, or socioeconomic determinants. Word-of-mouth recruitment appears to underlie the increase in STMM activity, facilitated by information technology. Reported key motivators for physician participation in STMMs tend to parallel schools of thought regarding philanthropy and volunteering and include satisfaction from helping in challenging conditions of limited resources, learning experiences, appreciation from patients, sense of renewal, and the legacy effect of teaching. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Pedagogical terms of correction of motive sphere of persons of ripe years with the purchased blindness by facilities of playing activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kemkina V.I.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The problem of correction of motive sphere of adults blind facilities of playing activity is considered. The pedagogical terms of correction of motive sphere of adults with the purchased blindness are considered. In experiment took part blind adults at the age 22-35 years. It is set that correction-developing teaching the motive actions of blind adults must be concertedly with the level of their development and the differentiated individual approach is foreseen. It is recommended to be oriented on the level of general development of these people, exposure of their potential and actual motive possibilities. It is well-proven that systematic application of facilities of motive activity is provided by the valuable mastering of vitally important motions, development of motive capabilities and capacity for an orientation in space.

  18. Leadership Styles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Val, Carlin; Kemp, Jess

    2012-01-01

    This study examines how a group's dynamic changes under the influence of different leadership styles, and determines what leadership style works best in a large group expedition. The main question identified was "What roles can a leader play in affecting the dynamic of a large group while partaking in a field expedition?" The following…

  19. Studying the Amount, Motivations and Perception of Consequences of Using the Social Networks Based on Quality of the Relationship between Attachment Styles with Perception of Parental Rejection and Control in Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    پریسا سادات سیدموسوی

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Due to the importance of user behavior in social networks especially in adolescents, the purpose of this study was investigating the amount, motivations and perception of consequences of using the social networks based on the quality of the relationship between attachment styles with perception of parental rejection and control in adole-scents. The population of the research included all of the 15-18 years old adolescents of Tehran from which 146 students (77 girls and 69 boys were chosen by cluster sampling and completed the Inventory of Parent & Peer Attachment, Parental Acceptance-Rejection and Control, and Social Network Using Checklist. The results showed that the quality of the relationship with parents has a key role in prediction of the amount and the way of using the social networks and in addition could affect the consequences of using these networks. In addition, increasing of the parental control unexpectedly could not decrease the using of social networks. According to the results, it seems that although most of the adolescents are using the social networks, the relationship with parents can be critical in predicting the motives of using these networks.

  20. Vegetarian-style dietary pattern during adolescence has long-term positive impact on bone from adolescence to young adulthood: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Movassagh, Elham Z; Baxter-Jones, Adam D G; Kontulainen, Saija; Whiting, Susan; Szafron, Michael; Vatanparast, Hassan

    2018-02-28

    The amount of bone accrued during adolescence is an important determinant of later osteoporosis risk. Little is known about the influence of dietary patterns (DPs) on the bone during adolescence and their potential long-term implications into adulthood. We examined the role of adolescent DPs on adolescent and young adult bone and change in DPs from adolescence to young adulthood. We recruited participants from the Saskatchewan Pediatric Bone Mineral Accrual Study (1991-2011). Data from 125 participants (53 females) for adolescent analysis (age 12.7 ± 2 years) and 115 participants (51 females) for adult analysis (age 28.2 ± 3 years) were included. Bone mineral content (BMC) and areal bone mineral density (aBMD) of total body (TB), femoral neck (FN) and lumbar spine (LS) were measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Adolescent dietary intake data from multiple 24-h recalls were summarized into 25 food group intakes and were used in the principal component analysis to derive DPs during adolescence. Associations between adolescent DPs and adolescent or adult BMC/BMD were analyzed using multiple linear regression and multivariate analysis of covariance while adjusting for sex, age, the age of peak height velocity, height, weight, physical activity and total energy intake. Generalized estimating equations were used for tracking DPs. We derived five DPs including "Vegetarian-style", "Western-like", "High-fat, high-protein", "Mixed" and "Snack" DPs. The "Vegetarian-style" DP was a positive independent predictor of adolescent TBBMC, and adult TBBMC, TBaBMD (P adolescent TBaBMD and young adult TBBMC, TBaBMD, FNBMC and FNaBMD were 5%, 8.5%, 6%, 10.6% and 9% higher, respectively, in third quartile of "Vegetarian-style" DP compared to first quartile (P adolescence to adulthood. There were an upward trend in adherence to "Vegetarian-style" DP and an downward trend in adherence to "High-fat, high-protein" DP from adolescence to young adulthood (P

  1. On Motivation and Motivation

    OpenAIRE

    Mircea UDRESCU

    2014-01-01

    Economic motivations were a big influence on consumer behavior motivation. In this context, it is considered that the general motives which give motivation to purchase content can be structured into rational and emotional motives, the motives innate and acquired motives, all gaining an individual or group event. The study of consumer behavior, with general motivations, attention increasingly larger granted special incentives, consisting of assertiveness feeling (emerging desire for a product)...

  2. The mediational pathway among parenting styles, attachment styles and self-regulation with addiction susceptibility of adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Zeinali

    2011-01-01

    Conclusions: The findings of present study suggest the authoritative and permissive parenting styles as the most efficient styles and authoritarian and neglectful parenting styles as the most inefficient styles in terms of addiction susceptibility. Accordingly, efficient parenting style training to parents should be the main goal of drug demand reduction program.

  3. Understanding the learning styles of undergraduate physiotherapy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. Undergraduate students at universities have different learning styles. To perform optimally, both they and their educators should be made aware of their preferred learning styles and problem-solving abilities. Students have different backgrounds, strengths, weaknesses, interests, ambitions, levels of motivation ...

  4. Research for Motivational Persistence Levels of Prospective Teachers in Terms of Age, Gender and Teaching Branch Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cenberci, Selin; Beyhan, Adiviye

    2016-01-01

    The meaning of motivation has been much discussed and theorized in educational psychology. According to the Keller (2006), motivation is measured by the amount of effort the student makes in order to achieve the instructional goal. In addition to this, Sing (2011) clarified motivation is one of the most important prerequisites for learning also…

  5. Style in Educational Television

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cain, John

    1976-01-01

    Characteristics of broadcast educational television for adult audiences are discussed in terms of: style in television, television grammar, and course and resource-type programs. The current British Broadcasting Company (BBC) Adult Literacy Project and the television program "On the Move" are used as examples. (LH)

  6. Perspective: Louisville Style

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lott, Debra

    2010-01-01

    Louisville, Kentucky is an eclectic town of architectural styles from Greek revival to Renaissance Revival to Post modernism, not to mention an entire street dedicated to artsy mom and pop stores. Louisville is second only to the New York City Soho district in terms of the number of its cast-iron facades. Many of these building's fronts have…

  7. The roles of self-efficacy and motivation in the prediction of short- and long-term adherence to exercise among patients with coronary heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slovinec D'Angelo, Monika E; Pelletier, Luc G; Reid, Robert D; Huta, Veronika

    2014-11-01

    Poor adherence to regular exercise is a documented challenge among people with heart disease. Identifying key determinants of exercise adherence and distinguishing between the processes driving short- and long-term adherence to regular exercise is a valuable endeavor. The purpose of the present study was to test a model of exercise behavior change, which incorporates motivational orientations and self-efficacy for exercise behavior, in the prediction of short- and long-term exercise adherence. Male and female patients (N = 801) hospitalized for coronary heart disease were recruited from 3 tertiary care cardiac centers and followed for a period of 1 year after hospital discharge. A prospective, longitudinal design was used to examine the roles of motivation and self-efficacy (measured at recruitment and at 2 and 6 months after discharge) in the prediction of exercise behavior at 6 and 12 months. Baseline measures of exercise and clinical and demographic covariates were included in the analyses. Structural equation modeling showed that both autonomous motivation and self-efficacy were important determinants of short-term (6-month) exercise behavior regulation, but that only autonomous motivation remained a significant predictor of long-term (12-month) exercise behavior. Self-efficacy partially mediated the relationship between motivation for exercise and 6-month exercise behavior. This research confirmed the roles of autonomous motivation and self-efficacy in the health behavior change process and emphasized the key function of autonomous motivation in exercise maintenance. Theoretical and cardiac rehabilitation program applications of this research are discussed. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  8. Tobacco use and motivation to stop smoking among long-term smokers who are ineligible for lung cancer screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taghizadeh, Niloofar; Taylor, Kathryn L; MacEachern, Paul; Koetzler, Rommy; Dickinson, James A; Gillson, Ashley; Yang, Huiming; Tammemagi, Martin C; Penz, Erika; Pendharkar, Sachin R; Lam, Stephen C; Graham, Andrew; Culling, Jessica; Burrowes, Paul; Bédard, Eric L R; Tremblay, Alain

    2017-09-01

    The importance of smoking cessation interventions in lung cancer screening participants has been highlighted. This study aimed to describe the smoking habits of individuals who were ineligible for lung cancer screening and to investigate whether this encounter may represent an opportunity to reduce tobacco use. Ever smokers between the ages of 55 and 80 and ≥1.5% lung cancer risk over 6 years or having smoked ≥30 pack-years and with no more than 15 years of smoking abstinence were eligible to participate in the Alberta Lung Cancer Screening Program (ALCSP). A baseline questionnaire exploring tobacco use was administered to all interested individuals as part of the eligibility determination for the program. Among 504 individuals, 254 (50.4%) met the criteria for the ALCSP and 250 (49.6%) were non-eligible for screening. Non-eligible individuals were slightly younger (mean=60.2 vs. 63.1 years, p-value smokers (26.0% vs. 48.8%, p-value Non-eligible smokers had a lower degree of addiction compared to eligible group, as measured by the Fagerström Test of Nicotine Dependence (Median=4.0 vs 6.0, p-value=0.001), but still in the "moderately dependent" range for this test. There were no significant differences in motivation to quit (98.5% vs. 97.6%, p-value=0.689), or motivation to receive help with their quit attempt (89.2% vs. 90.3%, p-value=0.813) between these two groups. Only 7.7% of non-eligible and 2.4% of eligible current smokers were currently in a smoking cessation program. A significant proportion of individuals applying to, but not qualifying for a lung cancer screening program are active smokers with significant nicotine dependence. Very few are currently participating in active smoking cessation programs but almost all are interested in quitting and in receiving help with quit attempts. Future studies need to investigate the most effective approaches for smoking cessation in this substantial group of older, long-term smokers, capitalizing on their

  9. Examining the Motivational Impact of Intrinsic Versus Extrinsic Goal Framing and Autonomy-Supportive Versus Internally Controlling Communication Style on Early Adolescents' Academic Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vansteenkiste, Maarten; Simons, Joke; Lens, Willy; Soenens, Bart; Matos, Lennia

    2005-01-01

    The present experimental research examined whether framing early adolescents' (11- to 12-year-olds) learning activity in terms of the attainment of an extrinsic (i.e., physical attractiveness) versus intrinsic (i.e., health) goal and communicating these different goal contents in an internally controlling versus autonomy-supportive way affect…

  10. [Motivational orientation and depressive symptoms in the elderly].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altintas, E; Guerrien, A

    2009-04-01

    This article is focused on motivation and depression in later life. For about 20 years, research on the motivation of elders has underlined the importance of the cognitive evaluation of life contexts, notably in terms of self-determination. This cognitive evaluation determines the motivational orientation for daily activities (notably the levels of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation). The purpose of this research was specifically to study the relationships between the existence of four types of motivation (intrinsic, self-determined extrinsic, nonself-determined extrinsic and amotivation) and the consequences for adaptation and well-being. The study, therefore, focused on the possible links between motivation and geriatric-depression level and explored the nature of this link. Forty persons aged 60 or over (31 women: 80.48+/-9.24; nine men: 80.56+/-9.48) who live in nursing homes (20 elderly) or in their own homes (20 elderly) were enrolled. Elderly persons were assessed with specific and standardized tools: the Elderly Motivation Scale (EMS, in the French version: EMPA) and the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS). For the statistical analyses of the results, correlations and Mann-Whitney test were used. We found that in elderly people, the motivational styles (the four types of motivation) can be reliably measured and are related to geriatric depression. First, significant positive links were noticed between intrinsic motivation and depression scores and between self-determined extrinsic motivation and depression scores. Conversely, significant negative links were noticed between nonself-determined extrinsic motivation and depression scores and between amotivation and depression scores. The most self-determined elders presented low-depression levels, whereas the more nonself-determined elders showed high-depression levels. Moreover, motivational styles significantly differed in the two groups (depressive or not depressive). The most depressive elders showed

  11. Style Wars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Handberg, Kristian

    2011-01-01

    Postmodernismen er kommet på museum i Victoria and Alberts stort anlagte udstilling Postmodernism. Style and Subversion 1970-1990. Reportage fra en udstilling, der spænder fra filosofi til firserpop og tager den nære fortid på museum....

  12. [Parenting styles].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torío López, Susana; Peña Calvo, José Vicente; Inda Caro, Mercedes

    2008-02-01

    Parental educational styles constitute one of the key elements of family socialization. The aim of the present essay is to present the results of a research project carried out in the Principality of Asturias (Spain) among 2,965 families with children of infant and primary-school age (5-8 years old). This research attempts to analyse, among other aspects, parental behaviour tendencies in child upbringing. The analysis of the results obtained allows us to: 1) identify the most common attitudinal and behavioural tendencies of parents in the upbringing of their children; 2) determine how many people have a well defined parental style, and delimit their socio-educational characteristics. Lastly, we consider the need to change some parental behaviour patterns and stress the importance of family education programmes, with the aim of promoting appropriate parenting models and modifying or improving current practices.

  13. How pupils percieve the teacher's motivational techniques?

    OpenAIRE

    Bodroža, Bojana; Đerić, Ivana; Gutvajn, Nikoleta

    2015-01-01

    Current research in the field of education indicates that the behaviour of the teacher affects significantly the quality and level of the pupil's motivation. The aim of our research was to determine the structure of the motivational style of teachers seen from the pupils' perspective, and to find out whether the pupils' perceptions of the teacher's motivational style depend upon cultural-educational influences of the family, and some characteristics of the students (academic achievements, gen...

  14. Chronic social defeat induces long-term behavioral depression of aggressive motivation in an invertebrate model system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Jacqueline; Rillich, Jan; Stevenson, Paul A

    2017-01-01

    Losing a fight against a conspecific male (social defeat) induces a period of suppressed aggressiveness and general behaviour, often with symptoms common to human psychiatric disorders. Agonistic experience is also discussed as a potential cause of consistent, behavioral differences between individuals (animal "personality"). In non-mammals, however, the impact of single agonistic encounters typically last only hours, but then again studies of repeated intermittent defeat (chronic social defeat) are seldom. We report the effect of chronic social defeat in adult male crickets (Gryllus bimaculatus), for which all known behavioral effects of defeat last only 3 h. Firstly, after 48 h social isolation, crickets that experienced 5 defeats at 24 h intervals against the same, weight-matched opponent exhibited suppressed aggressiveness lasting >24 h, which was still evident when the animals were matched against an unfamiliar opponent at the last trial. Secondly, this longer-term depression of aggression also occurred in 48 h isolated crickets that lost 6 fights at 1 h intervals against unfamiliar opponents at each trial. Thirdly, crickets isolated as larvae until adult maturity (>16 days) were significantly more aggressive, and less variable in their aggressiveness at their very first fight than 48 h isolates, and also significantly more resilient to the effects of chronic social defeat. We conclude that losing an aggressive encounter in crickets has a residual effect, lasting at least 24 h, that accumulates when repeated defeats are experienced, and leads to a prolonged depression of aggressive motivation in subordinates. Furthermore, our data indicate that social interactions between young adults and possibly larvae can have even longer, possibly lifelong influences on subsequent behavior. Social subjugation is thus likely to be a prime determinant of inter-individual behavioral differences in crickets. Our work also opens new avenues for investigating proximate

  15. Satisfaction in terms of autonomy, competence and relatedness, and its importance in promoting job motivation in the Portuguese culture

    OpenAIRE

    Costa, Diogo Patricio Varandas da

    2010-01-01

    Degree of Master in Social and Organizational Psychology / PsycINFO Content Classification Code System: 3000 Social Psychology; 3660 Organizational Behavior Self-Determination Theory (SDT) argues that autonomy, competence and relatedness are three universally critical needs that, once satisfied, will promote self-determined types of motivation and more intrinscally motivated behaviours that yield positive effects on well-being. In contrast, researchers on cross-cultural differences argu...

  16. New Oxford style manual

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    The New Oxford Style Manual brings together two essential reference works in a single volume: New Hart's Rules and the New Oxford Dictionary for Writers and Editors. New Hart's Rules, Oxford's definitive guide to style, consists of 20 chapters that provide authoritative and expert advice on how to prepare copy for publication. Topics covered include how to use italic, roman, and other type treatments, numbers and dates, law and legal references, illustrations, notes and references, and bibliographies. The guidelines are complemented by the New Oxford Dictionary for Writers and Editors, which features 25,000 alphabetically arranged entries giving authoritative advice on those words and names which raise questions time and time again because of spelling, capitalization, hyphenation, or cultural and historical context. Entries give full coverage of recommended spellings, variant forms, confusable words, hyphenation, capitalization, foreign and specialist terms, proper names, and abbreviations. The dictionary a...

  17. 中文維基百科管理員參與動機與工作型態之研究 The Participation Motivation and Work Styles of the Administrators for Chinese Wikipedia

    OpenAIRE

    Chao-Yun Liang; Chia-Heng Chen; Yu-Ling Hsu

    2008-01-01

    本研究以兩岸三地中文維基百科的管理員為對象,探討其參與動機與工作型態。研究群依據研究目的,進行相關文獻探討並編製調查問卷,該問卷共分為四個部分:第一部分為改編之參與動機量表;第二部分為擔任中文維基百科管理員情況;第三部分是日常工作型態;第四部分為受調者基本資料。研究結果顯示:(一)兩岸三地中文維基百科管理員之參與動機主要為「自我成長」、「使命感」、「相近性」,且不因居住地區不同而有差異;(二)在「工作時數」及「僱用合約的型態」兩方面,有部分管理員符合非典型工作型態的特徵;另三地管理員日常工作型態在「全職學生的比例」、「工作時段是否彈性」、「工作合約明訂僱用期限」三方面有顯著的差異。(三)擁有較多自主時間者、人際歸屬較弱者,以及使用網路時間較長者,其參與動機均顯較高。研究群最後根據研究結果,提出對中文維基百科及其管理員制度之系列建議。The purpose of this study is to explore the participation motivations and work styles of administrators of Chinese Wikipedia a...

  18. Advertising styles in different cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krasulja Nevena

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Modern consumer is inhabitant of a "Global Village" as well as of its own national culture which largely influences his creation of a system of values, beliefs and style of life in general. According to adopted values and styles, consumers from different cultures have different buying behavior, different needs and preferences related to a product and they have their favorite advertising styles. As advertising reflects culture, symbols and rituals which are used are even more emphasized and strengthen cultural values, which are then used as a strong advertising style characteristic. Global advertisers are increasingly faced with different environment meaning. A fact that has been proved in practice is that standardized approach to advertising does not transmit values in a correct way, so the advertisers that want to achieve long term success must differentiate their brands to competitors'. In modern market environment strategy "Think globally, act locally" proved to be adequate for advertising in modern international market.

  19. Long-term psychological distress, and styles of coping, in parents of children and adolescents who underwent invasive treatment for congenital cardiac disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spijkerboer, Alinda W.; Helbing, Willem A.; Bogers, Ad J. J. C.; van Domburg, Ron T.; Verhulst, Frank C.; Utens, Elisabeth M. W. J.

    2007-01-01

    To assess the level of psychological distress and styles of coping in both mothers and fathers of children who underwent invasive treatment for congenital cardiac disease at least 7 years and 6 months ago. The General Health Questionnaire and the Utrecht Coping List were completed by parents of

  20. An Investigation into the Academic Success of Prospective Teachers in Terms of Learning Strategies, Learning Styles and the Locus of Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akça, Figen

    2013-01-01

    The present research aims to investigate the relationship between the learning strategies, learning styles, the locus of control and the academic success of prospective teachers. The study group consists of 198 university students in various departments at the Uludag University Faculty of Education. Research data were collected with the Locus of…

  1. Motivation and career development

    OpenAIRE

    Flemr, Marcel

    2009-01-01

    The main objective of this diploma thesis is to outline various theories of work motivation, career growth and their practical application in sales team management within a sales organization. In the theoretical part the paper deals with the definition of essential terms including but not limited to motivation, work motivation, career and work career. Moreover, it focuses on selected motivational theories, basic criteria and current principles of managing the work career, career growth and de...

  2. Gender differences in medical students’ motives and career choice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heiligers Phil JM

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The main subject is the influence of gender and the stage of life on the choice of specialty in medical education. In particular we looked at the influence of intrinsic and external motives on this relationship. The choice of specialty was divided into two moments: the choice between medical specialties and general practice; and the preference within medical specialties. In earlier studies the topic of motivation was explored, mostly related to gender. In this study stage of life in terms of living with a partner -or not- and stage of education was added. Methods A questionnaire concerning career preferences was used. The online questionnaire was sent to all student members of the KNMG (Royal Dutch Medical Association. 58% of these students responded (N = 2397. Only 1478 responses could be used for analyses (36%. For stipulating the motives that played a role, principal components factor analysis has been carried out. For testing the mediation effect a set of regression analyses was performed: logistic regressions and multiple regressions. Results Although basic findings about gender differences in motivations for preferred careers are consistent with earlier research, we found that whether or not living with a partner is determinant for differences in profession-related motives and external motives (lifestyle and social situation. Furthermore living with a partner is not a specific female argument anymore, since no interactions are found between gender and living with a partner. Another issue is that motives are mediating the relationship between, living with a partner, and the choice of GP or medical specialty. For more clarity in the mediating effect of motives a longitudinal study is needed to find out about motives and changing circumstances. Conclusions The present study provides a contribution to the knowledge of career aspirations of medical students, especially the impact of motivation. Gender and living with a

  3. Rondocubism versus National Style

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hnídková, Vendula

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available There is a range of various terms used to refer to architectural production from the period after the First World War, among the most common being 'Rondocubism' and the 'National Style'. The terminological ambiguity clearly points to the problem with the very character of the style of expression that lies behind these diverse labels. In the 1920s, figures of the interwar avant-garde were already sharply critical of the post-war decorative style, the leading figures of which were the architects Pavel Janák and Josef Gočár. While this negative stigma was later overcome, following several thematic studies, it is still possible to look for other inspiring sources outside aesthetic categories that were directed at clarifying this theme. Extensive social projects had architects employed in all sorts of artistic activities, and therefore a possible answer to what the essence of the style was is offered by the wider political and cultural context. After the foundation of the Czechoslovak Republic, the former protagonists of architectural Cubism and their colleagues from the Czechoslovak Workshop Association, Artěl and the School of Decorative Arts attained such social standing that they could effectively influence local artistic development. Through the individual conception applied to official commissions they created a visual identity of the new state system. As is apparent from their theoretical writings, they found their sources of information for ornamental decoration of buildings and craft artefacts by bonding with local tradition. This did not of course mean directly borrowing from folk-art prototypes. Advanced forms of national art were intended to help establish Czechoslovakia in the international scene and were also a conscious attempt through a more folkish form of expression to appeal to the wider strata of the population.

  4. Exam Success at Undergraduate and Graduate-Entry Medical Schools: Is Learning Style or Learning Approach More Important? A Critical Review Exploring Links Between Academic Success, Learning Styles, and Learning Approaches Among School-Leaver Entry ("Traditional") and Graduate-Entry ("Nontraditional") Medical Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feeley, Anne-Marie; Biggerstaff, Deborah L

    2015-01-01

    PHENOMENON: The literature on learning styles over many years has been replete with debate and disagreement. Researchers have yet to elucidate exactly which underlying constructs are measured by the many learning styles questionnaires available. Some academics question whether learning styles exist at all. When it comes to establishing the value of learning styles for medical students, a further issue emerges. The demographics of medical students in the United Kingdom have changed in recent years, so past studies may not be applicable to students today. We wanted to answer a very simple, practical question: what can the literature on learning styles tell us that we can use to help today's medical students succeed academically at medical school? We conducted a literature review to synthesise the available evidence on how two different aspects of learning-the way in which students like to receive information in a learning environment (termed learning "styles") and the motivations that drive their learning (termed learning "approaches")-can impact on medical students' academic achievement. Our review confirms that although learning "styles" do not correlate with exam performance, learning "approaches" do: those with "strategic" and "deep" approaches to learning (i.e., motivated to do well and motivated to learn deeply respectively) perform consistently better in medical school examinations. Changes in medical school entrant demographics in the past decade have not altered these correlations. Optimistically, our review reveals that students' learning approaches can change and more adaptive approaches may be learned. Insights: For educators wishing to help medical students succeed academically, current evidence demonstrates that helping students develop their own positive learning approach using "growth mind-set" is a more effective (and more feasible) than attempting to alter students' learning styles. This conclusion holds true for both "traditional" and graduate

  5. Long-Term Effect of Mediterranean-Style Diet and Calorie Restriction on Biomarkers of Longevity and Oxidative Stress in Overweight Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine Esposito

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the effects of a Mediterranean-style diet, with or without calorie restriction, on biomarkers of aging and oxidative stress in overweight men. 192 men were randomly assigned to either a Mediterranean-style diet or a conventional diet. The intervention program was based on implementation of a Mediterranean dietary pattern in the overweight group (MED diet group, associated with calorie restriction and increased physical activity in the obese group (lifestyle group. Both groups were compared with participants in two matched control groups (advice groups. After 2 years, there was a significant difference in weight loss between groups, which was −14 kg (95% CI −20 to −8 in lifestyle groups and −2.0 kg (−4.4 to 0 in the advice groups, with a difference of −11.9 kg (CI −19 to −4.7 kg, <.001; moreover, there was a significant difference between groups at 2 years for insulin (=.04, 8-iso-PGF2α (=.037, glucose (=.04, and adiponectin (=.01. Prolonged adherence to a Mediterranean-style diet, with or without caloric restriction, in overweight or obese men is associated with significant amelioration of multiple risk factors, including a better cardiovascular risk profile, reduced oxidative stress, and improved insulin sensitivity.

  6. Relationships between Parenting Styles and the Academic Performance of Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivers, Jewrell; Mullis, Ann K.; Fortner, Lauren A.; Mullis, Ronald L.

    2012-01-01

    Relationships between parenting styles, academic performance, and the mediating effects of motivation, goal orientation, and self-efficacy were examined. One hundred forty-eight high school students participated, including 58 males and 90 females. The Parenting Style/Parental Involvement Questionnaire was used to measure students' perceptions of…

  7. A Cluster Analysis of Personality Style in Adults with ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robin, Arthur L.; Tzelepis, Angela; Bedway, Marquita

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to use hierarchical linear cluster analysis to examine the normative personality styles of adults with ADHD. Method: A total of 311 adults with ADHD completed the Millon Index of Personality Styles, which consists of 24 scales assessing motivating aims, cognitive modes, and interpersonal behaviors. Results:…

  8. Long-term antagonism of κ opioid receptors prevents escalation of and increased motivation for heroin intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlosburg, Joel E; Whitfield, Timothy W; Park, Paula E; Crawford, Elena F; George, Olivier; Vendruscolo, Leandro F; Koob, George F

    2013-12-04

    The abuse of opioid drugs, both illicit and prescription, is a persistent problem in the United States, accounting for >1.2 million users who require treatment each year. Current treatments rely on suppressing immediate withdrawal symptoms and replacing illicit drug use with long-acting opiate drugs. However, the mechanisms that lead to preventing opiate dependence are still poorly understood. We hypothesized that κ opioid receptor (KOR) activation during chronic opioid intake contributes to negative affective states associated with withdrawal and the motivation to take increasing amounts of heroin. Using a 12 h long-access model of heroin self-administration, rats showed escalation of heroin intake over several weeks. This was prevented by a single high dose (30 mg/kg) of the long-acting KOR antagonist norbinaltorphimine (nor-BNI), paralleled by reduced motivation to respond for heroin on a progressive-ratio schedule of reinforcement, a measure of compulsive-like responding. Systemic nor-BNI also significantly decreased heroin withdrawal-associated anxiety-like behavior. Immunohistochemical analysis showed prodynorphin content increased in the nucleus accumbens core in all heroin-exposed rats, but selectively increased in the nucleus accumbens shell in long-access rats. Local infusion of nor-BNI (4 μg/side) into accumbens core altered the initial intake of heroin but not the rate of escalation, while local injection into accumbens shell selectively suppressed increases in heroin intake over time without altering initial intake. These data suggest that dynorphin activity in the nucleus accumbens mediates the increasing motivation for heroin taking and compulsive-like responding for heroin, suggesting that KOR antagonists may be promising targets for the treatment of opioid addiction.

  9. Investigating the Longer-Term Impact of the CREST Inquiry-Based Learning Programme on Student Self-regulated Processes and Related Motivations: Views of Students and Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moote, Julie

    2017-07-01

    This study investigates the impact of participation in the CREativity in Science and Technology (CREST) programme on student self-regulated processes and related motivations. The CREST scheme, a student-run science project managed by the British Science Association, is currently being implemented in schools across the UK to increase student engagement and motivation in science. Through implementing a rigorous quasi-experimental research design using two intervention conditions and one control group with immediate as well as 3-month delayed post-test data, the results documented both the immediate and longer-term positive impact of CREST participation on students' self-reported levels of self-regulation. The present study also investigates changes in teachers' perceptions of students' self-regulated learning through CREST programme participation. Group differences regarding changes in student self-reported self-regulation were not matched when looking at the teacher-reported self-regulated learning results at both immediate post-test and delayed post-test. These discrepancies are discussed in relation to analyses conducted on the other motivational constructs measured.

  10. Motivation for a near term gun launch to space demonstration and a variable induction power supply concept to minimize initial demonstration costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmer, M.R.

    1993-01-01

    The history of the Gun Launch to Space (GLTS) concept is briefly reviewed along with recent progress and motivations for a near term launch demonstration. A current multiplying reconfigurable inductor design is developed which could couple to an existing battery system to power a GLTS railgun demonstration at the 300 megajoule muzzle energy level. The design is developed using proven approaches and performance levels and appears capable of reducing the power supply cost for an initial GLTS demonstration below that of a simple battery charged inductor system. Possible uses are (1) launching of space weapons; (2) launching of communication satellites; (3) and launching of satellites for space disposal of radioactive wastes

  11. Understanding Learning Style Variations among Undergraduate Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Jayakumar

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted in Vellore district of Tamil Nadu state to understand the learning styles of students. The term learning style refers to the way or method or approach by which a student learns. The study explored the possible learning style variations among agricultural, horticultural, engineering and arts & science students and their association with academic achievement. One hundred and twelve students were randomly selected from the four streams and their learning styles were analyzed. In the agricultural and horticultural streams, a majority of the students were auditory learners. They were also found to be predominantly unimodal learners. Overall, it was found that majority of the students were visual learners followed by auditory and kinesthetic style. The highest percentage of kinesthetic learners was found among engineering students. Trimodal learners scored the highest mean percentage of marks. The influence of learning styles on the academic achievements of the students did not show a significant relationship.

  12. LEADERSHIP STYLE AND EMPLOYEES' INTRINSIC JOB ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigates the impact of leadership style on employees' intrinsic ... of many factors including motivation, leadership, job satisfaction, workers' alienation and ... Factors associated with job satisfaction include incentive to work, reward of ... advancement/promotion, recognition and self-actualization cannot be met ...

  13. Prevalence and diagnostic validity of motivational impairments and deficits in visuospatial short-term memory and working memory in ADHD subtypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dovis, Sebastiaan; Van der Oord, Saskia; Huizenga, Hilde M; Wiers, Reinout W; Prins, Pier J M

    2015-05-01

    Deficits in working memory (WM) and reinforcement sensitivity are thought to give rise to symptoms in the combined (ADHD-C) and inattentive subtype (ADHD-I) of ADHD. Children with ADHD are especially impaired on visuospatial WM, which is composed of short-term memory (STM) and a central executive. Although deficits in visuospatial WM and reinforcement sensitivity appear characteristic of children with ADHD on a group-level, the prevalence and diagnostic validity of these impairments is still largely unknown. Moreover, studies investigating this did not control for the interaction between motivational impairments and cognitive performance in children with ADHD, and did not differentiate between ADHD subtypes. Visuospatial WM and STM tasks were administered in a standard (feedback-only) and a high-reinforcement (feedback + 10 euros) condition, to 86 children with ADHD-C, 27 children with ADHD-I (restrictive subtype), and 62 typically developing controls (aged 8-12). Reinforcement sensitivity was indexed as the difference in performance between the reinforcement conditions. WM and STM impairments were most prevalent in ADHD-C. In ADHD-I, only WM impairments, not STM impairments, were more prevalent than in controls. Motivational impairments were not common (22% impaired) and equally prevalent in both subtypes. Memory and motivation were found to represent independent neuropsychological domains. Impairment on WM, STM, and/or motivation was associated with more inattention symptoms, medication-use, and lower IQ scores. Similar results were found for analyses of diagnostic validity. The majority of children with ADHD-C is impaired on visuospatial WM. In ADHD-I, STM impairments are not more common than in controls. Within both ADHD subtypes only a minority has an abnormal sensitivity to reinforcement.

  14. Analysis of Students Ability on Creative Thinking Aspects in terms of Cognitive Style in Mathematics Learning with CORE Model Using Constructivism Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mita Konita

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk menguji hasil belajar kemampuan siswa pada aspek berpikir kreatif dengan model CORE menggunakan pendekatan konstruktivisme dapat mencapai ketuntasan klasikal; mengetahui rata-rata hasil belajar kemampuan siswa pada aspek berpikir kreatif dengan model CORE menggunakan pendekatan konstruktivisme lebih dari 75; mendeskripsikan gaya kognitif siswa dalam menjawab masalah dan kemampuan siswa pada aspek berpikir kreatif dalam pembelajaran matematika. Penelitian ini merupakan penelitian kombinasi (mixed methods. Populasi penelitian ini adalah siswa kelas X SMAN 6 Semarang. Hasil penelitian ini menunjukkan: (1 hasil belajar kemampuan siswa pada aspek berpikir kreatif dengan model CORE pendekatan konstruktivisme mencapai ketuntasan klasikal; (2 rata-rata hasil belajar kemampuan siswa pada aspek berpikir kreatif dengan model CORE pendekatan konstruktivisme lebih dari 75; (3 catatan waktu karakterikstik gaya kognitif reflektif terlambat namun frekuensi menjawab paling sedikit, sedangkan catatan waktu karakterikstik gaya kognitif implusif tercepat namun frekuensi menjawab paling banyak; (4 Kelompok siswa gaya kognitif reflektif memenuhi komponen berpikir kreatif yaitu fleksibilitas dan kebaruan serta kelompok siswa gaya kognitif implusif memenuhi komponen berpikir kreatif fleksibel dalam menjawab masalah.   The purpose of this research is to determine learning outcomes in the aspect of creative thinking abilities with CORE model use a constructivist approach achieve mastery of classical, determine the mean result of learning on aspect of creative thinking abilities with CORE learning model use a constructivist approach is more than 75, to describe the characteristics of the cognitive styles of students in answering problems, and describe the creative thinking abilities based on cognitive style. This research is combined (mixed methods. The study population was class X SMAN 6 Semarang. The result of this research showed

  15. Mathematical Creative Thinking Ability of the Seventh Grade Students in Terms of Learning Styles to the Preview-Question-Read-Reflect-Recite-Review (PQ4R Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiatun Istiqomah

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study are: (1 to know the effectiveness of PQ4R learning model in improving the creative thinking skills of the learners; (2 to know the classifications of the learners based on the levels of creative thinking skills; and (3 to describe the misconception which hampers the creative thinking skills at low level in  from the learning styles of the learners. The population in this study is the seventh grade students of SMP N 21 Semarang. The method in this study is mixed method research. Quantitative data analysis uses t-test, z-test, and normalized gain test. Analysis of qualitative data using data reduction stages, data presentation, and conclusions. The results show: (1 PQ4R learning model is effective in improving the creative thinking ability of the learners; (2 the classifications of the learners based on the levels of creative thinking ability which have variations the are many of the learners who are different in each level; and (3 misconception which hampers the creative thinking skills at low level with the learning styles: (a visual meets four misconception indicators, (b auditorial meets three misconception indicators, and (c kinesthetic meets six misconception indicators.

  16. Participation motivation in martial artists in the west midlands region of England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Gareth W; Mackay, Ken S; Peters, Derek M

    2006-01-01

    The objectives were to identify the participation motivations and the perceived importance of certain participation factors in martial artists in the West Midlands, England, UK. A 28-item adapted version of the Participation Motivation Questionnaire with additional demographic questions was distributed to 30 martial arts clubs in the West Midlands region. Eight questions that assessed the perceived importance for participation of progression through grades, learning self defence skills, technical ability of instructors, cost of participating, development of confidence, underpinning philosophy and instructional style were included. Seventy-five questionnaires were returned from a total of 11 clubs from across representing practitioners in Tai Chi, Karate, Kung fu, Aikido, Jeet Kune Do, British Free Fighting, Taekwon-Do and Jujitsu. Results indicated that the rank order in terms of participation motives was: 1-Affiliation; 2-Friendship; 3-Fitness; 4-Reward/status; 5-Competition; 6-Situational and 7-Skill development. Participants who trained for more than 4 hours per week placed greater importance on the underpinning philosophy of the martial art. Findings suggest that whilst there is a gender discrepancy in participation level, once engaged, females were equally committed to weekly training. The 'style' of the instructor is of paramount importance for enhancing student motivation to participate. High volume practitioners would appear to be fully immersed in the holistic appreciation of the martial art through increased value placed on its underpinning philosophy. Key PointsWhilst there is a gender discrepancy in participation level, once engaged, females were equally committed to weekly training.The four most important participation motivations evident were 'Affiliation', 'Fitness', 'Skill Development' and 'Friendship'.The three least influential motives were 'Rewards/status; 'Situational' and 'Competition'. " There were no significant gender or experience

  17. Towards assessing managerial competencies and leadership styles ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    One way of achieving long term sustainability of game ranches in South Africa is to ensure the ... assess the management competencies and leadership styles needed by game ranch managers/owners in order ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  18. Style in Music

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dannenberg, Roger B.

    Because music is not objectively descriptive or representational, the subjective qualities of music seem to be most important. Style is one of the most salient qualities of music, and in fact most descriptions of music refer to some aspect of musical style. Style in music can refer to historical periods, composers, performers, sonic texture, emotion, and genre. In recent years, many aspects of music style have been studied from the standpoint of automation: How can musical style be recognized and synthesized? An introduction to musical style describes ways in which style is characterized by composers and music theorists. Examples are then given where musical style is the focal point for computer models of music analysis and music generation.

  19. Jack Michael's Motivation

    OpenAIRE

    Miguel, Caio F.

    2013-01-01

    Among many of Jack Michael's contributions to the field of behavior analysis is his behavioral account of motivation. This paper focuses on the concept of motivating operation (MO) by outlining its development from Skinner's (1938) notion of drive. Conceptually, Michael's term helped us change our focus on how to study motivation by shifting its origins from the organism to the environment. Michael's account also served to stimulate applied research and to better understand behavioral functio...

  20. Adaptive Motivation Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-02-01

    concept of motivation at all. Nuttin (1973) placed -5- Landy: ONR Annual Report certain hedonistic overtones on White’s principle of effectance motivation...deficiencies of motivation theories become particularly apparent in dealing with the issue of boredom . Tn terms of objective reality, it would seem...with expcsure to a c nstant stimulus set, we might justifiably conclude that there is a regular sequence which characterizes the appearance of boredom

  1. Managing Joint Production Motivation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindenberg, Siegwart; Foss, Nicolai Juul

    2011-01-01

    We contribute to the microfoundations of organizational performance by proffering the construct of joint production motivation. Under such motivational conditions individuals see themselves as part of a joint endeavor, each with his or her own roles and responsibilities; generate shared...... representations of actions and tasks; cognitively coordinate cooperation; and choose their own behaviors in terms of joint goals. Using goal-framing theory, we explain how motivation for joint production can be managed by cognitive/symbolic management and organizational design....

  2. Film Noir Style Genealogy

    OpenAIRE

    Rietuma, Dita

    2012-01-01

    Annotation for the Doctoral Work Film Noir Style Genealogy (The Genealogy of the Film Noir Style) The doctoral work topic Film Noir Style Genealogy encompasses traditionally approved world film theory views on the concept of film noir and its related cinematographic heritage, and an exploration of its evolution and distinctive style, including – the development of film noir in the USA, Europe, and also in Latvia, within the context of both socio-political progression and the paradigm of m...

  3. Children's Theories of Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurland, Suzanne T.; Glowacky, Victoria C.

    2011-01-01

    To investigate children's theories of motivation, we asked 166 children (8-12 years of age) to rate the effect of various motivational strategies on task interest, over the short and long terms, in activities described as appealing or unappealing. Children viewed the rewards strategy as resulting in greatest interest except when implemented over…

  4. Motives for Social Comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helgeson, Vicki S.; Mickelson, Kristin D.

    1995-01-01

    A set of motive statements for social comparison was elicited from one group of subjects and then rated in terms of usefulness by a second group of subjects. Analysis of these statements revealed six motives in response to two different hypothetical scenarios: self-evaluation, common bond, self-improvement, self-enhancement, altruism, and…

  5. Assessing public leadership styles for innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ricard, Lykke Margot; Klijn, Erik Hans; Lewis, Jenny M.

    2017-01-01

    This article explores which leadership qualities public managers regard as important for public innovation. It is based on a survey of 365 senior public managers in Copenhagen, Rotterdam and Barcelona. Five perspectives on leadership were identified and tested using a number of items. Some...... of these proved to be more robust than others. Analysis of the three cities reveals a nuanced set of leadership styles, which include a transformational style, and one that is more dedicated to motivating employees, risk-taking and including others in decision-making. This suggests the need for more research...

  6. Starlink Document Styles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawden, M. D.

    This document describes the various styles which are recommended for Starlink documents. It also explains how to use the templates which are provided by Starlink to help authors create documents in a standard style. This paper is concerned mainly with conveying the ``look and feel" of the various styles of Starlink document rather than describing the technical details of how to produce them. Other Starlink papers give recommendations for the detailed aspects of document production, design, layout, and typography. The only style that is likely to be used by most Starlink authors is the Standard style.

  7. Styles of success

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahlgaard, Jens Jørn; Nørgaard, Anders; Jakobsen, Søren

    1997-01-01

    Corporate success stories tend to emphasize the "great men" theory of history. But now a European research project established the managerial attributes that can turn an ordinary leader into one ideal for the pursuit of business excellence. The emergence of five leadership styles as crucial drivers...... of business excellence points to a clear agenda for success. Setting clear strategic goals and the ability to take a long-term view of an organization's direction, combined with other leadership attributes such as creativity, teambuilding and learning, are principal keys to creating an excellent organization....... Leaders seeking to achive business excellence must view the high-level attainment of these sets of leadership competencies as their paramount objective. In striving for business excellence, European leaders may encounter resistance among their employees. Crucially, European employees place a markedly...

  8. Motivating Students in the 21st Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedden, Mandy L; Clark, Kevin R

    2016-07-01

    To examine instructors' and students' perspectives on motivation in the classroom and clinical environments and to explore instructional strategies educators can use to motivate college students in the 21st century. Articles selected for this review were from peer-reviewed journals and scholarly sources that emphasized student and educator perspectives on motivation and instructional strategies to increase student motivation. Understanding how college students are motivated can help educators engage students in lessons and activities, ultimately improving the students' academic performance. Students exhibit increased motivation in classes when educators have high expectations, conduct an open-atmosphere classroom, and use multidimensional teaching strategies. Instructional styles such as connecting with students, creating an interactive classroom, and guiding and reminding students improved student motivation. Radiologic science educators must be mindful of how college students are motivated and use various instructional strategies to increase students' motivation in the classroom and clinical setting. ©2016 American Society of Radiologic Technologists.

  9. Long term effects of self-determination theory and motivational interviewing in a web-based physical activity intervention: randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friederichs, Stijn A H; Oenema, Anke; Bolman, Catherine; Lechner, Lilian

    2015-08-18

    Our main objective in the current study was to evaluate the long-term effectiveness (12 months from baseline) of I Move (a web-based computer tailored physical activity intervention, based on self-determination theory and motivational interviewing). To this end, we compared I Move to a web-based computer tailored physical activity intervention based on traditional health behavior theories (Active Plus), and to a no-intervention control group. As a secondary objective, the present study aimed to identify participant characteristics that moderate the long term effects of I Move and Active Plus. A randomized controlled trial was conducted, comparing three research conditions: 1) the I Move condition, participants in this condition received I Move; 2) the Active Plus condition, participants in this condition received Active Plus; 3) the control condition; participants in this condition received no intervention and were placed on a waiting list. Main outcome measures were weekly minutes of moderate to vigorous physical activity and weekly days with minimal 30 min of physical activity. All measurements were taken by web-based questionnaires via the study website. Intervention effects were analyzed using multilevel linear regression analyses. At 12 months from baseline, I Move was found to be effective in increasing weekly minutes of moderate to vigorous physical activity (ES = .13), while Active Plus was not. In contrast, Active Plus was found to be effective in increasing weekly days with ≥ 30 min PA at 12 months (ES = .11), while I Move was not. No moderators of the effects of I Move were found. The results suggest that web-based computer tailored physical activity interventions might best include elements based on both self-determination theory/motivational interviewing and traditional health behavioral theories. To be more precise, it is arguable that the focus of the theoretical foundations, used in new web-based PA interventions should depend on the

  10. A General Overview of Motivation in Linguistics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王航

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, the term of motivation in linguistics study has aroused the interests of scholars. Different studies of mo -tivation have been produced by different scholars. In this paper, the writer organizes the recent studies on motivation in linguistics. the paper is divided into three parts, the introduction of the term motivation, different types of motivation, and theories of moti -vation.

  11. Motivation for lifestyle change among literate obese patients in an ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Primary care physicians should be actively involved in prevention of obesity, early detection and motivating people for life style change. Motivation is an important first step towards any action or behaviour change and clinicians can assess and enhance a person's motivation to change well before extensive damage is done ...

  12. Leadership Style: School Perspective in Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asan Vernyuy Wirba

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines leadership styles of secondary school principals in Cameroon, in terms of transformational, transactional, and laissez-faire leadership styles. This paper discusses the leadership styles in Cameroon and puts forward ideas for continuous improvement. A qualitative approach, using a semistructured interview, was adopted. It was conducted on ten principals, ten teachers, and ten students. Majority of respondents from schools described their principals as transformational leaders. Doubts are cast on the nature of transformational leadership in schools in Cameroon, since there is less training and development for leadership in schools.

  13. Client interpersonal impacts as mediators of long-term outcome in cognitive-behavioral therapy integrated with motivational interviewing for generalized anxiety disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constantino, Michael J; Romano, Felicia M; Coyne, Alice E; Westra, Henny A; Antony, Martin M

    2017-03-24

    A recent trial of generalized anxiety disorder treatment (Westra, H. A., Constantino, M. J., & Antony, M. M. (2016). Integrating Motivational Interviewing With Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Severe Generalized Anxiety Disorder: An Allegiance-Controlled Randomized Clinical Trial. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 84, 768-782. doi: 10.1037/ccp0000098 ) revealed that cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) integrated with motivational interviewing (MI) outperformed CBT alone across a 12-month follow up. The present study examined whether this treatment effect was mediated by MI-CBT clients engaging over time in during-session interpersonal behaviors reflecting more friendly dominance, or agentic actions, and less friendly submissiveness (FS), or trustingly compliant actions both theory-specific MI mechanisms. Clients received 15 sessions of MI-CBT (n = 42) or CBT alone (n = 43). Therapists rated client interpersonal behavior following five sessions, and clients rated their worry at baseline, each session, and 6- and 12-month follow up. Mediator and outcome variables were derived from multilevel models. Mediation was tested using a bootstrapping procedure. There was a significant indirect effect for FS. As expected, CBT clients evidenced greater increases in FS than MI-CBT clients, which in turn, though unexpectedly, related to lower 12-month worry. However, long-term CBT outcomes remained inferior to MI-CBT outcomes even with CBT clients'greater increase in FS. Results suggest that CBT outcomes are more positive when clients trustingly comply; however, MI-CBT remained superior, but for as yet unexplained reasons. Clinical or methodological significance of this article: The findings highlight the clinical importance of GAD clients becoming more friendly dominant in the therapy relationship irrespective of whether they received CBT or integrative MI-CBT. Moreover, it seems clinically indicated to incorporate MI spirit and techniques into CBT when

  14. Predicting short and long-term exercise intentions and behaviour in patients with coronary artery disease: A test of protection motivation theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tulloch, Heather; Reida, Robert; D'Angeloa, Monika Slovinec; Plotnikoff, Ronald C; Morrina, Louise; Beatona, Louise; Papadakisa, Sophia; Pipe, Andrew

    2009-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the utility of protection motivation theory (PMT) in the prediction of exercise intentions and behaviour in the year following hospitalisation for coronary artery disease (CAD). Patients with documented CAD (n = 787), recruited at hospital discharge, completed questionnaires measuring PMT's threat (i.e. perceived severity and vulnerability) and coping (i.e. self-efficacy, response efficacy) appraisal constructs at baseline, 2 and 6 months, and exercise behaviour at baseline, 6 and 12 months post-hospitalisation. Structural equation modelling showed that the PMT model of exercise at 6 months had a good fit with the empirical data. Self-efficacy, response efficacy, and perceived severity predicted exercise intentions, which, in turn predicted exercise behaviour. Overall, the PMT variables accounted for a moderate amount of variance in exercise intentions (23%) and behaviour (20%). In contrast, the PMT model was not reliable for predicting exercise behaviour at 12 months post-hospitalisation. The data provided support for PMT applied to short-term, but not long-term, exercise behaviour among patients with CAD. Health education should concentrate on providing positive coping messages to enhance patients' confidence regarding exercise and their belief that exercise provides health benefits, as well as realistic information about disease severity.

  15. Leadership styles: The role of cultural intelligence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Solomon

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Within both the South African context and abroad, leaders are increasingly being required to engage with staff members whose cultures differ from their own. As the attractiveness of different leadership styles varies in line with staff member cultural preferences, the challenge leaders face is that their behaviours may no longer be apposite. To this end, it is mostly unknown whether those leaders who are deemed culturally intelligent behave in a specific manner, that is, display the empowering and directive leadership styles. Research purpose: The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between leader cultural intelligence and the empowering and directive styles of leadership, as perceived by subordinates. Motivation for the study: To operate successfully, leaders need to adopt and display those leadership styles that best match the cultural expectations of their staff members. Cultural intelligence may assist in this respect. Most of the studies on leader cultural intelligence and leadership styles have concentrated on the transformational leadership style. There is, thus, a requirement to examine how leader cultural intelligence relates to other leadership styles. Research design, approach and method: The study was quantitative in nature and made use of a cross-sectional survey design. Data were collected from 1140 staff members spread across 19 diverse organisations carrying on business activities in South Africa. Correlation and regression techniques were performed to identify relationships. Main findings: Leader cultural intelligence was found to have a stronger relationship with empowering leadership than it had with directive leadership. With empowering leadership, leader metacognitive and motivational cultural intelligence acted as important antecedents, whilst for directive leadership, leader’s motivational, cognitive and metacognitive cultural intelligence played a predictive part that carried a medium

  16. The efficacy of motivational interviewing for disordered gambling: systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakovenko, Igor; Quigley, Leanne; Hemmelgarn, Brenda R; Hodgins, David C; Ronksley, Paul

    2015-04-01

    Motivational interviewing is a client-centered therapeutic intervention that aims to resolve ambivalence toward change. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis on the efficacy of motivational interviewing, compared to non-motivational interviewing controls, in the treatment of disordered gambling. Electronic databases were searched for randomized controlled trials that evaluated change in gambling behavior using motivational interviewing in adult disordered gamblers. The primary outcomes were the weighted mean difference (WMD) for change in average days gambled per month and average dollars lost per month. The search strategy yielded 447 articles, of which 20 met criteria for full text review. Overall, 8 studies (N=730) fulfilled the inclusion criteria for systematic review and 5 (N=477) were included in the meta-analysis. Motivational interviewing was associated with significant reduction in gambling frequency up to a year after treatment delivery. For gambling expenditure, motivational interviewing yielded significant reductions in dollars spent gambling compared to non-motivational controls at post-treatment only (1-3 months). Overall, the results of this review suggest that motivational interviewing is an efficacious style of therapy for disordered gambling in the short term. Whether treatment effects are maintained over time remains unclear. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Leadership styles and theories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giltinane, Charlotte Louise

    It is useful for healthcare professionals to be able to identify the leadership styles and theories relevant to their nursing practice. Being adept in recognising these styles enables nurses to develop their skills to become better leaders, as well as improving relationships with colleagues and other leaders, who have previously been challenging to work with. This article explores different leadership styles and theories, and explains how they relate to nursing practice.

  18. Citation Styles For Internet Resources : A Webliography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available A Webliography collects resources about citation Styles For internet resources, it divided by the styles: Chicago University style, MLA style, APA style, ISO style, and some articles about internet resources citation.

  19. How Teachers Evaluate Their Work Style Depending on the Subject They Teach and Years of Work Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perucica, Ranka

    2017-01-01

    In previous works we presented the studies that discussed how students evaluate their teachers and their style of teaching. To what extent their styles affect the students' attitudes to teaching, learning, success, motivation and the like. In this work we have tried to point out how teachers assess their style of work, depending on the subject…

  20. The role of attachment styles in team functioning

    OpenAIRE

    Pheiffer, Gary

    2016-01-01

    This research explored the potential influences on team functioning, from the perspective of adult attachment theory. Attachment styles are seen to reflect internal working models of self, others, and relationships, and influence individuals’ motivations, abilities, and perceptions as regards relationships. The research question explored what the role and influence of an individual’s global and team attachment style may have upon an individual’s experience of a work team. It sought to explain...

  1. Exploring the Mediational Role of Coping Motives for Marijuana Use in Terms of the Relation between Anxiety Sensitivity and Marijuana Dependence

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, Kirsten; Mullin, Jennifer L.; Marshall, Erin C.; Bonn-Miller, Marcel O.; Zvolensky, Michael

    2010-01-01

    The current study evaluated the prediction that coping motives for marijuana use would mediate the relation between anxiety sensitivity and a marijuana dependence diagnosis after controlling for other co-occurring marijuana use motives. Participants were 136 current marijuana users (47.1% women; Mage = 21.9, SD = 7.2). Results were consistent with a mediational effect, with the relation between anxiety sensitivity and marijuana dependence being explained by the addition of coping motives into...

  2. Evaluating Style Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Roon, F.A.; Nijman, T.E.; Ter Horst, J.R.

    2000-01-01

    In this paper we evaluate applications of (return based) style analysis.The portfolio and positivity constraints imposed by style analysis are useful in constructing mimicking portfolios without short positions.Such mimicking portfolios can be used, e.g., to construct efficient portfolios of mutual

  3. Evaluating Style Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.A. de Roon (Frans); T.E. Nijman (Theo); B.J.M. Werker

    2000-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper we evaluate applications of (return based) style analysis. The portfolio and positivity constraints imposed by style analysis are useful in constructing mimicking portfolios without short positions. Such mimicking portfolios can be used e.g. to construct efficient

  4. Profiling & Utilizing Learning Style.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keefe, James W., Ed.

    The purpose of the National Association of Secondary School Principals (NASSP) Learning Style Profile is to provide educators with a well-validated and easy-to-use instrument for diagnosing the cognitive styles, perceptual response tendencies, and study/instructional preferences of middle level and senior high school students. The Learning Style…

  5. Cognitive Style: Individual Differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saracho, Olivia N.

    1989-01-01

    A literature review describes several dimensions of cognitive styles in an effort to illustrate individual stylistic differences. Discusses the field dependence-independence dimension, taking into account age, sex, and cultural differences. Suggests that cognitive style theory needs to be structured in a broader theoretical framework. (NH)

  6. Codependency and Parenting Styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Judith L.; Crawford, Duane W.

    1992-01-01

    College students (n=175) reported the parenting style of their mother and father and completed a scale assessing their own level of codependency. Parenting style of the father (uninvolved, permissive, authoritarian, or democratic) was related to offspring codependency. Both sons and daughters of authoritarian fathers had higher levels of…

  7. AUTOMATIC ARCHITECTURAL STYLE RECOGNITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mathias

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Procedural modeling has proven to be a very valuable tool in the field of architecture. In the last few years, research has soared to automatically create procedural models from images. However, current algorithms for this process of inverse procedural modeling rely on the assumption that the building style is known. So far, the determination of the building style has remained a manual task. In this paper, we propose an algorithm which automates this process through classification of architectural styles from facade images. Our classifier first identifies the images containing buildings, then separates individual facades within an image and determines the building style. This information could then be used to initialize the building reconstruction process. We have trained our classifier to distinguish between several distinct architectural styles, namely Flemish Renaissance, Haussmannian and Neoclassical. Finally, we demonstrate our approach on various street-side images.

  8. Children's theories of motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurland, Suzanne T; Glowacky, Victoria C

    2011-09-01

    To investigate children's theories of motivation, we asked 166 children (8-12 years of age) to rate the effect of various motivational strategies on task interest, over the short and long terms, in activities described as appealing or unappealing. Children viewed the rewards strategy as resulting in greatest interest except when implemented over the long term for appealing activities. Individual difference analyses revealed that some children held operant theories of motivation, in which rewards were central, and others held hybrid theories, in which rewards were key, but some allowance was made for interest to be self-sustaining in the absence of inducements. Children's theories predicted their academic self-regulation. Their theories are discussed relative to an expert theory of motivation. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Micromanagement--a costly management style.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Sandra K; Collins, Kevin S

    2002-01-01

    Micromanagement can be advantageous in certain short-term situations, such as while training new employees, increasing productivity of underperforming employees, controlling high-risk issues, and when there can be no question of who is in charge. However, the costs associated with long-term micromanagement can be exorbitant. Symptoms such as low employee morale, high staff turnover, reduction of productivity and patient dissatisfaction can be associated with micromanagement. The negative impacts are so intense that it is labeled among the top three reasons employees resign. Ultimately, micromanagement leads to decreased growth potential in a department. Managers who put too much emphasis on daily operational details can miss the broader picture and fail to plan for departmental expansion. Eventually, many micromanagers find themselves at considerable risk of burnout. Changing behavior associated with micromanagement can be a lengthy and difficult process. As with most problems, the first step is to realize that there is behavior that needs to be changed and to understand how it negatively impacts the department. Conducting a self-assessment of one's leadership style can be advantageous in this process. The true task is to find a balance between effectively performing daily obligations and strategically planning for the future. This task typically involves proper delegation of duties, and that in itself is a difficult challenge. Proper delegation of tasks may be the primary key to combating micromanaging behavior, however, some other suggestions include: 1. Develop a vision of what the department will look like in the future. 2. Hire people with the right skills for the job. 3. Develop a policy and procedures manual. 4. Develop solid lines of communication between managers and subordinates. 5. Expect some employee errors. Mistakes are an important process in the learning experience and should be viewed as a training expense. Employees who are allowed to be self

  10. Impact of leadership styles on employees’ attitude towards their leader and performance: Empirical evidence from Pakistani banks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Asrar-ul-Haq

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the findings of a study examining the impact of managers’ leadership styles on subordinates’ performance. The impact of leadership styles on employee performance outcomes is explored theoretically and tested empirically in the Pakistani banking sector. The sample of the study consisted of 224 full-time employees in the banking sector of Pakistan. Findings of this study reveal that there exists a significant relationship between transformational leadership and employee performance outcomes. However, laissez-faire leadership style showed negative relationship with employee performance outcomes in terms of effectiveness, and employee satisfaction. Banking industry in Pakistan is prone to numerous challenges including employee turnover. Model presented in the study will be helpful for the human resource managers and top management to design effective leadership development programs. HRD department can be established and HRD professionals can be hired to assist the managers in organizing training and development programs. Further, it may help to design strategies to satisfy, retain and motivate the employees. Also, it will help the managers decide, which leadership style they should choose in terms of outcomes.

  11. Gender Differences in Moral Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunner-Winkler, Gertrud; Meyer-Nikele, Marion; Wohlrab, Doris

    2007-01-01

    Moral gender differences have been discussed in terms of Kohlbergian stages and content of orientations and taken to correspond to universal stable male and female features. The present study instead focuses on moral motivation and explains differences in terms of role expectations. We assessed moral motivation in 203 adolescents by a newly…

  12. Parenting style of mothers and fathers of adolescent eyes

    OpenAIRE

    KŘÍŽOVÁ, Hana

    2013-01-01

    The thesis titled "Parenting style of mothers and fathers eyes adolescents' explores the differences of perception and evaluation of educational access of mothers and fathers to daughters and sons. The theoretical part contains basic information about the family, types of families, developmental characteristics during adolescence, types of educational styles. Part of this work is to present the research results of the educational style of mothers and fathers in terms of girls and boys. Data w...

  13. Necessity Is the Mother of Invention : Avoidance Motivation Stimulates Creativity Through Cognitive Effort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roskes, Marieke; De Dreu, Carsten K. W.; Nijstad, Bernard A.

    Compared with approach motivation, avoidance motivation has often been related to reduced creativity because it evokes a relatively inflexible processing style. This finding seems inconsistent with the dual pathway to creativity model, which poses that both flexible and persistent processing styles

  14. Necessity is the mother of invention : Avoidance motivation stimulates creativity through cognitive effort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roskes, Marieke; De Dreu, Carsten K W; Nijstad, Bernard A.

    Compared with approach motivation, avoidance motivation has often been related to reduced creativity because it evokes a relatively inflexible processing style. This finding seems inconsistent with the dual pathway to creativity model, which poses that both flexible and persistent processing styles

  15. Relations Among Personal Agency, Motivation, and School Adjustment in Early Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walls, Theodore A.; Little, Todd D.

    2005-01-01

    The authors examined relations among motivational styles and school adjustment in a sample of 786 7th and 8th grade U.S. students. Specifically, the authors tested the hypothesis that agency beliefs mediate relations between styles of motivational self-regulation (i.e., intrinsic, identified, introjected, and extrinsic) and school adjustment…

  16. Adult Attachment Style and Suicidality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miniati, Mario; Callari, Antonio; Pini, Stefano

    2017-09-01

    There is evidence in the literature that adverse early attachment experiences and subsequent attachment insecurities during adulthood would lead to pessimism, low self-esteem, hopelessness and, ultimately, to suicide risk. This paper aims to review finding on the link between attachment style and suicidality. We searched the literature using the database of the U.S. National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI)-MedLine/Pubmed system from January 1992 until December 2016. We started with 1992 because, as far as we know, there are no published studies exploring the relationship between suicide and insecure attachment before that year. We considered reports published on the relationship between attachment style and suicidality. We applied several combinations of the following search terms: attachment, adult attachment style and suicidality, suicide, suicidal ideation, suicidal behavior or suicidal thoughts, and suicide attempts. We selected only English language studies. Research suggests that insecure attachment style, mostly anxious, and unresolved traumas are associated with an increased suicide risk. Few studies prospectively examined clinical course, comorbid psychiatric disorders, familial suicidality or other psychosocial factors. Further research is needed to highlight the nature of the link between attachment and suicidality. The presence of suicidal ideation and attempts might be a consequence of an underlying interaction between the emergence of psychiatrics symptoms, and the long-lasting presence of inadequate patterns of attachment. Within this context, Separation Anxiety Disorder, categorized in the DSM-5 as a condition not confined to childhood but as an anxiety disorder that may occur through the entire lifespan, might be the a key for the comprehension of this link. From a neurobiological point of view, the role of oxytocin remains unclear.

  17. Fighting food temptations: the modulating effects of short-term cognitive reappraisal, suppression and up-regulation on mesocorticolimbic activity related to appetitive motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siep, Nicolette; Roefs, Anne; Roebroeck, Alard; Havermans, Remco; Bonte, Milene; Jansen, Anita

    2012-03-01

    The premise of cognitive therapy is that one can overcome the irresistible temptation of highly palatable foods by actively restructuring the way one thinks about food. Testing this idea, participants in the present study were instructed to passively view foods, up-regulate food palatability thoughts, apply cognitive reappraisal (e.g., thinking about health consequences), or suppress food palatability thoughts and cravings. We examined whether these strategies affect self-reported food craving and mesocorticolimbic activity as assessed by functional magnetic resonance imaging. It was hypothesized that cognitive reappraisal would most effectively inhibit the mesocorticolimbic activity and associated food craving as compared to suppression. In addition, it was hypothesized that suppression would lead to more prefrontal cortex activity, reflecting the use of more control resources, as compared to cognitive reappraisal. Self-report results indicated that up-regulation increased food craving compared to the other two conditions, but that there was no difference in craving between the suppression and cognitive reappraisal strategy. Corroborating self-report results, the neuroimaging results showed that up-regulation increased activity in important regions of the mesocorticolimbic circuitry, including the ventral tegmental area, ventral striatum, operculum, posterior insular gyrus, medial orbitofrontal cortex and ventromedial prefrontal cortex. Contrary to our hypothesis, suppression more effectively decreased activity in the core of the mesocorticolimbic circuitry (i.e., ventral tegmental area and ventral striatum) compared to cognitive reappraisal. Overall, the results support the contention that appetitive motivation can be modulated by the application of short-term cognitive control strategies. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Motivated Explanation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard ePatterson

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Although motivation is a well-established field of study in its own right, and has been fruitfully studied in connection with attribution theory and belief formation under the heading of motivated thinking, its powerful and pervasive influence on explanatory processes is less well explored. Where one has a strong motivation to understand some event correctly, one is thereby motivated to adhere as best one can to normative or epistemic criteria for correct or accurate explanation, even if one does not consciously formulate or apply such criteria. By contrast, many of our motivations to explain introduce bias into the processes involved in generating, evaluating, or giving of explanations. Non-epistemic explanatory motivations, or (following Kunda’s usage, directional motivations, include self-justification, resolution of cognitive dissonance, deliberate deception, teaching, and many more. Some of these motivations lead to the relaxation or violation of epistemic norms, combined with an effort to preserve the appearance of accuracy; others enhance epistemic motivation, so that one engages in more careful and thorough generational and evaluative processes. In short, real life explanatory processes are often constrained by multiple goals, epistemic and directional, where these goals may mutually reinforce one another or may conflict, and where our explanations emerge as a matter of weighing and satisfying those goals. Our proposals are largely programmatic, although we do review a good deal of relevant behavioral and neurological evidence. Specifically, we recognize five generative processes, some of which cover further sub-processes, and six evaluative processes. All of these are potential points of entry for the influence of motivation. We then suggest in some detail how specific sorts of explanatory motivation interact with specific explanatory processes.

  19. A Matter of Style

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansson, Lasse Gøhler; Grønvad, Jonas Følsgaard; Pedersen, David Budtz

    2018-01-01

    , defined by choices of research topics, theories, empirical material, analytical methods/techniques, epistemological research aims, practical research aims, publication strategies and collaborative activities. The first dimension opposes a quantitative style focusing on questions of cognition, on the one...

  20. Drinking motives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacob Rosendahl; Lenka van Riemsdijk; Klaus Grunert; Johan van Berkel

    2013-01-01

    Chapter 8 in Comsumption Culture in Europe. This chapter presents an analysis of what consumer in Europe drink and why they drink what they drink. The concept of drinking motives is developed and defined, and analysis of data on drinking motives shows that these can be grouped into two major

  1. Drinking Motives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus G; Rosendahl, Jacob; Andronikidis, Andreas I.

    2013-01-01

    . This distinction is universal and henceapplies across Europe. However, the importance of self-expressive as compared to functional motives, as well as the way in which these relate to different beverages, does differ across Europe. Both dimensions are relevant for the motives for drinking non-alcoholic drinks...

  2. Intrinsic Motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deci, Edward L.

    The paper draws together a wide variety of research which relates to the topic of intrinsic motivation; intrinsically motivated activities are defined as those which a person does for no apparent reward except the activity itself or the feelings which result from the activity. Most of this research was not originally reported within the framework…

  3. Gerontechnology motivation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bronswijk, van J.E.M.H.

    2006-01-01

    Gerontechnology’s framework has been formulated in a functional way, with little attention paid to motivation. Abraham H. Maslow’s theory of human motivation (1943) can fill this gap with his hierarchy of needs to be fulfilled in the following order: physiological, safety related, social, esteem and

  4. Motivational interviewing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsen, Kamilla; Humaidan, Peter; Sørensen, Lise H

    2013-01-01

    This is a retrospective study to investigate whether motivational interviewing increases weight loss among obese or overweight women prior to fertility treatment. Women with body mass index (BMI) > 30 kg/m(2) approaching the Fertility Clinic, Regional Hospital Skive, were given advice about diet...... and physical activity with the purpose of weight loss. In addition, they were asked if they wanted to receive motivational interviewing. Among other data, age, height and weight were obtained. Main outcomes were weight loss measured in kg and decrease in BMI. We studied 187 women: 110 received sessions...... of motivational interviewing (intervention group, n = 110), 64 received motivational support by phone or e-mail only and 13 women did not wish any motivational support (control group, n = 77). The mean weight loss and decrease in BMI was greater in the intervention group compared with the control group (9.3 kg...

  5. PARTICIPATION MOTIVATION IN MARTIAL ARTISTS IN THE WEST MIDLANDS REGION OF ENGLAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derek M. Peters

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available The objectives were to identify the participation motivations and the perceived importance of certain participation factors in martial artists in the West Midlands, England, UK. A 28-item adapted version of the Participation Motivation Questionnaire with additional demographic questions was distributed to 30 martial arts clubs in the West Midlands region. Eight questions that assessed the perceived importance for participation of progression through grades, learning self defence skills, technical ability of instructors, cost of participating, development of confidence, underpinning philosophy and instructional style were included. Seventy-five questionnaires were returned from a total of 11 clubs from across representing practitioners in Tai Chi, Karate, Kung fu, Aikido, Jeet Kune Do, British Free Fighting, Taekwon-Do and Jujitsu. Results indicated that the rank order in terms of participation motives was: 1-Affiliation; 2-Friendship; 3-Fitness; 4-Reward/status; 5-Competition; 6-Situational and 7-Skill development. Participants who trained for more than 4 hours per week placed greater importance on the underpinning philosophy of the martial art. Findings suggest that whilst there is a gender discrepancy in participation level, once engaged, females were equally committed to weekly training. The 'style' of the instructor is of paramount importance for enhancing student motivation to participate. High volume practitioners would appear to be fully immersed in the holistic appreciation of the martial art through increased value placed on its underpinning philosophy

  6. Learning Style Preferences of Gifted, Average- Ability, and Special Needs Students: A Multivariate Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyryt, Michael C.; Sandals, Lauran H.; Begoray, John

    1998-01-01

    Compared learning-style preferences of intellectually gifted, average-ability, and special-needs students on the Learning Style Inventory. Also examined the general differences among ability level and gender. Analyses indicated that gifted students preferred learning alone, being self-motivated, and using tactile learning approaches, and that…

  7. Learning Style-Based Teaching Harvests a Superior Comprehension of Respiratory Physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anbarasi, M.; Rajkumar, G.; Krishnakumar, S.; Rajendran, P.; Venkatesan, R.; Dinesh, T.; Mohan, J.; Venkidusamy, S.

    2015-01-01

    Students entering medical college generally show vast diversity in their school education. It becomes the responsibility of teachers to motivate students and meet the needs of all diversities. One such measure is teaching students in their own preferred learning style. The present study was aimed to incorporate a learning style-based…

  8. Assessing public leadership styles for innovation: A comparison of Copenhagen, Rotterdam and Barcelona

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ricard, Lykke Margot; Lewis, Jenny M; Klijn, Erik Hans

    2017-01-01

    of these proved to be more robust than others. Analysis of the three cities reveals a nuanced set of leadership styles, which include a transformational style, and one that is more dedicated to motivating employees, risk-taking and including others in decision-making. This suggests the need for more research...

  9. Motivation and library management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatjana Likar

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The present article deals with motivation, its relation to management and its role and use in librarianship in our country and abroad. The countries where librarianship is well developed started to deal with library management and questions of motivation of library workers decades ago, whereas elsewhere the subject is at its start. The prerequisite for modern policy making is attention to the elements of modern library management. Librarians, library managers and directors of libraries should create a work environment providing long term satisfaction with work by means of certain knowledge and tools. The level of motivation of the staff is influenced by the so called higher factors deriving from the work process itself and related to work contents: achieve¬ment, recognition, trust and work itself. Extrinsic factors (income, interpersonal relations, technology of administration, company policy, working conditions, work con¬trol, personal security, job security and position... should exercise lesser impact on the level of motivation.

  10. Learning style preferences of surgical residency applicants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Roger H; Gilbert, Timothy

    2015-09-01

    The learning style preferences of general surgery residents have been previously reported; there is evidence that residents who prefer read/write learning styles perform better on the American Board of Surgery In-Training Examination (ABSITE). However, little is known regarding the learning style preferences of applicants to general surgery residency and their impact on educational outcomes. In this study, the preferred learning styles of surgical residency applicants were determined. We hypothesized that applicant rank data are associated with specific learning style preferences. The Fleming VARK learning styles inventory was offered to all general surgery residency applicants that were interviewed at a university hospital-based program. The VARK model categorizes learners as visual (V), aural (A), read/write (R), kinesthetic (K), or multimodal (MM). Responses on the inventory were scored to determine the preferred learning style for each applicant. Applicant data, including United States Medical Licensing Examination (USMLE) scores, class rank, interview score, and overall final applicant ranking, were examined for association with preferred learning styles. Sixty-seven applicants were interviewed. Five applicants were excluded due to not completing the VARK inventory or having incomplete applicant data. The remaining 62 applicants (92%) were included for analysis. Most applicants (57%) had a multimodal preference. Sixty-nine percent of all applicants had some degree of preference for kinesthetic learning. There were statistically significant differences between applicants of different learning styles in terms of USMLE step 1 scores (P = 0.001) and USMLE step 2 clinical knowledge scores (P = 0.01), but not for class ranks (P = 0.27), interview scores (P = 0.20), or final ranks (P = 0.14). Multiple comparison analysis demonstrated that applicants with aural preferences had higher USMLE 1 scores (233.2) than those with kinesthetic (211.8, P = 0.005) or multimodal

  11. Learning environment, learning styles and conceptual understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrer, Lourdes M.

    1990-01-01

    In recent years there have been many studies on learners developing conceptions of natural phenomena. However, so far there have been few attempts to investigate how the characteristics of the learners and their environment influence such conceptions. This study began with an attempt to use an instrument developed by McCarthy (1981) to describe learners in Malaysian primary schools. This proved inappropriate as Asian primary classrooms do not provide the same kind of environment as US classrooms. It was decided to develop a learning style checklist to suit the local context and which could be used to describe differences between learners which teachers could appreciate and use. The checklist included four dimensions — perceptual, process, self-confidence and motivation. The validated instrument was used to determine the learning style preferences of primary four pupils in Penang, Malaysia. Later, an analysis was made regarding the influence of learning environment and learning styles on conceptual understanding in the topics of food, respiration and excretion. This study was replicated in the Philippines with the purpose of investigating the relationship between learning styles and achievement in science, where the topics of food, respiration and excretion have been taken up. A number of significant relationships were observed in these two studies.

  12. Relationship between management styles and nurses' retention at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: Management style and nurses' retention were significantly interrelated in terms of exploitative/authoritative management style. Recommendation, the researcher recommended that hospital leaders should plan and implement effective strategies to promote nurse retention. This can be done through creating a ...

  13. Parenting Styles and Learned Resourcefulness of Turkish Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turkel, Yesim Deniz; Tezer, Esin

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the differences among 834 high school students regarding learned resourcefulness in terms of perceived parenting style and gender. The data were gathered by administering the Parenting Style Inventory (PSI) and Rosenbaum's Self-Control Schedule (SCS). The results of ANOVA pertaining to the scores of learned resourcefulness…

  14. A Study of Students' Loneliness Levels and Their Attachment Styles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin Kiralp, F. Sülen; Serin, Nergüz B.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between loneliness levels and attachment styles of university students. In this research, it was investigated whether the attachment styles differed in terms of variables such as gender, class, place of stay, socio-economic level of their family, parental education levels, counterpart…

  15. How pupils percieve the teacher's motivational techniques?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bodroža Bojana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Current research in the field of education indicates that the behaviour of the teacher affects significantly the quality and level of the pupil's motivation. The aim of our research was to determine the structure of the motivational style of teachers seen from the pupils' perspective, and to find out whether the pupils' perceptions of the teacher's motivational style depend upon cultural-educational influences of the family, and some characteristics of the students (academic achievements, gender. The sample included 856 pupils from 40 elementary schools in Serbia. We used the questionnaire with Likert's scale to obtain the evaluation of the teachers' behaviours. By the factor analysis we extracted three components of the teacher' behaviour: stimulating pupils' interest and competences, de-motivational teachers' behaviours and stimulating freedom of thinking and expression. The results show that the pupils whose parents have lower levels of education think that the behaviour of the teachers is directed to stimulating interest and competencies, as well as freedom of thinking and speech than the pupils of the parents of higher educational status. The control of the influence of the education of parents showed that the pupils of lower academic achievement perceive the teacher's behaviour as de-motivational. Compared to girls boys estimate more highly that teachers stimulate their interests and competencies. A suggestion is offered how a teacher should develop a behavioural style which would positively influence the quality of the pupils' motivation.

  16. Motivation in later life: theory and assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallerand, R J; O'Connor, B P; Hamel, M

    1995-01-01

    A framework that has been found useful in research on young adults, Deci and Ryan's self-determination theory [1, 2], is suggested as a promising direction for research on motivation in later life. The theory proposes the existence of four types of motivation (intrinsic, self-determined extrinsic, nonself-determined extrinsic, and amotivation) which are assumed to have varying consequences for adaptation and well-being. A previously published French measure of motivational styles which is known to be reliable and valid was translated into English and was tested on seventy-seven nursing home residents (aged 60 to 98 years). It was found that the four motivational styles can be reliably measured; that the intercorrelations between the motivational styles are consistent with theoretical predictions; and that the four types of motivation are related to other important aspects of the lives of elderly people in a theoretically meaningful manner. Suggestions are made for further research using self-determination theory and the present scales.

  17. Complex motivated behaviors for natural rewards following a binge-like regimen of morphine administration: mixed phenotypes of anhedonia and craving after short-term withdrawal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunjing eBai

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The anhedonia-like behaviors following about one-week withdrawal from morphine were examined in the present study. Male rats were pretreated with either a binge-like morphine paradigm or daily saline injection for 5 days. Three types of natural reward were used, food reward (2.5%, 4%, 15%, 30%, 40% and 60% sucrose solutions, social reward (male rat and sexual reward (estrous female rat. For each type of natural stimulus, consummatory behavior and motivational behaviors under varied testing conditions were investigated. The results showed that the morphine-treated rats significantly reduced their consumption of 2.5% sucrose solution during the 1-hour consumption testing and their operant responding for 15%, 30% and 40% sucrose solutions under a fixed ratio 1 (FR1 schedule. However, performance under a progressive ratio (PR schedule increased in morphine-treated rats reinforced with 60% sucrose solution, but not in those reinforced with sucrose concentrations lower than 60%. Pretreatment with morphine significantly decreased the male rats’ ejaculation frequency during the 1-hour copulation testing, and impaired the maintenance of appetitive motivations to sexual and social stimuli under a free-approach condition. Moreover, the morphine-treated rats demonstrated a diminished motivation to approach social stimulus in the effort-based appetitive behavior test but showed a remarkable increase in motivation to approach sexual stimulus in the risky appetitive behavior test. These results demonstrated some complex motivated behaviors following about one week of morphine withdrawal: (1 The anhedonia-like behavior was consistently found in animals withdrawn from morphine. However, for a given reward, there was often a dissociation of the consummatory behaviors from the motivational behaviors, and whether the consummatory or the motivational anhedonia-like behaviors could be discovered heavily depended on the type and magnitude of the reward and the type

  18. Learning styles of medical students - implications in education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buşan, Alina-Mihaela

    2014-01-01

    The term "learning style" refers to the fact that each person has a different way of accumulating knowledge. While some prefer listening to learn better, others need to write or they only need to read the text or see a picture to later remember. According to Fleming and Mills the learning styles can be classified in Visual, Auditory and Kinesthetic. There is no evidence that teaching according to the learning style can help a person, yet this cannot be ignored. In this study, a number of 230 medical students were questioned in order to determine their learning style. We determined that 73% of the students prefer one learning style, 22% prefer to learn using equally two learning style, while the rest prefer three learning styles. According to this study the distribution of the learning styles is as following: 33% visual, 26% auditory, 14% kinesthetic, 12% visual and auditory styles equally, 6% visual and kinesthetic, 4% auditory and kinesthetic and 5% all three styles. 32 % of the students that participated at this study are from UMF Craiova, 32% from UMF Carol Davila, 11% University of Medicine T Popa, Iasi, 9% UMF Cluj Iulius Hatieganu. The way medical students learn is different from the general population. This is why it is important when teaching to considerate how the students learn in order to facilitate the learning.

  19. The Dutch queen’s day event : How subjective experience mediates the relationship between motivation and satisfaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Geus, S.; Richards, G.W.; Toepoel, V.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to clarify the relationship between subjective experience of an event, motivational style for participating and satisfaction afterwards. It proposes that subjective experience of positive affect acts as a mediator between motivation and satisfaction.

  20. leadership style and job commitment of library personnel

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    evolve leadership styles that will motivate the job commitment of their ... Libraries form a vital part of the world's systems of education and information ... feasible, he accepts those rewards which he can obtain and may at the same time feel less ...

  1. A Review of Research on Driving Styles and Road Safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagberg, Fridulv; Selpi; Piccinini, Giulio Francesco Bianchi; Engström, Johan

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study was to outline a conceptual framework for understanding driving style and, on this basis, review the state-of-the-art research on driving styles in relation to road safety. Previous research has indicated a relationship between the driving styles adopted by drivers and their crash involvement. However, a comprehensive literature review of driving style research is lacking. A systematic literature search was conducted, including empirical, theoretical, and methodological research, on driving styles related to road safety. A conceptual framework was proposed whereby driving styles are viewed in terms of driving habits established as a result of individual dispositions as well as social norms and cultural values. Moreover, a general scheme for categorizing and operationalizing driving styles was suggested. On this basis, existing literature on driving styles and indicators was reviewed. Links between driving styles and road safety were identified and individual and sociocultural factors influencing driving style were reviewed. Existing studies have addressed a wide variety of driving styles, and there is an acute need for a unifying conceptual framework in order to synthesize these results and make useful generalizations. There is a considerable potential for increasing road safety by means of behavior modification. Naturalistic driving observations represent particularly promising approaches to future research on driving styles. Knowledge about driving styles can be applied in programs for modifying driver behavior and in the context of usage-based insurance. It may also be used as a means for driver identification and for the development of driver assistance systems. © 2015, Human Factors and Ergonomics Society.

  2. The employee motivation and benefits

    OpenAIRE

    Fuhrmannová, Petra

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this bachelor's study is to describe and analyze the employee motivation and benefits in the payroll system and human recources field. Theoretical part attends to general terms as the employee motivation, the theory of the motivation,the types of the employee benefits, the influence of benefits to the employee's working performance. The practial part focuses on Elanor company, includes introduction of the company, it's history and the present, the offer of the employee benefits. Ne...

  3. Motivating pharmacists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donehew, G R

    1979-01-01

    Although pharmacists are developing interest in many types of pharmacy practice, they are still spending the bulk of their time in the prescription dispensing process. Any effort to provide motivation must consider the prescription dispensing process. The pharmacy literature includes only a few studies that dealt with pharmacists as people. The studies usually showed that pharmacists basically were unhappy with their jobs. In developing a motivational climate for pharmacists, pharmacy supervisors have several concepts to consider: the hierarchy of needs by Maslow; the expectancy theory by Hampton; the gygiene-motivator theory by Herzberg; and the Theory Y management approach by McGregor. Because pharmacists must be induced to enter and remain in an organization, supervisors should be aware of the need to use any technique available in developing a motivational climate.

  4. Designing motivation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    How can products be designed to change our habits for the better? What is some of the leading research that designers can draw on to create new systems that motivate people towards healthier behaviour? Designing Motivation is an edited collection of ‘industrialist cheat sheets’: 22 single......-page summaries of research articles relating to technology design, motivation, and behaviour change. Ranging across the fields of economics, sociology, design research and behavioural science, each summary draws out the design implications of the research. It is intended as a resource for designers who...... are grappling with how to create motivating products, and as a primer for students who want a brief introduction to some of the relevant theories, findings and design interventions in these fields. The editor's introduction raises a number of issues encountered when we try to apply behavioural research...

  5. Physicians’ leadership styles in rural primary medical care: How are they perceived by staff?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkhaug, Rudi

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Aim. This study investigates which leadership styles can be identified among general practice lead physicians and how they are associated with and predicted by staff and context characteristics like profession, gender, age, work experience, and team size. Method/material. In a cross-sectional study self-administered questionnaires were distributed to staff physicians (42% females) and support staff (98% females) at 101 primary health care centres in North Norway. A total of 127 and 222, respectively, responded (response rate 59%). Items were ranked on Likert scales (range 1–5). Results. Analysis revealed three significantly different styles (mean scores/Cronbach's alpha): change style (3.36/0.898), task style (3.17/0.885), and relation style (2.88/0.900). The lead physicians were perceived as practising change style the most and relation style the least. Males experienced significantly more of all three styles. Support staff scored lowest for all styles. Age was negatively correlated with relation style and change style, while work experience was negatively correlated with change style. No significant association was found between styles and team size. Conclusion. Leadership in rural general practice can be identified in terms of task, relation, and change styles. Change style is the most perceived style. Males seem to be most attentive to leadership styles. However, within the staff physician group, there is less difference between genders. Support staff scores lowest for all styles; this might indicate either less need for leadership or dissatisfaction with leadership. Age and work experience seem to reduce employees’ attention to relation and change styles, indicating that maturity reduces needs for these leadership styles. Due to growing demands for leaders to take care of efficiency and change in general practice, more young female physicians, and more diverse staff groups, these findings may be useful to understand leadership and leadership

  6. Physicians' leadership styles in rural primary medical care: how are they perceived by staff?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hana, Jan; Kirkhaug, Rudi

    2014-03-01

    This study investigates which leadership styles can be identified among general practice lead physicians and how they are associated with and predicted by staff and context characteristics like profession, gender, age, work experience, and team size. METHOD/MATERIAL: In a cross-sectional study self-administered questionnaires were distributed to staff physicians (42% females) and support staff (98% females) at 101 primary health care centres in North Norway. A total of 127 and 222, respectively, responded (response rate 59%). Items were ranked on Likert scales (range 1-5). Analysis revealed three significantly different styles (mean scores/Cronbach's alpha): change style (3.36/0.898), task style (3.17/0.885), and relation style (2.88/0.900). The lead physicians were perceived as practising change style the most and relation style the least. Males experienced significantly more of all three styles. Support staff scored lowest for all styles. Age was negatively correlated with relation style and change style, while work experience was negatively correlated with change style. No significant association was found between styles and team size. Leadership in rural general practice can be identified in terms of task, relation, and change styles. Change style is the most perceived style. Males seem to be most attentive to leadership styles. However, within the staff physician group, there is less difference between genders. Support staff scores lowest for all styles; this might indicate either less need for leadership or dissatisfaction with leadership. Age and work experience seem to reduce employees' attention to relation and change styles, indicating that maturity reduces needs for these leadership styles. Due to growing demands for leaders to take care of efficiency and change in general practice, more young female physicians, and more diverse staff groups, these findings may be useful to understand leadership and leadership training for general practice.

  7. Relationship between Academic Performance, Spatial Competence, Learning Styles and Attrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianela Noriega Biggio

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the results of research on factors affecting academic performance and attrition in a sample of 1,500 freshman students majoring in architecture, design and urbanism at the Universidad de Buenos Aires, Argentina [University of Buenos Aires, Argentina] who were enrolled in a drafting course. The hypotheses we tested concern the mediating role of learning styles on the relationship between spatial competence and academic performance, learning-style differences by gender and cohort, and the relationship between attrition, spatial competence level and learning style. Statistical analysis of the data was performed and spatial competence enhanced by motivational profile was found to predict final achievement. Educational implications are identified, highlighting the need to promote in students those academic behaviors that characterize a self-regulated learning style and encourage the use of specific intellectual abilities.

  8. The motivational interviewing skill code : Reliability and a critical appraisal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jonge, JM; Schippers, GM; Schaap, CPDR

    The Motivational Interviewing Skill Code (MISC) is a coding system developed to measure adherence to motivational interviewing (MI). MI is an effective clinical style used in different treatment situations. Counsellors practising MI have to follow general principles and avoid certain traps. In the

  9. Long-term follow-up effects of the HomeStyles randomized controlled trial in families with preschool children on social cognitive theory constructs associated with physical activity cognitions and behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quick, Virginia; Martin-Biggers, Jennifer; Povis, Gayle Alleman; Worobey, John; Hongu, Nobuko; Byrd-Bredbenner, Carol

    2018-05-01

    This study examined long-term follow-up effects of participation in the HomeStyles RCT, using Social Cognitive Theory constructs, on physical activity cognitions, home environment, and lifestyle behavioral practices of families with preschool children (ages 2 to 5 years). Parents were systematically randomized to experimental or attention control group at baseline. Those completing all surveys that comprised of valid, reliable measures were the analytic sample (n = 61 experimental, n = 63 control; mean age 32.8 ± 5.9SD years). Repeated measures ANCOVA, controlling for prognostic variables (e.g., parent sex) revealed that variables assessing modeling of physical activity for children increased significantly (P ≤ .01) in both groups with no significant time by group effects. Paired t-tests indicated the experimental group's self-efficacy for keeping children's weight healthy and performing health promoting behaviors increased significantly over time whereas the control group did not but with no significant time by group effects. Self-regulation paired t-test findings indicated that total screentime the experimental group allowed children decreased significantly over time with no significant time by group effect. The value parents placed on physical activity for children increased over time in both groups with a significant time effect. The experimental group over time had significantly greater increases in the availability of physical activity space and supports inside the home than the control group. Improvements noted have the potential to help protect children and parents from excess weight gain, yet findings indicate considerable opportunity for continued improvement as well as elucidation of factors affecting concomitant changes in both study groups. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Technological Style is History

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blond, Lasse

    The effort to comprehend innovation across cultures and time highlights the importance of the explicating factors external to technology. It becomes relevant to nuance or differentiate the understanding of social and cultural responses to adopted technologies by recognizing that technology shapes...... culture, and just as importantly that culture shapes technology. By looking at a recent transfer of technology this reciprocal exchange is elaborated by considering the cultural or contextual influence in the adaptation of technology. In this connection the notion of technological style is revisited...... by questioning whether it pays due attention to the non-technical factors of the process? In order to compensate for the deficiencies of the technological style as a sensitizing device the concept of sociotechnical style is introduced – a concept more in tune with resent research in technology studies....

  11. Predicting Intrinsic Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martens, Rob; Kirschner, Paul A.

    2004-01-01

    Intrinsic motivation can be predicted from participants' perceptions of the social environment and the task environment (Ryan & Deci, 2000)in terms of control, relatedness and competence. To determine the degree of independence of these factors 251 students in higher vocational education (physiotherapy and hotel management) indicated the…

  12. Keeping Plateaued Performers Motivated.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLon, Barbara A.

    1993-01-01

    Discusses the problem of keeping library staff motivated when promotions are not available. Topics addressed include the importance of management training that emphasizes communication skills; alternative ways to help employees grow, including staff development programs, lateral transfers, job rotation, and short-term projects; and helpful…

  13. Clinician styles of care: transforming patient care at the intersection of leadership and medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huynh, Ho P; Sweeny, Kate

    2014-11-01

    A key role of clinicians is to motivate their patients to initiate and maintain beneficial health behaviors. This article integrates research on transformational leadership, clinician-patient communication, and health behavior to introduce a novel approach to understanding and improving clinicians' effectiveness as motivators. We describe three dominant clinician styles or patterned approaches to patient care that derive from leadership theory (in order of least to most effective): laissez-faire, transactional, and transformational. Additionally, we suggest potential mediators and effects of the transformational style of care. Finally, we discuss future research directions for the study of clinician styles of care. © The Author(s) 2013.

  14. Motivation for Compliance with Environmental Regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winter, Søren; May, Peter J.

    2001-01-01

    A combination of calculated, normative, and social motivations as well as awareness of rules and capacity to comply are thought to foster compliance with regulations. Hypotheses about these factors were tested with data concerning Danish farmers’ compliance with agro-environmental regulations....... Three key findings emerge: that farmers’ awareness of rules plays a critical role; that normative and social motivations are as influential as calculated motivations in enhancing compliance; and that inspectors’ enforcement style affects compliance differently from that posited in much of the literature...... compliance with social and environmental regulations....

  15. Example based style classification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Welnicka, Katarzyna; Bærentzen, Jakob Andreas; Aanæs, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    We address the problem of analysis of families of shapes which can be classified according to two categories: the main one corresponding usually to the coarse shape which we call the function and the more subtle one which we call the style. The style and the function both contribute to the overal...... this similarity should be reflected across different functions. We show the usability of our methods first on the example of a number of chess sets which our method helps sort. Next, we investigate the problem of finding a replacement for a missing tooth given a database of teeth....

  16. Leadership styles in nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cope, Vicki; Murray, Melanie

    2017-06-21

    Nurses are often asked to think about leadership, particularly in times of rapid change in healthcare, and where questions have been raised about whether leaders and managers have adequate insight into the requirements of care. This article discusses several leadership styles relevant to contemporary healthcare and nursing practice. Nurses who are aware of leadership styles may find this knowledge useful in maintaining a cohesive working environment. Leadership knowledge and skills can be improved through training, where, rather than having to undertake formal leadership roles without adequate preparation, nurses are able to learn, nurture, model and develop effective leadership behaviours, ultimately improving nursing staff retention and enhancing the delivery of safe and effective care.

  17. Demystifying APA style.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuddy, Claudia M

    2002-01-01

    Many nursing schools and health care journals have adopted the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (APA stylebook) as their guide to achieve uniformity and consistency in manuscript preparation as well as in usage and writing style. Published in 2001, the fifth edition of the APA stylebook contains 440 pages and can overwhelm someone who tries to use it for the first time. This article delineates main points in the areas of manuscript preparation, reference lists, in-text citations, and style choices.

  18. Motivational Profiles and Motivation for Lifelong Learning of Medical Specialists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Burgt, Stéphanie M E; Kusurkar, Rashmi A; Wilschut, Janneke A; Tjin A Tsoi, Sharon L N M; Croiset, Gerda; Peerdeman, Saskia M

    2018-05-22

    Medical specialists face the challenge of maintaining their knowledge and skills and continuing professional development, that is, lifelong learning. Motivation may play an integral role in many of the challenges facing the physician workforce today including maintenance of a high performance. The aim of this study was to determine whether medical specialists show different motivational profiles and if these profiles predict differences in motivation for lifelong learning. An online questionnaire was sent to every medical specialist working in five hospitals in the Netherlands. The questionnaire included the validated Multidimensional Work Motivation Scale and the Jefferson Scale of Physician Lifelong Learning together with background questions like age, gender, and type of hospital. Respondents were grouped into different motivational profiles by using a two-step clustering approach. Four motivational profiles were identified: (1) HAMC profile (for High Autonomous and Moderate Controlled motivation), (2) MAMC profile (for Moderate Autonomous and Moderate Controlled motivation), (3) MALC profile (for Moderate Autonomous and Low Controlled motivation), and (4) HALC profile (for High Autonomous and Low Controlled motivation). Most of the female specialists that work in an academic hospital and specialists with a surgical specialty were represented in the HALC profile. Four motivational profiles were found among medical specialists, differing in gender, experience and type of specialization. The profiles are based on the combination of autonomous motivation (AM) and controlled motivation (CM) in the specialists. The profiles that have a high score on autonomous motivation have a positive association with lifelong learning.This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial-No Derivatives License 4.0 (CCBY-NC-ND), where it is permissible to download and share the work provided it is properly cited. The work

  19. Conflict management style and marital satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greeff, A P; de Bruyne, T

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether there is one conflict management style that correlated more significantly with marital satisfaction than any other. In addition, spousal satisfaction with how marital conflict is managed was also examined, as were gender differences. Fifty-seven couples who had been married for at least 10 years took part in the study. Results showed that the collaborative conflict management style has the highest correlation with both marital satisfaction and spousal satisfaction with conflict management in the marriage. In contrast, where one or both of the spouses used the competitive conflict management style, the lowest marital satisfaction was reported. The results were also interpreted in terms of cultural and gender differences.

  20. The Role of Motivation in Language Learning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李玉红

    2004-01-01

    The role of motivation in language learning has been studied since the 1960s. It is indeed one of the most important areas of linguistics. This paper suggests strategies of motivating language learners and focuses on the role which motivation can play in language learning. The concept of motivation from different points of view is defined, a number of suggestions on how to motivate language learners are presented and the role of motivation based on various motivational theories are highlighted. With regard to the role of motivation in language learning, it is concluded that motivation plays an increasingly important role in many aspects, such as identifying with the target language society, achieving long-term and short-term goals, improving language learners' internal and external powers and exerting a group force. It also indicates that there should be more research areas to be examined and a long way is probably requlred to go in future theoretical and practical study.

  1. Leadership styles of Finnish nurse managers and factors influencing it.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vesterinen, Soili; Isola, Arja; Paasivaara, Leena

    2009-05-01

    The purpose of the present study was to explore nurse managers' perceptions of their leadership styles and factors influencing it. It is a challenge for nurse managers to retain nurses in hospitals and to ensure a high quality of care in nursing practice. Leadership style is an important part of leadership. Knowledge concerning nurse managers' resonant and non-resonant leadership styles provides nurse managers with tools to reflect on their own leadership style. Open-ended, tape-recorded interviews were conducted with 13 nurse managers from five Finnish hospitals and two long-term care facilities. The data were analysed using qualitative content analysis. Five categories of leadership style were discerned: visionary, coaching, affiliate, democratic, commanding. Factors that influence leadership style were identified: earlier superiors, values, information, cooperation, employees and education. The results of this study show that Finnish nurse managers use both resonant and non-resonant leadership styles. The findings of this study show that nurse managers use a variety of leadership styles. The study demonstrates the importance of knowledge about leadership styles and factors influencing it among nurse managers providing future leadership and management education.

  2. Humor Styles and Leadership Styles: Community College Presidents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrica, Jennifer L.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between leadership styles (transformational, transactional, laissez-faire) and humor styles (affiliative, self-enhancing, aggressive, self-defeating) of community college presidents. Research has shown that humor and leadership styles are related and that humor may enhance interpersonal…

  3. Forming and actualization of cognitive motives as means for development of students' analytical thinking.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shevchenko Svetlana Nikolaevna

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Considered different approaches to understanding the concepts of motivation and motive. Species analyzed motives of educational activity. Established that cognitive motives are most effective for the development of analytical thinking of students. The study used data from test 1-4 grade students. An interconnection between the level of academic achievement and student motivation level of its training. Isolated areas of forming and maintaining cognitive motives of students in the learning process. It is established that the formation and activation of the cognitive motivation of students affected: the content of educational material, organizing training activities, style of teaching. Each component provides the motivational aspect of students to study.

  4. Style as Supplement - Supplement as Style

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Bent

    The film Derrida by Amy Ziering Kofman & Kirby Dick (2003) has a memorable scene, showing Derrida watching Derrida watching Derrida. This regression, almost ad infinitum, would seem to have the specific purpose to hammer home the point to the viewer of the film that all communication is mediated......, and to aim for an almost Brechtian Verfremdung-effect, but the film also uses this device as a stylistic trait to characterize something ‘essential' about Derrida and his style. Derrida strikes the same chord by insisting on drawing attention to the artificiality of the making of the film, where questions...... have to be repeated and answers interrupted when the light or the sound is not just right. He furthermore deconstructs the interview process by constantly referring to the impossibility of answering questions without specific contexts, frames and grounds. This makes it easy to characterize the film...

  5. Cultural Styles of Persuasion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenn, E. S.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    Offers an alternative methodology for studying persuasive strategies by examining the persuasive strategies selected by professional persuaders representing those cultures being studied. Analyzes the persuasive styles of United States, Soviet Union and Arab diplomats involved in international negotiations in the Security Council of the United…

  6. The Style of Gorgias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consigny, Scott

    1992-01-01

    Examines two prominent schools of critics who employ a hermeneutic strategy and who arrive at conflicting interpretations of Gorgias's overall "philosophy." Argues that in fact both schools misconstrue the nature of Gorgias's writing. Presents an alternative reading of Gorgias' style. (TB)

  7. A Manual of Style.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nebraska State Dept. of Education, Lincoln.

    This "Manual of Style" is offered as a guide to assist Nebraska State employees in producing quality written communications and in presenting a consistently professional image of government documents. The manual is not designed to be all-inclusive. Sections of the manual discuss formatting documents, memorandums, letters, mailing…

  8. Put Your Style at Stake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnsen, Christian Garmann; Olaison, Lena; Meier Sørensen, Bent

    2018-01-01

    This article uses the concept of style to rethink sustainable entrepreneurship. Our point of departure is the conceptual distinction between organization as style made durable and entrepreneurship as the disruption of style. We show that style is not simply an aesthetic category, but rather what...... enable the creation of new styles. In order to conceptualize this creative process, we explore how play can create disharmonies within the organization, but we also maintain that any new practice will remain marginal without a collective assemblage capable of adopting it. On this basis, we argue...... that sustainable entrepreneurship consists of making an environmentally friendly and socially conscious style durable, but also of disrupting such a style. In order to illustrate our argument, we use the example of the sustainable smartphone producer Fairphone. In conclusion, we argue that the concept of style may...

  9. Style and creativity in design

    CERN Document Server

    Chan, Chiu-Shui

    2015-01-01

    This book looks at causative reasons behind creative acts and stylistic expressions. It explores how creativity is initiated by design cognition and explains relationships between style and creativity. The book establishes a new cognitive theory of style and creativity in design and provides designers with insights into their own cognitive processes and styles of thinking, supporting a better understanding of the qualities present in their own design.  An explanation of the nature of design cognition begins this work, with a look at how design knowledge is formulated, developed, structured and utilized, and how this utilization triggers style and creativity. The author goes on to review historical studies of style, considering a series of psychological experiments relating to the operational definition, degree, measurement, and creation of style. The work conceptually summarizes the recognition of individual style in products, as well as the creation of such styles as a process before reviewing studies on cr...

  10. Paranormal belief and attributional style.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudley, R T; Whisnand, E A

    2000-06-01

    52 college students completed Tobacyk's 1988 Revised Paranormal Belief Scale and Peterson, Semmel, von Baeyer, Abramson, Metalsky, and Seligman's 1982 Attributional Style Questionnaire. Analysis showed significantly higher depressive attributional styles among high scorers on paranormal phenomena than low scorers.

  11. Incremental validity of anxiety sensitivity in terms of motivation to quit, reasons for quitting, and barriers to quitting among community-recruited daily smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zvolensky, Michael J; Vujanovic, Anka A; Miller, Marcel O Bonn; Bernstein, Amit; Yartz, Andrew R; Gregor, Kristin L; McLeish, Alison C; Marshall, Erin C; Gibson, Laura E

    2007-09-01

    The present investigation examined the relationships between anxiety sensitivity and motivation to quit smoking, barriers to smoking cessation, and reasons for quitting smoking among 329 adult daily smokers (160 females; M (age) = 26.08 years, SD = 10.92). As expected, after covarying for the theoretically relevant variables of negative affectivity, gender, Axis I psychopathology, nonclinical panic attack history, number of cigarettes smoked per day, and current levels of alcohol consumption, we found that anxiety sensitivity was significantly incrementally related to level of motivation to quit smoking as well as current barriers to quitting smoking. Partially consistent with the hypotheses, after accounting for the variance explained by other theoretically relevant variables, we found that anxiety sensitivity was significantly associated with self-control reasons for quitting smoking (intrinsic factors) as well as immediate reinforcement and social influence reasons for quitting (extrinsic factors). Results are discussed in relation to better understanding the role of anxiety sensitivity in psychological processes associated with smoking cessation.

  12. The mediational pathway among parenting styles, attachment styles and self-regulation with addiction susceptibility of adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeinali, Ali; Sharifi, Hassanpasha; Enayati, Mirsalahadine; Asgari, Parviz; Pasha, Gohlamreza

    2011-09-01

    The purpose of present study was to create and test a model that illustrates variables that influence the development of addiction susceptibility and determine how different styles of parenting may indirectly influence the addiction susceptibility of children through the mediators of attachment style and self-regulation. Using random cluster sampling, 508 adolescent high school boys and girls aged 14-19 years were enrolled. Data were analyzed using structural equations modeling (path analysis). The results showed that authoritative and permissive parenting styles were associated with secure attachment whereas authoritarian and neglectful parenting styles were associated with insecure attachment. Insecure attachment was associated with a low level of self-regulation whereas secure attachment was associated with a high level of self-regulation. We found that a low level of self-regulation increased the adolescent's addiction susceptibility whereas a high level of self-regulation decreased their addiction susceptibility. The findings of present study suggest the authoritative and permissive parenting styles as the most efficient styles and authoritarian and neglectful parenting styles as the most inefficient styles in terms of addiction susceptibility. Accordingly, efficient parenting style training to parents should be the main goal of drug demand reduction program.

  13. The mediational pathway among parenting styles, attachment styles and self-regulation with addiction susceptibility of adolescents*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeinali, Ali; Sharifi, Hassanpasha; Enayati, Mirsalahadine; Asgari, Parviz; Pasha, Gohlamreza

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The purpose of present study was to create and test a model that illustrates variables that influence the development of addiction susceptibility and determine how different styles of parenting may indirectly influence the addiction susceptibility of children through the mediators of attachment style and self-regulation. METHODS: Using random cluster sampling, 508 adolescent high school boys and girls aged 14-19 years were enrolled. Data were analyzed using structural equations modeling (path analysis). RESULTS: The results showed that authoritative and permissive parenting styles were associated with secure attachment whereas authoritarian and neglectful parenting styles were associated with insecure attachment. Insecure attachment was associated with a low level of self-regulation whereas secure attachment was associated with a high level of self-regulation. We found that a low level of self-regulation increased the adolescent's addiction susceptibility whereas a high level of self-regulation decreased their addiction susceptibility. CONCLUSIONS: The findings of present study suggest the authoritative and permissive parenting styles as the most efficient styles and authoritarian and neglectful parenting styles as the most inefficient styles in terms of addiction susceptibility. Accordingly, efficient parenting style training to parents should be the main goal of drug demand reduction program. PMID:22973379

  14. Special aspects of motivation of the structural subdivisions of the state emergency service of Ukraine in terms of physical self-culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stetsenko A.I.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to determine the motivation of employees of structural subdivisions of the State Emergency Service of Ukraine to improve their level of professional competence by means of physical training. Material: questionnaire survey of 130 rescue workers aged 25 to 40 years. Results: the main motives of rescue team personnel for physical culture and sports activities are gain in physical health and professional competence, while performing rescue missions. It was established that, when on duty, most of the firefighters and rescue workers are not engaged in physical exercise at all; household chores and poor state of health in case of men prevent rescue team employees from doing exercises outside of working hours. It was found that fire-rescue specialists give preference to the development of muscle strength during professional physical trainings and would like to perform power exercises. Conclusions: the low level of motivation of current fire-rescue workers for physical self-improvement requires optimization of control over professional physical education in departments of the State Emergency Service of Ukraine.

  15. Teaching for Different Learning Styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cropper, Carolyn

    1994-01-01

    This study examined learning styles in 137 high ability fourth-grade students. All students were administered two learning styles inventories. Characteristics of students with the following learning styles are summarized: auditory language, visual language, auditory numerical, visual numerical, tactile concrete, individual learning, group…

  16. Learning styles in otolaryngology fellowships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varela, David A Diaz Voss; Malik, Mohammad U; Laeeq, Kulsoom; Pandian, Vinciya; Brown, David J; Weatherly, Robert A; Cummings, Charles W; Bhatti, Nasir I

    2011-12-01

    Previous studies have identified a predominant learning style in trainees from different specialties, more recently in otolaryngology residents. The purpose of our study was to determine a predominant learning style within otolaryngology fellowships and to identify any differences between otolaryngology fellows and residents. We conducted a survey of otolaryngology fellows at 25 otolaryngology fellowship programs accredited by the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education. We emailed Kolb's Learning Style Index version 3.1 to 16 pediatric otolaryngology (PO) and 24 otology/neurotology (ON) fellows. This index is a widely used 12-item questionnaire. The participants answered each item in the questionnaire as it applied to their preferred learning style: accommodating, converging, diverging, or assimilating. Results were then analyzed and compared between each subspecialty and the previously reported preferred styles of otolaryngology residents. Ten PO and 20 ON fellows completed the survey, with an overall response rate of 75%. PO and ON fellows (60% of each group) preferred a learning style that was "balanced" across all four styles. For ON fellows, 35% preferred converging and 5% preferred accommodating styles. For PO fellows, converging and accommodating styles accounted for 20% each. It was previously reported that 74.4% of otolaryngology residents prefer either converging or accommodating styles. We believe that the fellowship training environment calls for fellows to use more than one learning style to become proficient physicians, hence the trend toward potentially developing a balanced style when at this level. Copyright © 2011 The American Laryngological, Rhinological, and Otological Society, Inc.

  17. Cognitive Styles and Distance Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuliang; Ginther, Dean

    1999-01-01

    Considers how to adapt the design of distance education to students' cognitive styles. Discusses cognitive styles, including field dependence versus independence, holistic-analytic, sensory preference, hemispheric preferences, and Kolb's Learning Style Model; and the characteristics of distance education, including technology. (Contains 92…

  18. Parenting Style Transitions and Delinquency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Ryan D.; Mowen, Thomas J.

    2014-01-01

    Parenting style has been extensively analyzed as a contributor to juvenile delinquency in the criminological literature, but no research to date has assessed the prevalence of parenting style changes during adolescence or the influence of such parenting style changes on juvenile delinquency. Drawing from the life course theory, the results show…

  19. Attachment Style and Internet Addiction: An Online Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichenberg, Christiane; Schott, Markus; Decker, Oliver; Sindelar, Brigitte

    2017-05-17

    One of the clinically relevant problems of Internet use is the phenomenon of Internet addiction. Considering the fact that there is ample evidence for the relationship between attachment style and substance abuse, it stands to reason that attachment theory can also make an important contribution to the understanding of the pathogenesis of Internet addiction. The aim of this study was to examine people's tendency toward pathological Internet usage in relation to their attachment style. An online survey was conducted. Sociodemographic data, attachment style (Bielefeld questionnaire partnership expectations), symptoms of Internet addiction (scale for online addiction for adults), used Web-based services, and online relationship motives (Cyber Relationship Motive Scale, CRMS-D) were assessed. In order to confirm the findings, a study using the Rorschach test was also conducted. In total, 245 subjects were recruited. Participants with insecure attachment style showed a higher tendency to pathological Internet usage compared with securely attached participants. An ambivalent attachment style was particularly associated with pathological Internet usage. Escapist and social-compensatory motives played an important role for insecurely attached subjects. However, there were no significant effects with respect to Web-based services and apps used. Results of the analysis of the Rorschach protocol with 16 subjects corroborated these results. Users with pathological Internet use frequently showed signs of infantile relationship structures in the context of social groups. This refers to the results of the Web-based survey, in which interpersonal relationships were the result of an insecure attachment style. Pathological Internet use was a function of insecure attachment and limited interpersonal relationships. ©Christiane Eichenberg, Markus Schott, Oliver Decker, Brigitte Sindelar. Originally published in the Journal of Medical Internet Research (http://www.jmir.org), 17.05.2017.

  20. Attachment Style and Internet Addiction: An Online Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schott, Markus; Decker, Oliver; Sindelar, Brigitte

    2017-01-01

    Background One of the clinically relevant problems of Internet use is the phenomenon of Internet addiction. Considering the fact that there is ample evidence for the relationship between attachment style and substance abuse, it stands to reason that attachment theory can also make an important contribution to the understanding of the pathogenesis of Internet addiction. Objective The aim of this study was to examine people’s tendency toward pathological Internet usage in relation to their attachment style. Methods An online survey was conducted. Sociodemographic data, attachment style (Bielefeld questionnaire partnership expectations), symptoms of Internet addiction (scale for online addiction for adults), used Web-based services, and online relationship motives (Cyber Relationship Motive Scale, CRMS-D) were assessed. In order to confirm the findings, a study using the Rorschach test was also conducted. Results In total, 245 subjects were recruited. Participants with insecure attachment style showed a higher tendency to pathological Internet usage compared with securely attached participants. An ambivalent attachment style was particularly associated with pathological Internet usage. Escapist and social-compensatory motives played an important role for insecurely attached subjects. However, there were no significant effects with respect to Web-based services and apps used. Results of the analysis of the Rorschach protocol with 16 subjects corroborated these results. Users with pathological Internet use frequently showed signs of infantile relationship structures in the context of social groups. This refers to the results of the Web-based survey, in which interpersonal relationships were the result of an insecure attachment style. Conclusions Pathological Internet use was a function of insecure attachment and limited interpersonal relationships. PMID:28526662

  1. Linking Motivation and Commitment through Learning Activities in the Volunteer Sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serafino, Allan

    2001-01-01

    Volunteer motivation and commitment are linked through learning about the organization, the job, and oneself. Volunteer managers should (1) identity volunteer motivations and establish conditions to support them; (2) identify learning activities appropriate for motivations and learning styles; (3) ensure congruence between volunteer learning and…

  2. Australian food life style segments and elaboration likelihood differences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brunsø, Karen; Reid, Mike

    As the global food marketing environment becomes more competitive, the international and comparative perspective of consumers' attitudes and behaviours becomes more important for both practitioners and academics. This research employs the Food-Related Life Style (FRL) instrument in Australia...... in order to 1) determine Australian Life Style Segments and compare these with their European counterparts, and to 2) explore differences in elaboration likelihood among the Australian segments, e.g. consumers' interest and motivation to perceive product related communication. The results provide new...

  3. Thinking and creative styles: the impact in educational and professional areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solange Muglia Weschler

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Styles can be defined as thinking and behaving preferences on specific situations. Assessing thinking and creative styles can give essential information on ways creativity can be expressed in the educational and professional areas. Considering this, a scale entitled Style of Thinking and Creating was developed based on the creative persons’ characteristics. Two main studies with Brazilian samples demonstrated the validity of this scale to identify creative productive individuals. Five additional investigations conducted with high school and university students, as well as professionals on leadership positions, indicated the existence of significant relationships among styles with learning motivation, school achievement, leadership behaviors and creative attitudes, but no relationships among styles and personality types. In conclusion, the need to understand styles for thinking and creating in order to provide better educational and professional guidance was confirmed. 

  4. Directed Motivational Currents: Using vision to create effective motivational pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Muir

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Vision, that is, the mental representation of the sensory experience of a future goal state (involving imagination and imagery, is currently at the forefront of motivational innovation, and in recent years it has been seen increasingly more often in the motivational tool kit of practicing language teachers. Theories such as Dörnyei’s L2 motivational self system have explored the power that creating effective visions can harness (see, e.g., Dörnyei & Kubanyiova, 2014 and when viewed in conjunction with other current research avenues, such as future time perspective and dynamic systems theory, vision offers exciting potential. A Directed Motivational Current is a new motivational construct that we suggest is capable of integrating many current theoretical strands with vision: It can be described as a motivational drive which energises long-term, sustained behaviour (such as language learning, and through placing vision and goals as critical central components within this construct, it offers real and practical motivational potential. In this conceptual paper, we first discuss current understandings of vision and of Directed Motivational Currents, and then analyse how they may be optimally integrated and employed to create effective motivational pathways in language learning environments.

  5. Early deprivation leads to long-term reductions in motivation for reward and 5-HT1A binding and both effects are reversed by fluoxetine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leventopoulos, Michail; Russig, Holger; Feldon, Joram; Pryce, Christopher R; Opacka-Juffry, Jolanta

    2009-03-01

    Early life stress is a risk factor in aetiology of depression. In rats, early life stress can lead to pro-depressive biomarkers in adulthood. The present study in male Wistar rats investigated the effects of early life deprivation and fluoxetine on motivation for reward, activity in the forced swim test, and brain monoamine receptors, in adulthood. P1-14 pups were isolated for 4 h/day (early deprivation, ED) or were handled for 1 min (CON). They were weaned at PND21 and left undisturbed until 4-6 months old. The ED and CON groups were halved to receive either vehicle or fluoxetine (FLX, 10 mg/kg, 31 days). Thus, four treatment groups were studied: CON-VEH, CON-FLX, ED-VEH and ED-FLX, n = 8 each. On a progressive ratio schedule, ED-VEH animals showed significantly reduced motivation to obtain sucrose versus CON-VEH, and this reward-motivation deficit was reversed by FLX. Activity in the forced swim test was unaffected by ED and increased by FLX. Quantitative autoradiography was used to determine 5-HT1A and 5-HT2C receptor binding with [O-methyl-(3)H]WAY 100635 and [(3)H]mesulergine (added spiperone and 8-OH-DPAT), respectively. In ED-VEH versus CON-VEH, 5-HT1A receptor binding was significantly reduced in anterior cingulate, motor cortex, ventral hippocampal CA1 and dorsal raphé; this was reversed by chronic FLX. Concomitant ED-dependent reductions observed in 5-HT2C (motor and frontal cortices, ventral CA1 and dorsal raphé) and D2 (dorsolateral striatum and accumbens) binding were not reversed by FLX. Because chronic FLX treatment reversed the ED-induced behavioural and 5-HT1A binding deficits, the 5-HT1A receptor is implicated as a selective therapeutic target.

  6. Managerial style in Spanish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dra. Cristina Etayo Pérez

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to study the management style of the Spanish advertising agencies. For this purpose, it explores the way in which the dimensions that define the nature of this concept arise in the sector chosen. The analysis begins with the definition of management style as concept followed by an exposition of its main functions and its fundamental dimensions. Then, the paper presents the methodology used to verify how these dimensions appear among managers as well as the results obtained during the fieldwork. Such methodology includes the achievement of in-depth interviews, with the help of a questionnaire of semi-structured questions, and the descriptive analysis of qualitative and quantitative information obtained from those interviews. The revision of these aspects enriches the study of management at the advertising agencies since it contributes to understand why certain actions have as a consequence one particular kind of relationship between directors and collaborators or another.

  7. Style representation in design grammars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmad, Sumbul; Chase, Scott Curland

    2012-01-01

    The concept of style is relevant for both the analysis and synthesis of designs. New styles are often formed by the adaptation of previous ones based on changes in design criteria and context. A formal characterization of style is given by shape grammars, which describe the compositional rules...... underlying a set of designs. Stylistic change can be modelled by grammar transformations, which allow the transformation of the structure and vocabulary of a grammar that is used to describe a particular style. In order for grammars to be useful beyond a single application, they should have the capability...... to be transformed according to changing design style needs. Issues of formalizing stylistic change necessitate a lucid and formal definition of style in the design language generated by a grammar. Furthermore, a significant aspect of the definition of style is the representation of aesthetic qualities attributed...

  8. Parenting styles and economics

    OpenAIRE

    Zilibotti, Fabrizio

    2015-01-01

    Does the economy influence the way people bring up their children? How can we determine and measure a child’s utility? How can parenting styles be categorized in an economic model? These are the questions that Professor Fabricio Zilibotti of the University of Zurich addressed in his honorary lecture ‘Parenting with Style’, which he delivered at the April International Academic Conference during the 5th LCSR international workshop ‘Social and Cultural Changes in Cross-National Perspective: Sub...

  9. Motivation of medical students: selection by motivation or motivation by selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wouters, Anouk; Croiset, Gerda; Galindo-Garre, Francisca; Kusurkar, Rashmi A

    2016-01-29

    Medical schools try to implement selection procedures that will allow them to select the most motivated students for their programs. Though there is a general feeling that selection stimulates student motivation, conclusive evidence for this is lacking. The current study aims to use the perspective of Self-determination Theory (SDT) of motivation as a lens to examine how medical students' motivation differs in relation to different selection procedures. The hypotheses were that 1) selected students report higher strength and autonomous motivation than non-selected students, and 2) recently selected students report higher strength and autonomous motivation than non-selected students and students who were selected longer ago. First- (Y1) and fourth-year (Y4) medical students in the six-year regular programme and first-year students in the four-year graduate entry programme (GE) completed questionnaires measuring motivation strength and type (autonomous-AM, controlled-CM). Scores were compared between students admitted based on selection, lottery or top pre-university GPA (top GPA) using ANCOVAs. Selected students' answers on open-ended questions were analysed using inductive thematic analysis to identify reasons for changes in motivation. The response rate was 61.4 % (n = 357). Selected students (Y1, Y4 and GE) reported a significantly higher strength of motivation than non-selected students (Y1 and Y4 lottery and top GPA) (p motivation as they felt autonomous, competent and that they belonged to a special group. These reported reasons are in alignment with the basic psychological needs described by Self-Determination Theory as important in enhancing autonomous motivation. A comprehensive selection procedure, compared to less demanding admission procedures, does not seem to yield a student population which stands out in terms of autonomous motivation. The current findings indicate that selection might temporarily enhance students' motivation. The mechanism

  10. A multidimensional intergenerational model of young males' driving styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil, Shani; Taubman-Ben-Ari, Orit; Toledo, Tomer

    2016-12-01

    This study examines the associations between fathers' driving styles, the family's general and driving-related atmosphere, and the young drivers' motivations, on one hand, and young males' driving styles, on the other. The 242 father and son pairs that participated in the study independently completed several self-report questionnaires at different points in time within the first year after licensure of the young drivers. A structural equation model (SEM) was developed, in which the contribution of fathers' driving style and their sons' perceptions of the general family relations, the family climate for road safety (FCRS), and costs and benefits of driving, to the driving styles of the young male drivers was examined. The SEM estimation results show direct as well as indirect significant effects between the various dimensions. The FCRS factors of non-commitment and messages, and the cost of thrill, were found to be the strongest mediators between the fathers' driving style and the family cohesion, on one hand, and the driving style of the young driver, on the other. These results may be useful in pointing out directions for the development of interventions that could assist in reducing the involvement of youngsters in risky driving and car crashes, and encourage safe and considerate driving. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Educators' Perceptions of Their Instructional Leadership Styles and Their Problem Solving Styles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Issa, Reine M.

    2014-01-01

    Instructional leadership is not well-defined in the literature. The term has been used to describe the principal's role as an instructional leader. However, principals are not the only instructional leaders. Teachers are as well. In this study, data on leadership and problem solving style were collected one time from 378 educators in K-12 school…

  12. Framing Gangnam Style

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyunsun Catherine Yoon

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the way in which news about Gangnam Style was framed in the Korean press. First released on 15th July 2012, it became the first video to pass two billion views on YouTube. 400 news articles between July 2012 and March 2013 from two South Korean newspapers - Chosun Ilbo and Hankyoreh were analyzed using the frame analysis method in five categories: industry/economy, globalization, cultural interest, criticism, and competition. The right-left opinion cleavage is important because news frames interact with official discourses, audience frames and prior knowledge which consequently mediate effects on public opinion, policy debates, social movement and individual interpretations. Whilst the existing literature on Gangnam Style took rather holistic approach, this study aimed to fill the lacuna, considering this phenomenon as a dynamic process, by segmenting different stages - recognition, spread, peak and continuation. Both newspapers acknowledged Gangnam Style was an epochal event but their perspectives and news frames were different; globalization frame was most frequently used in Chosun Ilbo whereas cultural interest frame was most often used in Hankyoreh. Although more critical approaches were found in Hankyoreh, reflecting the right-left opinion cleavage, both papers lacked in critical appraisal and analysis of Gangnam Style’s reception in a broader context of the new Korean Wave.

  13. Going abroad to play: Motivations, challenges, and support of sports expatriates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Bakel, Marian

    2019-01-01

    Professional athletes moving abroad for their career is a novel phenomenon in IHRM. This exploratory paper charts the motivations of sports expatriates to move abroad to play, as well as adjustment challenges and sources of support. A survey was conducted with 77 professional athletes in 10 diffe...... expatriates need all the support they can get, and yet, little professional support is offered....... different sports. The main motivations to move abroad were an interest to experience life abroad, followed by the search for new challenges. In terms of challenges, different coaching style and communication issues were most often mentioned. Support was mainly informal, through team mates rather than...... professional providers. Our paper contributes to the literature because it is one of the first studies focusing on sports expatriates from an international HR perspective. Our study provides information on a vulnerable group of expatriates; they are young in age and under extreme performance pressure. Sports...

  14. Motivation of workers in a particular company

    OpenAIRE

    ŽÁKOVÁ, Lenka

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this work is to analyse the current system of motivation of employees in the chosen company following suggestions of changes and recommendations for improving management in this area. The theoretical part contents basic ideas of motivation and employee benefits. The practical part is based on an analysis of the company. The purpose of changes should be a more sophisticated and long-term motivation of employees. Proposals for better solutions in the field of employee motivation shou...

  15. The Structural Model in Parenting Style, Attachment Style, Self-regulation and Self-esteem for Smartphone Addiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwan Hoi Ching

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Excessive smartphone usage has become a highly controversial and substantial worldwide issue. This paper explores the complexities and challenges of smartphone addiction with a particular focus on parenting styles, attachment, and self-regulation. Convenience sampling was used to gather data from 211 university students in Hong Kong (138 females/74 males through their responses to four questionnaires. One structural equation model was formed successfully which indicated that parenting style (authoritative or permissive could be a reasonable predictor of attachment style (secure or dismissive and self-regulation (impulse control or goal setting for smartphone addictions (positive anticipation, withdrawal, cyberspace relationship or overuse. Parenting style was a positive correlate to predict attachment, while the attachment positive correlated to predict self-regulation. Self-regulation was a negative correlate to smartphone addiction. It was revealed that a positive parenting style and positive attachment style could form a significant model with self-regulation and smartphone addiction. Furthermore, secure attachment had higher mediation effect, while impulse control and goal setting behavior had a fair mediation power over influencing addiction tendency. This model helped explore the relationships between smartphone addiction and other constructs in educational psychology. Based on findings, educators can gain insights into how parenting and self-regulation can influence the tendency towards excessive smartphone usage. More educational programs which aim at promoting adequate parenting skills, motivating children through self-regulation and goal setting, is proposed through this study.

  16. Influence of Perceived Parenting Styles: Goal Orientations and Career Aspirations of High School Science Students in Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koul, Ravinder; Lerdpornkulrat, Thanita; Poondej, Chanut

    2016-01-01

    There has been considerable research interest into the relationship between the parenting styles of Asians, and student motivation and achievement. The investigation presented in this paper contributes to the literature in this area by examining the influence of perceived parenting style on goal orientations and career aspirations of a sample of…

  17. The leisure style of Canadian rural recreation participants: An analysis based on three different rural leisure settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul Heintzman; Don. Dawson

    2012-01-01

    This study was a secondary analysis of data from a previous study of 248 Canadians on four dimensions of leisure style: time use, leisure setting, leisure activity participation, and leisure motivation. Correlation analyses were conducted to determine if frequency of participation in three rural leisure settings were related to other leisure style dimensions.

  18. Motivations Behind Sustainable Purchasing

    OpenAIRE

    Vörösmarty, Gyöngyi; Dobos, Imre; Tátrai, Tünde

    2011-01-01

    Sustainability issues in purchasing are receiving greater attention. Literature is rapidly growing, with several research programs being initiated to investigate the topic. This study presents the results of a research project which aims to reveal and structure the motivating forces leading companies to make efforts in sustainability purchasing and the means used to attain achievements in some fields of sustainability. Results presented in the literature are scattered in terms of ...

  19. Nursing Students’ Preferred Learning Styles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sh Salehi

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Background and purpose: Learning style is the processing of information and comprehension. If teachers present contents in a style that matches a student’s preferred learning style, academic performance and success will improve. If content retention improves it will result in an increase in thetest scores. It is also important to determine if students, as a group, fit into a particular style or a particular cycle as they move through an educational program.Methods: The study is a descriptive analytical research. Nursing Students at Isfahan Medical Sciences University completed a questionnaire  formulated to assess learning styles. Analysis of variance was used to investigate the possible relationship between learning cycle and student’s grades in the curriculum (i.e. freshman, sophomore, junior, or senior. Cross tabulation was used to test for a relationship between learning style and student academic year of study in the curriculum.Results: 294 students received the Kolb LSI questionnaire. The data demonstrated that juniors preferred a converger learning style and the senior students were in the abstract conceptualization cycle of learning. There were no relationships demonstrated between other groups in the study.Conclusion: The junior and senior students appear to prefer the stage of learning involving thinking and problem analysis. When a group of students demonstrate a preference for particular learning style teachers can develop their curriculum along their learning styleKey words: LEARNING STYLES, NURSING STUDENTS, FRESHMAN, SOPHOMORE, JUNIOR, SENIOR

  20. Personality structure and social style in macaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Mark James; Majolo, Bonaventura; Ostner, Julia; Schülke, Oliver; De Marco, Arianna; Thierry, Bernard; Engelhardt, Antje; Widdig, Anja; Gerald, Melissa S; Weiss, Alexander

    2015-08-01

    Why regularities in personality can be described with particular dimensions is a basic question in differential psychology. Nonhuman primates can also be characterized in terms of personality structure. Comparative approaches can help reveal phylogenetic constraints and social and ecological patterns associated with the presence or absence of specific personality dimensions. We sought to determine how different personality structures are related to interspecific variation in social style. Specifically, we examined this question in 6 different species of macaques, because macaque social style is well characterized and can be categorized on a spectrum of despotic (Grade 1) versus tolerant (Grade 4) social styles. We derived personality structures from adjectival ratings of Japanese (Macaca fuscata; Grade 1), Assamese (M. assamensis; Grade 2), Barbary (M. sylvanus; Grade 3), Tonkean (M. tonkeana; Grade 4), and crested (M. nigra; Grade 4) macaques and compared these species with rhesus macaques (M. mulatta; Grade 1) whose personality was previously characterized. Using a nonparametric method, fuzzy set analysis, to identify commonalities in personality dimensions across species, we found that all but 1 species exhibited consistently defined Friendliness and Openness dimensions, but that similarities in personality dimensions capturing aggression and social competence reflect similarities in social styles. These findings suggest that social and phylogenetic relationships contribute to the origin, maintenance, and diversification of personality. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.

  1. Effect of using an audience response system on learning environment, motivation and long-term retention, during case-discussions in a large group of undergraduate veterinary clinical pharmacology students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doucet, Michèle; Vrins, André; Harvey, Denis

    2009-12-01

    Teaching methods that provide an opportunity for individual engagement and focussed feedback are required to create an active learning environment for case-based teaching in large groups. A prospective observational controlled study was conducted to evaluate whether the use of an audience response system (ARS) would promote an active learning environment during case-based discussions in large groups, have an impact on student motivation and improve long-term retention. Group A (N = 83) participated in large group case discussions where student participation was voluntary, while for group B (N = 86) an ARS was used. Data collection methods included student and teacher surveys, student focus group interviews, independent observations and 1-year post-course testing. Results indicated that the use of an ARS provided an active learning environment during case-based discussions in large groups by favouring engagement, observation and critical reflection and by increasing student and teacher motivation. Although final exam results were significantly improved in group B, long-term retention was not significantly different between groups. It was concluded that ARS use significantly improved the learning experience associated with case-based discussions in a large group of undergraduate students.

  2. Process modeling style

    CERN Document Server

    Long, John

    2014-01-01

    Process Modeling Style focuses on other aspects of process modeling beyond notation that are very important to practitioners. Many people who model processes focus on the specific notation used to create their drawings. While that is important, there are many other aspects to modeling, such as naming, creating identifiers, descriptions, interfaces, patterns, and creating useful process documentation. Experience author John Long focuses on those non-notational aspects of modeling, which practitioners will find invaluable. Gives solid advice for creating roles, work produ

  3. Leadership Styles Promote Teamwork

    OpenAIRE

    Khater Aldoshan

    2015-01-01

    This paper will evaluate the importance of learning leadership styles and the explanation of when and how each one is used in the workforce. In this paper many experts have been cited that are well-known in the field of leadership. Also this paper will concentrate on the importance of teamwork in the workforce and there are many examples of how teamwork is effective for creating the best possible outcomes for creativity and productivity. In the television industry creativity is an essential c...

  4. Leadership Styles Promote Teamwork

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khater Aldoshan

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper will evaluate the importance of learning leadership styles and the explanation of when and how each one is used in the workforce. In this paper many experts have been cited that are well-known in the field of leadership. Also this paper will concentrate on the importance of teamwork in the workforce and there are many examples of how teamwork is effective for creating the best possible outcomes for creativity and productivity. In the television industry creativity is an essential component of the job description and inspirational leadership that promotes teamwork is essential.

  5. Fatherhood and Managerial Style

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Michael S.; Dezsö, Cristian; Ross, David Gaddis

    2012-01-01

    Motivated by a growing literature in the social sciences suggesting that the transition to fatherhood has a profound effect on men’s values, we study how the wages of employees change after a male chief executive officer (CEO) has children, using comprehensive panel data on the employees, CEOs, a...

  6. The behavior style of coaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mijanović Mihajlo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available On the sample by 121 perspective young athletes was carried out the researching in the aim to establish the behavior style of coaches. The relevant information was obtained through the validated questionnaires of Chelladura and Saleha (1980. The questionnaire contains 40 questions which directly determine 5 behavior styles of coaches. All questions possess the scale by 5 levels with possible statements: (always, often, periodically, rarely and never. The true answer is only one statement on one question. It is word about five degrees 'Likert's scale'. It was carried out extensive and complex statistics processing of date, where the input qualitative categorical variables were transformed into quantitative. In the next step, transformed categorical variables were exposed in classical and neoclassical statistical methodology. On the base of exact indications which were obtained by using relevant invariant and multivariate statistical methods and tests, dominant behavior style of coaches is 'Instructive'. This behavior style of coach is the most desirable. According to this researching at the last position is behavior style which is the autocratically and it is also at the same time the least desirable. The results of Analysis of variance (ANOVA and Canonic discriminative analysis show the general statistical significant difference in the representation of the behavior styles. Instructive and Autocratic behavior style of coach mostly influences on the total (general discrimination i.e. difference. For above mentioned styles, it could be said that they are paradigm of contrasts in every way. Values of Tukey - HSD test explicitly shows that there are not statistical significant difference between Instructive Style and style Awarded - Feedback as well as between Democratically and style of Social Support. The other combinations i.e. couples of behavior styles are statistical significantly different.

  7. Learning styles and courseware design

    OpenAIRE

    Valley, Karen

    1997-01-01

    In this paper we examine how (courseware) can accommodate differences in preferred learning style. A review of the literature on learning styles is followed by a discussion of the implications of being able to accurately classify learners, and key issues that must be addressed are raised. We then present two courseware design solutions that take into account individual learning‐style preference: the first follows on from traditional research in this area and assumes that learners can be class...

  8. Advertising styles in different cultures

    OpenAIRE

    Krasulja Nevena

    2003-01-01

    Modern consumer is inhabitant of a "Global Village" as well as of its own national culture which largely influences his creation of a system of values, beliefs and style of life in general. According to adopted values and styles, consumers from different cultures have different buying behavior, different needs and preferences related to a product and they have their favorite advertising styles. As advertising reflects culture, symbols and rituals which are used are even more emphasized and st...

  9. Exploring leadership styles for innovation: an exploratory factor analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wipulanusat Warit

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Leadership plays a vital role in building the process, structures, and climate for an organisation to become innovative and to motivate team expectations toward innovations. This study explores the leadership styles that engineers regard as significant for innovation in the public sector. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA was conducted to identify the principal leadership styles influencing innovation in the Australian Public Service (APS, using survey data extracted from the 2014 APS employee census comprising 3 125 engineering professionals in Commonwealth of Australia departments. EFA returned a two-factor structure explaining 77.6% of the variance of the leadership for innovation construct. In this study, the results from the EFA provided a clear estimation of the factor structure of the measures for leadership for innovation. From the results, the two factors extracted were transformational leadership and consideration leadership. In transformational leadership, a leader values organisational objectives, inspires subordinates to perform, and motivates followers beyond expected levels of work standards. Consideration leadership refers to the degree to which a leader shows concern and expressions of support for subordinates, takes care of their welfare, treats members as equals, and displays warmth and approachability. These findings highlight the role of leadership as the most critical predictor when considering the degree to which subordinates strive for creativity and innovation. Both transformational and consideration leadership styles are recommended to be incorporated into management training and development programs. This study also recommends that Commonwealth departments recruit supervisors who have both of these leadership styles before implementing innovative projects.

  10. Implementing culture change in long-term dementia care settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGreevy, Jessica

    2016-01-06

    The approach to nursing in long-term care settings for people living with dementia continues to evolve from a traditional, task-oriented culture to one that is person-centred. Such change can be difficult to manage and may encounter considerable opposition; having an understanding of change management and leadership styles may help to make this transition easier. This article discusses the differences between task-oriented and person-centred care, theories of management, motivation and leadership styles, and focuses on those that are most appropriate for this type of change. An improved understanding of these theories will enable nurses to support others in the delivery of person-centred care.

  11. Student Motivation, Attitude, and Approach to Learning: Notes from a Novice Teacher.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vivaldo-Lima, Eduardo

    2001-01-01

    Describes what young professors can do considering student motivation, learning styles, and instructional effectiveness to improve student learning. Lists recommendations from experts on how to improve student learning. Includes 25 references. (Author/YDS)

  12. Motivational Rehabilitation using Serious Games

    OpenAIRE

    Antoni Jaume i Capó; Javier Varona Gómez; Gabriel Moyà; Francisco Perales

    2013-01-01

    Research studies show that serious games help to motivate users in rehabilitation processes, and rehabilitation results are better when users are motivated. In long term rehabilitation for maintaining capacities, the demotivation of chronic patients is common. In this work, we have implemented balance rehabilitation video game for cerebral palsy patients. The video game was developed using the prototype development paradigm and following desirable features for rehabilitation serious games pre...

  13. Motivation for the teaching profession

    OpenAIRE

    Křížová, Kateřina

    2012-01-01

    Anotace: The thesis "The motivation for the teaching profession" dealt with fundamental problems of motivation to the teaching profession. In the theoretical part, we have focused on general characteristics of terms that pertain to the teaching profession, particularly the theory of the teaching profession, the choice of the teaching profession, the phase of the teaching profession, teacher typology, the role of teacher training and professionalization of teachers, but also washed into the te...

  14. Is experiential-intuitive cognitive style more inclined to err on conjunction fallacy than analytical-rational cognitive style?

    OpenAIRE

    Lu, Yong

    2015-01-01

    In terms of prediction by Epstein’s integrative theory of personality, cognitive-experiential self-theory (CEST), those people with experiential-intuitive cognitive style are more inclined to induce errors than the other people with analytical-rational cognitive style in the conjunction fallacy (two events that can occur together are seen as more likely than at least one of the two events). We tested this prediction in a revised Linda problem. The results revealed that rational and experienti...

  15. Ward leadership styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, G

    1989-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to devise a leadership style scale based in the authoritarian/democratic concept of leadership and to test it with a group of nurses. The working hypothesis was that nurses, working by primary nursing methods, would have a more democratic attitude to leadership than those nurses working in a traditional task allocation system. Recent papers such as that of Henry & Tuxill (1) plead for the caring professions to take on board the concept of the 'person'. Not only is the traditional model of nursing care seen as bad for the patient; it is seen also as harmful to the nurses. Fretwell (2) describes the task system as essentially an industrial model rather than a professional one which tends to satisfy the needs of the doctor rather than the patient or nurse. Kinston (3) describes nursing decision-making and work as Level I work (tradesmen). Current models of care that individualize the nurse's response to work and decision-making become Level II type (professional). Primary nursing fulfils the need for professionalizing nursing and meeting the need for more independence as well as respecting the patient as a 'person' with the organisation there to facilitate interaction between qualified nurse and patient. Changes in attitude and relationships are essential if work is to change from task to person-centred. Styles of leadership in nurses need to alter as our orientation to care issues change (4).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  16. Teaching Styles, Learning Styles and the ESP Classroom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei Ph’ng Lee

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Learner diversity that exists in the classroom plays a role in influencing the teaching and learning process in the classroom. It should be acknowledged in order for the teaching and learning process to be a meaningful and effective process. Thus, this study examined the learning styles preference of engineering students and the teaching styles preferences of their Technical Communication lecturers. The study also looked at whether the students’ learning styles preferences were influenced by their field of study, gender and ethnic backgrounds. Felder and Solomon’s Index of Learning Styles was administered to 588 engineering students while Grasha and Riechmann-Hruska’s Teaching Style Survey was administered to 10 Technical Communication lecturers. The findings revealed that the students have a marked preference for the visual learning style but balanced preferences for the other learning styles dimensions. The students’ field of study, gender and ethnic backgrounds did not seem to influence the students’ learning styles preferences. As for their Technical Communication lecturers, they seem to favour the student-centered teaching approach. All the data support the notion of adopting a balanced teaching approach in the Technical Communication classroom.

  17. Profiling and Utilizing Learning Style. NASSP Learning Style Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keefe, James W., Ed.

    In 1986, the National Association of Secondary School Principals, with the assistance of a national task force, published the NASSP Learning Style Profile (LSP) for diagnosis of the cognitive styles, perceptual response tendencies, and instructional preferences of middle level and senior high school students. This monograph offers a short course…

  18. Long-term adherence to exercise: the relationship with functional fitness and personal motivation among community-dwelling independent-living older women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philipe de Souto BarretoI

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study were to examine the relationships between functional fitness, self-esteem, aesthetic body care and long-term adherence to dance, and to identify other characteristics related to dance adherence in the elderly. METHODS: Seventeen women, aged 59-86 years-old, who practised a type of dance labeled "bodily expression". RESULTS: Functional fitness was correlated to dance adherence and was the only factor related to this variable in a linear regression analysis. Self-esteem and aesthetic body care seemed to play an indirect role on adherence. Functional fitness, specially upper-body flexibility and lower-body muscular function, and interest in dance (qualitative data were related to long-term adherence to dance. CONCLUSIONS: Functional fitness and interest in exercising were the main aspects related to participants' long-term adherence to dance.

  19. The Generic Style Rules for Linguistics

    OpenAIRE

    Haspelmath, Martin

    2014-01-01

    The Generic Style Rules for Linguistics provide a style sheet that can be used by any linguistics journal or edited book, or for teaching purposes. They regulate aspects of text-structure style such as typographic highlighting, citation style, use of capitalization, and bibliographic style (based on the LSA's Unified Stylesheet for linguistics).

  20. Style popularity and the comovement of stocks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wouters, T.; Plantinga, A.

    2006-01-01

    We examine to what extent the popularity of an investment style can be attributed to style investing. The style investing hypothesis predicts that assets in the same style show strong comovement with respect to their underlying fundamentals and that reclassifying assets into a new style raises its

  1. The Using of Casual Style in ELT For Young Learners (Sociolinguistics Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Debora

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Young Learners have less reinforcement to speak with others. One of the causes is the trend of formal or clumsy learning setting in emphasizing the speaking proficiency. Speaking based on the culture context also contribute them in increasing their motivation to express their ideas. Casual style as one of the language variations gives contribution in increasing students’ motivation to be more active in the class. The simply characteristics of Casual style can be memorized and applied easily. Casual style tends to adjust the culture of speaker in communication so it will be easy to be understood. Students also can use the utterances in their daily life because most of the utterances are familiar for them. The raising of  motivation from students will give positive effect for teaching and learning process, students, and also teachers.

  2. Determination Motive through the Prism of the General Concept of the Motives of Human Behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veresha, Roman V.

    2016-01-01

    This research studies the problems of defining the concept of motive of crime in terms of the psychological concept of motives of human behavior. The purpose of this research is to define the motive of crime (which is yet undefined in spite of the longstanding existence of criminology) and to improve existing scientific theories regarding the…

  3. Prediction and constancy of cognitive-motivational structures in mothers and their adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malerstein, A J; Ahern, M M; Pulos, S; Arasteh, J D

    1995-01-01

    Three clinically-derived, cognitive-motivational structures were predicted in 68 adolescents from their caregiving situations as revealed in their mothers' interviews, elicited six years earlier. Basic to each structure is a motivational concern and its related social cognitive style, a style which corresponds to a Piagetian cognitive stage: concrete operational, intuitive or symbolic. Because these structure types parse a non-clinical population, current views of health and accordingly goals of treatment may need modification.

  4. Prevalence and diagnostic validity of motivational impairments and deficits in visuospatial short-term memory and working memory in ADHD subtypes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dovis, S.; van der Oord, S.; Huizenga, H.M.; Wiers, R.W.; Prins, P.J.M.

    2015-01-01

    Deficits in working memory (WM) and reinforcement sensitivity are thought to give rise to symptoms in the combined (ADHD-C) and inattentive subtype (ADHD-I) of ADHD. Children with ADHD are especially impaired on visuospatial WM, which is composed of short-term memory (STM) and a central executive.

  5. Motivation and Learning--The Role of Interest in Construction of Representation of Text and Long-Term Retention: Inter- and Intraindividual Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naceur, Abdelmajid; Schiefele, Ulrich

    2005-01-01

    The present work examined the influence of topic interest on the strength of different components of text representation and long-term retention according to the model of text processing by van Dijk and Kintsch (1983). A Series of relevant personality characteristics were assessed to control for alternative explanations of interest effect, A total…

  6. Detection Learning Style Vark For Out Of School Children (OSC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amran, Ali; Desiani, Anita; Hasibuan, MS

    2017-04-01

    Learning style is different for every learner especially for out of school children or OSC. They are not like formal students, they are learners but they don’t have a teacher as a guide for learning. E-learning is one of the solutions to help OSC to get education. E-learning should have preferred learning styles of learners. Data for identifying the learning style in this study were collected with a VARK questionnaire from 25 OSC in junior high school level from 5 municipalities in Palembang. The validity of the questionnaire was considered on basis of experts’ views and its reliability was calculated by using Cronbach’s alpha coefficients (α=0.68). Overall, 55% preferred to use a single learning style (Uni-modal). Of these, 27,76% preferred Aural, 20,57% preferred Reading Writing, 33,33% preferred Kinaesthetic and 23,13% preferred Visual. 45% of OSC preferred more than one style, 30% chose two-modes (bimodal), and 15% chose three-modes (tri-modal). The Most preferred Learning style of OSC is kinaesthetic learning. Kinaesthetic learning requires body movements, interactivities, and direct contacts with learning materials, these things can be difficult to implement in eLearning, but E-learning should be able to adopt any learning styles which are flexible in terms of time, period, curriculum, pedagogy, location, and language.

  7. Using VARK Approach for Assessing Preferred Learning Styles of First Year Medical Sciences Students: A Survey from Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Peyman, Hadi; Sadeghifar, Jamil; Khajavikhan, Javaher; Yasemi, Masood; Rasool, Mohammad; Yaghoubi, Yasemi Monireh; Nahal, Monireh Mohammad Hassan; Karim, Hemati

    2014-01-01

    Background: Preferred learning styles of learners are different, which depend on tastes, mentality preparedness, as well as physical condition, in terms of sensory modalities. Identifying and employing appropriate learning styles could play an important role in selecting teaching styles, which can improve education ultimately.

  8. Beyond the novelty effect: The role of in-game challenges, rewards and choices for long-term motivation to improve obesity-related health behaviours in adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Martin

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The prevalence of adolescent obesity is high in the UK. Engaging adolescent boys and girls in health behaviour related to the prevention of obesity proves to be challenging. Mobile and wireless technology shows promise for increasing knowledge and motivation to increase physical activity and healthy eating by capturing the interest of many adolescents. However, solutions for overcoming the novelty effect to enable habit formation and thus long-lasting behaviour change needs to be explored. Aim: This study aimed to explore Scottish adolescents’ perception of the usability and acceptability of a serious mobile game, wearable activity sensors and a smart phone eDiary application (app for promoting physical activity and healthy eating. Methods: The game, sensors and app are being developed following the COM-B model of the Behaviour Change Wheel. The technology is interlinked in that physical activity tracked by the wearable activity sensors and healthy eating captured by using the eDiary app are central to recover the player’s energy levels in the serious game. The player replenishes their in-game energy to progress in the game and to boost abilities. Applying a user-centred approach for developing the technology, 11 adolescents aged 13-16 years (6 boys, 5 girls participated in semi-structured focus groups. This was the first of three pre-pilot study iterations. Mock-up versions of the serious mobile game, wearable activity sensors and the prototype of the eDiary app were presented. Focus groups were audio-recorded, transcribed and thematically analysed. Results: All adolescents responded positively to the general idea of the game and all were keen to play the actual game once developed. Adolescents understood the importance and novelty of the link between player’s real-life health behaviours and in-game activities for improving obesity-related health behaviour. It became evident that the adolescents would only be motivated to be

  9. The Significance of Leadership Style.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, Elise

    1998-01-01

    In a learning environment, leadership style reflects a leader's deeply held educational beliefs, which are mirrored in the school's culture. Case studies illustrate how the leadership styles of three principals affect school ambience. Good leadership practice means acknowledging each person's differing gifts, strengths, and concerns, and utilizing…

  10. Supervisory Styles: A Contingency Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehe, Dirk Michael

    2016-01-01

    While the contingent nature of doctoral supervision has been acknowledged, the literature on supervisory styles has yet to deliver a theory-based contingency framework. A contingency framework can assist supervisors and research students in identifying appropriate supervisory styles under varying circumstances. The conceptual study reported here…

  11. Life Style Assessment: So What!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubry, William E.

    The construct life style was used by Alfred Adler to describe the characteristic way in which individuals act and think. Followers of his theories are now collecting evidence to support or validate his contentions. The assessment of client life styles serves: (1) to make the client aware of his misconceptions, (2) as a reference point for therapy,…

  12. Choreography Styles in Figure Skating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moormann, Peter Paul

    2006-01-01

    Fifty-eight figure skating trainers from fifteen different countries acted as volunteers in this study on choreography styles. The styles were based on reports of artistic-creative strategies in composing music, drawing, writing poems or novels, and in making dances. The prevalence of the Mozartian (at the onset the choreographer already has a…

  13. Laughing at the Looking Glass: Does Humor Style Serve as an Interpersonal Signal?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virgil Zeigler-Hill

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The provision of information appears to be an important feature of humor. The present studies examined whether humor serves as an interpersonal signal such that an individual's style of humor is associated with how the individual is perceived by others. Method: We examined this issue across two studies. In Study 1, undergraduate participants (257 targets were rated more positively by their friends and family members (1194 perceivers when they possessed more benign humor styles. In Study 2, 1190 community participants rated the romantic desirability of targets ostensibly possessing different humor styles. Results: Across both studies, our results were consistent with the possibility that humor serves as a signal. More specifically, individuals with benign humor styles (affiliative and self-enhancing humor styles were evaluated more positively than those targets with injurious humor styles (aggressive and self-defeating humor styles. Conclusion: These findings are discussed in terms of the role that humor may play in interpersonal perception and relationships.

  14. Language, Communication and Style

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stăncuţa Ramona DIMA-LAZA

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Intercultural language and communication skills vary across culture. Blunders are the result of an improper understanding of other nation’s language, non-verbal communication or customs and traditions. The present paper represents an incursion into the world of inaccurate translations and misinterpretations caused by a lack of ability to overcome cultural and language barriers. It also provides solutions for such problems, exemplifying with relevant situations. It informs the reader about writing principles and style, examining the outcome of conveying an inaccurate message. People write, deliver speeches or communicate for different purposes: to learn something, to entertain or to make money. Whether it is about one reason or another, the basic idea is to comply with certain language codes in order to avoid cultural conflicts.

  15. Intercultural conflict styles: literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Batkhina A.A.

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Analytical review of foreign psychological research on the international conflict styles is presented in this article. Intercultural conflict is understood as an interpersonal conflict between representatives of different cultures. The main models describing the intercultural conflict styles are analyzed: the dual concern model, the intercultural conflict styles inventory model, the face negotiation model. The publication provides a brief review of modern studies’ results of behavior predictors in the intercultural conflict; special attention is paid to the analysis of the influence of culture and intercultural communication apprehension on the choice of conflict styles. The importance of assessing the conflict styles effectiveness used in the situation of intercultural interaction is noted. In conclusion, unresolved problems and actual trends in the study of behavior in the intercultural conflict are designated.

  16. Humor and creative life styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richman, J

    2001-01-01

    This paper is based upon the writings of William James in the late 19th century, and Alfred Adler and Sigmund Freud in the 20th, enriched by the contributions of later personality and role theorists. The self is defined as the unique organization of each person; a style is the self in action. Different life styles and their components are expressed in different situations. I posit that humor and positive thinking, combined with meaning and purpose, are vital components of all constructive life styles. The knowledge of life styles cuts through diagnostic labels to reveal our universal humanity. It can be fruitfully applied to patients and nonpatients alike and, I found, for the self-understanding of therapist. The clinical application of life styles is illustrated through numerous vignettes.

  17. Leadership Style and the Process of Organisational Change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holten, Ann-Louise; Brenner, Sten Olof

    2015-01-01

    structural equation modeling. Findings — Transformational and transactional leadership styles were positively related to the engagement of managers. Managers’ engagement was associated with followers’ appraisal of change. The two leadership styles also had a direct, long-term effect on followers’ change...... appraisal; positive for transformational leadership and negative for transactional leadership. Practical implications — Our results have potential implications for change management, as followers’ change appraisal may be improved by developing managers’ leadership style and engagement. Originality......Purpose — This paper aims to identify processes which may contribute to followers’ positive reactions to change. By focusing on the relationship between change antecedents and explicit reactions, we investigate the direct and indirect relationships between leadership styles (transformational...

  18. Parenting styles and learned resourcefulness of Turkish adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Türkel, Yeşim Deniz; Tezer, Esin

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the differences among 834 high school students regarding learned resourcefulness in terms of perceived parenting style and gender. The data were gathered by administering the Parenting Style Inventory (PSI) and Rosenbaum's Self-Control Schedule (SCS). The results of ANOVA pertaining to the scores of learned resourcefulness yielded a significant main effect for parenting style groups. Neither the main effect for gender nor the gender and parenting style interaction effect was significant. The findings suggest that those who perceived their parents as authoritative had a relatively high level of learned resourcefulness as compared to those who perceived their parents as neglectful and authoritarian. Findings also indicated that those who perceived their parents as indulgent had a higher level of learned resourcefulness than those who perceived their parents as neglectful and authoritarian.

  19. [Motivational interviewing with alcohol-dependent patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spaeth, Michael; Bleich, Stefan; Hillemacher, Thomas

    2017-09-01

    Motivational interviewing with alcohol-dependent patients Alcohol-dependent patients do not need to be motivated from the outside. They are mostly ambivalent, and the inner voice, which already speaks for change (change talk), is heard through motivational interviewing, carefully strengthened and developed together with the patient. The practitioner has to deal with the human spirit of motivational interviewing and should be able to communicate with empathy, respect, congruence, and openness. The patient's autonomy should always be maintained. Advice is only given upon request. The conversation style is directive-guiding instead of authoritariansteering. OARS and the EPE principle are the motivational interviewing basics, which are consistently applied over 4 processes of motivational interviewing: engaging, focusing, evocing, and planning. The likelihood of change talk increases as soon as discrepancies between life goals and alcohol consumption emerge. An increased rate of change talk makes a change in behavior more likely. If a patient argues against change (sustain talk), one should not confront, but should consistently work with reflections, reframing, and an emphasis on autonomy. Motivational interviewing can be applied in different settings and populations, should be learned by the entire team (best professional guidance) in teamwork, and be subjected to a critical and constant evaluation. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  20. Model for research of the style of political leadership in Serbia at the crossing of the millennium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlićević Predrag

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This article indicated a model for a scientific description of styles of political leadership in Serbia from 1990 to the present, more precisely, pointed the basic elements of concept developed by the author in the study “The style of political leaders in Serbia in the period 1990-2006” (2010. For the evaluation the author uses analytical tools that include the aforementioned concept, simultaneously indicating correlative theoretical approaches the aforementioned study did not examine, and may be of importance for the research of political elites in Serbia. This contributes the epistemological part of the method, which is registered in the definition of the style of political leadership as a term and the category apparatus that follows - understood from the aspect of the political style: the style in building political power, the style of political communication, the style of building one’s legitimacy, the ideological style, the styles of political language, symbolism and rituals, non-verbal communication and style in expressing patriotism. Starting from the fact that political styles are related to characteristics of political cultures and that it is necessary to make a concept of ideal typical models of styles focused on political subjects, this article marked the styles of political leadership typology related to the specific acting of political leaders in Serbia: authoritarian, republican, realistic, populist, conformist, revolutionary and style of a politician-rebel.

  1. Style popularity and the comovement of stocks

    OpenAIRE

    Wouters, T.; Plantinga, A.

    2006-01-01

    We examine to what extent the popularity of an investment style can be attributed to style investing. The style investing hypothesis predicts that assets in the same style show strong comovement with respect to their underlying fundamentals and that reclassifying assets into a new style raises its correlation with that style. We test this prediction by studying how comovement varies with proxies of popularity. We use different kinds of data, such as data on stocks, mutual funds, IPO?s and fin...

  2. Motivating the Knowledge Worker

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Herzberg . The Two - factor Theory asserts that motivators and de-motivators are mutually exclusive sets of factors . This research supports...various theories of motivation and the data collected from this effort, the author developed a two -dimensional model of the factors that motivate... Theory X/ Theory Y Two - factor Theory Cognitive Evaluation Theory Operant Conditioning Protection Motivation Theory

  3. A Randomized Trial of Motivational Interviewing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catley, Delwyn; Goggin, Kathy; Harris, Kari Jo; Richter, Kimber P.; Williams, Karen; Patten, Christi; Resnicow, Ken; Ellerbeck, Edward F.; Bradley-Ewing, Andrea; Lee, Hyoung S.; Moreno, Jose L.; Grobe, James E.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Despite limitations in evidence, the current Clinical Practice Guideline advocates Motivational Interviewing for smokers not ready to quit. This study evaluated the efficacy of Motivational Interviewing (MI) for inducing cessation-related behaviors among smokers with low motivation to quit. Design Randomized clinical trial. Setting/participants Two-hundred fifty-five daily smokers reporting low desire to quit smoking were recruited from an urban community during 2010–2011 and randomly assigned to Motivational Interviewing, health education, or brief advice using a 2:2:1 allocation. Data were analyzed from 2012 to 2014. Intervention Four sessions of Motivational Interviewing utilized a patient-centered communication style that explored patients’ own reasons for change. Four sessions of health education provided education related to smoking cessation while excluding elements characteristic of Motivational Interviewing. A single session of brief advice consisted of brief, personalized advice to quit. Main outcomes measures Self-reported quit attempts, smoking abstinence (biochemically verified), use of cessation pharmacotherapies, motivation, and confidence to quit were assessed at baseline and 3- and 6-month follow-ups. Results Unexpectedly, no significant differences emerged between groups in the proportion who made a quit attempt by 6-month follow-up (Motivational Interviewing, 52.0%; health education, 60.8%; brief advice, 45.1%; p=0.157). Health education had significantly higher biochemically verified abstinence rates at 6 months (7.8%) than brief advice (0.0%) (8% difference, 95% CI=3%, 13%, p=0.003), with the Motivational Interviewing group falling in between (2.9% abstinent, 3% risk difference, 95% CI=0%, 6%, p=0.079). Both Motivational Interviewing and health education groups showed greater increases in cessation medication use, motivation, and confidence to quit relative to brief advice (all pmotivation relative to Motivational Interviewing

  4. Long-Term Multi-Band and Polarimetric View of Mkn 421: Motivations for an Integrated Open-Data Platform for Blazar Optical Polarimetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulisses Barres de Almeida

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In this work, by making use of the large software and database resources made available through online facilities such as the ASI Science Data Center (ASDC, we present a novel approach to the modelling of blazar emission whereby the multi-epoch SED for Mkn 421 is modelled considering, in a self-consistent way, the temporal lags between bands (both in short and long-timescales. These are obtained via a detailed cross-correlation analysis, spanning data from radio to VHE gamma-rays from 2008 to 2015. In addition to that, long-term optical polarisation data is used to aid and complement our physical interpretation of the state and evolution of the source. Blazar studies constitute a clear example that astrophysics is becoming increasingly dominated by “big data”. Specific questions, such as the interpretation of polarimetric information—namely the evolution of the polarisation degree (PD and specially the polarisation angle (PA of a source—are very sensitive to the density of data coverage. Improving data accessibility and integration, in order to respond to these necessities, is thus extremely important and has a potentially large impact for blazar science. For this reason, we present also the project to create an open-access database for optical polarimetry, aiming to circumvent the issues raised above, by integrating long-term optical polarisation information on a number sources from several observatories and data providers in a consistent way. The platform, to be launched by the end of 2017 is built as part of the Brazilian Science Data Center (BSDC, a project hosted at CBPF, in Rio de Janeiro, and developed with the support of the Italian Space Agency (ASI and ICRANet. The BSDC is Virtual Observatory-compliant and is built in line with “Open Universe”, a global space science open-data initiative to be launched in November under the auspices of the United Nations.

  5. Personal style of the therapist, attachment style and personality trait

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Genise

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to analyze the relationship between the personal style of the therapist, attachment style and personality trait. It was used the personal style of the therapist questionnaire (PST – Q, the Argentinean attachment inventory and the big five inventory. The study sample consisted of 120 psychotherapists average age of 36.28 years (SD = 9.65, and the average years of experience was 7.90 years (SD = 8.04. The analysis of the results showed that there is a positive, significant and low intensity between the personality factor of openness to experience and personal style of involvement, a negative correlation, significant and of medium intensity between low extraversion factor correlation and mode not anxious romantic attachment and a significant positive relationship between the low–intensity factor neuroticism personality and how anxious romantic attachment. 

  6. Perceptions of parenting styles in South Africa: The effects of gender and ethnicity

    OpenAIRE

    Roman, Nicolette; Makwakwa, Thembakazi; Lacante, Marlies

    2016-01-01

    Parenting style is an area of research which is emerging in South Africa. Previous research notes significant differences between ethnic groups in terms of parenting. In a country as diverse as South Africa, which has also evolved from an era of separatism and segregation, comparing parenting styles across ethnic groups is an interesting topic. This is a comparative study using a cross-sectional design. The Parenting Style and Dimension Questionnaire was used to collect the data. The final sa...

  7. A new method for eliciting three speaking styles in the laboratory

    OpenAIRE

    Harnsberger, James D.; Wright, Richard; Pisoni, David B.

    2008-01-01

    In this study, a method was developed to elicit three different speaking styles, reduced, citation, and hyperarticulated, using controlled sentence materials in a laboratory setting. In the first set of experiments, the reduced style was elicited by having twelve talkers read a sentence while carrying out a distractor task that involved recalling from short-term memory an individually-calibrated number of digits. The citation style corresponded to read speech in the laboratory. The hyperartic...

  8. Exploration of preferred learning styles in medical education using VARK modal

    OpenAIRE

    Laxman Khanal; Sandip Shah; Sarun Koirala

    2014-01-01

    Learning styles is a term used to refer to the methods of gathering, processing, interpreting, organizing and thinking about information. Students have different learning styles, which is the reason for the diversity seen in classrooms in regards to how students acquire information. Claxton and Murrell had divided the learning styles into the following four categories: personality models, information-processing models, social-interaction models, and instructional preferences models. VARK (an ...

  9. Parenting style and adolescent smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Byrne, Kristin Koetting; Haddock, C Keith; Poston, Walker S C

    2002-06-01

    To investigate whether parenting style is an independent risk factor of smoking initiation and experimentation among adolescents, and whether there is a relationship between parenting style and readiness to quit, or nicotine dependence among smokers. The 84-item Health and Smoking Questionnaire, which assesses demographics, smoking status and smoking history, perceptions of risk and risk reduction, risk factors for tobacco use, and parenting style, was administered to 816 adolescents in grades 7 to 12 (mean age, 15.1 years) of whom 22.6% (n = 182) were smokers. Parenting style was measured by the brief, non-retrospective version of the Family of Origin Scale (FOS). Higher scores on the FOS indicated more positive perceived parenting style with high levels of intimacy and autonomy, characteristics of healthy parent-child relationships. Data were analyzed using a model-building approach to logistic regression with demographic and other psychosocial variables in the first two steps, and with parenting style as the last step. Results from two logistic regression models indicate that although parenting style is not a significant risk factor for smoking experimentation [odds ratio (OR) =.998; confidence interval (CI) =.977-1.019; p =.820], it is a significant independent risk factor for smoking initiation (OR =.950; CI =.930-.970; p =.000). Smokers who were more ready to quit had higher parenting style scores than those who were not ready to quit, and smokers who had made a serious quit attempt (an indicator of nicotine addiction) had higher parenting style scores than those who had not made a quit attempt. Moreover, nonsmokers who reported they would smoke a cigarette if their best friend offered had significantly lower parenting style scores than those who reported they would not smoke a cigarette. Additional research on parenting style and its impact on adolescent smoking with a more economically and ethnically diverse sample is warranted. If future research confirms

  10. Motivation in Beyond Budgeting: A Motivational Paradox?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandalgaard, Niels; Bukh, Per Nikolaj

    In this paper we discuss the role of motivation in relation to budgeting and we analyse how the Beyond Budgeting model functions compared with traditional budgeting. In the paper we focus on budget related motivation (and motivation in general) and conclude that the Beyond Budgeting model...

  11. Measuring Tourism motivation: Do Scales matter?

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Songshan (Sam)

    2009-01-01

    Measuring tourist motivation has always been a challenging task for tourism researchers. This paper aimed to increase the understanding of tourist motivation measurement by comparing two frequently adopted motivation measurement approaches: self-perception (SP) and importance-rating (IR) approaches. Results indicated that both SP and IR scales were highly reliable in terms of internal consistency. However, respondents tended to rate more positively in the SP scale than in the IR scale. Factor...

  12. Analysis strategy of motivation BUZULUK Company

    OpenAIRE

    Kratochvílová, Jana

    2011-01-01

    This bachelor thesis is focused on the issue of motivation of employees in organizations. The motivation of employees is very complicated and long-term process. This process follows from goals and needs of the organization and also it follows from employees. The thesis deals with theoretical approaches to the motivation such as Maslow's theory of needs, Herzberg's two-factor model, the expectancy theory, the theory of goals etc. The theoretical approaches are used as the comprehension of proc...

  13. Stress and neurobiology of coping styles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vsevolod V. Nemets

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In stressful environment, animal can use different coping strategies. Passive animals manifest freezing behaviour at predator attacks, active ones are trying to have an impact on a stressful situation. Each coping style is presupposed to have a neurobiological basis and it helps animals to survive in aggressive and mutable environment. Being under a long lasting stress, leaders can be affected by cardiovascular and ulcer diseases, but a short term impact can cheer them up, improve neuroendocrine stress response more than passive coping style in animals. This paper analyzes animal pattern of coping behaviour, their inheritance based on gender, social status and age. The research shows how anxiety affects social behaviour of people individuals and typological reactions were compared. These patterns can be used by people in a situation of uncontrolled stress to prevent diseases and depressive disorders through altering one’s type of behavior to the one which is more effective. In addition, knowledge of behavioural types can assist teachers in implementing the learning process as in stress situations (e.g. taking exams, working on course papers, doing tests not all students are able to effectively perceive and present the resulting material. On the other hand, active students could encourage short-term rather than long-term stressor irritation. It is necessary to pay special attention to students with low social economic status who display active response to stress. According to statistics, problem students often become aggressors and commit antisocial and sometimes criminal acts. The coping styles mentioned here above are not polar, there are no clear boundaries of personality. In addition, behaving according to the active / non-active type is identified by customary and inherited behaviour patterns.

  14. Personal Change and Intervention Style

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, John D. W.

    1977-01-01

    Presents a theory of personal change and analyzes growth-producing interventions using examples from the film, "Three Approaches to Psychotherapy". Compares the styles of Carl Rogers, Frttz Perls, and Albert Ellis to illustrate the theory. (Editor/RK)

  15. Asian-Style Chicken Wraps

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/recipe/asianstylechickenwraps.html Asian-Style Chicken Wraps To use the sharing features on this ... Tbsp lime juice (or about 2 limes) For chicken: 1 Tbsp peanut oil or vegetable oil 1 ...

  16. Instructional Style Meets Classroom Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novelli, Joan

    1991-01-01

    Nine elementary teachers explain how they design their classrooms to match and support their instructional styles. The teachers focus on whole language programs, student portfolios, science activity set-ups, technology transformation, learning center strategies, and space utilization. (SM)

  17. Effect of Leadership Styles on Job Satisfaction Among Critical Care Nurses in Aseer, Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    M Alshahrani, Fawaz Musaed; Baig, Lubna A

    2016-05-01

    To evaluate the effect of transformational and transactional leadership styles of head nurses on the job satisfaction of staff nurses in critical care units (CCU) of a tertiary care hospital. Cross-sectional study. Critical care units at Aseer Central Hospital (ACH), Abha, Saudi Arabia, from July to December 2012. The multifactor leadership questionnaire (MLQ-5X) and job satisfaction survey with demographics were used. Staff nurses (N=89) reporting to 8 nurse leaders responded as per the requirements of MLQ-5X and also filled the job satisfaction survey. ANOVA, correlation coefficient (Pearson r) and multiple linear regression were used for analyses. All nurse leaders demonstrated a combination of transactional (TA) and transformational (TF) style of leadership. Nurses working under leaders with a TF style demonstrated significantly (p style of leadership. Pay, fringe benefits and nature of work were not related to the style of leadership. The nurses were moderately satisfied with their work and 23% of the variation in nurses' job satisfaction could be explained by the head nurses 6 leadership facets with positive effect of professional support, intellectual motivation, management by correction and their laissez faire style. The study emphasized the importance of TF style of head nurses for increasing staff nurses' job satisfaction. It is suggested that nurse leaders should be trained in TF style of leadership and provided more support and training for effective management of CCU.

  18. Style and ideology in translation

    CERN Document Server

    Munday, Jeremy

    2013-01-01

    Adopting an interdisciplinary approach, this book investigates the style, or 'voice,' of English language translations of twentieth-century Latin American writing, including fiction, political speeches, and film. Existing models of stylistic analysis, supported at times by computer-assisted analysis, are developed to examine a range of works and writers, selected for their literary, cultural, and ideological importance. The style of the different translators is subjected to a close linguistic investigation within their cultural and ideological framework.

  19. Parenting educational styles in Slovenia and Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Sevčnikar, Kaja

    2015-01-01

    In everyday life the subject of parenting and child upbringing is often discussed among people who find themselves in the role of parents, babysitters and grandparents striving for best results (Peček Čuk and Lesar, 2009). My thesis focuses on parenting styles of mothers and fathers in Slovenia and in Finland. In the first, theoretical part, I have explained the concepts of socialization and parenting. I have defined the meaning of the term family and different family types. I have also c...

  20. Motivators that Do Not Motivate: The Case of Chinese EFL Learners and the Influence of Culture on Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Judy F.; Warden, Clyde A.; Chang, Huo-Tsan

    2005-01-01

    Language learning motivation plays an important role in both research and teaching, yet language learners are still largely understood in terms of North American and European cultural values. This research explored language learning motivation constructs in a Chinese cultural setting, where large numbers of students are required to study English.…

  1. The Role of Family Orientation in Predicting Korean Boys' and Girls' Achievement Motivation to Learn Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jung-In; Chung, Hyewon

    2012-01-01

    Informed by achievement goal orientation and self-determination theories, we explored the role of cultural/contextual factors on Korean students' achievement motivation. Specifically, we examined the role of the Korean middle school students' family orientation as a mediator between their perceptions of parent goals or motivating styles and their…

  2. Student Needs and Motives When Attending a University: Exploring the Syrian Case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Fattal, Anas; Ayoubi, Rami

    2013-01-01

    This paper aims at exploring student needs and motives to pursue higher education in Syria. Based on the model of student buyer behavior developed by Kotler and Fox in 1995, the study focuses on the first step of this model, so-called motives. The study results are based on qualitative data collected by means of semi-structured styles of…

  3. A study of emotional intelligence and perceived parenting styles among adolescents in a rural area in Karnataka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Neethu; Shanbhag, Deepthi N; George, Meera; Shaju, Ann Christy; Johnson, Reuben C; Mathew, P Thomas; Golapalli, Chaitanya Prasad; Goud, Ramakrishna

    2017-01-01

    Adolescence is the time which is crucial for the overall development of a person both mentally and physically. In this period, along with academic intelligence, emotional intelligence (EI) also plays an equal or strong role in student life. This study was to assess EI, parental bonding, and their association among adolescents in high schools under Sarjapur PHC area. This was a cross-sectional study conducted among high school students under Sarjapur PHC area. The EI was assessed using EI scale which measured self-awareness, self-regulation, motivation, empathy, and social skills. The parental bonding instrument was utilized to determine the parental styles of both the parents and was interpreted in terms of care and protection as neglectful parenting, affectionless control, optimal parenting, and affectionate control. A total of 300 adolescents were interviewed. It was seen that most of them had low EI in self-awareness, i.e., 92 (30.7%), motivation 99 (33%), and social skills 101 (33.7%). It was also observed that most of them had high EI in self-regulation, i.e., 98 (32.7%) and moderately high EI in empathy 117 (39%). The study group perceived that 147 (49%) of the fathers and 109 (36.3%) of the mothers had affectionless control. Along with poor parenting, most of the respondents also have low EI in self-awareness, motivation, and social skills which has to be addressed for the future of the country.

  4. STYLES OF DECISION MAKING AND MANAGEMENT AND DIMENSIONS OF PERSONALITY OF SCHOOL PRINCIPALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Azeska

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores preference to the style of decision making (managerial, analytical, conceptual and behavioural, (Alan Rowe, 1992, management styles (relationship-oriented leadership and management by objectives, (Fiedler, 1987 and personality traits (extraversion, neuroticism and psychoticism, (Eysenck, 1998. The convenience sample of 61 respondents (principals of primary and secondary schools from Macedonia were subjected to decision making style inventory (Decision Style Inventory - DSI of 20 claims, a questionnaire to assess the management style (Least preferred coworker - LPC composed of 18 bipolar adjectives, and a personality test (Eysenck Personality Questionnaire - EPQ composed of 90 items in the form of questions. Results show that schools lean towards directive style of decision making with a combination of democratic-participatory style that includes subordinates in the process of decision making. The results also demonstrate that school principals prefer management style motivated by relationships; they are more introverted and emotionally stable. The findings indicate a necessity for a new generation of managers who will be different from the traditional managers. It is evident that the future will require managers with leadership styles different from the traditional in Republic of Macedonia. Given that the school is a basic organisational cell on which the educational system of the country is based, the proposed findings present an occasion for developing new ideas and practices that may yield great results. This would increase the flexibility and adaptive capacity of the school as a modern organisation. Thus, these findings have practical implications as they may direct special training of principals in order to apply the best management style, or style that is most appropriate for certain situations, certainly through coordination of the desired profile of the principal and the business strategy, development and maturity of

  5. Parenting styles and eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jáuregui Lobera, I; Bolaños Ríos, P; Garrido Casals, O

    2011-10-01

    The aim of the study was to analyse the parental bonding profiles in patients with eating disorders (ED), as well as the relationship among the different styles of parenting and some psychological and psychopathological variables. In addition, the association between the perceived parental bonding and different coping strategies was analysed. Perception of parenting styles was analysed in a sample of 70 ED patients. The Parental Bonding Instrument, Self-Esteem Scale of Rosenberg, Coping Strategies Inventory, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, Beck Depression Inventory and Eating Disorders Inventory-2 were used. Kruskal-Wallis test (comparisons), Spearman correlation coefficients (association among different variables) and χ(2)-test (parental bonding profiles differences) were applied. The stereotyped style among ED patients is low care-high control during the first 16 years, and the same can be said about current styles of the mothers. Between 8.6% and 12.9% of the patients perceive their parents' styles as neglectful. The neglectful parenting is the style mainly involved in the specific ED symptoms as drive for thinness, body dissatisfaction and bulimia. In order to achieve a better balanced parents' role during the treatment, it would be necessary to improve the role of the mothers as caregivers, decreasing their role mainly based on the overprotection. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing.

  6. Extreme Programming: Maestro Style

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, Jeffrey; Fox, Jason; Rabe, Kenneth; Shu, I-Hsiang; Powell, Mark

    2009-01-01

    "Extreme Programming: Maestro Style" is the name of a computer programming methodology that has evolved as a custom version of a methodology, called extreme programming that has been practiced in the software industry since the late 1990s. The name of this version reflects its origin in the work of the Maestro team at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory that develops software for Mars exploration missions. Extreme programming is oriented toward agile development of software resting on values of simplicity, communication, testing, and aggressiveness. Extreme programming involves use of methods of rapidly building and disseminating institutional knowledge among members of a computer-programming team to give all the members a shared view that matches the view of the customers for whom the software system is to be developed. Extreme programming includes frequent planning by programmers in collaboration with customers, continually examining and rewriting code in striving for the simplest workable software designs, a system metaphor (basically, an abstraction of the system that provides easy-to-remember software-naming conventions and insight into the architecture of the system), programmers working in pairs, adherence to a set of coding standards, collaboration of customers and programmers, frequent verbal communication, frequent releases of software in small increments of development, repeated testing of the developmental software by both programmers and customers, and continuous interaction between the team and the customers. The environment in which the Maestro team works requires the team to quickly adapt to changing needs of its customers. In addition, the team cannot afford to accept unnecessary development risk. Extreme programming enables the Maestro team to remain agile and provide high-quality software and service to its customers. However, several factors in the Maestro environment have made it necessary to modify some of the conventional extreme

  7. Motivational orientation, expectancies, and vulnerability for depression in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horvath, Peter; Bissix, Glyn; Sumarah, John; Crouchman, Erin; Bowdrey, Jennifer

    2008-01-01

    In this study, motivational components in the personal styles of sociotropy and autonomy were examined in a sample of 284 women. One hypothesis was that self-validation needs would account for the vulnerability for depressive symptoms in these personal styles. A second hypothesis was that the association of these personal styles with depressive symptoms would be moderated by expectations and perceptions of how likely these validation needs would be met. As predicted, it was found that validation seeking mediated the association of sociotropy and autonomy with depressive symptoms in these women. Another finding was that expectancies moderated the effects of sociotropy and autonomy to predict depressive symptoms. Negative expectancies in women high on these personal styles together further increased the level of depressive symptoms. These findings are compatible with theories emphasizing the importance of situational factors in the onset and maintenance of depression in women.

  8. Organisational Learning and Employees' Intrinsic Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remedios, Richard; Boreham, Nick

    2004-01-01

    This study examined the effects of organisational learning initiatives on employee motivation. Four initiatives consistent with theories of organisational learning were a priori ranked in terms of concepts that underpin intrinsic-motivation theory. Eighteen employees in a UK petrochemical company were interviewed to ascertain their experiences of…

  9. Jack Michael's Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miguel, Caio F.

    2013-01-01

    Among many of Jack Michael's contributions to the field of behavior analysis is his behavioral account of motivation. This paper focuses on the concept of "motivating operation" (MO) by outlining its development from Skinner's (1938) notion of "drive." Conceptually, Michael's term helped us change our focus on…

  10. Motivation as Ethical Self-Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Matthew; Hennig, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    Motivation is a concept more frequently found in venues concerned with educational psychology than in ones concerned with educational philosophy. Under the influence of psychology, and its typically dualistic way of making sense of the world, motivation in education has tended to be viewed in dichotomous terms, for example, as intrinsic or…

  11. Communication Styles of Interactive Tools for Self-Improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niess, Jasmin; Diefenbach, Sarah

    Interactive products for self-improvement (e.g., online trainings to reduce stress, fitness gadgets) have become increasingly popular among consumers and healthcare providers. In line with the idea of positive computing, these tools aim to support their users on their way to improved well-being and human flourishing. As an interdisciplinary domain, the design of self-improvement technologies requires psychological, technological, and design expertise. One needs to know how to support people in behavior change, and one needs to find ways to do this through technology design. However, as recent reviews show, the interlocking relationship between these disciplines is still improvable. Many existing technologies for self-improvement neglect psychological theory on behavior change, especially motivational factors are not sufficiently considered. To counteract this, we suggest a focus on the dialog and emerging communication between product and user, considering the self-improvement tool as an interactive coach and advisor. The present qualitative interview study (N = 18) explored the user experience of self-improvement technologies. A special focus was on the perceived dialog between tool and user, which we analyzed in terms of models from communication psychology. Our findings show that users are sensible to the way the product "speaks to them" and consider this as essential for their experience and successful change. Analysis revealed different communication styles of self-improvement tools (e.g., helpful-cooperative, rational-distanced, critical-aggressive), each linked to specific emotional consequences. These findings form one starting point for a more psychologically founded design of self-improvement technology. On a more general level, our approach aims to contribute to a better integration of psychological and technological knowledge, and in consequence, supporting users on their way to enhanced well-being.

  12. The Association between Internet Parenting Styles and Children's Use of the Internet at Home

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihmeideh, Fathi Mahmoud; Shawareb, Aseel Akram

    2014-01-01

    Parenting styles are known to have a powerful influence on child development, and as such they can significantly influence children's Internet use. The purpose of this study is to examine the Internet parenting style of Jordanian parents and their perspectives on their children's Internet use. Children's Internet use was evaluated in terms of four…

  13. Parenting Styles of Chinese Families and Children's Social-Emotional and Cognitive Developmental Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaowei; Xie, Jing

    2017-01-01

    Using data from a sample of Chinese children (n = 297) aged 3-6 years in Beijing, we examined the characteristics of Chinese parenting styles and the relationship with children's developmental outcomes. A 6-month follow-up study of 110 of the 297 participants further explored the long-term effect of parenting styles on children's development.…

  14. The Use of Decorative Styles of Woven Songket as a Source of Learning in the Course Textile Design and Decoration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Made Budhyani I Dewa Ayu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of learning sources in the learning process greatly contributes to the achievement of its goal. The use of learning sources greatly affects the teaching and learning process. It is necessary to use different learning sources when creating a textile design in order to produce a quality product. The decorative style of woven songket can be used as one of the learning sources. The different decorative types of the woven songket contain aesthetic values. The decorative type of woven songket is a product of the crafter’s feeling, creativity, and intention inspired by the environment. The natural objects such as plants, animals, human beings, and geometric elements are stylized into the decorative forms. The decorative style used on the woven songket can be used as the learning source in order to create the decorative style in the course Textile Design and Decoration. There are several aesthetic elements which inspire where the decorative style is placed; they are composition, rhythm, balance, the harmonious layout of the decorative style, and the variation of the decorative style on the textile design. In general, the composition of the placement of the main object of the decorative style is more dominant on the piece of fabric. Rhythm and how the decorative style is composed are shown through the composition of the decorative motive forms such as how big and small they are, how high and low they are and how long and short they are. The ways in which the decorative motives and colors are entirely shown contribute to the harmony and placement of decorative style. The symmetric balance is used to create balance and avoid the impression of being biased. The placement of what the motives contain and how they are composed are used to determine the variation of the decorative style used. The placement of objects and the marginal decoration of the fabric also determine the variation used.

  15. OTTER, Resolution Style Theorem Prover

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCune, W.W.

    2001-01-01

    1 - Description of program or function: OTTER (Other Techniques for Theorem-proving and Effective Research) is a resolution-style theorem-proving program for first-order logic with equality. OTTER includes the inference rules binary resolution, hyper-resolution, UR-resolution, and binary para-modulation. These inference rules take as small set of clauses and infer a clause. If the inferred clause is new and useful, it is stored and may become available for subsequent inferences. Other capabilities are conversion from first-order formulas to clauses, forward and back subsumption, factoring, weighting, answer literals, term ordering, forward and back demodulation, and evaluable functions and predicates. 2 - Method of solution: For its inference process OTTER uses the given-clause algorithm, which can be viewed as a simple implementation of the set of support strategy. OTTER maintains three lists of clauses: axioms, sos (set of support), and demodulators. OTTER is not automatic. Even after the user has encoded a problem into first-order logic or into clauses, the user must choose inference rules, set options to control the processing of inferred clauses, and decide which input formulae or clauses are to be in the initial set of support and which, if any, equalities are to be demodulators. If OTTER fails to find a proof, the user may try again different initial conditions. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem - Maxima of: 5000 characters in an input string, 64 distinct variables in a clause, 51 characters in any symbol. The maxima can be changed by finding the appropriate definition in the header.h file, increasing the limit, and recompiling OTTER. There are a few constraints on the order of commands

  16. Desiring T, desiring self: "T-style" pop singers and lesbian culture in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kam, Lucetta Y L

    2014-01-01

    This article examines an emerging group of "T-style" female singers in the popular music scene in China. The expression "T," which is developed from the term "tomboy," refers to lesbians with masculine gender style. It is a widely used form of identification in local lesbian communities in China. The emergence of "T-style" female singers coincided with the rapid development of local lesbian communities in major cities in China. By exploring the intersections-or mutual modeling-of "T-style" singers and local lesbian gender culture, this article also analyzes the different receptions of "T-style" singers by local lesbian women, and explores whether "T-style" singers are seen as a "cultural resource" that aids the construction of lesbian gender and sexual identities.

  17. I think, therefore I am: a twin study of attributional style in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Jennifer Y F; Rijsdijk, Frühling; Eley, Thalia C

    2006-07-01

    Parenting factors may be important to the development of attributional style in adolescence, which in turn relates to depression symptoms. These relationships have mainly been considered in terms of social risk mechanisms, and little is known about the role of genetic influences. Self-reported measures of attributional style, depression symptoms and parental disciplinary styles were administered to over 1300 adolescent twin and sibling pairs. Model-fitting techniques were used to examine the role of genetic and environmental influences. Moderate genetic influences on attributional style were demonstrated, and furthermore, its association with depression reflected considerable genetic effects. Familial factors were implicated in the association between attributional style and punitive parenting, although genetic from shared environmental causes could not be distinguished. Our results demonstrate that attributional style is influenced by genetic, as well as social factors. Implications for aetiological pathways integrating cognitive, genetic and social factors on adolescent depression are discussed.

  18. Perceptions of parenting styles in South Africa: The effects of gender and ethnicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolette Vanessa Roman

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Parenting style is an area of research which is emerging in South Africa. Previous research notes significant differences between ethnic groups in terms of parenting. In a country as diverse as South Africa, which has also evolved from an era of separatism and segregation, comparing parenting styles across ethnic groups is an interesting topic. This is a comparative study using a cross-sectional design. The Parenting Style and Dimension Questionnaire was used to collect the data. The final sample consisted of 746 participants with a mean age of 20.48 (SD = 1.96 years; 36% males and 64% females. The results found maternal authoritative parenting style to be the most prevalent across and within groups, but there were also significant differences between and within groups. Fathers’ parenting style was perceived as significantly different in three ethnic groups, but mothers’ parenting styles were not perceived as significantly different.

  19. The Relationship between Writing Anxiety and Learning Styles among Graduate Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J.

    1998-01-01

    Examines the relationship between learning styles and writing anxiety with female (n=72) and male (n=18) graduate students. Findings reveal that students with the highest levels of writing anxiety tended to be those who prefer to learn in warm environments, lacked self-motivation, liked structure, were peer-oriented learners, were…

  20. Examining the Relationship between Holistic/Analytic Style and Classroom Learning Behaviors of High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Hong-Yu; Zhang, Shu-Qiang

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether and how high school students' cognitive tendencies in holistic/analytic style relate to their active or passive behavioral patterns observed in the classroom. It was speculated that academic intrinsic motivation might play the role as a moderator and learning approach (the structure-oriented…

  1. Learning Environments Designed According to Learning Styles and Its Effects on Mathematics Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özerem, Aysen; Akkoyunlu, Buket

    2015-01-01

    Problem Statement: While designing a learning environment it is vital to think about learner characteristics (learning styles, approaches, motivation, interests… etc.) in order to promote effective learning. The learning environment and learning process should be designed not to enable students to learn in the same manner and at the same level,…

  2. Visual Thinking Styles and Idea Generation Strategies Employed in Visual Brainstorming Sessions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Börekçi, Naz A. G. Z.

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents the findings of visual analyses conducted on 369 sketch ideas generated in three 6-3-5 visual brainstorming sessions by a total of 25 participants, following the same design brief. The motivation for the study was an interest in the thematic content of the ideas generated as groups, and the individual representation styles used…

  3. The Using of Casual Style in ELT for Young Learners (Sociolinguistics Perspectives)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debora, Irene

    2013-01-01

    Young Learners have less reinforcement to speak with others. One of the causes is the trend of formal or clumsy learning setting in emphasizing the speaking proficiency. Speaking based on the culture context also contribute them in increasing their motivation to express their ideas. "Casual style" as one of the language variations gives…

  4. Reading Processes and Parenting Styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carreteiro, Rui Manuel; Justo, João Manuel; Figueira, Ana Paula

    2016-08-01

    Home literacy environment explains between 12 and 18.5 % of the variance of children's language skills. Although most authors agree that children whose parents encourage them to read tend to develop better and earlier reading skills, some authors consider that the impact of family environment in reading skills is overvalued. Probably, other variables of parent-child relationship, like parenting styles, might be relevant for this field. Nevertheless, no previous studies on the effect of parenting styles in literacy have been found. To analyze the role of parenting styles in the reading processes of children. Children's perceptions of parenting styles contribute significantly to the explanation of statistical variance of children's reading processes. 110 children (67 boys and 43 girls), aged between 7 and 11 years (M [Formula: see text] 9.22 and SD [Formula: see text] 1.14) from Portuguese schools answered to a socio-demographic questionnaire. To assess reading processes it was administered the Portuguese adaptation (Figueira et al. in press) of Bateria de Avaliação dos Processos Leitores-Revista (PROLEC-R). To assess the parenting styles Egna Minnen av Barndoms Uppfostran-parents (EMBU-P) and EMBU-C (children version) were administered. According to multiple hierarchical linear regressions, individual factors contribute to explain all reading tests of PROLEC-R, while family factors contribute to explain most of these tests. Regarding parenting styles, results evidence the explanatory power about grammatical structures, sentence comprehension and listening. Parenting styles have an important role in the explanation of higher reading processes (syntactic and semantic) but not in lexical processes, focused by main theories concerning dyslexia.

  5. Effectiveness of Game-Based Learning: Influence of Cognitive Style

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milovanović, Miloš; Minović, Miroslav; Kovačević, Ivana; Minović, Jelena; Starčević, Dušan

    Today students have grown up using devices like computers, mobile phones, and video consoles for almost any activity; from studies and work to entertainment or communication. Motivating them with traditional teaching methods such as lectures and written materials becomes more difficult daily. That is why digital games are becoming more and more considered to have a promising role in education process. We decided to conduct a study among university students. Purpose of that study was to try to find some empirical evidence to support the claim that educational games can be used as an effective form of teaching. We also invested an effort to measure effects of different teaching approaches with the respect of individual differences in cognitive styles. Initial results provide a good argument for use of educational games in teaching. In addition, we reported some influence of cognitive style on effectiveness of using educational games.

  6. Motivation programmes of organizations

    OpenAIRE

    Pízová, Tereza

    2008-01-01

    The Bachelor Thesis "'Motivation Programmes of Organizations" focuses on an extremely important area within personnel management. Employee motivation is crucial to the effective operation of businesses. Motivation programmes assist in increasing and maintaining employee motivation and demonstrate an organization's interest in its employees. This piece is on one hand concerned with theoretical foundations of motivation, describing theories and concepts important to the area of human behaviour ...

  7. Attachment Styles and Aggression in Physically Abused and Neglected Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finzi, Ricky; Ram, Anca; Har-Even, Dov; Shnit, Dan; Weizman, Abraham

    2001-01-01

    Compared physically abused (n=41) and neglected (n=38) children with nonabused, nonneglected children (n=35) aged 6 to 12 years in terms of their attachment styles and their levels of aggression. Findings show that physically abused children are at risk of antisocial behavior and suspicion toward others, and neglected children are at risk of…

  8. An algebraic programming style for numerical software and its optimization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.B. Dinesh; M. Haveraaen; J. Heering (Jan)

    1998-01-01

    textabstract The abstract mathematical theory of partial differential equations (PDEs) is formulated in terms of manifolds, scalar fields, tensors, and the like, but these algebraic structures are hardly recognizable in actual PDE solvers. The general aim of the Sophus programming style is to

  9. Principals' Leadership Style and Staff Job Performance in Selected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nneka Umera-Okeke

    data. The study findings identified 10 different leadership styles adopted by different ... or non-academic staff, and staff job performance is assessed based on the .... perspectives, firstly as a “process”, which implies that leadership requires ... changes, focusing on the long-term and the big picture, not always doing to save.

  10. A Comparison of Leadership Styles and Organizational Cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, Flora Ida

    Three separate studies of three different school superintendents are reported on in terms of the effect of leadership styles on organizational cultures. The analysis used nine descriptors derived from Schein's comprehensive description of leadership in the conduct of organizational culture creation. The report is based on historical and…

  11. Increasing Effectiveness of Strategic Planning Seminars through Learning Style

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildirim, Nail

    2010-01-01

    This research tests the effectiveness of taking learning style variables from the Kolb learning model in designing strategic planning seminars. We observe in our research that the participants in the seminar--school principals--positively judge the effectiveness of the seminar. The research also tests the seminar's effectiveness in terms of the…

  12. Learning Object Retrieval and Aggregation Based on Learning Styles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez-Arellano, Aldo; Bory-Reyes, Juan; Hernández-Simón, Luis Manuel

    2017-01-01

    The main goal of this article is to develop a Management System for Merging Learning Objects (msMLO), which offers an approach that retrieves learning objects (LOs) based on students' learning styles and term-based queries, which produces a new outcome with a better score. The msMLO faces the task of retrieving LOs via two steps: The first step…

  13. Student Perceptions of Motivational Behaviors of Instructions in a Military Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-06-01

    surveys of students, faculty, and alumni, (b) summaries of research, (c) theories of leading researchers, and (d) statistically identified factors. Three...habits, motivation, learning style, cogitative, socioemotional , and morale character development. Theoretical Framework of Motivation in Teacher...and not in others has been the subject of many theories McKeachie (2002). 23 McClelland, Atkinson, Clark, and Lowell (1953) stated that motivation

  14. Transformational Leadership Style as Predictor of Decision Making Styles: Moderating Role of Emotional Intelligence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rana Rashid Rehman

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The current study examines the relationship among transformational leadership style and decision making styles. It also determines the moderating role of emotional intelligence in predicting this relationship. Three hypotheses are generated for the study i.e., twohypotheses are to measure the relationship among transformational leadership style and decision making styles whereas third hypothesis is to assess the moderating effect of emotional intelligence. Questionnaire method is used to collect data from 113respondents. Regression analysis is utilized to study the relationship among transformational leadership style and decision making styles and step-wise regression analysis is used to study moderating effect of emotional intelligence. The study foundthat transformational leadership style strongly predicts rational and dependant decision making styles and weakly predict intuitive and spontaneous decision making styles while no association founds with avoidant decision making styles. Present research also foundthat emotional intelligence moderates the relationship among transformational leadership style and decision making styles.

  15. An Examination of Television Viewing Motivations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Alan M.

    1981-01-01

    Identifies nine motivations for television viewing and relates these to age, viewing levels, television attitudes of attachment and reality, and program preferences. Implications of the results are discussed in terms of uses and gratifications research perspectives. (JMF)

  16. LIFE STYLE OF RENTED LAND OWNERS IN UBUD SUBDISTRICT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A. Gde Putra Pemayun

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This present study was intended to analyze the Life Style of the Rented Land Owners at Ubud Subdistrict. The problems of the study are formulated as follows: (1 what is the characteristic of the rented land owners at Ubud Subdistrict like? (2 How has the process of life style of the rented land owners at Ubud Subdistrict  taken place? And (3 what is the implication of the life style of the rented land owners on their lives? Qualitative method was employed in the study. The data were processed using observation, interview and documentary techniques. The workability of the law regulating the demand for land at Ubud Subdistrict motivated the land owners to rent out their land to investors. Apart from that, the internal dimension, which is made up of the economical capital, was the most important element as it could activate small, medium and big enterprises. Another aspect was image which was reflected through perception, cognition, motivation, and attitude of individuals as consumers. As an illustration, they built luxurious houses and showed off luxurious cars to show the image that they were new wealthy people. On the other hand, there was external dimension, namely, the highly rapid development of tourism, which could positively and negatively contribute to the life style of the people living at Ubud Subdistrict. Such an implication could not be avoided. The other aspect was consumerism; the consumers were around the symbol and sign. Mass media were the miracles of the object liturgy; pleasure was defined as the realization of freedom, and the human body was the main object of consumers. The last aspect was the government’s policy which determined that Ubud Subdistrict was a tourist destination. As a result, the local people had the opportunity to rent out their land which was used to expand the industry of tourism and to activate the other economic enterprises.

  17. Influence of non-conscius motives to leadership behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Boštjančič

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In the past century McClelland (1975 began exploring non-conscious motives and their influence on leader's behaviour. We investigated how leader's intrinsic motivation influences his leadership behaviour, both with managers and entrepreneurs. Our randomized sample included 59 executives employed in Slovenian and international companies with headquarters in Slovenia. We conducted a one hour long structured interview with each individual and asked at least nine of their subordinates to fill in two different questionnaires based on the executive's behaviour under study. Winter's motive scoring system for coding power, affiliation and achievement motives and expressions of responsibility was used to analyse the interviews. The evaluation method proved not to be sufficiently reliable. Factor analysis showed five different styles of leadership: value based leadership, directive leadership, participative leadership, productivity oriented leadership and supportive leadership. Achievement and power motivation are prevailing in entrepreneurs, whereas in managers the leader motivational profile is more often (33% noticed (high power motivation, high concern for the moral exercise of power, and power motivation greater than affiliative motivation. The prediction of influence of unconscious motives presents a smaller part than expected.

  18. The Comparison of Sport Orientation of Adolescents Based on Perceived Patterning Styles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    بهروز عبدلی

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to compare the sport orientation of adolescents based on their perceived patterning styles. Through a two-stage sampling method, 350 junior high school students were selected. A battery of questionnaires was applied to collect the data including parenting style questionnaire, sport orientation questionnaire, and participation motivation questionnaire. Data were analyzed using multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA. Findings indicated that parenting styles affect children’s sport orientation. In addition, this study shows a signifycant difference between boys and girls in sport orientation, suggesting that boys are more competitive, winning and goal oriented. Consequently, according to the results, children of authoritative parents might be more sport and success oriented than those of permissive parents. In general, the present study reveals that parenting style is a fundamental important process influencing the improvement of adolescents' sport orientation.

  19. Excelling at selling: The charming personality style predicts occupational activities, sales performance, and persuasive competence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazén, Miguel; Kuhl, Julius; Boermans, Sylvie; Koole, Sander L

    2013-08-01

    The present research investigates how individual differences in charming personality are related to occupational activities, sales performance, and persuasive competence. Study 1 showed that sales representatives had higher scores on the charming personality style than executive managers. Study 2 showed that the charming personality style predicted actual sales performance among branch managers of a large German insurance company over a period of 2 years; the explicit power motivation served as a mediator in this relation. Finally, Study 3, carried out in a laboratory setting, confirmed the hypothesis that a charming personality is associated with persuasive competence, which suggests that this style is more relevant for sales representatives than for executive managers. The authors conclude that the charming personality style represents an important psychological resource for organizations. © 2013 The Institute of Psychology, Chinese Academy of Sciences and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  20. Effects of a Centered Virtual Teaching Environment on Learning Styles in the Academic Performance of College Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Fontalvo

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Based on the concept of adaptive hypermedia, the webCT platform was used to design a learning virtual environment that would allow students’ interaction of different support materials with their usual styles of learning. GA Latin Square design was used to determine the role that environment and learning styles, along with intrinsic motivation, played on academic performance, navigation patterns, and number of visits to the support materials. The study showed an important difference in academic performance in favor of the Balanced group. Intrinsic motivation was the main explicative factor for the differences found beyond learning styles. The conclusion was that there are differences in the way of using the objects of learning, and that there are differentiated patterns to access the support material, depending on the students’ learning styles.

  1. Motivational Rehabilitation using Serious Games

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoni Jaume i Capó

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Research studies show that serious games help to motivate users in rehabilitation processes, and rehabilitation results are better when users are motivated. In long term rehabilitation for maintaining capacities, the demotivation of chronic patients is common. In this work, we have implemented balance rehabilitation video game for cerebral palsy patients. The video game was developed using the prototype development paradigm and following desirable features for rehabilitation serious games presented in the literature. We have tested the video game with a set of users who abandoned therapy due to demotivation in the previous year. Results show that the set of users improved their balance and motivation.

  2. Command and motivation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Christian Bøtcher; Hvidtved, Johan; Andersen, Lotte Bøgh

    2014-01-01

    Motivated employees are crucial to organizations, but external interventions such as command systems and financial incentives may decrease motivation. If these external interventions are perceived to be controlling, they are expected to crowd out intrinsic motivation, and this may also apply...... to other types of autonomous motivation such as public service motivation. The perception of external interventions is thus expected to be vital. This article investigates how the perception of a specific command system (obligatory student plans) is associated with intrinsic motivation and public service...... motivation. Using a dataset with 3,230 school teachers in Denmark, a structural equation model shows that the perception of obligatory student plans as controlling is negatively associated with all of the investigated types of employee motivation, supporting that motivation crowding can occur....

  3. Ideology, motivated reasoning, and cognitive reflection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan M. Kahan

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Decision scientists have identified various plausible sources of ideological polarization over climate change, gun violence, national security, and like issues that turn on empirical evidence. This paper describes a study of three of them: the predominance of heuristic-driven information processing by members of the public; ideologically motivated reasoning; and the cognitive-style correlates of political conservativism. The study generated both observational and experimental data inconsistent with the hypothesis that political conservatism is distinctively associated with either unreflective thinking or motivated reasoning. Conservatives did no better or worse than liberals on the Cognitive Reflection Test (Frederick, 2005, an objective measure of information-processing dispositions associated with cognitive biases. In addition, the study found that ideologically motivated reasoning is not a consequence of over-reliance on heuristic or intuitive forms of reasoning generally. On the contrary, subjects who scored highest in cognitive reflection were the most likely to display ideologically motivated cognition. These findings corroborated an alternative hypothesis, which identifies ideologically motivated cognition as a form of information processing that promotes individuals' interests in forming and maintaining beliefs that signify their loyalty to important affinity groups. The paper discusses the practical significance of these findings, including the need to develop science communication strategies that shield policy-relevant facts from the influences that turn them into divisive symbols of political identity.

  4. Teacher Uses of Learning Styles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klitmøller, Jacob

    2014-01-01

    Among all the various learning style models, the Dunn & Dunn Learning Style Model (DDLSM) in particular has become a widely used method transforming teaching practice. Dunn & Dunn research literature is scarce when it comes to how the model is used by teachers in general. This is an issue since...... the model is a research-based prescriptive model of teaching. Employing observations and interviews to collect data, the present study investigates teachers’ use of the model. Findings indicate that the DDLSM is used for a number of purposes, some of which are in contradiction to the model prescriptions....

  5. Learning styles in Higher Education: facing drop out and retention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Matos dos Santos

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Dropout and retention have been configured today as one of the greatest challenges for Higher Education, not only in Brazil, but worldwide. In this sense, this article presents the results obtained using the learning styles methodology in the development of educational audiovisuals based on the four different styles proposed by Alonso, Gallego and Honey (2007, which are: active, reflexive, theoretical and pragmatic. It is reported in this text the course developed by the group that worked on the project, which surpassed the goals initially outlined in qualitative and quantitative terms, and revealed important and innovative nuances regarding the educational process based on the students’ engagement. It is mainly highlighted here the fact that styles are not labels for student cataloging but rather a teaching methodology that implies a specific didactics.

  6. A Dynamic Continuation-Passing Style for Dynamic Delimited Continuations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biernacki, Dariusz; Danvy, Olivier; Millikin, Kevin Scott

    2005-01-01

    We present a new abstract machine that accounts for dynamic delimited continuations. We prove the correctness of this new abstract machine with respect to a pre-existing, definitional abstract machine. Unlike this definitional abstract machine, the new abstract machine is in defunctionalized form......, which makes it possible to state the corresponding higher-order evaluator. This evaluator is in continuation+state passing style and threads a trail of delimited continuations and a meta-continuation. Since this style accounts for dynamic delimited continuations, we refer to it as `dynamic continuation......-passing style.' We show that the new machine operates more efficiently than the definitional one and that the notion of computation induced by the corresponding evaluator takes the form of a monad. We also present new examples and a new simulation of dynamic delimited continuations in terms of static ones....

  7. Achievement Motivation and Academic Motivation among Students of Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences in 2013

    OpenAIRE

    Firoozeh Khamoushi; Arash Parsa Moghaddam; Mahtab Sadeghi; Ali Akbar Parvizifard; Akram Ahmadzadeh

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Students are often similar in terms of learning ability and talent. However, there are remarkable differences in their academic performance during their schooling, which can be due to the differences in their academic motivation and achievement motivation. The current study was carried out to compare achievement motivation and academic achievement among the students of Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences (KUMS) in 2013. Methods: In this descriptive Analytical cross-sec...

  8. The long-term lasting effectiveness on self-efficacy, attribution style, expression of emotions and quality of life of a body awareness program for chronic a-specific psychosomatic symptoms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Landsman-Dijkstra, Jeanet J. A.; van Wijck, R; Groothoff, JW

    Objective: A 3-day residential body awareness program (BAP) was developed to teach people with chronic a-specific psychosomatic symptoms (CAPS) to react adequately to disturbances of the balance between a daily workload and the capacity to deal with it. The long-term effects of the program on body

  9. An Algebraic Programming Style for Numerical Software and Its Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.B. Dinesh

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The abstract mathematical theory of partial differential equations (PDEs is formulated in terms of manifolds, scalar fields, tensors, and the like, but these algebraic structures are hardly recognizable in actual PDE solvers. The general aim of the Sophus programming style is to bridge the gap between theory and practice in the domain of PDE solvers. Its main ingredients are a library of abstract datatypes corresponding to the algebraic structures used in the mathematical theory and an algebraic expression style similar to the expression style used in the mathematical theory. Because of its emphasis on abstract datatypes, Sophus is most naturally combined with object-oriented languages or other languages supporting abstract datatypes. The resulting source code patterns are beyond the scope of current compiler optimizations, but are sufficiently specific for a dedicated source-to-source optimizer. The limited, domain-specific, character of Sophus is the key to success here. This kind of optimization has been tested on computationally intensive Sophus style code with promising results. The general approach may be useful for other styles and in other application domains as well.

  10. Motivation, Achievement-Related Behaviours, and Educational Outcomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.I. Rotgans (Jerome)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractDo students who are motivated behave differently in terms of their learning in the classroom and perform better than students who are less or not motivated? Understanding if and how motivational beliefs (e.g. self-efficacy judgments or task-value beliefs) are related to academic

  11. AFRICAN-STYLE MEDIATION AND WESTERN-STYLE DIVORCE AND FAMILY MEDIATION: REFLECTIONS FOR THE SOUTH AFRICAN CONTEXT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AE Boniface

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Both Western-styled mediation and African-styled mediation are practised in South Africa. Each of these models is applied in specific social contexts. In this article a brief explanation of what is meant by the term divorce and family mediation is provided. Thereafter the principles and processes of both Western-styled divorce and family mediation and African-styled group mediation are explored. Attention is given to the roles of mediators in both of these models as well as the ubuntu-styled values found in African group mediation. In Africa, there is a tradition of family neighbourhood negotiation facilitated by elders and an attitude of togetherness in the spirit of humanhood. Both of these show a commitment to the community concerned and a comprehensive view of life. In Africa conflicts are viewed as non-isolated events and are viewed in their social contexts. Not only are consequences for the disputing parties taken into account but also consequences for others in their families. These methods can be found in present-day methods, which are either used independently of imported Western structures or used alternatively to such structures. In this article the concept of mediation circles, as currently found in Western-styled mediation are also covered. Additionally, the provisions of the Children’s Act 38 of 2005 referring to mediation as well as the provisions of the Child Justice Act 75 of 2008 and family group conferencing in the realm of restorative justice in South Africa are critiqued. It is suggested that divorce and family mediation can learn from the principles of restorative justice applied during family group conferencing as well as from African-styled group mediation.

  12. The constancy and variability of parenting style in the family – in the educational theory and practice [Stałość i zmienność stylu wychowania w rodzinie w teorii i praktyce edukacyjnej

    OpenAIRE

    Danuta OPOZDA

    2017-01-01

    The article deals with the problem of the topicality of parenting style in the family and its meaning in the theory and practice of family pedagogy. It is an attempt to provide an answer to what is constant and what is variable in parenting styles. The answer takes into account the issues: the understanding of the term, the criteria and classifications of the parenting style, kinds of the parenting style and the determinants of changes. The main classifications of parenting style are presente...

  13. Motivic amplitudes and cluster coordinates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golden, J.K.; Goncharov, A.B.; Spradlin, M.; Vergu, C.; Volovich, A.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we study motivic amplitudes — objects which contain all of the essential mathematical content of scattering amplitudes in planar SYM theory in a completely canonical way, free from the ambiguities inherent in any attempt to choose particular functional representatives. We find that the cluster structure on the kinematic configuration space Conf n (ℙ 3 ) underlies the structure of motivic amplitudes. Specifically, we compute explicitly the coproduct of the two-loop seven-particle MHV motivic amplitude A 7,2 M and find that like the previously known six-particle amplitude, it depends only on certain preferred coordinates known in the mathematics literature as cluster X-coordinates on Conf n (ℙ 3 ). We also find intriguing relations between motivic amplitudes and the geometry of generalized associahedrons, to which cluster coordinates have a natural combinatoric connection. For example, the obstruction to A 7,2 M being expressible in terms of classical polylogarithms is most naturally represented by certain quadrilateral faces of the appropriate associahedron. We also find and prove the first known functional equation for the trilogarithm in which all 40 arguments are cluster X-coordinates of a single algebra. In this respect it is similar to Abel’s 5-term dilogarithm identity

  14. Love Styles in the Context of Life History Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzec Magdalena

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The evolutionary function of love is to create a strong bond between the partners with reproduction in view. In order to achieve this goal, humans use various sexual/reproductive strategies, which have evolved due to specific reproductive benefits. The use of particular strategies depends on many factors but one of the most important is early childhood experiences, on which life history theory (LHT focuses. John Lee (1973 identified 6 basic love styles: eros, ludus, storge, pragma, agape, and mania. Our goal was to check whether love styles may be treated as sexual/reproductive strategies in the context of LHT - slow or fast strategy. In our study (N = 177 we found that people who prefer the slow reproductive strategy are inclined to show passionate, pragmatic and friendly love, and those who prefer the fast strategy, treated love as a game. A low level of environmental stress in childhood results in preferring eros, storge and agape love styles, belonging to the slow strategy, and a high one results in preferring ludus, which belongs to the fast strategy. People representing eros, storge or pragma styles have restricted sociosexual orientation so they prefer long-term relationships, whereas those with the ludus style are people with unrestricted orientation, preferring short-term relationships. Besides, storge, agape and pragma seem to determine preferring qualities connected with parental effort in one’s partner, mania - with mating effort, and eros - with both kinds of effort. No correlation was found between the love style and the number of children.

  15. Transformational leadership style and its relationship with change management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aymn Sulieman Alqatawenah

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Transformational leadership is considered one of the main leadership styles that influence organizational and individual outcomes to achieve competitive advantage. This study aims to identify the relationship between some dimensions of transformational leadership namely: Idealized Influence, Inspirational motivation, Intellectual stimulation and empowerment, and change management in Jordanian Insurance companies. A questionnaire was developed to investigate the dimensions of the study and was applied to a sample that consisted of 500 respondents. SPSS package was utilized to analyze the quantitative data. The study has concluded that the dimensions of the transformational leadership (Idealized Influence, Inspirational motivation, Intellectual stimulation and Empowerment and change management are available in Jordanian Insurance companies. The study contributes by recommending organizations to conduct and organize training courses to enhance the capability of the workers by promoting empowerment’s behaviors, also taking into account the individual differences between the employees, particularly in assigning work and tasks.

  16. MOTIVATION TO STUDY – STUDENTS` MOTIVATIONAL RESPONSE ON VARIOUS MOTIVATIONAL ACTIONS IN STATISTICAL COURSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pacáková, Zuzana

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Motivation to study is a topic to be studied on various levels of educational process, although the methods to be used can be very different. We have examined the motivational response of university students on various motivational actions. Credit tests results of a sample of Business and Administration study programme students from the period 2009/10 to 2012/13 were analyzed. During this period several motivational actions were accepted. The most important one was a chance to pass the exam on the basis of credit tests results only, if given 15 or more points from maximum of 20 points. On the other hand the students were given less tries to finish the test. It was found an increase in mean point results especially in the winter term. There is also an increasing percentage of students able to pass the test on the first attempt and increasing proportion of students who are given exam grade on the basis of the credit tests results. Therefore it can be assumed, that motivation in a form of possibility to be given the exam grade on the basis of credit tests, is very strong.

  17. Is experiential-intuitive cognitive style more inclined to err on conjunction fallacy than analytical-rational cognitive style?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yong

    2015-01-01

    In terms of prediction by Epstein's integrative theory of personality, cognitive-experiential self-theory (CEST), those people with experiential-intuitive cognitive style are more inclined to induce errors than the other people with analytical-rational cognitive style in the conjunction fallacy (two events that can occur together are seen as more likely than at least one of the two events). We tested this prediction in a revised Linda problem. The results revealed that rational and experiential cognitive styles do not statistically influence the propensity for committing the conjunction fallacy, which is contrary to the CEST's predictions. Based on the assumption that the rational vs. experiential processing is a personality trait with comparatively stabile specialities, these findings preliminarily indicate that those people who are characterized by "rational thinking" are not more inclined to use Bayes' deduction than the other people who are labeled by "intuitive thinking" or by "poor thinking."

  18. Understanding Business Majors' Learning Styles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giordano, James; Rochford, Regina A.

    2005-01-01

    Recently, business education programs have experienced a decline in enrollment and an increase in attrition. To understand these issues and recommend solutions, the learning styles of 503 first-year business majors at an urban community college were examined. The results demonstrated that: (a) 94% of the participants were analytic learners; (b)…

  19. Individual Learning Styles and Creativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitar, Aleša Saša; Cerne, Matej; Aleksic, Darija; Mihelic, Katarina Katja

    2016-01-01

    Business schools are in need of developing creative graduates. This article explores how creativity among business students can be stimulated. Because a considerable amount of knowledge is required for creative ideas to emerge, the learning process has a significant impact on creativity. This, in turn, indicates that learning style is important…

  20. Accommodating Elementary Students' Learning Styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, James

    1995-01-01

    Examines the perceptual learning style preferences of sixth- and seventh-grade students in the Philippines. Finds that the visual modality was the most preferred and the auditory modality was the least preferred. Offers suggestions for accommodating visual, tactile, and kinesthetic preferences. (RS)

  1. Attention & Cognitive Style, FY 1972.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, John C.

    A study is presented which concentrates on the development of a cognitive style assessment instrument for 3- to 8-year-olds and on a series of studies designed to evaluate the role of stylistic and attentional processes in the development of various competencies in young children. This report incorporates a manual for users, a technical report on…

  2. Style and Variables in English.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shopen, Timothy, Ed.; Williams, Joseph M., Ed.

    A collection of articles on the kinds of variation in English that one finds within the language of one group or one person includes: "The English Language as Rule-Governed Behavior" (Timothy Shopen); "The English Language as Use-Governed Behavior" (Joseph M. Williams); "Styles" (Ann D. Zwicky); "The Organization…

  3. Understanding Employee Motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindner, James R.

    1998-01-01

    Extension employees (n=23) ranked the following as the most important motivational factors: interesting work, good wages, appreciation, job security, and good working conditions. The findings were related to theories of motivation formulated by Herzberg, Adams, and Vroom. (SK)

  4. Motivation in medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelaccia, Thierry; Viau, Rolland

    2017-02-01

    Motivation is a concept which has fascinated researchers for many decades. The field of medical education has become interested in motivation recently, having always assumed that medical students must be motivated because of their commitment to highly specific training, leading to a very specific profession. However, motivation is a major determinant of the quality of learning and success, the lack of which may well explain why teachers sometimes observe medical students who are discouraged, have lost interest or abandon their studies, with a feeling of powerlessness or resignation. After describing the importance of motivation for learning in medicine, this Guide will define the concept of motivation, setting it within the context of a social cognitive approach. In the second part of this Guide, recommendations are made, based upon the so-called "motivational dynamic model", which provides a multitude of various strategies with positive effects on students' motivation to learn.

  5. Multiple types of motives don't multiply the motivation of West Point cadets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrzesniewski, Amy; Schwartz, Barry; Cong, Xiangyu; Kane, Michael; Omar, Audrey; Kolditz, Thomas

    2014-07-29

    Although people often assume that multiple motives for doing something will be more powerful and effective than a single motive, research suggests that different types of motives for the same action sometimes compete. More specifically, research suggests that instrumental motives, which are extrinsic to the activities at hand, can weaken internal motives, which are intrinsic to the activities at hand. We tested whether holding both instrumental and internal motives yields negative outcomes in a field context in which various motives occur naturally and long-term educational and career outcomes are at stake. We assessed the impact of the motives of over 10,000 West Point cadets over the period of a decade on whether they would become commissioned officers, extend their officer service beyond the minimum required period, and be selected for early career promotions. For each outcome, motivation internal to military service itself predicted positive outcomes; a relationship that was negatively affected when instrumental motives were also in evidence. These results suggest that holding multiple motives damages persistence and performance in educational and occupational contexts over long periods of time.

  6. Francis Bacon and the Technology of Style.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Christopher

    1983-01-01

    Examines Francis Bacon's intentionally devised style for scientific writings and the theoretical basis of that style. Discusses his emphasis on a truly objective point of view, and his use of aphorisms to adapt to his audience. (HTH)

  7. Managment Styles to Avoid: Some Observations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guttschalk, George E.; Cangemi, Joseph P.

    1987-01-01

    Analyzes management styles of numerous leaders who failed. Presents these categories of styles not associated with success: dictator, blocker, withholder, brownnoser, butcher, non-delegator, worrier, troublemaker, malcontent, weakling, jealous executive, and no-conscience administrator. (Author/ABL)

  8. Strong intrinsic motivation

    OpenAIRE

    Dessi, Roberta; Rustichini, Aldo

    2015-01-01

    A large literature in psychology, and more recently in economics, has argued that monetary rewards can reduce intrinsic motivation. We investigate whether the negative impact persists when intrinsic motivation is strong, and test this hypothesis experimentally focusing on the motivation to undertake interesting and challenging tasks, informative about individual ability. We find that this type of task can generate strong intrinsic motivation, that is impervious to the effect of monetary incen...

  9. Motivation in medical students

    OpenAIRE

    Kusurkar, R.A.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction The importance of motivation in learning behaviour and education is well-researched and proven in general education, but much less in medical education. There is sometimes focus on increasing the quantity of motivation, but the how and why need more evidence. The aims of this thesis were to gather insights and investigate medical students’ motivation, particularly the importance of quality of motivation, factors influencing and outcomes and to explore how these can be applied to ...

  10. Motivering van spoorbaaninstandhoudingstoesighouers

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    M.Com. (Business Management) Personnel motivation is one of management's most important tasks, but due to a lack of understanding of the nature of motivation, it is also frequently neglected resulting in losses to the organisation. The purpose of this document was to perform a motivation study on the supervisory staff of a railway maintenance depot. With the results of this study the cause of the low level of motivation was determined, followed by recommendations to management in order to ...

  11. Unges motivation i udskolingen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pless, Mette; Katznelson, Noemi; Hjort-Madsen, Peder

    Om hvordan de unge i udskolingen skaber lyst og motivation for læring. Med afsnit om hvad motivation er, hvordan den fremmes hos unge og kombineres med et liv udenfor skolen......Om hvordan de unge i udskolingen skaber lyst og motivation for læring. Med afsnit om hvad motivation er, hvordan den fremmes hos unge og kombineres med et liv udenfor skolen...

  12. Learner Motivation and Interest

    OpenAIRE

    Daskalovska, Nina; Gudeva, Liljana Koleva; Ivanovska, Biljana

    2012-01-01

    There are a lot of factors which influence success in learning. However, one of the most important factors is the learner’s motivation to reach the desired goals. Research and experience show that learners with strong motivation can achieve a lot regardless of circumstances. Studies of motivation in second language learning have led to several distinctions, one of which is the distinction between integrative and instrumental motivation. According to this distinction, some learners are motivat...

  13. The Relationship Between Humor Styles and Forgiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampes, William

    2016-08-01

    Research has shown that a factor in a victim's forgiveness of an offender is the victim's ability to make more positive, or at least less negative, attributions of the offender's behavior and that perspective-taking can be a factor in facilitating that process. Self-enhancing humor has been found to be positively correlated with perspective-taking empathy and aggressive humor found to be negatively correlated with perspective-taking empathy. Therefore it was predicted that self-enhancing humor would be positively correlated with forgiveness and aggressive humor negatively correlated with forgiveness. The Humor Styles Questionnaire, the Absence of Negative and Presence of Positive subscales of the Forgiveness Scale, and the Forgiveness Likelihood Scale were administered to 112 college undergraduates. Self-enhancing humor was significantly and positively correlated with all of the forgiveness measures, aggressive humor and self-defeating humor were significantly and negatively correlated with some of the forgiveness measures and affiliative humor was not significantly correlated with any of the forgiveness measures. The results were interpreted in terms of previous findings for humor styles, perspective-taking empathy, depression, self-esteem and anxiety. Future research involving the extent to which other personality variables, such as perspective-taking empathy, mediate the relationship between self-enhancing humor and forgiveness was suggested.

  14. The Relationship Between Humor Styles and Forgiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Hampes

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Research has shown that a factor in a victim’s forgiveness of an offender is the victim’s ability to make more positive, or at least less negative, attributions of the offender’s behavior and that perspective-taking can be a factor in facilitating that process. Self-enhancing humor has been found to be positively correlated with perspective-taking empathy and aggressive humor found to be negatively correlated with perspective-taking empathy. Therefore it was predicted that self-enhancing humor would be positively correlated with forgiveness and aggressive humor negatively correlated with forgiveness. The Humor Styles Questionnaire, the Absence of Negative and Presence of Positive subscales of the Forgiveness Scale, and the Forgiveness Likelihood Scale were administered to 112 college undergraduates. Self-enhancing humor was significantly and positively correlated with all of the forgiveness measures, aggressive humor and self-defeating humor were significantly and negatively correlated with some of the forgiveness measures and affiliative humor was not significantly correlated with any of the forgiveness measures. The results were interpreted in terms of previous findings for humor styles, perspective-taking empathy, depression, self-esteem and anxiety. Future research involving the extent to which other personality variables, such as perspective-taking empathy, mediate the relationship between self-enhancing humor and forgiveness was suggested.

  15. Flower Style on Seventeenth Century Agra Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Fuat BAYSAL

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available India is a uniquely rich country thanks to its historical characteristics and complex mixture of different races, cultures and religions. The diversity of the religious groups has particularly affected the decorative arts, which have generated another form of diversity and richness. Every religious group built their own houses of worship and decorated them in accordance with their beliefs because of the close relationship between religion and decoration. Many buildings containing Turkish overtones have been constructed in India, particularly in Agra, during the Mughal era. The style of Kara Memi, a sixteenth century Ottoman painter, draws attention with the decoration of the buildings constructed during the Shah Jahan era. Of them, the most popular is the Taj Mahal. It is well known that the Ottomans respected and appreciated the artistic characteristics, particularly the architecture, of the region instead of acting in a dominating manner. Thus, we can consider the relationship between the Ottomans and Mughal Empire is similar only in terms of style. Cooperation was present between them, and artistic transfers between these two empires were thus inevitable.

  16. Parenting styles, feeding styles and food-related parenting practices in relation to toddlers' eating styles: A cluster-analytic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Horst, Klazine; Sleddens, Ester F C

    2017-01-01

    Toddlers' eating behaviors are influenced by the way parents interact with their children. The objective of this study was to explore how five major constructs of general parenting behavior cluster in parents of toddlers. These parenting clusters were further explored to see how they differed in the use of feeding strategies (i.e. feeding styles and food parenting practices) and by reported child eating styles. An online survey with 1005 mothers/caregivers (legal guardians) with at least one child between 12 and 36 months old was conducted in the United States in 2012, assessing general parenting behavior, feeding style, food parenting practices and the child eating styles. A three cluster solution of parenting style was found and clusters were labelled as overprotective/supervising, authoritarian, and authoritative. The clusters differed in terms of general parenting behaviors. Both overprotective and authoritative clusters showed high scores on structure, behavioral control, and nurturance. The overprotective cluster scored high on overprotection. The 'authoritarian' cluster showed lowest levels of nurturance, structure and behavioral control. Overprotective and authoritative parents showed very similar patterns in the use of food parenting practices, e.g. monitoring food intake, modeling, and promoting healthy food intake and availability at home. Overprotective parents also reported higher use of pressure to eat and involvement. Authoritarian parents reported high use of giving the child control over their food behaviors, emotion regulation, using food as a reward, and controlling food intake for weight control. Children's eating styles did not largely vary by parenting cluster. This study showed that a relatively new parenting style of overprotection is relevant for children's eating behaviors. Overprotective parents reported food parenting practices that are known to be beneficial for children's food intake, such as modelling healthy food intake, as well as

  17. Parenting styles, feeding styles and food-related parenting practices in relation to toddlers’ eating styles: A cluster-analytic approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleddens, Ester F. C.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Toddlers’ eating behaviors are influenced by the way parents interact with their children. The objective of this study was to explore how five major constructs of general parenting behavior cluster in parents of toddlers. These parenting clusters were further explored to see how they differed in the use of feeding strategies (i.e. feeding styles and food parenting practices) and by reported child eating styles. Methods An online survey with 1005 mothers/caregivers (legal guardians) with at least one child between 12 and 36 months old was conducted in the United States in 2012, assessing general parenting behavior, feeding style, food parenting practices and the child eating styles. Results A three cluster solution of parenting style was found and clusters were labelled as overprotective/supervising, authoritarian, and authoritative. The clusters differed in terms of general parenting behaviors. Both overprotective and authoritative clusters showed high scores on structure, behavioral control, and nurturance. The overprotective cluster scored high on overprotection. The ‘authoritarian’ cluster showed lowest levels of nurturance, structure and behavioral control. Overprotective and authoritative parents showed very similar patterns in the use of food parenting practices, e.g. monitoring food intake, modeling, and promoting healthy food intake and availability at home. Overprotective parents also reported higher use of pressure to eat and involvement. Authoritarian parents reported high use of giving the child control over their food behaviors, emotion regulation, using food as a reward, and controlling food intake for weight control. Children’s eating styles did not largely vary by parenting cluster. Conclusion This study showed that a relatively new parenting style of overprotection is relevant for children’s eating behaviors. Overprotective parents reported food parenting practices that are known to be beneficial for children’s food intake

  18. Parenting styles, feeding styles and food-related parenting practices in relation to toddlers' eating styles: A cluster-analytic approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klazine van der Horst

    Full Text Available Toddlers' eating behaviors are influenced by the way parents interact with their children. The objective of this study was to explore how five major constructs of general parenting behavior cluster in parents of toddlers. These parenting clusters were further explored to see how they differed in the use of feeding strategies (i.e. feeding styles and food parenting practices and by reported child eating styles.An online survey with 1005 mothers/caregivers (legal guardians with at least one child between 12 and 36 months old was conducted in the United States in 2012, assessing general parenting behavior, feeding style, food parenting practices and the child eating styles.A three cluster solution of parenting style was found and clusters were labelled as overprotective/supervising, authoritarian, and authoritative. The clusters differed in terms of general parenting behaviors. Both overprotective and authoritative clusters showed high scores on structure, behavioral control, and nurturance. The overprotective cluster scored high on overprotection. The 'authoritarian' cluster showed lowest levels of nurturance, structure and behavioral control. Overprotective and authoritative parents showed very similar patterns in the use of food parenting practices, e.g. monitoring food intake, modeling, and promoting healthy food intake and availability at home. Overprotective parents also reported higher use of pressure to eat and involvement. Authoritarian parents reported high use of giving the child control over their food behaviors, emotion regulation, using food as a reward, and controlling food intake for weight control. Children's eating styles did not largely vary by parenting cluster.This study showed that a relatively new parenting style of overprotection is relevant for children's eating behaviors. Overprotective parents reported food parenting practices that are known to be beneficial for children's food intake, such as modelling healthy food

  19. The changing motivation of massage therapy students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finch, P

    2007-05-01

    The study was conducted in order to determine whether the level of motivation related to intrinsic (people-oriented) and extrinsic (external reward) value complexes in a class of massage therapy students changed during their professional education. The research was a quasi-experimental within-subject design, in which survey data was collected from students on their first day in the massage therapy program and again towards the end of their final term. The data were collated and summarized, and the differences in motivation scores were assessed using Fisher's Least Significant Difference procedure. The results support the hypothesis that massage therapy students are motivated more strongly by intrinsic than extrinsic rewards both at the commencement of their studies and as they approach entry to practice. Also evident from the data is the fact that the students' motivation changed during their professional studies. This change involved a significant decrease in the level of intrinsic motivation and significant increase in the level of extrinsic motivation. Thus, although intrinsic motivation reduced while extrinsic motivation increased, the former remained the more powerful influence. Professional programs should consider the balance between intrinsic and extrinsic student motivation and attempt to control influences that might shift this such that the humanistic / altruistic mission of health care is undermined.

  20. Fashion Forward: Forecasting Visual Style in Fashion

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Halah, Ziad; Stiefelhagen, Rainer; Grauman, Kristen

    2017-01-01

    What is the future of fashion? Tackling this question from a data-driven vision perspective, we propose to forecast visual style trends before they occur. We introduce the first approach to predict the future popularity of styles discovered from fashion images in an unsupervised manner. Using these styles as a basis, we train a forecasting model to represent their trends over time. The resulting model can hypothesize new mixtures of styles that will become popular in the future, discover styl...

  1. [The relationship between autonomous motivation and academic adjustment in junior high school students].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimura, Takuma; Sakurai, Shigeo

    2013-10-01

    This study investigated the relationship between autonomous motivation and academic adjustment based on the perspective of self-determination theory. It also examined motivational profiles to reveal individual differences and the characteristic of these profiles for groups with varying levels of autonomous and controlled regulation (autonomous, controlled, high motivation, and low motivation). Data were collected from 442 junior high school students for academic motivation, academic performance, academic competence, meta-cognitive strategy, academic anxiety, apathy, and stress experience. Correlation analyses generally supported the basic hypothesis of self-determination theory that a more autonomous regulation style was strongly related to academic adjustment. The results also showed that persons with a high autonomous regulation and a low controlled regulation style were the most adaptive.

  2. Understanding Student Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seifert, Timothy

    2004-01-01

    Contemporary theories of academic motivation seek to explain students' behaviours in academic settings. While each theory seems to possess its own constructs and unique explanations, these theories are actually closely tied together. In this theoretical study of motivation, several theories of motivation were described and an underlying theme of…

  3. Theme: Motivating Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gartin, Stacy A.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Includes "How Do I Turn Your Crank to Get You Going?" (Gartin); "How Do You Say 'I Don't Know' and Not Feel Guilty?" (Dickson); "Basics of Motivation" (Rankin); "Challenge to Lead Motivates Students" (D'Haem, Krueger); "Don't Just Tell Me, Teach Me!" (Custer, Leugers); "The 'I' in Motivation" (Woody); and "Student Self Discipline Scale" (Coffman).…

  4. Motivation, Management, and Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olmstead, Joseph A.

    There is an increasing interest today in the ways in which human motivation contributes to the productivity and performance of personnel. This early study of motivation management emphasizes that the organizational environment is a principal determinant of the quality of employee motivation. Concrete considerations in the management of motivation…

  5. Explorations in achievement motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmreich, Robert L.

    1982-01-01

    Recent research on the nature of achievement motivation is reviewed. A three-factor model of intrinsic motives is presented and related to various criteria of performance, job satisfaction and leisure activities. The relationships between intrinsic and extrinsic motives are discussed. Needed areas for future research are described.

  6. Personlighed og motivation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Jan Brødslev

    2017-01-01

    ses som forskelle i deres personlighed og i deres motivation. Kapitlet er opbygget således, at ganske kort præciseres først de to begreber, personlighed og motivation, hvorefter udvalgte teoretiske perspektiver på personlighed og motivation tages op. Til sammen vil disse bidrage til at besvare...

  7. Researching Student Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkaabi, Sultan Ali R.; Alkaabi, Warda; Vyver, Glen

    2017-01-01

    Motivation has been studied by different scientists in different fields of knowledge such as biology, psychology, and education for a long period, which has cultivated a wealth of knowledge in these disciplines. The richness in motivation theories poses complexity in motivation research. Due to these complexities, many researchers focus on using a…

  8. Motivation of employees of the hotel Barcelo Old Town

    OpenAIRE

    Danylenko, Anna

    2010-01-01

    This bachelor thesis is concerned with motivation of employees in selected organization, analysis of importance of particular motivation instruments. Analysis is based on information from anonymous questioning, face-to-face dialog and own observance. Bachelor thesis divides in two parts. Theoretical part, that explains basic terms, like motivation, satisfaction, motivation theory, stimulation means and system of remuneration, human relations at work, gives a base for analysis in practical par...

  9. Action-Emotion Style, Learning Approach and Coping Strategies, in Undergraduate University Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús de la Fuente

    Full Text Available Action-Emotion Style (AES is an affective-motivational construct that describes the achievement motivation that is characteristic of students in their interaction with stressful situations. Using elements from the Type-A Behavior Pattern (TABP, characteristics of competitiveness and overwork occur in different combinations with emotions of impatience and hostility, leading to a classification containing five categories of action-emotion style (Type B, Impatient-hostile type, Medium type, Competitive-Overworking type and Type A. The objective of the present research is to establish how characteristics of action-emotion style relate to learning approach (deep and surface approaches and to coping strategies (emotion-focused and problem-focused. The sample was composed of 225 students from the Psychology degree program. Pearson correlation analyses, ANOVAs and MANOVAs were used. Results showed that competitiveness-overwork characteristics have a significant positive association with the deep approach and with problem-focused strategies, while impatience-hostility is thus related to surface approach and emotion-focused strategies. The level of action-emotion style had a significant main effect. The results verified our hypotheses with reference to the relationships between action-emotion style, learning approaches and coping strategies.

  10. The Relationship between Decision Making Styles and Leadership Styles among Public Schools Principals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Omari, Aieman Ahmad

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined the relationships between leadership styles and decision-making styles among public schools principals. A total of 108 principals returned questionnaires from Russaifa Education District in Jordan. The Decision Style Inventory and the Administrative Styles Questionnaire were used in this study. "Directive decision…

  11. Assessing Experiential Learning Styles: A Methodological Reconstruction and Validation of the Kolb Learning Style Inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manolis, Chris; Burns, David J.; Assudani, Rashmi; Chinta, Ravi

    2013-01-01

    To understand experiential learning, many have reiterated the need to be able to identify students' learning styles. Kolb's Learning Style Model is the most widely accepted learning style model and has received a substantial amount of empirical support. Kolb's Learning Style Inventory (LSI), although one of the most widely utilized instruments to…

  12. Key characteristics of different management styles

    OpenAIRE

    AGADZHANYAN A.S.

    2015-01-01

    The article reveals main management styles practiсed by managers all over the world. The author considers key characteristics of management styles, conditions of their using. The paper analyzes cultural differences in management styles in the West and in the East.

  13. An Intelligent System for Determining Learning Style

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozdemir, Ali; Alaybeyoglu, Aysegul; Mulayim, Naciye; Uysal, Muhammed

    2018-01-01

    In this study, an intelligent system which determines learning style of the students is developed to increase success in effective and easy learning. The importance of the proposed software system is to determine convenience degree of the student's learning style. Personal information form and Dunn Learning Style Preference Survey are used to…

  14. Learning Styles: Do They Differ by Discipline?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, Kara; Bates, Derald; Manikowske, Linda; Amundsen, Rebecca

    2005-01-01

    Kolb's Experiential Learning Theory describes how learners see and interpret information. Past studies have analyzed learning styles of certain professions and majors. This study evaluated whether student learning styles differ by major. The Marshall and Merritt Learning Style Inventory was completed by 531 students. Differences were found in…

  15. Learning Styles and Continuing Medical Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Voorhees, Curtis; And Others

    1988-01-01

    The Gregorc Style Delineator--Word Matrix was administered to 2,060 physicians in order to gain a better understanding of their participation in continuing medical education. The study showed that 63 percent preferred the concrete sequential learning style. Different style preferences may account for some of the apparent disparity between…

  16. Behavioral Style, Culture, and Teaching and Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilliard, Asa G., III

    1992-01-01

    Argues that unique behavioral styles can be identified among African-American populations and that behavioral style may help explain differences in test performance for white and African-American students. Implications for all students of providing stylistic diversity in the schools and student ability to use multiple learning styles are…

  17. Are Students' Learning Styles Discipline Specific?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Cheryl; Reichard, Carla; Mokhtari, Kouider

    2003-01-01

    This study examines the extent to which community college students' learning style preferences vary as a function of discipline. Reports significant differences in students' learning style preferences across disciplines, but not by gender. Adds that student learning style preferences varied by academic performance as measured by gender. Discusses…

  18. Parent Predictors of Adolescents' Explanatory Style

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vélez, Clorinda E.; Krause, Elizabeth D.; Brunwasser, Steven M.; Freres, Derek R.; Abenavoli, Rachel M.; Gillham, Jane E.

    2015-01-01

    The current study tested the prospective relations (6-month lag) between three aspects of the parent-child relationship at Time 1 (T1) and adolescents' explanatory styles at Time 2 (T2): caregiving behaviors, parents' explanatory style for their own negative events, and parents' explanatory style for their children's negative events. The sample…

  19. LIFE-STYLE SEGMENTATION WITH TAILORED INTERVIEWING

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    KAMAKURA, WA; WEDEL, M

    The authors present a tailored interviewing procedure for life-style segmentation. The procedure assumes that a life-style measurement instrument has been designed. A classification of a sample of consumers into life-style segments is obtained using a latent-class model. With these segments, the

  20. Conceptualizing On-the-Job Learning Styles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berings, Marjolein G. M. C.; Poell, Rob F.; Simons, P. Robert-Jan

    2005-01-01

    The broad aims of this study are to gain insight into employees' on-the-job learning activities to help them improve their on-the-job learning. The authors define on-the-job learning styles and operationalize the concept to include both mental and overt learning styles and both interpersonal and intrapersonal learning styles. Organizations and…

  1. Enhancing motivational interviewing training in a family medicine clerkship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaltman, Stacey; WinklerPrins, Vincent; Serrano, Adriana; Talisman, Nicholas

    2015-01-01

    Despite the prevalence of unhealthy behaviors among patients in the healthcare system, traditional medical training involves little or no exposure to effective behavior change techniques such as Motivational Interviewing. An online learning community for enhanced training in Motivational Interviewing was developed for 3rd-year medical students. The website included educational materials about Motivational Interviewing as well as problematic health behaviors, a repository of exemplar videos and student videos with feedback, and a discussion board. Student participants were given the opportunity to record an encounter with a patient and to receive feedback on their use of Motivational Interviewing from a faculty member. Student volunteers in the Family Medicine Clerkship at Georgetown University School of Medicine were randomized to enhanced training, which included the online learning community, or training as usual. All student volunteers completed a questionnaire assessing self-efficacy initially and at the end of the clerkship. Students also participated in an Observed Structured Clinical Exam, which was subsequently coded by a blinded rater for behavioral counts of Motivational Interviewing techniques, key steps in Motivational Interviewing, and overall Motivational Interviewing style. Students in the enhanced training arm were rated as having significantly higher scores in Motivational Interviewing style in the Observed Structured Clinical Exam than training as usual students. A significant increase in self-efficacy from pre- to posttest in the overall sample was observed but between-group differences were not significant. Student feedback was particularly positive regarding video recorded practice sessions with patients and individualized feedback. The results of this study as well as student feedback suggest that future work should include patient practice sessions and individualized feedback in developing Motivational Interviewing curricula.

  2. Hierarchy of Needs, Perception and Preference for Leadership Styles within a Police Educational Institution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina RAUS

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The present research investigates Maslow’s hierarchy of needs and the leadership style (perceived and ideal in a sample of employees of a police school. The purpose of this study was to identify and propose solutions to improve the managerial activity. Based on Maslow’s theory for understanding human motivation, we developed a measurement scale for human needs. Based on Lewin’s theory of leadership style, we developed two measurement scales, one for perceived leadership and one for ideal leadership style. Agreement of judges was used to obtain valid measures. Reliable α-Cronbach coefficients were obtained for internal consistency of the measurement scales. We conducted correlational and comparative analyses between variables, regarding each professional category (police officers, police constables, civilians. The results contradict Maslow’s theoretical model for human needs, challenging the order imposed by Maslow’s pyramid. The order of the importance of needs differ from one category of personnel to another. Regardless of professional status, physiological needs are generally more significant than other needs. Comparing the perceived leadership style with the ideal style, all groups would prefer a less autocratic leadership style than it is, and more democratic than they perceive it. In addition, civilians would like a more permissive style of leadership than it is the perceived style. Perceived leadership styles are correlated differently with staff needs. Practical implications and contribution of the research are discussed.

  3. Motivator-manager.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Angelic P

    2009-01-01

    The radiologic career field has undergone radical changes in technology, regulatory compliance, and customer expectation.These changes often require dramatic alterations to processes,which can break down communication, create stress, and have a negative effect on department productivity. Motivation itself is a frequently analyzed and reported topic in professional publications. For this purpose, this literature review specifically researches motivation as identified by radiology administrators through Radiology Management. Three key elements surfaced as those with the most impact: (1) motivation is an intrinsic factor which can be influenced but not created, (2) clear attainable goals are an essential component of motivation,and (3) motivation begins with identification of employee needs.

  4. BULGARIAN TEACHERS’ CAREER MOTIVATORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanislava Stoyanova

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A review of several studies of teachers’ career motivation since Bulgarian Renaissance till nowadays is presented in this paper. 203 Bulgarian teachers in public schools were studied by means of a questionnaire created by Slavchov & Stoyanova (2007 measuring career motivational types, according to Moses’ typology (2003. The career motivational type of Authenticity seekers was the most preferred by the studied Bulgarian teachers, followed by Personal developers and Stability seekers. Career builders as a career motivational type was minor career motivator, the least preferred one by Bulgarian teachers. A lot of significant positive correlations existed between teachers’ career motivational types. Some social-demographic factors (such as gender, specialty, work experience, and age differentiated teachers’ career motivators. The type of Autonomy seekers was more preferred career motivator by male teachers than by female teachers in correspondence to the traditional stereotypes for men. Longer teachers’ work experience and teachers’ advance in age were related to more frequency of Stability seekers, but less frequency of Novelty seekers career motivator. Preschool and elementary school teachers preferred more strongly Authenticity seekers as a career motivator than teachers in natural sciences and mathematics. Establishing major career motivators for teachers may be related to opportunities for improvement of performance and work satisfaction.

  5. The Relationship between Parenting Styles and Adult Attachment Styles from Jordan University Students

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad M. Mahasneh; Zohair H. Al-Zoubi; Omar T. Batayenh; Mohammad S. Jawarneh

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between parenting styles and adult attachment styles. A random sample of (564) male and female students at the faculty of educational sciences was chosen selected. Two questionnaires on attachment styles and parenting styles were administered to the selected sample population during the academic year of 2012-2013. Results indicated significant positive correlations between the authoritative, negligent and authoritarian parenting styles...

  6. THE EFFECT OF PATH-GOAL LEADERSHIP STYLES ON WORK GROUP PERFORMANCE: A RESEARCH ON JEWELLERY INDUSTRY IN ISTANBUL

    OpenAIRE

    Erenel, Fahri

    2016-01-01

    Individuals who embraces one of the leadership styles of Path-Goal Leadership Theory which is one of the leadership theories, can be succesful at making the work group effective, for these leadership styles enables leaders to assess needs and clarify goals.Looking at studies in Turkish literature, it is noticed that leadership behaviours were examined in the terms of Path-Goal Leadership Theory however the relationship between leadership styles in this theory and work performance were not exa...

  7. Motivation from control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eitam, Baruch; Kennedy, Patrick M; Tory Higgins, E

    2013-09-01

    Human motivation is sensitive to value-to the outcomes of actions. People invest mental and physical resources for obtaining desired results or for stopping and reversing undesired ones. Accordingly, people's motivation is sensitive to information about their standing in relation to outcome attainment ('outcome feedback'). In this paper, we argue and present the first evidence for the existence of another motivational sensitivity in humans-a sensitivity to our degree of control on the environment and hence to information about that control ('control feedback'). We show that when actions have even trivial and constant perceptual effects, participants' motivation to perform is enhanced. We then show that increased motivation is not because more information about task performance is available and that motivation is increased only in conditions in which control over the effects can be firmly established by the mind. We speculate on the implications for understanding motivation, and potentially, physical and mental health.

  8. Public Service Motivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raluca-Marilena Mihalcioiu

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Public Service Motivation concept was developed in North America and focuses on specific motivations of public servants, such as employee satisfaction, organizational commitment, reward preferences, organizational and individual performance. Other types of motivation, as financial consideration, are relevant but have less important influences with regard to this kind of work outcomes. This strengthen the assertion for a diversified motivational strategy, which affect various types of motivation, while not losing sight of the public value that one organization shows and therefore valuing public service motivation as a specific contribution to work outcomes. The concept has been increasingly applied in European public administration. This paper presents Status Quo of international Public Service Motivation research and locates in them empirical evidences from contries that are already working with this concept, like Austria. It also analyses implications for central questions of public management. The main focus of this article is general appropriateness and possible applications for Romanian public management research.

  9. Occupational safety motivation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Louise; Kines, Pete

    2010-01-01

    Background: Motivation is one of the most important factors for safety behaviour and for implementing change in general. However, theoretical and psychometric studies of safety performance have traditionally treated safety motivation, safety compliance and safety participation unidimensionally....... At the same time many motivation questionnaire items are seldom founded on theory and/or do not account for the theories’ ontological and epistemological differences, e.g. of how knowledge, attitude and action are related. Present questionnaire items tap into occupational safety motivation in asking whether...... or not respondents ‘are’ motivated and whether they feel that safety is important or worthwhile. Another important aspect is ‘what’ motivates workers to comply to and participate in safety. The aim of this article is to introduce a new theory-based occupational safety motivation scale which is validated...

  10. Motivation and job satisfaction as a key element of successful business management.

    OpenAIRE

    Kazachok, Alina

    2011-01-01

    The subject of this thesis is motivation and job satisfaction of employees. The theoretical part deals with basic terms in the field of motivation and job satisfaction, motivation principles, factors that influence motivation and job satisfaction. Also the theoretical part gives consideration to the methods of measuring job satisfaction, manager's role in the sphere of motivation and job satisfaction. The part contains the description of the major motivational theories. The second part is dev...

  11. The Relationships between Perceived Teaching Behaviors and Motivation in Physical Education: A One-Year Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koka, Andre

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the direction of relationships between specific dimensions of perceived teaching behaviors and motivation in physical education over time among 330 secondary school students. Cross-lagged path-analytic models revealed that autonomous motivation was reciprocally related over time with perceived decision-making style, and…

  12. Hierarchy of Needs, Perception and Preference for Leadership Styles within a Police Educational Institution

    OpenAIRE

    Alina RAUS; Mihaela HAITA; Lucreţia LAZĂR

    2012-01-01

    The present research investigates Maslow’s hierarchy of needs and the leadership style (perceived and ideal) in a sample of employees of a police school. The purpose of this study was to identify and propose solutions to improve the managerial activity. Based on Maslow’s theory for understanding human motivation, we developed a measurement scale for human needs. Based on Lewin’s theory of leadership style, we developed two measurement scales, one for perceived leadership and one for ideal lea...

  13. (Mis)managing employee motivation?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Christian Bøtcher; Hvidtved, Johan; Andersen, Lotte Bøgh

    Motivated employees are crucial to all organizations, but some management initiatives may actually decrease motivation. Motivation crowding theory thus expects that command and incentives – if they are perceived as controlling - crowd out intrinsic motivation. The perception is thus expected...

  14. Attachment Styles of Dermatological Patients in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Szabó, Csanád; Altmayer, Anita; Lien, Lars

    2017-01-01

    Attachment styles of dermatological outpatients and satisfaction with their dermatologists were investigated within the framework of a multicentre study conducted in 13 European countries, organized by the European Society for Dermatology and Psychiatry. Attachment style was assessed with the Adult......, and experienced similar rates of anxiety in relationships as did the controls. Participants who had secure attachment styles reported stressful life events during the last 6 months significantly less often than those who had insecure attachment styles. Patients with secure attachment styles tended to be more...... satisfied with their dermatologist than did insecure patients. These results suggest that secure attachment of dermatological outpatients may be a protective factor in the management of stress....

  15. Cognitive style and plebe turnover at the U.S. Naval Academy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Tom; Cahill, Alice M

    2005-08-01

    Students entering (N = 1,134) the U.S. Naval Academy class of 2000 were administered the Kirton Adaption-Innovation Inventory on the first day of Plebe Summer, a 7-wk. nonacademic training program completed by all entering students in the summer prior to the freshman year. The mean score on Innovation cognitive style for this sample of plebes was approximately a standard deviation lower than those of five other undergraduate student samples from nonmilitary universities. Furthermore, the 98 plebes who voluntarily withdrew before completing the program scored higher on the average on Innovation than those who remained. Findings suggest that, in terms of Person-Organization fit, plebes with a more innovative cognitive style may, perhaps, be less compatible with the regimentation-style climate of the Academy than those with an Adaptive cognitive style. Further research, however, is needed to specify the relationship between Academy students' cognitive style and other important organizational outcomes.

  16. Adult attachment style and anxiety

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sara Kerstine Kaya; Lønfeldt, Nicole Nadine; Wolitzky-Taylor, Kate

    2017-01-01

    Although there is substantial evidence for the role of emotion regulation in the etiology and maintenance of anxiety disorders, knowledge about what contributes to emotion dysregulation is sparse. Attachment style is related to emotion regulation and anxiety symptoms, but these variables have rar...... knowledge to examine the mediating role of emotion regulation between attachment dimensions (avoidance and anxiety) and anxiety symptoms.......Although there is substantial evidence for the role of emotion regulation in the etiology and maintenance of anxiety disorders, knowledge about what contributes to emotion dysregulation is sparse. Attachment style is related to emotion regulation and anxiety symptoms, but these variables have...... rarely been examined together. Examining emotion dysregulation within the context of anxiety disorders through an attachment theory framework will lead to a better understanding of the etiology and maintenance of anxiety disorders. In the present study we combined theoretically and empirically derived...

  17. The Motivation of Betrayal by Leaking of Classified Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lăzăroiu Laurențiu-Leonard

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Trying to forecast the human behavior involves acts and knowledge of motivational theories, applicable to profile of each organization and in particular to each individual’s style. The anticipation of personal attitudes has not the only aim for a passive monitoring of professional activity, but also wants to increase performance of risk avoidance, in acordance with a specific organizational environment. The emergence and development of motivational forms and values, whose projections determine social crimes, are risk factors, affecting the professional activity of the person, but also affecting the performance and stability of the institution. Moreover, if the motivation determines attitudes aimed at compromising classified information, the resulting actions may be considered as threats to national security. The prevention of such threats can only be achieved by understanding motivational mechanisms and external conditions for the perssonel that make it possible to transform some intentions into real actions.

  18. Communications Style Guide. Fourth Edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-01

    Example 2: The general’s dog, obedient and loyal, was the perfect companion . 2. Adverbial modifiers: Adverbial modifiers are usually followed...pronoun in this case. Example 3: Us chefs like to cook.  You wouldn’t say, “Us like to cook,” so the appropriate pronoun here is we. 2...in Chicago Style. Resources for Additional Help:  Alred, Gerald J., Charles T. Brusaw, and Walter E. Oliu. The Business Writer’s Companion

  19. Creativity Styles and Emotional Intelligence of Filipino Student Teachers: A Search for Congruity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilbert C. Magulod Jr.

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to determine the congruity between the creativity styles and emotional intelligence of Filipino student teachers. Descriptive correlational research design was employed. The participants of the study were the 76 fourth year students of Bachelor in Elementary Education (BEED and Bachelor in Secondary Education (BSED in one state university in the Philippines. Data of the study were obtained using two standardized instruments relating to creativity styles and emotional intelligence. Findings of the study revealed that the student teachers espoused themselves to have high creative capacity while they assessed themselves to have high creativity styles along belief in unconscious processes, use of techniques, use of other people and final product orientation. With regards to their emotional intelligence, they assessed themselves to have high attributes on self-awareness, management of emotions, self-motivation, empathy and social skills. Significantly, this study also revealed that gender, birth order, course and scholastic standing in high school spelled differences on the creativity styles of Filipino student teachers. Moreover, test of difference also showed that scholastic standing in high school and family income defined differences along emotional intelligence. Finally, it was also revealed in the study that there is a significant relationship between creativity styles and emotional intelligence of Filipino student teachers. Implications of the congruity between emotional intelligence and creativity styles would help Teacher Education Institutions (TEIs to implement curriculum enhancement which is vital to the preparation of twenty-first century teachers.

  20. Using VARK Approach for Assessing Preferred Learning Styles of First Year Medical Sciences Students: A Survey from Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peyman, Hadi; Sadeghifar, Jamil; Khajavikhan, Javaher; Yasemi, Masood; Rasool, Mohammad; Yaghoubi, Yasemi Monireh; Nahal, Monireh Mohammad Hassan; Karim, Hemati

    2014-08-01

    Preferred learning styles of learners are different, which depend on tastes, mentality preparedness, as well as physical condition, in terms of sensory modalities. Identifying and employing appropriate learning styles could play an important role in selecting teaching styles, which can improve education ultimately. The present study aimed to assess the diversity of learning styles amongst medical students of a medical sciences university which was located west of Iran, in 2010. A cross-sectional study which employed VARK learning style's questionnaire was done on 141 first year medical sciences students at Ilam University of Medical Sciences in 2010. Data was collected with use of VARK questionnaire. The validity of the questionnaire was assessed on basis of experts' views and its reliability was calculated by using Cronbach's alpha coefficients (α=0.86). Data were analysed by using SPSS software and Chi-square test. Overall, 41.6% of the samples preferred to use a single learning style (Uni-modal). Of these, 17.7% preferred the Aural style, 17% preferred Reading and Writing, 6.4% preferred Kinesthetic style and 0.7% preferred Visual styles. Among the rest of the 82 students who preferred more than one style (multimodal), 17% chose two modes (bimodal), 13.5% chose three modes (tri-modal), and 27.6% chose four modes (quad-modal). There was a significant difference between educational levels and majors on one hand and choice of quad modal of VARK styles on the other hand (p=0.008). A significant association was also found between participants' genders and selection of visual and reading/writing styles (p=0.03). The preferred learning styles of medical students in the present study were aural and reading/writing. It is suggested that all medical students must be tested to determine their desired learning styles by using VARK questionnaire, also to choose appropriate teaching methods and to improve educational goals.

  1. Cognitive and motivational variables that shape academic learning: A preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palos, Ramona

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this pilot study was to capture the relationship between cognitive and motivational variables and the student learning. 102 students from the Psychology specialization, license cycle, took part in the study. The following tools were used: the Rational-Experiential Inventory (Paccini & Epstein, 1999; the Intellectual development level questionnaire (Paloş, 2009, the Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire (Rao & Sachs, 1999. The results indicated that the motivational and learning strategies used by students are influenced by their intellectual development level and their information processing style. Knowing the cognitive and motivational variables play an important role in devising the educational experiences and in making learning more efficient.

  2. How to Motivate Employees?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreja Kušar

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Research Question (RQ: How to motivate employees and keep them motivated? Purpose: The purpose of this study is to find out what motivates employees and what motivates employees for work. Method: The results of the questionnaire are graphically presented and described. Random sampling was utilized that included participants from various professional areas and demographic characteristics. The results showed a relationship between individual motivational factors related to education, age and type of employment. All of the questions were closed - type questions except for the last question, which was an open question, in which the respondents answered in their own words. Questions were analyzed using frequency analysis of individual responses. Pearson's Chi - squared test, Spearman's rank correlation and Fisher’s Exact test was made using R Commander. Results: The research findings showed which motivational factors motivate employees the most. These are especially non - material motivational factors, such as good relationships, jobs with challenges, advancement opportunities, clear instructions, good work conditions, company reputation, etc. Organization: The study will help managers understand their role in motivating employees as well as the types of motivational factors. Society: The research shows how individuals are motivated. Originality: Certain motivators in the study are ranked differently than was found in previous literature. Most probably the reason is that the respondents in this study favored intangible motivators (good relations with leadership and their colleagues, good working conditions, etc.. Limitations/Future Research: The limitation of this study was that the sample included employees of different ages, gender and years of service in various organizations. To enhance the study and to find similar results as in previous literature, more questions should have been asked as well as increasing the sample size.

  3. Hospital nurses' work motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toode, Kristi; Routasalo, Pirkko; Helminen, Mika; Suominen, Tarja

    2015-06-01

    The knowledge surrounding nurses' work motivation is currently insufficient, and previous studies have rarely taken into account the role of many influential background factors. This study investigates the motivation of Estonian nurses in hospitals, and how individual and organisational background factors influence their motivation to work. The study is quantitative and cross-sectional. An electronically self-reported questionnaire was used for data collection. The sample comprised of 201 Registered Nurses working in various hospital settings in Estonia. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics, two-sample Wilcoxon rank-sum (Mann-Whitney) test, Kruskal-Wallis equality-of-populations rank test and Spearman's correlation. Both extrinsic and intrinsic motivations were noted among hospital nurses. Nurses were moderately externally motivated (M = 3.63, SD = 0.89) and intrinsically strongly motivated (M = 4.98, SD = 1.03). A nurses' age and the duration of service were positively correlated with one particular area of extrinsic work motivation, namely introjected regulation (p extrinsic motivation (p = 0.016) and intrinsic work motivation (p = 0.004). The findings expand current knowledge of nurses' work motivation by describing the amount and orientation of work motivation among hospital nurses and highlighting background factors which should be taken into account in order to sustain and increase their intrinsic work motivation. The instrument used in the study can be an effective tool for nurse managers to determine a nurse's reasons to work and to choose a proper motivational strategy. Further research and testing of the instrument in different countries and in different contexts of nursing is however required. © 2014 Nordic College of Caring Science.

  4. The cure for employee malaise--motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, K M; Dawson, S N

    1991-01-01

    Although working conditions, hours, pay, and advancement opportunities are better now than in the 1950s--the "golden age" of American business--today's workers are significantly less satisfied. Why? The authors believe the cause of this malaise is lack of motivation. This article examines several techniques to cure employee malaise and discusses the long-term benefits of these techniques, which include empowerment, recognition, career development, the Pygmalion effect, incentives, and rewards. By making a commitment to these motivational techniques, managers will boost the morale and enthusiasm of their employees and their organization. This motivational process is not quick and easy; developing your employees is an ongoing process.

  5. Job satisfaction and factors affecting motivation at Posti Oyj

    OpenAIRE

    Shah, Kapil

    2016-01-01

    The business trends and life style of humans are changing rapidly due to globalization and it visibly affects the work environment and employee’s attitude towards the work as the needs and desires of human being are changing too. In such circumstance, it is essential to have motivated team to survive in the market is vital agenda for the firms, where Posti Oyj is not an exception. It has become a challenge for HR officials to study about job satisfaction and motivation including factors affec...

  6. The Leadership Style and the Productiveness of Employees in the Banking Sector in Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belas Jaroslav

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of the article was to prove a relationship between applied leadership style of branch managers and productiveness of bank sales clerks and room for their productiveness improvementapplicable in the banking sector in Slovakia. One part of the objective was to examine the continuity between applied leadership style of branch managers and their time in control functions held. Dependencies between the individual productiveness of bank sales clerks and the level of their loyalty and satisfaction were investigated. Opinions of branch managers about the applicable leadership style and room for sales clerks’ productiveness improvement were examined through two questionnaire surveys (conducted in 2008 and 2012. The research results confirmed that the directive style of leadership is the mandatory style in the banking sector in Slovakia whereas the intensity of its implementation during the analysis period was increased. The research has also shown that there is a direct connection between the dominant style of leadership and room for improvement of sales clerks’ productiveness, because the growth of the intensity of directive style in this case led to lower productiveness of the average bank sales clerks. Our assumption that the applied leadership style of bank employees depends on timeworking in managerial positions has not been confirmed. In comparison to long-term managers, branch managers who were working for rather short period in any managerial positions did not show any differences in their management priorities. The assumption that the employee satisfaction and loyalty significantly encourage individual employee productiveness was not confirmed in the research.

  7. The influence of social style in evaluating academic presentations of engineering projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hector Ortiz

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available An individual’s social style is determined by behavioral patterns in the interactions with their peers. Some studies suggest that social style may influence the way in which an individual’s performance is evaluated. We studied the effects that speakers’ and evaluators’ social styles have on the marks given for end-of-term presentations in a project engineering master’s course. The participants completed a self-evaluation exercise that classified their social styles into one of four categories: Driver, expressive, analytical, or amiable. Students individually rated the content and appearance of their classmates’ presentations. A statistical analysis of these scores revealed that the speaker’s social style had a significant effect on the marks received for content and appearance. The evaluator’s social style also demonstrated a statistically significant effect on the marks given for appearance, though not for content. Students with expressive social style received the highest scores, while the analytical style received the lowest scores. These results reiterate the necessity to train students as evaluators in order to reduce bias when evaluating their classmates and co-workers during their academic and professional careers.

  8. The mediation role of motivation between leadership and public sector performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dzivhuluwani Mavhungu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: As a result of poor performance in 2013, five departments in the Limpopo province were placed under administration in terms of Section 100 (1 (b of the Constitution of the Republic of South Africa. Research purpose: The main purpose of this study was to investigate the importance of the individual level of performance when diagnosing performance issues in the public sector by focusing on the mediatory role of motivation in the relationship between leadership and public sector performance. Motivation for the study: The diagnosis conducted focused more on the analysis of administrative and operational systems. The solutions were based on normalising financial statements and systems to improve performance. Research design, approach and method: The study took a positivist approach as the philosophy of the study. Using quantitative methods, a cross-sectional survey was used to collect data from 65 employees working in one of the departments that were affected by the intervention. Main findings: The study confirmed the existence of a relationship between leadership and performance in the public sector. It was also found that Public Sector Motivation plays a mediatory role between Perceived Leadership Styles and Individual Job Performance. Practical/managerial implications: The findings imply that it is important that the Limpopo Provincial Government makes an effort to employ and retain employees who are readily showing high levels of Public Sector Motivation. Contribution or value additions: The study focused on an overlooked area in the study of performance in the public sector. The study was able to produce a tool that should be able to provide information to assist managers to make better performance improvement strategy decisions.

  9. HOW TEACHERS EVALUATE THEIR WORK STYLE DEPENDING ON THE SUBJECT THEY TEACH AND YEARS OF WORK EXPERIENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranka Perućica

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In previous works we presented the studies that discussed how students evaluate their teachers and their style of teaching. To what extent their styles affect the students’ attitudes to teaching, learning, success, motivation and the like. In this work we have tried to point out how teachers assess their style of work, depending on the subject they teach and years of work experience. In addition, the aim of this study was to examine whether there are differences in teachers’ estimation of the teaching styles depending on the subject they teach and years of work experience. The study sample consisted of 120 teachers in the final grades of primary schools in the Sarajevo – Romania region. Teachers responded to questions assessing which of the statements given are related to them. The questionnaire was designed for research purposes with the three styles that are commonly used in the classroom to a democratic, autocratic and laissez - fair style. Reliability of the instrument was tested using Cronbach - alpha coefficient, and amounted to 0.73 democratic style, the autocratic 0.73, and 0.63 for the indifferent style. In the study, we used two methods: survey method and the method of theoretical analysis. The obtained results show that there is a statistically significant difference in teachers’ assessments of democratic and laissez - fair style usage, depending on the subject they teach, while there was no statistically significant difference when it comes to the autocratic style. The second part of our results shows that there is no difference in teachers’ assessments of work styles, depending on years of work experience. We hope that these results will contribute to the already existing research dealing with this subject.

  10. Imagination persistence on the vertical axis of Khaghani's odes, a personal style

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Javadi Mortezayi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available AbstractKhaghani is one of the preeminent Persian poets. He is a stylist poet. Creating exquisite, dramatic and enigmatic imaginations in the era that most of the poets tried to imitate, integrate and repeat the themes of predecessors makes his position in the poetry more clear. His poems inspired by his rich talent and his proficiency in various sciences such as medicine, astronomy, philosophy, theology, history and math are one of the most exquisite and beautiful Persian poetries.Understanding his poems seems to be difficult due to his heavy use of these sciences, as well as using specialized and strange wordings and creating out of the mind imaginations.This Shervani poet not only has created so beautiful and exquisite dramatic themes and imaginations on the horizontal axis, but also he has done same in several cases on the vertical axis of the poem. In cases the themes are felt repeated, he has uttered them masterfully and skillfully with so novel and exquisite imaginations that they are not seem repeated and keep their value. One of the most outstanding characteristics of Khaghani's personal style is imagination persistence on vertical axis of the odes.Imagination on two horizontal and vertical axes of the poet usually includes the terms such as congestion, interference and persistence. The congestion of imagination mostly takes place on the horizontal axis of the poem and resulted by involving several independence imaginations in a verse of the poem and usually leads to compression of imaginations and their interference and disparity.Poets often use congestion to demonstrate their talent and power in Poetry, while in most of the cases it has no result except for imaginations' interference and that it causes some problems for reader to reach what poet means. But, persistence means to bring several imaginations about an object, a word or a motive in several verses which indicate the talent and imagining power of the poet and his emotional

  11. [Psychological theories of motivation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quoniam, Nolwenn; Bungener, Catherine

    2004-03-01

    The comprehension of the principles guiding the human actions has always been an important aspect of philosophy. The development of experimental psychology first completely rejected all mental explanations such as will, intentions or motives. Behavior should then only be understood as determined by conditioning and learning. However, different theories denied that human behavior could be considered as purely reactive to the environment and stressed the active role of the organism on the environment. Theories from the humanist psychology and the social psychology described two kinds of motivation. The extrinsic motivation results from external stimuli and the intrinsic motivation from the organism himself. Our behavior is therefore determined by an interaction between our beliefs, expectations, needs and the environment. Actually, the concept of motivation is not well specified. It refers either to a global dynamic structure responsible for action either to a specific tendency toward some specific actions. Anyway, motivation is a concept infered from behavior. Therefore, its evaluation could only be secondary.

  12. Second Language Learning Motivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvyda Liuolienė

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the peculiarities of ESP learning motivation. The meaning of motivation and three main approaches to motivational psychology: expectancy-value theory, goal-directed theory and the self-determination theory are presented, two distinct orientations for learning a language: integrative and instrumental are described in the paper. The importance of needs analysis to ESP learning is stressed and the main conditions (interest in the topic and activity; relevance to the students’ lives; expectancy of success and feelings of being in control and satisfaction in the outcome for motivation are described. The skills that ESP learners need to develop are specified. The description of approaches to motivational psychology is proposed, as motivation is of great significance in foreign language learning.

  13. OBSERVATIONS ON ENGLISH LEARNING MOTIVATION IN PROFESSIONAL COLLEGES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GuoShixiang

    2004-01-01

    The study was carried out on 78 students majoring in tourism in a professional college based on their fourth-term final English achievements. A small scale questionnaire investigated students' English learning motivation. The study reveals that:1) Most of the professional college students English learning motivation is instrumental motivation or certificate motivation.2)Successful learners have intrinsic motivation.3)unsuccessfull earners have extrinsic motivation.4)Both successful learners and unsuccessful learners spend nearly the same time learning English. In the light of social constructivism,the thesis analyzes the students' English learning motivation in professional colleges on the basis of the result of the investigation. It also illustrates causes of formed motivation. Four education suggestions are put forward based on the study.

  14. Emotion and style in an English translation of the Quran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whissell, Cynthia

    2004-04-01

    An English translation of the Quran was studied in terms of word use patterns, emotionality of words, and style. Variables were assessed with the help of computer programs and the Dictionary of Affect in Language. On the basis of words used at unusually high frequencies, the translation of the Quran was seen to be emphatically about Allah, his Prophets and Message, and believers. The translation of the Quran was slightly less Pleasant and Active in emotional tone than everyday English and also less concrete. It contained an unusual number of negatives and was repetitive but did not contain many rare or long words. Significant differences were noted between chronologically Early and Late suras (chapters) in terms of emotion, style, and word use. An inflection point was identified in the time-line partway through the Meccan suras of the Quran.

  15. Effects of Motivation and Medication on Electrophysiological Markers of Response Inhibition in Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Groom, Madeleine J.; Scerif, Gaia; Liddle, Peter F.; Batty, Martin J.; Liddle, Elizabeth B.; Roberts, Katherine L.; Cahill, John D.; Liotti, Mario; Hollis, Chris

    2010-01-01

    Background Theories of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) posit either executive deficits and/or alterations in motivational style and reward processing as core to the disorder. Effects of motivational incentives on electrophysiological correlates of inhibitory control and relationships between motivation and stimulant medication have not been explicitly tested. Methods Children (9?15 years) with combined-type ADHD (n = 28) and matched typically developing children (CTRL) (n = 28...

  16. Motivation and remuneration

    OpenAIRE

    SOUKUP, Miloslav

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this bachelor work is analysis of remuneration and motivation in travel agencies and companies, where is established performance pay system for self-employed. Work consists of literature review and practical part. Literature review contains information about motivation and remuneration. Practical part includes information about analyzed companies, analysis remuneration and motivation, evaluation analyzed companies and conceiving performance pay system, in which are participants sel...

  17. Motivation in Experiential Education

    OpenAIRE

    Porada, Petr

    2007-01-01

    This project is dedicated to study of motivation in experiential courses. More exactly it tries to describe motivation means suitable for teenage trainees to make them cooperate willingly and actively on course asset. And not just that. It also describes factors which have influence on quality and quantity of aplicated effort, manners how to enforce trainees to carry on working when some problem appears and also how the motivation is affected by the instructor's and peers' admittance. The pro...

  18. Employee motivation and benefits

    OpenAIRE

    Březíková, Tereza

    2009-01-01

    The topic of my bachelor's thesis is the employee motivation and benefits. The thesis is divided in two parts, a theoretical one and a practical one. The theoretical part deals with the theory of motivation and individual employee benefits. The practical part describes employee benefits in ČSOB, where I did my research by questionnaires that were filled in by employees from different departments of ČSOB. These employees answered questions about their work motivation and benefits. The resultts...

  19. The Motivated Project Team

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-01

    Financial incentives that match level of achievement • Regular, constructive feedback. Hierarchy of Needs ( Abraham H. Maslow ) Team members can be...Much has been written regarding motivational Defense AT&L: November-December 2009 58 theory . To further complicate mat- ters, some motivational... theories clearly contradict others, and a manager’s ability to motivate is, to no small degree, related to his or her leadership approach and inter

  20. The effects of field dependent/independent style awareness on learning strategies and outcomes in an instructional hypermedia module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fyle, Clifford Omodele

    . Correspondingly, there were no significant findings for field-independent students of the effects of style awareness on learning strategies. The findings also revealed significant differences in terms of style awareness and its interactions with achievement on the multiple-choice test. Both field-dependent and field-independent students with style awareness achieved higher scores than their counterparts who received no style awareness. There were however no significant findings with respect to the effects of style awareness on performance on the design task. Overall this study demonstrated that providing middle-school students with cognitive-style awareness training can improve both their academic performance as well as enable them to adopt more effective learning strategies when learning in hypermedia environments.