Full Text Available This study aims to investigate whether the epistemological beliefs, creativity levels and thinking styles of pre-school teachers are significant predictors of their problem solving skills and in accordance with this purpose, a correlational survey design was used. The sample of this study consists of 155 pre school teachers working in Isparta in the school year 2011-2012. As data collection tools, “Problem Solving Inventory”, “Epistemological Beliefs Scale, “How Creative Are You?” and lastly, “Thinking Styles Inventory” were used. Data were analyzed by stepwise multiple regression analysis. In this study, it has been found that problem solving skills of the teachers are a significant predictor of preschool teachers’ perceptions of their creativity levels positively and perceptions of their conventional thinking styles negatively in the belief that learning depends on ability.
Vuust, Peter; Brattico, Elvira; Seppänen, Miia; Näätänen, Risto; Tervaniemi, Mari
Musicians' processing of sounds depends highly on instrument, performance practice, and level of expertise. Here, we measured the mismatch negativity (MMN), a preattentive brain response, to six types of musical feature change in musicians playing three distinct styles of music (classical, jazz, and rock/pop) and in nonmusicians using a novel, fast, and musical sounding multifeature MMN paradigm. We found MMN to all six deviants, showing that MMN paradigms can be adapted to resemble a musical context. Furthermore, we found that jazz musicians had larger MMN amplitude than all other experimental groups across all sound features, indicating greater overall sensitivity to auditory outliers. Furthermore, we observed a tendency toward shorter latency of the MMN to all feature changes in jazz musicians compared to band musicians. These findings indicate that the characteristics of the style of music played by musicians influence their perceptual skills and the brain processing of sound features embedded in music. © 2012 New York Academy of Sciences.
Hamdenur Uzunoğlu; Kamile Demir
This study aims to investigate whether the epistemological beliefs, creativity levels and thinking styles of pre-school teachers are significant predictors of their problem solving skills and in accordance with this purpose, a correlational survey design was used. The sample of this study consists of 155 pre school teachers working in Isparta in the school year 2011-2012. As data collection tools, “Problem Solving Inventory”, “Epistemological Beliefs Scale, “How Creative Are You?” and lastly,...
Riding, Richard J.; Al-Salih, Nizar
Presents a study of cognitive style and motor skill performance on a battery of tasks and sports performance. Suggests four skills factors from the motor skills subsample (n=69), specifically bodily movement, interactive skills, mechanical skills, and aiming. Reveals a significant effect of style for tennis from the sports performance subsample…
Ian Tobias Fuelscher
Full Text Available We present the perspective that while coaches and instructors commonly adapt learning styles to maximise training outcomes, there has been little to no empirical support for the efficacy of this practice. Learning styles is a learner’s preferred mode (e.g. visual, verbal of taking in and processing new information. Although it is a relevant topic for the learning of motor and sport skills, few studies have used an appropriate methodology to test the effectiveness of learning style-based instruction. We highlight the need for a learning style assessment tool specific to motor skills and call for a test of the learning style hypothesis, the claim that learners will benefit from instruction that is tailored to their individual learning style. To this end, we suggest methodological guidelines.
Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine the role of humor style and motor skills in vulnerability to bullying. 729 adults responded to the Humor Style Questionnaire (HSQ and items retrospectively addressing their motor skills and bullying experiences during childhood. Consistent with recent research, poorer motor skills were associated with a greater extent of having been bullied. An association between stronger motor skills and affiliative humor was found, lending support to a shared biological basis theory underlying social and motor competency processes. Most importantly, being bullied was associated with higher self-defeating humor and lower affiliative humor. This supports earlier theoretical work by Klein and Kuiper (2006 and highlights the role that humor styles play in social interactions that can promote positive peer acceptance and wellbeing.
Full Text Available This study investigated the effect of instructional method s and students’ cognitive styles toward speaking skill. It was an experimental research using a two -factor ANOVA at 0.05 and 0.01 significance level. Because an interaction between the variables involved was found, the analysis was then continued by Tuckey Test. The data was collected using oral test rating cale and a cognitive style questionnaire. The findings showed the following points: (1 the speaking skill of the students taught by CLL (Cooperative Language Learning was higher than the students taught by TBL(Task-Based Language Learning; (2 the speaking skill of FD (Field Dependent students was higher than FI (Field Independent students; (3 there was an interaction between instructional methods and cognitive style to speaking skill; (4 the speaking skill of the students taught by CLL was higher than the students taught by TBL in the group of FD students; (5 there was no significant difference of the speaking skill of the students taught by CLL and the students taught by TBL in the group of FI students. The findings above led to a conclusion that generally CLL was more effective than TBL in teaching speaking skill. Moreover, besides instructional methods, cognitive style also gives a significant effect to students’ speaking skill
Full Text Available When faced with various challenges, modern organizations must be able to function effectively. These challenges include globalization, technological advancements, necessity to operate in the state of permanent flux, and finally, generation of intellectual capital, which delivers the competitive edge. As a consequence, the management of a modern organization and its diverse staff, which enables the company to operate effectively without generating losses or conflicts, becomes critical. Nowadays, organizations have to constantly look for innovative ways of conducting business. The conclusion drawn from observing successes of such organizations proves that taking a closer look at the issue of Human Resources (HR diversity’s role is worthwhile. Especially the analysis of managerial skills and learning styles in the context of companies’ innovation seems of particular relevance. The managerial skills and their development are the basis for successful management processes in a modern company. The aim of this study was to identify and assess skills and learning styles of innovative companies’ employees. The empirical material was collected in 2016 on the basis of a research conducted among employees of innovative companies established in Poland. The results of the present research allowed to analyze the impact of the respondents’ independent variables on their skills and learning styles. As a result of the study, recommendations for managers and Human Resources Management (HRM specialists were formulated on how to successfully manage employees’ various skills and learning styles.
Barros, Daniela Melaré Vieira
What is being discussed in education is currently contextualized within the network society, where formal and informal co-learning are indispensable in the development and exercise of social, cultural, cognitive, both technological mastery and fluency as professional on citizenship skills. The main goal of reflection isto identify indicators of co-learning styles that favor the development of digital skills. We present a descriptive analysis supported by bibliographic references, reflections ...
Gencel, Ilke Evin
Global changes in educational discourse have an impact on educational systems, so teacher education programs need to be transformed to better train teachers and to contribute to their professional development. In this process learning styles and problem solving skills should be considered as individual differences which have an impact in…
Cooley, Eileen L.; Van Buren, Amy; Cole, Steven P.
Attachment styles, social skills, and depression were studied in 3 college women using the Relationship Questionnaire (K. Bartholomew & L. M. Horowitz, 1991), the Beck Depression Inventory-II (A. T. Beck, R. A. Steer, & G. K. Brown, 1996), and the Interpersonal Competence Questionnaire (D. Buhrmester, W. Furman, M. T. Wittenberg, & H.…
Downie, Neil A.
In reply to the Graduate Careers article "Taking the long view" (October 2016 pp48-50), in which Patrick White and Emma Smith suggest that talk of a skills shortage in science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) is overblown.
GHAZIVAKILI, ZOHRE; NOROUZI NIA, ROOHANGIZ; PANAHI, FARIDE; KARIMI, MEHRDAD; GHOLSORKHI, HAYEDE; AHMADI, ZARRIN
Introduction: The Current world needs people who have a lot of different abilities such as cognition and application of different ways of thinking, research, problem solving, critical thinking skills and creativity. In addition to critical thinking, learning styles is another key factor which has an essential role in the process of problem solving. This study aimed to determine the relationship between learning styles and critical thinking of students and their academic performance in Alborz University of Medical Science. Methods: This cross-correlation study was performed in 2012, on 216 students of Alborz University who were selected randomly by the stratified random sampling. The data was obtained via a three-part questionnaire included demographic data, Kolb standardized questionnaire of learning style and California critical thinking standardized questionnaire. The academic performance of the students was extracted by the school records. The validity of the instruments was determined in terms of content validity, and the reliability was gained through internal consistency methods. Cronbach's alpha coefficient was found to be 0.78 for the California critical thinking questionnaire. The Chi Square test, Independent t-test, one way ANOVA and Pearson correlation test were used to determine relationship between variables. The Package SPSS14 statistical software was used to analyze data with a significant level of pcritical thinking of the students showed that the mean of deductive reasoning and evaluation skills were higher than that of other skills and analytical skills had the lowest mean and there was a positive significant relationship between the students’ performance with inferential skill and the total score of critical thinking skills (pcritical thinking had significant difference between different learning styles. Conclusion: The results of this study showed that the learning styles, critical thinking and academic performance are significantly associated
Full Text Available Introduction: The current world needs people who have a lot of different abilities such as cognition and application of different ways of thinking, research, problem solving, critical thinking skills and creativity. In addition to critical thinking, learning styles is another key factor which has an essential role in the process of problem solving. This study aimed to determine the relationship between learning styles and critical thinking of students and their academic performance in Alborz University of Medical Sciences. Methods: This cross-correlation study was performed in 2012, on 216 students of Alborz University who were selected randomly by the stratified method. The data was obtained via a three-part questionnaire included demographic data, Kolb standardized questionnaire of learning style and California critical thinking standardized questionnaire. The academic performance of the students was extracted by the school records. The validity of the instruments was determined in terms of content validity, and the reliability was gained through internal consistency methods. Cronbach's alpha coefficient was found to be 0.78 for the California critical thinking questionnaire. The Chi Square test, Independent T-test, one way ANOVA and Pearson Correlation test were used to determine relationship between variables. The Package SPSS14 statistical software was used to analyze data with a significant level of p<0.05. Results: Our findings indicated the significant difference of mean score in four learning style, suggesting university students with convergent learning style have better performance than other groups. Also learning style had a relationship with age, gender, field of study, semester and job. The results about the critical thinking of the students showed that the mean of deductive reasoning and evaluation skills were higher than that of other skills and analytical skills had the lowest mean and there was a positive significant
Ghazivakili, Zohre; Norouzi Nia, Roohangiz; Panahi, Faride; Karimi, Mehrdad; Gholsorkhi, Hayede; Ahmadi, Zarrin
The Current world needs people who have a lot of different abilities such as cognition and application of different ways of thinking, research, problem solving, critical thinking skills and creativity. In addition to critical thinking, learning styles is another key factor which has an essential role in the process of problem solving. This study aimed to determine the relationship between learning styles and critical thinking of students and their academic performance in Alborz University of Medical Science. This cross-correlation study was performed in 2012, on 216 students of Alborz University who were selected randomly by the stratified random sampling. The data was obtained via a three-part questionnaire included demographic data, Kolb standardized questionnaire of learning style and California critical thinking standardized questionnaire. The academic performance of the students was extracted by the school records. The validity of the instruments was determined in terms of content validity, and the reliability was gained through internal consistency methods. Cronbach's alpha coefficient was found to be 0.78 for the California critical thinking questionnaire. The Chi Square test, Independent t-test, one way ANOVA and Pearson correlation test were used to determine relationship between variables. The Package SPSS14 statistical software was used to analyze data with a significant level of p<0.05. Our findings indicated the significant difference of mean score in four learning style, suggesting university students with convergent learning style have better performance than other groups. Also learning style had a relationship with age, gender, field of study, semester and job. The results about the critical thinking of the students showed that the mean of deductive reasoning and evaluation skills were higher than that of other skills and analytical skills had the lowest mean and there was a positive significant relationship between the students' performance with
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between parenting styles and children’s social skills, establishing significant correlations between those two constructs. A total of 202 children, 7 to 10 years old, male and female, attending second to fourth year of government schools in São Paulo, Brazil, were participants of this research. They collectively completed Children’s Social Skills Test (THAS-C and Parental Styles Inventory (IEP. Results suggest that positive parental styles are predictors of altruism, while negative parental styles are predictors of assertiveness, conversation, and social confidence. Regarding general social skills, variables that offered the best probable model were positive monitoring, lax discipline, moral behavior, and physical abuse (the higher the general social skill, the lesser the abusive parenting styles. As a conclusion, it seems that different social skills are related to positive and negative parenting styles, reinforcing the idea of a social skill as an attribute of behavior.
Katarína, Krišková; Marián, Kireš
The current trend in the education is focused on skills that are cross-subject and have a great importance for the pupil future life. Pupils should acquire different types of skills during their education to be prepared for future careers and life in the 21st century. Physics as a subject offers many opportunities for pupils' skills development. One of the skills that are expected to be developed in physics and also in other sciences is making predictions. The prediction, in the meaning of the argument about what may happen in the future, is an integral part of the empirical cognition, in which students confront existing knowledge and experience with new, hitherto unknown and surprising phenomena. The extent of the skill is the formulation of hypotheses, which is required in the upper secondary physics education. In the contribution, the prediction skill is specified and its eventual levels are classified. Authors focus on the tools for skill level determination based on the analysis of pupils` worksheets. Worksheets are the part of the educational activities conducted within the Inquiry Science Laboratory Steelpark. Based on the formulation of pupils' prediction the pupils thinking can be seen and their understanding of the topic, as well as preconceptions and misconceptions.
Saxena, Anurag; Desanghere, Loni; Stobart, Kent; Walker, Keith
With current emphasis on leadership in medicine, this study explores Goleman's leadership styles of medical education leaders at different hierarchical levels and gain insight into factors that contribute to the appropriateness of practices. Forty two leaders (28 first-level with limited formal authority, eight middle-level with wider program responsibility and six senior- level with higher organizational authority) rank ordered their preferred Goleman's styles and provided comments. Eight additional senior leaders were interviewed in-depth. Differences in ranked styles within groups were determined by Friedman tests and Wilcoxon tests. Based upon style descriptions, confirmatory template analysis was used to identify Goleman's styles for each interviewed participant. Content analysis was used to identify themes that affected leadership styles. There were differences in the repertoire and preferred styles at different leadership levels. As a group, first-level leaders preferred democratic, middle-level used coaching while the senior leaders did not have one preferred style and used multiple styles. Women and men preferred democratic and coaching styles respectively. The varied use of styles reflected leadership conceptualizations, leader accountabilities, contextual adaptations, the situation and its evolution, leaders' awareness of how they themselves were situated, and personal preferences and discomfort with styles. The not uncommon use of pace-setting and commanding styles by senior leaders, who were interviewed, was linked to working with physicians and delivering quickly on outcomes. Leaders at different levels in medical education draw from a repertoire of styles. Leadership development should incorporate learning of different leadership styles, especially at first- and mid-level positions.
Full Text Available The development of the interpersonal behaviour of managers has received a good deal of attention, especially in terms of the most appropriate interpersonal styles in the work context and the skills involved in developing and maintaining effective interpersonal relationships. The design of effective interpersonal development programs requires a thorough evaluation of an individual’s interpersonal development needs. In order to do this, evaluators should have an understanding of the most appropriate interpersonal styles for managers. Given the aims of the investigation, the approach that was followed was to evaluate the relevant literature in this field. The theoretical goal was to study and describe the most appropriate theoretical interpersonal style repertoire of middle-level managers using the interpersonal approach, and specifically the 1982 Interpersonal Circle. The conclusions support the notion that dominant, assured, exhibitionistic, social, friendly, warm and trusting styles are the most relevant of the 16 interpersonal segments, while the assured-dominant, social-exhibitionistic and warm-friendly octants are viewed as the most appropriate. Opsomming Die ontwikkeling van die interpersoonlike gedrag van bestuurders het reeds heelwat aandag gekry. Dit geld veral vir aangeleenthede wat verband hou met die mees toepaslike interpersoonlike style binne die werkskonteks en die vaardighede wat die ontwikkeling van effektiewe interpersoonlike verhoudings onderlê. Die ontwikkeling van effektiewe interpersoonlike ontwikkelingsprogramme vereis ’n deeglike evaluering van ’n individu se interpersoonlike ontwikkelingsbehoeftes. Om dit te vermag, is dit nodig vir evalueerders om te verstaan wat die mees toepaslike interpersoonlike style vir bestuurders is. Gegee die doelwitte van die ondersoek is die metode wat gevolg is ’n evaluering van die relevante literatuur in hierdie gebied. Die teoretiese doel was om die mees toepaslike teoretiese
Abu Taleb, Tagreed Fathi
This study examined the perceived parenting styles in a sample of Jordanian mothers and their perceptions of the social skills exhibited by their preschool children. The sample consisted of 802 ("N"=802) mothers who responded to a three-part questionnaire: demographic information, parenting styles, and social skills. The results of this…
Sahin Kiralp, F. Sülen; Serin, Nergüz B.
The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between loneliness levels and attachment styles of university students. In this research, it was investigated whether the attachment styles differed in terms of variables such as gender, class, place of stay, socio-economic level of their family, parental education levels, counterpart…
The purpose of this study is to determine the effects of the parenting styles on social skills of children aged 5-6. The problem sentence of the research is; Do the parenting styles' have any effects on social skills of children aged 5-6?. The sub-problems of the research are in the form as; Does the social skills of children aged 5-6 differs from…
Recepoglu, Ergun; Kilinc, Ali Cagatay; Cepni, Osman
The purpose of this research is to examine the motivation level of teachers according to school principals' humor styles. The humor styles survey and job motivation scale were used to gather data from 305 randomly selected teachers employed in primary schools in Karabuk. Results indicated that 141 of the teachers claimed school principal had…
Azari, S; Mokhtari, S; Mousavi, H; Mohammadi, M; Aliyari, A; Salimi, M; Azari, G H
Introduction: interpersonal communication skills are required for training and represent one of the most significant parts concerning the character of student learning. In another idea, learning is a constant method and learners favor a position of knowledge forms according to their character and individual practices. Evaluate the correlation between the learning methods and interpersonal conversation abilities of the nursing undergraduate in Medical Sciences Tehran University in 2012 was the purpose of this research. Methods: In this regular detailed cross-sectional analysis, 361 students from the School of Nursing and Midwifery were chosen during a census method. The information collection instruments were regulated, giving a questionnaire called Interpersonal Communication Skills Standards exam and VARK Learning Styles questionnaire. Data was examined by SPSS application (18th edition) by using Mann-Whitney and Kruskal-Wallis test. Results: 320 questionnaires were finished. 60.6% of the members were females. The average number of the students' conversation abilities level was 101.91 ± 10.35. More than half of the samples (58.8%) preferred multi-modal learning styles (Bi-Tri and Quad Modals) and 41.2% of the students preferred single modal learning styles. There were no significant differences between the Interpersonal Communication Skills and the learning styles (P= 0.46). Conclusion: According to no significant relationship between the communication skills of students with learning style and Demographic changeable and Lack of proper form of communication skills, we were ready to build different systems and courses related to improving the skills' level.
Gurley, Kathy; Wilson, Dawn
This study looked at the use of a business simulation that focused on improving the leadership skills of students in an MBA class at an HBCU in North Carolina. The students were asked to complete a questionnaire that identified their dominant leadership style. The study then compared the students who had an affiliative style of management against…
Bingham, Gary E.; Jeon, Hyun-Joo; Kwon, Kyong-Ah; Lim, Chaehyun
This study examined associations among parenting style, home literacy practices, and children's language skills. A total of 181 ethnically diverse parents, primarily African American, and their preschool-aged child participated. Results suggest that an authoritative parenting style was positively associated with informal home literacy (book…
Windsor, John A; Diener, Scott; Zoha, Farah
People learn in different ways, and training techniques and technologies should accommodate individual learning needs. This pilot study looks at the relationship between learning style, as measured with the Multiple Intelligences Developmental Assessment Scales (MIDAS), laparoscopic surgery experience and psychomotor skill performance using the MIST VR surgical simulator. Five groups of volunteer subjects were selected from undergraduate tertiary students, medical students, novice surgical trainees, advanced surgical trainees and experienced laparoscopic surgeons. Each group was administered the MIDAS followed by two simulated surgical tasks on the MIST VR simulator. There was a striking homogeny of learning styles amongst experienced laparoscopic surgeons. Significant differences in the distribution of primary learning styles were found (P bodily-kinesthetic learning style, irrespective of experience, was associated with the best performance of the laparoscopic tasks. This is the first study to highlight the relationship between learning style, psychomotor skill and laparoscopic surgical experience with implications for surgeon selection, training and credentialling.
The current study investigates the relationship between critical thinking skills and learning styles of mentally gifted students. The participants were 225 gifted students in Turkey attending Science and Art Centres which are after-school activity centres for mentally gifted students. Participants were 9 -15 years old and were attending secondary schools and high schools. The data were gathered using the Kolb Learning Style Inventory and the Critical Thinking Scale and analysed using Chi-Squa...
Andi Saparuddin Nur
Full Text Available This study aimed to analyze the geometry skills in solving problems in terms of cognitive styles differences in the students of SMP Negeri Urumb. The type of this research is descriptive research that is qualitative with case study approach. The subject of this research is all students of SMP Negeri Urumb. Subject selection is done by using snowball sampling technique. The main instrument in this study is the researchers themselves and accompanied by supporting instruments such as diagnostic tests, geometry solving test, and interview guides. Validity and reliability of data is done through credibility test, transferability test, dependability test, and confirmability test. Data analysis consists of data collection, data reduction, data presentation, and conclusions. The results of this study were (1 reflective FI subjects showing visual, verbal, drawing, and logic skills with level of geometry thinking at level 2 (informal deduction; (2 impulsive FI subjects exhibiting visual, verbal, and drawing skills with geometric thinking level at level 1 (analysis, (3 reflective FD subjects exhibit visual skills, and draw with level of geometric thinking at level 0 (visualization, and (4 impulsive FD subjects exhibit visual, verbal skills with geometric level thinking at level 0 (visualization.
In defining these two phenomena and other forms of acting, my intention in this paper is to prove that the whole of Africa is a gold mine of artistic performances. I intend to prove this by analyzing the acting styles and levels in. Zimbabwean traditional performances. In traditional Zimbabwean performances acting is realized in ...
The current study investigates the relationship between critical thinking skills and learning styles of mentally gifted students. The participants were 225 gifted students in Turkey attending Science and Art Centres which are after-school activity centers for mentally gifted students. Participants were 9-15 years old and were attending secondary…
Duman, Bilal; Celik, Ozkan
The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of scenario-based learning on scenario writing and comprehension skills of the pre-service teachers having different cognitive styles. The study was designed according to single group pretest-posttest experimental model. The study group consists of 52 students from the departments of…
Warli; Fadiana, Mu'jizatin
The purpose of this research is to develop mathematical learning models that accommodate the cognitive styles reflective vs. impulsive students to build problem-solving skills, quality (valid, practical, and effective). To achieve the target would do research development (development research) and method development that consists of five stages,…
Chatoupis, Constantine C.; Vagenas, George
We investigated the effectiveness of two teaching formats that fall under the canopy of Mosston and Ashworth's (2008) practice style, on fifth grade students' motor skill performance and task engagement. Both formats are also known as station teaching or learning centers. In the teacher-rotated format (TR), the teacher decides the amount of time…
Reed, Marie-Elaine Burns
Leadership styles and management skills needed by directors and coordinators of learning assistance and developmental education were assessed. Based on a literature review, a questionnaire was constructed and then validated by a panel of experts in the field. The questionnaire was sent to 45 selected learning assistance/developmental education…
This study investigated the influences of learning styles/preferences, prior computer skills and experience with online courses on adult learners' knowledge acquisition in a web-based special education course. Forty-six adult learners who enrolled in a web-based special education course participated in the study. The results of the study showed…
Full Text Available Background and Objective: Many research indicated that children residential centers have the high possibility to diagnose with psychological disorders. Therefore, this study aims to predict social skill based on their attachment style and emotional intelligence undertaken to examine the role of intervention among children residential centers of state welfare organization.Materials and Methods: This research is a descriptive study. The 400 (240 boys & 160 girls children residential centers were chosen through cluster sampling method of Tehran city. The survey questionnaire instruments were; social skills, emotional intelligence and attachment style. The data obtained from the structural equation modeling (SEM were analyzed by using the LISERAL software.Results: Results show that attachment style directly & indirectly lead to social skill through the mediation variable of emotional intelligence. Between endogenous latent variable and the indicator of attachment style, the path coefficients were respectively 0.60 & 0.32, between endogenous latent 0.41, 0.45 & 0.94, and between the latent variable of indigenous social sill and the indicator the path coefficients were sportively 0.35, 0.50, 0.90 & 0.85. It can be said that and all the causal paths were significant.Conclusion: Considering the importance and necessity of children social skills and its effects on children’s life, recognizing environmental factors such as attachment style and individual factors such as emotional intelligence can finally lead to a deeper recognition of factors affecting the transformation of children’s social skills in order to present suitable methods.
Hosokawa, Rikuya; Katsura, Toshiki; Shizawa, Miho
We examined the relationships between mothers' sense of coherence (SOC) and their child's social skills development among preschool children, and how this relationship is mediated by mother's childrearing style. Mothers of 1341 Japanese children, aged 4-5 years, completed a self-report questionnaire on their SOC and childrearing style. The children's teachers evaluated their social skills using the social skills scale (SSS), which comprises three factors: cooperation, self-control, and assertion. Path analyses revealed that the mother's childrearing mediated the positive relationship between mother's SOC and the cooperation, self-control, and assertiveness aspects of children's social skills. Additionally, there was a significant direct path from mother's SOC to the self-control component of social skills. These findings suggest that mother's SOC may directly as well as indirectly influence children's social skills development through the mediating effect of childrearing. The results offer preliminary evidence that focusing on support to improve mothers' SOC may be an efficient and effective strategy for improving children's social skills development.
Hosokawa, Rikuya; Katsura, Toshiki; Shizawa, Miho
Background We examined the relationships between mothers? sense of coherence (SOC) and their child?s social skills development among preschool children, and how this relationship is mediated by mother?s childrearing style. Methods Mothers of 1341 Japanese children, aged 4?5 years, completed a self-report questionnaire on their SOC and childrearing style. The children?s teachers evaluated their social skills using the social skills scale (SSS), which comprises three factors: cooperation, self-...
Sriutami Kholila Mora Siregar
Full Text Available The purposes of the research are: to determine differences in the physics skills of students with learning model Cooperative Group Investigation using concept maps and Direct Instruction teaching model, to determine differences in the physical skills of students who have high Kinesthetic Learning Styles and Learning Styles low, to determine the interaction between Models of Learning and Kinesthetic Learning Styles toward physical process skills of students. The sample in this study conducted in a cluster random sampling of two classes, where the first class as a class experiment applied learning models Cooperative Group Investigation using Concept Maps as a class and the second class of controls implemented Direct Instruction model. The instrument used in this study is physics instrument science process skills in narrative form as many as 13 questions and instrument kinesthetic learning style questionnaire that has been declared valid and reliable. The results were found: there are differences in physical science process skills students are taught by Cooperative Group Investigation learning model using Concept Maps and Direct Instruction teaching model. There are differences in physical science process skills of students who have kinesthetic learning styles and students who have low kinesthetic learning style. Interaction between learning models Cooperative Group Investigation using Concept Maps and kinesthetic learning styles in influencing the physical science process skills of students.
Wang, Jianyu; Moffit, Jeff
Badminton has been identified as a lifelong activity. It is an inexpensive sport and everyone--children, seniors, and individuals with disabilities--can reach a level of enjoyment in the game after mastering basic skills and tactics. In teaching badminton, teachers need to understand how students develop game play ability from a low level to an…
Martinussen, Laila Marianne; Møller, Mette; Prato, Carlo Giacomo
The Driver Behavior Questionnaire (DBQ) and the Driver Skill Inventory (DSI) are two of the most frequently used measures of driving style and driving skill. The motivation behind the present study was to test drivers’ insight into their own driving ability based on a combined use of the DBQ and ...... problematic groups of the population in the attempt to improve road safety nationwide....... others, as well as heterogeneity across the population was observed. The present findings highlight the need to look into driver’s attitudes towards safety, in order to improve the motivation to drive safely. Information from this study is useful for interventions to be able to target specific...
Jeon, Im Hong; Kim, Kyung Ran; Kim, Hwan Hee; Park, Jin Young; Lee, Mikyung; Jo, Hye Hyun; Koo, Se Jun; Jeong, Yu Jin; Song, Yun Young; Kang, Jee In; Lee, Su Young; Lee, Eun; An, Suk Kyoon
Attributional style, especially external personal attribution bias, was found to play a pivotal role in clinical and non-clinical paranoia. The study of the relationship of the tendency to infer/perceive hostility and blame with theory of mind skills has significant theoretical importance as it may provide additional information on how persons process social situations. The aim of this study was whether hostility perception bias and blame bias might be associated with theory of mind skills, neurocognition and emotional factors in healthy persons. Total 263 participants (133 male and 130 female) were recruited. The attributional style was measured by using the Ambiguous Intentions Hostility Questionnaire (AIHQ). Participants were requested to complete a Brüne's Theory of Mind Picture Stories task, neurocognitive task including Standard Progressive Matrices (SPM) and digit span, and other emotional dysregulation trait scales including Rosenberg's self-esteem, Spielberg's trait anxiety inventory, and Novaco anger scale. Multiple regression analysis showed that hostility perception bias score in ambiguous situation were found to be associated with theory of mind questionnaire score and emotional dysregulation traits of Novaco anger scale. Also, composite blame bias score in ambiguous situation were found to be associated with emotional dysregulation traits of Novaco anger scale and Spielberg's trait anxiety scale. The main finding was that the attributional style of hostility perception bias might be primarily contributed by theory of mind skills rather than neurocognitive function such as attention and working memory, and reasoning ability. The interpretations and implications would be discussed in details.
Vahid BakhshaliPour; Siavash Khodaparas Sareshkeh; Majid Keramati Moghadam; Maryam Falah Kazemi; Nasrin Touba
Goals: Physical education and health managers of Education offices should pay attention to the improvement of communication skills due to the students’ needs and adopt the right leadership style. This study examined the relationship between leadership style and communication skills in high school physical education teachers in schools of Guilan Province. Method: The method of this study was descriptive correlation. The statistical population was all high school physical education teachers...
Full Text Available Higher-level managers are said to have a more intuitive cognitive style. To verify this hypothesis, we must consider three factors that have often been left out of account. Previous studies, related to managerial cognitive style and job level, used a unidimensional model of cognitive style, did not consider age, and have mainly been conducted in the UK. Our study replicated previous studies on a population of 1,533 Japanese fulltime workers, using a questionnaire based on a two-dimensional model of cognitive style and setting a frame by age for each job level. Our results showed that higher job levels are associated with more rational cognitive styles. There were significant main effects of the interaction of job level and job level by age in rational thinking style. There was no correlation between intuition and job level. Our findings are the first demonstration that the relationship between job level and cognitive style likely depends on culture.
Kageyama, Tetsuya; Sugiura, Motoaki
Higher-level managers are said to have a more intuitive cognitive style. To verify this hypothesis, we must consider three factors that have often been left out of account. Previous studies, related to managerial cognitive style and job level, used a unidimensional model of cognitive style, did not consider age, and have mainly been conducted in the UK. Our study replicated previous studies on a population of 1,533 Japanese fulltime workers, using a questionnaire based on a two-dimensional model of cognitive style and setting a frame by age for each job level. Our results showed that higher job levels are associated with more rational cognitive styles. There were significant main effects of the interaction of job level and job level by age in rational thinking style. There was no correlation between intuition and job level. Our findings are the first demonstration that the relationship between job level and cognitive style likely depends on culture.
This paper investigates the treatment of Japanese speech levels and styles (known as "keigo") in previous studies and discusses the problems involved. An attempt is made to reconstruct the classification of speech levels and styles in modern colloquial Japanese. Speech styles change according to age, social status, sex, and the…
Li, Hongxia; Di, Hongxi; Tian, Shuicheng; Li, Jian
The aim of this study is research the impact of management level's charismatic leadership style on miners' unsafe behavior by using the questionnaires on charismatic leadership style, safety attitude...
Westman, Alida S; Alexander, Nicholas A
Among 139 students (mean age 21.8, SD=3.5), use of Schmeck's Deep Processing learning style (looking for conceptual understanding) on academic materials correlated modestly with its use on religious materials. The same was true for Elaborative Processing (looking for associations and applications). Both Deep and Elaborative Processing of academic materials correlated with better Analytical Skills. Only Elaborative Processing of religious materials correlated with Religiousness. Religiousness correlated with poorer Analytical Skills on academic materials and with a more Concrete Divine Concept; however, specific religious affiliation made a difference. Our understanding of the role of contents of materials and characteristics of learners on the types of learning strategies used and competence with cognitive skills is still very limited.
Seemann, Daniel C.
Studied effects of leader style and a group of people classified as either high-anxious or low-anxious. Measured participants' (N=71) responses to the leader styles using Galvanic Skin Response. Results indicated similar responses of participants to both autocratic and democratic leadership styles. (RC)
Ahmad Bin Esa; Moh Yusof Bin Abd Hadi; Fariza Binti Ishak; Burhannudin Bin Mohd Salleh
Generic skills are important skills for worker that required by almost of the employments. Beside technical skills, generic skills are designed for employee in order to produce excellent and efficient job. This research is focus on to identify the level of generic skills desirable by technician and the level of skills that they have from lecturer, student and technician perspective in polytechnic. The total of research respondent is 366 which consist of lecturers, students and technicians. ...
Jeon, Im Hong; Kim, Kyung Ran; Kim, Hwan Hee; Park, Jin Young; Lee, Mikyung; Jo, Hye Hyun; Koo, Se Jun; Jeong, Yu Jin; Song, Yun Young; Kang, Jee In; Lee, Su Young; Lee, Eun
Objective Attributional style, especially external personal attribution bias, was found to play a pivotal role in clinical and non-clinical paranoia. The study of the relationship of the tendency to infer/perceive hostility and blame with theory of mind skills has significant theoretical importance as it may provide additional information on how persons process social situations. The aim of this study was whether hostility perception bias and blame bias might be associated with theory of mind skills, neurocognition and emotional factors in healthy persons. Methods Total 263 participants (133 male and 130 female) were recruited. The attributional style was measured by using the Ambiguous Intentions Hostility Questionnaire (AIHQ). Participants were requested to complete a Brüne's Theory of Mind Picture Stories task, neurocognitive task including Standard Progressive Matrices (SPM) and digit span, and other emotional dysregulation trait scales including Rosenberg's self-esteem, Spielberg's trait anxiety inventory, and Novaco anger scale. Results Multiple regression analysis showed that hostility perception bias score in ambiguous situation were found to be associated with theory of mind questionnaire score and emotional dysregulation traits of Novaco anger scale. Also, composite blame bias score in ambiguous situation were found to be associated with emotional dysregulation traits of Novaco anger scale and Spielberg's trait anxiety scale. Conclusion The main finding was that the attributional style of hostility perception bias might be primarily contributed by theory of mind skills rather than neurocognitive function such as attention and working memory, and reasoning ability. The interpretations and implications would be discussed in details. PMID:23482524
Full Text Available Purpose: to identify the main indicators of the art of competitive activity karate different qualifications style «kyokushin» and identify their differences. Material and Methods: analysis of video recordings of highly competitive activity karate; teacher observations; methods of mathematical statistics. Results: based on the analysis of video recordings of competitive activity created a model of technical preparedness karate qualifications. The differences in the technique of competitive activity karate different qualifications. Conclusions: it was found a series of karate techniques with different skills, their frequency of use and effectiveness. Confirmed that in the competitive fight karate qualifications dominated series techniques. It is found that the technique of competitive activity highly skilled athletes is very varied combinations strikes in series of two or three strikes and more.
Muhammad Shahid FAROOQ
Full Text Available The aim of this descriptive, co-relational investigation was to identify the preferred learning styles and their role in quality of performance at secondary, intermediary and university level for language students from six different fields. The association and differences in students’ learning styles related to their demographics were also explored. Data analysis showed that the majority of the students from all the fields in sample showed the diverging style and the accommodating style as their most preferred learning styles. The learner’s gender and nature of house affected the preference for learning styles. Other variables showed no association with learning styles. The learning styles of language students have no relationship with the grades obtained in their previous exams. This study leads to the fact that it should be replicated on a large sample of language learners and comparison should also be made with their current quality of learning/academic performance.
Rösing, Lilian Munk
Defined as the tropes, figures, and grammar of the text, style is quite concrete, quite analyzable. Pure detection and identification of the tropes and figures of a text is not very interesting to literary studies, though, unless it is combined with interpretation, that is, unless you ask: What...... is the effect of those tropes and figures, how do they contribute to the signification of the text?...
Ogawa, Hiroyasu; Sumi, Hiroshi; Sumi, Yasuhiko; Shimizu, Katsuji
Snowboarding-related injuries have been associated with specific snowboarding skill levels, but differences in specific skill level have not been identified. Injury patterns are different among skill levels. Descriptive epidemiology study. The subjects were 19 539 snowboarders from the Oku-Mino region in Gifu Prefecture, Japan, who were admitted to our hospital during the 12 snowboarding seasons from 1996 to 2008. They were asked to complete a questionnaire regarding age, gender, self-estimated skill level, injury location, injury type, mechanism of injury, and protective gear. Physicians documented diagnostic variables and injury severity score; these variables were compared among the self-estimated skill levels. Of the total 19 539 injured snowboarders, 1204 (6.2%) were novices, 6409 (32.8%) were beginners, 9260 (47.4%) were intermediates, 1918 (9.8%) were experts, and the skill level was not known in 748 (3.8%). Proportions of the trunk and multiple injuries increased with increases in skill level; however, the number of head/face injuries decreased with increase in skill level. Upper extremity injuries also decreased with increase in skill level, except in novices. Dislocations and multiple injuries increased with increase in skill level, while lacerations/contusions, fractures, and bruises decreased. The mean overall injury severity score was 3.28 + or - 0.02, and the value increased significantly with increase in skill level. The proportion of collision and isolated fall injuries significantly decreased with increase in skill level, but that of jump injuries significantly increased. The percentage of protective gear use increased with the increase in skill level. Prevalence of injury type, injury location, mechanism of injury, and percentage of protective gear use varied according to skill level, and the severity of the injury increased with increase in skill level. On the basis of our observations, we believe that snowboarding injury prevention strategies
The current study explored Turkish prospective early childhood teachers' emotional intelligence scores in order to determine whether levels indicated differentiations according to grade level, and parenting style. Participants responded to the Turkish version of the Parenting Style Inventory and Emotional Intelligence Scale (EIS). EIS also…
Garaigordobil, Maite; Aliri, Jone
The aims of this study were to analyze the differences in the mothers' and fathers' socialization styles depending on their children's sex; whether there are differences in hostile, benevolent, and ambivalent sexism, and neosexism as a function of both parents' socialization styles; and whether the parents' educational level affects their level of sexism and their children's sexism. The sample included 1,455 adolescents and their parents (764 mothers and 648 fathers). The results showed no differences in the socialization style of the father with his children's sexism, but the mother used a more authoritarian style with her daughters. The parents' socialization style had little influence on their children's sexism, although it had a higher impact on the sons' sexism. The father's style had less influence than the mother's on their sons' sexism, and it had no influence on their daughters' sexism. The indulgent style of both parents had the highest relation with a low level of sexism. Moreover, a negative correlation was found between the parents' educational level and their level of sexism, as well as between the mother's educational level and her daughters' sexism. To conclude, the indulgent style and the mother's high educational level promote fewer sexist attitudes.
This study investigates the relation between secondary school administrators' transformational and transactional leadership style and skills to diversity management in the school, based on branch teachers' perceptions. The relational survey method was used in the study. The sample for the study was comprised of teachers 735 public school teachers…
Ates, Salih; Cataloglu, Erdat
The purpose of this study was to determine if there are relationships among freshmen students' Field depended or field independent (FD/FI) cognitive style, conceptual understandings, and problem solving skills in mechanics. The sample consisted of 213 freshmen (female = 111, male = 102; age range 17-21) who were enrolled in an introductory physics…
Ahmad Bin Esa
Full Text Available Generic skills are important skills for worker that required by almost of the employments. Beside technical skills, generic skills are designed for employee in order to produce excellent and efficient job. This research is focus on to identify the level of generic skills desirable by technician and the level of skills that they have from lecturer, student and technician perspective in polytechnic. The total of research respondent is 366 which consist of lecturers, students and technicians. The data is collected from questionnaire and analyzed by SPSS v.12 programmer to get mean score, standard deviation, factor analysis and ANOVA testing. Research finding found that the level of generic skills requirement among the technician is at a higher level (mean=4.156 and also mastering in generic skills at the higher level too (mean=4.184. Mean while, by the ANOVA analysis it is found that there is a significant different on generic skills technician level of requirement among the polytechnic. Through factor analysis, it is found nine (9 of generic skills are imperative to equip by technician. Based on research finding, hopefully a significant authority board will take a move to increase the generic skills among technician and other staffs in polytechnic. Keyword. Generic Skills, Technician and Polytechnic
Antonia Pades Jiménez
Full Text Available Aim: To analyse the social skills of a sample group of 3rd year nursing students who attended a social skills training programme. Materials and method: An outline is made of the results of a descriptive study that analyses the social skills of a sample group of 314 students from different academic years, studying at the Palma de Mallorca University School of Nursing. For assessment purposes, a Social Skills Scale (Gismero, 2000 was used. Results: The results show that the sample group’s social skills were not low. They only encountered problems when it came to upholding their own rights (Factors 2 or to engaging in interactions with the opposite sex (Factor 6. Even so, a social skills training programme is proposed in the form of a psycho-educational training course in order to improve the students’ social skills in these areas, provide them with stress prevention tools, train them in communication skills, and improve relations between patients/families and the medical team.
This paper examines the implications of that workers may not be ableto estimate their true costs of acquiring skills. Consequently, too fewworkers may acquire skills. This allows for the possibility that subsidizingeducation is welfare improving. Furthermore, if the presence of skill......-biasedtechnological shocks increase unemployment, this may explain why themarket it-self cannot respond to this by making it sufficiently attractiveto acquire skills. Consequently, the trade-off in-between subsidizing educationand thereby reducing unemployment and optimizing welfare maybe eliminated. We analyse this issue...... in a simple educational model andnext in a search equilibrium model including a skill choice decision.Keywords: Education, subsidies, efficiency, unemployment.JEL codes: I20, J64....
Kadmon, Ilana; Noy, Sigal; Billig, Allan; Tzur, Tomer
To address decision-making styles among breast cancer survivors considering breast reconstruction. . A primary analysis of a cross-sectional sample among survivors who chose to have breast reconstruction to examine correlations among patient age, decision-making style, and the level of involvement of decision making. . Hadassah Medical Center in Jerusalem, Israel. . 70 women who had undergone breast reconstruction surgery in the past five years. . Participants completed decision-making style and demographic questionnaires and an assessment of their level of involvement in the decision-making process. . Level of involvement in decision making, decision-making model between provider and patient, and decision-making styles were examined. . No correlation was found between four main decision-making styles and patient age or the extent of patient decision-making involvement and age. A statistically significant correlation was found between the level of involvement in decision making and the decision-making style of the patient. . Nurses should assess patient decision-making styles to ensure maximum patient involvement in the decision-making process based on personal desires regardless of age. . Nurses working in breast cancer care must address the decision-making process of patients diagnosed with breast cancer, including the choice to undergo breast reconstruction after mastectomy. Nurses should understand the complex factors that influence a woman's decision-making style to best help with the decision.
The purpose of this study was to compare the occupational stressors, the perceived stress levels, and coping styles of 3 generations of medical-surgical (MS) nurses. The literature supports that the nurse's role is stressful based on a variety of factors including physical labor, human suffering, work hours, staffing, and interpersonal relationships. Data indicate that there are generational differences in the response to stress. The 3 predominant nursing generations coexisting in the nursing workforce add to the complexity of the recognition and coping skills to address stress. A correlational design was used. A convenience sample of MS nurses participated in this study by completing 4 questionnaires. Occupational stressors were found to be significant predictors for perceived stress among all generations of nurses in this sample. Also, the higher the level of stress perception among nurses, the higher the use of coping behaviors. Generation Y reported a higher level of perceived stress and higher use of escape avoidance coping behaviors, while baby boomers reported higher use of self-controlling coping behaviors. By identifying the needs of each of the generational cohorts, nurse leaders, nurse educators, and policy makers can better assist the nursing workforce to remain at the bedside, improve patient outcomes, and maintain a positive work environment.
Kageyama, Tetsuya; Sugiura, Motoaki
Higher-level managers are said to have a more intuitive cognitive style. To verify this hypothesis, we must consider three factors that have often been left out of account. Previous studies, related to managerial cognitive style and job level, used a unidimensional model of cognitive style, did not consider age, and have mainly been conducted in the UK. Our study replicated previous studies on a population of 1,533 Japanese fulltime workers, using a questionnaire based on a two-dimensional mo...
Elanda Laksinta Putri
Full Text Available The purpose of this study were to describe the mathematical communication skills and the confidence of grade X SMK students on Van Hiele model geometry learning based on their cognitive styles. It was a qualitative descriptive research. The subjects were 2 impulsive students and 2 reflective students which were selected with MFFT instrument. The data collection techniques were mathematical communication skills tests (written and orally, interviews, documentation, attitude scale and activity observation sheets. The results showed that both written and orally, reflective students were able to meet 5 indicators of mathematical communication skills, and less meet another indicators. While, impulsive students less meet all of the mathematical communication skills indictors. The impulsive students confidence was in the medium category. In contrary, the reflective students confidence was in the high category.
Full Text Available The present paper aims to study the differences in self-esteem and the communication style, depending on the level of education (at high school and university subjects. It is analyzed also how the positive self-esteem can correlate with a style of communication and assertively-positive approach. The participants are 120 subjects, 60 high school students and 60 students. The data was collected using two instruments: the Rosenberg questionnaire and a questionnaire on communication style. The data analyzed using a t test for independent samples and a Pearson correlation test with SPSS statistical software. The results show that there are differences regarding the self-esteem and the communication style depending on the level of education.
Li, Hongxia; Di, Hongxi; Tian, Shuicheng; Li, Jian
The aim of this study is research the impact of management level's charismatic leadership style on miners' unsafe behavior by using the questionnaires on charismatic leadership style, safety attitude and the miners' unsafe behavior measurement to investigate 200 employees in Shen Dong Company. The research results suggest that management level's charismatic leadership style have very important influence on miners' unsafe behavior and the influence is affected by the safety attitude which is the intermediary function. In the end, this study propose advice on how to improve the coal mine enterprise managers charismatic leadership style in the coal mine enterprise's safety management work, including attach great importance to a variety of incentive methods, set up safety moral models, practice of inductive leadership concept, create a good atmosphere of safety, etc for reference for coal mining enterprises.
Pascual-Sagastizabal, Eider; Azurmendi, Aitziber; Braza, Francisco; Vergara, Ana I; Cardas, Jaione; Sánchez-Martín, José R
This study examines the relationship between parenting style, androgen levels, and measures of physical and indirect aggression. Peer ratings of aggression were obtained from 159 eight-year-old children (89 boys and 70 girls). Parenting styles (authoritative, authoritarian or permissive) were assessed using the Parenting Styles and Dimensions Questionnaire (PSDQ).Saliva samples were obtained from children and assayed for testosterone and androstenedione concentrations. A regression analysis revealed that high testosterone levels were associated with a higher level of physical aggression in boys with authoritarian mothers. Testosterone was also found to moderate the relationship between father's authoritarian parenting and physical aggression in girls, with both moderate and high levels being significant. In relation to indirect aggression, moderate and high levels of testosterone were associated with higher levels of this type of aggression in girls with permissive mothers. Our results highlight the importance of taking into account the interaction of biological and psychosocial variables when investigating aggressive behavior. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Naseem Zahra; Sheikh Zahoor Sarwar; Ali Imran Baig
In this study the Transformational, Transactional and laissez faire leadership styles within the organizations are discussed. The purpose of this research was to measure the leadership style of middle level managers both males and females within organizations in Pakistan. Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire developed by Avolio and Bass in 1994 is used for this purpose. Leadership on seven factors i.e. Idealized influence, Inspirational motivation, Intellectual stimulation, Individualized Con...
Odaci, Hatice; Degerli, Fatma Irem; Bolat, Neslihan
This research aimed to determine the correlation between emotional intelligence (EI) and counselling skills of Turkish prospective psychological counsellors and to investigate differences in both EI and counselling skills in terms of sex, previous experience of group studies, and class levels. Within a correlational pattern, the sample of the…
Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Communication skills are the most important characteristics for healthcare providers. The aim of this study was to assess communication skills level and its related factors among healthcare practitioners in Bahar-Hamadan.Materials & Methods: This descriptive-analytical study was carried out on 309 employees in Bahar health care system. Data-gathering tools consisted of a 3-part questionnaire: communication skills level measuring feedback, listening, and verbal communication. Subjects’ demographic variables such as age, gender, education level and job were also recorded. The obtained data was analyzed by means of the statistical software SPSS-13 using coefficient correlation, liner regression, t-test, and One-way Anova.Results: The subjects reported 62.2, 57.1, and 60.2% of receivable scores of verbal, listening, and feedback communication, respectively. Overall communication skills of 27.8% of the participants were evaluated at the desired level. Significant differences were observed in average score of communication skills related to age, gender, education degree, employment status, workhouse, and experience (P<0.05. In liner regression, factors influencing communication skills were age, gender, and education degree (P< 0.05.Conclusion: The results reveal that the communication skills of more than half of the medical practitioners are weak and moderate. It is recommended to design some program to improve medical practitioners' communication skills. (Sci J Hamadan Univ Med Sci 2012;19(1:62-69
Full Text Available Background: Breast cancer (BC is a common malignancy among women. BC is a stressor in life that affects coping strategies and quality of life. This study performed to improve the quality of life in women with maladaptive coping style. Methods: A randomized clinical trial, held in 2011. Patients with maladaptive coping strategy were included in the study. 62 patients were randomized into two groups. Before and after 8 weeks of coping therapy, the quality of life was measured. General linear model was used for analysis. Results: The mean age in the intervention and control group was 45.10±7.34, 46.52±6.20 respectively (P-value>0.5. Functional health significantly improved after the intervention (p-value<0.005, but in the control it decreased (p-value=0.029. Symptom health between the two groups demonstrated no difference before and after intervention. General health improved in the intervention group (p-value=0.017. However, in the control group it was not significant (p-value=0.128. Problem-focused coping strategies in the intervention group improved markedly (p-value= 0.003 whereas, the control group did not reveal significant differences (p-value=0.196. Conclusion: The results showed that the coping skill training program can improve the overall quality of life of breast cancer in women, and indicated that the care of breast cancer should address psychological issues and the finding points to the importance of taking individual coping strategies into account when evaluating the impact of breast cancer on psychosocial well-being.
Lloyd, Caroline; Steedman, Hilary
This paper focuses on the demand for and supply of intermediate-level vocational skills within the United Kingdom (UK) economy. Using existing research from surveys and case studies, Part One argues that there is a lack of evidence that widespread intermediate-skill shortages exist within the expanding service sector. In the manufacturing sector,…
Starcevic, Vladan; Sammut, Peter; Berle, David; Hannan, Anthony; Milicevic, Denise; Moses, Karen; Lamplugh, Claire; Eslick, Guy D
The question of whether certain anxiety disorders are especially related to a cognitive style characterized by an exaggerated perception of threat and appraisal of the future as excessively unpredictable (general anxiety-prone cognitive style) remains open. This study aimed to compare patients with generalized social anxiety disorder (SAD), generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), panic disorder with agoraphobia (PDA), and panic disorder without agoraphobia (PD) in terms of the levels of general anxiety-prone cognitive style when the severity of general distress and psychopathology is controlled for and to ascertain whether a co-occurring depressive disorder contributes substantially to the levels of this cognitive style. The Anxious Thoughts and Tendencies Scale, a measure of a general anxiety-prone cognitive style, and Symptom Checklist 90-Revised were administered to 204 patients with various anxiety disorders who attended an outpatient anxiety disorders clinic and were diagnosed based on a semistructured diagnostic interview. Patients with principal diagnoses of SAD and GAD had a more prominent general anxiety-prone cognitive style than patients with principal diagnoses of PD and PDA when the severity of general distress and psychopathology was controlled for. The presence or absence of a co-occurring depressive disorder had no bearing on this finding. The general cognitive component characterizes SAD and GAD more than it does PD and PDA, and a co-occurring depressive disorder does not affect this finding. These results have implications for distinguishing between various anxiety disorders. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Visual impairment is a risk factor for psychiatric disorders in the affected children and adolescents, but there are only a limited number of studies concerning the mental health characteristics of visually impaired children and adolescents. Objective The aim of this study was to determine levels of loneliness and anxiety in visually impaired children and adolescents, to analyze parenting style perceived by visually impaired children and adolescents, to compare those with typically controls. Methods The study included 40 children and adolescents with visually impairment and 34 control group without visual impairment. Sociodemographic data form, the UCLA loneliness scale, and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory for Children were used in both groups. The parenting Style Scale was used to determine perceived parental attitudes. Results This study found more loneliness and trait anxiety levels in visually impaired children and adolescents compared to the control group. Authoritative parenting style was the most frequent type of parental attitude in the visually impaired group. In visual impairment group, loneliness level was higher in subgroups of authoritative and permissive-indulgent parenting style. However, level of trait anxiety was higher in authoritative parenting style subgroup compared to the control group. Discussion The results of this study showed higher loneliness and anxiety levels in visually impaired children and adolescents. Further studies are needed to determine psychopathological risks in this population.
Afshar, Hamid; Roohafza, Hamid Reza; Keshteli, Ammar Hassanzadeh; Mazaheri, Mina; Feizi, Awat; Adibi, Peyman
Some personality traits and coping styles could be as risk factors in stressful situations. This study aimed to investigate the association of personality traits and coping styles according to the stress level. This cross-sectional study was performed in 2011. A total of 4628 individuals over 20 years were selected by random sampling from nonacademic employees that working in 50 different centers across Isfahan province. Data were collected using 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12), Big Five Personality Inventory Short Form and coping strategies scale, and individuals were divided into high and low-stress groups in term of GHQ-12. To analyze the data, a binary logistic regression analysis was conducted. Mean age of participants was 36.3 ± 7.91 years and 56.26% (2604) of them were female. Neuroticism with adjusting covariates of demographic characteristics and the rest of personality traits was a risk factor for stress level with odds ratios (OR) OR:1.24; but other personality traits were protective. Also, active coping styles were protective factors for OR of stress level with adjusting covariates of demographic characteristics and the rest of coping styles, and positive reinterpretation and growth was the most effective of coping style with OR:0.84. Some personality traits are associated with passive copings and cause high-stress level. So, it could be concluded that improve and strengthen effective coping strategies in individual with maladaptive traits should be considered as a crucial component of prevention and control programs of stress.
Baltaci, Serdal; Yildiz, Avni; Özcakir, Bilal
Previous studies have shown that students, who have high levels of metacognitive awareness, perform better achievement levels than other students. Besides, it can be said that learning styles may affect metacognitive awareness of students. In the literature, studies about metacognition focused on problem solving and learners' mathematical…
Williams, Irene Ana
Effective handling of conflict can result in effective teamwork and leadership, higher morale, increased productivity, satisfied customers, and satisfied employees. Ineffective conflict management styles in the workplace can lead to low levels of job satisfaction, resulting in high levels of turnover. Research indicates that the economic cost to…
Kim, Seung L.; Sonnenwald, Diane H.
This paper reports on an exploratory study that investigates the relationship between participants' learning style preferences and their perceptions of a professional workshop on collaboration and technology to support collaboration. The Learning Preference Scale-Students (LPSS) (Owens & Barnes...... regarding the content of the workshop. Group 1 suggested adding more discussions and group exercises, whereas Group 2 suggested adding explicit theory or rules to govern behavior. These findings indicate that learning styles should be considered as a potential variable that influences learning outcomes...
Alco, Gul; Igdem, Sefik; Dincer, Maktav; Ozmen, Vahit; Saglam, Sezer; Selamoglu, Derya; Erdogan, Zeynep; Ordu, Cetin; Pilanci, Kezban Nur; Bozdogan, Atilla; Yenice, Sedef; Tecimer, Coskun; Demir, Gokhan; Koksal, Gulistan; Okkan, Sait
Vitamin D deficiency is a potentially modifiable risk factor that may be targeted for breast cancer (BC) prevention. It may also be related to prognosis after diagnosis and treatment. The aim of our study was to determine the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency as measured by serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25-OHD) levels in patients with BC and to evaluate its correlations with life-style and treatments. This study included 186 patients with stage 0-III BC treated in our breast center between 2010-2013. The correlation between serum baseline 25-OHD levels and supplement usage, age, menopausal status, diabetes mellitus, usage of bisphosphonates, body-mass index (BMI), season, dressing style, administration of systemic treatments and radiotherapy were investigated. The distribution of serum 25-OHD levels was categorized as deficient (style. On multivariate analysis, none or low dose vitamin D supplementation, and decreased sun-exposure due to a conservative dressing style were found as independent factors increasing risk of vitamin D deficiency/insufficiency 28.7 (p=0.002) and 13.4 (p=0.003) fold, respectively. The prevalence of serum 25-OHD deficiency/insufficiency is high in our BC survivors. Vitamin D status should be routinely evaluated for all women, especially those with a conservative dressing style, as part of regular preventive care, and they should take supplemental vitamin D.
Dwayne W. Boucaud
Full Text Available Developing scientific expertise in the classroom involves promoting higher-order cognitive skills as well as content mastery. Effective use of constructivism can facilitate these outcomes. However this is often difficult to accomplish when delivery of content is paramount. Utilizing many of the tenets of constructivist pedagogy, we have designed an Oxford-style debate assignment to be used in an introductory microbiology course. Two teams of students were assigned a debatable topic within microbiology. Over a five-week period students completed an informative web page consisting of three parts: background on the topic, data-based positions for each side of the argument, and a data-based persuasive argument to support their assigned position. This was followed by an in-class presentation and debate. Analysis of student performance on knowledge-based questions shows that students retain debate-derived content acquired primarily outside of lectures significantly better than content delivered during a normal lecture. Importantly, students who performed poorly on the lecture-derived questions did as well on debate- derived questions as other students. Students also performed well on questions requiring higher-order cognitive skills and in synthesizing data-driven arguments in support of a position during the debate. Student perceptions of their knowledge-base in areas covered by the debate and their skills in using scientific databases and analyzing primary literature showed a significant increase in pre- and postassignment comparisons. Our data demonstrate that an Oxford-style debate can be used effectively to deliver relevant content, increase higher-order cognitive skills, and increase self-efficacy in science-specific skills, all contributing to developing expertise in the field.
Boucaud, Dwayne W; Nabel, Michael; Eggers, Christian H
Developing scientific expertise in the classroom involves promoting higher-order cognitive skills as well as content mastery. Effective use of constructivism can facilitate these outcomes. However this is often difficult to accomplish when delivery of content is paramount. Utilizing many of the tenets of constructivist pedagogy, we have designed an Oxford-style debate assignment to be used in an introductory microbiology course. Two teams of students were assigned a debatable topic within microbiology. Over a five-week period students completed an informative web page consisting of three parts: background on the topic, data-based positions for each side of the argument, and a data-based persuasive argument to support their assigned position. This was followed by an in-class presentation and debate. Analysis of student performance on knowledge-based questions shows that students retain debate-derived content acquired primarily outside of lectures significantly better than content delivered during a normal lecture. Importantly, students who performed poorly on the lecture-derived questions did as well on debate-derived questions as other students. Students also performed well on questions requiring higher-order cognitive skills and in synthesizing data-driven arguments in support of a position during the debate. Student perceptions of their knowledge-base in areas covered by the debate and their skills in using scientific databases and analyzing primary literature showed a significant increase in pre- and postassignment comparisons. Our data demonstrate that an Oxford-style debate can be used effectively to deliver relevant content, increase higher-order cognitive skills, and increase self-efficacy in science-specific skills, all contributing to developing expertise in the field.
Wang, H; Weber, A; Schiltenwolf, M; Amelung, D
The association between attachment style and subjective pain is controversially discussed and the influence of attachment styles on cytokine levels in chronic pain has received little attention in research. In this prospective longitudinal clinical study, we evaluated the relationship between cytokines, attachment style and subjective pain intensity as well as pain-related functioning in patients with fibromyalgia (FM) who underwent a 4-week multidisciplinary pain therapy. The attachment style was determined in 43 patients with FM using the relationship questionnaire (RQ-2) and subjective pain with the German version of the West Haven-Yale multidimensional pain inventory. Serum levels of the proinflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin 8 (IL-8) and the anti-inflammatory cytokines IL-4 and IL-10 were assessed before and after treatment and additionally once only in 18 healthy controls (Bio-Plex system). Patients with FM syndrome were significantly more often insecurely attached than healthy controls (p = 0.001). Serum levels of TNF-α (p = 0.001) and IL-10 (p = 0.039) were significantly higher in FM patients compared to controls. Attachment was unrelated to IL-4, IL-8, and IL-10 levels. Insecurely attached FM patients had significantly higher levels of TNF-α (p = 0.002). than securely attached patients. Insecurely and securely attached patients did not differ in subjective levels of pain severity, activity or functional interference. Cytokine levels were not correlated with subjective levels of pain severity or functional interference. Multidisciplinary pain therapy significantly reduced cytokine levels, pain severity, anxiety and depression independent of attachment style.
Mhoon-Walker, Etta J.
Effective leadership is essential to circumnavigating the numerous obstacles confronting the healthcare industry. In addition, the current health system is suffering from a proficient leadership gap. However, identifying and developing executives with the greatest potential to become strong, up-and-coming healthcare C-level executive leaders can…
Full Text Available Transition from school to work is a main issue with many fields of study. Studies on transition from school to work, have highlight the importance of two categories of factors at the level of the individual formal proceedings which may affect how easy it is to graduate to integrate into the labor market: 1 so far as the educational systems are transmitting specific competences as compared with those general and 2 so far as there are direct links between employers and the education system. In this way, are reduced the costs of selection and allocation for employers. A poor articulation between educational institutions and the labor market produce a high level of unmatched competences of assimilated by formal education and competencies required of the labor market (skill mismatch (Parodi et al., 2012. The surveys with European employers reflect particular difficulties that they are experiencing in employment vacancies. Investigation on the European companies in the spring of 2013 found that 40% of the firms in the EU have difficulty in finding employees with suitable qualification (CEDEFOP-European Center for the Development of the Vocational Training, 2014. Skills mismatch is a generic term that refers to various types of imbalances between skills and competences offered and those required in the labor market. Concept has become one intensely discussed and submitted to measurement in international research on the background concerns the under-utilization human resource. Numerous opinion polls with employers come to the same unexpected conclusion - that despite high unemployment many posts can't find occupants satisfactorily prepared and identify the causes: most of them criticized the lack of skills of the candidates or the absence of skills specific to the workplace. Based on the latest studies on international databases have built a set of questions that, through secondary analysis, we tried to find answers. Questions that we try to give answer
The purpose of this study was to compare the mental-skills differences at participatory level among three progressive levels of cricket participation recognised by the Northerns Cricket Union (NCU) in the Pretoria Gauteng region of South Africa. The study sample included 39 junior academy players, 68 premier league ...
Rassin, Michal; Kurzweil, Yaffa; Maoz, Yael
The aim of this study was to identify the learning styles and methods used by nurses to promote their professional knowledge and skills. 928 nurses from 11 hospitals across Israel completed 2 questionnaires, (1) Kolb's Learning Style Inventory, Version 3.1. and (2) the On-The-Job Learning Styles Questionnaire for the Nursing Profession. The most common learning style was the convergent style. The other learning styles were rated in the following descending order: accommodation, assimilation, and divergence. The on-the-job learning style consistently ranked highest was experience of relevant situations. On the other hand, seeking knowledge from books, journals, television, or the Internet was ranked lowest on all the indicators examined. With respect to general and on-the-job learning styles, statistically significant differences were found between groups of nurses by: country of birth, gender, department, age, education, and role. Nurses required to take more personal responsibility for their own professional development by deepening their self-learning skills.
Viyanti, V.; Cari, C.; Sunarno, W.; Prasetyo, Z. K.
This study aims to analyze the prior knowledge of students to map the level of skills to argue floating and sinking material. Prior knowledge is the process of concept formation in cognitive processes spontaneously or based on student experience. The study population is high school students of class XI. The sample selection using cluster random sampling, obtained the number of sampel as many as 50 student. The research used descriptive survey method. The data were obtained through a multiple choice test both grounded and interviewed. The data analyzed refers to: alignment the concept and the activity of developing the skill of the argument. The result obtained by the average level of skill argue in terms of the prior knowladge of on “Level 2”. The data show that students have difficulty expressing simple arguments consisting of only one statement. This indicates a lack of student experience in cultivating argumentative skills in their learning. The skill level mapping argued in this study to be a reference for researchers to provide feedback measures to obtain positive change in cognitive conflict argued.
The purpose of this study is to investigate teachers' organizational socialization levels and perceptions about leadership styles of their principals. Research was conducted with 361 teachers. Research design is determined as survey and correlational. Multi-Factor Leadership Scale originally was developed by Bass (1999) and adapted to Turkish…
Purpose: The personal characteristics as well as professional competencies of teachers are important in the formation of changes in student behaviors. This article examines the relation between emotional intelligence level, teacher leadership style and academic success of teacher candidates who are studying in a Pedagogical Teacher Education…
The current research aimed at inspecting the existence of a significant relationship between teachers' teaching styles and their Autonomy. For this reason, two questionnaires with regard to the main variables were given to 175 female English language teachers, teaching at advanced levels. Moreover, non-parametric Mann Whitney and Kruskal Wallis…
Cenkseven-Onder, Fulya; Kirdok, Oguzhan; Isik, Erkan
Introduction: The purpose of this research was to investigate career decision among high school students regarding to their parenting styles (authoritative, authoritarian, indulgent, and neglectful) and parental attachment levels. Method: With this purpose, 382 (200 females; 182 males) Turkish high school students aged 14-18 completed Career…
The purpose of the study was to determine the relationship between physical activity levels and healthy life-style behaviors in distance education students in Hoca Ahmet Yesevi University. In total, 526 distance education students in Hoca Ahmet Yesevi University participated in this study voluntarily. The short form of International Physical…
Visser, Anniek Kd; Ettrup, Anders; Klein, Anders Bue
is not an important molecular marker for coping style. Since neither an antagonist nor an agonist tracer showed any binding differences, it is unlikely that the affinity state of the 5-HT2A R is co-varying with levels of aggression or active avoidance in WTG, RHA and RLA. This article is protected by copyright. All...
Mutlu, Mehmet; Temiz, Burak Kagan
This study has been carried out to compare the integrated science process of the students having field dependent and independent cognitive style. A total of 496 students (285 female, 211 male) participated using by stratified sampling method from seven high schools located in the Cappadocia Region of Turkey. While students' science process skills…
Zeyrek, Emek Yuce; Gencoz, Faruk; Bergman, Yoav; Lester, David
Among 180 Turkish university students, the probability of suicide was strongly predicted by both hopelessness and deficiencies in problem solving. In addition, for women, unhealthy attachment styles (preoccupied and dismissing) also predicted suicidality. The clinical implications of these findings are that psychotherapists should focus on helping…
Babková Durdiaková, J; Celec, P; Koborová, I; Sedláčková, T; Minárik, G; Ostatníková, D
Testosterone has been widely investigated in associations with many aspects of social interactions, emotions and behavior. No research has been conducted on its contribution to the variability of love styles in human. The aim of this paper was to uncover the possible relationship between not only the actual plasma testosterone levels, but also the prenatal testosterone level (expressed as 2D:4D ratio) and the sensitivity of androgen receptor and love typology in young healthy men. There are six love styles which are primary including Eros (passionate romantic love), Ludus (playful) and Storge (friendly) and secondary love consisting of Mania (obsessive), Pragma (practical realistic) and Agape (altruistic). Our results pointed out that low testosterone concentrations are associated with higher score for Eros, Ludus, Pragma, Mania love style. No significant association was proved for other tested parameters of androgenicity (2D:4D, sensitivity of androgen receptor) and love style after correction was applied. Different attitudes and behavior in relationships do have a biological foundation related to endogenous testosterone levels in plasma. Future studies should address questions about the family and social background of participants to differentiate here between moral rules or/and social-conventional rules.
Soili Vesterinen; Marjo Suhonen; Arja Isola; Leena Paasivaara; Helena Laukkala
The purpose of this study was to explore nurse managers' perceptions related to their leadership styles, knowledge, and their skills in these areas in health centre wards in Finland. The data were collected from nurse managers (n = 252) in health centre hospitals in Finland using a structured questionnaire (response rate 63%). Six leadership styles?visionary, coaching, affiliate, democratic, commanding, and isolating?were reflected on. Almost all respondents in every age group considered four...
Janaína T. B. Pacheco
Full Text Available Este estudo examinou a relação entre estilos parentais e o desenvolvimento de habilidades sociais na adolescência. Os sujeitos foram 193 adolescentes secundaristas de duas escolas públicas de Porto Alegre. Foram utilizados um questionário para o levantamento da percepção de desempenho em dez habilidades sociais e duas escalas (Responsividade e Exigência para a classificação dos estilos parentais em quatro categorias: autoritário; autoritativo; indulgente e negligente. Os resultados indicaram que, de uma forma geral, os adolescentes relatam apresentar as habilidades sociais necessárias às situações investigadas. As habilidades que apresentaram maiores dificuldades foram iniciar relacionamento interpessoal; solicitar mudança no comportamento do outro e expressar sentimentos. Não foram encontradas diferenças (MANOVA quanto à presença de habilidades sociais entre os adolescentes que identificaram seus pais em diferentes estilos parentais. No entanto, foram encontradas entre esses grupos diferenças significativas quanto às variáveis que estão relacionadas às habilidades sociais, como ansiedade e agressividade.The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between parenting styles and development of social skills during adolescence. A total of 193 high school students (ages 14-17 from two public schools in Porto Alegre answered a questionnaire to evaluate perception of performance in ten social skills, as well as, two scales (Responsiveness and Demandingness allowing to classify parental attitudes in four types: authoritarian, authoritative, indulgent and negligent. Generally, the results indicate that the adolescents have the necessary social skills for the investigated situations. The skills for which they presented more difficulties were the following: beginning interpersonal relationship; asking for change on someone else's behavior and expressing feelings. Significant differences on the presence of social
Full Text Available Background: Some personality traits and coping styles could be as risk factors in stressful situations. This study aimed to investigate the association of personality traits and coping styles according to the stress level. Meterials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was performed in 2011. A total of 4628 individuals over 20 years were selected by random sampling from nonacademic employees that working in 50 different centers across Isfahan province. Data were collected using 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12, Big Five Personality Inventory Short Form and coping strategies scale, and individuals were divided into high and low-stress groups in term of GHQ-12. To analyze the data, a binary logistic regression analysis was conducted. Results: Mean age of participants was 36.3 ± 7.91 years and 56.26% (2604 of them were female. Neuroticism with adjusting covariates of demographic characteristics and the rest of personality traits was a risk factor for stress level with odds ratios (OR OR:1.24; but other personality traits were protective. Also, active coping styles were protective factors for OR of stress level with adjusting covariates of demographic characteristics and the rest of coping styles, and positive reinterpretation and growth was the most effective of coping style with OR:0.84. Conclusion: Some personality traits are associated with passive copings and cause high-stress level. So, it could be concluded that improve and strengthen effective coping strategies in individual with maladaptive traits should be considered as a crucial component of prevention and control programs of stress.
Hammer, R E; Hoffer, N; King, W L
Many researchers have found that more college-age adults than would be expected fail Piaget's water-level task, with women failing more frequently than men. It has been hypothesized that differences in cognitive style may account for performance differences on the water-level task. In the present study, 27 male and 27 female architectural students and 27 male and 27 female liberal-arts students were assessed for their performance on both Piaget's Water-level Task and Witkin's Group Embedded Figures Test. No difference was found in performance of male and female architectural students on either task, but male liberal-arts students scored significantly higher than female liberal-arts students on both measures. A disembedding cognitive style predicted success on the water-level task for the architectural students but not for the liberal arts students.
Dau, Susanne; Purushothaman, Aparna
The concept of digital divide have moved beyond physical disparities in usage and also encompasses issues impending access like human (skills) social, cultural, and psychological barriers that affect the usage of existing available technologies apart from ownership. This paper focuses on the insu......The concept of digital divide have moved beyond physical disparities in usage and also encompasses issues impending access like human (skills) social, cultural, and psychological barriers that affect the usage of existing available technologies apart from ownership. This paper focuses...... on the insufficient level of skills which students have in making the best use of available Internet technology. Varying online skills of the students in higher education from two countrywide scenarios - Denmark and India are discussed. The paper emphasizes on the reflective and conceptual issues which the students...... face to take information from the Internet that brings a second level of divide. Through a cross-national comparison the paper hopes to contribute to the literature to learn from each other´s experiences and giving insights to researchers on digital divide. The digital divide in Internet skills...
Chen, Yu-ping; Keen, Rachel; Rosander, Kerstin; Von Hofsten, Claes
Kinematic measures of children's reaching were found to reflect stable differences in skill level for planning for future actions. Thirty-five toddlers (18-21 months) were engaged in building block towers (precise task) and in placing blocks into an open container (imprecise task). Sixteen children were retested on the same tasks a year later.…
Many attempts are currently being made to develop Aural-Oral Communicative skills in English at school level, but it remains a difficult task for the teachers of English. There are a lot of readymade cassettes available in the market but they have hardly served the purpose. Admittedly, cassettes help and yield better results for learners, subject…
Banerjee, Sarbani; Lin, William
In this study, the authors provide some details about a variety of entry-level skills that are vitally important to systems analysts. They gathered the data from information technology practitioners, who related their experiences with real-world systems development projects. Such empirical evidence may be useful to faculty as they decide which…
Assaraf, Orit Ben-Zvi; Orion, Nir
This study deals with the development of system thinking skills at the elementary school level. It addresses the question of whether elementary school students can deal with complex systems. The sample included 40 4th grade students from one school in a small town in Israel. The students studied an inquiry-based earth systems curriculum that…
Rahmawati; Rustaman, Nuryani Y.; Hamidah, Ida; Rusdiana, Dadi
The aim of this study was to explore the use of assessment strategy which can measure problem solving skills of pre-service teachers based on their cognitive style in basic physics course. The sample consisted of 95 persons (male = 15, female = 75). This study used an exploratory research with observation techniques by interview, questionnaire, and test. The results indicated that the lecturer only used paper-pencil test assessment strategy to measure pre-service teachers’ achievement and also used conventional learning strategy. It means that the lecturer did not measure pre-services’ thinking process in learning, like problem solving skills. One of the factors which can influence student problem solving skills is cognitive style as an internal factor. Field Dependent (FD) and Field Independent (FI) are two cognitive styles which were measured with using Group Embedded Figure Test (GEFT) test. The result showed that 82% of pre-service teachers were FD cognitive style and only 18% of pre-service teachers had FI cognitive style. Furthermore, these findings became the fundamental design to develop a problem solving assessment model to measure pre-service teachers’ problem solving skills and process in basic physics course.
Full Text Available Riding the unicycle presupposes the knowledge of the set of elements which describe motoric skill, or just part of that set with which we could measure the level of that knowledge. Testing and evaluation of the elements is time consuming. In order to design a unique, composite measuring instrument, to facilitate the evaluation of the initial level of unicycling skill, we tested 17 recreative subjects who were learning to ride the unicycle in 15 hours of training, without any previous knowledge or experience what was measured before the beginning of the training. At the beginning and at the end of the training they were tested with the set of the 12 riding elements test that was carried out to record only successful attempts, followed by unique SLALOM test which include previously tested elements. It was found that the unique SLALOM test has good metric features and a high regression coefficient showed that the SLALOM could be used instead of the 12 elements of unicycle riding skill, and it could be used as a uniform test to evaluate learned or existing knowledge. Because of its simplicity in terms of action and simultaneous testing of more subjects, the newly constructed test could be used in evaluating the unicycling recreational level, but also for monitoring and programming transformation processes to develop the motor skills of riding of unicycle. Because of its advantages, it is desirable to include unicycling in the educational processes of learning new motor skills, which can be evaluated by the results of this research. The obtained results indicate that the unicycle should be seriously consider as a training equipment to “refresh” or expand the recreational programs, without any fear that it is just for special people. Namely, it was shown that the previously learned motor skills (skiing, roller-skating, and cycling had no effect on the results of final testing.
Ghazivakili, Zohre; Norouzi Nia, Roohangiz; Panahi, Faride; Karimi, Mehrdad; Gholsorkhi, Hayede; Ahmadi, Zarrin
The Current world needs people who have a lot of different abilities such as cognition and application of different ways of thinking, research, problem solving, critical thinking skills and creativity...
Thompson, Leigh; Blankinship, Lisa Ann
Many undergraduate students lack a sound understanding of information literacy. The skills that comprise information literacy are particularly important when combined with scientific writing for biology majors as they are the foundation skills necessary to complete upper-division biology course assignments, better train students for research projects, and prepare students for graduate and professional education. To help undergraduate biology students develop and practice information literacy and scientific writing skills, a series of three one-hour hands-on library sessions, discussions, and homework assignments were developed for Biological Literature, a one-credit, one-hour-per-week, required sophomore-level course. The embedded course librarian developed a learning exercise that reviewed how to conduct database and web searches, the difference between primary and secondary sources, source credibility, and how to access articles through the university's databases. Students used the skills gained in the library training sessions for later writing assignments including a formal lab report and annotated bibliography. By focusing on improving information literacy skills as well as providing practice in scientific writing, Biological Literature students are better able to meet the rigors of upper-division biology courses and communicate research findings in a more professional manner.
Thompson, Leigh; Blankinship, Lisa Ann
Many undergraduate students lack a sound understanding of information literacy. The skills that comprise information literacy are particularly important when combined with scientific writing for biology majors as they are the foundation skills necessary to complete upper-division biology course assignments, better train students for research projects, and prepare students for graduate and professional education. To help undergraduate biology students develop and practice information literacy and scientific writing skills, a series of three one-hour hands-on library sessions, discussions, and homework assignments were developed for Biological Literature, a one-credit, one-hour-per-week, required sophomore-level course. The embedded course librarian developed a learning exercise that reviewed how to conduct database and web searches, the difference between primary and secondary sources, source credibility, and how to access articles through the university’s databases. Students used the skills gained in the library training sessions for later writing assignments including a formal lab report and annotated bibliography. By focusing on improving information literacy skills as well as providing practice in scientific writing, Biological Literature students are better able to meet the rigors of upper-division biology courses and communicate research findings in a more professional manner. PMID:25949754
Searston, Rachel A; Tangen, Jason M
Experience identifying visual objects and categories improves generalization within the same class (e.g., discriminating bird species improves transfer to new bird species), but does such perceptual expertise transfer to coarser category judgments? We tested whether fingerprint experts, who spend their days comparing pairs of prints and judging whether they were left by the same finger or two different fingers, can generalize their finger discrimination expertise to people more broadly. That is, can these experts identify prints from Jones's right thumb and prints from Jones's right index finger as instances of the same "Jones" category? Novices and experts were both sensitive to the style of a stranger's prints; despite lower levels of confidence, experts were significantly more sensitive to this style than novices. This expert advantage persisted even when we reduced the number of exemplars provided. Our results demonstrate that perceptual expertise can be flexible to upwards shifts in the level of specificity, suggesting a dynamic memory retrieval process.
Mualla Hamurcu; Koray Kara; Mehmet Ayhan Congologlu; Ufuk Hamurcu; Mahmoud Almbaidheen; Ayse Turan; Dursun Karaman
Abstract Background Visual impairment is a risk factor for psychiatric disorders in the affected children and adolescents, but there are only a limited number of studies concerning the mental health characteristics of visually impaired children and adolescents. Objective The aim of this study was to determine levels of loneliness and anxiety in visually impaired children and adolescents, to analyze parenting style perceived by visually impaired children and adolescents, to compare those w...
This paper investigates the effects of displacement on outcomes such as annual earnings, unemployment, wages and hours worked. It relies on previously unexplored administrative data on all displaced workers in Sweden in 2002, 2003 and 2004 which are linked to employer-employee matched data at the individual level. By linking the data to military enlistment records, the paper assesses the selection into displacement and finds that workers with low cognitive and noncognitive skills are signific...
Viljaranta, Jaana; Aunola, Kaisa; Mullola, Sari; Virkkala, Johanna; Hirvonen, Riikka; Pakarinen, Eija; Nurmi, Jari-Erik
The present study followed 156 Finnish children (M[subscript age] = 7.25 years) during the first grade of primary school to examine to what extent parent- and teacher-rated temperament impacts children's math and reading skill development during the first grade, and the extent to which this impact would be mediated by teachers' interaction styles…
Colakkadioglu, Oguzhan; Gucray, S. Sonay
In this study, the effect of conflict theory based decision making skill training group applications on decision making styles of adolescents was investigated. A total of 36 students, including 18 students in experimental group and 18 students in control group, participated in the research. When assigning students to experimental group or control…
Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study is to determine the effect of covered dressing style on serum vitamin D levels. Material and Methods: The first group consists of 32 women dressing covered style except hands and face during summer and winter seasons and the second group consists of 22 women dressing head and extremities-distal extremities uncovered style during summer. Participants were living in Istanbul. Blood samples were taken between November and March. Milk, cheese, yoghurt, fish and egg consumptions, direct sun light exposures have been questioned. Serum levels of 25(OHD vitamin, alkaline phosphatase, calcium, phosphorus have been measured. Results: Mean age was 35.1±5.5 in the first group and 37.1±7.5 in the second group. Mean 25(OHD vitamin level was 4.8 nmol\\L in the first group and 16.8 nmol\\L in the second group. 25 hydroxyvitamin D levels were found under normal (20-120mmol/L in both groups and statistical difference between them was meaningful (p=0.022. There was statistically significant relation between duration of sun exposure and vitamin D levels (p=0.002. Conclusion: Low 25(OHD vitamin levels in both groups were due to very low syntesis during November-March period. Although there was no difference between two groups in terms of clothing manner during winter season, we have been thought that lower 25(OHD vitamin levels in first group were due to anti-sunlight effect of clothes dressed up by group members during previous summer period. (Turkish Journal of Osteoporosis 2011;17:6-9
Awi; Ahmar, A. S.; Rahman, A.; Minggi, I.; Mulbar, U.; Asdar; Ruslan; Upu, H.; Alimuddin; Hamda; Rosidah; Sutamrin; Tiro, M. A.; Rusli
This research aims to reveal the profile about the level of creativity and the ability to propose statistical problem of students at Mathematics Education 2014 Batch in the State University of Makassar in terms of their cognitive style. This research uses explorative qualitative method by giving meta-cognitive scaffolding at the time of research. The hypothesis of research is that students who have field independent (FI) cognitive style in statistics problem posing from the provided information already able to propose the statistical problem that can be solved and create new data and the problem is already been included as a high quality statistical problem, while students who have dependent cognitive field (FD) commonly are still limited in statistics problem posing that can be finished and do not load new data and the problem is included as medium quality statistical problem.
Arlene Shorter Young
... international college students on achievement and anxiety levels over one semester. This paper focused on the identification of learning style profiles of first time visiting Japanese, Korean, and Chinese college student populations...
Vesterinen, Soili; Suhonen, Marjo; Isola, Arja; Paasivaara, Leena; Laukkala, Helena
The purpose of this study was to explore nurse managers' perceptions related to their leadership styles, knowledge, and their skills in these areas in health centre wards in Finland. The data were collected from nurse managers (n = 252) in health centre hospitals in Finland using a structured questionnaire (response rate 63%). Six leadership styles-visionary, coaching, affiliate, democratic, commanding, and isolating-were reflected on. Almost all respondents in every age group considered four leadership styles-visionary, coaching, affiliate, and democratic-to be very important or important. Nurse managers estimated their knowledge and skills in leadership styles to be essentially fairly sufficient or sufficient. Nurse managers' abilities to reflect, understand, and, if necessary, change their leadership style influence the work unit's success and employees' job satisfaction. Nurse managers, especially new nurse managers, need more theoretic, evidence-based education to cope with these expectations and to develop their professional abilities. Together with universities, health care organizations should start planning nurse manager education programmes that focus on strategic issues, leadership, job satisfaction, challenging situations in leadership, change management, work unit management (e.g., economy, efficiency, and resources), and how the nurse managers consider their own wellbeing.
Christensen, Mette Krogh
: Biographical learning in top-level coaching - personal styles and the power of practical sense. There is a growing body of studies in sports coaching cultures, comprising research focusing on the individual learning processes and life histories of top-level coaches. Even if top-level sport has become...... increasingly professionalized, the role of the top-level coach and the developmental pathways of the coaches differ widely in both areas of experience and amount of experience. In this paper I draw on theories on biographical learning, idiosyncratic learning and development of coaching expertise. This paper...... explores the relation between these kinds of learning processes and the coaches’ development of practical sense of talent. I base the paper on a sociological analysis of in-depth interviews with eight Danish top-level football coaches about their pathways to expertise. Results illustrate two interwoven...
Jones, H. L.; Gaskell, E. H.; Prendergast, J. R.; Bavage, A. D.
First-year undergraduates can find the transition from the prescriptive learning environment at school to one of self-directed learning at university, a considerable challenge. A Pre-university Skills Course (PSC) was developed to address this issue by preparing sixth formers for the university learning style. It was piloted with students in the…
Wright, Sarah; Stokes, Anthony
The issues of developing strategies and approaches to teaching introductory level economics courses at university have been long standing. With the development of economics learning standards in Australia, this is a time to consider teaching and learning approaches to engage students and develop skills in economics. This paper considers that to…
The purpose of this study was to determine the metacognitive skill levels and motivation of preservice chemistry teachers and to investigate the effect of different metacognitive skill levels on their motivation...
Hanrahan, Stephanie J; Cerin, Ester
Findings regarding gender differences in achievement goal orientations and attributional style have been somewhat inconsistent. One possible explanation for varied findings is that potentially confounding variables such as level of participation and type of sport have not been considered. Athletes (108 males and 164 females) from team and individual sports, competing at recreational and competitive levels, completed the Task and Ego Orientation in Sport Questionnaire, the Sport Attributional Style Scale, and a demographic questionnaire. Athletes competing in individual sports had a higher ego orientation than those from team sports, and females scored higher in task orientation than males. Individual sport athletes made more internal, stable, and global, and less externally controllable attributions for positive events, and more internal attributions for negative events than team sport athletes. Competitive female athletes made less global attributions for positive events than did recreational female athletes. This difference was not observed in male athletes. Competitive individual, but not team, athletes made less global attributions than recreational individual athletes. The significant interactions regarding globality suggest that the tradition in sport psychology attribution research to focus solely on internality, stability, and controllability may be inadequate. From an applied perspective, sport psychologists and coaches may find it beneficial to target individual sport athletes and males for interventions designed to enhance task orientation. Similarly, team sport athletes may be appropriate as a focus for attribution retraining programs.
Shearer, Dana Ann
According to a review of the current literature, common managerial styles are transformational, transactional, and laissez-faire. When managers expand their leadership skills to improve the staff's morale, they must use a combination of transformational leadership behaviors and transactional contingent rewards to maximize their effectiveness on employees. A motivation theory such as Herzberg and Maslow enhances employees' motivation, morale, and satisfaction. Being able to motivate, empower, and influence staff improves satisfaction and retention levels among the team. A manager's leadership style influences motivation, morale, and retention in staff. Leaders are influenced by their educational development and the organizational culture. Organizational culture has an impact on a manager's style, which is forwarded to their followers.
Rahman, Mohd Noah A.; Rahim, M. Mahbubur; Seyal, Afzaal H.
Reports the results of an empirical study in Brunei Darussalam that identified the types of skills required for entry-level computer programmers. Investigated whether skills were related to organizational size; determined that communications skills were the top requirement, followed by database management systems skills; and discovered a decline…
Wang, Jianyu; Liu, Wenhao
The study examined changes in badminton game play across developmental skill levels among high school students in a physical education setting. Videotapes of badminton game play of 80 students (40 boys and 40 girls) in the four developmental skill levels (each skill level had 10 boys and 10 girls) were randomly selected from a database associated…
Vedula, S Swaroop; Malpani, Anand; Ahmidi, Narges; Khudanpur, Sanjeev; Hager, Gregory; Chen, Chi Chiung Grace
Task-level metrics of time and motion efficiency are valid measures of surgical technical skill. Metrics may be computed for segments (maneuvers and gestures) within a task after hierarchical task decomposition. Our objective was to compare task-level and segment (maneuver and gesture)-level metrics for surgical technical skill assessment. Our analyses include predictive modeling using data from a prospective cohort study. We used a hierarchical semantic vocabulary to segment a simple surgical task of passing a needle across an incision and tying a surgeon's knot into maneuvers and gestures. We computed time, path length, and movements for the task, maneuvers, and gestures using tool motion data. We fit logistic regression models to predict experience-based skill using the quantitative metrics. We compared the area under a receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) for task-level, maneuver-level, and gesture-level models. Robotic surgical skills training laboratory. In total, 4 faculty surgeons with experience in robotic surgery and 14 trainee surgeons with no or minimal experience in robotic surgery. Experts performed the task in shorter time (49.74s; 95% CI = 43.27-56.21 vs. 81.97; 95% CI = 69.71-94.22), with shorter path length (1.63m; 95% CI = 1.49-1.76 vs. 2.23; 95% CI = 1.91-2.56), and with fewer movements (429.25; 95% CI = 383.80-474.70 vs. 728.69; 95% CI = 631.84-825.54) than novices. Experts differed from novices on metrics for individual maneuvers and gestures. The AUCs were 0.79; 95% CI = 0.62-0.97 for task-level models, 0.78; 95% CI = 0.6-0.96 for maneuver-level models, and 0.7; 95% CI = 0.44-0.97 for gesture-level models. There was no statistically significant difference in AUC between task-level and maneuver-level (p = 0.7) or gesture-level models (p = 0.17). Maneuver-level and gesture-level metrics are discriminative of surgical skill and can be used to provide targeted feedback to surgical trainees. Copyright © 2016 Association of Program
Turkmen, Mutlu; Ozkan, Ali; Kul, Murat; Bozkus, Taner
The purpose of the study was to determine the relationship of physical activity (PA) level and healthy life-style behaviors in academic staff in Bartin University, Turkey. The short form of International Physical Activity Questionnaire was administered for the determination of physical activity level of academic staff. Their PA levels were…
Dr. Sarita Dash
Full Text Available In todays economic scenario the rising incomes and expectations in the wake of rapid urbanization has created a crying need for creation of value concept in the appropriate climate which will encourage emergence of good human-beings a band of worthy as well as socially responsible professionals and will eventually lead to the creation of a good society. So this paper has been designed to look at the present status of Architectural Education at Diploma level in a dynamic society. To meet the demands of the changing needs of the changing society the future architectural education should address some pertinent issues regarding soft skills which has been discussed in this paper. A little measure has been taken to explain that the innovations and practices in architectural education will impose new demands on the teachers who are mainly responsible for the rectification of the foundation at root level to cultivate the human values as a part of their teachings. The paper has also talked about the outcome of evaluation that necessitates the change in education to express the qualitative significance to human consciousness.
Elanor Colleoni; Roberto Leombruni
Given the group job classification and collective agreement identification code, we extracted from the national bargaining archive the skill level definition and we created a skill grades classification for the workers. We added this information to Workers History Italian Panel -Whip-, and we created a new variable which allow us to identify whether a worker is skilled or unskilled. The new skill level variable increase the possibility for a better comprehension of labour market issues as wel...
players also showed significantly greater self-confidence (d ≥ 0.4), personal coping resources, coping with adversity, average psychological skills and activation control scores than their lower ranked counterparts, stressing the important role of sport psychological skills towards rugby performance. It can be concluded that ...
Full Text Available This study examined the intensity and direction of competitive anxiety symptoms and psychological skill usage in rugby union players of different skill levels. Elite (n=65 and nonelite (n=50 participants completed measures of competitive anxiety, self- confidence, and psychological skills. The elite group reported more facilitative interpretations of competitive anxiety symptoms, higher levels of self-confidence, lower relaxation usage, and greater imagery and self-talk use than their nonelite counterparts. The findings suggest that nonelite performers primarily use relaxation strategies to reduce anxiety intensity. In contrast, elite athletes appear to maintain intensity levels and adopt a combination of skills to interpret symptoms as facilitative to performance. Potential mechanisms for this process include the use of imagery and verbal persuasion efficacy-enhancement techniques to protect against debilitating symptom interpretations
Suhonen, Marjo; Isola, Arja; Paasivaara, Leena; Laukkala, Helena
The purpose of this study was to explore nurse managers' perceptions related to their leadership styles, knowledge, and their skills in these areas in health centre wards in Finland. The data were collected from nurse managers (n = 252) in health centre hospitals in Finland using a structured questionnaire (response rate 63%). Six leadership styles—visionary, coaching, affiliate, democratic, commanding, and isolating—were reflected on. Almost all respondents in every age group considered four leadership styles—visionary, coaching, affiliate, and democratic—to be very important or important. Nurse managers estimated their knowledge and skills in leadership styles to be essentially fairly sufficient or sufficient. Nurse managers' abilities to reflect, understand, and, if necessary, change their leadership style influence the work unit's success and employees' job satisfaction. Nurse managers, especially new nurse managers, need more theoretic, evidence-based education to cope with these expectations and to develop their professional abilities. Together with universities, health care organizations should start planning nurse manager education programmes that focus on strategic issues, leadership, job satisfaction, challenging situations in leadership, change management, work unit management (e.g., economy, efficiency, and resources), and how the nurse managers consider their own wellbeing. PMID:23691356
Rostampour, Mohammad; Niroomand, Seyyedeh Mitra
Cognitive styles influence the performance of language learners and can predict their success in the process of language learning. Considering field dependence/independence cognitive styles, this study aims at determining if they are significant in English vocabulary knowledge. A number of EFL university students took part in the study. The…
Den Hartigh, Ruud J.R.; Cox, Ralf F.A.; Gernigon, Christophe; Van Yperen, Nico W.; Van Geert, Paul L.C.
The aim of this study was to examine (1) the temporal structures of variation in rowers' (natural) ergometer strokes in order to make inferences about the underlying motor organization, and (2) the relation between these temporal structures and skill level. Four high-skilled and five lower-skilled
Ekici, Fatma Yasar
The main aim of this research is to examine the relationship between the styles of coping with stress and the levels of hopelessness of preschool teachers. Relational survey method was used in this research. The research sample consists of 108 preschool teachers working in preschool education institutions in Küçükçekmece district of Istanbul in…
Describes the way one teacher used Raymond Queneau's "Exercices de style" in a college-level French composition course. The students prepared 15 to 20 assignments, which focused on grammar and syntax, logical development of ideas, changes in perspective, shifts in mood or tonality, and experiments with different literary genres. (SED)
South Africa's higher education policies have opened up access to university for students from diverse backgrounds, with different learning styles, levels of motivation and levels of preparedness. This has necessitated a move from the lecture style of teaching to innovative teaching styles that engage the learners and equip them with skills to…
Mohammad Rostampour; Seyyedeh Mitra Niroomand
Cognitive styles influence the performance of language learners and can predict their success in the process of language learning. Considering field dependence/independence cognitive styles, this study aims at determining if they are significant in English vocabulary knowledge. A number of EFL university students took part in the study. The investigation was done through using Vocabulary Size Test (VST) (Nation, 2007) and the Group Embedded Figures Test (GEFT) (Witkin, Oltman, Raskin, and Kar...
Diemroh Ihsan; Chuzaimah Dahlan Diem
The purpose of this study are to discover the learning styles, and the language learning strategies most preferred, correlation among the variables exists, and the degree of influence each independent variable exerts on the dependent variables. For data collection, the Barsch Learning Styles Inventory and the Strategy Inventory of Language Learning were distributed to 156 students of English at the University of Sriwijaya, Palembang. The results showed that: (1) visual is the most preferred l...
N. V. Zhbankova
Full Text Available The article analyses the problem of psychological determination of the successful double specialty education in higher institution. The question of peculiarities of cognitive styles affecting mastering of subjects of a certain specialty and two specialties simultaneously is posed. On the basis of the analysis of the history of cognitive style studies two approaches to understanding their nature are distinguished: as constant and not interconnected peculiarities of cognitive activity and as adaptive cognitive strategies formed by an individual to solve different problems. We introduce some research data of cognitive styles of students with different degree of success in mastering a double specialty History and English Philology: successful in learning the foreign language, successful in learning History and weak and successful in subjects of both specialties. A set of methods identifying the following parameters of cognitive styles was used in the study: “fielddependency – fieldindependency”, “analyticity – syntheticity”, “impulsiveness – reflexivity”, “intellectual lability” and “leading representative systems”. It was brought to light that groups of respondents possess significant differences in every parameter of the cognitive styles. On the basis of analytical interpretation of the research data the conclusion is drawn that a cognitive style can be both specialized and quite flexible, adaptive, which depends on the range of modalities used for perception and digestion of information (what modalities are used, in what quantity and combination.
Listening is essential to the leaming process. Students in tertiary institutions of learning need to acquire effective listening and note-taking skiils in order to benefit from lectures. This paper focused on factors militating against effective listening during lectures such as poor rate of presentation, poor communication skills, ...
... and suggesting on what the government and management should do, such as enlightening and upgrading women's knowledge and culture dynamics. Train them on skill acquisition and overall aptitude development to enhance their human resource potentials both for day to day living and for employment opportunities.
The purpose of this study was to determine the metacognitive skill levels and motivation of preservice chemistry teachers and to investigate the effect of different metacognitive skill levels on their motivation. The study was conducted during 2014-2015 spring semester. In this research, survey method was used to reveal the effect of different…
Full Text Available Cognitive styles influence the performance of language learners and can predict their success in the process of language learning. Considering field dependence/independence cognitive styles, this study aims at determining if they are significant in English vocabulary knowledge. A number of EFL university students took part in the study. The investigation was done through using Vocabulary Size Test (VST (Nation, 2007 and the Group Embedded Figures Test (GEFT (Witkin, Oltman, Raskin, and Karp, 1971. Using the Vocabulary Size Test (VST, the participants were divided into three groups of high, mid, and low. Moreover, with respect to the Group Embedded Figures Test (GEFT, they were divided into two groups, field dependents and field independents. Mean score comparison revealed there was a credible and meaningful relationship between field dependence/independence cognitive styles and total vocabulary knowledge. It was also indicated there was a significant relationship between field dependence/independence cognitive styles and vocabulary knowledge in the high and mid groups. Finally, based on the findings, teachers should take learners’ individual differences into consideration so that they could adopt and apply teaching methods in line with the learners’ various cognitive styles.
Pazar, Berrin; Demiralp, Meral; Erer, İmren
The most basic component of communication skills is the complex and multidimensional skill of empathy. This study was conducted to assess the communication skills and empathic tendency levels of female nursing students Turkish university. This cross-sectional study sample consisted of 342 nurse student. There was a significant difference between the classes in terms of communication skills (0.021, p .05). The mean communication skills score increased in the final year but empathic tendency levels did not increase with increasing school years. This result suggests that the empathic tendency level could not be increased with the courses in the curriculum in our study. The results suggest that empathic tendency levels were not increased with subsequent nursing coursework. Determining empathic predisposition levels prior to entry into nursing programs should therefore be considered.
Full Text Available The purpose of this study are to discover the learning styles, and the language learning strategies most preferred, correlation among the variables exists, and the degree of influence each independent variable exerts on the dependent variables. For data collection, the Barsch Learning Styles Inventory and the Strategy Inventory of Language Learning were distributed to 156 students of English at the University of Sriwijaya, Palembang. The results showed that: (1 visual is the most preferred learning style, whereas metacognitive ang effective are the most preferred language learning strategies; (2 certain independent variables have a significant correlation with certain dependent variables, for example, visual with memory, auditory with cognitive, tactile with affective, and semester with compensation; (3 females use a greater variety of language learning strategies than males; and (4 semester has a significant correlation with compensation but not with other strategies
Yamamoto, Raquel Coube de Carvalho; Prade, Leila Sauer; Bolzan, Geovana de Paula; Weinmann, Angela Regina Maciel; Keske-Soares, Márcia
To correlate the peripheral oxygen saturation with gestational age and the level of oral feeding skills in the introduction of oral feeding in preterm infants. This is a cross-sectional, quantitative study whose sample was composed of 169 clinically stable preterm infants. Peripheral oxygen saturation was assessed before and after introduction of oral feeding. The preterm infants were stratified into three groups based on their gestational age at birth: 26-29, 30-33, and 34-36 weeks. The preterm infants were classified into four levels according to their oral feeding skill and resistance. No differences in oxygen saturation were observed between the strata of gestational age and between the levels of oral feeding skill. Differences were observed in the groups of preterm infants aged 30-33 weeks (p=0.04) and 34-36 weeks (p=0.02) and on the level I of oral feeding skills (p=0.04) when oxygen saturation was compared at pre- and post-first oral feeding. Significant correlations (poral feeding skills (r=0.38); in Group A, between gestational age and oxygen saturation before the first oral feeding (r=0.83); in Group B, between the level of oral feeding skill and oxygen saturation before the first oral feeding (r=0.26) and between level of oral feeding skill and gestational age (r=0.26). Correlation was found for peripheral oxygen saturation when compared with gestational age and with the level of oral feeding skills.
Murdock, Calla; Naber, Jessica; Perlow, Michael
The purpose of this study was to review the stress levels and the stress management skills of admitted baccalaureate nursing students at a rural public university. Subjects completed a questionnaire to estimate stress levels, causes of stress, stress management skills, and the use of stress management skills. Stress levels by gender and group were compared using analysis of variance (ANOVA). No significant differences in stress levels by semester were discovered. A significant difference was discovered when stress levels were compared by gender. Subjects also responded that students should be taught stress management skills upon admission into the program. Additionally, stress management skills should be reinforced each semester to help students identify causes and better manage their stress. Research in the area of stress and nursing students has been sporadically attempted through the years. However, focus on stress, gender, and program placement is far less evident. The purpose of this study was to answer the following research question: What are the stress levels and the stress management skills of baccalaureate nursing students? To that end, a questionnaire was developed to identify the stress and stress management skills of the baccalaureate nursing students with the results analyzed for frequency and percentages. This study looked not only at the stress levels and stress management skills of the baccalaureate nursing student, but also took into account the subject's gender and program placement.
Langley, Hillary A.; Coffman, Jennifer L.; Ornstein, Peter A.
Data from a large-scale, longitudinal research study with an ethnically and socioeconomically diverse sample were utilized to explore linkages between maternal elaborative conversational style and the development of children's autobiographical and deliberate memory. Assessments were made when the children were aged 3, 5, and 6 years old, and the…
In today's society, educators must have leadership skills to accomplish the tasks required at the university or school district level. The education profession must provide leadership training for present and future administrators. In Situational Leadership, four styles are identified and based on three dimensions: the amount of direction a leader…
Habibi; Kuswanto, Heru; Yanti, Fitri April
An expert in the field of science is often difficult to teach his knowledge to students. Conversely someone who is expert in the field of education is certainly more expert in transferring knowledge. The purpose of this research is to explore the skill of teaching skill preservice of physics teacher of High School. Samples were taken randomly as…
Full Text Available This is a predictive validity study examining the extent to which developmental vulnerability at kindergarten entry (as measured by the Early Development Instrument, EDI is associated with children's basic skills in 4th grade (as measured by the Foundation Skills Assessment, FSA.Relative risk analysis was performed on a large database linking individual-level EDI ratings to the scores the same children obtained on a provincial assessment of academic skills (FSA--Foundation Skills Assessment four years later. We found that early vulnerability in kindergarten is associated with the basic skills that underlie populations of children's academic achievement in reading, writing and math, indicating that the Early Development Instrument permits to predict achievement-related skills four years in advance.The EDI can be used to predict children's educational trends at the population level and can help select early prevention and intervention programs targeting pre-school populations at minimum cost.
D'Angiulli, Amedeo; Warburton, William; Dahinten, Susan; Hertzman, Clyde
Background This is a predictive validity study examining the extent to which developmental vulnerability at kindergarten entry (as measured by the Early Development Instrument, EDI) is associated with children's basic skills in 4th grade (as measured by the Foundation Skills Assessment, FSA). Methodology/Principal Findings Relative risk analysis was performed on a large database linking individual-level EDI ratings to the scores the same children obtained on a provincial assessment of academic skills (FSA – Foundation Skills Assessment) four years later. We found that early vulnerability in kindergarten is associated with the basic skills that underlie populations of children's academic achievement in reading, writing and math, indicating that the Early Development Instrument permits to predict achievement-related skills four years in advance. Conclusions/Significance The EDI can be used to predict children's educational trends at the population level and can help select early prevention and intervention programs targeting pre-school populations at minimum cost. PMID:19946366
Erika Nallely López-Lugo; Nayat Lucía Amparán-Valenzuela; Claudia Selene Tapia-Ruelas
The Teacher Training Program of Higher Education Media (PROFORDEMS), aims to contribute to the educational profile in skills development. This study aims to determine the level of achievement reached graduates considered teachers regarding teaching skills training process to conclude the paragraph after performing the analysis of as it impacts on society. The method was quantitative, applied for UN compound instrument teaching skills and attributes, with Likert scale Establishing the four ...
Giltinane, Charlotte Louise
It is useful for healthcare professionals to be able to identify the leadership styles and theories relevant to their nursing practice. Being adept in recognising these styles enables nurses to develop their skills to become better leaders, as well as improving relationships with colleagues and other leaders, who have previously been challenging to work with. This article explores different leadership styles and theories, and explains how they relate to nursing practice.
Kumar, S. Raja
Visually challenged students' career choice is influenced by many factors, including life context, personal aptitudes, and educational attainment. This study focuses the defense styles of visually challenged students and also study about their career choice. Survey method has been adopted in this investigation. Totally 77 samples were collected…
The diploma thesis comparing the level of physical abilities and basketball skills of girls in basketball and basketball outfits in Prague and abroad outlines a short history of both world and Czech basketball, the current organization of basketball in the Czech Republic, age specificities of children aged 11, stage of sports training in basketball, Ability. The practical part deals with the question of the level of motor skills of girls at the age of 11, the question of the level of basketba...
Adewale, J. Gbenga
One of the goals of education in Nigeria is to develop in children the ability to adapt to their changing environment. This goal could be achieved through competency in life skills. Therefore, this study examines the competency level of Nigerian Primary 4 pupils in the life skills achievement test. The test was administered on a sample of 22,638…
Ul-Haq, Zahoor; Khurram, Bushra Ahmed; Bangash, Arshad Khan
Purpose: This paper discusses an effective instructional method called "activity based learning" that can be used to develop the speaking skills of students in the elementary school level. The present study was conducted to determine the effect of activity based learning on the development of the speaking skills of low and high achievers…
Awang, Faridah; Anderson, Marcia A.; Baker, Clora Mae
Responses to an Illinois survey by 19 human resource managers and 26 university and 71 community college information systems instructors rated the importance of workplace and technology skills for entry-level information services and support personnel. Both groups ranked nontechnical/soft skills and information technology certification as…
Ijaz Ahmad TATLAH; Rahila NIZAMI; Kamran Ahmad SIDDIQUI
Purpose – Teacher must act as a leader because his/her role is very effective in educational change. Influence of personality traits on leadership styles has been a significant topic in management but no research emphasis has been given to teacher’s personality influence on their leadership behaviors. This research investigates the correlation between these two aspects.Design/methodology/approach – Quantitative research is done by means of survey to a convenient sample of 228 teachers of publ...
Rizan, C; Ansell, J; Tilston, T W; Warren, N; Torkington, J
Self-assessment is a way of improving technical capabilities without the need for trainer feedback. It can identify areas for improvement and promote professional medical development. The aim of this review was to identify whether self-assessment is an accurate form of technical skills appraisal in general surgery. The PubMed, MEDLINE(®), Embase(™) and Cochrane databases were searched for studies assessing the reliability of self-assessment of technical skills in general surgery. For each study, we recorded the skills assessed and the evaluation methods used. Common endpoints between studies were compared to provide recommendations based on the levels of evidence. Twelve studies met the inclusion criteria from 22,292 initial papers. There was no level 1 evidence published. All papers compared the correlation between self-appraisal versus an expert score but differed in the technical skills assessment and the evaluation tools used. The accuracy of self-assessment improved with increasing experience (level 2 recommendation), age (level 3 recommendation) and the use of video playback (level 3 recommendation). Accuracy was reduced by stressful learning environments (level 2 recommendation), lack of familiarity with assessment tools (level 3 recommendation) and in advanced surgical procedures (level 3 recommendation). Evidence exists to support the reliability of self-assessment of technical skills in general surgery. Several variables have been shown to affect the accuracy of self-assessment of technical skills. Future work should focus on evaluating the reliability of self-assessment during live operating procedures.
Loureiro, Elizabete M; Severo, Milton; Bettencourt, Paulo; Ferreira, Maria A
Results of third year medical students' attitudes and stress levels towards the acquisition of communication skills before and after a Communication and Clinical Skills Course (CCSC) at the Faculty of Medicine of the University of Porto (FMUP), Portugal, are presented. 115 students attending third-year CCSC completed a demographic questionnaire, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, Communication Skills Attitudes Scale and Interpersonal Behavior Survey. Significant negative correlation was found between anxiety levels and attitudes towards learning communication skills in general as well as the teaching and learning process. At the end of the Course students reported that when compared to the start, their communication skills are less sufficient. At the end of this CCSC at FMUP, students recognized its major importance and how they need to invest and improve communication skills. However, it seems important to monitor the attitudes and anxiety levels of students towards patient care and communication during the medical course and to identify ways of overcoming barriers towards learning communication skills. It is recommended that there should be a complete (transversal and vertical) integration of communication skills, including effective teaching methods, assessments, and examinations in order to be valued by the students. This would necessitate curricular changes. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to determine the level of improvement of motor skills of female volleyball players influenced by kinesiology operators in a period of 6 months. Research was conducted on sample subject of 130 female volleyball players aged from 13±0.6 (mean±SD. Sample variables are divided in two groups: 9 variables of assessment of basic motor skills and 5 variables of assessment of situational motor skills. Analysing difference of arithmetic means between of initial and final measures of treated variables it is determined that there is statistically significant difference on the level Sig=0.001, except for variables of Jelka test which determinates speed duration of female volleyball players. Analysis of quantity changes of basic motor skills, shows that the most important projections on selected discriminative function of basic motor skills have the following variables: body lifting in 30 sec; dynamometry of a hand, hand tapping; pull-up; throwing a 1 kg ball from lying position; side defence movement; push-up on bars and situational motor skill are the variables: precision of tactic serving; consecutive bumping; wall-spikes. Comprehensive development of female volleyball players and diversity in the level of volleyball specialization of the development will depend on systematic work on treated motor skills. This program appeared to be efficient. However, it is necessary to gradually increase the demands for the female volleyball players and to put the accent on performance of acquired situational motor skills in future work.
Warrick, D. D.
Discusses leadership style theories and offers an integration of the theories by describing typical characteristics, skills, philosophies, and consequences associated with each major style. An experiential exercise is described which portrays the major styles and the productivity and satisfaction each is likely to produce. Nine figures accompany…
Sitton, Jennifer Susan
Education research has focused on defining and identifying student learning style preferences and how to incorporate this knowledge into teaching practices that are effective in engaging student interest and transmitting information. One objective was determining the learning style preferences of undergraduate students in Biology courses at New Mexico State University by using the online VARK Questionnaire and an investigator developed survey (Self Assessed Learning Style Survey, LSS). Categories include visual, aural, read-write, kinesthetic, and multimodal. The courses differed in VARK single modal learning preferences (p = 0.035) but not in the proportions of the number of modes students preferred (p = 0.18). As elsewhere, the majority of students were multimodal. There were similarities and differences between LSS and VARK results and between students planning on attending medical school and those not. Preferences and modalities tended not to match as expected for ratings of helpfulness of images and text. To detect relationships between VARK preferred learning style and academic performance, ANOVAs were performed using modality preferences and normalized learning gains from pre and post tests over material taught in the different modalities, as well as on end of semester laboratory and lecture grades. Overall, preference did not affect the performance for a given modality based activity, quiz, or final lecture or laboratory grades (p > 0.05). This suggests that a student's preference does not predict an improved performance when supplied with material in that modality. It is recommended that methods be developed to aid learning in a variety of modalities, rather than catering to individual learning styles. Another topic that is heavily debated in the field of education is the use of simulations or videos to replace or supplement dissections. These activities were compared using normalized learning gains from pre and post tests, as well as attitude surveys
Mahedero, Pilar; Calderón, Antonio; Arias-Estero, José Luis; Hastie, Peter A.; Guarino, Anthony J.
The purpose of the paper was to examine the effects of student skill level on knowledge, decision making, skill execution and game performance in a mini-volleyball Sport Education season. Forty-eight secondary school students from two classes participated in a 12 lesson season. Knowledge, decision-making and skill execution (components of game…
This paper examines how, over the course of the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, the appreciation of skill in surgery shifted in characteristic ways. Skill is a problematic category in surgery. Its evaluation is embedded into wider cultural expectations and evaluations, which changed over time. The paper examines the discussions about surgical skill in a variety of contexts: the highly competitive environment of celebrity practitioners in the amphitheatres of early nineteenth-century Britain; the science-oriented, technocratic German-language university hospitals later in the century; and the elitist surgeons of late nineteenth and early twentieth-century United States with their concerns about distancing themselves from commercialism and cheap showmanship. For analysing the interaction of surgical practices with their various contexts the paper makes use of the concept of 'performance' and examines how the rules of surgical performance varied according to the prevailing technical, social, and moral conditions. Over the course of the century, surgical performance looked more and more recognisably modern, increasingly following the ideals of replicability, universality and standardisation. The changing ideals of surgical skill are a crucial element of the complex history of the emergence of modern surgery, but also an illuminating example of the history of skill in modern medicine.
Full Text Available The main aim of this research is to explore the relationship between the scientific literacy levels and scientific process skills of primary school students. It was carried out with 24 students in the 6th grade, 21 students in the 7th grade and 25 students in the 8th grade, aggregating to a total of 70 students participating in this research. According to the results, the 7th grade students’ scientific literacy levels and scientific process skills were higher than for the other grades. For all grades, no significant difference was found between the scientific literacy levels and scientific process skills of students. Furthermore, a highly positive and meaningful relationship between the scores of scientific process skills and scientific literacy levels has been registered.
Crossroads is an imaginative course for students at First Certificate Level which will improve reading, oral/aural and written competence through a wide range of communicative tasks and provide a good grounding in exam related techniques.
Paillard, Thierry; Margnes, Eric; Portet, Mathieu; Breucq, Arnaud
This work analyses surfers' postural control and their use of visual information in static (stable) and dynamic (unstable) postures according to their level of competition. Two groups of healthy surfers were investigated: a group of local level surfers (LOC) (n = 8) and a group of national/international level surfers (NIN) (n = 9). Posture was assessed by measuring the centre of foot pressure with a force platform for 50 s with stable support and for 25 s with unstable support (sagittal or frontal plane). The tests were completed with the eyes open (the subjects looked at a fixed level target at a distance of 2 m) and closed (they kept their gaze in a straight-ahead direction). Results showed that the contribution of vision in postural maintenance, with unstable support was less important in the NIN surfers than in the LOC surfers and that the NIN surfers had better postural control than the LOC surfers. Firstly, the results suggest that expert surfers could shift the sensorimotor dominance from vision to proprioception for postural maintenance. Secondly, there is a relationship between the postural ability and the competition level of surfers. These observations are likely to induce new prospects of training for surfers.
Colakkadioglu, Oguzhan; Celik, D. Billur
Problem Statement: Decision making is a critical cognitive process in every area of human life. In this process, the individuals play an active role and obtain outputs with their functional use of decision-making skills. Therefore, the decision-making process can affect the course of life, life satisfaction, and the social relations of an…
Okoro, M. H.; Johnson, A.
The representation of URMs in the U.S. Geosciences workforce remains proportionally low compared to their representation in the general population (Bureau of Labor Sta.s.cs, 2014). Employment in this and related industries is projected to grow 32% by 2030 for minority workers (Gillula and Fullenbaum, 2014), corresponding to an additional 48,000 jobs expected to be filled by minorities (National Research Council, 2014). However, there is a shortage of employees with proper training in the hard sciences (Holeywell, 2014; Ganzglass, 2011), as well as craft skills (Hoover and Duncan, 2013), both important for middle skill employment. Industry recognizes the need for developing and retaining a diverse workforce, therefore we hightlight a program to serve as a potential vanguard initative for developing an innovative training experience for URM and underserved middle skilled workers with essential knowledge, experience and skills necessary to meet the demands of the Geosciences industry's growing need for a safe, productive and diverse workforce. Objectives are for participants to achieve the following: understanding of geosciences workforce trends and associated available opportunities; mastery of key environmental, health and safety topics; improvements in decision making skills and preparedness for responding to potential environmental, health and safety related situations; and engagement in one-on-one coaching sessions focused on resume writing, job interviewing and key "soft skills" (including conflict resolution, problem solving and critical observation, representing 3 major skills that entry- level workers typically lack.
Roopnarine, Jaipaul L.; Krishnakumar, Ambika; Metindogan, Aysegul; Evans, Melanie
This study examined the influence of parenting styles, parent-child academic involvement at home, and parent-school contact on academic skills and social behaviors among kindergarten-age children of Caribbean immigrants. Seventy immigrant mothers and fathers participated in the study. Hierarchical regression analyses revealed that fathers'…
Erika Nallely López-Lugo
Full Text Available The Teacher Training Program of Higher Education Media (PROFORDEMS, aims to contribute to the educational profile in skills development. This study aims to determine the level of achievement reached graduates considered teachers regarding teaching skills training process to conclude the paragraph after performing the analysis of as it impacts on society. The method was quantitative, applied for UN compound instrument teaching skills and attributes, with Likert scale Establishing the four levels of Tobon, 76 graduate teachers of the seventh generation of the Technological Institute of Sonora, of which Were Significantly of the headquarters of Navojoa and Obregón, Navojoa Being 47 with the participation of 20 women and 27 men, regarding Obregon Participants were 17 women and 12 men. Were the results satisfactory, over 65% of graduates found in the teachers considered autonomous and strategic levels, competition four is the one that obtained the lowest percentage. To conclude that the PROFORMDES contributes to teaching skills.
Vaughn, L. M.; Hensley, B.; Baker, R. C.; Dearman, L.
The authors examined the relationship between specific learning styles and stress and coping in a sample of female college students (N = 246). Participants in the study were assessed on the three variables by completing several self-report instruments measuring learning styles, life stress level, and coping skills. There were significant…
Hassankhani, Hadi; Hasanzadeh, Firooz; Powers, Kelly A; Dadash Zadeh, Abbas; Rajaie, Rouzbeh
Emergency nurses play an important role in the care of critically ill and injured patients, and their competency to perform clinical skills is vital to safe and effective patient care. The aim of this study was to evaluate the frequency of clinical skills performed and perceived competency levels among Iranian emergency nurses. In addition, attitudes toward expanding the professional roles of Iranian emergency nurses were also assessed. In this descriptive correlational study, 319 emergency nurses from 30 hospitals in northwest Iran participated. Data were collected using a self-report questionnaire. Descriptive statistics and Pearson's correlation coefficient were used to present the findings. Overall competency of the emergency nurses was 73.31 ± 14.2, indicating a good level of perceived competence. The clinical skills most frequently performed were in the domains of organizational and workload competencies (3.43 ± 0.76), diagnostic function (3.25 ± 0.82), and the helping role (3.17 ± 0.83). A higher level of perceived competence was found for skills within these domains. Less frequently, participants performed skills within the domains of effective management of rapidly changing situations (2.70 ± 0.94) and administering and monitoring therapeutic interventions (2.60 ± 0.97); a lower perceived level of competence was noted for these clinical skills. There was a significant correlation between frequency of performing clinical skills and perceived competency level (r = 0.651, P nurse managers and educators who may consider offering more frequent experiential and educational opportunities to emergency nurses. Expansion of nurses' roles could also result in increased experience in clinical skills and higher levels of competency. Research is needed to investigate nurses' clinical competence using direct and observed measures. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Bouwsema, Hanneke; Kyberd, Peter J.; Hill, Wendy; van der Sluis, Corry K.; Bongers, Raoul M.
To obtain more insight into how the skill level of an upper-limb myoelectric prosthesis user is composed, the current study aimed to (1) portray prosthetic handling at different levels of description, (2) relate results of the clinical level to kinematic measures, and (3) identify specific
RECIPIENT’S CATALOG NUMBER 4. TITLE (.,d Sobtl.) S. TYPE OF REPORT & PERIOD COVERED Word Criticality Analysis Final MSil Level 6. PERFORMING ORG. REPORT...WORDS (C-fi-n~- l***.d, It -e***y J Id-fIy by blods ..- lb,.1) MOS Vocabulary r"-adabi lity Comprehension of text . Curric.,lu-n Development 2G~C3SRACT
Fayeq Ali Ali
Full Text Available Skills are prerequisite for managers and employees success, especially for newly graduate students. This study is to evaluate the employability skills of business students at Ishik University and to assess how employability skills are perceived by potential employers. Three sets of employability skills have been used in this study such as basic academic skills, high-order thinking, and personal qualities. A questionnaire has been developed which included above dimensions and was distributed among students in the faculty of administrative sciences and economics at Ishik University, Kurdistan Region. Respondents’ opinions were assessed using a Likert scale analysis that shows divergent opinions between two extremes of levels of agreement and disagreement. Another technique of an open-ended questionnaire was used when conducting interviews with a few of the potential employers in some private sector companies. Study focuses on the common employability skills of business graduates by evaluating the faculty of administrative sciences and economics courses. Study find out that communication skills, team working skills, computer skills, and critical thinking were among the employability skills which are expected by potential employers. The paper concludes that business graduates have developed an adequate level of employability skill through their years of academic training at business department in Ishik University. Thus, the curriculum of business department at Ishik University is adequately developed to prompt the employability skills that are sought by potential employers that every business student should acquire to stand out in the aggressively competitive job market.
Strong, Robert; Wynn, J. Thomas; Irby, Travis L.; Lindner, James R.
Leadership is a versatile process that requires working with others in personal and professional relationships to accomplish a goal. Cultivating leadership skills is important for students who are developing professional competencies. Leadership characteristics and abilities should be evaluated to assist in learning student traits to better…
Azari, S; Mokhtari, S; Mousavi, H; Mohammadi, M; Aliyari, A; Salimi, M; Azari, GH
Introduction: interpersonal communication skills are required for training and represent one of the most significant parts concerning the character of student learning. In another idea, learning is a constant method and learners favor a position of knowledge forms according to their character and individual practices. Evaluate the correlation between the learning methods and interpersonal conversation abilities of the nursing undergraduate in Medical Sciences Tehran University in 2012 was the...
Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to be knowledgeable with demographic characteristics, Body mass index, physical activity levels, problem solving skills and sub-dimensions of the students receiving education at Anatolia High Schools and examine the effect of the physical activity levels of these students on their problem solving skills. The population of the study was included a total of 451 students (female=264; male=187 receiving education at the Anatolia High Schools in the Osmangazi district. In this study, the data was collected via the “International Physical Activity Questionnaire-Short Form” and the “Problem Solving Skill Scale” (PSS. It was determined that the males’ physical activity values (3822.85 MET- min./week, were higher compared to those of the females (2103.17. On the contrary, the problem solving skills of the males (mean 2.91 were lower than those of the females (mean 2.95. The SPSS 23.0 for Windows program was used in the statistical analyses of the data. In order to see if the data distributed normally or not, Tabachnick and Fidell coefficients were used for the kurtosis and skewness values. For the comparison of the problem solving skills scores and the physical activity scores, the t test statistical method was used. In conclusion, no significant relationship at p<0.05 level was determined between the students’ problem solving skills and their physical activity states.
Full Text Available People’s styles of thinking vary; we seek to understand these differences, to refine our abilities and skills, and find new and useful ways of thinking. To develop this concept, we implement the Sternberg (1997 thinking style inventory (TSI as part of the learning process. The main idea behind the implementation of this style of thinking is to help people understand themselves, and identify the correct completion of tasks. In this study, we investigate different ways of thinking in various academic disciplines, which may help students find the best potential use of teaching and learning, and realize the best way to develop their true abilities. This paper investigates the thinking styles of 120 female and male students from different educational backgrounds across Saudi Arabia by using an Arabic version of Robert Sternberg’s questionnaire to examine their learning performance. In addition, we compare the thinking styles of Saudi Arabian males and females, demonstrating significant differences between the sexes of participants.
Martinussen, Laila Marianne; Møller, Mette; Prato, Carlo Giacomo
mirrored the self-reported frequency of aberrant driving behaviors. K-means cluster analysis revealed four distinct clusters that differed in the frequency of aberrant driving behavior and driving skills, as well as individual characteristics and driving related factors such as annual mileage, accident...... frequency and number of tickets and fines. These differences between the clusters suggest that two of the sub-groups are less safe than the two others. The present findings highlight the need to look into driver’s attitudes towards safety, in order to improve the motivation to drive safely. Information from...
Chen, H Carrie; Fogh, Shannon; Kobashi, Brent; Teherani, Arianne; Ten Cate, Olle; O'Sullivan, Patricia
One clinical teaching challenge is the engagement of learners at different levels. Faculty development offerings mostly address general strategies applicable to all learners. This study examined how clinical faculty members develop the skills to work with different level learners. We conducted semi-structured interviews with medical school faculty members identified as excellent clinical teachers teaching multiple levels of learners. They discussed how they developed their approach to teaching different level learners and how their teaching evolved over time. We performed thematic analysis of the interview transcripts using open and axial coding. We interviewed 19 faculty members and identified three themes related to development of teaching practices: teacher agency and work-based learning of teaching strategies, developmental trajectory of clinical teachers, and interplay between clinical confidence and teaching skills. Faculty members were proactive in using on-the-job experiences to develop their teaching practices. Their teaching practices followed a developmental trajectory towards learner centeredness, and this evolution was associated with the development of clinical skills and confidence. Learning skills to teach multi-level learners requires workplace learning. Faculty development should include workplace learning opportunities and use a developmental approach that accounts for the trajectory of teaching as well as clinical skills attainment.
Silva, Macarena; Cain, Kate
This study of 4- to 6-year-olds had 2 aims: first, to determine how lower level comprehension skills (receptive vocabulary and grammar) and verbal memory support early higher level comprehension skills (inference and literal story comprehension), and second, to establish the predictive power of these skills on subsequent reading comprehension.…
Joseph B. Campit
Full Text Available Computer games play a large role in socialization and the consequences of playing them have been a topic of debates. This observation led the researcher to conduct the study about the influence of computer games on the social skills of the BSIT first year students of Pangasinan State University, Bayambang Campus, during school year 2012-2013. This study determined the profile of the 115 BSIT first year students according to: preferred computer games and frequency of playing. It investigated the level of social skills among playing and non-playing gamers. This study used the descriptive-comparative method of research. It was found out that crossfire was the most preferred computer game played at least once a week. Computer gamers had lower social skills than non-computer gamers. Gamers have more negative social behaviors compared to non-gamers and there is a negative effect of playing computer games on the level of social skills among first year students. There is a significant difference in the level of social skills of the students when grouped according to frequency of playing computer games. Students who play computer games everyday had significantly lower social skills than who play once a week. Thus, parents and teachers should give proper guidance in the limitation of playing computer games and the choice of games. Teachers should organize seminars on the awareness of the influence and negative effects of violent computer games on social skills. And students should choose educational over violent games to enhance their knowledge and social skills.
Students in every nation of the world learn new and difficult material in ways that are often similar and, at the same time, different from the way other students of the same age, gender, race, religion, culture, and nationality prefer to learn. The purpose of this study was to identify and compare the preferred learning-style characteristics of…
Memis, Aysel; Sivri, Diler Ayvaz
In this study, primary school first grade students' reading skills and visual perception levels were investigated. Sample of the study, which was designed with relational scanning model, consisted of 168 first grade students studying at three public primary schools in Kozlu, Zonguldak, in 2013-2014 education year. Students' reading level, reading…
The purpose of this study was to analyze primary school first grade students' reading levels and correlate their visual perception skills. For this purpose, students' reading speed, reading comprehension and reading errors were determined using The Informal Reading Inventory. Students' visual perception levels were also analyzed using…
Full Text Available The highest levels of reading literacy, as defined within PISA study, include the ability to use various cognitive skills, with argumentative skills being one of the most important among them. In the present study our goal was to reveal some of the factors that influence the development of argumentative skills in Serbian schools. We investigated the extent to which argumentative skills are required in PISA reading literacy tasks, as well as the specific difficulties our students have faced on these tasks, through an analysis of student performance. We also conducted an analysis of the educational practice - by doing in-depth interviews with teachers and content analysis of students' textbooks. The results revealed that: 1 Argumentations skills are an important requirement within PISA tasks; 2 Serbian students are mostly successful at basic tasks of recognizing arguments or providing arguments for the given position; they face difficulties answering the tasks which require precise formulation of relevant arguments as well as those demanding meta-cognitive skills (e.g. recognizing persuasive strategies in the given text. Their performance is particularly poor on tasks requiring the combination of information from different sources or information presented in different formats (text, tables, or graphs; 3 There is a significant gap between the requirements for argumentation skills our students usually encounter and PISA reading literacy tasks. In this paper we discuss some of the difficulties and obstacles to encouraging the development of argumentative thinking.
Taheri, Hamidreza; Fazeli, Davoud; Poureghbali, Sogand
We investigated the effect of practice variability through execution redundancy in skilled and novice basketball players on free throw skills. Twelve skilled basketball players and 12 novices (mean age = 25.4 years, SD = 4.3) were divided into four groups (skilled constant, skilled variable, novice constant, and novice variable). After a pretest, participants practiced free throw action. The variable groups threw the ball over an obstacle of varying heights on each trial in random order, whereas the obstacle's height was fixed for the constant groups. After 7 and 14 consecutive days of practice, participants performed two posttests with constant and variable distances from the basket. The results showed that practicing different solutions of a task did not affect the performance of skilled players but had an immediate negative effect on the performance of novice players. Learning a complex task is the result of learning task-related parameters, and practice variability can create a mismatch between task difficulty and new learner skill levels.
Mazzarella, Jo Ann; Smith, Stuart C.
Chapter 2 of a revised volume on school leadership, this chapter reviews theories of leadership style--the way a leader leads. Although most experts agree that leadership style is important, they disagree concerning style components, leaders' capabilities for changing styles, the effects of personality traits on style, and the desirability of…
Full Text Available Stress is an occurrence that is increasingly taken care of, as it can significantly influence both the outcome of the game and the outcome of the training process and the entire career of an athlete or a team. It leads to a drop of immunity, frequent injuries, makes recovery difficult, leads to a drop in motivation, self-confidence and concetration in players. When it comes to combatting athletic stress, sport psychologists are usually consulted, although there are ways in which the coach himself can help with stress prevention, as well. The main goal of the paper is to establish whether there is a significant link between the athletes’ perception of the style of behaviour of the coach and their level of stress. The secondary goals lies in obtaining the answers to the questions of whether there is a significant difference in the stress level and the perception of the style of behaviour of the coach in regard to the competitive level of the athlete and/or the age and state of development of the athlete. The sample of the examinees is comprised of 192 football players from the territory of Vojvodina and of various ages (12 to 35 and various competitive levels (top class / professional athlete; average / standard athlete; recreational athlete. Obtained results partially answer the question of what the attitude of the coach should be during the training process and during the match in order to reduce the level of stress in his players to a minimum. As highly valued behavioural traits of the coach, we can single out: offering support and comfort, clear communication, dedication to the athletes, while as the negative sides emphasized are: instilling fear, neglecting of athletes and being stern.
Jef C. Verhoeven
Full Text Available Computers have taken an important place in the training of science students and in the professional life of scientists. It is often taken for granted that most students have mastered basic Information and Communication Technologies (ICT skills; however, it has been shown that not all students are equally proficient in this regard. Starting from theories of socialization and technology acceptance we report how we constructed a structural equation model (SEM to explore the variance in the basic ICT skill levels of science students. We also present the results of a test of this model with university bachelor’s science students. Basic ICT skills were measured using a new, elaborate instrument allowing students to rate their skills in detail. Our results show that science students score high on basic ICT skills and that our SEM explains a large part of the variation in the ICT skill levels of these students. The most explanatory power is coming from four variables: the perceived ease of use and the perceived usefulness of a personal computer, the anxiety for using a personal computer, and students’ belief that ICT is necessary for scientific research.
Full Text Available Aim: The study is to compare the level of social skills scores of undergraduate students at Mersin University School of Physical Education and Sports according to sport types, gender and class levels. Material and Methods: To test the main hypothesis, a total of 112 student- athletes (47 female and 65 male, performing individual and team sports from the Mersin University School of Physical Education and Sports were involved in this study. Data were collected by ‘Social Skills Inventory” developed by Riggio (1986, 1989 and adapted to Turkish by Yüksel (1998. Results: T -test results showed that the mean scores of 6 sub-dimensions of social skills scale does not change with regard to types of sports. But, there were significant differences of mean scores of social control changes with respect to gender and this score was higher for female athletes compared to male counterparts. Moreover, the results of Kruskal Wallis Analysis indicated that there was a significant difference in all sub dimensions except emotional awareness subscale compared to class level. First year students had the highest scores in terms of emotional expressivity, emotional control, social expressivity, social awareness, and social control. Conclusion: It could be stated that women are more successful in social skills, although the level of social skills of student-athletes does not differ according to sport.
Çuhacı-Çakır, Bahar; Demirel, Fatma
In Turkey, vitamin D deficiency has been seen in children as well as in their mothers. We assessed the vitamin D status of 83 infants and their mothers, categorized into four groups according to season and mothers' clothing style. We measured serum levels of 25-hydroxy vitamin D, calcium, inorganic phosphorus and alkaline phosphatase in each mother-infant pair. In the summer, the rate of vitamin D deficiency was higher in mothers who wore clothing that covered nearly all of the body (55%) than in mothers whose clothing covered less of the body (13.6%) (p=0.016). In the winter, nearly half of both groups of mothers had vitamin D deficiency or insufficiency, and there were no significant differences based on their clothing style (p>0.05). In all groups of infants, vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency rates were found to be very low. It seems that 400 IU/daily vitamin D intake is adequate for infants in Turkey; for mothers, we propose vitamin D supplementation during the pregnancy and lactation period.
Perceived Relationship Between Leadership Style and Organizational Commitment at Defence University. ... Thus, the study suggested different approaches to improve the existing leadership skills and employees' organizational commitment in the university under study. Keywords: Leadership style, leadership behaviour, ...
Siti Nursaila Alias
Full Text Available The aim of this research is to determine the level of mastering Forces in Equilibrium topics according to thinking skill for Form Four Physics students. 189 Form Four Physics students from secondary school at Kuala Kangsar district in Perak involved in this research. All students are 16 years old. Questionnaire method has been conducted in order to perform this research. Descriptive statistics namely mean and standard deviation has been used in this research. The findings showed the level of mastering Forces in Equilibrium topics according to thinking skills was unsatisfactory.
Gebreegziabher Gebremedhn, Endale; Berhe Gebregergs, Gebremedhn; Anderson, Bernard Bradley; Nagaratnam, Vidhya
Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is an emergency procedure used to treat victims following cardiopulmonary arrest. Graduate health professionals at the University of Gondar Teaching Hospital manage many trauma and critically ill patients. The chance of survival after cardiopulmonary arrest may be increased with sufficient attitude and skill levels. The study aimed to assess the attitude and skill levels of graduate health professionals in performing CPR. A hospital-based cross-sectional study was conducted from May 1 to 30, 2013, at the University of Gondar Teaching Hospital. The mean attitude and skill scores were compared for sex, original residence, and department of the participants using Student's t-test and analysis of variance (Scheffe's test). P-values skill scores were 2.34 (SD =1.95), 3.77 (SD =1.58), 1.18 (SD =1.52), 2.16 (SD =1.93), 3.88 (SD =1.36), and 1.21 (SD =1.77), respectively. Attitude and skill level of graduate health professionals with regard to CPR were insufficient. Training on CPR for graduate health professionals needs to be given emphasis.
Arnold, Sif H.; Svendsen, Morten Bo Søndergaard; Konge, Lars
, and this study aimed to explore the correlation between skill level and operator movement using an objective automated tool. Methods: In this medical education study, 37 operators (12 senior doctors who performed endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography, 13 doctors with varying levels of experience, and 12....... Results: All motion-tracking metrics showed discriminative ability primarily between experts and novices in specific sequences. Conclusion: Motion tracking can discriminate between operators with different experience levels in upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. Motion tracking can be used to provide...
Full Text Available Objective - the purpose of the present study was to determine whether mothers parenting styles are associated with physical activity levels and Overweight in 14- to 17-years old female students lived city of Rasht. Study would focus on that mothers influence their children by what ways and which were the most effective. Methods - the target population consisted entirely of female students of Rasht City. Then, according to Odineski table 360 females, 80 ninth graders, 148 tenth graders 132 eleventh graders with mean age of 15.59±1.1 years, height 164.23±6.94 cm, weight 57.32±11.71 kg and body mass index 21.19±3.81 kg.m2 respectively volunteered to participation in this study. The study used questionnaire to collect data on parenting styles and children's physical activity. Purpose and necessity of study for every experiment have been explained. For data analysis, the descriptive (mean and standard deviation, Kolmogorov-Smirnov test and Pearson correlation coefficient were used. Results- the result showed that there were no significant correlation between the indices of physical activity levels and Authoritarian (r=0.083, Authoritative (r=0.104 and Permissive (r=-0.031 in Mother. Conclusions- Future studies should include longitudinal data and/or they should use the information from this study to design studies that will examine the effects of intervention activities on a child's attraction to physical activity and to promote physical activity, public health professionals could encourage Mothers to increase logistic support for their Girls physical activity. Also Strategies to promote physical activity among adolescents should focus on increasing levels of family cohesion, parental engagement, parent-child communication and adolescent self-esteem.
Yamamoto, Raquel Coube de Carvalho; Prade, Leila Sauer; Berwig, Luana Cristina; Weinmann, Angela Regina Maciel; Keske-Soares, Márcia
To correlate cardiorespiratory parameters with gestational age and level of oral feeding skills in the first oral feeding in preterm infants. Study participants were 37 clinically stable preterm infants. Cardiorespiratory rate was assessed before and after introduction of oral feeding. The newborns were divided into three strata according to gestational age at birth. Oral skill was classified into four levels: I - low oral skill and low resistance to feeding; II - low oral skill and high resistance to feeding; III - high oral skill and low resistance to feeding; IV - high oral skill and high resistance to feeding. No difference was observed in heart and respiratory rate between the strata of gestational age at birth and between the levels of oral skill. Comparison between pre- and post-cardiorespiratory rates within each level of oral skill and stratum of gestational age showed difference between heart rate in the strata of gestational ages of 30 to 33 weeks and of 34 to 36 weeks, as well as between oral skill of levels I, II, and IV. With regard to the comparison between pre- and post- respiratory rates, difference was found in the oral skill of level I. Differences were observed between pre- and post-prandial cardiorespiratory rates regarding the first oral feeding, as well as between strata of gestational age at birth and levels of oral feeding skills.
Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of social skills intervention program via peer tutoring on aggression level of secondary school students. The study was a semi-experimental model using experimental group with pre and post-tests. Eleven (eighth class students were selected to have skills for being peer helper. The population of this research consisted 56 secondary school students at Kahramanmaraş. In order to evaluate aggression level of students, Aggression Scale developed by Tuzgöl (1998 was used. . Additionally, a Personal Information Sheet developed by the researcher was used to record certain demographic variables. Researcher applied social skills invention program to 11 students (peer helpers for eight weeks. Later, peer helpers applied intervention program to selected 56 students as well. After application, last-test was applied to selected 56 students, again. To analyze the data collected, SPSS 15 for computer was used. Results of the research revealed that the social skill program via peer helping (peer guidance considerably decreased the level of aggression of students at secondary school students. Students’ aggression level differentiated according to their sex, but not their class levels. Results were discussed in the light of literature
Green, Andy; Green, Francis; Pensiero, Nicola
This article examines cross-country variations in adult skills inequality and asks why skills in Anglophone countries are so unequal. Drawing on the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development's recent Survey of Adult Skills and other surveys, it investigates the differences across countries and country groups in inequality in both…
Full Text Available Background and Aim: There is a relation between language skills and science learning in educational approach. Hearing-impairment and delay in learning of language skills influence the progress of learning. The aim of this research was to study the effect of educational level elevation on growth of mathematical skill. Therefore, third grade hearing-impaired students of secondary school, and forth grade hearing-impaired and normal-hearing students of elementary school were compared in terms of mathematical skill.Methods: The research was cross-sectional and the internationally standardized mathematics questions (2007 were selected as the tools of the test. The sample included 31 students of 4th grade elementary and third grade of secondary school with sever hearing loss from exceptional schools, and 17 normal-hearing students were randomly selected from ordinary schools next to the exceptional schools in Robatkarim, Karaj, and Shahriyar cities, Iran.Results: According to data analysis there was a meaningful difference between hearing-impaired students of forth and third grades and normal-hearing students in the three fields of knowledge, application and argument (p0.05.Conclusion: No significant improvement was seen in the mathematical skill of hearing-impaired students by educational level elevation. Writing mathematical books for the pre-elementary courses, revision of teaching methods, and increasing teaching hours are necessary in mathematics.
van Deursen, Alexander Johannes Aloysius Maria; van Dijk, Johannes A.G.M.
In the current contribution, we investigated how (1) the levels of operational, formal, information, and strategic internet skills changed between 2010 and 2013, and how (2) the observed skill patterns differ across gender, age, and education. All internet skills are measured among representative
Owens, Jennifer; Lilly, Flavius
There is a paucity of research on the digital literacy of graduate-level students. The study examined whether academic discipline, age, gender, race, parental education, international status, GPA, and self-perceived skills is associated with web-use skills among this population. Hargittai and Hsieh's 27-item Web-use Skills Index was used to…
This paper presents the results of a case study based on an integrated skills approach using feature movies (DVDs) in EFL syllabi at the tertiary level. 100 students took part in the study and the data was collected through a three - section survey questionnaire: demographic items, 18 likert scale questions and an open-ended question. The data…
Bayindir, Dilan; Güven, Gülçin; Sezer, Türker; Aksin-Yavuz, Ezgi; Yilmaz, Elif
The purpose of this research was to examine the relationship between maternal acceptance-rejection levels and preschool children's social competence and emotion regulation skills. The study group of the research, which was designed in survey method, consisted of 303 voluntary mother-child dyad. The participant children were attending a preschool…
Jayaram, Shubha; Engmann, Michelle
Globally, enormous gains have been made towards the goal of universal primary education, leading to increased demands for secondary education. Consequently, more youth and young adults are now entering the formal and informal labour markets from the secondary level, which makes it important to ensure that secondary schools teach skills relevant to…
Kelly, Ronald R.; Gaustad, Martha G.
This study of deaf college students examined specific relationships between their mathematics performance and their assessed skills in reading, language, and English morphology. Simple regression analyses showed that deaf college students' language proficiency scores, reading grade level, and morphological knowledge regarding word segmentation and…
Laski, Elida V.; Casey, Beth M.; Yu, Qingyi; Dulaney, Alana; Heyman, Miriam; Dearing, Eric
Girls are more likely than boys to use counting strategies rather than higher-level mental strategies to solve arithmetic problems. Prior research suggests that dependence on counting strategies may have negative implications for girls' later math achievement. We investigated the relation between first-grade girls' verbal and spatial skills and…
The study examined level of skillfulness and the use of the Internet for learning among secondary school students in Lagos State, Nigeria. The descriptive survey research method was adopted for the study. A sample of 450 students was randomly selected from the three secondary schools. One intact arm was selected from ...
The physical activity (PA) and motor skill levels (MS) (flexibility, balance, speed, sit-up, hand grip strength, standing long jump) were determined for 5th to 7th grade students from central schools in Nigde Province, Turkey according to age and gender and to investigate the relationships. PAL was determined by means of ...
Solmaz, Dilek Yaliz
This study aims to examine the relationship between lifelong learning levels and information literacy skills in teacher candidates. The research group consists of 127 physical education and sports teacher candidates. Data were collected by means of "Lifelong Learning Scale (LLL)" and "Information Literacy Scale". In the data…
Van Yperen, N.W.
This study of 65 highly skilled young male soccer players (mean age = 16.6 years) employed a 7-month longitudinal design to examine the causal relationship between performance level and interpersonal stress within the team. Particular attention was paid to the moderating effect of parental support.
Mulder, K.; Hulstijn, J.H.
This study assessed, in a sample of 98 adult native speakers of Dutch, how their lexical skills and their speaking proficiency varied as a function of their age and level of education and profession (EP). Participants, categorized in terms of their age (18-35, 36-50, and 51-76 years old) and the
Erwin, Heather E.; Stellino, Megan Babkes; Beets, Michael W.; Beighle, Aaron; Johnson, Christine E.
Obesity levels among American children are increasing at an alarming rate, due in part to a lack of regular physical activity (PA). Physical education (PE) is one way to facilitate student PA. The overarching PA goal for physical educators is 50% PA for students. Self-determination theory suggests that PA levels in PE and a variety of other…
Kim, Min-Sun; And Others
Develops and uses a mediation model to investigate the links between culture, individual values (independent and interdependent construals of self), and perceptions of conversational constraints. Finds culture-level individualism and collectivism systematically related to individual-level cultural orientations (independent and interdependent…
Full Text Available The aims of the present study were to compare the consistency in the lower limb acceleration patterns during inside and instep kicks performed by players with different skill levels, and to investigate the correlation between subjective rating scores for skill level relative to their kicking performance and knee acceleration repeatability. Thirteen club-level male soccer players of ages between 15-16 years participated in this study. Skill levels of individual players were quantified previously by evaluating shooting performance as a numerical value ranging from 1 to 10. Further evaluations were held through tri-axial acceleration data recorded at proximal tibial tuberosity beneath each patella on the players' knees, in a procedure in which players were asked to complete four randomly ordered shooting trials of inside and instep kicks with 2-minute resting intervals. Hence, the mainstream data used in consistency calculations are in the form 4 by 1200 matrices (acceleration vs. time per subject. In order to evaluate the consistency of acceleration data, the mean of the standard deviations (mSD were calculated, and the associated Pearson-r correlation coefficients were incorporated to obtain mSD vs. skill correlations. As a result, repeatability was found to increase with skill level at z-axis acceleration for instep kicks only. However, it is possible to find the most appropriate orientation (for the two kicks for meaningful correlations using vector rotations on the 3 orthogonal acceleration data, and this study shows that, after such suitable vector rotations, positive repeatability results could also be acquired for the inside kicks.
Lattie, Emily G.; Antoni, Michael H.; Fletcher, Mary Ann; Penedo, Frank; Czaja, Sara; Lopez, Corina; Perdomo, Dolores; Sala, Andreina; Nair, Sankaran; Fu, Shih Hua; Klimas, Nancy
Objectives Stressors and emotional distress responses impact chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) symptoms, including fatigue. Having better stress management skills might mitigate fatigue by decreasing emotional distress. Because CFS patients comprise a heterogeneous population, we hypothesized that the role of stress management skills in decreasing fatigue may be most pronounced in the subgroup manifesting the greatest neuroimmune dysfunction. Methods In total, 117 individuals with CFS provided blood and saliva samples, and self-report measures of emotional distress, perceived stress management skills (PSMS), and fatigue. Plasma interleukin-1-beta (IL-1β, IL-2, IL-6, IL-10, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), and diurnal salivary cortisol were analyzed. We examined relations among PSMS, emotional distress, and fatigue in CFS patients who did and did not evidence neuroimmune abnormalities. Results Having greater PSMS related to less fatigue (p = .019) and emotional distress (p fatigue levels most strongly in CFS patients in the top tercile of IL-6, and emotional distress mediated the relationship between PSMS and fatigue most strongly in patients with the greatest circulating levels of IL-6 and a greater inflammatory (IL-6):anti-inflammatory (IL-10) cytokine ratio. Discussion CFS patients having greater PSMS show less emotional distress and fatigue, and the influence of stress management skills on distress and fatigue appear greatest among patients who have elevated IL-6 levels. These findings support the need for research examining the impact of stress management interventions in subgroups of CFS patients showing neuroimmune dysfunction. PMID:22417946
Reading is a basic life skill. Unfortunately, in 2007, only 29% of all eighth graders were able to comprehend at or above a proficient reading comprehension level. Sensory learning styles (kinesthetic, tactile, auditory, and visual) affect the way that students prefer to learn and the areas in which they will have difficulty learning. This study…
The global agenda for sustainable development has centred lifelong learning on UNESCO's Education 2030 Framework for Action. The study described in this article aimed to examine international and intergenerational variations in literacy skills gaps within the context of the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). For this purpose, the author examined the trend of literacy gaps in different countries using multilevel and multisource data from the OECD's Programme for the International Assessment of Adult Competencies (PIAAC) and UNESCO Institute for Lifelong Learning survey data from the third edition of the Global Report on Adult Learning and Education (GRALE III). In this article, particular attention is paid to exploring the specific effects of education systems on literacy skills gaps among different age groups. Key findings of this study indicate substantial intergenerational literacy gaps within countries as well as different patterns of literacy gaps across countries. Young generations generally outscore older adults in literacy skills, but feature bigger gaps when examined by gender and social origin. In addition, this study finds an interesting tendency for young generations to benefit from a system of Recognition, Validation and Accreditation (RVA) in closing literacy gaps by formal schooling at country level. This implies the potential of an RVA system for tackling educational inequality in initial schooling. The article concludes with suggestions for integrating literacy skills as a foundation of lifelong learning into national RVA frameworks and mechanisms at system level.
Silva, Macarena; Cain, Kate
This study of 4- to 6-year-olds had two aims. First to determine how lower-level comprehension skills (receptive vocabulary and grammar) and verbal memory support early higher-level comprehension skills (inference and literal story comprehension). Second to establish the predictive power of these skills on subsequent reading comprehension. Eighty-two children completed assessments of nonverbal ability, receptive vocabulary and grammar, verbal short-term memory, and inferential and literal com...
Zinke, Katharina; Wilhelm, Ines; Bayramoglu, Müge; Klein, Susanne; Born, Jan
Sleep is considered to support the formation of skill memory. In juvenile but not adult song birds learning a tutor's song, a stronger initial deterioration of song performance over night-sleep predicts better song performance in the long run. This and similar observations have stimulated the view of sleep supporting skill formation during…
Full Text Available Purpose. The aim of the study was to evaluate somatic and functional determinants of sports skill level in badminton players at three consecutive stages of training. Methods. The study examined 96 badminton players aged 11 to 19 years. The scope of the study included somatic characteristics, physical abilities and neurosensory abilities. Thirty nine variables were analysed in each athlete. Coefficients of multiple determination were used to evaluate the effect of structural and functional parameters on sports skill level in badminton players. Results. In the group of younger cadets, quality and effectiveness of playing were mostly determined by the level of physical abilities. In the group of cadets, the most important determinants were physical abilities, followed by somatic characteristics. In this group, coordination abilities were also important. In juniors, the most pronounced was a set of the variables that reflect physical abilities. Conclusions. Models of determination of sports skill level are most noticeable in the group of cadets. In all three groups of badminton players, the dominant effect on the quality of playing is due to a set of the variables that determine physical abilities.
Soltis, Robert; Verlinden, Nathan; Kruger, Nicholas; Carroll, Ailey; Trumbo, Tiffany
To determine if the process-oriented guided inquiry learning (POGIL) teaching strategy improves student performance and engages higher-level thinking skills of first-year pharmacy students in an Introduction to Pharmaceutical Sciences course. Overall examination scores and scores on questions categorized as requiring either higher-level or lower-level thinking skills were compared in the same course taught over 3 years using traditional lecture methods vs the POGIL strategy. Student perceptions of the latter teaching strategy were also evaluated. Overall mean examination scores increased significantly when POGIL was implemented. Performance on questions requiring higher-level thinking skills was significantly higher, whereas performance on questions requiring lower-level thinking skills was unchanged when the POGIL strategy was used. Student feedback on use of this teaching strategy was positive. The use of the POGIL strategy increased student overall performance on examinations, improved higher-level thinking skills, and provided an interactive class setting.
Purushothaman, Aparna; Dau, Susanne
The concept of a digital divide has moved beyond only physical disparities in technology usage and now also encompasses issues impeding access such as human social, cultural, and psychological barriers that affect the usage of existing available technologies. This paper focuses on students......’ insufficient skill levels in making the best use of available Internet technology, discussing students in higher education in scenarios in Denmark and India. The paper emphasizes the reflective and conceptual issues which the students face in retrieving information from the Internet, which result in a second......-level divide. Through a cross-national comparison, the paper hopes to contribute to the literature through experiences of students in the two countries, providing researchers with insights into the digital divide. This divide in Internet skills is illuminated from different perspectives in the context of two...
The purpose of this study was to investigate relationships between grade level, perceptual learning style preferences, and language learning strategies among Taiwanese English as a Foreign Language (EFL) students in grades 7 through 9. Three hundred and ninety junior high school students participated in this study. The instruments for data…
Kuijpers, W.; Giesinger, J.M.; Zabernigg, A.; Young, T.; Friend, E.; Tomaszewska, I.M.; Aaronson, N.K.; Holzner, B.
Purpose: To investigate patients’ and health professionals’ understanding of and preferences for different graphical presentation styles for individual-level EORTC QLQ-C30 scores. Methods: We recruited cancer patients (any treatment and diagnosis) in four European countries and health professionals
Pai, Hsiao-Liang; Contento, Isobel
Parents influence their child's eating behavior and attitudes directly as food providers and indirectly through their parental feeding styles and feeding concerns and practices. Chinese American parents' practices are likely influenced by culture. The objective of this study was to explore the relationships between parental perceptions, feeding practices, feeding styles, level of parental acculturation (LPA), and child weight status via a self-administered questionnaire. This survey study involved a convenience sample of 712 individuals who were parents of 5- to 10-year old children attending Chinese language after-school programs. The prevalence of overweight was 11.5% and obesity was 11.1%. LPA was not directly predictive of child overweight in multiple regression but from categorical data, Chinese American parents tended to use indulgent (33.2%) and authoritarian (27.9%) feeding styles, with the former increasing with acculturation and the latter decreasing. Indulgent parents had more than expected overweight and obese children, and authoritarian and authoritative parents, fewer. LPA was negatively predictive of pressure to eat healthy foods (p Parental perceptions and concerns about child weight were predictors of child weight. Consequently, parental concerns and responsiveness to child needs without also encouragement (demandingness) to eat healthy foods (indulgent feeding style) may promote overweight. The authoritative parental feeding style may contribute to children having healthy weights and therefore healthy lives. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Porter, Robin K.
Levels of Effectiveness of Communication Skills Used by College Students During The Job Search Process by Robin Porter Committee Chair: Joan B. Hirt Educational Leadership and Policy Studies ABSTRACT One historic mission of higher education has been to produce good citizens. To ensure that students develop into productive citizens, institutions of higher education aim to assist students in exploring their career interests and finding jobs upon graduation. Employ...
Steer, D. N.; McConnell, D. A.; Owens, K.
Students in inquiry-based, general education Earth Science courses were found to display a wide range of logical thinking skills that are known indicators of success in science courses. The Group Assessment of Logical Thinking instrument that tests six logical operations was administered on the first day of class and near the end of the course. Such tests can be used to assess a student's overall level of cognitive development (concrete, transitional or formal) and specific logical thinking strengths or weaknesses. Results from paired pre- and post-course logical thinking tests of 393 students indicated that 25% of the incoming students were concrete, 30% were transitional and 45% were formal thinkers. Concrete and transitional thinkers were far more likely to withdraw from or fail the course when compared to their formal thinking peers (35%, 25% and 10% respectively). Differences in scores between genders were significant with 210 females testing at 30% concrete, 35% transitional and 35% formal on the pretest compared to 183 males who tested 15% concrete, 25% transitional and 60% formal. Overall logical thinking scores of students increased significantly in every inquiry-based class with lecture-based classes showing overall lower increases. Post-test data indicated that there were fewer concrete thinkers (16% female, 7% male), little change in the number of transitional thinkers (30% female, 23% male) and more formal thinkers (54% female, 70% male) toward the end of the inquiry-based course. Scores on two of the logical operations, conservation and probability, were sufficient to separate those who received a high grade (A or B in course) from those were unsuccessful (D, F or withdrew). Students who score low in conservation operations (n=46) tend to rely on intuition rather than logic when trying to understand typical Earth System concepts such as plate tectonics, atmospheric processes and climate change. Students who score low in probability skills (n=46) have
Full Text Available Coordination plays an important role in solving complex physical activities which arise during a biathlon race. We determined the level of coordination skills by measuring the time of a simple reaction to visual stimulus at rest by measuring the time response of complex reaction to visual stimuli by measuring the effect of visual-motor coordination (part of orientation skills - test Piórkowski and by measuring the effect of visual-motor coordination (part of orientation skills - test Krzyżowy. In addition, we conducted a test of the simple and complex reaction after a short-term and long-term exercise. Among the tested sportswomen, the best results, both at rest and after exercise, have achieved twos Slovak athletes. Both results were above-average and slightly above-average. In order to develop physical coordination, we recommend biathletes to execute: the already known workout in different environmental conditions, while practicing new coordination exercises especially systematics not focusing on their maximum improvement but to gain general skills for practice while implementing them in the first part of the training.
Ni, Meng; Mooney, Kiersten; Balachandran, Anoop; Richards, Luca; Harriell, Kysha; Signorile, Joseph F
To compare muscle activation patterns in 14 dominant side muscles during different yoga poses across three skill levels. Mixed repeated-measures descriptive study. University neuromuscular research laboratory, Miami, US. A group of 36 yoga practitioners (9 M/27 F; mean ± SD, 31.6 ± 12.6 years) with at least 3 months yoga practice experience. Each of the 11 surya namaskar poses A and B was performed separately for 15s and the surface electromyography for 14 muscles were recorded. Normalized root mean square of the electromyographic signal (NrmsEMG) for 14 muscles (5 upper body, 4 trunk, 5 lower body). There were significant main effects of pose for all fourteen muscles except middle trapezius (phead, anterior deltoid, medial deltoid, upper rectus abdominis and gastrocnemius lateralis; p<.05). Post hoc analyses using Bonferroni comparisons indicated that different poses activated specific muscle groups; however, this varied by skill level. Our results indicate that different poses can produce specific muscle activation patterns which may vary due to practitioners' skill levels. This information can be used in designing rehabilitation and training programs and for cuing during yoga training. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Gebreegziabher Gebremedhn E
Full Text Available Endale Gebreegziabher Gebremedhn,1 Gebremedhn Berhe Gebregergs,2 Bernard Bradley Anderson,3,† Vidhya Nagaratnam1 1Department of Anaesthesia, School of Medicine, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Gondar, Gondar, 2Department of Public Health, Bahir Dar College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Bahir Dar University, Bahir Dar, 3Department of Surgery, School of Medicine, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Gondar, Gondar, Ethiopia †Dr Bernard Bradley Anderson passed away on January 2, 2014 Background: Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR is an emergency procedure used to treat victims following cardiopulmonary arrest. Graduate health professionals at the University of Gondar Teaching Hospital manage many trauma and critically ill patients. The chance of survival after cardiopulmonary arrest may be increased with sufficient attitude and skill levels. The study aimed to assess the attitude and skill levels of graduate health professionals in performing CPR.Methods: A hospital-based cross-sectional study was conducted from May 1 to 30, 2013, at the University of Gondar Teaching Hospital. The mean attitude and skill scores were compared for sex, original residence, and department of the participants using Student’s t-test and analysis of variance (Scheffe’s test. P-values <0.05 were considered to be statistically significant.Results: Of the 506 graduates, 461 were included in this study with a response rate of 91.1%. The mean attitude scores of nurse, interns, health officer, midwifery, anesthesia, and psychiatric nursing graduates were 1.15 (standard deviation [SD] =1.67, 8.21 (SD =1.24, 7.2 (SD =1.49, 6.69 (SD =1.83, 8.19 (SD =1.77, and 7.29 (SD =2.01, respectively, and the mean skill scores were 2.34 (SD =1.95, 3.77 (SD =1.58, 1.18 (SD =1.52, 2.16 (SD =1.93, 3.88 (SD =1.36, and 1.21 (SD =1.77, respectively.Conclusion and recommendations: Attitude and skill level of graduate health professionals with regard
Title: Assessment of the relationship between level of neuromotor, body somatotype, physical fitness level and game skills at football players in U12 category. Objectives: The aim is to determinate the relationships between levels of neuromotoric, body somatotype, overal physical fitness level and the individual playing skills at football players in the U12 age category. Methods: The main research method of our work was the observation method. The research were included soccer player (n = 40;...
Full Text Available We established mouse models of extremes in trait anxiety, which are based on selective breeding for low vs. normal vs. high open-arm exploration on the elevated plus-maze. Genetically selected low anxiety-related behavior (LAB coincided with hyperactivity in the home cage. Given the fact that several psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia, mania and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD share hyperactivity symptom, we systematically examined LAB mice with respect to unique and overlapping endophenotypes of the three diseases. To this end Venn diagrams were used as an instrument for discrimination of possible models. We arranged the endophenotypes in Venn diagrams and translated them into different behavioral tests. LAB mice showed elevated levels of locomotion in the open field test with deficits in habituation, compared to mice bred for normal (NAB and high anxiety-related behavior (HAB. Cross-breeding of hypoactive HAB and hyperactive LAB mice resulted in offspring showing a low level of locomotion comparable to HAB mice, indicating that the HAB alleles are dominant over LAB alleles in determining the level of locomotion. In a holeboard test, LAB mice spent less time in hole exploration, as shown in patients with schizophrenia and ADHD; however, LAB mice displayed no impairments in social interaction and prepulse inhibition, implying a unlikelihood of LAB as an animal model of schizophrenia. Although LAB mice displayed hyperarousal, active coping styles and cognitive deficits, symptoms shared by mania and ADHD, they failed to reveal the classic manic endophenotypes, such as increased hedonia and object interaction. The neuroleptic haloperidol reduced locomotor activity in all mouse lines. The mood stabilizer lithium and the psychostimulant amphetamine, in contrast, selectively reduced hyperactivity in LAB mice. Based on the behavioral and pharmacological profiles, LAB mice are suggested as a novel rodent model of ADHD
Arif Kaptan; Hüseyin Anil
The present research was conducted with the aim of determining the levels of the fifth grade students’ persuasive writing skills. This research was carried out with 857 fifth grade students who were studying at schools in Eskişehir/Tepebaşı in 2011- 2012. In this research, relational survey model was used. A measuring tool (rubric) of persuasive writing was used for the analysis of the students’ persuasive essays. According to the findings from this study, it can be seen that the levels of th...
Eduardo Backhoff Escudero
Full Text Available The Basic Knowledge and Skills Examination (EXHCOBA is one of the few great-scale examinations in Mexico which has been publishing its psychometric parameters. In this paper we describe the item analysis results, regarding the exam’s difficulty level and discrimination power. Results show that most of the items have a medium difficulty and a high discrimination power. They also reveal that the mathematics items have better discrimination power levels than the ones which belong to social science.
Kayıran, Sinan Mahir; Cure, Sena
The question of whether children and infants have memory capabilities similar to adults has long been of interest. Until recently, it was thought that compared to adults, infants have very limited memory processing abilities. Knowledge about factors affecting a child's memory abilities can help families (specifically mothers) behave in a manner that best benefits their children in language and memory skills. The present study examines one factor that may underlie a child's memory capabilities; namely the mother's narrative style. Convenience sampling was used to select participants. Forty healthy children (mean age of 31.55 months, range 25-37 months) and their mothers were entered into the study. All participants were native Turkish speakers, from similar socioeconomic status backgrounds. Memory was assessed by a modified version of the Magic Shrinking Machine. Narrative style was assessed by the mother "reading" a Frog Story; a picture book with no words in it. Children were then grouped according to their mother's level of narrative style. Children's language skills were measured via the Turkish form of the CDI (Communicative Development Inventory) which was translated to Turkish as TIGE. To explore the relationships between mothers' narrative styles and children's memory and language skills and between children's language skills and memory capabilities, linear regressions were run. There were no significant correlations among any comparisons (P > 0.05). Children's language skills do not improve according to their mothers' narrative styles, and children do not show better memory abilities when mothers use more words and longer sentences. In order to have a better understanding of these relationships, future research that includes several more variables is needed. Child; Mother; Memory; Narrative style.
Full Text Available Proper leadership style helps proper functioning of nurses who are the most frequent experts in hospitals and improves quality of their work. One of the important factors affecting nurses` performance is the behaviors of managers toward them which is due to their personality type. The purpose of this study was to study the relationship between personality type and leadership style of nursing managers in Iran-Esfahan medical university hospitals in 2015. Present study is descriptive correlation type. The research community are 150 nursing managers of three levels, Matron, Supervisor and head nurse, from hospitals belonging to Esfahan medical university. Data collection was done by a 3-part questionnaire consisting of demographic information, McCurry and Costa 5-factor personality questionnaire and Renesis Likert questionnaire for determining leadership style. Data were analyzed using SPSS software ver. 22 in two level, descriptive and inferential. The average scores of dominant responsible personality among the first, second and third level were 36.33±5.12, 39.59±5.51 and 36.50±6.75, respectively and a verage scores of dominant organization oriented leadership style were 12.56±1.88, 11.03±4.54 and 12.30±4.40. Hospitals like other organizations require modern leadership styles instead of conventional one. Although organizationoriented leadership has been beneficial to achieve organizational objectives in short term, but in the long term it decreases productivity and job satisfaction because of lack of proper attention to the staff. Thus, applying humanoriented leadership, specially combined leadership will have much better results. Responsible personality is useful for the organization and increases productivity but it seems that in health care department in which interaction with humans is crucial, flexible or extroverted personality is more beneficial.
Sugiyama, Taku; Lama, Sanju; Gan, Liu Shi; Maddahi, Yaser; Zareinia, Kourosh; Sutherland, Garnette R
The application of optimal forces between surgical instruments and tissue is fundamental to surgical performance and learning. To date, this force has not been measured clinically during the performance of microsurgery. To establish a normative catalog of force profiles during the performance of surgery, to compare force variables among surgeons with different skill levels, and to evaluate whether such a force-based metric determines or differentiates skill level. Through installation of strain gauge sensors, a force-sensing bipolar forceps was developed, and force data were obtained from predetermined surgical tasks at the Foothills Medical Centre, University of Calgary, a tertiary care center that serves Southern Alberta, Canada. Sixteen neurosurgeons (3 groups: novice, intermediate, and experienced) performed surgery on 26 neurosurgical patients with various conditions. Normative baseline force ranges were obtained using the force profiles (mean and maximum forces and force variability) from the experienced surgeons. Standardized force profiles and force errors (high force error [HFE], low force error [LFE], and force variability error [FVE]) were analyzed and compared among surgeons with different skill levels. Each trial of the forceps use was termed successful or unsuccessful. The force profiles and force errors were analyzed and compared. This study included 26 patients (10 [38%] male and 16 [62%] female; mean [SD] age, 43  years) undergoing neurosurgery by 16 surgeons (6 in the novice group, 5 in the intermediate group, and 5 in the experienced group). Unsuccessful trial-incomplete significantly correlated with LFE and FVE, and unsuccessful trial-bleeding correlated with HFE and FVE. The force strengths exerted by novice surgeons were significantly higher than those of experienced surgeons (mean force, 0.74N vs 0.00N; P intermediate (mean force, 0.28N) to experienced (mean force, 0.00N) surgeons; however, these differences varied among surgical tasks
Anderson, Jessica; Bruce, Jacklyn; Mouton, Lauren
The purposes of this qualitative study were to determine the contribution of 4-H experiences to leadership life skill development of college-level 4-H alumni and to determine the effect of those skills on collegiate alumni's desire to continue involvement in 4-H. The research methods included semi-structured interviews. Major findings of the study…
Wong, Anita M.-Y.; Ho, Connie S.-H.; Au, Terry K.-F.; McBride, Catherine; Ng, Ashley K.-H.; Yip, Lesley P.-W.; Lam, Catherine C.-C.
This study examined (1) whether working memory and higher-level languages skills--inferencing and comprehension monitoring--accounted for individual differences among Chinese children in Chinese reading comprehension, after controlling for age, Chinese word reading and oral language skills, and (2) whether children with specific language…
The purpose of this comparative study was to identify the technical skills and abilities needed by prospective employees of construction industries in Ghana and Nigeria. Potential employees were defined here as recent graduates of construction industry programs with entry-level technical skills. The continuous growth in and expansion of these two…
I argue that savant skills are latent in us all. My hypothesis is that savants have privileged access to lower level, less-processed information, before it is packaged into holistic concepts and meaningful labels. Owing to a failure in top-down inhibition, they can tap into information that exists in all of our brains, but is normally beyond conscious awareness. This suggests why savant skills might arise spontaneously in otherwise normal people, and why such skills might be artificially induced by low-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation. It also suggests why autistic savants are atypically literal with a tendency to concentrate more on the parts than on the whole and why this offers advantages for particular classes of problem solving, such as those that necessitate breaking cognitive mindsets. A strategy of building from the parts to the whole could form the basis for the so-called autistic genius. Unlike the healthy mind, which has inbuilt expectations of the world (internal order), the autistic mind must simplify the world by adopting strict routines (external order).
Obstein, Keith L; Patil, Vaibhav D; Jayender, Jagadeesan; San José Estépar, Raúl; Spofford, Inbar S; Lengyel, Balazs I; Vosburgh, Kirby G; Thompson, Christopher C
Colonoscopy requires training and experience to ensure accuracy and safety. Currently, no objective, validated process exists to determine when an endoscopist has attained technical competence. Kinematics data describing movements of laparoscopic instruments have been used in surgical skill assessment to define expert surgical technique. We have developed a novel system to record kinematics data during colonoscopy and quantitatively assess colonoscopist performance. To use kinematic analysis of colonoscopy to quantitatively assess endoscopic technical performance. Prospective cohort study. Tertiary-care academic medical center. This study involved physicians who perform colonoscopy. Application of a kinematics data collection system to colonoscopy evaluation. Kinematics data, validated task load assessment instrument, and technical difficulty visual analog scale. All 13 participants completed the colonoscopy to the terminal ileum on the standard colon model. Attending physicians reached the terminal ileum quicker than fellows (median time, 150.19 seconds vs 299.86 seconds; ptechnical skill levels. The kinematic score appears to consistently vary by year of training. Because this assessment is nonsubjective, it may be an improvement over current methods for determination of competence. Ongoing studies are establishing benchmarks and characteristic profiles of skill groups based on kinematics data. Copyright © 2011 American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
Alberto Zamora Cervantes
Full Text Available Communicating with the patient in clinical practice refers to the way in which the doctor and the patient interact both verbally and nonverbally, in order to achieve a shared understanding of problems and solutions. Traditional learning and assessment systems are overwhelmed when it comes to addressing the complex and multi-dimensional problems of professional practice. Problem Based Learning (PBL has been put forward as an alternative to the mere reproduction of knowledge and pre-established patterns, enabling students to develop their own learning strategies to overcome problems in their future professional practice. The challenge is to determine how to assess the acquisition of clinical communication skills. The authors have recommended a summative assessment of clinical communication skills based on the combination of different methods. It highlights the importance of feedback-based formative assessment. This raises the need to develop and validate assessment scales in clinical communication at an undergraduate level. Based on this work, the authors put forward a "fanned out" assessment in terms of clinical communication skills in Medicine degrees, with the use of different instruments in a "spiraled" manner, where the greater the contact with clinical practice in the various degree and integral courses, the greater difficulty experienced, with the participation of all the stakeholders involved (self, hetero and peer assessment without precluding the involvement of patients (real or simulated in the design of assessment instruments.
Nesbitt, Craig; Phillips, Alex W; Searle, Roger; Stansby, Gerard
Feedback plays an important role in the learning process. However, often this may be delivered in an unstructured fashion that can detract from its potential benefit. Further, students may have different preferences in how feedback should be delivered, which may be influenced by which method they feel will lead to the most effective learning. The aim of this study was to evaluate student views on 3 different modes of feedback particularly in relation to the benefit each conferred. Undergraduate medical students participating in a surgical suturing study were asked to give feedback using a semi-structured questionnaire. Discrete questions using a Likert scale and open responses were solicited. Students received either standard lecture feedback (SLF), individualized video feedback (IVF), or enhanced unsupervised video feedback (UVF). Students had a strong preference for IVF over UVF or SLF. These responses correlated with their perception of how much each type of feedback improved their performance. However, there was no statistical difference in suturing skill improvement between IVF and UVF, which were both significantly better than SLF. Students have a strong preference for IVF. This relates to a perception that this will lead to the greatest level of skill improvement. However, an equal effect in improvement can be achieved by using less resource-demanding UVF. Copyright © 2015 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Cope, Vicki; Murray, Melanie
Nurses are often asked to think about leadership, particularly in times of rapid change in healthcare, and where questions have been raised about whether leaders and managers have adequate insight into the requirements of care. This article discusses several leadership styles relevant to contemporary healthcare and nursing practice. Nurses who are aware of leadership styles may find this knowledge useful in maintaining a cohesive working environment. Leadership knowledge and skills can be improved through training, where, rather than having to undertake formal leadership roles without adequate preparation, nurses are able to learn, nurture, model and develop effective leadership behaviours, ultimately improving nursing staff retention and enhancing the delivery of safe and effective care.
Hardiani, N.; Budayasa, I. K.; Juniati, D.
The aim of this study was to describe algebraic thinking of high school female student’s field independent cognitive style in solving linier program problem by revealing deeply the female students’ responses. Subjects in this study were 7 female students having field independent cognitive style in class 11. The type of this research was descriptive qualitative. The method of data collection used was observation, documentation, and interview. Data analysis technique was by reduction, presentation, and conclusion. The results of this study showed that the female students with field independent cognitive style in solving the linier program problem had the ability to represent algebraic ideas from the narrative question that had been read by manipulating symbols and variables presented in tabular form, creating and building mathematical models in two variables linear inequality system which represented algebraic ideas, and interpreting the solutions as variables obtained from the point of intersection in the solution area to obtain maximum benefit.
Dudley, Dean A; Okely, Anthony D; Cotton, Wayne G; Pearson, Phil; Caputi, Peter
To determine the levels of physical activity (PA), lesson context and teacher interaction students receive during physical education (PE) in secondary schools in New South Wales, Australia. Baseline cross-sectional study. Systematic direct observation of Year 7 PE classes over a six-month period. Eighty one (81) PE lessons across six schools were observed. The mean (SD) percentage of class time spent in moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) was 56.9% (18.7). However, only 60% of the 81 met the recommended 50% of class time spent in moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA). Just over 6% of class time was spent in skill instruction. Game play made up nearly half of the lesson context (44%) and teachers spent just under one-third (31%) of class time promoting PA. Substantial variations in the PA, lesson context and teacher interaction exist within PE. As a large proportion of classes, especially girls' only classes, did not meet the Centers of Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recommendation of 50% of class time in MVPA, ways need to be found to promote PA in PE classes. Levels of skill instruction and practice were well below international comparisons and may have implications for PA participation later in life. Numerous possibilities exist for improving PE in Australia as a way of improving the activity levels and experiences of our young people. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Expertise effects in music were studied in a new task: the construction of mental representations from separate fragments. Groups of expert musicians and non-musicians were asked to recall note patterns presented visually note by note. Skill-level, musical well-formedness of the note patterns and presentation mode were varied. The musicians recalled note patterns better than the non-musicians, even though the presentation was visual and successive. Furthermore, only musicians' performance was affected by musical well-formedness of the note patterns when visual gestalt properties, verbal rehearsability, and familiarity of the stimuli were controlled. Musicians were also able to use letter names referring to notes as efficiently as visual notes, which indicates that the better recall of musicians cannot be explained by perceptual visual chunking. These results and the effect of skill level on the distribution of recall errors indicate that the ability to chunk incoming information into meaningful units does not require that complete familiar patterns are accessible to encoding processes, yet previous knowledge stored in long-term memory affects representation construction in working memory. The present method offers a new reliable tool, and its implications to the research on construction of representations and musical imagery are discussed.
Carreteiro, Rui; Justo, João; Figueira, Ana
Home literacy environment explains between 12 and 18.5% of the variance of children’s language skills. Although most authors agree that children whose parents encourage them to read tend to develop better and earlier reading skills, some authors consider that the impact of family environment in reading skills is overvalued. Probably, other variables of parent–child relationship, like parenting styles, might be relevant for this field. Nevertheless, no previous studies on the ef...
Zvauya, R; Oyebode, F; Day, E J; Thomas, C P; Jones, L A
Stress levels and psychological morbidity are high among undergraduate medical students (UGs), but there is a lack of research into the psychological health of UK graduate-entry medical students (GEs). GEs are likely to experience different (perhaps more severe) stressors and to cope with stress differently. We compared stress levels, psychological morbidity and coping styles in GE versus UG medical students studying at the same UK medical school in the same academic year. A cross-sectional self-rated questionnaire study of all first- and second-year GE and UG medical students was conducted. Perceived stress, psychological morbidity, recent adverse life events, stress-related personality traits and coping styles were assessed using standard questionnaires. 75% GEs and 46% UGs responded to the questionnaire. Both groups reported equally high levels, and similar profiles of, perceived stress and psychological morbidity. Levels of recent adverse life events and stress-related personality traits were similar in both groups. Compared to UGs, GEs were more likely to use active coping (p = 0.02) and positive reframing (p = 0.03), but were also more likely to use substances (alcohol and other drugs; p cope. Unlike UGs, second-year GEs showed less perceived stress (p = 0.007) and psychological morbidity (p = 0.006) than first-year GEs although levels of both were still high. Our results show that both GE students and their younger UG counterparts on a traditional medical course have similar profiles of stress symptoms. They do, however, cope with stress differently. GEs are more likely to use active problem-focused coping strategies, and they are also more likely to cope by using substances (alcohol or other drugs). GE students need interventions to prevent maladaptive coping styles and encourage adaptive coping that are tailored to their needs. Such interventions should be targeted at first-year students. It is vital that these students develop positive coping
Foxx, Robbie Evelyn
Science education reform, driven by a rapidly advancing technological society, demands the attention of both elementary and middle school curriculum-developers. Science education training in current standards (National Research Council [NRC] Standards 1996) emphasize inquiry, which is reported to be a basic tenet of the theory known as constructivism (NAASP, 1996; Cohen, 1988; Conley, 1993; Friedman, 1999; Newman, Marks, & Gamoran, 1996; Smerdon & Burkam 1999; Sizer 1992; Talbert & McLaughlin 1993; Tobin & Gallagher, 1987; Yager, 1991, 2000). Pedagogy focusing on the tenets of constructivist theory, at the intermediate level, can address current science standards. Many science educators believe participation in science fairs helps students develop the attitudes, skills, and knowledge that will help them to be comfortable and successful in the scientific and technological society (Czerniak, 1996). Competing in science fairs is one vehicle which allows students to apply science to societal issues, solve problems and model those things scientists do. Moreover, constructing a science fair project is suggested as being an excellent means to foster the development of concepts necessary in promoting scientific literacy (Czerniak, 1996). Research further suggests that through science fairs or other inquiry activities, students construct their knowledge with fewer misconceptions as they explore and discover the nature of science (NRC 1996). Tohn 's study (as cited in Bellipanni, 1994) stated that science fairs are a major campaign to increase student skills and to allow students a chance to have fun with science. The purpose of this research was twofold: (1) to assess science problem solving skills of students instructed using constructivist pedagogy, and (2) to explore the effects of constructivist pedagogy's influence(s) on science fair participation/placement. Students' attitudes resulting from these experiences were examined as well.
Zysset, Annina E; Kakebeeke, Tanja H; Messerli-Bürgy, Nadine; Meyer, Andrea H; Stülb, Kerstin; Leeger-Aschmann, Claudia S; Schmutz, Einat A; Arhab, Amar; Ferrazzini, Valentina; Kriemler, Susi; Munsch, Simone; Puder, Jardena J; Jenni, Oskar G
Motor skills are interrelated with essential domains of childhood such as cognitive and social development. Thus, the evaluation of motor skills and the identification of atypical or delayed motor development is crucial in pediatric practice (e.g., during well-child visits). Parental reports on motor skills may serve as possible indicators to decide whether further assessment of a child is necessary or not. We compared parental reports on fundamental motor skills performance level (e.g., hopping, throwing), based on questions frequently asked in pediatric practice, with a standardized motor test in 389 children (46.5% girls/53.5% boys, M age = 3.8 years, SD = 0.5, range 3.0-5.0 years) from the Swiss Preschoolers' Health Study (SPLASHY). Motor skills were examined using the Zurich Neuromotor Assessment 3-5 (ZNA3-5), and parents filled in an online questionnaire on fundamental motor skills performance level. The results showed that the answers from the parental report correlated only weakly with the objectively assessed motor skills (r = .225, p motor skills would be desirable, the parent's report used in this study was not a valid indicator for children's fundamental motor skills. Thus, we may recommend to objectively examine motor skills in clinical practice and not to exclusively rely on parental report. What is Known: • Early assessment of motor skills in preschool children is important because motor skills are essential for the engagement in social activities and the development of cognitive abilities. Atypical or delayed motor development can be an indicator for different developmental needs or disorders. • Pediatricians frequently ask parents about the motor competences of their child during well-child visits. What is New: • The parental report on fundamental motor skills performance level used in this study was not a reliable indicator for describing motor development in the preschool age. • Standardized examinations of motor skills
Scheerder, Anique; van Deursen, Alexander; van Dijk, Jan
Recently, several digital divide scholars suggested that a shift is needed from a focus on binary Internet access (first-level digital divide) and Internet skills and use (second-level digital divide) to a third-level digital divide in which the tangible outcomes of Internet use are highlighted. A
Silva, Pedro; Travassos, Bruno; Vilar, Luís; Aguiar, Paulo; Davids, Keith; Araújo, Duarte; Garganta, Júlio
Similar to other complex systems in nature (e.g., a hunting pack, flocks of birds), sports teams have been modeled as social neurobiological systems in which interpersonal coordination tendencies of agents underpin team swarming behaviors. Swarming is seen as the result of agent co-adaptation to ecological constraints of performance environments by collectively perceiving specific possibilities for action (affordances for self and shared affordances). A major principle of invasion team sports assumed to promote effective performance is to outnumber the opposition (creation of numerical overloads) during different performance phases (attack and defense) in spatial regions adjacent to the ball. Such performance principles are assimilated by system agents through manipulation of numerical relations between teams during training in order to create artificially asymmetrical performance contexts to simulate overloaded and underloaded situations. Here we evaluated effects of different numerical relations differentiated by agent skill level, examining emergent inter-individual, intra- and inter-team coordination. Groups of association football players (national – NLP and regional-level – RLP) participated in small-sided and conditioned games in which numerical relations between system agents were manipulated (5v5, 5v4 and 5v3). Typical grouping tendencies in sports teams (major ranges, stretch indices, distances of team centers to goals and distances between the teams' opposing line-forces in specific team sectors) were recorded by plotting positional coordinates of individual agents through continuous GPS tracking. Results showed that creation of numerical asymmetries during training constrained agents' individual dominant regions, the underloaded teams' compactness and each team's relative position on-field, as well as distances between specific team sectors. We also observed how skill level impacted individual and team coordination tendencies. Data revealed
Full Text Available Similar to other complex systems in nature (e.g., a hunting pack, flocks of birds, sports teams have been modeled as social neurobiological systems in which interpersonal coordination tendencies of agents underpin team swarming behaviors. Swarming is seen as the result of agent co-adaptation to ecological constraints of performance environments by collectively perceiving specific possibilities for action (affordances for self and shared affordances. A major principle of invasion team sports assumed to promote effective performance is to outnumber the opposition (creation of numerical overloads during different performance phases (attack and defense in spatial regions adjacent to the ball. Such performance principles are assimilated by system agents through manipulation of numerical relations between teams during training in order to create artificially asymmetrical performance contexts to simulate overloaded and underloaded situations. Here we evaluated effects of different numerical relations differentiated by agent skill level, examining emergent inter-individual, intra- and inter-team coordination. Groups of association football players (national--NLP and regional-level--RLP participated in small-sided and conditioned games in which numerical relations between system agents were manipulated (5v5, 5v4 and 5v3. Typical grouping tendencies in sports teams (major ranges, stretch indices, distances of team centers to goals and distances between the teams' opposing line-forces in specific team sectors were recorded by plotting positional coordinates of individual agents through continuous GPS tracking. Results showed that creation of numerical asymmetries during training constrained agents' individual dominant regions, the underloaded teams' compactness and each team's relative position on-field, as well as distances between specific team sectors. We also observed how skill level impacted individual and team coordination tendencies. Data revealed
Suzuki, Yoshimi; Saito, Emiko; Kishi, Emiko; Sawai, Minako; Kakemoto, Satori; Igarashi, Chiyo; Nakada, Harumi; Asahara, Kiyomi
This study aimed to evaluate the educational improvement outcomes after introducing undergraduate public health nursing electives from the perspective of students, teachers, and public health nurses. Post-test design with control group was used. We surveyed three groups of participants on the relevance of achieved skill items. These groups were as follows: fourth-year students, teaching staff from seven universities, and public health nurses from special districts of Tokyo who had pioneered the introduction of public health nursing electives. The three participant groups were surveyed in 2013 and 2014 to compare the students' levels of achievement in the 98 skill items presented by the Japanese Ministry of Health, Labour, and Welfare. Practical training introduced educational reform in 2014. Anonymous self-administrated questionnaires were used. The mean achievement rates of the 98 items in 2013 and 2014 were 67.9% and 72.6%, respectively, for students; 40.9% and 59.7% for teachers; and 44.4% and 59.4% for PHNs. A significant difference was observed between ratios of 2013 and 2014 in all three groups. The results demonstrated that the introduction of educational reform increased the achievement rates of students through the electives. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Varela, David A Diaz Voss; Malik, Mohammad U; Laeeq, Kulsoom; Pandian, Vinciya; Brown, David J; Weatherly, Robert A; Cummings, Charles W; Bhatti, Nasir I
Previous studies have identified a predominant learning style in trainees from different specialties, more recently in otolaryngology residents. The purpose of our study was to determine a predominant learning style within otolaryngology fellowships and to identify any differences between otolaryngology fellows and residents. We conducted a survey of otolaryngology fellows at 25 otolaryngology fellowship programs accredited by the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education. We emailed Kolb's Learning Style Index version 3.1 to 16 pediatric otolaryngology (PO) and 24 otology/neurotology (ON) fellows. This index is a widely used 12-item questionnaire. The participants answered each item in the questionnaire as it applied to their preferred learning style: accommodating, converging, diverging, or assimilating. Results were then analyzed and compared between each subspecialty and the previously reported preferred styles of otolaryngology residents. Ten PO and 20 ON fellows completed the survey, with an overall response rate of 75%. PO and ON fellows (60% of each group) preferred a learning style that was "balanced" across all four styles. For ON fellows, 35% preferred converging and 5% preferred accommodating styles. For PO fellows, converging and accommodating styles accounted for 20% each. It was previously reported that 74.4% of otolaryngology residents prefer either converging or accommodating styles. We believe that the fellowship training environment calls for fellows to use more than one learning style to become proficient physicians, hence the trend toward potentially developing a balanced style when at this level. Copyright © 2011 The American Laryngological, Rhinological, and Otological Society, Inc.
Val, Carlin; Kemp, Jess
This study examines how a group's dynamic changes under the influence of different leadership styles, and determines what leadership style works best in a large group expedition. The main question identified was "What roles can a leader play in affecting the dynamic of a large group while partaking in a field expedition?" The following…
Magnusen, Marshall J
Leader behaviors have been found to vary by competitive level (6,9,11,26). Similar differences based on the competitive environment have been reported with strength coaches and their training emphases (15,28) but not their leadership style behaviors. This latter area is important to explore because strength coach leader behaviors may result in enhanced cooperation, improved communication, and improved athlete psychological and emotional well-being (14,23,25,27). Accordingly, the purpose of this study was to examine the differences in self-perceived leadership styles of National Basketball Association, Division I-A (DI-A) men's basketball, and Division II (DII) men's basketball strength and conditioning coaches. The self-perceived leadership styles of 145 men's basketball strength coaches (National Basketball Association [NBA]=22, DI-A=92, and DII=31) were obtained using the Revised Leadership Scale for Sport (26,41). Frequency data about demographics and training methods were also collected. No significant differences were reported for positive feedback. Otherwise, NBA strength coaches reported more democratic leadership style behaviors than DI-A strength coaches. Division I-A strength coaches were found to be more autocratic than NBA or DII strength coaches. Both NBA and DI-A strength coaches indicated a higher level of training and instruction than did DII strength coaches. National Basketball Association strength coaches also reported engaging in more situational and socially supportive leader behaviors than DI-A and DII strength coaches. Leader behaviors can positively and negatively impact an athlete (23); thus, strength coaches need to evaluate their competitive environment and reflect on the impact of their behaviors and how their approach to leading athletes may need to vary based on the situation.
Full Text Available Purpose: determining of self-respect level and assertiveness of teachers. Verification of whether there is a relationship between the measured trait and the correlation of educational competence. Material and methods: the study used three tools: Polish adaptation of SES M.Rosenberg's Self Esteem Scale, a questionnaire to determine the levels of assertiveness - P.Majewicz's Scale "I and others" and a questionnaire to examine the professional competence of teachers by A.Romanowska-Tołłoczko. The study examined 275 primary school teachers of different subjects. Results: after the statement of the research’s results in the field of self-respect and assertiveness, it turns out that there is some regularity in relation to the level of the studied traits. People with high self-respect also receive higher scores assertive skills compared with those of average and low self-respect. This pattern is seen in all groups of teachers. Conclusions: although the observed differences are not great and statistically significant, they show some evidence of the occurrence trend of interdependence in a range of predispositions. Moreover, a positive correlation between the level of self-respect and assertiveness and parental perception of their competence was noted.
Full Text Available The present paper presents the results of an experiment aimed at assessing the impact of different levels of immersion on performance in a Spatial Perspective Taking (SPT task. Since SPT is an embodied skill, the hypothesis was that the more immersive a tool is, the better the performance should be. Ninety-eight students from a local primary school have played with three different versions of a game: (i completely immersive with a Head Mounted Display, (ii semi immersive on a computer screen and (iii non-immersive where no movements were possible for the player. Results showed that in the immersive versions of the game, players obtained higher scores than in the non-immersive version, suggesting that an immersive tool can better support performance in a SPT task.
Tjepkema, M; Wilkins, R; Long, A
Mortality data by occupation are not routinely available in Canada, so we analyzed census-linked data to examine cause-specific mortality rates across groups of occupations ranked by skill level. A 15% sample of 1991 Canadian Census respondents aged 25 years or older was previously linked to 16 years of mortality data (1991-2006). The current analysis is based on 2.3 million people aged 25 to 64 years at cohort inception, among whom there were 164 332 deaths during the follow-up period. Occupations coded according to the National Occupation Classification were grouped into five skill levels. Age-standardized mortality rates (ASMRs), rate ratios (RRs), rate differences (RDs) and excess mortality were calculated by occupational skill level for various causes of death. ASMRs were clearly graded by skill level: they were highest among those employed in unskilled jobs (and those without an occupation) and lowest for those in professional occupations. All-cause RRs for men were 1.16, 1.40, 1.63 and 1.83 with decreasing occupational skill level compared with professionals. For women the gradient was less steep: 1.23, 1.24, 1.32 and 1.53. This gradient was present for most causes of death. Rate ratios comparing lowest to highest skill levels were greater than 2 for HIV/AIDS, diabetes mellitus, suicide and cancer of the cervix as well as for causes of death associated with tobacco use and excessive alcohol consumption. Mortality gradients by occupational skill level were evident for most causes of death. These results provide detailed cause-specific baseline indicators not previously available for Canada.
Bahri Gjinovci, Kemal Idrizovic, Ognjen Uljevic, Damir Sekulic
There is an evident lack of studies on the effectiveness of plyometric- and skill-based-conditioning in volleyball. This study aimed to evaluate effects of 12-week plyometric- and volleyball-skill-based training on specific conditioning abilities in female volleyball players. The sample included 41 high-level female volleyball players (21.8 ± 2.1 years of age; 1.76 ± 0.06 cm; 60.8 ± 7.0 kg), who participated in plyometric- (n = 21), or skill-based-conditioning-program (n = 20). Both programs ...
Verlinden, Nathan; Kruger, Nicholas; Carroll, Ailey; Trumbo, Tiffany
Objective. To determine if the process-oriented guided inquiry learning (POGIL) teaching strategy improves student performance and engages higher-level thinking skills of first-year pharmacy students in an Introduction to Pharmaceutical Sciences course. Design. Overall examination scores and scores on questions categorized as requiring either higher-level or lower-level thinking skills were compared in the same course taught over 3 years using traditional lecture methods vs the POGIL strategy. Student perceptions of the latter teaching strategy were also evaluated. Assessment. Overall mean examination scores increased significantly when POGIL was implemented. Performance on questions requiring higher-level thinking skills was significantly higher, whereas performance on questions requiring lower-level thinking skills was unchanged when the POGIL strategy was used. Student feedback on use of this teaching strategy was positive. Conclusion. The use of the POGIL strategy increased student overall performance on examinations, improved higher-level thinking skills, and provided an interactive class setting. PMID:25741027
Barton, Alison L; Kirtley, Michael S
Levels of student depression may increase as stress increases; parenting styles may be one indirect source of stress. The authors examined the role of parenting style in relationship to student stress, anxiety, and depression, with focused attention on gender differences. Participants were 290 undergraduate students (58% female, mean age = 19). Cross-sectional design. Participants completed surveys containing measures of parenting styles, college stress, anxiety, and depression. Anxiety and stress acted as mediators between some maternal parenting styles and female student depression. No mediational relationships were found for male student ratings. Daughters may be more susceptible to the influences of maternal parenting styles, which can either prepare or fail to prepare them for management and avoidance of stressors that are encountered during the college transition. College counseling centers and student affairs personnel may wish to focus attention on the instruction of self-management and problem-solving skills for incoming students.
Bell, Victoria; Davies, Helen; Kay, Alison; Scaife, Adam
Skilful winter seasonal predictions for the North Atlantic circulation and Northern Europe, including the UK have now been demonstrated and the potential for seasonal hydrological forecasting in the UK is now being explored. The Hydrological Outlook UK (HOUK: www.hydoutuk.net) is the first operational hydrological forecast system for the UK that delivers monthly outlooks of the water situation for both river flow and groundwater levels. The output from the HOUK are publicly available and used each month by government agencies, practitioners and academics alongside other sources of information such as flood warnings and meteorological forecasts. The HOUK brings together information on current and forecast weather conditions, and river flows, and uses several modelling approaches to explore possible future hydrological conditions. One of the techniques combines ensembles of monthly-resolution seasonal rainfall forecasts provided by the Met Office GloSea5 forecast system with hydrological modelling tools to provide estimates of river flows up to a few months ahead. The approach combines a high resolution, spatially distributed hydrological initial condition (HIC) provided by a hydrological model (Grid-to-Grid) driven by weather observations up to the forecast time origin. Considerable efforts have been made to accommodate the temporal and spatial resolution of the GloSea5 rainfall forecasts (monthly time-step and national-scale) in a spatially distributed forecasting system, leading to the development of a monthly resolution water balance model (WBM) to forecast regional mean river flows for the next 1 and 3 months ahead. The work presented here provides the first assessment of the skill in the HOUK national-scale flow forecasts using an ensemble of rainfall forecasts (hindcasts) from the GloSea5 model (1996 to 2009). The skill in the combined modelling system has been assessed for different seasons and regions of Britain, and compared to what might be achieved using
Arnold, Sif H; Svendsen, Morten B; Konge, Lars; Svendsen, Lars B; Preisler, Louise
Feedback is an essential part of training in upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. Virtual reality simulators provide limited feedback, focusing only on visual recognition with no feedback on the procedural part of training. Motion tracking identifies patterns of movement, and this study aimed to explore the correlation between skill level and operator movement using an objective automated tool. In this medical education study, 37 operators (12 senior doctors who performed endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography, 13 doctors with varying levels of experience, and 12 untrained medical students) were tested using a virtual reality simulator. A motion sensor was used to collect data regarding the distance between the hands, and height and movement of the scope hand. Test characteristics between groups were explored using Kruskal-Wallis H and Man-Whitney U exact tests. All motion-tracking metrics showed discriminative ability primarily between experts and novices in specific sequences. Motion tracking can discriminate between operators with different experience levels in upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. Motion tracking can be used to provide feedback regarding posture and movement during endoscopy training. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Jay Pe L. Paculanan
Full Text Available This study determined the effects of cultural perceptions and leadership styles of administrators on maturity level of ICT usage among public secondary schools of Misamis Oriental, Philippines. This descriptive method of research employed the three sets of adapted research instruments and sampling size was determined using Slovin’s formula. Descriptive statistics used were mode and mean. The findings revealed that cultural perceptions of the administrators on relevance to ICT usage were positive and it significantly affect the management, administrators, infrastructures and teachers domains to the ICT maturity level. Administrators applied transactional leadership style in managing ICT in school as perceived by both the administrators and teachers and it affects the ICT maturity level of students. The maturity level of ICT usage among public secondary schools in Misamis Oriental was categorized as defined level. Finally, it was anticipated that the data obtained from the study will open new lines of inquiry about the crucial roles of administrators in the adoption of ICT and will contribute to the decisions about future developmental needs towards preparedness for further changes in ICT.
Wang, Jianyu; Liu, Wenhao; Moffit, Jeffrey
The purpose of this study was to examine arm and trunk actions in overhead forehand strokes used in badminton games across skill levels. The participants were 80 students (40 boys, 40 girls) who were randomly selected from video recordings of 300 students ages 16 to 19 years. The videotaped performances of overhead forehand strokes were coded based on three steps of arm action (elbow flexion, elbow and humeral flexion, and upward backswing) and three steps of trunk action (no trunk action, forward-backward movement, and trunk rotation). Students across the four skill levels exhibited different patterns of arm and trunk actions. Students at advanced levels used more mature arm and trunk actions.
Whitehead, Amy E.; Taylor, Jamie A.; Polman, Remco C. J.
Two studies examined differences in the cognition of golfers with differing levels of expertise in high and low pressure situations. In study 1, six high skill and six low skill golfers performed six holes of golf, while verbalizing their thoughts using Think Aloud (TA) protocol. Higher skilled golfers’ cognitive processes centered more on planning in comparison to lower skilled golfers. Study 2 investigated whether thought processes of golfers changed in response to competitive pressure. Eight high skill and eight moderate skilled golfers, completed a practice round and a competition round whilst verbalizing thoughts using TA. To create pressure in the competition condition, participants were instructed that monetary prizes would be awarded to the top three performers and scores of all golfers would be published in a league table in the club house. When performing under competitive pressure, it was found that higher skilled golfers were more likely to verbalize technical rules compared to practice conditions, especially during putting performance. This shift in cognition toward more technical aspects of motor performance was strongly related to scores on the Decision Specific Reinvestment Scale, suggesting individuals with a higher propensity for reinvestment show the largest changes in cognition under pressure. From a practical perspective, TA can aid a player, coach or sport psychologist by allowing thought processes to be identified and investigate a performer’s thoughts when faced with the pressure of a competition. PMID:26779085
Amy Elizabeth Whitehead
Full Text Available Two studies examined differences in the cognition of golfers with differing levels of expertise in high and low pressure situations. In study 1, six high skill and six low skill golfers performed six holes of golf, while verbalizing their thoughts using Think Aloud (TA protocol. Higher skilled golfers’ cognitive processes centered more on planning in comparison to lower skilled golfers. Study 2 investigated whether thought processes of golfers changed in response to competitive pressure. Eight high skill and eight moderate skilled golfers, completed a practice round and a competition round whilst verbalizing thoughts using TA. To create pressure in the competition condition, participants were instructed that monetary prizes would be awarded to the top three performers and scores of all golfers would be published in a league table in the club house. When performing under competitive pressure, it was found that higher skilled golfers were more likely to verbalize technical rules compared to practice conditions, especially during putting performance. This shift in cognition toward more technical aspects of motor performance was strongly related to scores on the Decision Specific Reinvestment Scale, suggesting individuals with a higher propensity for reinvestment show the largest changes in cognition under pressure. From a practical perspective, TA can aid a player, coach or sport psychologist by allowing thought processes to be identified and investigate a performer’s thoughts when faced with the pressure of a competition.
Chan Swee Heng
Full Text Available In the 21st century, students are required to master thinking skills in order to deal with many situations that arise in the tertiary environment which later would translate into the workplace. Nowadays, thinking skills play a vital role in tertiary education. To provide an approach for teachers, this paper identifies a 4-step model that can be implemented in test design with reference to Bloom’s Taxonomy for thinking skills. This model illustrates a feasible procedure of test construction built upon existing resource. The procedures can easily be applied to different fields of study. It provides an appropriate way for teachers who may want to add more ideas to their repertoire skills in addressing the learning of HOT (higher-order thinking skills. Keywords: thinking skills, Bloom’s Taxonomy, 4-step model
Smith, Larissa L; Xu, Wei; Sandella, Jeanne M; Dowling, Dennis J
The National Board of Osteopathic Medical Examiners uses the Osteopathic Manipulative Treatment (OMT) Global Rating Tool to score candidate performance in OMT during standardized patient encounters. To the authors' knowledge, no validity research has been published on the underlying constructs measured by this instrument to date. To evaluate whether the OMT Global Rating Tool measures 1 holistic skill or multiple skill sets. Structural equation models were fit to data from first-time test-takers who took the Comprehensive Osteopathic Medical Licensing Examination-USA Level 2-Performance Evaluation (COMLEX-USA Level 2-PE) between July 7, 2014, and April 30, 2015. Two theoretical models were evaluated: a model that posited a single underlying skill set, and a model that posited 2 related but distinct skill sets. The 1-factor and 2-factor models were fit to data from 4673 third- and fourth-year osteopathic medical students. Fit statistics indicated that the data were best fit by a model representing 2 factors: pre- and post-OMT technique assessment and OMT technique (r=0.47). The OMT Global Rating Tool seems to measure 2 distinct but related skills. Although the results of this study are applicable to broad populations and cannot be used to provide skill-specific subscores, it might be helpful to remediation efforts to target pre- and post-OMT technique assessments and OMT techniques as distinct areas for intervention.
McCrary, J M; Halaki, Mark; Ackermann, Bronwen J
Physical symptoms present in a large percentage of instrumental musicians at all levels of expertise, yet the impact of these symptoms on patterns of muscle use and perceived exertion during performance is still unclear. Quantify the effects of physical symptoms on muscle activity and perceived exertion in skilled violinists during a range of bowing actions. Fifty-five professional or university (undergraduate or postgraduate) violinists performed 5 randomly ordered 45-second musical excerpts designed to elicit a range of right arm bowing actions. Surface electromyography data were obtained from 16 muscles of the trunk, shoulder, and right arm during each excerpt performance. Sites of current physical symptoms were reported using a pre-test questionnaire. Average rating of perceived exertion (RPE) for the excerpt performances was obtained immediately after the final excerpt performance. Right upper trapezius muscle activity levels were significantly reduced in participants reporting right shoulder symptoms (pactivity across all investigated muscles (pactivity patterns appear between right shoulder symptomatic, right wrist symptomatic, and asymptomatic violinists, presenting the possibility of altered biomechanical responses to physical symptoms that vary with symptom location.
Koch, Matthias; Zellner, Johannes; Berner, Arne; Grechenig, Stephan; Krutsch, Volker; Nerlich, Michael; Angele, Peter; Krutsch, Werner
Scientific studies on injury characteristics are rather common in professional football but not in amateur football despite the thousands of amateur football tournaments taking place worldwide each year. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the preparation and injury patterns of players of two different football skill levels who participated in an international amateur football tournament. In a prospective cohort study, an international amateur football tournament of medical doctors in 2011 was analysed with regard to training and warm-up preparation, the level of football played before the tournament and injury data during the tournament by means of standardised injury definitions and data samples for football. Amateur players of registered football clubs had higher training exposure before the tournament (p amateur players. In almost 75% of players in both groups, the body region most affected by injuries and complaints was the lower extremities. Orthopaedic and trauma surgeons had the lowest overall injury incidence and anaesthetists the highest (p = 0.049) during the tournament. For the first time, this study presents detailed information on the injury incidence and injury patterns of an amateur football tournament. Less-trained recreational players sustained significantly more injuries than better-trained amateur players, probably due to the lack of sufficient preparation before the tournament. Preventive strategies against overuse and traumatic injuries of recreational football players should start with regular training and warm-up programmes in preparation for a tournament.
Cohrdes, Caroline; Grolig, Lorenz; Schroeder, Sascha
Children in transition from kindergarten to school develop fundamental skills important for the acquisition of reading and writing. Previous research pointed toward substantial correlations between specific language- and music-related competencies as well as positive transfer effects from music on pre-literacy skills. However, until now the relationship between diverse music and language competencies remains unclear. In the present study, we used a comprehensive approach to clarify the relationships between a broad variety of language and music skills on different levels, not only between but also within domains. In order to do so, we selected representative language- and music-related competencies and systematically compared the performance of N = 44 5- to 7-year-old children with a control group of N = 20 young adults aged from 20 to 30. Competencies were organized in distinct levels according to varying units of vowels/sounds, words or syllables/short melodic or rhythmic phrases, syntax/harmony and context of a whole story/song to test for their interrelatedness within each domain. Following this, we conducted systematic correlation analyses between the competencies of both domains. Overall, selected competencies appeared to be appropriate for the measurement of language and music skills in young children with reference to comprehension, difficulty and a developmental perspective. In line with a hierarchical model of skill acquisition, performance on lower levels was predictive for the performance on higher levels within domains. Moreover, correlations between domains were stronger for competencies reflecting a similar level of cognitive processing, as expected. In conclusion, a systematic comparison of various competencies on distinct levels according to varying units turned out to be appropriate regarding comparability and interrelatedness. Results are discussed with regard to similarities and differences in the development of language and music skills as well
Full Text Available Children in transition from kindergarten to school develop fundamental skills important for the acquisition of reading and writing. Previous research pointed towards substantial correlations between specific language- and music-related competencies as well as positive transfer effects from music on pre-literacy skills. However, until now the relationship between diverse music and language competencies remains unclear. In the present study we used a comprehensive approach to clarify the relationships between a broad variety of language and music skills on different levels, not only between but also within domains. In order to do so, we selected representative language- and music-related competencies and systematically compared the performance of N = 44 5- to 7-year-old children with a control group of N = 20 young adults aged from 20 to 30. Competencies were organized in distinct levels according to varying units of vowels/sounds, words or syllables/short melodic or rhythmic phrases, syntax/harmony and context of a whole story/song to test for their interrelatedness within each domain. Following this, we conducted systematic correlation analyses between the competencies of both domains. Overall, selected competencies appeared to be appropriate for the measurement of language and music skills in young children with reference to comprehension, difficulty and a developmental perspective. In line with a hierarchical model of skill acquisition, performance on lower levels was predictive for the performance on higher levels within domains. Moreover, correlations between domains were stronger for competencies reflecting a similar level of cognitive processing, as expected. In conclusion, a systematic comparison of various competencies on distinct levels according to varying units turned out to be appropriate regarding comparability and interrelatedness. Results are discussed with regard to similarities and differences in the development of language and
This paper examines how, over the course of the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, the appreciation of skill in surgery shifted in characteristic ways. Skill is a problematic category in surgery. Its evaluation is embedded into wider cultural expectations and evaluations, which changed over time. The paper examines the discussions about surgical skill in a variety of contexts: the highly competitive environment of celebrity practitioners in the amphitheatres of early nineteenth-century Britain; the science-oriented, technocratic German-language university hospitals later in the century; and the elitist surgeons of late nineteenth and early twentieth-century United States with their concerns about distancing themselves from commercialism and cheap showmanship. For analysing the interaction of surgical practices with their various contexts the paper makes use of the concept of ‘performance’ and examines how the rules of surgical performance varied according to the prevailing technical, social, and moral conditions. Over the course of the century, surgical performance looked more and more recognisably modern, increasingly following the ideals of replicability, universality and standardisation. The changing ideals of surgical skill are a crucial element of the complex history of the emergence of modern surgery, but also an illuminating example of the history of skill in modern medicine. PMID:26090735
Heng, Chan Swee; Ziguang, Yan
In the 21st century, students are required to master thinking skills in order to deal with many situations that arise in the tertiary environment which later would translate into the workplace. Nowadays, thinking skills play a vital role in tertiary education. To provide an approach for teachers, this paper identifies a 4-step model that can be…
Erwin, Susan; Winn, Pam; Erwin, John
Because of the importance of developing highly skilled school leaders, statewide assessments of 784 Texas public school administrators were compared in a causal-comparison study to determine how leadership skills varied by type of campus (urban, suburban and rural) and by campus student achievement ratings. Data were collected from a 2006-2008…
The purpose of this study is to analyze social skills in children with different perfectionism. The participants were 514 (254 females and 260 males) elementary school students. Data were collected from "multidimensional perfectionism scale" and "Matson evaluation of social skills with youngsters". In order to analyze data, t…
Hester, Larry Ronald; And Others
This laboratory analogue investigated the effects of supervisor skillfulness and supervisor-supervisee attitude similarity on the attraction of the supervisee to the supervisor. Results showed a main effect of supervisor skillfulness on attraction but did not show attraction to vary as a function of supervisor-supervisee attitude similarity.…
Koedijker, J.M.; Poolton, J.M.; Maxwell, J.P.; Oudejans, R.R.D.; Beek, P.J.; Masters, R.S.W.
We sought to gain more insight into the effects of attention focus and time constraints on skill learning and performance in novices and experts by means of two complementary experiments using a table tennis paradigm. Experiment 1 showed that skill-focus conditions and slowed ball frequency
A multi-subject approach to using tangram puzzles in the classroom is included along with a short history section and accompanying lessons. These lessons provide an introduction to tangrams; methods for teaching bilingual and English-dominant children concepts and skills through activities that do not require strong English skills; and activities…
Vinokhodova, A G; Boritko, Ia S; Chekalina, A I; Gushchin, V I; Dudukin, A V
One of the prioritized objectives of psychophysiological support for long-duration space missions is to strengthen professional reliability of cosmonauts. Operator's reliability is dependent as on skillfulness, so individual work style. PILOT-1 and VIRTU methods were used to study individual psychological characteristics and operator's strategy during project MARS500. The established two individual work styles (IWSs), i.e. control and search, reflect different types of reacting to stress. Combined analysis of these data and results of the "Mirror coordinograph" test showed invariance of IWSs no matter whether a task is complicated or simple. Operators demonstrating the "control" strategy are characterized by high initial mobilization readiness. Their reliability demands great physiological resources (high "cost"). Initial mobilization and physiological "cost" are lower in operators demonstrating the "search" work style. Dependent on the level of mobilization and motivation, their efficacy, in terms of quality and reliability specifically, is unstable in nature.
A protocol for evaluating progressive levels of simulation fidelity in the development of technical skills, integrated performance and woman centred clinical assessment skills in undergraduate midwifery students
Background Simulation as a pedagogical approach has been used in health professional education to address the need to safely develop effective clinical skills prior to undertaking clinical practice. However, evidence for the use of simulation in midwifery is largely anecdotal, and research evaluating the effectiveness of different levels of simulation fidelity are lacking. Woman centred care is a core premise of the midwifery profession and describes the behaviours of an individual midwife who demonstrates safe and effective care of the individual woman. Woman centred care occurs when the midwife modifies the care to ensure the needs of each individual woman are respected and addressed. However, a review of the literature demonstrates an absence of a valid and reliable tool to measure the development of woman centred care behaviours. This study aims to determine which level of fidelity in simulated learning experiences provides the most effective learning outcomes in the development of woman centred clinical assessment behaviors and skills in student midwives. Methods/Design Three-arm, randomised, intervention trial. In this research we plan to: a) trial three levels of simulation fidelity - low, medium and progressive, on student midwives performing the procedure of vaginal examination; b) measure clinical assessment skills using the Global Rating Scale (GRS) and Integrated Procedural Performance Instrument (IPPI); and c) pilot the newly developed Woman Centred Care Scale (WCCS) to measure clinical behaviors related to Woman-Centredness. Discussion This project aims to enhance knowledge in relation to the appropriate levels of fidelity in simulation that yield the best educational outcomes for the development of woman centred clinical assessment in student midwives. The outcomes of this project may contribute to improved woman centred clinical assessment for student midwives, and more broadly influence decision making regarding education resource allocation for
Achilles, Elisabeth I S; Weiss, Peter H; Fink, Gereon R; Binder, Ellen; Price, Cathy J; Hope, Thomas M H
Past attempts to identify the neural substrates of hand and finger imitation skills in the left hemisphere of the brain have yielded inconsistent results. Here, we analyse those associations in a large sample of 257 left hemisphere stroke patients. By introducing novel Bayesian methods, we characterise lesion symptom associations at three levels: the voxel-level, the single-region level (using anatomically defined regions), and the region-pair level. The results are inconsistent across those three levels and we argue that each level of analysis makes assumptions which constrain the results it can produce. Regardless of the inconsistencies across levels, and contrary to past studies which implicated differential neural substrates for hand and finger imitation, we find no consistent voxels or regions, where damage affects one imitation skill and not the other, at any of the three analysis levels. Our novel Bayesian approach indicates that any apparent differences appear to be driven by an increased sensitivity of hand imitation skills to lesions that also impair finger imitation. In our analyses, the results of the highest level of analysis (region-pairs) emphasise a role of the primary somatosensory and motor cortices, and the occipital lobe in imitation. We argue that this emphasis supports an account of both imitation tasks based on direct sensor-motor connections, which throws doubt on past accounts which imply the need for an intermediate (e.g. body-part-coding) system of representation. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
A. V. Beresina
Full Text Available The paper studied nutritional habits, physical loads, anthropometric and metabolic perfromances, and revealed the changes required to increase the level of adiponectine under drug-free modalities of treatment of patients suffering from abdominal obesity. A 3-year randomized lifestyle intervention trial was performed in 153 patients with AO, age 30-53 yrs, 74 patients (group 1 performed individual hypocaloric diet balanced in fat intake, 79 patients (group 2 performed diet and individual aerobic exercise All patients received individual recommendations on changing their life style. Dynamics of anthropometric, metabolic parameters, physical capacity and adiponectin level were measured. Relation between low level of adiponectin and some metabolic disorders, and sedentary life were revealed. The rate of improving anthropometric parameters, physical capacity, and nutritionassociated with increasing adiponectin was established.
Gjinovci, Bahri; Idrizovic, Kemal; Uljevic, Ognjen; Sekulic, Damir
There is an evident lack of studies on the effectiveness of plyometric- and skill-based-conditioning in volleyball. This study aimed to evaluate effects of 12-week plyometric- and volleyball-skill-based training on specific conditioning abilities in female volleyball players. The sample included 41 high-level female volleyball players (21.8 ± 2.1 years of age; 1.76 ± 0.06 cm; 60.8 ± 7.0 kg), who participated in plyometric- (n = 21), or skill-based-conditioning-program (n = 20). Both programs were performed twice per week. Participants were tested on body-height, body-mass (BM), countermovement jump (CMJ), standing broad jump (SBJ), medicine ball throw, (MBT) and 20-m sprint (S20M). All tests were assessed at the study baseline (pre-) and at the end of the 12-week programs (post-testing). Two-way ANOVA for repeated measurements showed significant (ptraining-modalities induced positive changes in jumping- and throwing-capacities, plyometric-training is found to be more effective than skill-based conditioning in improvement of conditioning capacities of female senior volleyball players. Future studies should evaluate differential program effects in less experienced and younger players. Key points Plyometric- and skill-based-conditioning resulted in improvements in jumping and throwing capacities, but plyometric training additionally induced positive changes in anthropometrics and sprint-capacity The changes induced by plyometric training were larger in magnitude than those achieved by skill-based conditioning. The higher intensity together with possibility of more accurate adjustment of training load in plyometric training are probably the most important determinant of such differential influence. It is likely that the skill-based conditioning program did not result in changes of higher magnitude because of the players’ familiarity with volleyball-related skills. PMID:29238253
Oralia Ortiz Varela
Full Text Available The research is about learning evaluation based on competencies in a mixed group of Preschool level: Melchor Ocampo in Delicias Chihuahua city. The most important theoretical foundations were provided by Casanova (1998, in relation to the assessment, and Diaz Barriga (2003 and 2006, with teaching in competencies and didactic strategies. The research objective is to track systematically the evaluation of competencies as well as design and experiment alternatives for evaluation in preschool level. The research methodology was conducted from the qualitative approach, dialectical critical paradigm and an action research method; integral assessment projects were designed, implemented and analyzed. Inquiry processes were performed using the techniques of observation and interview, instruments like the field diary and questionnaire (Hernández et. Al., 2006 and the method of systematization of practice proposed by Gagneten (1987. In the results it was observed that the instruments and techniques used to assess competencies were: observation, field notes, checklists, interviews with children, identification cards, children’s work, immediate group records and other evidence of work. The theoretical knowledge of the assessment of a variety of techniques and instruments to particularize the process, made clear that every teacher requires not only theoretical knowledge, the use of the range of possibilities to get information of the process that children have in their learning, not limited to one of them. It is also needed to develop both the skill and creativity of use, and the vision of what can potentially contribute. It concludes that it is possible to evaluate the 50 competencies that raises the curriculum, by using a evolution folder for each child, making a general school cycle plan, considering the assessment from teaching situations and apply the techniques and instruments at different points in the process, as well as create an awareness of self
Vela, Lori E.
Humor is an important aspect of interpersonal interactions as it is linked to the development and maintenance of relationships (Merolla, 2006). The purpose of this dissertation was to test the effect of a humor communication skills training program on the ability to minimize anti-social humor (i.e., aggressive, self-defeating) and enhance…
Full Text Available Mirror training therapy is a promising tool to initiate neural plasticity and facilitate the recovery process of motor skills after diseases such as stroke or hemiparesis by improving the intermanual transfer of fine motor skills in healthy people as well as in patients. This study evaluated whether these augmented performance improvements by mirror visual feedback (MVF could be used for learning a sport-specific skill and if the effects are modulated by skill level. A sample of 39 young, healthy, and experienced basketball and handball players and 41 novices performed a stationary basketball dribble task at a mirror box in a standing position and received either MVF or direct feedback. After four training days using only the right hand, performance of both hands improved from pre- to posttest measurements. Only the left hand (untrained performance of the experienced participants receiving MVF was more pronounced than for the control group. This indicates that intermanual motor transfer can be improved by MVF in a sport-specific task. However, this effect cannot be generalized to motor learning per se since it is modulated by individuals’ skill level, a factor that might be considered in mirror therapy research.
Vught, A.J. van; Hettinga, A.M.; Denessen, E.J.P.G.; Gerhardus, M.J.T.; Bouwmans, G.A.M.; Brink, G.T. van den; Postma, C.T.
RATIONALE, AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: The physician assistant (PA) is trained to perform clinical tasks traditionally performed by medical doctors (MDs). Previous research showed no difference in the level of clinical skills of PAs compared with MDs in a specific niche, that is the specialty in which they
Bramwell-Lalor, Sharon; Rainford, Marcia
This paper reports on teachers' use of concept mapping as an alternative assessment strategy in advanced level biology classes and its effects on students' cognitive skills on selected biology concepts. Using a mixed methods approach, the study employed a pre-test/post-test quasi-experimental design involving 156 students and 8 teachers from…
Schindler, John; And Others
A study to identify the basic skills and tasks that are necessary to obtain job-entry level employment as an auto body technician was conducted at the Southwest Wisconsin Vocational-Technical Institute from March to July 1975. Surveys were distributed to employees, vocational graduates, and employers in the auto body trade. The survey determined…
Kim, Young-Suk Grace; Park, Cheahyung; Park, Younghee
We examined the relations of discourse-level oral language skills [i.e., listening comprehension, and oral retell and production of narrative texts (oral retell and production hereafter)] to reading comprehension and written composition. Korean-speaking first grade students (N = 97) were assessed on listening comprehension, oral retell and…
Klintwall, Lars; Macari, Suzanne; Eikeseth, Svein; Chawarska, Katarzyna
Recent studies have suggested that skill acquisition rates for children with autism spectrum disorders receiving early interventions can be predicted by child motivation. We examined whether level of interest during an Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule assessment at 2?years predicts subsequent rates of verbal, nonverbal, and adaptive skill…
Karahan, T. Fikret
In this study, the effect of a Communication and Conflict Resolution Skill Training Program on sociotropy levels of university students were investigated. The working group was consisted of thirty two voluntary university students. A pre-test and post-test model was used with control group and experimental group, each consisting of sixteen…
Datchuk, Shawn M.; Kubina, Richard M.
Students with writing difficulties and learning disabilities struggle with many aspects of the writing process, including use of sentence-level skills. This literature review summarizes results from 19 published articles that used single-case or group-experimental and quasi-experimental designs to investigate effects of intervention on the…
Itani, Nada; Khalil, Mohammad; Sodemann, Morten
to recruit interpreters. Data were collected through individual telephone interviews based on an interview guide containing structured and semi-structured questions. Interpreters’ language skills were assessed subjectively based on the flow of the interview and preferred interview language. Results......: Of the 232 professional Arabic-speaking healthcare interpreters interviewed 21% were assessed as having adequate skills in both Danish and Arabic, 40% we assessed as having inadequate skills in both languages. Only 6% of interpreters born in Denmark had adequate language skills in both languages. Conclusion......Background: Denmark has become a multicultural society over the past three decades, with 12.8% of the population being immigrants and their descendants. Many of these risk inequality in access to health and in health outcomes because of language barriers. The quality of healthcare interpreting...
Maripaz C. Abas
.... Researchers have argued that the quality of practice of employability skills could help employees have better job performance, provide them better working condition or status, and consequently meet...
石村, 宇佐一; 青木, 隆; 佐野, 新一
This study is on the effects of the model's skill on the observational learning of basketball. Fifty students in the sixth grade in elementary school were selected as subjects for this study. They were assigned
Limpo, Teresa; Alves, Rui A; Fidalgo, Raquel
It is well established that the activity of producing a text is a complex one involving three main cognitive processes: Planning, translating, and revising. Although these processes are crucial in skilled writing, beginning and developing writers seem to struggle with them, mainly with planning and revising. To trace the development of the high-level writing processes of planning and revising, from Grades 4 to 9, and to examine whether these skills predict writing quality in younger and older students (Grades 4-6 vs. 7-9), after controlling for gender, school achievement, age, handwriting fluency, spelling, and text structure. Participants were 381 students from Grades 4 to 9 (age 9-15). Students were asked to plan and write a story and to revise another story by detecting and correcting mechanical and substantive errors. From Grades 4 to 9, we found a growing trend in students' ability to plan and revise despite the observed decreases and stationary periods from Grades 4 to 5 and 6 to 7. Moreover, whereas younger students' planning and revising skills made no contribution to the quality of their writing, in older students, these high-level skills contributed to writing quality above and beyond control predictors. The findings of this study seem to indicate that besides the increase in planning and revising, these skills are not fully operational in school-age children. Indeed, given the contribution of these high-level skills to older students' writing, supplementary instruction and practice should be provided from early on. © 2013 The British Psychological Society.
Carreteiro, Rui Manuel; Justo, João Manuel; Figueira, Ana Paula
Home literacy environment explains between 12 and 18.5 % of the variance of children's language skills. Although most authors agree that children whose parents encourage them to read tend to develop better and earlier reading skills, some authors consider that the impact of family environment in reading skills is overvalued. Probably, other variables of parent-child relationship, like parenting styles, might be relevant for this field. Nevertheless, no previous studies on the effect of parenting styles in literacy have been found. To analyze the role of parenting styles in the reading processes of children. Children's perceptions of parenting styles contribute significantly to the explanation of statistical variance of children's reading processes. 110 children (67 boys and 43 girls), aged between 7 and 11 years (M [Formula: see text] 9.22 and SD [Formula: see text] 1.14) from Portuguese schools answered to a socio-demographic questionnaire. To assess reading processes it was administered the Portuguese adaptation (Figueira et al. in press) of Bateria de Avaliação dos Processos Leitores-Revista (PROLEC-R). To assess the parenting styles Egna Minnen av Barndoms Uppfostran-parents (EMBU-P) and EMBU-C (children version) were administered. According to multiple hierarchical linear regressions, individual factors contribute to explain all reading tests of PROLEC-R, while family factors contribute to explain most of these tests. Regarding parenting styles, results evidence the explanatory power about grammatical structures, sentence comprehension and listening. Parenting styles have an important role in the explanation of higher reading processes (syntactic and semantic) but not in lexical processes, focused by main theories concerning dyslexia.
Maripaz C. Abas
Full Text Available The widespread practice of contractualization even in government institutions is a big challenge facing newly-hired employees in seeking a stable position. Researchers have argued that the quality of practice of employability skills could help employees have better job performance, provide them better working condition or status, and consequently meet the higher expectations of employers. The present study employs descriptive research design to explain the extent of application of employability skills and contextual performance. Based on The Conference Board of Canada’s Employability Skills 2000+ and Borman and Motowidlo’s Taxonomy of Contextual Performance, two sets of survey questionnaires were adopted to gather data from 220 respondents representing employers and employees from 25 government institutions. Data analysis showed that novice employees in public institutions applied their employability skills such as fundamental, personal management and teamwork skills to some extent. Moreover, results revealed that employees had satisfactory contextual performance. Thus, this may suggest that the application of employability skills and contextual behaviors should be enhanced to meet the increasing and complex challenges of their respective government agencies.
Kissane-Lee, Nicole A; Yule, Steven; Pozner, Charles N; Smink, Douglas S
Recent studies have focused on surgeons' nontechnical skills in the operating room (OR), especially leadership. In an attempt to identify trainee preferences, we explored junior residents' opinions about the OR leadership style of teaching faculty. Overall, 20 interns and 20 mid-level residents completed a previously validated survey on the style of leadership they encountered, the style they preferred to receive, and the style they personally employed in the OR. In all, 4 styles were explored; authoritative: leader makes decisions and communicates them firmly; explanatory: leader makes decisions promptly, but explains them fully; consultative: leader consults with trainees when important decisions are made, and delegative: leader puts the problem before the group and makes decisions by majority opinion. Comparisons were completed using chi-square analysis. Junior resident preference for leadership style of attending surgeons in the OR differed from what they encountered. Overall, 62% of residents encountered an authoritative leadership style; however, only 9% preferred this (p leadership. Junior resident preference of leadership style in the OR differs from what they actually encounter. This has the potential to create unwanted tension and may erode team performance. Awareness of this difference provides an opportunity for an educational intervention directed at both attendings and trainees. Copyright © 2015 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Ana Luiza Andrade
Full Text Available It is known that learning refers to how beings acquire new knowledge, develop skills and change behavior. Thus, knowing the learning styles of individuals is important, both for those who learn how to teach. In this sense, this research project aimed to describe the sociodemographic characteristics of the sample, identify the predominant learning styles of these individuals and see if there is a correlation between learning styles with sociodemographic variables. The sample consisted of 248 elderly participants in the study "Continuing Education - Benefits of the Open University of the Third Age EACH USP", funded by the National Institute for Educational Studies and Research Teixeira (INEP| Ministry of Education. We used a protocol that included sociodemographic questionnaire and the Learning Style Inventory (Learning Style Inventory - LSI by David A. Kolb. Descriptive analysis and inferential analysis. The dominant learning style was the assimilator and identified the association between learning styles of older people and sex (p = 0.0372, age (p = 0.0450, schooling for males (p = 0.0155 and sex for seniors with even the elementary school level (p = 0.0166. The results of this study are in line with theoretical perspectives and findings in the literature with regard to sample characteristics and learning styles identified. Future studies should be conducted in order to investigate more about the topic of learning in the elderly.
Farris, Emily A; Ring, Jeremiah; Black, Jeffrey; Lyon, G Reid; Odegard, Timothy N
An object rhyming task that does not require text reading and is suitable for younger children was used to predict gains in word level reading skills following an intensive 2-year reading intervention for children with developmental dyslexia. The task evoked activation in bilateral inferior frontal regions. Growth in untimed pseudoword reading was associated with increased pre-intervention activation of the left inferior frontal gyrus, and growth in timed word reading was associated with pre-intervention activation of the left and right inferior frontal gyri. These analyses help identify pre-intervention factors that facilitate reading skill improvements in children with developmental dyslexia.
Mainemelis, Charalampos; Boyatzis, Richard E.; Kolb, David A.
Uses three instruments derived from experiential learning theory--the Learning Style Inventory, the Adaptive Style Inventory, and the Learning Skills Profile--to test hypotheses about the differences between balanced and specialized learning styles in a sample of 198 part-time and full-time MBA students. (Contains 81 references.) (Author/YDS)
Postmodernismen er kommet på museum i Victoria and Alberts stort anlagte udstilling Postmodernism. Style and Subversion 1970-1990. Reportage fra en udstilling, der spænder fra filosofi til firserpop og tager den nære fortid på museum....
Mehdizadeh, Sina; Arshi, Ahmed Reza; Davids, Keith
Identification of control strategies during agility performance is significant in understanding movement behavior. This study aimed at providing a fundamental mathematical model for describing the motion of participants during an agility drill and to determine whether skill level constrained model components. Motion patterns of two groups of skilled and unskilled participants (n=8 in each) during performance of a forward/backward agility drill modeled as limit-cycles. Participant movements were recorded by motion capture of a reflective marker attached to the sacrum of each individual. Graphical and regression analyses of movement kinematics in Hooke's plane, phase plane and velocity profile were performed to determine components of the models. Results showed that the models of both skilled and unskilled groups had terms from Duffing stiffness as well as Van der Pol damping oscillators. Data also indicated that the proposed models captured on average 97% of the variance for both skilled and unskilled groups. Findings from this study revealed the movement patterning associated with skilled and unskilled performance in a typical forward/backward agility drill which might be helpful for trainers and physiotherapists in enhancing agility. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Background: Learning styles are cognitive, emotional, and physiological traits, as well as indicators of how learners perceive, interact, and respond to their learning environments. According to Honey-Mumford, learning styles are classified as active, reflexive, theoretical, and pragmatic. Objective: The purpose of this study was to identify the predominant learning styles among pharmacy students at the Federal University of Paraná, Brazil. Methods: An observational, cross-sectional, and descriptive study was conducted using the Honey-Alonso Learning Style Questionnaire. Students in the Bachelor of Pharmacy program were invited to participate in this study. The questionnaire comprised 80 randomized questions, 20 for each of the four learning styles. The maximum possible score was 20 points for each learning style, and cumulative scores indicated the predominant learning styles among the participants. Honey-Mumford (1986 proposed five preference levels for each style (very low, low, moderate, high, and very high, called a general interpretation scale, to avoid student identification with one learning style and ignoring the characteristics of the other styles. Statistical analysis was performed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS version 20.0. Results: This study included 297 students (70% of all pharmacy students at the time with a median age of 21 years old. Women comprised 77.1% of participants. The predominant style among pharmacy students at the Federal University of Paraná was the pragmatist, with a median of 14 (high preference. The pragmatist style prevails in people who are able to discover techniques related to their daily learning because such people are curious to discover new strategies and attempt to verify whether the strategies are efficient and valid. Because these people are direct and objective in their actions, pragmatists prefer to focus on practical issues that are validated and on problem situations
Czepula, Alexandra I.; Bottacin, Wallace E.; Hipólito, Edson; Baptista, Deise R.; Pontarolo, Roberto; Correr, Cassyano J.
Background: Learning styles are cognitive, emotional, and physiological traits, as well as indicators of how learners perceive, interact, and respond to their learning environments. According to Honey-Mumford, learning styles are classified as active, reflexive, theoretical, and pragmatic. Objective: The purpose of this study was to identify the predominant learning styles among pharmacy students at the Federal University of Paraná, Brazil. Methods: An observational, cross-sectional, and descriptive study was conducted using the Honey-Alonso Learning Style Questionnaire. Students in the Bachelor of Pharmacy program were invited to participate in this study. The questionnaire comprised 80 randomized questions, 20 for each of the four learning styles. The maximum possible score was 20 points for each learning style, and cumulative scores indicated the predominant learning styles among the participants. Honey-Mumford (1986) proposed five preference levels for each style (very low, low, moderate, high, and very high), called a general interpretation scale, to avoid student identification with one learning style and ignoring the characteristics of the other styles. Statistical analysis was performed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version 20.0. Results: This study included 297 students (70% of all pharmacy students at the time) with a median age of 21 years old. Women comprised 77.1% of participants. The predominant style among pharmacy students at the Federal University of Paraná was the pragmatist, with a median of 14 (high preference). The pragmatist style prevails in people who are able to discover techniques related to their daily learning because such people are curious to discover new strategies and attempt to verify whether the strategies are efficient and valid. Because these people are direct and objective in their actions, pragmatists prefer to focus on practical issues that are validated and on problem situations. There was no
Czepula, Alexandra I; Bottacin, Wallace E; Hipólito, Edson; Baptista, Deise R; Pontarolo, Roberto; Correr, Cassyano J
Learning styles are cognitive, emotional, and physiological traits, as well as indicators of how learners perceive, interact, and respond to their learning environments. According to Honey-Mumford, learning styles are classified as active, reflexive, theoretical, and pragmatic. The purpose of this study was to identify the predominant learning styles among pharmacy students at the Federal University of Paraná, Brazil. An observational, cross-sectional, and descriptive study was conducted using the Honey-Alonso Learning Style Questionnaire. Students in the Bachelor of Pharmacy program were invited to participate in this study. The questionnaire comprised 80 randomized questions, 20 for each of the four learning styles. The maximum possible score was 20 points for each learning style, and cumulative scores indicated the predominant learning styles among the participants. Honey-Mumford (1986) proposed five preference levels for each style (very low, low, moderate, high, and very high), called a general interpretation scale, to avoid student identification with one learning style and ignoring the characteristics of the other styles. Statistical analysis was performed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version 20.0. This study included 297 students (70% of all pharmacy students at the time) with a median age of 21 years old. Women comprised 77.1% of participants. The predominant style among pharmacy students at the Federal University of Paraná was the pragmatist, with a median of 14 (high preference). The pragmatist style prevails in people who are able to discover techniques related to their daily learning because such people are curious to discover new strategies and attempt to verify whether the strategies are efficient and valid. Because these people are direct and objective in their actions, pragmatists prefer to focus on practical issues that are validated and on problem situations. There was no statistically significant difference
Silva, Pedro; Duarte, Ricardo; Sampaio, Jaime; Aguiar, Paulo; Davids, Keith; Araújo, Duarte; Garganta, Júlio
Abstract This study analysed the influence of field dimension and players' skill level on collective tactical behaviours during small-sided and conditioned games (SSCGs). Positioning and displacement data were collected using global positioning systems (15 Hz) during SSCGs (Gk+4 v. 4+Gk) played by two groups of participants (NLP- national-level and RLP-regional-level players) on different field dimensions (small: 36.8 × 23.8 m; intermediate: 47.3 × 30.6 and large: 57.8 × 37.4 m). Team tactical performance was assessed through established dynamic team variables (effective playing space, playing length per width ratio and team separateness) and nonlinear signal processing techniques (sample entropy of distances to nearest opponents and the teams' centroids' mutual information). Results showed that the effective playing space and team separateness increased significantly with pitch size regardless of participant skill level (P small (P = 0.003) and intermediate fields (P = 0.01). Findings suggest that tactical behaviours in SSCGs are constrained by field size and skill level, which need to be considered by coaches when designing training practices.
Jordan, Debra J.
Successful leaders possess technical, human relations, and conceptual skills. Often, due to its complexity, leadership is overlooked as a teachable skill. Choosing a leadership style depends on several factors, including the leader, group, and situation. Six leadership styles (democratic, benevolent autocratic, consultive, participative,…
Schroeder, Noah D.
, they were given support in the form of narrated animated solution videos followed by a new version of the question set. On mastering a skill, students moved on to the next skill level. Students mastered all provided skill levels and then took a post-test. Those clinical trials demonstrated that students can use provided solutions to quickly progress through successive levels of mastery exercises and that mastery-style exercises had a larger impact on the post-test than traditional multi-try immediate feedback homework exercises. Following these strong results, mastery-style exercises were implemented over an entire semester in an introductory course, replacing the existing homework. Participation was much poorer than in the clinical experiments due to frustration with the difficulty of the provided exercises. As a result the implementation had a comparatively small impact on student performance. Frustrated students circumvented the system by ignoring provided solutions and skipping assessments, choosing instead to cycle through the provided versions until they could reattempt an already seen version of an assessment. A follow-up implementation covering a single week had a larger impact on a quiz, yet students were still frustrated with the exercises and displayed behaviors similar to those seen in the semester-long implementation. Moving forward, frustration must be overcome to return participation to levels seen in the clinical trials. A preliminary development mode is suggested to ensure proper calibration of difficulty to student skills. Other changes involving how the mechanics of the system work as well as how its benefits are communicated to students are also suggested. If frustration is overcome and participation increases, the incredible potential of mastery-inspired exercises can be realized. Mastery is a powerful addition to physics instruction.
Full Text Available Background: South Africa has a 32-year history of training ophthalmic nurse practitioners (ONPs. The role and required skills and competencies of ONPs are not well documented in the international literature and are also absent from South African publications, including South African Nursing Council publications. Aim: This study aims to inform curriculum development and human resource planning by reporting on the clinical skills expected of ONPs by members of multidisciplinary ophthalmology teams. Method: A limited survey was undertaken in the ophthalmology wards and outpatient departments of three tertiary level hospitals in the Western Cape Province. A researcher-designed structured self-completion questionnaire was distributed to 30 ophthalmology practitioners: doctors, nurses and technicians. Respondents were asked to indicate the expected clinical skills of ONPs. Findings: All questionnaires were completed. All respondents favoured ONPs taking histories and performing emergency eye irrigations. There was less support for more complex procedures, such as B-scans. One-third of respondents did not expect ONPs to have skills in eight key areas, including examination of the anterior chamber angle for glaucoma. No statistically significant differences were found between responses of doctors and nurses, with one exception: more nurses (15/18 than doctors (4/10 had confidence in the ONP undertaking basic eye examinations for ocular motility (Fisher‘s exact test, P = 0 .035. Conclusion: In the study settings, ONPs are not using their specialist skills to the full. Not all practitioners were receptive to ONPs using the skills that they had acquired during their postgraduate diploma, threatening the educational effectiveness of this initiative.
Miles, M.; Frizzell, Yvonne
The majority of children with cerebral palsy in developing countries have no access to trained therapists; for example, in Pakistan, there is less than one trained general physiotherapist per million population. In Pakistan, cerebral palsy handling skills were taught to a group of parents, teachers, and paraprofessionals in a series of practical…
Tedesqui, Rafael A. B.; Young, Bradley W.
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to test the association between self-control (SC) variables and (a) sport-specific practice amounts, (b) engagement in various practice contexts, (c) threats to commitment to one's sport, and (d) skill development using the Brief Self-Control Scale (BSCS) in a diverse sport sample. Method: Two hundred…
Oliver-Hoyo, Maria; Babilonia-Rosa, Melissa A.
Decades of research have demonstrated the correlation of spatial abilities to chemistry achievement and career selection. Nonetheless, reviews have highlighted the need and scarcity of explicit spatial instruction to promote spatial skills. Therefore, the goal of this literature review is to summarize what has been done during the past decade in…
The global agenda for sustainable development has centred lifelong learning on UNESCO's Education 2030 Framework for Action. The study described in this article aimed to examine international and intergenerational variations in literacy skills gaps within the context of the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). For this purpose, the…
Fredricks, Susan M.; Tierney, John; Bodek, Matthew; Fredericks, Margaret
The objective of this article is to explain and provide rubrics for science and communication faculty as a means to help nonscience students, in basic science classes, understand that proper communication and presentation skills are a necessity in all courses and future walks of life.
Heerwegh, Dirk; De Wit, Kurt; Verhoeven, Jef C.
Computers have taken an important place in the training of science students and in the professional life of scientists. It is often taken for granted that most students have mastered basic Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) skills; however, it has been shown that not all students are equally proficient in this regard. Starting from…
P.G.W. Alders (Peter)
textabstractThis paper examines the effect of differences in ability on the timing and number of children. Higher skilled women have less disutility of labor and have relatively less utility of raising children. Motherhood has a negative effect on the accumulation of human capital by
Zimmermann, Jo An M.; Dupree, Jessica; Hodges, Jan S.
Service learning is a well established pedagogy within higher education. Specifically, service learning allows students to engage in "real world" activities to practice skills and reflect upon their own competence. To enhance the effectiveness of service learning, instructors need to consider a multitude of learning influences. This…
Oliver-Hoyo, Maria; Babilonia-Rosa, Melissa A.
Decades of research have demonstrated the correlation of spatial abilities to chemistry achievement and career selection. Nonetheless, reviews have highlighted the need and scarcity of explicit spatial instruction to promote spatial skills. Therefore, the goal of this literature review is to summarize what has been done during the past decade in…
Bunn, Phyllis C.; Barfit, Laurie A.; Cooper, Jan
The purpose of this paper was to determine what communication skills are considered most important by employers in the accounting profession as well as to determine the general office, income tax, and bookkeeping software packages used by CPA firms in Mississippi. The data was collected by means of an electronic five-point Likert-type survey…
Hastie, Peter A.; Calderon, Antonio; Palao, Jose; Ortega, Enrique
In terms of planning and achieving student learning in physical education, important variables that influence this goal include task organization, quantity and quality of practice, task structure, communication with students or feedback, appropriateness of the skills, and motivational climate. With respect to the construct of quality practice…
graphics to draw the COA sketch [see Appendix H for a screen shot of the tool; also see Tucker, Sidman, Geyer, Mizrahi , & O’Driscoll (2010) for a complete...skills: Instructional effectiveness and path independence. Cognitive Development, 23, 488-511. Tucker, J. S., Sidman, J., Geyer, A., Mizrahi , G
Vesel, Linda; Waller, Kathryn; Dowden, Justine; Fotso, Jean Christophe
In low- and middle-income countries, a shortage of properly trained, supervised, motivated and equitably distributed health workers often hinder the delivery of lifesaving interventions. Various health workforce bottlenecks can be addressed by tackling well-being and interpersonal relationships of health workers with their colleagues and clients. This paper uses data from the Helping Health Workers Cope (HHWC) project in a rural district of Sierra Leone to achieve three objectives. First, we describe the effect of counseling and psychosocial training on coping skills, stress levels, and provider-provider and provider-client relationships. Second, we examine whether a change in coping skills is associated with a change in relationships. Finally, we qualitatively identify key ways through which the uptake of coping skills is linked to a change in relationships. The HHWC project was implemented from February 2012 to June 2013 in Kono district in the Eastern province of Sierra Leone, with the neighboring district of Tonkolili selected as the control site. The evaluation followed a mixed-methods approach, which included a quantitative survey, in-depth interviews and focus group discussions with health workers and clients. Mean values of the variables of interest were compared across sub-populations, and correlation analyses were performed between changes in coping skills, stress levels, and changes in relationships. Overall, the results demonstrate that the HHWC intervention had a positive effect on coping skills, stress levels and provider-provider and provider-client relationships. Furthermore, associations were observed between changes in coping skills and changes in relationships as well as changes in stress management skills and changes in relationships. Psychosocial education can have major impacts on health worker well-being and the quality of health care delivery. Integrating psychosocial counseling and training interventions into health worker pre-service and
Gilchrist, Eletra S.
This study uses Norton's Communicator Style as an instrument to determine communication styles of college students in relation to grade point average (GPA), education level, extracurricular activity involvement, and gender. The communication styles eliciting more positive communicator images are also examined. The communication discipline benefits…
Kiuru, Noona; Aunola, Kaisa; Torppa, Minna; Lerkkanen, Marja-Kristiina; Poikkeus, Anna-Maija; Niemi, Pekka; Viljaranta, Jaana; Lyyra, Anna-Liisa; Leskinen, Esko; Tolvanen, Asko; Nurmi, Jari-Erik
This study examined the associations between parenting styles, teacher interactional styles, and children's reading and spelling skills. The sample consisted of 864 Finnish-speaking children and their parents (864 mothers, 864 fathers) and teachers ("N" = 123). Children's risk for reading disabilities and reader status were assessed in…
Buchanan, John J; Dean, Noah
The experiment undertaken was designed to elucidate the impact of model skill level on observational learning processes. The task was bimanual circle tracing with a 90° relative phase lead of one hand over the other hand. Observer groups watched videos of either an instruction model, a discovery model, or a skilled model. The instruction and skilled model always performed the task with the same movement strategy, the right-arm traced clockwise and the left-arm counterclockwise around circle templates with the right-arm leading. The discovery model used several movement strategies (tracing-direction/hand-lead) during practice. Observation of the instruction and skilled model provided a significant benefit compared to the discovery model when performing the 90° relative phase pattern in a post-observation test. The observers of the discovery model had significant room for improvement and benefited from post-observation practice of the 90° pattern. The benefit of a model is found in the consistency with which that model uses the same movement strategy, and not within the skill level of the model. It is the consistency in strategy modeled that allows observers to develop an abstract perceptual representation of the task that can be implemented into a coordinated action. Theoretically, the results show that movement strategy information (relative motion direction, hand lead) and relative phase information can be detected through visual perception processes and be successfully mapped to outgoing motor commands within an observational learning context. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Tromp, E. J. Yvonne; Pepping, Gert-Jan; Lyons, Jim; Elferink-Gemser, Marije T.; Visscher, Chris
Rating a player's skill level is an essential task for coaches to select the players with greatest potential to reach the top and to further be able to adjust the training program to the skill level of the player in order to most optimally facilitate the player's learning and performance. However,
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to determine effects of Gross Motor Function Classification System and Manual Ability Classification System levels on performance-based motor skills of children with spastic cerebral palsy. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-three children with cerebral palsy were included. The Assessment of Motor and Process Skills was used to evaluate performance-based motor skills in daily life. Gross motor function was assessed using Gross Motor Function Classification Systems, and manual function was measured using the Manual Ability Classification System. [Results] Motor skills in daily activities were significantly different on Gross Motor Function Classification System level and Manual Ability Classification System level. According to the results of multiple regression analysis, children categorized as Gross Motor Function Classification System level III scored lower in terms of performance based motor skills than Gross Motor Function Classification System level I children. Also, when analyzed with respect to Manual Ability Classification System level, level II was lower than level I, and level III was lower than level II in terms of performance based motor skills. [Conclusion] The results of this study indicate that performance-based motor skills differ among children categorized based on Gross Motor Function Classification System and Manual Ability Classification System levels of cerebral palsy.
Full Text Available A study was carried out involving persons representing high-anxious, low-anxious and repressor types according to the classification of Weinberger, Davidson & Schwartz (1979, selected using the Marlowe-Crowne Social Desirability Scale and the trait anxiety scale of the Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. In seeking indicators of anxiety in repressors and high-anxious groups, the authors decided to analyse the level of dogmatism observed in utterance texts. The research was intended to determine whether styles of coping with threatening stimuli condition the level of dogmatism, which was regarded as a cognitive defence mechanism against anxiety. The method of formal analysis of texts (speeches given by the participants in a situation of social exposure was used to identify their level of dogmatism, measured using the Dogmatism Quotient developed by Ertel. The highest value of the Dogmatism Quotient was recorded for repressors, and the lowest for the low-anxious subjects; a similar pattern was also observed for certain particular dimensions of dogmatism. Statistically significant differences in the level of dogmatism were found between the repressor and lowanxious groups and between the high-anxious and low-anxious groups. The study confirmed the previously discovered pattern whereby repressors exhibit more similarities to high-anxious than to low-anxious persons.
Connolly, Michael; Thomas, Joanne M; Orford, Julie A; Schofield, Nicola; Whiteside, Sigrid; Morris, Julie; Heaven, Cathy
The "SAGE & THYME Foundation Level Workshop" delivers evidence-based communication skills training to 30 health care workers in 3 hours. It teaches a structured approach (the SAGE & THYME model) to discuss patient/carer concerns. The aim of this study was to determine whether the workshop had a positive outcome on factors that influence communication skills. The study had a pragmatic, mixed methods design. Workshops were run in an acute hospital. One hundred seventy health care workers completed questionnaires pre- and post-workshop; 141 were sent follow-up questionnaires at 2 weeks and 2 months; and 9 were filmed talking to a simulated patient pre- and post-workshop. From pre- to post-workshop, there was a significant increase in knowledge (p communication skills knowledge, self-efficacy, and outcome expectancy of hospital health care workers who are predominantly white, female, nursing, or nonclinical staff. This suggests that the workshop may have a positive impact on some factors influencing communication skills in this group. © 2014 The Alliance for Continuing Education in the Health Professions, the Society for Academic Continuing Medical Education, and the Council on Continuing Medical Education, Association for Hospital Medical Education.
Full Text Available Aim To determine the effect of anger management levels and communication skills of emergency department staff on their frequency of being exposed to violence. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted in the Training and Research Hospital, Istanbul, Turkey between 11 April and 15 October 2013 by using a questionnaire including descriptive features, anger management scale, and communication skills scale applied to 283 health personnel working in children and adult emergency department clinics. Results Statistically significant differences were found between the health workers’ ages and their anger control levels, marital status and anger-in and anger control levels, working position and anger-in levels, and between anger-in, anger-out and anger control levels based on their level of education. Statistically significant differences were also found between age and communication levels based on the personnel’s working position. Statistically significant difference between the anger-in subscale of health personnel based on their state of being exposed to violence was found (78.4% of the health workers had been exposed to violence. Conclusion In the in-service programs of institutions, there should be trainings conducted about anger management and effective communication techniques so that the health personnel can be aware of their own feelings and express anger in a suitable way.
Fernández Sánchez, J C; Pérez Mármol, J M; Peralta Ramírez, M I
Palliative care health professionals have reported high levels of burnout. An understanding of factors associated with this syndrome in this population could foster new prevention and intervention strategies. The objectives were to evaluate the levels of burnout in each of its dimensions in a sample of palliative care health professionals and to analyze the relationship between levels of burnout and sociodemographic, occupational and lifestyle characteristics in this sample. The total sample was composed of 92 palliative care health professionals. Sociodemographic, occupational and lifestyle characteristics were registered. The levels of burnout syndrome were evaluated by the Maslach Burnout Inventory - Human Services Survey (MBI-HSS). The total sample was divided into three groups, depending on the level of burnout (non-burnout group, burnout group meeting one criterion, and burnout group meeting two or three criteria). Comparisons were performed amongst groups for all characteristics evaluated. The non-burnout professionals were significantly older and slept more than the professionals with more than one altered dimension; in addition, they had greater job seniority in the unit than those with a single altered dimension and did physical exercise more frequently than either of the burnout groups. The younger professionals, with more job seniority in the units of palliative care, and less hours of sleep and physical activity showed higher levels of burnout. Therefore, these factors should be considered for enhancing prevention and intervention strategies for these health professionals.
TATARLAR, Ceren; Cerit, A.Güldem
Every person needs to earn money and take care of themselves in order to obtain and maintain their standards of living by finding a job that suits their needs and qualifications. Since their first educational period, each person has chosen different paths in their professional/educational life. In professional life, different jobs have different requirements. For example some jobs require more social and people skills than others. Empathy, which is our concern in this paper, is one of these p...
Joseph B. Campit
Computer games play a large role in socialization and the consequences of playing them have been a topic of debates. This observation led the researcher to conduct the study about the influence of computer games on the social skills of the BSIT first year students of Pangasinan State University, Bayambang Campus, during school year 2012-2013. This study determined the profile of the 115 BSIT first year students according to: preferred computer games and frequency of playing. It in...
Full Text Available Textbook evaluation means development of textbook that is based on rigorous research. In Pakistan text books are designed on communicative language teaching which focuses on communication. Morley (1991 has asserted that listening has a critical role in communication and in language acquisition because the better the students understand, the better they will be able to speak. In our text books, listening practices (text and activities are missing, and listening plays a secondary role as compared to speaking, as it is part of oral work that are dialogues and role play, neglecting that during conversation in English our students face hurdles in quick thinking and accurate predicting because of ignoring listening skill which help in learning sound, rhythm, intonation, pronunciation, vocabulary and grammatical details. The researchers’ intention here is to put different views on importance of listening skill and to evaluate English Text Books prescribed in Punjab government school whether they contain listening material, corresponding activities and related audio video material in text books. Keywords: Evaluation, listening skill, ELT, textbook, Punjab Textbook Board (PTB
Ghazavi, Zahra; Lohrasbi, Fatemeh; Mehrabi, Tayebeh
Nursing is a dynamic and supportive job, with the main role of taking care of patients. Maintaining appropriate communication of the nurse with the patients is particularly known as the main core of care in mental health. However, in spite of the importance of providing communication, one of the main sources of stress in nurses of psychiatry wards is communication with the patients. Some important reasons for inappropriate relationship between the nurse and patient can be lack of necessary skills to communicate with patients because of insufficient training. Although training communication skills is an important part of the education of medical and paramedical students, in recent studies it has been demonstrated that the communication skills learned in theoretical courses would not necessarily be transferred to clinical settings, and proving training in clinical settings is a must. The present study was carried out to determine the effect of training communication skills using psychoeducation method on the stress level of nurses of psychiatry wards in 2010. This is a quasi-experimental study. The participants were 45 nurses; 23 and 22 in the experiment and control groups, respectively, working in psychiatry wards of Noor and Farabi hospitals, Isfahan, Iran. The sampling was carried out by the census method, and then the participants were randomly assigned to the two groups of experiment and control, using random number table. The two groups filled out the demographic data form and also the questionnaire on nurses' occupational stress, designed by the researcher. The questionnaire was filled out three times; before, immediately after, and one month after the training. Training of communication skills was carried out using group psychoeducation method, in six sessions, each lasted for 1.5 hours. The training sessions of the experiment group were held in Farabi Hospital. The findings indicated that before the intervention, the members of the two groups had a high
Kirk, Gerald Richard
There is currently a crisis in science education in the United States. This statement is based on the National Science Foundation's report stating that the nation's students, on average, still rank near the bottom in science and math achievement internationally. This crisis is the background of the problem for this study. This investigation studied learner variables that were thought to play a role in teaching chemistry at the secondary school level, and related them to achievement in the chemistry classroom. Among these, cognitive style (field dependence/independence), attitudes toward science, and self-concept had been given considerable attention by researchers in recent years. These variables were related to different competencies that could be used to measure the various types of achievement in the chemistry classroom at the secondary school level. These different competencies were called academic, laboratory, and problem solving achievement. Each of these chemistry achievement components may be related to a different set of learner variables, and the main purpose of this study was to investigate the nature of these relationships. Three instruments to determine attitudes toward science, cognitive style, and self-concept were used for data collection. Teacher grades were used to determine chemistry achievement for each student. Research questions were analyzed using Pearson Product Moment Correlation Coefficients and t-tests. Results indicated that field independence was significantly correlated with problem solving, academic, and laboratory achievement. Educational researchers should therefore investigate how to teach students to be more field independent so they can achieve at higher levels in chemistry. It was also true that better attitudes toward the social benefits and problems that accompany scientific progress were significantly correlated with higher achievement on all three academic measures in chemistry. This suggests that educational researchers
Charoenprasert, Suthawan; Zweigenbaum, Jerry A; Zhang, Gong; Mitchell, Alyson E
Acrylic acid, N-acetyl-glucosamine and glucosamine were investigated for their role in the formation of acrylamide in California-style black ripe olives [CBROs]. Levels of acrylic acid and glucosamine are reported for the first time in fresh (333.50 ± 21.88 and 243.59 ± 10.06 nmol/g, respectively) and in brine-stored olives (184.50 ± 6.02 and 165.88 ± 11.51 nmol/g, respectively). Acrylamide levels significantly increased when acrylic acid (35.2%), N-acetyl-glucosamine (29.9%), and glucosamine (124.0%) were added to olives prior to sterilization. However, isotope studies indicate these compounds do not contribute carbon and/or nitrogen atoms to acrylamide. The base-catalyzed degradation of glucosamine is demonstrated in olive pulp and a strong correlation (r2 = 0.9513) between glucosamine in olives before sterilization and acrylamide formed in processed CBROs is observed. Treatment with sodium hydroxide (pH > 12) significantly reduces acrylamide levels over 1 to 5 d without impacting olive fruit texture. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.
Shouse, Reggie L.
The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between the perceived leadership behaviors of upper-level student affairs officers and levels of psychological ownership among entry-level employees working in student services roles in higher education in the United States. Specifically, this study identified whether there are leadership…
Bahri Gjinovci, Kemal Idrizovic, Ognjen Uljevic, Damir Sekulic
Full Text Available There is an evident lack of studies on the effectiveness of plyometric- and skill-based-conditioning in volleyball. This study aimed to evaluate effects of 12-week plyometric- and volleyball-skill-based training on specific conditioning abilities in female volleyball players. The sample included 41 high-level female volleyball players (21.8 ± 2.1 years of age; 1.76 ± 0.06 cm; 60.8 ± 7.0 kg, who participated in plyometric- (n = 21, or skill-based-conditioning-program (n = 20. Both programs were performed twice per week. Participants were tested on body-height, body-mass (BM, countermovement jump (CMJ, standing broad jump (SBJ, medicine ball throw, (MBT and 20-m sprint (S20M. All tests were assessed at the study baseline (pre- and at the end of the 12-week programs (post-testing. Two-way ANOVA for repeated measurements showed significant (p<0.05 “Group x Time” effects for all variables but body-height. Plyometric group significantly reduced body-mass (trivial effect size [ES] differences; 1% average pre- to post-measurement changes, and improved their performance in S20M (moderate ES; 8%, MBT (very large ES; 25%, CMJ (large ES; 27%, and SBJ (moderate ES; 8%. Players involved in skill-based-conditioning significantly improved CMJ (large ES; 18%, SBJ (small ES; 3%, and MBT (large ES; 9%. The changes which occurred between pre- and post-testing were more inter-correlated in plyometric-group. Although both training-modalities induced positive changes in jumping- and throwing-capacities, plyometric-training is found to be more effective than skill-based conditioning in improvement of conditioning capacities of female senior volleyball players. Future studies should evaluate differential program effects in less experienced and younger players.
Park, Sunmin; Lee, Byung-Kook
Blood lead and cadmium levels are more than twofold to fivefold higher in the Korean population compared to that of the USA. This may be related to the foods consumed. We examined which food categories are related to blood lead and cadmium levels in the Korean adult population using the 2008-2010 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (n = 5504). High and moderate consumption of bread and crackers, potatoes, meat and meat products, milk and dairy products, and pizza and hamburger resulted in significantly lower odds ratios for blood lead levels than their low consumption. However, consumption of salted fish, white fish, green vegetables, white and yellow vegetables, coffee, and alcohol resulted in significantly higher odds ratios of blood lead and cadmium. In conclusion, the typical Asian diet based on rice, fish, vegetables, regular coffee, and alcoholic drinks may be associated with higher blood cadmium and lead levels. This study suggests that lead and cadmium contents should be monitored and controlled in agricultural products to reduce health risks from heavy metals.
Landi, Nicole; Frost, Stephen J; Menc, W Einar; Sandak, Rebecca; Pugh, Kenneth R
For accurate reading comprehension, readers must first learn to map letters to their corresponding speech sounds and meaning and then they must string the meanings of many words together to form a representation of the text. Furthermore, readers must master the complexities involved in parsing the relevant syntactic and pragmatic information necessary for accurate interpretation. Failure in this process can occur at multiple levels and cognitive neuroscience has been helpful in identifying the underlying causes of success and failure in reading single words and in reading comprehension. In general, neurobiological studies of skilled reading comprehension indicate a highly overlapping language circuit for single word reading, reading comprehension and listening comprehension with largely quantitative differences in a number of reading and language related areas. This paper reviews relevant research from studies employing neuroimaging techniques to study reading with a focus on the relationship between reading skill, single word reading, and text comprehension.
Full Text Available In this research, the level of possession of the students’ basic skills that are anticipated to be cultivated into student by the new elementary education program were evaluated in terms of the perceptions of teachers, parents and students. For the sample groups of this research, the 4th and 5th grade students (527 from 16 schools, the parents (527 of these students and the teachers (148 of the 4th and 5th grade in the districts of Istanbul (Avcilar, Bakirkoy and Sisli, which is the largest city of Turkey, in the academic year 2006-2007, were chosen. The data collected via the research were analyzed by SPSS 15.0 package and the perception points of each 4th and 5th grade students towards the basic skills were assessed. Whether the total perception points of the groups differentiated from one another in each of the sub-dimensions was tested by MANOVA, for each sub-dimension, it was tested by ANOVA; and, to determine the source of the differences, Games-Howell Test was used. The significance level was taken as 0.05 in this research. Through the analyses it was determined that the teachers’, parents’ and students’ perceptions towards the 4th and 5th grade students’ possession of the basic skills and all sub-dimensions have a significant difference.
Howard, W. C.
The Four Styles narrative of Leadership is written in three sections: (1) Overview of Leadership Styles; (2) Analysis of Leadership Styles; and (3) Applications of Leadership Styles. While the primary foundation for its development was generated from more than 30 years of research and studying leadership styles in education, the secondary…
Mohammad, T; Farzad, N; Tagie, G Mohammad; Ranjbar, K
Recent studies, shows the effective role of adipose tissue as an active endocrine organ. Leptin level increases in obese bodies while adiponectin as an antirisk factor reduction that contributes to decrease insulin resistance and anthropometric profiles. Hence, expected to the negative effects of weight loss on wrestlers' physiological function; leptin and adiponectin behaviors and insulin resistance in young wrestlers during their rapid weight loss program were examined. Fifteen young (23±1 yr) freestyle wrestlers with (weight 67.6±0.8 kg, BMI 22.5±0.2 kg/m²) in two (60 and 66 kg) weight categories were selected randomly. Caloric intake and anthropometric characteristics measured by standard methods. The leptin and adiponectin hormones and insulin resistance index were measured by sandwich and HOMA-IR methods respectively. Wrestlers performed a week rapid weight loss Protocol (average of 4% of body weight loss) under the supervision of their coach. Eventually, selected factors were measured after 12 and 24 hours of recovery, again. The rapid weight loss (4%) program had a significantly reduced impact on anthropometric factors; leptin level, insulin resistance, and increased beta cell function, while the changes of adiponectin were not significant after weight loss. Findings of this study shows that dramatic decrease in anthropometric factors follow the weight loss program that having a significant decrease on leptin, L/A ratio and HOMA-IR, without significant changes in adiponectin levels. These changes may have harmful physiological effects on wrestlers' bodies but they can be useful to regulate of fatty acid, glucose metabolism, and insulin resistance.
El Tantawi, M; Al-Ansari, A; Sadaf, S; AlHumaid, J
Better knowledge is needed about the effectiveness of preparatory English language courses for the health professions. This study evaluated the scientific writing skills of students finishing their preparatory year of a bachelor of dentistry programme in Saudi Arabia. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 2014-15 among first-year dental students at the University of Dammam. Students were asked to write a 150-word English language assignment that was analysed for writing statistics and problems using Microsoft Word and plagiarism detection software. Of the 89 respondents, female students used a significantly greater number of words than did male students and their assignments had significantly lower Flesch reading ease scores. Male students had significantly lower odds of using references (OR 0.04) and higher odds of making punctuation and grammar mistakes (OR 2.63 and 3.91 respectively). One course of scientific writing in the preparatory year may not be enough to develop adequate writing skills among undergraduate dental students.
Munro, Kevin J; Puri, Reema; Bird, Judith; Smith, Mark
Matching a prescription gain target at 60-65 dB SPL does not ensure audibility of lower input levels, nor does it mean the fitted frequency response slope is conducive to good sound quality. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the use of probe-microphone measurements to match target gain and slope, as a function of earmould style, frequency, and input level. The real-ear insertion gain was calculated for an input of 50, 65, and 80 dB SPL for the manufacturer's 'initial fit' (IF) settings and after adjustment to target in 49 and 51 open slim-tube and custom earmould fittings, respectively. One hundred adults with median age 74 years (range 32-93). Some 18%-67% of the IF settings were within 10 dB of the target gain but this increased to >85% after adjustment. Some 47%-71% of the IF settings were within 10 dB of the target slope but, with the exception of 2-4 kHz, this increased to >88% after adjustment. The results indicate that IF settings are inadequate, at least for the model of hearing aid used in the present study; however, significant discrepancies remained, even after adjustment.
Communication is a fundamental element of care at every level of nursing practice. It is important, therefore, for nurse managers to create environments that promote and encourage good communication, and help nurses to develop their communication skills formally and informally. This article discusses the effects of communication on the quality of care. It examines nurses' professional duty to maintain good communication skills and how managers can help them do this. It also discusses nurse managers' communication skills in the context of leadership style, conflict resolution and self-awareness. Finally, it considers the notion of shared governance as good practice.
Thomas E. Ford
Full Text Available The present study examined the relationships between dispositional approach and avoidance motives, humor styles, and happiness. In keeping with previous research, approach motives and the two positive humor styles (self-enhancing and affiliative positively correlated with happiness, whereas avoidance motives and the two negative humor styles (self-defeating and aggressive negatively correlated with happiness. Also, we found support for three new hypotheses. First, approach motives correlated positively with self-enhancing and affiliative humor styles. Second, avoidance motives correlated positively with self-defeating humor style, and third, the positive relationship between approach motives and happiness was mediated by self-enhancing humor style.
Abedini, Yasamin; Zamani, Bibi Eshrat; Kheradmand, Ali; Rajabizadeh, Ghodratollah
Background Addiction to computer (video) games in adolescents and its relationship with educational progress has recently attracted the attention of rearing and education experts as well as organizations and institutes involved in physical and mental health. The current research attempted to propose a structural model of the relationships between parenting styles, mothers’ occupation status, and addiction to computer games, self-control, and educational progress of secondary school students. Methods Using multistage cluster random sampling, 500 female and male secondary school students in Kerman (Iran) were selected and studied. The research tools included self-control, parenting styles, and addiction to computer games questionnaires and a self-made questionnaire containing demographic details. The data was analyzed using exploratory factor analysis, Cronbach’s alpha coefficient and route analysis (in LISREL). Findings We found self-control to have a linking role in the relationship between four parenting styles and educational progress. Mothers’ occupation status was directly and significantly correlated with addiction to computer games. Although four parenting styles directly and significantly affected addiction to computer games, the findings did not support the linking role of addiction to computer games in the relationship between four parenting styles and educational progress. Conclusion In agreement with previous studies, the current research reflected the impact of four parenting styles on self-control, addiction to computer games, and educational progress of students. Among the parenting styles, authoritative style can affect the severity of addiction to computer games through self-control development. It can thus indirectly influence the educational progress of students. Parents are recommended to use authoritative parenting style to help both self-management and psychological health of their children. The employed mothers are also recommended to
Abedini, Yasamin; Zamani, Bibi Eshrat; Kheradmand, Ali; Rajabizadeh, Ghodratollah
Addiction to computer (video) games in adolescents and its relationship with educational progress has recently attracted the attention of rearing and education experts as well as organizations and institutes involved in physical and mental health. The current research attempted to propose a structural model of the relationships between parenting styles, mothers' occupation status, and addiction to computer games, self-control, and educational progress of secondary school students. Using multistage cluster random sampling, 500 female and male secondary school students in Kerman (Iran) were selected and studied. The research tools included self-control, parenting styles, and addiction to computer games questionnaires and a self-made questionnaire containing demographic details. The data was analyzed using exploratory factor analysis, Cronbach's alpha coefficient and route analysis (in LISREL). We found self-control to have a linking role in the relationship between four parenting styles and educational progress. Mothers' occupation status was directly and significantly correlated with addiction to computer games. Although four parenting styles directly and significantly affected addiction to computer games, the findings did not support the linking role of addiction to computer games in the relationship between four parenting styles and educational progress. In agreement with previous studies, the current research reflected the impact of four parenting styles on self-control, addiction to computer games, and educational progress of students. Among the parenting styles, authoritative style can affect the severity of addiction to computer games through self-control development. It can thus indirectly influence the educational progress of students. Parents are recommended to use authoritative parenting style to help both self-management and psychological health of their children. The employed mothers are also recommended to have more supervision and control on the degree
Tate, Simon; Swords, Jon
This paper explores first-year undergraduates’ perceptions of the transition from studying geography at pre-university level to studying for a degree. This move is the largest step students make in their education, and the debate about it in the UK has been reignited due to the government’s planned changes to A-level geography. However, missing from most of this debate is an appreciation of the way in which geography students themselves perceive their transition to university. This paper begi...
Kucukera, Sevgi; Cifci Tekinarslan, Ilknur
This study examines whether the self-concepts, social skills, problem behaviors, and loneliness levels of students with special educational needs (SEN) in inclusive elementary classrooms differ from those of students without special educational needs (non-SEN). This study also aimed to identify the roles of self-concept, social skills, and problem…
Gjinovci, Bahri; Idrizovic, Kemal; Uljevic, Ognjen; Sekulic, Damir
There is an evident lack of studies on the effectiveness of plyometric- and skill-based-conditioning in volleyball. This study aimed to evaluate effects of 12-week plyometric- and volleyball-skill-based training on specific conditioning abilities in female volleyball players. The sample included 41 high-level female volleyball players (21.8 ± 2.1 years of age; 1.76 ± 0.06 cm; 60.8 ± 7.0 kg), who participated in plyometric- (n = 21), or skill-based-conditioning-program (n = 20). Both programs were performed twice per week. Participants were tested on body-height, body-mass (BM), countermovement jump (CMJ), standing broad jump (SBJ), medicine ball throw, (MBT) and 20-m sprint (S20M). All tests were assessed at the study baseline (pre-) and at the end of the 12-week programs (post-testing). Two-way ANOVA for repeated measurements showed significant (pvolleyball players. Future studies should evaluate differential program effects in less experienced and younger players.
Kiuru, Noona; Aunola, Kaisa; Torppa, Minna; Lerkkanen, Marja-Kristiina; Poikkeus, Anna-Maija; Niemi, Pekka; Viljaranta, Jaana; Lyyra, Anna-Liisa; Leskinen, Esko; Tolvanen, Asko; Nurmi, Jari-Erik
This study examined the associations between parenting styles, teacher interactional styles, and children's reading and spelling skills. The sample consisted of 864 Finnish-speaking children and their parents (864 mothers, 864 fathers) and teachers (N=123). Children's risk for reading disabilities and reader status were assessed in kindergarten. Children were also tested on reading and spelling skills in Grades 1 and 2. Parenting styles and teacher interactional styles were measured using parents' and teachers' self-reports in Grade 1. First, the results indicated that both an authoritative parenting style and authoritative teacher interactional style positively predicted children's spelling skill development. Second, authoritative parenting was particularly beneficial for the spelling skill development of children who were at risk for reading disabilities. Third, authoritative teaching promoted spelling skill development particularly among children who were nonreaders in kindergarten but had no risk for reading disabilities. Finally, some evidence was found that authoritative teaching could compensate for the negative impact of nonauthoritative parenting on reading development among kindergarten nonreaders. Copyright © 2012 Society for the Study of School Psychology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Kracht, James B.
The paper describes a study of the scope of geography achievement tests and the social studies components of national achievement tests. The research examined whether the tests' items were (1) directed primarily toward testing knowledge at the recall/memory level, and (2) comprehensive in their treatment of the discipline. Ten tests were analyzed,…
Galer-Unti, Regina A; Tappe, Marlene K
Written communication is a requisite skill for practitioners in the field of health education. Advocacy skills are now considered to be both a professional competency and an ethical responsibility. Given that many advocacy strategies involve written communication, it makes sense that the skills of writing and advocacy be developed concomitantly and within a writing-intensive class. The purposes of this article are twofold: (a) to describe the role of writing-intensive program planning methods courses in the development of written communication and advocacy skills in entry-level health educators and (b) to suggest strategies for planning, implementing, and assessing writing-intensive assignments and instructional activities designed to develop students' written communication and advocacy skills. Multiple examples of writing assignments are presented that can be used in helping students in developing their critical thinking, writing, and advocacy skills.
Nilsen, Elizabeth S.; Rints, Ami; Ethier, Nicole; Moroz, Sarah
Paralinguistic style, involving features of speech such as pitch and volume, is an important aspect of one’s communicative competence. However, little is known about the behavioral traits and cognitive skills that relate to these aspects of speech. This study examined the extent to which ADHD traits and executive functioning (EF) related to the paralinguistic styles of 8- to 12-year-old children and their mothers. Data was collected via parent report (ADHD traits), independent laboratory tasks of EF (working memory, inhibitory control, and cognitive flexibility), and an interactive problem-solving task (completed by mothers and children jointly) which was coded for paralinguistic speech elements (i.e., pitch level/variability; volume level/variability). Dyadic data analyses revealed that elevated ADHD traits in children were associated with a more exaggerated paralinguistic style (i.e., elevated and more variable pitch/volume) for both mothers and children. Mothers’ paralinguistic style was additionally predicted by an interaction of mothers’ and children’s ADHD traits, such that mothers with elevated ADHD traits showed exaggerated paralinguistic styles particularly when their children also had elevated ADHD traits. Highlighting a cognitive mechanism, children with weaker inhibitory control showed more exaggerated paralinguistic styles. PMID:27559327
Full Text Available Paralinguistic style, involving features of speech such as pitch and volume, is an important aspect of one’s communicative competence. However, little is known about the behavioral traits and cognitive skills that relate to these aspects of speech. This study examined the extent to which ADHD traits and executive functioning related to the paralinguistic styles of 8- to 12-year-old children and their mothers. Data was collected via parent report (ADHD traits, independent laboratory tasks of executive functioning (working memory, inhibitory control, cognitive flexibility, and an interactive problem-solving task (completed by mothers and children jointly which was coded for paralinguistic speech elements (i.e., pitch level/variability; volume level/variability. Dyadic data analyses revealed that elevated ADHD traits in children were associated with a more exaggerated paralinguistic style (i.e., elevated and more variable pitch/volume for both mothers and children. Mothers’ paralinguistic style was additionally predicted by an interaction of mothers’ and children’s ADHD traits, such that mothers with elevated ADHD traits showed exaggerated paralinguistic styles particularly when their children also had elevated ADHD traits. Highlighting a cognitive mechanism, children with weaker inhibitory control showed more exaggerated paralinguistic styles.
Full Text Available Background In this paper, the problem of the lack of stability of intimate female-male relationships, the intensity of which is currently increasing, is presented. Attention is focused on early-childhood attachment styles and anxiety in rejecters in intimate relationships. Participants and procedure The research included 120 individuals: 60 individuals who had dropped 3-15 partners (on average, M = 3.77 partners and 60 individuals from the control group. The following research tools were applied: the Attachment Styles Inventory, and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI. Results The results showed that rejecters in intimate relationships obtained higher results than individuals from the control group in an avoidant and an anxious-ambivalent attachment style, and lower ones in a secure attachment style, as well as higher ones in anxiety as a trait. Sex itself was not a differentiating factor in any of the studied variables. An avoidant attachment style, and anxiety as a trait, were predictors of being a rejecter. Conclusions The obtained results confirm the fundamental findings of the theory of attachment indicating that the lower the level of a secure style is, the lower is the level of interpersonal skills.
Nilsen, Elizabeth S; Rints, Ami; Ethier, Nicole; Moroz, Sarah
Paralinguistic style, involving features of speech such as pitch and volume, is an important aspect of one's communicative competence. However, little is known about the behavioral traits and cognitive skills that relate to these aspects of speech. This study examined the extent to which ADHD traits and executive functioning (EF) related to the paralinguistic styles of 8- to 12-year-old children and their mothers. Data was collected via parent report (ADHD traits), independent laboratory tasks of EF (working memory, inhibitory control, and cognitive flexibility), and an interactive problem-solving task (completed by mothers and children jointly) which was coded for paralinguistic speech elements (i.e., pitch level/variability; volume level/variability). Dyadic data analyses revealed that elevated ADHD traits in children were associated with a more exaggerated paralinguistic style (i.e., elevated and more variable pitch/volume) for both mothers and children. Mothers' paralinguistic style was additionally predicted by an interaction of mothers' and children's ADHD traits, such that mothers with elevated ADHD traits showed exaggerated paralinguistic styles particularly when their children also had elevated ADHD traits. Highlighting a cognitive mechanism, children with weaker inhibitory control showed more exaggerated paralinguistic styles.
Gibbs, Karen A; Furney, Steven R
Physical therapist practice is grounded in patient management principles encompassing all body systems and focuses on prevention, education, and functional outcomes. As such, management of the integumentary system crosses all practice settings, emphasizing the importance that basic integumentary content be adequately addressed during entry-level education. The purpose of this qualitative study was to compare the self-reported integumentary knowledge and skill of recent graduates to profession-determined expectations for education. Participants were 7 licensed physical therapists experienced in wound management. Semi-structured interview data were recorded, transcribed, and coded. A matrix compiling professional expectations for integumentary education was utilized to identify topics as absent, covered only briefly, or covered only during clinical rotations. Compression, vascular screening, infection, factors impacting healing, modalities, dressings, wound measurements, topicals, and sutures/staples were among the most commonly reported areas of deficiency. While integumentary care makes up a small percentage of physical therapy practice, it is a significant part of a comprehensively educated therapist. This study found participants did not perceive themselves to have received the minimum entry-level integumentary knowledge and skill deemed necessary by the profession. Study results are supported by current literature and demonstrate the need for integumentary curriculum review in entry-level programs.
Jonker, Laura; Elferink-Gemser, Marije T; Visscher, Chris
Research has shown that talented athletes outscore their mainstream peers on the basis of self-regulation. Although valuable, this does not tell us more about the distinction between good athletes and the best, which is a prerequisite in talent development. Therefore, we examined the self-regulatory skills of 222 male and female talented athletes aged 12-16 years as a function of competitive sport level (junior international or junior national athletes) and type of sport (individual or team sports). Multivariate analyses of covariance in combination with a discriminant function analysis revealed that "reflection" distinguishes between athletes at the highest levels of excellence. Furthermore, athletes playing individual sports had higher scores on "planning" and "effort" than team sport athletes, highlighting the importance of differences between types of sport. In conclusion, we emphasize the importance of reflection as a self-regulatory skill. Reflection facilitates the development of sport-specific characteristics, which may vary by type of sport. This means that an advanced sense of reflection may help talented athletes to acquire desirable characteristics during their "talent" years to ultimately reach adult elite levels of competition.
Full Text Available Task-based learning and teaching in the realm of teaching young learners is still considered an adventure since very few experimental studies to date have tackled its applicability in that age group. The present research was an attempt to find out whether using task-based reading activities has any impact on the development of text comprehension in Iranian young learners studying English as a foreign language at the beginner level. Two groups of 25 students, aged 11 to 13, were the participants of the study. Through a reading pretest, it was ensured that the two groups were at the same level and belonged to the same population in terms of the reading skill. Having instructed the experimental group with four task types and the control group with classical reading activities, the researcher compared the reading performance of the two groups through a t-test which, not surprisingly, manifested the better performance of the experimental group. A follow-up reading test also showed that the experimental group still enjoyed a higher level of reading skill after one month. Furthermore, the scores gained from the four task types were compared and it was concluded that the students performed better in tasks which involved creativity and gave them the experience of playing.
This work summarizes the most important theoretical approaches of leadership, describes the main styles leadership styles and task of managers in the organization, influences on the effectiveness of leadership, and how to develop leadership skills. The practical part applies this knowledge in practice and provides the particular company guidance of management development on the basis of data collected by questionnaire survey.
Claro, Magdalena; Preiss, David D.; San Martin, Ernesto; Jara, Ignacio; Hinostroza, J. Enrique; Valenzuela, Susana; Cortes, Flavio; Nussbaum, Miguel
This paper describes a study that evaluates fifteen-year-old Chilean students Information and Communication Technology (ICT) skills. The paper presents an operational definition of ICT skills, an instrument measuring these skills as well as the students' results in the test. The definition of ICT skills used considers Chile's curricular framework,…
Peña, Javier; Rodríguez-Guerra, Jorge; Buscà, Bernat; Serra, Núria
The aim of this study was to determine which skills and factors better predicted the outcomes of regular season volleyball matches in the Spanish "Superliga" and were significant for obtaining positive results in the game. The study sample consisted of 125 matches played during the 2010-11 Spanish men's first division volleyball championship. Matches were played by 12 teams composed of 148 players from 17 different nations from October 2010 to March 2011. The variables analyzed were the result of the game, team category, home/away court factors, points obtained in the break point phase, number of service errors, number of service aces, number of reception errors, percentage of positive receptions, percentage of perfect receptions, reception efficiency, number of attack errors, number of blocked attacks, attack points, percentage of attack points, attack efficiency, and number of blocks performed by both teams participating in the match. The results showed that the variables of team category, points obtained in the break point phase, number of reception errors, and number of blocked attacks by the opponent were significant predictors of winning or losing the matches. Odds ratios indicated that the odds of winning a volleyball match were 6.7 times greater for the teams belonging to higher rankings and that every additional point in Complex II increased the odds of winning a match by 1.5 times. Every reception and blocked ball error decreased the possibility of winning by 0.6 and 0.7 times, respectively.
Wu, Che-Ming; Chen, Yen-An; Chan, Kai-Chieh; Lee, Li-Ang; Hsu, Kuang-Hung; Lin, Bao-Guey; Liu, Tien-Chen
The aim of this study was to document receptive and expressive language levels and reading skills achieved by Mandarin-speaking children who had received cochlear implants (CIs) and used them for 4.75-7.42 years. The effects of possible associated factors were also analyzed. Standardized Mandarin language and reading tests were administered to 39 prelingually deaf children with Nucleus 24 devices. The Mandarin Chinese version of the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test was used to assess their receptive vocabulary knowledge and the Revised Primary School Language Assessment Test for their receptive and expressive language skills. The Graded Chinese Character Recognition Test was used to test their written word recognition ability and the Reading Comprehension Test for their reading comprehension ability. Raw scores from both language and reading measurements were compared to normative data of nor- mal-hearing children to obtain standard scores. The results showed that the mean standard score for receptive vocabulary measurement and the mean T scores for the receptive language, expressive language and total language measurement were all in the low-average range in comparison to the normative sample. In contrast, the mean T scores for word and text reading comprehension were almost the same as for their age-matched hearing counterparts. Among all children with CIs, 75.7% scored within or above the normal range of their age-matched hearing peers on receptive vocabulary measurement. For total language, Chinese word recognition and reading scores, 71.8, 77 and 82% of children with CIs were age appropriate, respectively. A strong correlation was found between language and reading skills. Age at implantation and sentence perception scores account for 37% of variance for total language outcome. Sentence perception scores and preimplantation residual hearing were revealed to be associated with the outcome of reading comprehension. We concluded that by using standard tests, the
Since the late 1970`s many people have worked hard to resolve the question of how this nation will manage its low-level radioactive waste. However, many problems persist. No new disposal facilities have been built since the early 1970`s and some states do not appear to be making much headway on the problem. The current alignment of states in compacts may lead to the designation of more sites than necessary, thus wasting resources and sites that might be used for something else and causing dissension and disruption in more communities than is really necessary. However, progress has been made: low-level waste is on the political agenda in an effective way in many states; much more management attention and skill are being devoted to waste management; and more experience has increased the understanding and skill necessary for management and government officials to be able to involve the public effectively in waste management decision-making. What conditions have produced this progress? What has been learned from ten years of work on the problem? How can these lessons be applied to future decisions, including those about the cleanup and isolation of defense waste? The paper attempts to answer these questions.
Bramwell-Lalor, Sharon; Rainford, Marcia
This paper reports on teachers' use of concept mapping as an alternative assessment strategy in advanced level biology classes and its effects on students' cognitive skills on selected biology concepts. Using a mixed methods approach, the study employed a pre-test/post-test quasi-experimental design involving 156 students and 8 teachers from intact classes. A researcher-constructed Biology Cognitive Skills Test was used to collect the quantitative data. Qualitative data were collected through interviews and students' personal documents. The data showed that the participants utilized concept mapping in various ways and they described positive experiences while being engaged in its use. The main challenge cited by teachers was the limited time available for more consistent use. The results showed that the use of concept mapping in advanced level biology can lead to learning gains that exceed those achieved in classes where mainly traditional methods are used. The students in the concept mapping experimental groups performed significantly better than their peers in the control group on both the lower-order (F(1) = 21.508; p effect size of .56 was calculated representing the contribution of treatment to the students' performance on the test items.
Ferreira, João; Marques, Carla; AZEVEDO,Carlos
Considering the deep transformations that the banking sector has been experiencing in recent years at a competitive level, this research focuses on identifying the determinants of competitiveness and the variables affecting the same, regarding the level of resources, capabilities and competencies of the local branches. This study focuses in particular on the analysis of the determinants of competitiveness of a specific type of company (agency) in a particular sector (Commercial banking). The ...
Many pregnant women in Africa who access professional antenatal care do not receive all the WHO-recommended components of care. Using Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) data from Kenya, Malawi and Nigeria, this study assesses the relationship of education level with the quality of antenatal care received and highlights how the number of antenatal visits mediates this relationship. The results show that a large proportion of the effect of education level on quality of care is direct, while only a small portion is mediated through the number of antenatal visits. Efforts to improve pregnancy outcomes for under-privileged women should focus on removing structural barriers to access, strengthening the technical and interpersonal skills of providers, and addressing providers' biases and discriminatory practices towards these women. Such efforts should also seek to empower underprivileged women to insist on quality antenatal care by explaining what to expect during an antenatal visit.
Bragg, Heather R; Towle Millard, Heather A; Millard, Ralph P; Constable, Peter D; Freeman, Lyn J
OBJECTIVE To determine whether gender or interest in pursuing specialty certification in internal medicine or surgery was associated with video-gaming, 3-D spatial analysis, or entry-level laparoscopic skills in third-year veterinary students. DESIGN Cross-sectional study. SAMPLE A convenience sample of 68 (42 female and 26 male) third-year veterinary students. PROCEDURES Participants completed a survey asking about their interest in pursuing specialty certification in internal medicine or surgery. Subsequently, participants' entry-level laparoscopic skills were assessed with 3 procedures performed in box trainers, their video-gaming skills were tested with 3 video games, and their 3-D spatial analysis skills were evaluated with the Purdue University Visualization of Rotations Spatial Test. Scores were assigned for laparoscopic, video-gaming, and 3-D spatial analysis skills. RESULTS Significantly more female than male students were interested in pursuing specialty certification in internal medicine (23/42 vs 7/26), and significantly more male than female students were interested in pursuing specialty certification in surgery (19/26 vs 19/42). Males had significantly higher video-gaming skills scores than did females, but spatial analysis and laparoscopic skills scores did not differ between males and females. Students interested in pursuing specialty certification in surgery had higher video-gaming and spatial analysis skills scores than did students interested in pursuing specialty certification in internal medicine, but laparoscopic skills scores did not differ between these 2 groups. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE For this group of students, neither gender nor interest in specialty certification in internal medicine versus surgery was associated with entry-level laparoscopy skills.
Full Text Available
style="margin: 0cm 0cm 0pt;">style="font-size: small;">style="mso-font-kerning: 0pt;" lang="EN-US">style="font-family: Times New Roman;">This study attempted to determine the factors related to the management skills of high school library directors in Taiwan, R. style="font-family: "Arial","sans-serif"; mso-font-kerning: 0pt;" lang="EN-US">o. style="mso-font-kerning: 0pt;" lang="EN-US">style="font-family: Times New Roman;">C. There were five dimensions of the Level of Management Skills (LMS, namely, professionalism, communication, library knowledge and skills, administration, and instructional leadership. The sample size was 201 randomly selected high school library directorsstyle="font-family: Times New Roman;">style="font-size: 7.5pt; font-family: HiddenHorzOCR; mso-font-kerning: 0pt; mso-bidi-font-family: HiddenHorzOCR;" lang="EN-US"> style="mso-font-kerning: 0pt;" lang="EN-US">style="font-size: small;">in Taiwan. Data were collected by mail questionnaire from July to September 1996. Correlation analyses were conducted to examine the relationships between the factors of the library directors' sum of the LMS scores and independent variables. The regression equation was drawn. In the full model of the regression analysis, derived independent variables, "Support, circulation volumes, and the type of school," "Education and effort," and "Continuing professional education activities in library science" explained the greatest amount of unique variance in the dependent variable, the sum of the LMS scores. This study suggested establishing the standards of basic abilities for school library directors, arranging local unions of high school library directors in the country, re-arranging the core courses of the library majors, and emphasizing the role of "instructional consultant"
style="margin: 0cm 0cm 0pt;">style
Full Text Available Purpose : The style of the fight is one of the important factors that affect the quality of the arts in boxing. Particularly important factor in the modern boxing are the mental processes that are involved in forecasting and analyzing the situation that arises in the ring and are associated with cognitive functions. Purpose - to examine the psychophysiological state and a special performance for skilled boxers with different styles of input match. Material : 22 highly qualification boxer aged 18-23 years were studies. The absolute and the relative strength of serial and single strikes were studied. Definition of special performance and power strokes performed on a special simulator. Recorded the absolute and relative strength of serial and single strikes. Results : The results show that the attacking style of the fight in boxing is accompanied by the presence of a high level of efficiency, reduction of fatigue, anxiety, and depending on the condition of vegetative functions. Showed a reduction in the growth of autonomy and heteronomy in the structure of psycho-physiological state of boxers with the attacking style of the fight, which indicates the presence of compromise and avoidance of external failures. Conclusions : Boxers with attacking style of fight characterized by high values of the left side impact forces and reduce the values of the right direct strike force, compared with boxers protective style of fight.
Allen, Nancy J.; DeLauro, Kimberly A.; Perry, Julia K.; Carman, Carol A.
Previous research has found a positive relationship between students who had completed a sequence of developmental reading and writing courses and success in a reading-intensive college-level course. This study replicates and expands upon the previous research of Goldstein and Perin (2008) by utilizing a differently diverse sample and an…
Anderson, Colette; Peterson, Louise
This project first identified the duties and tasks required of an entry-level retail salesperson, using the DACUM (Developing a Curriculum) occupational analysis process. In this process, a panel of local managers and expert workers determine the essential duties and tasks of their occupation. Next, the panel identified the specific basic skills…
Fletcher, Donna; Dunn, Julie; Prince, Rosemary
The rapid growth of the event industry has resulted in a world-wide demand for education and training programs in event management. While the professional associations in event management have provided providing quality training and credentialing for their members, the 140 colleges and universities preparing students for entry level positions in…
Siegel, Donald S.
A study addressed the effects of technological change using a new, rich source of firm-level data on technology usage and labor force composition. The empirical investigation is based on a survey of Long Island manufacturers' usage of computer-integrated manufacturing systems (CIMS) or advanced manufacturing technologies (AMTs). The study also…
Brown, Ted; Williams, Brett; Boyle, Malcolm; Molloy, Andrew; McKenna, Lisa; Palermo, Claire; Molloy, Liz; Lewis, Belinda
Few empirical studies have been undertaken on the communication styles of specific health-related disciplines. The objective of this study is to identify the communication styles of undergraduate health students at an Australian university. A cross-sectional study using a paper-based version of the Communicator Style Measure (CSM) was administered to a cohort of students enrolled in eight different undergraduate health-related courses. There were 1459 health students eligible for inclusion in the study. 860 students (response rate of 59%) participated in the study. Participants overall preferred the Friendly and Attentive communicator styles and gave least preference to the Contentious and Dominant styles. There was considerable similarity between participants from each of the health-related courses. There was no statistical difference in relation to communicator styles between the age of the participant or the year level they were enrolled in. These results show a preference for communicator styles which are facilitative of a client-centred approach, empathetic, and positive with interpersonal relationships. The lack of significant difference in communicator styles by year level further suggests that people disposed to such communicator styles are drawn to these health-related courses, rather than the specific field of study affecting their style. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Goodwin, John A.; Gilbert, Brian D.
Self-selected individual course-grade weighting schemes allow students personal choice of course components in the general chemistry sequence at Coastal Carolina University. With the availability of a wide range of commercial and academically produced pedagogical resources, students can select materials that best suit their own learning styles, social situations, and motivation level. Our students use a signed contract to indicate their preferred grade-weighting schemes for determination of the course grade. In doing so, they choose from course components that include peer-led team learning (PLTL) in the Workshop Chemistry (WSC) model, computer-assisted instruction (CAI) using the ChemSkill Builder (CSB) software, a variety of in-class quizzes and group problem-solving exercises, written exams, and the final written exam. Minimum percentage values are required of all components except WSC and CSB, which have been completely optional graded course components at CCU since the summer of 1999. Comparison of student success in the course and content learning suggests that the improvements observed with introduction of a gamut of activities increase even more when the cafeteria-style grading is implemented.
Iarussi, Melanie H.; Tyler, Jessica M.; Littlebear, Sarah; Hinkle, Michelle S.
Motivational interviewing (MI), a humanistic counseling style used to help activate clients' motivation to change, was integrated into a basic counseling skills course. Nineteen graduate-level counseling students completed the Counselor Estimate of Self-Efficacy at the start and conclusion of the course. Significant differences were found between…
Full Text Available This study was conducted to develop an instructional model of mechanical skill learning for the STM students to improve their cognitive, psychomotoric skills, motivation, and creativity. To develop an adequate instructional model, 15 experts were consulted. Based on the result of consultation, the model was revised. The revised model was then tried-out to 20 students of the STM Bengkulu and 17 students of the STM Curup. The result of try-out showed that the developed test items had moderate validity and reliability. The revised instructional model was applied to 25 students of the STM Bengkulu and 30 students of the STM Curup. The result of the study showed that the integrated instructional model was effective to teach mechanical skill, highly effective to increase students' motivation, and moderate to develop creativity
Winters, John V
Formal schooling increases earnings and provides other individual benefits. However, societal benefits of education may exceed individual benefits. Research finds that increased average education levels in an area are correlated with higher earnings, even for locals with relatively little education. Science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) graduates appear to have especially strong external effects, due to their role in stimulating innovation and economic growth. Several strat...
Shukla, Divya; Dungsungnoen, Aj Pattaradanai
Higher order thinking skills (HOTS) has portrayed immense industry demand and the major goal of educational institution in imparting education is to inculcate higher order thinking skills. This compiles and mandate the institutions and instructor to develop the higher order thinking skills among students in order to prepare them for effective…
High-level thinking and problem solving skill is one requirement of computer programming that most of the students experience problems with. Individual differences such as motivation, attitude towards programming, thinking style of the student, and complexity of the programming language have influence on students' success on programming. Thus,…
Massey, Margaret G; Kim, Suk-Hee; Mitchell, Courtney
This study examines the learning styles of students in social work classes at Norfolk State University. Knowledge of learning styles can enhance the ability of faculty to build on student experiences and construct new learning opportunities. Kolb's Learning Style Inventory was administered to identify each student's dominate learning style. The theoretical underpinning is experiential learning, which supports the concept that learning styles are developed through experiences. The results indicated that diverging and accommodating learning styles occurred most often. Students with these styles learn best in classes where activities include lectures, role playing exercises, discussions, opportunities to practice skills, and reflection.
Kocher, Martin G.; Pogrebna, Ganna; Sutter, Matthias
We use a laboratory experiment to examine whether and to what extent other-regarding preferences of team leaders influence their leadership style in choice under risk. We find that leaders who prefer efficiency or report high levels of selfishness are more likely to exercise an autocratic leadership style by ignoring preferences of the other team members. Yet, inequity aversion has no significant impact on leadership styles. Elected leaders have a higher propensity than exogenously assigned l...
Chakrabarty, Madhushree; Biswas, Atanu; Pal, Sandip; Chatterjee, Amita
Pragmatic competence may be disrupted due to psychological and neurological causes. For appropriate remedy and rehabilitation, a precise assessment of pragmatic skills is important. However, there is no test battery in the Bengali language, and consequently, there is no published data on pragmatic ability of Bengali speakers. Due to the vast diversity of the population, it becomes increasingly difficult to assess pragmatic ability of an individual without a proper knowledge of the normal variations. To address this problem we have developed a test battery in Bengali, and to begin with, we have administered it to one hundred and five (105) normal healthy persons having different levels of education. The four groups having 17 years and above, 15 to education yielded a normative score of 193, 189, 171 and 150, respectively. These normative scores will allow clinicians to make a proper assessment of patients suffering from pragmatic deficits and help avoid interpreting social differences as neurological deficits.
LaRoche, Kelli Morrison
A practicum was developed to address deficiencies in students' writing skills. The program goals were to assess the students' abilities to use prewriting strategies, to use supportive elements in writing, and to evaluate students' progress using pre- and post-attitude surveys and writing samples. The target group was 20 eighth-grade journalism…
The 21st century demands a new kind of leader with relevant skills. Action learning is effective in developing leaders because it is adaptable and flexible. In this investigation, 58 Regional Development Officers were asked to rate the leadership styles of Regional Development Managers on the Leadership Style Inventory ...
People have different learning styles that are reflected in different academic strengths, weaknesses, skills, and interests. Given the almost unlimited variety of job descriptions within food science and engineering, it is safe to say that students with every possible learning style have the potential to succeed as food scientists and engineers.…
Sportsman, Susan; Hamilton, Patti
The purpose of the study was to determine prevalent conflict management styles chosen by students in nursing and to contrast these styles with those chosen by students in allied health professions. The associations among the level of professional health care education and the style chosen were also determined. A convenience sample of 126 students in a comprehensive university completed the Thomas-Kilmann Conflict Mode Instrument (TKI), which requires respondents to choose behaviors most characteristic of their response to conflict and classifies these behaviors as one of five styles. There was no significant difference between the prevalent conflict management styles chosen by graduate and undergraduate nursing students and those in allied health. Some of the students were already licensed in their discipline; others had not yet taken a licensing exam. Licensure and educational level were not associated with choice of styles. Women and men had similar preferences. The prevalent style for nursing students was compromise, followed by avoidance. In contrast, avoidance, followed by compromise and accommodation, was the prevalent style for allied health students. When compared to the TKI norms, slightly more than one half of all participants chose two or more conflict management styles, commonly avoidance and accommodation at the 75th percentile or above. Only 9.8% of the participants chose collaboration at that level. Implications for nurse educators, researchers, and administrators are discussed.
Tin Cheuk Leung
Full Text Available This paper studies optimal distribution of skills in an optimal income tax framework with convex skill constraints. The problem is cast as a social planning problem where a redistributive planner chooses how to distribute a given amount of aggregate skills across people. We find that optimal skill distribution is either perfectly equal or perfectly unequal, but an interior level of skill inequality is never optimal.
Madan-Swain, Avi; Hankins, Shirley L; Gilliam, Margaux Barnes; Ross, Kelly; Reynolds, Nina; Milby, Jesse; Schwebel, David C
This article considers the development of research competencies in professional psychology and how that movement might be applied to training in pediatric psychology. The field of pediatric psychology has a short but rich history, and experts have identified critical competencies. However, pediatric psychology has not yet detailed a set of research-based competencies. This article initially reviews the competency initiative in professional psychology, including the cube model as it relates to research training. Next, we review and adapt the knowledge-based/foundational and applied/functional research competencies proposed by health psychology into a cube model for pediatric psychology. We focus especially on graduate-level training but allude to its application throughout professional development. We present the cube model as it is currently being applied to the development of a systematic research competency evaluation for graduate training at our medical/clinical psychology doctoral program at the University of Alabama at Birmingham. Based on the review and synthesis of the literature on research competency in professional psychology we propose future initiatives to develop these competencies for the field of pediatric psychology. The cube model can be successfully applied to the development of research training competencies in pediatric psychology. Future research should address the development, implementation, and assessment of the research competencies for training and career development of future pediatric psychologists.
Full Text Available Purpose : To determine the features of tactical thinking volleyball players of different skill levels and the importance of this function during their competitive activities. Material and methods : the study involved in 28 different sports categories players aged 17-34 years. Used interactive methods «Volleyball-Test». Results: revealed that the level of masters of sports players had values at 64.22 % - tactical thinking in the attack, and 59.46 % - tactical thinking in defense. Accordingly - Candidate Master of Sports (42.24 % and 40.19 % and players Ι-ΙΙΙ bits (34.44 % and 28.89 %. The dependence of the quality of players in competitive activity level masters of sports of tactical thinking in the attack at r = 0,66, and to protect r = 0,54. As appointed a relationship as competitive activities and tactical thinking of attacking r = 0,58. The player Ι-ΙΙΙ bits of data dependencies as competitive activities of tactical training have been identified. Conclusions : The set features suggest the development of tactical thinking in sports games acquiring playing experience of the players.
Full Text Available A language is probably the most difficult set of skills a person could ever struggle to learn. There is no easy way to master a language, particularly a language which is not our first language. In the process of learning a language particularly a second language, there are many variables that determine the success of learning; one of the variables is learning styles. In a class made up of various learning styles, it is always necessary for language teachers to identify, respect, and work on the diversity of the learners’ differences. The study investigated the diverse learning styles employed by ESL students of SMPN 1 Dagangan, Madiun Regency of East Java. The students were classified into three levels of competence: high, middle, and low level competence. They were also classified based on gender: males and females. A set of questionnaire was distributed to fifteen students. To get deeper interpretation on their learning styles, the students were also interviewed. The students’ learning style preferences were identified based on their levels of competence and gender in order to investigate their differences. The data was analyzed qualitatively. The findings revealed that the students’ learning styles can be categorized into visual, auditory, kinesthethic, tactile, individual, and group learners. The results of the study indicated that there were some differences in using learning styles by the students of high, middle and low levels of competence. A little difference was also found in male and female students in using learning styles. Thus, it is important for teachers to be aware of their students learning styles. It is clear then that one factor which can lead to the success of a language teaching-learning process is the match between students` learning styles and the teaching methods used by the teachers.
Full Text Available Adaptive skills are defined as a collection of conceptual, social and practical skills that are learned by people in order to function in their everyday lives. They include an individual's ability to adapt to and manage her or his surroundings to effectively function and meet social or community expectations. Good adaptive skills promote individual's independence in different environments, whereas poorly developed adaptive skills are connected to individual's dependency and with greater need for control and help with everyday tasks. Assessment of adaptive skills is often connected to assessment of intellectual disability, due to the reason that the diagnosis of intellectual disability includes lower levels of achievements on standardized tests of intellectual abilities as well as important deficits in adaptive skills. Assessment of adaptive behavior is a part of standard assessment battery with children and adults with different problems, disorders or disabilities that affect their everyday functioning. This contribution also presents psychometric tools most regularly used for assessment of adaptive skills and characteristics of adaptive skills with individual clinical groups.
Haycraft, Emma; Blissett, Jackie
This study aimed to examine associations between symptoms of eating disorders and parenting style, in a non-clinical sample. One hundred and five mothers completed self-report measures of eating disorder symptoms and parenting style. Higher levels of eating disorder symptoms were associated with more authoritarian and permissive parenting styles. Authoritative parenting was not significantly related to eating disorder symptoms. The findings demonstrate that eating disorder symptoms in non-clinical individuals are related to less adaptive parenting styles. These findings have potential implications for clinicians working with mothers with eating disorders. 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Introduction: The fact that emotional and social experiences in early childhood period within the family influence the experiences in adolescence and adulthood (communication skills, interpersonal relations) is not a new case. Therefore, the aim of this study is to examine the relationship between childhood abuse and attachment styles. Method: The…
Dean SPGS NAU
7) opinion “it is a combination of traits, skills and behaviours that leaders use while they interact with subordinates”. From behavioural view leadership style serves as a medium of interaction between the leader and the group. This interaction centres on decision-making which can be influenced by certain circumstances the ...
Jahn, Georg; Krems, Josef F; Gelau, Christhard
This study tested whether the ease of learning to use human-machine interfaces of in-vehicle information systems (IVIS) can be assessed at standstill. Assessing the attentional demand of IVIS should include an evaluation of ease of learning, because the use of IVIS at low skill levels may create safety-relevant distractions. Skill acquisition in operating IVIS was quantified by fitting the power law of practice to training data sets collected in a driving study and at standstill. Participants practiced manual destination entry with two route guidance systems differing in cognitive demand. In Experiment 1, a sample of middle-aged participants was trained while steering routes of varying driving demands. In Experiment 2, another sample of middle-aged participants was trained at standstill. In Experiment 1, display glance times were less affected by driving demands than by total task times and decreased at slightly higher speed-up rates (0.02 higher on average) than task times collected at standstill in Experiment 2. The system interface that minimized cognitive demand was operated more quickly and was easier to learn. Its system delays increased static task times, which still predicted 58% of variance in display glance times compared with even 76% for the second system. The ease of learning to use an IVIS interface and the decrease in attentional demand with training can be assessed at standstill. Fitting the power law of practice to static task times yields parameters that predict display glance times while driving, which makes it possible to compare interfaces with regard to ease of learning.
de Vries, R.E.; Bakker-Pieper, A.; Konings, F.E.; Schouten, B.
In this study, a six-dimensional model of communication styles is proposed and operationalized using the Communication Styles Inventory (CSI). The CSI distinguishes between six domain-level communicative behavior scales, Expressiveness, Preciseness, Verbal Aggressiveness, Questioningness,
Loos, Rebecca; Ward, James
Students in Physics learn in a variety ways depending on backgrounds and interests. This study proposes to evaluate how students in Physics learn using Howard Gardner's Theory of Multiple Intelligences. Physics utilizes numbers, conceptualization of models, observations and visualization skills, and the ability to understand and reflect on specific information. The main objective is to evaluate how Physics students learn specifically using spatial, visual and sequential approaches. This will be assessed by conducting a learning style survey provided by North Carolina State University (NCSU). The survey is completed online by the student after which the results are sent to NCSU. Students will print out the completed survey analysis for further evaluation. The NCSU results categorize students within five of ten learning styles. After the evaluation of Howard Gardner's Theory of Multiple Intelligences and the NCSU definitions of the ten learning styles, the NCSU sensing and visual learning styles will be defined as the Gardener's spatial, visual learning styles. NCSU's sequential learning style will be looked at separately. With the survey results, it can be determined if Physics students fall within the hypothesized learning styles.
Background. Undergraduate students at universities have different learning styles. To perform optimally, both they and their educators should be made aware of their preferred learning styles and problem-solving abilities. Students have different backgrounds, strengths, weaknesses, interests, ambitions, levels of motivation ...
Lawler, Edward E.
Points to the increasing education level in society as a force toward participative management style. Stresses that the education taking place in the United States may not equip people to work in a democratic workplace. Presents a model of participative management style and discusses its relationship to education. (BH)
Gobaw, Mekasha Kassaye
This research had three objectives: determining the level of participation of women in the academic leadership of Addis Ababa University (AAU), specifying the types of leadership styles women leaders demonstrate, and tracing the factors that led to those styles. Two key research instruments were used: questionnaires and interview. Qualitative and…
Natália Barros Beltrão
Full Text Available The level of knowledge accuracy of results (KR is a variable that interferes with the learning of motor skills, however such interference does not work the same way in adults and children. This study examined the effects of KR in children and adults during learning of a manipulative task with target accuracy. Forty adults (female = 21.13 ± 2.26 years; male = 20.97 ± 2.17 years and forty children (female = 9.10 ± .83 years; male = 9.70 ± .48 years practiced a task of hitting a target placed on a table by the thrown of metal discs. There were six experimental groups and two control groups (without KR containing 10 subjects each. Experimental groups differed according to the individual's KR (less precise KR, precise KR and very precise KR and development level (children and adult. Performance measure was the absolute error (AE. A three-way (age × groups × blocks and two-way (groups × blocks analysis of variance for the stabilization and adaptation phases were used. Results showed that adults perform better than children in low and intermediate KR and in high KR adults and children showed similar performance.
Full Text Available The level of knowledge accuracy of results (KR is a variable that interferes with the learning of motor skills, however such interference does not work the same way in adults and children. This study examined the effects of KR in children and adults during learning of a manipulative task with target accuracy. Forty adults (female = 21.13 ± 2.26 years; male = 20.97 ± 2.17 years and forty children (female = 9.10 ± .83 years; male = 9.70 ± .48 years practiced a task of hitting a target placed on a table by the thrown of metal discs. There were six experimental groups and two control groups (without KR containing 10 subjects each. Experimental groups differed according to the individual's KR (less precise KR, precise KR and very precise KR and development level (children and adult. Performance measure was the absolute error (AE. A three-way (age × groups × blocks and two-way (groups × blocks analysis of variance for the stabilization and adaptation phases were used. Results showed that adults perform better than children in low and intermediate KR and in high KR adults and children showed similar performance.
García, Eduardo; Crespo, Patricia; Bermúdez, Ivana
The main objective of this research was to analyze the impact of transcription skills of Spanish writers when writing an independently composed sentence within a writing-level design. The free-writing sentence task from the Early Grade Writing Assessment (Jiménez, in press) was used to examine the production, accuracy, speed, syntactic complexity, quality, and fluency of children with poor transcription skills (PTS). The results showed that there were significant differences between children with PTS and peers who had good transcription skills. The PTS group members were less accurate, slower, and less fluent or even dysfluent. Furthermore, their sentences were less complex and contained lower quality content. These results suggest that transcription skills play a crucial role in early written expression in Spanish, and poor transcription abilities hamper the acquisition and normal development of sentence composition.
Privitera, Gregory J; King-Shepard, Quentin W; Cuifolo, Kayla N; Doraiswamy, P Murali
While eating in response to emotional cues is associated with intake of unhealthy foods, less is known about the extent to which obesity and depression may differentially influence food intake in a buffet-style setting where low- and high-calorie foods are available to choose from. Using a counterbalanced design, 154 participants were grouped by depression and obesity categories, then asked to read a series of vignettes that were sad (on 1 day) and neutral (on a different day), followed by a buffet to eat until full. Food intake (in grams and calories) and food choice (number of high- or low-calorie food options) were recorded. Results showed that participants who were obese and depressed had significantly greater energy intake following the sad versus happy vignette, largely due to increased intake of high-calorie foods. The results corroborate recent theories on emotional eating and extend the ecological validity of such effects in a buffet-style setting.
Dannenberg, Roger B.
Because music is not objectively descriptive or representational, the subjective qualities of music seem to be most important. Style is one of the most salient qualities of music, and in fact most descriptions of music refer to some aspect of musical style. Style in music can refer to historical periods, composers, performers, sonic texture, emotion, and genre. In recent years, many aspects of music style have been studied from the standpoint of automation: How can musical style be recognized and synthesized? An introduction to musical style describes ways in which style is characterized by composers and music theorists. Examples are then given where musical style is the focal point for computer models of music analysis and music generation.
Kindt, Karlijn C. M.; Kleinjan, Marloes; Janssens, Jan M. A. M.; Scholte, Ron H. J.
As restructuring a negative cognitive style is a central skill taught in many depression prevention programs, we tested whether a universal prevention program evoked a change in negative cognitive style in adolescents. In addition, we examined distinct developmental trajectories of negative cognitive styles and assessed whether research condition…
Abedini, Yasamin; Zamani, Bibi Eshrat; Kheradmand, Ali; Rajabizadeh, Ghodratollah
Background Addiction to computer (video) games in adolescents and its relationship with educational progress has recently attracted the attention of rearing and education experts as well as organizations and institutes involved in physical and mental health. The current research attempted to propose a structural model of the relationships between parenting styles, mothers’ occupation status, and addiction to computer games, self-control, and educational progress of secondary school students. ...
The purpose of this study was to devise a leadership style scale based in the authoritarian/democratic concept of leadership and to test it with a group of nurses. The working hypothesis was that nurses, working by primary nursing methods, would have a more democratic attitude to leadership than those nurses working in a traditional task allocation system. Recent papers such as that of Henry & Tuxill (1) plead for the caring professions to take on board the concept of the 'person'. Not only is the traditional model of nursing care seen as bad for the patient; it is seen also as harmful to the nurses. Fretwell (2) describes the task system as essentially an industrial model rather than a professional one which tends to satisfy the needs of the doctor rather than the patient or nurse. Kinston (3) describes nursing decision-making and work as Level I work (tradesmen). Current models of care that individualize the nurse's response to work and decision-making become Level II type (professional). Primary nursing fulfils the need for professionalizing nursing and meeting the need for more independence as well as respecting the patient as a 'person' with the organisation there to facilitate interaction between qualified nurse and patient. Changes in attitude and relationships are essential if work is to change from task to person-centred. Styles of leadership in nurses need to alter as our orientation to care issues change (4).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
Annotation for the Doctoral Work Film Noir Style Genealogy (The Genealogy of the Film Noir Style) The doctoral work topic Film Noir Style Genealogy encompasses traditionally approved world film theory views on the concept of film noir and its related cinematographic heritage, and an exploration of its evolution and distinctive style, including – the development of film noir in the USA, Europe, and also in Latvia, within the context of both socio-political progression and the paradigm of m...
Titus, Thomas G.; And Others
Results are reported from a study of the learning styles of 306 high school students. The study examined learning style characteristics (abstraction, concreteness, reflection, activity); comparisons between adolescent and adult learning styles; and differences between freshmen and seniors, males and females, and slow-track and fast-track learners.…
Adigüzel, Abdullah; Orhan, Ali
It is remarkable that there are only a few studies that measures to what extent metacognitive and self-regulation skills affect students' academic achievements in the English lesson. This study is important for identifying the personal variables that have an impact on metacognitive and self-regulation skill and determining the relationship between…
Padulo, Johnny; Di Giminiani, Riccardo; Dello Iacono, Antonio; Zagatto, Alessandro M; Migliaccio, Gian M; Grgantov, Zoran; Ardigò, Luca P
We investigated the electromyographic response to synchronous indirect-localized vibration interventions in international and national table tennis players. Twenty-six male table tennis players, in a standing position, underwent firstly an upper arms maximal voluntary contraction and thereafter two different 30-s vibration interventions in random order: high acceleration load (peak acceleration = 12.8 g, frequency = 40 Hz; peak-to-peak displacement = 4.0 mm), and low acceleration load (peak acceleration = 7.2 g, frequency = 30 Hz, peak-to-peak displacement = 4.0 mm). Surface electromyography root mean square from brachioradialis, extensor digitorum, flexor carpi radialis, and flexor digitorum superficialis recorded during the two vibration interventions was normalized to the maximal voluntary contraction recording. Normalized surface electromyography root mean square was higher in international table tennis players with respect to national ones in all the interactions between muscles and vibration conditions (P 0.05). The difference in normalized surface electromyography root mean square between international table tennis players and national ones increased in all the muscles with high acceleration load (P 0.05). The muscle activation during indirect-localized vibration seems to be both skill level and muscle dependent. These results can optimize the training intervention in table tennis players when applying indirect-localized vibration to lower arm muscles. Future investigations should discriminate between middle- and long-term adaptations in response to specific vibration loads.
Lawden, M. D.
This document describes the various styles which are recommended for Starlink documents. It also explains how to use the templates which are provided by Starlink to help authors create documents in a standard style. This paper is concerned mainly with conveying the ``look and feel" of the various styles of Starlink document rather than describing the technical details of how to produce them. Other Starlink papers give recommendations for the detailed aspects of document production, design, layout, and typography. The only style that is likely to be used by most Starlink authors is the Standard style.
Full Text Available Background and Aim: Today, work related stress has become a common and costly problem in work places that most of studies in the last 30 decades have engaged in this problem. Several reports indicate that the occupations such as nursing which have high psychological job demands and low decision latitude are very stressful. This stress can cause harmful physical and psychological effects on nurses’ health. On the other hand, job stress may result in high rates of injury, tardiness and absenteeism at work place and reduced productivity and organizational commitment leading to low quality of nursing care. Numerous studies suggested that learning new activities and skills such as communication skills is one of the best strategies against job stress .The purpose of this study was to test the effectiveness of communication Skills training in reducing work stress level among nursing personnel in rehabilitation centers. Materials and Methods: The quasi- experimental design was conducted. A sample of 48 nursing personnel participated in the study. Subjects were randomly assigned to one of two experimental or control groups. Subjects in experimental group participated in a 7- hour’s workshop, all subjects were pre and post tested (one month later for job stress and communication skills with the Karasek’s Job Content Questionnaire (JCQ and communication skills test. Results: Results revealed the following: (1 subjects in both groups after pretest were the middle level of stress and communication skills. (2 After training the experimental group scored higher on the rating of communication skills than control group and had successfully maintained their improvements for 4 weeks. (3 After training the experimental group showed lower level of stress than control group and had successfully maintained their improvements for 4 weeks. Conclusion: As a result of this research communication skills training could reduce level of stress among nursing personnel
Lee, Bokyung; Kim, Haedong
This study aims to investigate Korean university-level EFL learners' learning style preferences. The characteristics of their learning style preferences and implications for effective English learning were examined through the quantitative analysis of 496 subjects' responses to a learning style survey and their English achievement and term-end…
Turğut, Nedim; Karlıdağ, Turgut; Başar, Figen; Yalçın, Şinasi; Kaygusuz, İrfan; Keleş, Erol; Birkent, Ömer Faruk
This study aims to review the relationship between written language skills and factors which are thought to affect this skill such as mean hearing loss, duration of auditory deprivation, speech discrimination score, and pre-school education attendance and socioeconomic status of hearing impaired children who attend 4th-7th grades in primary school in inclusive environment. The study included 25 hearing impaired children (14 males, 11 females; mean age 11.4±1.4 years; range 10 to 14 years) (study group) and 20 children (9 males, 11 females; mean age 11.5±1.3 years; range 10 to 14 years) (control group) with normal hearing in the same age group and studying in the same class. Study group was separated into two subgroups as group 1a and group 1b since some of the children with hearing disability used hearing aid while some used cochlear implant. Intragroup comparisons and relational screening were performed for those who use hearing aids and cochlear implants. Intergroup comparisons were performed to evaluate the effect of the parameters on written language skills. Written expression skill level of children with hearing disability was significantly lower than their normal hearing peers (p=0.001). A significant relationship was detected between written language skills and mean hearing loss (p=0.048), duration of auditory deprivation (p=0.021), speech discrimination score (p=0.014), and preschool attendance (p=0.005), when it comes to socioeconomic status we were not able to find any significant relationship (p=0.636). It can be said that hearing loss affects written language skills negatively and hearing impaired individuals develop low-level written language skills compared to their normal hearing peers.
Williams, Geraint; Wood, Edward V; Ibram, Ferda
Leadership is a skill to be developed by all doctors from the foundation trainee to the director of the board. This article explores the impact of leadership style on performance and considers techniques to develop doctors' leadership skills and personal effectiveness.
Amir Reza Saleh Moghadam
Full Text Available Background: Patients with type II diabetes mostly struggle with increased fasting blood sugar (FBS and glycosylated hemoglobin HbA1c, which are associated with irrecoverable complications. Self-care education and different types of learning among patients are regarded as some of the most important issues in this regard. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the effect of self-care education based on VARK learning style on HbA1c and FBS in patients with type II diabetes. Methods: This clinical trial was conducted on patients with type II diabetes referring to Parsian Clinic in Mashhad, Iran in 2015. In total, 72 samples were selected through randomized convenience sampling and divided into two control and intervention groups of 36 cases. Subjects of the intervention group were also divided into subgroups of visual, aural, read/write and kinesthetic based on the results of VARK questionnaire. Self-care education was carried out for the intervention group in two 60-minute sessions once every two weeks, tailored to learning styles of the patients. Meanwhile, routine conferences were held for the control group. HbA1c and FBS levels were evaluated in all the participants before and a month and a half after the intervention to assess the self-care of patients. Data analysis was performed in SPSS version 21 using Mann-Whitney U, Chi-square, independent t-test and Wilcoxon signed-rank test. Results: In this study, mean score of HbA1c level was decreased from 7.7±0.8 to 7.0±5.7 (P<0.062, whereas mean score of FBS level was alleviated from 176.1±33.5 to 147.7±32.8 (P<0.001, which was only significant regarding the level of FBS (P=0.002. Conclusion: According to the results of this study, application of VARK learning style led to a reduction in HbA1c and FBS levels, contributing to improved self-care in patients with type II diabetes. Therefore, it is suggested that learning style of patients be determined using VARK questionnaire before their
Merrill, Katreena Collette
The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between nurse manager (NM) leadership style and safety climate. Nursing leaders are needed who will change the environment and increase patient safety. Hospital NMs are positioned to impact day-to-day operations. Therefore, it is essential to inform nurse executives regarding the impact of leadership style on patient safety. A descriptive correlational study was conducted in 41 nursing departments across 9 hospitals. The hospital unit safety climate survey and multifactorial leadership questionnaire were completed by 466 staff nurses. Bivariate and regression analyses were conducted to determine how well leadership style predicted safety climate. Transformational leadership style was demonstrated as a positive contributor to safety climate, whereas laissez-faire leadership style was shown to negatively contribute to unit socialization and a culture of blame. Nursing leaders must concentrate on developing transformational leadership skills while also diminishing negative leadership styles.
This paper aims at investigating the effect of Arabization of Romanic Alphabets on the development of 9th Grade English as a Foreign Language students' composition writing skills at secondary school level. This experimental study includes 25 secondary school students in their 9th Grade in which English is taught as a foreign language at…
Thompson, Ronald G., Jr.; Auslander, Wendy F.; Alonzo, Dana
The purpose of this study is to identify individual-level characteristics of foster care adolescents who are more likely to not participate in, and drop out of, a life-skills HIV prevention program delivered over 8 months. Structured interviews were conducted with 320 foster care adolescents (15-18 years). Logistic regression and survival analyses…
Apel, Kenn; Lawrence, Jessika
Purpose: In this study, the authors compared the morphological awareness abilities of children with speech sound disorder (SSD) and children with typical speech skills and examined how morphological awareness ability predicted word-level reading and spelling performance above other known contributors to literacy development. Method: Eighty-eight…
Garcia, Eduardo; Crespo, Patricia; Bermúdez, Ivana
The main objective of this research was to analyze the impact of transcription skills of Spanish writers when writing an independently composed sentence within a writing-level design. The free-writing sentence task from the "Early Grade Writing Assessment" (Jiménez, in press) was used to examine the production, accuracy, speed, syntactic…
ALharbi, Bassam H. M.; Mhaidat, Fatin
The present study aimed to identify the level of owning a field training students majoring in psychological counseling at the Hashemite University of professional and family counseling skills in light of achievement and gender variables. The subjects of the study comprised of (100) subjects of field training students in the second semester of the…
Artesia Public Schools, NM.
This volume contains suggested curriculum guidelines for an effective bilingual program, with specific focus on Spanish language skills for the second grade level. The philosophy of the program views bilingual education as a vehicle and pedagogical tool to be used to better prepare all children to function in society. The point of departure for…
Artesia Public Schools, NM.
This volume contains suggested curriculum guidelines for an effective bilingual program, with specific focus on Spanish language skills for the third grade level. The philosophy of the program views bilingual education as a vehicle and pedagogical tool to be used to better prepare all children to function in society. The point of departure for…
Curseu, Petru Lucian; Schruijer, Sandra G. L.
This study investigates the relationship between the five decision-making styles evaluated by the General Decision-Making Style Inventory, indecisiveness, and rationality in decision making. Using a sample of 102 middle-level managers, the results show that the rational style positively predicts rationality in decision making and negatively…
Morsiani, Giuliana; Bagnasco, Annamaria; Sasso, Loredana
To describe staff nurses' perceptions related to the leadership styles adopted by their nurse managers, identify which leadership style ensured job satisfaction in staff nurses and describe which behaviours nurse managers should change. Empirical literature suggests that leadership styles of nurse managers significantly influence staff satisfaction. However, few studies investigate how staff nurses perceive the leadership styles of their nurse managers, and how these impact upon the staff nurses' job satisfaction. This was a mixed method study, which included the administration of the Multi-factor Leadership Questionnaire and three focus groups. Ward nurse managers mostly adopted a transactional leadership style ('Management by exception active') aimed at monitoring errors and intervening to correct errors and punish, which had a negative impact on staff nurses' levels of job satisfaction. In contrast, the transformational leadership style, which is mostly correlated with satisfaction ('Idealized Influence Attributed', which staff nurses perceived as 'respect', 'caring for others', 'professional development' and 'appreciation'), was rarely practiced by nurse managers. The transformational leadership skills of Italian nurse managers need to be improved through behaviours based on greater respect, caring for others, professional development and appreciation. The present study could also serve as model to improve the leadership style of nurse managers in other countries. The themes of transformational leadership could serve as a guide for nurse managers to help them improve their leadership style, and improve the levels of job satisfaction in staff nurses. Owing to the complexity and the importance of this issue, classroom educational interventions would not be sufficient: it should be dealt as a strategic priority by nursing directors. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Steinberg, Fabian; Pixa, Nils Henrik; Doppelmayr, Michael
Mirror training therapy is a promising tool to initiate neural plasticity and facilitate the recovery process of motor skills after diseases such as stroke or hemiparesis by improving the intermanual...
Caroline Cohrdes; Lorenz Grolig; Sascha Schroeder
Children in transition from kindergarten to school develop fundamental skills important for the acquisition of reading and writing. Previous research pointed toward substantial correlations between specific language- and music-related competencies as well as positive transfer effects from music on pre-literacy skills. However, until now the relationship between diverse music and language competencies remains unclear. In the present study, we used a comprehensive approach to clarify the relati...
Full Text Available In this research, drawing skills -free drawing works and periodical rules drawing works- of the 14-age-group students at the 8th grade in secondary schools and those in level II. in Private Education Practice Centre have been compared, in regards to some variations. With the extent of research, at Şeker Secondary school special training centre in Meram district in Konya Province, training exercise with a group of 14 students, 7 of whom are mentally retarded ones was conducted using direct teaching method, for 2 lesson time per week for different drawing task for each topic. Using direct teaching method during the second part of the education year 2012-2013 for being 2-lesson-time (40'+40' per week, totally 4 weeks, 4 lesson-time the studies of the researcher under his observation were evaluated in terms of both educational and design principles, with performance evaluation forms. In this research, documentary analysing method, one of the abstract research methods, has been used. In this research ,7 different drawing tasks were made under the topic of line, point, colour, stain and tissue. In this research, in two different topics, 'Free Drawing Works' and ' Periodical -Ruler Drawing Works' have been performed by using thin-medium-thick fiber tip pens. Performance assessments forms along with the curriculum were designed for each activity and were composed of pedagogical targets and artistic notifications under the extent of research. In these forms pedagogical targets and artistic notifications expected from pupils were assessed through filling in ''Yes-No'' boxes with “X”.
Full Text Available Study aim: In alpine skiing, balance is one of the key elements that determine the effectiveness of the ride. Because of ski boots, the foot and ankle joint complex is excluded from the process of maintaining the stability of the body. The aim of the study was to determine to what extent a few days of skiing activities and the level of technical skills affect the skiers’ level of postural stability.
Fallahi, Carolyn R.; Wood, Rebecca M.; Austad, Carol Shaw; Fallahi, Hamid
We examined the effects of in-class writing instruction, practice, peer review, and feedback on writing skills of undergraduates enrolled in a general psychology course. We rated writing for grammar, writing style, mechanics, and American Psychological Association referencing style. Significant differences emerged on the 4 writing skill domains (p…
Full Text Available Purpose: to analyze the technical and tactical training of Greco-Roman style wrestlers. Material : an analysis of 75 fights fighters winners (25 fight each style. Results : identified 10 main technical activities that are most commonly used in today's competitive activity of highly skilled fighters. It was found that for all the groups most fighters is received on the ground is a coup coasting. In the front - takedowns. Determined that in order to achieve victory GAME WRESTLERS use high-impact technical actions. POWER AND TEMPO - simple techniques. It was found that high-class fighters may lead the fight in different styles of confrontation. It depends on the personality of the opponent, subjective judging period, cramping, accounts for the fight and the level of competition. Conclusions : It was found that the most informative in assessing the technical and tactical capabilities fighters carries the final part of the competition. It is determined by the efficiency, effectiveness, technical arsenal.
Full Text Available How the individual differences prime different learning process is well addressed in literature. But, what is missing from these analyses is how learners with different identity styles approach reading and writing skills and if different identity styles can predict differentiated language performance. The present study aims at investigating the relationship between identity styles, and reading/writing skills of Iranian intermediate female EFL learners. One the basis of the results of Nelson language proficiency test, 120 participants were selected to participate in this research. Participants' answers to Berzonsky's Identity Style Inventory (ISI3 and reading and writing parts of Preliminary English Test were analyzed. The results indicated that informational and normative identity styles were found to be positively correlated and diffuse-avoidant style was negatively correlated with reading and writing abilities whereas commitment identity didn't bear any significant relationships. The findings also indicated that informational style acted as the best predictor of these skills. Implications for language teachers are suggested.
Francisco J. Ruiz
Full Text Available Mindfulness-based interventions have recently been proposed for the treatment of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD. However, the specific nature of the relationship between mindfulness skills and pathological worry is still not very well known. This study analyzes the mediating role of psychological inflexibility-a central construct in the acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT model of psychopathology-in the effect of mindfulness skills on pathological worry. A total of 132 nonclinical participants completed questionnaires assessing the constructs of interest: the Penn State Worry Questionnaire (PSWQ, the Acceptance and Action Questionnaire - II (AAQ-II, and the Kentucky Inventory of Mindfulness Skills (KIMS. Because the Spanish translation of the KIMS used lacked of a formal validation, its psychometric properties and factor structure were previously evaluated. This process led to a reduced version of the KIMS that showed good internal consistency and factor structure. Mediation analyses revealed that psychological inflexibility fully mediated the effects of mindfulness skills as a set on pathological worry. Regarding specific mindfulness skills, psychological inflexibility was shown to be a mediator and suppressor, respectively, of the relationship between acceptance without judgment and act with awareness on worry. Results are discussed emphasizing the need of using mindfulness exercises to promote psychological flexibility.
Full Text Available English has become an inevitable means of communication. Due to globalization and rapid growth in business communication, the need to learn the English language has also gained momentum. Employers are looking for employees who are skilled in the language skills. In India, English has become an important means of communication and learning in the education and professional setup. Though English is being taught in schools and colleges, Indian students miserably fail to produce a good quality lengthy composition. In this respect, this paper aims to focus on the need to teach memo-writing skills to tertiary students. To this end, a group of second year Indian BCA students was taken as samples for the study. The students were given a pre-test on memo writing. They lacked the essential skills in writing a memo. In order to improve their memo writing skills the students had to undergo four tasks. At the end of the tasks, they were able to write a good memo. The corporate world demands accurate business writings and our students have to be trained to meet the demands of the business world. This paper studies the growth of business English, the components of effective business writing and the need to teach business writing to tertiary students, which will enable them to be successful in the business world.
Glover, Robert W.
Industry-based skill assessment and certification should (1) be independent of training providers; (2) use variety of instruments; (3) recognize multiple levels of mastery; (4) promote broad training and continuous learning; (5) be geared to high-performance work organizations; (6) be voluntary; and (7) be flexible to keep pace with technology.…
Dickerson, Andy; Green, Francis
Using a method for measuring job skills derived from survey data on detailed work activities, we show that between 1997 and 2001 there was a growth in Britain in the utilisation of computing skills, literacy, numeracy, technical know-how, high-level communication skills, planning skills, client communication skills, horizontal communication skills, problem-solving and checking skills. Computer skills and high-level communication skills carry positive wage premia, as shown both in cross-sectio...
Boyatzis, Richard E.; Kolb, David A.
Develops a typology of learning skills congruent with the learning style descriptions of experiential learning theory. Describes the Learning Skills Profile (LSP), an assessment instrument designed to assess learning skills. Suggests the LSP for providing personal and organizational feedback on skills. Suggests that the typology allows both…
Zanecchia, M D
One of the many problems facing the nursing profession today is the lack of preparedness of its leaders. Nursing educators, collaborating with nursing service, can teach baccalaureate students leadership skills and to develop leadership styles. Experiential real-world management tasks selected by faculty and head nurses can serve as learning opportunities. Students can learn leadership ability and change style. Utilizing t-test, the before and after course mean scores on the standardized Leadership Ability Evaluation instrument were statistically analyzed. Significant differences and style changes were identified. Students in the total class became more effective leaders as did the students in both the traditional and experiential groups. Traditional students (lecture only) became less autocratic-submissive and more democratic. The experiential group significantly became less autocratic-aggressive, less laissez-faire and more democratic.
Hobkirk, Alyson Bridgett
Developing and retaining leadership is one of the greatest challenges facing organisations today. Leaders operate in an increasingly demanding and ever-changing work environment on both a personal and organisational level. To be successful on both levels leaders require the correct competencies, behaviours and skills to achieve their business objectives. Aside from leadership behaviours, specific leadership styles, demographic variables and constructs such as sense of coherence...
Johansen, Mary L; Cadmus, Edna
To examine the conflict management style that emergency department (ED) nurses use to resolve conflict and to determine whether their style of managing conflict and a supportive work environment affects their experience of work stress. Conflict is a common stressor that is encountered as nurses strive to achieve patient satisfaction goals while delivering quality care. How a nurse perceives support may impact work stress levels and how they deal with conflict. A correlational design examined the relationship between supportive work environment, and conflict management style and work stress in a sample of 222 ED nurses using the expanded nurse work stress scale; the survey of perceived organisational support; and the Rahim organisational conflict inventory-II. Twenty seven percent of nurses reported elevated levels of work stress. A supportive work environment and avoidant conflict management style were significant predictors of work stress. Findings suggest that ED nurses' perception of a supportive work environment and their approach to resolving conflict may be related to their experience of work stress. Providing opportunities for ED nurses in skills training in constructive conflict resolution may help to reduce work stress and to improve the quality of patient care. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Motor skills and concepts acquisition and retention: a comparison between two styles of teaching. Adquisición y retención de habilidades motrices y de sus conceptos: una comparación entre dos estilos de enseñanza.
Full Text Available AbstractThe purpose of the current study was to investigate the effect of the command and guided discovery teaching style on learning manipulative skills and concepts by primary schoolchildren. Fifty nine first grade children, 6 to 7 years of age, were randomly assigned into two treatment groups. The Test of Gross Motor Development (TGMD; Ulrich, 1985 was used for the assessment of motor performance. Skill concepts were assessed by a paper and pensil test based on those of Hopple (1995. Multivariate analysis of variance (2 styles of teaching X 3 measures for repeated measures was used for data analysis. Results showed that both groups significantly improved skill performance. However, children in the command group, contrary to those in the guided discovery group, exhibited significantly lower scores in the retention measure, compared to their acquisition scores. Skill concepts acquisition and retention was achieved by all children. It seems that both styles are effective for both motor skill and concept learning but the guided discovery style contributes to better motor learning gains.Resumen El propósito de este estudio es investigar el efecto que dos estilos de enseñanza diferentes, la enseñanza basada en el comando y la enseñanza mediante el descubrimiento guiado, producen en la adquisición de habilidades motrices y de sus conceptos, en alumnos de Enseñanza Primaria. Tras distribuir aleatoriamente a cincuenta nueve alumnos de Primer Grado, 6 a 7 años, en dos grupos, se les aplicó el test de Desarrollo Motor Grueso (Ulrich, 1985 para evaluar el rendimiento en habilidades motrices. Los conceptos de la habilidad fueron evaluados por un test escrito, basado en los de Hopple (1995. Para el análisis de datos, fue empleado el análisis de la variación multivariante (2 estilos de enseñanza X 3 mediciones para las medidas repetidas.Aunque los resultados demostraron que ambos grupos mejoraron significativamente el rendimiento en las
ALQahtani, Dalal A; Al-Gahtani, Sara M
Experiential learning theory (ELT), a theory developed by David Kolb that considers experience to be very important for learning, classifies learners into four categories: Divergers, Assimilators, Convergers, and Accommodators. Kolb used his Learning Style Inventory (LSI) to validate ELT. Knowing the learning styles of students facilitates their understanding of themselves and thereby increases teaching efficiency. Few studies have been conducted that investigate learning preferences of students in the field of dentistry. This study was designed to distinguish learning styles among Saudi dental students and interns utilizing Kolb's LSI. The survey had a response rate of 62 percent (424 of 685 dental students), but surveys with incomplete answers or errors were excluded, resulting in 291 usable surveys (42 percent of the student population). The independent variables of this study were gender, clinical experience level, academic achievement as measured by grade point average (GPA), and specialty interest. The Diverging learning style was the dominant style among those in the sample. While the students preferred the Assimilating style during their early preclinical years, they preferred the Diverging style during their later clinical years. No associations were found between students' learning style and their gender, GPA, or specialty interest. Further research is needed to support these findings and demonstrate the impact of learning styles on dental students' learning.
Lim, Yet-Mee; Lee, Teck Heang; Yap, Ching Seng; Ling, Chui Ching
The authors examine the issue of employability of university accounting students from the perspectives of accounting firm employers, junior auditors, accounting lecturers, and accounting students. Areas of investigation include perceived importance of employability skills and desirable personal qualities; and early employment problems encountered…
Limpo, Teresa; Alves, Rui A.; Fidalgo, Raquel
Background: It is well established that the activity of producing a text is a complex one involving three main cognitive processes: Planning, translating, and revising. Although these processes are crucial in skilled writing, beginning and developing writers seem to struggle with them, mainly with planning and revising. Aims: To trace the…
Reese Ward, Tonya Maria
Scope and Method of Study: The purpose of this study was to use industry experts to identify critical skills or competencies perceived by the legal profession to be required by competent team members in the legal office environment. Specifically, this study focused on fulfilling this purpose in the context of urban Oklahoma, where a large number…
Chakrabarty, Madhushree; Biswas, Atanu; Pal, Sandip; Chatterjee, Amita
Pragmatic competence may be disrupted due to psychological and neurological causes. For appropriate remedy and rehabilitation, a precise assessment of pragmatic skills is important. However, there is no test battery in the Bengali language, and consequently, there is no published data on pragmatic ability of Bengali speakers. Due to the vast…
Apel, Kenn; Lawrence, Jessika
In this study, the authors compared the morphological awareness abilities of children with speech sound disorder (SSD) and children with typical speech skills and examined how morphological awareness ability predicted word-level reading and spelling performance above other known contributors to literacy development. Eighty-eight first-grade students--44 students with SSD and no known history of language deficiencies, and 44 students with typical speech and language skills--completed an assessment battery designed to measure speech sound production, morphological awareness, phonemic awareness, letter-name knowledge, receptive vocabulary, word-level reading, and spelling abilities. The children with SSD scored significantly lower than did their counterparts on the morphological awareness measures as well as on phonemic awareness, word-level reading, and spelling tasks. Regression analyses suggested that morphological awareness predicted significant unique variance on the spelling measure for both groups and on the word-level reading measure for the children with typical skills. These results suggest that children with SSD may present with a general linguistic awareness insufficiency, which puts them at risk for difficulties with literacy and literacy-related tasks.
sod IIN)OW a’ Manangement Consulting & Research, Inc. (MCR) had the task of developing a linkage between training received at installation-level...and parts availability can change the results achieved. However, intuitively, training must have an effect on maintenance productivity and, if a large...1980. 11-2 - -: . .’., .:. Jb . I.-_ . .. ...... NE- 16. a 19 1 -11- information is recorded each time there is a change in any of the ,-. columns A
, and to aim for an almost Brechtian Verfremdung-effect, but the film also uses this device as a stylistic trait to characterize something ‘essential' about Derrida and his style. Derrida strikes the same chord by insisting on drawing attention to the artificiality of the making of the film, where questions...... and deferrals. This is of course another link in the infinite Derridean chain of supplements to supplements of supplements - in his writings, his persona and the legacy of images of him left behind in the archives. How does this perpetual deferral reflect itself in Derrida's visual and verbal style...
Fabiana T da Costa; Marco A P Teixeira; William B Gomes
...). According to these scales levels, it is possible to categorize four parenting styles. The scales were administred to 378 adolescents of both sexes and showed satisfactory reliability coefficients...
Clawson, Mellisa A.; Robila, Mihaela
Studied Baumrind's approach to parenting style to examine the relations between parenting style and preschool children's social competence manifested through peer play. Found that mothers' and fathers' parenting style is related to children's play with peers, with an authoritative parenting style correlating to more complex levels of play. (SD)
Park, Lora E; Crocker, Jennifer; Mickelson, Kristin D
Previous research on attachment theory has focused on mean differences in level of self-esteem among people with different attachment styles. The present study examines the associations between attachment styles and different bases of self-esteem, or contingencies of self-worth, among a sample of 795 college students. Results showed that attachment security was related to basing self-worth on family support. Both the preoccupied attachment style and fearful attachment style were related to basing self-worth on physical attractiveness. The dismissing attachment style was related to basing self-worth less on others' approval, family support, and God's love.
Gaylord Bros., Liverpool, NY.
This library automation style guide lists specific terms and names often used in the library automation industry. The terms and/or acronyms are listed alphabetically and each is followed by a brief definition. The guide refers to the "Chicago Manual of Style" for general rules, and a notes section is included for the convenience of individual…
Eckert, Penelope, Ed.; Rickford, John R., Ed.
This collection of papers by leading experts from a range of disciplines is divided into four sections. Section 1, "Anthropological Approaches," includes: (1) "'Style' as Distinctiveness: The Culture and Ideology of Linguistic Differentiation" (Judith T. Irvine); (2) "Variety, Style-Shifting, and Ideology" (Susan…
Schroeder, David H.
This study assessed the bipolarity of cognitive style for 970 clients of the Johnson O'Connor Research Foundation, a vocational guidance service. The 462 male and 508 female examinees were aged 14 to 65 years, with a median age of 24 years. Three cognitive style tests were investigated: (1) the Kagan Matching Familiar Figures Test (KMFFT); (2) the…
Designing a page style has long been a pain for novice users. Some parts are easy; others need strong LATEX knowledge. In this article we will present the memoir way of dealing with page styles, including new code added to the recent version of memoir that will reduce the pain to a mild annoyance...
Machado, Leonardo; Tavares, Hermano; Petribú, Kátia; Pinto, Tiago; Cantilino, Amaury
The aim of this study was to measure happiness in a sample of Brazilian psychiatrists and correlate it with the defense styles used by them and sociodemographic data. This study was observational, cross-sectional, and analytical. Data were collected through self-administered questionnaires by Brazilian psychiatrists who participated in the XXXII Brazilian Congress of Psychiatry, 2014. In this sample of psychiatrists, happiness levels were high (scoring 5.69 of a total of 7), and mature defense styles prevailed, especially humor and anticipation. In a multivariate analysis, having children, good sleep quality, increased sexual interest, and use of defense styles such as humor, anticipation, and idealization all showed a positive relationship with happiness; on the other hand, using defense style such as acting out or annulment demonstrated a negative relationship with happiness. Despite the well-known professional burden that they bear, Brazilian psychiatrists surveyed presented, in general, high levels of subjective well-being and happiness.
Full Text Available Procedural modeling has proven to be a very valuable tool in the ﬁeld of architecture. In the last few years, research has soared to automatically create procedural models from images. However, current algorithms for this process of inverse procedural modeling rely on the assumption that the building style is known. So far, the determination of the building style has remained a manual task. In this paper, we propose an algorithm which automates this process through classiﬁcation of architectural styles from facade images. Our classiﬁer ﬁrst identiﬁes the images containing buildings, then separates individual facades within an image and determines the building style. This information could then be used to initialize the building reconstruction process. We have trained our classiﬁer to distinguish between several distinct architectural styles, namely Flemish Renaissance, Haussmannian and Neoclassical. Finally, we demonstrate our approach on various street-side images.
The study investigated the role of word-level and verbal skills in writing quality of learners who spoke English as a first (L1) and second (L2) language. One hundred and sixty-eight L1 and L2 learners (M = 115.38 months, SD = 3.57 months) participated in the study. All testing was conducted in English. There was a statistically significant L1…
Full Text Available Objective This study evaluated the supplementary effect of higher concentrations of various disaccharides on processing yield, major physicochemical properties, and sensory attributes of Chinese-style pork jerky (CSPJ. Methods CSPJ samples were prepared by marinating sliced ham (4 mm with three dissaccharides, including sucrose, lactose, and maltose, at 0%, 15%, 18%, 21%, and 24%. Subsequently, the CSPJ samples were dried and roasted. The moisture content, water activity, crude protein, moisture-to-protein ratio, pH, processing yield, shear force, color, and sensory attributes of the CSPJ samples were evaluated. Results The quality characteristics of CSPJ samples prepared with sucrose were more acceptable. By contrast, CSPJ samples prepared with lactose showed the lowest scores. However, the processing yield and moisture content were the highest for CSPJ samples prepared with lactose, which may be associated with improved benefits for cost reduction. Furthermore, sucrose and lactose supplementation resulted in contrasting quality characteristics; for example, CSPJ samples with sucrose and maltose supplementation had higher sensory scores for color than samples with lactose supplementation. Additionally, most quality characteristics of CSPJ samples with sucrose supplementation contrasted with those of the samples with lactose supplementation; for example, the samples with sucrose supplementation had higher scores for sensory attributes than those with lactose supplementation. Conclusion Sucrose supplementation up to 21% to 24% was associated with the highest overall acceptability scores (5.19 to 5.80, enhanced quality characteristics, increased processing yield, and reduced production cost.
Chen, Chih-Ming; Lin, Hsien-Tang
This study evaluated the supplementary effect of higher concentrations of various disaccharides on processing yield, major physicochemical properties, and sensory attributes of Chinese-style pork jerky (CSPJ). CSPJ samples were prepared by marinating sliced ham (4 mm) with three dissaccharides, including sucrose, lactose, and maltose, at 0%, 15%, 18%, 21%, and 24%. Subsequently, the CSPJ samples were dried and roasted. The moisture content, water activity, crude protein, moisture-to-protein ratio, pH, processing yield, shear force, color, and sensory attributes of the CSPJ samples were evaluated. The quality characteristics of CSPJ samples prepared with sucrose were more acceptable. By contrast, CSPJ samples prepared with lactose showed the lowest scores. However, the processing yield and moisture content were the highest for CSPJ samples prepared with lactose, which may be associated with improved benefits for cost reduction. Furthermore, sucrose and lactose supplementation resulted in contrasting quality characteristics; for example, CSPJ samples with sucrose and maltose supplementation had higher sensory scores for color than samples with lactose supplementation. Additionally, most quality characteristics of CSPJ samples with sucrose supplementation contrasted with those of the samples with lactose supplementation; for example, the samples with sucrose supplementation had higher scores for sensory attributes than those with lactose supplementation. Sucrose supplementation up to 21% to 24% was associated with the highest overall acceptability scores (5.19 to 5.80), enhanced quality characteristics, increased processing yield, and reduced production cost.
Full Text Available Background: Many benefits of pre-clinical medical skills training have been documented in technologically advanced nations, and in the past decade these courses have been introduced to developing countries. Curriculum that can prepare and build confidence in medical students must be cost effective, evidence-based, and culturally sensitive in places where there are severe resource limitations. In 2013, an initial pre-clinical skills course without assessments was introduced to medical students in Zambia. Later that year, a more developed course was launched to a second cohort integrating Peer Assisted Learning (PAL and assessments. These trainers were prepared in advance with instructions in standardized skills, learning theory, effective feedback techniques, and use of rubrics to insure good inter-rater reliability in teaching and assessments. Methods: A quantitative study surveyed 108 students utilizing convenience sampling and a written questionnaire. Data collected compared preparedness and confidence in performing clinical skills of the intervention cohorts with the control group (medical students who preceded pre-clinical skills training. Results: Preparedness responses increased from 36.1% of the students in the control group to 90.9% in the intervention group who had been exposed to the PAL course with assessments (p value <0.001. Student confidence levels in history taking, physical exam skills, procedures, and the application of critical thinking skills diagnostically also showed improvement from 11.5-29.5% range in the control group to 77.3-86.4% range in the PAL cohort (p value <0.001. Conclusions: Exposure to pre-clinical training program especially utilizing PAL with assessments had a positive impact on the sense of preparedness and confidence levels for medical students beginning their clinical training years at the University of Zambia. Integration of PAL influenced academic development, clinical procedural standardization
Kaya, Hatice; Kaya, Nurten; Palloş, Aylin Öztürk; Küçük, Leyla
The success of university students depends on their ability to utilize time properly and completely. Students are required to learn to manage time so that they are able to apply the same degree of efficiency in the profession they choose after completing their education. This descriptive, cross-sectional study was conducted to determine nursing and midwifery students' time management skills in terms of their age, gender, and anxiety levels. The study population consisted of 1002 students, of which 584 students were selected for sampling. A Student Information Form, Time Management Inventory, and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory were used to collect data. Among the students, 89.9% were female, and the average age was 20.58 years (SD = 2.10). The average score of the Time Management Inventory was 87.79 (SD = 11.78), the mean score of the State Anxiety Inventory was 40.11 (SD = 10.84), and that of the Trait Anxiety Inventory was 43.95 (SD = 7.98). Nursing and midwifery students' time management skills are at mid-level point. Female students were able to manage time better than male students and the time management skills of the students decreased as the anxiety level increased. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Segalowitz, Norman; Frenkiel-Fishman, Sarah
In this study, we investigated the relationship between attention control and proficiency in a complex cognitive skill. The participants were English-French bilinguals with varying degrees of second-language (French) proficiency. Proficiency was operationalized as efficiency of lexical access in an animacy judgment task, as reflected in the coefficient of variability of response time adjusted for first-language performance on the same task. Attention control was operationalized as the shift cost obtained in a linguistic version of the alternating runs task-switching paradigm. Hierarchical regression revealed that, overall, attention control accounted for 59% of the variance of proficiency and that second-language attention control alone accounted for 32% of the unique variance of proficiency, indicating a high degree of skill domain (second language) specificity in the relationship between attention control and proficiency. The results speak to issues regarding the development of expertise, second-language acquisition, and a cognitive linguistic approach to language and attention.
Modi, Neil; Williams, Olayinka; Swampillai, Andrew J; Waqar, Salman; Park, Jonathan; Kersey, Thomas L; Sleep, Tamsin
Understanding the learning styles of individual trainees may enable trainers to tailor an educational program and optimise learning. Surgical trainees have previously been shown to demonstrate a tendency towards particular learning styles. We seek to clarify the relationship between learning style and learned surgical performance using a simulator, prior to surgical training. The Kolb Learning Style Inventory was administered to a group of thirty junior doctors. Participants were then asked to perform a series of tasks using the EyeSi virtual reality cataract surgery simulator (VR Magic, Mannheim, Germany). All completed a standard introductory programme to eliminate learning curve. They then undertook four attempts of level 4 forceps module binocularly. Total score, odometer movement (mm), corneal area injured (mm(2)), lens area injured (mm(2)) and total time taken (seconds) recorded. Mean age was 31.6 years. No significant correlation was found between any learning style and any variable on the EyeSi cataract surgery simulator. There is a predominant learning style amongst surgical residents. There is however no demonstrable learning style that results in a better (or worse) performance on the EyeSi surgery simulator and hence in learning and performing cataract surgery.
Ahmad, Sumbul; Chase, Scott Curland
to be transformed according to changing design style needs. Issues of formalizing stylistic change necessitate a lucid and formal definition of style in the design language generated by a grammar. Furthermore, a significant aspect of the definition of style is the representation of aesthetic qualities attributed...... to the style. We focus on grammars for representing and generating styles of design and review the use of grammar transformations for modelling changes in style and design language. We identify a gap in knowledge in the representation of style in grammars and in driving strategic style change using grammar...
Stull, Mary K.
Describes the Continuing Education for Consensus on Entry Skills project, designed to bring the expectations of nursing service and nursing education closer on entry-level competencies of new baccalaureate graduates. Discusses teaching and collaboration skills, planning and evaluation of patient care skills, interpersonal relations/communication…
Discusses thinking skills as they relate to library information skills, especially information inquiry, information literacy, and information use. Topics include ACRL (Association of College and Research Libraries) standards of student performance and bibliographic instruction; college level critical thinking skills; and authentic tasks for…
Hartley, H J; Kramer, J A
Is there a relationship between the type of leadership style employed by long-term health care administrators and the effective use and management of time? This paper describes a 1989 study of 188 administrators of skilled nursing facilities and intermediate care facilities in Connecticut. Two self-rating instruments were employed: the Executive Time Management Inventory (Hartley, Kramer, et al.) and the LEAD-Self instrument (Hersey and Blanchard). Four hypotheses were tested at the .05 level of significance to examine relationships among time management, leadership style, size of facility, administrator experience, and cost factors. Statistical procedures included Pearson Product-Moment correlations, analysis of variance, t-tests, and partial correlations. Results of the study included (1) time management effectiveness increased as administrators gained more experience; (2) no significant relationship existed between type of leadership style and time management effectiveness; (3) women administrators perceived themselves as significantly more effective time managers than men did; (4) most health care administrators employed the same primary leadership style: "selling," which is defined as high relationship/high task; and (5) institutional size was not related to the time management effectiveness of the administrator. The findings have implications for pre-service and in-service training and for future studies in health administration education.