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Sample records for style preferences results

  1. Nursing Students’ Preferred Learning Styles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sh Salehi

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Background and purpose: Learning style is the processing of information and comprehension. If teachers present contents in a style that matches a student’s preferred learning style, academic performance and success will improve. If content retention improves it will result in an increase in thetest scores. It is also important to determine if students, as a group, fit into a particular style or a particular cycle as they move through an educational program.Methods: The study is a descriptive analytical research. Nursing Students at Isfahan Medical Sciences University completed a questionnaire  formulated to assess learning styles. Analysis of variance was used to investigate the possible relationship between learning cycle and student’s grades in the curriculum (i.e. freshman, sophomore, junior, or senior. Cross tabulation was used to test for a relationship between learning style and student academic year of study in the curriculum.Results: 294 students received the Kolb LSI questionnaire. The data demonstrated that juniors preferred a converger learning style and the senior students were in the abstract conceptualization cycle of learning. There were no relationships demonstrated between other groups in the study.Conclusion: The junior and senior students appear to prefer the stage of learning involving thinking and problem analysis. When a group of students demonstrate a preference for particular learning style teachers can develop their curriculum along their learning styleKey words: LEARNING STYLES, NURSING STUDENTS, FRESHMAN, SOPHOMORE, JUNIOR, SENIOR

  2. Results of a study assessing teaching methods of faculty after measuring student learning style preference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stirling, Bridget V

    2017-08-01

    Learning style preference impacts how well groups of students respond to their curricula. Faculty have many choices in the methods for delivering nursing content, as well as assessing students. The purpose was to develop knowledge around how faculty delivered curricula content, and then considering these findings in the context of the students learning style preference. Following an in-service on teaching and learning styles, faculty completed surveys on their methods of teaching and the proportion of time teaching, using each learning style (visual, aural, read/write and kinesthetic). This study took place at the College of Nursing a large all-female university in Saudi Arabia. 24 female nursing faculty volunteered to participate in the project. A cross-sectional design was used. Faculty reported teaching using mostly methods that were kinesthetic and visual, although lecture was also popular (aural). Students preferred kinesthetic and aural learning methods. Read/write was the least preferred by students and the least used method of teaching by faculty. Faculty used visual methods about one third of the time, although they were not preferred by the students. Students' preferred learning style (kinesthetic) was the method most used by faculty. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Learning style preferences of undergraduate nursing students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rassool, Goolam Hussein; Rawaf, Salman

    To determine the predominant learning style preferences of undergraduate nursing students. A demographic questionnaire and Honey and Mumford's (2000a) learning styles questionnaire were administered to a purposive sample of 136 students. A response rate of 81% (110) was obtained. The results are congruent with U.K. studies, which show that the reflector is the preferred learning style of undergraduate nursing students. A 'dual' learning style category was also identified. A mismatch between teaching style and the learning styles of students has been found to have serious consequences. A variety of modes of teaching and learning should be used to meet the learning needs of students.

  4. South Carolina Superintendents' Change Style Preferences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melton, Annette Ghent; Cox, Edward P.

    2010-01-01

    Little is known about the change style preferences of superintendents, and how they differ from school principals and from business leaders and whether a superintendent's change-style preference affects student achievement. The purpose of this study was to explore the change-style preferences of South Carolina superintendents, compare them with…

  5. Musical Preferences are Linked to Cognitive Styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, David M; Baron-Cohen, Simon; Stillwell, David J; Kosinski, Michal; Rentfrow, Peter J

    2015-01-01

    Why do we like the music we do? Research has shown that musical preferences and personality are linked, yet little is known about other influences on preferences such as cognitive styles. To address this gap, we investigated how individual differences in musical preferences are explained by the empathizing-systemizing (E-S) theory. Study 1 examined the links between empathy and musical preferences across four samples. By reporting their preferential reactions to musical stimuli, samples 1 and 2 (Ns = 2,178 and 891) indicated their preferences for music from 26 different genres, and samples 3 and 4 (Ns = 747 and 320) indicated their preferences for music from only a single genre (rock or jazz). Results across samples showed that empathy levels are linked to preferences even within genres and account for significant proportions of variance in preferences over and above personality traits for various music-preference dimensions. Study 2 (N = 353) replicated and extended these findings by investigating how musical preferences are differentiated by E-S cognitive styles (i.e., 'brain types'). Those who are type E (bias towards empathizing) preferred music on the Mellow dimension (R&B/soul, adult contemporary, soft rock genres) compared to type S (bias towards systemizing) who preferred music on the Intense dimension (punk, heavy metal, and hard rock). Analyses of fine-grained psychological and sonic attributes in the music revealed that type E individuals preferred music that featured low arousal (gentle, warm, and sensual attributes), negative valence (depressing and sad), and emotional depth (poetic, relaxing, and thoughtful), while type S preferred music that featured high arousal (strong, tense, and thrilling), and aspects of positive valence (animated) and cerebral depth (complexity). The application of these findings for clinicians, interventions, and those on the autism spectrum (largely type S or extreme type S) are discussed.

  6. Musical Preferences are Linked to Cognitive Styles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, David M.; Baron-Cohen, Simon; Stillwell, David J.; Kosinski, Michal; Rentfrow, Peter J.

    2015-01-01

    Why do we like the music we do? Research has shown that musical preferences and personality are linked, yet little is known about other influences on preferences such as cognitive styles. To address this gap, we investigated how individual differences in musical preferences are explained by the empathizing-systemizing (E-S) theory. Study 1 examined the links between empathy and musical preferences across four samples. By reporting their preferential reactions to musical stimuli, samples 1 and 2 (Ns = 2,178 and 891) indicated their preferences for music from 26 different genres, and samples 3 and 4 (Ns = 747 and 320) indicated their preferences for music from only a single genre (rock or jazz). Results across samples showed that empathy levels are linked to preferences even within genres and account for significant proportions of variance in preferences over and above personality traits for various music-preference dimensions. Study 2 (N = 353) replicated and extended these findings by investigating how musical preferences are differentiated by E-S cognitive styles (i.e., ‘brain types’). Those who are type E (bias towards empathizing) preferred music on the Mellow dimension (R&B/soul, adult contemporary, soft rock genres) compared to type S (bias towards systemizing) who preferred music on the Intense dimension (punk, heavy metal, and hard rock). Analyses of fine-grained psychological and sonic attributes in the music revealed that type E individuals preferred music that featured low arousal (gentle, warm, and sensual attributes), negative valence (depressing and sad), and emotional depth (poetic, relaxing, and thoughtful), while type S preferred music that featured high arousal (strong, tense, and thrilling), and aspects of positive valence (animated) and cerebral depth (complexity). The application of these findings for clinicians, interventions, and those on the autism spectrum (largely type S or extreme type S) are discussed. PMID:26200656

  7. Musical Preferences are Linked to Cognitive Styles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David M Greenberg

    Full Text Available Why do we like the music we do? Research has shown that musical preferences and personality are linked, yet little is known about other influences on preferences such as cognitive styles. To address this gap, we investigated how individual differences in musical preferences are explained by the empathizing-systemizing (E-S theory. Study 1 examined the links between empathy and musical preferences across four samples. By reporting their preferential reactions to musical stimuli, samples 1 and 2 (Ns = 2,178 and 891 indicated their preferences for music from 26 different genres, and samples 3 and 4 (Ns = 747 and 320 indicated their preferences for music from only a single genre (rock or jazz. Results across samples showed that empathy levels are linked to preferences even within genres and account for significant proportions of variance in preferences over and above personality traits for various music-preference dimensions. Study 2 (N = 353 replicated and extended these findings by investigating how musical preferences are differentiated by E-S cognitive styles (i.e., 'brain types'. Those who are type E (bias towards empathizing preferred music on the Mellow dimension (R&B/soul, adult contemporary, soft rock genres compared to type S (bias towards systemizing who preferred music on the Intense dimension (punk, heavy metal, and hard rock. Analyses of fine-grained psychological and sonic attributes in the music revealed that type E individuals preferred music that featured low arousal (gentle, warm, and sensual attributes, negative valence (depressing and sad, and emotional depth (poetic, relaxing, and thoughtful, while type S preferred music that featured high arousal (strong, tense, and thrilling, and aspects of positive valence (animated and cerebral depth (complexity. The application of these findings for clinicians, interventions, and those on the autism spectrum (largely type S or extreme type S are discussed.

  8. Other-Regarding Preferences and Leadership Styles

    OpenAIRE

    Kocher, Martin G.; Pogrebna, Ganna; Sutter, Matthias

    2009-01-01

    We use a laboratory experiment to examine whether and to what extent other-regarding preferences of team leaders influence their leadership style in choice under risk. We find that leaders who prefer efficiency or report high levels of selfishness are more likely to exercise an autocratic leadership style by ignoring preferences of the other team members. Yet, inequity aversion has no significant impact on leadership styles. Elected leaders have a higher propensity than exogenously assigned l...

  9. Students' Preferred Learning Styles in Graphic Communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, Jeremy V.; Clark, Aaron C.

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was to identify changes in dominant preferred learning styles of students based on instructional presentation of course content. This study evaluates dominant preferred learning styles of two groups of university students. The first group of students was enrolled in a course that introduces graphical representation in…

  10. Learning style preferences of surgical residency applicants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Roger H; Gilbert, Timothy

    2015-09-01

    The learning style preferences of general surgery residents have been previously reported; there is evidence that residents who prefer read/write learning styles perform better on the American Board of Surgery In-Training Examination (ABSITE). However, little is known regarding the learning style preferences of applicants to general surgery residency and their impact on educational outcomes. In this study, the preferred learning styles of surgical residency applicants were determined. We hypothesized that applicant rank data are associated with specific learning style preferences. The Fleming VARK learning styles inventory was offered to all general surgery residency applicants that were interviewed at a university hospital-based program. The VARK model categorizes learners as visual (V), aural (A), read/write (R), kinesthetic (K), or multimodal (MM). Responses on the inventory were scored to determine the preferred learning style for each applicant. Applicant data, including United States Medical Licensing Examination (USMLE) scores, class rank, interview score, and overall final applicant ranking, were examined for association with preferred learning styles. Sixty-seven applicants were interviewed. Five applicants were excluded due to not completing the VARK inventory or having incomplete applicant data. The remaining 62 applicants (92%) were included for analysis. Most applicants (57%) had a multimodal preference. Sixty-nine percent of all applicants had some degree of preference for kinesthetic learning. There were statistically significant differences between applicants of different learning styles in terms of USMLE step 1 scores (P = 0.001) and USMLE step 2 clinical knowledge scores (P = 0.01), but not for class ranks (P = 0.27), interview scores (P = 0.20), or final ranks (P = 0.14). Multiple comparison analysis demonstrated that applicants with aural preferences had higher USMLE 1 scores (233.2) than those with kinesthetic (211.8, P = 0.005) or multimodal

  11. Investigating Language Proficiency and Learning Style Preference

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Bradford; Pirotto, Christopher

    2017-01-01

    Individual differences (ID) among language learners (e.g. language aptitude or motivation), are variables that are theorized to affect the degree of success one will have in acquiring a second language (L2). This study sought to add to the body of literature on learning style. 225first year students (divided into two groups based on English proficiency) at a private Japanese university were surveyed to determine their preferred learning style(s). The data obtained were then examined in relati...

  12. Musical Preferences are Linked to Cognitive Styles

    OpenAIRE

    Greenberg, David M.; Simon Baron-Cohen; Stillwell, David J.; Michal Kosinski; Rentfrow, Peter J.

    2015-01-01

    Why do we like the music we do? Research has shown that musical preferences and personality are linked, yet little is known about other influences on preferences such as cognitive styles. To address this gap, we investigated how individual differences in musical preferences are explained by the empathizing-systemizing (E-S) theory. Study 1 examined the links between empathy and musical preferences across four samples. By reporting their preferential reactions to musical stimuli, samples 1 and...

  13. Learning style preferences among pre-clinical medical students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aye Aye Mon

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Generally, different students employ different learning styles dur-ing their studies and medical students are exposed to diverse methods of teaching. Therefore, understanding students’ learning style preference is an important consideration for a high quality and effective teaching and learning process.The aim of the study was to study the variation of learning styles among pre-clinical medical students of SEGi University, Malaysia. A cross-sectional study was performed by using VARK (Visual, Audio, Reading and Kinaesthetic questionnaire version 7.2 to assess the learning style preference of 98 (n=98 pre-clinical medical students in SEGi University. The questionnaire consists of 16 items which identify four different learning styles: visual, aural, reading/writing and kin-esthetic. Descriptive statistics were used to identify the learning styles of students. 61 students preferred multimodal as their learning style, out of which 43 (70% of them were female stu-dents and 18 (30% were male students. 37 students preferred unimodal as their learning style out of which 22 (59% of them were female students and 15 (41% were male students. In addi-tion, female students had more diverse preferences than male students by having 10 out of the other 11 possible combinations in multimodal learning style of preference, whereas the male stu-dents only had 5 out of the 11 combinations. In this study, there was no significant gender difference in the percentages of males and female students who preferred unimodal and multimodal styles of information presentation (P= 0.263; α=0.05. To con-clude, the majority of students of both genders had chosen quad-modal as their learning style preference. The results of this study can provide useful information for improving the quality of the teaching and learning experiences of students.

  14. Learning style preferences of Australian health science students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoghi, Maryam; Brown, Ted; Williams, Brett; Roller, Louis; Jaberzadeh, Shapour; Palermo, Claire; McKenna, Lisa; Wright, Caroline; Baird, Marilyn; Schneider-Kolsky, Michal; Hewitt, Lesley; Sim, Jenny; Holt, Tangerine-Ann

    2010-01-01

    It has been identified that health science student groups may have distinctive learning needs. By university educators' and professional fieldwork supervisors' being aware of the unique learning style preferences of health science students, they have the capacity to adjust their teaching approaches to best fit with their students' learning preferences. The purpose of this study was to investigate the learning style preferences of a group of Australian health science students enrolled in 10 different disciplines. The Kolb Learning Style Inventory was distributed to 2,885 students enrolled in dietetics and nutrition, midwifery, nursing, occupational therapy, paramedics, pharmacy, physiotherapy, radiation therapy, radiography, and social work at one Australian university. A total of 752 usable survey forms were returned (response rate 26%). The results indicated the converger learning style to be most frequently preferred by health science students and that the diverger and accommodator learning styles were the least preferred. It is recommended that educators take learning style preferences of health science students into consideration when planning, implementing, and evaluating teaching activities, such as including more problem-solving activities that fit within the converger learning style.

  15. Relationship between Gender, Subject Preference and Learning Styles

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    Suprihadi Suprihadi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the learning styles of the students is very crucial in implementing student-centered learning (SCL. The objectives of this research are to describe: 1 the general learning styles profile of the students of English Education Department Universitas Muria Kudus; 2 the dependency relationship between learning styles dimensions and gender, and 3 the dependency relationship between subject preference and learning styles dimensions. This research uses 208 students from different semesters as the samples, while the instrument is the Indonesian translation of Solomon-Felder Index of Learning Styles Questionnaire. The result of the analysis reveals that: 1 the general learning style profile of the students is balanced; 2 at ? .05, there is no significant relationship between the probability of the students of having certain learning styles dimensions and gender; 3 at ? .05, the subject preference of the students who are SensingIntuitive and Visual Verbal depends on their learning styles dimensions, while that of those who are Active Reflective and Sequential Global does not.

  16. Students' Preferences for Communication Styles and Their Relationship to Achievement.

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    Potter, W. James; Emanuel, Richard

    1990-01-01

    Measures preferences students express for communicator styles of their instructors. Finds the most preferred styles were friendly and attentive, followed by relaxed, impression leaving, animated, dramatic, open, precise, dominant, and contentious. Finds that other variables such as IQ, demographics, and students' learning style preference were…

  17. Effects of Lecture Style on Learning and Preferences for a Teacher.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hull, Debra B.; Hull, John H.

    1988-01-01

    Examines the effect of stereotypically masculine and feminine teaching styles on college students. Results indicate that students prefer the feminine style, and that students learn significantly less from a female using the masculine style than from a male using the feminine style. (FMW)

  18. Students’ High Achievement on Learning Style Preferences in Chinese Department, Binus University

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    Yetty Go

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Every student certainly demonstrates different achievement in her/his Chinese language learning process because every student has her/his own individual way to resolve their problems in learning. In learning process, student’s individual differences exist. These differences lead to different learning speed and learning style of the student. The purpose of this study was to investigate the high achievement students’ learning styles. This study was based on Reid’s learning styles theory and also uses Reid’s Perceptual Learning Style Preference Questionnaire (PLSPQ to investigate student’s learning styles. The main finding of this study is that student’s learning style preference is group style. According to student learning style preferences results, students prefer to learn together with others or in group and learn in a more interactive way.

  19. A prospective cohort study examining the preferred learning styles of acute care registered nurses.

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    McCrow, Judy; Yevchak, Andrea; Lewis, Peter

    2014-03-01

    This paper reports on the preferred learning styles of Registered Nurses practicing in acute care environments and relationships between gender, age, post-graduate experience and the identified preferred learning styles. A prospective cohort study design was used. Participants completed a demographic questionnaire and the Felder-Silverman Index of Learning Styles (ILS) questionnaire to determine preferred learning styles. Most of the Registered Nurse participants were balanced across the Active-Reflective (n = 77, 54%), and Sequential-Global (n = 96, 68%) scales. Across the other scales, sensing (n = 97, 68%) and visual (n = 76, 53%) were the most common preferred learning style. There were only a small proportion who had a preferred learning style of reflective (n = 21, 15%), intuitive (n = 5, 4%), verbal (n = 11, 8%) or global learning (n = 15, 11%). Results indicated that gender, age and years since undergraduate education were not related to the identified preferred learning styles. The identification of Registered Nurses' learning style provides information that nurse educators and others can use to make informed choices about modification, development and strengthening of professional hospital-based educational programs. The use of the Index of Learning Styles questionnaire and its ability to identify 'balanced' learning style preferences may potentially yield additional preferred learning style information for other health-related disciplines. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Learning Style Preferences of Preclinical Medical Students in Oman

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    Sabitha Panambur

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Our study sought to assess the learning preferences of students studying in the preclinical years of the medical degree program at Oman Medical College, Sohar.  Methods: In this descriptive, cross-sectional study, we administered a learning style questionnaire (VARK model to 140 students to assess their preferred mode of learning, specifically the sensory modality by which they prefer to take in information.  Results: Over one third (35% of the respondents expressed their preference for a single mode of learning, either visual (8%, auditory (9%, read/write (9%, or kinesthetic (9%. The remaining students preferred learning using a combination of either two (14%, three (19%, or four (32% sensory modalities.  Conclusion: The results of our study provide us with useful information to develop appropriate learning approaches to reach all types of learners at the college.

  1. Learning style preferences of preclinical medical students in oman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panambur, Sabitha; Nambiar, Vinod; Heming, Thomas

    2014-11-01

    Our study sought to assess the learning preferences of students studying in the preclinical years of the medical degree program at Oman Medical College, Sohar.  In this descriptive, cross-sectional study, we administered a learning style questionnaire (VARK model) to 140 students to assess their preferred mode of learning, specifically the sensory modality by which they prefer to take in information.  Over one third (35%) of the respondents expressed their preference for a single mode of learning, either visual (8%), auditory (9%), read/write (9%), or kinesthetic (9%). The remaining students preferred learning using a combination of either two (14%), three (19%), or four (32%) sensory modalities.  The results of our study provide us with useful information to develop appropriate learning approaches to reach all types of learners at the college.

  2. Profiling learning style preferences of first-year University students ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Widening access to higher education has meant an increasing need for flexibility in instruction and course design to accommodate students who utilize a wide range of learning style preferences. The purpose of this study was to identify the preferred learning styles of students and to plan instruction and course design ...

  3. An Exploratory Study of the Language-Learning Style Preferences of Iranian EFL High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramezani, Afsaneh Effatdokht; Dehgahi, Meysam; Hashemi, Hanie

    2015-01-01

    This study explored the learning style preferences of 40 Iranian students at Marefat Iranian high school in Kuala Lumpur of which, 20 are females and 20 are males. To this end, this study used structured interview to elicit in-depth information from the students. The results of the study showed that learning style preferences of Iranian students…

  4. Residents' formal knowledge acquisition and preferred learning styles.

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    Blake, G; Montgomery, D; Walley, E; Beebe, D; Replogle, W

    1995-01-01

    Many family practice residency programs use the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) in their educational programs. Our purpose was to study the relationship between learning style, as determined by MBTI personality preferences, and residents' cognitive knowledge acquisition, measured by in-service training examination (ISTE) scores during the first and third years of residency. We evaluated 36 residents using both their first- and third-year ISTE composite scores and their MBTI scores. ISTE scores were analyzed according to the MBTI personality factors. We used the Wilcoxon Rank-Sum Test to determine the association between the improvement in residents' ISTE scores between the first- and third-year examinations and preferred learning styles. Significant differences were found on the composite ISTE scores for the thinking/feeling and judgment/perception scales. Feelers increased ISTE scores more than thinkers (P = .031); judgers increased ISTE scores more than perceivers (P = .04). Results do not support the literature or current MBTI learning theory. Intuitive residents demonstrated no advantage over sensing residents. Residents using feeling/judgment as their preferred learning style acquired more knowledge over 3 years than their thinking/perceiving counterparts, as measured by ISTE scores.

  5. Relationship between the learning style preferences of medical students and academic achievement

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    Almigbal, Turky H.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate the relationship between the learning style preferences of Saudi medical students and their academic achievements. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 600 medical students at King Saud University in Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia from October 2012 to July 2013. The Visual, Aural, Read/Write, and Kinesthetic questionnaire (VARK) questionnaire was used to categorize learning style preferences. Descriptive and analytical statistics were used to identify the learning style preferences of medical students and their relationship to academic achievement, gender, marital status, residency, different teaching curricula, and study resources (for example, teachers’ PowerPoint slides, textbooks, and journals). Results: The results indicated that 261 students (43%) preferred to learn using all VARK modalities. There was a significant difference in learning style preferences between genders (p=0.028). The relationship between learning style preferences and students in different teaching curricula was also statistically significant (p=0.047). However, learning style preferences are not related to a student’s academic achievements, marital status, residency, or study resources (for example, teachers’ PowerPoint slides, textbooks, and journals). Also, after being adjusted to other studies’ variables, the learning style preferences were not related to GPA. Conclusion: Our findings can be used to improve the quality of teaching in Saudi Arabia; students would be advantaged if teachers understood the factors that can be related to students’ learning styles. PMID:25737179

  6. Learning style preference and student aptitude for concept maps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostovich, Carol T; Poradzisz, Michele; Wood, Karen; O'Brien, Karen L

    2007-05-01

    Acknowledging that individuals' preferences for learning vary, faculty in an undergraduate nursing program questioned whether a student's learning style is an indicator of aptitude in developing concept maps. The purpose of this research was to describe the relationship between nursing students' learning style preference and aptitude for concept maps. The sample included 120 undergraduate students enrolled in the adult health nursing course. Students created one concept map and completed two instruments: the Learning Style Survey and the Concept Map Survey. Data included Learning Style Survey scores, grade for the concept map, and grade for the adult health course. No significant difference was found between learning style preference and concept map grades. Thematic analysis of the qualitative survey data yielded further insight into students' preferences for creating concept maps.

  7. Relationship between the learning style preferences of medical students and academic achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almigbal, Turky H

    2015-03-01

    To investigate the relationship between the learning style preferences of Saudi medical students and their academic achievements. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 600 medical students at King Saud University in Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia from October 2012 to July 2013. The Visual, Aural, Read/Write, and Kinesthetic questionnaire (VARK) questionnaire was used to categorize learning style preferences. Descriptive and analytical statistics were used to identify the learning style preferences of medical students and their relationship to academic achievement, gender, marital status, residency, different teaching curricula, and study resources (for example, teachers' PowerPoint slides, textbooks, and journals). The results indicated that 261 students (43%) preferred to learn using all VARK modalities. There was a significant difference in learning style preferences between genders (p=0.028). The relationship between learning style preferences and students in different teaching curricula was also statistically significant (p=0.047). However, learning style preferences are not related to a student's academic achievements, marital status, residency, or study resources (for example, teachers' PowerPoint slides, textbooks, and journals). Also, after being adjusted to other studies' variables, the learning style preferences were not related to GPA. Our findings can be used to improve the quality of teaching in Saudi Arabia; students would be advantaged if teachers understood the factors that can be related to students' learning styles.

  8. Cognitive Styles and Educational-Vocational Preferences and Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osipow, Samuel H.

    1969-01-01

    Vocational Preference Inventory (VPI) and other instruments administered to 365 students, both undecided and in various interest fields, revealed several differences in cognitive style. No differences regarding cognitive style variations and VPI high-point codes or ease of vocational selection were observed. (Author/CJ)

  9. Plurilingualism, Language Learning Strategy Use and Learning Style Preferences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Psaltou-Joycey, Angeliki; Kantaridou, Zoe

    2009-01-01

    The present paper investigates the language learning strategy use and learning style preferences of Greek university students in order to find out the possible relations that hold between degrees of plurilingualism, strategy use and learning styles. The subjects were 1555 Greek undergraduates from a number of disciplines, learning foreign…

  10. Parenting with Style: Altruism and Paternalism in Intergenerational Preference Transmission

    OpenAIRE

    Doepke, Matthias; Zilibotti, Fabrizio

    2014-01-01

    We develop a theory of intergenerational transmission of preferences that rationalizes the choice between alternative parenting styles (as set out in Baumrind 1967). Parents maximize an objective function that combines Beckerian altruism and paternalism towards children. They can affect their children's choices via two channels: either by influencing children's preferences or by imposing direct restrictions on their choice sets. Different parenting styles (authoritarian, authoritative, and pe...

  11. Gender differences in learning style preferences among undergraduate physiology students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehrwein, Erica A; Lujan, Heidi L; DiCarlo, Stephen E

    2007-06-01

    Students have individual learning style preferences including visual (V; learning from graphs, charts, and flow diagrams), auditory (A; learning from speech), read-write (R; learning from reading and writing), and kinesthetic (K; learning from touch, hearing, smell, taste, and sight). These preferences can be assessed using the VARK questionnaire. We administered the VARK questionnaire to undergraduate physiology majors enrolled in a capstone physiology laboratory at Michigan State University; 48 of the 86 students (55.8%) who returned the completed questionnaire voluntarily offered gender information. The responses were tallied and assessed for gender difference in learning style preference; 54.2% of females and only 12.5% of males preferred a single mode of information presentation. Among the female students, 4.2% of the students preferred V, 0% of the students preferred A, 16.7% of the students preferred printed words (R), and 33.3% of the students preferred using all their senses (K). In contrast, male students were evenly distributed in preference, with 4.2% of the students preferring A, R, or K, respectively, while 0% of the students preferred V. Furthermore, 45.8% of female and 87.5% of male respondents preferred multiple modes [female: 2 modes (12.5%), 3 modes (12.5%), and 4 modes (20.8%); males: 2 modes (16.7%), 3 modes (12.5%), and 4 modes (58.3%)] of presentation. In summary, a majority of male students preferred multimodal instruction, specifically, four modes (VARK), whereas a majority of female students preferred single-mode instruction with a preference toward K. Thus, male and female students have significantly different learning styles. It is the responsibility of the instructor to address this diversity of learning styles and develop appropriate learning approaches.

  12. Personality and preference for painting style.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juhasz, J B; Paxson, L

    1978-04-01

    40 university students were asked to choose between the cubist or surrealist from among 15 pairs of slides of paintings according to their aesthetic preference. Their choices were correlated with scores on Rotter's internal vs external locus of control scale. The data support the hypothesis that there is a positive relationship between preference for cubism over surrealism and internal locus control and vice versa.

  13. Learning Style Preferences and the Online Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Irma S.; Blankenship, Dianna

    2017-01-01

    This study was adapted from a learning styles questionnaire in College Study Strategies (Laskey & Gibson, pp. 52-53, 1997). The authors administered the adapted questionnaire to undergraduate education and legal online students in a Southern predominately Hispanic serving institution. This study allowed the students to identify their preferred…

  14. Relationship between the Learning Styles Preferences and Academic Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awang, H.; Samad, N. Abd; Faiz, N. S. Mohd; Roddin, R.; Kankia, J. D.

    2017-08-01

    The individual learning differences that have been much explored relate to differences in personality, learning styles, strategies and conceptual of learning. This article studies the learning style profile exhibited by students towards the academic achievement in Malaysian Polytechnic. The relationship between learning styles of Polytechnic students and their academic achievement based on VARK learning styles model. The target population was international business students of Malaysian Polytechnic. By means of randomly sampling method, 103 students were selected as sample of research. By descriptive - survey research method and a questionnaire adapted from VARK Learning Style Index, required data were collected. According to the results, no significantly difference between learning style and academic achievement of students. Students academic achievement was quite similar to their individual learning styles. These facts reveal that each learning style has its own strengths and weaknesses.

  15. Thinking style preference, emotional intelligence and leadership effectiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tessie H. Herbst

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the researchers investigate the relationship between thinking style preference, emotional intelligence and leadership effectiveness in an institution of higher education. The measuring instruments used were the Neethling Brain Preference Profle (NBPP and the Mayer, Salovey and Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT, as well as the Kouzes and Posner Leadership Practices Inventory (LPI. The sample comprised 138 managers within a higher education institution. The researchers found some evidence to support the relationship between thinking style, emotional intelligence (EI and leadership effectiveness. The researchers concluded that facets of brain dominance and emotional intelligence may be potentially useful predictors of transformational leadership behaviours.

  16. Thinking style preference, emotional intelligence and leadership effectiveness

    OpenAIRE

    Tessie H. Herbst; Kobus G. Maree

    2008-01-01

    In this study, the researchers investigate the relationship between thinking style preference, emotional intelligence and leadership effectiveness in an institution of higher education. The measuring instruments used were the Neethling Brain Preference Profle (NBPP) and the Mayer, Salovey and Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT), as well as the Kouzes and Posner Leadership Practices Inventory (LPI). The sample comprised 138 managers within a higher education institution. The researcher...

  17. Learning Style Preferences among Male and Female ESL Students in Universiti-Sains Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuib, Munir; Azizan, Siti Norbaya

    2015-01-01

    Individuals preferentially process information in different ways. This includes the varied learning style preference of the individuals in any study program, including English as a Second Language (ESL). However, one of major concerns is, do the ESL students have different preferred way to learn? Past studies have given mixed results including…

  18. Effects of learning styles on career preferences of senior secondary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The research investigated the effects of learning styles on career preferences of senior secondary school students in Jigawa State, Nigeria. A total of six hundred students, three hundred and sixty male, and two hundred and forty female were randomly selected from ten senior secondary schools across the state for the study ...

  19. Preferred Learning Styles in the Second Language Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cincotta, Madeline Strong

    1998-01-01

    Outlines the preferred learning styles of students studying second languages, offering suggestions for their application in second-language classrooms. The paper describes the right-brain/left-brain theory and how the two brain hemispheres are involved in learning; presents four classroom strategies (diversification, contextualization,…

  20. Identifying Students' Learning Style Preferences Regarding Some Variables in the EFL Classroom: The Case of Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Cevdet; Genc, Salih Zeki

    2010-01-01

    During the past decade, the identification of students' learning style preferences has gained importance in educational research. This study aimed at identifying the individual perceptions of the learner style preferences of Turkish EFL learners. Using learning style preference categories and a 28-item language learning preference questionnaire…

  1. Learning Style Preferences Among Male and Female ESL Students in Universiti-Sains Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Munir Shuib

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Individuals preferentially process information in different ways. This includes the varied learning style preference of the individuals in any study program, including English as a Second Language (ESL. However, one of major concerns is, do the ESL students have different preferred way to learn? Past studies have given mixed results including pertaining to Malaysian students. To address this issue, this study sought to identify whether there are differences in learning style preferences between male and female students who undertook ESL courses in the Universiti Sains Malaysia (USM. To achieve the study objective, Felder-Silverman Learning Style Model (FSLSM was selected to gather data on the respondents’ learning style preference due to its validity, widespread use and suitability to the scope of the study. The responses gathered from FSLSM were tallied and assessed for gender difference in LSP. Results indicated that, there is a strong representation of visual learners from both male and female respondents. On the other hand, the respondents, irrespective of the gender difference, are well-balanced in the dimensions of sensing/intuitive, active/reflective, and sequential/global. In addressing the gender difference, it was found in this study that there is no significant difference between male and female ESL students in their preferred learning styles on each of the FSLSM dimension. Thus, this study revealed that, gender does not help differentiate students’ learning preferences. The findings lend support to several past studies on LSP.

  2. First year medical students' learning style preferences and their correlation with performance in different subjects within the medical course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Torrano, Daniel; Ali, Syed; Chan, Chee-Kai

    2017-08-08

    Students commencing their medical training arrive with different educational backgrounds and a diverse range of learning experiences. Consequently, students would have developed preferred approaches to acquiring and processing information or learning style preferences. Understanding first-year students' learning style preferences is important to success in learning. However, little is understood about how learning styles impact learning and performance across different subjects within the medical curriculum. Greater understanding of the relationship between students' learning style preferences and academic performance in specific medical subjects would be valuable. This cross-sectional study examined the learning style preferences of first-year medical students and how they differ across gender. This research also analyzed the effect of learning styles on academic performance across different subjects within a medical education program in a Central Asian university. A total of 52 students (57.7% females) from two batches of first-year medical school completed the Index of Learning Styles Questionnaire, which measures four dimensions of learning styles: sensing-intuitive; visual-verbal; active-reflective; sequential-global. First-year medical students reported preferences for visual (80.8%) and sequential (60.5%) learning styles, suggesting that these students preferred to learn through demonstrations and diagrams and in a linear and sequential way. Our results indicate that male medical students have higher preference for visual learning style over verbal, while females seemed to have a higher preference for sequential learning style over global. Significant associations were found between sensing-intuitive learning styles and performance in Genetics [β = -0.46, B = -0.44, p styles and performance in Genetics [β = 0.36, B = 0.43, p learning techniques. Instructors can also benefit by modifying and adapting more appropriate teaching approaches in these

  3. The Learning Styles and the Preferred Teaching—Learning Strategies of First Year Medical Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharb, Poonam; Samanta, Prajna Paramita; Jindal, Manisha; Singh, Vishram

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: The purpose of teaching is to facilitate learning and to encourage the learners to learn more effectively. The learning style is an individual’s consistent way of perceiving, processing and retaining new information. Educational researchers have shown an increasing interest in the learning styles, the related instructional methods and the andrgogical teaching techniques. This interest is spurred by a desire to help the students to become capable and successful learners. Aim: The aim of this study was to determine the preferred learning styles of medical students as well as their preferences of specific teaching-learning methods. Method: A cross sectional study was conducted on 100 first semester medical students who were enrolled at SMS & R, Sharda University, India. The VARK questionnaire, version 7.1 was used to categorize the learning preferences/modes as visual (V), auditory (A), read and write (R) and kinaesthetic (K). The students were also asked to rank the various teaching methodologies viz. lectures, tutorials, demonstrations and practicals/dissections from the most preferred choice to the least preferred one. Results: The majority (61%) of the students had multimodal VARK preferences. Among them, 41%, 14% and 6% preferred the bimodal, trimodal and the quadrimodal ways of information presentation. 39% of the respondents had one strong (unimodal) learning preference. The most common unimodal preference was kinaesthetic, followed by visual, auditory and read and write. The most preferred teaching methodology was practical/dissection (39%) and tutorial was the least preferred one (12%). Conclusion: One single approach to teaching does not work for every student or even for most of the students. The educators’ awareness of the various learning styles of the students and their efforts towards matching the teaching and learning styles may help in creating an effective learning environment for all the students. PMID:23905110

  4. Do quality improvement collaboratives' educational components match the dominant learning style preferences of the participants?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weggelaar-Jansen, Anne Marie; van Wijngaarden, Jeroen; Slaghuis, Sarah-Sue

    2015-06-20

    Quality improvement collaboratives are used to improve healthcare by various organizations. Despite their popularity literature shows mixed results on their effectiveness. A quality improvement collaborative can be seen as a temporary learning organization in which knowledge about improvement themes and methods is exchanged. In this research we studied: Does the learning approach of a quality improvement collaborative match the learning styles preferences of the individual participants and how does that affect the learning process of participants? This research used a mixed methods design combining a validated learning style questionnaire with data collected in the tradition of action research methodology to study two Dutch quality improvement collaboratives. The questionnaire is based on the learning style model of Ruijters and Simons, distinguishing five learning style preferences: Acquisition of knowledge, Apperception from others, Discovery of new insights, Exercising in fictitious situations and Participation with others. The most preferred learning styles of the participants were Discovery and Participation. The learning style Acquisition was moderately preferred and Apperception and Exercising were least preferred. The educational components of the quality improvement collaboratives studied (national conferences, half-day learning sessions, faculty site visits and use of an online tool) were predominantly associated with the learning styles Acquisition and Apperception. We observed a decrease in attendance to the learning activities and non-conformance with the standardized set goals and approaches. We conclude that the participants' satisfaction with the offered learning approach changed over time. The lacking match between these learning style preferences and the learning approach in the educational components of the quality improvement collaboratives studied might be the reason why the participants felt they did not gain new insights and therefore ceased

  5. Leadership styles in nursing management: preferred and perceived.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellgren, Stina; Ekvall, Göran; Tomson, Göran

    2006-07-01

    The aim was to explore nursing leadership regarding what nurse managers and subordinates see as important and to explore subordinates' opinions of their nurse manager's performance in reality. Background The manager's style can be fundamental for subordinates' acceptance of change and in motivating them to achieve stated visions and goals and high quality of care. Nurse managers (n=77) and 10 of each included nurse manager's subordinates received a questionnaire to assess 'preferred' leadership behaviour in three dimensions: change, production and employee/relation orientations. The same questionnaire was used to assess subordinates' opinions of their manager's leadership behaviour. There are statistically significant differences in opinions of preferred leadership between managers and subordinates, especially related to production and relation orientation. The subordinates' perception of real leadership behaviour has lower mean values than their preferred leadership behaviour in all three dimensions. Subordinates prefer managers with more clearly expressed leadership behaviour than managers themselves prefer and demonstrate.

  6. Learning style preferences: A study of Pre-clinical Medical Students in Barbados

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NKEMCHO OJEH

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Educators need to be aware of different learning styles to effectively tailor instructional strategies and methods to cater to the students’ learning needs and support a conductive learning environment. The VARK [an acronym for visual (V, aural (A, read/write (R and kinesthetic (K] instrument is a useful model to assess learning styles. The aim of this study was to use the VARK questionnaire to determine the learning styles of pre-clinical medical students in order to compare the perceived and assessed learning style preferences, assess gender differences in learning style preferences, and determine whether any relationships exists between awareness of learning styles and academic grades, age, gender and learning modality. Methods: The VARK questionnaire was administered to preclinical students taking a variety of courses in the first three years of the undergraduate MB BS degree programme at the Faculty of Medical Sciences, The University of the West Indies, Cave Hill Campus, Barbados in 2014. Results: The majority of the students were multimodal learners with no differences observed between males (59.5% and females (60.0%, with tetramodal being the most common. Read/write (33.8% followed by kinesthetic (32.5% were the most common learning style preferences. The sensory modality preference for females was read/write (34.2% and for males it was kinesthetic (40.5%. Significant differences were observed between the perceived and assessed learning style preferences with a majority of visual and read/write learners correctly matching their perceived to their actual learning styles. Awareness of learning styles was associated with learning modality but not with academic performance, age or gender. Overall, 60.7% of high achievers used multimodal learning compared to 56.9% low achievers. Conclusion: The findings from this study indicated that the VARK tool was useful in gathering information about different learning styles, and might

  7. Learning style preferences: A study of pre-clinical medical students in Barbados

    Science.gov (United States)

    OJEH, NKEMCHO; SOBERS-GRANNUM, NATASHA; GAUR, UMA; UDUPA, ALAYA; MAJUMDER, MD.ANWARUL AZIM

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Educators need to be aware of different learning styles to effectively tailor instructional strategies and methods to cater to the students’ learning needs and support a conductive learning environment. The VARK [an acronym for visual (V), aural (A), read/write (R) and kinesthetic (K)] instrument is a useful model to assess learning styles. The aim of this study was to use the VARK questionnaire to determine the learning styles of pre-clinical medical students in order to compare the perceived and assessed learning style preferences, assess gender differences in learning style preferences, and determine whether any relationships exists between awareness of learning styles and academic grades, age, gender and learning modality. Methods: The VARK questionnaire was administered to pre-clinical students taking a variety of courses in the first three years of the undergraduate MB BS degree programme at the Faculty of Medical Sciences, The University of the West Indies, Cave Hill Campus, Barbados in 2014. Results: The majority of the students were multimodal learners with no differences observed between males (59.5%) and females (60.0%), with tetramodal being the most common. Read/write (33.8%) followed by kinesthetic (32.5%) were the most common learning style preferences. The sensory modality preference for females was read/write (34.2%) and for males it was kinesthetic (40.5%). Significant differences were observed between the perceived and assessed learning style preferences with a majority of visual and read/write learners correctly matching their perceived to their actual learning styles. Awareness of learning styles was associated with learning modality but not with academic performance, age or gender. Overall, 60.7% of high achievers used multimodal learning compared to 56.9% low achievers. Conclusion: The findings from this study indicated that the VARK tool was useful in gathering information about different learning styles, and might assist

  8. Generational differences and learning style preferences in nurses from a large metropolitan medical center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Jo-Ann; Scollan-Koliopoulos, Melissa; Kamienski, Mary; Burke, Kathleen

    2012-07-01

    Nursing educators face the challenge of presenting educational programs to meet the learning needs of four diverse generational groups of nurses. This cross-sectional survey examined if there is a relationship between staff nurses' generation and their learning styles. Results show that a combination of years in practice, time lapsed since last educational program ended, current school enrollment, degree earned, and generation influences preferred learning style. Implications for educators are discussed.

  9. Learning Style Preferences of Undergraduate Dental Students of a North Indian Dental College.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marwaha, Komal; Bhagat, Anumeha; Kapoor, Nandini

    2015-01-01

    This study was undertaken to determine the learning style preferences of first and 2nd year BDS students by administering VARK questionnaire. Stepping stone method was used to identify sensory modality preference of each student. 51% students preferred single mode of learning style (27% kinesthetic, 15% aural, 6% read/write and 3% visual mode of learning style). 49% students preferred multiple modes (23% bi-modal, 17% tri-modal, 9% had quad-modal preference). The mean V, A, R, K scores were determined and compared using Mann-Whitney U test. V score of 2nd year was significantly higher compared to 1st year (p value = 0.012). V score of females was significantly higher than that of males (p value = 0.004). The results showed diversity in preference of learning style of students. This diversity necessitates a change from traditional teaching (aural lecture and flowcharts/diagrams) to active learning strategies, for a more productive educational experience.

  10. Correlations between Clinical Judgement and Learning Style Preferences of Nursing Students in the Simulation Room

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallin, Karin; Häggström, Marie; Bäckström, Britt; Kristiansen, Lisbeth Porskrog

    2016-01-01

    Background: Health care educators account for variables affecting patient safety and are responsible for developing the highly complex process of education planning. Clinical judgement is a multidimensional process, which may be affected by learning styles. The aim was to explore three specific hypotheses to test correlations between nursing students’ team achievements in clinical judgement and emotional, sociological and physiological learning style preferences. Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted with Swedish university nursing students in 2012-2013. Convenience sampling was used with 60 teams with 173 nursing students in the final semester of a three-year Bachelor of Science in nursing programme. Data collection included questionnaires of personal characteristics, learning style preferences, determined by the Dunn and Dunn Productivity Environmental Preference Survey, and videotaped complex nursing simulation scenarios. Comparison with Lasater Clinical Judgement Rubric and Non-parametric analyses were performed. Results: Three significant correlations were found between the team achievements and the students’ learning style preferences: significant negative correlation with ‘Structure’ and ‘Kinesthetic’ at the individual level, and positive correlation with the ‘Tactile’ variable. No significant correlations with students’ ‘Motivation’, ‘Persistence’, ‘Wish to learn alone’ and ‘Wish for an authoritative person present’ were seen. Discussion and Conclusion: There were multiple complex interactions between the tested learning style preferences and the team achievements of clinical judgement in the simulation room, which provides important information for the becoming nurses. Several factors may have influenced the results that should be acknowledged when designing further research. We suggest conducting mixed methods to determine further relationships between team achievements, learning style preferences

  11. Correlations Between Clinical Judgement and Learning Style Preferences of Nursing Students in the Simulation Room.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallin, Karin; Haggstrom, Marie; Backstrom, Britt; Kristiansen, Lisbeth Porskrog

    2015-09-28

    Health care educators account for variables affecting patient safety and are responsible for developing the highly complex process of education planning. Clinical judgement is a multidimensional process, which may be affected by learning styles. The aim was to explore three specific hypotheses to test correlations between nursing students' team achievements in clinical judgement and emotional, sociological and physiological learning style preferences. A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted with Swedish university nursing students in 2012-2013. Convenience sampling was used with 60 teams with 173 nursing students in the final semester of a three-year Bachelor of Science in nursing programme. Data collection included questionnaires of personal characteristics, learning style preferences, determined by the Dunn and Dunn Productivity Environmental Preference Survey, and videotaped complex nursing simulation scenarios. Comparison with Lasater Clinical Judgement Rubric and Non-parametric analyses were performed. Three significant correlations were found between the team achievements and the students' learning style preferences: significant negative correlation with 'Structure' and 'Kinesthetic' at the individual level, and positive correlation with the 'Tactile' variable. No significant correlations with students' 'Motivation', 'Persistence', 'Wish to learn alone' and 'Wish for an authoritative person present' were seen. There were multiple complex interactions between the tested learning style preferences and the team achievements of clinical judgement in the simulation room, which provides important information for the becoming nurses. Several factors may have influenced the results that should be acknowledged when designing further research. We suggest conducting mixed methods to determine further relationships between team achievements, learning style preferences, cognitive learning outcomes and group processes.

  12. The learning style preferences of chiropractic students: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whillier, Stephney; Lystad, Reidar P; Abi-Arrage, David; McPhie, Christopher; Johnston, Samara; Williams, Christopher; Rice, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Objective : The aims of our study were to measure the learning style preferences of chiropractic students and to assess whether they differ across the 5 years of chiropractic study. Methods : A total of 407 (41.4% females) full-degree, undergraduate, and postgraduate students enrolled in an Australian chiropractic program agreed to participate in a cross-sectional survey comprised of basic demographic information and the Visual, Aural, Read/Write, Kinesthetic (VARK) questionnaire, which identifies learning preferences on four different subscales: visual, aural, reading/writing, and kinesthetic. Multivariate analysis of variance and the χ(2) test were used to check for differences in continuous (VARK scores) and categorical (VARK category preference) outcome variables. Results : The majority of chiropractic students (56.0%) were found to be multimodal learners. Compared to the other learning styles preferences, kinesthetic learning was preferred by a significantly greater proportion of students (65.4%, p VARK score (5.66 ± 2.47, p < .001). Conclusions : To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time chiropractic students have been shown to be largely multimodal learners with a preference for kinesthetic learning. While this knowledge may be beneficial in the structuring of future curricula, more thorough research must be conducted to show any beneficial relationship between learning style preferences and teaching methods.

  13. Leadership Style Preference of Undergraduate Occupational Therapy Students in Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Ted; Williams, Brett; Jolliffe, Laura

    2014-01-01

    Background: Occupational therapy graduates are expected to assume leadership roles in a variety of contexts and capacities. Objective: To investigate the leadership styles of undergraduate occupational therapy students. Methods: First, second, third, and fourth year undergraduate occupational therapy students from one Australian university were asked to complete the What’s My Leadership Style (WMLS) questionnaire. Results: The total sample response rate was 86.3% (n = 182/211). Overa...

  14. The Relationship between Perceptual Learning Style Preferences and Multiple Intelligences among Iranian EFL Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baleghizadeh, Sasan; Shayeghi, Rose

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to investigate the relationships between preferences of Multiple Intelligences and perceptual/social learning styles. Two self-report questionnaires were administered to a total of 207 male and female participants. Pearson correlation results revealed statistically significant positive relations between…

  15. The relationship between learning style preference and achievement in the adult student in a multicultural college

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roig, Matilde E.

    Minority college students have varied learning styles and process information from distinct background and cultural perspectives, which influences their learning. Accordingly, the way faculty approach teaching affects student achievement. Few minorities are in scientific fields, with a shortage of scientists predicted. A problem exists in understanding the relationship between learning style preferences and achievement of minority college students. The purpose of the study was to investigate this relationship in adult minority students in a South Florida college's biology courses. Research questions pertained to relationships between learning style preferences, race, ethnicity and grades. This quantitative study used the online Felder-Soloman Inventory of Learning Styles with a 73% response comprised of 162 White, Black-African American, Hispanic, and Asian students. Variables included grades, race, ethnicity, and learning styles. Relative frequency analysis revealed students preferred sensing, visual and sequential learning. ANOVA analysis showed no significant differences between learning style preference and achievement, nor between race-ethnicity and grades. Chi-square analysis revealed a significant relationship between Black-African Americans and Hispanics for sensing, visual and sequential learning, but not for visual. Black-African American students had the lowest passing rate in biology courses, with Asians having the highest. Increased educator and advisor knowledge of learning styles could result in social change and educational reform from this study, through the adoption of best methods for teaching minority groups enrolled in science courses. Knowing the potential shortage of minorities in the sciences, increased achievement in science courses might encourage these students to enter into scientific careers.

  16. Learning style preferences and course performance in an undergraduate physiology class.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobson, John L

    2009-12-01

    Learning styles may be classified according to the sensory modality that one most prefers to use when internalizing information. The four major sensory modalities are visual, aural or auditory, read/write, and kinesthetic. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between preferred learning style, gender, and course scores in an undergraduate physiology class. Students from the fall 2008 and spring 2009 Applied Human Physiology courses completed an online questionnaire in which they were asked to both provide descriptive information about themselves (e.g., gender and major) and self-assess their preferred sensory modality. A total of 901 students completed the questionnaire, 75% of which were female and 25% were male. The results from a chi(2)-analysis (chi(2) = 9.59, P learning style preferences. Females most preferred visual learning (46%) followed by aural (27%), read/write (23%), and kinesthetic (4%). Males most preferred visual learning (49%) followed by read/write (29%), aural (17%), and kinesthetic (5%). There was also a significant relationship (P < 0.05 by ANOVA) between preferred sensory modality and course scores. The mean overall course scores were 83.53 +/- 8.25, 85.58 +/- 8.18, 84.98 +/- 7.78, and 76.70 +/- 7.92 for those that preferred visual, aural, read/write, and kinesthetic modalities, respectively. These results support the findings of Wehrwein et al. (18): that female and male physiology students have different sensory modality preferences and that they provide the first step in determining if sensory modality preferences impact final course scores.

  17. A comparative study about learning styles preferences of two cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutay, Huban

    elements covering each person's perceptual, psychological, environmental, physiological, emotional, and sociological processing preferences and analyzes the learning conditions for students' individual preferences in these six areas. All of these variables can effect one's learning style preferences. Each subject rates 118 items on a five-point scale from strongly disagree to strongly agree. A two-sample t test was used to identify the differences between Turkish and American students by means of their learning style preferences and social anxiety levels. The sample consisted of 67% males and 33% female. The age of the subjects was relatively young as we expected; 51% of them 25 years old and under and 46% of them were between the ages of 26 and 35. In terms of academic major areas 38% of the students were from the basic science areas such as chemistry, biology, physics, and science education with a B.S. degree or pursuing a B.S. degree in one of the science areas mentioned previously. The second most prevalent major category was engineering with 35% of the subject. Out of a total of twenty-four elements, eight were identified as being different in these groups. These differences were mostly in the physiological and environmental stimulus that can be explained as cultural habits or practices.

  18. Accommodating student learning styles and preferences in an online occupational therapy course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Nancy Wolcott; Jacobs, Karen

    2013-01-01

    Occupational therapy's online education must be research-based and inclusive. One way to provide a more inclusive online learning experience is to attend to individual learning styles and preferences. This study uses the best available evidence on learning styles and online education to develop, implement, and study occupational therapy students' experiences with an online learning module and related assignment. Eight students consented to take an online survey after completing a learning module and related assignment in an online post-professional graduate course in occupational therapy. The survey explored their learning experience and its applicability to clinical work. Data gathered from multiple-choice, Likert-scale, and open-ended questions were descriptively analyzed. Results from this study suggest that students find the study of learning styles and preferences enjoyable and applicable to their clinical work, but are often motivated by factors such as time and technology when selecting the format of a course assignment.

  19. Does Gender Influence Learning Style Preferences of First-Year Medical Students?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, Jill A.; Lujan, Heidi L.; DiCarlo, Stephen E.

    2007-01-01

    Students have specific learning style preferences, and these preferences may be different between male and female students. Understanding a student's learning style preference is an important consideration when designing classroom instruction. Therefore, we administered the visual, auditory, reading/writing, kinesthetic (VARK) learning preferences…

  20. Learning Styles and Preferences of Jordanian EFL Graduate Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ababneh, Sana'

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a comparative investigation into the learning styles of successful and unsuccessful language learners. Subjects of the study were seventeen graduate university students at Yarmouk University, Jordan. They were categorized as "successful" or "unsuccessful" learners, on the basis of their final…

  1. Student learning style preferences in college-level biology courses: Implications for teaching and academic performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitton, Jennifer Susan

    Education research has focused on defining and identifying student learning style preferences and how to incorporate this knowledge into teaching practices that are effective in engaging student interest and transmitting information. One objective was determining the learning style preferences of undergraduate students in Biology courses at New Mexico State University by using the online VARK Questionnaire and an investigator developed survey (Self Assessed Learning Style Survey, LSS). Categories include visual, aural, read-write, kinesthetic, and multimodal. The courses differed in VARK single modal learning preferences (p = 0.035) but not in the proportions of the number of modes students preferred (p = 0.18). As elsewhere, the majority of students were multimodal. There were similarities and differences between LSS and VARK results and between students planning on attending medical school and those not. Preferences and modalities tended not to match as expected for ratings of helpfulness of images and text. To detect relationships between VARK preferred learning style and academic performance, ANOVAs were performed using modality preferences and normalized learning gains from pre and post tests over material taught in the different modalities, as well as on end of semester laboratory and lecture grades. Overall, preference did not affect the performance for a given modality based activity, quiz, or final lecture or laboratory grades (p > 0.05). This suggests that a student's preference does not predict an improved performance when supplied with material in that modality. It is recommended that methods be developed to aid learning in a variety of modalities, rather than catering to individual learning styles. Another topic that is heavily debated in the field of education is the use of simulations or videos to replace or supplement dissections. These activities were compared using normalized learning gains from pre and post tests, as well as attitude surveys

  2. Learning style preferences and academic success of preclinical allied health students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Good, Jonathan P; Ramos, Diane; D'Amore, Domenic C

    2013-01-01

    Student learning style modality preferences, in preclinical classes, were assessed using the visual-aural-read/write-kinesthetic (VARK) inventory. Preferences were assessed for 137 preclinical students, including those in nursing, physician's assistant, physical therapy, athletic training, and natural science programs using the online VARK inventory. All classes contained a majority of multimodal and a significantly high proportion of kinesthetic learners. No correlations were noted between modality preference strength and assessment performance in general biology classes; significant correlations were discovered for kinesthetic preference among the same cohort in subsequent human anatomy (negative correlation) and general physiology (positive correlation) classes. Assessment performance of nursing students in an anatomy and physiology class resulted in correlations with aural (negative correlation) and visual (positive correlation) preference strengths. Study findings are used to evaluate the efficacy of non-omnimodal delivery of content-focused science classes, before the students have developed the background knowledge or skills required to contextualize the learning.

  3. Hierarchy of Needs, Perception and Preference for Leadership Styles within a Police Educational Institution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina RAUS

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The present research investigates Maslow’s hierarchy of needs and the leadership style (perceived and ideal in a sample of employees of a police school. The purpose of this study was to identify and propose solutions to improve the managerial activity. Based on Maslow’s theory for understanding human motivation, we developed a measurement scale for human needs. Based on Lewin’s theory of leadership style, we developed two measurement scales, one for perceived leadership and one for ideal leadership style. Agreement of judges was used to obtain valid measures. Reliable α-Cronbach coefficients were obtained for internal consistency of the measurement scales. We conducted correlational and comparative analyses between variables, regarding each professional category (police officers, police constables, civilians. The results contradict Maslow’s theoretical model for human needs, challenging the order imposed by Maslow’s pyramid. The order of the importance of needs differ from one category of personnel to another. Regardless of professional status, physiological needs are generally more significant than other needs. Comparing the perceived leadership style with the ideal style, all groups would prefer a less autocratic leadership style than it is, and more democratic than they perceive it. In addition, civilians would like a more permissive style of leadership than it is the perceived style. Perceived leadership styles are correlated differently with staff needs. Practical implications and contribution of the research are discussed.

  4. Learning strategy preferences, verbal-visual cognitive styles, and multimedia preferences for continuing engineering education instructional design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baukal, Charles Edward, Jr.

    A literature search revealed very little information on how to teach working engineers, which became the motivation for this research. Effective training is important for many reasons such as preventing accidents, maximizing fuel efficiency, minimizing pollution emissions, and reducing equipment downtime. The conceptual framework for this study included the development of a new instructional design framework called the Multimedia Cone of Abstraction (MCoA). This was developed by combining Dale's Cone of Experience and Mayer's Cognitive Theory of Multimedia Learning. An anonymous survey of 118 engineers from a single Midwestern manufacturer was conducted to determine their demographics, learning strategy preferences, verbal-visual cognitive styles, and multimedia preferences. The learning strategy preference profile and verbal-visual cognitive styles of the sample were statistically significantly different than the general population. The working engineers included more Problem Solvers and were much more visually-oriented than the general population. To study multimedia preferences, five of the seven levels in the MCoA were used. Eight types of multimedia were compared in four categories (types in parantheses): text (text and narration), static graphics (drawing and photograph), non-interactive dynamic graphics (animation and video), and interactive dynamic graphics (simulated virtual reality and real virtual reality). The first phase of the study examined multimedia preferences within a category. Participants compared multimedia types in pairs on dual screens using relative preference, rating, and ranking. Surprisingly, the more abstract multimedia (text, drawing, animation, and simulated virtual reality) were preferred in every category to the more concrete multimedia (narration, photograph, video, and real virtual reality), despite the fact that most participants had relatively little prior subject knowledge. However, the more abstract graphics were only slightly

  5. The Effects of Elementary School Principals' Leadership Styles and the Preferred Managerial Styles of Teachers on Student Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pichon, Christopher, Sr.

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study is to identify principal leadership styles and teacher preferred principal leadership styles, as well as to examine the independent and combined effects of these variables on the TAKS Mathematics achievement scores of elementary students. School leadership affects every aspect of an institution. Studies reveal that the…

  6. Pre-Service Teachers' Learning Styles and Preferences towards Instructional Technology Activities and Collaborative Works

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusop, Farrah Dina; Sumari, Melati

    2015-01-01

    The main purpose of this exploratory study was to investigate pre-service teachers' learning styles and their preferences with respect to 15 technology-based instructional activities and collaborative work tasks. Felder and Silverman's online Index of Learning Style (ILS) and a questionnaire were used to measure students' learning styles and…

  7. Preferred Learning Styles of Professional Undergraduate and Graduate Athletic Training Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thon, Sarah; Hansen, Pamela

    2015-01-01

    Context: Recognizing the preferred learning style of professional undergraduate and graduate athletic training students will equip educators to more effectively improve their teaching methods and optimize student learning. Objective: To determine the preferred learning style of professional undergraduate and graduate athletic training students…

  8. Profiling Learning Style Preferences of First-Year University Students: Implications for Course Design and Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cekiso, M. P.

    2011-01-01

    Widening access to higher education has meant an increasing need for flexibility in instruction and course design to accommodate students who utilize a wide range of learning style preferences. The purpose of this study was to identify the preferred learning styles of students and to plan instruction and course design accordingly. In addition, a…

  9. Communication Apprehension and Learning Style Preference: Correlations and Implications for Teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwyer, Karen Kangas

    1998-01-01

    Finds that (1) trait and context communication apprehension correlate significantly with learning-style preference for women, but not for men; (2) high communication-apprehensive women prefer the Hands-on Experimenter and the Analytical Evaluator learning styles; and (3) communication apprehension is not correlated with age, sex, or self-reported…

  10. The Relationship between Learning Style Preferences and Memory Strategy use in Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirette, Diane Powers; Anderson, Michele A

    2016-07-01

    Deficits in working memory are pervasive, resistant to remediation and significantly impact a persons ability to perform activities of daily living. Internal strategies are effective for improving working memory. Learning style preferences may influence the use of various internal working memory strategies. This study compares the use of internal working memory strategies among four different learning style preferences; converger, diverger, assimilator and accommodator. A non-experimental group design was used to compare the use of internal working memory strategies and learning style preferences among 110 adults. There were some significant differences in the types of strategies used according to learning style preferences. Knowing the learning style preference of clients may help occupational therapists better tailor cognitive rehabilitation treatments to meet the client's needs.

  11. Profiling physiotherapy student preferred learning styles within a clinical education context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milanese, Steve; Gordon, Susan; Pellatt, Aya

    2013-06-01

    This study investigated the preferred learning styles, related to clinical education of a cohort of final year physiotherapy students. A cross sectional observation study using a questionnaire survey. Undergraduate physiotherapy program at James Cook University, Townsville, Queensland. 48 final year physiotherapy students representing 89% of the total cohort (48/54). Survey questionnaire using Kolb's Learning Style Inventory (Version 3.1). The preferred learning styles were spread uniformly across the three learning styles of Converging, Assimilating and Accommodating, with the least preferred method of learning style the Diverging style. This suggests that in the clinical environment this student cohort are least likely to prefer to develop their learning from actually experiencing the scenario i.e. in front of a real life patient (concrete experience), and were more likely prefer this learning to come from a theoretical perspective, allowing them to consider the problem/scenario before experiencing it. When transforming this experience into knowledge, they prefer to use it on a 'real life' patient (active experimentation). Whilst understanding learning styles have been promoted as a means of improving the learning process, there remains a lack of high level evidence. The findings of this study reinforce those of other studies into the learning styles of physiotherapy students suggesting that physiotherapy students share common learning style profiles. Copyright © 2012 Chartered Society of Physiotherapy. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. LEARNING STYLE OF MEDICAL STUDENTS AND ITS CORRELATION WITH PREFERRED TEACHING METHODOLOGIES AND ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhalli, Muhammad Asif; Khan, Ishtiaq Ali; Sattar, Abdul

    2015-01-01

    Researchers have categorized the learning styles in many ways. Kolb proposed a classification of learner's styles as convergers, divergers, assimilators and accommodators. Honey and Mumford simplified learning styles as activists, reflectors, theorists and pragmatists. Neil Fleming's VARK model (Visual, Auditory, Read/write and Kinesthetic) is also popular. This study was carried out to determine the frequency of learning styles (Honey and Mumford) of medical students and its correlation with preferred teaching methodologies and academic achievements. A total of 77 medical students of 4th year MBBS were selected through non-probability convenient sampling for this study. Honey and Mumford's learning style questionnaire, and a 2nd questionnaire to know their preference for different teaching methodologies were distributed to the students. Learning styles were identified and correlated with preferred teaching methodologies and academic achievements by Chi-square test. Mean age of the medical students was 22.75 ± 1.05 years. Twenty one (27.3%) participants were males and 56 (72.7%) females. By learning styles, 7 (9.1%) medical students were activists, 36 (46.8%) reflectors, 13 (16.9%) theorists and 21 (27.3%) were pragmatists. Out of 77 students, 22 preferred interactive lectures; 16, small group discussion; 20 problem based learning, 10 preferred demonstration on models. Only 01 students preferred one-way lecture as the best teaching methodology. No significant correlation was found between learning styles and preferred teaching methodologies and learning styles and academic scores. Most of the medical students had reflector (46.8%) and pragmatist (27.3%) learning styles. Majority preferred interactive lectures (28.57%) and problem based learning (25.98%) as teaching methodologies. Aligning our instructional strategies with learning styles of the medical students will improve learning and academic performance.

  13. Learning style preferences of nursing students at two universities in Iran and Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdollahimohammad, Abdolghani; Ja'afar, Rogayah

    2014-01-01

    Learning style preferences vary within the nursing field and there is no consensus on a predominant learning style preference in nursing students. The current study compared the learning style preferences of nursing students at two universities in Iran and Malaysia. A purposive sampling method was used to collect data from the two study populations. Data were collected using the Learning Style Scale (LSS), which is a valid and reliable inventory. The LSS consists of 22 items with five subscales including perceptive, solitary, analytic, imaginative, and competitive. The questionnaires were distributed at the end of the academic year during regular class time for optimum response. The Mann-Whitney U-test was used to compare the learning style preferences between the two study populations. A significant difference was found in perceptive, solitary, and analytic learning styles between two groups of nursing students. However, there was no significant difference in imaginative and competitive learning styles between the two groups. Most of the students were in the middle range of the learning styles. There were similarities and differences in learning style preferences between Zabol Medical Sciences University (ZBMU) and University Sains Malaysia (USM) nursing students. The USM nursing students were more sociable and analytic learners, whereas the ZBMU nursing students were more solitary and perceptive learners.

  14. A Comparison between Learning Style Preferences, Gender, Sport and Achievement in Elite Team Sport Athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Braakhuis

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Athletes have preferences for the way in which they internalize and process information, whether that is visual, aural, by-doing (kinesthetic, reading or a mixture of preferences. Health professionals that interact with athletes rarely consider the individual learning style prior to any communication or education, despite mounting evidence for the benefits of learning-style tailored education. The aim of this study was to characterize athletes with regards to their preferred learning style. Athletes (n = 93 from 24 sports and various sport achievement levels completed a questionnaire, including the visual (V, auditory (A, reading/writing (R, kinesthetic (K/(VARK Questionnaire for Athletes. Questionnaire outcomes were analysed by X2 analysis on SPSS. The main findings were: (1 very few athletes have a visual learning-style preference; (2 there was a significant relationship between gender and VARK preference (X2 = 13.84, p = 0.003; (3 and between athletic status and VARK preference (X2 = 9.2, p = 0.025; (4 there was a trivial association between individual/ team sport athletes and assessed VARK preference (X2 = 3.95, p = 0.265. Our findings show significant variation in learning-style preference between males and females, and those of different athletic status. Health professionals should be aware of the inadequacy of visual information presentation when working with athletes. Furthermore, health professionals working with elite and female athletes should be comfortable using a mixture of learning styles (multi-modal.

  15. Attending Surgeons' Leadership Style in the Operating Room: Comparing Junior Residents' Experiences and Preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kissane-Lee, Nicole A; Yule, Steven; Pozner, Charles N; Smink, Douglas S

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies have focused on surgeons' nontechnical skills in the operating room (OR), especially leadership. In an attempt to identify trainee preferences, we explored junior residents' opinions about the OR leadership style of teaching faculty. Overall, 20 interns and 20 mid-level residents completed a previously validated survey on the style of leadership they encountered, the style they preferred to receive, and the style they personally employed in the OR. In all, 4 styles were explored; authoritative: leader makes decisions and communicates them firmly; explanatory: leader makes decisions promptly, but explains them fully; consultative: leader consults with trainees when important decisions are made, and delegative: leader puts the problem before the group and makes decisions by majority opinion. Comparisons were completed using chi-square analysis. Junior resident preference for leadership style of attending surgeons in the OR differed from what they encountered. Overall, 62% of residents encountered an authoritative leadership style; however, only 9% preferred this (p leadership. Junior resident preference of leadership style in the OR differs from what they actually encounter. This has the potential to create unwanted tension and may erode team performance. Awareness of this difference provides an opportunity for an educational intervention directed at both attendings and trainees. Copyright © 2015 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Learners' Satisfaction, Learning Style Preferences and Effective Use of an OLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thushani Alwis Weerasinghe

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of an empirical study conducted with a set of students using an online learning environment (OLE to follow a distance education program. The aim of the study was to find whether students could perform well in examinations using only the Learning Management System (LMS, whether they could use it in an efficient way and whether there was a relationship between students’ learning styles, number of LMS hits and learning achievements. The students were given access to a specially designed course section. The students’ learning achievements were evaluated in two tests at different intervals. The study data were gathered using questionnaires and LMS statistics. We found that once the students got acquainted with the environment they could use the LMS more efficiently and managed to get high scores by only using the LMS. Results associated with the learning style preferences imply that we have designed the learning content and the environment to satisfy and support the learners with different learning style preferences.

  17. Kinesthetic Learning Style Preferences: A Survey of Indonesian EFL Learners by Gender

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peptia Asrining Tyas

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated predominant learning style of 3rd semester students of English Language Education Program in Faculty of Cultural Studies at Universitas Brawijaya according to gender. Purposive sampling was used for this research and the sampling in this research was 100 students consist of 34 male students and 66 female students taken from 3rd semester English Department students of Faculty of Cultural Studies at Universitas Brawijaya. All participants were administered an Indonesian translated version of Reid’s (1984 Perceptual Learning Style Preference Questionnaire consisting of Visual, Auditory, Kinesthetic, Tactile, Group, and Individual, included 30 items. This study used quantitative survey design and Microsoft Excel 2007 as the analysis software. The validity and the reliability of this research were calculated by SPSS v.21. The result indicated that predominant male’s learning style was Kinesthetic and estimated by 14 male students (41% while female students become Kinesthetic and Group and estimated the same percentage, 21 students (332% for Kinesthetic and 21 (32% students for Group. The result of the study also shows that both male and female tend to be Kinesthetic. It is suggested that to the English department to adjust the academic activities with the learning styles to enhance educational achievement and encouraging students take responsibility in their whole learning.

  18. Leadership Style Preference of Undergraduate Occupational Therapy Students in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ted Brown

    2014-06-01

    Conclusion: The Considerate leadership style is characterised by creating comfortable working environments, following established procedures, and creating an easy work pace, while the Spirited leadership style is about inspiring people, generating excitement, turning work into play, and rallying people. It is recommended that leadership be integrated into occupational therapy curricula so as to adequately equip students for future professional practice.

  19. Learning style and teaching method preferences of Saudi students of physical therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Maghraby, Mohamed A; Alshami, Ali M

    2013-09-01

    To the researchers' knowledge, there are no published studies that have investigated the learning styles and preferred teaching methods of physical therapy students in Saudi Arabia. The study was conducted to determine the learning styles and preferred teaching methods of Saudi physical therapy students. A cross-sectional study design. Fifty-three Saudis studying physical therapy (21 males and 32 females) participated in the study. The principal researcher gave an introductory lecture to explain the different learning styles and common teaching methods. Upon completion of the lecture, questionnaires were distributed, and were collected on completion. Percentages were calculated for the learning styles and teaching methods. Pearson's correlations were performed to investigate the relationship between them. More than 45 (85%) of the students rated hands-on training as the most preferred teaching method. Approximately 30 (57%) students rated the following teaching methods as the most preferred methods: "Advanced organizers," "demonstrations," and "multimedia activities." Although 31 (59%) students rated the concrete-sequential learning style the most preferred, these students demonstrated mixed styles on the other style dimensions: Abstract-sequential, abstract-random, and concrete-random. The predominant concrete-sequential learning style is consistent with the most preferred teaching method (hands-on training). The high percentage of physical therapy students whose responses were indicative of mixed learning styles suggests that they can accommodate multiple teaching methods. It is recommended that educators consider the diverse learning styles of the students and utilize a variety of teaching methods in order to promote an optimal learning environment for the students.

  20. Physician's gender, communication style, patient preferences and patient satisfaction in gynecology and obstetrics: A systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, S.M.; Lagro-Janssen, A.L.M.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Review of studies published in the last 10 years about women seeking gynecological- or obstetrical care and physician's gender in relation to patient preferences, differences in communication style and patient satisfaction. METHODS: Studies were identified by searching the online

  1. Exploration of preferred learning styles in medical education using VARK modal

    OpenAIRE

    Khanal, Laxman; Shah, Sandip; Koirala, Sarun

    2014-01-01

    Learning styles is a term used to refer to the methods of gathering, processing, interpreting, organizing and thinking about information. Students have different learning styles, which is the reason for the diversity seen in classrooms in regards to how students acquire information. Claxton and Murrell had divided the learning styles into the following four categories: personality models, information-processing models, social-interaction models, and instructional preferences models. VARK (an ...

  2. Are Learning Style Preferences of Health Science Students Predictive of Their Attitudes towards E-Learning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Ted; Zoghi, Maryam; Williams, Brett; Jaberzadeh, Shapour; Roller, Louis; Palermo, Claire; McKenna, Lisa; Wright, Caroline; Baird, Marilyn; Schneider-Kolsky, Michal; Hewitt, Lesley; Sim, Jenny; Holt, Tangerine-Ann

    2009-01-01

    The objective for this study was to determine whether learning style preferences of health science students could predict their attitudes to e-learning. A survey comprising the "Index of Learning Styles" (ILS) and the "Online Learning Environment Survey" (OLES) was distributed to 2885 students enrolled in 10 different health…

  3. Preference Learning Style in Engineering Mathematics: Students' Perception of E-Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tawil, Norngainy Mohd; Ismail, Nur Arzilah; Asshaari, Izamarlina; Othman, Haliza; Zaharim, Azami; Bahaludin, Hafizah

    2013-01-01

    Nowadays, traditional learning styles are assisted with e-learning components to ensure the effectiveness of the teaching and learning process, especially for the students. This approach is known as blended learning. Objective of this paper is to investigate and clarify the students' preferences in learning style, either traditional or e-learning.…

  4. Thinking Styles and Preferred Teacher Interpersonal Behavior among Hong Kong Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Tak-ming; Chen, Chen

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between thinking styles and preferred teacher interpersonal behavior based on the Model for Interpersonal Teacher Behavior (MITB, Wubbels, Creton, & Hooymayers, 1985) among 247 Hong Kong secondary school female students. The Thinking Style Inventory Revised (TSI-R, Sternberg, Wagner, & Zhang, 2003)…

  5. Experimental Study of Chinese Non-English Students' Overall Learning Style Preferences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ming-Lei

    2011-01-01

    Two proposed style assessment instruments are employed to explore the learning styles of non-English major college students in the EFL (English as a Foreign Language) context in Chinese universities. It was found that their overall learning preferences in English language learning demonstrate a tendency, so that discovering the students' learning…

  6. Engineering Students Learning Preferences in UNITEN: Comparative Study and Patterns of Learning Styles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chen Kang; Sidhu, Manjit Singh

    2015-01-01

    Engineering educators have been increasingly taking the learning style theories into serious consideration as part of their efforts to enhance the teaching and learning in engineering. This paper presents a research study to investigate the learning style preference of the mechanical engineering students in Universiti Tenaga Nasional (UNITEN),…

  7. Investigating the Relationship between Learning Style Preferences and Teaching Collaboration Skills and Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Seung L.; Sonnenwald, Diane H.

    2002-01-01

    This paper reports on an exploratory study that investigates the relationship between participants' learning style preferences and their perceptions of a professional workshop on collaboration and technology to support collaboration. The Learning Preference Scale-Students (LPSS) (Owens & Barnes...... regarding the content of the workshop. Group 1 suggested adding more discussions and group exercises, whereas Group 2 suggested adding explicit theory or rules to govern behavior. These findings indicate that learning styles should be considered as a potential variable that influences learning outcomes...

  8. Nursing students at a university - a study about learning style preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallin, Karin

    2014-12-01

    In most adult education, teachers use methods that assume all students learn in the same way. But knowledge of students' learning style preferences highlights the importance of adequate teaching and learning adaptation. The aim of the study was to describe and compare final year nursing students' learning style preferences in two campuses during three semesters. A further aim was to identify differences between learning style preferences and personal characteristics. A descriptive cross-sectional study using the Productivity Environmental Preference Survey (PEPS) questionnaire was conducted at a Swedish rural university. Three semester groups with 263 nursing students participated in 2012-2013. The majority of the students were 'flexible' in their learning style preferences and had none or few strong preferences. Students with strong preferences preferred high structure (75%) and an authority figure present (40%). About a third were highly auditory, tactile and/or kinesthetic while 8% were highly visual. Few significant differences were revealed between the groups of campuses and the groups of semesters or between learning style preferences and upper secondary school and care experience. There were no significant differences between learning style preferences and age and assistant nurse graduation. More women than men were highly motivated, auditory, tactile and kinesthetic and preferred structure and mobility. The PEPS questionnaire provides nursing students with self-awareness regarding their strengths and shortcomings in learning and teachers with a valuable and practical basis for their selection of adapted individual and group teaching methods. The findings suggest the need for wide variation and interactive teaching approaches, conscious didactic actions between cooperating teachers and conscious learning strategies for nursing students. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The preferred learning style among residents and faculty members of an internal medicine residency program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adesunloye, Bamidele A; Aladesanmi, Oluranti; Henriques-Forsythe, Marshaleen; Ivonye, Chinedu

    2008-02-01

    To determine the preferred learning style, as defined by David Kolb, and predictors of the different learning styles among residents and faculty members at an internal medicine residency program. A cross sectional study of internal medicine residents and faculty members at Morehouse School of Medicine was performed using the Kolb Learning Style Inventory (LSI) version 3.1. The Kolb LSI is a questionnaire of 12 sentences, each with four phrases for sentence completion that are to be ranked according to how they apply to the subject. Forty-two out of 59 questionnaires that were given out to residents and attending physicians were properly completed and returned. Assimilating style was the predominant learning style among residents (42%) and attending physicians (55%). There was no significant association between age, gender or medical education status, and learning styles. The understanding of residents' learning styles may facilitate instructional rapport between residents and attending physicians, thereby improving residents' academic performance.

  10. First-year medical students prefer multiple learning styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lujan, Heidi L; DiCarlo, Stephen E

    2006-03-01

    Students have preferences for the ways in which they receive information. The visual, auditory, reading/writing, kinesthetic (VARK) questionnaire identifies student's preferences for particular modes of information presentation. We administered the VARK questionnaire to our first-year medical students, and 166 of 250 students (66%) returned the completed questionnaire. Only 36.1% of the students preferred a single mode of information presentation. Among these students, 5.4% preferred visual (learning from graphs, charts, and flow diagrams), 4.8% preferred auditory (learning from speech), 7.8% preferred printed words (learning from reading and writing), and 18.1% preferred using all their senses (kinesthetics: learning from touch, hearing, smell, taste, and sight). In contrast, most students (63.8%) preferred multiple modes [2 modes (24.5%), 3 modes (32.1%), or 4 modes (43.4%)] of information presentation. Knowing the students preferred modes can 1) help provide instruction tailored to the student's individual preference, 2) overcome the predisposition to treat all students in a similar way, and 3) motivate teachers to move from their preferred mode(s) to using others.

  11. Physician's gender, communication style, patient preferences and patient satisfaction in gynecology and obstetrics: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, Sabine M; Lagro-Janssen, Antoine L M

    2012-11-01

    Review of studies published in the last 10 years about women seeking gynecological- or obstetrical care and physician's gender in relation to patient preferences, differences in communication style and patient satisfaction. Studies were identified by searching the online databases PubMed, PsycINFO, Embase and the Cochrane Library. The search strategies 'gender'; 'obstetrics' and 'gynecology' were combined with 'communication'; 'physician-patient relations'; 'patient preference' and 'patient satisfaction'. After screening title and abstract, evaluating full text and quality assessment, 9 articles were included in this review. Most patients preferred a female rather than a male gynecologist-obstetrician. This was partly explained by a more patient-centered communication style used by female gynecologists-obstetricians. Also experience and clinical competence were important factors in choosing a gynecologist-obstetrician. It was not clear whether patient's age or ethnicity influenced patients gender preference. Patient satisfaction increased when gynecologists-obstetricians used a patient-centered communication style. Preference for a female gynecologist-obstetrician might be explained by a more patient-centered communication style used by female gynecologists-obstetricians. Using a patient-centered communication style increases patient satisfaction. To increase patient satisfaction, gynecologists-obstetricians should learn to integrate patient-centered communication style into the consultation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The learning styles and the preferred teaching-learning strategies of first year medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharb, Poonam; Samanta, Prajna Paramita; Jindal, Manisha; Singh, Vishram

    2013-06-01

    The purpose of teaching is to facilitate learning and to encourage the learners to learn more effectively. The learning style is an individual's consistent way of perceiving, processing and retaining new information. Educational researchers have shown an increasing interest in the learning styles, the related instructional methods and the andrgogical teaching techniques. This interest is spurred by a desire to help the students to become capable and successful learners. The aim of this study was to determine the preferred learning styles of medical students as well as their preferences of specific teaching-learning methods. A cross sectional study was conducted on 100 first semester medical students who were enrolled at SMS & R, Sharda University, India. The VARK questionnaire, version 7.1 was used to categorize the learning preferences/modes as visual (V), auditory (A), read and write (R) and kinaesthetic (K). The students were also asked to rank the various teaching methodologies viz. lectures, tutorials, demonstrations and practicals/dissections from the most preferred choice to the least preferred one. The majority (61%) of the students had multimodal VARK preferences. Among them, 41%, 14% and 6% preferred the bimodal, trimodal and the quadrimodal ways of information presentation. 39% of the respondents had one strong (unimodal) learning preference. The most common unimodal preference was kinaesthetic, followed by visual, auditory and read and write. The most preferred teaching methodology was practical/dissection (39%) and tutorial was the least preferred one (12%). One single approach to teaching does not work for every student or even for most of the students. The educators' awareness of the various learning styles of the students and their efforts towards matching the teaching and learning styles may help in creating an effective learning environment for all the students.

  13. Learning Style Preferences of Undergraduate Dietetics, Athletic Training, and Exercise Science Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Meredith G.; Hansen, Pamela; Rhee, Yeong; Brundt, Ardith; Terbizan, Donna; Christensen, Bryan

    2014-01-01

    The study assessed the preferred learning style (LS) of college students and compared LS preferences among students majoring in Dietetics, Exercise Science, and Athletic Training. LS questionnaires were distributed to students (N = 693, mean age 20.5 ± 1.7) enrolled in health science courses at three Midwestern universities. Most students…

  14. Relationship between Teachers' Preferred Teacher-Student Interpersonal Behaviour and Intellectual Styles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Tak Ming; Zhu, Chang

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the association between teachers' preferred interpersonal behaviour in teaching and their thinking styles. A sample of 131 secondary teachers from Hong Kong (n = 94) and Macau (n = 37) participated in a survey to measure their preferred interpersonal behaviour by the questionnaire for teacher interaction (QTI) and their…

  15. Learning Style Preferences of Physical Education Majors: Implications for Teaching and Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randall, Lynda E.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Two studies, one quantitative and another qualitative, of learning style preferences of physical education majors are reviewed. The quantitative study investigated variation in relation to gender, age, and ethnicity and how preferences compared to those found in other disciplines. The qualitative study identified common themes in student…

  16. An Examination through Conjoint Analysis of the Preferences of Students Concerning Online Learning Environments According to Their Learning Styles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daghan, Gökhan; Akkoyunlu, Buket

    2012-01-01

    This study examines learning styles of students receiving education via online learning environments, and their preferences concerning the online learning environment. Maggie McVay Lynch Learning Style Inventory was used to determine learning styles of the students. The preferences of students concerning online learning environments were detected…

  17. Learning Styles Preferences of Statistics Students: A Study in the Faculty of Business and Economics at the UAE University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousef, Darwish Abdulrahman

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Although there are many studies addressing the learning styles of business students as well as students of other disciplines, there are few studies which address the learning style preferences of statistics students. The purpose of this study is to explore the learning style preferences of statistics students at a United Arab Emirates…

  18. Style preference survey: a report on the psychometric properties and a cross-validation experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Sherri L; Ricketts, Todd; McArdle, Rachel A; Chisolm, Theresa H; Alexander, Genevieve; Bratt, Gene

    2013-02-01

    Several self-report measures exist that target different aspects of outcomes for hearing aid use. Currently, no comprehensive questionnaire specifically assesses factors that may be important for differentiating outcomes pertaining to hearing aid style. The goal of this work was to develop the Style Preference Survey (SPS), a questionnaire aimed at outcomes associated with hearing aid style differences. Two experiments were conducted. After initial item development, Experiment 1 was conducted to refine the items and to determine its psychometric properties. Experiment 2 was designed to cross-validate the findings from the initial experiment. An observational design was used in both experiments. Participants who wore traditional, custom-fitted (TC) or open-canal (OC) style hearing aids from 3 mo to 3 yr completed the initial experiment. One-hundred and eighty-four binaural hearing aid users (120 of whom wore TC hearing aids and 64 of whom wore OC hearing aids) participated. A new sample of TC and OC users (n = 185) participated in the cross-validation experiment. Currently available self-report measures were reviewed to identify items that might differentiate between hearing aid styles, particularly preference for OC versus TC hearing aid styles. A total of 15 items were selected and modified from available self-report measures. An additional 55 items were developed through consensus of six audiologists for the initial version of the SPS. In the first experiment, the initial SPS version was mailed to 550 veterans who met the inclusion criteria. A total of 184 completed the SPS. Approximately three weeks later, a subset of participants (n = 83) completed the SPS a second time. Basic analyses were conducted to evaluate the psychometric properties of the SPS including subscale structure, internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and responsiveness. Based on the results of Experiment 1, the SPS was revised. A cross-validation experiment was then conducted using the

  19. Association between learning style preferences and anatomy assessment outcomes in graduate-entry and undergraduate medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Mahony, Siobhain M; Sbayeh, Amgad; Horgan, Mary; O'Flynn, Siun; O'Tuathaigh, Colm M P

    2016-07-08

    An improved understanding of the relationship between anatomy learning performance and approaches to learning can lead to the development of a more tailored approach to delivering anatomy teaching to medical students. This study investigated the relationship between learning style preferences, as measured by Visual, Aural, Read/write, and Kinesthetic (VARK) inventory style questionnaire and Honey and Mumford's learning style questionnaire (LSQ), and anatomy and clinical skills assessment performance at an Irish medical school. Additionally, mode of entry to medical school [undergraduate/direct-entry (DEM) vs. graduate-entry (GEM)], was examined in relation to individual learning style, and assessment results. The VARK and LSQ were distributed to first and second year DEM, and first year GEM students. DEM students achieved higher clinical skills marks than GEM students, but anatomy marks did not differ between each group. Several LSQ style preferences were shown to be weakly correlated with anatomy assessment performance in a program- and year-specific manner. Specifically, the "Activist" style was negatively correlated with anatomy scores in DEM Year 2 students (rs = -0.45, P = 0.002). The "Theorist" style demonstrated a weak correlation with anatomy performance in DEM Year 2 (rs = 0.18, P = 0.003). Regression analysis revealed that, among the LSQ styles, the "Activist" was associated with poorer anatomy assessment performance (P VARK "Aural" modality (P < 0.05). These data support the contention that individual student learning styles contribute little to variation in academic performance in medical students. Anat Sci Educ 9: 391-399. © 2016 American Association of Anatomists. © 2016 American Association of Anatomists.

  20. Preferred Thinking Style, Symptom Recognition, and Response by Nursing Students During Simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burbach, Beth E; Barnason, Susan; Hertzog, Melody

    2015-12-01

    A better understanding of the relationships between symptom recognition, nursing response, and preferred thinking style is needed to improve nursing education practices. Final semester nursing students (N = 29) completed a high fidelity patient simulation (HFPS) scenario; recognized symptoms (i.e., dyspnea) and responses (i.e., apply oxygen) were recorded, and compared with students' preferred thinking style using the Rational-Experiential Inventory-40. Relationships between concepts were explored. Significant relationships were noted between preference for Rational thinking styles and symptom recognition (p students delayed application of oxygen until directed to do so by members of the health care team. Students having a stronger preference for rational thinking demonstrate greater accuracy in cue recognition. More nursing research is needed to explore the cognitive processing during simulation. © The Author(s) 2014.

  1. Cultural preferences for visual and verbal communication styles in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Culture is a key issue in the development of marketing communications in international markets as cultures develop distinctive preferences for visual and verbal communications. The individualistic nature of American culture lends itself to a preference for simple, direct visual communication and low-context verbal ...

  2. Music Preferences, Personality Style, and Developmental Issues of Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Kelly D.; Fouts, Gregory T.

    2003-01-01

    Studied the personality characteristics and developmental issues of three groups of adolescent music listeners divided by preferred type of music. Findings for 164 adolescents show that each of the three music preference groups is inclined to demonstrate a unique profile of personality dimensions and developmental issues. (SLD)

  3. Preferred learning styles among prospective research methodology course students at Taibah University, Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    R Abdallah, Ayat; Al-zalabani, Abdulmohsen; Alqabshawi, Reem

    2013-04-01

    Knowledge of students' preferred learning styles is important while developing teaching strategies that influence student commitment during the course. The VARK questionnaire is one of the commonly used learning style inventories. The aim of this study was to determine and assess the sex-based differences in learning style preferences among second-year medical students at Taibah University who were prospective students for the research methodology course. All second-year medical students at Taibah University (n=129) were invited to participate in the study and were administered the Arabic version of the VARK questionnaire. A total of 89 students, 45 female and 44 male, completed the questionnaire with a response rate of 67%. The students were classified according to the VARK questionnaire as visual, read/write, auditory, kinesthetic, and multimodal learners. Nearly two-thirds (66.3%) of the students preferred multimodality for information presentation. Male and female students showed significantly different learning style preferences (P=0.02). Female students tended to prefer the multimodal learning style more compared with male students (77.8% vs. 54.5%, respectively). Furthermore, 33.7% of students preferred the single mode of information presentation (45.5% male and 22.2% female students); the auditory mode was the predominant selection among the unimodal male and female learners (41% of male vs. 11.1% of female students). The majority of the second-year medical students preferred multimodality in terms of learning preferences, with a significant difference between male and female students; female students tended to favor the multiple modes of information presentation more compared with male students. The study recommends modification of the teaching strategies of the current research methodology course toward the use of a variety of active learning techniques that would fit the different learning styles exhibited by the studied students, rather than classic

  4. Turkish Pre-Service Physics Teachers' Preferred Learning Styles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandil Ingec, Sebnem

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to determine the dominant learning styles of pre-service physics teachers and to examine them in terms of variables such as gender, information and communication technologies skills, academic achievement and type of motivation. Survey model was used. The sample composed of 50 pre-service physics teachers. The data were collected…

  5. Athlete preference of coach's leadership style | Surujlal | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This may require the coach to display flexibility in adapting his/her leadership style to suit specific leadership situations so that all stakeholders (i.e. coach, athletes and management) are satisfied. Coaches wield strong influence over their athletes, therefore their leadership skills forms a vital element of their coaching.

  6. Learning style preferences: A study of pre-clinical medical students in Barbados.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojeh, Nkemcho; Sobers-Grannum, Natasha; Gaur, Uma; Udupa, Alaya; Majumder, Md Anwarul Azim

    2017-10-01

    Educators need to be aware of different learning styles to effectively tailor instructional strategies and methods to cater to the students' learning needs and support a conductive learning environment. The VARK [an acronym for visual (V), aural (A), read/write (R) and kinesthetic (K)] instrument is a useful model to assess learning styles. The aim of this study was to use the VARK questionnaire to determine the learning styles of pre-clinical medical students in order to compare the perceived and assessed learning style preferences, assess gender differences in learning style preferences, and determine whether any relationships exists between awareness of learning styles and academic grades, age, gender and learning modality. The VARK questionnaire was administered to pre-clinical students taking a variety of courses in the first three years of the undergraduate MB BS degree programme at the Faculty of Medical Sciences, The University of the West Indies, Cave Hill Campus, Barbados in 2014. The majority of the students were multimodal learners with no differences observed between males (59.5%) and females (60.0%), with tetramodal being the most common. Read/write (33.8%) followed by kinesthetic (32.5%) were the most common learning style preferences. The sensory modality preference for females was read/write (34.2%) and for males it was kinesthetic (40.5%). Significant differences were observed between the perceived and assessed learning style preferences with a majority of visual and read/write learners correctly matching their perceived to their actual learning styles. Awareness of learning styles was associated with learning modality but not with academic performance, age or gender. Overall, 60.7% of high achievers used multimodal learning compared to 56.9% low achievers. The findings from this study indicated that the VARK tool was useful in gathering information about different learning styles, and might assist educators in designing blended teaching

  7. Nurse managers' preferred and perceived leadership styles: a study at an Italian hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zampieron, Alessandra; Spanio, Daniele; Bernardi, Paola; Milan, Rosalia; Buja, Alessandra

    2013-04-01

    The aim of this cross-sectional descriptive study was to compare the different leadership styles based on perceptions of nurse managers and their staff. Nurse managers' styles are fundamental to improving subordinates' performance and achieving goals at health-care institutions. This was a cross-sectional study. A questionnaire developed by Ekvall & Arvonen, considering three leadership domains (Change, Production and Employee relations), was administered to all nurse managers and to their subordinates at a city hospital in north-east Italy. The comparison between the leadership styles actually adopted and those preferred by the nurse managers showed that the preferred style always scored higher than the style adopted, the difference reaching statistical significance for Change and Production. The leadership styles preferred by subordinates always scored higher than the styles their nurse managers actually adopted; in the subordinates' opinion, the differences being statistically significant in all three leadership domains. The study showed that nurse managers' expectations in relation to their leadership differ from those of their subordinates. These findings should be borne in mind when selecting and training nurse managers and other personnel, and they should influence the hospital's strategic management of nurses. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  8. Age-Related Differences in Judgments of Inappropriate Behavior are Related to Humor Style Preferences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Jennifer Tehan; Lohani, Monika; Isaacowitz, Derek M.

    2014-01-01

    Identifying social gaffes is important for maintaining relationships. Older adults are less able than young to discriminate between socially appropriate and inappropriate behavior in video clips. One open question is how these social appropriateness ratings relate to potential age differences in the perception of what is actually funny or not. In the present study, young, middle-aged, and older adults were equally able to discriminate between appropriate and inappropriate social behavior in a diverse set of clips relevant to both age groups. However, young and middle-aged adults rated the gaffe clips as funnier than control clips and young adults smiled more during the inappropriate clips than the control clips. Older adults did not show this pattern, suggesting that they did not find the inappropriate clips funny. Additionally, young adults endorsed a more aggressive humor style than middle-aged and older adults and aggressive humor style endorsement mediated age differences in social appropriateness ratings. Results are discussed in terms of possible mechanisms such as cohort differences in humor and developmental prioritization of certain humor styles, as well as the importance of investigating age differences in both abilities and preferences. PMID:25244473

  9. effects of learning styles on career preferences of senior secondary

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Elizabeth Egbochuku

    2002), learning can generally ... positive valence among alternative form of work value. Okon (2001) is of the view that economic development ... influence on career preference is intelligence. Okon believed that while bright chaps for science ...

  10. The influence of learning styles preference of undergraduate nursing students on educational outcomes in substance use education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rassool, G Hussein; Rawaf, Salman

    2008-09-01

    This paper reports a study identifying the learning styles preference of undergraduate nursing students and examining its influence on educational outcomes. There are limited recent studies in the UK on the learning styles preference of undergraduate and its influence on educational outcomes. A purposive sample of 110 undergraduate nursing students completed a demographic questionnaire and the Honey and Mumford's learning styles inventory. A pre-post-test design was used to evaluate the educational outcomes. Reflector learning styles preference was the dominant learning styles among the majority of undergraduate nursing students. An interesting phenomenon about the distribution of the learning styles preference is the additional "dual" learning style category. The hypothesis that learning styles preference will determine knowledge acquisition, changes in attitude and intervention confidence skills was rejected. However, as this is a multi-layered hypothesis the findings showed that only the dual learning styles preference group was found to have a significant influence in intervention confidence skills. Further research is warranted to replicate this study using the same methodology but with several different population samples specialising in different branch of nursing. As there are limited literature on the dual learning styles preferences, this dual preference phenomenon needs further investigation to establish its acceptability in nursing education.

  11. Correlations between Clinical Judgement and Learning Style Preferences of Nursing Students in the Simulation Room

    OpenAIRE

    Hallin, Karin; H?ggstr?m, Marie; B?ckstr?m, Britt; Kristiansen, Lisbeth Porskrog

    2015-01-01

    Background: Health care educators account for variables affecting patient safety and are responsible for developing the highly complex process of education planning. Clinical judgement is a multidimensional process, which may be affected by learning styles. The aim was to explore three specific hypotheses to test correlations between nursing students? team achievements in clinical judgement and emotional, sociological and physiological learning style preferences. Methods: A descriptive cross-...

  12. The relationship between learning style preferences and gender, educational major and status in first year medical students: a survey study from iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarabi-Asiabar, Ali; Jafari, Mehdi; Sadeghifar, Jamil; Tofighi, Shahram; Zaboli, Rouhollah; Peyman, Hadi; Salimi, Mohammad; Shams, Lida

    2015-01-01

    Identifying and employing appropriate learning styles could play an important role in selecting teaching styles in order to improve education. This study aimed to determine the relationship between learning styles preferences and gender, educational major and status in first year students at Isfahan University of Medical Sciences. A cross-sectional study employing the visual-aural-read/write-kinesthetic (VARK) learning style's questionnaire was done on 184 first year students of medicine, pharmacy, dentistry, nursing and health services management at Isfahan University of Medical Sciences in 2012. The validity of the questionnaire was assessed through experts' views and reliability was calculated using Cronbach's alpha coefficients (α = 0.86). Data were analyzed using the SPSS ver.18 software and x(2) test. Out of 184 participants who responded to and returned the questionnaire, 122 (66.3%) were female; more than two-thirds (68.5%) of the enrolled students were at the professional doctorate level (medicine, pharmacy, dentistry) and 31.5% at the undergraduate level (nursing and health services management). Eighty-nine (48.4%) students preferred a single-modal learning style. In contrast, the remaining 95 students (51.6%) preferred multi-modal learning styles. A significant relationship between gender and single modal learning styles (P = 0.009) and between status and learning styles (P = 0.04) was observed. According to the results, male students preferred to use the kinesthetic learning style more than females, while, female students preferred the aural learning style. Knowledge about the learning styles of students at educational institutes is valuable and helps solve learning problems among students, and allows students to become better learners.

  13. Patients' preferences for receiving laboratory test results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabahi, Azam; Ahmadian, Leila; Mirzaee, Moghadameh; Khajouei, Reza

    2017-04-01

    The laboratory, as a diagnostic department in the hospital, plays an important role in the treatment and prevention of diseases. Paying attention to patients' preferences for communication of test results may provide a better and more responsive system for delivering these results. This study aimed to identify patient preferences regarding receiving their laboratory test results electronically and to identify the reasons behind their choice. Descriptive-analytical study. This study was carried out in 2015 with 200 patients who had access to the internet and had been referred at least once previously to the hospital laboratory department to receive their test results. Data were collected through an expert-validated questionnaire, and its reliability was confirmed by test-retest (P = .8). Data were analyzed using χ2 and marginal independence SPSS and R software. Ninety-eight percent of participants preferred to be notified by short message service when their test results were ready. All participants preferred to receive their test results online, and 82.5% (n = 165) preferred to receive both normal and abnormal test results this way. The main reason for receiving results online was time savings, which was reported by 77% of participants, followed by lowering the chance of missing the results (31%). About 40% of participants thought e-mail notification was more secure than accessing the results through a hospital website. Findings showed that although patients wanted to benefit from online services for receiving their test results, they were concerned about confidentiality and security. Before using online technologies, security measures necessary to protect patient privacy and to gain the trust of patients should be defined.

  14. Learning Style Preferences of Engineers in Automotive Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James-Gordon, Yvette; Bal, Jay

    2001-01-01

    Two questionnaires completed by 27 automobile design engineers and 15 project engineers identified a preference for visual learning. Computer-assisted design training and the daily work environment incorporated visual means such as diagrams, photos, flowcharts, videos, and demos. No significant differences between design and project engineers were…

  15. Using VARK Approach for Assessing Preferred Learning Styles of First Year Medical Sciences Students: A Survey from Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peyman, Hadi; Sadeghifar, Jamil; Khajavikhan, Javaher; Yasemi, Masood; Rasool, Mohammad; Yaghoubi, Yasemi Monireh; Nahal, Monireh Mohammad Hassan; Karim, Hemati

    2014-08-01

    Preferred learning styles of learners are different, which depend on tastes, mentality preparedness, as well as physical condition, in terms of sensory modalities. Identifying and employing appropriate learning styles could play an important role in selecting teaching styles, which can improve education ultimately. The present study aimed to assess the diversity of learning styles amongst medical students of a medical sciences university which was located west of Iran, in 2010. A cross-sectional study which employed VARK learning style's questionnaire was done on 141 first year medical sciences students at Ilam University of Medical Sciences in 2010. Data was collected with use of VARK questionnaire. The validity of the questionnaire was assessed on basis of experts' views and its reliability was calculated by using Cronbach's alpha coefficients (α=0.86). Data were analysed by using SPSS software and Chi-square test. Overall, 41.6% of the samples preferred to use a single learning style (Uni-modal). Of these, 17.7% preferred the Aural style, 17% preferred Reading and Writing, 6.4% preferred Kinesthetic style and 0.7% preferred Visual styles. Among the rest of the 82 students who preferred more than one style (multimodal), 17% chose two modes (bimodal), 13.5% chose three modes (tri-modal), and 27.6% chose four modes (quad-modal). There was a significant difference between educational levels and majors on one hand and choice of quad modal of VARK styles on the other hand (p=0.008). A significant association was also found between participants' genders and selection of visual and reading/writing styles (p=0.03). The preferred learning styles of medical students in the present study were aural and reading/writing. It is suggested that all medical students must be tested to determine their desired learning styles by using VARK questionnaire, also to choose appropriate teaching methods and to improve educational goals.

  16. The Preferred Learning Styles of Neurosurgeons, Neurosurgery Residents, and Neurology Residents: Implications in the Neurosurgical Field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Hung-Yi; Lee, Ching-Yi; Chiu, Angela; Lee, Shih-Tseng

    2014-01-01

    To delineate the learning style that best defines a successful practitioner in the field of neurosurgery by using a validated learning style inventory. The Kolb Learning Style Inventory, a validated assessment tool, was administered to all practicing neurosurgeons, neurosurgical residents, and neurology residents employed at Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, an institution that provides primary and tertiary clinical care in 3 locations, Linkou, Kaohsiung, and Chiayi. There were 81 participants who entered the study, and all completed the study. Neurosurgeons preferred the assimilating learning style (52%), followed by the diverging learning style (39%). Neurosurgery residents were slightly more evenly distributed across the learning styles; however, they still favored assimilating (32%) and diverging (41%). Neurology residents had the most clearly defined preferred learning style with assimilating (76%) obtaining the large majority and diverging (12%) being a distant second. The assimilating and diverging learning styles are the preferred learning styles among neurosurgeons, neurosurgery residents, and neurology residents. The assimilating learning style typically is the primary learning style for neurosurgeons and neurology residents. Neurosurgical residents start off with a diverging learning style and progress toward an assimilating learning style as they work toward becoming practicing neurosurgeons. The field of neurosurgery has limited opportunities for active experimentation, which may explain why individuals who prefer reflective observation are more likely to succeed in this field. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Exploration of preferred learning styles in medical education using VARK modal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laxman Khanal

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Learning styles is a term used to refer to the methods of gathering, processing, interpreting, organizing and thinking about information. Students have different learning styles, which is the reason for the diversity seen in classrooms in regards to how students acquire information. Claxton and Murrell had divided the learning styles into the following four categories: personality models, information-processing models, social-interaction models, and instructional preferences models. VARK (an acronym for Visual, Aural, Read/write and Kinesthetic, different way of learning styles is a learning inventory categorized into the ‘instructional preference’ modal. Many studies were done using the VARK inventory among the medical education but the preferred mode of learning was variable in different parts of the world. The relationship of age, gender and academic performance with the mode of learning was also not consistent. So this article tried to conclude the preferred mode of learning and relationship of mode of learning with gender and other factors by analyzing the previous studies done using VARK questionnaire among the medical students in daily teaching and learning environment. Pub Med and Google Scholar were used as a search engine to find the article. Altogether 20 full text research papers were retrieved and reviewed. In the most of part of the world the studies showed that multimodal learning style was the predominant one over unimodal. Further in multimodal quadmodal was the most preferred one followed by other presentation. In the unimodal presentation most preferred one is kinesthetic type of learning along with visual, aural and read write in less extent. Age factors had no lucid relationship with the learning style though some variations were observed with age.This review was expected to be useful as scientific evidence in the field of medical education and also as a reference for further research.

  18. An online survey to study the relationship between patients’ health literacy and coping style and their preferences for self-management-related information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vosbergen S

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Sandra Vosbergen,1 Niels Peek,1 Johanna MR Mulder-Wiggers,1 Hareld MC Kemps,1,2 Roderik A Kraaijenhagen,3 Monique WM Jaspers,1,4 Joyca PW Lacroix51Department of Medical Informatics, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam, the Netherlands, 2Department of Cardiology, Máxima Medical Centre, Veldhoven, the Netherlands, 3NIPED Research Foundation, Amsterdam, the Netherlands, 4Center for Human Factors Engineering of Health Information Technology (HIT Lab, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam, the Netherlands, 5Department of Brain, Body and Behavior, Philips Research, Eindhoven, the NetherlandsObjective: To evaluate patients’ preferences for message features and assess their relationships with health literacy, monitor–blunter coping style, and other patient-dependent characteristics.Methods: Patients with coronary heart disease completed an internet-based survey, which assessed health literacy and monitor–blunter coping style, as well as various other patient characteristics such as sociodemographics, disease history, and explicit information preferences. To assess preferences for message features, nine text sets differing in one of nine message features were composed, and participants were asked to state their preferences.Results: The survey was completed by 213 patients. For three of the nine text sets, a ­relationship was found between patient preference and health literacy or monitor–blunter coping style. Patients with low health literacy preferred the text based on patient experience. Patients with a monitoring coping style preferred information on short-term effects of their treatment and mentioning of explicit risks. Various other patient characteristics such as marital status, social support, disease history, and age also showed a strong association.Conclusion: Individual differences exist in patients’ preferences for message features, and these preferences relate to patient characteristics such as health literacy and monitor

  19. Student Teacher Assessment Feedback Preferences: The Influence of Cognitive Styles and Gender

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Carol; Waring, Michael

    2011-01-01

    The enhancement of assessment feedback is an international concern. This study is unique in its exploration of the nature of the relationship between student teachers' assessment feedback preferences, cognitive styles and gender, with a view to informing the development of assessment feedback practices and course design within initial teacher…

  20. Which Types of Leadership Styles Do Followers Prefer? A Decision Tree Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salehzadeh, Reza

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to propose a new method to find the appropriate leadership styles based on the followers' preferences using the decision tree technique. Design/methodology/approach: Statistical population includes the students of the University of Isfahan. In total, 750 questionnaires were distributed; out of which, 680…

  1. Incorporating Learning Style and Personality Preferences into an Oral Communication Course Syllabus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadas, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Individual difference factors of personality typology and learning style preference and their effect on second language acquisition have been the focus of several prominent SLA theorists over the past twenty-five years. However, few articles have demonstrated how individual learner difference research can be applied within a classroom by second…

  2. The Development of Children's Same-Sex Peer Preferences: Labeling versus Play Styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mireles, Jenny

    This study examined the influence of play styles and gender labeling on children's peer preferences. Thirty-six preschool children viewed pictures of other children playing and were asked to point to whom they wanted to play with. One group of children chose between a boy wrestling with a neutral doll and a girl hugging the neutral doll. Another…

  3. Exploring Juror's Listening Processes: The Effect of Listening Style Preference on Juror Decision Making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worthington, Debra L.

    2001-01-01

    Examines the relationship between listening style preference and jurors' assignment of negligence and damages. Notes that 90 men and 84 women drawn from introductory communication courses viewed videotaped attorney presentations and the judge's instructions from an actual court case. Indicates that participants with a people-oriented listening…

  4. Using VARK Approach for Assessing Preferred Learning Styles of First Year Medical Sciences Students: A Survey from Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Peyman, Hadi; Sadeghifar, Jamil; Khajavikhan, Javaher; Yasemi, Masood; Rasool, Mohammad; Yaghoubi, Yasemi Monireh; Nahal, Monireh Mohammad Hassan; Karim, Hemati

    2014-01-01

    Background: Preferred learning styles of learners are different, which depend on tastes, mentality preparedness, as well as physical condition, in terms of sensory modalities. Identifying and employing appropriate learning styles could play an important role in selecting teaching styles, which can improve education ultimately.

  5. Automotive style design assessment and sensitivity analysis using integrated analytic hierarchy process and technique for order preference by similarity to ideal solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangdong Tian

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Product style characteristics have a large impact on product function. Making an objective and precise assessment of style characteristic has become an increasing importance to improve the production efficiency and reduce environmental pollution. This work proposes a framework built by analytic hierarchy process and technique for order preference by similarity to ideal solution methods, that is, analytical hierarchy process and technique for order performance by similarity to ideal solution, to evaluate automotive style design alternatives’ performance, together with automotive style design characteristics. Analytic hierarchy process is applied to obtain weights of the performance, and technique for order preference by similarity to ideal solution is adopted to rank the design alternatives. A case study is illustrated to test and verify the proposed method. Simultaneously, sensitivity analysis is provided to monitor the robustness of this method. The results show that it provides an effective and feasible method for evaluation of automotive style design alternatives’ performance.

  6. Nutrition communication styles of family doctors: results of quantitative research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dillen, S M E; Hiddink, G J; Koelen, M A; van Woerkum, C M J

    2005-08-01

    To assess the nutrition communication styles of Dutch family doctors and in particular to assess its psychosocial and sociodemographic correlates. A cross-sectional study in which a representative sample of 600 Dutch family doctors completed a questionnaire. The survey was conducted in October and November 2004 in the Netherlands. A total of 267 family doctors completed the questionnaire (response rate 45%). Principal component factor analyses with varimax rotation were performed to construct factors. Cronbach's alpha was used as an index of reliability. Our hypothetical model for nutrition communication style was tested using multiple regression analysis, combining the forward and backward procedures under the condition of the same results. Many family doctors felt at ease with a motivational nutrition communication style. The main predictor for motivational nutrition communication style was task perception of prevention (26%). Some individual and environmental correlates had an additional influence (explained variance 49%). Other styles showed explained variances up to 57%. The motivational style was the best predictor for actual nutrition communication behaviour (35%), while the confrontational style was the best predictor for actual nutrition communication behaviour towards overweight (34%). In contemporary busy practice, family doctors seem to rely on their predominant nutrition communication style to deal with standard situations efficiently: for the majority, this proved to be the motivational nutrition communication style. Moreover, family doctors used a combination of styles. This study suggests that family doctors behave like chameleons, by adapting their style to the specific circumstances, like context, time and patient. If family doctors communicate about nutrition in general, they select any of the five nutrition communication styles. If they communicate about overweight, they pick either the confrontational or motivational style.

  7. Preferred "Learning Styles" in Students Studying Sports-Related Programmes in Higher Education in the United Kingdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Derek; Jones, Gareth; Peters, John

    2008-01-01

    This article investigates the "preferred learning styles" and their relationship with grades for students undertaking sports-related undergraduate programmes at a higher education institution in the UK. Preferred "learning styles" in students in this discipline have been identified as auditory, kinaesthetic and group, although…

  8. [Epidemiological study of preferable life style for psychological health promotion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohira, Tetsuya; Nakamura, Chikako; Imano, Hironori; Okada, Takeo; Kitamura, Akihiko; Kiyama, Masahiko; Nakagawa, Yuko; Sato, Shinichi; Nakamura, Masakazu; Naito, Yoshihiko; Kurokawa, Michinori; Nakashita, Yumiko; Yamamoto, Masayo; Kamei, Kazuyo; Horii, Yuko; Shimamoto, Takashi

    2007-04-01

    We sought to examine relationships of lifestyle factors, including diet, physical activity, sleep, alcohol consumption and smoking, with perceived stress and depressive symptoms. Between 2001 and 2002, 7,947 men and women (mean 52.4 years) took part in examinations at the Osaka Medical Center for Health Science and Promotion. Lifestyle factors were determined by structured interview or by self-administered questionnaire. Associations of life style factors with perceived stress and depressive symptoms were tested by stepwise logistic regression analyses. Higher proportions of persons with depressive symptoms tended to be associated with higher proportions of persons with perceived stress. Among both men and women, low physical activity, lack of regular physical exercise, short sleeping time, to skip breakfast frequently, and having dinner within a couple of hours before going to bed were associated with both perceived stress and depressive symptoms. Men reporting between-meal or midnight snacks and having eating until they were full had higher odds ratios for perceived stress, while men conducting regular physical exercise and consuming 3 or more dishes of vegetables per day had lower odds ratios for depressive symptoms. For women, high odds ratios for depressive symptoms and perceived stress were observed among those who tended to have salty foods (or frequent use of soy sauce) and a lower odds ratio for perceived stress was noted among persons who had soy products every day. Lifestyle facets such as skipping breakfast, low physical activity, and short sleeping time, appear to be associated with psychological health status of Japanese men and women.

  9. Using health literacy and learning style preferences to optimize the delivery of health information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuse, Nunzia B; Koonce, Taneya Y; Storrow, Alan B; Kusnoor, Sheila V; Ye, Fei

    2012-01-01

    Limited patient understanding of hypertension contributes to poor health outcomes. In 2 sequential randomized studies, the authors determined the impact of administering information tailored to health literacy level alone or in combination with preferred learning style on patients' understanding of hypertension. Patients with high blood pressure were recruited in an academic emergency department. In Experiment 1 (N = 85), the control group received only the routine discharge instructions; the intervention group received discharge instructions combined with information consistent with their health literacy level as determined by the Short Test of Functional Health Literacy. In Experiment 2 (N = 87), the information provided to the intervention group was tailored to both health literacy and learning style, as indicated by the VARK™ Questionnaire. To measure learning, the authors compared scores on a hypertension assessment administered during the emergency department visit and 2 weeks after discharge. Participants who received materials tailored to both health literacy level and learning style preference showed greater gains in knowledge than did those receiving information customized for health literacy level only. This study demonstrates that personalizing health information to learning style preferences and literacy level improves patient understanding of hypertension.

  10. Thinking style preferences among librarians in public and special libraries in the Ljubljana region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Senica

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents Sternberg’s theory of mental self-government that makes an unique contribution to the understanding of human individual differences. In order to investigate individual differences of librarians in public and special libraries in the Ljubljana region, the Thinking Styles Inventory was applied to determine the styles of thinking according to Sternberg’s theory of mental self-government. Building on the acquired data, some differences in styles of thinking in regard to demographic variable are highlighted. The results point out that the profile of thinking styles of librarians shows high levels for the external and liberal thinking styles, and modest levels for internal, conservative, global and local thinking styles. Some comparisons with other studies are drawn, and a few proposals for further research on the individual differences are suggested.

  11. The construction and evaluation of a normative learning style preference questionnaire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. J. Viljoen

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available Various authors have indicated the need for and value of identifying the learning style preferences of individual learners. Similar needs have been voiced in the South African context.The focal point of this study was the development of a normative instrument for predicting the preferred learning styles of individuals. Secondary aims were to determine whether there are differences between groups formed on the basis of gender, academic qualifications and functional disciplines as far as their learning style preferences are concerned. Based on a review of the literature and an existing questionnaire, namely the Learning Style Inventory (LSI 85, the Learning Style Preference Questionnaire (LSPQ consisting of 136 items was developed and administered to respondents (N= 542 in a large organisation. The LSPQ was subjected to a principal factor analysis and six factors were obtained.The six factors were rotated to simple structure by means of the Direct Oblimin procedure. The matrix of intercorrelations of the six factorswas subjected to a second-order factor analysis and yielded a single factor. Opsomming Verskeie outeurs het na die behoefte aan asook die waarde van identi¢kasie van leerstylvoorkeure van individuele leerders verwys. Soortgelyke behoeftes is ook in Suid-Afrikaanse verband geopper.Die fokus van hierdie studie was die ontwikkeling van ’n normatiewe instrument om die leerstylvoorkeure van individue te meet. Sekondere doelwitte was omte bepaal of daar verskille tussen groepe is wat saamgestel is op grond van geslag, akademiese kwalifikasies en funksionele dissiplines wat hul leerstylvoorkeure betref. Gegrond op ’n oorsig van die literatuur en ’n bestaande vraelys, tewete die ‘‘Learning Style Inventory’’ (LSI 85, is die ‘‘Learning Style PreferenceQuestionnaire‘‘ (LSPQ, bestaande uit 136 items, gekonstrueer en op 542 respondente in’n groot organisasie toegepas. Die LSPQ is aan ’n hoo¡aktorontleding onderwerp en ses

  12. Surgical resident learning styles: faculty and resident accuracy at identification of preferences and impact on ABSITE scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Roger H; Gilbert, Timothy; Ristig, Kyle; Chu, Quyen D

    2013-09-01

    As a consequence of surgical resident duty hour restrictions, there is a need for faculty to utilize novel teaching methods to convey information in a more efficient manner. The current paradigm of surgical training, which has not changed significantly since the time of Halsted, assumes that all residents assimilate information in a similar fashion. However, recent data has shown that learners have preferences for the ways in which they receive and process information. The VARK model categorizes learners as visual (V), aural (A), read/write (R), and kinesthetic (K). The VARK learning style preferences of surgical residents have not been previously evaluated. In this study, the preferred learning styles of general surgery residents were determined, along with faculty and resident perception of resident learning styles. In addition, we hypothesized that American Board of Surgery In-Training Exam (ABSITE) scores are associated with preference for a read/write (R) learning style. The Fleming VARK learning styles inventory was administered to all general surgery residents at a university hospital-based program. Responses on the inventory were scored to determine the preferred learning style for each resident. Faculty members were surveyed to determine their accuracy in identifying the preferred learning style of each resident. All residents were also surveyed to determine their accuracy in identifying their peers' VARK preferences. Resident ABSITE scores were examined for association with preferred learning styles. Twenty-nine residents completed the inventory. Most (18 of 29, 62%) had a multimodal preference, although more than a third (11 of 29, 38%) demonstrated a single-modality preference. Seventy-six percent of all residents (22 of 29) had some degree of kinesthetic (K) learning, while under 50% (14 of 29) were aural (A) learners. Although not significant, dominant (R) learners had the highest mean ABSITE scores. Faculty identified residents' learning styles

  13. Prenatal hormones and childhood sex segregation: playmate and play style preferences in girls with congenital adrenal hyperplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasterski, Vickie; Geffner, Mitchell E; Brain, Caroline; Hindmarsh, Peter; Brook, Charles; Hines, Melissa

    2011-04-01

    We investigated playmate and play style preference in children with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) (26 females, 31 males) and their unaffected siblings (26 females, 17 males) using the Playmate and Play Style Preferences Structured Interview (PPPSI). Both unaffected boys and girls preferred same-sex playmates and sex-typical play styles. In the conflict condition where children chose between a same-sex playmate engaged in an other-sex activity or an other-sex playmate engaged in a same-sex activity, boys (both CAH and unaffected brothers) almost exclusively chose playmates based on the preferred play style of the playmate as opposed to the preferred gender label of the playmate. By contrast, unaffected girls used play style and gender label about equally when choosing playmates. Girls with CAH showed a pattern similar to that of boys: their playmate selections were more masculine than unaffected girls, they preferred a boy-typical play style and, in the conflict condition, chose playmates engaged in a masculine activity. These findings suggest that prenatal androgen exposure contributes to sex differences in playmate selection observed in typically developing children and that, among boys and girls exposed to high levels of androgens prenatally, play style preferences drive sex segregation in play. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Prenatal hormones and childhood sex-segregation: Playmate and play style preferences in girls with congenital adrenal hyperplasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasterski, Vickie; Geffner, Mitchell E.; Brain, Caroline; Hindmarsh, Peter; Brook, Charles; Hines, Melissa

    2011-01-01

    We investigated playmate and play style preference in children with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) (26 females, 31 males) and their unaffected siblings (26 females, 17 males) using the Playmate and Play Style Preferences Structured Interview (PPPSI). Both unaffected boys and girls preferred same-sex playmates and sex-typical play styles. In the conflict condition where children chose between a same-sex playmate engaged in an other-sex activity or an other-sex playmate engaged in a same-sex activity, boys (both CAH and unaffected brothers) almost exclusively chose playmates based on the preferred play style of the playmate as opposed to the preferred gender label of the playmate. By contrast, unaffected girls used play style and gender label about equally when choosing playmates. Girls with CAH showed a pattern similar to that of boys: their playmate selections were more masculine than unaffected girls, they preferred a boy-typical play style and, in the conflict condition, chose playmates engaged in a masculine activity. These findings suggest that prenatal androgen exposure contributes to sex differences in playmate selection observed in typically-developing children, and that, among boys and girls exposed to high levels of androgens prenatally, play style preferences drive sex segregation in play. PMID:21338606

  15. Assessment of thinking style preferences and language proficiency for South African students whose native languages differ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maree, Jacobus G; de Boer, Ann-Louise

    2003-10-01

    The language proficiency of first-year students at the University of Pretoria (56 men and 59 women, M age=19.40 yr., SD=.80, range from 18.00 to 20.70) was assessed by means of the English Language Skills Assessment. More than one-third of the students did not show proficiency at Grade 10, as expected. This language assessment was not correlated with academic achievement equally well for students in a group. The diversity of thinking style preferences of the students enrolled in a language development course was also assessed on the Herrmann Brain Dominance Instrument. Scores indicated a range of thinking style preferences but the group's overall mean scores represented detail-oriented and feeling-based modes of thinking processes. These preferences were correlated with academic achievement and learning of languages. The data are consistent with the hypothesis that thinking styles could be a focus of educational strategies in South Africa, using the perspective that qualitatively different approaches to teaching might be associated with students' qualitatively different approaches to learning.

  16. What type of learner are your students? Preferred learning styles of undergraduate gross anatomy students according to the index of learning styles questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Melissa M; Smith, Theodore; Kalmar, Eileen L; Burgoon, Jennifer M

    2017-11-02

    Students learn and process information in many different ways. Learning styles are useful as they allow instructors to learn more about students, as well as aid in the development and application of useful teaching approaches and techniques. At the undergraduate level there is a noticeable lack of research on learning style preferences of students enrolled in gross anatomy courses. The Index of Learning Styles (ILS) questionnaire was administered to students enrolled in a large enrollment undergraduate gross anatomy course with laboratory to determine their preferred learning styles. The predominant preferred learning styles of the students (n = 505) enrolled in the gross anatomy course were active (54.9%), sensing (85.1%), visual (81.2%), and sequential (74.4%). Preferred learning styles profiles of particular majors enrolled in the course were also constructed; analyses showed minor variation in the active/reflective dimension. An understanding of students' preferred learning styles can guide course design but it should not be implemented in isolation. It can be strengthened (or weakened) by concurrent use of other tools (e.g., flipped classroom course design). Based on the preferred learning styles of the majority of undergraduate students in this particular gross anatomy course, course activities can be hands on (i.e., active), grounded in concrete information (i.e., sensing), utilize visual representation such as images, figures, models, etc. (i.e., visual), and move in small incremental steps that build on each topic (i.e., sequential). Anat Sci Educ. © 2017 American Association of Anatomists. © 2017 American Association of Anatomists.

  17. An Empirical Investigation of the Relationships Among Cognitive Abilities, Cognitive Style, and Learning Preferences in Students Enrolled in Specialized Degree Courses at a Canadian College

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaila Sardar

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Although specific cognitive abilities, cognitive style, and learning preferences are assumed to be inter-related, the empirical evidence supporting this assumption is mixed. Cognitive style refers to how individuals represent information, and learning preference refers to how individuals prefer the presentation of information (Mayer & Massa, 2003. Both cognitive style and learning preferences have been linked to specific cognitive abilities, such as verbal abilities, visual imagery and spatial abilities, though the nature of the inter-relationships remains tenuous in the literature. The present study addressed the roles of specific cognitive abilities in the relationship between learning preferences and the visualizer-verbalizer dimension of cognitive style, using a unique sample of students enrolled in specialized post-secondary programs. A battery of cognitive tests and questionnaires was administered. It was found that spatial abilities predicted visual cognitive style, which in turn, predicted visual learning preferences. Vocabulary knowledge predicted verbal cognitive style, but not verbal learning preferences. These results suggest that specific cognitive abilities predict visual-verbal cognitive styles, though the distinction between visual-verbal cognitive styles does not have clear associations with learning preferences.Bien que l’on suppose que les habiletés cognitives, le style cognitif et les préférences en matière d’apprentissage soient interreliés, les preuves empiriques étayant cette supposition sont partagées. Le style cognitif renvoie à la façon dont les individus perçoivent l’information et les préférences en matière d’apprentissage concernent la présentation de l’information (Mayer & Massa, 2003. Les chercheurs ont établi un lien entre, d’une part, le style cognitif et les préférences d’apprentissage et, d’autre part, des capacités cognitives spécifiques comme les habiletés verbales, l

  18. The impact of multiple representations of content using multimedia on learning outcomes across learning styles and modal preferences

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    M D Sankey; D Birch; M W Gardiner

    2011-01-01

    ... more effectively for different learning styles and modal preferences. This paper presents the findings of an experiment to measure the impact of multiple representations on learning outcomes, including student learning performance and engagement...

  19. The effect of surgical resident learning style preferences on American Board of Surgery In-training Examination scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Roger H; Gilbert, Timothy; Ristig, Kyle

    2015-01-01

    There is a growing body of literature that suggests that learners assimilate information differently, depending on their preferred learning style. The VARK model categorizes learners as visual (V), aural (A), read/write (R), kinesthetic (K), or multimodal (MM). We hypothesized that resident VARK learning style preferences and American Board of Surgery In-Training Examination (ABSITE) performance are associated. The Fleming VARK learning styles inventory was administered to all general surgery residents at a university hospital-based program each year to determine their preferred learning style. Resident scores from the 2012 and 2013 ABSITE were examined to identify any correlation with learning style preferences. Over a 2-year period, residents completed 53 VARK inventory assessments. Most (51%) had a multimodal preference. Dominant aural and read/write learners had the lowest and highest mean ABSITE scores, respectively (p = 0.03). Residents with dominant read/write learning preferences perform better on the ABSITE than their peers did, whereas residents with dominant aural learning preferences underperform on the ABSITE. This may reflect an inherent and inadvertent bias of the examination against residents who prefer to learn via aural modalities. Copyright © 2015 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. An Empirical Investigation of the Relationships Among Cognitive Abilities, Cognitive Style, and Learning Preferences in Students Enrolled in Specialized Degree Courses at a Canadian College

    OpenAIRE

    Shaila Sardar; Jean Choi

    2011-01-01

    Although specific cognitive abilities, cognitive style, and learning preferences are assumed to be inter-related, the empirical evidence supporting this assumption is mixed. Cognitive style refers to how individuals represent information, and learning preference refers to how individuals prefer the presentation of information (Mayer & Massa, 2003). Both cognitive style and learning preferences have been linked to specific cognitive abilities, such as verbal abilities, visual imagery and spati...

  1. Heavy Metal and Hip-Hop Style Preferences and Externalizing Problem Behavior: A Two-Wave Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selfhout, Maarten H. W.; Delsing, Marc J. M. H.; ter Bogt, Tom F. M.; Meeus, Wim H. J.

    2008-01-01

    This study examines (a) the stability of Dutch adolescents' preferences for heavy metal and hip-hop youth culture styles, (b) longitudinal associations between their preferences and externalizing problem behavior, and (c) the moderating role of gender in these associations. Questionnaire data were gathered from 931 adolescents between the ages of…

  2. A Comparative Analysis of SMTs (School Management Teams) and Teachers Perceived Preferred Leadership Style: A Case of Selected Primary Schools in Botswana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsayang, Gabatshwane

    2011-01-01

    The study compared the SMTs (School Management Teams) and teachers' perceptions of preferred leadership styles in some selected schools in Botswana. SMTs and teachers completed a questionnaire adopted from the leadership styles questionnaires. The findings of the study pointed to an overwhelming view that the preferred style of leadership is the…

  3. Preferred teaching and testing methods of athletic training students and program directors and the relationship to styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, Trenton E; Caswell, Shane V

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was (1) to investigate differences between athletic training students' and program directors' preferences for teaching and testing methods and (2) to investigate the relationship between style and preferred teaching and testing methods using the Gregorc Style Delineator (GSD) and the Preferred Teaching and Testing Method Inventory (PTTMI). We cluster sampled 200 undergraduate students (100% return; 68 men, 132 women; mean age, 20.12 +/- 2.02 yrs) and simple random sampled 100 program directors (43% return; 22 men, 21 women; mean age, 40.05 +/- 9.30 yrs) from Commission on Accreditation of Allied Health Education Programs-accredited athletic training education programs. We used a correlational research design to compare the preferred teaching and testing methods of undergraduate students and program directors. All subjects completed a demographic survey, the GSD, and the PTTMI. Our analyses included two separate 2 (role: student and program director) x 8 (method: teaching or testing techniques) and two separate 4 (style: concrete sequential, abstract sequential, abstract random, concrete random) x 8 (method: teaching and testing techniques) mixed-model analyses of variance. We found that athletic training students and program directors had significantly different preferences for teaching (p teaching or testing method. We recommend that athletic training and allied health educators consider implementing pedagogy that accentuates students' styles and consider self and students' preferences for preferred teaching and testing methods as time and topic permit.

  4. An Empirical Investigation of the Relationships among Cognitive Abilities, Cognitive Style, and Learning Preferences in Students Enrolled in Specialized Degree Courses at a Canadian College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jean; Sardar, Shaila

    2011-01-01

    Although specific cognitive abilities, cognitive style, and learning preferences are assumed to be inter-related, the empirical evidence supporting this assumption is mixed. Cognitive style refers to how individuals represent information, and learning preference refers to how individuals prefer the presentation of information (Mayer & Massa,…

  5. Arrovian aggregation of MBA preferences: An impossibility result

    OpenAIRE

    Herzberg, Frederik

    2013-01-01

    Cerreia-Vioglio, Ghirardato, Maccheroni, Marinacci and Siniscalchi (Economic Theory, 48:341-375, 2011) have recently axiomatised preferences in the presence of ambiguity as Monotonic Bernoullian Archimedean (MBA) preferences. We investigate the problem of Arrovian aggregation of MBA preferences - and prove dictatorial impossibility results for both finite and infinite populations.

  6. The relationship between learning preferences (styles and approaches) and learning outcomes among pre-clinical undergraduate medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liew, Siaw-Cheok; Sidhu, Jagmohni; Barua, Ankur

    2015-03-11

    Learning styles and approaches of individual undergraduate medical students vary considerably and as a consequence, their learning needs also differ from one student to another. This study was conducted to identify different learning styles and approaches of pre-clinical, undergraduate medical students and also to determine the relationships of learning preferences with performances in the summative examinations. A cross-sectional study was conducted among randomly selected 419 pre-clinical, undergraduate medical students of the International Medical University (IMU) in Kuala Lumpur. The number of students from Year 2 was 217 while that from Year 3 was 202. The Visual, Auditory, Read/Write, Kinesthetic (VARK) and the Approaches and Study Skills Inventory for Students (ASSIST) questionnaires were used for data collection. This study revealed that 343 students (81.9%) had unimodal learning style, while the remaining 76 (18.1%) used a multimodal learning style. Among the unimodal learners, a majority (30.1%) were of Kinesthetic (K) type. Among the middle and high achievers in summative examinations, a majority had unimodal (Kinaesthetic) learning style (30.5%) and were also strategic/deep learners (79.4%). However, the learning styles and approaches did not contribute significantly towards the learning outcomes in summative examinations. A majority of the students in this study had Unimodal (Kinesthetic) learning style. The learning preferences (styles and approaches) did not contribute significantly to the learning outcomes. Future work to re-assess the viability of these learning preferences (styles and approaches) after the incorporation of teaching-learning instructions tailored specifically to the students will be beneficial to help medical teachers in facilitating students to become more capable learners.

  7. Influence of consumers' cognitive style on results from projective mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varela, Paula; Antúnez, Lucía; Berget, Ingunn; Oliveira, Denize; Christensen, Kasper; Vidal, Leticia; Naes, Tormod; Ares, Gastón

    2017-09-01

    Projective mapping (PM), one of the most holistic product profiling methods in approach, is increasingly being used to uncover consumers' perception of products and packages. Assessors rely on a process of synthesis for evaluating product information, which would determine the relative importance of the perceived characteristics they use for mapping them. Individual differences are expected, as participants are not instructed on the characteristics to consider for evaluating the degree of difference among samples, generating different perceptual spaces. Individual differences in cognitive style can affect synthesis processes and thus their perception of similarities and differences among samples. In this study, the influence of the cognitive style in the results of PM was explored. Two consumer studies were performed, one aimed at describing intrinsic sensory characteristics of chocolate flavoured milk and the other one looking into extrinsic (package only) of blueberry yogurts. Consumers completed the wholistic-analytic module of the extended Verbal Imagery Cognitive Styles Test & Extended Cognitive Style Analysis-Wholistic Analytic Test, to characterize their cognitive style. Differences between wholistic and analytic consumers in how they evaluated samples using projective mapping were found in both studies. Analytics separated the samples more in the PM perceptual space than wholistic consumers, showing more discriminating abilities. This may come from a deeper analysis of the samples, both from intrinsic and extrinsic point of views. From a sensory perspective (intrinsic), analytic consumers relied on more sensory characteristics, while wholistic mainly discriminated samples according to sweetness and bitterness/chocolate flavour. In the extrinsic study however, even if analytic consumers discriminated more between packs, they described the products using similar words in the descriptive step. One important recommendation coming from this study is the need to

  8. Eliciting Preferences on Secondary Findings: The Preferences Instrument for Genomic Secondary Results (PIGSR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brothers, Kyle B.; East, Kelly M.; Kelley, Whitley V.; Frances Wright, M.; Westbrook, Matthew J.; Rich, Carla A.; Bowling, Kevin M.; Lose, Edward J.; Martina Bebin, E.; Simmons, Shirley; Myers, John A.; Barsh, Greg; Myers, Richard M.; Cooper, Greg M.; Pulley, Jill M.; Rothstein, Mark A.; Wright Clayton, Ellen

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Eliciting and understanding patient and research participant preferences regarding return of secondary test results is a key aspect of genomic medicine. A valid instrument should be easily understood without extensive pre-test counseling, while still faithfully eliciting patients’ preferences. Methods We conducted focus groups with 110 adults to understand patient perspectives on secondary genomic findings and the role preferences should play. We then developed and refined a draft instrument, and used it to elicit preferences from parents participating in a genomic sequencing study in children with intellectual disabilities. Results Patients preferred filtering of secondary genomic results to avoid information overload and to avoid learning what the future holds, among other reasons. Patients preferred to make autonomous choices about which categories of results to receive and to have their choices applied automatically before results are returned to them and their clinicians. The Preferences Instrument for Genomic Secondary Results (PIGSR) is designed to be completed by patients or research participants without assistance and to guide bioinformatic analysis of genomic raw data. Most participants wanted to receive all secondary results, but a significant minority indicated other preferences. Conclusions Our novel instrument – PIGSR – should be useful in a wide range of clinical and research settings. PMID:27561086

  9. Eliciting preferences on secondary findings: the Preferences Instrument for Genomic Secondary Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brothers, Kyle B; East, Kelly M; Kelley, Whitley V; Wright, M Frances; Westbrook, Matthew J; Rich, Carla A; Bowling, Kevin M; Lose, Edward J; Bebin, E Martina; Simmons, Shirley; Myers, John A; Barsh, Greg; Myers, Richard M; Cooper, Greg M; Pulley, Jill M; Rothstein, Mark A; Clayton, Ellen Wright

    2017-03-01

    Eliciting and understanding patient and research participant preferences regarding return of secondary test results are key aspects of genomic medicine. A valid instrument should be easily understood without extensive pretest counseling while still faithfully eliciting patients' preferences. We conducted focus groups with 110 adults to understand patient perspectives on secondary genomic findings and the role that preferences should play. We then developed and refined a draft instrument and used it to elicit preferences from parents participating in a genomic sequencing study in children with intellectual disabilities. Patients preferred filtering of secondary genomic results to avoid information overload and to avoid learning what the future holds, among other reasons. Patients preferred to make autonomous choices about which categories of results to receive and to have their choices applied automatically before results are returned to them and their clinicians. The Preferences Instrument for Genomic Secondary Results (PIGSR) is designed to be completed by patients or research participants without assistance and to guide bioinformatic analysis of genomic raw data. Most participants wanted to receive all secondary results, but a significant minority indicated other preferences. Our novel instrument-PIGSR-should be useful in a wide variety of clinical and research settings.Genet Med 19 3, 337-344.

  10. A grounded theory study of information preference and coping styles following antenatal diagnosis of foetal abnormality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalor, Joan G; Begley, Cecily M; Galavan, Eoin

    2008-10-01

    This paper is a report of a study to explore the information-seeking behaviour of women following an antenatal diagnosis of foetal abnormality. The identification of a foetal abnormality on routine ultrasound in pregnancy is both shocking and distressing for women, and seeking information in this stressful situation is a common response. There is evidence that women's information needs are not always adequately met, and in some cases they recall little from the initial consultation. A longitudinal study involving 42 women was conducted using a classical grounded theory design. Data were collected in 2004-2006 through in-depth interviews at three time intervals: within 4-6 weeks of diagnosis, 4-6 weeks before the birth and 6-12 weeks postnatally. Women described their main concern from diagnosis until the time to give birth in terms of regulating the information received in order to cope with the situation. Two main categories were identified: 'Getting my head around it' and 'I'll cross that bridge when I come to it'. These two differing information-seeking preferences are described as monitoring and blunting. Matching of information preferences with coping styles may support individuals to cope with this stressful event. Women with high information needs (monitors) respond well to detail. However, those with information avoidance behaviours (blunters) should be facilitated to 'opt-in' to information when they are ready, in order to reduce the stress caused by perceived information overload.

  11. Older cancer patients’ anxiety, information preference, coping style and participation during consultation: effects on recall of information.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tol, F.; Jansen, J.; Bensing, J.; Weert, J. van

    2012-01-01

    Cancer is a disease that mainly targets older people. To inform this group of patients adequately, several age-specific factors must be taken into account. Besides cognitive and sensory deficits, information preferences, information coping style, anxiety and participation behavior during

  12. Older cancer patients' anxiety, information preference, coping style and participation during consultation: effects on recall of information

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tol, F.; Jansen, J.; Bensing, J.; van Weert, J.; Hicks, N.L.; Warren, R.E.

    2012-01-01

    Cancer is a disease that mainly targets older people. To inform this group of patients adequately, several age-specific factors must be taken into account. Besides cognitive and sensory deficits, information preferences, information coping style, anxiety and participation behavior during

  13. Predicting High School Student Use of Learning Strategies: The Role of Preferred Learning Styles and Classroom Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheema, Jehanzeb; Kitsantas, Anastasia

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the predictiveness of preferred learning styles (competitive and cooperative) and classroom climate (teacher support and disciplinary climate) on learning strategy use in mathematics. The student survey part of the Programme for International Student Assessment 2003 comprising of 4633 US observations was used in a weighted…

  14. A Comparative Analysis of Preferred Learning and Teaching Styles for Engineering, Industrial, and Technology Education Students and Faculty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsioloudis, Petros; Fantz, Todd D.

    2012-01-01

    In the spring semester of 2010, a materials process course was selected as a means to perform a preferred learning style research study. This course was selected because it contained three groups of students: technology education, engineering technology, and industrial technology. The researchers believed that the differences in the students'…

  15. Results from a new Cocks-Ashby style porosity model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Nathan

    2017-01-01

    A new porosity evolution model is described, along with preliminary results. The formulation makes use of a Cocks-Ashby style treatment of porosity kinetics that includes rate dependent flow in the mechanics of porosity growth. The porosity model is implemented in a framework that allows for a variety of strength models to be used for the matrix material, including ones with significant changes in rate sensitivity as a function of strain rate. Results of the effect of changing strain rate sensitivity on porosity evolution are shown. The overall constitutive model update involves the coupled solution of a system of nonlinear equations.

  16. Learning-style preferences of Latino/Hispanic community college students enrolled in an introductory biology course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarantopoulos, Helen D.

    Purpose. The purpose of this study was to identify, according to the Productivity Environment Preference Survey (PEPS) instrument, which learning-style domains (environmental, emotional, sociological, and physiological) were favored among Latino/Hispanic community college students enrolled in introductory biology classes in a large, urban community college. An additional purpose of this study was to determine whether statistically significant differences existed between the learning-style preferences and the demographic variables of age, gender, number of prior science courses, second language learner status, and earlier exposure to scientific information. Methodology. The study design was descriptive and ex post facto. The sample consisted of a total of 332 Latino/Hispanic students enrolled in General Biology 3. Major findings. The study revealed that Latino/Hispanic students enrolled in introductory biology at a large urban community college scored higher for the learning preference element of structure. Students twenty-five years and older scored higher for the learning preference elements of light, design, persistence, responsibility, and morning time (p English language learners and those who learned English as their primary language (p <= 0.05). Students who frequently read science articles scored higher for the elements of motivation, persistence, responsibility, and tactile (p <= 0.05). Conclusions and recommendations. The conclusions were that Latino/Hispanic students need detailed guidance and clearly stated course objectives. The recommendations were: (1) College professors, counselors, and administrators must become aware of the Dunn learning-style model and instruments and on recent learning-style research articles on ethnically diverse groups of adult learners; and (2) Instructors should plan their instruction to incorporate the learning-style preferences of their students.

  17. Teaching and Learning Styles in Higher Education: Analysis of Student Teachers’ Preferences in an English Pedagogy Program at Three Chilean Universities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constanza Rojas-Jara

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper shows the findings of a study conducted in three Chilean universities in 2014. It aims to analyze EFL student teachers’ preferences regarding their teaching and learning styles. 279 participants answered the teaching style inventory and 238 took the learning style questionnaire. These participants are first, third and fifth year student-teachers. This study uses Grasha and Riechman’s model to study teaching and learning styles. These authors propose a classification, cluster grouping and integrated clustering (Lewis, 2014; Grasha y Riechmann, 1975. The findings reveal that all student teachers favor the Facilitator teaching style and the Collaborative learning style.

  18. Attitudes to concept maps as a teaching/learning activity in undergraduate health professional education: influence of preferred learning style.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laight, David W

    2004-05-01

    Concept maps that integrate and relate concepts in a nonlinear fashion are widely accepted as an educational tool that can underpin meaningful learning in medical education. However, student take-up may be affected by a number of cognitive and non-cognitive influences. In the present study, student attitudes to pre-prepared concept maps introduced in Stage 2 conjoint MPharm and BSc Pharmacology lectures were examined in relation to preferred learning styles according to the Felder-Silverman model. There was no statistically significant influence of dichotomous learning style dimension (sensing/intuitive; visual/verbal; active/reflector; sequential/global) on the self-reported utility of such concept maps to learning. However, when strength of preference was analysed within each dimension, moderate/strong verbal learners were found to be significantly less likely to self-report concept maps as useful relative to mild verbal learners. With this important exception, these data now suggest that student attitudes to concept maps are broadly not influenced by preferred learning styles and furthermore highlight the potential of concept maps to address a variety of different learning styles and thereby facilitate 'teaching to all types'. Concept maps could therefore potentially assist motivation, engagement and deep learning in medical and biomedical science education when used as a supplement to more traditional teaching/learning activities.

  19. Assessing recall, conceptualization, and transfer capabilities of novice biochemistry students' across learning style preferences as revealed by self-explanations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilsenbeck-Fajardo, Jacqueline L.

    2009-08-01

    The research described herein is a multi-dimensional attempt to measure student's abilities to recall, conceptualize, and transfer fundamental and dynamic protein structure concepts as revealed by their own diagrammatic (pictorial) representations and written self-explanations. A total of 120 participants enrolled in a 'Fundamentals of Biochemistry' course contributed to this mixed-methodological study. The population of interest consisted primarily of pre-nursing and sport and exercise science majors. This course is typically associated with a high (techniques) was quantitatively correlated to learning style preferences (i.e., high-object, low-object, and non-object). Quantitative measures revealed that participants tended toward an object (i.e., snapshot) -based visualization preference, a potentially limiting factor in their desire to consider dynamic properties of fundamental biochemical contexts such as heat-induced protein denaturation. When knowledge transfer was carefully assessed within the predefined context, numerous misconceptions pertaining to the fundamental and dynamic nature of protein structure were revealed. Misconceptions tended to increase as the transfer model shifted away from the context presented in the original learning material. Ultimately, a fundamentally new, novel, and unique measure of knowledge transfer was developed as a main result of this study. It is envisioned by the researcher that this new measure of learning is applicable specifically to physical and chemical science education-based research in the form of deep transfer on the atomic-level scale.

  20. Learning Style Preferences of Student Teachers: A Cross-Cultural Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sywelem, Mohamed; Al-Harbi, Qassem; Fathema, Nafsaniath; Witte, James E.

    2012-01-01

    All students learn, but not all learn in the same way. Educational researchers postulate that everyone has a learning style. This article examines how cultural variability is reflected in the learning style of students in Egypt, Saudi Arabia and United States. In this study, the learning styles of over 300 students in Teacher Education…

  1. The relationship between emotional intelligence competencies and preferred conflict-handling styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Jeanne

    2008-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if a relationship exists between emotional intelligence (EI) and preferred conflict-handling styles of registered nurses. Conflict cannot be eliminated from the workplace therefore learning appropriate conflict-handling skills is important. Ninety-four registered nurses working in three south Mississippi healthcare facilities participated in this quantitative study. Ninety-two valid sets of data instruments were collected for this study. Higher levels of EI positively correlated with collaborating and negatively with accommodating. The issue of occupational stress and conflict among nurses is a major concern. It is imperative nurses learn how to effectively handle conflict in the work environment. Developing the competencies of EI and understanding how to effectively handle conflict is necessary for nurses working in a highly stressful occupation. Effective leadership management includes conflict management and collaboration. The art of relationship management is necessary when handling other people's emotions. When conflict is approached with high levels of EI, it creates an opportunity for learning effective interpersonal skills. Understanding how EI levels and conflict skills correlate can be used to improve interpersonal relationships in a healthcare facility.

  2. Learning styles in otolaryngology fellowships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varela, David A Diaz Voss; Malik, Mohammad U; Laeeq, Kulsoom; Pandian, Vinciya; Brown, David J; Weatherly, Robert A; Cummings, Charles W; Bhatti, Nasir I

    2011-12-01

    Previous studies have identified a predominant learning style in trainees from different specialties, more recently in otolaryngology residents. The purpose of our study was to determine a predominant learning style within otolaryngology fellowships and to identify any differences between otolaryngology fellows and residents. We conducted a survey of otolaryngology fellows at 25 otolaryngology fellowship programs accredited by the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education. We emailed Kolb's Learning Style Index version 3.1 to 16 pediatric otolaryngology (PO) and 24 otology/neurotology (ON) fellows. This index is a widely used 12-item questionnaire. The participants answered each item in the questionnaire as it applied to their preferred learning style: accommodating, converging, diverging, or assimilating. Results were then analyzed and compared between each subspecialty and the previously reported preferred styles of otolaryngology residents. Ten PO and 20 ON fellows completed the survey, with an overall response rate of 75%. PO and ON fellows (60% of each group) preferred a learning style that was "balanced" across all four styles. For ON fellows, 35% preferred converging and 5% preferred accommodating styles. For PO fellows, converging and accommodating styles accounted for 20% each. It was previously reported that 74.4% of otolaryngology residents prefer either converging or accommodating styles. We believe that the fellowship training environment calls for fellows to use more than one learning style to become proficient physicians, hence the trend toward potentially developing a balanced style when at this level. Copyright © 2011 The American Laryngological, Rhinological, and Otological Society, Inc.

  3. Attitudes to concept maps as a teaching/learning activity in undergraduate health professional education: influence of preferred learning style

    OpenAIRE

    Laight, David

    2004-01-01

    Concept maps that integrate and relate concepts in a nonlinear fashion are widely accepted as an educational tool that can underpin meaningful learning in medical education. However, student take-up may be affected by a number of cognitive and non-cognitive influences. In the present study, student attitudes to pre-prepared concept maps introduced in Stage 2 conjoint MPharm and BSc Pharmacology lectures were examined in relation to preferred learning styles according to the Felder-Silverman m...

  4. Learning style preferences: A study of Pre-clinical Medical Students in Barbados

    OpenAIRE

    NKEMCHO OJEH; NATASHA SOBERS-GRANNUM; UMA GAUR; ALAYA UDUPA; MD. ANWARUL AZIM MAJUMDER

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Educators need to be aware of different learning styles to effectively tailor instructional strategies and methods to cater to the students’ learning needs and support a conductive learning environment. The VARK [an acronym for visual (V), aural (A), read/write (R) and kinesthetic (K)] instrument is a useful model to assess learning styles. The aim of this study was to use the VARK questionnaire to determine the learning styles of pre-clinical medical students in order to compar...

  5. How do national cultures influence lay people's preferences toward doctors' style of communication? A comparison of 35 focus groups from an European cross national research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimondini, Michela; Mazzi, Maria Angela; Deveugele, Myriam; Bensing, Jozien M

    2015-12-14

    The evidence that inspires and fosters communication skills, teaching programmes and clinical recommendations are often based on national studies which assume, implicitly, that patients' preferences towards doctors' communication style are not significantly affected by their cultural background. The cross-cultural validity of national results has been recognized as a potential limitation on how generally applicable they are in a wider context. Using 35 country-specific focus group discussions from four European countries, the aim of the present study is to test whether or not national cultures influence lay people's preferences towards doctors' style of communication. Lay people preferences on doctor's communication style have been collected in Belgium, the Netherlands, the United Kingdom and Italy. Each centre organized between eight and nine focus groups, where participants (n = 259) were asked to comment on a video of a simulated medical interview. The discussions were audiotaped, transcribed and coded using a common framework (Guliver Coding System) that allowed for the identification of different themes. The frequency distribution of the topics discussed highlights lay people's generally positive views towards most part of doctors interventions. The regression model applied to the Guliver categories highlighted slight national differences and the existence of a cross-cultural appreciation, in particular, of five types of intervention: Doctors attitudes (both Task-Oriented and Affective/Emotional), Summarizing, Structuring and Providing solution. Lay panels valued doctors' communication style in a similar manner in the countries selected. This highlights the existence of a common background, which in the process of internationalization of heath care, might foster the implementation of cross-national teaching programmes and clinical guidelines.

  6. Generational diversity in associate degree nursing students: Teaching styles and preferences in Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitko, Jennifer V.

    2011-12-01

    Nursing educators face the challenge of meeting the needs of a multi-generational classroom. The reality of having members from the Veteran and Baby Boomer generations in a classroom with Generation X and Y students provides an immediate need for faculty to examine students' teaching method preferences as well as their own use of teaching methods. Most importantly, faculty must facilitate an effective multi-generational learning environment. Research has shown that the generation to which a person belongs is likely to affect the ways in which he/she learns (Hammill, 2005). Characterized by its own attitudes, behaviors, beliefs, and motivational needs, each generation also has distinct educational expectations. It is imperative, therefore, that nurse educators be aware of these differences and develop skills through which to communicate with the different generations, thereby reducing teaching/learning problems in the classroom. This is a quantitative, descriptive study that compared the teaching methods preferred by different generations of associate degree nursing students with the teaching methods that the instructors actually use. The research study included 289 participants; 244 nursing student participants and 45 nursing faculty participants from four nursing departments in colleges in Pennsylvania. Overall, the results of the study found many statistically significant findings. The results of the ANOVA test revealed eight statistically significant findings among Generation Y, Generation X and Baby boomers. The preferred teaching methods included: lecture, self-directed learning, web-based course with no class meetings, important for faculty to know my name, classroom structure, know why I am learning what I am learning, learning for the sake of learning and grade is all that matters. Lecture was found to be the most frequently used teaching method by faculty as well as the most preferred teaching methods by students. Overall, the support for a variety of

  7. Learning style preferences and their influence on students' problem solving in kinematics observed by eye-tracking method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kekule, Martina

    2017-01-01

    The article presents eye-tracking method and its using for observing students when they solve problems from kinematics. Particularly, multiple-choice items in TUG-K test by Robert Beichner. Moreover, student's preference for visual way of learning as a possible influential aspect is proofed and discussed. Learning Style Inventory by Dunn, Dunn&Price was administered to students in order to find out their preferences. More than 20 high school and college students about 20 years old took part in the research. Preferred visual way of learning in contrast to the other ways of learning (audio, tactile, kinesthetic) shows very slight correlation with the total score of the test, none correlation with the average fixation duration and slight correlation with average fixation count on a task and average total visit duration on a task.

  8. Learning style preferences of first-year dental students at King Saud University in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia: influence of gender and GPA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Saud, Loulwa Mohammed Saad

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the learning style preferences of a group of first-year dental students and their relation to gender and past academic performance. A total of 113 first-year dental students (forty-two female, seventy-one male) at King Saud University in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, participated. The Visual, Aural, Read-write, and Kinesthetic (VARK) questionnaire was used to determine the students' preferred mode of learning. This sixteen-item questionnaire defines preference of learning based on the sensory modalities: visual, aural, reading/writing, and kinesthetic. More than half (59 percent) of the students were found to have multimodal learning preferences. The most common single learning preferences were aural (20 percent) followed by kinesthetic (15.2 percent). Gender differences were not statistically significant. However, a statistically significant difference was found in the mean values of GPA in relation to the students' learning style preferences (p=0.019). Students with a single learning style preference had a lower mean GPA than those with multiple (quad-modal) learning style preferences. For effective instruction, dental educators need to broaden their range of presentation styles to help create more positive and effective learning environments for all students.

  9. Style

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rösing, Lilian Munk

    2017-01-01

    Defined as the tropes, figures, and grammar of the text, style is quite concrete, quite analyzable. Pure detection and identification of the tropes and figures of a text is not very interesting to literary studies, though, unless it is combined with interpretation, that is, unless you ask: What...... is the effect of those tropes and figures, how do they contribute to the signification of the text?...

  10. Learning styles and preferences for live and distance education: an example of a specialisation course in epidemiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groenwold, Rolf H H; Knol, Mirjam J

    2013-07-02

    Distance learning through the internet is increasingly popular in higher education. However, it is unknown how participants in epidemiology courses value live vs. distance education. All participants of a 5-day specialisation course in epidemiology were asked to keep a diary on the number of hours they spent on course activities (both live and distance education). Attendance was not compulsory during the course and participants were therefore also asked for the reasons to attend live education (lectures and practicals). In addition, the relation between participants' learning styles (Index of Learning Styles) and their participation in live and distance education was studied. All 54 (100%) participants in the course completed the questionnaire on attendance and 46 (85%) completed the questionnaire on learning styles. The number of hours attending live education was negatively correlated with the number of hours going studying distance learning materials (Pearson correlation -0.5; p Learning styles were not association with the number of hours spent on live or distance education. Distance learning may play an important role in epidemiology courses, since it allows participants to study whenever and wherever they prefer, which provides the opportunity to combine courses with clinical duties. An important requirement for distance learning education appears to be the possibility to ask questions and to interact with instructors.

  11. Relationship between preferred leadership style and motivation in young soccer regional players

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Guilherme Borghi; Paulo Henrique Borges; Vanessa Menezes Menegassi; Guilherme Schnaider Wilson Rinaldi

    2017-01-01

    .... The comparison between different age groups was analyzed through the Mann-Whitney U test. To verify the relationship between leadership style and motivation, the Spearman ooneMon coeficient was applied (P < 0.05...

  12. Vyhledávání mimoř ádných prožitků a preference učebního stylu studenta. / Sensation seeking and student’s preferred learning style.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dita Culková

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this empirical study is to determine what learning style students and how this relates to their sensation seeking tendency. We were also interested in what natural clusters occur if these two variables are considered, together with gender and students’ affiliation with general or physical education oriented class at grammar school. Theoretical basis, which are Dunn’s theory of learning styles and theory of Zuckerman’s sensation seeking tendency, are introduced in the first part. The second part describes used methods including reliability and validity verification of the applied questionnaire. Cluster analysis is the method for data processing and provides a deep insight into a big amount of variables. The third part informs about the main results, discusses them and provides praxis recommendations. The greatest differences between genders and class type were found in sensation seekingtendency, partly in learning styles. Girls of physical education and sport specialized classes least represent cluster, where there is a very little thrill and adventure seeking and seeking of new experiences, where boredom susceptibility is low and respecttowards rules and norms is high. Boys are most often members of a cluster where thrill and adventure is not searched but new experiences are welcome, enjoyment follows from disrespect for norms and standards and the members are susceptible to boredom. Boys of physical education and sport classes are little responsible withinthe learning process, they need structured tasks and they prefer experiential or kinesthetic education. It is possible to state, that the preference of learning style of grammar school students might relate to sensation seeking tendency as well as to gender and type of school class.

  13. Nutrition communication styles of family doctors: results of quantitative research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dillen, van S.M.E.; Hiddink, G.J.; Koelen, M.A.; Woerkum, van C.M.J.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To assess the nutrition communication styles of Dutch family doctors and in particular to assess its psychosocial and sociodemographic correlates. Design: A cross-sectional study in which a representative sample of 600 Dutch family doctors completed a questionnaire. Setting: The survey

  14. Preliminary results of the PREFER FP7 Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusilli, Lorenzo; Laneve, Giovanni; De Bonis, Roberto; Sebastian, Ana; Ferrucci, Fabrizio; Oliveira, Sandra

    2014-05-01

    The need to improve the information and intelligence support for forest fire prevention is widely recognized. Fire prevention is still the most cost-effective strategy when compared to firefighting and extinguishing that are costly, local, and triggered only in response to already ongoing crises. PREFER project, funded under the EU FP7 (G.A. 312931), intends to contribute at responding to such a pragmatic need of southern Europe's forests by: providing timely information products based on the exploitation of all available spacecraft sensors, offering a portfolio of products focused on pre- and post-crisis forest fire emergency, suitable for the users in the different countries of the European Mediterranean area. The PREFER Service portfolio consists of two main services: 1. Information Support to Fire Preparedness/Prevention Phase" (ISP) Service 2. Information Support to Fire Recovery/Reconstruction Phase" (ISR) Service This service is already at an advanced stage having completed the first year of activity. During this time several products have been consolidated: seasonal fuel maps; daily and seasonal fire hazard maps; seasonal risk maps; prescribed fire maps. This paper aims at presenting the preliminary results of the research activity carried out in the framework of the PREFER project, focusing, in particular, on these recalled above. As for Fire Risk and Hazard assessment, many indexes have been developed in the last years. Hardly any of them uses data derived from satellite images. The FPI index is an exception to this rule which, in addition, makes use of meteorological data. In spite of being a very complete index, the FPI still allows room for improvement which justify the interest of PREFER in it. PREFER's innovative approach to FPI will allow taking into account the effect of solar illumination conditions in determining the humidity present in the dead vegetation, and therefore its proneness to burn. PREFER innovation also focus in allowing the index to

  15. Hierarchy of Needs, Perception and Preference for Leadership Styles within a Police Educational Institution

    OpenAIRE

    Alina RAUS; Mihaela HAITA; Lucreţia LAZĂR

    2012-01-01

    The present research investigates Maslow’s hierarchy of needs and the leadership style (perceived and ideal) in a sample of employees of a police school. The purpose of this study was to identify and propose solutions to improve the managerial activity. Based on Maslow’s theory for understanding human motivation, we developed a measurement scale for human needs. Based on Lewin’s theory of leadership style, we developed two measurement scales, one for perceived leadership and one for ideal lea...

  16. Learning Style Preferences: An Examination of Differences amongst Students with Different Disciplinary Backgrounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Frances; Tomkinson, Bland; Hiley, Anna; Dobson, Helen

    2016-01-01

    The context of this study is of students with backgrounds in a variety of engineering and social science disciplines, and from first degrees in different countries, coming together to study Project Management. Tailoring teaching to all individuals' learning styles is not possible, but, in an attempt to learn how to teach better in ways that fit…

  17. Generational Learning Style Preferences Based on Computer-Based Healthcare Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Michaelle H.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. The purpose of this mixed-method study was to determine the degree of perceived differences for auditory, visual and kinesthetic learning styles of Traditionalist, Baby Boomers, Generation X and Millennial generational healthcare workers participating in technology-assisted healthcare training. Methodology. This mixed-method research…

  18. A style of upbringing in urban and rural families. Contrasting preferences of secondary school pupils and their parents [Style wychowania w rodzinach miejskich i wiejskich. Zderzenie preferencji gimnazjalistów i ich rodziców

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arkadiusz WĄSIŃSKI

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The changes taking place in Polish families, both urban and rural, have become an undeniable fact. They are connected with civilization changes, technical progress and European integration. It results in a transformation of the system of values and norms of social coexistence expressed in a change of a model of upbringing in an urban and rural family. On the one hand, the educational effects depend on using certain educational methods and techniques and, on the other hand, on the type of relationship between parents and children. Therefore, the opinions of secondary school pupils and their parents were taken into account while analysing educational means and methods which describe a certain style of upbringing in a family. The earliest contact of a child with values comes within the family. The values become determinants of people’s life choices and aspirations. Moreover, they let an adolescent individual specify valid norms which regulate a realization of needs and a character and forms of their co-relations on a level of I – Others (including parents and I – the World. In other words, they influence a preferred model of upbringing in a mature life. From a research point of view, a system of values preferred by parents is very important because it makes an axiological warp where a new generation grows up and shapes its ideals. It is both parents’ task to transfer and make their children aware of the values which are, in a context of environmental and cultural conditions, treated differently by mothers and fathers. It needs to be emphasized that parents’ definite preferences to the values are crucial not only from a point of view of their children’s future, but also in a context of the established ‘here and now’ direction and a character of educational influences – a style of upbringing

  19. Essential Attributes for Online Success: Student Learning Preferences and Faculty Teaching Styles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abell, Natalie; Cain, Melissa; Lee, Cheng-Yuan Corey

    2016-01-01

    This article describes a pilot study that tested a new instrument to identify the Learning Preferences of students in online classes at a mid-western university. The authors developed the instrument and associated tips for online learners based upon the research literature, the authors' research, and practical suggestions by experienced online…

  20. Generational Diversity in Associate Degree Nursing Students: Teaching Styles and Preferences in Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitko, Jennifer V.

    2011-01-01

    Nursing educators face the challenge of meeting the needs of a multi-generational classroom. The reality of having members from the Veteran and Baby Boomer generations in a classroom with Generation X and Y students provides an immediate need for faculty to examine students' teaching method preferences as well as their own use of teaching methods.…

  1. Role of parenting styles in adolescent substance use: results from a Swedish longitudinal cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berge, J; Sundell, K; Öjehagen, A; Håkansson, A

    2016-01-14

    Adolescent substance use is an area of concern because early substance use is associated with a higher risk of adverse outcomes. Parenting style, defined as the general style of parenting, as well as substance-specific parenting practices may influence children's substance use behaviour. The present study aims to probe the impact of parenting style on adolescent substance use. A cohort of 1268 adolescents (48% girls), aged 12-13 years at baseline, from 21 junior high schools was assessed in the first semester of junior high school, and then again in the last semester of the 9th grade, 32 months later. Parenting style, operationalised as a fourfold classification of parenting styles, including established risk factors for adolescent substance use, were measured at baseline. Neglectful parenting style was associated with worse substance use outcomes across all substances. After adjusting for other proximal risk factors in multivariate analyses, parenting style was found to be unrelated to substance use outcomes with one exception: authoritative parenting style was associated with less frequent drinking. Association with deviant peers, delinquent behaviour, provision of alcohol by parents, and previous use of other substances were associated with substance use outcomes at follow-up. The results of the present study indicate that parenting style may be less important for adolescent substance use outcomes than what has previously been assumed, and that association with deviant peers and delinquent behaviour may be more important for adolescent substance use outcomes than general parenting style. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  2. Effects of learning-style environmental and tactal/kinesthetic preferences on the understanding of scientific terms and attitude test scores of fifth-grade students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Angela Tirino

    This investigator analyzed the effects of learning-style environmental and tactual/kinesthetic preferences on the understanding of scientific terms and attitude test scores of fifth-grade students. To identify individual preferences, the Learning-Styles Inventory (Dunn, Dunn & Price, 1996) was administered to students who attended a suburban elementary school. Forty-six general education students were given instruction through the gradual establishment of an environmentally- and perceptually-responsive learning-style classroom. Instructional units were divided into three phases of two weeks each. The units of scientific terms were instructed for varied learning-style preferences and were gradually introduced during these instructional phases: Phase 1: Electricity was taught with traditional teaching methods; Phase 2: The Source of Energy was taught with accommodations for sound, light, temperature, design elements; Phase 3: Pollution was taught with accommodations for tactual/kinesthetic modalities. Pre and Post-tests, were administered in each of the three phases to determine scientific term gains. A repeated measures ANOVA and General Linear Model were employed to compare mean gains from phase to phase. Post-hoc comparisons were performed using the Bonferroni method and similar procedures were conducted on the Semantic Differential Scales (Pizzo, 1981). Correlations of relative gain scores during each phase were assessed by means of Pearson-product-moment correlations. Differences in the strengths of correlated correlations were evaluated by means of t-tests for related correlation coefficients. Significant gains were found when students were instructed employing incremental learning-styles strategies. To determine attitudinal changes toward science terms, the Semantic Differential Scale (Pizzo, 1981) was administered three times throughout this study: after Phase 1, traditional teaching; Phases 2 and 3, after learning-styles intervention. Statistically higher

  3. Food preferences, personality and parental rearing styles: analysis of factors influencing health of left-behind children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Sha; Yu, Lina; Gao, Wanlin; Xue, Wentong

    2016-11-01

    To understand the health status and problems of left-behind children (LBC) in rural China, those whose parents have moved to urban areas without them, and to focus on ways to improve their physical and mental health. The study examined 827 children between 7 and 15 years old, selected using stratified cluster random sampling from five towns in Xiji County of the Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region. Each child was classified as either LBC or non-LBC. Measures included age- and sex-specific height and body mass index (kg/m2), a food preference questionnaire, the Revised Junior Eysenck Personality Questionnaire, and the Egna Minnen av Barndoms Uppfostran-My Memories of Upbringing (EMBU). Malnutrition rates for LBC and non-LBC were 14.83 % (70/472) and 7.04 % (25/355) (χ 2  = 11.86, p EMBU profiles showed that the paternal approach lacked emotional warmth and understanding and the maternal approach was characterized by favoritism, over-interference and overprotection. There were a significant negative correlation between the personality characteristic of neuroticism and liking vegetables and fruits (p < 0.01), and a negative correlation between psychoticism and liking vegetables (p < 0.05). The health status of LBC is problematic. Food preferences, personality type and parenting styles should be taken into account when measures are developed to improve the health of these children.

  4. Social transformation starts with the self: An autobiographical perspective on the thinking style preferences of an educator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pieter H du Toit

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available As an educator I am responsible for my professional development and the professional development of all educators with whom I have scholarly encounters. These encounters involve making a difference in the professional lives of other members of society, for example, in an educational setting with a view to transforming such a society, and transforming the society beyond the boundaries of educational settings. Educators in educational settings, such as schools, universities, and Further Education Colleges should serve their institutions as agents of transformation. As a specialist in educator professional development, specifically in the context of higher education, I look into my contribution to empowering these educators who operate within a micro-education society and to empowering myself. Therefore the point of departure for my research projects in general and the one reported in this article is the self -my preferences in terms of how I approach facilitating the professional development of different groups of educators and monitoring mine. An array of attributes, values, virtues, constructed meaning, competencies, etc. constitutes the self. Data obtained by means of a thinking style questionnaire, the Herrmann Brain Dominance Instrument (HBDI, serves as part of the baseline data for exploring my teaching practice that revolves around educator professional development. Only some baseline data concerning the self are reported in this article. Some baseline data relate to other individuals - all involved in transforming themselves, their practices and society in some way as an individual self. This, however, is not reported in this article. The focus here is an autobiographical perspective on my thinking style preferences that inform my involvement in educator professional development. The outcome of the analysis of the baseline data pertaining to me includes a mixed-methods approach that complements the continuous action research on the

  5. Influence of Grade Level on Perceptual Learning Style Preferences and Language Learning Strategies of Taiwanese English as a Foreign Language Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Mei-Ling

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate relationships between grade level, perceptual learning style preferences, and language learning strategies among Taiwanese English as a Foreign Language (EFL) students in grades 7 through 9. Three hundred and ninety junior high school students participated in this study. The instruments for data…

  6. Patients' and health professionals' understanding of and preferences for graphical presentation styles for individual-level EORTC QLQ-C30 scores

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuijpers, W.; Giesinger, J.M.; Zabernigg, A.; Young, T.; Friend, E.; Tomaszewska, I.M.; Aaronson, N.K.; Holzner, B.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate patients’ and health professionals’ understanding of and preferences for different graphical presentation styles for individual-level EORTC QLQ-C30 scores. Methods: We recruited cancer patients (any treatment and diagnosis) in four European countries and health professionals

  7. If Auditors Are Like Belgian Beers, Which Style Would You Prefer? : Discussion of “Auditor Style and Financial Statement Comparability” by Francis, Pinnuck, and Watanabe .

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruynseels, L.M.L.; Brenk, van H.M.

    2016-01-01

    Recent research by Francis, Pinnuck, and Watanabe (2014) has shown that financial reporting outcomes are influenced by the audit firm’s unique audit style. They argue that audit firm styles are driven by their “unique set of internal working rules that guide the auditor’s application of accounting

  8. 9.9 Sales Grid Style Produces Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, Robert R.; Mouton, Jane Srygley

    1970-01-01

    Selling effectiveness experiments have provided evidence that solution selling (problem solving) produces far better results than formula selling (sales technique oriented), hard sell, people-oriented selling, or order taking. (PT)

  9. Exploring the relationship between patients' information preference style and knowledge acquisition process in a computerized patient decision aid randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawka, Anna M; Straus, Sharon; Rodin, Gary; Tsang, Richard W; Brierley, James D; Rotstein, Lorne; Segal, Phillip; Gafni, Amiram; Ezzat, Shereen; Goldstein, David P

    2015-06-19

    We have shown in a randomized controlled trial that a computerized patient decision aid (P-DA) improves medical knowledge and reduces decisional conflict, in early stage papillary thyroid cancer patients considering adjuvant radioactive iodine treatment. Our objectives were to examine the relationship between participants' baseline information preference style and the following: 1) quantity of detailed information obtained within the P-DA, and 2) medical knowledge. We randomized participants to exposure to a one-time viewing of a computerized P-DA (with usual care) or usual care alone. In pre-planned secondary analyses, we examined the relationship between information preference style (Miller Behavioural Style Scale, including respective monitoring [information seeking preference] and blunting [information avoidance preference] subscale scores) and the following: 1) the quantity of detailed information obtained from the P-DA (number of supplemental information clicks), and 2) medical knowledge. Spearman correlation values were calculated to quantify relationships, in the entire study population and respective study arms. In the 37 P-DA users, high monitoring information preference was moderately positively correlated with higher frequency of detailed information acquisition in the P-DA (r = 0.414, p = 0.011). The monitoring subscale score weakly correlated with increased medical knowledge in the entire study population (r = 0.268, p = 0.021, N = 74), but not in the respective study arms. There were no significant associations with the blunting subscale score. Individual variability in information preferences may affect the process of information acquisition from computerized P-DA's. More research is needed to understand how individual information preferences may impact medical knowledge acquisition and decision-making.

  10. Do quality improvement collaboratives’ educational components match the dominant learning style preferences of the participants?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.W.M. Weggelaar-Jansen (Anne Marie); J.D.H. van Wijngaarden (Jeroen); S.S. Slaghuis (Sarah)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstractBackground: Quality improvement collaboratives are used to improve healthcare by various organizations. Despite their popularity literature shows mixed results on their effectiveness. A quality improvement collaborative can be seen as a temporary learning organization in which

  11. Relationship between leadership style and performance of Perak ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Result showed athletes most preferred coaching styles were training and instruction followed by democratic, positive feedback and social support. Autocratic behaviour was the least preferred. However coaches' self-evaluation showed majority were keen on autocratic leadership style. Overall, the results of the study ...

  12. The Effect of Cooperative Learning Model and Kolb Learning Styles on Learning Result of the Basics of Politics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiharto

    2015-01-01

    The aims of this research were to determine the effect of cooperative learning model and learning styles on learning result. This quasi-experimental study employed a 2x2 treatment by level, involved independent variables, i.e. cooperative learning model and learning styles, and learning result as the dependent variable. Findings signify that: (1)…

  13. Student Music Teachers' Learning Styles in Theoretical and Practical Situations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calissendorff, Maria

    2015-01-01

    This study analyzes and compares the results of a survey and an interview investigation concerning the learning styles of 32 student music teachers at The University College of Music Education (SMI) in Sweden. The students' learning style preferences were examined through a productivity environmental preference survey (PEPS), a computer-based…

  14. First Time International College Students' Level of Anxiety in Relationship to Awareness of Their Learning-Style Preferences

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Arlene Shorter Young

    2011-01-01

    ... international college students on achievement and anxiety levels over one semester. This paper focused on the identification of learning style profiles of first time visiting Japanese, Korean, and Chinese college student populations...

  15. Employer Preferences for Resumes and Cover Letters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schullery, Nancy M.; Ickes, Linda; Schullery, Stephen E.

    2009-01-01

    This article reports the results of a survey of employers' preferences for resume style, resume delivery method, and cover letters. Employers still widely prefer the standard chronological resume, with only 3% desiring a scannable resume. The vast majority of employers prefer electronic delivery, either by email (46%) or at the company's Web site…

  16. Communication styles of undergraduate health students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Ted; Williams, Brett; Boyle, Malcolm; Molloy, Andrew; McKenna, Lisa; Palermo, Claire; Molloy, Liz; Lewis, Belinda

    2011-05-01

    Few empirical studies have been undertaken on the communication styles of specific health-related disciplines. The objective of this study is to identify the communication styles of undergraduate health students at an Australian university. A cross-sectional study using a paper-based version of the Communicator Style Measure (CSM) was administered to a cohort of students enrolled in eight different undergraduate health-related courses. There were 1459 health students eligible for inclusion in the study. 860 students (response rate of 59%) participated in the study. Participants overall preferred the Friendly and Attentive communicator styles and gave least preference to the Contentious and Dominant styles. There was considerable similarity between participants from each of the health-related courses. There was no statistical difference in relation to communicator styles between the age of the participant or the year level they were enrolled in. These results show a preference for communicator styles which are facilitative of a client-centred approach, empathetic, and positive with interpersonal relationships. The lack of significant difference in communicator styles by year level further suggests that people disposed to such communicator styles are drawn to these health-related courses, rather than the specific field of study affecting their style. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Young patients', parents', and survivors' communication preferences in paediatric oncology: Results of online focus groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamps Willem A

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Guidelines in paediatric oncology encourage health care providers to share relevant information with young patients and parents to enable their active participation in decision making. It is not clear to what extent this mirrors patients' and parents' preferences. This study investigated communication preferences of childhood cancer patients, parents, and survivors of childhood cancer. Methods Communication preferences were examined by means of online focus groups. Seven patients (aged 8–17, 11 parents, and 18 survivors (aged 8–17 at diagnosis participated. Recruitment took place by consecutive inclusion in two Dutch university oncological wards. Questions concerned preferences regarding interpersonal relationships, information exchange and participation in decision making. Results Participants expressed detailed and multi-faceted views regarding their needs and preferences in communication in paediatric oncology. They agreed on the importance of several interpersonal and informational aspects of communication, such as honesty, support, and the need to be fully informed. Participants generally preferred a collaborative role in medical decision making. Differences in views were found regarding the desirability of the patient's presence during consultations. Patients differed in their satisfaction with their parents' role as managers of the communication. Conclusion Young patients' preferences mainly concur with current guidelines of providing them with medical information and enabling their participation in medical decision making. Still, some variation in preferences was found, which faces health care providers with the task of balancing between the sometimes conflicting preferences of young cancer patients and their parents.

  18. Anxiety and styles of coping with occupational stress resulting from work with 'dangerous' prisoners in prison service officers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsirigotis, Konstantinos; Gruszczyński, Wojciech; Pęczkowski, Sebastian

    2015-10-01

    Prisoners categorised as 'dangerous' are a category of prisoners that require and/or force into using special measures of caution, protection and security. The aim of the study was to examine the intensity of anxiety (as a state and as a trait) experienced by officers working with 'dangerous' prisoners and styles of coping with stress they adopt. A total of 40 officers working with 'dangerous' prisoners (the study group, SG) and 60 officers of the security department not working with 'dangerous' prisoners (the reference group, RG) were studied. The intensity of anxiety was assessed applying the Polish version of 'State-Trait Anxiety Inventory' (STAI); styles of coping with stress were explored employing the Polish version of 'Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations' (CISS) and the author's own questionnaire. Data were analysed using the mean, standard deviation, difference testing (the Mann-Whitney U test), correlation-regression procedure (Kendall's tau, τ correlation coefficient and forward stepwise multiple regression). Officers in the SG faced verbal and physical aggression; nevertheless, scores of officers in both the groups were within the interval of mean scores for all the studied STAI and CISS variables. Officers in the SG achieved significantly higher scores on the state-anxiety scale and the Emotion-Oriented Style (EOS), and lower scores on the Task-Oriented Style (TOS) and Social Diversion (SD). The correlation-regression procedure indicated that there were relationships between anxiety and styles of coping with stress but they differed slightly between the groups. Officers in the SG feel state anxiety stronger and display a stronger preference for the EOS than officers in the RG. Officers in the RG more strongly prefer the TOS and SD. State anxiety is a variable negatively explaining the TOS in the SG, whereas anxiety as a trait is a variable explaining the EOS in both the groups. The coping styles of warders dealing with dangerous prisoners are

  19. Learning style preferences of Australian accelerated postgraduate pre-registration nursing students: A cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenna, Lisa; Copnell, Beverley; Butler, Ashleigh E; Lau, Rosalind

    2017-10-12

    Graduate entry programs leading to registration are gaining momentum in nursing. These programs attract student cohorts with professional, cultural, gender and age diversity. As a consequence of this diversity, such accelerated programs challenge traditional pedagogical methods used in nursing and require different approaches. To date, however, there has been limited research on the learning styles of students undertaking these programs to inform academics involved in their delivery. Kolb's Experiential Learning model has been used widely in a variety of educational settings because it is based on the theory of experiential learning. More recently VARK (Visual, Aural, Read/write and Kinaesthetic) model has become popular. The aim of this study was to investigate the learning styles of two cohorts of graduate entry nursing students undertaking an accelerated masters-level program. This was a cross-sectional survey of two cohorts of Master of Nursing Practice students enrolled at a large Australian university. The students were more inclined toward converging (practical) and least toward concrete experience (experiencing) learning styles. The majority of students were more inclined toward kinaesthetic and least toward aural learning style. Findings have implications for academics engaged in teaching graduate entry nursing students. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Similarities and differences regarding changes in attachment preferences and attachment styles in relation to romantic relationship length: longitudinal and concurrent analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umemura, Tomotaka; Lacinová, Lenka; Kotrčová, Kristína; Fraley, R Chris

    2017-09-29

    This study examines whether attachment preferences and attachment styles with different figures (mother, father, romantic partner, and friends) change over the course of a romantic relationship. Study 1 employed a three-wave longitudinal sample of Czech young adults who were currently in a romantic relationship (N = 870; mean age = 21.57; SD = 1.51; 81% females). Multilevel modeling analyses revealed that, as romantic relationships progressed, attachment preferences for romantic partners increased and preferences for friends decreased. However, preferences for the mother or for the father did not change over time. The parallel pattern was found for attachment avoidance; as romantic relationships progressed, attachment avoidance with romantic partners decreased and avoidance with the best friend increased. Avoidance with mother or with father, however, did not change over time. Study 2 employed a cross-sectional international sample (n = 2,593; mean age = 31.99; SD = 12.13; 79% females). Multiple regression analyses replicated the findings of attachment avoidance in the longitudinal data.

  1. [The Role of Preferences in the German Long-Term Care Insurance - Results from Expert Interviews].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heuchert, M; König, H-H; Lehnert, T

    2017-12-01

    As a result of population aging, the number of persons dependent on long-term care (LTC) is expected to increase considerably in Germany. Information about LTC preferences is important to decision-makers in future reforms. Taking into account the preferences of people can lead to a better congruence between desired and utilized LTC services. The aim of this study was to evaluate LTC preferences, their underlying reasons, and the potential to satisfy individual preferences within the German LTC insurance system. Interviews with 20 LTC (insurance) experts in Germany between July and September 2014 were analyzed using qualitative content analysis methods. Irrespective of the care setting, people prefer flexible LTC (services), which allow for as much autonomy and independence as possible. Ideally, care is provided by close relatives at the dependent's home. Besides informal homecare, professional care at home is also (becoming increasingly) important, whereas inpatient LTC (nursing home) is rarely preferred over homecare arrangements. To most LTC dependents, interpersonal needs are more important than bodily and professional aspects of care. While the flexible choices and manifold options to combine services (high degree of person-centeredness) within the German LTC insurance constitute an important basis for the satisfaction of individual preferences, the widespread lack of information about entitlements, costs of services, and corresponding LTC options in the general population (future dependents) substantially hampers long-term care that is in line with preferences. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  2. Native Indian Students and Their Learning Styles: Research Results and Classroom Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Arthur J.

    1987-01-01

    The learning style of Native American Indian students is discussed in terms of internal cognitive processes (global/analytic, imagery/verbal, impulsive/reflective, trial-and-error/watch-then-do, field dependence/independence and concrete/abstract); external conditions; teaching and communication styles; and traditional learning styles. A four-step…

  3. Adolescent end of life preferences and congruence with their parents' preferences: results of a survey of adolescents with cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Shana; Perez, Jennie; Cheng, Yao Iris; Sill, Anne; Wang, Jichuan; Lyon, Maureen E

    2015-04-01

    Little is known about how well family members accurately represent adolescents when making EOL decisions on their behalf. This study reports on surveys given to adolescents with cancer and their parents as part of a larger study facilitating advanced care discussions, as well as the results of a survey for health care providers. Trained facilitators administered surveys orally to adolescents and families in the intervention arm of the FAmily CEntered Advance Care Planning (ACP) for Teens with Cancer (FACE-TC) study. In addition, a post-hoc survey was sent to oncology providers. Seventeen adolescent/family dyads completed this survey. Seventy five percent of adolescents believed it was appropriate to discuss EOL decisions early and only 12% were not comfortable discussing death. Most preferred to be at home if dying. There were substantial areas of congruence between adolescents and their surrogates, but lower agreement on the importance of dying a natural death, dying at home and "wanting to know if I were dying." Among providers, 83% felt their patients' participation in the study was helpful to the patients and 78% felt it was helpful to them as providers. Adolescents with cancer were comfortable discussing EOL, and the majority preferred to talk about EOL issues before they are facing EOL. There were substantive areas of agreement between adolescents and their surrogates, but important facets of adolescents' EOL wishes were not known by their families, reinforcing the importance of eliciting individual preferences and engaging dyads so parents can understand their children's wishes. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Toddlers' musical preferences: musical preference and musical memory in the early years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamont, Alexandra

    2003-11-01

    The current paper reports a pilot study of the preferences of children aged 2-3.5 years for different kinds of music. With the use of a novel interactive procedure to measure active preferences, preliminary results indicate general preferences for fast and loud music irrespective of style.

  5. Learning Styles of Pilots Currently Qualified in United States Air Force Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanske, Craig A.

    2001-01-01

    Kolb's Learning Style Inventory was used to identify the predominant learning styles of pilots currently qualified in United States Air Force aircraft. The results indicate that these pilots show a significant preference for facts and things over people and feelings. By understanding the preferred learning styles of the target population, course material can be developed that take advantage of the strengths of these learning styles. This information can be especially useful in the future design of cockpit resource management training. The training program can be developed to demonstrate both that there are different learning styles and that it is possible to take advantage of the relative strengths of each of these learning styles.

  6. Novel Debate-Style Cardiothoracic Surgery Journal Club: Results of a Pilot Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luc, Jessica G Y; Nguyen, Tom C; Fowler, Clara S; Eisenberg, Steven B; Wolf, Randall K; Estrera, Anthony L; Vaporciyan, Ara A; Antonoff, Mara B

    2017-10-01

    Traditional journal clubs addressing single articles are limited by the lack of a standardized process for conduct and evaluation. We developed a novel, debate-style journal club for trainees to use best available evidence to address controversial topics in cardiothoracic surgery through discussion of realistic patient scenarios. After implementation of our new curriculum, trainee knowledge acquisition and retention were assessed by a summative test of published literature and standardized debate scoring. Feedback was additionally obtained by trainee and faculty surveys. Cardiothoracic surgery trainees (n = 4) participated in five debates each over 10 monthly sessions. Written examination results after debate revealed a nonsignificant improvement in scores on topics that were debated compared with topics that were not (+9.8% versus -4.2%, p = 0.105). Trainee ability to sway the debate position supported by the attendee strongly correlated with trainee use of supporting literature (r = 0.853), moderately correlated with persuasiveness (r = 0.465), and overall effect of the debate (r = 0.625). Surveys completed by trainees and faculty unanimously favored the debate-style journal club as compared to the traditional journal club in gaining familiarity and applying published literature to questions encountered clinically. Our novel debate-style cardiothoracic surgery journal club is an effective educational intervention for cardiothoracic surgery trainees to acquire, retain, and gain practice in applying specialty-specific literature-based evidence to controversial case-based issues. Evaluation by multi-institutional expansion is needed to validate our preliminary findings in this initial trainee cohort. Copyright © 2017 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Gender Styles as Form and Content: An Examination of Gender Stereotypes in the Subject Preference of Children's Drawing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuman, Donna M.

    1999-01-01

    Examines how gender affects children's preferences for subject content in their drawings and use of formal characteristics. Reveals that female drawings focused on humanistic content whereas the males communicated aggression and adventure; furthermore, the females used more color, shapes, and detailed features while the males employed more…

  8. [Results of a community-based life style intervention program for children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvirde-García, Ulices; Rodríguez-Guerrero, Alfredo J; Henao-Morán, Santiago; Gómez-Pérez, Francisco J; Aguilar-Salinas, Carlos A

    2013-01-01

    Describe the three-year results of a program designed for the adoption of a healthy life style in primary school students on the body mass index (BMI) and the consumption of food. Community randomized and controlled trial. Two communities in the State of Mexico with similar socio-demographic characteristics were randomized to implement the intervention (n=816) or serve as a control (n=408). The intervention was carried out in primary schools and it consisted of education on healthy habits, modification of distributed food and physical activity. The primary outcome was the change in BMI. After three years, intervention resulted in a lower increase of BMI (1.6 vs. 1.9 Kg/m², p< 0.01) and a decreased consumption of total calories, bread, fat and sugar consumption in the schools. School programs are useful to address childhood obesity, but its benefits are not immediate.

  9. Education styles in a family versus life aims and values preferred by young people [Style wychowania w rodzinie a preferowane przez młodzież cele życiowe i wartości

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata DUBIS

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The socio-cultural, economic and political outlook changes visible in the contemporary world provoke deep transformations in all fields of life. The social conditions of life have been also deeply changing, often causing changes in views, expectations, behaviour patterns and life standards. In such a situation a young person experiences chaos and the feeling of being lost and looses the feeling of influence on their life. In an uncertain situation and with the feeling of being lost, and with difficulties connected with the adolescent crisis, young people need support from people being close to them. The special role plays family in that case. Family is the first social environment, integrally fulfilling different needs of a child and influencing his development in all areas of his life. All socialization processes developing in a family influence the shape of opinion and attitudes, patterns, traditions and accepted values. The correct one shapes proper, real and rational ideas of future life in children. The responsible parental function and shaping the proper social system in children is based on education styles that are very important for children. These styles are influenced mainly by parents, their views, educational aims, personal experience and patterns from their home. Education styles in a family decide mainly the level of psychological and social needs fulfillment, they shape the behaviour patterns in a family and can be internalized on different levels by imitation and identification, allowing for the adoption of values and standards. The article includes the source of research concerning the declared system of values and aims in life by the respondents. The results of behaviour styles in a family research have been discussed-all meanings, the frequency of particular education styles. The author also tried to show the connection between the family functioning and values chosen by children.

  10. Index of Learning Styles in a U.S. School of Pharmacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teevan CJ

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The goal of this study was to assess for a predominance of learning styles among pharmacy students at an accredited U.S. school of pharmacy.Methods: Following approval by the Institutional Review Board, the Index of Learning Styles© was administered to 210 pharmacy students. The survey provides results within 4 domains: perception, input, processing, and understanding. Analyses were conducted to determine trends in student learning styles.Results: Within the four domains, 84% of students showed a preference toward sensory perception, 66% toward visual input, and 74% toward sequential understanding. Students showed no significant preference for active or reflective processing. Preferences were of moderate strength for the sensing, visual, and sequential learning styles.Conclusions: Students showed preferences for sensing, visual, and sequential learning styles with gender playing a role in learning style preferences. Faculty should be aware, despite some preferences, a mix of learning styles exists. To focus on the preferences found, instructors should focus teaching in a logical progression while adding visual aids. To account for other types of learning styles found, the instructors can offer other approaches and provide supplemental activities for those who would benefit from them. Further research is necessary to compare these learning styles to the teaching styles of pharmacy preceptors and faculty at schools of pharmacy.

  11. Eating styles in major depressive disorder: Results from a large-scale study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paans, N.P.G.; Bot, M.; Strien, T. van; Brouwer, I.A.; Visser, M.; Penninx, B.W.J.H.

    2018-01-01

    Depressed persons have been found to present disturbances in eating styles, but it is unclear whether eating styles are different in subgroups of depressed patients. We studied the association between depressive disorder, severity, course and specific depressive symptom profiles and unhealthy eating

  12. Assessing learning styles of Saudi dental students using Kolb's Learning Style Inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ALQahtani, Dalal A; Al-Gahtani, Sara M

    2014-06-01

    Experiential learning theory (ELT), a theory developed by David Kolb that considers experience to be very important for learning, classifies learners into four categories: Divergers, Assimilators, Convergers, and Accommodators. Kolb used his Learning Style Inventory (LSI) to validate ELT. Knowing the learning styles of students facilitates their understanding of themselves and thereby increases teaching efficiency. Few studies have been conducted that investigate learning preferences of students in the field of dentistry. This study was designed to distinguish learning styles among Saudi dental students and interns utilizing Kolb's LSI. The survey had a response rate of 62 percent (424 of 685 dental students), but surveys with incomplete answers or errors were excluded, resulting in 291 usable surveys (42 percent of the student population). The independent variables of this study were gender, clinical experience level, academic achievement as measured by grade point average (GPA), and specialty interest. The Diverging learning style was the dominant style among those in the sample. While the students preferred the Assimilating style during their early preclinical years, they preferred the Diverging style during their later clinical years. No associations were found between students' learning style and their gender, GPA, or specialty interest. Further research is needed to support these findings and demonstrate the impact of learning styles on dental students' learning.

  13. Smokeless and flavored tobacco products in the U.S.: 2009 Styles survey results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regan, Annette K; Dube, Shanta R; Arrazola, René

    2012-01-01

    A number of noncigarette tobacco products, including some novel products, recently have been marketed by the tobacco industry, which raises concerns from tobacco control authorities. This study aimed to assess current popularity of several noncigarette tobacco products in the U.S. In 2009, a total of 10,587 adults completed a consumer mail-in survey (ConsumerStyles). Based on survey results, the weighted percentages of adults who heard and tried snus, dissolvable tobacco products, flavored little cigars, and flavored cigarettes were computed in 2010. A subset of this sample (n=4556) completed the HealthStyles survey, which included items about health perceptions of these products and use in the past 30 days. The percentage of U.S. adults in the sample who were aware of these products ranged from 10.4% (dissolvable tobacco) to 44.6% (flavored little cigars). One third of adults who had heard of flavored little cigars tried them and 10.1% had used them in the past 30 days; among those who had heard of them, 27.4% tried flavored cigarettes and 12.6% tried snus. In general, young adults, men, and smokers were most likely to have heard of each product. At least one third of adults were uncertain if these products were as harmful as cigarettes (range=37.3% [snus] to 50.3% [dissolvable tobacco]). The awareness of these tobacco products in this sample varied. Groups with a higher prevalence of smoking and tobacco use (e.g., men, people with low levels of education) may be a target audience for marketing and promotions. As availability of products change, continued surveillance is warranted in the U.S. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. Index of learning styles in a u.s. School of pharmacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teevan, Colleen J; Li, Michael; Schlesselman, Lauren S

    2011-04-01

    The goal of this study was to assess for a predominance of learning styles among pharmacy students at an accredited U.S. school of pharmacy. Following approval by the Institutional Review Board, the Index of Learning Styles© was administered to 210 pharmacy students. The survey provides results within 4 domains: perception, input, processing, and understanding. Analyses were conducted to determine trends in student learning styles. Within the four domains, 84% of students showed a preference toward sensory perception, 66% toward visual input, and 74% toward sequential understanding. Students showed no significant preference for active or reflective processing. Preferences were of moderate strength for the sensing, visual, and sequential learning styles. Students showed preferences for sensing, visual, and sequential learning styles with gender playing a role in learning style preferences. Faculty should be aware, despite some preferences, a mix of learning styles exists. To focus on the preferences found, instructors should focus teaching in a logical progression while adding visual aids. To account for other types of learning styles found, the instructors can offer other approaches and provide supplemental activities for those who would benefit from them. Further research is necessary to compare these learning styles to the teaching styles of pharmacy preceptors and faculty at schools of pharmacy.

  15. Children's Responses to Literary Style.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henze, Mary Vance

    This study undertook to determine (1) whether teaching sixth grade children elements of style would increase their pleasure in listening to "The Hobbit," (2) whether children who learned the most about style would respond the most positively to Tolkien's style, and (3) what children's preferences would be for selected examples of Tolkien's style.…

  16. Channels Coordination Game Model Based on Result Fairness Preference and Reciprocal Fairness Preference: A Behavior Game Forecasting and Analysis Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuan Ding

    2014-01-01

    preference and they are not jealous of manufacturers’ benefit, manufacturers will be more friendly to retailers. In such case, the total utility of the channel is higher compared with that of self-interest channel, and the utility of channel members is Pareto improved. If both manufactures and retailers consider reciprocal fairness preference, the manufacturers will give a lower wholesale price to the retailers. In return, the retailers will also reduce retail prices. Therefore, the total utility of the channels will not be less than the total utility of the channel coordination, as long as the reciprocity wholesale prices meet certain conditions.

  17. Heterogeneous HIV testing preferences in an urban setting in Tanzania: results from a discrete choice experiment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Ostermann

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Efforts to reduce Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV transmission through treatment rely on HIV testing programs that are acceptable to broad populations. Yet, testing preferences among diverse at-risk populations in Sub-Saharan Africa are poorly understood. We fielded a population-based discrete choice experiment (DCE to evaluate factors that influence HIV-testing preferences in a low-resource setting. METHODS: Using formative work, a pilot study, and pretesting, we developed a DCE survey with five attributes: distance to testing, confidentiality, testing days (weekday vs. weekend, method for obtaining the sample for testing (blood from finger or arm, oral swab, and availability of HIV medications at the testing site. Cluster-randomization and Expanded Programme on Immunization (EPI sampling methodology were used to enroll 486 community members, ages 18-49, in an urban setting in Northern Tanzania. Interviewer-assisted DCEs, presented to participants on iPads, were administered between September 2012 and February 2013. RESULTS: Nearly three of five males (58% and 85% of females had previously tested for HIV; 20% of males and 37% of females had tested within the past year. In gender-specific mixed logit analyses, distance to testing was the most important attribute to respondents, followed by confidentiality and the method for obtaining the sample for the HIV test. Both unconditional assessments of preferences for each attribute and mixed logit analyses of DCE choice patterns suggest significant preference heterogeneity among participants. Preferences differed between males and females, between those who had previously tested for HIV and those who had never tested, and between those who tested in the past year and those who tested more than a year ago. CONCLUSION: The findings suggest potentially significant benefits from tailoring HIV testing interventions to match the preferences of specific populations, including males and females

  18. Patient positioning during digital rectal examination of the prostate: preferences, tolerability, and results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederico R. Romero

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To evaluate the preferred position used by Brazilian Urologists to perform DRE, the position that Brazilian patients prefer or think it is less embarrassing to have a DRE, and to evaluate the results of DRE with patients in left lateral decubitus, modified lithotomy, standing-up, or the physician will have them place their elbows on the table and squat down slightly. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Brazilian Urologists were contacted by e-mail, and 200 patients answered a questionnaire while undergoing prostate cancer screening. RESULTS: The preferred position was modified lithotomy position reported by 63.4% of Urologists, and left lateral position reported by 42.7% of the patients. Total DRE time was lower in the standing-up position. Pain and urinary urgency scores were similar regardless of the position used, and bowel urgency score was higher in patients squatting down. Patients were similar in terms of age and PSA level, but there was a significant difference between the standard deviations of estimated prostate weight in left lateral position. There were no differences in prostate asymmetry, positive DRE, or incomplete palpation of the prostate rates among different examination positions. CONCLUSIONS: Despite individual subjective preferences, a faster examination time in the standing-up position, and higher bowel urgency scores in patients with their elbows placed on the table and squatting down slightly, there were similar rates of prostate asymmetry, positive DRE, and incomplete palpation of the prostate, and comparable patient tolerability among different examination techniques.

  19. Patient positioning during digital rectal examination of the prostate: preferences, tolerability, and results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Frederico R; Romero, Antonio W; Tambara Filho, Renato; Brenny Filho, Thadeu; de Oliveira Júnior, Fernando Cesar

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate the preferred position used by Brazilian Urologists to perform DRE, the position that Brazilian patients prefer or think it is less embarrassing to have a DRE, and to evaluate the results of DRE with patients in left lateral decubitus, modified lithotomy, standing-up, or the physician will have them place their elbows on the table and squat down slightly. Brazilian Urologists were contacted by e-mail, and 200 patients answered a questionnaire while undergoing prostate cancer screening. The preferred position was modified lithotomy position reported by 63.4% of Urologists, and left lateral position reported by 42.7% of the patients. Total DRE time was lower in the standing-up position. Pain and urinary urgency scores were similar regardless of the position used, and bowel urgency score was higher in patients squatting down. Patients were similar in terms of age and PSA level, but there was a significant difference between the standard deviations of estimated prostate weight in left lateral position. There were no differences in prostate asymmetry, positive DRE, or incomplete palpation of the prostate rates among different examination positions. Despite individual subjective preferences, a faster examination time in the standing-up position, and higher bowel urgency scores in patients with their elbows placed on the table and squatting down slightly, there were similar rates of prostate asymmetry, positive DRE, and incomplete palpation of the prostate, and comparable patient tolerability among different examination techniques.

  20. Women's knowledge of congenital cytomegalovirus: results from the 2005 HealthStyles survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Danielle S; Victor, Marcia; Sumartojo, Esther; Cannon, Michael J

    2008-06-01

    Congenital cytomegalovirus (CMV) is as common a cause of serious disability as Down syndrome and neural tube defects. When acquired prior to or during pregnancy, CMV can be transmitted transplacentally to the fetus, sometimes causing serious temporary symptoms, permanent disabilities, or both to the child. One way to prevent infection before and during pregnancy is through simple hygienic practices, such as handwashing. This study used the 2005 annual HealthStyles survey, a mail survey of the U.S. population aged women who reported they had heard of CMV, the largest proportion said they had heard about it from a doctor, hospital, clinic, or other health professional (29%). The accuracy of women's knowledge of what conditions congenital CMV can cause in the fetus was limited. The prevention behaviors surveyed in the present study (i.e., handwashing, not sharing drinking glasses or eating utensils with young children, and not kissing young children on the mouth) appeared to be generally acceptable. There are prevention behaviors that have the potential of substantially reducing the occurrence of CMV-related permanent disability in children. However, our results suggest that few women are aware of CMV or these prevention behaviors.

  1. Communication of Pulmonary Function Test Results: A Survey of Patient's Preferences.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debbie Zagami

    Full Text Available Physician-patient communication in patients suffering from common chronic respiratory disease should encompass discussion about pulmonary function test (PFT results, diagnosis, disease education, smoking cessation and optimising inhaler technique. Previous studies have identified that patients with chronic respiratory disease/s often express dissatisfaction about physician communication. Currently there is a paucity of data regarding patient awareness of their PFT results (among those who have undergone PFTs previously or patient preferences about PFT result communication.We undertook a three-month prospective study on outpatients referred to two Pulmonary Function Laboratories. If subjects had undergone PFTs previously, the awareness of their previous test results was evaluated. All subjects were asked about their preferences for PFT result communication. Subjects were determined to have chronic respiratory disease based on their past medical history.300 subjects (50% male with a median age (± SD of 65 (± 14 years participated in the study. 99% of the study participants stated that they were at least moderately interested in knowing their PFT results. 72% (217/300 of the subjects had undergone at least one PFT in the past, 48% of whom stated they had not been made aware of their results. Fewer subjects with chronic respiratory disease preferred that only a doctor discuss their PFT results with them (28% vs. 41%, p = 0.021.Our study demonstrates that while almost all subjects want to be informed of their PFT results, this does not occur in a large number of patients. Many subjects are agreeable for their PFT results to be communicated to them by clinicians other than doctors. Further research is required to develop an efficient method of conveying PFT results that will improve patient satisfaction and health outcomes.

  2. Clinical decision-making: physicians' preferences and experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    White Martha

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Shared decision-making has been advocated; however there are relatively few studies on physician preferences for, and experiences of, different styles of clinical decision-making as most research has focused on patient preferences and experiences. The objectives of this study were to determine 1 physician preferences for different styles of clinical decision-making; 2 styles of clinical decision-making physicians perceive themselves as practicing; and 3 the congruence between preferred and perceived style. In addition we sought to determine physician perceptions of the availability of time in visits, and their role in encouraging patients to look for health information. Methods Cross-sectional survey of a nationally representative sample of U.S. physicians. Results 1,050 (53% response rate physicians responded to the survey. Of these, 780 (75% preferred to share decision-making with their patients, 142 (14% preferred paternalism, and 118 (11% preferred consumerism. 87% of physicians perceived themselves as practicing their preferred style. Physicians who preferred their patients to play an active role in decision-making were more likely to report encouraging patients to look for information, and to report having enough time in visits. Conclusion Physicians tend to perceive themselves as practicing their preferred role in clinical decision-making. The direction of the association cannot be inferred from these data; however, we suggest that interventions aimed at promoting shared decision-making need to target physicians as well as patients.

  3. Statistics of interacting networks with extreme preferred degrees: Simulation results and theoretical approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wenjia; Schmittmann, Beate; Zia, R. K. P.

    2012-02-01

    Network studies have played a central role for understanding many systems in nature - e.g., physical, biological, and social. So far, much of the focus has been the statistics of networks in isolation. Yet, many networks in the world are coupled to each other. Recently, we considered this issue, in the context of two interacting social networks. In particular, We studied networks with two different preferred degrees, modeling, say, introverts vs. extroverts, with a variety of ``rules for engagement.'' As a first step towards an analytically accessible theory, we restrict our attention to an ``extreme scenario'': The introverts prefer zero contacts while the extroverts like to befriend everyone in the society. In this ``maximally frustrated'' system, the degree distributions, as well as the statistics of cross-links (between the two groups), can depend sensitively on how a node (individual) creates/breaks its connections. The simulation results can be reasonably well understood in terms of an approximate theory.

  4. Resonance strategies for the belting style : Results of a single female subject study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bestebreurtje, ME; Schutte, HK

    This study explores resonance strategies used for the belting style and associated vocal fold vibratory patterns, for the vowels /epsilon/, /a/, /i/, and /u/ on G4 and B4-flat. Acoustic spectra of belted vowels and their unoptimized, "speechlike" equivalents were compared. Vocal fold vibratory

  5. Women's Sport Leadership Styles as the Result of Interaction between Feminine and Masculine Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Sue; Light, Richard L.

    2012-01-01

    There is a growing body of research focusing on women in the business sector using a transformational model of leadership that identifies the ways in which they lead yet little is known about the style of leadership women practise in sport. In attempting to redress this oversight in the literature, this article draws on data from a larger study to…

  6. Learning the preferences of physicians for the organization of result lists of medical evidence articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Sullivan, D; Wilk, S; Michalowski, W; Slowinski, R; Thomas, R; Kadzinski, M; Farion, K

    2014-01-01

    Online medical knowledge repositories such as MEDLINE and The Cochrane Library are increasingly used by physicians to retrieve articles to aid with clinical decision making. The prevailing approach for organizing retrieved articles is in the form of a rank-ordered list, with the assumption that the higher an article is presented on a list, the more relevant it is. Despite this common list-based organization, it is seldom studied how physicians perceive the association between the relevance of articles and the order in which articles are presented. In this paper we describe a case study that captured physician preferences for 3-element lists of medical articles in order to learn how to organize medical knowledge for decision-making. Comprehensive relevance evaluations were developed to represent 3-element lists of hypothetical articles that may be retrieved from an online medical knowledge source such as MEDLINE or The Cochrane Library. Comprehensive relevance evaluations asses not only an article's relevance for a query, but also whether it has been placed on the correct list position. In other words an article may be relevant and correctly placed on a result list (e.g. the most relevant article appears first in the result list), an article may be relevant for a query but placed on an incorrect list position (e.g. the most relevant article appears second in a result list), or an article may be irrelevant for a query yet still appear in the result list. The relevance evaluations were presented to six senior physicians who were asked to express their preferences for an article's relevance and its position on a list by pairwise comparisons representing different combinations of 3-element lists. The elicited preferences were assessed using a novel GRIP (Generalized Regression with Intensities of Preference) method and represented as an additive value function. Value functions were derived for individual physicians as well as the group of physicians. The results show

  7. [The leadership style as a mitigator of the insurgence of mobbing risk. Results from an empirical research on Italian nurses].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caporale, Loretta; Palese, Alvisa; Bortoluzzi, Guido

    2012-01-01

    The influence of the organizational factors in mobbing onset, is supported by several studies. The leadership style is considered as one of its main antecedents. To investigate the relation between the leadership style adopted by the Nurse Coordinator and the diffusion of "negative actions", main indicator and antecedent of mobbing onset. Empirical study that involved 175 nurses and obstetricians of a Public Hospital Corporation in North Italy. Data has been collected via a semi-structured and anonymous questionnaire. The results confirm the hypothesis that the adoption of a non-collaborative leadership style goes with a greater diffusion of "negative actions" among the nurses. To intervene on organizational variables, such as the leadership style, allows to reduce the working unease and, therefore, the factors which are linked to it and which bear on the provided relief quality. The results of this study underline the Nurse Coordinator role in preventing and thwarting the onset of "negative actions", which are a potential source for mobbing onset.

  8. Role of liability preferences in societal technology choices: results of a pilot study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cantor, R.; Rayner, S.; Braid, B.

    1985-01-01

    At the 1984 Annual Meeting of the Society for Risk Analysis, Steve Rayner presented a paper that challenged the conventional wisdom of risk management research. In that paper, he argued that resolving the question, ''How safe is safe enough.'' is less important in making societal technology choices than ''How fair is safe enough.'' Adopting the fairness question as the concern of risk management would imply that the process of technology choice explicitly recognize the preferred principles different parties hold with respect to obtaining consent from those affected by the risks, distributing the liabilities, and justifying trust in the relevant institutions. This paper discusses a recent empirical pilot study which explored the fairness hypothesis in the context of nuclear power. Individual interviews and focus groups were conducted to examine whether or not preferred principles for liability distributions were consistent with those suggested by the cultural characteristics of the constituency. The results suggest that for this type of societal technology choice, violation of these preferred principles may be a major source of the conflict between different constituencies. Additionally, the study contributes towards the development of a new approach in risk management that combines the cultural model of risk perceptions with the decision-theoretic approaches found in economics and psychology.

  9. Pen needle preference in a population of Canadians with diabetes: results from a recent patient survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berard, Lori; Cameron, Brett; Woo, Vincent

    2015-06-01

    To evaluate the safety and efficacy of insulin injections in patients using 8 mm 31 gauge vs. 5 mm 31 gauge pen needles, as determined by A1C results and to measure individual patient satisfaction and compare overall satisfaction regarding the use of the 2 needles. The study was completed as a substudy of a single-site, open-label, randomized, 6-month comparative study consisting of 66 obese patients. Prior to the study, all individuals had treated their diabetes with either long-acting insulin glargine or insulin detemir. At the onset of the study, patients were randomized 1:1 to either insulin glargine or neutral protamine Hagedorn insulin. All patients used an 8 mm pen needle for the first 3 months and a 5 mm pen needle for the remaining 3 months. At the conclusion of the trial, patients completed a questionnaire regarding pen needle satisfaction. The 5 mm needle was preferred by 41.8% of study subjects, while the 8 mm needle was preferred by 27.9% of subjects. For other attributes (i.e. overall injection comfort, pain when inserting the needle into the skin and length of needle), the 5 mm needle scored higher than the 8 mm needle and higher also than the percentage of individuals who indicated no preference. In patients with insulin-treated type 2 diabetes with a mean single-injection volume dose of basal insulin of 50.2 units, the 5 mm needle was generally preferred over the 8 mm needle. The shorter needle was more comfortable and easier to use while being equally effective in delivering insulin. Copyright © 2015 Canadian Diabetes Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Eating styles in major depressive disorder: Results from a large-scale study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paans, Nadine P G; Bot, Mariska; van Strien, Tatjana; Brouwer, Ingeborg A; Visser, Marjolein; Penninx, Brenda W J H

    2018-02-01

    Depressed persons have been found to present disturbances in eating styles, but it is unclear whether eating styles are different in subgroups of depressed patients. We studied the association between depressive disorder, severity, course and specific depressive symptom profiles and unhealthy eating styles. Cross-sectional and course data from 1060 remitted depressed patients, 309 currently depressed patients and 381 healthy controls from the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety were used. Depressive disorders (DSM-IV based psychiatric interview) and self-reported depressive symptoms (Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology) were related to emotional, external and restrained eating (Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire) using analyses of covariance and linear regression. Remitted and current depressive disorders were significantly associated with higher emotional eating (Cohen's d = 0.40 and 0.60 respectively, p eating (Cohen's d = 0.20, p = 0.001 and Cohen's d = 0.32, p eating styles between depression course groups were observed. Associations followed a dose-response association, with more emotional and external eating when depression was more severe (both p-values eating (p depressive symptoms, neuro-vegetative depressive symptoms contributed relatively more to emotional and external eating, while mood and anxious symptoms contributed relatively less to emotional and external eating. No depression associations were found with restrained eating. Intervention programs for depression should examine whether treating disordered eating specifically in those with neuro-vegetative, atypical depressive symptoms may help prevent or minimize adverse health consequences. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. A Study on the learning Styles of Nursing and Midwifery Students in Yasuj According to the VARK Model (2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Behnam Moghadam

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background & aim: learning style(s is one of the factors effective learning. Information about students learning styles can aid the presentation of teaching appropriate to their individual style. The purpose of this study was to determine the learning styles of Yasuj nursing and midwifery students based on the VARK model in 2013. Methods: The present research was a descriptive- analytical study which was conducted on 140 students from nursing and midwifery faculty of Yasuj university of Medical Sciences in the academic year of 2013. Sampling was done using census method, and data were collected using demographic information questionnaire followed by questionnaire of learning styles. The data were analyzed using SPSS software version 18, and descriptive- inferential statistics. Results: The mean age of the students was 20.68±1.34. Of the total of 140 students, 98 (70% just selected only one type of the learning styles, whereas, 42 students preferred combination of different styles. Reading-writing style was the prevailing style among single learning style which selected by 43 students but the most frequent style among multi style was double style which was selected only by 15% of the participants. Conclusion: Most of the students had an individual learning style. Identifying the dominant learning style(s of the students and adjusting them to the teaching methods of lecturers and also developing lesson plans based on learning styles could improve educational objectives.

  12. Learning styles of medical students at Taibah University: Trends and implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guraya, Shaista Salman; Guraya, Salman Yousuf; Habib, Fawzia A; Khoshhal, Khalid I

    2014-12-01

    Understanding the learning styles of medical students can drive the institutions to adapt instructional materials to enhance students' learning of knowledge and skills. This study explored the learning styles of undergraduate medical students, comparing gender variations in terms of their significant preferences. A cross-sectional observational study was performed in 2012-2013, incorporating 1(st)-5(th) year undergraduate medical students of Taibah University. The instrument used was a Learning Style Questionnaire, with four learning styles (activist, reflector, theorist and pragmatist) and 40 items. Of 450 students, 384 responded (response rate; 85%). No single learning style predominated; 96 (25%) reflectors, 78 (20%) theorists, 68 (17%) pragmatists, and 37 (9%) activists. Combined reflector and theorist was the predominant dual learning style in 27 (7%) students. Among genders, theorist style had a significant result (P = 0.071) indicating that theorists varied among genders due to their different opinions. Learning style preferences of theorists and pragmatists also showed a significant result (P = 0.000 each), depicting that both genders had unique preferences. Males had fewer variations of preferences, when compared with females who showed a significant difference of opinions (P learning styles, which were unevenly distributed, reflectors being the most common and activists as the least common. The results reflect the need to promote self-directed learning and modifications of instructional strategies, with expectant tilt in the students' learning styles towards activists and pragmatists.

  13. Generation Y students: Appropriate learning styles and teaching ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Generation Y students (born after 1982) have developed a different set of attitudes and aptitudes as a result of growing up in an IT and media-rich environment. This article has two objectives: firstly to discuss the learning styles preferred by generation Y students in order to identify the effect of these preferences on tertiary ...

  14. AIRLINE ITINERARY CHOICE IN A DYNAMIC SUPPLY ENVIRONMENT: RESULTS FROM A STATED PREFERENCE SURVEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uzi Freund-Feinstei

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the choice of airline itineraries in dynamic settings using a tailored stated preference survey. The paper hypothesizes that airline itinerary choice is not a one-time event, but a continuous process during a certain time frame. Consumers can choose either to purchase an itinerary, deferring choice up to the end of the sales period, or completely declining the purchase. Understanding such consumers’ behavior is specifically relevant to the tourism industry, where firms are extensively utilizing internet websites to offer their products (e.g., airline tickets, hotel rooms to consumers. The paper describes the stated preference survey with real itineraries of various airlines on medium and long-haul routes. Choice sets are composed with dynamic and static variables and socio-economic variables. Questionnaires were distributed electronically among various groups of respondents, yielding a sample of 914 persons. Results show that (i itinerary choice deferring takes place, with differences between tourists and business-travelers, (ii the decision whether to defer choice is affected by dynamically changing variables and by the length of each respondent’s allocated choice period, and (iii the proposed methodology is adequate for investigating choice in dynamic settings and thus indicating its potential for further research in transportation planning and in tourism.

  15. Effect of Changing Governance System: Result of Western Style Management Adoption to Japanese Culture of Ambiguity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kohichiro Hotta

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers the difficulty of management style change through observation of the management style of Company-A, one of the biggest Japanese IT companies. Japanese economy grew after World War II until the early 1990's. During that era, Ba or SECI process worked in Japanese organizations very well. Further, there was an ambiguous culture in the background of such characteristics. Some kinds of ambiguity or adhocracy made positive effects for Japanese organizational activity, or ambiguity played an important role for Ba activity. There were nested Ba's in each organization with ambiguity. Ambiguous descriptions of roles for each organizational unit activated nested Ba's and generated hot groups. After the economic crisis, Company-A changed its governance and gave clear targets for each organizational unit and for each employee. This change gave new difficulty and diminishes its competence. The change denied the ambiguity in the organization but it was the basis of the competence. Adopting a new system of governance is not a simple activity. Systems must be adjusted to the culture of the organization. Company-A should study competitors in different cultures and adjust the methodology for its culture.

  16. Taste preferences in association with dietary habits and weight status in European children: results from the IDEFICS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanfer, A; Knof, K; Barba, G; Veidebaum, T; Papoutsou, S; de Henauw, S; Soós, T; Moreno, L A; Ahrens, W; Lissner, L

    2012-01-01

    Increased preference for fat and sugar may have a role in overweight and obesity development. However, this effect is likely to vary across different food cultures. To date, few studies on this topic have been conducted in children and none have employed an international, multi-centre design. To document taste preferences for fat and sweet in children from eight European countries and to investigate their association with weight status and dietary habits. A total of 1696 children aged 6-9 years from survey centres in Italy, Estonia, Cyprus, Belgium, Sweden, Germany, Hungary and Spain tasted and subsequently chose between a high- versus a low-fat cracker and a natural versus a sugar-sweetened apple juice. Children's consumption frequency of fatty and sweet foods and demographic variables were obtained from parental-reported questionnaires. Weight and height of the children were measured. Fat and sweet taste preferences varied substantially across survey centres. Independent of survey centre, age, sex, parental education and parental BMI, overweight including obesity was positively associated with fat preference and sweet preference. Fat preference associations were stronger in girls. Girls, but not boys, with a combined preference for fat and sweet had an especially high probability of being overweight or obese. Adjusted models with BMI z-score as the dependent variable were consistent with results of the analyses with BMI categories, but with significant results only for fat preference in girls. Frequent consumption of fatty foods was related to fat preference in bivariate analyses; however, adjusting for survey centre attenuated the association. Sweet preference was not related to consumption of sweet foods, either in crude or in adjusted analyses. Fat and sweet taste preferences are related to weight status in European children across regions with varying food cultures.

  17. Do consumers prefer foods with nutrition and health claims? Results of a purchase simulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aschemann-Witzel, Jessica; Hamm, U.

    2010-01-01

    influenced by perception of healthiness of the product and negatively influenced by selection of the habitually chosen brand, whilst age, gender and credibility of the claim were of no importance. Both low price-level of the product with a claim and scepticism towards texts on food products had contrariwise......This contribution reports findings of a close-to-realistic purchase simulation for foods labelled with nutrition and health claims. The results show that products with a claim are clearly preferred, but that the determining factors of choice differ between the food categories. Choice was positively...... effects for different food categories. Further determinants which exercised a positive influence were product involvement, health-related food involvement, extent of information search and the presumption that the claim is scientifically proven....

  18. Preferences of referring physicians regarding the role of radiologists as direct communicators of test results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdoğan, Nuri; İmamoğlu, Hakan; Görkem, Süreyya Burcu; Doğan, Serap; Şenol, Serkan; Öztürk, Ahmet

    2017-01-01

    Currently, there is a growing need for patient-centered radiology in which radiologists communicate with patients directly. The aim of this study is to investigate the preferences of referring physicians (RPs) regarding direct communication between radiologists and patients. This study was conducted in a single academic hospital using a survey form. The survey items investigated the preferences of RPs regarding: 1. who should be the communicator of test results when a patient with abnormal findings requests information (the options were the radiologist; another health professional with communication skills training (CST); and the RP with CST); and 2. how the communication activity should be conducted if the radiologist is obliged (or chooses) to communicate with the patient directly (the options were that the disclosure should be limited to the findings in the radiology report; the radiologist should emphasize that the RP is the primary physician; and the communication activity should be conducted in accordance with guidelines established by consensus). The respondents were 101 RPs from various fields of specialty; they were asked to rate the items using a 5-point Likert scale. The effects of age, sex, field of specialty (surgical vs. nonsurgical), and total years of experience as a medical specialist on the ratings were statistically compared. Most RPs preferred that the radiologist transmit the information to the RP without communicating directly with the patient (89.1%). Although 69.3% of the RPs declared that health professionals with CST have priority in communication, 86.1% declared that the RP should be the person who received CST. If the radiologist communicates with patients directly, the RPs favored that 1. the disclosure should be limited to the findings in the radiology report (95%); 2. the communication activity should include an emphasis on the RP as the patient's primary agent (84.1%); and 3. communication should be conducted in accordance with

  19. Grapheme-color synaesthesia is associated with a distinct cognitive style.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Beat; Rothen, Nicolas

    2013-01-01

    In this study we investigated whether synaesthesia is associated with a particular cognitive style. Cognitive style refers to preferred modes of information processing, such as a verbal style or a visual style. We reasoned that related to the enriched world of experiences created by synaesthesia, its association with enhanced verbal and visual memory, higher imagery and creativity, synaesthetes might show enhanced preference for a verbal as well as for a visual cognitive style compared to non-synaesthetes. In Study 1 we tested a large convenience sample of 1046 participants, who classified themselves as grapheme-color, sound-color, lexical-gustatory, sequence-space, or as non-synaesthetes. To assess cognitive style, we used the revised verbalizer-visualizer questionnaire (VVQ), which involves three independent cognitive style dimensions (verbal style, visual-spatial style, and vivid imagery style). The most important result was that those who reported grapheme-color synaesthesia showed higher ratings on the verbal and vivid imagery style dimensions, but not on the visual-spatial style dimension. In Study 2 we replicated this finding in a laboratory study involving 24 grapheme-color synaesthetes with objectively confirmed synaesthesia and a closely matched control group. Our results indicate that grapheme-color synaesthetes prefer both a verbal and a specific visual cognitive style. We suggest that this enhanced preference, probably together with the greater ease to switch between a verbal and a vivid visual imagery style, may be related to cognitive advantages associated with grapheme color synaesthesia such as enhanced memory performance and creativity.

  20. Grapheme-colour synaesthesia is associated with a distinct cognitive style

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beat eMeier

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study we investigated whether synaesthesia is associated with a particular cognitive style. Cognitive style refers to preferred modes of information processing, such as a verbal style or a visual style. We reasoned that related to the enriched world of experiences created by synaesthesia, its association with enhanced verbal and visual memory, higher imagery and creativity, synaesthetes might show enhanced preference for a verbal as well as for a visual cognitive style compared to non-synaesthetes. In Study 1 we tested a large convenience sample of 1046 participants, who classified themselves as grapheme-colour, sound-colour, lexical-gustatory, sequence-space or as non-synaesthetes. To assess cognitive style, we used the revised verbalizer-visualizer questionnaire, which involves three independent cognitive style dimensions (verbal style, visual-spatial style, and vivid imagery style. The most important result was that those who reported grapheme-colour synaesthesia showed higher ratings on the verbal and vivid imagery style dimensions, but not on the visual-spatial style dimension. In Study 2 we replicated this finding in a laboratory study involving 24 grapheme-colour synaesthetes with objectively confirmed synaesthesia and a closely matched control group. Our results indicate that grapheme-colour synaesthetes prefer both a verbal and a specific visual cognitive style. We suggest that this enhanced preference, probably together with the greater ease to switch between a verbal and a vivid visual imagery style, may be related to cognitive advantages associated with grapheme colour synaesthesia such as enhanced memory performance and creativity.

  1. Adolescent asthmatics' needs and preferences regarding medication counseling: Results from online focus groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koster, Ellen S.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/308480643; Philbert, Daphne; Van Dijk, Liset L.; De Vries, Tjalling W.; Bouvy, Marcel L.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/153182210

    2014-01-01

    Background: In adolescents, non-adherence is a major problem and leads to uncontrolled disease. Objectives: To assess adolescents needs and preferences regarding counseling and support with focus on use of new media. Methods: Asthmatic adolescents needs and preferences were examined by means of

  2. Participants' preference for type of leaflet used to feed back the results of a randomised trial: a survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brealey, Stephen; Andronis, Lazaros; Dennis, Laura; Atwell, Christine; Bryan, Stirling; Coulton, Simon; Cox, Helen; Cross, Ben; Fylan, Fiona; Garratt, Andrew; Gilbert, Fiona; Gillan, Maureen; Hendry, Maggie; Hood, Kerenza; Houston, Helen; King, David; Morton, Veronica; Robling, Michael; Russell, Ian; Wilkinson, Clare

    2010-12-01

    Hundreds of thousands of volunteers take part in medical research, but many will never hear from researchers about what the study revealed. There is a growing demand for the results of randomised trials to be fed back to research participants both for ethical research practice and for ensuring their co-operation in a trial. This study aims to determine participants' preferences for type of leaflet (short versus long) used to summarise the findings of a randomised trial; and to test whether certain characteristics explained participants' preferences. 553 participants in a randomised trial about General Practitioners' access to Magnetic Resonance Imaging for patients presenting with suspected internal derangement of the knee were asked in the final follow-up questionnaire whether they would like to be fed back the results of the trial. Participants who agreed to this were included in a postal questionnaire survey asking about their preference, if any, between a short and a long leaflet and what it was about the leaflet that they preferred. Multinomial logistic regression was used to test whether certain demographics of responding participants along with treatment group explained whether a participant had a preference for type of leaflet or no preference. Of the participants who returned the final follow-up questionnaire, 416 (88%) agreed to receive the results of the trial. Subsequently 132 (32%) participants responded to the survey. Most participants preferred the longer leaflet (55%) and the main reasons for this were the use of technical information (94%) and diagrams (89%). There was weak evidence to suggest that gender might explain whether participants have a preference for type of leaflet or not (P = 0.084). Trial participants want to receive feed back about the results and appear to prefer a longer leaflet. Males and females might require information to be communicated to them differently and should be the focus of further research. The trial is registered

  3. Learning styles of postgraduate and undergraduate medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukr, Irfan; Zainab, Roop; Rana, Mowadat H

    2013-01-01

    To compare learning styles of undergraduate and postgraduate medical students. Observational, comparative study. Department of Medical Education, Army Medical College, NUST, Rawalpindi, Pakistan, during February and March 2012. A total of 170 students were divided into two equal groups of undergraduate students of Army Medical College, and postgraduate students of Armed Forces Post Graduate Medical Institute, Rawalpindi. Learning Style Questionnaire (LSQ) was used to assess and categorize the participants into Honey and Mumford classification of learning styles. The responses of each student ranging from 'very strong,' 'strong', 'moderate', and 'low' preference towards activist, theorist, reflector and pragmatist learning styles were compiled. The two groups were compared using SPSS version 17, using Fisher's exact test and the chi-square test. A p-value of $lt; 0.05 was considered significant. Preferences for all four learning styles were present in both groups. The results reveal an overall statistically significant difference in the 'very strong' preference in learning styles between the two study groups (p=0.002). Among the undergraduate students, 45% had a very strong preference for being an activist, whereas in postgraduate students, 38% had very strong preference for reflector, and 35% for theorist. This was statistically significant for activist, and reflector, and attained a p-value of postgraduate students. Diversity of learning styles at undergraduate and postgraduate level of medical education calls for multiplicity of instructional and assessment modalities to match them. The learning styles amongst the undergraduate medical students are different from the postgraduates. The postgraduates commonly have the reflector learning style while the undergraduates are predominantly activists and theorists.

  4. INTERACTION ASPECTS OF DOMINANT STYLES: OF TEACHING AND OF AUTHORITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian PETRE

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Problem Statement. Teaching style is the expression (form of expression of preferred behavioral modalities who return with some regularity in the work of teacher (E.Geissler, Purpose of Study. The intention of this paper is to identify a pattern of expression interact between two dimensions-professional of primary school teachers: the dominant teaching style and the dominant authority type of each teacher. I opted for a classification according to the particular act of communication: emotional-improvising style, emotional-methodical style, rational-improvising style and rational-methodical style. Methods. To identify the dominant teaching style was built a questionnaire consisting of 16 questions. The second questionnaire was proposed for a self-evaluative kind of authority expressed in the daily professional work. To identify the dominant type of authority were updated two classifications: traditional axis authoritarian - democratic - laissez-faire and a classification inspired by John RP French and B. Raven expert authority, rewards, position and personal. In this investigation were involved 30 teachers for primary education. Findings and Results. Exists a moderate correlation between rational-improvising style and authoritarian and position styles of authority. Also, indicates significant statistical connection between rational-improviser teaching style and authoritarian, democratic and expert teacher’s authority. The indexes indicate statistical connections moderate correlation between rational-methodical style and personal authority. The indexes of correlation indicates significant statistical link between emotional-improvisational style teaching styles and reward and expert authority. The indexes indicate statistical connections moderate correlation between emotional-style improvisation and styles of authority laissez-faire, and his model.

  5. Learning styles of students of Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences in 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hojat Rashidi-jahan

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Understanding the learning styles of students may help educational planning and improve the learning. This study aims to assess learning styles, and relevant determinants, of students who study in various disciplines of medical sciences at Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences (BUMS in 2012. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 180 students from BUMS were selected randomly. Data were collected sing the Kolb learning style questionnaire during April/May 2012. One-way ANOVA, Student t-test, Chi-square or Fisher exact tests were used for analyzing the data. Results: The mean age of participants was 29.3±7.0, majority of them were males. The preferred learning styles were diverger (76.7%, accommodator (12.8%, assimilator (7.8% and converger (2.8% respectively. The results showed that the factors such as age, sex, marriage status, father and mother education, grade point average (GPA and academic degree could be important to determine learning style characteristics of students. The findings also indicate that the preferred learning style among the students with different GPAs or academic degrees are not different considerably. Conclusion: Regarding the most preferred leaning style by the, proper planning to address proper teaching styles according to the preferred learning styles is necessary.

  6. American preferences for “smart” guns versus traditional weapons: Results from a nationwide survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lacey Nicole Wallace

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study examines Americans' preferences regarding smart guns. The study builds on prior research by including previously unexamined factors, specifically victimization and comfort sharing gun ownership status with a doctor. Further, this study examines differences in preference patterns among gun owners and non-owners. Data were obtained from a nationwide online survey with 524 respondents in February 2016. The study finds that, among non-owners, older respondents and those with pro-gun attitudes are less likely to prefer smart guns to traditional firearms. Among gun owners, those with moderate political views, those with a history of victimization, and those residing in the Northeast are all more likely to prefer smart guns. Males and those with pro-gun attitudes are less likely to prefer smart guns. Education, income, race, marital status, presence of children in the home, and comfort discussing gun ownership with a doctor had no significant association with smart gun preference. Practical implications of these findings are discussed.

  7. Patient preferences in selecting a dentist: survey results from the urban population of Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huraib, Sahar Bin; Nahas, Nadia Al; Al-Balbeesi, Hana O; Abu-Aljadayl, Faida Moawia; Vellappally, Sajith; Sukumaran, Anil

    2015-03-01

    Awareness of gender- or nationality-driven preconceptions can help dentists to have a better interpretation of the dentist-patient relationship. It is even more noteworthy to understand these predilections in Saudi society, where women and men are usually segregated due to religion- and culture-based considerations. This study is one of the first to explore the preferences of patients when selecting a dentist with respect to gender and nationality in the city of Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. A total of 445 community residents residing in Riyadh were randomly selected for a cross-sectional study. The participants completed a survey designed to assess which of two factors (gender and/or nationality) were perceived as most relevant in choosing a dentist. Statistical analysis of the data was performed using the SPSS 11.5 software. Female participants did not show any preference for the gender of the dentist, whereas 40% of the male participants preferred a male dentist. Participants also favored male dentists in the felds of oral surgery (78.9%), implants (74.1%), endodontics (67.5%), orthodontics (65.8%) and prosthodontics (64.2%). An exception was noted in pediatric dentistry, for which female dentists were favored by 52.8% of the participants. Additionally, most (66.1%) participants did not have any preference for the nationality of the dentist. Riyadh residents showed a general preference for a male dentist but demonstrated no preference for nationality when selecting a dentist.

  8. Sexual activity during pregnancy and after childbirth: results from the Sexual Preferences Questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Sydow, K; Ullmeyer, M; Happ, N

    2001-03-01

    The sexual relations of expectant and young parents have been researched relatively often, but most studies are restricted to female participants, samples from the USA, a short postpartum period and a reductionist view of sexuality as equivalent to intercourse. The aim of this study is to gain more knowledge about sexual activity of German couples with regard to non-genital tenderness, French kissing, breast stimulation, manual-genital stimulation, cunnilingus, fellatio, vaginal intercourse, anal intercourse and masturbation during pregnancy and the first 6 months postpartum. As part of a larger longitudinal study, 60 women and men (30 couples) answered a newly developed Sexual Preferences Questionnaire (SPQ) which assesses sexual activity and enjoyment. The frequency of most heterosexual activities declined during pregnancy, reached almost zero in the first 3 months postpartum, and then began to increase; male masturbation remained relatively constant. Agreement between the two members of each couple was assessed and SPQ data were validated with other questionnaire data and interview data. The results are discussed with regard to limitations of the sample. Future research should broaden the range of questions investigated, the range of research methods applied (questionnaires and interviews) and the range of persons researched (both partners).

  9. Correlating Musical Memorization Styles and Perceptual Learning Modalities

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mishra, Jennifer

    2007-01-01

    ... (aural, visual, kinesthetic). Generally, weak correlations were found between preferred learning modalities and memorization styles with only visual learners tending to prefer visual memorization strategies (r = .34...

  10. Relationship between Student Pharmacist Decision Making Preferences and Experiential Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Charlene R; McLaughlin, Jacqueline E; Cox, Wendy C; Shepherd, Greene

    2016-09-25

    Objective. To determine if student pharmacists' preferences towards experiential and rational thinking are associated with performance on advanced pharmacy practice experiences (APPEs) and whether thinking style preference changes following APPEs. Methods. The Rational Experiential Inventory (REI), a validated survey of thinking style, was administered to student pharmacists before starting APPEs and re-administered after completing APPEs. APPE grades were compared to initial REI scores. Results. Rational Experiential Inventory scores remained consistent before and after APPEs. Overall, APPE grades were independent of REI scores. In a regression model, the REI experiential score was a significant negative predictor of hospital APPE grades. Conclusion. These findings suggest that overall APPE performance is independent of decision-making preference, and decision-making style does not change following immersion into APPEs. Instead of targeting teaching strategies towards a specific decision-making style, preceptors may use pedagogical approaches that promote sound clinical decision-making skills through critical thinking and reflection.

  11. Does student learning style affect performance on different formats of biomechanics examinations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Chengtu; Mache, Melissa; Knudson, Duane

    2012-03-01

    Students' learning style preferences have been widely adapted into teaching and learning environments. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between self-reported and assessed learning style preferences (visual, auditory, reading/writing, kinesthetic: VARK) on performance in different types of multiple-choice examinations (T1: text only format and T2: visual format) given in an introductory biomechanics class. Students who enrolled in three biomechanics classes at a state university were recruited to participate in the study. Ninety students (47 males and 43 females) completed a learning style survey and two types of examinations. Results showed that approximately half of the students were assessed and self-reported as kinesthetic for their preferred learning style. There was no significant difference in test performance between students who preferred visual and reading/writing learning styles (self-reported and assessed). These students demonstrated similar learning and comprehension of biomechanical concepts regardless of whether the test material was presented in their preferred sensory mode or not. Interestingly, female students' perceptions of their learning style preference may have a positive effect on the test results when the test is presented in their preferred format.

  12. Assessing learning preferences of dental students using visual, auditory, reading-writing, and kinesthetic questionnaire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darshana Bennadi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Educators of the health care profession (teachers are committed in preparing future health care providers, but are facing many challenges in transmitting their ever expanding knowledge to the students. This study was done to focus on different learning styles among dental students. Aim: To assess different learning preferences among dental students. Materials and Methods: This is a descriptive cross-sectional questionnaire study using visual, auditory, reading-writing, and kinesthetic questionnaire among dental students. Results: Majority 75.8% of the students preferred multimodal learning style. Multimodal learning was common among clinical students. No statistical significant difference of learning styles in relation to gender (P > 0.05. Conclusion: In the present study, majority of students preferred multimodal learning preference. Knowledge about the learning style preference of different profession can help to enhance the teaching method for the students.

  13. A Preliminary Investigation into the Adaptive Learning Styles of Business Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandman, Thomas E.

    2014-01-01

    An exploration of the preferred learning styles for over 1,100 business students has yielded an intriguing result. While many previous studies have examined the learning styles in different majors at different universities, these studies have been focused on describing the typical student for that major. This study demonstrates that the preferred…

  14. Leadership Styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzarella, Jo Ann; Smith, Stuart C.

    Chapter 2 of a revised volume on school leadership, this chapter reviews theories of leadership style--the way a leader leads. Although most experts agree that leadership style is important, they disagree concerning style components, leaders' capabilities for changing styles, the effects of personality traits on style, and the desirability of…

  15. Relationship Between Emotional Intelligence and Leadership Style: A Comparative-Gender Study

    OpenAIRE

    Van Genderen, Eric

    2012-01-01

    This study involved Russian managers, extending a US investigation into the possible relationship between Emotional Intelligence (EI) and leadership style; with special attention to that of the ‘transformational’ leadership style. As such, the findings from the US study are compared with the researcher’s Russian investigation. The research further addressed any possible differences in overall EI between genders, as well as differences in preferred leadership style. The results of this investi...

  16. Adolescent Learning Styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titus, Thomas G.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Results are reported from a study of the learning styles of 306 high school students. The study examined learning style characteristics (abstraction, concreteness, reflection, activity); comparisons between adolescent and adult learning styles; and differences between freshmen and seniors, males and females, and slow-track and fast-track learners.…

  17. Emerging Web Technologies in Higher Education: A Case of Incorporating Blogs, Podcasts and Social Bookmarks in a Web Programming Course Based on Students' Learning Styles and Technology Preferences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeed, Nauman; Yang, Yun; Sinnappan, Suku

    2009-01-01

    The adoption level of emerging web technologies is on the rise in academic settings. However, a major obstacle in the practice of web-based instruction is the limited understanding of learners' characteristics and perceptions about technology use. Thus there is a need to understand the relationship between students' learning styles and their…

  18. The Learning Styles and Language Learning Strategies of the EFL Students at Tertiary Level

    OpenAIRE

    Diemroh Ihsan; Chuzaimah Dahlan Diem

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study are to discover the learning styles, and the language learning strategies most preferred, correlation among the variables exists, and the degree of influence each independent variable exerts on the dependent variables. For data collection, the Barsch Learning Styles Inventory and the Strategy Inventory of Language Learning were distributed to 156 students of English at the University of Sriwijaya, Palembang. The results showed that: (1) visual is the most preferred l...

  19. Forest Landowner Education Interests and Delivery Preferences: A Retrospective Look at Survey Results and Actual Participation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zobrist, Kevin W.; Rozance, Mary Ann

    2015-01-01

    This article presents survey data on education interests and delivery preferences of small forest landowners in Washington and compares it to actual program participation over 6 years. The survey was conducted in late 2007 to guide development and implementation of a Extension forestry program. The survey found broad interest across many topics…

  20. Preferred mesh-based inguinal hernia repair in a teaching setting: results of a randomized study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nienhuijs, S.W.; Kortmann, B.B.M.; Boerma, M.; Strobbe, L.J.; Rosman, C.

    2004-01-01

    HYPOTHESIS: Surgeons' preferences for any of 3 methods of inguinal hernia repair are comparable in terms of operating time, incision length, perceived difficulty, and surgeon's satisfaction. DESIGN: Randomized patient-blinded study. SETTING: Teaching hospital. PATIENTS: A total of 334 patients

  1. Young patients', parents', and survivors' communication preferences in paediatric oncology: results of online focus groups.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwaanswijk, M.; Tates, K.; Dulmen, A.M. van; Hoogerbrugge, P.M.; Kamps, W.A.; Bensing, J.M.

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Guidelines in paediatric oncology encourage health care providers to share relevant information with young patients and parents to enable their active participation in decision making. It is not clear to what extent this mirrors patients' and parents' preferences. This study investigated

  2. Participants' preference for type of leaflet used to feed back the results of a randomised trial: a survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Houston Helen

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hundreds of thousands of volunteers take part in medical research, but many will never hear from researchers about what the study revealed. There is a growing demand for the results of randomised trials to be fed back to research participants both for ethical research practice and for ensuring their co-operation in a trial. This study aims to determine participants' preferences for type of leaflet (short versus long used to summarise the findings of a randomised trial; and to test whether certain characteristics explained participants' preferences. Methods 553 participants in a randomised trial about General Practitioners' access to Magnetic Resonance Imaging for patients presenting with suspected internal derangement of the knee were asked in the final follow-up questionnaire whether they would like to be fed back the results of the trial. Participants who agreed to this were included in a postal questionnaire survey asking about their preference, if any, between a short and a long leaflet and what it was about the leaflet that they preferred. Multinomial logistic regression was used to test whether certain demographics of responding participants along with treatment group explained whether a participant had a preference for type of leaflet or no preference. Results Of the participants who returned the final follow-up questionnaire, 416 (88% agreed to receive the results of the trial. Subsequently 132 (32% participants responded to the survey. Most participants preferred the longer leaflet (55% and the main reasons for this were the use of technical information (94% and diagrams (89%. There was weak evidence to suggest that gender might explain whether participants have a preference for type of leaflet or not (P = 0.084. Conclusions Trial participants want to receive feed back about the results and appear to prefer a longer leaflet. Males and females might require information to be communicated to them differently and should

  3. Does tailoring instructional style to a medical student's self-perceived learning style improve performance when teaching intravenous catheter placement? A randomized controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papanagnou, Dimitrios; Serrano, Antonio; Barkley, Kaitlyn; Chandra, Shruti; Governatori, Nicholas; Piela, Nicole; Wanner, Gregory K; Shin, Richard

    2016-08-12

    Students may have different learning styles. It is unclear, however, whether tailoring instructional methods for a student's preferred learning style improves educational outcomes when teaching procedures. The authors sought to examine whether teaching to a student's self-perceived learning style improved the acquisition of intravenous (IV) catheter placement skills. The authors hypothesized that matching a medical student's preferred learning style with the instructor's teaching style would increase the success of placing an IV catheter. Using the VARK model (i.e., visual [V], auditory [A], read/write [R] and kinesthetic [K]), third-year medical students reported their self-perceived learning style and were subsequently randomized to instructors who were trained to teach according to a specific learning format (i.e., visual, auditory). Success was gauged by: 1) the placement of an IV on the first attempt and 2) the number of attempts made until an IV line was successfully placed. The average number of attempts in the matched learning style group was 1.53, compared to 1.64 in the unmatched learning style group; however, results were not statistically significant. Both matched and unmatched groups achieved a similar success rate (57 and 58 %, respectively). Additionally, a comparison of success between the unmatched and matched students within each learning style modality yielded no statistical significance. Results suggest that providing procedural instruction that is congruent with a student's self-perceived learning style does not appear to improve outcomes when instructing students on IV catheter placement.

  4. Learning-style profiles of 150 veterinary medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neel, Jennifer A; Grindem, Carol B

    2010-01-01

    Awareness of student learning-style preferences is important for several reasons. Understanding differences in learning styles permits instructors to design course materials that allow all types of learners to absorb and process information. Students who know their own learning style are better able to help themselves in courses taught in a non-preferred method by developing study strategies in line with their preferred learning method. We used the Felder and Solomon Index of Learning Styles to assess the learning-style profiles of 150 veterinary students in three consecutive years. Students were predominantly active (56.7%), sensing (79.3%), visual (76.7%), and sequential (69.3%). Most were balanced on the active-reflective (59.3%) and global-sequential (50%) dimensions, and 61.3% and 54% were moderately to strongly sensing and visual, respectively. Small but significant numbers of students were moderately to strongly intuitive (8.7%), verbal (13%), and global (12%). The most common patterns were active-sensing-visual-sequential (26%), reflective-sensing-visual-sequential (19.3%), active-sensing-visual-global (8.7%), and active-sensing-verbal-sequential (8.7%). Although most students (65.3%) were balanced on one to two dimensions, 77.3% had one or more strong preferences. Our results show that although people have dominant learning-style preference and patterns, they have significant minor preferences and patterns across all dimensions with moderate to strong preferences on each scale. These results indicate that a balanced approach to teaching is essential to allow all students to learn optimally.

  5. Love Styles in the Context of Life History Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzec Magdalena

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The evolutionary function of love is to create a strong bond between the partners with reproduction in view. In order to achieve this goal, humans use various sexual/reproductive strategies, which have evolved due to specific reproductive benefits. The use of particular strategies depends on many factors but one of the most important is early childhood experiences, on which life history theory (LHT focuses. John Lee (1973 identified 6 basic love styles: eros, ludus, storge, pragma, agape, and mania. Our goal was to check whether love styles may be treated as sexual/reproductive strategies in the context of LHT - slow or fast strategy. In our study (N = 177 we found that people who prefer the slow reproductive strategy are inclined to show passionate, pragmatic and friendly love, and those who prefer the fast strategy, treated love as a game. A low level of environmental stress in childhood results in preferring eros, storge and agape love styles, belonging to the slow strategy, and a high one results in preferring ludus, which belongs to the fast strategy. People representing eros, storge or pragma styles have restricted sociosexual orientation so they prefer long-term relationships, whereas those with the ludus style are people with unrestricted orientation, preferring short-term relationships. Besides, storge, agape and pragma seem to determine preferring qualities connected with parental effort in one’s partner, mania - with mating effort, and eros - with both kinds of effort. No correlation was found between the love style and the number of children.

  6. Patient Preferences for Pain Management in Advanced Cancer: Results from a Discrete Choice Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meads, David M; O'Dwyer, John L; Hulme, Claire T; Chintakayala, Phani; Vinall-Collier, Karen; Bennett, Michael I

    2017-10-01

    Pain from advanced cancer remains prevalent, severe and often under-treated. The aim of this study was to conduct a discrete choice experiment with patients to understand their preferences for pain management services and inform service development. Focus groups were used to develop the attributes and levels of the discrete choice experiment. The attributes were: waiting time, type of healthcare professional, out-of-pocket costs, side-effect control, quality of communication, quality of information and pain control. Patients completed the discrete choice experiment along with clinical and health-related quality of life questions. Conditional and mixed logit models were used to analyse the data. Patients with cancer pain (n = 221) and within palliative care services completed the survey (45% were female, mean age 64.6 years; age range 21-92 years). The most important aspects of pain management were: good pain control, zero out-of-pocket costs and good side-effect control. Poor or moderate pain control and £30 costs drew the highest negative preferences. Respondents preferred control of side effects and provision of better information and communication, over access to certain healthcare professionals. Those with lower health-related quality of life were less willing to wait for treatment and willing to incur higher costs. The presence of a carer influenced preferences. Outcome attributes were more important than process attributes but the latter were still valued. Thus, supporting self-management, for example by providing better information on pain may be a worthwhile endeavour. However, service provision may need to account for individual characteristics given the heterogeneity in preferences.

  7. The Effect of Animation in Multimedia Computer-Based Learning and Learning Style to the Learning Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad RUSLI

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The effectiveness of a learning depends on four main elements, they are content, desired learning outcome, instructional method and the delivery media. The integration of those four elements can be manifested into a learning modul which is called multimedia learning or learning by using multimedia. In learning context by using computer-based multimedia, there are two main things that need to be noticed so that the learning process can run effectively: how the content is presented, and what the learner’s chosen way in accepting and processing the information into a meaningful knowledge. First it is related with the way to visualize the content and how people learn. The second one is related with the learning style of the learner. This research aims to investigate the effect of the type of visualization—static vs animated—on a multimedia computer-based learning, and learning styles—visual vs verbal, towards the students’ capability in applying the concepts, procedures, principles of Java programming. Visualization type act as independent variables, and learning styles of the students act as a moderator variable. Moreover, the instructional strategies followed the Component Display Theory of Merril, and the format of presentation of multimedia followed the Seven Principles of Multimedia Learning of Mayer and Moreno. Learning with the multimedia computer-based learning has been done in the classroom. The subject of this research was the student of STMIK-STIKOM Bali in odd semester 2016-2017 which followed the course of Java programming. The Design experiments used multivariate analysis of variance, MANOVA 2 x 2, with a large sample of 138 students in 4 classes. Based on the results of the analysis, it can be concluded that the animation in multimedia interactive learning gave a positive effect in improving students’ learning outcomes, particularly in the applying the concepts, procedures, and principles of Java programming. The

  8. Exploring Mathematics Achievement Goals Using Kolb’s Learning Style Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avelino G. Ignacio Jr.

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This research work is an exploration of causality connection of learning styles to mathematics achievement goals. The objectives of the study are as follows: (1 to identify the mathematics achievement goal of students when grouped according to preferred learning style (2 to identify the learning style of students when grouped according to preferred mathematics achievement goal and (3 to determine if there is a significant difference in each mathematics achievement goal when grouped according to learning style. The researcher used explanatory cross-sectional design. The Revised Achievement Goal Questionnaire and Kolb’s Learning Style Inventory 3.1 were utilized to collect data. Results show that respondents hold mastery-approach achievement goals regardless of learning styles. Also, students with approach type of mathematics achievement goals hold assimilative learning style which operates on reflective observation and abstract conceptualization; and students with avoidance type of mathematics achievement goals hold accommodative learning style which operates on active experimentation and concrete experimentation. Furthermore, findings show that there is no significant difference in the mathematics achievement goals based on learning style. Exploratory research is recommended to understand why students with approach type of mathematics achievement goals hold assimilative learning style and why students with avoidance type of mathematics achievement goals hold accommodative learning style.

  9. Consumer preferences for apple : comparing the results of contingent valuation method and a real purchasing situation

    OpenAIRE

    Botelho, Anabela; Gomes, Lina Sofia Lourenço; Pinto, Lígia

    2013-01-01

    Increased competition in agro-food systems has motivated the appearance of new or more heterogeneous products. In addition consumers are increasingly more demanding about product information and characteristics, associated with a move towards products that differentiate themselves by its environmental characteristics, health effects, quality, origin, etc. Thus consumers’ preferences became more complex and diversified. Consumers are faced with a great variety of competing products and firm...

  10. Cognitive styles and visual quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jumisko-Pyykkö, Satu; Strohmeier, Dominik

    2013-03-01

    Assessors are the main measurement instruments in subjective quality evaluation studies. Although the perceptual abilities and constrains are influenced by multiple demographic and psychographic factors, they are typically disregarded as a part of quality assessment. Cognitive styles refer to individual's consistent approaches to organize and represent information. Goal of this study is to explore the impact of cognitive styles on visual quality requirements. The data collection is conducted using the Style of Processing (SOP) questionnaire in three video quality experiments with a total of 72 participants. All participants were categorized into four groups according to sensorial preferences in information processing (visual, verbal, bimodal - high processing, and bimodal - low processing). The experiments were conducted in controlled circumstances when varying depth in video quality with several content types on the mobile device. The results show variation in quality requirements between these groups. Finally, these results also indicate that sensorial processing styles are essential to explore for sample characterization in quality evaluation experiments and for exploring more user-aware quality adjustments in future services and products.

  11. Predominant learning styles among pharmacy students at the Federal University of Paraná, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Czepula AI

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Learning styles are cognitive, emotional, and physiological traits, as well as indicators of how learners perceive, interact, and respond to their learning environments. According to Honey-Mumford, learning styles are classified as active, reflexive, theoretical, and pragmatic. Objective: The purpose of this study was to identify the predominant learning styles among pharmacy students at the Federal University of Paraná, Brazil. Methods: An observational, cross-sectional, and descriptive study was conducted using the Honey-Alonso Learning Style Questionnaire. Students in the Bachelor of Pharmacy program were invited to participate in this study. The questionnaire comprised 80 randomized questions, 20 for each of the four learning styles. The maximum possible score was 20 points for each learning style, and cumulative scores indicated the predominant learning styles among the participants. Honey-Mumford (1986 proposed five preference levels for each style (very low, low, moderate, high, and very high, called a general interpretation scale, to avoid student identification with one learning style and ignoring the characteristics of the other styles. Statistical analysis was performed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS version 20.0. Results: This study included 297 students (70% of all pharmacy students at the time with a median age of 21 years old. Women comprised 77.1% of participants. The predominant style among pharmacy students at the Federal University of Paraná was the pragmatist, with a median of 14 (high preference. The pragmatist style prevails in people who are able to discover techniques related to their daily learning because such people are curious to discover new strategies and attempt to verify whether the strategies are efficient and valid. Because these people are direct and objective in their actions, pragmatists prefer to focus on practical issues that are validated and on problem situations

  12. Predominant learning styles among pharmacy students at the Federal University of Paraná, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czepula, Alexandra I.; Bottacin, Wallace E.; Hipólito, Edson; Baptista, Deise R.; Pontarolo, Roberto; Correr, Cassyano J.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Learning styles are cognitive, emotional, and physiological traits, as well as indicators of how learners perceive, interact, and respond to their learning environments. According to Honey-Mumford, learning styles are classified as active, reflexive, theoretical, and pragmatic. Objective: The purpose of this study was to identify the predominant learning styles among pharmacy students at the Federal University of Paraná, Brazil. Methods: An observational, cross-sectional, and descriptive study was conducted using the Honey-Alonso Learning Style Questionnaire. Students in the Bachelor of Pharmacy program were invited to participate in this study. The questionnaire comprised 80 randomized questions, 20 for each of the four learning styles. The maximum possible score was 20 points for each learning style, and cumulative scores indicated the predominant learning styles among the participants. Honey-Mumford (1986) proposed five preference levels for each style (very low, low, moderate, high, and very high), called a general interpretation scale, to avoid student identification with one learning style and ignoring the characteristics of the other styles. Statistical analysis was performed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version 20.0. Results: This study included 297 students (70% of all pharmacy students at the time) with a median age of 21 years old. Women comprised 77.1% of participants. The predominant style among pharmacy students at the Federal University of Paraná was the pragmatist, with a median of 14 (high preference). The pragmatist style prevails in people who are able to discover techniques related to their daily learning because such people are curious to discover new strategies and attempt to verify whether the strategies are efficient and valid. Because these people are direct and objective in their actions, pragmatists prefer to focus on practical issues that are validated and on problem situations. There was no

  13. Neural correlates of cognitive style and flexible cognitive control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Gyeonghee; Kim, Chobok

    2015-06-01

    Human abilities of flexible cognitive control are associated with appropriately regulating the amount of cognitive control required in response to contextual demands. In the context of conflicting situations, for instance, the amount of cognitive control increases according to the level of previously experienced conflict, resulting in optimized performance. We explored whether the amount of cognitive control in conflict resolution was related to individual differences in cognitive style that were determined with the Object-Spatial-Verbal cognitive style questionnaire. In this functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study, a version of the color-word Stroop task, which evokes conflict between color and verbal components, was employed to explore whether individual preferences for distracting information were related to the increases in neural conflict adaptation in cognitive control network regions. The behavioral data revealed that the more the verbal style was preferred, the greater the conflict adaptation effect was observed, especially when the current trial type was congruent. Consistent with the behavioral data, the imaging results demonstrated increased neural conflict adaptation effects in task-relevant network regions, including the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, left fusiform gyrus, and left precuneus, as the preference for verbal style increased. These results provide new evidence that flexible cognitive control is closely associated with individuals' preference of cognitive style. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. When to Blink and when to Think: Preference for Intuitive Decisions Results in Faster and Better Tactical Choices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raab, Markus; Laborde, Sylvain

    2011-01-01

    Intuition is often considered an effective manner of decision making in sports. In this study we investigated whether a preference for intuition over deliberation results in faster and better lab-based choices in team handball attack situations with 54 male and female handball players of different expertise levels. We assumed that intuitive…

  15. Improving the Management Style of School Principals: Results from a Randomized Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lassibille, Gérard

    2016-01-01

    Using information from a randomized experiment carried out over the course of two school years in Madagascar, this paper evaluates the impact of specific actions designed to streamline and tighten the work processes of public primary school directors. The results show that interventions at the school level, reinforced by interventions at the…

  16. METHODS OF ORGANIZING IN ENDURANCE AND PROGNOSIS OF RESULTS IN WRESTLING OF GREEK-ROME STYLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mališa Radović

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Wrestling belongs to the groups of very complex ,semistructual, non-rhytmical sports. Physical capability of wrestler and his sport's level depend from quality of his physical capability. It depends also from level of functional possibility in organism. Top results in \\vrestling are closely connected vvith the level of development in special endurance, so training process pays attention to improve these tvvo characters. Increasing of special endurance depends also from using objective information about changing functional condition of vvrestler. Very important role in vvrestling possesses dynamic elements vvhich need strong strain and strain the muscles. The physical capabilities are complexity engaged in the fight and different situations which appear during the fight need strong muscles -joint's sensation and resourcefulness to reach the top results.

  17. Health circles for teleworkers: selective results on stress, strain and coping styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konradt, U; Schmook, R; Wilm, A; Hertel, G

    2000-06-01

    Telework is decentralized computer-mediated performance of work activities at a location distant from the employing organization. In order to improve well-being at such remote workplaces, we developed a health circle (HC) concept for teleworkers. Three HC sessions were conducted with a total of 17 teleworkers from diverse organizations and branches. The sessions were moderated by a professional facilitator, while the participants selected the discussion issues. Typical issues were technical problems at the home-based computer, time management, communication with supervisors, colleagues and customers, and feelings of isolation from the main company. Besides discussing these stress factors, participants developed concrete coping strategies based on the exchange of experiences and additional informational input by external experts. Process evaluation at the end of each meeting revealed that participants found the exchange of personal experiences and the informational input during the HCs very helpful, as well as the common development of coping strategies. Moreover, a questionnaire 2 months after the last HC session revealed that participants reported significantly more positive changes in typical stress factors than teleworkers in a control group. The implications of these results for preventive and corrective strategies of telework design are discussed.

  18. The Relationship between Age of Post-Graduate Adult Learning Students and Learning Style Preferences: A Case of Africa International University, Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngala, Francisca Wavinya

    2017-01-01

    This paper sought to examine the relationship between age and learning preferences of post- graduate students at Africa International University (AIU). The study employed a descriptive survey design which used cross-sectional approach to data collection. The population of the study consisted of all the 397 post-graduate students at Africa…

  19. The Kansei Design Characteristics towards Learning Style

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haeryip Sihombing

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The individuals possess unique ways of how they learn. Based on this perspective, each of individuals will approach the general learning experiences in a personal and individualized way related to his/her performance and behavior. This study is to analyze the characteristics of product design using Kansei Engineering approach towards the student learning style based on Felder and Soloman's theory. Using the 8 (eight spectacles designs proposed comparing the emotional feeling towards design of product, the study involved 100 students who are using spectacles as the respondents. Focusing on the perception and input dimensions of the Felder-Soloman learning styles comprised in 22 questions and the Crane cognitive alert styles in 9 questions, the result of study shows that the students who are using spectacles are dominated by “the visual” type of Felder-Soloman learning styles. In addition, based on the using of Kansei Engineering, this study also found that the respondents tend to interpret the rimless design of spectacles as “fragile,” “unattractive,” “old-fashion” product, while the design with thicker frame as “durable,” “attractive,” cool,” “ergonomic” product. In this study, there are also the significant correlations proved against the preferences of product design based on quality affective (Kansei Engineering using learning styles and cognitive alert styles.

  20. Generation Y Students: Appropriate Learning Styles and Teaching Approaches in the Economic and Management Sciences Faculty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wessels, P. L.; Steenkamp, L. P.

    2009-01-01

    Generation Y students (born after 1982) have developed a different set of attitudes and aptitudes as a result of growing up in an IT and media-rich environment. This article has two objectives: firstly to discuss the learning styles preferred by generation Y students in order to identify the effect of these preferences on tertiary education in…

  1. Consumer preferences for health and nonhealth outcomes of health promotion: results from a discrete choice experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alayli-Goebbels, Adrienne F G; Dellaert, Benedict G C; Knox, Stephanie A; Ament, André J H A; Lakerveld, Jeroen; Bot, Sandra D M; Nijpels, G; Severens, J L

    2013-01-01

    Health promotion (HP) interventions have outcomes that go beyond health. Such broader nonhealth outcomes are usually neglected in economic evaluation studies. To allow for their consideration, insights are needed into the types of nonhealth outcomes that HP interventions produce and their relative importance compared with health outcomes. This study explored consumer preferences for health and nonhealth outcomes of HP in the context of lifestyle behavior change. A discrete choice experiment was conducted among participants in a lifestyle intervention (n = 132) and controls (n = 141). Respondents made 16 binary choices between situations that can be experienced after lifestyle behavior change. The situations were described by 10 attributes: future health state value, start point of future health state, life expectancy, clothing size above ideal, days with sufficient relaxation, endurance, experienced control over lifestyle choices, lifestyle improvement of partner and/or children, monetary cost per month, and time cost per week. With the exception of "time cost per week" and "start point of future health state," all attributes significantly determined consumer choices. Thus, both health and nonhealth outcomes affected consumer choice. Marginal rates of substitution between the price attribute and the other attributes revealed that the attributes "endurance," "days with sufficient relaxation," and "future health state value" had the greatest impact on consumer choices. The "life expectancy" attribute had a relatively low impact and for increases of less than 3 years, respondents were not willing to trade. Health outcomes and nonhealth outcomes of lifestyle behavior change were both important to consumers in this study. Decision makers should respond to consumer preferences and consider nonhealth outcomes when deciding about HP interventions. Copyright © 2013 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All

  2. Effects of Experiment Learning Strategy versus Expository and Cognitive Style for Physical Learning Result for Senior High School Student at Class XI of Senior High School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prayekti

    2016-01-01

    The research was aimed to know Effects of Experiment Learning Strategy versus Expository and Cognitive Style for Physical Learning Result of Senior High School Student at Class XI of Senior High School. Data was collected by test and observation. It is processed by ANCOVA and different test (t-test). (1) The result showed that all learning system…

  3. Surgery resident learning styles and academic achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contessa, Jack; Ciardiello, Kenneth A; Perlman, Stacie

    2005-01-01

    To determine if surgical residents share a preferred learning style as measured by Kolb's Learning Style Inventory (LSI) and if a relationship exists between resident learning style and achievement as measured by a standardized examination (AME). Also, core faculty learning styles were assessed to determine if faculty and residents share a preferred learning style. Kolb's LSI, Version 3, was administered to 16 surgical residents and the residency program's core faculty of 6 attending physicians. To measure academic achievement, the American Medical Education (AME) examination was administered to residents. The Hospital of Saint Raphael, General Surgery Residency Program, New Haven, Connecticut. Both instruments were administered to residents during protected core curriculum time. Core faculty were administered the LSI on an individual basis. Surgical residents of the Hospital of Saint Raphael's General Surgery Residency Program and 6 core faculty members Analysis of resident learning style preference revealed Converging as the most commonly occurring style for residents (7) followed by Accommodating (5), Assimilating (3), and Diverging (1). The predominant learning style for core faculty was also Converging (4) with 2 Divergers. The average score for the Convergers on the AME was 62.6 compared with 42 for the next most frequently occurring learning style, Accommodators. In this surgical residency program, a preferred learning style for residents seems to exist (Converging), which confirms what previous studies have found. Additionally, residents with this learning style attained a higher average achievement score as measured by the AME. Also, core faculty share the same preferential learning style as this subset of residents.

  4. Revisiting the concept of 'style match'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li-fang; Sternberg, Robert J; Fan, Jieqiong

    2013-06-01

    Intellectual style, an encompassing term for such constructs as learning style, teaching style, teaching approach, and thinking style, refers to one's preferred way of processing information. For the past several decades, whether or not there is a need for a match between teachers' teaching styles and students' learning styles has been the focal point for debate among researchers, educators, and the general public. The preliminary objective of this research was to investigate the psychometric properties of the Preferred Teaching Approach Inventory (PTAI). The research's primary objective was to re-examine the concept of 'style match' through testing the predictive power of students' thinking styles for their preferred teaching approaches. Data were collected from two samples of university students, one each from Shanghai, mainland China (N = 236), and Hong Kong (N = 123). Participants provided the required demographic information and responded to two self-report inventories: the Thinking Styles Inventory - Revised II and the PTAI. Acceptable reliability and good validity were found for the PTAI. All of the eight multiple regressions indicated that students' thinking styles significantly contributed to their preferences for teachers' teaching approaches. These contributions varied by gender among the Shanghai students and by academic discipline among the Hong Kong students. Students, especially Shanghai female students and Hong Kong natural science students, are open to teaching approaches that do not precisely match their thinking styles. The concept of 'style match' requires new understanding. Findings have implications for research and education. © 2013 The British Psychological Society.

  5. Physician Preferences to Communicate Neuropsychological Results: Comparison of Qualitative Descriptors and a Proposal to Reduce Communication Errors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenberg, Mike R; Osborn, Katie E; Mahone, E Mark; Feigon, Maia; Roth, Robert M; Pliskin, Neil H

    2017-11-08

    Errors in communication are a leading cause of medical errors. A potential source of error in communicating neuropsychological results is confusion in the qualitative descriptors used to describe standardized neuropsychological data. This study sought to evaluate the extent to which medical consumers of neuropsychological assessments believed that results/findings were not clearly communicated. In addition, preference data for a variety of qualitative descriptors commonly used to communicate normative neuropsychological test scores were obtained. Preference data were obtained for five qualitative descriptor systems as part of a larger 36-item internet-based survey of physician satisfaction with neuropsychological services. A new qualitative descriptor system termed the Simplified Qualitative Classification System (Q-Simple) was proposed to reduce the potential for communication errors using seven terms: very superior, superior, high average, average, low average, borderline, and abnormal/impaired. A non-random convenience sample of 605 clinicians identified from four United States academic medical centers from January 1, 2015 through January 7, 2016 were invited to participate. A total of 182 surveys were completed. A minority of clinicians (12.5%) indicated that neuropsychological study results were not clearly communicated. When communicating neuropsychological standardized scores, the two most preferred qualitative descriptor systems were by Heaton and colleagues (26%) and a newly proposed Q-simple system (22%). Comprehensive norms for an extended Halstead-Reitan battery: Demographic corrections, research findings, and clinical applications. Odessa, TX: Psychological Assessment Resources) (26%) and the newly proposed Q-Simple system (22%). Initial findings highlight the need to improve and standardize communication of neuropsychological results. These data offer initial guidance for preferred terms to communicate test results and form a foundation for more

  6. Mothers say "baby" and their newborns do not choose to listen: a behavioral preference study to compare with ERP results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine M Moon

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Previously published results from neonatal brain evoked response potential (ERP experiments revealed different brain responses to the single word baby depending on whether it was recorded by the mother or an unfamiliar female. These results are consistent with behavioral preference studies in which infants altered pacifier sucking to contingently activate recordings of the maternal vs. an unfamiliar female voice, but the speech samples were much longer and information-rich than in the ERP studies. Both types of neonatal voice recognition studies imply postnatal retention of prenatal learning. The preference studies require infant motor and motivation systems to mount a response in addition to voice recognition. The current contingent sucking preference study was designed to test neonatal motivation to alter behavior when the reward is the single word baby recorded by the mother or an unfamiliar speaker. Results showed an absent or weak contingent sucking response to the brief maternal voice sample, and they demonstrate the complementary value of electrophysiological and behavioral studies for very early development. Neonates can apparently recognize the maternal voice in brief recorded sample (previous ERP results but they are not sufficiently motivated by it to alter sucking behavior.

  7. Learning Style as a Predictor of First-Time NCLEX-RN Success: Implications for Nurse Educators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lown, Susan G; Hawkins, Lee Ann

    Improving NCLEX-RN® pass rates remains a priority for nursing programs. Many programs collect learning style inventory data, yet few studies have looked at relationships between these data and NCLEX-RN pass/fail rates. Learning style preferences (visual, auditory, tactile, individual, group) and NCLEX pass/fail results were examined for 532 undergraduates in a Midwestern university. A significant correlation between preference for group learning and failure of the NCLEX was found (χ = 5.99, P = .05).

  8. Entrepreneurs` Cognitive and Decision Making Styles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Motvaseli

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this study is to explore the relation between decision-making styles which are measured by the General decision-making style (GDMS test and information processing styles which are often termed cognitive styles and are, in this study, measured by Cognitive Style Inventory. The authors directed a survey research on 162 Iranian students. Structural equation modeling techniques were used to measure the impact of cognitive styles on decision-making styles. The authors found that cognitive styles have a positive impact on decision-making styles. In spite of the abundant research on factors that affect decision-making styles, few researches have tested the relationship between cognitive styles and decision-making styles. This study examines the impact of cognitive styles on decision-making styles in Iran. This study, like most research paper studies, cannot easily be generalized. Furthermore, the results of this study could be affected by economic conditions.

  9. Consumer preferences for electronic cigarettes: results from a discrete choice experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czoli, Christine D; Goniewicz, Maciej; Islam, Towhidul; Kotnowski, Kathy; Hammond, David

    2016-04-01

    E-cigarettes present a formidable challenge to regulators given their variety and the rapidly evolving nicotine market. The current study sought to examine the influence of e-cigarette product characteristics on consumer perceptions and trial intentions among Canadians. An online discrete choice experiment was conducted with 915 Canadians aged 16 years and older in November 2013. An online commercial panel was used to sample 3 distinct subpopulations: (1) non-smoking youth and young adults (n=279); (2) smoking youth and young adults (n=264) and (3) smoking adults (n=372). Participants completed a series of stated-preference tasks, in which they viewed choice sets with e-cigarette product images that featured different combinations of attributes: flavour, nicotine content, health warnings and price. For each choice set, participants were asked to select one of the products or indicate 'none of the above' with respect to the following outcomes: interest in trying, less harm and usefulness in quitting smoking. The attributes' impact on consumer choice for each outcome was analysed using multinomial logit regression. Health warning was the most important attribute influencing participants' intentions to try e-cigarettes (42%) and perceived efficacy as a quit aid (39%). Both flavour (36%) and health warnings (35%) significantly predicted perceptions of product harm. The findings indicate that consumers make trade-offs with respect to e-cigarette product characteristics, and that these trade-offs vary across different subpopulations. Given that health warnings and flavour were weighted most important by consumers in this study, these may represent good targets for e-cigarette regulatory frameworks. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  10. Independent preferences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vind, Karl

    1991-01-01

    A simple mathematical result characterizing a subset of a product set is proved and used to obtain additive representations of preferences. The additivity consequences of independence assumptions are obtained for preferences which are not total or transitive. This means that most of the economic...

  11. Temperament-Based Learning Styles of Palestinian and US Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oakland, Thomas; Alghorani, Mohammed Adnan; Lee, Dong Hun

    2007-01-01

    Temperament styles of 400 Palestinian children living in Gaza are described, examined for possible gender and age differences, and compared with those of 3,200 US children in light of Jung's theory of temperament as modified by Myers and Briggs. The results show that Palestinian children generally prefer practical to imaginative, feeling to…

  12. U.S. public's experience with ticks and tick-borne diseases: Results from national HealthStyles surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hook, Sarah A; Nelson, Christina A; Mead, Paul S

    2015-06-01

    Surveillance data indicate that tick-borne diseases (TBDs) are a substantial public health problem in the United States, yet information on the frequency of tick exposure and TBD awareness and prevention practices among the general population is limited. The objective of this study was to gain a more complete understanding of the U.S. public's experience with TBDs using data from annual, nationally representative HealthStyles surveys. There were 4728 respondents in 2009, 4050 in 2011, and 3503 in 2012. Twenty-one percent of respondents reported that a household member found a tick on his or her body during the previous year; of these, 10.1% reported consultation with a health care provider as a result. Overall, 63.7% of respondents reported that Lyme disease (LD) occurs in the area where they live, including 49.4% of respondents from the West South Central and 51.1% from the Mountain regions where LD does not occur. Conversely, in the New England and Mid-Atlantic regions where LD, anaplasmosis, and babesiosis are common, 13.9% and 20.8% of respondents, respectively, reported either that no TBDs occur in their area or that they had not heard of any of these diseases. The majority of respondents (51.2%) reported that they did not routinely take any personal prevention steps against tick bites during warm weather. Results from these surveys indicate that exposure to ticks is common and awareness of LD is widespread. Nevertheless, use of TBD prevention measures is relatively infrequent among the U.S. public, highlighting the need to better understand barriers to use of prevention measures. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  13. Conflict in schools: student nurses' conflict management styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantek, Filiz; Gezer, Nurdan

    2009-01-01

    Unless conflicts between the students and the instructors can be successfully managed, they will certainly result in negative outcomes for the students. The conflict management styles of the students should be recognized in detail in order to attain positive outcomes in regard to the conflict management styles. The purpose of this study was to examine the conflict management styles used by nursing students in conflict with faculty members and the differences in use of style from the aspect of some variables. This study was conducted with 151 students in a public university nursing school. Data were collected using a personal information form and the Rahim Organizational Conflict Inventory II (ROCI II). The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, ANOVA, Tukey test, Kruskal Wallis test, Mann-Whitney U test and Cronbach alpha coefficient analyses. The students were found to use integrating (X=3.82) and obliging (X=3.81) styles the most, and dominating style (X=3.02) the least. In addition there were differences determined in management style between classes, frequency of experiencing conflict, and feeling of success in the conflict (pstyles were used more by those who evaluated themselves as successful in conflict management, but the avoiding and compromising styles were used more by students who evaluated themselves as unsuccessful. It was determined that the students preferred to use styles that produced positive results in conflict resolution and that the frequency of experiencing conflict and the feeling of success in conflict had an effect on choice of style. It will be helpful to analyze the relationship between the causes of conflict between the student and the instructor in the practice field and the uses of conflict management styles.

  14. STYLES OF DECISION MAKING AND MANAGEMENT AND DIMENSIONS OF PERSONALITY OF SCHOOL PRINCIPALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Azeska

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores preference to the style of decision making (managerial, analytical, conceptual and behavioural, (Alan Rowe, 1992, management styles (relationship-oriented leadership and management by objectives, (Fiedler, 1987 and personality traits (extraversion, neuroticism and psychoticism, (Eysenck, 1998. The convenience sample of 61 respondents (principals of primary and secondary schools from Macedonia were subjected to decision making style inventory (Decision Style Inventory - DSI of 20 claims, a questionnaire to assess the management style (Least preferred coworker - LPC composed of 18 bipolar adjectives, and a personality test (Eysenck Personality Questionnaire - EPQ composed of 90 items in the form of questions. Results show that schools lean towards directive style of decision making with a combination of democratic-participatory style that includes subordinates in the process of decision making. The results also demonstrate that school principals prefer management style motivated by relationships; they are more introverted and emotionally stable. The findings indicate a necessity for a new generation of managers who will be different from the traditional managers. It is evident that the future will require managers with leadership styles different from the traditional in Republic of Macedonia. Given that the school is a basic organisational cell on which the educational system of the country is based, the proposed findings present an occasion for developing new ideas and practices that may yield great results. This would increase the flexibility and adaptive capacity of the school as a modern organisation. Thus, these findings have practical implications as they may direct special training of principals in order to apply the best management style, or style that is most appropriate for certain situations, certainly through coordination of the desired profile of the principal and the business strategy, development and maturity of

  15. [Effectiveness of managing styles of nursing management staff].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stychno, Ewa

    2002-01-01

    There are many possibilities of the division of the managing styles. In theory one can distinguish two basic styles: directive and integrative. Generalisations describing both styles result in the fact that they do not reflect reality taking place at work. Because of it they cannot be applied in such a form. Therefore, it is necessary to build up the theoretical concept of the managing styles through decreasing their generality and adjusting them to the reality requirements at the same time. For the reality of management Reddin concept seems to be useful. It describes the organizational behaviour of managers. He noticed that the managing style is effective when it fits into the manager's situation whereas it is ineffective in such a situation, when the manager cannot select and adjust the managing techniques to the circumstances of the concrete decision-taking situation. Putting together 3 handling ways: orientation on assignments, orientation on staff, effectiveness, 8 managing can be differentiated. The aim of the paper was an attempt to check what managing styles are used by the nursing management staff working in hospitals. To determine the managing style a questionnaire consisting of 64 statements divided into 8 groups was applied. The examined persons were assigned to distribute 10 points among the statements belonging to each group of tasks which are supposed to specify their solution in the best way. The nursing management staff prefer the styles belonging to the more effective one in which there is a high orientation on staff.

  16. What Can We Learn from Our Learners' Learning Styles?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Bokyung; Kim, Haedong

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to investigate Korean university-level EFL learners' learning style preferences. The characteristics of their learning style preferences and implications for effective English learning were examined through the quantitative analysis of 496 subjects' responses to a learning style survey and their English achievement and term-end…

  17. Perspectives on gender-specific medicine, course and learning style preferences in medical education: a study among students at the Medical University of Vienna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harreiter, Jürgen; Wiener, Hubert; Plass, Herbert; Kautzky-Willer, Alexandra

    2011-03-01

    In the study for the thesis Web Based Training with Moodle: Gender-differences in Action of Drugs, a survey among students of the Medical University of Vienna (MUV) concerning the implementation of gender-specific medicine in the curriculum and students' learning styles was performed. Data analysis (given as mean±sem) showed that students (n = 642) rated (Likert scale, 1-6) the importance of gender-specific medicine fairly high (4.02±0.06), and rated the importance of knowing about gender-specific medicine as a medical doctor even higher (4.49±0.05). Further implementation of gender-relevant topics into the curriculum appeared less important (3.64±0.06). Students rated their own knowledge on gender-specific medicine neutrally (3.40±0.05). For some items significant differences between males and females as well as the old and new curriculum were found. Students considered gender-specific medicine as important but sufficiently covered in their medical education at the MUV.

  18. Identifying learning styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Grace

    2016-12-14

    What was the nature of the CPD activity, practice-related feedback and/or event and/or experience in your practice? The article explored different learning styles and outlined some of the models that can be used to identify them. It discussed the limitations of these models, indicating that although they can be helpful in identifying a student's preferred learning style, this is not 'fixed' and might change over time. Learning is also influenced by other factors, such as culture and age.

  19. Learning Styles of Typical Readers and Dyslexic Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreou, Eleni; Vlachos, Filippos

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined the link between learning styles and dyslexia in secondary school students, using the Visual-Auditory-Kinesthetic (VAK) learning styles model. According to the VAK model, most people possess a dominant or preferred learning style, however some people have a mixed and evenly balanced blend of the three styles. Our…

  20. Decision-Making Styles in the Workplace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Raffaldi

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Two procedures were adopted to assess decision-making styles in the workplace: (a the administration of traditional standardized self-report questionnaires and (b open-ended questions about the way respondents would take decisions in a critical business case. Seventy-four adults were given two questionnaires: the Preference for Intuition and Deliberation, which assesses “deliberative” or “intuitive” decision style, and the Style of Learning and Thinking, which assesses thinking styles as “left” (namely, analytical-systematic or “right” (that is, global-intuitive. Participants were also presented with a business case that involved taking a decision. Responses to the business case were used to classify approaches to decision making as “analytical-systematic” or “global-intuitive.” Results showed that the questionnaires correlated consistently with scores from the business case, thus supporting the notion that the assessment of decision style through self-report questionnaires is reliable and valid.

  1. Patient preference for genders of health professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerssens, J J; Bensing, J M; Andela, M G

    1997-05-01

    Preferences for physicians' gender is an obvious and well documented example of considerations of patients' attitudes. But research carried out in this field is rather limited to the domain of family medicine. This article describes preferences for 13 different health professions: surgeons, neurologists, anaesthetists, internists, general practitioners, psychiatrists, psychologists, social workers, hospital and district nurses, home helps, gynaecologists and midwives. Our investigation also concerns the reasons for people's preferences. In February 1993 a self-administered survey was completed and returned by 961 out of 1113 (response 86%) participants of the Dutch Health Care Consumers Panel, a panel resulting from a random sample of Dutch households. On a range of different health professions a varying minority of patients prefer a care provider of a particular gender. There are virtually no sex preferences for the more "instrumental" health professions (e.g. surgeons, anaesthetists). Gender preferences are stronger for those health professions more likely engaged in intimate and psychosocial health problems (e.g. gynaecologists and GPs). Preferences expressed do not relate to sex stereotypes of gender differences in instrumentality, expertise, efficiency, consultation length, and personal interest. The majority of persons who prefer female health professionals indicate that they talk more easily to females than to males, and feel more at ease during (internal) examination by females than by males. Persons who prefer male health professionals use the same reasons in favour of males. The discussion relates to gender differences in the communication style of male and female physicians.

  2. Consumer preferences for retailer brand architectures: Results from a conjoint study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus G.; Esbjerg, Lars; Bech-Larsen, Tino

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate how three dimensions of retailer brand architecture - share or retailer brands, quality of retailer brands and visibility of retailer brands - affect consumer intention to shop at stores Design/methodology/approach: A conjoint analysis......, with dominantly manufacturer brands, with quality of retailer brands at the same level as manufacturer brands, and with good visibility of retailer brands. Research limitations/implications: The results are based on the evaluation of hypothetical stores, and many additional factors affect store choice in the real...... world. Practical implications: Results suggest that we may be heading towards a polarized retail market, mainly divided between discount concepts and high quality retailer brand concepts. Originality/value: The paper is innovative in isolating the effect of dimensions of retailer brand architecture...

  3. [Influence of learning styles of nursing students on teaching strategies choice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vacas Pérez, Juan Crisostomo; Mérida Serrano, Rosario; Molina Recio, Guillermo; Mesa Blanco, María del Pilar

    2012-12-01

    The objective of this research focuses on the framework of teaching strategies, by acknowledging learning styles as first determination and, in relation to the changes that these are going through, identifying the teaching strategies best rated and preferred by the students. This is a prospective open cohort study with the students of Nursing Diploma 2007/2010 of the Universidad de Córdoba. Once the population was identified in the first year (first analysis), annual measurings were undertaken every year during their training. In order to study the learning styles, the questionnaire CHAEA was administered and a scale from 1 to 10 (1 = highest, 10 = lowest) was used to determine the preferences for learning strategies. The results show the variability of the learner (up to 11 styles). However, the dominant style is the reflective, followed by the theoretical and the pragmatic. The least developed was the active style. As the years of training go by, a tendency towards a dual style (reflective-theoretical) can be observed. In relation to teaching strategies, the preferred ones were those set in professional areas, workshops and debates. Relevant changes were also seen as they advanced in their training. The results establish a specific significant relationship between learning styles and teaching strategies.

  4. EFL teachers’ teaching style, creativity, and burnout: A path analysis approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afsaneh Ghanizadeh

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study delved into a rarely explored construct in the domain of English as a foreign language (EFL, i.e. teaching style. We hypothesized that teacher creativity plays a role in the styles teachers adopt in language institutes. It was also conjectured that teaching style affects burnout. The role of burnout in teacher creativity was also investigated. To measure teaching style, Grasha’s Teaching Style Inventory comprising five teaching styles (Expert, Authority, Model, Facilitator, and Delegator on a continuum of teacher vs. learner-oriented styles was employed. The educator version of the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI-ES and the English Language Teacher Creativity Scale (ELT-CS were utilized to gauge burnout and creativity, respectively. To examine these causal associations, a path analysis was run. The results demonstrated the role of teachers’ creativity in their preferred teaching style. In particular, it was found that teacher creativity predicts Facilitator and Delegator positively; whereas, it predicts Authority and Expert in a negative direction. The results also revealed that three teaching styles (Model, Facilitator, and Delegator appear to contribute to burnout prevention whereas the other two teaching styles (Expert and Authority have no significant role. Finally, the debilitative role of teacher burnout in creativity was demonstrated.

  5. Conflict resolution styles in the nursing profession.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Losa Iglesias, Marta Elena; Becerro de Bengoa Vallejo, Ricardo

    2012-12-01

    Managers, including those in nursing environments, may spend much of their time addressing employee conflicts. If not handled properly, conflict may significantly affect employee morale, increase turnover, and even result in litigation, ultimately affecting the overall well-being of the organization. A clearer understanding of the factors that underlie conflict resolution styles could lead to the promotion of better management strategies. The aim of this research was to identify the predominant conflict resolution styles used by a sample of Spanish nurses in two work settings, academic and clinical, in order to determine differences between these environments. The effects of employment level and demographic variables were explored as well. Descriptive cross-sectional survey study. Our sample consisted of professional nurses in Madrid, Spain, who worked in either a university setting or a clinical care setting. Within each of these environments, nurses worked at one of three levels: full professor, assistant professor, or scholarship professor in the academic setting; and nursing supervisor, registered staff nurse, or nursing assistant in the clinical setting. Conflict resolution style was examined using the standardized Thomas-Kilmann Conflict Mode Instrument, a dual-choice questionnaire that assesses a respondent's predominant style of conflict resolution. Five styles are defined: accommodating, avoiding, collaborating, competing, and compromising. Participants were asked to give answers that characterized their dominant response in a conflict situation involving either a superior or a subordinate. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used to examine the relationship between workplace setting and conflict resolution style. The most common style used by nurses overall to resolve workplace conflict was compromising, followed by competing, avoiding, accommodating, and collaborating. There was a significant overall difference in styles between nurses who worked

  6. Age and gender impact on thinking and creating styles Impacto de la edad y del género en los estilos de pensar y crear

    OpenAIRE

    Solange Muglia Wechsler

    2009-01-01

    Styles of thinking and creating indicate the preferable ways that individuals process information. This study aimed to investigate the impact of sex and age on creative styles. The sample was composed of 1.752 subjects (780 men, 972 women), ages ranging from 17-72, living in 4 Brazilian states. The scale “Style of Thinking and Creating” was administered to groups in various environments. Results analyzed by the Analysis of Variance indicated significant differences between sexes and age range...

  7. Parenting Style Transitions and Delinquency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Ryan D.; Mowen, Thomas J.

    2014-01-01

    Parenting style has been extensively analyzed as a contributor to juvenile delinquency in the criminological literature, but no research to date has assessed the prevalence of parenting style changes during adolescence or the influence of such parenting style changes on juvenile delinquency. Drawing from the life course theory, the results show…

  8. GENDER DIFFERENCES IN LANGUAGE LEARNING STYLE AND LANGUAGE LEARNING STRATEGIES

    OpenAIRE

    Chayata Viriya; Sutthirak Sapsirin

    2014-01-01

    Abstract: This paper seeks to investigate the gender differences in language learning style and language learning strategies. The study used the perceptual learning-style preference questionnaire (PLSPQ) to investigate the learning style preferences and the Strategy Inventory for Language Learning (SILL) version 7.0 designed by Oxford (1990) to find the learning strategy preferences of first year University students at the faculty of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in Thailand....

  9. Leadership Styles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Val, Carlin; Kemp, Jess

    2012-01-01

    This study examines how a group's dynamic changes under the influence of different leadership styles, and determines what leadership style works best in a large group expedition. The main question identified was "What roles can a leader play in affecting the dynamic of a large group while partaking in a field expedition?" The following…

  10. Learning Styles of Law Enforcement Officers: Does Police Work Affect How Officers Learn?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landry, John M.

    2011-01-01

    This quantitative study utilized the VARK learning style preference assessment instrument to examine how full-time sworn law enforcement officers learn and attempted to identify a predominant learning style preference among the participants. The primary question was: Which is the dominant learning style preference of full-time sworn law…

  11. Patients', physicians', and pharmacists' preferences towards coagulation factor concentrates to treat haemophilia with inhibitors: results from the COHIBA Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scalone, L; Mantovani, L G; Borghetti, F; Von Mackensen, S; Gringeri, A

    2009-03-01

    Despite modern highly efficacious technologies, there is still a lack of consensus on how to optimally treat haemophilia patients with inhibitors. The aim of the study was to evaluate preferences towards the characteristics of different coagulation factor concentrates for haemophilia inhibitors patients, from the perspective of patients or their caregivers, haematologists and pharmacists. A discrete choice study was conducted. Potential products were described with eight selected characteristics: perceived viral safety, risk of anamnestic response, possibility of undergoing major surgery, frequency of infusions in prophylaxis, number of infusions to stop bleeding, time to stop bleeding, time to pain recovery and cost. Participants received 16 pairs of potential products and chose from each pair the option they considered better. Data were analysed with a random-effects conditional logistic model. Totally 1614 observations were obtained from 37 patients/caregivers, 39 physicians and 25 pharmacists from Italy. Cost was the most important characteristic to every group. For patients/caregivers, the next most important factors were: risk of anamnestic response, possibility of undergoing major surgery and perceived viral safety. For physicians, the next most important characteristics were: risk of anamnestic response, number of infusions to stop bleeding and possibility of undergoing major surgery. For pharmacists, the next most important factors were: time to stop bleeding, time to pain recovery and possibility of undergoing major surgery. Decisions on treatments must take into account patients clinical needs; however, preferences can also play an important role in the choice and success of treatments. The results of this study could, therefore, help decision-makers to optimize the overall benefits of treatments.

  12. Tuning Primary Learning Style for Children with Secondary Behavioral Patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maedeh Mosharraf

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Personalization is one of the most expected features in the current educational systems. User modeling is supposed to be the first stage of this process, which may incorporate learning style as an important part of the model. Learning style, which is a non-stable characteristic in the case of children, differentiates students in learning preferences. This paper identifies a new hybrid method to initiate and update the information of children’s learning style in an educational system. At the start-up phase, children’s learning style information is gathered through the modified Murphy-Meisgeier Type Indicator for Children (MMTIC questionnaire, which is based on the well-known Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI. This primary information will be tuned by tracking children’s behaviors during the learning process. Analytical data mining helped us to cluster these behaviors and find their patterns. The proposed method was applied on 81 fourth grade children in elementary school. Delivering results suggest that this method provides a good precision in recognizing children learning style and may be an appropriate solution for non-stability problems in their preferences.

  13. The Learning Styles and Language Learning Strategies of the EFL Students at Tertiary Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diemroh Ihsan

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study are to discover the learning styles, and the language learning strategies most preferred, correlation among the variables exists, and the degree of influence each independent variable exerts on the dependent variables. For data collection, the Barsch Learning Styles Inventory and the Strategy Inventory of Language Learning were distributed to 156 students of English at the University of Sriwijaya, Palembang. The results showed that: (1 visual is the most preferred learning style, whereas metacognitive ang effective are the most preferred language learning strategies; (2 certain independent variables have a significant correlation with certain dependent variables, for example, visual with memory, auditory with cognitive, tactile with affective, and semester with compensation; (3 females use a greater variety of language learning strategies than males; and (4 semester has a significant correlation with compensation but not with other strategies

  14. Brain Processing Preferences: Key to an Organization's Success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piatt, James G.

    1983-01-01

    Outlining brain processing preference styles (dominant left, dominant right, or integrated), the author presents the assets and liabilities of the styles and points out the implications for management. (MD)

  15. Analytic information processing style in migraineurs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Sabato, Francesco; Buonfiglio, Marzia; Mandillo, Silvia

    2013-07-01

    Despite great advances in pathophysiological facets of migraine that have been made during recent years, as of today, migraine etiology is still not completely understood; moreover, to date the relationship between psychological factors and this primary headache must be further elucidated. However, abnormal information processing, as measured by evoked and event-related potentials, has been considered a key feature in migraine pathogenesis. The aim of this work was to study the relationships between analytic/global style of information processing and migraine, hypothesizing an analytic style, as highlighted by our previous study on cluster headache. This study applied three cognitive style tests never previously used in the context of migraine: "Sternberg-Wagner Self-Assessment Inventory", the C. Cornoldi test series called AMOS, and Brain-Dominance Questionnaire. 280 migraneurs with and without aura were tested and matched with two control groups: healthy subjects and tension-type headache patients. Our results demonstrated a strong correlation between analytic information processing style and migraine, indicating a preference toward a visual sensory approach in migraine without aura, in line with known neuroelectrophysiological data. These findings may suggest a role for this specific cognitive behavior in migraine pathogenesis, leading us to further investigate the neuroelectrophysiological, neurobiological, and epigenetic correlates.

  16. Understanding the learning styles of undergraduate physiotherapy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. Undergraduate students at universities have different learning styles. To perform optimally, both they and their educators should be made aware of their preferred learning styles and problem-solving abilities. Students have different backgrounds, strengths, weaknesses, interests, ambitions, levels of motivation ...

  17. The Scientific Status of Learning Styles Theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willingham, Daniel T.; Hughes, Elizabeth M.; Dobolyi, David G.

    2015-01-01

    Theories of learning styles suggest that individuals think and learn best in different ways. These are not differences of ability but rather preferences for processing certain types of information or for processing information in certain types of way. If accurate, learning styles theories could have important implications for instruction because…

  18. Freight Demand Characteristics and Mode Choice: An Analysis of the Results of Modeling with Disaggregate Revealed Preference Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-12-01

    This paper analyzes the freight demand characteristics that drive modal choice by means of a large scale, national, disaggregate revealed preference database for shippers in France in 1988, using a nested logit. Particular attention is given to priva...

  19. End-of-life care preferences of nursing home residents: Results of a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Charis Wei Ling; Cheong, S K; Govinda Raj, A; Teo, Wsk; Leong, Iyo

    2016-10-01

    Palliative care services were not available in nursing homes in Singapore. Project CARE (Care At the end-of-life for Residents in homes for the Elderly) was a pilot programme that aimed to promote advance care planning and improve end-of-life care in nursing homes. We aimed to examine end-of-life care preferences among nursing home residents, and identify factors associated with preference for medical intervention, cardiopulmonary resuscitation and place of death. A cross-sectional study using data from advance care planning discussions was conducted from September 2009 to April 2012 across seven nursing homes. The advance care planning discussion was conducted with the resident (with a prognosis of 6 months or 1 year), their families and staff from the nursing home and hospital. A total of 600 residents and their families completed the advance care planning discussion. Majority (93.2%) preferred not to proceed with cardiopulmonary resuscitation, 52.3% opted for limited additional intervention at the nursing home with escalation to the hospital if necessary and 77.0% preferred to die at the nursing home. Residents 85+ years (relative risk ratio: 3.34, 95% confidence interval: 1.13-9.93, p = 0.030) were more likely to prefer medical intervention at the nursing home only. No associations were found with the preference for cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Residents who were single, or who were Christians or Catholics (adjusted odds ratio: 2.09, 95% confidence interval: 1.04-4.19, p = 0.039), were more likely to prefer to die at the nursing home. Preferences for medical interventions in nursing homes provide support to extend palliative care services to nursing homes, which may benefit residents who are older, single, or Christians or Catholics. © The Author(s) 2016.

  20. Preferences of patients undergoing hemodialysis – results from a questionnaire-based study with 4,518 patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janssen IM

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Inger Miriam Janssen,1 Ansgar Gerhardus,2,3 Gero D von Gersdorff,4 Conrad August Baldamus,4 Mathias Schaller,4 Claudia Barth,5 Fueloep Scheibler6 1Department of Epidemiology and International Public Health, Bielefeld University, Bielefeld, Germany; 2Department for Health Services Research, University of Bremen, Bremen, Germany; 3Health Sciences Bremen, University of Bremen, Bremen, Germany; 4Department of Internal Medicine II, University Hospital of Cologne, Cologne, Germany; 5KfH Kuratorium fuer Dialyse und Nierentransplantation e.V., Neu-Isenburg, Germany; 6Department of Non-Drug Interventions, Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care, Cologne, Germany Background: Chronic kidney disease is an increasing health problem worldwide and in its final stage (stage V can only be treated by renal replacement therapy, mostly hemodialysis. Hemodialysis has a major influence on the everyday life of patients and many patients report dissatisfaction with treatment. Little is known about which aspects of treatment are considered important by hemodialysis patients. The objective of this study was to rate the relative importance of different outcomes for hemodialysis patients and to analyze whether the relative importance differed among subgroups of patients.Patients and methods: Within the framework of a yearly questionnaire which is distributed among patients receiving hemodialysis by the largest hemodialysis provider in Germany, we assessed the relative importance of 23 outcomes as rated on a discrete visual analog scale. Descriptive statistics were used to rank the outcomes. Subgroup analyses were performed using Mann–Whitney U or Kruskal–Wallis tests.Results: Questionnaires of 4,518 hemodialysis patients were included in the analysis. The three most important outcomes were safety of treatment, health-related quality of life, and satisfaction with care. Further important outcomes were hospital stays, accompanying symptoms, hemodialysis

  1. Relationship of sleep quality with coping and life styles in female Moroccan immigrants in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voss, Ursula; Tuin, Inka

    2008-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies conducted in Western societies show poorer sleep quality in women compared with men. Socioeconomic and stress-related psychological variables have been shown to influence sleep, but not much is known about sociological and psychological influences on the sleep of women in general and non-Western women in particular. The present study reports on sociodemographic and coping variables in relation to sleep quality in female Moroccan immigrants living in Germany. Participants took part in a structured personal interview on Pittsburg Sleep Quality Inventory (PSQI) sleep quality, coping style preferences, and information related to the degree of identification with Western life style. Sleep quality was poor (PSQI > 6) in 39% of women. Surprisingly, women who had identified with a more Western lifestyle had poorer sleep quality than women who had retained their traditional Moroccan life style. An unusually large proportion of women preferred monitoring (i.e., information-seeking coping style) and adaptive coping (48% and 19%, respectively), regardless of sleep quality. Monitoring was more frequent in women who were less integrated into German culture. Results on sleep quality suggest that for Moroccan immigrant women in Germany, adopting a Western life style may be more stressful than retaining their native life style. The high preference for an information seeking approach in coping may reflect the desire for information rather than actual coping behavior.

  2. Seismic properties and mineral crystallographic preferred orientations from EBSD data: Results from a crustal-scale detachment system, Aegean region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cossette, Élise; Schneider, David; Audet, Pascal; Grasemann, Bernhard; Habler, Gerlinde

    2015-05-01

    The crystallographic preferred orientations (CPOs) were measured on a suite of samples representative of different structural depths along the West Cycladic Detachment System, Greece. Electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) analyses were conducted on calcitic and mica schists, impure quartzites, and a blueschist, and the average seismic properties of the rocks were calculated with the Voigt-Reuss-Hill average of the single minerals' elastic stiffness tensor. The calcitic and quartzitic rocks have P- and S-wave velocity anisotropies (AVp, AVs) averaging 8.1% and 7.1%, respectively. The anisotropy increases with depth represented by the blueschist, with AVp averaging 20.3% and AVs averaging 14.5%, due to the content of aligned glaucophane and mica, which strongly control the seismic properties of the rocks. Localised anisotropies of very high magnitudes are caused by the presence of mica schists as they possess the strongest anisotropies, with values of ~ 25% for AVp and AVs. The direction of the fast and slow P-wave velocities occurs parallel and perpendicular to the foliation, respectively, for most samples. The fast propagation has the same NE-SW orientation as the lithospheric stretching direction experienced in the Cyclades since the Late Oligocene. The maximum shear wave anisotropy is subhorizontal, similarly concordant with mineral alignment that developed during extension in the Aegean. Radial anisotropy in the Aegean mid-crust is strongly favoured to azimuthal anisotropy by our results.

  3. Goleman's Leadership styles at different hierarchical levels in medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Anurag; Desanghere, Loni; Stobart, Kent; Walker, Keith

    2017-09-19

    With current emphasis on leadership in medicine, this study explores Goleman's leadership styles of medical education leaders at different hierarchical levels and gain insight into factors that contribute to the appropriateness of practices. Forty two leaders (28 first-level with limited formal authority, eight middle-level with wider program responsibility and six senior- level with higher organizational authority) rank ordered their preferred Goleman's styles and provided comments. Eight additional senior leaders were interviewed in-depth. Differences in ranked styles within groups were determined by Friedman tests and Wilcoxon tests. Based upon style descriptions, confirmatory template analysis was used to identify Goleman's styles for each interviewed participant. Content analysis was used to identify themes that affected leadership styles. There were differences in the repertoire and preferred styles at different leadership levels. As a group, first-level leaders preferred democratic, middle-level used coaching while the senior leaders did not have one preferred style and used multiple styles. Women and men preferred democratic and coaching styles respectively. The varied use of styles reflected leadership conceptualizations, leader accountabilities, contextual adaptations, the situation and its evolution, leaders' awareness of how they themselves were situated, and personal preferences and discomfort with styles. The not uncommon use of pace-setting and commanding styles by senior leaders, who were interviewed, was linked to working with physicians and delivering quickly on outcomes. Leaders at different levels in medical education draw from a repertoire of styles. Leadership development should incorporate learning of different leadership styles, especially at first- and mid-level positions.

  4. Advertising styles in different cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krasulja Nevena

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Modern consumer is inhabitant of a "Global Village" as well as of its own national culture which largely influences his creation of a system of values, beliefs and style of life in general. According to adopted values and styles, consumers from different cultures have different buying behavior, different needs and preferences related to a product and they have their favorite advertising styles. As advertising reflects culture, symbols and rituals which are used are even more emphasized and strengthen cultural values, which are then used as a strong advertising style characteristic. Global advertisers are increasingly faced with different environment meaning. A fact that has been proved in practice is that standardized approach to advertising does not transmit values in a correct way, so the advertisers that want to achieve long term success must differentiate their brands to competitors'. In modern market environment strategy "Think globally, act locally" proved to be adequate for advertising in modern international market.

  5. Cancer Patient Preferences for Quality and Length of Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meropol, Neal J.; Egleston, Brian L.; Buzaglo, Joanne S.; Benson, Al B.; Cegala, Donald J.; Diefenbach, Michael A.; Fleisher, Linda; Miller, Suzanne M.; Sulmasy, Daniel P.; Weinfurt, Kevin P.

    2008-01-01

    Background Optimal patient decision making requires integration of patient values, goals, and preferences with information received from the physician. In the case of life-threatening illness such as cancer, the weights placed on quality of life (QOL) and length of life (LOL) represent critical values. The objective of this study is to describe cancer patient values regarding QOL and LOL, and explore associations with communication preferences. Methods Patients with advanced cancer completed a computer-based survey prior to the initial consultation with a medical oncologist. Assessments included sociodemographics, physical and mental health state, values regarding quality and length of life, communication preferences and cancer-related distress. Results Seven hundred forty three advanced cancer patients were enrolled. Among 459 advanced cancer patients, fifty-five percent of patients equally valued QOL and LOL, 27% preferred QOL, and 18% preferred LOL. Patients with a QOL preference had lower levels of cancer-related distress (p style from their oncologists. Conclusions These data indicate that a values preference for length vs. quality of life may be simply measured, and is associated with wishes regarding the nature of oncologist communication. Awareness of these values during the clinical encounter could improve decision making by influencing the style and content of the communication between oncologists and their patients. PMID:18988231

  6. Preferences of patients undergoing hemodialysis – results from a questionnaire-based study with 4,518 patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, Inger Miriam; Gerhardus, Ansgar; von Gersdorff, Gero D; Baldamus, Conrad August; Schaller, Mathias; Barth, Claudia; Scheibler, Fueloep

    2015-01-01

    Background Chronic kidney disease is an increasing health problem worldwide and in its final stage (stage V) can only be treated by renal replacement therapy, mostly hemodialysis. Hemodialysis has a major influence on the everyday life of patients and many patients report dissatisfaction with treatment. Little is known about which aspects of treatment are considered important by hemodialysis patients. The objective of this study was to rate the relative importance of different outcomes for hemodialysis patients and to analyze whether the relative importance differed among subgroups of patients. Patients and methods Within the framework of a yearly questionnaire which is distributed among patients receiving hemodialysis by the largest hemodialysis provider in Germany, we assessed the relative importance of 23 outcomes as rated on a discrete visual analog scale. Descriptive statistics were used to rank the outcomes. Subgroup analyses were performed using Mann–Whitney U or Kruskal–Wallis tests. Results Questionnaires of 4,518 hemodialysis patients were included in the analysis. The three most important outcomes were safety of treatment, health-related quality of life, and satisfaction with care. Further important outcomes were hospital stays, accompanying symptoms, hemodialysis duration, and the improvement or preservation of a good emotional state. Age, profession, and education had the strongest influence on relevant differences of preferences for outcomes; no relevant influence of sex or comorbidity was observed. Conclusion Outcomes concerning the delivery or provision of care and aspects influencing quality of life are rated by patients to be at least as important as clinical outcomes. Many of the outcomes judged to be important by the patients are not regularly considered in research, evaluation studies, or quality programs. PMID:26170634

  7. Styles of Creativity: Adaptors and Innovators in a Singapore Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ee, Jessie; Seng, Tan Oon; Kwang, Ng Aik

    2007-01-01

    Kirton (1976) described two creative styles, namely adaptors and innovators. Adaptors prefer to "do things better" whilst, innovators prefer to "do things differently". This study explored the relationship between two creative styles (adaptor and innovator) and the Big Five personality traits (extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness,…

  8. Love styles and desire for closeness in romantic relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodboy, Alan K; Booth-Butterfield, Melanie

    2009-08-01

    This study investigated differences in love styles (i.e., eros, ludus, storge, pragma, agape, mania) associated with the romantic desire for closeness. Participants were 197 undergraduate students (M age = 19.8 yr., SD = 1.9; 92 men, 104 women) currently in a romantic relationship who completed a survey assessing their love styles and current desire for closeness with their partner (i.e., desired less closeness, the same level of closeness, or more closeness). Results indicated small significant differences in individuals' preferences for closeness with the eros and ludus love styles. Specifically, individuals who desired less closeness scored lower on eros love and higher on ludus love than partners who reported an ideal level of closeness or who desired more closeness.

  9. LEADERSHIP STYLES: A STUDY OF AUSTRALIAN AND THAI PUBLIC SECTORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nattavud Pimpa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Leadership is deeply attached to culture. This study compares leadership styles in Thai and Australian public sectors. The data were collected from staff in public sector settings in Australia and Thailand. The results confirm four leadership styles that suit the public sector culture in both countries: communication-oriented, strategic thinking and planning, relationship building, and conflict management. In the Thai public sector system, leadership that focuses on goal orientation is ranked most highly: Australian public sector organisations focus on leadership that fosters equity among organisational members, creates a supportive environment in the workplace, and facilitates participation. It is evident from this study that significant distinctions between the organisational cultures of Thailand and Australia are matched by marked dissimilarities of preferred leadership styles. Thus, an understanding of local organisational culture is important for effective leadership at all levels.

  10. Discordance between patients' stated values and treatment preferences for end-of-life care: results of a multicentre survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyland, Daren K; Heyland, Rebecca; Dodek, Peter; You, John J; Sinuff, Tasnim; Hiebert, Tim; Jiang, Xuran; Day, Andrew G

    2017-09-01

    Medical orders for the use of life-supports should be informed by patients' values and treatment preferences. The purpose of this study was to explore the internal consistency of patients' (or their family members') stated values, and the relationship between these values and expressed preferences. We conducted a prospective study in 12 acute care hospitals in Canada. We administered a questionnaire to elderly patients and their family members about their values related to end-of-life (EOL) care, treatment preferences and decisional conflict. Of 513 patients and 366 family members approached, 278 patients (54%) and 225 family members (61%) consented to participate. Participants' most important stated values were to be comfortable and suffer as little as possible, to have more time with family, to avoid being attached to machines and tubes and that death not be prolonged. The least important stated value was that life be preserved. Based on prespecified expected associations between the various values measured, there were inconsistencies in participants' expressed value statements. With few exceptions, participants' expressed values were not associated with expected corresponding treatment preferences. Of the 109 (40%) patients and 95 (42%) family members who had made decisions about use of life-supports, 68 (56%) patients and 60 (59%) family members had decisional conflict. Decision-making regarding medical treatments at the EOL is inadequate. To reduce decisional conflict, patients and their families need more support to clarify their values and ensure that their preferences are grounded in adequate understanding of their illness and treatment options. NCT01362855. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  11. E-Media Use and Preferences for Physical Activity and Public Health Information: Results of a Web-Based Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jake-Schoffman, Danielle E; Wilcox, Sara; Kaczynski, Andrew T; Turner-McGrievy, Gabrielle; Friedman, Daniela B; West, Delia S

    2017-07-31

    As social media (eg, Twitter) continues to gain widespread popularity, health research and practice organizations may consider combining it with other electronic media (e-media) channels (eg, Web sites, e-newsletters) within their communication plans. However, little is known about added benefits of using social media when trying to reach public health audiences about physical activity. Learn about current use and preference for e-media communication channels among physical activity researchers and practitioners. A Web-based survey was used, open for responses from August 20, 2015, through January 5, 2016. Survey participation was voluntary and anonymous. The survey was advertised through multiple channels targeting physical activity researchers and practitioners, including announcements on professional listservs and in e-newsletters, Twitter, and posts on Facebook pages of public health organizations. A total of 284 survey respondents had complete data. Typical use of e-media to receive, seek out, and share information about physical activity and health and what appeals to researchers and practitioners for professional use. Most respondents preferred non-social media channels to social media and these preferences did not differ widely when examining subgroups such as researchers versus practitioners or social media users versus nonusers. There were few differences by respondent demographics, though younger respondents reported using social media more than older respondents. However, limiting analyses to respondents who identified as social media users, only about 1% of respondents ranked social media sources as their preferred channels for information; thus, most people would continue to be reached if communication remained largely via non-social media e-media channels. The present study supports growing evidence that careful surveying of a target audience should be undertaken when considering new communication channels, as preference and use may not support the

  12. The Impact of Organizational Culture and Job Related Affective Well Being on Employees’ Conflict Resolution Styles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurdan Özarallı

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to investigate the impact of cooperative or competitive organizational culture and employees’ job related affective well being on their preferred conflict resolution styles. A total of 236 white collar employees in the private sector completed questionnaires on “Organizational Culture“, “Job Related Affective Well Being“and “Conflict Resolution Styles“. Results indicated that employees working in a cooperative organizational culture would choose problem solving, compromising and accomodating conflict resolution styles while those working in a competitive work environment would choose forcing and avoiding strategies. Results also showed that while positive job related affective well being is a major predictor o problem solving, compromising, accomodating and avoiding conflict resolution styles, negative job related affective well being significantly predicts forcing and avoiding strategies. Overall, the results draw attention to the preferred conflict resolution strategies assumed by Turkish employees, the role of the conflict environment as well as actors’ affective well being

  13. Digital video, learning styles, and student understanding of kinematics graphs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hein, Teresa Lee

    1997-12-01

    Student ability to analyze and interpret motion graphs following laboratory instruction that utilized interactive digital video as well as traditional instructional techniques was investigated. Research presented suggested that digital video tools serve to motivate students and may be an effective mechanism to enhance student understanding of motion concepts. Two laboratory exercises involving motion concepts were developed for this study. Students were divided into two instructional groups. The treatment group used digital video techniques and the control group used traditional techniques to perform the laboratory exercises. Student understanding of motion concepts were assessed, in part, using the Test of Understanding Graphs-Kinematics. Other assessment measures included student responses to a set of written graphical analysis questions and two post-lab activities. Possible relationships between individual learning style preferences and student understanding of motion concepts were also addressed. Learning style preferences were assessed using the Productivity Environmental Preference Survey prior to the instructional treatments. Students were asked to comment in writing about their learning styles before and after they were given the learning style assessment. Student comments revealed that the results they received from Productivity Environmental Preference Survey accurately reflected their learning styles. Results presented in this study showed that no significant relationship exists between students' learning style preferences and their ability to interpret motion graphs as measured by scores on the Test of Understanding Graphs-Kinematics. In addition, the results showed no significant difference between instructional treatment and mean scores on the Test of Understanding Graphs-Kinematics. Analysis of writing activities revealed that students in the treatment group responded more effectively than students in the control group to graphical interpretation

  14. Does the inclusion of a cost attribute result in different preferences for the surgical treatment of primary basal cell carcinoma?: a comparison of two discrete-choice experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essers, Brigitte A B; van Helvoort-Postulart, Debby; Prins, Martin H; Neumann, Martino; Dirksen, Carmen D

    2010-01-01

    Nowadays, an increasing number of discrete-choice experiments (DCEs) incorporate cost as an attribute. However, the inclusion of a cost attribute, particularly within collectively funded healthcare systems, can be challenging because health services or goods are generally not traded in a market situation and individuals are not used to paying for a service or a good at the point of consumption. To examine whether the inclusion of a cost attribute in a DCE results in different preferences regarding a surgical treatment for primary basal cell carcinoma (BCC) compared with a DCE without a cost attribute. A randomized study was performed in which the impact of a cost attribute on the general public's preferences for a surgical treatment (Mohs micrographic surgery [MMS] or standard excision [SE]) to remove BCC was examined. This was done by comparing the outcomes of two DCEs, one with a cost attribute (DCE_cost) and one without (DCE_nocost). Six attributes (recurrence, re-excision, travel time, surgical time, waiting time for surgical results, costs) and their levels were selected, based on results of a clinical trial, a cost-effectiveness study, a review and a focus group of patients who had recently received treatment for BCC. Outcomes of both DCEs were compared in terms of theoretical validity, relative importance of the attributes and the rank order of preferences. A total of 615 respondents (n = 303 for DCE_nocost; n = 312 for DCE_cost) were interviewed by telephone. This gave an overall response rate of 38%. Respondents in DCE_nocost preferred a surgical treatment with a lower probability of recurrence, lower surgery time, lower waiting time and no risk for a re-excision. Respondents in DCE_cost showed the same preferences, but also preferred a treatment with less travel time and lower costs. Overall, respondents in both DCEs showed the same preference for a surgical treatment: MMS was preferred over SE. Results suggest that, in this population, the inclusion of a

  15. Internet Teaching By Style: Profiling the On-line Professor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon Strand

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this article is to offer the results of a pilot study which examined the personality type and teaching style preferences of faculty who elected to teach an on-line course. The article will present a description of personality assessments, including the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI and Anthony Gregorc's Transaction Ability Inventory used to determine teaching tendencies and styles. In addition, a structured written questionnaire developed by the researchers was used to assess teacher satisfaction with worldwide web-based instruction. Utilizing the results of these psychological assessments, a preliminary analysis of the personal characteristics of college professors who chose to teach on line will be presented. This pilot study found that some preferred teaching styles may be more compatible with the dynamics of distance learning formats. By determining successful teaching styles for on-line courses, we can develop more effective faculty development programs to assist others in successfully transitioning into the cyber-teaching and learning environment.

  16. The Association of Professors' Style, Trait Anxiety, and Experience with Students' Grades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theodory, George C.; Day, Richard C.

    1985-01-01

    The relationship between the style, trait anxiety, and experience of professors and students' grades was investigated using Fiedler's contingency theory. Results indicated professors' trait anxiety is significant influencing student grades; professors having a high Least Preferred co-worker score assigned grades negatively correlated related with…

  17. The Relationship between Sex and Learning Style and Graphicacy in 14-year-old Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riding, R. J.; Boardman, D. J.

    1983-01-01

    Preference for field dependence independence and verbal imagery was assessed in 96 14-year-olds. Their map reading performance was measured in terms of map-aerial photograph correlation, symbol translation, and view identification. The results suggest that map reading performance depends on the learning style, sex of the pupil, and the type of…

  18. Impacts of Learning Styles and Computer Skills on Adult Students' Learning Online

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakap, Salih

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the influences of learning styles/preferences, prior computer skills and experience with online courses on adult learners' knowledge acquisition in a web-based special education course. Forty-six adult learners who enrolled in a web-based special education course participated in the study. The results of the study showed…

  19. Style Wars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Handberg, Kristian

    2011-01-01

    Postmodernismen er kommet på museum i Victoria and Alberts stort anlagte udstilling Postmodernism. Style and Subversion 1970-1990. Reportage fra en udstilling, der spænder fra filosofi til firserpop og tager den nære fortid på museum....

  20. Comparing preferences for outcomes of psoriasis treatments among patients and dermatologists in the U.K.: results from a discrete-choice experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, J M; Johnson, F R; McAteer, H; Posner, J; Mughal, F

    2017-03-01

    Plaque psoriasis can have a significant negative effect on patients' quality of life, and treatments can result in serious toxicities. Although there have been several studies of patients' and physicians' relative preferences for the benefits and risks of psoriasis treatments, it is unclear how and whether patients' and physicians' preferences for the outcomes of psoriasis treatments differ. To quantify patient and dermatologist preferences for improvements in psoriasis symptoms and for increases in the risk of treatment-related serious adverse events. Members of the U.K. Psoriasis Association and U.K. dermatologists with experience prescribing biologics completed a web-enabled discrete-choice experiment survey in which they evaluated efficacy and safety features of biological treatments for psoriasis. Choices between hypothetical treatment options were used to estimate preference weights indicating respondents' relative trade-off preferences among treatment outcomes. These outcomes included improvements in the severity and coverage of psoriatic plaques and treatment-related risks of tuberculosis, serious infections and lymphoma. Preference estimates were used to derive the maximum level of side-effect risks that respondents would accept for improvements in psoriasis symptoms. Respondents' tolerance for side-effect risks varied with side-effect severity and location of plaques, and risk tolerance for serious side-effects was greater for patients than for dermatologists. Estimates of patients' risk tolerance for serious side-effects indicate that patients valued psoriasis symptom control highly and suggest that psoriasis symptoms have a significant effect on patients' quality of life. In light of research showing increased treatment satisfaction and improved treatment adherence among patients who receive therapies that are consistent with their preferences, our findings suggest that greater communication between dermatologists and patients about risk tolerance could

  1. Classroom Seating Arrangements: Instructional Communication Theory versus Student Preferences

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCroskey, James C.; McVetta, Rod W.

    1978-01-01

    Investigates student preferences for style of classroom seating arrangements (traditional straightrow, horseshoe, and modular) and concludes that seating preferences are influenced by both course attractiveness and student communication apprehension level. (MH)

  2. ER/LA opioid REMS and accredited education: Survey results provide insight into clinical roles, educational needs, and learner preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kear, Cynthia; McKeithen, Tom; Robertson, Sheila

    2017-01-01

    The Collaborative for REMS (Risk Evaluation and Mitigation Strategy) Education (CO*RE) includes 13 organizations that provide REMS Program Companies (RPC) grant-supported accredited education on extended-release and long-acting (ER/LA) opioid therapy. This report summarizes results of a survey designed to investigate the impact of participant criteria and to better understand the roles and preferences of continuing medical education/continuing education (CME/CE) participants. In April 2015, the authors made an online survey available to an estimated 10,000 clinicians who had completed a CO*RE CME/CE activity since 2013. The purpose of the survey was to (1) examine possible reasons learners may underreport prescribing status, (2) investigate ways in which learners engage in nonprescribing roles relevant to reducing adverse patient outcomes, and (3) determine the acceptability of a potential test-based learning tool that allows participants with mastery to test out in lieu of participating in 2- to 3-hour education. Findings revealed that there was little confusion or reluctance by learners to answer questions about Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) licensing and whether they prescribed opioids in the past year. REMS "prescriber" education covers opioid management responsibilities that are distributed among team members who play critical nonprescribing roles in reducing serious adverse outcomes from both ER/LA and immediate-release (IR) opioids. Seventy-three percent of study participants would favor a test-based learning tool should future circumstances warrant it. The authors concluded the likelihood of underreporting is small, but there is an opportunity to clarify license and prescribing questions; opioid management responsibilities are distributed among nonprescribing team members who play roles in reducing adverse outcomes from both ER/LA and IR opioids, who would therefore benefit from REMS education; and clinicians favor a test-based learning tool, should

  3. Indigenous Knowledge Systems and Leadership Styles in Nigerian Work Organisations

    OpenAIRE

    Osarumwense Iguisi

    2016-01-01

    This research project investigated four managerial leadership styles in Nigerian organizations. The research question that the research tries to address is: to what extent are the leadership styles expressed in modern management theories consistent with Nigerian Traditional values? The findings do confirm that the perceived leadership style in the organizations by the managers is autocratic, the preferred style is the paternalistic and the rejected is the autocratic. For about one in five Nig...

  4. Pilot Results - The use of Real-time Preference Measurement Technology to Support the Retention of Enlisted Personnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    based on a decomposition approach that estimates individual preferences in a real-time iterative, econometric process.   1  Marketers  sometimes have...organizations in marketing and sales as well as human resources applications. The marketing application focuses on three use cases – personalized...technology (laptops, cameras, LCD TVs, digital services), telecommunications (service plans, handsets) and business-to-business ( B2B ) and supply

  5. Listening styles of undergraduate health students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, T; Boyle, M J; Williams, B; Molloy, A; McKenna, L; Palermo, C; Lewis, B; Molloy, L

    2010-11-01

    Concerns about poor communication in the medical and other healthcare professions are common in the empirical literature, with studies showing direct relationships between practitioners' effective listening and patients' satisfaction and less risk of litigation. Furthermore, people do not simply listen or not listen, rather they adopt particular listening styles, making the understanding and investigation of practitioner communication a complex topic. The objective of this study was to identify the listening styles of undergraduate health science students enrolled at one Australian university. A cross-sectional study using a paper-based version of the Listening Styles Profile (LSP-16) was administered to a cohort of students enrolled in undergraduate education programs in eight different health disciplines: emergency health (paramedics), nursing, midwifery, occupational therapy, physiotherapy, nursing/emergency health dual degree, health science and nutrition and dietetics. The LSP-16 is a validated and reliable scale that assesses participants' preferences for each of four distinct listening style constructs. There were 1459 health students eligible for inclusion in the study. Ethics approval was granted. A total of 860 students participated in the study (response rate of 58%), of whom 87.2% (n=750) were female. Across the group, a strong preference was shown for the People Listening Style (LS), which is a listening style characterised by a concern for people's feelings and emotions. Otherwise, an unexpected amount of homogeneity in preferred listening style was found within the group of health science students. Female students reported a slightly stronger preference for the People LS, whereas males reported slightly stronger preferences for the Action LS and Content LS. There were no statistical differences in preference for LS by students' age or year level of undergraduate enrolment. The health professional student participants of this study reported a

  6. Learning Styles and Academic Performance of Students in English as a Second-Language Class in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.A. Chermahini

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between learning styles and the academic performance of students who attend an English class to learn English as a second language in Iran. A randomly selected group of 488 high school students (248 male and 240 female participated in this study. They were asked to fill out the Kolb's Learning Styles Inventory to identify four basic learning types: Accommodating, Diverging, Assimilating, and Converging. Academic performance evaluated by achievement test in the English language. The survey results indicated significant relationships between the different learning styles and the performance in an English test, and the performance resulted differently in four groups with different preferred learning styles. The results also indicated gender differences in the performance in English test for convergent and divergent and did not accommodate and assimilate preferred learning styles. These results lead us to conclude that learning styles can be considered as a good predictor of any second language academic performance, and it should be taken into account to enhance students' performances specifically in learning and teaching the second language, and also showed that individual differences in learning styles play an important role in this domain.

  7. Occupational health nurses’ achievement of competence and comfort in respiratory protection and preferred learning methods results of a nationwide survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgel, Barbara J; Novak, Debra A; Carpenter, Holly Elizabeth; Gruden, MaryAnn; Lachat, Ann M; Taormina, Deborah

    2014-02-01

    Additional findings are presented from a 2012 nationwide survey of 2,072 occupational health nurses regarding how they achieved competence in respiratory protection, their preferred methods of learning, and how they motivated employees to use respiratory protection. On-the-job training, taking a National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health spirometry course, or attending professional conferences were the primary ways occupational health nurses gained respiratory protection knowledge. Attending professional conferences was the preferred method of learning, varying by type of industry and years of occupational health nurse experience. Employee motivational strategies were not widely used; the most common strategy was to tailor respiratory protection training to workplace culture. Designing training methods that match learning preferences, within the context of the organization's safety and quality improvement culture, is a key recommendation supported by the literature and these findings. Including respiratory protection content and competencies in all levels of academic nursing education is an additional recommendation. Additional research is needed to link training strategies with consistent and correct use of respiratory protection by employees.

  8. Physicians prefer greater detail in the biosimilar label (SmPC) - Results of a survey across seven European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallersten, Anna; Fürst, Walter; Mezzasalma, Riccardo

    2016-06-01

    In the European Union, labels (Summaries of Product Characteristics, SmPCs) of biosimilars and their reference products are in many instances almost identical (following a generic approach) despite different data requirements for the authorization of biosimilars and generics. To understand physicians' preferences on type and detail of information in the biosimilar label and their use of information sources when prescribing biologics including biosimilars, EuropaBio surveyed 210 physicians across seven European countries. Among surveyed physicians, 90.5% use the label frequently or occasionally as an information source and 87.2% deemed a clear statement on the origin of data helpful or very helpful. When comparing excerpts from the label of an authorized biosimilar and modified texts with additional information, 78.1-82.9% preferred the samples with additional information. This survey shows that the label is an appropriate vehicle for providing physicians with information about biologics and that physicians prefer more product-specific information in the biosimilar label. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Teaching for Success: Technology and Learning Styles in Preservice Teacher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solvie, Pamela; Sungur, Engin

    2012-01-01

    This study, using mixed methods design research, examined the achievement of third level preservice teachers when advice in the form of text and resources was provided based on students' identified learning styles. In this study, Kolb's learning style inventory was used to identify students' preferred learning style preferences, and an online…

  10. Correlates of preferences for autonomy in long-term care: results of a population-based survey among older individuals in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hajek A

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available André Hajek,1 Thomas Lehnert,1 Annemarie Wegener,1 Steffi G Riedel-Heller,2 Hans-Helmut König1 1Department of Health Economics and Health Services Research, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg, 2Institute of Social Medicine, Occupational Health and Public Health, University of Leipzig, Leipzig, Germany Purpose: Thus far, there is little evidence concerning the factors associated with preferences for autonomy in long-term care. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the correlates of preferences for autonomy in long-term care among older individuals in Germany. Methods: Data were gathered from a population-based survey of the German population aged ≥65 years in 2015 (N=1,006. Results: Multiple logistic regressions revealed that preferences for freedom of choice for foods were positively associated with living with partner or spouse (OR: 1.5 [1.0–2.2], being born in Germany (OR: 1.9 [1.1–3.3], and lower self-rated health (OR: 1.3 [1.1–1.6]. Preferences for freedom in choosing bedtime and sleep duration were positively associated with lower age (OR: 1.1 [1.0–1.1] and having children (OR: 2.2 [1.0–4.9]. Preferences for customized living space were positively associated with being female (OR: 2.5 [1.4–4.5] and being born in Germany (OR: 3.7 [1.9–7.1]. Neither preferences for decent and sanitary housing nor preferences for shared decision-making were associated with any of the independent variables. Conclusion: Various independent variables were associated with preferences for autonomy in long-term care. This suggests that preferences for care-related autonomy are complex. Knowing these might help refine long-term care health services. Keywords: caregivers, older adult, long-term care, Germany

  11. Different preferences for wine communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandro Sillani

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at verifying the presence of variations in the reactions of different types of audiences to certain communication tools for wine. Five samples of audiences were compared: wine professionals, organic produce specialists, wine tourists, and two samples of general tourists. The following bundle of attributes were considered: name of the grape; information on organic production methods; type of closure; QR code; landscape; advertising language. Diverse audience’s preferences were measured by conjoint analysis. The results have shown a common sensitivity to certain attributes, and a different or contrary sensitivity to others. In particular, all samples have demonstrated that: 1 certified organic wines communicated in standard wine-market style have the potential of becoming market leaders; 2 photographs facilitate the acceptance of technologically-advanced closures; 3 the presence of the QR code in printed advertisements increases the expected value of the product; 4a landscape characterised by holistic “garden viticulture” increases preferences. Textual language was more effective with professionals, while photographic language was more effective with tourists. Supplementary information on the organic production methods, in addition to the mandatory labelling requirements, increased the preferences of professionals and wine tourists, and was counterproductive with the general tourists.

  12. LANGUAGE LEARNING STRATEGY PREFERENCES OF TURKISH STUDENTS

    OpenAIRE

    Selma Deneme

    2008-01-01

    A learning style is a preferred way of acquiring knowledge and processing information. Learning styles may differ depending on gender, age, or culture. Niles (1995) in his study “Cultural Differences in Learning Motivation and Learning Strategies” studied the cultural impact on learning strategies and found considerable differences between culturally different students.Providing evidence for the relationship between culture and learning strategy preference and use, this study aims at examinin...

  13. Detection Learning Style Vark For Out Of School Children (OSC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amran, Ali; Desiani, Anita; Hasibuan, MS

    2017-04-01

    Learning style is different for every learner especially for out of school children or OSC. They are not like formal students, they are learners but they don’t have a teacher as a guide for learning. E-learning is one of the solutions to help OSC to get education. E-learning should have preferred learning styles of learners. Data for identifying the learning style in this study were collected with a VARK questionnaire from 25 OSC in junior high school level from 5 municipalities in Palembang. The validity of the questionnaire was considered on basis of experts’ views and its reliability was calculated by using Cronbach’s alpha coefficients (α=0.68). Overall, 55% preferred to use a single learning style (Uni-modal). Of these, 27,76% preferred Aural, 20,57% preferred Reading Writing, 33,33% preferred Kinaesthetic and 23,13% preferred Visual. 45% of OSC preferred more than one style, 30% chose two-modes (bimodal), and 15% chose three-modes (tri-modal). The Most preferred Learning style of OSC is kinaesthetic learning. Kinaesthetic learning requires body movements, interactivities, and direct contacts with learning materials, these things can be difficult to implement in eLearning, but E-learning should be able to adopt any learning styles which are flexible in terms of time, period, curriculum, pedagogy, location, and language.

  14. Some students learning style particularities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana PETRUS-VANCEA

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The investigation aimed two objectives, namely to study the relationship between the learning styles, strategies, motivation, orientations and opinions with regard to learning, of Biology Domain students, comparative with those from double domain Biology – Chemistry, and particular learning styles of students from different specialties, which are in the first year of study, comparative with those which are in the last year of cycle I (age III of study, under the Bologna system. A version adapted by Trif, in 2007 [1], of the Learning Style Inventory (ILS, designed by Vermunt and Rijswijk (1998, was administrated to the total number of 77 students. Students of Biology specialization (Bologna system were largely learning style oriented to understanding and at those of the Biology-Chemistry (last generation of the old system we identified a style based on reproduction, but the differences of learning strategies and motivations, orientations and opinions were not statistically significant between the two groups of students. The second hypothesis formulated by us proved to be true, identifying significant statistically differences between the strategies, motives and opinions about learning of first academic year students, who prefer step by step learning or external guidance, learning orientation being to note, to obtain a degree, wishing much more support from teachers or colleagues (expressing an undirected learning style, compared with third academic year students, which use concrete processing of information, with getting a job motivation.

  15. Learning styles in two otolaryngology residency programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laeeq, Kulsoom; Weatherly, Robert A; Carrott, Alice; Pandian, Vinciya; Cummings, Charles W; Bhatti, Nasir I

    2009-12-01

    Kolb portrays four learning styles depending on how an individual grasps or transforms experience: accommodating, assimilating, diverging, and converging. Past studies in surgery, medicine, and anesthesia identified the predominant learning style in each of these specialties. The prevalence of different learning styles and existence of a predominant style, if any, has not been reported for otolaryngology residency programs. The purpose of our study was to determine if otolaryngology residents have a preferred learning style that is different from the predominant learning styles reported for other specialties. We conducted a survey of the otolaryngology-head and neck surgery residents at two residency programs. Kolb's Learning Style Index (LSI) version 3.1 was administered to 46 residents from Johns Hopkins University and Kansas University Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery programs. LSI is a widely used 12-item questionnaire, with each item followed by four options. The subjects graded the options depending on how the options applied to them. Forty-three otolaryngology residents completed the survey, with a response rate of 93.47%. The predominant learning style was converging (55.81%) followed by accommodating (18.61%), accounting for the learning styles of 74.42% of the total population. There were only 13.95% assimilating and 6.98% diverging learning styles. Two residents (4.65%) had their preference balanced across four learning styles. The predominant learning styles in otolaryngology were converging and accommodating, accounting for three fourths of the population. It would be desirable to modify our curriculum in a way that will optimize and facilitate learning.

  16. Learning Styles of Medical and Midwifery Students in Mashhad University of Medical Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Zeraati

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Students have individual learning style preferences including visual (V; learning from graphs, charts, and flow diagrams, auditory (A; learning from speech, read-write(R; learning from reading and writing, and kinesthetic (K; learning from touch, hearing, smell, taste, and sight.These preferences can be assessed using the VARK questionnaire.Purpose: We aimed to assess different learning styles of medical students in our collage.Methods: This study was conducted to describe learning styles of 214 Medical and Midwifery students in Mashhad University of medical sciences. By using the English version of the VARK questionnaire, we measured the difference in learning styles of medical students and midwifery students and compared with 57336 global general students who completed the test in VARK website up to Sep 2007.Results: The dominant learning preference of our students was Aural preference (30.8% followed by Read/Write (20.6%, while (7.5% were in Kinesthetic and (5.6% were Visual learners; still most of the students (35.5% represented a multimodal learning preference. No significant difference was found between males and females. The general pattern between medical student and Midwifery student is the same. There was a significant relation between Internship Entrance Exam score and thelearning styles of medical student and who were more Read/Write got higher scores.Conclusion: Knowing that our students have different preferred learning modes will help medical instructors in our faculty develop appropriate learning approaches and explore opportunities so that they will be able to make the educational experience more productive.Key words: MEDICAL EDUCATION, LEARNING MODELS VARK, VISUAL, AUDITORY, READ-WRITE, KINESTHETIC, SSTUDENTS.

  17. Preferences of Bulgarian consumers for quality, access and price attributes of healthcare services-result of a discrete choice experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Schoot, Thijs; Pavlova, Milena; Atanasova, Elka; Groot, Wim

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the study is to determine the preferences of Bulgarian citizens regarding the provision of healthcare services. A survey was carried out in Bulgaria among a nationally representative sample of 1003 respondents. Both a discrete choice experiment and a self-explicated ranking of outpatient and inpatient service attributes were included in the survey. The data are analyzed to elicit the preferences of Bulgarian healthcare consumers for service attributes and to compare them with previous studies in Bulgaria and other countries in Central and Eastern Europe. The reputation and skills of the care provider appear to be relatively most important to the respondents, followed by the state of the equipment, the condition of the facility and the attitude of the staff. The fee-level and access-related attributes (waiting and traveling time) emerged as less important. Overall, consumers in Bulgaria value the quality of healthcare provision very highly. Yet, there are some statistically significant differences between socio-demographic groups. In general, Bulgarian healthcare consumers are willing to accept higher prices for the services they use, when this comes with improved quality of services. These findings comply with findings in previous studies in Bulgaria and in the region. Given the quality problems in the Bulgarian healthcare sector, our findings indicate that priority has to be given to the improvement of healthcare quality when the Bulgarian government invests in this sector. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. The Relationship between Parenting Styles and Adult Attachment Styles from Jordan University Students

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad M. Mahasneh; Zohair H. Al-Zoubi; Omar T. Batayenh; Mohammad S. Jawarneh

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between parenting styles and adult attachment styles. A random sample of (564) male and female students at the faculty of educational sciences was chosen selected. Two questionnaires on attachment styles and parenting styles were administered to the selected sample population during the academic year of 2012-2013. Results indicated significant positive correlations between the authoritative, negligent and authoritarian parenting styles...

  19. Learning Style Scales: a valid and reliable questionnaire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdolghani Abdollahimohammad

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Learning-style instruments assist students in developing their own learning strategies and outcomes, in eliminating learning barriers, and in acknowledging peer diversity. Only a few psychometrically validated learning-style instruments are available. This study aimed to develop a valid and reliable learning-style instrument for nursing students. Methods: A cross-sectional survey study was conducted in two nursing schools in two countries. A purposive sample of 156 undergraduate nursing students participated in the study. Face and content validity was obtained from an expert panel. The LSS construct was established using principal axis factoring (PAF with oblimin rotation, a scree plot test, and parallel analysis (PA. The reliability of LSS was tested using Cronbach’s α, corrected item-total correlation, and test-retest. Results: Factor analysis revealed five components, confirmed by PA and a relatively clear curve on the scree plot. Component strength and interpretability were also confirmed. The factors were labeled as perceptive, solitary, analytic, competitive, and imaginative learning styles. Cronbach’s α was > 0.70 for all subscales in both study populations. The corrected item-total correlations were > 0.30 for the items in each component. Conclusion: The LSS is a valid and reliable inventory for evaluating learning style preferences in nursing students in various multicultural environments.

  20. Interaction with the Mother in Children Born as a Result of in Vitro Fertilization (IVF: Attachment and Parenting Style Features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dueva A.A.,

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the social and emotional development of children. We tested and partially confirmed the hypothesis that children born as a result of reproductive technology, less often show reliable attachment type than the naturally born children. Such a pattern may emerge because of the behavior of IVF mothers. The present study involved 11 children aged from 5 years to 6 years 11 months, born as a result of IVF, and 10 control children conceived naturally, as well as their mothers. To collect anamnesis, we used: survey of parents with Child-parent emotional interaction questionnaire, and techniques Analysis of family education, projective drawing techniques Nest drawing and Drawing dialogue aimed at identifying the quality of the child's attachment to his mother and interaction in the dyad, as well as Kaplan method for determining the type of attachment.

  1. Learning styles of medical students - implications in education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buşan, Alina-Mihaela

    2014-01-01

    The term "learning style" refers to the fact that each person has a different way of accumulating knowledge. While some prefer listening to learn better, others need to write or they only need to read the text or see a picture to later remember. According to Fleming and Mills the learning styles can be classified in Visual, Auditory and Kinesthetic. There is no evidence that teaching according to the learning style can help a person, yet this cannot be ignored. In this study, a number of 230 medical students were questioned in order to determine their learning style. We determined that 73% of the students prefer one learning style, 22% prefer to learn using equally two learning style, while the rest prefer three learning styles. According to this study the distribution of the learning styles is as following: 33% visual, 26% auditory, 14% kinesthetic, 12% visual and auditory styles equally, 6% visual and kinesthetic, 4% auditory and kinesthetic and 5% all three styles. 32 % of the students that participated at this study are from UMF Craiova, 32% from UMF Carol Davila, 11% University of Medicine T Popa, Iasi, 9% UMF Cluj Iulius Hatieganu. The way medical students learn is different from the general population. This is why it is important when teaching to considerate how the students learn in order to facilitate the learning.

  2. Coping styles in youth exposed to maltreatment: Longitudinal patterns reported by youth in foster care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Yo; Huffhines, Lindsay; Stone, Katie J; Fleming, Kandace; Gabrielli, Joy

    2017-08-01

    Coping styles in youth living in foster care with a history of maltreatment were examined to determine the nature and stability of self-reported coping behavior over time. Participants included 542 (time 1), 377 (time 2), and 299 (time 3) youth ages 8-22 years (M=13.28years, SD=3.04). Using the Behavioral Inventory of Strategic Control, a dimensional, continuous measure of coping, across four possible coping styles endorsed in reference to specific potentially stressful situations, the results indicated that direct action coping was the most frequently endorsed or preferred style for more than 50% of the sample at each time point. A number of youth endorsed using more than one coping style, indicating some flexibility in the approach to coping when problems occur. Although most youth endorsed a preferred style, coping style endorsed did vary somewhat over time. The coping style endorsed also varied depending on the type of problem referenced, but no statistically significant differences were noted across situations, including social, academic, general, and foster-specific situations. Effects for age were also examined and the results indicated no significant differences across the age range for type of coping most commonly endorsed. The present study is the first large-scale, longitudinal assessment of coping styles in youth in foster care and the results suggest that coping is not a simple, categorical-only construct and the implications for the endorsement of the direct approach for youth in foster care along with the other findings are discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Learning style, judgements of learning, and learning of verbal and visual information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knoll, Abby R; Otani, Hajime; Skeel, Reid L; Van Horn, K Roger

    2017-08-01

    The concept of learning style is immensely popular despite the lack of evidence showing that learning style influences performance. This study tested the hypothesis that the popularity of learning style is maintained because it is associated with subjective aspects of learning, such as judgements of learning (JOLs). Preference for verbal and visual information was assessed using the revised Verbalizer-Visualizer Questionnaire (VVQ). Then, participants studied a list of word pairs and a list of picture pairs, making JOLs (immediate, delayed, and global) while studying each list. Learning was tested by cued recall. The results showed that higher VVQ verbalizer scores were associated with higher immediate JOLs for words, and higher VVQ visualizer scores were associated with higher immediate JOLs for pictures. There was no association between VVQ scores and recall or JOL accuracy. As predicted, learning style was associated with subjective aspects of learning but not objective aspects of learning. © 2016 The British Psychological Society.

  4. Different Preferences in Learning between American and French Learners in a Multinational Corporate Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossi, Roberta

    2013-01-01

    The way training is delivered in a corporate environment has a tremendous effect on its results. This study investigated the role of culture in the learning styles of adult French and American learners working in an international corporate setting. The assumption was that Americans prefer to learn from action-oriented methods and are more…

  5. Different Styles for Different Needs – The Effect of Cognitive Styles on Idea Generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lomberg, Carina; Kollmann, Tobias; Stockmann, Christoph

    2017-01-01

    Researchers are engaged in finding the precursors for innovation. Drawing on Kirton's Adaption-Innovation (KAI) Inventory, we explicitly test Kirton's central premise that cognitive styles differentiate between preferences for producing ideas in a certain way. We argue that the generation of either...... a magnitude or original ideas is governed by different underlying cognitive styles. In a study with 191 individuals, we find that the cognitive style originality associates with ideational fluency whereas the rule governance style associates with the generation of original ideas. By providing a cognitive...

  6. Learning Cultures and Learning Styles: Myth-Understandings about Adult (Hong Kong) Chinese Learners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Peter

    2002-01-01

    Compares stereotypes with realities of the effect of Chinese culture on learning styles. Reviews literature on effective adult learning. Discusses learning style preferences of Hong Kong Chinese adults, teacher expectations, and new approaches to adult learning. (Contains 68 references.) (SK)

  7. Mathematics Anxiety and Learning Styles: What Is the Relationship in Elementary Preservice Teachers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloan, Tina; Daane, C. J.; Giesen, Judy

    2002-01-01

    Investigates the relationship between elementary preservice teachers' (n=72) mathematics anxiety levels and learning style preferences. Findings reveal a low but significant positive correlation between mathematics anxiety and a global (right-brain dominant) learning style. (Author/MM)

  8. HOW TO BETTER MEET OUR STUDENTS' LEARNING STYLE THROUGH THE COURSE RESOURCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mutiu Alexandra

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Publishers of the course resources for business higher education are willing to help professors and instructors to develop the learning process. An important part of the learning process is affected by the each student's learning style. Our paper focuses on how meeting students' learning styles can be done through the course resources we use. The scope of the paper is to identify a way to link students' learning preferences with the available course resources. The literature on this topic is limited, the interest in research being focused less on resources used and their useful diversity. We heavily relied in our research on the preliminary results of a market research study conducted by the Higher Education Group from Harvard Business Publishing among instructors who use resources from Harvard Business School's library. The research methodology is based on the case study method. We tried to recommend a treatment to our students and then analyze the effect of the applied treatment. The main instruments used are the VARK test followed by tailored recommendations for each student. The first conclusion of the research is that identifying the learning styles is extremely useful for students in terms of learning process. Knowing and exploiting their particular learning style helped students to maximize their learning. The second conclusion is that recommending resources based on learning styles is useful because it really helps students to learn in their own styles. The results of our paper show, firstly, that learning process could be facilitated by professors' directly identifying students' learning styles. Secondly, our findings underline the importance of having a diversity of resources available for our students, and to be able to offer them a constructive solution regarding their learning styles. Moreover, our contributions are reflected in the methodology we used in linking the learning styles with the course resources and in building our

  9. Community-Based Culturally Preferred Physical Activity Intervention Targeting Populations at High Risk for Type 2 Diabetes: Results and Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowan, Chip P; Riddell, Michael C; Gledhill, Norman; Jamnik, Veronica K

    2016-12-01

    In Canada, an ageing population, obesity rates and high risk among certain ethnocultural populations are driving diabetes prevalence. Given the burden associated with type 2 diabetes and its link to modifiable risk factors, this study aimed to implement culturally preferred physical activities at the community level, targeting individuals at high risk for type 2 diabetes. Glycated hemoglobin (A1C) levels were used to detect potential improvements in glycemic control. Participants were screened for diabetes risk using a questionnaire and capillary point-of-care A1C blood testing. Participants were offered community-based physical activity classes 2 to 3 times per week for 6 months. A subset of participants (n=84) provided additional measurements. In total, 718 subjects were reached during recruitment. Substantial participant dropout took place, and 487 participants were exposed to the intervention. Among those who participated in the physical activity and provided follow up, mean A1C levels were reduced by 0.17 (p=0.002) after 3 months (n=84) and by 0.06 (p=0.35; n=49) after 6 months. The homeostatic model assessment (HOMA-beta) showed a significant improvement of 23.6% after 3 months (n=20; p=0.03) and 45.2% after 6 months (n=12; p=0.02). Resting systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure plus combined hand-grip strength improved after 6 months (n=12). Implementation of this community-based, culturally preferred physical activity program presented several challenges and was associated with significant participant dropout. After considering participant dropout, the relatively small group who participated and provided follow-up measures showed improvements various physiologic measures. Despite efforts to enhance accessibility, it appears that several barriers to physical activity participation remain and need to be explored to enhance the success of future programs. Copyright © 2016 Canadian Diabetes Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights

  10. Creating a Leadership Style

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnici, Charles A.

    2011-01-01

    Many articles about school improvement talk about data-driven instruction and statistics. In the barrage of evaluative numbers, school leaders can forget that teaching and leading are arts, not sciences. Positive outcomes depend on the ambience of the school, which is a direct result of the leadership style of its principal and assistant…

  11. Rationale and enrollment results for a partially randomized patient preference trial to compare continuation rates of short-acting and long-acting reversible contraception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubacher, David; Spector, Hannah; Monteith, Charles; Chen, Pai-Lien; Hart, Catherine

    2015-03-01

    Most published contraceptive continuation rates have scientific limitations and cannot be compared; this is particularly true for dissimilar contraceptives. This study uses a new approach to determine if high continuation rates of long-acting reversible contraception (LARC) and protection from unintended pregnancy are observable in a population not self-selecting to use LARC. We are conducting a partially randomized patient preference trial (PRPPT) to compare continuation rates of short-acting reversible contraception (SARC) and LARC. Only women seeking SARC were invited to participate. Participants chose to be in the preference cohort (self-selected method use) or opted to be randomized to SARC or LARC; only those in the randomized cohort received free product. We compared participant characteristics, reasons for not trying LARC previously and the contraceptive choices that were made. We enrolled 917 eligible women; 57% chose to be in the preference cohort and 43% opted for the randomized trial. The preference and randomized cohorts were similar on most factors. However, the randomized cohort was more likely than the preference cohort to be uninsured (48% versus 36%, respectively) and to cite cost as a reason for not trying LARC previously (50% versus 10%) (pcontraceptive continuation rates and unintended pregnancy in this ongoing trial. The choices participants made were associated with numerous factors; lack of insurance was associated with participation in the randomized trial. This PRPPT will provide new estimates of contraceptive continuation rates, such that any benefits of LARC will be more easily attributable to the technology and not the user. Combined with measuring level of satisfaction with LARC, the results will help project the potential role and benefits of expanding voluntary use of LARC. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Leadership: Four Styles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, W. C.

    2005-01-01

    The Four Styles narrative of Leadership is written in three sections: (1) Overview of Leadership Styles; (2) Analysis of Leadership Styles; and (3) Applications of Leadership Styles. While the primary foundation for its development was generated from more than 30 years of research and studying leadership styles in education, the secondary…

  13. Affective Style, Humor Styles and Happiness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas E. Ford

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study examined the relationships between dispositional approach and avoidance motives, humor styles, and happiness. In keeping with previous research, approach motives and the two positive humor styles (self-enhancing and affiliative positively correlated with happiness, whereas avoidance motives and the two negative humor styles (self-defeating and aggressive negatively correlated with happiness. Also, we found support for three new hypotheses. First, approach motives correlated positively with self-enhancing and affiliative humor styles. Second, avoidance motives correlated positively with self-defeating humor style, and third, the positive relationship between approach motives and happiness was mediated by self-enhancing humor style.

  14. Conflict management styles in the health professions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sportsman, Susan; Hamilton, Patti

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine prevalent conflict management styles chosen by students in nursing and to contrast these styles with those chosen by students in allied health professions. The associations among the level of professional health care education and the style chosen were also determined. A convenience sample of 126 students in a comprehensive university completed the Thomas-Kilmann Conflict Mode Instrument (TKI), which requires respondents to choose behaviors most characteristic of their response to conflict and classifies these behaviors as one of five styles. There was no significant difference between the prevalent conflict management styles chosen by graduate and undergraduate nursing students and those in allied health. Some of the students were already licensed in their discipline; others had not yet taken a licensing exam. Licensure and educational level were not associated with choice of styles. Women and men had similar preferences. The prevalent style for nursing students was compromise, followed by avoidance. In contrast, avoidance, followed by compromise and accommodation, was the prevalent style for allied health students. When compared to the TKI norms, slightly more than one half of all participants chose two or more conflict management styles, commonly avoidance and accommodation at the 75th percentile or above. Only 9.8% of the participants chose collaboration at that level. Implications for nurse educators, researchers, and administrators are discussed.

  15. Intercultural conflict styles: literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Batkhina A.A.

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Analytical review of foreign psychological research on the international conflict styles is presented in this article. Intercultural conflict is understood as an interpersonal conflict between representatives of different cultures. The main models describing the intercultural conflict styles are analyzed: the dual concern model, the intercultural conflict styles inventory model, the face negotiation model. The publication provides a brief review of modern studies’ results of behavior predictors in the intercultural conflict; special attention is paid to the analysis of the influence of culture and intercultural communication apprehension on the choice of conflict styles. The importance of assessing the conflict styles effectiveness used in the situation of intercultural interaction is noted. In conclusion, unresolved problems and actual trends in the study of behavior in the intercultural conflict are designated.

  16. Sweet and fat taste preference in obesity have different associations with personality and eating behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elfhag, K; Erlanson-Albertsson, C

    2006-06-15

    The aim of this study was to test associations between self-reported attitudes of sweet and fat taste preferences and psychological constructs of eating behavior and personality in obesity. Sixty obese patients were included. The Three Factor Eating Questionnaire was used for the assessment of psychological constructs of eating behavior, and the Swedish universities Scales of Personality was used for measuring personality traits. A strong sweet taste preference was associated with more neurotic personality traits (P=.003), in particular lack of assertiveness (P=.001) and embitterment (P=.002). Strong fat taste preference was rather related to lower levels of the eating characteristic cognitive restraint (P=.017), implying less attempts to restrict and control food intake. Whereas strong sweet taste preference was linked to a personality style in obesity, strong fat preference could be more an aspect of eating behavior. A psychobiological stress model is discussed in relation to the results on sweet preference and hampered personality functioning.

  17. Infertility practice management. I. Leadership and management style: results from the 2002 survey of 374 Society for Assisted Reproductive Technology member centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerson, Steven C; Kemp, Denise E; Balser, David P; Masler, Steve N; Hart, Brad; Bubka, Andrea; Bonato, Frederick

    2004-10-01

    To identify current trends in management and leadership styles in Society for Assisted Reproductive Technology (SART) member infertility centers; and to understand the similarities and disparities that exist in physicians', administrators', and staff perceptions of management and leadership styles in these centers. Questionnaires were developed to collect information on the leadership and management styles in place in SART member infertility centers. Survey instruments were distributed to the 374 SART centers. Survey instruments for one physician, the center administrator, and six staff members (two each in nursing, laboratory, and administration) were issued to the SART liaison in each of the SART member centers. Respondents included physicians, practice administrators, nurses, technicians, patient services, billing, and support staff. Analysis of respondents' answers revealed that surveyed staff members reported a fairly high degree of job satisfaction. Physician and administrator management styles seemed to fall between interactive and directive styles; however, physicians and administrators perceived themselves as being more interactive than other staff members viewed them. Overall, extreme differences were unlikely, given the reported high degree of job satisfaction. Finally, survey outcome data were compared with responding centers' ART outcome rates as published by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Overall, although employee job satisfaction seemed to be high, there were statistical differences between groups for several questions; the disparities in responses for these questions are indicators for potential management and leadership consideration. In addition, statistical correlations were found between the responses for several questions and the centers' respective CDC-published ART outcome rates.

  18. LANGUAGE LEARNING STRATEGY PREFERENCES OF TURKISH STUDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selma Deneme

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available A learning style is a preferred way of acquiring knowledge and processing information. Learning styles may differ depending on gender, age, or culture. Niles (1995 in his study “Cultural Differences in Learning Motivation and Learning Strategies” studied the cultural impact on learning strategies and found considerable differences between culturally different students.Providing evidence for the relationship between culture and learning strategy preference and use, this study aims at examining the use and preference of language learning strategies of Turkish students while they are learning English.

  19. [Reading behavior and preferences regarding subscriptions to scientific journals : Results of a survey of members of the German Society for General and Visceral Surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronellenfitsch, U; Klinger, C; Buhr, H J; Post, S

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of surgical literature is to publish the latest study results and to provide continuing medical education to readers. For optimal allocation of resources, institutional subscribers, professional societies and scientific publishers require structured data on reading and subscription preferences of potential readers of surgical literature. To obtain representative data on the preferences of German general and visceral surgeons regarding reading of and subscription to scientific journals. All members of the German Society for General and Visceral Surgery (DGAV) were invited to participate in a web-based survey. Questions were asked on the affiliation and position of the member, individual journal subscriptions, institutional access to scientific journals, preferences regarding electronic or print articles and special subscriptions for society members. Answers were descriptively analyzed. A total of 630 out of 4091 (15 %) members participated in the survey and 73 % of the respondents had at least 1 individual subscription to a scientific journal. The most frequently subscribed journal was Der Chirurg (47 % of respondents). The institutional access to journals was deemed insufficient by 48 % of respondents, predominantly in primary care hospitals and outpatient clinics. Almost half of the respondents gave sufficient importance to reading printed versions of articles for which they would pay extra fees. A group subscription for society members was perceived as advantageous as long as no relevant extra costs were incurred. This structured survey among members of the DGAV provides data on preferences regarding reading of and subscription to scientific journals. Individual subscriptions to journals are still common, possibly due to suboptimal institutional access particularly at smaller non-academic institutions. In an age of online publications it seems surprising that many respondents place a high value on printed versions. The results are relevant for

  20. Insight, distress and coping styles in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, Michael; Peters, Emmanuelle; Fannon, Dominic; Anilkumar, Anantha P P; Aasen, Ingrid; Kuipers, Elizabeth; Kumari, Veena

    2007-08-01

    The stigma and negative societal views attached to schizophrenia can make the diagnosis distressing. There is evidence that poor insight into symptoms of the disorder and need for treatment may reflect the use of denial as a coping style. However, the relationships between insight and other coping styles have seldom been investigated. We examined the associations between insight, distress and a number of coping styles in 65 outpatients with schizophrenia (final n=57) in a cross-sectional study. We found that (i) awareness of symptoms and problems correlated with greater distress, (ii) 'preference for positive reinterpretation and growth' coping style correlated with lower distress and with lower symptom awareness (re-labelling), (iii) 'preference for mental disengagement' coping style correlated with greater distress and lower awareness of problems, and (iv) 'social support-seeking' coping style correlated with greater awareness of illness, but not distress. No relationship occurred between the use of 'denial' as a coping style and insight or distress. Our findings demonstrate that awareness of illness and related problems is associated with greater distress in schizophrenia. However, this investigation has not supported a simple psychological denial explanation for this relationship, as complex relationships emerged between different dimensions of insight and coping styles. The negative association between 'positive reinterpretation and growth' and distress suggests that adopting this style may lead to re-labelling symptoms in a less distressing way. Avoidant and isolating styles of coping both appear unhelpful. Psychological interventions should aim to promote more active coping such as discussing a mental health problem with others.

  1. A study of the relationship between learning styles and cognitive abilities in engineering students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hames, E.; Baker, M.

    2015-03-01

    Learning preferences have been indirectly linked to student success in engineering programmes, without a significant body of research to connect learning preferences with cognitive abilities. A better understanding of the relationship between learning styles and cognitive abilities will allow educators to optimise the classroom experience for students. The goal of this study was to determine whether relationships exist between student learning styles, as determined by the Felder-Soloman Inventory of Learning Styles (FSILS), and their cognitive performance. Three tests were used to assess student's cognitive abilities: a matrix reasoning task, a Tower of London task, and a mental rotation task. Statistical t-tests and correlation coefficients were used to quantify the results. Results indicated that the global-sequential, active-referential, and visual-verbal FSILS learning styles scales are related to performance on cognitive tasks. Most of these relationships were found in response times, not accuracy. Differences in task performance between gender groups (male and female) were more notable than differences between learning styles groups.

  2. Role of Learning Styles in the Quality of Learning at Different Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Shahid FAROOQ

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this descriptive, co-relational investigation was to identify the preferred learning styles and their role in quality of performance at secondary, intermediary and university level for language students from six different fields. The association and differences in students’ learning styles related to their demographics were also explored. Data analysis showed that the majority of the students from all the fields in sample showed the diverging style and the accommodating style as their most preferred learning styles. The learner’s gender and nature of house affected the preference for learning styles. Other variables showed no association with learning styles. The learning styles of language students have no relationship with the grades obtained in their previous exams. This study leads to the fact that it should be replicated on a large sample of language learners and comparison should also be made with their current quality of learning/academic performance.

  3. Evaluating the Effect of Arabic Engineering Students’ Learning Styles in Blended Programming Courses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Al-Azawei

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the complex relationship among learning styles, gender, perceived satisfaction, and academic performance across four programming courses supported by an e-learning platform. A total of 219 undergraduate students from a public Iraqi university who recently experienced e-learning voluntarily took place in the study. The integrated courses adopted a blended learning mode and all learners were provided the same learning content and pathway irrespective of their individual styles. Data were gathered using the Index of Learning Styles (ILS, three closed-ended questions, and the academic record. Traditional statistics and partial least squares structural equation modelling (PLS-SEM were performed to examine the proposed hypotheses. The findings of this research suggested that, overall, learning style dimensions are uncorrelated with either academic performance or perceived satisfaction, except for the processing dimension (active/reflective that has a significant effect on the latter. Furthermore, gender is unassociated with any of the proposed model’s constructs. Finally, there is no significant correlation between academic performance and perceived satisfaction. These results led to the conclusion that even though Arabic engineering students prefer active, sensing, visual, and sequential learning as do other engineering students from different backgrounds, they can adapt to a learning context even if their preferences are not met. The research contributes empirically to the existing debate regarding the potential implications of learning styles and for the Arabic context in particular, since respective research remains rare.

  4. The effect of matching and mismatching cognitive style and science instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conwell, Catherine R.; Helgeson, Stanley L.; Wachowiak, Dale G.

    This study examined the effect of matching learners' cognitive styles with science learning activities on science knowledge and attitudes. Fifty-six elementary education majors who were identified as Sensing Feeling types on the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator participated in this study. The Sensing Feeling type is predominant among elementary school educators. The subjects participated in either nine science activities matched to the learning preferences of Sensing Feelers or nine science activities mismatched to their learning preferences. These mismatched activities were geared toward the learning preferences of Intuitive Thinkers, the dominant type among scientists. Results revealed no significant differences between matched and mismatched groups in knowledge of the material presented or overall attitude toward science and toward science teaching. Comparisons made subsequent to the hypothesized analyses did suggest that cognitive style may affect reactions to certain specific learning activities. The immediate reactions of forty non-Sensing Feeling types who also experienced the treatments were compared to those of the 56 Sensing Feeling subjects. Certain activities which were rated by judges prior to the onset of treatment as being particularly well-matched to the Sensing Feeling style did receive significantly more favorable ratings by the Sensing Feeling subjects than by other types. Conversely, the Sensing Feelers gave significantly lower ratings than other types to certain activities which, according to independent judges, were strongly mismatched to the Sensing Feeling style.

  5. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN MANAGERS' LEADERSHIP STYLES IN PHYSICAL EDUCATION OFFICES UNIVERSITIES AND SPORT VOLUNTEERS' SATISFACTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Andam

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to investigate the relationship between managers' leadership styles in physical education offices universities and sport volunteers' satisfaction. Statistical populations of this study included the whole volunteer students in sport associations of countries decimal zones universities. The sample of the study consisted of 231 volunteers who were selected by Morgan Table (n=231, which the results of 208 questionnaires were statistically analyzed. After verifying the validity of questionnaires by the experts, their reliability were calculated as (α=0.91 and α=0.88 respectively for leadership style and Satisfaction questionnaires by Cronbach's alpha coefficient in a pilot study. Data were analyzed with parametric tests at P0.05. Also, There was negative significant relationship between laissez-faire leadership style and volunteers' satisfaction (r= -0.355, sig=0.001. Furthermore, there was a significant difference between preferences of managers' leadership styles. Thus, transformational style (3.723+0.683 was in first and the transactional (3.476+0.572 and laissez-faire (2.827+0.833 styles were in next preferences. Also, from volunteer students' perspective, Satisfaction of acquiring experience, career and social were the most important dimensions, and material Satisfaction was the least important factor. According to research results, It seems that managers of Physical Education offices universities can increase the amount of volunteers' Satisfaction and provide background of their more and most effective attendance in sport association with transformational and inspiration leadership styles, appropriate incentive policies and converting sport association environment to a place in which easier accessibility to individuals' volunteer incentives becomes possible.

  6. [Attitudes towards professional euthanasia in the range between grement in the society and personal preferences--results of a representative examination of the German general population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schröder, Christina; Schmutzer, Gabriele; Klaiberg, Antje; Brähler, Elmar

    2003-08-01

    Several surveys of the German population concerning the attitude towards euthanasia in patients with terminal illness yielded contradictory results, ranging from high acquisition to high refusal rates. After a critical discussion of the methodological concepts of these investigations, we present the results of a representative study of 1957 German persons (age range: 14 - 96 years) which was performed by the institute USUMA in February 2001. Four different types of euthanasia were included in the study: active, passive, and indirect euthanasia as well as physician's assisted suicide. The affirmative response categories were "declared will and unbearable pain", "declared will", "referred will", and "in the responsibility of the physician". Additionally, we asked to state the personal preference in the case of an own incurable illness. The resulting frequency distributions stress the autonomy of the patients (declared will) and the legal forms of professional euthanasia (passive and indirect euthanasia), independent from the degree of pain. The rank order of the hypothetic personal preferences was: passive euthanasia (26.1 %), active euthanasia (21.1 %), indirect euthanasia (13.1 %) and assisted suicide (6.2 %). For each category the hypothetic personal will to utilize euthanasia personally is markedly lower than the consent to legalize euthanasia in the society. This points to a diminished readiness of the population to seek for euthanasia. Persons aged 60 years and above deny all types of euthanasia significantly more often than younger persons. Persons with subjectively bad health status prefer the category "in the responsibility of the physician" more often than healthy subjects. The representative study proves that there is no polarized public opinion concerning euthanasia, rather there is a picture of high complexity.

  7. Relationship between Learning Style and Academic Status of Babol Dental Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasiri, Zahra; Gharekhani, Samane; Ghasempour, Maryam

    2016-05-01

    Identifying and employing students' learning styles could play an important role in selecting appropriate teaching methods in order to improve education. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between the students' final exam scores and the learning style preferences of dental students at Babol University of Medical Sciences. This cross-sectional study was conducted on 88 dental students studying in their fourth, fifth, and sixth years using the visual-aural-reading/writing-kinesthetic (VARK) learning styles' questionnaire. The data were analyzed with IBM SPSS, version 21, using the chi-squared test and the t-test. Of the 88 participants who responded to the questionnaire, 87 preferred multimodal learning styles. There was no significant difference between the mean of the final exam scores in students who did and did not prefer the aural learning style (p = 0.86), the reading/writing learning style (p = 0.20), and the kinesthetic learning style (p = 0.32). In addition, there was no significant difference between the scores on the final clinical course among the students who had different preferences for learning style. However, there was a significant difference between the mean of the final exam scores in students with and without visual learning style preference (p = 0.03), with the former having higher mean scores. There was no significant relationship between preferred learning styles and gender (p > 0.05). The majority of dental students preferred multimodal learning styles, and there was a significant difference between the mean of the final exam scores for students with and without a preference for the visual learning style. In addition, there were no differences in the preferred learning styles between male and female students.

  8. A Genetic Algorithm Approach to Recognise Students' Learning Styles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yannibelli, Virginia; Godoy, Daniela; Amandi, Analia

    2006-01-01

    Learning styles encapsulate the preferences of the students, regarding how they learn. By including information about the student learning style, computer-based educational systems are able to adapt a course according to the individual characteristics of the students. In accomplishing this goal, educational systems have been mostly based on the…

  9. Learning Styles among TESL Undergraduates in University Putra Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mior Yusup, Farah Nabillah; Balakrishnan, Khaymalatha

    2014-01-01

    Learning style is an individual's natural or habitual pattern of acquiring and processing information in learning situations. A core concept is that individuals differ in how they learn. This study focused on to look at a group of TESL undergraduates' preference in learning styles. The finding showed that the students have different kind learning…

  10. Ambiguity Tolerance and Perceptual Learning Styles of Chinese EFL Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Haishan; He, Qingshun

    2016-01-01

    Ambiguity tolerance and perceptual learning styles are the two influential elements showing individual differences in EFL learning. This research is intended to explore the relationship between Chinese EFL learners' ambiguity tolerance and their preferred perceptual learning styles. The findings include (1) the learners are sensitive to English…

  11. Thinking styles in a sample of women engineers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gridley, Mark C

    2006-06-01

    The Gregorc Style Delineator was administered to 26 full-time, professional engineers, all women. Participants preferred concrete thinking styles. This tendency is similar to scores on other measures in much larger samples of engineers for whom sex was not specified.

  12. Learning styles and the selection of majors among Lebanese youth

    OpenAIRE

    Nasser, Ramzi N; Carifio, James M.

    2006-01-01

    Learning style preferences and selection of university major data were obtained from a sample of 199 Lebanese high school graduates. These measures and gender were used to assess the relation between the selection of major and learning style preferences. The main assumption was that students who believe they have competencies or ability in a certain area would make choices to pursue activities in these areas in order to develop further these competencies (Holland, 1973). The ...

  13. 75 FR 40019 - Generalized System of Preferences (GSP): Notice of the Results of the 2009 Annual Product Reviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-13

    ... imports of an article from a GSP beneficiary developing country exceeded the CNLs. The results of the 2009... of the articles and the associated countries granted de minimis waivers. The articles included on... Eligible for GSP Redesignation) provides the list of the articles and the associated countries reviewed for...

  14. Learning Styles and Student Performance in Introductory Economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunton, Bruce

    2015-01-01

    Data from nine introductory microeconomics classes was used to test the effect of student learning style on academic performance. The Kolb Learning Style Inventory was used to assess individual student learning styles. The results indicate that student learning style has no significant effect on performance, undermining the claims of those who…

  15. Attachment Styles and Risky Behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeynab Mohammadalipoor

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Current challengeable life, faces young with varied damages. The Purpose of this research was appointment of role of attachment styles in the risky behaviors of students. Method: the method of the project was attachment in descriptive ones. 273 people of students were selected via several stage cluster sample, and answered to questionner of adult attachment and risky behaviors. Results: Results of analyses of data showed that secure attachment style related with risky behaviors negatively and ambivalence attachment style and avoidant attachment style related with risky behaviors positively. Conclusion: Therefore is emphasized on the importance of instruction of families in the field of creation of secure relationship with children and also importance of plans for heighten secure attachment by counseling centers of university.

  16. Job-Preference and Job-Matching Assessment Results and Their Association with Job Performance and Satisfaction among Young Adults with Developmental Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Julie; Morgan, Robert L.; Salzberg, Charles L.

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the effects of preference and degree of match on job performance of four 19 to 20-year-old young adults with developmental disabilities placed in community-based job conditions. We identified high-preference, high-matched and low-preference, low-matched job tasks using a video web-based assessment program. The job matching…

  17. Managing with Style: What Does It Mean in Practice Having a Knowing, Planning, or Creating style?

    OpenAIRE

    E. COOLS; Van den Broeck, H.; M. PIATTINI

    2007-01-01

    Our study aims to contribute to an enhanced understanding of how cognitive styles, being individual preferences for perceiving and processing information, influence managerial behaviour using a qualitative approach. Based on content analysis of written testimonies of 100 managers, we found interesting differences between managers with a knowing, planning, and creating style with regard to both task-oriented behaviour (decision making) and peopleoriented behaviour (conflict management, interpe...

  18. The adaptive decision-making, risky decision, and decision-making style of Internet gaming disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, C-H; Wang, P-W; Liu, T-L; Chen, C-S; Yen, C-F; Yen, J-Y

    2017-07-01

    Persistent gaming, despite acknowledgment of its negative consequences, is a major criterion for individuals with Internet gaming disorder (IGD). This study evaluated the adaptive decision-making, risky decision, and decision-making style of individuals with IGD. We recruited 87 individuals with IGD and 87 without IGD (matched controls). All participants underwent an interview based on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th Edition) diagnostic criteria for IGD and completed an adaptive decision-making task; the Preference for Intuition and Deliberation Scale, Chen Internet Addiction Scale, and Barratt Impulsivity Scale were also assessed on the basis of the information from the diagnostic interviews. The results demonstrated that the participants in both groups tend to make more risky choices in advantage trials where their expected value (EV) was more favorable than those of the riskless choice. The tendency to make a risky choice in advantage trials was stronger among IGD group than that among controls. Participants of both groups made more risky choices in the loss domain, a risky option to loss more versus sure loss option, than they did in the gain domain, a risky option to gain more versus sure gain. Furthermore, the participants with IGD made more risky choices in the gain domain than did the controls. Participants with IGD showed higher and lower preferences for intuitive and deliberative decision-making styles, respectively, than controls and their preferences for intuition and deliberation were positively and negatively associated with IGD severity, respectively. These results suggested that individuals with IGD have elevated EV sensitivity for decision-making. However, they demonstrated risky preferences in the gain domain and preferred an intuitive rather than deliberative decision-making style. This might explain why they continue Internet gaming despite negative consequences. Thus, therapists should focus more on decision

  19. Learning style and learning needs of heart failure patients (The Need2Know-HF patient study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyde, Mary; Tuckett, Anthony; Peters, Robyn; Thompson, David R; Turner, Catherine; Stewart, Simon

    2009-12-01

    Heart failure management programs which include education are the gold standard for management of patients with heart failure. Identifying the learning styles and learning needs of heart failure patients is an essential step in developing effective education strategies within these programs. To investigate the learning style and learning needs of heart failure patients. Patients diagnosed with heart failure at a large tertiary referral hospital completed a Heart Failure Learning Style and Needs Inventory. From the total of 55 patients who completed the questionnaire 64% reported a preference for multimodal learning style, 18% preferred read/write, 11% preferred auditory, and 7% preferred kinesthetic. In relation to educational topics, signs and symptoms was ranked as the most important topic to learn about followed by prognosis. This study provides a poignant snap-shot into the world of chronic disease. In essence, the patients' educational needs for living with heart failure can be summed up as "Never better, getting worse, unpredictable". The results indicate that these groups of patients need to know (Need2Know) about information regarding their signs and symptoms as well as wanting to elicit the significance of their disease and whether it can be cured.

  20. Analytic information processing style in epilepsy patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buonfiglio, Marzia; Di Sabato, Francesco; Mandillo, Silvia; Albini, Mariarita; Di Bonaventura, Carlo; Giallonardo, Annateresa; Avanzini, Giuliano

    2017-08-01

    Relevant to the study of epileptogenesis is learning processing, given the pivotal role that neuroplasticity assumes in both mechanisms. Recently, evoked potential analyses showed a link between analytic cognitive style and altered neural excitability in both migraine and healthy subjects, regardless of cognitive impairment or psychological disorders. In this study we evaluated analytic/global and visual/auditory perceptual dimensions of cognitive style in patients with epilepsy. Twenty-five cryptogenic temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) patients matched with 25 idiopathic generalized epilepsy (IGE) sufferers and 25 healthy volunteers were recruited and participated in three cognitive style tests: "Sternberg-Wagner Self-Assessment Inventory", the C. Cornoldi test series called AMOS, and the Mariani Learning style Questionnaire. Our results demonstrate a significant association between analytic cognitive style and both IGE and TLE and respectively a predominant auditory and visual analytic style (ANOVA: p values style and its neurophysiological correlates in epilepsy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Love styles of young adults in a metropolitan city of India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priya Ranjan Avinash

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Biological approaches tend to treat love as a brain generated physiological process like hunger or thirst. On the other hand, psychologists have created many descriptive theories of love in an effort to understand the full range of experience and behaviours associated with love. One of the most prominent and interesting models is the John Alan Lee’s theory called “love styles”. According to him, there are six love styles, named: eros, ludus, storge, pragmatic, maniac, and agape. Aims and objectives: This study aimed to assess the love styles of young adults and assess its relationship with their personality traits. Materials and methods: A total of 120 young adults were taken as the sample using purposive sampling technique. Socio-demographic profile, relationship status, and attitude towards sex were assessed through semi-structured questionnaire. Love Attitude Scale was applied and clinical assessment of personality traits was done using the text revision of the fourth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV-TR after taking their informed consent. Data was pooled and statistical analysis was done, using analysis of variance (ANOVA and chi-square tests. Results: The most preferred love style in the study population was eros, while the least preferred was ludus. Extramarital relationship and premarital sex was positively associated with ludus love style. Subjects with borderline and narcissistic personality traits scored significantly high on the ludus love styles. Conclusion: Love styles differ between the two sexes and also changes with their age. Personality trait influences the love style of a person.

  2. [Life style and affective disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raboch, Jiří

    2017-01-01

    Life style significantly affects the health status of each person. Life style medicine is an evidence based practice, which is trying to develop patterns of healthy behavior. Most evidence exists about the effect of suitable diet (eg. unsaturated fatty acids) and adequate aerobic exercise. Combination of lifestyle modification to standard psychopharmacologic and psychotherapeutic techniques can improve the results of preventive and therapeutic programs for people with depressive issues.

  3. Managerial style in Spanish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dra. Cristina Etayo Pérez

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to study the management style of the Spanish advertising agencies. For this purpose, it explores the way in which the dimensions that define the nature of this concept arise in the sector chosen. The analysis begins with the definition of management style as concept followed by an exposition of its main functions and its fundamental dimensions. Then, the paper presents the methodology used to verify how these dimensions appear among managers as well as the results obtained during the fieldwork. Such methodology includes the achievement of in-depth interviews, with the help of a questionnaire of semi-structured questions, and the descriptive analysis of qualitative and quantitative information obtained from those interviews. The revision of these aspects enriches the study of management at the advertising agencies since it contributes to understand why certain actions have as a consequence one particular kind of relationship between directors and collaborators or another.

  4. Learning Styles and the Community Educator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kussrow, Paul G.; Dunn, Kenneth

    1992-01-01

    Learning style research can be incorporated into community education practice by (1) matching learning time preferences to academic schedules; (2) recognizing that many adult students are global, not analytic, learners and tactual/kinesthetic rather than auditory; and (3) accommodating physical needs in classroom seating, lighting, etc. (SK)

  5. Children's Thinking Styles, Play, and Academic Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Robyn M.; Liden, Sharon; Shin, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    Based on the study of seventy-four middle school children of mostly Filipino and part Hawaiian heritages, this article explores the relationships of children's thinking styles, play preferences, and school performance. Using the Group Embedded Figures Test, the Articulation of the Body Scale, and written responses to three questions, the authors…

  6. Dependency-like behaviors and pain coping styles in subjects with chronic migraine and medication overuse: results from a 1-year follow-up study

    OpenAIRE

    Biagianti, Bruno; Grazzi, Licia; Usai, Susanna; Gambini, Orsola

    2014-01-01

    Background Even after successful detoxification, 20-40% of subjects presenting chronic migraine with symptomatic medication overuse (CMwMO) relapse into medication overuse within one year. In this restrospective analysis on subjects referred to our center for detoxification, we investigated whether personality traits, dependency-like behaviors and pain coping styles predicted those who relapsed into medication overuse within the 12 months following the detoxification and those who did not. Me...

  7. Treatment preferences amongst physical therapists and chiropractors for the management of neck pain: results of an international survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Clinical practice guidelines on the management of neck pain make recommendations to help practitioners optimize patient care. By examining the practice patterns of practitioners, adherence to CPGs or lack thereof, is demonstrated. Understanding utilization of various treatments by practitioners and comparing these patterns to that of recommended guidelines is important to identify gaps for knowledge translation and improve treatment regimens. Aim To describe the utilization of interventions in patients with neck pain by clinicians. Methods A cross-sectional international survey was conducted from February 2012 to March 2013 to determine physical medicine, complementary and alternative medicine utilization amongst 360 clinicians treating patients with neck pain. Results The survey was international (19 countries) with Canada having the largest response (38%). Results were analyzed by usage amongst physical therapists (38%) and chiropractors (31%) as they were the predominant respondents. Within these professions, respondents were male (41-66%) working in private practice (69-95%). Exercise and manual therapies were consistently (98-99%) used by both professions but tests of subgroup differences determined that physical therapists used exercise, orthoses and ‘other’ interventions more, while chiropractors used phototherapeutics more. However, phototherapeutics (65%), Orthoses/supportive devices (57%), mechanical traction (55%) and sonic therapies (54%) were not used by the majority of respondents. Thermal applications (73%) and acupuncture (46%) were the modalities used most commonly. Analysis of differences across the subtypes of neck pain indicated that respondents utilize treatments more often for chronic neck pain and whiplash conditions, followed by radiculopathy, acute neck pain and whiplash conditions, and facet joint dysfunction by diagnostic block. The higher rates of usage of some interventions were consistent with supporting evidence (e

  8. Exploring the relation between learning style and cognitive impairment in patients with acquired brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boosman, H; Visser-Meily, J M A; Post, M W M; Lindeman, E; Van Heugten, C M

    2012-01-01

    The way a patient prefers to approach or choose a learning situation represents the patient's learning style. The objective of this chart review study was to explore the relation between learning style and cognitive impairment in patients with acquired brain injury (ABI). We used data from files of 92 adult patients with ABI referred to inpatient rehabilitation, who completed the Adapted Learning Style Inventory (A-LSI) and at least one of the following neuropsychological tests: Trail Making Test, Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test, WAIS-III Digit Span, Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure Test-Copy, Stroop Color-Word Test, or the Brixton Spatial Anticipation Test. The A-LSI yielded the following distribution of learning styles: 4 doers, 48 observers, 2 deciders and 38 thinkers. No significant correlation coefficients were found between the neuropsychological tests and the A-LSI. Furthermore, Chi-square tests revealed no significant associations between learning style (observer, thinker) and cognitive impairment. The results of this exploratory study suggest that learning style and cognitive impairment are independent in patients with ABI.

  9. Sources of traffic and visitors' preferences regarding online public reports of quality: web analytics and online survey results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardach, Naomi S; Hibbard, Judith H; Greaves, Felix; Dudley, R Adams

    2015-05-01

    In the context of the Affordable Care Act, there is extensive emphasis on making provider quality transparent and publicly available. Online public reports of quality exist, but little is known about how visitors find reports or about their purpose in visiting. To address this gap, we gathered website analytics data from a national group of online public reports of hospital or physician quality and surveyed real-time visitors to those websites. Websites were recruited from a national group of online public reports of hospital or physician quality. Analytics data were gathered from each website: number of unique visitors, method of arrival for each unique visitor, and search terms resulting in visits. Depending on the website, a survey invitation was launched for unique visitors on landing pages or on pages with quality information. Survey topics included type of respondent (eg, consumer, health care professional), purpose of visit, areas of interest, website experience, and demographics. There were 116,657 unique visitors to the 18 participating websites (1440 unique visitors/month per website), with most unique visitors arriving through search (63.95%, 74,606/116,657). Websites with a higher percent of traffic from search engines garnered more unique visitors (P=.001). The most common search terms were for individual hospitals (23.25%, 27,122/74,606) and website names (19.43%, 22,672/74,606); medical condition terms were uncommon (0.81%, 605/74,606). Survey view rate was 42.48% (49,560/116,657 invited) resulting in 1755 respondents (participation rate=3.6%). There were substantial proportions of consumer (48.43%, 850/1755) and health care professional respondents (31.39%, 551/1755). Across websites, proportions of consumer (21%-71%) and health care professional respondents (16%-48%) varied. Consumers were frequently interested in using the information to choose providers or assess the quality of their provider (52.7%, 225/427); the majority of those choosing a

  10. Adult Playfulness, Humor Styles, and Subjective Happiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Xiao D; Leung, Chun-Lok; Hiranandani, Neelam A

    2016-12-01

    Playfulness has been referred to as a disposition that involves reframing a situation to amuse others and to make the situation more stimulating and enjoyable. It may serve to shift one's perspective when dealing with environmental threats. Despite all the benefits of playfulness towards psychological well-being, it remains a largely understudied subject in psychology, particularly in Chinese societies. Hence, this study examined the association between adult playfulness, humor styles, and subjective happiness among a sample of 166 university students in Hong Kong and 159 students in Guangzhou, who completed a self-administered questionnaire, including the Short Measure for Adult Playfulness, the Chinese Humor Styles Questionnaire, and the Subjective Happiness Scale. Results showed that adult playfulness was positively correlated with affiliative humor, self-enhancing humor, and subjective happiness in both Hong Kong and Guangzhou samples. By its implication, highly playful Chinese students preferred using affiliative and self-enhancing humor to amuse themselves and others. © The Author(s) 2016.

  11. A Nationwide Learning-Style Assessment of Undergraduate Athletic Training Students in CAAHEP-Accredited Athletic Training Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stradley, Stephanie L.; Buckley, Bernadette D.; Kaminski, Thomas W.; Horodyski, MaryBeth; Fleming, David; Janelle, Christopher M.

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To identify the learning styles and preferred environmental characteristics of undergraduate athletic training students in Commission on Accreditation of Allied Health Education Programs (CAAHEP)-accredited athletic training education programs and to determine if learning-style differences existed among geographic regions of the country. Design and Setting: Fifty CAAHEP-accredited athletic training programs were randomly selected in proportion to the number of programs in each geographic region. Ten students from each school were selected to complete the Kolb Learning Style Inventory (LSI) and the Productivity Environmental Preference Survey (PEPS). Subjects: A total of 193 undergraduate athletic training students (84 men, 109 women) with a mean age of 22.3 ± 2.8 years completed the PEPS, while 188 students completed the LSI. Measurements: We used chi-square analyses to determine if differences existed in learning-style type and if these differences were based on geographic location. We calculated analysis of variance to determine if there were any geographic differences in the mean overall combination scores of the LSI. Descriptive statistics were used to evaluate the PEPS. Results: The overall return rate was 38%. The chi-square analyses revealed no significant difference in learning-style type for athletic training students, regardless of the geographic region. The LSI yielded a relatively even distribution of learning styles: 29.3% of the students were accommodators, 19.7% were divergers, 21.8% were convergers, and 29.3% were assimilators. The overall mean combination scores were 4.9 (abstract-concrete) and 4.9 (active-reflective), and analysis of variance indicated no significant difference in the mean combination scores among the geographic regions. The PEPS revealed that undergraduate athletic training students demonstrated a strong preference for learning in the afternoon. Conclusions: Undergraduate athletic training students demonstrated great

  12. The Influences of Cognitive Styles on Individual Learning and Collaborative Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Sherry Y.; Chang, Li-Ping

    2016-01-01

    Both individual learning (IL) and collaborative learning (CL) provide students with different benefits. However, previous research indicates that cognitive styles affect students' learning preferences. Thus, it is necessary to examine how cognitive styles influence students' reactions to IL and CL. Among various cognitive styles, Pask's…

  13. Yet Another Adaptive Learning Management System Based on Felder and Silverman's Learning Styles and Mashup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yi-Hsing; Chen, Yen-Yi; Chen, Nian-Shing; Lu, You-Te; Fang, Rong-Jyue

    2016-01-01

    This study designs and implements an adaptive learning management system based on Felder and Silverman's Learning Style Model and the Mashup technology. In this system, Felder and Silverman's Learning Style model is used to assess students' learning styles, in order to provide adaptive learning to leverage learners' learning preferences.…

  14. A Comparison of Learning Style Models and Assessment Instruments for University Graphics Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, La Verne Abe; Sadowski, Mary S.; Birchman, Judy A.

    2006-01-01

    Kolb (2004) and others have defined learning style as a preference by which students learn and remember what they have learned. This presentation will include a summary of learning style research published in the "Engineering Design Graphics Journal" over the past 15 years on the topic of learning styles and graphics education. The…

  15. An Investigation of the Reading Styles of Urban Jamaican Middle Grade Students with Learning Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duhaney, Laurel M. Garrick; Ewing, Norma J.

    1998-01-01

    Examines reading-style preferences of 53 Jamaican students with learning disabilities in New York public schools. Indicates that variables most strongly preferred by all students were persistent, kinesthetic, tactual, environmental, motivational, and mobile. Students also preferred reading in the morning. Finds least preferred variables were…

  16. Assessment of learning preferences among dental students using Visual, Aural, Read-Write, Kinesthetic questionnaire: An institutional experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Runki Saran

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Every individual has different learning style. As dental educators, it is necessary to recognize the fact that each dental student may have a preference of acquiring information and skill in one style over another. The objective of this study was to determine the learning style preferences of dental students using the Visual, Aural, Read-Write, Kinesthetic (VARK questionnaire. Materials and Methods: The VARK questionnaire was administered to 20 1 st year and 40 2 nd year dental students of Melaka Manipal Medical College, Manipal University to determine their preferred mode of learning. Completed questionnaires were scored and tabulated to determine the distribution of VARK preferences. Results: Nearly 50% of 1 st year students were quadmodal whereas 55% of 2 nd year students were unimodal in which kinesthetic preference was dominant. Mean V and A scores were significantly higher for 1 st year than 2 nd year students. No significant gender difference was seen. Conclusion: The dental students in this study had varied learning preferences. As dental educators, we need to adopt different methods of teaching in order to reach most of the students and make the educational experience more productive.

  17. Use of Computer Technology for English Language Learning: Do Learning Styles, Gender, and Age Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Cynthia; Yeung, Alexander Seeshing; Ip, Tiffany

    2016-01-01

    Computer technology provides spaces and locales for language learning. However, learning style preference and demographic variables may affect the effectiveness of technology use for a desired goal. Adapting Reid's pioneering Perceptual Learning Style Preference Questionnaire (PLSPQ), this study investigated the relations of university students'…

  18. The Effects of Multimedia and Learning Style on Student Achievement in Online Electronics Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surjono, Herman Dwi

    2015-01-01

    This experimental study investigated the effects of multimedia preferences and learning styles on undergraduate student achievement in an adaptive e-learning system for electronics course at the Yogyakarta State University Indonesia. The findings showed that students in which their multimedia preferences and learning style matched with the way the…

  19. Styles of Learning and Thinking of College Students in the Japanese, United States and Kuwait Cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soliman, Abdulla M.; Torrance, E. Paul

    1986-01-01

    Responses to a questionnaire indicated that Japanese college students (N=200) scored highest on the right hemisphere scale, preferring intuitive and creative learning styles, while Kuwaiti students (N=400) scored highest on the left hemisphere scale, preferring planning and precision styles. American students (N=200) scored highest on an…

  20. Differentiating instruction upon learning styles in higher education: A controversial issue

    OpenAIRE

    Tulbure, C.

    2011-01-01

    Within the frame of this paper we are going to observe the extent to which differentiated instruction according to the student’s learning styles has as result the improvement of academic achievement on a higher educational level. Our study aims at providing support in both theory and research for differentiated instruction based on students’ learning preferences. Overall, this study brings arguments to illustrate the idea that differentiated instruction leads to higher academic achievement co...

  1. The Moderating Effect of Attachment Styles (Anxiety And Avoidance on Consumer Intention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valter Afonso Vieira

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available 800x600 This paper investigates firm-focused customer attachment styles relationship, rather than general or interpersonal attachment styles. We proposed a theoretical framework and analyzed the customers’ attachment styles and their moderating effect on happiness, commitment, loyalty, satisfaction and preference for closeness. In Study 1, we survey clients from main banks in Brazil, who evaluated their relationship with banks. In Study 2, we survey clients from insurance agent broker. The results showed that the anxiety × avoidance interaction had negative association with switching intention. Second, the outcomes suggested that the anxiety × avoidance interaction attenuates the main effect of all marketing variables on repurchase intention and switching intention, creating a three-way interaction. Normal 0 21 false false false PT-BR X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4

  2. Preference for and discrimination of paintings by mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shigeru Watanabe

    Full Text Available I measured preference for paintings (Renoir vs. Picasso or Kandinsky vs. Mondrian in mice. In general mice did not display a painting preference except for two mice: one preferred Renoir to Picasso, and the other preferred Kandinsky to Mondrian. Thereafter, I examined discrimination of paintings with new mice. When exposure to paintings of one artist was associated with an injection of morphine (3.0 mg/kg, mice displayed conditioned preference for those paintings, showing discrimination of paintings by Renoir from those by Picasso, and paintings by Kandinsky from those by Mondrian after the conditioning. They also exhibited generalization of the preference to novel paintings of the artists. After conditioning with morphine for a set of paintings consisting of two artists, mice showed discrimination between two sets of paintings also from the two artists but not in association with morphine. These results suggest that mice can discriminate not only between an artist's style but also among paintings of the same artist. When mice were trained to discriminate a pair of paintings by Kandinsky and Renoir in an operant chamber equipped with a touch screen, they showed transfer of the discrimination to new pairs of the artists, but did not show transfer of discrimination of paintings by other artists, suggesting generalization.

  3. Preference for and discrimination of paintings by mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Shigeru

    2013-01-01

    I measured preference for paintings (Renoir vs. Picasso or Kandinsky vs. Mondrian) in mice. In general mice did not display a painting preference except for two mice: one preferred Renoir to Picasso, and the other preferred Kandinsky to Mondrian. Thereafter, I examined discrimination of paintings with new mice. When exposure to paintings of one artist was associated with an injection of morphine (3.0 mg/kg), mice displayed conditioned preference for those paintings, showing discrimination of paintings by Renoir from those by Picasso, and paintings by Kandinsky from those by Mondrian after the conditioning. They also exhibited generalization of the preference to novel paintings of the artists. After conditioning with morphine for a set of paintings consisting of two artists, mice showed discrimination between two sets of paintings also from the two artists but not in association with morphine. These results suggest that mice can discriminate not only between an artist's style but also among paintings of the same artist. When mice were trained to discriminate a pair of paintings by Kandinsky and Renoir in an operant chamber equipped with a touch screen, they showed transfer of the discrimination to new pairs of the artists, but did not show transfer of discrimination of paintings by other artists, suggesting generalization.

  4. Preference for and Discrimination of Paintings by Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Shigeru

    2013-01-01

    I measured preference for paintings (Renoir vs. Picasso or Kandinsky vs. Mondrian) in mice. In general mice did not display a painting preference except for two mice: one preferred Renoir to Picasso, and the other preferred Kandinsky to Mondrian. Thereafter, I examined discrimination of paintings with new mice. When exposure to paintings of one artist was associated with an injection of morphine (3.0 mg/kg), mice displayed conditioned preference for those paintings, showing discrimination of paintings by Renoir from those by Picasso, and paintings by Kandinsky from those by Mondrian after the conditioning. They also exhibited generalization of the preference to novel paintings of the artists. After conditioning with morphine for a set of paintings consisting of two artists, mice showed discrimination between two sets of paintings also from the two artists but not in association with morphine. These results suggest that mice can discriminate not only between an artist’s style but also among paintings of the same artist. When mice were trained to discriminate a pair of paintings by Kandinsky and Renoir in an operant chamber equipped with a touch screen, they showed transfer of the discrimination to new pairs of the artists, but did not show transfer of discrimination of paintings by other artists, suggesting generalization. PMID:23762346

  5. Matching student personality types and learning preferences to teaching methodologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jessee, Stephen A; O'Neill, Paula N; Dosch, Robert O

    2006-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify teaching styles that complement the learning preferences of undergraduate dental students while enhancing the quality of patient care. A formidable challenge to reform in dental education has been overcoming the resistance by faculty and administration to recommended changes. The organizational structure of dental institutions, with their independent departments, makes obtaining consensus on educational issues difficult. For beneficial change to occur, clear evidence of the benefits to all within the organization must be presented. The objectives of the study were to 1) identify the most common personality types among first- and second-year undergraduate dental students at the University of Texas Dental Branch at Houston using the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI); 2) identify the learning preferences of these personality types; and 3) determine a more effective approach to teaching clinical dentistry based upon student personality types and learning preferences. Four common personality types were identified among respondents: ISTJ, ESFJ, ESTJ, and ISFJ, with a predisposition for Sensing (S) (desire for facts, use of senses) over Intuition (N) (look for possibilities, relationships) and Judging (J) (prefers decisiveness, closure) over Perceiving (P) (desire flexibility, spontaneity). The most common occurring personality type, ISTJ, represents an Introverted, Sensing, Thinking, Judging individual. Specific clinical curricular techniques that would appeal to these common personality types are identified, and an explanation of their benefit is provided. Results of this study demonstrate the importance of faculty understanding and acknowledging different student personality types and related learning preferences as a way to initiate improvement of undergraduate dental education, promote student motivation, and allow for an expression of learning style preference.

  6. Adherence to a Mediterranean-Style Diet and Appendicular Lean Mass in Community-Dwelling Older People: Results From the Berlin Aging Study II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolov, Jivko; Spira, Dominik; Aleksandrova, Krasimira; Otten, Lindsey; Meyer, Antje; Demuth, Ilja; Steinhagen-Thiessen, Elisabeth; Eckardt, Rahel; Norman, Kristina

    2016-10-01

    Selected nutrients or food groups have often been studied with regard to long-term mortality and cardiovascular disease, whereas the relation between diet quality and appendicular lean mass (ALM) has rarely been researched. The aim of this study was to explore the association between a Mediterranean-style diet and ALM in community-dwelling older people. Cross-sectional data from the Berlin Aging Study II were available for 1,509 participants (51% women, 68.2±3.7 years). Nutrient intake was assessed using the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition Food Frequency Questionnaire. Adherence to a Mediterranean-style diet was evaluated with the modified Mediterranean-type diet score (mMedTypeDiet). ALM was determined by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and related to body mass index (ALM/BMI). A general linear regression model was carried out to assess the association between mMedTypeDiet score groups and ALM/BMI. ALM/BMI was higher in women with a higher adherence to the mMedTypeDiet (0.64±0.1 vs 0.62±0.1 and 0.61±0.1 in low and medium adherence, retrospectively, p = .004). In the risk factor-adjusted general linear regression analysis, a higher adherence to the mMedTypeDiet was associated with higher ALM/BMI in women and better ALM/fat mass ratio when compared to a medium and a low diet quality. No significant associations were seen in men. Higher adherence to a Mediterranean-style diet was associated with a positive effect on ALM/BMI in women. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. The Influence of Scheduling Style on Assortment Size

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rai Dipankar

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available People use two types of scheduling styles to schedule their daily activities, namely clock-time or event-time. When people use clock time, they organize tasks based on a clock. When they use event-time, they organize tasks based on their order of completion. This research shows that adopting different scheduling styles influence consumers’ assortment size preferences. We demonstrate, through two studies, that consumers using event-time scheduling style prefer a larger assortment size whereas consumers using clock-time scheduling style prefer a smaller assortment size. We also show that this effect is mediated by desirability-feasibility consideration. Specifically, event-time scheduling style leads consumers to focus on the desirability considerations, which leads them to prefer larger assortment size while shopping. On the other hand, clock-time scheduling style leads consumers to focus on the feasibility considerations, which leads them to prefer smaller assortment size while shopping. We also discuss the theoretical and managerial implications of our research.

  8. Comparative exploration of learning styles and teaching techniques between Thai and Vietnamese EFL students and instructors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supalak Nakhornsri

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Learning styles have been a particular focus of a number of researchers over the past decades. Findings from various studies researching into how students learn highlight significant relationships between learners’ styles of learning and their language learning processes and achievement. This research focuses on a comparative analysis of the preferences of English learning styles and teaching techniques perceived by students from Thailand and Vietnam, and the teaching styles and techniques practiced by their instructors. The purposes were 1 to investigate the learning styles and teaching techniques students from both countries preferred, 2 to investigate the compatibility of the teaching styles and techniques practiced by instructors and those preferred by the students, 3 to specify the learning styles and teaching techniques students with high level of English proficiency preferred, and 4 to investigate the similarities of Thai and Vietnamese students’ preferences for learning styles and teaching techniques. The sample consisted of two main groups: 1 undergraduate students from King Mongkut’s University of Technology North Bangkok (KMUTNB, Thailand and Thai Nguyen University (TNU, Vietnam and 2 English instructors from both institutions. The instruments employed comprised the Students’ Preferred English Learning Style and Teaching Technique Questionnaire and the Teachers’ Practiced English Teaching Style and Technique Questionnaire. The collected data were analyzed using arithmetic means and standard deviation. The findings can contribute to the curriculum development and assist teachers to teach outside their comfort level to match the students’ preferred learning styles. In addition, the findings could better promote the courses provided for students. By understanding the learning style make-up of the students enrolled in the courses, faculty can adjust their modes of content delivery to match student preferences and maximize

  9. Maternal and paternal disciplinary styles: relations with preschoolers' playground behavioral orientations and peer status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, C H; DeWolf, D M; Wozniak, P; Burts, D C

    1992-08-01

    To explore relations among parents' self-reported disciplinary styles, preschoolers' playground behavioral orientations, and peer status, 106 mothers and fathers of preschool-age children (age range = 40-71 months) participated in home disciplinary style interviews. Observations of their children's playground behavior in preschool settings and measures of sociometric status were also obtained. Results indicated that children of more inductive mothers and fathers (i.e., less power assertive) exhibited fewer disruptive playground behaviors. In addition, daughters and older preschoolers of inductive mothers exhibited more prosocial behavior. Children of inductive mothers were also more preferred by peers. Few significant relations were found between paternal discipline and child behavior/peer status. Age-related patterns of behavior also indicated that older preschoolers who engaged in more prosocial and less antisocial and disruptive playground behavior were more preferred by peers. In addition, child behaviors were found to mediate maternal discipline and peer status.

  10. Style in Music

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dannenberg, Roger B.

    Because music is not objectively descriptive or representational, the subjective qualities of music seem to be most important. Style is one of the most salient qualities of music, and in fact most descriptions of music refer to some aspect of musical style. Style in music can refer to historical periods, composers, performers, sonic texture, emotion, and genre. In recent years, many aspects of music style have been studied from the standpoint of automation: How can musical style be recognized and synthesized? An introduction to musical style describes ways in which style is characterized by composers and music theorists. Examples are then given where musical style is the focal point for computer models of music analysis and music generation.

  11. Consumers’ preferences for bread

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edenbrandt, Anna Kristina; Gamborg, Christian; Thorsen, Bo Jellesmark

    2018-01-01

    Consumers are apprehensive about transgenic technologies, so cisgenics, which limit gene transfers to sexually compatible organisms, have been suggested to address consumer concerns. We study consumer preferences for rye bread alternatives based on transgenic or cisgenic rye, grown conventionally...... pesticide-free production methods, and that while cisgenics is preferred over transgenics, the majority of respondents favour traditional breeding methods. The distribution in preferences suggests that some respondents prefer bread from cisgenic crops produced without pesticides over traditional crops...... produced using pesticides. Preferences for organic bread are stronger than for pesticide-free products. From a policy perspective results suggest that excluding cisgenics from mandatory labeling in the EU, or including it in the voluntary non-GM labelling in the US, would cause welfare losses for consumers....

  12. Analysis of gender-based differences among surgeons in Japan: results of a survey conducted by the Japan Surgical Society. Part 1: Working style.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawase, Kazumi; Nomura, Kyoko; Tominaga, Ryuji; Iwase, Hirotaka; Ogawa, Tomoko; Shibasaki, Ikuko; Shimada, Mitsuo; Taguchi, Tomoaki; Takeshita, Emiko; Tomizawa, Yasuko; Nomura, Sachiyo; Hanazaki, Kazuhiro; Hanashi, Tomoko; Yamashita, Hiroko; Kokudo, Norihiro; Maeda, Kotaro

    2018-01-01

    To assess the working styles of men and women working as surgeons in Japan. In July, 2014, the Japan Surgical Society invited all their members (n = 29,861), through an internet campaign, to participate in a nationwide survey of surgeons. The items investigated in this descriptive study included demographic information and working styles, based on a questionnaire. In total, 6211 surgeons participated (response rate 20.8%, 5586 men and 625 women). The largest age stratum was 40-49 years for men and 30-39 years for women. Overall, respondents identified their labor contract, including salary and work hours, as the highest priority for improvement. Women with children were more likely to be part-time employees, work fewer hours, and take fewer house calls/on-calls than their male counterparts. Moreover, women of all ages earned a lower annual income than men, irrespective of whether they had children. Perception scores for discrimination related to work and promotion were significantly higher among women than men (p women working as surgeons in Japan.

  13. Self-reported maternal parenting style and confidence and infant temperament in a multi-ethnic community: results from the Born in Bradford cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prady, Stephanie L; Kiernan, Kathleen; Fairley, Lesley; Wilson, Sarah; Wright, John

    2014-03-01

    Ethnic minority children in the United Kingdom often experience health disadvantage. Parenting influences children's current and future health, but little is known about whether parenting behaviours and mother's perception of her infant vary by ethnicity. Using the Born in Bradford (BiB) birth cohort, which is located in an ethnically diverse and economically deprived UK city, we conducted a cross-sectional analysis of mother's self-reported parenting confidence, self-efficacy, hostility and warmth, and infant temperament at six months of age. We examined responses from women of Pakistani (N = 554) and White British (N = 439) origin. Pakistani mothers reported feeling more confident about their abilities as a parent. Significantly fewer Pakistani women adopted a hostile approach to parenting, an effect that was attenuated after adjustment for socioeconomic status and mental health. Overall, women with more self-efficacious, warm and less hostile parenting styles reported significantly fewer problems with their infant's temperaments. Of women with higher self-efficacy parenting styles, Pakistani mothers were significantly more likely than White British mothers to report more problematic infant temperaments, although absolute differences were small. It is unlikely that the ethnic variation seen in children's cognitive and behavioural outcomes in childhood is attributable to differences in parenting or infant characteristics reported at six months.

  14. Film Noir Style Genealogy

    OpenAIRE

    Dita Rietuma

    2012-01-01

    Annotation for the Doctoral Work Film Noir Style Genealogy (The Genealogy of the Film Noir Style) The doctoral work topic Film Noir Style Genealogy encompasses traditionally approved world film theory views on the concept of film noir and its related cinematographic heritage, and an exploration of its evolution and distinctive style, including – the development of film noir in the USA, Europe, and also in Latvia, within the context of both socio-political progression and the paradigm of m...

  15. Learning styles in vertically integrated teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brumpton, Kay; Kitchener, Scott; Sweet, Linda

    2013-10-01

    With vertical integration, registrars and medical students attend the same educational workshops. It is not known whether these learners have similar or different learning styles related to their level of education within the medical training schema. This study aims to collect information about learning styles with a view to changing teaching strategies. If a significant difference is demonstrated this will impact on required approaches to teaching. The VARK learning inventory questionnaire was administered to 36 general practice registrars and 20 medical students. The learning styles were compared as individuals and then related to their level of education within the medical training schema. Students had a greater preference for multimodal learning compared with registrars (62.5 per cent versus 33.3 per cent, respectively). More than half of the registrars preferred uni or bimodal learning modalities, compared with one-third of the medical students. The present workshop format based on visual and aural material will not match the learning needs of most learners. This small study has shown that the majority of medical students and registrars could have their learning preferences better met by the addition of written material to the workshop series. Surprisingly, a significantly larger number of medical students than registrars appeared to be broadly multimodal in their learning style, and this warrants further research. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Socio-demographic factors of valuing autonomous and conformist educational styles in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlović Zoran

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of preference of educational styles is highly relevant, since it points out both to the more general underlying value orientations and the expected or desired effects of socialization process. This paper deals with the level of acceptance and factors of valuing the autonomous and conformist educational styles among Serbian citizens, operationalised through estimation of importance of qualities that children should learn at home. Based on the three waves of World Values Survey, the analysis of data from Serbia was performed in longitudinal perspective in the period from 1996 to 2006 (total N=3700, as well as in comparative perspective, when the data obtained in Serbia were compared with the data collected in the European countries that participated in the last, fifth wave of World Values Survey (total N=23941. The results indicate that, in the observed period, on the average two thirds of citizens (64% are characterized by preference of autonomous educational style, while respondents' education and population size of settlement figure as the most important factors of preference. However, according to the level of acceptance of autonomy, Serbia is placed 16th out of 21 analyzed European countries, and therefore, in comparative perspective, valuing of autonomy in the country is on a relatively low level. The results imply that by a non-selective encouragement of autonomy in all students, by cooperation with parents or a more general promotion of knowledge, school may play an important role in this process.

  17. Parenting styles, feeding styles, and their influence on child obesogenic behaviors and body weight. A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollmer, Rachel L; Mobley, Amy R

    2013-12-01

    With recommendations to include parents as targets for childhood obesity interventions, there is a need to review the relationship of general parenting influences on childhood obesity. Therefore, the aim of this review is to examine the existing literature regarding the influence of parenting style and/or feeding styles on childhood obesogenic behaviors and body weight. Research articles related to parenting style (n=40) and parental feeding style (n=11) were identified and reviewed. An authoritative style appears to be the most protective parenting and feeding style while the indulgent feeding style is consistently associated with negative health outcomes. Overall, results for parenting style studies are inconsistent due to differences in conceptualization and measurement, while the results for feeding styles are much more cohesive. The literature is lacking in the ability to describe the interplay between parenting and feeding styles and child obesity risk. Recommendations for future research and interventions are discussed in regards to feeding style and influences on childhood obesity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Social preferences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gulløv, Eva

    2014-01-01

    The focus of this article is social divisions among preschool children in daycare centers. Based on ethnographic fieldwork in three daycare centers in Denmark, the analysis concerns young children’s social preferences. The ethnographic material shows that despite an explicit political ambition of...

  19. Accounting learning preferences: the role of visualisation

    OpenAIRE

    Mouhcine Tallaki; Enrico Bracci; Monia Castellini

    2015-01-01

    The accounting education environment is changing rapidly due to the increasing attention paid by public and private University and Institutions to the efficacy of course delivery and design. The learning preferences and attitudes of students represent an important starting point to develop an efficient and effective educational programme. Learning theories suggest that learning styles and preferences influence the effectiveness with which individuals learn. The success of educational programm...

  20. Does young adults' preferred role in decision making about health, money, and career depend on their advisors' leadership skills?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Retamero, Rocio; Galesic, Mirta

    2013-01-01

    Few empirical data exist on how decision making about health differs from that in other crucial life domains with less threatening consequences. To shed light on this issue we conducted a study with 175 young adults (average age 19 years). We presented the participants with scenarios involving advisors who provided assistance in making decisions about health, money, and career. For each scenario, participants were asked to what extent they wanted the advisor to exhibit several leadership styles and competencies and what role (active, collaborative, or passive) they preferred to play when making decisions. Results show that decision making about health is distinct from that in the other domains in three ways. First, most of the participants preferred to delegate decision making about their health to their physician, whereas they were willing to collaborate or play an active role in decision making about their career or money. Second, the competencies and leadership style preferred for the physician differed substantially from those desired for advisors in the other two domains: Participants expected physicians to show more transformational leadership--the style that is most effective in a wide range of environments--than those who provide advice about financial investments or career. Finally, participants' willingness to share medical decision making with their physician was tied to how strongly they preferred that the physician shows an effective leadership style. In contrast, motivation to participate in decision making in the other domains was not related to preferences regarding advisors' leadership style or competencies. Our results have implications for medical practice as they suggest that physicians are expected to have superior leadership skills compared to those who provide assistance in other important areas of life.

  1. Instructional strategies for online introductory college physics based on learning styles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekwue, Eleazer U.

    The practical nature of physics and its reliance on mathematical presentations and problem solving pose a challenge toward presentation of the course in an online environment for effective learning experience. Most first-time introductory college physics students fail to grasp the basic concepts of the course and the problem solving skills if the instructional strategy used to deliver the course is not compatible with the learners' preferred learning styles. This study investigates the effect of four instructional strategies based on four learning styles (listening, reading, iconic, and direct-experience) to improve learning for introductory college physics in an online environment. Learning styles of 146 participants were determined with Canfield Learning Style inventory. Of the 85 learners who completed the study, research results showed a statistically significant increase in learning performance following the online instruction in all four learning style groups. No statistically significant differences in learning were found among the four groups. However, greater significant academic improvement was found among learners with iconic and direct-experience modes of learning. Learners in all four groups expressed that the design of the unit presentation to match their individual learning styles contributed most to their learning experience. They were satisfied with learning a new physics concept online that, in their opinion, is either comparable or better than an instructor-led classroom experience. Findings from this study suggest that learners' performance and satisfaction in an online introductory physics course could be improved by using instructional designs that are tailored to learners' preferred ways of learning. It could contribute toward the challenge of providing viable online physics instruction in colleges and universities.

  2. Relationship of personal authoritarianism with parenting styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manuel, Laura

    2006-02-01

    This research investigated the relationship between the personality construct of right-wing authoritarianism and Baumrind's 1971 proposed parenting styles of authoritarian, authoritative, and permissive parenting. 68 youth ages 12-18 along with one of their parents participated. The children rated both parents on Buri's 1991 Parental Authority Questionnaire. One of the parents responded to Altemeyer's Right-Wing Authoritarian Scale. People with higher scores on Altemeyer's scale were more likely to prefer the authoritarian parenting style as their offspring reported (r = .33). Permissive parenting correlated negatively with the measure of authoritarianism as a personality variable (r = -.56).

  3. Preferred Dance Tempo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Sofia; Huron, David; Brod, Garvin

    2014-01-01

    predictors of preferred dance tempo in Experiment 1. A second experiment, where males and females were matched in terms of height, resulted in no significant correlation between sex and preferred dance tempo. In the matched sample, height was found to be the single best predictor but with a relatively small...... effect size. These results are consistent with a biomechanical “resonance” model of dancing....

  4. Perspectives on learning styles in motor and sport skills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian Tobias Fuelscher

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available We present the perspective that while coaches and instructors commonly adapt learning styles to maximise training outcomes, there has been little to no empirical support for the efficacy of this practice. Learning styles is a learner’s preferred mode (e.g. visual, verbal of taking in and processing new information. Although it is a relevant topic for the learning of motor and sport skills, few studies have used an appropriate methodology to test the effectiveness of learning style-based instruction. We highlight the need for a learning style assessment tool specific to motor skills and call for a test of the learning style hypothesis, the claim that learners will benefit from instruction that is tailored to their individual learning style. To this end, we suggest methodological guidelines.

  5. Starlink Document Styles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawden, M. D.

    This document describes the various styles which are recommended for Starlink documents. It also explains how to use the templates which are provided by Starlink to help authors create documents in a standard style. This paper is concerned mainly with conveying the ``look and feel" of the various styles of Starlink document rather than describing the technical details of how to produce them. Other Starlink papers give recommendations for the detailed aspects of document production, design, layout, and typography. The only style that is likely to be used by most Starlink authors is the Standard style.

  6. Sculpture preferences and personality traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moffett, L A; Dreger, R M

    1975-02-01

    Factor analyzed the preference ratings of 70 male and 70 female undergraduates for 36 slides of sculpture. A principal factors solution with orthogonal rotations yielded 6 factors: ambiguous abstraction vs. controlled human realism, mildly distorted representation, emotional detachment, traditional portraiture vs. surrealism, highly distorted representation, and geometric abstraction. Some of these factors were similar to the Apollonian, the Dionysian, and the Pythagorean dimensions previously postualted by Nietzsche and Knapp. Preference scores for each factor were computed and correlated with scores on the 16 PF and with selected educational and physical variables. A few small, significant (p less than .05) correlations were found, supporting the hypothesis that artistic style preferences resemble the personality traits of the spectator.

  7. Choosing the Qualities of Student Leaders: A Matching of Student Voting Preference and Election Results as a Basis for Policy Formulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NOEL M. CAPULONG

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available – The qualities of student-leaders in the 21st century cannot be underrated. The ability to influence individuals in the context of boundless territories and worldwide integration is of paramount importance to education. Research has revealed that the crux of student leadership in this century is on achieving the right pace and qualities in the changing landscape of borderless society. Choosing the qualities of leaders helps the administrators and students come up with a collaborative policy formulation in the attainment of institutional mission and goals. The research utilized the mixed methods using the qualitative key informant interview, focus group discussions, and researcher’s experience to choose the qualities of student leaders among the students of City College of Calamba. The perceptions of student council leaders from the different schools of Calamba were also surveyed. The student voting preference was matched with the results of Student Council election. The results obtained were recorded and compared to the results of the interview from the experts in the field of educational leadership.

  8. Reading Processes and Parenting Styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carreteiro, Rui Manuel; Justo, João Manuel; Figueira, Ana Paula

    2016-08-01

    Home literacy environment explains between 12 and 18.5 % of the variance of children's language skills. Although most authors agree that children whose parents encourage them to read tend to develop better and earlier reading skills, some authors consider that the impact of family environment in reading skills is overvalued. Probably, other variables of parent-child relationship, like parenting styles, might be relevant for this field. Nevertheless, no previous studies on the effect of parenting styles in literacy have been found. To analyze the role of parenting styles in the reading processes of children. Children's perceptions of parenting styles contribute significantly to the explanation of statistical variance of children's reading processes. 110 children (67 boys and 43 girls), aged between 7 and 11 years (M [Formula: see text] 9.22 and SD [Formula: see text] 1.14) from Portuguese schools answered to a socio-demographic questionnaire. To assess reading processes it was administered the Portuguese adaptation (Figueira et al. in press) of Bateria de Avaliação dos Processos Leitores-Revista (PROLEC-R). To assess the parenting styles Egna Minnen av Barndoms Uppfostran-parents (EMBU-P) and EMBU-C (children version) were administered. According to multiple hierarchical linear regressions, individual factors contribute to explain all reading tests of PROLEC-R, while family factors contribute to explain most of these tests. Regarding parenting styles, results evidence the explanatory power about grammatical structures, sentence comprehension and listening. Parenting styles have an important role in the explanation of higher reading processes (syntactic and semantic) but not in lexical processes, focused by main theories concerning dyslexia.

  9. Research on self-esteem in decision-making and decision-making styles in orienteering athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eroğlu Başak

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to examine the self-esteem in decision making and decision-making styles of orienteering athletes in terms of different variables. 157 male and 43 female orienteering athletes, making a total of 200 athletes that joined the 3rd Level of Turkey Championship in 2015 have participated in this study which is in a survey model. The data collection tools were the Melbourne Decision-making. Quastionnaire I-II and the Personal Information Form which were adapted into Turkish by Deniz (2004. In the data analysis, descriptive statics, anova, t test and Tukey test have been utilized. There is a significant difference between athletes’ marital status, age groups, experiences in orienteering sports and self-esteem in decision making, decision making styles (p<0.05. According to the research results, it has been determined that married orienteering athletes prefer both self-esteem in decision making and vigilance decision-making style more often than the single athletes that mostly prefer procrastination decision-making style. Also, it has been found out that as the athletes’ age and experiences in sports increase, selfesteem and decision-making styles are affected more positively as well.

  10. Dependency-like behaviors and pain coping styles in subjects with chronic migraine and medication overuse: results from a 1-year follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biagianti, Bruno; Grazzi, Licia; Usai, Susanna; Gambini, Orsola

    2014-09-19

    Even after successful detoxification, 20-40% of subjects presenting chronic migraine with symptomatic medication overuse (CMwMO) relapse into medication overuse within one year. In this restrospective analysis on subjects referred to our center for detoxification, we investigated whether personality traits, dependency-like behaviors and pain coping styles predicted those who relapsed into medication overuse within the 12 months following the detoxification and those who did not. 63 patients with CMwMO were assessed for personality traits, mood and anxiety, pain coping styles and dependency-like behaviors prior-to and one year after a detoxification program. Of the 42 subjects who attended 1-year follow-up interviews, 11 relapsed into medication overuse despite a temporary benefit from detoxification and did not show clinical or psychological improvement, instead reporting increased anxiety and unmodified perpetuation of severe dependency-like behaviors. In contrast, subjects who did not relapse into medication overuse had clinical improvements that generalized to untreated domains, including decreased depressive symptoms and dependency-like behaviors, although showing unmodified low internal control over pain. Subjects who did not fall into medication overuse throughout the 12 months following the detoxification showed improved clinical, affective and dependence-related outcomes, but not pain coping strategies. Conversely, subjects who relapsed within one year into CMwMO continued to experience significant disability, pain intensity, and dependency-like behaviors. We believe that the persistence of maladaptive pain coping strategies and residual symptomatology increase the risk for recurrent relapses, against which pharmacological interventions are only partially effective. Further studies investigating predictors of relapse are needed to inform multi-disciplinary interventions for CMwMO.

  11. Computer-aided DSM-IV-diagnostics – acceptance, use and perceived usefulness in relation to users' learning styles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergman, Lars G; Fors, Uno GH

    2005-01-01

    Background CDSS (computerized decision support system) for medical diagnostics have been studied for long. This study was undertaken to investigate how different preferences of Learning Styles (LS) of psychiatrists might affect acceptance, use and perceived usefulness of a CDSS for diagnostics in psychiatry. Methods 49 psychiatrists (specialists and non-specialists) from 3 different clinics volunteered to participate in this study and to use the CDSS to diagnose a paper-based case (based on a real patient). LS, attitudes to CDSS and complementary data were obtained via questionnaires and interviews. To facilitate the study, a special version of the CDSS was created, which automatically could log interaction details. Results The LS preferences (according to Kolb) of the 49 physicians turned out as follows: 37% were Assimilating, 31% Converging, 27% Accommodating and 6% Diverging. The CDSS under study seemed to favor psychiatrists with abstract conceptualization information perceiving mode (Assimilating and Converging learning styles). A correlation between learning styles preferences and computer skill was found. Positive attitude to computer-aided diagnostics and learning styles preferences was also found to correlate. Using the CDSS, the specialists produced only 1 correct diagnosis and the non-specialists 2 correct diagnoses (median values) as compared to the three predetermined correct diagnoses of the actual case. Only 10% had all three diagnoses correct, 41 % two correct, 47 % one correct and 2 % had no correct diagnose at all. Conclusion Our results indicate that the use of CDSS does not guarantee correct diagnosis and that LS might influence the results. Future research should focus on the possibility to create systems open to individuals with different LS preferences and possibility to create CDSS adapted to the level of expertise of the user. PMID:15638940

  12. Perceived relevance and information needs regarding food topics and preferred information sources among Dutch adults: results of a quantitative consumer study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dillen, van S.M.E.; Hiddink, G.J.; Koelen, M.A.; Graaf, de C.; Woerkum, van C.M.J.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: For more effective nutrition communication, it is crucial to identify sources from which consumers seek information. Our purpose was to assess perceived relevance and information needs regarding food topics, and preferred information sources by means of quantitative consumer research.

  13. Authoritative and Authoritarian-Inconsistent Teachers' Preferences for Teaching Methods and Instructional Goals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uibu, Krista; Kikas, Eve

    2014-01-01

    Preferences for teaching methods are influenced by several factors, including instructional goals, teacher's management style, experience and education. To discover in which ways primary school teachers with different management styles vary in their preferences for students' cognitive and social development, 128 teachers of Estonia were…

  14. An Examination of Learning Preferences of U.S. and International Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stowe, Kristin; Clinebell, Sharon

    2015-01-01

    Learning styles and preferences are often discussed topics in educational psychology, but are less prevalent in business education. International students are another understudied segment of business education. This article reviews literature regarding learning styles and preferences and examines whether U.S. and international students have…

  15. Influence of cognitive style on information processing and selection of yogurt labels: Insights from an eye-tracking study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mawad, Franco; Trías, Marcela; Giménez, Ana; Maiche, Alejandro; Ares, Gastón

    2015-08-01

    Cognitive styles are characteristic and stable ways in which people acquire, organize and use information for solving problems and making decisions. Field dependence/independence is one of the most studied cognitive styles. Field independent subjects are characterized by having less difficulty in separating information from its contextual surroundings and being less likely to be influenced by external cues than field dependent individuals. The present work aimed at studying the influence of field dependence/independence cognitive style on consumers' visual processing and choice of yogurt labels. One hundred and thirty three consumers completed a choice conjoint task. They were asked to select their preferred yogurt label from each of 16 pairs of labels. While they completed the task their eye movements were recorded using an eye-tracker. Then, consumers were asked to complete the Group Embedded Figure Test to determine their cognitive style. Consumers were divided into two groups with different cognitive styles: 58% of the sample was characterized as field dependent and 42% as field independent. When making their choices, field dependent consumers tended to engage in less thoughtful information processing than field independent consumers and they made fewer fixations on traditional nutritional information. Besides, cognitive style significantly affected the relative importance of fat and sugar content on consumer choices and modulated the influence of the traffic light system. Field dependent consumers gave less importance to the nutritional composition of the yogurts than field independent consumers for selecting their preferred label. Results from this work suggest that studying the psychological underpinnings of consumers' decision making process when selecting food products has a great potential to contribute to a better understanding of how eating patterns and consumer preferences are shaped. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Learning styles, academic achievement, and mental health problems among medical students in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salilthip Paiboonsithiwong

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of various learning styles among medical students and their correlations with academic achievement and mental health problems in these students. Methods This study was conducted among 140 first-year medical students of Chiang Mai University, Thailand in 2014. The participants completed the visual-aural-read/write-kinesthetic (VARK questionnaire, the results of which can be categorized into 4 modes, corresponding to how many of the 4 types are preferred by a respondent. The 10-item Perceived Stress Scale (PSS-10 and the 21-item Outcome Inventory (OI-21 were also used. The participants’ demographic data, grade point average (GPA, and scores of all measurements are presented using simple statistics. Correlation and regression analysis were employed to analyze differences in the scores and to determine the associations among them. Results Sixty percent of the participants were female. The mean age was 18.86±0.74 years old. Quadmodal was found to be the most preferred VARK mode (43.6%. Unimodal, bimodal, and trimodal modes were preferred by 35%, 12.9%, and 18.6% of the participants, respectively. Among the strong unimodal learners, visual, aural, read/write, and kinesthetic preferences were reported by 4.3%, 7.1%, 11.4%, and 12.1% of participants, respectively. No difference was observed in the PSS-10, OI-anxiety, OI-depression, and OI-somatization scores according to the VARK modes, although a significant effect was found for OI-interpersonal (F=2.788, P=0.043. Moreover, neither VARK modes nor VARK types were correlated with GPA. Conclusion The most preferred VARK learning style among medical students was quadmodal. Learning styles were not associated with GPA or mental health problems, except for interpersonal problems.

  17. Undergraduate nursing students' learning styles: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Sandra; McKee, Gabrielle; Huntley-Moore, Sylvia

    2011-07-01

    This paper reports on the main findings of a longitudinal study of the learning styles of one cohort of undergraduate pre-registration nursing students at an Irish university. The Honey and Mumford (2000a) Learning Styles Questionnaire was administered to a sample of students in their first (n=202) and final year of study (n=166), the final sample number (58) was based on matched pairs. The most common dominant learning style in first year was the dual learning category (35%) while a large proportion of the students (53%) in their final year had no dominant learning style. The preferred learning style of students in their first (69%) and final (57%) year was reflector. Learning styles were significantly different at the two time points and there was a significant relationship between some learning styles and students' age but not with academic achievement. Total scores of all learning styles showed significant improvements across the two time points of the study. An important implication for nurse education practice is the need for nurse educators to be aware of students' learning styles and in an attempt to maximise students' learning potential, utilise a range of teaching and learning methodologies and assessments that develop all learning styles. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The role of learning style in choosing one's therapeutic orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heffler, Bo; Sandell, Rolf

    2009-05-01

    The motives of the beginning psychotherapist for choosing his or her orientation are an underresearched issue in psychotherapy training. This study focuses on the role of personality-based factors, specifically the epistemological preferences of the therapist that Kolb (1984) has termed "learning style" (LS). The aim of the present study was to explore possible associations between psychology students' developing LSs and their choice of psychotherapeutic orientation (psychodynamic [PDT] vs. cognitive-behavioural [CBT]). Students in a psychologist's program (N=175) took the Learning Style Inventory in their third semester and, before their formal choice, in their seventh semester. Besides a common trend toward radicalization or purification of their LS, the average PDT student tended to stick to the "feel and watch" style from the third semester to the seventh, whereas the CBT student tended to move toward "think and do." A cluster analysis revealed that the average movement among the CBT students was the result of the forces in two different subgroups, one toward "think" (and, more weakly, "watch"), the other toward "do" (and, more weakly, "feel").

  19. Parenting style, resilience, and mental health of community-dwelling elderly adults in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Xue; Wu, Daxing; Nie, Xueqing; Xia, Jie; Li, Mulei; Lei, Feng; Lim, Haikel A; Kua, Ee-Heok; Mahendran, Rathi

    2016-07-08

    Given the increasing elderly population worldwide, the identification of potential determinants of successful ageing is important. Many studies have shown that parenting style and mental resilience may influence mental health; however, little is known about the psychological mechanisms that underpin this relationship. The current study sought to explore the relationships among mental resilience, perceptions of parents' parenting style, and depression and anxiety among community-dwelling elderly adults in China. In total, 439 community-dwelling elderly Chinese adults aged 60-91 years completed the Personal and Parents' Parenting Style Scale, Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale, Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale, and Zung Self-Rating Anxiety Scale. Elderly adults whose parents preferred positive and authoritative parenting styles had higher levels of mental resilience and lower levels of depression and anxiety. Elderly adults parented in the authoritarian style were found to have higher levels of depression and anxiety, with lower mental resilience. The findings of this study provide evidence related to successful ageing and coping with life pressures, and highlight the important effects of parenting on mental health. The results suggest that examination of the proximal determinants of successful ageing is not sufficient-distal factors may also contribute to the 'success' of ageing by modifying key psychological dispositions that promote adaptation to adversity.

  20. Taiwanese Consumers’ Decision-Making Styles: The Role of Perceptions of the Internet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hung-Ming Lin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to explore the relationship between online consumers’ perceptions and decision-making styles regarding the Internet. Four perceptions and six decision-making styles were administered. Data were gathered from 454 consumers with online shopping experience in Taiwan. It was found that, of the four perceptions of Tool, Technology, Toy and Tour, consumers are more inclined to view the Internet as a ‘Tool’ or as ‘Technology.’ The results indicate that consumers who hold the ‘Tool’ perception of the Internet are positively correlated to the Perfectionism consciousness decision-making style, but negatively relate to Brand consciousness, Novel-fashion consciousness and Brand-loyalty consciousness. Consumers with ‘Toy’ perceptions tend to show relatively less preference for the Perfectionism consciousness style, but more for content, such as Brand consciousness, Novel-fashion consciousness, Confused by overchoice, and Brand-loyalty consciousness. No significant correlation was observed between the ‘Technology’ and ‘Tour’ perceptions and the six Internet decision-making styles.

  1. Profiling Perceptual Learning Styles of Chinese as a Second Language Learners in University Settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Peijian Paul; Teng, Lin Sophie

    2017-12-01

    This study revisited Reid's (1987) perceptual learning style preference questionnaire (PLSPQ) in an attempt to answer whether the PLSPQ fits in the Chinese-as-a-second-language (CSL) context. If not, what are CSL learners' learning styles drawing on the PLSPQ? The PLSPQ was first re-examined through reliability analysis and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) with 224 CSL learners. The results showed that Reid's six-factor PLSPQ could not satisfactorily explain the CSL learners' learning styles. Exploratory factor analyses were, therefore, performed to explore the dimensionality of the PLSPQ in the CSL context. A four-factor PLSPQ was successfully constructed including auditory/visual, kinaesthetic/tactile, group, and individual styles. Such a measurement model was cross-validated through CFAs with 118 CSL learners. The study not only lends evidence to the literature that Reid's PLSPQ lacks construct validity, but also provides CSL teachers and learners with insightful and practical guidance concerning learning styles. Implications and limitations of the present study are discussed.

  2. Vehicle choice in aging population: Some insights from a stated preference survey for California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kavalec, C.

    1999-07-01

    This paper investigates the potential effects that an aging baby boomer generation will have on gasoline use through their vehicle choice decisions. The study uses stated preference data for both conventional and alternative fuel vehicles, and measures the impact of age of survey respondent on the perceived value of vehicle characteristics such as fuel economy, performance, and body style (e.g., car vs. truck). The results suggest the possibility that average fleet fuel economy may improve in the next few years, if survey preferences translate to actual purchase behavior. No clear implications can be drawn regarding the demand for alternative fuel vehicles.

  3. Do emergency medicine residents and faculty have similar learning styles when assessed with the Kolb learning style assessment tool?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredette, Jenna; O'Brien, Corinne; Poole, Christy; Nomura, Jason

    2015-04-01

    Experiential learning theory and the Kolb Learning Style Inventory (Kolb LSI) have influenced educators worldwide for decades. Knowledge of learning styles can create efficient learning environments, increase information retention, and improve learner satisfaction. Learning styles have been examined in medicine previously, but not specifically with Emergency Medicine (EM) residents and attendings. Using the Kolb LSI, the learning styles of Emergency Medicine residents and attendings were assessed. The findings showed that the majority of EM residents and attendings shared the accommodating learning style. This result was different than prior studies that found the majority of medical professionals had a converging learning style and other studies that found attendings often have different learning styles than residents. The issue of learning styles among emergency medical residents and attendings is important because learning style knowledge may have an impact on how a residency program structures curriculum and how EM residents are successfully, efficiently, and creatively educated.

  4. Malrotation of the McGhan Style 510 prosthesis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schots, J.M.; Fechner, M.R.; Hoogbergen, M.M.; Tits, H.W.H.J.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Anatomically shaped cohesive silicone breast implants are frequently used in aesthetic and reconstructive surgery. After successful results with the Style 410 prosthesis, McGhan (Natrelle, Allergan) introduced the Style 510 prosthesis. After using this novel prosthesis, the authors

  5. Individual Learning Style and the Learning Style Inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heffler, Bo

    2001-01-01

    Focuses on the experience learning theory (ELT) that views learning as a process, explaining that it entails a four-stage process that includes four learning modes. Presents the results of a study that used the learning style inventory (LSI) that examines one's approach to learning situations. Includes references. (CMK)

  6. GENDER DIFFERENCES IN LEARNING STYLES AMONG THE FIRST YEAR MEDICAL STUDENTS

    OpenAIRE

    Prabha; Waheeda

    2015-01-01

    : In general male and females learn differently. Learning style is the learners' preferred mode of learning in terms of the sensory modality by which they prefer to take in new information. While learning each of we have our own preferences for the way in which we receive the new information. Each learner has distinct and consistent preferred ways of perception, organization and retention. The visual, auditory & kinesthetic (VAK) questionnaire identifies student’s preferences for ...

  7. Do the associations of parenting styles with behavior problems and academic achievement vary by culture? Results from a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinquart, Martin; Kauser, Rubina

    2018-01-01

    The study tested whether associations of parenting styles with internalizing problems, externalizing problems, and academic achievement vary between ethnic groups in western countries, between different regions of the globe, and by level of collectivism/individualism of individual countries. A systematic search in electronic databases and cross referencing identified 428 studies that were included in the random-effects meta-analysis. More ethnic and regional similarities than differences were identified. In western countries, associations of authoritative parenting with academic achievement were stronger in non-Hispanic, White families than in Asian minorities. In these countries, associations of authoritarian parenting with academic achievement were less negative in Hispanic families than in non-Hispanic, White families. Authoritative parenting was associated with at least 1 positive child outcome and authoritarian parenting was associated with at least 1 negative outcome in all regions of the globe, with some regional variation. Finally, associations of authoritarian parenting with child outcomes were weaker in countries with a higher individualism score, as were associations of authoritative parenting with academic performance. Parents across the globe could be recommended to behave authoritatively, although authoritarian and permissive parenting is, to some extent, tolerable in a few cultural contexts. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. Learning styles, academic achievement, and mental health problems among medical students in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paiboonsithiwong, Salilthip; Kunanitthaworn, Natchaya; Songtrijuck, Natchaphon; Wongpakaran, Nahathai; Wongpakaran, Tinakon

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of various learning styles among medical students and their correlations with academic achievement and mental health problems in these students. This study was conducted among 140 first-year medical students of Chiang Mai University, Thailand in 2014. The participants completed the visual-aural-read/write-kinesthetic (VARK) questionnaire, the results of which can be categorized into 4 modes, corresponding to how many of the 4 types are preferred by a respondent. The 10-item Perceived Stress Scale (PSS-10) and the 21-item Outcome Inventory (OI-21) were also used. The participants' demographic data, grade point average (GPA), and scores of all measurements are presented using simple statistics. Correlation and regression analysis were employed to analyze differences in the scores and to determine the associations among them. Sixty percent of the participants were female. The mean age was 18.86±0.74 years old. Quadmodal was found to be the most preferred VARK mode (43.6%). Unimodal, bimodal, and trimodal modes were preferred by 35%, 12.9%, and 18.6% of the participants, respectively. Among the strong unimodal learners, visual, aural, read/write, and kinesthetic preferences were reported by 4.3%, 7.1%, 11.4%, and 12.1% of participants, respectively. No difference was observed in the PSS-10, OI-anxiety, OI-depression, and OI-somatization scores according to the VARK modes, although a significant effect was found for OI-interpersonal (F=2.788, P=0.043). Moreover, neither VARK modes nor VARK types were correlated with GPA. The most preferred VARK learning style among medical students was quadmodal. Learning styles were not associated with GPA or mental health problems, except for interpersonal problems.

  9. Leadership styles and theories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giltinane, Charlotte Louise

    It is useful for healthcare professionals to be able to identify the leadership styles and theories relevant to their nursing practice. Being adept in recognising these styles enables nurses to develop their skills to become better leaders, as well as improving relationships with colleagues and other leaders, who have previously been challenging to work with. This article explores different leadership styles and theories, and explains how they relate to nursing practice.

  10. Managerial style and health promotion programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witte, K

    1993-02-01

    Organizational correlates of worksite health promotion programs were isolated and interpreted within a diffusion of innovation framework. A sample of managers from California (U.S.A.) 500 organizations were interviewed via telephone on their corporate management styles and health care strategies. Organizational management style was found to be related to prevalence of health promotion programs and future plans for health promotion programs. Specifically, this study found that organizations with democratic management styles are more likely to plan, adopt, and/or implement worksite health promotion programs when compared to organizations with authoritarian management styles. An additional contribution of this study was the development and validation of the Organizational Management Style (OMS) scale. These results have important theoretical and practical implications. For example, these findings explain why some organizations are more or less likely to adopt health promotion programs. Both diffusion of innovation and social control explanations are used to interpret the results.

  11. Coping styles, paradox, and the cold pressor task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efran, J S; Chorney, R L; Ascher, L M; Lukens, M D

    1989-02-01

    The study investigated how coping style differences affected performance on the cold pressor task. Reactions of "monitors" (individuals who prefer having information about stressors) and "blunters" (individuals who avoid cues connected with stressors) were compared, using different instructional sets. The study also assessed the effectiveness of paradoxical intention compared to more traditional cognitive strategies. Monitors and blunters were identified using Miller's recently developed Behavioral Style Scale. All instructional sets improved performance in comparison to a control condition, and individuals generally did better when an instructional set supported their preferred coping style. Paradoxical intention did not show any decided advantage over other strategies. The desirability of designing stress management programs to fit individual coping style patterns is discussed.

  12. ANALYZING THE LEARNING STYLES OF JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS AND THE IMPLICATION TO ENGLISH TEACHING: A CASE STUDY AT SMPN I DAGANGAN MADIUN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zainal Arifin

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available A language is probably the most difficult set of skills a person could ever struggle to learn. There is no easy way to master a language, particularly a language which is not our first language. In the process of learning a language particularly a second language, there are many variables that determine the success of learning; one of the variables is learning styles. In a class made up of various learning styles, it is always necessary for language teachers to identify, respect, and work on the diversity of the learners’ differences. The study investigated the diverse learning styles employed by ESL students of SMPN 1 Dagangan, Madiun Regency of East Java. The students were classified into three levels of competence: high, middle, and low level competence. They were also classified based on gender: males and females. A set of questionnaire was distributed to fifteen students. To get deeper interpretation on their learning styles, the students were also interviewed. The students’ learning style preferences were identified based on their levels of competence and gender in order to investigate their differences. The data was analyzed qualitatively. The findings revealed that the students’ learning styles can be categorized into visual, auditory, kinesthethic, tactile, individual, and group learners. The results of the study indicated that there were some differences in using learning styles by the students of high, middle and low levels of competence. A little difference was also found in male and female students in using learning styles. Thus, it is important for teachers to be aware of their students learning styles. It is clear then that one factor which can lead to the success of a language teaching-learning process is the match between students` learning styles and the teaching methods used by the teachers.

  13. INTERACTION ASPECTS OF DOMINANT STYLES: OF TEACHING AND OF AUTHORITY

    OpenAIRE

    Petre, Cristian

    2014-01-01

    Problem Statement. Teaching style is the expression (form of expression) of preferred behavioral modalities who return with some regularity in the work of teacher (E.Geissler), Purpose of Study. The intention of this paper is to identify a pattern of expression interact between two dimensions-professional of primary school teachers: the dominant teaching style and the dominant authority type of each teacher. I opted for a classification according to the particular act of communication...

  14. Learning styles of elite and sub-elite athletes

    OpenAIRE

    Braakhuis, Andrea Jane

    2015-01-01

    Athletes have preferences for the way in which they internalise and process information. Athlete educators, such as coaches and sports medical staff, rarely consider the learning style of an prior to education. This study aims to characterise a range of athletes with regards to their learning style, to increase awareness and conversation about athletes as learners. Athletes (n=93; 44 males, 49 females), age 24 ±8 yrs, completed the VARK (Visual, Aural, Read/write and Kinesthetic) questionnair...

  15. The Relationship between Saudi English Major University Students' Writing Performance and Their Learning Style and Strategy Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkubaidi, Miriam A.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the link between writing tasks, learners' learning style preference, and writing strategy use. It also investigates if students with various proficiency levels stem from different learning style preference and use different writing strategies. This research attempts to answer the following research questions: what are the…

  16. Evaluating the impact of a Quasi-ipsative scoring approach on the scoring of a VARK style questionnaire

    OpenAIRE

    Fitkov-Norris, E; Yeghiazarian, A

    2016-01-01

    This paper demonstrated the application of a quasi-ipsative scoring approach to assess the relative strengths of individual preferences in a VARK style questionnaire. The approach identified a chi-squared test as more suitable method for analysing the type of data gathered by the VARK questionnaire. The results suggest that the quasi-ipsative chi-squared based approach does not appear to be as sensitive as the original t-test approach in identifying significant modalities. In order to increas...

  17. Style Analysis and Performance Evaluation of Dutch Mutual Funds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ter Horst, J.R.; Nijman, T.E.; de Roon, F.A.

    1998-01-01

    In this paper we show how style analysis of mutual funds can be used to circumvent the problem of self-reported investment styles, and to improve relative performance evaluation. Subsequently, we relate style analysis to performance evaluation and present results on the performance of Dutch mutual

  18. Learning Style Dimensions and Professional Characteristics of Academic Librarians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinehart, Amanda; Sharkey, Jennifer; Kahl, Chad

    2015-01-01

    Do librarians with different characteristics, such as type of work responsibilities or age, have different learning styles? The authors analyzed results from over 1,500 responses to a version of the Index of Learning Styles (ILS) questionnaire based on the Felder-Silverman Learning Styles model. This model consists of eight dimensions paired on…

  19. Parenting Style, Individuation, and Mental Health of Egyptian Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwairy, Marwan; Menshar, Kariman E.

    2006-01-01

    Three questionnaires that measure parenting style, adolescent-family connectedness, and mental health were administered to 351 Egyptian adolescents. Results show that in rural communities the authoritarian style is more predominant in the parenting of male adolescents, while the authoritative style is more predominant in the parenting of female…

  20. Leader Style and Anxiety Level: Their Relation to Autonomic Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seemann, Daniel C.

    1982-01-01

    Studied effects of leader style and a group of people classified as either high-anxious or low-anxious. Measured participants' (N=71) responses to the leader styles using Galvanic Skin Response. Results indicated similar responses of participants to both autocratic and democratic leadership styles. (RC)

  1. The effect of transitioning from residency to pharmacy practice on learning style.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loewen, Peter S; Jelescu-Bodos, Anca; Yeung, Janice; Lau, Torey

    2014-10-15

    To describe the evolution of learning styles of pharmacy residents as they transition from residency to practice. Cross-sectional survey and interview-based study. A complete provincial cohort of former pharmacy residents (N=28), who had their learning styles characterized with the Pharmacists' Inventory of Learning Styles (PILS) at the beginning of their residency and, 1 year post-residency, were invited to repeat the PILS. Interviews were administered to consenting participants to gain additional insight. Twenty-seven of the former residents (96%) completed the PILS survey and 16 (59%) completed the post-PILS interview. Thirteen (48%) changed their dominant learning style and 20 (74%) changed their secondary learning style. Six (22%) participants did not change either learning style. The overall proportion of dominant assimilators (59%) and convergers (26%) remained similar to baseline (52% and 26%, respectively), meaning participants had adopted and abandoned different learning style in similar numbers. Change in learning style was associated with being a preceptor (plearning styles gained during their residency. Changing learning style is common for former residents after 1 year in postresidency practice. There is no overall direction to the change; former residents transition into and out of various learning styles with similar frequency and retain preferences for passive/abstract learning approaches over active/concrete ones. The early-career lability in learning style the study demonstrated may reveal an opportunity to guide pharmacists toward more active learning preferences through residency curricula, preceptorship, and mentorship.

  2. Preferences in the management of high-risk prostate cancer among urologists in Europe: results of a web-based survey.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Surcel, C.I.; Sooriakumaran, P.; Briganti, A.; Visschere, P.J. De; Futterer, J.J.; Ghadjar, P.; Isbarn, H.; Ost, P.; Ploussard, G.; Bergh, R.C. van den; Oort, I.M. van; Yossepowitch, O.; Sedelaar, J.P.M.; Giannarini, G.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To explore preferences in the management of patients with newly diagnosed high-risk prostate cancer (PCa) among urologists in Europe through a web-based survey. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A web-based survey was conducted between 15 August and 15 September 2013 by members of the Prostate

  3. Style as Supplement - Supplement as Style

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Bent

    , and to aim for an almost Brechtian Verfremdung-effect, but the film also uses this device as a stylistic trait to characterize something ‘essential' about Derrida and his style. Derrida strikes the same chord by insisting on drawing attention to the artificiality of the making of the film, where questions...... and deferrals. This is of course another link in the infinite Derridean chain of supplements to supplements of supplements - in his writings, his persona and the legacy of images of him left behind in the archives. How does this perpetual deferral reflect itself in Derrida's visual and verbal style...

  4. Indigenous Knowledge Systems and Leadership Styles in Nigerian Work Organisations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osarumwense Iguisi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This research project investigated four managerial leadership styles in Nigerian organizations. The research question that the research tries to address is: to what extent are the leadership styles expressed in modern management theories consistent with Nigerian Traditional values? The findings do confirm that the perceived leadership style in the organizations by the managers is autocratic, the preferred style is the paternalistic and the rejected is the autocratic. For about one in five Nigerian managers, the democratic style is the most often rejected. The study challenges the validity of dominant Western universal perspectives in managerial leadership in traditional African organizations. The study suggests that elements of traditional values pose serious challenge to Nigerian managers’ ability to adopt traditional and modern management practice that can improve the effectiveness of leadership in their organizations

  5. Indigenous Knowledge Systems and Leadership Styles in Nigerian Work Organisations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osarumwense Iguisi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This research project investigated four managerial leadership styles in Nigerian organizations. The research question that the research tries to address is: to what extent are the leadership styles expressed in modern management theories consistent with Nigerian Traditional values? The findings do confirm that the perceived leadership style in the organizations by the managers is autocratic, the preferred style is the paternalistic and the rejected is the autocratic. For about one in five Nigerian managers, the democratic style is the most often rejected. The study challenges the validity of dominant Western universal perspectives in managerial leadership in traditional African organizations. The study suggests that elements of traditional values pose serious challenge to Nigerian managers’ ability to adopt traditional and modern management practice that can improve the effectiveness of leadership in their organizations

  6. Library Automation Style Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaylord Bros., Liverpool, NY.

    This library automation style guide lists specific terms and names often used in the library automation industry. The terms and/or acronyms are listed alphabetically and each is followed by a brief definition. The guide refers to the "Chicago Manual of Style" for general rules, and a notes section is included for the convenience of individual…

  7. Style and Sociolinguistic Variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckert, Penelope, Ed.; Rickford, John R., Ed.

    This collection of papers by leading experts from a range of disciplines is divided into four sections. Section 1, "Anthropological Approaches," includes: (1) "'Style' as Distinctiveness: The Culture and Ideology of Linguistic Differentiation" (Judith T. Irvine); (2) "Variety, Style-Shifting, and Ideology" (Susan…

  8. Is Cognitive Style Bipolar?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, David H.

    This study assessed the bipolarity of cognitive style for 970 clients of the Johnson O'Connor Research Foundation, a vocational guidance service. The 462 male and 508 female examinees were aged 14 to 65 years, with a median age of 24 years. Three cognitive style tests were investigated: (1) the Kagan Matching Familiar Figures Test (KMFFT); (2) the…

  9. Page Styles on steroids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Lars

    2008-01-01

    Designing a page style has long been a pain for novice users. Some parts are easy; others need strong LATEX knowledge. In this article we will present the memoir way of dealing with page styles, including new code added to the recent version of memoir that will reduce the pain to a mild annoyance...

  10. Comparison of Learning Styles of Pharmacy Students and Faculty Members

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Stephanie Y.; Alhreish, Suhail K.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. To compare dominant learning styles of pharmacy students and faculty members and between faculty members in different tracks. Methods. Gregorc Style Delineator (GSD) and Zubin’s Pharmacists’ Inventory of Learning Styles (PILS) were administered to students and faculty members at an urban, Midwestern college of pharmacy. Results. Based on responses from 299 students (classes of 2008, 2009, and 2010) and 59 faculty members, GSD styles were concrete sequential (48%), abstract sequential (18%), abstract random (13%), concrete random (13%), and multimodal (8%). With PILS, dominant styles were assimilator (47%) and converger (30%). There were no significant differences between faculty members and student learning styles nor across pharmacy student class years (p>0.05). Learning styles differed between men and women across both instruments (pstyles (p=0.01). Conclusion. Learning styles differed among respondents based on gender and faculty track. PMID:23275657

  11. An exploratory study of the relationship between learning styles and academic performance among students in different nursing programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuh-Shiow; Yu, Wen-Pin; Liu, Chin-Fang; Shieh, Sue-Heui; Yang, Bao-Huan

    2014-10-27

    Abstract Background: Learning style is a major consideration in planning for effective and efficient instruction and learning. Learning style has been shown to influence academic performance in the previous research. Little is known about Taiwanese students' learning styles, particularly in the field of nursing education. Aim: This purpose of this study was to identify the relationship between learning styles and academic performance among nursing students in a five-year associate degree of nursing (ADN) program and a two-year bachelor of science in nursing (BSN) program in Taiwan. Methods/Design: This study employed a descriptive and exploratory design. The Chinese version of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) Form M was an instrument. Data such as grade point average (GPA) were obtained from the Office of Academic Affairs and the Registrar computerized records. Descriptive statistics, one-way analysis of variance ANOVA) and chi-square statistical analysis were used to explore the relationship between academic performance and learning style in Taiwanese nursing students. Results/Findings: The study sample included 285 nursing students: 96 students in a two-year BSN program, and 189 students in a five-year ADN program. Two common learning styles were found: introversion, sensing, thinking, and judging (ISTJ); and introversion, sensing, feeling, and judging (ISFJ). A sensing-judging pair was identified in 43.3% of the participants. Academic performance was significantly related to learning style (p success. A large sample is recommended for further research. Understanding the learning style preferences of students can enhance learning for those who are under performing in their academic studies, thereby enhancing nursing education.

  12. An Investigation of Decision Making Styles and the Five-Factor Personality Traits with Respect to Attachment Styles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deniz, M. Engin

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this research is to investigate if the attachment styles significantly predict the decision self-esteem, decision making styles and five-factor personality traits. Subjects of the study were 567 students in total from different faculties of Selcuk University. The results of the study showed that the attachment styles of the students…

  13. Decision Styles and Rationality: An Analysis of the Predictive Validity of the General Decision-Making Style Inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curseu, Petru Lucian; Schruijer, Sandra G. L.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the relationship between the five decision-making styles evaluated by the General Decision-Making Style Inventory, indecisiveness, and rationality in decision making. Using a sample of 102 middle-level managers, the results show that the rational style positively predicts rationality in decision making and negatively…

  14. Do yogis have "Learning Styles"? (A somatic solution).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strean, William Ben

    2017-01-01

    Learning styles has captivated a great deal of attention in yoga teacher training. The triad of visual, auditory, and kinesthetic learning styles has been particularly popular; yet as Sharp et al. asserted, such an approach trivializes the complexity of learning and compromises scholarship at all levels of the education community. This paper addresses that although there is great merit in recognizing yoga students' differences and preferences, many uses of learning styles in yoga teacher training are superficial and promote self-handicapping. A somatic perspective (from soma, the body in its wholeness) offers a framework to reconsider the depth of effective learning.

  15. Identifying different learning styles to enhance the learning experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Irene

    2016-10-12

    Identifying your preferred learning style can be a useful way to optimise learning opportunities, and can help learners to recognise their strengths and areas for development in the way that learning takes place. It can also help teachers (educators) to recognise where additional activities are required to ensure the learning experience is robust and effective. There are several models available that may be used to identify learning styles. This article discusses these models and considers their usefulness in healthcare education. Models of teaching styles are also considered.

  16. Quartz preferred orientation in naturally deformed mylonitic rocks (Montalto shear zone-Italy): a comparison of results by different techniques, their advantages and limitations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazio, Eugenio; Punturo, Rosalda; Cirrincione, Rosolino; Kern, Hartmut; Pezzino, Antonino; Wenk, Hans-Rudolf; Goswami, Shalini; Mamtani, Manish A.

    2017-10-01

    In the geologic record, the quartz c-axis patterns are widely adopted in the investigation of crystallographic preferred orientations (CPO) of naturally deformed rocks. To this aim, in the present work, four different methods for measuring quartz c-axis orientations in naturally sheared rocks were applied and compared: the classical universal stage technique, the computer-integrated polarization microscopy method (CIP), the time-of-flight (TOF) neutron diffraction analysis , and the electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD). Microstructural analysis and CPO patterns of quartz, together with the ones obtained for feldspars and micas in mylonitic granitoid rocks, have been then considered to solve structural and geological questions related to the Montalto crustal scale shear zone (Calabria, southern Italy). Results obtained by applying the different techniques are discussed, and the advantages as well as limitations of each method are highlighted. Importantly, our findings suggest that patterns obtained by means of different techniques are quite similar. In particular, for such mylonites, a subsimple shear (40% simple shear vs 60% pure shear) by shape analysis of porphyroclasts was inferred. A general tendency of an asymmetric c-maximum near to the Z direction (normal to foliation) suggesting dominant basal slip, consistent with fabric patterns related to dynamically recrystallization under greenschist facies, is recognized. Rhombohedral slip was likely active as documented by pole figures of positive and negative rhombs (TOF), which reveal also potential mechanical Dauphiné twinning. Results showed that the most complete CPO characterization on deformed rocks is given by the TOF (from which also other quartz crystallographic axes can be obtained as well as various mineral phases may be investigated). However, this use is restricted by the fact that (a) there are very few TOF facilities around the world and (b) there is loss of any domainal reference, since TOF is a

  17. AUTOMATIC ARCHITECTURAL STYLE RECOGNITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mathias

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Procedural modeling has proven to be a very valuable tool in the field of architecture. In the last few years, research has soared to automatically create procedural models from images. However, current algorithms for this process of inverse procedural modeling rely on the assumption that the building style is known. So far, the determination of the building style has remained a manual task. In this paper, we propose an algorithm which automates this process through classification of architectural styles from facade images. Our classifier first identifies the images containing buildings, then separates individual facades within an image and determines the building style. This information could then be used to initialize the building reconstruction process. We have trained our classifier to distinguish between several distinct architectural styles, namely Flemish Renaissance, Haussmannian and Neoclassical. Finally, we demonstrate our approach on various street-side images.

  18. Style representation in design grammars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmad, Sumbul; Chase, Scott Curland

    2012-01-01

    to be transformed according to changing design style needs. Issues of formalizing stylistic change necessitate a lucid and formal definition of style in the design language generated by a grammar. Furthermore, a significant aspect of the definition of style is the representation of aesthetic qualities attributed...... to the style. We focus on grammars for representing and generating styles of design and review the use of grammar transformations for modelling changes in style and design language. We identify a gap in knowledge in the representation of style in grammars and in driving strategic style change using grammar...

  19. Physics Learning Styles in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loos, Rebecca; Ward, James

    2012-03-01

    Students in Physics learn in a variety ways depending on backgrounds and interests. This study proposes to evaluate how students in Physics learn using Howard Gardner's Theory of Multiple Intelligences. Physics utilizes numbers, conceptualization of models, observations and visualization skills, and the ability to understand and reflect on specific information. The main objective is to evaluate how Physics students learn specifically using spatial, visual and sequential approaches. This will be assessed by conducting a learning style survey provided by North Carolina State University (NCSU). The survey is completed online by the student after which the results are sent to NCSU. Students will print out the completed survey analysis for further evaluation. The NCSU results categorize students within five of ten learning styles. After the evaluation of Howard Gardner's Theory of Multiple Intelligences and the NCSU definitions of the ten learning styles, the NCSU sensing and visual learning styles will be defined as the Gardener's spatial, visual learning styles. NCSU's sequential learning style will be looked at separately. With the survey results, it can be determined if Physics students fall within the hypothesized learning styles.

  20. Visualizer cognitive style enhances visual creativity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmiero, Massimiliano; Nori, Raffaella; Piccardi, Laura

    2016-02-26

    In the last two decades, interest towards creativity has increased significantly since it was recognized as a skill and as a cognitive reserve and is now always more frequently used in ageing training. Here, the relationships between visual creativity and Visualization-Verbalization cognitive style were investigated. Fifty college students were administered the Creative Synthesis Task aimed at measuring the ability to construct creative objects and the Visualization-Verbalization Questionnaire (VVQ) aimed at measuring the attitude to preferentially use either imagery or verbal strategy while processing information. Analyses showed that only the originality score of inventions was positively predicted by the VVQ score: higher VVQ score (indicating the preference to use imagery) predicted originality of inventions. These results showed that the visualization strategy is involved especially in the originality dimension of creative objects production. In light of neuroimaging results, the possibility that different strategies, such those that involve motor processes, affect visual creativity is also discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.