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Sample records for style preferences performed

  1. Nursing Students’ Preferred Learning Styles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sh Salehi

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Background and purpose: Learning style is the processing of information and comprehension. If teachers present contents in a style that matches a student’s preferred learning style, academic performance and success will improve. If content retention improves it will result in an increase in thetest scores. It is also important to determine if students, as a group, fit into a particular style or a particular cycle as they move through an educational program.Methods: The study is a descriptive analytical research. Nursing Students at Isfahan Medical Sciences University completed a questionnaire  formulated to assess learning styles. Analysis of variance was used to investigate the possible relationship between learning cycle and student’s grades in the curriculum (i.e. freshman, sophomore, junior, or senior. Cross tabulation was used to test for a relationship between learning style and student academic year of study in the curriculum.Results: 294 students received the Kolb LSI questionnaire. The data demonstrated that juniors preferred a converger learning style and the senior students were in the abstract conceptualization cycle of learning. There were no relationships demonstrated between other groups in the study.Conclusion: The junior and senior students appear to prefer the stage of learning involving thinking and problem analysis. When a group of students demonstrate a preference for particular learning style teachers can develop their curriculum along their learning styleKey words: LEARNING STYLES, NURSING STUDENTS, FRESHMAN, SOPHOMORE, JUNIOR, SENIOR

  2. First year medical students' learning style preferences and their correlation with performance in different subjects within the medical course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Torrano, Daniel; Ali, Syed; Chan, Chee-Kai

    2017-08-08

    Students commencing their medical training arrive with different educational backgrounds and a diverse range of learning experiences. Consequently, students would have developed preferred approaches to acquiring and processing information or learning style preferences. Understanding first-year students' learning style preferences is important to success in learning. However, little is understood about how learning styles impact learning and performance across different subjects within the medical curriculum. Greater understanding of the relationship between students' learning style preferences and academic performance in specific medical subjects would be valuable. This cross-sectional study examined the learning style preferences of first-year medical students and how they differ across gender. This research also analyzed the effect of learning styles on academic performance across different subjects within a medical education program in a Central Asian university. A total of 52 students (57.7% females) from two batches of first-year medical school completed the Index of Learning Styles Questionnaire, which measures four dimensions of learning styles: sensing-intuitive; visual-verbal; active-reflective; sequential-global. First-year medical students reported preferences for visual (80.8%) and sequential (60.5%) learning styles, suggesting that these students preferred to learn through demonstrations and diagrams and in a linear and sequential way. Our results indicate that male medical students have higher preference for visual learning style over verbal, while females seemed to have a higher preference for sequential learning style over global. Significant associations were found between sensing-intuitive learning styles and performance in Genetics [β = -0.46, B = -0.44, p styles and performance in Genetics [β = 0.36, B = 0.43, p learning techniques. Instructors can also benefit by modifying and adapting more appropriate teaching approaches in these

  3. Student learning style preferences in college-level biology courses: Implications for teaching and academic performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitton, Jennifer Susan

    Education research has focused on defining and identifying student learning style preferences and how to incorporate this knowledge into teaching practices that are effective in engaging student interest and transmitting information. One objective was determining the learning style preferences of undergraduate students in Biology courses at New Mexico State University by using the online VARK Questionnaire and an investigator developed survey (Self Assessed Learning Style Survey, LSS). Categories include visual, aural, read-write, kinesthetic, and multimodal. The courses differed in VARK single modal learning preferences (p = 0.035) but not in the proportions of the number of modes students preferred (p = 0.18). As elsewhere, the majority of students were multimodal. There were similarities and differences between LSS and VARK results and between students planning on attending medical school and those not. Preferences and modalities tended not to match as expected for ratings of helpfulness of images and text. To detect relationships between VARK preferred learning style and academic performance, ANOVAs were performed using modality preferences and normalized learning gains from pre and post tests over material taught in the different modalities, as well as on end of semester laboratory and lecture grades. Overall, preference did not affect the performance for a given modality based activity, quiz, or final lecture or laboratory grades (p > 0.05). This suggests that a student's preference does not predict an improved performance when supplied with material in that modality. It is recommended that methods be developed to aid learning in a variety of modalities, rather than catering to individual learning styles. Another topic that is heavily debated in the field of education is the use of simulations or videos to replace or supplement dissections. These activities were compared using normalized learning gains from pre and post tests, as well as attitude surveys

  4. Learning style preferences and course performance in an undergraduate physiology class.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobson, John L

    2009-12-01

    Learning styles may be classified according to the sensory modality that one most prefers to use when internalizing information. The four major sensory modalities are visual, aural or auditory, read/write, and kinesthetic. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between preferred learning style, gender, and course scores in an undergraduate physiology class. Students from the fall 2008 and spring 2009 Applied Human Physiology courses completed an online questionnaire in which they were asked to both provide descriptive information about themselves (e.g., gender and major) and self-assess their preferred sensory modality. A total of 901 students completed the questionnaire, 75% of which were female and 25% were male. The results from a chi(2)-analysis (chi(2) = 9.59, P learning style preferences. Females most preferred visual learning (46%) followed by aural (27%), read/write (23%), and kinesthetic (4%). Males most preferred visual learning (49%) followed by read/write (29%), aural (17%), and kinesthetic (5%). There was also a significant relationship (P < 0.05 by ANOVA) between preferred sensory modality and course scores. The mean overall course scores were 83.53 +/- 8.25, 85.58 +/- 8.18, 84.98 +/- 7.78, and 76.70 +/- 7.92 for those that preferred visual, aural, read/write, and kinesthetic modalities, respectively. These results support the findings of Wehrwein et al. (18): that female and male physiology students have different sensory modality preferences and that they provide the first step in determining if sensory modality preferences impact final course scores.

  5. Learning style preferences of surgical residency applicants.

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    Kim, Roger H; Gilbert, Timothy

    2015-09-01

    The learning style preferences of general surgery residents have been previously reported; there is evidence that residents who prefer read/write learning styles perform better on the American Board of Surgery In-Training Examination (ABSITE). However, little is known regarding the learning style preferences of applicants to general surgery residency and their impact on educational outcomes. In this study, the preferred learning styles of surgical residency applicants were determined. We hypothesized that applicant rank data are associated with specific learning style preferences. The Fleming VARK learning styles inventory was offered to all general surgery residency applicants that were interviewed at a university hospital-based program. The VARK model categorizes learners as visual (V), aural (A), read/write (R), kinesthetic (K), or multimodal (MM). Responses on the inventory were scored to determine the preferred learning style for each applicant. Applicant data, including United States Medical Licensing Examination (USMLE) scores, class rank, interview score, and overall final applicant ranking, were examined for association with preferred learning styles. Sixty-seven applicants were interviewed. Five applicants were excluded due to not completing the VARK inventory or having incomplete applicant data. The remaining 62 applicants (92%) were included for analysis. Most applicants (57%) had a multimodal preference. Sixty-nine percent of all applicants had some degree of preference for kinesthetic learning. There were statistically significant differences between applicants of different learning styles in terms of USMLE step 1 scores (P = 0.001) and USMLE step 2 clinical knowledge scores (P = 0.01), but not for class ranks (P = 0.27), interview scores (P = 0.20), or final ranks (P = 0.14). Multiple comparison analysis demonstrated that applicants with aural preferences had higher USMLE 1 scores (233.2) than those with kinesthetic (211.8, P = 0.005) or multimodal

  6. South Carolina Superintendents' Change Style Preferences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melton, Annette Ghent; Cox, Edward P.

    2010-01-01

    Little is known about the change style preferences of superintendents, and how they differ from school principals and from business leaders and whether a superintendent's change-style preference affects student achievement. The purpose of this study was to explore the change-style preferences of South Carolina superintendents, compare them with…

  7. Other-Regarding Preferences and Leadership Styles

    OpenAIRE

    Kocher, Martin G.; Pogrebna, Ganna; Sutter, Matthias

    2009-01-01

    We use a laboratory experiment to examine whether and to what extent other-regarding preferences of team leaders influence their leadership style in choice under risk. We find that leaders who prefer efficiency or report high levels of selfishness are more likely to exercise an autocratic leadership style by ignoring preferences of the other team members. Yet, inequity aversion has no significant impact on leadership styles. Elected leaders have a higher propensity than exogenously assigned l...

  8. Learning style preferences of undergraduate nursing students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rassool, Goolam Hussein; Rawaf, Salman

    To determine the predominant learning style preferences of undergraduate nursing students. A demographic questionnaire and Honey and Mumford's (2000a) learning styles questionnaire were administered to a purposive sample of 136 students. A response rate of 81% (110) was obtained. The results are congruent with U.K. studies, which show that the reflector is the preferred learning style of undergraduate nursing students. A 'dual' learning style category was also identified. A mismatch between teaching style and the learning styles of students has been found to have serious consequences. A variety of modes of teaching and learning should be used to meet the learning needs of students.

  9. Students' Preferred Learning Styles in Graphic Communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, Jeremy V.; Clark, Aaron C.

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was to identify changes in dominant preferred learning styles of students based on instructional presentation of course content. This study evaluates dominant preferred learning styles of two groups of university students. The first group of students was enrolled in a course that introduces graphical representation in…

  10. Learning style preferences among pre-clinical medical students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aye Aye Mon

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Generally, different students employ different learning styles dur-ing their studies and medical students are exposed to diverse methods of teaching. Therefore, understanding students’ learning style preference is an important consideration for a high quality and effective teaching and learning process.The aim of the study was to study the variation of learning styles among pre-clinical medical students of SEGi University, Malaysia. A cross-sectional study was performed by using VARK (Visual, Audio, Reading and Kinaesthetic questionnaire version 7.2 to assess the learning style preference of 98 (n=98 pre-clinical medical students in SEGi University. The questionnaire consists of 16 items which identify four different learning styles: visual, aural, reading/writing and kin-esthetic. Descriptive statistics were used to identify the learning styles of students. 61 students preferred multimodal as their learning style, out of which 43 (70% of them were female stu-dents and 18 (30% were male students. 37 students preferred unimodal as their learning style out of which 22 (59% of them were female students and 15 (41% were male students. In addi-tion, female students had more diverse preferences than male students by having 10 out of the other 11 possible combinations in multimodal learning style of preference, whereas the male stu-dents only had 5 out of the 11 combinations. In this study, there was no significant gender difference in the percentages of males and female students who preferred unimodal and multimodal styles of information presentation (P= 0.263; α=0.05. To con-clude, the majority of students of both genders had chosen quad-modal as their learning style preference. The results of this study can provide useful information for improving the quality of the teaching and learning experiences of students.

  11. Investigating Language Proficiency and Learning Style Preference

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Bradford; Pirotto, Christopher

    2017-01-01

    Individual differences (ID) among language learners (e.g. language aptitude or motivation), are variables that are theorized to affect the degree of success one will have in acquiring a second language (L2). This study sought to add to the body of literature on learning style. 225first year students (divided into two groups based on English proficiency) at a private Japanese university were surveyed to determine their preferred learning style(s). The data obtained were then examined in relati...

  12. Musical Preferences are Linked to Cognitive Styles

    OpenAIRE

    Greenberg, David M.; Simon Baron-Cohen; Stillwell, David J.; Michal Kosinski; Rentfrow, Peter J.

    2015-01-01

    Why do we like the music we do? Research has shown that musical preferences and personality are linked, yet little is known about other influences on preferences such as cognitive styles. To address this gap, we investigated how individual differences in musical preferences are explained by the empathizing-systemizing (E-S) theory. Study 1 examined the links between empathy and musical preferences across four samples. By reporting their preferential reactions to musical stimuli, samples 1 and...

  13. Musical Preferences are Linked to Cognitive Styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, David M; Baron-Cohen, Simon; Stillwell, David J; Kosinski, Michal; Rentfrow, Peter J

    2015-01-01

    Why do we like the music we do? Research has shown that musical preferences and personality are linked, yet little is known about other influences on preferences such as cognitive styles. To address this gap, we investigated how individual differences in musical preferences are explained by the empathizing-systemizing (E-S) theory. Study 1 examined the links between empathy and musical preferences across four samples. By reporting their preferential reactions to musical stimuli, samples 1 and 2 (Ns = 2,178 and 891) indicated their preferences for music from 26 different genres, and samples 3 and 4 (Ns = 747 and 320) indicated their preferences for music from only a single genre (rock or jazz). Results across samples showed that empathy levels are linked to preferences even within genres and account for significant proportions of variance in preferences over and above personality traits for various music-preference dimensions. Study 2 (N = 353) replicated and extended these findings by investigating how musical preferences are differentiated by E-S cognitive styles (i.e., 'brain types'). Those who are type E (bias towards empathizing) preferred music on the Mellow dimension (R&B/soul, adult contemporary, soft rock genres) compared to type S (bias towards systemizing) who preferred music on the Intense dimension (punk, heavy metal, and hard rock). Analyses of fine-grained psychological and sonic attributes in the music revealed that type E individuals preferred music that featured low arousal (gentle, warm, and sensual attributes), negative valence (depressing and sad), and emotional depth (poetic, relaxing, and thoughtful), while type S preferred music that featured high arousal (strong, tense, and thrilling), and aspects of positive valence (animated) and cerebral depth (complexity). The application of these findings for clinicians, interventions, and those on the autism spectrum (largely type S or extreme type S) are discussed.

  14. Musical Preferences are Linked to Cognitive Styles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, David M.; Baron-Cohen, Simon; Stillwell, David J.; Kosinski, Michal; Rentfrow, Peter J.

    2015-01-01

    Why do we like the music we do? Research has shown that musical preferences and personality are linked, yet little is known about other influences on preferences such as cognitive styles. To address this gap, we investigated how individual differences in musical preferences are explained by the empathizing-systemizing (E-S) theory. Study 1 examined the links between empathy and musical preferences across four samples. By reporting their preferential reactions to musical stimuli, samples 1 and 2 (Ns = 2,178 and 891) indicated their preferences for music from 26 different genres, and samples 3 and 4 (Ns = 747 and 320) indicated their preferences for music from only a single genre (rock or jazz). Results across samples showed that empathy levels are linked to preferences even within genres and account for significant proportions of variance in preferences over and above personality traits for various music-preference dimensions. Study 2 (N = 353) replicated and extended these findings by investigating how musical preferences are differentiated by E-S cognitive styles (i.e., ‘brain types’). Those who are type E (bias towards empathizing) preferred music on the Mellow dimension (R&B/soul, adult contemporary, soft rock genres) compared to type S (bias towards systemizing) who preferred music on the Intense dimension (punk, heavy metal, and hard rock). Analyses of fine-grained psychological and sonic attributes in the music revealed that type E individuals preferred music that featured low arousal (gentle, warm, and sensual attributes), negative valence (depressing and sad), and emotional depth (poetic, relaxing, and thoughtful), while type S preferred music that featured high arousal (strong, tense, and thrilling), and aspects of positive valence (animated) and cerebral depth (complexity). The application of these findings for clinicians, interventions, and those on the autism spectrum (largely type S or extreme type S) are discussed. PMID:26200656

  15. Musical Preferences are Linked to Cognitive Styles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David M Greenberg

    Full Text Available Why do we like the music we do? Research has shown that musical preferences and personality are linked, yet little is known about other influences on preferences such as cognitive styles. To address this gap, we investigated how individual differences in musical preferences are explained by the empathizing-systemizing (E-S theory. Study 1 examined the links between empathy and musical preferences across four samples. By reporting their preferential reactions to musical stimuli, samples 1 and 2 (Ns = 2,178 and 891 indicated their preferences for music from 26 different genres, and samples 3 and 4 (Ns = 747 and 320 indicated their preferences for music from only a single genre (rock or jazz. Results across samples showed that empathy levels are linked to preferences even within genres and account for significant proportions of variance in preferences over and above personality traits for various music-preference dimensions. Study 2 (N = 353 replicated and extended these findings by investigating how musical preferences are differentiated by E-S cognitive styles (i.e., 'brain types'. Those who are type E (bias towards empathizing preferred music on the Mellow dimension (R&B/soul, adult contemporary, soft rock genres compared to type S (bias towards systemizing who preferred music on the Intense dimension (punk, heavy metal, and hard rock. Analyses of fine-grained psychological and sonic attributes in the music revealed that type E individuals preferred music that featured low arousal (gentle, warm, and sensual attributes, negative valence (depressing and sad, and emotional depth (poetic, relaxing, and thoughtful, while type S preferred music that featured high arousal (strong, tense, and thrilling, and aspects of positive valence (animated and cerebral depth (complexity. The application of these findings for clinicians, interventions, and those on the autism spectrum (largely type S or extreme type S are discussed.

  16. Students' Preferences for Communication Styles and Their Relationship to Achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, W. James; Emanuel, Richard

    1990-01-01

    Measures preferences students express for communicator styles of their instructors. Finds the most preferred styles were friendly and attentive, followed by relaxed, impression leaving, animated, dramatic, open, precise, dominant, and contentious. Finds that other variables such as IQ, demographics, and students' learning style preference were…

  17. Leadership styles in nursing management: preferred and perceived.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellgren, Stina; Ekvall, Göran; Tomson, Göran

    2006-07-01

    The aim was to explore nursing leadership regarding what nurse managers and subordinates see as important and to explore subordinates' opinions of their nurse manager's performance in reality. Background The manager's style can be fundamental for subordinates' acceptance of change and in motivating them to achieve stated visions and goals and high quality of care. Nurse managers (n=77) and 10 of each included nurse manager's subordinates received a questionnaire to assess 'preferred' leadership behaviour in three dimensions: change, production and employee/relation orientations. The same questionnaire was used to assess subordinates' opinions of their manager's leadership behaviour. There are statistically significant differences in opinions of preferred leadership between managers and subordinates, especially related to production and relation orientation. The subordinates' perception of real leadership behaviour has lower mean values than their preferred leadership behaviour in all three dimensions. Subordinates prefer managers with more clearly expressed leadership behaviour than managers themselves prefer and demonstrate.

  18. Profiling learning style preferences of first-year University students ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Widening access to higher education has meant an increasing need for flexibility in instruction and course design to accommodate students who utilize a wide range of learning style preferences. The purpose of this study was to identify the preferred learning styles of students and to plan instruction and course design ...

  19. The Relationship between Learning Style Preferences and Memory Strategy use in Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirette, Diane Powers; Anderson, Michele A

    2016-07-01

    Deficits in working memory are pervasive, resistant to remediation and significantly impact a persons ability to perform activities of daily living. Internal strategies are effective for improving working memory. Learning style preferences may influence the use of various internal working memory strategies. This study compares the use of internal working memory strategies among four different learning style preferences; converger, diverger, assimilator and accommodator. A non-experimental group design was used to compare the use of internal working memory strategies and learning style preferences among 110 adults. There were some significant differences in the types of strategies used according to learning style preferences. Knowing the learning style preference of clients may help occupational therapists better tailor cognitive rehabilitation treatments to meet the client's needs.

  20. Learning style preference and student aptitude for concept maps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostovich, Carol T; Poradzisz, Michele; Wood, Karen; O'Brien, Karen L

    2007-05-01

    Acknowledging that individuals' preferences for learning vary, faculty in an undergraduate nursing program questioned whether a student's learning style is an indicator of aptitude in developing concept maps. The purpose of this research was to describe the relationship between nursing students' learning style preference and aptitude for concept maps. The sample included 120 undergraduate students enrolled in the adult health nursing course. Students created one concept map and completed two instruments: the Learning Style Survey and the Concept Map Survey. Data included Learning Style Survey scores, grade for the concept map, and grade for the adult health course. No significant difference was found between learning style preference and concept map grades. Thematic analysis of the qualitative survey data yielded further insight into students' preferences for creating concept maps.

  1. Children's Thinking Styles, Play, and Academic Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Robyn M.; Liden, Sharon; Shin, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    Based on the study of seventy-four middle school children of mostly Filipino and part Hawaiian heritages, this article explores the relationships of children's thinking styles, play preferences, and school performance. Using the Group Embedded Figures Test, the Articulation of the Body Scale, and written responses to three questions, the authors…

  2. Learning style preferences of Australian health science students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoghi, Maryam; Brown, Ted; Williams, Brett; Roller, Louis; Jaberzadeh, Shapour; Palermo, Claire; McKenna, Lisa; Wright, Caroline; Baird, Marilyn; Schneider-Kolsky, Michal; Hewitt, Lesley; Sim, Jenny; Holt, Tangerine-Ann

    2010-01-01

    It has been identified that health science student groups may have distinctive learning needs. By university educators' and professional fieldwork supervisors' being aware of the unique learning style preferences of health science students, they have the capacity to adjust their teaching approaches to best fit with their students' learning preferences. The purpose of this study was to investigate the learning style preferences of a group of Australian health science students enrolled in 10 different disciplines. The Kolb Learning Style Inventory was distributed to 2,885 students enrolled in dietetics and nutrition, midwifery, nursing, occupational therapy, paramedics, pharmacy, physiotherapy, radiation therapy, radiography, and social work at one Australian university. A total of 752 usable survey forms were returned (response rate 26%). The results indicated the converger learning style to be most frequently preferred by health science students and that the diverger and accommodator learning styles were the least preferred. It is recommended that educators take learning style preferences of health science students into consideration when planning, implementing, and evaluating teaching activities, such as including more problem-solving activities that fit within the converger learning style.

  3. LEARNING STYLE OF MEDICAL STUDENTS AND ITS CORRELATION WITH PREFERRED TEACHING METHODOLOGIES AND ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhalli, Muhammad Asif; Khan, Ishtiaq Ali; Sattar, Abdul

    2015-01-01

    Researchers have categorized the learning styles in many ways. Kolb proposed a classification of learner's styles as convergers, divergers, assimilators and accommodators. Honey and Mumford simplified learning styles as activists, reflectors, theorists and pragmatists. Neil Fleming's VARK model (Visual, Auditory, Read/write and Kinesthetic) is also popular. This study was carried out to determine the frequency of learning styles (Honey and Mumford) of medical students and its correlation with preferred teaching methodologies and academic achievements. A total of 77 medical students of 4th year MBBS were selected through non-probability convenient sampling for this study. Honey and Mumford's learning style questionnaire, and a 2nd questionnaire to know their preference for different teaching methodologies were distributed to the students. Learning styles were identified and correlated with preferred teaching methodologies and academic achievements by Chi-square test. Mean age of the medical students was 22.75 ± 1.05 years. Twenty one (27.3%) participants were males and 56 (72.7%) females. By learning styles, 7 (9.1%) medical students were activists, 36 (46.8%) reflectors, 13 (16.9%) theorists and 21 (27.3%) were pragmatists. Out of 77 students, 22 preferred interactive lectures; 16, small group discussion; 20 problem based learning, 10 preferred demonstration on models. Only 01 students preferred one-way lecture as the best teaching methodology. No significant correlation was found between learning styles and preferred teaching methodologies and learning styles and academic scores. Most of the medical students had reflector (46.8%) and pragmatist (27.3%) learning styles. Majority preferred interactive lectures (28.57%) and problem based learning (25.98%) as teaching methodologies. Aligning our instructional strategies with learning styles of the medical students will improve learning and academic performance.

  4. Cognitive Styles and Educational-Vocational Preferences and Selection

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    Osipow, Samuel H.

    1969-01-01

    Vocational Preference Inventory (VPI) and other instruments administered to 365 students, both undecided and in various interest fields, revealed several differences in cognitive style. No differences regarding cognitive style variations and VPI high-point codes or ease of vocational selection were observed. (Author/CJ)

  5. Plurilingualism, Language Learning Strategy Use and Learning Style Preferences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Psaltou-Joycey, Angeliki; Kantaridou, Zoe

    2009-01-01

    The present paper investigates the language learning strategy use and learning style preferences of Greek university students in order to find out the possible relations that hold between degrees of plurilingualism, strategy use and learning styles. The subjects were 1555 Greek undergraduates from a number of disciplines, learning foreign…

  6. Parenting with Style: Altruism and Paternalism in Intergenerational Preference Transmission

    OpenAIRE

    Doepke, Matthias; Zilibotti, Fabrizio

    2014-01-01

    We develop a theory of intergenerational transmission of preferences that rationalizes the choice between alternative parenting styles (as set out in Baumrind 1967). Parents maximize an objective function that combines Beckerian altruism and paternalism towards children. They can affect their children's choices via two channels: either by influencing children's preferences or by imposing direct restrictions on their choice sets. Different parenting styles (authoritarian, authoritative, and pe...

  7. Gender differences in learning style preferences among undergraduate physiology students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehrwein, Erica A; Lujan, Heidi L; DiCarlo, Stephen E

    2007-06-01

    Students have individual learning style preferences including visual (V; learning from graphs, charts, and flow diagrams), auditory (A; learning from speech), read-write (R; learning from reading and writing), and kinesthetic (K; learning from touch, hearing, smell, taste, and sight). These preferences can be assessed using the VARK questionnaire. We administered the VARK questionnaire to undergraduate physiology majors enrolled in a capstone physiology laboratory at Michigan State University; 48 of the 86 students (55.8%) who returned the completed questionnaire voluntarily offered gender information. The responses were tallied and assessed for gender difference in learning style preference; 54.2% of females and only 12.5% of males preferred a single mode of information presentation. Among the female students, 4.2% of the students preferred V, 0% of the students preferred A, 16.7% of the students preferred printed words (R), and 33.3% of the students preferred using all their senses (K). In contrast, male students were evenly distributed in preference, with 4.2% of the students preferring A, R, or K, respectively, while 0% of the students preferred V. Furthermore, 45.8% of female and 87.5% of male respondents preferred multiple modes [female: 2 modes (12.5%), 3 modes (12.5%), and 4 modes (20.8%); males: 2 modes (16.7%), 3 modes (12.5%), and 4 modes (58.3%)] of presentation. In summary, a majority of male students preferred multimodal instruction, specifically, four modes (VARK), whereas a majority of female students preferred single-mode instruction with a preference toward K. Thus, male and female students have significantly different learning styles. It is the responsibility of the instructor to address this diversity of learning styles and develop appropriate learning approaches.

  8. Attending Surgeons' Leadership Style in the Operating Room: Comparing Junior Residents' Experiences and Preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kissane-Lee, Nicole A; Yule, Steven; Pozner, Charles N; Smink, Douglas S

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies have focused on surgeons' nontechnical skills in the operating room (OR), especially leadership. In an attempt to identify trainee preferences, we explored junior residents' opinions about the OR leadership style of teaching faculty. Overall, 20 interns and 20 mid-level residents completed a previously validated survey on the style of leadership they encountered, the style they preferred to receive, and the style they personally employed in the OR. In all, 4 styles were explored; authoritative: leader makes decisions and communicates them firmly; explanatory: leader makes decisions promptly, but explains them fully; consultative: leader consults with trainees when important decisions are made, and delegative: leader puts the problem before the group and makes decisions by majority opinion. Comparisons were completed using chi-square analysis. Junior resident preference for leadership style of attending surgeons in the OR differed from what they encountered. Overall, 62% of residents encountered an authoritative leadership style; however, only 9% preferred this (p leadership. Junior resident preference of leadership style in the OR differs from what they actually encounter. This has the potential to create unwanted tension and may erode team performance. Awareness of this difference provides an opportunity for an educational intervention directed at both attendings and trainees. Copyright © 2015 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. The preferred learning style among residents and faculty members of an internal medicine residency program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adesunloye, Bamidele A; Aladesanmi, Oluranti; Henriques-Forsythe, Marshaleen; Ivonye, Chinedu

    2008-02-01

    To determine the preferred learning style, as defined by David Kolb, and predictors of the different learning styles among residents and faculty members at an internal medicine residency program. A cross sectional study of internal medicine residents and faculty members at Morehouse School of Medicine was performed using the Kolb Learning Style Inventory (LSI) version 3.1. The Kolb LSI is a questionnaire of 12 sentences, each with four phrases for sentence completion that are to be ranked according to how they apply to the subject. Forty-two out of 59 questionnaires that were given out to residents and attending physicians were properly completed and returned. Assimilating style was the predominant learning style among residents (42%) and attending physicians (55%). There was no significant association between age, gender or medical education status, and learning styles. The understanding of residents' learning styles may facilitate instructional rapport between residents and attending physicians, thereby improving residents' academic performance.

  10. Personality and preference for painting style.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juhasz, J B; Paxson, L

    1978-04-01

    40 university students were asked to choose between the cubist or surrealist from among 15 pairs of slides of paintings according to their aesthetic preference. Their choices were correlated with scores on Rotter's internal vs external locus of control scale. The data support the hypothesis that there is a positive relationship between preference for cubism over surrealism and internal locus control and vice versa.

  11. Learning Style Preferences and the Online Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Irma S.; Blankenship, Dianna

    2017-01-01

    This study was adapted from a learning styles questionnaire in College Study Strategies (Laskey & Gibson, pp. 52-53, 1997). The authors administered the adapted questionnaire to undergraduate education and legal online students in a Southern predominately Hispanic serving institution. This study allowed the students to identify their preferred…

  12. Learning style and teaching method preferences of Saudi students of physical therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Maghraby, Mohamed A; Alshami, Ali M

    2013-09-01

    To the researchers' knowledge, there are no published studies that have investigated the learning styles and preferred teaching methods of physical therapy students in Saudi Arabia. The study was conducted to determine the learning styles and preferred teaching methods of Saudi physical therapy students. A cross-sectional study design. Fifty-three Saudis studying physical therapy (21 males and 32 females) participated in the study. The principal researcher gave an introductory lecture to explain the different learning styles and common teaching methods. Upon completion of the lecture, questionnaires were distributed, and were collected on completion. Percentages were calculated for the learning styles and teaching methods. Pearson's correlations were performed to investigate the relationship between them. More than 45 (85%) of the students rated hands-on training as the most preferred teaching method. Approximately 30 (57%) students rated the following teaching methods as the most preferred methods: "Advanced organizers," "demonstrations," and "multimedia activities." Although 31 (59%) students rated the concrete-sequential learning style the most preferred, these students demonstrated mixed styles on the other style dimensions: Abstract-sequential, abstract-random, and concrete-random. The predominant concrete-sequential learning style is consistent with the most preferred teaching method (hands-on training). The high percentage of physical therapy students whose responses were indicative of mixed learning styles suggests that they can accommodate multiple teaching methods. It is recommended that educators consider the diverse learning styles of the students and utilize a variety of teaching methods in order to promote an optimal learning environment for the students.

  13. Relationship between Gender, Subject Preference and Learning Styles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suprihadi Suprihadi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the learning styles of the students is very crucial in implementing student-centered learning (SCL. The objectives of this research are to describe: 1 the general learning styles profile of the students of English Education Department Universitas Muria Kudus; 2 the dependency relationship between learning styles dimensions and gender, and 3 the dependency relationship between subject preference and learning styles dimensions. This research uses 208 students from different semesters as the samples, while the instrument is the Indonesian translation of Solomon-Felder Index of Learning Styles Questionnaire. The result of the analysis reveals that: 1 the general learning style profile of the students is balanced; 2 at ? .05, there is no significant relationship between the probability of the students of having certain learning styles dimensions and gender; 3 at ? .05, the subject preference of the students who are SensingIntuitive and Visual Verbal depends on their learning styles dimensions, while that of those who are Active Reflective and Sequential Global does not.

  14. Thinking style preference, emotional intelligence and leadership effectiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tessie H. Herbst

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the researchers investigate the relationship between thinking style preference, emotional intelligence and leadership effectiveness in an institution of higher education. The measuring instruments used were the Neethling Brain Preference Profle (NBPP and the Mayer, Salovey and Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT, as well as the Kouzes and Posner Leadership Practices Inventory (LPI. The sample comprised 138 managers within a higher education institution. The researchers found some evidence to support the relationship between thinking style, emotional intelligence (EI and leadership effectiveness. The researchers concluded that facets of brain dominance and emotional intelligence may be potentially useful predictors of transformational leadership behaviours.

  15. Thinking style preference, emotional intelligence and leadership effectiveness

    OpenAIRE

    Tessie H. Herbst; Kobus G. Maree

    2008-01-01

    In this study, the researchers investigate the relationship between thinking style preference, emotional intelligence and leadership effectiveness in an institution of higher education. The measuring instruments used were the Neethling Brain Preference Profle (NBPP) and the Mayer, Salovey and Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT), as well as the Kouzes and Posner Leadership Practices Inventory (LPI). The sample comprised 138 managers within a higher education institution. The researcher...

  16. Effects of learning styles on career preferences of senior secondary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The research investigated the effects of learning styles on career preferences of senior secondary school students in Jigawa State, Nigeria. A total of six hundred students, three hundred and sixty male, and two hundred and forty female were randomly selected from ten senior secondary schools across the state for the study ...

  17. Preferred Learning Styles in the Second Language Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cincotta, Madeline Strong

    1998-01-01

    Outlines the preferred learning styles of students studying second languages, offering suggestions for their application in second-language classrooms. The paper describes the right-brain/left-brain theory and how the two brain hemispheres are involved in learning; presents four classroom strategies (diversification, contextualization,…

  18. Identifying Students' Learning Style Preferences Regarding Some Variables in the EFL Classroom: The Case of Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Cevdet; Genc, Salih Zeki

    2010-01-01

    During the past decade, the identification of students' learning style preferences has gained importance in educational research. This study aimed at identifying the individual perceptions of the learner style preferences of Turkish EFL learners. Using learning style preference categories and a 28-item language learning preference questionnaire…

  19. Learning Style Preferences of Preclinical Medical Students in Oman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabitha Panambur

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Our study sought to assess the learning preferences of students studying in the preclinical years of the medical degree program at Oman Medical College, Sohar.  Methods: In this descriptive, cross-sectional study, we administered a learning style questionnaire (VARK model to 140 students to assess their preferred mode of learning, specifically the sensory modality by which they prefer to take in information.  Results: Over one third (35% of the respondents expressed their preference for a single mode of learning, either visual (8%, auditory (9%, read/write (9%, or kinesthetic (9%. The remaining students preferred learning using a combination of either two (14%, three (19%, or four (32% sensory modalities.  Conclusion: The results of our study provide us with useful information to develop appropriate learning approaches to reach all types of learners at the college.

  20. Learning style preferences of preclinical medical students in oman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panambur, Sabitha; Nambiar, Vinod; Heming, Thomas

    2014-11-01

    Our study sought to assess the learning preferences of students studying in the preclinical years of the medical degree program at Oman Medical College, Sohar.  In this descriptive, cross-sectional study, we administered a learning style questionnaire (VARK model) to 140 students to assess their preferred mode of learning, specifically the sensory modality by which they prefer to take in information.  Over one third (35%) of the respondents expressed their preference for a single mode of learning, either visual (8%), auditory (9%), read/write (9%), or kinesthetic (9%). The remaining students preferred learning using a combination of either two (14%), three (19%), or four (32%) sensory modalities.  The results of our study provide us with useful information to develop appropriate learning approaches to reach all types of learners at the college.

  1. Nurse managers' preferred and perceived leadership styles: a study at an Italian hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zampieron, Alessandra; Spanio, Daniele; Bernardi, Paola; Milan, Rosalia; Buja, Alessandra

    2013-04-01

    The aim of this cross-sectional descriptive study was to compare the different leadership styles based on perceptions of nurse managers and their staff. Nurse managers' styles are fundamental to improving subordinates' performance and achieving goals at health-care institutions. This was a cross-sectional study. A questionnaire developed by Ekvall & Arvonen, considering three leadership domains (Change, Production and Employee relations), was administered to all nurse managers and to their subordinates at a city hospital in north-east Italy. The comparison between the leadership styles actually adopted and those preferred by the nurse managers showed that the preferred style always scored higher than the style adopted, the difference reaching statistical significance for Change and Production. The leadership styles preferred by subordinates always scored higher than the styles their nurse managers actually adopted; in the subordinates' opinion, the differences being statistically significant in all three leadership domains. The study showed that nurse managers' expectations in relation to their leadership differ from those of their subordinates. These findings should be borne in mind when selecting and training nurse managers and other personnel, and they should influence the hospital's strategic management of nurses. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  2. Learning style preferences: A study of pre-clinical medical students in Barbados.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojeh, Nkemcho; Sobers-Grannum, Natasha; Gaur, Uma; Udupa, Alaya; Majumder, Md Anwarul Azim

    2017-10-01

    Educators need to be aware of different learning styles to effectively tailor instructional strategies and methods to cater to the students' learning needs and support a conductive learning environment. The VARK [an acronym for visual (V), aural (A), read/write (R) and kinesthetic (K)] instrument is a useful model to assess learning styles. The aim of this study was to use the VARK questionnaire to determine the learning styles of pre-clinical medical students in order to compare the perceived and assessed learning style preferences, assess gender differences in learning style preferences, and determine whether any relationships exists between awareness of learning styles and academic grades, age, gender and learning modality. The VARK questionnaire was administered to pre-clinical students taking a variety of courses in the first three years of the undergraduate MB BS degree programme at the Faculty of Medical Sciences, The University of the West Indies, Cave Hill Campus, Barbados in 2014. The majority of the students were multimodal learners with no differences observed between males (59.5%) and females (60.0%), with tetramodal being the most common. Read/write (33.8%) followed by kinesthetic (32.5%) were the most common learning style preferences. The sensory modality preference for females was read/write (34.2%) and for males it was kinesthetic (40.5%). Significant differences were observed between the perceived and assessed learning style preferences with a majority of visual and read/write learners correctly matching their perceived to their actual learning styles. Awareness of learning styles was associated with learning modality but not with academic performance, age or gender. Overall, 60.7% of high achievers used multimodal learning compared to 56.9% low achievers. The findings from this study indicated that the VARK tool was useful in gathering information about different learning styles, and might assist educators in designing blended teaching

  3. Learning style preferences: A study of Pre-clinical Medical Students in Barbados

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NKEMCHO OJEH

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Educators need to be aware of different learning styles to effectively tailor instructional strategies and methods to cater to the students’ learning needs and support a conductive learning environment. The VARK [an acronym for visual (V, aural (A, read/write (R and kinesthetic (K] instrument is a useful model to assess learning styles. The aim of this study was to use the VARK questionnaire to determine the learning styles of pre-clinical medical students in order to compare the perceived and assessed learning style preferences, assess gender differences in learning style preferences, and determine whether any relationships exists between awareness of learning styles and academic grades, age, gender and learning modality. Methods: The VARK questionnaire was administered to preclinical students taking a variety of courses in the first three years of the undergraduate MB BS degree programme at the Faculty of Medical Sciences, The University of the West Indies, Cave Hill Campus, Barbados in 2014. Results: The majority of the students were multimodal learners with no differences observed between males (59.5% and females (60.0%, with tetramodal being the most common. Read/write (33.8% followed by kinesthetic (32.5% were the most common learning style preferences. The sensory modality preference for females was read/write (34.2% and for males it was kinesthetic (40.5%. Significant differences were observed between the perceived and assessed learning style preferences with a majority of visual and read/write learners correctly matching their perceived to their actual learning styles. Awareness of learning styles was associated with learning modality but not with academic performance, age or gender. Overall, 60.7% of high achievers used multimodal learning compared to 56.9% low achievers. Conclusion: The findings from this study indicated that the VARK tool was useful in gathering information about different learning styles, and might

  4. Learning style preferences: A study of pre-clinical medical students in Barbados

    Science.gov (United States)

    OJEH, NKEMCHO; SOBERS-GRANNUM, NATASHA; GAUR, UMA; UDUPA, ALAYA; MAJUMDER, MD.ANWARUL AZIM

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Educators need to be aware of different learning styles to effectively tailor instructional strategies and methods to cater to the students’ learning needs and support a conductive learning environment. The VARK [an acronym for visual (V), aural (A), read/write (R) and kinesthetic (K)] instrument is a useful model to assess learning styles. The aim of this study was to use the VARK questionnaire to determine the learning styles of pre-clinical medical students in order to compare the perceived and assessed learning style preferences, assess gender differences in learning style preferences, and determine whether any relationships exists between awareness of learning styles and academic grades, age, gender and learning modality. Methods: The VARK questionnaire was administered to pre-clinical students taking a variety of courses in the first three years of the undergraduate MB BS degree programme at the Faculty of Medical Sciences, The University of the West Indies, Cave Hill Campus, Barbados in 2014. Results: The majority of the students were multimodal learners with no differences observed between males (59.5%) and females (60.0%), with tetramodal being the most common. Read/write (33.8%) followed by kinesthetic (32.5%) were the most common learning style preferences. The sensory modality preference for females was read/write (34.2%) and for males it was kinesthetic (40.5%). Significant differences were observed between the perceived and assessed learning style preferences with a majority of visual and read/write learners correctly matching their perceived to their actual learning styles. Awareness of learning styles was associated with learning modality but not with academic performance, age or gender. Overall, 60.7% of high achievers used multimodal learning compared to 56.9% low achievers. Conclusion: The findings from this study indicated that the VARK tool was useful in gathering information about different learning styles, and might assist

  5. Residents' formal knowledge acquisition and preferred learning styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, G; Montgomery, D; Walley, E; Beebe, D; Replogle, W

    1995-01-01

    Many family practice residency programs use the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) in their educational programs. Our purpose was to study the relationship between learning style, as determined by MBTI personality preferences, and residents' cognitive knowledge acquisition, measured by in-service training examination (ISTE) scores during the first and third years of residency. We evaluated 36 residents using both their first- and third-year ISTE composite scores and their MBTI scores. ISTE scores were analyzed according to the MBTI personality factors. We used the Wilcoxon Rank-Sum Test to determine the association between the improvement in residents' ISTE scores between the first- and third-year examinations and preferred learning styles. Significant differences were found on the composite ISTE scores for the thinking/feeling and judgment/perception scales. Feelers increased ISTE scores more than thinkers (P = .031); judgers increased ISTE scores more than perceivers (P = .04). Results do not support the literature or current MBTI learning theory. Intuitive residents demonstrated no advantage over sensing residents. Residents using feeling/judgment as their preferred learning style acquired more knowledge over 3 years than their thinking/perceiving counterparts, as measured by ISTE scores.

  6. The impact of multiple representations of content using multimedia on learning outcomes across learning styles and modal preferences

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    M D Sankey; D Birch; M W Gardiner

    2011-01-01

    ... more effectively for different learning styles and modal preferences. This paper presents the findings of an experiment to measure the impact of multiple representations on learning outcomes, including student learning performance and engagement...

  7. Correlations Between Clinical Judgement and Learning Style Preferences of Nursing Students in the Simulation Room.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallin, Karin; Haggstrom, Marie; Backstrom, Britt; Kristiansen, Lisbeth Porskrog

    2015-09-28

    Health care educators account for variables affecting patient safety and are responsible for developing the highly complex process of education planning. Clinical judgement is a multidimensional process, which may be affected by learning styles. The aim was to explore three specific hypotheses to test correlations between nursing students' team achievements in clinical judgement and emotional, sociological and physiological learning style preferences. A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted with Swedish university nursing students in 2012-2013. Convenience sampling was used with 60 teams with 173 nursing students in the final semester of a three-year Bachelor of Science in nursing programme. Data collection included questionnaires of personal characteristics, learning style preferences, determined by the Dunn and Dunn Productivity Environmental Preference Survey, and videotaped complex nursing simulation scenarios. Comparison with Lasater Clinical Judgement Rubric and Non-parametric analyses were performed. Three significant correlations were found between the team achievements and the students' learning style preferences: significant negative correlation with 'Structure' and 'Kinesthetic' at the individual level, and positive correlation with the 'Tactile' variable. No significant correlations with students' 'Motivation', 'Persistence', 'Wish to learn alone' and 'Wish for an authoritative person present' were seen. There were multiple complex interactions between the tested learning style preferences and the team achievements of clinical judgement in the simulation room, which provides important information for the becoming nurses. Several factors may have influenced the results that should be acknowledged when designing further research. We suggest conducting mixed methods to determine further relationships between team achievements, learning style preferences, cognitive learning outcomes and group processes.

  8. Correlations between Clinical Judgement and Learning Style Preferences of Nursing Students in the Simulation Room

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallin, Karin; Häggström, Marie; Bäckström, Britt; Kristiansen, Lisbeth Porskrog

    2016-01-01

    Background: Health care educators account for variables affecting patient safety and are responsible for developing the highly complex process of education planning. Clinical judgement is a multidimensional process, which may be affected by learning styles. The aim was to explore three specific hypotheses to test correlations between nursing students’ team achievements in clinical judgement and emotional, sociological and physiological learning style preferences. Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted with Swedish university nursing students in 2012-2013. Convenience sampling was used with 60 teams with 173 nursing students in the final semester of a three-year Bachelor of Science in nursing programme. Data collection included questionnaires of personal characteristics, learning style preferences, determined by the Dunn and Dunn Productivity Environmental Preference Survey, and videotaped complex nursing simulation scenarios. Comparison with Lasater Clinical Judgement Rubric and Non-parametric analyses were performed. Results: Three significant correlations were found between the team achievements and the students’ learning style preferences: significant negative correlation with ‘Structure’ and ‘Kinesthetic’ at the individual level, and positive correlation with the ‘Tactile’ variable. No significant correlations with students’ ‘Motivation’, ‘Persistence’, ‘Wish to learn alone’ and ‘Wish for an authoritative person present’ were seen. Discussion and Conclusion: There were multiple complex interactions between the tested learning style preferences and the team achievements of clinical judgement in the simulation room, which provides important information for the becoming nurses. Several factors may have influenced the results that should be acknowledged when designing further research. We suggest conducting mixed methods to determine further relationships between team achievements, learning style preferences

  9. Exploration of preferred learning styles in medical education using VARK modal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laxman Khanal

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Learning styles is a term used to refer to the methods of gathering, processing, interpreting, organizing and thinking about information. Students have different learning styles, which is the reason for the diversity seen in classrooms in regards to how students acquire information. Claxton and Murrell had divided the learning styles into the following four categories: personality models, information-processing models, social-interaction models, and instructional preferences models. VARK (an acronym for Visual, Aural, Read/write and Kinesthetic, different way of learning styles is a learning inventory categorized into the ‘instructional preference’ modal. Many studies were done using the VARK inventory among the medical education but the preferred mode of learning was variable in different parts of the world. The relationship of age, gender and academic performance with the mode of learning was also not consistent. So this article tried to conclude the preferred mode of learning and relationship of mode of learning with gender and other factors by analyzing the previous studies done using VARK questionnaire among the medical students in daily teaching and learning environment. Pub Med and Google Scholar were used as a search engine to find the article. Altogether 20 full text research papers were retrieved and reviewed. In the most of part of the world the studies showed that multimodal learning style was the predominant one over unimodal. Further in multimodal quadmodal was the most preferred one followed by other presentation. In the unimodal presentation most preferred one is kinesthetic type of learning along with visual, aural and read write in less extent. Age factors had no lucid relationship with the learning style though some variations were observed with age.This review was expected to be useful as scientific evidence in the field of medical education and also as a reference for further research.

  10. Learning style preferences and academic success of preclinical allied health students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Good, Jonathan P; Ramos, Diane; D'Amore, Domenic C

    2013-01-01

    Student learning style modality preferences, in preclinical classes, were assessed using the visual-aural-read/write-kinesthetic (VARK) inventory. Preferences were assessed for 137 preclinical students, including those in nursing, physician's assistant, physical therapy, athletic training, and natural science programs using the online VARK inventory. All classes contained a majority of multimodal and a significantly high proportion of kinesthetic learners. No correlations were noted between modality preference strength and assessment performance in general biology classes; significant correlations were discovered for kinesthetic preference among the same cohort in subsequent human anatomy (negative correlation) and general physiology (positive correlation) classes. Assessment performance of nursing students in an anatomy and physiology class resulted in correlations with aural (negative correlation) and visual (positive correlation) preference strengths. Study findings are used to evaluate the efficacy of non-omnimodal delivery of content-focused science classes, before the students have developed the background knowledge or skills required to contextualize the learning.

  11. A comparative study about learning styles preferences of two cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutay, Huban

    elements covering each person's perceptual, psychological, environmental, physiological, emotional, and sociological processing preferences and analyzes the learning conditions for students' individual preferences in these six areas. All of these variables can effect one's learning style preferences. Each subject rates 118 items on a five-point scale from strongly disagree to strongly agree. A two-sample t test was used to identify the differences between Turkish and American students by means of their learning style preferences and social anxiety levels. The sample consisted of 67% males and 33% female. The age of the subjects was relatively young as we expected; 51% of them 25 years old and under and 46% of them were between the ages of 26 and 35. In terms of academic major areas 38% of the students were from the basic science areas such as chemistry, biology, physics, and science education with a B.S. degree or pursuing a B.S. degree in one of the science areas mentioned previously. The second most prevalent major category was engineering with 35% of the subject. Out of a total of twenty-four elements, eight were identified as being different in these groups. These differences were mostly in the physiological and environmental stimulus that can be explained as cultural habits or practices.

  12. The effect of surgical resident learning style preferences on American Board of Surgery In-training Examination scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Roger H; Gilbert, Timothy; Ristig, Kyle

    2015-01-01

    There is a growing body of literature that suggests that learners assimilate information differently, depending on their preferred learning style. The VARK model categorizes learners as visual (V), aural (A), read/write (R), kinesthetic (K), or multimodal (MM). We hypothesized that resident VARK learning style preferences and American Board of Surgery In-Training Examination (ABSITE) performance are associated. The Fleming VARK learning styles inventory was administered to all general surgery residents at a university hospital-based program each year to determine their preferred learning style. Resident scores from the 2012 and 2013 ABSITE were examined to identify any correlation with learning style preferences. Over a 2-year period, residents completed 53 VARK inventory assessments. Most (51%) had a multimodal preference. Dominant aural and read/write learners had the lowest and highest mean ABSITE scores, respectively (p = 0.03). Residents with dominant read/write learning preferences perform better on the ABSITE than their peers did, whereas residents with dominant aural learning preferences underperform on the ABSITE. This may reflect an inherent and inadvertent bias of the examination against residents who prefer to learn via aural modalities. Copyright © 2015 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Effects of Lecture Style on Learning and Preferences for a Teacher.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hull, Debra B.; Hull, John H.

    1988-01-01

    Examines the effect of stereotypically masculine and feminine teaching styles on college students. Results indicate that students prefer the feminine style, and that students learn significantly less from a female using the masculine style than from a male using the feminine style. (FMW)

  14. A prospective cohort study examining the preferred learning styles of acute care registered nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCrow, Judy; Yevchak, Andrea; Lewis, Peter

    2014-03-01

    This paper reports on the preferred learning styles of Registered Nurses practicing in acute care environments and relationships between gender, age, post-graduate experience and the identified preferred learning styles. A prospective cohort study design was used. Participants completed a demographic questionnaire and the Felder-Silverman Index of Learning Styles (ILS) questionnaire to determine preferred learning styles. Most of the Registered Nurse participants were balanced across the Active-Reflective (n = 77, 54%), and Sequential-Global (n = 96, 68%) scales. Across the other scales, sensing (n = 97, 68%) and visual (n = 76, 53%) were the most common preferred learning style. There were only a small proportion who had a preferred learning style of reflective (n = 21, 15%), intuitive (n = 5, 4%), verbal (n = 11, 8%) or global learning (n = 15, 11%). Results indicated that gender, age and years since undergraduate education were not related to the identified preferred learning styles. The identification of Registered Nurses' learning style provides information that nurse educators and others can use to make informed choices about modification, development and strengthening of professional hospital-based educational programs. The use of the Index of Learning Styles questionnaire and its ability to identify 'balanced' learning style preferences may potentially yield additional preferred learning style information for other health-related disciplines. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Students’ High Achievement on Learning Style Preferences in Chinese Department, Binus University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yetty Go

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Every student certainly demonstrates different achievement in her/his Chinese language learning process because every student has her/his own individual way to resolve their problems in learning. In learning process, student’s individual differences exist. These differences lead to different learning speed and learning style of the student. The purpose of this study was to investigate the high achievement students’ learning styles. This study was based on Reid’s learning styles theory and also uses Reid’s Perceptual Learning Style Preference Questionnaire (PLSPQ to investigate student’s learning styles. The main finding of this study is that student’s learning style preference is group style. According to student learning style preferences results, students prefer to learn together with others or in group and learn in a more interactive way.

  16. Does Gender Influence Learning Style Preferences of First-Year Medical Students?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, Jill A.; Lujan, Heidi L.; DiCarlo, Stephen E.

    2007-01-01

    Students have specific learning style preferences, and these preferences may be different between male and female students. Understanding a student's learning style preference is an important consideration when designing classroom instruction. Therefore, we administered the visual, auditory, reading/writing, kinesthetic (VARK) learning preferences…

  17. The Effects of Elementary School Principals' Leadership Styles and the Preferred Managerial Styles of Teachers on Student Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pichon, Christopher, Sr.

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study is to identify principal leadership styles and teacher preferred principal leadership styles, as well as to examine the independent and combined effects of these variables on the TAKS Mathematics achievement scores of elementary students. School leadership affects every aspect of an institution. Studies reveal that the…

  18. Pre-Service Teachers' Learning Styles and Preferences towards Instructional Technology Activities and Collaborative Works

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusop, Farrah Dina; Sumari, Melati

    2015-01-01

    The main purpose of this exploratory study was to investigate pre-service teachers' learning styles and their preferences with respect to 15 technology-based instructional activities and collaborative work tasks. Felder and Silverman's online Index of Learning Style (ILS) and a questionnaire were used to measure students' learning styles and…

  19. Relationship between the learning style preferences of medical students and academic achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almigbal, Turky H

    2015-03-01

    To investigate the relationship between the learning style preferences of Saudi medical students and their academic achievements. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 600 medical students at King Saud University in Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia from October 2012 to July 2013. The Visual, Aural, Read/Write, and Kinesthetic questionnaire (VARK) questionnaire was used to categorize learning style preferences. Descriptive and analytical statistics were used to identify the learning style preferences of medical students and their relationship to academic achievement, gender, marital status, residency, different teaching curricula, and study resources (for example, teachers' PowerPoint slides, textbooks, and journals). The results indicated that 261 students (43%) preferred to learn using all VARK modalities. There was a significant difference in learning style preferences between genders (p=0.028). The relationship between learning style preferences and students in different teaching curricula was also statistically significant (p=0.047). However, learning style preferences are not related to a student's academic achievements, marital status, residency, or study resources (for example, teachers' PowerPoint slides, textbooks, and journals). Also, after being adjusted to other studies' variables, the learning style preferences were not related to GPA. Our findings can be used to improve the quality of teaching in Saudi Arabia; students would be advantaged if teachers understood the factors that can be related to students' learning styles.

  20. An Exploratory Study of the Language-Learning Style Preferences of Iranian EFL High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramezani, Afsaneh Effatdokht; Dehgahi, Meysam; Hashemi, Hanie

    2015-01-01

    This study explored the learning style preferences of 40 Iranian students at Marefat Iranian high school in Kuala Lumpur of which, 20 are females and 20 are males. To this end, this study used structured interview to elicit in-depth information from the students. The results of the study showed that learning style preferences of Iranian students…

  1. Preferred Learning Styles of Professional Undergraduate and Graduate Athletic Training Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thon, Sarah; Hansen, Pamela

    2015-01-01

    Context: Recognizing the preferred learning style of professional undergraduate and graduate athletic training students will equip educators to more effectively improve their teaching methods and optimize student learning. Objective: To determine the preferred learning style of professional undergraduate and graduate athletic training students…

  2. Profiling Learning Style Preferences of First-Year University Students: Implications for Course Design and Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cekiso, M. P.

    2011-01-01

    Widening access to higher education has meant an increasing need for flexibility in instruction and course design to accommodate students who utilize a wide range of learning style preferences. The purpose of this study was to identify the preferred learning styles of students and to plan instruction and course design accordingly. In addition, a…

  3. Relationship between the learning style preferences of medical students and academic achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almigbal, Turky H.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate the relationship between the learning style preferences of Saudi medical students and their academic achievements. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 600 medical students at King Saud University in Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia from October 2012 to July 2013. The Visual, Aural, Read/Write, and Kinesthetic questionnaire (VARK) questionnaire was used to categorize learning style preferences. Descriptive and analytical statistics were used to identify the learning style preferences of medical students and their relationship to academic achievement, gender, marital status, residency, different teaching curricula, and study resources (for example, teachers’ PowerPoint slides, textbooks, and journals). Results: The results indicated that 261 students (43%) preferred to learn using all VARK modalities. There was a significant difference in learning style preferences between genders (p=0.028). The relationship between learning style preferences and students in different teaching curricula was also statistically significant (p=0.047). However, learning style preferences are not related to a student’s academic achievements, marital status, residency, or study resources (for example, teachers’ PowerPoint slides, textbooks, and journals). Also, after being adjusted to other studies’ variables, the learning style preferences were not related to GPA. Conclusion: Our findings can be used to improve the quality of teaching in Saudi Arabia; students would be advantaged if teachers understood the factors that can be related to students’ learning styles. PMID:25737179

  4. Communication Apprehension and Learning Style Preference: Correlations and Implications for Teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwyer, Karen Kangas

    1998-01-01

    Finds that (1) trait and context communication apprehension correlate significantly with learning-style preference for women, but not for men; (2) high communication-apprehensive women prefer the Hands-on Experimenter and the Analytical Evaluator learning styles; and (3) communication apprehension is not correlated with age, sex, or self-reported…

  5. Profiling physiotherapy student preferred learning styles within a clinical education context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milanese, Steve; Gordon, Susan; Pellatt, Aya

    2013-06-01

    This study investigated the preferred learning styles, related to clinical education of a cohort of final year physiotherapy students. A cross sectional observation study using a questionnaire survey. Undergraduate physiotherapy program at James Cook University, Townsville, Queensland. 48 final year physiotherapy students representing 89% of the total cohort (48/54). Survey questionnaire using Kolb's Learning Style Inventory (Version 3.1). The preferred learning styles were spread uniformly across the three learning styles of Converging, Assimilating and Accommodating, with the least preferred method of learning style the Diverging style. This suggests that in the clinical environment this student cohort are least likely to prefer to develop their learning from actually experiencing the scenario i.e. in front of a real life patient (concrete experience), and were more likely prefer this learning to come from a theoretical perspective, allowing them to consider the problem/scenario before experiencing it. When transforming this experience into knowledge, they prefer to use it on a 'real life' patient (active experimentation). Whilst understanding learning styles have been promoted as a means of improving the learning process, there remains a lack of high level evidence. The findings of this study reinforce those of other studies into the learning styles of physiotherapy students suggesting that physiotherapy students share common learning style profiles. Copyright © 2012 Chartered Society of Physiotherapy. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Relationship between the Learning Styles Preferences and Academic Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awang, H.; Samad, N. Abd; Faiz, N. S. Mohd; Roddin, R.; Kankia, J. D.

    2017-08-01

    The individual learning differences that have been much explored relate to differences in personality, learning styles, strategies and conceptual of learning. This article studies the learning style profile exhibited by students towards the academic achievement in Malaysian Polytechnic. The relationship between learning styles of Polytechnic students and their academic achievement based on VARK learning styles model. The target population was international business students of Malaysian Polytechnic. By means of randomly sampling method, 103 students were selected as sample of research. By descriptive - survey research method and a questionnaire adapted from VARK Learning Style Index, required data were collected. According to the results, no significantly difference between learning style and academic achievement of students. Students academic achievement was quite similar to their individual learning styles. These facts reveal that each learning style has its own strengths and weaknesses.

  7. Learning style preferences of nursing students at two universities in Iran and Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdollahimohammad, Abdolghani; Ja'afar, Rogayah

    2014-01-01

    Learning style preferences vary within the nursing field and there is no consensus on a predominant learning style preference in nursing students. The current study compared the learning style preferences of nursing students at two universities in Iran and Malaysia. A purposive sampling method was used to collect data from the two study populations. Data were collected using the Learning Style Scale (LSS), which is a valid and reliable inventory. The LSS consists of 22 items with five subscales including perceptive, solitary, analytic, imaginative, and competitive. The questionnaires were distributed at the end of the academic year during regular class time for optimum response. The Mann-Whitney U-test was used to compare the learning style preferences between the two study populations. A significant difference was found in perceptive, solitary, and analytic learning styles between two groups of nursing students. However, there was no significant difference in imaginative and competitive learning styles between the two groups. Most of the students were in the middle range of the learning styles. There were similarities and differences in learning style preferences between Zabol Medical Sciences University (ZBMU) and University Sains Malaysia (USM) nursing students. The USM nursing students were more sociable and analytic learners, whereas the ZBMU nursing students were more solitary and perceptive learners.

  8. Association between learning style preferences and anatomy assessment outcomes in graduate-entry and undergraduate medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Mahony, Siobhain M; Sbayeh, Amgad; Horgan, Mary; O'Flynn, Siun; O'Tuathaigh, Colm M P

    2016-07-08

    An improved understanding of the relationship between anatomy learning performance and approaches to learning can lead to the development of a more tailored approach to delivering anatomy teaching to medical students. This study investigated the relationship between learning style preferences, as measured by Visual, Aural, Read/write, and Kinesthetic (VARK) inventory style questionnaire and Honey and Mumford's learning style questionnaire (LSQ), and anatomy and clinical skills assessment performance at an Irish medical school. Additionally, mode of entry to medical school [undergraduate/direct-entry (DEM) vs. graduate-entry (GEM)], was examined in relation to individual learning style, and assessment results. The VARK and LSQ were distributed to first and second year DEM, and first year GEM students. DEM students achieved higher clinical skills marks than GEM students, but anatomy marks did not differ between each group. Several LSQ style preferences were shown to be weakly correlated with anatomy assessment performance in a program- and year-specific manner. Specifically, the "Activist" style was negatively correlated with anatomy scores in DEM Year 2 students (rs = -0.45, P = 0.002). The "Theorist" style demonstrated a weak correlation with anatomy performance in DEM Year 2 (rs = 0.18, P = 0.003). Regression analysis revealed that, among the LSQ styles, the "Activist" was associated with poorer anatomy assessment performance (P VARK "Aural" modality (P < 0.05). These data support the contention that individual student learning styles contribute little to variation in academic performance in medical students. Anat Sci Educ 9: 391-399. © 2016 American Association of Anatomists. © 2016 American Association of Anatomists.

  9. A Comparison between Learning Style Preferences, Gender, Sport and Achievement in Elite Team Sport Athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Braakhuis

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Athletes have preferences for the way in which they internalize and process information, whether that is visual, aural, by-doing (kinesthetic, reading or a mixture of preferences. Health professionals that interact with athletes rarely consider the individual learning style prior to any communication or education, despite mounting evidence for the benefits of learning-style tailored education. The aim of this study was to characterize athletes with regards to their preferred learning style. Athletes (n = 93 from 24 sports and various sport achievement levels completed a questionnaire, including the visual (V, auditory (A, reading/writing (R, kinesthetic (K/(VARK Questionnaire for Athletes. Questionnaire outcomes were analysed by X2 analysis on SPSS. The main findings were: (1 very few athletes have a visual learning-style preference; (2 there was a significant relationship between gender and VARK preference (X2 = 13.84, p = 0.003; (3 and between athletic status and VARK preference (X2 = 9.2, p = 0.025; (4 there was a trivial association between individual/ team sport athletes and assessed VARK preference (X2 = 3.95, p = 0.265. Our findings show significant variation in learning-style preference between males and females, and those of different athletic status. Health professionals should be aware of the inadequacy of visual information presentation when working with athletes. Furthermore, health professionals working with elite and female athletes should be comfortable using a mixture of learning styles (multi-modal.

  10. Learners' Satisfaction, Learning Style Preferences and Effective Use of an OLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thushani Alwis Weerasinghe

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of an empirical study conducted with a set of students using an online learning environment (OLE to follow a distance education program. The aim of the study was to find whether students could perform well in examinations using only the Learning Management System (LMS, whether they could use it in an efficient way and whether there was a relationship between students’ learning styles, number of LMS hits and learning achievements. The students were given access to a specially designed course section. The students’ learning achievements were evaluated in two tests at different intervals. The study data were gathered using questionnaires and LMS statistics. We found that once the students got acquainted with the environment they could use the LMS more efficiently and managed to get high scores by only using the LMS. Results associated with the learning style preferences imply that we have designed the learning content and the environment to satisfy and support the learners with different learning style preferences.

  11. The relationship between learning preferences (styles and approaches) and learning outcomes among pre-clinical undergraduate medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liew, Siaw-Cheok; Sidhu, Jagmohni; Barua, Ankur

    2015-03-11

    Learning styles and approaches of individual undergraduate medical students vary considerably and as a consequence, their learning needs also differ from one student to another. This study was conducted to identify different learning styles and approaches of pre-clinical, undergraduate medical students and also to determine the relationships of learning preferences with performances in the summative examinations. A cross-sectional study was conducted among randomly selected 419 pre-clinical, undergraduate medical students of the International Medical University (IMU) in Kuala Lumpur. The number of students from Year 2 was 217 while that from Year 3 was 202. The Visual, Auditory, Read/Write, Kinesthetic (VARK) and the Approaches and Study Skills Inventory for Students (ASSIST) questionnaires were used for data collection. This study revealed that 343 students (81.9%) had unimodal learning style, while the remaining 76 (18.1%) used a multimodal learning style. Among the unimodal learners, a majority (30.1%) were of Kinesthetic (K) type. Among the middle and high achievers in summative examinations, a majority had unimodal (Kinaesthetic) learning style (30.5%) and were also strategic/deep learners (79.4%). However, the learning styles and approaches did not contribute significantly towards the learning outcomes in summative examinations. A majority of the students in this study had Unimodal (Kinesthetic) learning style. The learning preferences (styles and approaches) did not contribute significantly to the learning outcomes. Future work to re-assess the viability of these learning preferences (styles and approaches) after the incorporation of teaching-learning instructions tailored specifically to the students will be beneficial to help medical teachers in facilitating students to become more capable learners.

  12. A Comparative Analysis of Preferred Learning and Teaching Styles for Engineering, Industrial, and Technology Education Students and Faculty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsioloudis, Petros; Fantz, Todd D.

    2012-01-01

    In the spring semester of 2010, a materials process course was selected as a means to perform a preferred learning style research study. This course was selected because it contained three groups of students: technology education, engineering technology, and industrial technology. The researchers believed that the differences in the students'…

  13. Leadership Style Preference of Undergraduate Occupational Therapy Students in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ted Brown

    2014-06-01

    Conclusion: The Considerate leadership style is characterised by creating comfortable working environments, following established procedures, and creating an easy work pace, while the Spirited leadership style is about inspiring people, generating excitement, turning work into play, and rallying people. It is recommended that leadership be integrated into occupational therapy curricula so as to adequately equip students for future professional practice.

  14. Physician's gender, communication style, patient preferences and patient satisfaction in gynecology and obstetrics: A systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, S.M.; Lagro-Janssen, A.L.M.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Review of studies published in the last 10 years about women seeking gynecological- or obstetrical care and physician's gender in relation to patient preferences, differences in communication style and patient satisfaction. METHODS: Studies were identified by searching the online

  15. Learning Styles of Design Students and the Relationship of Academic Performance and Gender in Design Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirbas, O. Osman; Demirkan, Halime

    2007-01-01

    The study focuses on design education using Experiential Learning Theory (ELT) and explores the effects of learning styles and gender on the performance scores of freshman design students in three successive academic years. Findings indicate that the distribution of design students through learning style type preference was more concentrated in…

  16. Exploration of preferred learning styles in medical education using VARK modal

    OpenAIRE

    Khanal, Laxman; Shah, Sandip; Koirala, Sarun

    2014-01-01

    Learning styles is a term used to refer to the methods of gathering, processing, interpreting, organizing and thinking about information. Students have different learning styles, which is the reason for the diversity seen in classrooms in regards to how students acquire information. Claxton and Murrell had divided the learning styles into the following four categories: personality models, information-processing models, social-interaction models, and instructional preferences models. VARK (an ...

  17. Relationship between leadership style and performance of Perak ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Result showed athletes most preferred coaching styles were training and instruction followed by democratic, positive feedback and social support. Autocratic behaviour was the least preferred. However coaches' self-evaluation showed majority were keen on autocratic leadership style. Overall, the results of the study ...

  18. Are Learning Style Preferences of Health Science Students Predictive of Their Attitudes towards E-Learning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Ted; Zoghi, Maryam; Williams, Brett; Jaberzadeh, Shapour; Roller, Louis; Palermo, Claire; McKenna, Lisa; Wright, Caroline; Baird, Marilyn; Schneider-Kolsky, Michal; Hewitt, Lesley; Sim, Jenny; Holt, Tangerine-Ann

    2009-01-01

    The objective for this study was to determine whether learning style preferences of health science students could predict their attitudes to e-learning. A survey comprising the "Index of Learning Styles" (ILS) and the "Online Learning Environment Survey" (OLES) was distributed to 2885 students enrolled in 10 different health…

  19. Preference Learning Style in Engineering Mathematics: Students' Perception of E-Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tawil, Norngainy Mohd; Ismail, Nur Arzilah; Asshaari, Izamarlina; Othman, Haliza; Zaharim, Azami; Bahaludin, Hafizah

    2013-01-01

    Nowadays, traditional learning styles are assisted with e-learning components to ensure the effectiveness of the teaching and learning process, especially for the students. This approach is known as blended learning. Objective of this paper is to investigate and clarify the students' preferences in learning style, either traditional or e-learning.…

  20. Thinking Styles and Preferred Teacher Interpersonal Behavior among Hong Kong Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Tak-ming; Chen, Chen

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between thinking styles and preferred teacher interpersonal behavior based on the Model for Interpersonal Teacher Behavior (MITB, Wubbels, Creton, & Hooymayers, 1985) among 247 Hong Kong secondary school female students. The Thinking Style Inventory Revised (TSI-R, Sternberg, Wagner, & Zhang, 2003)…

  1. Experimental Study of Chinese Non-English Students' Overall Learning Style Preferences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ming-Lei

    2011-01-01

    Two proposed style assessment instruments are employed to explore the learning styles of non-English major college students in the EFL (English as a Foreign Language) context in Chinese universities. It was found that their overall learning preferences in English language learning demonstrate a tendency, so that discovering the students' learning…

  2. Engineering Students Learning Preferences in UNITEN: Comparative Study and Patterns of Learning Styles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chen Kang; Sidhu, Manjit Singh

    2015-01-01

    Engineering educators have been increasingly taking the learning style theories into serious consideration as part of their efforts to enhance the teaching and learning in engineering. This paper presents a research study to investigate the learning style preference of the mechanical engineering students in Universiti Tenaga Nasional (UNITEN),…

  3. Investigating the Relationship between Learning Style Preferences and Teaching Collaboration Skills and Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Seung L.; Sonnenwald, Diane H.

    2002-01-01

    This paper reports on an exploratory study that investigates the relationship between participants' learning style preferences and their perceptions of a professional workshop on collaboration and technology to support collaboration. The Learning Preference Scale-Students (LPSS) (Owens & Barnes...... regarding the content of the workshop. Group 1 suggested adding more discussions and group exercises, whereas Group 2 suggested adding explicit theory or rules to govern behavior. These findings indicate that learning styles should be considered as a potential variable that influences learning outcomes...

  4. Nursing students at a university - a study about learning style preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallin, Karin

    2014-12-01

    In most adult education, teachers use methods that assume all students learn in the same way. But knowledge of students' learning style preferences highlights the importance of adequate teaching and learning adaptation. The aim of the study was to describe and compare final year nursing students' learning style preferences in two campuses during three semesters. A further aim was to identify differences between learning style preferences and personal characteristics. A descriptive cross-sectional study using the Productivity Environmental Preference Survey (PEPS) questionnaire was conducted at a Swedish rural university. Three semester groups with 263 nursing students participated in 2012-2013. The majority of the students were 'flexible' in their learning style preferences and had none or few strong preferences. Students with strong preferences preferred high structure (75%) and an authority figure present (40%). About a third were highly auditory, tactile and/or kinesthetic while 8% were highly visual. Few significant differences were revealed between the groups of campuses and the groups of semesters or between learning style preferences and upper secondary school and care experience. There were no significant differences between learning style preferences and age and assistant nurse graduation. More women than men were highly motivated, auditory, tactile and kinesthetic and preferred structure and mobility. The PEPS questionnaire provides nursing students with self-awareness regarding their strengths and shortcomings in learning and teachers with a valuable and practical basis for their selection of adapted individual and group teaching methods. The findings suggest the need for wide variation and interactive teaching approaches, conscious didactic actions between cooperating teachers and conscious learning strategies for nursing students. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Does student learning style affect performance on different formats of biomechanics examinations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Chengtu; Mache, Melissa; Knudson, Duane

    2012-03-01

    Students' learning style preferences have been widely adapted into teaching and learning environments. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between self-reported and assessed learning style preferences (visual, auditory, reading/writing, kinesthetic: VARK) on performance in different types of multiple-choice examinations (T1: text only format and T2: visual format) given in an introductory biomechanics class. Students who enrolled in three biomechanics classes at a state university were recruited to participate in the study. Ninety students (47 males and 43 females) completed a learning style survey and two types of examinations. Results showed that approximately half of the students were assessed and self-reported as kinesthetic for their preferred learning style. There was no significant difference in test performance between students who preferred visual and reading/writing learning styles (self-reported and assessed). These students demonstrated similar learning and comprehension of biomechanical concepts regardless of whether the test material was presented in their preferred sensory mode or not. Interestingly, female students' perceptions of their learning style preference may have a positive effect on the test results when the test is presented in their preferred format.

  6. Leadership Style Preference of Undergraduate Occupational Therapy Students in Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Ted; Williams, Brett; Jolliffe, Laura

    2014-01-01

    Background: Occupational therapy graduates are expected to assume leadership roles in a variety of contexts and capacities. Objective: To investigate the leadership styles of undergraduate occupational therapy students. Methods: First, second, third, and fourth year undergraduate occupational therapy students from one Australian university were asked to complete the What’s My Leadership Style (WMLS) questionnaire. Results: The total sample response rate was 86.3% (n = 182/211). Overa...

  7. First-year medical students prefer multiple learning styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lujan, Heidi L; DiCarlo, Stephen E

    2006-03-01

    Students have preferences for the ways in which they receive information. The visual, auditory, reading/writing, kinesthetic (VARK) questionnaire identifies student's preferences for particular modes of information presentation. We administered the VARK questionnaire to our first-year medical students, and 166 of 250 students (66%) returned the completed questionnaire. Only 36.1% of the students preferred a single mode of information presentation. Among these students, 5.4% preferred visual (learning from graphs, charts, and flow diagrams), 4.8% preferred auditory (learning from speech), 7.8% preferred printed words (learning from reading and writing), and 18.1% preferred using all their senses (kinesthetics: learning from touch, hearing, smell, taste, and sight). In contrast, most students (63.8%) preferred multiple modes [2 modes (24.5%), 3 modes (32.1%), or 4 modes (43.4%)] of information presentation. Knowing the students preferred modes can 1) help provide instruction tailored to the student's individual preference, 2) overcome the predisposition to treat all students in a similar way, and 3) motivate teachers to move from their preferred mode(s) to using others.

  8. Lecturing style teaching and student performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Klaveren, C.

    2011-01-01

    Teachers in the Netherlands tend to spend less time in front of the class, and often adopt a more personal approach. This allows them to better adjust their lecturing style to the needs of the individual student with the aim of increasing student performance. However, a more personal approach is

  9. Lecturing style teaching and student performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Klaveren, Chris

    Teachers in the Netherlands tend to spend less time in front of the class, and often adopt a more personal approach. This allows them to better adjust their lecturing style to the needs of the individual student with the aim of increasing student performance. However, a more personal approach is

  10. Learning Styles and Student Performance in Introductory Economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunton, Bruce

    2015-01-01

    Data from nine introductory microeconomics classes was used to test the effect of student learning style on academic performance. The Kolb Learning Style Inventory was used to assess individual student learning styles. The results indicate that student learning style has no significant effect on performance, undermining the claims of those who…

  11. Physician's gender, communication style, patient preferences and patient satisfaction in gynecology and obstetrics: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, Sabine M; Lagro-Janssen, Antoine L M

    2012-11-01

    Review of studies published in the last 10 years about women seeking gynecological- or obstetrical care and physician's gender in relation to patient preferences, differences in communication style and patient satisfaction. Studies were identified by searching the online databases PubMed, PsycINFO, Embase and the Cochrane Library. The search strategies 'gender'; 'obstetrics' and 'gynecology' were combined with 'communication'; 'physician-patient relations'; 'patient preference' and 'patient satisfaction'. After screening title and abstract, evaluating full text and quality assessment, 9 articles were included in this review. Most patients preferred a female rather than a male gynecologist-obstetrician. This was partly explained by a more patient-centered communication style used by female gynecologists-obstetricians. Also experience and clinical competence were important factors in choosing a gynecologist-obstetrician. It was not clear whether patient's age or ethnicity influenced patients gender preference. Patient satisfaction increased when gynecologists-obstetricians used a patient-centered communication style. Preference for a female gynecologist-obstetrician might be explained by a more patient-centered communication style used by female gynecologists-obstetricians. Using a patient-centered communication style increases patient satisfaction. To increase patient satisfaction, gynecologists-obstetricians should learn to integrate patient-centered communication style into the consultation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Automotive style design assessment and sensitivity analysis using integrated analytic hierarchy process and technique for order preference by similarity to ideal solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangdong Tian

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Product style characteristics have a large impact on product function. Making an objective and precise assessment of style characteristic has become an increasing importance to improve the production efficiency and reduce environmental pollution. This work proposes a framework built by analytic hierarchy process and technique for order preference by similarity to ideal solution methods, that is, analytical hierarchy process and technique for order performance by similarity to ideal solution, to evaluate automotive style design alternatives’ performance, together with automotive style design characteristics. Analytic hierarchy process is applied to obtain weights of the performance, and technique for order preference by similarity to ideal solution is adopted to rank the design alternatives. A case study is illustrated to test and verify the proposed method. Simultaneously, sensitivity analysis is provided to monitor the robustness of this method. The results show that it provides an effective and feasible method for evaluation of automotive style design alternatives’ performance.

  13. The learning styles and the preferred teaching-learning strategies of first year medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharb, Poonam; Samanta, Prajna Paramita; Jindal, Manisha; Singh, Vishram

    2013-06-01

    The purpose of teaching is to facilitate learning and to encourage the learners to learn more effectively. The learning style is an individual's consistent way of perceiving, processing and retaining new information. Educational researchers have shown an increasing interest in the learning styles, the related instructional methods and the andrgogical teaching techniques. This interest is spurred by a desire to help the students to become capable and successful learners. The aim of this study was to determine the preferred learning styles of medical students as well as their preferences of specific teaching-learning methods. A cross sectional study was conducted on 100 first semester medical students who were enrolled at SMS & R, Sharda University, India. The VARK questionnaire, version 7.1 was used to categorize the learning preferences/modes as visual (V), auditory (A), read and write (R) and kinaesthetic (K). The students were also asked to rank the various teaching methodologies viz. lectures, tutorials, demonstrations and practicals/dissections from the most preferred choice to the least preferred one. The majority (61%) of the students had multimodal VARK preferences. Among them, 41%, 14% and 6% preferred the bimodal, trimodal and the quadrimodal ways of information presentation. 39% of the respondents had one strong (unimodal) learning preference. The most common unimodal preference was kinaesthetic, followed by visual, auditory and read and write. The most preferred teaching methodology was practical/dissection (39%) and tutorial was the least preferred one (12%). One single approach to teaching does not work for every student or even for most of the students. The educators' awareness of the various learning styles of the students and their efforts towards matching the teaching and learning styles may help in creating an effective learning environment for all the students.

  14. The Learning Styles and the Preferred Teaching—Learning Strategies of First Year Medical Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharb, Poonam; Samanta, Prajna Paramita; Jindal, Manisha; Singh, Vishram

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: The purpose of teaching is to facilitate learning and to encourage the learners to learn more effectively. The learning style is an individual’s consistent way of perceiving, processing and retaining new information. Educational researchers have shown an increasing interest in the learning styles, the related instructional methods and the andrgogical teaching techniques. This interest is spurred by a desire to help the students to become capable and successful learners. Aim: The aim of this study was to determine the preferred learning styles of medical students as well as their preferences of specific teaching-learning methods. Method: A cross sectional study was conducted on 100 first semester medical students who were enrolled at SMS & R, Sharda University, India. The VARK questionnaire, version 7.1 was used to categorize the learning preferences/modes as visual (V), auditory (A), read and write (R) and kinaesthetic (K). The students were also asked to rank the various teaching methodologies viz. lectures, tutorials, demonstrations and practicals/dissections from the most preferred choice to the least preferred one. Results: The majority (61%) of the students had multimodal VARK preferences. Among them, 41%, 14% and 6% preferred the bimodal, trimodal and the quadrimodal ways of information presentation. 39% of the respondents had one strong (unimodal) learning preference. The most common unimodal preference was kinaesthetic, followed by visual, auditory and read and write. The most preferred teaching methodology was practical/dissection (39%) and tutorial was the least preferred one (12%). Conclusion: One single approach to teaching does not work for every student or even for most of the students. The educators’ awareness of the various learning styles of the students and their efforts towards matching the teaching and learning styles may help in creating an effective learning environment for all the students. PMID:23905110

  15. Learning Style Preferences among Male and Female ESL Students in Universiti-Sains Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuib, Munir; Azizan, Siti Norbaya

    2015-01-01

    Individuals preferentially process information in different ways. This includes the varied learning style preference of the individuals in any study program, including English as a Second Language (ESL). However, one of major concerns is, do the ESL students have different preferred way to learn? Past studies have given mixed results including…

  16. Learning Style Preferences of Undergraduate Dietetics, Athletic Training, and Exercise Science Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Meredith G.; Hansen, Pamela; Rhee, Yeong; Brundt, Ardith; Terbizan, Donna; Christensen, Bryan

    2014-01-01

    The study assessed the preferred learning style (LS) of college students and compared LS preferences among students majoring in Dietetics, Exercise Science, and Athletic Training. LS questionnaires were distributed to students (N = 693, mean age 20.5 ± 1.7) enrolled in health science courses at three Midwestern universities. Most students…

  17. Relationship between Teachers' Preferred Teacher-Student Interpersonal Behaviour and Intellectual Styles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Tak Ming; Zhu, Chang

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the association between teachers' preferred interpersonal behaviour in teaching and their thinking styles. A sample of 131 secondary teachers from Hong Kong (n = 94) and Macau (n = 37) participated in a survey to measure their preferred interpersonal behaviour by the questionnaire for teacher interaction (QTI) and their…

  18. Learning Style Preferences of Physical Education Majors: Implications for Teaching and Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randall, Lynda E.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Two studies, one quantitative and another qualitative, of learning style preferences of physical education majors are reviewed. The quantitative study investigated variation in relation to gender, age, and ethnicity and how preferences compared to those found in other disciplines. The qualitative study identified common themes in student…

  19. An Examination through Conjoint Analysis of the Preferences of Students Concerning Online Learning Environments According to Their Learning Styles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daghan, Gökhan; Akkoyunlu, Buket

    2012-01-01

    This study examines learning styles of students receiving education via online learning environments, and their preferences concerning the online learning environment. Maggie McVay Lynch Learning Style Inventory was used to determine learning styles of the students. The preferences of students concerning online learning environments were detected…

  20. Learning Styles Preferences of Statistics Students: A Study in the Faculty of Business and Economics at the UAE University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousef, Darwish Abdulrahman

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Although there are many studies addressing the learning styles of business students as well as students of other disciplines, there are few studies which address the learning style preferences of statistics students. The purpose of this study is to explore the learning style preferences of statistics students at a United Arab Emirates…

  1. Do quality improvement collaboratives' educational components match the dominant learning style preferences of the participants?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weggelaar-Jansen, Anne Marie; van Wijngaarden, Jeroen; Slaghuis, Sarah-Sue

    2015-06-20

    Quality improvement collaboratives are used to improve healthcare by various organizations. Despite their popularity literature shows mixed results on their effectiveness. A quality improvement collaborative can be seen as a temporary learning organization in which knowledge about improvement themes and methods is exchanged. In this research we studied: Does the learning approach of a quality improvement collaborative match the learning styles preferences of the individual participants and how does that affect the learning process of participants? This research used a mixed methods design combining a validated learning style questionnaire with data collected in the tradition of action research methodology to study two Dutch quality improvement collaboratives. The questionnaire is based on the learning style model of Ruijters and Simons, distinguishing five learning style preferences: Acquisition of knowledge, Apperception from others, Discovery of new insights, Exercising in fictitious situations and Participation with others. The most preferred learning styles of the participants were Discovery and Participation. The learning style Acquisition was moderately preferred and Apperception and Exercising were least preferred. The educational components of the quality improvement collaboratives studied (national conferences, half-day learning sessions, faculty site visits and use of an online tool) were predominantly associated with the learning styles Acquisition and Apperception. We observed a decrease in attendance to the learning activities and non-conformance with the standardized set goals and approaches. We conclude that the participants' satisfaction with the offered learning approach changed over time. The lacking match between these learning style preferences and the learning approach in the educational components of the quality improvement collaboratives studied might be the reason why the participants felt they did not gain new insights and therefore ceased

  2. Results of a study assessing teaching methods of faculty after measuring student learning style preference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stirling, Bridget V

    2017-08-01

    Learning style preference impacts how well groups of students respond to their curricula. Faculty have many choices in the methods for delivering nursing content, as well as assessing students. The purpose was to develop knowledge around how faculty delivered curricula content, and then considering these findings in the context of the students learning style preference. Following an in-service on teaching and learning styles, faculty completed surveys on their methods of teaching and the proportion of time teaching, using each learning style (visual, aural, read/write and kinesthetic). This study took place at the College of Nursing a large all-female university in Saudi Arabia. 24 female nursing faculty volunteered to participate in the project. A cross-sectional design was used. Faculty reported teaching using mostly methods that were kinesthetic and visual, although lecture was also popular (aural). Students preferred kinesthetic and aural learning methods. Read/write was the least preferred by students and the least used method of teaching by faculty. Faculty used visual methods about one third of the time, although they were not preferred by the students. Students' preferred learning style (kinesthetic) was the method most used by faculty. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Learning Style Preferences Among Male and Female ESL Students in Universiti-Sains Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Munir Shuib

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Individuals preferentially process information in different ways. This includes the varied learning style preference of the individuals in any study program, including English as a Second Language (ESL. However, one of major concerns is, do the ESL students have different preferred way to learn? Past studies have given mixed results including pertaining to Malaysian students. To address this issue, this study sought to identify whether there are differences in learning style preferences between male and female students who undertook ESL courses in the Universiti Sains Malaysia (USM. To achieve the study objective, Felder-Silverman Learning Style Model (FSLSM was selected to gather data on the respondents’ learning style preference due to its validity, widespread use and suitability to the scope of the study. The responses gathered from FSLSM were tallied and assessed for gender difference in LSP. Results indicated that, there is a strong representation of visual learners from both male and female respondents. On the other hand, the respondents, irrespective of the gender difference, are well-balanced in the dimensions of sensing/intuitive, active/reflective, and sequential/global. In addressing the gender difference, it was found in this study that there is no significant difference between male and female ESL students in their preferred learning styles on each of the FSLSM dimension. Thus, this study revealed that, gender does not help differentiate students’ learning preferences. The findings lend support to several past studies on LSP.

  4. Preferred Thinking Style, Symptom Recognition, and Response by Nursing Students During Simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burbach, Beth E; Barnason, Susan; Hertzog, Melody

    2015-12-01

    A better understanding of the relationships between symptom recognition, nursing response, and preferred thinking style is needed to improve nursing education practices. Final semester nursing students (N = 29) completed a high fidelity patient simulation (HFPS) scenario; recognized symptoms (i.e., dyspnea) and responses (i.e., apply oxygen) were recorded, and compared with students' preferred thinking style using the Rational-Experiential Inventory-40. Relationships between concepts were explored. Significant relationships were noted between preference for Rational thinking styles and symptom recognition (p students delayed application of oxygen until directed to do so by members of the health care team. Students having a stronger preference for rational thinking demonstrate greater accuracy in cue recognition. More nursing research is needed to explore the cognitive processing during simulation. © The Author(s) 2014.

  5. Time preferences, study effort, and academic performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Non, J.A.; Tempelaar, D.T.

    2014-01-01

    We analyze the relation between time preferences, study effort, and academic performance among first-year Business and Economics students. Time preferences are measured by stated preferences for an immediate payment over larger delayed payments. Data on study efforts are derived from an electronic

  6. Cultural preferences for visual and verbal communication styles in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Culture is a key issue in the development of marketing communications in international markets as cultures develop distinctive preferences for visual and verbal communications. The individualistic nature of American culture lends itself to a preference for simple, direct visual communication and low-context verbal ...

  7. Music Preferences, Personality Style, and Developmental Issues of Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Kelly D.; Fouts, Gregory T.

    2003-01-01

    Studied the personality characteristics and developmental issues of three groups of adolescent music listeners divided by preferred type of music. Findings for 164 adolescents show that each of the three music preference groups is inclined to demonstrate a unique profile of personality dimensions and developmental issues. (SLD)

  8. Preferred learning styles among prospective research methodology course students at Taibah University, Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    R Abdallah, Ayat; Al-zalabani, Abdulmohsen; Alqabshawi, Reem

    2013-04-01

    Knowledge of students' preferred learning styles is important while developing teaching strategies that influence student commitment during the course. The VARK questionnaire is one of the commonly used learning style inventories. The aim of this study was to determine and assess the sex-based differences in learning style preferences among second-year medical students at Taibah University who were prospective students for the research methodology course. All second-year medical students at Taibah University (n=129) were invited to participate in the study and were administered the Arabic version of the VARK questionnaire. A total of 89 students, 45 female and 44 male, completed the questionnaire with a response rate of 67%. The students were classified according to the VARK questionnaire as visual, read/write, auditory, kinesthetic, and multimodal learners. Nearly two-thirds (66.3%) of the students preferred multimodality for information presentation. Male and female students showed significantly different learning style preferences (P=0.02). Female students tended to prefer the multimodal learning style more compared with male students (77.8% vs. 54.5%, respectively). Furthermore, 33.7% of students preferred the single mode of information presentation (45.5% male and 22.2% female students); the auditory mode was the predominant selection among the unimodal male and female learners (41% of male vs. 11.1% of female students). The majority of the second-year medical students preferred multimodality in terms of learning preferences, with a significant difference between male and female students; female students tended to favor the multiple modes of information presentation more compared with male students. The study recommends modification of the teaching strategies of the current research methodology course toward the use of a variety of active learning techniques that would fit the different learning styles exhibited by the studied students, rather than classic

  9. Learning Styles and Preferences of Jordanian EFL Graduate Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ababneh, Sana'

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a comparative investigation into the learning styles of successful and unsuccessful language learners. Subjects of the study were seventeen graduate university students at Yarmouk University, Jordan. They were categorized as "successful" or "unsuccessful" learners, on the basis of their final…

  10. Turkish Pre-Service Physics Teachers' Preferred Learning Styles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandil Ingec, Sebnem

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to determine the dominant learning styles of pre-service physics teachers and to examine them in terms of variables such as gender, information and communication technologies skills, academic achievement and type of motivation. Survey model was used. The sample composed of 50 pre-service physics teachers. The data were collected…

  11. Athlete preference of coach's leadership style | Surujlal | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This may require the coach to display flexibility in adapting his/her leadership style to suit specific leadership situations so that all stakeholders (i.e. coach, athletes and management) are satisfied. Coaches wield strong influence over their athletes, therefore their leadership skills forms a vital element of their coaching.

  12. Gender differences in learning styles and academic performance of medical students in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuzhat, Ayesha; Salem, Raneem Osama; Al Hamdan, Nasser; Ashour, Nada

    2013-01-01

    Teachers at medical school are often faced with challenges of improving student satisfaction with the learning environment. On the other hand, education in the medical field is very competitive and medical students are exposed to diverse methods of teaching. Students adapt specific learning styles to keep pace with the information delivered to them in their institutions. The aim of this study is to know the differences in learning styles between male and female students, and the effect it has on academic performance. The VARK Questionnaire version 7.0 (Visual, Aural, Read/Write and Kinesthetic) was administered to the fourth year and fifth year medical students at King Saud Bin Abdul Aziz University for Health Sciences, Faculty of Medicine at King Fahad Medical City, Saudi Arabia for determining the preferred learning methods of students participating in this study. The learning styles were then compared to cumulative grade point average (GPA) obtained by the students. The dominant learning style preference of students was multimodal. Among students who preferred unimodal preference, aural and kinesthetic preference was predominant for males and females. Moreover, Females had more diverse preferences than male students. Multimodal learners have higher cumulative GPAs when compared with the unimodal learners. This study revealed variation in learning style preferences among genders, and its implications on academic performance of medical students.

  13. Learning style preferences of first-year dental students at King Saud University in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia: influence of gender and GPA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Saud, Loulwa Mohammed Saad

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the learning style preferences of a group of first-year dental students and their relation to gender and past academic performance. A total of 113 first-year dental students (forty-two female, seventy-one male) at King Saud University in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, participated. The Visual, Aural, Read-write, and Kinesthetic (VARK) questionnaire was used to determine the students' preferred mode of learning. This sixteen-item questionnaire defines preference of learning based on the sensory modalities: visual, aural, reading/writing, and kinesthetic. More than half (59 percent) of the students were found to have multimodal learning preferences. The most common single learning preferences were aural (20 percent) followed by kinesthetic (15.2 percent). Gender differences were not statistically significant. However, a statistically significant difference was found in the mean values of GPA in relation to the students' learning style preferences (p=0.019). Students with a single learning style preference had a lower mean GPA than those with multiple (quad-modal) learning style preferences. For effective instruction, dental educators need to broaden their range of presentation styles to help create more positive and effective learning environments for all students.

  14. effects of learning styles on career preferences of senior secondary

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Elizabeth Egbochuku

    2002), learning can generally ... positive valence among alternative form of work value. Okon (2001) is of the view that economic development ... influence on career preference is intelligence. Okon believed that while bright chaps for science ...

  15. Learning Style Preferences of Undergraduate Dental Students of a North Indian Dental College.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marwaha, Komal; Bhagat, Anumeha; Kapoor, Nandini

    2015-01-01

    This study was undertaken to determine the learning style preferences of first and 2nd year BDS students by administering VARK questionnaire. Stepping stone method was used to identify sensory modality preference of each student. 51% students preferred single mode of learning style (27% kinesthetic, 15% aural, 6% read/write and 3% visual mode of learning style). 49% students preferred multiple modes (23% bi-modal, 17% tri-modal, 9% had quad-modal preference). The mean V, A, R, K scores were determined and compared using Mann-Whitney U test. V score of 2nd year was significantly higher compared to 1st year (p value = 0.012). V score of females was significantly higher than that of males (p value = 0.004). The results showed diversity in preference of learning style of students. This diversity necessitates a change from traditional teaching (aural lecture and flowcharts/diagrams) to active learning strategies, for a more productive educational experience.

  16. The influence of learning styles preference of undergraduate nursing students on educational outcomes in substance use education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rassool, G Hussein; Rawaf, Salman

    2008-09-01

    This paper reports a study identifying the learning styles preference of undergraduate nursing students and examining its influence on educational outcomes. There are limited recent studies in the UK on the learning styles preference of undergraduate and its influence on educational outcomes. A purposive sample of 110 undergraduate nursing students completed a demographic questionnaire and the Honey and Mumford's learning styles inventory. A pre-post-test design was used to evaluate the educational outcomes. Reflector learning styles preference was the dominant learning styles among the majority of undergraduate nursing students. An interesting phenomenon about the distribution of the learning styles preference is the additional "dual" learning style category. The hypothesis that learning styles preference will determine knowledge acquisition, changes in attitude and intervention confidence skills was rejected. However, as this is a multi-layered hypothesis the findings showed that only the dual learning styles preference group was found to have a significant influence in intervention confidence skills. Further research is warranted to replicate this study using the same methodology but with several different population samples specialising in different branch of nursing. As there are limited literature on the dual learning styles preferences, this dual preference phenomenon needs further investigation to establish its acceptability in nursing education.

  17. Generational differences and learning style preferences in nurses from a large metropolitan medical center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Jo-Ann; Scollan-Koliopoulos, Melissa; Kamienski, Mary; Burke, Kathleen

    2012-07-01

    Nursing educators face the challenge of presenting educational programs to meet the learning needs of four diverse generational groups of nurses. This cross-sectional survey examined if there is a relationship between staff nurses' generation and their learning styles. Results show that a combination of years in practice, time lapsed since last educational program ended, current school enrollment, degree earned, and generation influences preferred learning style. Implications for educators are discussed.

  18. Correlations between Clinical Judgement and Learning Style Preferences of Nursing Students in the Simulation Room

    OpenAIRE

    Hallin, Karin; H?ggstr?m, Marie; B?ckstr?m, Britt; Kristiansen, Lisbeth Porskrog

    2015-01-01

    Background: Health care educators account for variables affecting patient safety and are responsible for developing the highly complex process of education planning. Clinical judgement is a multidimensional process, which may be affected by learning styles. The aim was to explore three specific hypotheses to test correlations between nursing students? team achievements in clinical judgement and emotional, sociological and physiological learning style preferences. Methods: A descriptive cross-...

  19. The influence of learning styles, enrollment status and gender on academic performance of optometry undergraduates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prajapati, Bhavna; Dunne, Mark; Bartlett, Hannah; Cubbidge, Robert

    2011-01-01

    This cross-sectional study was designed to determine whether the academic performance of optometry undergraduates is influenced by enrollment status, learning style or gender. Three hundred and sixty undergraduates in all 3 years of the optometry degree course at Aston University during 2008-2009 were asked for their informed consent to participate in this study. Enrollment status was known from admissions records. An Index of Learning Styles (http://www4.nscu.edu/unity/lockers/users/f/felder/public/Learning-Styles.html) determined learning style preference with respect to four different learning style axes; active-reflective, sensing-intuitive, visual-verbal and sequential-global. The influence of these factors on academic performance was investigated. Two hundred and seventy students agreed to take part (75% of the cohort). 63% of the sample was female. There were 213 home non-graduates (entrants from the UK or European Union without a bachelor's degree or higher), 14 home graduates (entrants from the UK or European Union with a bachelor's degree or higher), 28 international non-graduates (entrants from outside the UK or European Union without a bachelor's degree or higher) and 15 international graduates (entrants from outside the UK or European Union with a bachelor's degree or higher). The majority of students were balanced learners (between 48% and 64% across four learning style axes). Any preferences were towards active, sensing, visual and sequential learning styles. Of the factors investigated in this study, learning styles were influenced by gender; females expressed a disproportionate preference for the reflective and visual learning styles. Academic performance was influenced by enrollment status; international graduates (95% confidence limits: 64-72%) outperformed all other student groups (home non graduates, 60-62%; international non graduates, 55-63%) apart from home graduates (57-69%). Our research has shown that the majority of optometry students

  20. Style Analysis and Performance Evaluation of Dutch Mutual Funds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ter Horst, J.R.; Nijman, T.E.; de Roon, F.A.

    1998-01-01

    In this paper we show how style analysis of mutual funds can be used to circumvent the problem of self-reported investment styles, and to improve relative performance evaluation. Subsequently, we relate style analysis to performance evaluation and present results on the performance of Dutch mutual

  1. Learning Style Preferences of Engineers in Automotive Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James-Gordon, Yvette; Bal, Jay

    2001-01-01

    Two questionnaires completed by 27 automobile design engineers and 15 project engineers identified a preference for visual learning. Computer-assisted design training and the daily work environment incorporated visual means such as diagrams, photos, flowcharts, videos, and demos. No significant differences between design and project engineers were…

  2. The learning style preferences of chiropractic students: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whillier, Stephney; Lystad, Reidar P; Abi-Arrage, David; McPhie, Christopher; Johnston, Samara; Williams, Christopher; Rice, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Objective : The aims of our study were to measure the learning style preferences of chiropractic students and to assess whether they differ across the 5 years of chiropractic study. Methods : A total of 407 (41.4% females) full-degree, undergraduate, and postgraduate students enrolled in an Australian chiropractic program agreed to participate in a cross-sectional survey comprised of basic demographic information and the Visual, Aural, Read/Write, Kinesthetic (VARK) questionnaire, which identifies learning preferences on four different subscales: visual, aural, reading/writing, and kinesthetic. Multivariate analysis of variance and the χ(2) test were used to check for differences in continuous (VARK scores) and categorical (VARK category preference) outcome variables. Results : The majority of chiropractic students (56.0%) were found to be multimodal learners. Compared to the other learning styles preferences, kinesthetic learning was preferred by a significantly greater proportion of students (65.4%, p VARK score (5.66 ± 2.47, p < .001). Conclusions : To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time chiropractic students have been shown to be largely multimodal learners with a preference for kinesthetic learning. While this knowledge may be beneficial in the structuring of future curricula, more thorough research must be conducted to show any beneficial relationship between learning style preferences and teaching methods.

  3. Time preferences, study effort, and academic performance

    OpenAIRE

    Non, J.A.; Tempelaar, D. T.

    2014-01-01

    We analyze the relation between time preferences, study effort, and academic performance among first-year Business and Economics students. Time preferences are measured by stated preferences for an immediate payment over larger delayed payments. Data on study efforts are derived from an electronic learning environment, which records the amount of time students are logged in and the fraction of exercises completed. Our third measure of study effort is participation in an on-line summer course....

  4. Using VARK Approach for Assessing Preferred Learning Styles of First Year Medical Sciences Students: A Survey from Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peyman, Hadi; Sadeghifar, Jamil; Khajavikhan, Javaher; Yasemi, Masood; Rasool, Mohammad; Yaghoubi, Yasemi Monireh; Nahal, Monireh Mohammad Hassan; Karim, Hemati

    2014-08-01

    Preferred learning styles of learners are different, which depend on tastes, mentality preparedness, as well as physical condition, in terms of sensory modalities. Identifying and employing appropriate learning styles could play an important role in selecting teaching styles, which can improve education ultimately. The present study aimed to assess the diversity of learning styles amongst medical students of a medical sciences university which was located west of Iran, in 2010. A cross-sectional study which employed VARK learning style's questionnaire was done on 141 first year medical sciences students at Ilam University of Medical Sciences in 2010. Data was collected with use of VARK questionnaire. The validity of the questionnaire was assessed on basis of experts' views and its reliability was calculated by using Cronbach's alpha coefficients (α=0.86). Data were analysed by using SPSS software and Chi-square test. Overall, 41.6% of the samples preferred to use a single learning style (Uni-modal). Of these, 17.7% preferred the Aural style, 17% preferred Reading and Writing, 6.4% preferred Kinesthetic style and 0.7% preferred Visual styles. Among the rest of the 82 students who preferred more than one style (multimodal), 17% chose two modes (bimodal), 13.5% chose three modes (tri-modal), and 27.6% chose four modes (quad-modal). There was a significant difference between educational levels and majors on one hand and choice of quad modal of VARK styles on the other hand (p=0.008). A significant association was also found between participants' genders and selection of visual and reading/writing styles (p=0.03). The preferred learning styles of medical students in the present study were aural and reading/writing. It is suggested that all medical students must be tested to determine their desired learning styles by using VARK questionnaire, also to choose appropriate teaching methods and to improve educational goals.

  5. The Preferred Learning Styles of Neurosurgeons, Neurosurgery Residents, and Neurology Residents: Implications in the Neurosurgical Field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Hung-Yi; Lee, Ching-Yi; Chiu, Angela; Lee, Shih-Tseng

    2014-01-01

    To delineate the learning style that best defines a successful practitioner in the field of neurosurgery by using a validated learning style inventory. The Kolb Learning Style Inventory, a validated assessment tool, was administered to all practicing neurosurgeons, neurosurgical residents, and neurology residents employed at Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, an institution that provides primary and tertiary clinical care in 3 locations, Linkou, Kaohsiung, and Chiayi. There were 81 participants who entered the study, and all completed the study. Neurosurgeons preferred the assimilating learning style (52%), followed by the diverging learning style (39%). Neurosurgery residents were slightly more evenly distributed across the learning styles; however, they still favored assimilating (32%) and diverging (41%). Neurology residents had the most clearly defined preferred learning style with assimilating (76%) obtaining the large majority and diverging (12%) being a distant second. The assimilating and diverging learning styles are the preferred learning styles among neurosurgeons, neurosurgery residents, and neurology residents. The assimilating learning style typically is the primary learning style for neurosurgeons and neurology residents. Neurosurgical residents start off with a diverging learning style and progress toward an assimilating learning style as they work toward becoming practicing neurosurgeons. The field of neurosurgery has limited opportunities for active experimentation, which may explain why individuals who prefer reflective observation are more likely to succeed in this field. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. The relationship between learning style preference and achievement in the adult student in a multicultural college

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roig, Matilde E.

    Minority college students have varied learning styles and process information from distinct background and cultural perspectives, which influences their learning. Accordingly, the way faculty approach teaching affects student achievement. Few minorities are in scientific fields, with a shortage of scientists predicted. A problem exists in understanding the relationship between learning style preferences and achievement of minority college students. The purpose of the study was to investigate this relationship in adult minority students in a South Florida college's biology courses. Research questions pertained to relationships between learning style preferences, race, ethnicity and grades. This quantitative study used the online Felder-Soloman Inventory of Learning Styles with a 73% response comprised of 162 White, Black-African American, Hispanic, and Asian students. Variables included grades, race, ethnicity, and learning styles. Relative frequency analysis revealed students preferred sensing, visual and sequential learning. ANOVA analysis showed no significant differences between learning style preference and achievement, nor between race-ethnicity and grades. Chi-square analysis revealed a significant relationship between Black-African Americans and Hispanics for sensing, visual and sequential learning, but not for visual. Black-African American students had the lowest passing rate in biology courses, with Asians having the highest. Increased educator and advisor knowledge of learning styles could result in social change and educational reform from this study, through the adoption of best methods for teaching minority groups enrolled in science courses. Knowing the potential shortage of minorities in the sciences, increased achievement in science courses might encourage these students to enter into scientific careers.

  7. Student Teacher Assessment Feedback Preferences: The Influence of Cognitive Styles and Gender

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Carol; Waring, Michael

    2011-01-01

    The enhancement of assessment feedback is an international concern. This study is unique in its exploration of the nature of the relationship between student teachers' assessment feedback preferences, cognitive styles and gender, with a view to informing the development of assessment feedback practices and course design within initial teacher…

  8. The Relationship between Perceptual Learning Style Preferences and Multiple Intelligences among Iranian EFL Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baleghizadeh, Sasan; Shayeghi, Rose

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to investigate the relationships between preferences of Multiple Intelligences and perceptual/social learning styles. Two self-report questionnaires were administered to a total of 207 male and female participants. Pearson correlation results revealed statistically significant positive relations between…

  9. Which Types of Leadership Styles Do Followers Prefer? A Decision Tree Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salehzadeh, Reza

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to propose a new method to find the appropriate leadership styles based on the followers' preferences using the decision tree technique. Design/methodology/approach: Statistical population includes the students of the University of Isfahan. In total, 750 questionnaires were distributed; out of which, 680…

  10. Incorporating Learning Style and Personality Preferences into an Oral Communication Course Syllabus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadas, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Individual difference factors of personality typology and learning style preference and their effect on second language acquisition have been the focus of several prominent SLA theorists over the past twenty-five years. However, few articles have demonstrated how individual learner difference research can be applied within a classroom by second…

  11. The Development of Children's Same-Sex Peer Preferences: Labeling versus Play Styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mireles, Jenny

    This study examined the influence of play styles and gender labeling on children's peer preferences. Thirty-six preschool children viewed pictures of other children playing and were asked to point to whom they wanted to play with. One group of children chose between a boy wrestling with a neutral doll and a girl hugging the neutral doll. Another…

  12. Exploring Juror's Listening Processes: The Effect of Listening Style Preference on Juror Decision Making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worthington, Debra L.

    2001-01-01

    Examines the relationship between listening style preference and jurors' assignment of negligence and damages. Notes that 90 men and 84 women drawn from introductory communication courses viewed videotaped attorney presentations and the judge's instructions from an actual court case. Indicates that participants with a people-oriented listening…

  13. Accommodating student learning styles and preferences in an online occupational therapy course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Nancy Wolcott; Jacobs, Karen

    2013-01-01

    Occupational therapy's online education must be research-based and inclusive. One way to provide a more inclusive online learning experience is to attend to individual learning styles and preferences. This study uses the best available evidence on learning styles and online education to develop, implement, and study occupational therapy students' experiences with an online learning module and related assignment. Eight students consented to take an online survey after completing a learning module and related assignment in an online post-professional graduate course in occupational therapy. The survey explored their learning experience and its applicability to clinical work. Data gathered from multiple-choice, Likert-scale, and open-ended questions were descriptively analyzed. Results from this study suggest that students find the study of learning styles and preferences enjoyable and applicable to their clinical work, but are often motivated by factors such as time and technology when selecting the format of a course assignment.

  14. Learning strategy preferences, verbal-visual cognitive styles, and multimedia preferences for continuing engineering education instructional design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baukal, Charles Edward, Jr.

    A literature search revealed very little information on how to teach working engineers, which became the motivation for this research. Effective training is important for many reasons such as preventing accidents, maximizing fuel efficiency, minimizing pollution emissions, and reducing equipment downtime. The conceptual framework for this study included the development of a new instructional design framework called the Multimedia Cone of Abstraction (MCoA). This was developed by combining Dale's Cone of Experience and Mayer's Cognitive Theory of Multimedia Learning. An anonymous survey of 118 engineers from a single Midwestern manufacturer was conducted to determine their demographics, learning strategy preferences, verbal-visual cognitive styles, and multimedia preferences. The learning strategy preference profile and verbal-visual cognitive styles of the sample were statistically significantly different than the general population. The working engineers included more Problem Solvers and were much more visually-oriented than the general population. To study multimedia preferences, five of the seven levels in the MCoA were used. Eight types of multimedia were compared in four categories (types in parantheses): text (text and narration), static graphics (drawing and photograph), non-interactive dynamic graphics (animation and video), and interactive dynamic graphics (simulated virtual reality and real virtual reality). The first phase of the study examined multimedia preferences within a category. Participants compared multimedia types in pairs on dual screens using relative preference, rating, and ranking. Surprisingly, the more abstract multimedia (text, drawing, animation, and simulated virtual reality) were preferred in every category to the more concrete multimedia (narration, photograph, video, and real virtual reality), despite the fact that most participants had relatively little prior subject knowledge. However, the more abstract graphics were only slightly

  15. Using VARK Approach for Assessing Preferred Learning Styles of First Year Medical Sciences Students: A Survey from Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Peyman, Hadi; Sadeghifar, Jamil; Khajavikhan, Javaher; Yasemi, Masood; Rasool, Mohammad; Yaghoubi, Yasemi Monireh; Nahal, Monireh Mohammad Hassan; Karim, Hemati

    2014-01-01

    Background: Preferred learning styles of learners are different, which depend on tastes, mentality preparedness, as well as physical condition, in terms of sensory modalities. Identifying and employing appropriate learning styles could play an important role in selecting teaching styles, which can improve education ultimately.

  16. Preferred "Learning Styles" in Students Studying Sports-Related Programmes in Higher Education in the United Kingdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Derek; Jones, Gareth; Peters, John

    2008-01-01

    This article investigates the "preferred learning styles" and their relationship with grades for students undertaking sports-related undergraduate programmes at a higher education institution in the UK. Preferred "learning styles" in students in this discipline have been identified as auditory, kinaesthetic and group, although…

  17. [Epidemiological study of preferable life style for psychological health promotion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohira, Tetsuya; Nakamura, Chikako; Imano, Hironori; Okada, Takeo; Kitamura, Akihiko; Kiyama, Masahiko; Nakagawa, Yuko; Sato, Shinichi; Nakamura, Masakazu; Naito, Yoshihiko; Kurokawa, Michinori; Nakashita, Yumiko; Yamamoto, Masayo; Kamei, Kazuyo; Horii, Yuko; Shimamoto, Takashi

    2007-04-01

    We sought to examine relationships of lifestyle factors, including diet, physical activity, sleep, alcohol consumption and smoking, with perceived stress and depressive symptoms. Between 2001 and 2002, 7,947 men and women (mean 52.4 years) took part in examinations at the Osaka Medical Center for Health Science and Promotion. Lifestyle factors were determined by structured interview or by self-administered questionnaire. Associations of life style factors with perceived stress and depressive symptoms were tested by stepwise logistic regression analyses. Higher proportions of persons with depressive symptoms tended to be associated with higher proportions of persons with perceived stress. Among both men and women, low physical activity, lack of regular physical exercise, short sleeping time, to skip breakfast frequently, and having dinner within a couple of hours before going to bed were associated with both perceived stress and depressive symptoms. Men reporting between-meal or midnight snacks and having eating until they were full had higher odds ratios for perceived stress, while men conducting regular physical exercise and consuming 3 or more dishes of vegetables per day had lower odds ratios for depressive symptoms. For women, high odds ratios for depressive symptoms and perceived stress were observed among those who tended to have salty foods (or frequent use of soy sauce) and a lower odds ratio for perceived stress was noted among persons who had soy products every day. Lifestyle facets such as skipping breakfast, low physical activity, and short sleeping time, appear to be associated with psychological health status of Japanese men and women.

  18. Academic Performance in Introductory Accounting: Do Learning Styles Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Lin Mei; Laswad, Fawzi

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the impact of learning styles on academic performance using major assessment methods (examinations and assignments including multiple-choice and constructed response questions (CRQs)) in an introductory accounting course. Students' learning styles were assessed using Kolb's Learning Style Inventory Version 3.1. The results…

  19. Deconstruction in Performance for Audience Aesthetic Preference ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Deconstruction in Performance for Audience Aesthetic Preference: An Experiment with Tyrone Terrence's “A Husband's Wife” ... the study engaged a sample audience in the different performances of the drama for two consecutive days: day one performance was approached according to the dramatist's prototype, while the ...

  20. Hierarchy of Needs, Perception and Preference for Leadership Styles within a Police Educational Institution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina RAUS

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The present research investigates Maslow’s hierarchy of needs and the leadership style (perceived and ideal in a sample of employees of a police school. The purpose of this study was to identify and propose solutions to improve the managerial activity. Based on Maslow’s theory for understanding human motivation, we developed a measurement scale for human needs. Based on Lewin’s theory of leadership style, we developed two measurement scales, one for perceived leadership and one for ideal leadership style. Agreement of judges was used to obtain valid measures. Reliable α-Cronbach coefficients were obtained for internal consistency of the measurement scales. We conducted correlational and comparative analyses between variables, regarding each professional category (police officers, police constables, civilians. The results contradict Maslow’s theoretical model for human needs, challenging the order imposed by Maslow’s pyramid. The order of the importance of needs differ from one category of personnel to another. Regardless of professional status, physiological needs are generally more significant than other needs. Comparing the perceived leadership style with the ideal style, all groups would prefer a less autocratic leadership style than it is, and more democratic than they perceive it. In addition, civilians would like a more permissive style of leadership than it is the perceived style. Perceived leadership styles are correlated differently with staff needs. Practical implications and contribution of the research are discussed.

  1. Using health literacy and learning style preferences to optimize the delivery of health information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuse, Nunzia B; Koonce, Taneya Y; Storrow, Alan B; Kusnoor, Sheila V; Ye, Fei

    2012-01-01

    Limited patient understanding of hypertension contributes to poor health outcomes. In 2 sequential randomized studies, the authors determined the impact of administering information tailored to health literacy level alone or in combination with preferred learning style on patients' understanding of hypertension. Patients with high blood pressure were recruited in an academic emergency department. In Experiment 1 (N = 85), the control group received only the routine discharge instructions; the intervention group received discharge instructions combined with information consistent with their health literacy level as determined by the Short Test of Functional Health Literacy. In Experiment 2 (N = 87), the information provided to the intervention group was tailored to both health literacy and learning style, as indicated by the VARK™ Questionnaire. To measure learning, the authors compared scores on a hypertension assessment administered during the emergency department visit and 2 weeks after discharge. Participants who received materials tailored to both health literacy level and learning style preference showed greater gains in knowledge than did those receiving information customized for health literacy level only. This study demonstrates that personalizing health information to learning style preferences and literacy level improves patient understanding of hypertension.

  2. The construction and evaluation of a normative learning style preference questionnaire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. J. Viljoen

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available Various authors have indicated the need for and value of identifying the learning style preferences of individual learners. Similar needs have been voiced in the South African context.The focal point of this study was the development of a normative instrument for predicting the preferred learning styles of individuals. Secondary aims were to determine whether there are differences between groups formed on the basis of gender, academic qualifications and functional disciplines as far as their learning style preferences are concerned. Based on a review of the literature and an existing questionnaire, namely the Learning Style Inventory (LSI 85, the Learning Style Preference Questionnaire (LSPQ consisting of 136 items was developed and administered to respondents (N= 542 in a large organisation. The LSPQ was subjected to a principal factor analysis and six factors were obtained.The six factors were rotated to simple structure by means of the Direct Oblimin procedure. The matrix of intercorrelations of the six factorswas subjected to a second-order factor analysis and yielded a single factor. Opsomming Verskeie outeurs het na die behoefte aan asook die waarde van identi¢kasie van leerstylvoorkeure van individuele leerders verwys. Soortgelyke behoeftes is ook in Suid-Afrikaanse verband geopper.Die fokus van hierdie studie was die ontwikkeling van ’n normatiewe instrument om die leerstylvoorkeure van individue te meet. Sekondere doelwitte was omte bepaal of daar verskille tussen groepe is wat saamgestel is op grond van geslag, akademiese kwalifikasies en funksionele dissiplines wat hul leerstylvoorkeure betref. Gegrond op ’n oorsig van die literatuur en ’n bestaande vraelys, tewete die ‘‘Learning Style Inventory’’ (LSI 85, is die ‘‘Learning Style PreferenceQuestionnaire‘‘ (LSPQ, bestaande uit 136 items, gekonstrueer en op 542 respondente in’n groot organisasie toegepas. Die LSPQ is aan ’n hoo¡aktorontleding onderwerp en ses

  3. Surgical resident learning styles: faculty and resident accuracy at identification of preferences and impact on ABSITE scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Roger H; Gilbert, Timothy; Ristig, Kyle; Chu, Quyen D

    2013-09-01

    As a consequence of surgical resident duty hour restrictions, there is a need for faculty to utilize novel teaching methods to convey information in a more efficient manner. The current paradigm of surgical training, which has not changed significantly since the time of Halsted, assumes that all residents assimilate information in a similar fashion. However, recent data has shown that learners have preferences for the ways in which they receive and process information. The VARK model categorizes learners as visual (V), aural (A), read/write (R), and kinesthetic (K). The VARK learning style preferences of surgical residents have not been previously evaluated. In this study, the preferred learning styles of general surgery residents were determined, along with faculty and resident perception of resident learning styles. In addition, we hypothesized that American Board of Surgery In-Training Exam (ABSITE) scores are associated with preference for a read/write (R) learning style. The Fleming VARK learning styles inventory was administered to all general surgery residents at a university hospital-based program. Responses on the inventory were scored to determine the preferred learning style for each resident. Faculty members were surveyed to determine their accuracy in identifying the preferred learning style of each resident. All residents were also surveyed to determine their accuracy in identifying their peers' VARK preferences. Resident ABSITE scores were examined for association with preferred learning styles. Twenty-nine residents completed the inventory. Most (18 of 29, 62%) had a multimodal preference, although more than a third (11 of 29, 38%) demonstrated a single-modality preference. Seventy-six percent of all residents (22 of 29) had some degree of kinesthetic (K) learning, while under 50% (14 of 29) were aural (A) learners. Although not significant, dominant (R) learners had the highest mean ABSITE scores. Faculty identified residents' learning styles

  4. Prenatal hormones and childhood sex segregation: playmate and play style preferences in girls with congenital adrenal hyperplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasterski, Vickie; Geffner, Mitchell E; Brain, Caroline; Hindmarsh, Peter; Brook, Charles; Hines, Melissa

    2011-04-01

    We investigated playmate and play style preference in children with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) (26 females, 31 males) and their unaffected siblings (26 females, 17 males) using the Playmate and Play Style Preferences Structured Interview (PPPSI). Both unaffected boys and girls preferred same-sex playmates and sex-typical play styles. In the conflict condition where children chose between a same-sex playmate engaged in an other-sex activity or an other-sex playmate engaged in a same-sex activity, boys (both CAH and unaffected brothers) almost exclusively chose playmates based on the preferred play style of the playmate as opposed to the preferred gender label of the playmate. By contrast, unaffected girls used play style and gender label about equally when choosing playmates. Girls with CAH showed a pattern similar to that of boys: their playmate selections were more masculine than unaffected girls, they preferred a boy-typical play style and, in the conflict condition, chose playmates engaged in a masculine activity. These findings suggest that prenatal androgen exposure contributes to sex differences in playmate selection observed in typically developing children and that, among boys and girls exposed to high levels of androgens prenatally, play style preferences drive sex segregation in play. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Prenatal hormones and childhood sex-segregation: Playmate and play style preferences in girls with congenital adrenal hyperplasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasterski, Vickie; Geffner, Mitchell E.; Brain, Caroline; Hindmarsh, Peter; Brook, Charles; Hines, Melissa

    2011-01-01

    We investigated playmate and play style preference in children with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) (26 females, 31 males) and their unaffected siblings (26 females, 17 males) using the Playmate and Play Style Preferences Structured Interview (PPPSI). Both unaffected boys and girls preferred same-sex playmates and sex-typical play styles. In the conflict condition where children chose between a same-sex playmate engaged in an other-sex activity or an other-sex playmate engaged in a same-sex activity, boys (both CAH and unaffected brothers) almost exclusively chose playmates based on the preferred play style of the playmate as opposed to the preferred gender label of the playmate. By contrast, unaffected girls used play style and gender label about equally when choosing playmates. Girls with CAH showed a pattern similar to that of boys: their playmate selections were more masculine than unaffected girls, they preferred a boy-typical play style and, in the conflict condition, chose playmates engaged in a masculine activity. These findings suggest that prenatal androgen exposure contributes to sex differences in playmate selection observed in typically-developing children, and that, among boys and girls exposed to high levels of androgens prenatally, play style preferences drive sex segregation in play. PMID:21338606

  6. Cognitive Styles, Dynamic Geometry and Measurement Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitta-Pantazi, Demetra; Christou, Constantinos

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports the outcomes of an empirical study undertaken to investigate the effect of students' cognitive styles on achievement in measurement tasks in a dynamic geometry learning environment, and to explore the ability of dynamic geometry learning in accommodating different cognitive styles and enhancing students' learning. A total of 49…

  7. Cognitive Style and Motor Skill and Sports Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riding, Richard J.; Al-Salih, Nizar

    2000-01-01

    Presents a study of cognitive style and motor skill performance on a battery of tasks and sports performance. Suggests four skills factors from the motor skills subsample (n=69), specifically bodily movement, interactive skills, mechanical skills, and aiming. Reveals a significant effect of style for tennis from the sports performance subsample…

  8. The relationships among leadership styles, entrepreneurial orientation, and business performance:

    OpenAIRE

    Chung-Wen Yang

    2008-01-01

    This study aims to contribute to the knowledge of leadership styles and entrepreneurial orientation at small and medium enterprises as well as their effects on business performance. This study examines how leadership style can affect the development and implementation of entrepreneurial orientation in small and medium enterprises in Taiwan. It is also designed to examine the effects of leadership styles and entrepreneurial orientation on business performance. Significant conclusions from this...

  9. Assessment of thinking style preferences and language proficiency for South African students whose native languages differ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maree, Jacobus G; de Boer, Ann-Louise

    2003-10-01

    The language proficiency of first-year students at the University of Pretoria (56 men and 59 women, M age=19.40 yr., SD=.80, range from 18.00 to 20.70) was assessed by means of the English Language Skills Assessment. More than one-third of the students did not show proficiency at Grade 10, as expected. This language assessment was not correlated with academic achievement equally well for students in a group. The diversity of thinking style preferences of the students enrolled in a language development course was also assessed on the Herrmann Brain Dominance Instrument. Scores indicated a range of thinking style preferences but the group's overall mean scores represented detail-oriented and feeling-based modes of thinking processes. These preferences were correlated with academic achievement and learning of languages. The data are consistent with the hypothesis that thinking styles could be a focus of educational strategies in South Africa, using the perspective that qualitatively different approaches to teaching might be associated with students' qualitatively different approaches to learning.

  10. What type of learner are your students? Preferred learning styles of undergraduate gross anatomy students according to the index of learning styles questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Melissa M; Smith, Theodore; Kalmar, Eileen L; Burgoon, Jennifer M

    2017-11-02

    Students learn and process information in many different ways. Learning styles are useful as they allow instructors to learn more about students, as well as aid in the development and application of useful teaching approaches and techniques. At the undergraduate level there is a noticeable lack of research on learning style preferences of students enrolled in gross anatomy courses. The Index of Learning Styles (ILS) questionnaire was administered to students enrolled in a large enrollment undergraduate gross anatomy course with laboratory to determine their preferred learning styles. The predominant preferred learning styles of the students (n = 505) enrolled in the gross anatomy course were active (54.9%), sensing (85.1%), visual (81.2%), and sequential (74.4%). Preferred learning styles profiles of particular majors enrolled in the course were also constructed; analyses showed minor variation in the active/reflective dimension. An understanding of students' preferred learning styles can guide course design but it should not be implemented in isolation. It can be strengthened (or weakened) by concurrent use of other tools (e.g., flipped classroom course design). Based on the preferred learning styles of the majority of undergraduate students in this particular gross anatomy course, course activities can be hands on (i.e., active), grounded in concrete information (i.e., sensing), utilize visual representation such as images, figures, models, etc. (i.e., visual), and move in small incremental steps that build on each topic (i.e., sequential). Anat Sci Educ. © 2017 American Association of Anatomists. © 2017 American Association of Anatomists.

  11. Learning Styles, Personality Types and Reading Comprehension Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghi, Nabiollah; Kasim, Zalina Mohd; Tan, Bee Hoon; Abdullah, Faiz Sathi

    2012-01-01

    This study aims at reviewing the relationship between learning styles, personality and reading comprehension performance. In the last two decades, ample studies have been done to examine the relationship between learning styles, learner's personality and performance in academic settings. The reviewed studies substantiate that there is a…

  12. Student Learning Styles and Performance in an Introductory Finance Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seiver, Daniel Alan; Haddad, Kamal; Do, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Many academic disciplines have examined the role that variation in Jungian personality types plays in the academic performance of college students. Different personality types tend to have different learning styles, which in turn influence student performance in a variety of college courses. To measure the impact of learning styles on student…

  13. Preference and performance of western flower thrips

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kogel, de W.J.

    2002-01-01

    Differences in performance on, and preference for, different plant parts were studied on cucumber plants. On these plants thrips are often most abundant on the youngest plant parts. This suggests that the youngest leaves are most suitable for western flower thrips. We assessed if differences in

  14. Learning Styles as Predictors of Fieldwork Performance and Learning Adaptability of Graduate Nontraditional Occupational Therapy Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landa-Gonzalez, Belkis; Velis, Evelio; Greg, Katherine

    2015-01-01

    Assessing the learning styles of nontraditional graduate students and their adaptation to the fieldwork context is important for the achievement of educational success. A non-experimental mixed-methods design examining learning styles, fieldwork performance, and adaptation to the clinical setting in a sample of 84 graduate nontraditional occupational therapy students. Kolb's Learning Style Inventory and the Fieldwork Performance Evaluation were the outcome measures. Select participants completed a 1-hr interview and reflection on their fieldwork. The Accommodating style was favored (n=37, 44%) with a strong preference for the active experimentation phase of learning (n=38, 45%). MANOVA tests confirmed a significant relationship of learning styles (F(7,71)=2.62, p=0.018) and phases of learning (F(21,198.7)=2.10, plearning approach and used limited diversity of methods to adapt to the fieldwork setting. Recognizing learning styles and adjusting the approach to the learning conditions have relevance for maximizing outcomes. Educators in allied health fields may consider designing instructional activities that advance students' awareness of their preferences and support the use of diverse approaches for success in various learning contexts.

  15. Effects of learning-style environmental and tactal/kinesthetic preferences on the understanding of scientific terms and attitude test scores of fifth-grade students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Angela Tirino

    This investigator analyzed the effects of learning-style environmental and tactual/kinesthetic preferences on the understanding of scientific terms and attitude test scores of fifth-grade students. To identify individual preferences, the Learning-Styles Inventory (Dunn, Dunn & Price, 1996) was administered to students who attended a suburban elementary school. Forty-six general education students were given instruction through the gradual establishment of an environmentally- and perceptually-responsive learning-style classroom. Instructional units were divided into three phases of two weeks each. The units of scientific terms were instructed for varied learning-style preferences and were gradually introduced during these instructional phases: Phase 1: Electricity was taught with traditional teaching methods; Phase 2: The Source of Energy was taught with accommodations for sound, light, temperature, design elements; Phase 3: Pollution was taught with accommodations for tactual/kinesthetic modalities. Pre and Post-tests, were administered in each of the three phases to determine scientific term gains. A repeated measures ANOVA and General Linear Model were employed to compare mean gains from phase to phase. Post-hoc comparisons were performed using the Bonferroni method and similar procedures were conducted on the Semantic Differential Scales (Pizzo, 1981). Correlations of relative gain scores during each phase were assessed by means of Pearson-product-moment correlations. Differences in the strengths of correlated correlations were evaluated by means of t-tests for related correlation coefficients. Significant gains were found when students were instructed employing incremental learning-styles strategies. To determine attitudinal changes toward science terms, the Semantic Differential Scale (Pizzo, 1981) was administered three times throughout this study: after Phase 1, traditional teaching; Phases 2 and 3, after learning-styles intervention. Statistically higher

  16. Performance in a planning task: The (ir)relevance of interface style and users’ cognitive style

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Nimwegen, Christof; Burgos, Daniel

    2005-01-01

    This research investigates whether interface style (internalization or externalization) influences performance in a problem solving task. Assistance from a user interface during problem solving is often thought to make interactions easier. Interfaces often display relevant information, making recall

  17. Kinesthetic Learning Style Preferences: A Survey of Indonesian EFL Learners by Gender

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peptia Asrining Tyas

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated predominant learning style of 3rd semester students of English Language Education Program in Faculty of Cultural Studies at Universitas Brawijaya according to gender. Purposive sampling was used for this research and the sampling in this research was 100 students consist of 34 male students and 66 female students taken from 3rd semester English Department students of Faculty of Cultural Studies at Universitas Brawijaya. All participants were administered an Indonesian translated version of Reid’s (1984 Perceptual Learning Style Preference Questionnaire consisting of Visual, Auditory, Kinesthetic, Tactile, Group, and Individual, included 30 items. This study used quantitative survey design and Microsoft Excel 2007 as the analysis software. The validity and the reliability of this research were calculated by SPSS v.21. The result indicated that predominant male’s learning style was Kinesthetic and estimated by 14 male students (41% while female students become Kinesthetic and Group and estimated the same percentage, 21 students (332% for Kinesthetic and 21 (32% students for Group. The result of the study also shows that both male and female tend to be Kinesthetic. It is suggested that to the English department to adjust the academic activities with the learning styles to enhance educational achievement and encouraging students take responsibility in their whole learning.

  18. Impact of Management Style on Performance Indicators of Academic Staff

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irtwange, S. V.; Orsaah, S.

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study is to assess the impact of management style on academic staff performance with University of Agriculture, Makurdi as a case study. The management style of the vice chancellor of the University of Agriculture, Makurdi between the periods, September 3, 1996 to September 3, 2001 was determined using the Ohio State…

  19. Relationships between Parenting Styles and the Academic Performance of Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivers, Jewrell; Mullis, Ann K.; Fortner, Lauren A.; Mullis, Ronald L.

    2012-01-01

    Relationships between parenting styles, academic performance, and the mediating effects of motivation, goal orientation, and self-efficacy were examined. One hundred forty-eight high school students participated, including 58 males and 90 females. The Parenting Style/Parental Involvement Questionnaire was used to measure students' perceptions of…

  20. An Empirical Investigation of the Relationships Among Cognitive Abilities, Cognitive Style, and Learning Preferences in Students Enrolled in Specialized Degree Courses at a Canadian College

    OpenAIRE

    Shaila Sardar; Jean Choi

    2011-01-01

    Although specific cognitive abilities, cognitive style, and learning preferences are assumed to be inter-related, the empirical evidence supporting this assumption is mixed. Cognitive style refers to how individuals represent information, and learning preference refers to how individuals prefer the presentation of information (Mayer & Massa, 2003). Both cognitive style and learning preferences have been linked to specific cognitive abilities, such as verbal abilities, visual imagery and spati...

  1. Heavy Metal and Hip-Hop Style Preferences and Externalizing Problem Behavior: A Two-Wave Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selfhout, Maarten H. W.; Delsing, Marc J. M. H.; ter Bogt, Tom F. M.; Meeus, Wim H. J.

    2008-01-01

    This study examines (a) the stability of Dutch adolescents' preferences for heavy metal and hip-hop youth culture styles, (b) longitudinal associations between their preferences and externalizing problem behavior, and (c) the moderating role of gender in these associations. Questionnaire data were gathered from 931 adolescents between the ages of…

  2. A Comparative Analysis of SMTs (School Management Teams) and Teachers Perceived Preferred Leadership Style: A Case of Selected Primary Schools in Botswana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsayang, Gabatshwane

    2011-01-01

    The study compared the SMTs (School Management Teams) and teachers' perceptions of preferred leadership styles in some selected schools in Botswana. SMTs and teachers completed a questionnaire adopted from the leadership styles questionnaires. The findings of the study pointed to an overwhelming view that the preferred style of leadership is the…

  3. Style preference survey: a report on the psychometric properties and a cross-validation experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Sherri L; Ricketts, Todd; McArdle, Rachel A; Chisolm, Theresa H; Alexander, Genevieve; Bratt, Gene

    2013-02-01

    Several self-report measures exist that target different aspects of outcomes for hearing aid use. Currently, no comprehensive questionnaire specifically assesses factors that may be important for differentiating outcomes pertaining to hearing aid style. The goal of this work was to develop the Style Preference Survey (SPS), a questionnaire aimed at outcomes associated with hearing aid style differences. Two experiments were conducted. After initial item development, Experiment 1 was conducted to refine the items and to determine its psychometric properties. Experiment 2 was designed to cross-validate the findings from the initial experiment. An observational design was used in both experiments. Participants who wore traditional, custom-fitted (TC) or open-canal (OC) style hearing aids from 3 mo to 3 yr completed the initial experiment. One-hundred and eighty-four binaural hearing aid users (120 of whom wore TC hearing aids and 64 of whom wore OC hearing aids) participated. A new sample of TC and OC users (n = 185) participated in the cross-validation experiment. Currently available self-report measures were reviewed to identify items that might differentiate between hearing aid styles, particularly preference for OC versus TC hearing aid styles. A total of 15 items were selected and modified from available self-report measures. An additional 55 items were developed through consensus of six audiologists for the initial version of the SPS. In the first experiment, the initial SPS version was mailed to 550 veterans who met the inclusion criteria. A total of 184 completed the SPS. Approximately three weeks later, a subset of participants (n = 83) completed the SPS a second time. Basic analyses were conducted to evaluate the psychometric properties of the SPS including subscale structure, internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and responsiveness. Based on the results of Experiment 1, the SPS was revised. A cross-validation experiment was then conducted using the

  4. Learning Styles and Academic Performance of Students in English as a Second-Language Class in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.A. Chermahini

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between learning styles and the academic performance of students who attend an English class to learn English as a second language in Iran. A randomly selected group of 488 high school students (248 male and 240 female participated in this study. They were asked to fill out the Kolb's Learning Styles Inventory to identify four basic learning types: Accommodating, Diverging, Assimilating, and Converging. Academic performance evaluated by achievement test in the English language. The survey results indicated significant relationships between the different learning styles and the performance in an English test, and the performance resulted differently in four groups with different preferred learning styles. The results also indicated gender differences in the performance in English test for convergent and divergent and did not accommodate and assimilate preferred learning styles. These results lead us to conclude that learning styles can be considered as a good predictor of any second language academic performance, and it should be taken into account to enhance students' performances specifically in learning and teaching the second language, and also showed that individual differences in learning styles play an important role in this domain.

  5. The Relation of Parenting Style to Adolescent School Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dornbusch, Sanford M.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Uses a reformation of Baumrind's typology of authoritarian, permissive, and authoritative parenting styles in the context of adolescent school performance. Authoritarian and permissive parenting were negatively associated with grades; authoritative parenting was positively associated with grades. (PCB)

  6. The relation of parenting style to adolescent school performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dornbusch, S M; Ritter, P L; Leiderman, P H; Roberts, D F; Fraleigh, M J

    1987-10-01

    This article develops and tests a reformation of Baumrind's typology of authoritarian, permissive, and authoritative parenting styles in the context of adolescent school performance. Using a large and diverse sample of San Francisco Bay Area high school students (N = 7,836), we found that both authoritarian and permissive parenting styles were negatively associated with grades, and authoritative parenting was positively associated with grades. Parenting styles generally showed the expected relation to grades across gender, age, parental education, ethnic, and family structure categories. Authoritarian parenting tended to have a stronger association with grades than did the other 2 parenting styles, except among Hispanic males. The full typology best predicted grades among white students. Pure authoritative families (high on authoritative but not high on the other 2 indices) had the highest mean grades, while inconsistent families that combine authoritarian parenting with other parenting styles had the lowest grades.

  7. How failure to align climate and leadership style affects performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Håkonsson, Dorthe Døjbak; Burton, Richard; Obel, Børge

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate how misalignments between the organizational climate (measured as information-processing demand) and the leadership style (measured as information-processing capability) may result in negative performance consequences.......The purpose of this paper is to investigate how misalignments between the organizational climate (measured as information-processing demand) and the leadership style (measured as information-processing capability) may result in negative performance consequences....

  8. Age-Related Differences in Judgments of Inappropriate Behavior are Related to Humor Style Preferences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Jennifer Tehan; Lohani, Monika; Isaacowitz, Derek M.

    2014-01-01

    Identifying social gaffes is important for maintaining relationships. Older adults are less able than young to discriminate between socially appropriate and inappropriate behavior in video clips. One open question is how these social appropriateness ratings relate to potential age differences in the perception of what is actually funny or not. In the present study, young, middle-aged, and older adults were equally able to discriminate between appropriate and inappropriate social behavior in a diverse set of clips relevant to both age groups. However, young and middle-aged adults rated the gaffe clips as funnier than control clips and young adults smiled more during the inappropriate clips than the control clips. Older adults did not show this pattern, suggesting that they did not find the inappropriate clips funny. Additionally, young adults endorsed a more aggressive humor style than middle-aged and older adults and aggressive humor style endorsement mediated age differences in social appropriateness ratings. Results are discussed in terms of possible mechanisms such as cohort differences in humor and developmental prioritization of certain humor styles, as well as the importance of investigating age differences in both abilities and preferences. PMID:25244473

  9. Preferred teaching and testing methods of athletic training students and program directors and the relationship to styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, Trenton E; Caswell, Shane V

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was (1) to investigate differences between athletic training students' and program directors' preferences for teaching and testing methods and (2) to investigate the relationship between style and preferred teaching and testing methods using the Gregorc Style Delineator (GSD) and the Preferred Teaching and Testing Method Inventory (PTTMI). We cluster sampled 200 undergraduate students (100% return; 68 men, 132 women; mean age, 20.12 +/- 2.02 yrs) and simple random sampled 100 program directors (43% return; 22 men, 21 women; mean age, 40.05 +/- 9.30 yrs) from Commission on Accreditation of Allied Health Education Programs-accredited athletic training education programs. We used a correlational research design to compare the preferred teaching and testing methods of undergraduate students and program directors. All subjects completed a demographic survey, the GSD, and the PTTMI. Our analyses included two separate 2 (role: student and program director) x 8 (method: teaching or testing techniques) and two separate 4 (style: concrete sequential, abstract sequential, abstract random, concrete random) x 8 (method: teaching and testing techniques) mixed-model analyses of variance. We found that athletic training students and program directors had significantly different preferences for teaching (p teaching or testing method. We recommend that athletic training and allied health educators consider implementing pedagogy that accentuates students' styles and consider self and students' preferences for preferred teaching and testing methods as time and topic permit.

  10. Relationship between Academic Performance, Spatial Competence, Learning Styles and Attrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianela Noriega Biggio

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the results of research on factors affecting academic performance and attrition in a sample of 1,500 freshman students majoring in architecture, design and urbanism at the Universidad de Buenos Aires, Argentina [University of Buenos Aires, Argentina] who were enrolled in a drafting course. The hypotheses we tested concern the mediating role of learning styles on the relationship between spatial competence and academic performance, learning-style differences by gender and cohort, and the relationship between attrition, spatial competence level and learning style. Statistical analysis of the data was performed and spatial competence enhanced by motivational profile was found to predict final achievement. Educational implications are identified, highlighting the need to promote in students those academic behaviors that characterize a self-regulated learning style and encourage the use of specific intellectual abilities.

  11. An Empirical Investigation of the Relationships among Cognitive Abilities, Cognitive Style, and Learning Preferences in Students Enrolled in Specialized Degree Courses at a Canadian College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jean; Sardar, Shaila

    2011-01-01

    Although specific cognitive abilities, cognitive style, and learning preferences are assumed to be inter-related, the empirical evidence supporting this assumption is mixed. Cognitive style refers to how individuals represent information, and learning preference refers to how individuals prefer the presentation of information (Mayer & Massa,…

  12. Academic Performance and Learning Style Self-Predictions by Second Language Students in an Introductory Biology Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breckler, Jennifer; Teoh, Chia Shan; Role, Kemi

    2011-01-01

    Academic success in first-year college science coursework can strongly influence future career paths and usually includes a solid performance in introductory biology. We wanted to know whether factors affecting biology student performance might include learning style preferences and one's ability and confidence in self-assessing those learning…

  13. Assessing the Effects of Different Multimedia Materials on Emotions and Learning Performance for Visual and Verbal Style Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chih-Ming; Sun, Ying-Chun

    2012-01-01

    Multimedia materials are now increasingly used in curricula. However, individual preferences for multimedia materials based on visual and verbal cognitive styles may affect learners' emotions and performance. Therefore, in-depth studies that investigate how different multimedia materials affect learning performance and the emotions of learners…

  14. Styles and Levels of Acting in Zimbabwean Traditional Performances

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In defining these two phenomena and other forms of acting, my intention in this paper is to prove that the whole of Africa is a gold mine of artistic performances. I intend to prove this by analyzing the acting styles and levels in. Zimbabwean traditional performances. In traditional Zimbabwean performances acting is realized in ...

  15. Transformational, Transactional Leadership Styles and Job Performance of Academic Leaders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahdinezhad, Maryam; Bin Suandi, Turiman; bin Silong, Abu Daud; Omar, Zoharah Binti

    2013-01-01

    In higher learning education, the performance is influenced by many factors. Effective leadership has an imperative role in the better performance and growth of the organization. Yet, several performance efforts were unsuccessful as a result of factors such as satisfactory leadership style of leaders. This study was carried out to identify the…

  16. An exploratory study of the relationship between learning styles and academic performance among students in different nursing programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuh-Shiow; Yu, Wen-Pin; Liu, Chin-Fang; Shieh, Sue-Heui; Yang, Bao-Huan

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background: Learning style is a major consideration in planning for effective and efficient instruction and learning. Learning style has been shown to influence academic performance in the previous research. Little is known about Taiwanese students' learning styles, particularly in the field of nursing education. This purpose of this study was to identify the relationship between learning styles and academic performance among nursing students in a 5-year associate degree of nursing (ADN) program and a 2-year bachelor of science in nursing (BSN) program in Taiwan. This study employed a descriptive and exploratory design. The Chinese version of the Myers-Briggs type indicator Form M was an instrument. Data such as grade point average were obtained from the Office of Academic Affairs and the Registrar computerized records. Descriptive statistics, one-way analysis of variance and chi-square statistical analysis were used to explore the relationship between academic performance and learning style in Taiwanese nursing students. The study sample included 285 nursing students: 96 students in a 2-year BSN program, and 189 students in a 5-year ADN program. Two common learning styles were found: Introversion, sensing, thinking, and judging; and introversion, sensing, feeling, and judging. A sensing-judging pair was identified in 43.3% of the participants. Academic performance was significantly related to learning style (p learning style preferences of students can enhance learning for those who are under performing in their academic studies, thereby enhancing nursing education.

  17. Salesperson Communication Style: The Neglected Dimension in Sales Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dion, Paul A.; Notarantonio, Elaine M.

    1992-01-01

    Reports two studies investigating the relationship between communication style variables and sales performance. Relates findings which indicate that the "precise" dimension of communication is strongly associated with effective sales performance and that different combinations of the "precise" and "friendly"…

  18. A grounded theory study of information preference and coping styles following antenatal diagnosis of foetal abnormality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalor, Joan G; Begley, Cecily M; Galavan, Eoin

    2008-10-01

    This paper is a report of a study to explore the information-seeking behaviour of women following an antenatal diagnosis of foetal abnormality. The identification of a foetal abnormality on routine ultrasound in pregnancy is both shocking and distressing for women, and seeking information in this stressful situation is a common response. There is evidence that women's information needs are not always adequately met, and in some cases they recall little from the initial consultation. A longitudinal study involving 42 women was conducted using a classical grounded theory design. Data were collected in 2004-2006 through in-depth interviews at three time intervals: within 4-6 weeks of diagnosis, 4-6 weeks before the birth and 6-12 weeks postnatally. Women described their main concern from diagnosis until the time to give birth in terms of regulating the information received in order to cope with the situation. Two main categories were identified: 'Getting my head around it' and 'I'll cross that bridge when I come to it'. These two differing information-seeking preferences are described as monitoring and blunting. Matching of information preferences with coping styles may support individuals to cope with this stressful event. Women with high information needs (monitors) respond well to detail. However, those with information avoidance behaviours (blunters) should be facilitated to 'opt-in' to information when they are ready, in order to reduce the stress caused by perceived information overload.

  19. Older cancer patients’ anxiety, information preference, coping style and participation during consultation: effects on recall of information.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tol, F.; Jansen, J.; Bensing, J.; Weert, J. van

    2012-01-01

    Cancer is a disease that mainly targets older people. To inform this group of patients adequately, several age-specific factors must be taken into account. Besides cognitive and sensory deficits, information preferences, information coping style, anxiety and participation behavior during

  20. Older cancer patients' anxiety, information preference, coping style and participation during consultation: effects on recall of information

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tol, F.; Jansen, J.; Bensing, J.; van Weert, J.; Hicks, N.L.; Warren, R.E.

    2012-01-01

    Cancer is a disease that mainly targets older people. To inform this group of patients adequately, several age-specific factors must be taken into account. Besides cognitive and sensory deficits, information preferences, information coping style, anxiety and participation behavior during

  1. Predicting High School Student Use of Learning Strategies: The Role of Preferred Learning Styles and Classroom Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheema, Jehanzeb; Kitsantas, Anastasia

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the predictiveness of preferred learning styles (competitive and cooperative) and classroom climate (teacher support and disciplinary climate) on learning strategy use in mathematics. The student survey part of the Programme for International Student Assessment 2003 comprising of 4633 US observations was used in a weighted…

  2. Learning Style and Task Performance in Synchronous Computer-Mediated Communication: A Case Study of Iranian EFL Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedayati, Mohsen; Foomani, Elham Mohammadi

    2015-01-01

    The study reported here explores whether English as a foreign Language (EFL) learners' preferred ways of learning (i.e., learning styles) affect their task performance in computer-mediated communication (CMC). As Ellis (2010) points out, while the increasing use of different sorts of technology is witnessed in language learning contexts, it is…

  3. Revisiting the relationship between attributional style and academic performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Previous research into the relationship between attributions and academic performance has produced contradictory findings that have not been resolved. The present research examines the role of specific dimensions of attributional style in predicting subsequent academic performance in a sample of pupils (N = 979) from both high‐ and low‐achieving schools. Hierarchical regression and moderation analyses indicate that internal, stable, and global, attributional styles for positive events predict higher levels of academic performance. Global attributions for negative events were related to poorer performance across all schools. Stable attributions for negative events were related to higher levels of performance in high‐achieving schools but not in low‐achieving schools. Higher levels of internality for negative events were associated with higher performance only in low achieving schools. PMID:27594711

  4. Learning-style preferences of Latino/Hispanic community college students enrolled in an introductory biology course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarantopoulos, Helen D.

    Purpose. The purpose of this study was to identify, according to the Productivity Environment Preference Survey (PEPS) instrument, which learning-style domains (environmental, emotional, sociological, and physiological) were favored among Latino/Hispanic community college students enrolled in introductory biology classes in a large, urban community college. An additional purpose of this study was to determine whether statistically significant differences existed between the learning-style preferences and the demographic variables of age, gender, number of prior science courses, second language learner status, and earlier exposure to scientific information. Methodology. The study design was descriptive and ex post facto. The sample consisted of a total of 332 Latino/Hispanic students enrolled in General Biology 3. Major findings. The study revealed that Latino/Hispanic students enrolled in introductory biology at a large urban community college scored higher for the learning preference element of structure. Students twenty-five years and older scored higher for the learning preference elements of light, design, persistence, responsibility, and morning time (p English language learners and those who learned English as their primary language (p <= 0.05). Students who frequently read science articles scored higher for the elements of motivation, persistence, responsibility, and tactile (p <= 0.05). Conclusions and recommendations. The conclusions were that Latino/Hispanic students need detailed guidance and clearly stated course objectives. The recommendations were: (1) College professors, counselors, and administrators must become aware of the Dunn learning-style model and instruments and on recent learning-style research articles on ethnically diverse groups of adult learners; and (2) Instructors should plan their instruction to incorporate the learning-style preferences of their students.

  5. Effects of Learning Styles on the Performances of Senior Secondary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study ascertained the effects of learning styles on the performances of Senior Secondary School Biology students in Imo state, Nigeria. The study adopted the quasi-experimental design. The sample consisted of 300 SS II Biology students comprising of (150 males and 150 females) obtained through simple random ...

  6. Do leadership styles matter in microfinance performance? Empirical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study draws on the relevance of the full range leadership proposition by showing the relative ability of leadership styles to influence organisational performance in microfinance sector of Ghana. Ghanaian microfinance sector has been concerned with building vibrant institutions within the financial sector. In this direction ...

  7. Principals' Leadership Style and Staff Job Performance in Selected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examined the relationship between principals' leadership style and staff job performance in Emohua Local Government Area of River State. The study was carried out within the period of 2007-2016 in secondary schools in Emohua Local Government Area of Rivers State. Path-Goal theory was adopted as the ...

  8. Leadership Styles of Principals and Job Performance of Staff in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the leadership styles of principals and the effect on job performance of teachers and supportive staff in senior secondary schools in Delta State of Nigeria. The population comprised all 358 senior secondary schools in the State from which a sample 120 was selected through the simple random ...

  9. Leadership Style Paradigm Shift and Organisational Performance: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mrs Afam

    Abstract. This study focused on the effect of changes in leadership styles on organisational performance in a cement manufacturing firm in Ogun State of Nigeria. A total of 385 participants were selected for the study using stratified random sampling technique. Questionnaire and in-depth interview were used for data ...

  10. Influence of Principals' Administrative Style on the Job Performance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective was to evaluate the administrative style of secondary school principals in relation to teachers' job performance in Cross River State, Nigeria. A total of four hundred (400) teachers and one thousand two hundred (1200) students were randomly sampled for the study, using Ex-post facto research design with ...

  11. Teaching and Learning Styles in Higher Education: Analysis of Student Teachers’ Preferences in an English Pedagogy Program at Three Chilean Universities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constanza Rojas-Jara

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper shows the findings of a study conducted in three Chilean universities in 2014. It aims to analyze EFL student teachers’ preferences regarding their teaching and learning styles. 279 participants answered the teaching style inventory and 238 took the learning style questionnaire. These participants are first, third and fifth year student-teachers. This study uses Grasha and Riechman’s model to study teaching and learning styles. These authors propose a classification, cluster grouping and integrated clustering (Lewis, 2014; Grasha y Riechmann, 1975. The findings reveal that all student teachers favor the Facilitator teaching style and the Collaborative learning style.

  12. Attitudes to concept maps as a teaching/learning activity in undergraduate health professional education: influence of preferred learning style.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laight, David W

    2004-05-01

    Concept maps that integrate and relate concepts in a nonlinear fashion are widely accepted as an educational tool that can underpin meaningful learning in medical education. However, student take-up may be affected by a number of cognitive and non-cognitive influences. In the present study, student attitudes to pre-prepared concept maps introduced in Stage 2 conjoint MPharm and BSc Pharmacology lectures were examined in relation to preferred learning styles according to the Felder-Silverman model. There was no statistically significant influence of dichotomous learning style dimension (sensing/intuitive; visual/verbal; active/reflector; sequential/global) on the self-reported utility of such concept maps to learning. However, when strength of preference was analysed within each dimension, moderate/strong verbal learners were found to be significantly less likely to self-report concept maps as useful relative to mild verbal learners. With this important exception, these data now suggest that student attitudes to concept maps are broadly not influenced by preferred learning styles and furthermore highlight the potential of concept maps to address a variety of different learning styles and thereby facilitate 'teaching to all types'. Concept maps could therefore potentially assist motivation, engagement and deep learning in medical and biomedical science education when used as a supplement to more traditional teaching/learning activities.

  13. LEARNING STYLES AND STUDENTS’ PERFORMANCE IN DESIGN PROBLEM SOLVING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elçin Tezel

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Design curricula and all core design studio courses are prepared for performance attainment by giving theoretical and professional training. However students’ performance may be affected by both the constraints set on a design problem, and their learning styles. This study explores the performance of interior architectural students in relation to their learning styles (as proposed by Kolb’s Experiential Learning Theory, and different types of constraints set on design problems. Design performance, measured as conceptual development, form and spatial configuration, structural innovation and ergonomics, and craftsmanship, was found to change throughout the two bipolar continuum of the learning cycle with regard to two design conditions characterized by different types of constraint use.

  14. Learning Style Preferences of Student Teachers: A Cross-Cultural Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sywelem, Mohamed; Al-Harbi, Qassem; Fathema, Nafsaniath; Witte, James E.

    2012-01-01

    All students learn, but not all learn in the same way. Educational researchers postulate that everyone has a learning style. This article examines how cultural variability is reflected in the learning style of students in Egypt, Saudi Arabia and United States. In this study, the learning styles of over 300 students in Teacher Education…

  15. The relationship between emotional intelligence competencies and preferred conflict-handling styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Jeanne

    2008-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if a relationship exists between emotional intelligence (EI) and preferred conflict-handling styles of registered nurses. Conflict cannot be eliminated from the workplace therefore learning appropriate conflict-handling skills is important. Ninety-four registered nurses working in three south Mississippi healthcare facilities participated in this quantitative study. Ninety-two valid sets of data instruments were collected for this study. Higher levels of EI positively correlated with collaborating and negatively with accommodating. The issue of occupational stress and conflict among nurses is a major concern. It is imperative nurses learn how to effectively handle conflict in the work environment. Developing the competencies of EI and understanding how to effectively handle conflict is necessary for nurses working in a highly stressful occupation. Effective leadership management includes conflict management and collaboration. The art of relationship management is necessary when handling other people's emotions. When conflict is approached with high levels of EI, it creates an opportunity for learning effective interpersonal skills. Understanding how EI levels and conflict skills correlate can be used to improve interpersonal relationships in a healthcare facility.

  16. Myth Busting: Do High-Performance Students Prefer Working Alone?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Cheryl L.; Shore, Bruce M.

    2015-01-01

    There has been a longstanding assumption that gifted, high-ability, or high-performing students prefer working alone; however, this may not be true in every case. The current study expanded on this assumption to reveal more nuanced learning preferences of these students. Sixty-nine high-performing and community-school students in Grades 5 and 6…

  17. Attitudes to concept maps as a teaching/learning activity in undergraduate health professional education: influence of preferred learning style

    OpenAIRE

    Laight, David

    2004-01-01

    Concept maps that integrate and relate concepts in a nonlinear fashion are widely accepted as an educational tool that can underpin meaningful learning in medical education. However, student take-up may be affected by a number of cognitive and non-cognitive influences. In the present study, student attitudes to pre-prepared concept maps introduced in Stage 2 conjoint MPharm and BSc Pharmacology lectures were examined in relation to preferred learning styles according to the Felder-Silverman m...

  18. Thinking style preferences among librarians in public and special libraries in the Ljubljana region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Senica

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents Sternberg’s theory of mental self-government that makes an unique contribution to the understanding of human individual differences. In order to investigate individual differences of librarians in public and special libraries in the Ljubljana region, the Thinking Styles Inventory was applied to determine the styles of thinking according to Sternberg’s theory of mental self-government. Building on the acquired data, some differences in styles of thinking in regard to demographic variable are highlighted. The results point out that the profile of thinking styles of librarians shows high levels for the external and liberal thinking styles, and modest levels for internal, conservative, global and local thinking styles. Some comparisons with other studies are drawn, and a few proposals for further research on the individual differences are suggested.

  19. Learning style preferences: A study of Pre-clinical Medical Students in Barbados

    OpenAIRE

    NKEMCHO OJEH; NATASHA SOBERS-GRANNUM; UMA GAUR; ALAYA UDUPA; MD. ANWARUL AZIM MAJUMDER

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Educators need to be aware of different learning styles to effectively tailor instructional strategies and methods to cater to the students’ learning needs and support a conductive learning environment. The VARK [an acronym for visual (V), aural (A), read/write (R) and kinesthetic (K)] instrument is a useful model to assess learning styles. The aim of this study was to use the VARK questionnaire to determine the learning styles of pre-clinical medical students in order to compar...

  20. Subtraction Performances of Primary School Prospective Mathematics Teachers Having Different Cognitive Styles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayvaz, Ülkü; Gündüz, Nazan; Durmus, Soner; Dündar, Sefa

    2016-01-01

    Cognitive styles defined as the way by which individuals prefer to use in order to obtain, edit, utilize, remember the information are discussed as the indication of individual differences in many studies. The study aims to investigate behavioral data of mathematics teacher candidates categorized according to their cognitive styles while they…

  1. An exploratory study of the relationship between learning styles and academic performance among students in different nursing programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuh-Shiow; Yu, Wen-Pin; Liu, Chin-Fang; Shieh, Sue-Heui; Yang, Bao-Huan

    2014-10-27

    Abstract Background: Learning style is a major consideration in planning for effective and efficient instruction and learning. Learning style has been shown to influence academic performance in the previous research. Little is known about Taiwanese students' learning styles, particularly in the field of nursing education. Aim: This purpose of this study was to identify the relationship between learning styles and academic performance among nursing students in a five-year associate degree of nursing (ADN) program and a two-year bachelor of science in nursing (BSN) program in Taiwan. Methods/Design: This study employed a descriptive and exploratory design. The Chinese version of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) Form M was an instrument. Data such as grade point average (GPA) were obtained from the Office of Academic Affairs and the Registrar computerized records. Descriptive statistics, one-way analysis of variance ANOVA) and chi-square statistical analysis were used to explore the relationship between academic performance and learning style in Taiwanese nursing students. Results/Findings: The study sample included 285 nursing students: 96 students in a two-year BSN program, and 189 students in a five-year ADN program. Two common learning styles were found: introversion, sensing, thinking, and judging (ISTJ); and introversion, sensing, feeling, and judging (ISFJ). A sensing-judging pair was identified in 43.3% of the participants. Academic performance was significantly related to learning style (p success. A large sample is recommended for further research. Understanding the learning style preferences of students can enhance learning for those who are under performing in their academic studies, thereby enhancing nursing education.

  2. The relationship between learning style preferences and gender, educational major and status in first year medical students: a survey study from iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarabi-Asiabar, Ali; Jafari, Mehdi; Sadeghifar, Jamil; Tofighi, Shahram; Zaboli, Rouhollah; Peyman, Hadi; Salimi, Mohammad; Shams, Lida

    2015-01-01

    Identifying and employing appropriate learning styles could play an important role in selecting teaching styles in order to improve education. This study aimed to determine the relationship between learning styles preferences and gender, educational major and status in first year students at Isfahan University of Medical Sciences. A cross-sectional study employing the visual-aural-read/write-kinesthetic (VARK) learning style's questionnaire was done on 184 first year students of medicine, pharmacy, dentistry, nursing and health services management at Isfahan University of Medical Sciences in 2012. The validity of the questionnaire was assessed through experts' views and reliability was calculated using Cronbach's alpha coefficients (α = 0.86). Data were analyzed using the SPSS ver.18 software and x(2) test. Out of 184 participants who responded to and returned the questionnaire, 122 (66.3%) were female; more than two-thirds (68.5%) of the enrolled students were at the professional doctorate level (medicine, pharmacy, dentistry) and 31.5% at the undergraduate level (nursing and health services management). Eighty-nine (48.4%) students preferred a single-modal learning style. In contrast, the remaining 95 students (51.6%) preferred multi-modal learning styles. A significant relationship between gender and single modal learning styles (P = 0.009) and between status and learning styles (P = 0.04) was observed. According to the results, male students preferred to use the kinesthetic learning style more than females, while, female students preferred the aural learning style. Knowledge about the learning styles of students at educational institutes is valuable and helps solve learning problems among students, and allows students to become better learners.

  3. Learning style preferences and their influence on students' problem solving in kinematics observed by eye-tracking method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kekule, Martina

    2017-01-01

    The article presents eye-tracking method and its using for observing students when they solve problems from kinematics. Particularly, multiple-choice items in TUG-K test by Robert Beichner. Moreover, student's preference for visual way of learning as a possible influential aspect is proofed and discussed. Learning Style Inventory by Dunn, Dunn&Price was administered to students in order to find out their preferences. More than 20 high school and college students about 20 years old took part in the research. Preferred visual way of learning in contrast to the other ways of learning (audio, tactile, kinesthetic) shows very slight correlation with the total score of the test, none correlation with the average fixation duration and slight correlation with average fixation count on a task and average total visit duration on a task.

  4. Assessment of learning styles of undergraduate medical students using the VARK questionnaire and the influence of sex and academic performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urval, Rathnakar P.; Ullal, Sheetal; Shenoy, Ashok K.; Shenoy, Nandita; Udupa, Laxminarayana A.

    2014-01-01

    While there are several tools to study learning styles of students, the visual-aural-read/write-kinesthetic (VARK) questionnaire is a simple, freely available, easy to administer tool that encourages students to describe their behavior in a manner they can identify with and accept. The aim is to understand the preferred sensory modality (or modalities) of students for learning. Teachers can use this knowledge to facilitate student learning. Moreover, students themselves can use this knowledge to change their learning habits. Five hundred undergraduate students belonging to two consecutive batches in their second year of undergraduate medical training were invited to participate in the exercise. Consenting students (415 students, 83%) were administered a printed form of version 7.0 of the VARK questionnaire. Besides the questionnaire, we also collected demographic data, academic performance data (marks obtained in 10th and 12th grades and last university examination), and self-perceived learning style preferences. The majority of students in our study had multiple learning preferences (68.7%). The predominant sensory modality of learning was aural (45.5%) and kinesthetic (33.1%). The learning style preference was not influenced by either sex or previous academic performance. Although we use a combination of teaching methods, there has not been an active effort to determine whether these adequately address the different types of learners. We hope these data will help us better our course contents and make learning a more fruitful experience. PMID:25179610

  5. Assessment of learning styles of undergraduate medical students using the VARK questionnaire and the influence of sex and academic performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urval, Rathnakar P; Kamath, Ashwin; Ullal, Sheetal; Shenoy, Ashok K; Shenoy, Nandita; Udupa, Laxminarayana A

    2014-09-01

    While there are several tools to study learning styles of students, the visual-aural-read/write-kinesthetic (VARK) questionnaire is a simple, freely available, easy to administer tool that encourages students to describe their behavior in a manner they can identify with and accept. The aim is to understand the preferred sensory modality (or modalities) of students for learning. Teachers can use this knowledge to facilitate student learning. Moreover, students themselves can use this knowledge to change their learning habits. Five hundred undergraduate students belonging to two consecutive batches in their second year of undergraduate medical training were invited to participate in the exercise. Consenting students (415 students, 83%) were administered a printed form of version 7.0 of the VARK questionnaire. Besides the questionnaire, we also collected demographic data, academic performance data (marks obtained in 10th and 12th grades and last university examination), and self-perceived learning style preferences. The majority of students in our study had multiple learning preferences (68.7%). The predominant sensory modality of learning was aural (45.5%) and kinesthetic (33.1%). The learning style preference was not influenced by either sex or previous academic performance. Although we use a combination of teaching methods, there has not been an active effort to determine whether these adequately address the different types of learners. We hope these data will help us better our course contents and make learning a more fruitful experience. Copyright © 2014 The American Physiological Society.

  6. Style

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rösing, Lilian Munk

    2017-01-01

    Defined as the tropes, figures, and grammar of the text, style is quite concrete, quite analyzable. Pure detection and identification of the tropes and figures of a text is not very interesting to literary studies, though, unless it is combined with interpretation, that is, unless you ask: What...... is the effect of those tropes and figures, how do they contribute to the signification of the text?...

  7. Learning styles and preferences for live and distance education: an example of a specialisation course in epidemiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groenwold, Rolf H H; Knol, Mirjam J

    2013-07-02

    Distance learning through the internet is increasingly popular in higher education. However, it is unknown how participants in epidemiology courses value live vs. distance education. All participants of a 5-day specialisation course in epidemiology were asked to keep a diary on the number of hours they spent on course activities (both live and distance education). Attendance was not compulsory during the course and participants were therefore also asked for the reasons to attend live education (lectures and practicals). In addition, the relation between participants' learning styles (Index of Learning Styles) and their participation in live and distance education was studied. All 54 (100%) participants in the course completed the questionnaire on attendance and 46 (85%) completed the questionnaire on learning styles. The number of hours attending live education was negatively correlated with the number of hours going studying distance learning materials (Pearson correlation -0.5; p Learning styles were not association with the number of hours spent on live or distance education. Distance learning may play an important role in epidemiology courses, since it allows participants to study whenever and wherever they prefer, which provides the opportunity to combine courses with clinical duties. An important requirement for distance learning education appears to be the possibility to ask questions and to interact with instructors.

  8. Relationship between preferred leadership style and motivation in young soccer regional players

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Guilherme Borghi; Paulo Henrique Borges; Vanessa Menezes Menegassi; Guilherme Schnaider Wilson Rinaldi

    2017-01-01

    .... The comparison between different age groups was analyzed through the Mann-Whitney U test. To verify the relationship between leadership style and motivation, the Spearman ooneMon coeficient was applied (P < 0.05...

  9. Mining Students' Learning Patterns and Performance in Web-Based Instruction: A Cognitive Style Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Sherry Y.; Liu, Xiaohui

    2011-01-01

    Personalization has been widely used in Web-based instruction (WBI). To deliver effective personalization, there is a need to understand different preferences of each student. Cognitive style has been identified as one of the most pertinent factors that affect students' learning preferences. Therefore, it is essential to investigate how learners…

  10. An online survey to study the relationship between patients’ health literacy and coping style and their preferences for self-management-related information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vosbergen S

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Sandra Vosbergen,1 Niels Peek,1 Johanna MR Mulder-Wiggers,1 Hareld MC Kemps,1,2 Roderik A Kraaijenhagen,3 Monique WM Jaspers,1,4 Joyca PW Lacroix51Department of Medical Informatics, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam, the Netherlands, 2Department of Cardiology, Máxima Medical Centre, Veldhoven, the Netherlands, 3NIPED Research Foundation, Amsterdam, the Netherlands, 4Center for Human Factors Engineering of Health Information Technology (HIT Lab, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam, the Netherlands, 5Department of Brain, Body and Behavior, Philips Research, Eindhoven, the NetherlandsObjective: To evaluate patients’ preferences for message features and assess their relationships with health literacy, monitor–blunter coping style, and other patient-dependent characteristics.Methods: Patients with coronary heart disease completed an internet-based survey, which assessed health literacy and monitor–blunter coping style, as well as various other patient characteristics such as sociodemographics, disease history, and explicit information preferences. To assess preferences for message features, nine text sets differing in one of nine message features were composed, and participants were asked to state their preferences.Results: The survey was completed by 213 patients. For three of the nine text sets, a ­relationship was found between patient preference and health literacy or monitor–blunter coping style. Patients with low health literacy preferred the text based on patient experience. Patients with a monitoring coping style preferred information on short-term effects of their treatment and mentioning of explicit risks. Various other patient characteristics such as marital status, social support, disease history, and age also showed a strong association.Conclusion: Individual differences exist in patients’ preferences for message features, and these preferences relate to patient characteristics such as health literacy and monitor

  11. Gender Differences in Factors Related to Parenting Styles: A Study of High Performing Science Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hein, Carol; Lewko, John H.

    1994-01-01

    Examined parenting styles within families of high performing science students and explored gender differences in the factors associated with authoritative parenting style. Found that the authoritative parenting style was predominant among study participants and that a greater number of family-related variables emerge for females, whereas more…

  12. Principals' Administrative Styles and Students' Academic Performance in Taraba State Secondary Schools, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bello, Suleiman; Ibi, Mustapha Baba; Bukar, Ibrahim Bulama

    2016-01-01

    The study determined the relationship between principals' administrative styles and students' academic performance in Taraba State secondary schools, Nigeria. The objectives of the study were to determine the relationships between initiative structure of leadership styles, consideration structure of leadership styles, participatory structure of…

  13. The Impact of Preceptor and Student Learning Styles on Experiential Performance Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Craig D.; Seifert, Charles F.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. To identify preceptors’ and students’ learning styles to determine how these impact students’ performance on pharmacy practice experience assessments. Methods. Students and preceptors were asked to complete a validated Pharmacist’s Inventory of Learning Styles (PILS) questionnaire to identify dominant and secondary learning styles. The significance of “matched” and “unmatched” learning styles between students and preceptors was evaluated based on performance on both subjective and objective practice experience assessments. Results. Sixty-one percent of 67 preceptors and 57% of 72 students who participated reported “assimilator” as their dominant learning style. No differences were found between student and preceptor performance on evaluations, regardless of learning style match. Conclusion. Determination of learning styles may encourage preceptors to use teaching methods to challenge students during pharmacy practice experiences; however, this does not appear to impact student or preceptor performance. PMID:23049100

  14. The impact of preceptor and student learning styles on experiential performance measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robles, Janie; Cox, Craig D; Seifert, Charles F

    2012-09-10

    To identify preceptors' and students' learning styles to determine how these impact students' performance on pharmacy practice experience assessments. Students and preceptors were asked to complete a validated Pharmacist's Inventory of Learning Styles (PILS) questionnaire to identify dominant and secondary learning styles. The significance of "matched" and "unmatched" learning styles between students and preceptors was evaluated based on performance on both subjective and objective practice experience assessments. Sixty-one percent of 67 preceptors and 57% of 72 students who participated reported "assimilator" as their dominant learning style. No differences were found between student and preceptor performance on evaluations, regardless of learning style match. Determination of learning styles may encourage preceptors to use teaching methods to challenge students during pharmacy practice experiences; however, this does not appear to impact student or preceptor performance.

  15. Hierarchy of Needs, Perception and Preference for Leadership Styles within a Police Educational Institution

    OpenAIRE

    Alina RAUS; Mihaela HAITA; Lucreţia LAZĂR

    2012-01-01

    The present research investigates Maslow’s hierarchy of needs and the leadership style (perceived and ideal) in a sample of employees of a police school. The purpose of this study was to identify and propose solutions to improve the managerial activity. Based on Maslow’s theory for understanding human motivation, we developed a measurement scale for human needs. Based on Lewin’s theory of leadership style, we developed two measurement scales, one for perceived leadership and one for ideal lea...

  16. Does tailoring instructional style to a medical student's self-perceived learning style improve performance when teaching intravenous catheter placement? A randomized controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papanagnou, Dimitrios; Serrano, Antonio; Barkley, Kaitlyn; Chandra, Shruti; Governatori, Nicholas; Piela, Nicole; Wanner, Gregory K; Shin, Richard

    2016-08-12

    Students may have different learning styles. It is unclear, however, whether tailoring instructional methods for a student's preferred learning style improves educational outcomes when teaching procedures. The authors sought to examine whether teaching to a student's self-perceived learning style improved the acquisition of intravenous (IV) catheter placement skills. The authors hypothesized that matching a medical student's preferred learning style with the instructor's teaching style would increase the success of placing an IV catheter. Using the VARK model (i.e., visual [V], auditory [A], read/write [R] and kinesthetic [K]), third-year medical students reported their self-perceived learning style and were subsequently randomized to instructors who were trained to teach according to a specific learning format (i.e., visual, auditory). Success was gauged by: 1) the placement of an IV on the first attempt and 2) the number of attempts made until an IV line was successfully placed. The average number of attempts in the matched learning style group was 1.53, compared to 1.64 in the unmatched learning style group; however, results were not statistically significant. Both matched and unmatched groups achieved a similar success rate (57 and 58 %, respectively). Additionally, a comparison of success between the unmatched and matched students within each learning style modality yielded no statistical significance. Results suggest that providing procedural instruction that is congruent with a student's self-perceived learning style does not appear to improve outcomes when instructing students on IV catheter placement.

  17. Learning Style Preferences: An Examination of Differences amongst Students with Different Disciplinary Backgrounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Frances; Tomkinson, Bland; Hiley, Anna; Dobson, Helen

    2016-01-01

    The context of this study is of students with backgrounds in a variety of engineering and social science disciplines, and from first degrees in different countries, coming together to study Project Management. Tailoring teaching to all individuals' learning styles is not possible, but, in an attempt to learn how to teach better in ways that fit…

  18. Generational Learning Style Preferences Based on Computer-Based Healthcare Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Michaelle H.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. The purpose of this mixed-method study was to determine the degree of perceived differences for auditory, visual and kinesthetic learning styles of Traditionalist, Baby Boomers, Generation X and Millennial generational healthcare workers participating in technology-assisted healthcare training. Methodology. This mixed-method research…

  19. Myers-Briggs Type Inventory Personality Preferences and Academic Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowenthal, Werner; Meth, Hilda

    1989-01-01

    A study to determine if there are any relationships between the Myers-Briggs Type Inventory personality preferences and academic performance in schools of pharmacy is discussed. Differences in academic performance that could be related to gender are reported. (Author/MLW)

  20. Does learning style influence academic performance in different forms of assessment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Tracey; Boohan, Mairead; Stevenson, Michael

    2014-03-01

    Educational research on learning styles has been conducted for some time, initially within the field of psychology. Recent research has widened to include more diverse disciplines, with greater emphasis on application. Although there are numerous instruments available to measure several different dimensions of learning style, it is generally accepted that styles differ, although the qualities of more than one style may be inherent in any one learner. But do these learning styles have a direct effect on student performance in examinations, specifically in different forms of assessment? For this study, hypotheses were formulated suggesting that academic performance is influenced by learning style. Using the Honey and Mumford Learning Style Questionnaire, learning styles of a cohort of first year medical and dental students at Queen's University Belfast were assessed. Pearson correlation was performed between the score for each of the four learning styles and the student examination results in a variety of subject areas (including anatomy) and in different types of assessments - single best answer, short answer questions and Objective Structured Clinical Examinations. In most of the analyses, there was no correlation between learning style and result and in the few cases where the correlations were statistically significant, they generally appeared to be weak. It seems therefore from this study that although the learning styles of students vary, they have little effect on academic performance, including in specific forms of assessment. © 2013 Anatomical Society.

  1. The Relationship between Saudi English Major University Students' Writing Performance and Their Learning Style and Strategy Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkubaidi, Miriam A.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the link between writing tasks, learners' learning style preference, and writing strategy use. It also investigates if students with various proficiency levels stem from different learning style preference and use different writing strategies. This research attempts to answer the following research questions: what are the…

  2. The Effects Of Leadership Styles On Goal Clarity And Fairness Mediated Used Performance Measure

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Amris Rusli Tanjung; Yesi Mutia Basri

    2015-01-01

    .... We used leadership style initiating structure and consideration and performance measure use objective and subjective measures on managerial work related attitudes goal clarity and evaluation fairness...

  3. Students’ Attitudes, Academic Performance and Preferences for Content Delivery in a Very Large Self-Care Course Redesign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mistry, Amee; Schnee, David; Tataronis, Gary; Taglieri, Catherine; Zaiken, Kathy; Patel, Dhiren; Nigro, Stefanie; Jacobson, Susan; Goldman, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate students’ performance/attitudes toward a flipped team-based learning (TBL) format in a “very large” self-care course based on student content delivery preference. Design. Third-year students enrolled in the course were surveyed regarding elements of redesign and homework completion. Additionally, their performance and incoming grade point average were evaluated. Assessment. A survey was completed by 286 of 305 students. Nineteen percent of respondents preferred traditional content delivery, whereas 30% preferred flipped TBL, 48% preferred a mixed format, and 3% had no preference. The grades achieved in the course were: A (49%), B (48%), C (3%) and D (0%). The majority completed “all” or “most” of the homework, appreciated attributes of course redesign, felt home preparation and in-class activities engaged them, and reported improved communication/evaluation skills. Content delivery preference significantly affected attitudes. Conclusion. Students positively received a flipped team-based learning classroom format, especially those who preferred flipped TBL or mixed content delivery. A minority with preference for traditional teaching style did not enjoy the new format; however, their academic performance did not differ significantly from those who did. PMID:27293234

  4. Students' Attitudes, Academic Performance and Preferences for Content Delivery in a Very Large Self-Care Course Redesign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camiel, Lana Dvorkin; Mistry, Amee; Schnee, David; Tataronis, Gary; Taglieri, Catherine; Zaiken, Kathy; Patel, Dhiren; Nigro, Stefanie; Jacobson, Susan; Goldman, Jennifer

    2016-05-25

    Objective. To evaluate students' performance/attitudes toward a flipped team-based learning (TBL) format in a "very large" self-care course based on student content delivery preference. Design. Third-year students enrolled in the course were surveyed regarding elements of redesign and homework completion. Additionally, their performance and incoming grade point average were evaluated. Assessment. A survey was completed by 286 of 305 students. Nineteen percent of respondents preferred traditional content delivery, whereas 30% preferred flipped TBL, 48% preferred a mixed format, and 3% had no preference. The grades achieved in the course were: A (49%), B (48%), C (3%) and D (0%). The majority completed "all" or "most" of the homework, appreciated attributes of course redesign, felt home preparation and in-class activities engaged them, and reported improved communication/evaluation skills. Content delivery preference significantly affected attitudes. Conclusion. Students positively received a flipped team-based learning classroom format, especially those who preferred flipped TBL or mixed content delivery. A minority with preference for traditional teaching style did not enjoy the new format; however, their academic performance did not differ significantly from those who did.

  5. An Empirical Investigation of the Relationships Among Cognitive Abilities, Cognitive Style, and Learning Preferences in Students Enrolled in Specialized Degree Courses at a Canadian College

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaila Sardar

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Although specific cognitive abilities, cognitive style, and learning preferences are assumed to be inter-related, the empirical evidence supporting this assumption is mixed. Cognitive style refers to how individuals represent information, and learning preference refers to how individuals prefer the presentation of information (Mayer & Massa, 2003. Both cognitive style and learning preferences have been linked to specific cognitive abilities, such as verbal abilities, visual imagery and spatial abilities, though the nature of the inter-relationships remains tenuous in the literature. The present study addressed the roles of specific cognitive abilities in the relationship between learning preferences and the visualizer-verbalizer dimension of cognitive style, using a unique sample of students enrolled in specialized post-secondary programs. A battery of cognitive tests and questionnaires was administered. It was found that spatial abilities predicted visual cognitive style, which in turn, predicted visual learning preferences. Vocabulary knowledge predicted verbal cognitive style, but not verbal learning preferences. These results suggest that specific cognitive abilities predict visual-verbal cognitive styles, though the distinction between visual-verbal cognitive styles does not have clear associations with learning preferences.Bien que l’on suppose que les habiletés cognitives, le style cognitif et les préférences en matière d’apprentissage soient interreliés, les preuves empiriques étayant cette supposition sont partagées. Le style cognitif renvoie à la façon dont les individus perçoivent l’information et les préférences en matière d’apprentissage concernent la présentation de l’information (Mayer & Massa, 2003. Les chercheurs ont établi un lien entre, d’une part, le style cognitif et les préférences d’apprentissage et, d’autre part, des capacités cognitives spécifiques comme les habiletés verbales, l

  6. Cognitive Style and Educational Performance. The Case of Public Schools in Bogotá, Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hederich-Martínez, Christian; Camargo-Uribe, Angela

    2016-01-01

    This study analyses the relationships among educational performance, field dependence-independence cognitive style and factors traditionally associated with performance and style, to build a comprehensive model of factors associated with the levels of education performance of students in Bogotá. A total of 3003 students, of grades 8 and 10, from…

  7. Leadership preferences behaviors and its influence on athletes’ performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.R.F. Brandão

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study was to evaluate volleyball athletes´ perception of the coach behavior and its relationship with the performance in games. For those, 12 male, Brazilian volleyball high-level players, with mean of age 20.6 years were evaluated through an open question: “Do you see a relationship between the leadership style of your coach and your performance in games? The answers were analyzed through the Discourse of the Collective Subject. Data showed that 75% of the players tended to perceived the coach behavior as influencing directly their performance (“The coach leadership is essential for my performance”; 17% perceive it in a subordinate way (“Sometimes yes, sometimes, no, depends...”, and 8% perceived as no influence (“Leadership and performance are different”. In conclusion, we can say that there is a tendency to perceive the coach behavior as directly connected with the performance.

  8. Essential Attributes for Online Success: Student Learning Preferences and Faculty Teaching Styles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abell, Natalie; Cain, Melissa; Lee, Cheng-Yuan Corey

    2016-01-01

    This article describes a pilot study that tested a new instrument to identify the Learning Preferences of students in online classes at a mid-western university. The authors developed the instrument and associated tips for online learners based upon the research literature, the authors' research, and practical suggestions by experienced online…

  9. Generational Diversity in Associate Degree Nursing Students: Teaching Styles and Preferences in Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitko, Jennifer V.

    2011-01-01

    Nursing educators face the challenge of meeting the needs of a multi-generational classroom. The reality of having members from the Veteran and Baby Boomer generations in a classroom with Generation X and Y students provides an immediate need for faculty to examine students' teaching method preferences as well as their own use of teaching methods.…

  10. Host-plant preference and performance of the vine weevil Otiorhynchus sulcatus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Tol, R.W.H.M.; van Dijk, N.; Sabelis, M.W.

    2004-01-01

    The relationship between reproductive performance and preference for potential host plants of the vine weevil is investigated, as shown in tests on contact (or feeding) preference, presented herein, and tests on olfactory preference, published elsewhere. Assessment of reproductive performance shows

  11. The style of group working and its influence on team performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robson Luiz Montanari

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This case study aims to evaluate the influence of the style of group working in the teams’ performance in a midsize services company in Parana State. For this purpose an exploratory interview was originally performed. Then the questionnaires were applied: Working Group Style, proposed by Parker (1994 and Evaluation of a Success Team, proposed by Chang (1999. Besides the questionnaires, non-participant observations were made that intended to register items which interest the research objectives. Finally, the data analysis was carried out, making intersection with the interviews and the non-participant observations. The results identified some influences of the group working styles in the performance of teams. The different behaviors determined the degree of influence which help or not the performance of teams in this study. Two result matrices were found. The first with a relatively uniform distribution of styles, but presenting lower performance; the second showed a predominant contributor style and a higher performance of teams.

  12. The Relationship between Followership Style and Job Performance in Botswana Private Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyetunji, Christianah O.

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the followership style and job performance in Botswana private universities. Attempt was made to determine if there is a significant relationship between followership styles in relation to job performance. A total of 102 randomly selected lecturers from the two private universities completed followership and job performance…

  13. Leadership Style Paradigm Shift and Organisational Performance: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mrs Afam

    acquisition context. Specifically, the result also .... In this perspective, leadership style is viewed as the approach and manner of providing direction ..... Transformational leadership, initiating structure and substitutes for leadership: A longitudinal study of ...

  14. Influence of learning style on instructional multimedia effects on graduate student cognitive and psychomotor performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, A Russell; Cavanaugh, Catherine; Jones, Joyce; Venn, John; Wilson, William

    2006-01-01

    Learning outcomes may improve in graduate healthcare students when attention is given to individual learning styles. Interactive multimedia is one tool shown to increase success in meeting the needs of diverse learners. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of learning style and type of instruction on physical therapy students' cognitive and psychomotor performance. Participants were obtained by a sample of convenience with students recruited from two physical therapy programs. Twenty-seven students volunteered to participate from Program 1. Twenty-three students volunteered to participate from Program 2. Gregorc learning styles were identified through completion of the Gregorc Style Delineator. Students were randomly assigned to one of two instructional strategies: 1) instructional CD or 2) live demonstration. Differences in cognitive or psychomotor performance following instructional multimedia based on learning style were not demonstrated in this study. Written examination scores improved with both instructional strategies demonstrating no differences between the strategies. Practical examination ankle scores were significantly higher in participants receiving CD instruction than in participants receiving live presentation. Learning style did not significantly affect this improvement. Program 2 performed significantly better on written knee and practical knee and ankle examinations. Learning style had no significant effect on student performance following instruction in clinical skills via interactive multimedia. Future research may include additional measurement instruments assessing other models of learning styles and possible interaction of learning style and instructional strategy on students over longer periods of time, such as a semester or an entire curriculum.

  15. Generational diversity in associate degree nursing students: Teaching styles and preferences in Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitko, Jennifer V.

    2011-12-01

    Nursing educators face the challenge of meeting the needs of a multi-generational classroom. The reality of having members from the Veteran and Baby Boomer generations in a classroom with Generation X and Y students provides an immediate need for faculty to examine students' teaching method preferences as well as their own use of teaching methods. Most importantly, faculty must facilitate an effective multi-generational learning environment. Research has shown that the generation to which a person belongs is likely to affect the ways in which he/she learns (Hammill, 2005). Characterized by its own attitudes, behaviors, beliefs, and motivational needs, each generation also has distinct educational expectations. It is imperative, therefore, that nurse educators be aware of these differences and develop skills through which to communicate with the different generations, thereby reducing teaching/learning problems in the classroom. This is a quantitative, descriptive study that compared the teaching methods preferred by different generations of associate degree nursing students with the teaching methods that the instructors actually use. The research study included 289 participants; 244 nursing student participants and 45 nursing faculty participants from four nursing departments in colleges in Pennsylvania. Overall, the results of the study found many statistically significant findings. The results of the ANOVA test revealed eight statistically significant findings among Generation Y, Generation X and Baby boomers. The preferred teaching methods included: lecture, self-directed learning, web-based course with no class meetings, important for faculty to know my name, classroom structure, know why I am learning what I am learning, learning for the sake of learning and grade is all that matters. Lecture was found to be the most frequently used teaching method by faculty as well as the most preferred teaching methods by students. Overall, the support for a variety of

  16. Assessing recall, conceptualization, and transfer capabilities of novice biochemistry students' across learning style preferences as revealed by self-explanations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilsenbeck-Fajardo, Jacqueline L.

    2009-08-01

    The research described herein is a multi-dimensional attempt to measure student's abilities to recall, conceptualize, and transfer fundamental and dynamic protein structure concepts as revealed by their own diagrammatic (pictorial) representations and written self-explanations. A total of 120 participants enrolled in a 'Fundamentals of Biochemistry' course contributed to this mixed-methodological study. The population of interest consisted primarily of pre-nursing and sport and exercise science majors. This course is typically associated with a high (techniques) was quantitatively correlated to learning style preferences (i.e., high-object, low-object, and non-object). Quantitative measures revealed that participants tended toward an object (i.e., snapshot) -based visualization preference, a potentially limiting factor in their desire to consider dynamic properties of fundamental biochemical contexts such as heat-induced protein denaturation. When knowledge transfer was carefully assessed within the predefined context, numerous misconceptions pertaining to the fundamental and dynamic nature of protein structure were revealed. Misconceptions tended to increase as the transfer model shifted away from the context presented in the original learning material. Ultimately, a fundamentally new, novel, and unique measure of knowledge transfer was developed as a main result of this study. It is envisioned by the researcher that this new measure of learning is applicable specifically to physical and chemical science education-based research in the form of deep transfer on the atomic-level scale.

  17. Food preferences, personality and parental rearing styles: analysis of factors influencing health of left-behind children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Sha; Yu, Lina; Gao, Wanlin; Xue, Wentong

    2016-11-01

    To understand the health status and problems of left-behind children (LBC) in rural China, those whose parents have moved to urban areas without them, and to focus on ways to improve their physical and mental health. The study examined 827 children between 7 and 15 years old, selected using stratified cluster random sampling from five towns in Xiji County of the Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region. Each child was classified as either LBC or non-LBC. Measures included age- and sex-specific height and body mass index (kg/m2), a food preference questionnaire, the Revised Junior Eysenck Personality Questionnaire, and the Egna Minnen av Barndoms Uppfostran-My Memories of Upbringing (EMBU). Malnutrition rates for LBC and non-LBC were 14.83 % (70/472) and 7.04 % (25/355) (χ 2  = 11.86, p EMBU profiles showed that the paternal approach lacked emotional warmth and understanding and the maternal approach was characterized by favoritism, over-interference and overprotection. There were a significant negative correlation between the personality characteristic of neuroticism and liking vegetables and fruits (p < 0.01), and a negative correlation between psychoticism and liking vegetables (p < 0.05). The health status of LBC is problematic. Food preferences, personality type and parenting styles should be taken into account when measures are developed to improve the health of these children.

  18. What style of leadership do women in STEMM fields perform? Findings from an international survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Amanda; Moore, Robyn

    2017-01-01

    It is widely acknowledged that women in science, technology, engineering, mathematics, and medicine (STEMM) fields are underrepresented in leadership globally. However, little is known about how leadership styles of women in STEMM relate to this underrepresentation. This article discusses findings from a survey examining how 61 women in STEMM define leadership and describe their own leadership styles. Using content analysis and drawing on Full Range Leadership Model factors, findings suggest that women define leadership and describe their own leadership styles using transformational factors. However, there was no consistency in how participants defined ideal leadership or how they defined their own leadership styles. This finding unsettles ideas of distinctly gendered leadership styles. We argue that expectations that leadership will be performed in distinctly gendered styles may be contributing to the underrepresentation of women in leadership roles in STEMM. PMID:28982147

  19. What style of leadership do women in STEMM fields perform? Findings from an international survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nash, Meredith; Davies, Amanda; Moore, Robyn

    2017-01-01

    It is widely acknowledged that women in science, technology, engineering, mathematics, and medicine (STEMM) fields are underrepresented in leadership globally. However, little is known about how leadership styles of women in STEMM relate to this underrepresentation. This article discusses findings from a survey examining how 61 women in STEMM define leadership and describe their own leadership styles. Using content analysis and drawing on Full Range Leadership Model factors, findings suggest that women define leadership and describe their own leadership styles using transformational factors. However, there was no consistency in how participants defined ideal leadership or how they defined their own leadership styles. This finding unsettles ideas of distinctly gendered leadership styles. We argue that expectations that leadership will be performed in distinctly gendered styles may be contributing to the underrepresentation of women in leadership roles in STEMM.

  20. Social transformation starts with the self: An autobiographical perspective on the thinking style preferences of an educator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pieter H du Toit

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available As an educator I am responsible for my professional development and the professional development of all educators with whom I have scholarly encounters. These encounters involve making a difference in the professional lives of other members of society, for example, in an educational setting with a view to transforming such a society, and transforming the society beyond the boundaries of educational settings. Educators in educational settings, such as schools, universities, and Further Education Colleges should serve their institutions as agents of transformation. As a specialist in educator professional development, specifically in the context of higher education, I look into my contribution to empowering these educators who operate within a micro-education society and to empowering myself. Therefore the point of departure for my research projects in general and the one reported in this article is the self -my preferences in terms of how I approach facilitating the professional development of different groups of educators and monitoring mine. An array of attributes, values, virtues, constructed meaning, competencies, etc. constitutes the self. Data obtained by means of a thinking style questionnaire, the Herrmann Brain Dominance Instrument (HBDI, serves as part of the baseline data for exploring my teaching practice that revolves around educator professional development. Only some baseline data concerning the self are reported in this article. Some baseline data relate to other individuals - all involved in transforming themselves, their practices and society in some way as an individual self. This, however, is not reported in this article. The focus here is an autobiographical perspective on my thinking style preferences that inform my involvement in educator professional development. The outcome of the analysis of the baseline data pertaining to me includes a mixed-methods approach that complements the continuous action research on the

  1. Learning Styles, Socio-Demographic Variables and Academic Performance of Building Engineering Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Manuel Alducin-Ochoa

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The objectives guiding this research were to determine the dominant learning style of the first year Building engineering students (University of Seville, the influence of the style on the grades in each school subject, and if learning style is influenced by socio-demographic variables. The sample was composed of 161 students, who completed the Honey-Alonso questionnaire (CHAEA and the CDAT. Descriptive and correlational methods were used. For the analysis of the data, a univariate (one-way ANOVA descriptive study was performed, and the non-parametric Mann-Whitney and Kruskal-Wallis tests, both with a confidence level of 95% (σ=.05 were used. The results show the predominance of the reflective style, and the fact that grades as a function of styles vary depending on the school subject. No significant differences were found in the variables gender, university admission scores, type of school (private or public of the study centers attended previous to university. Significant differences were found for some styles in the variables age, type of university admission, and if a student had to work as well as to study. The conclusions highlight the need to develop teaching strategies that encompass all the styles to improve performance, as well as the need to modify the teaching practices for the students to develop the rest of the styles in a balanced manner. This latest aspect is important so that the students can freely operate professionally, as the Engineering profession requires having all four characteristic styles simultaneously.

  2. Influence of Grade Level on Perceptual Learning Style Preferences and Language Learning Strategies of Taiwanese English as a Foreign Language Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Mei-Ling

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate relationships between grade level, perceptual learning style preferences, and language learning strategies among Taiwanese English as a Foreign Language (EFL) students in grades 7 through 9. Three hundred and ninety junior high school students participated in this study. The instruments for data…

  3. Patients' and health professionals' understanding of and preferences for graphical presentation styles for individual-level EORTC QLQ-C30 scores

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuijpers, W.; Giesinger, J.M.; Zabernigg, A.; Young, T.; Friend, E.; Tomaszewska, I.M.; Aaronson, N.K.; Holzner, B.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate patients’ and health professionals’ understanding of and preferences for different graphical presentation styles for individual-level EORTC QLQ-C30 scores. Methods: We recruited cancer patients (any treatment and diagnosis) in four European countries and health professionals

  4. Student Learning Styles and Academic Performance in a Non-Traditional Anatomy Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gravenhorst, Robynne M.

    2007-01-01

    This study examines the interaction between learning styles and academic performance in an anatomy course that blends traditional lecture with an array of hands-on activities. Participants were 19 students (ranging from 18 to 24 years of age) at Columbia College, Chicago. The Felder-Silverman Index of Learning Styles and a 25-item pre-test and…

  5. Parenting style of Chinese fathers in Hong Kong: correlates with children's school-related performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, Vicky C W; Lam, Rebecca S Y

    2003-01-01

    This study investigates parenting styles among Chinese fathers in Hong Kong as perceived by their school-age children. Four parenting styles, namely inductive, indulgent, indifferent, and dictatorial parenting, are assessed using the Parent Behavior Report (1988). Data were collected through a questionnaire survey on a sample of 1011 Primary Three to Five Chinese students from six schools in Hong Kong and 471 fathers. Findings show that among Chinese fathers, the least common parenting style is inductive, while the other three styles are of similar occurrence. Chi-square analysis shows no significant association between children's grade level and father's parenting style. However, there is a significant association with gender, with fathers more likely to be perceived as dictatorial with boys and indulgent with girls. The effect of paternal styles on children's school-related performance is also examined. MANOVA results show that significant differences are found among children of the four paternal style groups with respect to academic performance, interest in school work, aspiration for education, involvement in extracurricular activities, and efficacy for self-regulated learning. Post-hoc tests reveal that children's performance is similar between the groups with indulgent and inductive fathers, and between children of indifferent and dictatorial fathers, with the former groups performing better than the latter in general. Findings are discussed with regard to research on parenting style and paternal behavior, as well as understanding the roles of fathers in Chinese families in the socio-cultural context in Hong Kong.

  6. Performance on Middle School Geometry Problems with Geometry Clues Matched to Three Different Cognitive Styles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Karen L.; Casey, M. Beth; Thompson, William L.; Burrage, Marie S.; Pezaris, Elizabeth; Kosslyn, Stephen M.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between 3 ability-based cognitive styles (verbal deductive, spatial imagery, and object imagery) and performance on geometry problems that provided different types of clues. The purpose was to determine whether students with a specific cognitive style outperformed other students, when the geometry problems…

  7. The Relationships between Pupils' Learning Styles and Their Performance in Mini Science Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahar, Mehmet

    2009-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate (i) the relationship between pupils' learning styles and their performance in mini science projects and (ii) the degree of enjoyment of pupils with different learning styles towards mini projects. A total of 80 pupils (7th grade-14 years of age) from two different primary schools participated in the study. The…

  8. Effects of Cognitive Styles on 2D Drafting and Design Performance in Digital Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pektas, Sule Tasli

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates the interactions between design students' cognitive styles, as measured by Riding's Cognitive Styles Analysis, and performance in 2D drafting and design tasks in digital media. An empirical research revealed that Imager students outperformed Verbalisers in both drafting and creativity scores. Wholist-Analytic cognitive…

  9. Cognitive Style and GCSE Performance in Mathematics, English Language, and French.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riding, Richard; Caine, Tracey

    1993-01-01

    Reports on a preliminary study of cognitive style and performance of 182 secondary students on the British General Certificate of Secondary Education. Finds that students who tested at an intermediate position on both dimensions of the Wholist-Analytic cognitive style measure did best on the test. (CFR)

  10. Communication during haematological consultations; patients' preferences and professionals' performances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Bruinessen, Inge R; van der Hout, Lotte E; van Weel-Baumgarten, Evelyn M; Gouw, Hans; Zijlstra, Josée M; van Dulmen, Sandra

    2016-06-01

    Many patients with haematological malignancies experience barriers in clinical communication. Reaching effective communication is of great importance as it has been linked to a range of improved patient outcomes such as satisfaction, compliance to treatment, perceived quality of life and physical and mental health. To get a better understanding how communication in haematological consultations can be improved, the current study focussed on patients' preferences and perceived performances regarding the communicative behaviour of their health care professional. Secondly, the mediation of an online communication tool for patients was analysed. Within a controlled pre- post-test design, 78 datasets of clinical consultations could be analysed. Patients considered both affective and instrumental communication aspects important. The affective communication behaviour of the health care professional met the patients' pre-visit preferences well. In the information exchange, more variability and discrepancies were found. Overall, the online intervention did not seem to influence the patients' perceived communication performance of their health care professional much. To further improve the communication during clinical consultations, health care professionals should inquire about patients' expectations, especially during the exchange of information and advices. At the same time, patients should be supported to express their preferences at the start of the consultation. The study was registered in the Netherlands Trial Register, number 3779.

  11. Principals' Leadership Style and Staff Job Performance in Selected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nneka Umera-Okeke

    future leaders and develop the skills that they may need to succeed in the future. To achieve this in secondary schools in Emohua Local Government Area of Rivers State, the Principal needs to apply the needed leadership style and traits in administering the school, and in managing the material and human resources of the ...

  12. Personality Processes Reflected in Client Vocal Style and Rorschach Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Laura North; Gaylin, Ned L.

    1973-01-01

    Vocal style was proposed as a useful variable with which to classify groups of clients in order to study the differential effects of various therapeutic maneuvers. Relationships between voice quality ratings in early psychotherapy interviews and pretherapy Rorschach and Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory scores were investigated in order…

  13. Parenting Style and Adolescents' School Performance in Mainland China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Yanrong; Moore, Joyce

    2011-01-01

    Parenting style, as a widely studied topic, has been used by researchers and educators in the US to predict students' academic achievements. Despite its theoretical and practical significance, no much work has been conducted to test the generalizability of parenting research framed in the Western culture to the Chinese population. Parenting styles…

  14. Learning style and laparoscopic experience in psychomotor skill performance using a virtual reality surgical simulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windsor, John A; Diener, Scott; Zoha, Farah

    2008-06-01

    People learn in different ways, and training techniques and technologies should accommodate individual learning needs. This pilot study looks at the relationship between learning style, as measured with the Multiple Intelligences Developmental Assessment Scales (MIDAS), laparoscopic surgery experience and psychomotor skill performance using the MIST VR surgical simulator. Five groups of volunteer subjects were selected from undergraduate tertiary students, medical students, novice surgical trainees, advanced surgical trainees and experienced laparoscopic surgeons. Each group was administered the MIDAS followed by two simulated surgical tasks on the MIST VR simulator. There was a striking homogeny of learning styles amongst experienced laparoscopic surgeons. Significant differences in the distribution of primary learning styles were found (P bodily-kinesthetic learning style, irrespective of experience, was associated with the best performance of the laparoscopic tasks. This is the first study to highlight the relationship between learning style, psychomotor skill and laparoscopic surgical experience with implications for surgeon selection, training and credentialling.

  15. If Auditors Are Like Belgian Beers, Which Style Would You Prefer? : Discussion of “Auditor Style and Financial Statement Comparability” by Francis, Pinnuck, and Watanabe .

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruynseels, L.M.L.; Brenk, van H.M.

    2016-01-01

    Recent research by Francis, Pinnuck, and Watanabe (2014) has shown that financial reporting outcomes are influenced by the audit firm’s unique audit style. They argue that audit firm styles are driven by their “unique set of internal working rules that guide the auditor’s application of accounting

  16. Analisa Pengaruh Leadership Style terhadap Firm Performance melalui Learning Organization dan Employee Satisfaction pada Perusahaan Sektor Manufaktur di Surabaya

    OpenAIRE

    Yulia, Yemima

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the direct and significant affect of leadership style to learning organization, leadership style to employee's satisfaction, learning organization to firm's performance, employee's satisfaction to firm's performance, leadership style to firm's performance, and learning organization to employee's satisfaction on manufacturing companies in Surabaya. This study used quantitative approach and the data were obtained through the distribution of questionnaire to manufactu...

  17. Students’ Spatial Performance: Cognitive Style and Sex Differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanifah, U.; Juniati, D.; Siswono, T. Y. E.

    2018-01-01

    This study aims at describing the students’ spatial abilities based on cognitive styles and sex differences. Spatial abilities in this study include 5 components, namely spatial perception, spatial visualization, mental rotation, spatial relations, and spatial orientation. This research is descriptive research with qualitative approach. The subjects in this research were 4 students of junior high school, there were 1 male FI, 1 male FD, 1 female FI, and 1 female FI. The results showed that there are differences in spatial abilities of the four subjects that are on the components of spatial visualization, mental rotation, and spatial relations. The differences in spatial abilities were found in methods / strategies used by each subject to solve each component problem. The differences in cognitive styles and sex suggested different choice of strategies used to solve problems. The male students imagined the figures but female students needed the media to solve the problem. Besides sex, the cognitive style differences also have an effect on solving a problem. In addition, FI students were not affected by distracting information but FD students could be affected by distracting information. This research was expected to contribute knowledge and insight to the readers, especially for math teachers in terms of the spatial ability of the students so that they can optimize their students’ spatial ability.

  18. Exploring the relationship between patients' information preference style and knowledge acquisition process in a computerized patient decision aid randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawka, Anna M; Straus, Sharon; Rodin, Gary; Tsang, Richard W; Brierley, James D; Rotstein, Lorne; Segal, Phillip; Gafni, Amiram; Ezzat, Shereen; Goldstein, David P

    2015-06-19

    We have shown in a randomized controlled trial that a computerized patient decision aid (P-DA) improves medical knowledge and reduces decisional conflict, in early stage papillary thyroid cancer patients considering adjuvant radioactive iodine treatment. Our objectives were to examine the relationship between participants' baseline information preference style and the following: 1) quantity of detailed information obtained within the P-DA, and 2) medical knowledge. We randomized participants to exposure to a one-time viewing of a computerized P-DA (with usual care) or usual care alone. In pre-planned secondary analyses, we examined the relationship between information preference style (Miller Behavioural Style Scale, including respective monitoring [information seeking preference] and blunting [information avoidance preference] subscale scores) and the following: 1) the quantity of detailed information obtained from the P-DA (number of supplemental information clicks), and 2) medical knowledge. Spearman correlation values were calculated to quantify relationships, in the entire study population and respective study arms. In the 37 P-DA users, high monitoring information preference was moderately positively correlated with higher frequency of detailed information acquisition in the P-DA (r = 0.414, p = 0.011). The monitoring subscale score weakly correlated with increased medical knowledge in the entire study population (r = 0.268, p = 0.021, N = 74), but not in the respective study arms. There were no significant associations with the blunting subscale score. Individual variability in information preferences may affect the process of information acquisition from computerized P-DA's. More research is needed to understand how individual information preferences may impact medical knowledge acquisition and decision-making.

  19. Pengaruh Leadership Style Terhadap Financial Performance Melalui Employee Job Satisfaction Dan Innovation Pada Perusahaan Retail Di Surabaya

    OpenAIRE

    Ocsakawati, Serley

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the direct and significant affect of leadership style to financial performance, leadership style to employee's job satisfaction, leadership style to innovation, employee's job satisfaction to innovation , employee's job satisfaction to financial performace, and innovation to financial performace on retail firms in Surabaya. This study also aimed to examine the indirect and significant affect of leadership style to financial performance through employee's job satisf...

  20. Development of a positive preference-performance relationship in an oligophagous beetle: adaptive learning?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xue, H.; Egas, C.J.M.; Yang, X.

    2007-01-01

    The relationship between oviposition preference and larval performance is a central topic in insect-plant biology. In this study we investigate whether the oligophagous flea beetle, Altica fragariae Nakane (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Alticinae) exhibits a positive preference-performance

  1. Psychology is social: exploring universals in performance capacity and performance style

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fathali M. Moghaddam

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Our goal in this discussion is to map out a scientifically legitimate and practical path toward internationalizing the social psychology curriculum. Toward developing an appropriate conceptual framework, we distinguish between the study of two different types of performance: performance capacity, how well isolated individuals can perform tasks as determined bytheir physical characteristics, and performance style, the way things are done through collaborative meaning making. Whereas performance capacity can be explained causally, performance style is best explained through normative accounts. Social psychology has largely approachedquestions of performance style by applying a reductionist and causal framework. We highlight the alternative approach reflected in the cultural-narrative turn and identifysub-research areas that need to be strengthened in order to internationalize psychology. -- La psicología es social: explorando universales en la capacidad y el estilo del desempeño Nuestro objetivo es proponer un camino científicamente legítimo y práctico hacia la internacionalizacióndel currículo de la psicología social. Al desarrollar una estructura conceptual apropiada, distinguimos entre el estudio de dos tipos de desempeño: la capacidad de desempeño,es decir, cuán bien los individuos aislados pueden llevar a cabo tareas determinadas por sus características físicas, y el estilo de desempeño, es decir, el modo en que las cosas serealizan a partir de tener un significado colaborativo. Mientras que la capacidad de desempeño puede ser explicada causalmente, el estilo de desempeño es mejor explicado a través de justificaciones narrativas. La psicología social se ha aproximado principalmente a las cuestiones del estilo de desempeño aplicando una estructura reduccionista y causal. Destacamos el enfoque alternativo reflejado en el turno cultural-narrativo e identificamos subáreas de investigación que necesitan ser reforzadas para

  2. Speak up! Enhancing risk performance with enterprise risk management, leadership style and employee voice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sax, Johanna; Torp, Simon

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: – The purpose of this paper is to test the effect of psychological safety and participative leadership style on risk performance as well as its interaction with enterprise risk management (ERM) processes to evaluate if a decentralisation in the form of a safe environment and participative......: – The paper finds that not only do both ERM and participative leadership style enhance risk performance but a positive interaction effect is also found. In addition, the findings suggest that a safe environment precede participative leadership style indicating this as a prerequisite for management...... to introduce participative leadership style. These findings underpin that an effective risk management system should include both a holistic, formalised ERM system and organisational initiatives that enhance a strategic responsiveness through employee involvement. Originality/value: – The current study...

  3. The Effects Of Leadership Styles On Goal Clarity And Fairness Mediated Used Performance Measure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amris Rusli Tanjung

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigate the effects of superiors performance evaluation behaviors on subordinates work-related attitudes mediated used performance measure. We used leadership style initiating structure and consideration and performance measure use objective and subjective measures on managerial work related attitudes goal clarity and evaluation fairness. We test our hypotheses using survey data from 56 middle-level managers in 4 services organizations. The results from Structural Equation Model with PLS show that an initiating structure leadership style has significant effect goal clarity and used objective performance measure mediated relationship initiating structure and goal clarity and used subjective performance measure not mediated relationship consideration leadership style and fairness in evaluation. Consideration leadership behavior instead only has a direct impact on fairness in evaluation. These findings have important implications for management accounting research on superiors use of performance measures and provide an explanation of some of the problematic findings in the literature.

  4. The Effect of Communication Style on Task Performance and Mental Workload Using Wearable Computers

    OpenAIRE

    Nash, Eric B

    2000-01-01

    This thesis measured the mental workload associated with operating a voice activated software application run on wearable computer under five different communication styles (buttons, command line, icon buttons, icon text menus, and text menus). The goal of this thesis was to determine which communication style would be best allow wearable computer users to simultaneously perform other non-computer tasks. Thirty subjects were randomly assigned to using one of five software versions (n = 6), ...

  5. Psychophysiological states and special performance of boxers with different styles of fight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.V. Aksutin

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : The style of the fight is one of the important factors that affect the quality of the arts in boxing. Particularly important factor in the modern boxing are the mental processes that are involved in forecasting and analyzing the situation that arises in the ring and are associated with cognitive functions. Purpose - to examine the psychophysiological state and a special performance for skilled boxers with different styles of input match. Material : 22 highly qualification boxer aged 18-23 years were studies. The absolute and the relative strength of serial and single strikes were studied. Definition of special performance and power strokes performed on a special simulator. Recorded the absolute and relative strength of serial and single strikes. Results : The results show that the attacking style of the fight in boxing is accompanied by the presence of a high level of efficiency, reduction of fatigue, anxiety, and depending on the condition of vegetative functions. Showed a reduction in the growth of autonomy and heteronomy in the structure of psycho-physiological state of boxers with the attacking style of the fight, which indicates the presence of compromise and avoidance of external failures. Conclusions : Boxers with attacking style of fight characterized by high values of the left side impact forces and reduce the values of the right direct strike force, compared with boxers protective style of fight.

  6. Jasmonate-dependent plant defense restricts thrips performance and preference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seo Shigemi

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The western flower thrips (Frankliniella occidentalis [Pergande] is one of the most important insect herbivores of cultivated plants. However, no pesticide provides complete control of this species, and insecticide resistance has emerged around the world. We previously reported the important role of jasmonate (JA in the plant's immediate response to thrips feeding by using an Arabidopsis leaf disc system. In this study, as the first step toward practical use of JA in thrips control, we analyzed the effect of JA-regulated Arabidopsis defense at the whole plant level on thrips behavior and life cycle at the population level over an extended period. We also studied the effectiveness of JA-regulated plant defense on thrips damage in Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa subsp. pekinensis. Results Thrips oviposited more on Arabidopsis JA-insensitive coi1-1 mutants than on WT plants, and the population density of the following thrips generation increased on coi1-1 mutants. Moreover, thrips preferred coi1-1 mutants more than WT plants. Application of JA to WT plants before thrips attack decreased the thrips population. To analyze these important functions of JA in a brassica crop plant, we analyzed the expression of marker genes for JA response in B. rapa. Thrips feeding induced expression of these marker genes and significantly increased the JA content in B. rapa. Application of JA to B. rapa enhanced plant resistance to thrips, restricted oviposition, and reduced the population density of the following generation. Conclusion Our results indicate that the JA-regulated plant defense restricts thrips performance and preference, and plays an important role in the resistance of Arabidopsis and B. rapa to thrips damage.

  7. Understanding the learning styles of undergraduate physiotherapy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. Undergraduate students at universities have different learning styles. To perform optimally, both they and their educators should be made aware of their preferred learning styles and problem-solving abilities. Students have different backgrounds, strengths, weaknesses, interests, ambitions, levels of motivation ...

  8. Host plant preference and performance of the vine weevil Otiorhynchus sulcatus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tol, van R.W.H.M.; Dijk, van N.; Sabelis, M.W.

    2004-01-01

    1. The relationship between reproductive performance and preference for potential host plants of the vine weevil is investigated, as shown in tests on contact (or feeding) preference, presented herein, and tests on olfactory preference, published elsewhere. 2. Assessment of reproductive performance

  9. How do national cultures influence lay people's preferences toward doctors' style of communication? A comparison of 35 focus groups from an European cross national research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimondini, Michela; Mazzi, Maria Angela; Deveugele, Myriam; Bensing, Jozien M

    2015-12-14

    The evidence that inspires and fosters communication skills, teaching programmes and clinical recommendations are often based on national studies which assume, implicitly, that patients' preferences towards doctors' communication style are not significantly affected by their cultural background. The cross-cultural validity of national results has been recognized as a potential limitation on how generally applicable they are in a wider context. Using 35 country-specific focus group discussions from four European countries, the aim of the present study is to test whether or not national cultures influence lay people's preferences towards doctors' style of communication. Lay people preferences on doctor's communication style have been collected in Belgium, the Netherlands, the United Kingdom and Italy. Each centre organized between eight and nine focus groups, where participants (n = 259) were asked to comment on a video of a simulated medical interview. The discussions were audiotaped, transcribed and coded using a common framework (Guliver Coding System) that allowed for the identification of different themes. The frequency distribution of the topics discussed highlights lay people's generally positive views towards most part of doctors interventions. The regression model applied to the Guliver categories highlighted slight national differences and the existence of a cross-cultural appreciation, in particular, of five types of intervention: Doctors attitudes (both Task-Oriented and Affective/Emotional), Summarizing, Structuring and Providing solution. Lay panels valued doctors' communication style in a similar manner in the countries selected. This highlights the existence of a common background, which in the process of internationalization of heath care, might foster the implementation of cross-national teaching programmes and clinical guidelines.

  10. Styles and Levels of Acting in Zimbabwean Traditional Performances

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Schechner mentions that two processes are identifiable in performance: the performer is either “subtracted” in a performance closely resembling the art of the shaman who acts in ecstasy or what Jerzy Grotowski calls the “holy actor,” or the performer is “added to” or “doubled”, according to Antonin Artaud, in the process of ...

  11. Does Multiple Leadership Styles Mediated by Job Satisfaction Influence Better Business Performance? Perception of MNC Employees in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kader Ali Noor Nasir

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the biggest challenges facing leaders today is the need to develop new business models that stress on effective leadership styles, employee job satisfaction and sustainability without sacrificing the financial and non-financial performance. The objective of this study is to examine the relationship between leadership styles and business performance of multinational companies operating in Malaysia mediated by job satisfaction. A quantitative study, using self-administered structured questionnaire, are issued using purposive sampling via direct distribution to 150 employees working in MNC. Analysis using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS and Partial Least Square (PLS indicated that spiritual leadership style has the highest significant influence on job satisfaction, followed by authentic leadership style, transformational leadership style, and transactional leadership style. In addition, job satisfaction has a mediating effect on the relationship between each of the leadership styles, namely, transactional, transformational, authentic, and spiritual on business performance.

  12. The role of critical thinking skills and learning styles of university students in their academic performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZOHRE GHAZIVAKILI

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The current world needs people who have a lot of different abilities such as cognition and application of different ways of thinking, research, problem solving, critical thinking skills and creativity. In addition to critical thinking, learning styles is another key factor which has an essential role in the process of problem solving. This study aimed to determine the relationship between learning styles and critical thinking of students and their academic performance in Alborz University of Medical Sciences. Methods: This cross-correlation study was performed in 2012, on 216 students of Alborz University who were selected randomly by the stratified method. The data was obtained via a three-part questionnaire included demographic data, Kolb standardized questionnaire of learning style and California critical thinking standardized questionnaire. The academic performance of the students was extracted by the school records. The validity of the instruments was determined in terms of content validity, and the reliability was gained through internal consistency methods. Cronbach's alpha coefficient was found to be 0.78 for the California critical thinking questionnaire. The Chi Square test, Independent T-test, one way ANOVA and Pearson Correlation test were used to determine relationship between variables. The Package SPSS14 statistical software was used to analyze data with a significant level of p<0.05. Results: Our findings indicated the significant difference of mean score in four learning style, suggesting university students with convergent learning style have better performance than other groups. Also learning style had a relationship with age, gender, field of study, semester and job. The results about the critical thinking of the students showed that the mean of deductive reasoning and evaluation skills were higher than that of other skills and analytical skills had the lowest mean and there was a positive significant

  13. The role of critical thinking skills and learning styles of university students in their academic performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazivakili, Zohre; Norouzi Nia, Roohangiz; Panahi, Faride; Karimi, Mehrdad; Gholsorkhi, Hayede; Ahmadi, Zarrin

    2014-07-01

    The Current world needs people who have a lot of different abilities such as cognition and application of different ways of thinking, research, problem solving, critical thinking skills and creativity. In addition to critical thinking, learning styles is another key factor which has an essential role in the process of problem solving. This study aimed to determine the relationship between learning styles and critical thinking of students and their academic performance in Alborz University of Medical Science. This cross-correlation study was performed in 2012, on 216 students of Alborz University who were selected randomly by the stratified random sampling. The data was obtained via a three-part questionnaire included demographic data, Kolb standardized questionnaire of learning style and California critical thinking standardized questionnaire. The academic performance of the students was extracted by the school records. The validity of the instruments was determined in terms of content validity, and the reliability was gained through internal consistency methods. Cronbach's alpha coefficient was found to be 0.78 for the California critical thinking questionnaire. The Chi Square test, Independent t-test, one way ANOVA and Pearson correlation test were used to determine relationship between variables. The Package SPSS14 statistical software was used to analyze data with a significant level of p<0.05. Our findings indicated the significant difference of mean score in four learning style, suggesting university students with convergent learning style have better performance than other groups. Also learning style had a relationship with age, gender, field of study, semester and job. The results about the critical thinking of the students showed that the mean of deductive reasoning and evaluation skills were higher than that of other skills and analytical skills had the lowest mean and there was a positive significant relationship between the students' performance with

  14. Effects of Collaborative Learning Styles on Performance of Students in a Ubiquitous Collaborative Mobile Learning Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fakomogbon, Michael Ayodele; Bolaji, Hameed Olalekan

    2017-01-01

    Collaborative learning is an approach employed by instructors to facilitate learning and improve learner's performance. Mobile learning can accommodate a variety of learning approaches. This study, therefore, investigated the effects of collaborative learning styles on performance of students in a mobile learning environment. The specific purposes…

  15. The Influence of Leadership Styles on Employee's Performance Through Work Motivation (an Organizational Study at Four Hotels in Malang)

    OpenAIRE

    Handoyo, Laura Natalia

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to understand how strong the influence of transformational and transactional leadership style on work motivation, understand how strong the influence of transformational and transactional leadership style on employees' performance, understand how strong the influence of work motivation on employees' performance, and understand how strong the indirect influence of transformational leadership styles on employees' performance through work motivation. The kind of research that use...

  16. The role of critical thinking skills and learning styles of university students in their academic performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    GHAZIVAKILI, ZOHRE; NOROUZI NIA, ROOHANGIZ; PANAHI, FARIDE; KARIMI, MEHRDAD; GHOLSORKHI, HAYEDE; AHMADI, ZARRIN

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The Current world needs people who have a lot of different abilities such as cognition and application of different ways of thinking, research, problem solving, critical thinking skills and creativity. In addition to critical thinking, learning styles is another key factor which has an essential role in the process of problem solving. This study aimed to determine the relationship between learning styles and critical thinking of students and their academic performance in Alborz University of Medical Science. Methods: This cross-correlation study was performed in 2012, on 216 students of Alborz University who were selected randomly by the stratified random sampling. The data was obtained via a three-part questionnaire included demographic data, Kolb standardized questionnaire of learning style and California critical thinking standardized questionnaire. The academic performance of the students was extracted by the school records. The validity of the instruments was determined in terms of content validity, and the reliability was gained through internal consistency methods. Cronbach's alpha coefficient was found to be 0.78 for the California critical thinking questionnaire. The Chi Square test, Independent t-test, one way ANOVA and Pearson correlation test were used to determine relationship between variables. The Package SPSS14 statistical software was used to analyze data with a significant level of pcritical thinking of the students showed that the mean of deductive reasoning and evaluation skills were higher than that of other skills and analytical skills had the lowest mean and there was a positive significant relationship between the students’ performance with inferential skill and the total score of critical thinking skills (pcritical thinking had significant difference between different learning styles. Conclusion: The results of this study showed that the learning styles, critical thinking and academic performance are significantly associated

  17. First Time International College Students' Level of Anxiety in Relationship to Awareness of Their Learning-Style Preferences

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Arlene Shorter Young

    2011-01-01

    ... international college students on achievement and anxiety levels over one semester. This paper focused on the identification of learning style profiles of first time visiting Japanese, Korean, and Chinese college student populations...

  18. Effect of students' learning styles on classroom performance in problem-based learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alghasham, Abdullah A

    2012-01-01

    Since problem-based learning (PBL) sessions require a combination of active discussion, group interaction, and inductive and reflective thinking, students with different learning styles can be expected to perform differently in the PBL sessions. Using "Learning Style Inventory Questionnaire," students were divided into separate active and reflective learner groups. Tutors were asked to observe and assess the students' behavioral performance during the PBL sessions for a period of 5 weeks. A questionnaire of 24 items was developed to assess students' behavioral performance in PBL sessions. Active students tended to use multiple activities to obtain the needed information were more adjusted to the group norms and regulation and more skillful in using reasoning and problem-solving skills and in participation in discussion. On the other hand, reflective students used independent study more, listened actively and carefully to others and used previously acquired information in the discussion more frequently. Formative assessment quizzes did not indicate better performance of either group. There were no significant gender differences in PBL behavioral performance or quizzes' scores. Active and reflective learners differ in PBL class behavioral performance but not in the formative assessment. We recommend that students should be informed about their learning style and that they should learn strategies to compensate for any lacks in PBL sessions through self-study. Also, educational planners should ensure an adequate mix of students with different learning styles in the PBL groups to achieve PBL desired objectives.

  19. Sunscreen Product Performance and Other Determinants of Consumer Preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Shuai; Kwa, Michael; Agarwal, Ashwin; Rademaker, Alfred; Kundu, Roopal V

    2016-08-01

    Sunscreen use is a modifiable behavior that can help reduce the risk for skin cancer, prevent sunburns, mitigate photoaging, and treat photosensitive dermatoses. A better understanding of consumer sunscreen preferences would inform dermatologists in their own recommendations. To determine the characteristics and the most commonly cited positive and negative features of highly rated sunscreens described by consumers. The top 1 percentile of sunscreen products on Amazon.com as of December 2015 was selected according to average consumer review (≥4 stars) and the highest number of consumer reviews. Descriptive data for each product were collected from the product page and manufacturer claims. The top 5 "most helpful" reviews (positive and critical) were analyzed and coded by a consensus qualitative coding scheme, which included positive and negative descriptors in 6 major categories according to consumer comments: affordability, cosmetic elegance, separate ratings, product ingredients, product performance, and skin compatibility. The Kruskal-Wallis test was performed to determine whether characteristics of each product (eg, American Academy of Dermatology [AAD] criteria, sun protection factor [SPF], or vehicle) could be used to predict price per ounce. The number (percentage) of comments categorized by major themes and subthemes was determined. Illustrative consumer comments were also collected. There were 6500 products categorized as sunscreens in the Amazon.com, online catalog. Of the 65 products evaluated, the median price per ounce was $3.32 (range, $0.68-$23.47). Of products, 40% (26 of 65) did not adhere to AAD guidelines (broad spectrum, SPF ≥30, and water resistant) for sunscreens. Vehicles, AAD, and sunscreen type predicted a higher price per ounce. Cosmetic elegance was the most cited positive feature (198 of 325 [61%] comments) followed by product performance (146 of 325 [45%] comments) and skin type compatibility (78 of 325 [24%] comments). In this

  20. Vyhledávání mimoř ádných prožitků a preference učebního stylu studenta. / Sensation seeking and student’s preferred learning style.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dita Culková

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this empirical study is to determine what learning style students and how this relates to their sensation seeking tendency. We were also interested in what natural clusters occur if these two variables are considered, together with gender and students’ affiliation with general or physical education oriented class at grammar school. Theoretical basis, which are Dunn’s theory of learning styles and theory of Zuckerman’s sensation seeking tendency, are introduced in the first part. The second part describes used methods including reliability and validity verification of the applied questionnaire. Cluster analysis is the method for data processing and provides a deep insight into a big amount of variables. The third part informs about the main results, discusses them and provides praxis recommendations. The greatest differences between genders and class type were found in sensation seekingtendency, partly in learning styles. Girls of physical education and sport specialized classes least represent cluster, where there is a very little thrill and adventure seeking and seeking of new experiences, where boredom susceptibility is low and respecttowards rules and norms is high. Boys are most often members of a cluster where thrill and adventure is not searched but new experiences are welcome, enjoyment follows from disrespect for norms and standards and the members are susceptible to boredom. Boys of physical education and sport classes are little responsible withinthe learning process, they need structured tasks and they prefer experiential or kinesthetic education. It is possible to state, that the preference of learning style of grammar school students might relate to sensation seeking tendency as well as to gender and type of school class.

  1. LEADERSHIP STYLE, DISCIPLINE, MOTIVATION AND THE IMPLICATIONS ON TEACHERS’PERFORMANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cicih Ratnasih

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to determine the effect of leadership style, discipline, motivation, and performance either partially or simultaneously in East Jakarta area.This study is using a quantitative method. Total population in the human resource development as the study sample counted as many as 112 respondents. The sampling technique is using purposive sampling.The variables in this study are an independent variable, consist of leadership style, discipline, motivation and performance, and the dependent variable consist. Tests proved that motivation has a positive influence on the performance of teachers. Looking at the calculations that have been done the coefficient values obtained is 0.416 and t-count value is 5.984 with a significance level of 0.000 which less than 0.05, means that this hypothesis accepts Ha and reject Ho, Tests proved that the style of leadership has a positive impact on teacher performance. Judging from the calculations that have been done obtained coefficient value of 0.421 and t-count value of6.446 with a significance value of 0.000, smaller than 0.05. Thus, Ha is accepted and Ho is rejected., The tests proved that the discipline of work has a positive influence on the performance of teachers. Judging from the calculations that has been done obtained coefficient value of 0.151 and the t-count value of 2.055 with a significance level of 0,042 which smaller than 0.05, means that the hypothesis in this research reject Ho and accept Ha. The results showed that the leadership style, discipline, and motivation partially have significant effect on performance of audit quality in East Jakarta area.Leadership style, discipline, motivationsimultaneously have significant effect on performance with coefficient of determination 81.6%.

  2. Workplace Incivility and Conflict Management Styles: Predicting Job Performance, Organizational Commitment and Turnover Intent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reio, Thomas G., Jr.; Trudel, Jeannie

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relations among conflict management styles and target and instigator incivility and job performance, organizational commitment, and turnover intent. Data from 270 employees suggested that experiencing and instigating uncivil behavior occurred frequently. Using an integrative conflict management style…

  3. Do Robot Performance and Behavioral Style affect Human Trust? : A Multi-Method Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Brule, Rik; Dotsch, Ron; Bijlstra, Gijsbert; Wigboldus, D.H.J.; Haselager, Pim

    2014-01-01

    An important aspect of a robot’s social behavior is to convey the right amount of trustworthiness. Task performance has shown to be an important source for trustworthiness judgments. Here, we argue that factors such as a robot’s behavioral style can play an important role as well. Our approach to

  4. Do Robot Performance and Behavioral Style affect Human Trust? A Multi-Method approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brule, R. van den; Dotsch, R.; Bijlstra, G.; Wigboldus, D.H.J.; Haselager, W.F.G.

    2014-01-01

    An important aspect of a robot’s social behavior is to convey the right amount of trustworthiness. Task performance has shown to be an important source for trustworthiness judgments. Here, we argue that factors such as a robot’s behavioral style can play an important role as well. Our approach to

  5. Relationships of Parents' and Child's General Attributional Styles to Academic Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khodayarifard, Mohammad; Brinthaupt, Thomas M.; Anshel, Mark H.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the relationships among student academic performance and child's and parents' attributional styles. One hundred seventy-nine students (87 boys and 92 girls) who were enrolled in primary public schools in New South Wales, Australia, and their parents volunteered to participate in the study. Only English-speaking, two-parent…

  6. Leadership Styles and School Performance: Is There a Gender Difference in Expectations for Teachers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magee, Iris Denise

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, the research on the perceptions of gender differences in leadership styles is explored. The study also attempts to determine whether there are differences in overall school performance for male versus female school principals. The methodology involved a mixed-model ANOVA analysis of findings from 31 principals and 236 teachers…

  7. A Qualitative Multi-Site Case Study: Examining Principals' Leadership Styles and School Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preyear, Loukisha

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative multi-site case study was to explore the impact of principals' leadership styles on student academic achievement in a high-poverty low-performing school district in Louisiana. A total of 17 participants, principals and teachers, from this school district were used in this study. Data source triangulation of…

  8. Effects of Family Functioning and Parenting Style on Early Entrants' Academic Performance and Program Completion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huey, Erron L.; Sayler, Michael F.; Rinn, Anne N.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to examine the predictive nature of parenting style and overall family environment on the academic performance and program completion of early college entrants. Furthermore, gender and family form were examined as possible moderators to these relationships. A total of 88 early college entrants participated in…

  9. Motivational Style and Actual and Perceived Academic Performance of Secondary School Students in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sit, Cindy H. P.; Braman, O. Randall; Kerr, John H.; Lindner, Koenraad J.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between motivational style and academic achievement among 2,220 secondary school males and females in Hong Kong. Respondents were classified into high, average, or low academic performance (AAP) groups based on a single average for academic subjects obtained from their schools. Respondents were also classified…

  10. Effects of Two Practice Style Formats on Fifth Grade Students' Motor Skill Performance and Task Engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatoupis, Constantine C.; Vagenas, George

    2017-01-01

    We investigated the effectiveness of two teaching formats that fall under the canopy of Mosston and Ashworth's (2008) practice style, on fifth grade students' motor skill performance and task engagement. Both formats are also known as station teaching or learning centers. In the teacher-rotated format (TR), the teacher decides the amount of time…

  11. Leadership Styles and Organizational Performance: A Predictive Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kieu, Hung Q.

    2010-01-01

    Leadership is critically important because it affects the health of the organization. Research has found that leadership is one of the most significant contributors to organizational performance. Expanding and replicating previous research, and focusing on the specific telecommunications sector, this study used multiple correlation and regression…

  12. Understanding Academic Performance Based on Demographic Factors, Motivation Factors and Learning Styles

    OpenAIRE

    Azrinawati Mohd Remali; Mohamad Afiq Ghazali; Mohammad Khairi Kamaruddin; Tan Yong Kee

    2013-01-01

    The study aims to identify main factors that influence academic performance of firstyearaccounting students at UniversitiTenagaNasional. Demographic factors, motivation factors and learning styles were investigated as factors contributing to the differences in students? academic performance. 170 students returned completed questionnaire. Spearman Correlation Analysis method was used to show the relationship between the three factors with the students? academic performances. Results showed tha...

  13. The Effects Of Leadership Styles On Goal Clarity And Fairness Mediated Used Performance Measure

    OpenAIRE

    Amris Rusli Tanjung; Yesi Mutia Basri

    2017-01-01

    This paper investigate the effects of superiors performance evaluation behaviors on subordinates work-related attitudes mediated used performance measure. We used leadership style initiating structure and consideration and performance measure use objective and subjective measures on managerial work related attitudes goal clarity and evaluation fairness. We test our hypotheses using survey data from 56 middle-level managers in 4 services organizations. The results from Structural Equation Mode...

  14. Relationship Between the Parenting Styles and Students’ Educational Performance Among Iranian Girl High School Students, A Cross- Sectional Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahimpour, Parivash; Direkvand-Moghadam, Ashraf; Direkvand-Moghadam, Azadeh

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Parenting styles are effective in the educational performance of their child. The present study aimed to investigate the relationship between the parenting styles and students’ educational performance among Iranian girl high school students. Materials and Methods In a cross–sectional survey, female students in high schools of Ilam (Iran) evaluated during the academic year 2014-15. Multistage cluster random sampling was used to select the participants. Data were collected by two demographic and Baumrind’s parenting styles questionnaire. The Cronbach’s alpha coefficient was measured as an index of internal identicalness of the questionnaire to verify its reliability. Results: A total 400 students were studied. The Mean±SD of the students’ age were 14±1.08. The students’ school grades were the first year of high school to pre-university course. The Mean±SD of parenting styles were 35.37±5.8, 34.69±6.34 and 19.17±6.64 for permissive parenting style, authoritarian parenting style and authoritative parenting styles, respectively. There was a significant relationship between the score of permissive parenting style (p= 0.001, r= 0.151), authoritarian parenting style (p= 0.001, r= 0.343) and authoritative parenting style (p=0. 001, r= 0.261) with the students’ average score for studying. Conclusion: The results of this study demonstrate that parental influence plays an important role in students’ educational performance. PMID:26813692

  15. Relationship Between the Parenting Styles and Students' Educational Performance Among Iranian Girl High School Students, A Cross- Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahimpour, Parivash; Direkvand-Moghadam, Ashraf; Direkvand-Moghadam, Azadeh; Hashemian, Ataollah

    2015-12-01

    Parenting styles are effective in the educational performance of their child. The present study aimed to investigate the relationship between the parenting styles and students' educational performance among Iranian girl high school students. In a cross-sectional survey, female students in high schools of Ilam (Iran) evaluated during the academic year 2014-15. Multistage cluster random sampling was used to select the participants. Data were collected by two demographic and Baumrind's parenting styles questionnaire. The Cronbach's alpha coefficient was measured as an index of internal identicalness of the questionnaire to verify its reliability. A total 400 students were studied. The Mean±SD of the students' age were 14±1.08. The students' school grades were the first year of high school to pre-university course. The Mean±SD of parenting styles were 35.37±5.8, 34.69±6.34 and 19.17±6.64 for permissive parenting style, authoritarian parenting style and authoritative parenting styles, respectively. There was a significant relationship between the score of permissive parenting style (p= 0.001, r= 0.151), authoritarian parenting style (p= 0.001, r= 0.343) and authoritative parenting style (p=0. 001, r= 0.261) with the students' average score for studying. The results of this study demonstrate that parental influence plays an important role in students' educational performance.

  16. Lung volumes in swimmers performing different styles of swimming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesavachandran, C; Nair, H R; Shashidhar, S

    2001-12-01

    The alteration of lung volumes in swimmers performing different strokes was the theme of the present study. The study was carried out due to lack of knowledge regarding the lung volumes of different strokers. As the energy expenditure, O2 consumption rate, body movements, viz. arm and leg movements differ with each stroke, the lung function status and mechanics of breathing in swimmers has to cope up with the stroke techniques. Lung volumes, viz. VC, FVC, FEV1 and RVind decrease from resting condition to after swimming performance in freestyle swimmers and butterfly stroke swimmers. The primary reason for the decline in lung volumes after exercise bout, found out from several reports is that it may be due to the fatigue of respiratory muscle. When lung volumes of different swimming strokers were compared with age and height matched controls a higher lung volume were observed in swimmers performing different strokes. Higher breath holding ability of swimmers may facilitate the increase in the strength of respiratory musculature. This may have lead to higher lung volumes in swimmers. From the results of different strokers of swimmers, it is clear that lung volumes differ with respect to the stroke technique employed by the swimmer. Here the age and height, training duration of the swimmers performing different strokes were almost matched, so it is more or less clear that lung volumes are influenced by different swarming strokes. The results of the study can be utilised for the selection trials of swimmers. The study outlines the need for research work in swimmers to be more specific with regard to strokes than generalizing swimmers of different strokes as a category together.

  17. CVCC Student Performance on the Holland Vocational Preference Inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, M. Douglas

    In the fall of 1968, 269 males and 167 females at Central Virginia Community College were administered the Holland Vocational Preference Inventory. Statistical comparisons were made scale-for-scale between these students and national normative group average scores. The comparisons of means and standard deviations were analyzed by "t"…

  18. How does typeface familiarity affect reading performance and reader preference?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beier, Sofie

    2013-01-01

    the reading speed and preferences of participants. Participants were tested twice with common and uncommon letter shapes, once before and once after spending 20 minutes reading a story with the font. The results indicate that the exposure period has an effect on the speed of reading, but the uncommon letter...

  19. Role of Learning Styles in the Quality of Learning at Different Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Shahid FAROOQ

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this descriptive, co-relational investigation was to identify the preferred learning styles and their role in quality of performance at secondary, intermediary and university level for language students from six different fields. The association and differences in students’ learning styles related to their demographics were also explored. Data analysis showed that the majority of the students from all the fields in sample showed the diverging style and the accommodating style as their most preferred learning styles. The learner’s gender and nature of house affected the preference for learning styles. Other variables showed no association with learning styles. The learning styles of language students have no relationship with the grades obtained in their previous exams. This study leads to the fact that it should be replicated on a large sample of language learners and comparison should also be made with their current quality of learning/academic performance.

  20. Effect of Leadership Style, Motivation, and Giving Incentives on the Performance of Employees--PT. Kurnia Wijaya Various Industries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elqadri, Zaenal Mustafa; Priyono; Suci, Rahayu Puji; Chandra, Teddy

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to identify and examine the importance of leadership style, motivation, and incentives to improve employee performance. Variables examined as factors that affect performance of employees were style of leadership (X1), motivation (X2), and the provision of incentives (X3). The population of this study was all employees in the Sales…

  1. Learning style preferences of Australian accelerated postgraduate pre-registration nursing students: A cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenna, Lisa; Copnell, Beverley; Butler, Ashleigh E; Lau, Rosalind

    2017-10-12

    Graduate entry programs leading to registration are gaining momentum in nursing. These programs attract student cohorts with professional, cultural, gender and age diversity. As a consequence of this diversity, such accelerated programs challenge traditional pedagogical methods used in nursing and require different approaches. To date, however, there has been limited research on the learning styles of students undertaking these programs to inform academics involved in their delivery. Kolb's Experiential Learning model has been used widely in a variety of educational settings because it is based on the theory of experiential learning. More recently VARK (Visual, Aural, Read/write and Kinaesthetic) model has become popular. The aim of this study was to investigate the learning styles of two cohorts of graduate entry nursing students undertaking an accelerated masters-level program. This was a cross-sectional survey of two cohorts of Master of Nursing Practice students enrolled at a large Australian university. The students were more inclined toward converging (practical) and least toward concrete experience (experiencing) learning styles. The majority of students were more inclined toward kinaesthetic and least toward aural learning style. Findings have implications for academics engaged in teaching graduate entry nursing students. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Assessment of Learning Styles of Undergraduate Medical Students Using the VARK Questionnaire and the Influence of Sex and Academic Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urval, Rathnakar P.; Kamath, Ashwin; Ullal, Sheetal; Shenoy, Ashok K.; Shenoy, Nandita; Udupa, Laxminarayana A.

    2014-01-01

    While there are several tools to study learning styles of students, the visual-aural-read/write-kinesthetic (VARK) questionnaire is a simple, freely available, easy to administer tool that encourages students to describe their behavior in a manner they can identify with and accept. The aim is to understand the preferred sensory modality (or…

  3. Analyzing Leadership Style and Employee Performance (Study at PT. Bank Mandiri Area Manado (Persero) Tbk.)

    OpenAIRE

    Karisoh, Gabriel Dave Janma

    2016-01-01

    : In this global era, every organization seeking to improve the quality of work of employees in order to generate productive employee. Employees play a major role in running the organization. Therefore, their productivity must be increased in order be well performed. This study aims to determine the influence of leadership style and employee performance. In this study, population where is drawn for employees of Bank Mandiri Area Manado, Data was conducted by interviews with 15 respondents. Th...

  4. The Perceived Leadership Style and Employee Performance in Hotel Industry – a Dual Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Andreia ISPAS

    2012-01-01

    Hotel industry is an industry based on specific services and a high degree of employees (especially front line employees) client direct contact. A good relationship with the manager helps the subordinate to work beyond his daily effort, to be oriented to improve continuously his work performance and to give maximum of satisfaction to clients. This research paper is aiming to discuss the perceived leadership style and employees’ individual performance related to job satisfaction and organizati...

  5. Similarities and differences regarding changes in attachment preferences and attachment styles in relation to romantic relationship length: longitudinal and concurrent analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umemura, Tomotaka; Lacinová, Lenka; Kotrčová, Kristína; Fraley, R Chris

    2017-09-29

    This study examines whether attachment preferences and attachment styles with different figures (mother, father, romantic partner, and friends) change over the course of a romantic relationship. Study 1 employed a three-wave longitudinal sample of Czech young adults who were currently in a romantic relationship (N = 870; mean age = 21.57; SD = 1.51; 81% females). Multilevel modeling analyses revealed that, as romantic relationships progressed, attachment preferences for romantic partners increased and preferences for friends decreased. However, preferences for the mother or for the father did not change over time. The parallel pattern was found for attachment avoidance; as romantic relationships progressed, attachment avoidance with romantic partners decreased and avoidance with the best friend increased. Avoidance with mother or with father, however, did not change over time. Study 2 employed a cross-sectional international sample (n = 2,593; mean age = 31.99; SD = 12.13; 79% females). Multiple regression analyses replicated the findings of attachment avoidance in the longitudinal data.

  6. A style of upbringing in urban and rural families. Contrasting preferences of secondary school pupils and their parents [Style wychowania w rodzinach miejskich i wiejskich. Zderzenie preferencji gimnazjalistów i ich rodziców

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arkadiusz WĄSIŃSKI

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The changes taking place in Polish families, both urban and rural, have become an undeniable fact. They are connected with civilization changes, technical progress and European integration. It results in a transformation of the system of values and norms of social coexistence expressed in a change of a model of upbringing in an urban and rural family. On the one hand, the educational effects depend on using certain educational methods and techniques and, on the other hand, on the type of relationship between parents and children. Therefore, the opinions of secondary school pupils and their parents were taken into account while analysing educational means and methods which describe a certain style of upbringing in a family. The earliest contact of a child with values comes within the family. The values become determinants of people’s life choices and aspirations. Moreover, they let an adolescent individual specify valid norms which regulate a realization of needs and a character and forms of their co-relations on a level of I – Others (including parents and I – the World. In other words, they influence a preferred model of upbringing in a mature life. From a research point of view, a system of values preferred by parents is very important because it makes an axiological warp where a new generation grows up and shapes its ideals. It is both parents’ task to transfer and make their children aware of the values which are, in a context of environmental and cultural conditions, treated differently by mothers and fathers. It needs to be emphasized that parents’ definite preferences to the values are crucial not only from a point of view of their children’s future, but also in a context of the established ‘here and now’ direction and a character of educational influences – a style of upbringing

  7. THE EFFECT OF PATH-GOAL LEADERSHIP STYLES ON WORK GROUP PERFORMANCE: A RESEARCH ON JEWELLERY INDUSTRY IN ISTANBUL

    OpenAIRE

    Erenel, Fahri

    2016-01-01

    Individuals who embraces one of the leadership styles of Path-Goal Leadership Theory which is one of the leadership theories, can be succesful at making the work group effective, for these leadership styles enables leaders to assess needs and clarify goals.Looking at studies in Turkish literature, it is noticed that leadership behaviours were examined in the terms of Path-Goal Leadership Theory however the relationship between leadership styles in this theory and work performance were not exa...

  8. Relationships among gender, cognitive style, academic major, and performance on the Piaget water-level task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, R E; Hoffer, N; King, W L

    1995-06-01

    Many researchers have found that more college-age adults than would be expected fail Piaget's water-level task, with women failing more frequently than men. It has been hypothesized that differences in cognitive style may account for performance differences on the water-level task. In the present study, 27 male and 27 female architectural students and 27 male and 27 female liberal-arts students were assessed for their performance on both Piaget's Water-level Task and Witkin's Group Embedded Figures Test. No difference was found in performance of male and female architectural students on either task, but male liberal-arts students scored significantly higher than female liberal-arts students on both measures. A disembedding cognitive style predicted success on the water-level task for the architectural students but not for the liberal arts students.

  9. Coping style and performance status in a group of oncological inpatients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Chau Pérez-Aranibar

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available The associations between coping styles, measured by COPE Test, dispositional version (Carver,Scheier and Weintraub, 1989, and Health Status inferred through a performance status, measured by Karnofsky's Index of Behavioral Performance are examined. The study focuses upon 28 oncological in patients. Positive moderate Pearson's correlations were found between these two variables in this correlational-descriptive study. These were interpreted in the following sense: the larger use of the style, the less health status among the scales suppression of competent activities, procrastination of coping, instrumental social support, focusing and releasing of emotions and behavioral disengagement. The active coping scale presented a negative correlationwith regard to Performance Status as a health measure.

  10. Style Analysis: Asset Allocation & Performance Evaluation of Indonesian Equity Funds, April 2004 – March 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boniarga Mangiring

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores investment styles and risk exposures of mutual funds in Indonesia using Sharpe's return-based style analysis, a quadratic optimization of an asset class factor model,  proposed  by  William  F.  Sharpe  in  1992.  The  research  observes  nine  sectoral  asset class indexes and ifteen survivor Indonesian equity funds within April 2004 - March 2009. The  results  suggest  that  the  infrastructure  sector  has  the  biggest  exposure  on  average. This  study  also  measures  the  relative  performance  of  the  funds  with  respect  to  their  style benchmarks.  The  results  indicate  that  the  nine  funds  have  been  able  to  beat  their  style benchmarks on average. From all funds, Fortis Ekuitas is the best fund based on its average monthly selection return. ";} // -->activate javascript

  11. Performance and Style of Play After Returning From Concussion in the National Hockey League.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhn, Andrew W; Zuckerman, Scott L; Totten, Douglas; Solomon, Gary S

    2016-08-01

    Few studies have empirically examined outcomes of concussion in the National Hockey League (NHL) and whether these athletes return to games after concussion at a performance level comparable to preconcussion play. NHL players would not demonstrate changes in performance or style of play after returning from a concussion when compared with a group of control athletes. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. NHL players with a reported hockey-related concussion during the 2008-2009 through 2014-2015 seasons were identified utilizing secondary media sources. Players who missed games for non-injury related causes were selected as the control group. "Performance" was operationally defined as the statistics for goals, assists, points, plus-minus, and shots, and "style of play" was operationally defined as the statistics for penalty minutes, blocked shots, hits, giveaways, and time on ice. Each gameplay statistic was recorded and totaled for the 5 games before and after each player's injury or absence. After meeting strict inclusion criteria, the 2 groups were compared across each postconcussion/absence statistic by generalized linear models while incorporating the particular preconcussion/absence statistic, position played, games missed, and concussion history as covariates to control for intraplayer and between-group differences. A total of 287 players sustained a concussion; 130 missed time for non-injury related reasons and were identified as controls. After the exclusion criteria were applied, 94 concussed players were compared with 58 controls. None of the models reached statistical significance, indicating that the concussion and control groups did not differ across performance or style of play after returning from a concussion or non-injury related absence. When compared with a control group, players who returned to consistent play after concussion did not demonstrate changes in performance or style of play. © 2016 The Author(s).

  12. EFFECT OF TRANSACTIONAL AND TRANSFORMATIONAL LEADERSHIP STYLE, MOTIVATION AND COMPETENCE TO PERFORMANCE OF EMPLOYEES PT. SANJAYATAMA LESTARI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jublina Oktora

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the objective is to conduct a systematic examination Effect of Transactional and Transformational Leadership Style, Motivation and Competence to Employee Performance PT. Sanjayatama Lestari. The samples used were employees of PT. Sanjayatama Lestari the number of respondents as many as 95 people. The analysis used is multiple linear regression. This study examined five variables: Transactional Leadership Style (X1, Transformational Leadership Style (X2, motivation (X3 and Competence (X4 as the independent variable and the performance (Y as the dependent variable. Partial test shows that the transactional leadership style influenced by 3.876 (positive and significant on the performance. Transformational leadership style also influenced significantly by 3.128. Furthermore, the motivation also has a significant influence amounted to 4.210 and the latter is the competence of significant influence amounted to 6.283.

  13. Learning Styles, Online Content Usage and Exam Performance in a Mixed-Format Introductory Computer Information Systems Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Guido; O'Connell, Stephen D.

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the relationship between learning styles, online content usage and exam performance in an undergraduate introductory Computer Information Systems class comprised of both online video tutorials and in-person classes. Our findings suggest that, across students, (1) traditional learning style classification methodologies do not predict…

  14. The Influence of Parenting Styles, Achievement Motivation, and Self-Efficacy on Academic Performance in College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Erlanger A.; Chandler, Megan; Heffer, Robert W.

    2009-01-01

    Parenting styles have consistently been shown to relate to various outcomes such as youth psychopathology, behavior problems, and academic performance. Building on the research in the parenting style literature, along with examining components of self-determination theory, the present study examined the relations among authoritative parenting…

  15. A Study of the Relationships among Learning Styles, Participation Types, and Performance in Programming Language Learning Supported by Online Forums

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Ruey-Shiang

    2012-01-01

    This study is focused on the relationships among learning styles, participation types, and learning performance for programming language learning supported by an online forum. Kolb's learning style inventory was used in this study to determine a learner's learning type: "Diverger", "Assimilator", "Converger", and "Accommodator". Social Learning…

  16. Leadership Style and Organizational Performance: a Comparative Description of Two Companies

    OpenAIRE

    Patrícia Amélia Tomei; Leonardo Riche

    2016-01-01

    This work analyzed leadership styles and organizational performance comparing two small Brazilian family-owned companies using a mixed-method quantitative and qualitative approach. Qualitative data were collected by means of interviews conducted with the respective company leaders about the history of the organization, the role of founders, and company mission, vision, values and organizational strategies. Quantitative data were collected by means of questionnaires applied to subordinates to ...

  17. Japanese Mutual Funds before and after the Crisis Outburst: A Style- and Performance-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanos Papadamou

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates how mutual funds performed in Japan before and after the 2008 outburst of the global financial crisis, that is during the extension of an extraordinary unconventional monetary policy by the Bank of Japan. Style and performance analyses are employed in order to investigate whether active or passive management has been affected by unconventional times and to what extent. Evidence indicates that in four out of eight funds, asset selection presents a significant contribution to returns. The Selection Sharpe Ratios for sectoral and style analyses exhibit positive values added per unit of risk due to active management for the majority of our funds in the pre-Lehman default period. Nevertheless, none of them presents statistical significance according to the t-statistic. Moreover, over the post-Lehman default, only two out of eight funds achieved lower volatility levels and higher returns due to active management. A style drift to big capitalization stocks with low values of book to market ratio is to be held responsible for the outperformance. Overall, our findings imply that active management in a monetary easing environment does not add significant value to the mutual fund performance.

  18. The Role of Cognitive Ability and Preferred Mode of Processing in Students' Calculus Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haciomeroglu, Erhan Selcuk

    2015-01-01

    The present study sought to design calculus tasks to determine students' preference for visual or analytic processing as well as examine the role of preferred mode of processing in calculus performance and its relationship to spatial ability and verbal-logical reasoning ability. Data were collected from 150 high school students who were enrolled…

  19. Gender Styles as Form and Content: An Examination of Gender Stereotypes in the Subject Preference of Children's Drawing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuman, Donna M.

    1999-01-01

    Examines how gender affects children's preferences for subject content in their drawings and use of formal characteristics. Reveals that female drawings focused on humanistic content whereas the males communicated aggression and adventure; furthermore, the females used more color, shapes, and detailed features while the males employed more…

  20. Taking the reins: the effects of new leader status and leadership style on team performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauer, Stephen J

    2011-05-01

    New leaders face a challenging task when they take charge of their teams. They have to determine how best to guide the work process, and they must understand how their behaviors will affect the members of their team. This research examines how a newly assigned team leader's status moderates subordinates' reactions to different leadership styles to affect assessments of the leader's self-confidence and effectiveness, and how this impacts team performance. Across 2 experimental studies, results demonstrate that low-status leaders are rated as more effective when they use a directive style, whereas high-status leaders are viewed as more effective when they use a participative style, and this relationship is mediated by perceptions of self-confidence. In addition, teams whose leaders are viewed more favorably perform better on a complex group task. These findings imply that low-status individuals are able to enhance their level of personal power by drawing on whatever positional power they hold, whereas high-status individuals are better off relying solely on their personal power to influence others. This research also provides a clear demonstration that assessments of new leaders' behaviors are subject to an appraisal that is clouded by observers' status perceptions and attributions.

  1. EFFECTS OF LEADERSHIP STYLE ON ORGANIZATIONAL PERFORMANCE: A SURVEY OF SELECTED SMALL SCALE ENTERPRISES IN IKOSI-KETU COUNCIL DEVELOPMENT AREA OF LAGOS STATE, NIGERIA

    OpenAIRE

    Obiwuru Timothy C.; Okwu, Andy T.; Akpa, Victoria O.; Nwankwere, Idowu A.

    2011-01-01

    This study has investigated the effects of leadership style on organizational performance in small scale enterprises. The major objective was to determine effect of leadership styles on performance in small scale enterprises. Transformational and transactional leadership styles were considered in this study. Transformational leadership behaviours and performance/outcome considered relevant in the study were charisma, inspirational motivation and intellectual stimulation/individual considerati...

  2. Chinese Middle School Teachers' Preferences Regarding Performance Evaluation Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shujie; Xu, Xianxuan; Stronge, James H.

    2016-01-01

    Teacher performance evaluation currently is receiving unprecedented attention from policy makers, scholars, and practitioners worldwide. This study is one of the few studies of teacher perceptions regarding teacher performance measures that focus on China. We employed a quantitative dominant mixed research design to investigate Chinese teachers'…

  3. Psychopathology and academic performance, social well-being, and social preference at school. The TRAILS Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sijtsema, J.J.; Verboom, C.E.; Penninx, B.W.J.H.; Verhulst, F.C.; Ormel, J.

    2014-01-01

    Psychopathology during adolescence has been associated with poor academic performance, low social well-being, and low social preference by peers at school. However, previous research has not accounted for comorbid psychopathology, informant-specific associations between psychopathology and

  4. Effects of preferred and nonpreferred music on continuous cycling exercise performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Priscila M; Pereira, Gleber; Papini, Camila B; Nakamura, Fábio Y; Kokubun, Eduardo

    2010-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of preferred and nonpreferred music on exercise distance, Heart Rate (HR), and Rating of Perceived Exertion (RPE) during continuous cycling exercise performed at high intensity. Fifteen participants performed five test sessions. During two sessions, they cycled with fixed workload on ergometer to determine the Critical Power (CP) intensity. Then, they performed three more sessions cycling at CP intensity: listening to Preferred Music, listening to Nonpreferred Music, and No Music. The HR responses in the exercise sessions did not differ among all conditions. However, the RPE was higher for Nonpreferred Music than in the other conditions. The performance under Preferred Music (9.8 +/- 4.6 km) was greater than under Nonpreferred Music (7.1 +/- 3.5 km) conditions. Therefore, listening to Preferred Music during continuous cycling exercise at high intensity can increase the exercise distance, and individuals listening to Nonpreferred Music can perceive more discomfort caused by the exercise.

  5. Psychopathology and Academic Performance, Social Well-Being, and Social Preference at School : The TRAILS Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sijtsema, J. J.; Verboom, C. E.; Penninx, Brenda; Verhulst, F. C.; Ormel, J.

    Psychopathology during adolescence has been associated with poor academic performance, low social well-being, and low social preference by peers at school. However, previous research has not accounted for comorbid psychopathology, informant-specific associations between psychopathology and

  6. Psychopathology and academic performance, social well-being, and social preference at school: the TRAILS study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sijtsema, J.J.; Verboom, C.E.; Penninx, B.W.J.H.; Verhulst, F.C.; Ormel, J.

    2014-01-01

    Psychopathology during adolescence has been associated with poor academic performance, low social well-being, and low social preference by peers at school. However, previous research has not accounted for comorbid psychopathology, informant-specific associations between psychopathology and

  7. Formation of homophily in academic performance: students prefer to change their friends rather than performance

    CERN Document Server

    Smirnov, Ivan

    2016-01-01

    Homophily, the tendency of individuals to associate with others who share similar traits, has been identified as a major driving force in the formation and evolution of social ties. In many cases, it is not clear if homophily is the result of a socialization process, where individuals change their traits according to the dominance of that trait in their local social networks, or if it results from a selection process, in which individuals reshape their social networks so that their traits match those in the new environment. Here we demonstrate the detailed temporal formation of strong homophily in academic achievements of high school and university students. We analyze a unique dataset that contains information about the detailed time evolution of a friendship network of 6,000 students across 42 months. Combining the evolving social network data with the time series of the academic performance (GPA) of individual students, we show that academic homophily is a result of selection: students prefer to gradually ...

  8. A digital filterbank hearing aid: predicting user preference and performance for two signal processing algorithms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunner, T; Hellgren, J; Arlinger, S; Elberling, C

    1997-02-01

    In a series of experiments with a wearable binaural digital hearing aid, two hearing aid processing algorithms were compared. Both algorithms provided individual frequency shaping via a seven-band filterbank with compression limiting in the high-frequency channel. They differed in the processing of the low-frequency channel, using dynamic range compression for one (DynEar) and linear processing with compression limiting for the other (LinEar). In a pilot field test we found that LinEar/ DynEar preference based on use time could be predicted from auditory dynamic range data. For the subjects who preferred DynEar, the mean dynamic range was broader for low and mid frequencies and narrower for high frequencies, as compared with the LinEar preference subjects. These groupings were tested as predictors of user preference and performance in a main field test. The main study included 26 hearing aid users with symmetrical sensorineural losses. The algorithms were compared in a one-mo-long blind field test. A data logger function was included for objective recording of the total time each algorithm was used and how the volume controls were used. The preference was based on the time used for each algorithm and on subjective statements. Threshold signal-to-noise ratio (S/N-threshold) for speech was tested, and sound quality ratings were obtained through a questionnaire. We also tested the S/N-thresholds for the subjects' conventional (own) aids. The preference was correctly predicted by the dynamic range data on 12 out of 15 new cases. S/N-thresholds were lower for the preferred fittings compared with the nonpreferred fittings and with the subjects' own aids. In the questionnaire the preferred fittings were rated significantly higher in terms of overall impression and clearness. Because of the systematic way the DynEar-preference subjects adjusted the high-frequency DynEar gain, we speculate that upward spread of masking may have been a factor in preference and performance

  9. Leadership Style and Organizational Performance: a Comparative Description of Two Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Amélia Tomei

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This work analyzed leadership styles and organizational performance comparing two small Brazilian family-owned companies using a mixed-method quantitative and qualitative approach. Qualitative data were collected by means of interviews conducted with the respective company leaders about the history of the organization, the role of founders, and company mission, vision, values and organizational strategies. Quantitative data were collected by means of questionnaires applied to subordinates to identify the leadership style prevalent in the companies and business performance. Results showed that both leaders posssess transactional leadership characteristics, but only the leader of company B has some transformational leadership characteristics. Company A's performance stood out only with respect to marketing and financial results, revealing an unsatisfactory organizational climate, while company B showed satisfactory results with respect to all measures of performance. The comparative study of the two cases revealed that transactional leadership influences organizational efficiency while transformational leadership favors effectiveness and the achievement of tangible and intangible returns for the company.

  10. Employee performance, leadership style and emotional intelligence: An exploratory study in a South African parastatal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. A. Hayward

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this research is to explore the relationship between employee performance, leadership style and emotional intelligence in the context of a South African parastatal. Problem Investigated: There is a lack of literature and empirical research on the type of leadership required to achieve high levels of employee performance within South African parastatals. Methodology: The Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire (MLQ was used to determine leadership style, while the Emotional Competency Profiler (ECP was used to determine the emotional intelligence of the sample of leaders. Employee performance data was provided by the parastatal, based on their performance management system. Data was analysed using correlation analysis, multiple regression analysis, the standard regression ANOVA/F-test, t-tests and Cronbach alpha reliability coefficient. Findings: The findings of the research show that the ECP is a reliable measure of emotional intelligence and that while the MLQ is a reliable measure of transformational leadership, it is not a reliable measure of transactional leadership. The results of the correlation analysis show a positive significant relationship between emotional intelligence and transformational leadership and a negative significant relationship between employee performance and emotional intelligence. The results of regressing employee performance on emotional intelligence and transformational leadership show that emotional intelligence and transformational leadership have no significant effect on employee performance. The results of the regression models of the research could be biased by the lack of variance in employee performance data. Value of the Research: The value of the research lies in it confirming the MLQ as a reliable measure of transformational leadership and the ECP as a reliable measure of emotional intelligence. The finding of a positive significant relationship between emotional intelligence and

  11. Children's Responses to Literary Style.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henze, Mary Vance

    This study undertook to determine (1) whether teaching sixth grade children elements of style would increase their pleasure in listening to "The Hobbit," (2) whether children who learned the most about style would respond the most positively to Tolkien's style, and (3) what children's preferences would be for selected examples of Tolkien's style.…

  12. Sleep habits, circadian preference, and school performance in early adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Paolo M; Biasi, Valeria; Cipolli, Carlo; Mallia, Luca; Caponera, Elisa

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to cast light on the relationships between sleep habits, perceived sleep problems and school performance in Evening-type (E-type) compared with Morning-type (M-type) early adolescents. Comparison of questionnaire data of E-type and M-type adolescents random-selected from a large sample of eight-grade adolescents who took part in a national survey of competence in mathematics and science. The proportions of sleep problems that were observed to occur more than once per week and the frequency of struggling to fall asleep and/or falling asleep in distinct everyday situations were much higher in E-type than in M-type adolescents. Moreover, E-type adolescents showed more disturbed and poorer sleep during both school and weekend days and reported lower grades in mathematics, science and Italian. E-type adolescents showed a partial recovery of sleep debt during weekend days. This finding suggests that they could improve their school performance if tests and classwork would be scheduled on their most alert school days, namely the post-weekend ones. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. BRAND NAMING: SOUND SYMBOLISM, BRAND PREFERENCE AND BRAND PERFORMANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Catalina Duduciuc

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to highlight the importance of sound symbolism for Romanian marketing and advertising applied research. Previous research showed that the phonetic structure of brand name communicates its characteristics, i.e. it drives consumers to assess certain features and performance of the product. We assumed that when consumers encounter an unknown brand name, they automatically infer characteristics from the meaning conveyed by the sounds (e.g. phonemes. Therefore, we supposed that a brand name for a shampoo (artificially created on experimental purpose containing back vowels is evaluated better by consumers when they compare it to another brand name with front vowels. Furthermore, we tested the influence of the stops and fricatives consonants in inferring certain attributes of product. To this end, fifty nine students (N=59 participated in a research based on questionnaire. The results revealed that subjects evaluated better the brand names containing back vowels than brand names with front vowel. No effect was obtained regarding the presence of stops and fricatives consonants in assessing the brand performance.

  14. Influence of parenting style on the academic performance of middle school students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María José Domínguez

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Students who don't succeed in school are a persistent problem in our educational system. This fact shows that all the efforts to reduce this problem are not succeeding. One third of our students are left behind by the educational system; their results are discouraging. The measures to fight the academic failure are not working and that we have to put into practice new ways of analysis and treatment of this problem. This research explores the relationship between the way children perceive the parenting style of their parents and his o her own academic performance. In the intersection of both phenomena we find our hypothesis: the way parents socialise their children influences significantly on their academic performance. This research is orientated to decision taking process: the aim is to define the level of influence of the parenting style on academic outcomes. The main result is that parents acceptation/implication appears to be significantly linked to the school performance (this evidence shows a big area for new researches: the family. Our research confirms and frames the correlation between these two variables and underlies the family as a new scenario of pedagogical concern to explain and treat school failure.

  15. A digital filterbank hearing aid: three digital signal processing algorithms--user preference and performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunner, T; Hellgren, J; Arlinger, S; Elberling, C

    1997-10-01

    Three digital signal processing algorithms named RangeEar, DynEar, and LinEar were compared with regard to user preference and performance when a wearable digital filterbank hearing aid was used. All three algorithms provided individual frequency shaping via a seven-band filterbank. Compression was used in a low-frequency (LF) and a high-frequency (HF) channel. RangeEar and DynEar used wide dynamic range syllabic compression in the LF channel, whereas LinEar used compression limiting. In the HF channel, RangeEar used a slow acting automatic volume control, whereas DynEar and LinEar used compression limiting. The subjects had access to a manual volume control when using the LinEar or DynEar options. The study included 13 hearing aid users with symmetrical sensorineural losses. In a 1 mo long blind field test, the RangeEar algorithm was compared with the preferred algorithm from an earlier study, DynEar or LinEar. A data logger function was included for objective recording of the total time each algorithm was used and how the volume controls were used. The preference was based on the time used for each algorithm and from subjective statements. Threshold signal-to-noise ratio (S/N-threshold) for speech was tested, and sound quality ratings were obtained through a questionnaire. Of the 13 subjects, six preferred the RangeEar fitting and another four preferred the DynEar fitting. Two subjects preferred the LinEar fitting and one had equal preference for RangeEar and LinEar. The results from the questionnaire showed that the preferred fittings were rated higher concerning overall impression of sound quality and clearness, whereas the S/N for the speech test did not show any differences. Preferences, where stated, could be predicted from auditory dynamic range measurements in the LF and HF frequency ranges. The mean dynamic range was broader for low and narrower for high frequencies for those who preferred the RangeEar or DynEar fitting as compared with those who

  16. Explanatory style and academic performance among college students beginning a major course of study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaForge, Mary C; Cantrell, Stephen

    2003-06-01

    Explanatory style, a cognitive variable, reflects how people typically explain the causes of bad events involving themselves. Explanatory style emerged from the attributional reformulation of the learned helplessness and depression model as a way of explaining individual differences in response to uncontrollability. A central prediction of the reformulation is that people with habitual explanatory tendencies differ, and individuals with a pessimistic explanatory style will be more likely to exhibit depressive symptoms following bad events than individuals with an optimistic explanatory style. 116 upper-level undergraduates beginning a degree program at this university completed the Attributional Style Questionnaire. Scores were correlated with students' cumulative grade point averages and their total points earned in Consumer Behavior, the first course required in the Marketing major. Students with pessimistic explanatory style scores outperformed colleagues with optimistic explanatory style scores. Implications of these findings and possible explanations for why explanatory style did not correlate in the theoretically predicted way with academic achievement are considered.

  17. Performance as a function of shooting style in basketball players under 11 years of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias, José L

    2012-04-01

    Shooting style in basketball refers to the height adopted by a player in holding the ball, specifically the height of the hand and the ball with regard to the line of sight before the final extension of the elbow during a shot. The literature differentiates between a high and a low style. This study analyzed shooting frequency in young boys as a function of style and which shooting style had the highest accuracy and success in real games. Participants were 81 boys from eight basketball teams, aged 9-11 years. The sample consisted of 5,740 standard shots in 56 games. The design was nomotethic, follow-up, and multidimensional. The results indicated that low style predominated over the high style, although overall accuracy and efficacy were better using the high style. Various strategies and practical considerations are suggested for teachers and coaches to focus on teaching the high style.

  18. Is there a preference for different ways of performing faecal occult blood tests?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kettner, J D; Whatrup, C; Verne, J E; Young, K; Williams, C B; Northover, J M

    1990-05-01

    Low compliance with faecal occult blood screening reduces the power of clinical trials, potential benefit, and efficiency. It has been proposed that the faecal manipulation required to perform conventional guaiac based tests may be an important factor in low compliance. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether use of a new method (vehicle) of stool collection for the faecal occult blood guaiac test would be preferred to the established standard. A novel self-interpreted test, Early Detector (ED), requires the subject to apply a guaiac/peroxide spray to a stool sample collected simply by wiping the anus with a specimen pad. To determine whether this method would be preferred to the stool manipulation required by Haemoccult (HO) and to compare test validity, employees at a London company were invited to use both tests. Eight-hundred and fifty-seven subjects were shown both tests. Before use, 48% indicated a preference for the method of Early Detector; 24% chose Haemoccult (p less than 0.001), while 28% indicated no immediate preference. Seven-hundred and one performed both tests. After use, 74% preferred ED; 5% preferred HO (p less than 0.001); 21% had no preference (NP). The preference for the ED test method was consistent by sex categories, age groups and occupational class. Logistics, aesthetics, and immediacy of results were the main reasons indicated for choosing ED. Whether the preference for ED could result in higher compliance remains to be proven. Its high positivity (14%), however, would preclude its use as a sole test to determine the need for endoscopic and/or radiologic investigation in the screened patient.

  19. Relationship between Parenting Styles and Academic Performance of Adolescents: Mediating Role of Self-Efficacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masud, Hamid; Ahmad, Muhammad Shakil; Jan, Farzand Ali; Jamil, Ahmad

    2016-01-01

    The literature supports the importance of parenting styles that are necessary to fulfill the developmental needs of the children and eventually improve their quality of life. Baumrind's typology of parenting styles was used. There are many studies that examined the relationship of parenting styles (authoritative, authoritarian and permissive…

  20. Analyzing the Effect of Learning Styles and Study Habits of Distance Learners on Learning Performances: A Case of an Introductory Programming Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çakiroglu, Ünal

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the relationships among learning styles, study habits, and learning performances in an online programming language course. Sixty-two sophomore students who enrolled in an online introductory programming course participated in the study. Kolb's Learning Style Inventory (LSI) was used to measure the students' learning styles.…

  1. The survey of the relationship between the learning style and academic performance in students of Medical Sciences (2016

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azizollah Arbabisarjou

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available According to the fact that the individuals store what has been taught to them as appropriate information in their memories and make an effective use of it. They also have been indicated to have positive attitude to what has been learnt, there is this possibility that the individuals’ learning style can be effective on their academic performance. Therefore, the present study intended to examine the relationship between learning style and the academic performance. the present study is a descriptive-analytical research which has been conducted on 220 students who were selected based on a randomized method in 2015. The data collection tool was a questionnaire which comprised of two parts. The first part was related to the demographic information and the second part pertained to the Vark learning style standard questionnaire. The data were analyzed by SPSS 19 software and descriptive statistics, chi-square test, Pearson’s correlation, independent t-test and the variance analysis were used. in the present study the students’ average age was 21.73 ± 3.83. The individuals’ total score average was 15.21±1.55.Among the study sample volume, 128 indiv iduals (58.2% were male. The relationship between age and gender with academic performance and the learning style was not found to be statistically significant (P>0.05. The learning style frequency among the university students was, respectively, belonging to reading and writing (41.4%, kinesthetic sensory (17.7%, multimodal dimensions (17.7%, visual (15.0% and auditory (8.2%. The relationship between the learning style and the academic performance was not statistically significant (P=0.676. the results of the present study indicated that there is no significant relationship between the learning style and academic performance.

  2. Learning styles in otolaryngology fellowships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varela, David A Diaz Voss; Malik, Mohammad U; Laeeq, Kulsoom; Pandian, Vinciya; Brown, David J; Weatherly, Robert A; Cummings, Charles W; Bhatti, Nasir I

    2011-12-01

    Previous studies have identified a predominant learning style in trainees from different specialties, more recently in otolaryngology residents. The purpose of our study was to determine a predominant learning style within otolaryngology fellowships and to identify any differences between otolaryngology fellows and residents. We conducted a survey of otolaryngology fellows at 25 otolaryngology fellowship programs accredited by the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education. We emailed Kolb's Learning Style Index version 3.1 to 16 pediatric otolaryngology (PO) and 24 otology/neurotology (ON) fellows. This index is a widely used 12-item questionnaire. The participants answered each item in the questionnaire as it applied to their preferred learning style: accommodating, converging, diverging, or assimilating. Results were then analyzed and compared between each subspecialty and the previously reported preferred styles of otolaryngology residents. Ten PO and 20 ON fellows completed the survey, with an overall response rate of 75%. PO and ON fellows (60% of each group) preferred a learning style that was "balanced" across all four styles. For ON fellows, 35% preferred converging and 5% preferred accommodating styles. For PO fellows, converging and accommodating styles accounted for 20% each. It was previously reported that 74.4% of otolaryngology residents prefer either converging or accommodating styles. We believe that the fellowship training environment calls for fellows to use more than one learning style to become proficient physicians, hence the trend toward potentially developing a balanced style when at this level. Copyright © 2011 The American Laryngological, Rhinological, and Otological Society, Inc.

  3. Unraveling mysteries of personal performance style; biomechanics of left-hand position changes (shifting) in violin performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visentin, Peter; Li, Shiming; Tardif, Guillaume; Shan, Gongbing

    2015-01-01

    Instrumental music performance ranks among the most complex of learned human behaviors, requiring development of highly nuanced powers of sensory and neural discrimination, intricate motor skills, and adaptive abilities in a temporal activity. Teaching, learning and performing on the violin generally occur within musico-cultural parameters most often transmitted through aural traditions that include both verbal instruction and performance modeling. In most parts of the world, violin is taught in a manner virtually indistinguishable from that used 200 years ago. The current study uses methods from movement science to examine the "how" and "what" of left-hand position changes (shifting), a movement skill essential during violin performance. In doing so, it begins a discussion of artistic individualization in terms of anthropometry, the performer-instrument interface, and the strategic use of motor behaviors. Results based on 540 shifting samples, a case series of 6 professional-level violinists, showed that some elements of the skill were individualized in surprising ways while others were explainable by anthropometry, ergonomics and entrainment. Remarkably, results demonstrated each violinist to have developed an individualized pacing for shifts, a feature that should influence timing effects and prove foundational to aesthetic outcomes during performance. Such results underpin the potential for scientific methodologies to unravel mysteries of performance that are associated with a performer's personal artistic style.

  4. Subjective Preference of Cellists for the Delay Time of a Single Reflection in a Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    SATO, S.; ANDO, Y.; OTA, S.

    2000-04-01

    To provide knowledge useful in designing the stage enclosure in a concert hall, Nakayama reported the subjective preference of alto-recorder players for sound fields with a single reflection [Acustica54, 217-221 (1984)]. The present study evaluates the subjective preferences, with regard to ease of performance, of five cello soloists for the delay time of a single reflection. The scale values of preference for the delay time of a single reflection were obtained using a paired comparison method, and the results were compared with those for the alto-recorder players and listeners. The scale values of preference for both individuals and for global cellists with regard to the delay time of reflection can be expressed by a single approximate formula, normalizing the delay time by the most-preferred delay time observed for different music motifs. A notable finding is that the most-preferred delay time of a single reflection for each cellist can be calculated from the amplitude of the reflection and the minimum value of the effective duration (τe)minof the running autocorrelation function of the music motifs played by each cellist.

  5. Relationship between Classroom Absenteeism and Stress Risk/Buffer Factors, Depressogenic Attributional Style, Depression and Classroom Academic Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slem, Charles M.

    The relationship between classroom absenteeism and academic performance has been well documented. To assess the relationship between absenteeism and traditional stress risk/buffer factors, depressogenic attributional style, depression and academic performance, 68 students completed the Internal-External Control Scale, two versions of life event…

  6. On the dynamics of the preference-performance relation for hearing aid noise reduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer, Rosa-Linde; Wagener, Kirsten C.; Vormann, Matthias

    successful speech-in-noise perception in aging depend on? Electrophysical correlates of high and low performance in older adults," Neuropsychologia, 70, 43-57 M. Serman, P.J. Schäfer, R.-L. Fischer, F.I. Corona-Strauss and D.J. Strauss (2016). "The influence of aided speech in noise performance on hearing...... aid setting preference in hearing impaired listeners," Poster presented at SPIN conference R.-L. Fischer, T. Neher and K.C. Wagener (2017). "Hearing aid noise suppression and working memory function," Poster presented at the International Symposium on Auditory and Audiological Research (ISAAR), Nyborg......Previous research has shown that hearing aid users can differ substantially in their preference for noise reduction (NR) strength, and that preference for and speech recognition with NR processing typically are not correlated (e.g. Neher 2014; Serman et al. 2016). In other words, hearing aid users...

  7. Unraveling mysteries of personal performance style; biomechanics of left-hand position changes (shifting in violin performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Visentin

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Instrumental music performance ranks among the most complex of learned human behaviors, requiring development of highly nuanced powers of sensory and neural discrimination, intricate motor skills, and adaptive abilities in a temporal activity. Teaching, learning and performing on the violin generally occur within musico-cultural parameters most often transmitted through aural traditions that include both verbal instruction and performance modeling. In most parts of the world, violin is taught in a manner virtually indistinguishable from that used 200 years ago. The current study uses methods from movement science to examine the “how” and “what” of left-hand position changes (shifting, a movement skill essential during violin performance. In doing so, it begins a discussion of artistic individualization in terms of anthropometry, the performer-instrument interface, and the strategic use of motor behaviors. Results based on 540 shifting samples, a case series of 6 professional-level violinists, showed that some elements of the skill were individualized in surprising ways while others were explainable by anthropometry, ergonomics and entrainment. Remarkably, results demonstrated each violinist to have developed an individualized pacing for shifts, a feature that should influence timing effects and prove foundational to aesthetic outcomes during performance. Such results underpin the potential for scientific methodologies to unravel mysteries of performance that are associated with a performer’s personal artistic style.

  8. Who do you prefer? A study of public preferences for health care provider type in performing cutaneous surgery and cosmetic procedures in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bangash, Haider K; Ibrahimi, Omar A; Green, Lawrence J; Alam, Murad; Eisen, Daniel B; Armstrong, April W

    2014-06-01

    The public preference for provider type in performing cutaneous surgery and cosmetic procedures is unknown in the United States. An internet-based survey was administered to the lay public. Respondents were asked to select the health care provider (dermatologist, plastic surgeon, primary care physician, general surgeon, and nurse practitioner/physician's assistant) they mostly prefer to perform different cutaneous cosmetic and surgical procedures. Three hundred fifty-four respondents undertook the survey. Dermatologists were identified as the most preferable health care provider to evaluate and biopsy worrisome lesions on the face (69.8%), perform skin cancer surgery on the back (73.4%), perform skin cancer surgery on the face (62.7%), and perform laser procedures (56.3%) by most of the respondents. For filler injections, the responders similarly identified plastic surgeons and dermatologists (47.3% vs 44.6%, respectively) as the most preferred health care provider. For botulinum toxin injections, there was a slight preference for plastic surgeons followed by dermatologists (50.6% vs 38.4%). Plastic surgeons were the preferred health care provider for procedures such as liposuction (74.4%) and face-lift surgery (96.1%) by most of the respondents. Dermatologists are recognized as the preferred health care providers over plastic surgeons, primary care physicians, general surgeons, and nurse practitioners/physician's assistants to perform a variety of cutaneous cosmetic and surgical procedures including skin cancer surgery, on the face and body, and laser procedures. The general public expressed similar preferences for dermatologists and plastic surgeons regarding filler injections.

  9. The Moderating Effects of Decision-making Preference on M&A Integration Speed and Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uzelac, Boris; Bauer, Florian; Matzler, Kurt

    2016-01-01

    This paper illustrates the effects of post-merger integration speed on M&A performance and the moderating role of decision-making preferences. For a better understanding of the effects of integration speed, we separate the role of human and task integration speed. The results, obtained from...

  10. The Effects of Work-Reinforcer Schedules on Performance and Preference in Students with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukala, Magdalena; Hu, Meng Yao; Lee, Ronald; Ward-Horner, John C.; Fienup, Daniel M.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated performance under and preference for continuous and discontinuous work-reinforcer schedules in 3 students who had been diagnosed with autism. Under continuous schedules, participants completed all work and consumed all reinforcers in contiguous units. Under discontinuous schedules, work and reinforcer access were broken up…

  11. Decoupling of female host plant preference and offspring performance in relative specialist and generalist butterflies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friberg, M; Posledovich, D; Wiklund, C

    2015-08-01

    The preference-performance hypothesis posits that the host plant range of plant-feeding insects is ultimately limited by larval costs associated with feeding on multiple resources, and that female egg-laying preferences evolve in response to these costs. The trade-off of either using few host plant species and being a strong competitor on them due to effective utilization or using a wide host plant range but being a poor competitor is further predicted to result in host plant specialization. This follows under the hypothesis that both females and offspring are ultimately favoured by utilizing only the most suitable host(s). We develop an experimental approach to identify such trade-offs, i.e. larval costs associated with being a host generalist, and apply a suite of experiments to two sympatric and syntopic populations of the closely related butterflies Pieris napi and Pieris rapae. These butterflies show variation in their level of host specialization, which allowed comparisons between more and less specialized species and between families within species. Our results show that, first, the link between female host preference and offspring performance was not significantly stronger in the specialist compared to the generalist species. Second, the offspring of the host plant specialist did not outperform the offspring of the generalist on the former's most preferred host plant species. Finally, the more generalized species, or families within species, did not show higher survival or consistently higher growth rates than the specialists on the less preferred plants. Thus, the preference and performance traits appear to evolve as largely separated units.

  12. The effect of management team characteristics on performance and style extremity of mutual fund portfolios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Qiong

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Along with mutual funds’ scale and quantity expanding for our country, it is common for fund management companies hiring new managers or the original fund managers mobilizing from one to another. The high liquidity of fund managers makes different managers regroup to manage the funds that belong to the same fund management company in each fund year. The characteristics of these different management team will influence the fund performance, and also affect the earnings of the fund management company and portfolio investors. The purpose of this paper is as follows. First, evaluating the effect of management team characteristics on portfolio characteristics: risk, performance, and extremity. Second, testing the hypothesis that the ranking of mid-year performance have effect on investment style extremity and research what relationship exists between this phenomenon and management team characteristics in depth.Design/methodology/approach: On the analysis of the relationships between the management team characteristics and portfolio characteristics, a series of OLS regressions is run where the time series regression model (the factor model and cross-sectional regression are included based on using the STATA, EVIEWS and MATLAB. The validity and practicability of the model will be verified in the paper. All of the above are aimed at achieving portfolio optimization and realizing the maximization of the interests of fund management companies and investors.Findings: The main findings are as follows. Teams with more doctors or MBA (CPA and CFA hold more risky portfolios, while teams with long team tenure hold less. More members and large gender diversity have negative effect on performance, and the opposite is age diversity. Teams with more members and long tenure tend to hold less extreme style decisions, but age diversity is related to more. Besides, tournament hypothesis does exist in China investment funds industry especially when the

  13. Learning styles of medical students at Taibah University: Trends and implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guraya, Shaista Salman; Guraya, Salman Yousuf; Habib, Fawzia A; Khoshhal, Khalid I

    2014-12-01

    Understanding the learning styles of medical students can drive the institutions to adapt instructional materials to enhance students' learning of knowledge and skills. This study explored the learning styles of undergraduate medical students, comparing gender variations in terms of their significant preferences. A cross-sectional observational study was performed in 2012-2013, incorporating 1(st)-5(th) year undergraduate medical students of Taibah University. The instrument used was a Learning Style Questionnaire, with four learning styles (activist, reflector, theorist and pragmatist) and 40 items. Of 450 students, 384 responded (response rate; 85%). No single learning style predominated; 96 (25%) reflectors, 78 (20%) theorists, 68 (17%) pragmatists, and 37 (9%) activists. Combined reflector and theorist was the predominant dual learning style in 27 (7%) students. Among genders, theorist style had a significant result (P = 0.071) indicating that theorists varied among genders due to their different opinions. Learning style preferences of theorists and pragmatists also showed a significant result (P = 0.000 each), depicting that both genders had unique preferences. Males had fewer variations of preferences, when compared with females who showed a significant difference of opinions (P learning styles, which were unevenly distributed, reflectors being the most common and activists as the least common. The results reflect the need to promote self-directed learning and modifications of instructional strategies, with expectant tilt in the students' learning styles towards activists and pragmatists.

  14. Object-Spatial Visualization and Verbal Cognitive Styles, and Their Relation to Cognitive Abilities and Mathematical Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haciomeroglu, Erhan Selcuk

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigated the object-spatial visualization and verbal cognitive styles among high school students and related differences in spatial ability, verbal-logical reasoning ability, and mathematical performance of those students. Data were collected from 348 students enrolled in Advanced Placement calculus courses at six high…

  15. The Effect of Navigation Map Types and Cognitive Styles on Learners' Performance in a Computer-Networked Hypertext Learning System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Chien; Lin, Hua

    1998-01-01

    Describes a study of college freshmen that investigated the effects of navigation maps and learner cognitive styles on performance in searches for information, on cognitive map development, and on attitudes, within a hypertext learning system. Results indicate map type has significant effects on students' search steps, efficiency, and development…

  16. Impact of leadership styles on employees’ attitude towards their leader and performance: Empirical evidence from Pakistani banks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Asrar-ul-Haq

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the findings of a study examining the impact of managers’ leadership styles on subordinates’ performance. The impact of leadership styles on employee performance outcomes is explored theoretically and tested empirically in the Pakistani banking sector. The sample of the study consisted of 224 full-time employees in the banking sector of Pakistan. Findings of this study reveal that there exists a significant relationship between transformational leadership and employee performance outcomes. However, laissez-faire leadership style showed negative relationship with employee performance outcomes in terms of effectiveness, and employee satisfaction. Banking industry in Pakistan is prone to numerous challenges including employee turnover. Model presented in the study will be helpful for the human resource managers and top management to design effective leadership development programs. HRD department can be established and HRD professionals can be hired to assist the managers in organizing training and development programs. Further, it may help to design strategies to satisfy, retain and motivate the employees. Also, it will help the managers decide, which leadership style they should choose in terms of outcomes.

  17. The Impact of Peer Mentoring on Mentee Academic Performance: Is Any Mentoring Style Better than No Mentoring at All?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leidenfrost, Birgit; Strassnig, Barbara; Schütz, Marlene; Carbon, Claus-Christian; Schabmann, Alfred

    2014-01-01

    Universities frequently offer support programs to assist first-year students with the transition from school to the university. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of different mentoring styles on mentee academic performance after 1 year and 2 years of study. Participants consisted of 417 psychology students who started their…

  18. Effects of pedunculate oak tree vitality on gypsy moth preference and performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milanović Slobodan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Gypsy moths and powdery mildew play a significant role in oak decline processes. However, information is lacking on the effects on the gypsy moth of impaired tree vitality caused by defoliation or parasite infection. We assessed how pedunculate oak leaves collected from vigorous, declining, and infected trees influenced gypsy moth preference and performance (growth and nutritional indices. We found a negative effect of powdery mildew-infected leaves on gypsy moth performance, while declining trees had positive effects on gypsy moth performance and preference. All examined parameters of larvae fed declining oak leaves were higher than those of larvae fed vigorous oak leaves. Increased growth on declining oak leaves was caused by both higher consumption and more efficient food utilization. The results of this research could help us to better understand multitrophic interactions in complex communities such as oak forests. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 43007: Studying climate change and its influence on the environment: impacts, adaptation and mitigation

  19. Relationship between Student Pharmacist Decision Making Preferences and Experiential Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Charlene R; McLaughlin, Jacqueline E; Cox, Wendy C; Shepherd, Greene

    2016-09-25

    Objective. To determine if student pharmacists' preferences towards experiential and rational thinking are associated with performance on advanced pharmacy practice experiences (APPEs) and whether thinking style preference changes following APPEs. Methods. The Rational Experiential Inventory (REI), a validated survey of thinking style, was administered to student pharmacists before starting APPEs and re-administered after completing APPEs. APPE grades were compared to initial REI scores. Results. Rational Experiential Inventory scores remained consistent before and after APPEs. Overall, APPE grades were independent of REI scores. In a regression model, the REI experiential score was a significant negative predictor of hospital APPE grades. Conclusion. These findings suggest that overall APPE performance is independent of decision-making preference, and decision-making style does not change following immersion into APPEs. Instead of targeting teaching strategies towards a specific decision-making style, preceptors may use pedagogical approaches that promote sound clinical decision-making skills through critical thinking and reflection.

  20. Effects of Rag1 on the preference and performance of soybean defoliators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruner, Robert F; Hodgson, Erin W; Gassmann, Aaron J

    2013-12-01

    The Rag1 gene confers antibiotic resistance to soybean aphid, Aphis glycines Matsumura (Hemiptera: Aphididae), and in 2010, varieties expressing Rag1 were released for commercial use in the United States. We do not know how Rag1 varieties will influence the broader community of defoliating insects that inhabit soybean fields. In 2010 and 2011, the preference and performance of pest insects that defoliate soybeans [Glycines max (L.) Merr] were tested using Rag1 and aphid-susceptible varieties. Three coleopterans and four lepidopterans were used: northern corn rootworm, Diabrotica barberi Smith & Lawrence (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae); southern corn rootworm, Diabrotica undecimpunctata howardi Barber (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae); bean leaf beetle, Ceratoma trsifurcata Förster (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae); fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae); corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae); soybean looper, Chrysodeix includens (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae); and velvet-bean caterpillar, Anticarsia gemmatalis Hübner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). The preference of insects was evaluated in choice and no-choice tests using Rag1 and susceptible soybeans. Lepidopterans also were evaluated on Rag1 leaves using four nutritional indices: relative growth rate, approximate digestibility, and efficiency of conversion of ingested material. In the majority of preference tests, no effect of Rag1 was detected, and in cases where preferences were found, there was no consistent pattern of preference for Rag1 vs. susceptible leaf tissue. Helicoverpa zea demonstrated a preference for resistant leaf tissue, but this was dependent on the genetic background of the variety. Evaluations of nutritional indices indicated that three species of Lepidoptera, S. frugiperda, H. zea, and A. gemmatalis, displayed reduced conversion efficiency for Rag1 soybeans, suggesting effects of antibiosis.

  1. The Role of Mathematical Homework and Prior Knowledge on the Relationship between Students' Mathematical Performance, Cognitive Style and Working Memory Capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousavi, Shima; Radmehr, Farzad; Alamolhodaei, Hasan

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: The main objective of this study is (a) to investigate whether cognitive styles and working memory capacity could predict mathematical performance and which variable is relatively most important in predicting mathematical performance and b) to explore whether cognitive styles and working memory capacity could predict mathematical…

  2. Effects of color of light on preferences, performance, and welfare in broilers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riber, Anja Brinch

    2015-01-01

    ) the preference for LED color temperature and effects on behavior, and 2) effects of LED color temperature on performance and welfare of male broilers (Ross 308). Two color temperatures were investigated: neutral-white (4,100 K) and cold-white (6,065 K). First, 6 groups of 6-day-old chicks were housed in pens...... color temperatures examined, the most suitable for use in commercial broiler houses is 6,065 K....

  3. Grapheme-color synaesthesia is associated with a distinct cognitive style.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Beat; Rothen, Nicolas

    2013-01-01

    In this study we investigated whether synaesthesia is associated with a particular cognitive style. Cognitive style refers to preferred modes of information processing, such as a verbal style or a visual style. We reasoned that related to the enriched world of experiences created by synaesthesia, its association with enhanced verbal and visual memory, higher imagery and creativity, synaesthetes might show enhanced preference for a verbal as well as for a visual cognitive style compared to non-synaesthetes. In Study 1 we tested a large convenience sample of 1046 participants, who classified themselves as grapheme-color, sound-color, lexical-gustatory, sequence-space, or as non-synaesthetes. To assess cognitive style, we used the revised verbalizer-visualizer questionnaire (VVQ), which involves three independent cognitive style dimensions (verbal style, visual-spatial style, and vivid imagery style). The most important result was that those who reported grapheme-color synaesthesia showed higher ratings on the verbal and vivid imagery style dimensions, but not on the visual-spatial style dimension. In Study 2 we replicated this finding in a laboratory study involving 24 grapheme-color synaesthetes with objectively confirmed synaesthesia and a closely matched control group. Our results indicate that grapheme-color synaesthetes prefer both a verbal and a specific visual cognitive style. We suggest that this enhanced preference, probably together with the greater ease to switch between a verbal and a vivid visual imagery style, may be related to cognitive advantages associated with grapheme color synaesthesia such as enhanced memory performance and creativity.

  4. Grapheme-colour synaesthesia is associated with a distinct cognitive style

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beat eMeier

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study we investigated whether synaesthesia is associated with a particular cognitive style. Cognitive style refers to preferred modes of information processing, such as a verbal style or a visual style. We reasoned that related to the enriched world of experiences created by synaesthesia, its association with enhanced verbal and visual memory, higher imagery and creativity, synaesthetes might show enhanced preference for a verbal as well as for a visual cognitive style compared to non-synaesthetes. In Study 1 we tested a large convenience sample of 1046 participants, who classified themselves as grapheme-colour, sound-colour, lexical-gustatory, sequence-space or as non-synaesthetes. To assess cognitive style, we used the revised verbalizer-visualizer questionnaire, which involves three independent cognitive style dimensions (verbal style, visual-spatial style, and vivid imagery style. The most important result was that those who reported grapheme-colour synaesthesia showed higher ratings on the verbal and vivid imagery style dimensions, but not on the visual-spatial style dimension. In Study 2 we replicated this finding in a laboratory study involving 24 grapheme-colour synaesthetes with objectively confirmed synaesthesia and a closely matched control group. Our results indicate that grapheme-colour synaesthetes prefer both a verbal and a specific visual cognitive style. We suggest that this enhanced preference, probably together with the greater ease to switch between a verbal and a vivid visual imagery style, may be related to cognitive advantages associated with grapheme colour synaesthesia such as enhanced memory performance and creativity.

  5. The Impact of Leadership Behaviors and Communication Styles of Military Leaders on the Performance of Followers

    OpenAIRE

    Sousa, Paulo; Rouco, Carlos; Nogueira, Fernanda; Carvalho, Ana Branca; Dias, Damasceno

    2015-01-01

    Abstract: The aim of this research is to analyze and relate the leadership behaviors and communication styles required of Infantry junior officers in their daily command tasks, in order to influence their subordinates to achieve extraordinary effort, group effectiveness and satisfaction. For this study, was used quantitative method and a survey was implemented comprising three questionnaires: one on leadership competences, one on communication styles, and one on with three criterion facto...

  6. The effect of preferred music on mood and performance in a high-cognitive demand occupation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesiuk, Teresa

    2010-01-01

    Mild positive affect has been shown in the psychological literature to improve cognitive skills of creative problem-solving and systematic thinking. Individual preferred music listening offers opportunity for improved positive affect. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of preferred music listening on state-mood and cognitive performance in a high-cognitive demand occupation. Twenty-four professional computer information systems developers (CISD) from a North American IT company participated in a 3-week study with a music/no music/music weekly design. During the music weeks, participants listened to their preferred music "when they wanted, as they wanted." Self-reports of State Positive Affect, State Negative Affect, and Cognitive Performance were measured throughout the 3 weeks. Results indicate a statistically significant improvement in both state-mood and cognitive performance scores. "High-cognitive demand" is a relative term given that challenges presented to individuals may occur on a cognitive continuum from need for focus and selective attention to systematic analysis and creative problem-solving. The findings and recommendations have important implications for music therapists in their knowledge of the effect of music on emotion and cognition, and, as well, have important implications for music therapy consultation to organizations.

  7. An Investigation of any Correlation amongst Cognitive Styles, Cognitive Traits and Performance of learners for developing a generalized Semantic Framework for Adaptive Online Learning System

    OpenAIRE

    Md Tanwir Uddin Haider,; Singh, M P; U.S.Triar

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the results of experiment conducted to investigate the correlation, if any, between the learning style and cognitive traits which include working memory capacity of technical learners. Further, the experiment aimed to investigate the correlation between the learning style and performance of technical learners in web-based quizzes based on their styles over different subjects for making the generalized semantic framework for adaptive online learning system. The results indi...

  8. Coping styles, paradox, and the cold pressor task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efran, J S; Chorney, R L; Ascher, L M; Lukens, M D

    1989-02-01

    The study investigated how coping style differences affected performance on the cold pressor task. Reactions of "monitors" (individuals who prefer having information about stressors) and "blunters" (individuals who avoid cues connected with stressors) were compared, using different instructional sets. The study also assessed the effectiveness of paradoxical intention compared to more traditional cognitive strategies. Monitors and blunters were identified using Miller's recently developed Behavioral Style Scale. All instructional sets improved performance in comparison to a control condition, and individuals generally did better when an instructional set supported their preferred coping style. Paradoxical intention did not show any decided advantage over other strategies. The desirability of designing stress management programs to fit individual coping style patterns is discussed.

  9. A numerical algorithm with preference statements to evaluate the performance of scientists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricker, Martin

    Academic evaluation committees have been increasingly receptive for using the number of published indexed articles, as well as citations, to evaluate the performance of scientists. It is, however, impossible to develop a stand-alone, objective numerical algorithm for the evaluation of academic activities, because any evaluation necessarily includes subjective preference statements. In a market, the market prices represent preference statements, but scientists work largely in a non-market context. I propose a numerical algorithm that serves to determine the distribution of reward money in Mexico's evaluation system, which uses relative prices of scientific goods and services as input. The relative prices would be determined by an evaluation committee. In this way, large evaluation systems (like Mexico's Sistema Nacional de Investigadores) could work semi-automatically, but not arbitrarily or superficially, to determine quantitatively the academic performance of scientists every few years. Data of 73 scientists from the Biology Institute of Mexico's National University are analyzed, and it is shown that the reward assignation and academic priorities depend heavily on those preferences. A maximum number of products or activities to be evaluated is recommended, to encourage quality over quantity.

  10. Perspectives on gender-specific medicine, course and learning style preferences in medical education: a study among students at the Medical University of Vienna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harreiter, Jürgen; Wiener, Hubert; Plass, Herbert; Kautzky-Willer, Alexandra

    2011-03-01

    In the study for the thesis Web Based Training with Moodle: Gender-differences in Action of Drugs, a survey among students of the Medical University of Vienna (MUV) concerning the implementation of gender-specific medicine in the curriculum and students' learning styles was performed. Data analysis (given as mean±sem) showed that students (n = 642) rated (Likert scale, 1-6) the importance of gender-specific medicine fairly high (4.02±0.06), and rated the importance of knowing about gender-specific medicine as a medical doctor even higher (4.49±0.05). Further implementation of gender-relevant topics into the curriculum appeared less important (3.64±0.06). Students rated their own knowledge on gender-specific medicine neutrally (3.40±0.05). For some items significant differences between males and females as well as the old and new curriculum were found. Students considered gender-specific medicine as important but sufficiently covered in their medical education at the MUV.

  11. Natural selection on thermal preference, critical thermal maxima and locomotor performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Anthony L; Miles, Donald B

    2017-08-16

    Climate change is resulting in a radical transformation of the thermal quality of habitats across the globe. Whereas species have altered their distributions to cope with changing environments, the evidence for adaptation in response to rising temperatures is limited. However, to determine the potential of adaptation in response to thermal variation, we need estimates of the magnitude and direction of natural selection on traits that are assumed to increase persistence in warmer environments. Most inferences regarding physiological adaptation are based on interspecific analyses, and those of selection on thermal traits are scarce. Here, we estimate natural selection on major thermal traits used to assess the vulnerability of ectothermic organisms to altered thermal niches. We detected significant directional selection favouring lizards with higher thermal preferences and faster sprint performance at their optimal temperature. Our analyses also revealed correlational selection between thermal preference and critical thermal maxima, where individuals that preferred warmer body temperatures with cooler critical thermal maxima were favoured by selection. Recent published estimates of heritability for thermal traits suggest that, in concert with the strong selective pressures we demonstrate here, evolutionary adaptation may promote long-term persistence of ectotherms in altered thermal environments. © 2017 The Author(s).

  12. Study of the Efficacy of Cognitive Restructuring Teaching at Student\\'s Attribution Style and Academic Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niloofar Mikaeili

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: One of the education ministry’s concerns in high schools is the problem of academic achievement. The researches have mentioned that student’s false attribution and absence of scholastic counseling service are the most important factors affecting student’s low performance and achievements. The main goal of this research was to study the rate of cognitive reconstructive effect on attribution style and girl students’ academic performance at high school in Khalkhal. Methods: Pre-test and post-test experimental designs with control group were used in this study. Thirty high school girl students were chosen randomly in 2 groups including 15 persons in experimental group and 15 persons in control group. Eight sessions of cognitive reconstructive counseling, like communal for experimental group, were held. Subjects were evaluated by attributive style inventory and school year average by per-test and post–test. The general hypothesis was “cognitive reconstructive education influence, students’ attribution style and academic performance”. Manava and independent groups’ t-test for testing hypotheses were used. Results: Analyses showed that cognitive reconstructive education increase internal, permanent and general attributions for positive events and decrease those attributions for negative events. Discussion: Cognitive reconstructive education increase students’ academic performance.

  13. The influence of prior experience on preference and performance of a cryptoparasitoid Scleroderma guani (Hymenoptera: Bethylidae) on beetle hosts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li Li; Daniel R. Miller; Jianghua Sun

    2010-01-01

    1. Numerous studies have reported the effects of learning or experience on parasitoid host preference and location. However, the integration of pre-imaginal and adult experiences on the subsequent host preference and adult/offspring performance has been rarely tested in host–parasite interactions. 2. We present direct evidence that theses two kinds of experiences...

  14. Smartphone Text Input Method Performance, Usability, and Preference With Younger and Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Amanda L; Chaparro, Barbara S

    2015-09-01

    User performance, perceived usability, and preference for five smartphone text input methods were compared with younger and older novice adults. Smartphones are used for a variety of functions other than phone calls, including text messaging, e-mail, and web browsing. Research comparing performance with methods of text input on smartphones reveals a high degree of variability in reported measures, procedures, and results. This study reports on a direct comparison of five of the most common input methods among a population of younger and older adults, who had no experience with any of the methods. Fifty adults (25 younger, 18-35 years; 25 older, 60-84 years) completed a text entry task using five text input methods (physical Qwerty, onscreen Qwerty, tracing, handwriting, and voice). Entry and error rates, perceived usability, and preference were recorded. Both age groups input text equally fast using voice input, but older adults were slower than younger adults using all other methods. Both age groups had low error rates when using physical Qwerty and voice, but older adults committed more errors with the other three methods. Both younger and older adults preferred voice and physical Qwerty input to the remaining methods. Handwriting consistently performed the worst and was rated lowest by both groups. Voice and physical Qwerty input methods proved to be the most effective for both younger and older adults, and handwriting input was the least effective overall. These findings have implications to the design of future smartphone text input methods and devices, particularly for older adults. © 2015, Human Factors and Ergonomics Society.

  15. Exploring Antecedents of Performance Differences on Visual and Verbal Test Items: Learning Styles versus Aptitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacon, Donald R.; Hartley, Steven W.

    2015-01-01

    Many educators and researchers have suggested that some students learn more effectively with visual stimuli (e.g., pictures, graphs), whereas others learn more effectively with verbal information (e.g., text) (Felder & Brent, 2005). In two studies, the present research seeks to improve popular self-reported (indirect) learning style measures…

  16. The Effects of Different Leadership Styles on Group Performance: A Field Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, Anthony Joseph, III

    This study tested Fiedler's contingency model of leadership effectiveness on 86 nursing students in a large midwestern hospital. Fourteen individuals representing the task oriented and relationship-oriented leadership styles and two levels of sociometric status were randomly designated as leaders for small groups. The groups worked on five…

  17. The Influence of Personality, Parenting Styles, and Perfectionism on Performance Goal Orientation in High Ability Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Angie L.; Speirs Neumeister, Kristie L.

    2017-01-01

    The current study explores relationships among gender, perceived parenting style, the personality traits of conscientiousness and neuroticism, perfectionism, and achievement goal orientation in a high ability and high achieving young adult population. Using data from Honors College students at a Midwestern university, a path model suggests that…

  18. Psychopathology and academic performance, social well-being, and social preference at school: the TRAILS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sijtsema, J J; Verboom, C E; Penninx, B W J H; Verhulst, F C; Ormel, J

    2014-06-01

    Psychopathology during adolescence has been associated with poor academic performance, low social well-being, and low social preference by peers at school. However, previous research has not accounted for comorbid psychopathology, informant-specific associations between psychopathology and functioning, and gender and age differences. This study addresses these limitations by examining adolescents' psychopathology and functioning at school, reported by child, parent, teacher, and peers during primary and secondary school in a large Dutch longitudinal cohort study (N = 2230). Teacher reports of psychopathology, especially regarding attention problems and withdrawn/depressed problems, followed by parent reports regarding hyperactivity, were most strongly associated with academic performance. The same held for social preference which was associated with teacher and parent ratings of withdrawn/depressed problems and hyperactivity. In contrast, social well-being was best predicted by child reports (at primary school) of affective problems. In girls, the association between ADHD problems and poor academic performance was stronger than in boys and conduct problems were more often associated with poor school functioning in general. These findings can help identify adolescents at risk for poor functioning and design interventions that effectively reduce or prevent poor school functioning.

  19. Style in Music

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dannenberg, Roger B.

    Because music is not objectively descriptive or representational, the subjective qualities of music seem to be most important. Style is one of the most salient qualities of music, and in fact most descriptions of music refer to some aspect of musical style. Style in music can refer to historical periods, composers, performers, sonic texture, emotion, and genre. In recent years, many aspects of music style have been studied from the standpoint of automation: How can musical style be recognized and synthesized? An introduction to musical style describes ways in which style is characterized by composers and music theorists. Examples are then given where musical style is the focal point for computer models of music analysis and music generation.

  20. Education styles in a family versus life aims and values preferred by young people [Style wychowania w rodzinie a preferowane przez młodzież cele życiowe i wartości

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata DUBIS

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The socio-cultural, economic and political outlook changes visible in the contemporary world provoke deep transformations in all fields of life. The social conditions of life have been also deeply changing, often causing changes in views, expectations, behaviour patterns and life standards. In such a situation a young person experiences chaos and the feeling of being lost and looses the feeling of influence on their life. In an uncertain situation and with the feeling of being lost, and with difficulties connected with the adolescent crisis, young people need support from people being close to them. The special role plays family in that case. Family is the first social environment, integrally fulfilling different needs of a child and influencing his development in all areas of his life. All socialization processes developing in a family influence the shape of opinion and attitudes, patterns, traditions and accepted values. The correct one shapes proper, real and rational ideas of future life in children. The responsible parental function and shaping the proper social system in children is based on education styles that are very important for children. These styles are influenced mainly by parents, their views, educational aims, personal experience and patterns from their home. Education styles in a family decide mainly the level of psychological and social needs fulfillment, they shape the behaviour patterns in a family and can be internalized on different levels by imitation and identification, allowing for the adoption of values and standards. The article includes the source of research concerning the declared system of values and aims in life by the respondents. The results of behaviour styles in a family research have been discussed-all meanings, the frequency of particular education styles. The author also tried to show the connection between the family functioning and values chosen by children.

  1. Correlating Musical Memorization Styles and Perceptual Learning Modalities

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mishra, Jennifer

    2007-01-01

    ... (aural, visual, kinesthetic). Generally, weak correlations were found between preferred learning modalities and memorization styles with only visual learners tending to prefer visual memorization strategies (r = .34...

  2. A study on flow development in an APU-style inlet and its effect on centrifugal compressor performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Fangyuan

    The objectives of this research were to investigate the flow development inside an APU-style inlet and its effect on centrifugal compressor performance. The motivation arises from the increased applications of gas turbine engines installed with APU-style inlets such as unmanned aerial vehicles, auxiliary power units, and helicopters. The inlet swirl distortion created from these complicated inlet systems has become a major performance and operability concern. To improve the integration between the APU-style inlet and gas turbine engines, better understanding of the flow field in the APU-style inlet and its effect on gas turbine is necessary. A research facility for the purpose of performing an experimental investigation of the flow field inside an APU-style inlet was developed. A subcritical air ejector is used to continuously flow the inlet at desired corrected mass flow rates. The facility is capable of flowing the APU inlet over a wide range of corrected mass flow rate that matches the same Mach numbers as engine operating conditions. Additionally, improvement in the system operational steadiness was achieved by tuning the pressure controller using a PID control method and utilizing multi-layer screens downstream of the APU inlet. Less than 1% relative unsteadiness was achieved for full range operation. The flow field inside the rectangular-sectioned 90? bend of the APU-style inlet was measured using a 3-Component LDV system. The structures for both primary flow and the secondary flow inside the bend were resolved. Additionally, the effect of upstream geometry on the flow development in the downstream bend was also investigated. Furthermore, a Single Stage Centrifugal Compressor research facility was developed at Purdue University in collaboration with Honeywell to operate the APU-style inlet at engine conditions with a compressor. To operate the facility, extensive infrastructure for facility health monitoring and performance control (including lubrication

  3. Leadership Styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzarella, Jo Ann; Smith, Stuart C.

    Chapter 2 of a revised volume on school leadership, this chapter reviews theories of leadership style--the way a leader leads. Although most experts agree that leadership style is important, they disagree concerning style components, leaders' capabilities for changing styles, the effects of personality traits on style, and the desirability of…

  4. Creating and validating a test for measuring motor performance of the crawl swimming style

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane Carvalho Villis

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to create and validate a test to measure the motor performance of the crawlswimming style, in order to sort subjects out learning levels. To the achievement of the reliability criterion, 23 adults (12 men and 11 women averaging 24.7 years old and engaged in the Sports Swimming School Association of the UFSM were sampled. To test the objectivity, the application was carried out by three evaluators. Throughout the two analyses, a linear intra-class correlation coefficient was used. For the description and visualization of its elements, the test was divided in six items: body posture; leg movement; propelling and non-propelling arm stage; breathing; leg, arm and breathing synchronization. To determine the validity of the test content, it was evaluated by four Physical Education professionals. The results come out of the statistical analysis allowed both the test reliability (0.90 through 0.95 and the test objectivity (0.95 through 0.98 to be classified as excellent. An exception is made for the former, regarding the propelling arm stage item, which was deemed to be good. From the analysis performed by the four Physical Education professionals, it came out that the test put forward is valid. Thus, the “Motor Performance of the Crawl Swimming Style Test” can be applied to sort subjects out learning levels. Pellegrini (2000 suggests three assortment levels: beginner, intermediate and expert. Accordingly, scores ranging from 0 to 9 belonged in the beginners group; from 10 to 19, in the intermediate one; and from 20 to 30, in the experts. RESUMO O objetivo deste estudo foi criar e validar um teste para medir o desempenho do nado crawl, a fim de classificar os indivíduos em estágios de aprendizagem. Participaram da validação do teste, para estabelecimento do critério de fidedignidade, 23 adultos, (12 homens e 11 mulheres com idade média de 24,7, participantes da Escolinha de Natação da Associação Desportiva da UFSM

  5. Effect of light intensities on reproductive performance, nursing behaviour and preference of rabbit does

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zs. Matics

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the experiment was to compare the reproductive performance and nursing behaviour of rabbit does reared under 2 different light intensities and observe the preference of does among cages with different light intensities. Female rabbits were randomly housed in 2 identical rooms, under the same housing conditions in wire-net cages. The 2 rooms only differed in the light intensity; group L: 150-200 lux (n=54 does, 230 inseminations, group D: 10-20 lux (n=54 does, 232 inseminations. Reproduction data from the first 5 consecutive reproductive cycles were evaluated. Nursing behaviour of the does (n = 24 was observed at the 2nd or 4th lactation. The preference of does (n=8 among 4 cages with different light intensities (10, 35, 75 or 155 lux  as examined. There were 6-7% difference between the 2 groups in the number of kits born in total and those born alive (born total: 11.25 vs. 10.59 kits, P<0.1; liveborn: 10.75 vs. 10.00 kits, P<0.05; in groups L and D, respectively. Suckling mortality was nearly 2% higher in group D (L: 8.1, D: 10.0%; P<0.1, and in consequence the litter size of this group at 35 d of age was lower than that of the L rabbits (L: 8.75, D: 8.45 kits; P<0.05. The light intensity did not affect litter and individual weights at 35 d of age. The average numbers of daily nursing events (L: 1.23/d, D: 1.32/d, the length (L: 208±49, D: 213±43 s and the daily distribution of nursing events were not affected by high light intensity. During the light period of the day, the darkest cage (10 lux was the most preferred by the does (44.0, 18.6, 17.9 and 19.5% in 10, 35, 75 and 155 lux cages, respectively; P<0.001. The lower light intensity had no unambiguously unfavourable effect on the reproductive performance and nursing behaviour of the does. Based on the preference test, a lower light intensity may be advantageous from the point of view of animal welfare.

  6. Parental styles, conscientiousness, and academic performance in high school: a three-wave longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heaven, Patrick C L; Ciarrochi, Joseph

    2008-04-01

    This article assesses whether perceived parental style influenced the extent to which adolescents became increasingly conscientious and whether changes in conscientiousness influenced academic grades 1 year later. Parental styles, conscientiousness, verbal, and numerical ability at Time 1 were measured. One year later conscientiousness was again assessed, and 1 year after that end-of-year exam results were obtained. More than 784 students (mean age=12.3 years, SD=0.49) participated in the 1st year. The data of 563 students were matched across the 3 years. Conscientiousness tended to decrease from Time 1 to Time 2. Structural equation modeling showed that adolescents with more authoritative parents experienced less of a decrease in conscientiousness at Time 2 than did students with less authoritative parents and the same baseline level of conscientiousness at Time 1. Additionally, the decrease in conscientiousness at Time 2 predicted worse grades at Time 3, even after controlling for baseline levels of academic achievement.

  7. Influence of social determinants in preference of public audience at music performances in the Republic of Macedonia

    OpenAIRE

    Zelenkovska Leshkova, Stefanija; Islam, Aida

    2012-01-01

    Abstract: This paper displays the results of a survey of public music performances held during 2010 in Skopje, the capital of the Republic of Macedonia. The data concerns the number of visitors categorized by genres of music preference, age, status symbol, origin of the performers, space, and organizers. Field research included 653 musical events with a total number 545,340 visitors grouped into eight categories according to the preference of genres. The largest percentage 35 % refers to th...

  8. Predominant learning styles among pharmacy students at the Federal University of Paraná, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Czepula AI

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Learning styles are cognitive, emotional, and physiological traits, as well as indicators of how learners perceive, interact, and respond to their learning environments. According to Honey-Mumford, learning styles are classified as active, reflexive, theoretical, and pragmatic. Objective: The purpose of this study was to identify the predominant learning styles among pharmacy students at the Federal University of Paraná, Brazil. Methods: An observational, cross-sectional, and descriptive study was conducted using the Honey-Alonso Learning Style Questionnaire. Students in the Bachelor of Pharmacy program were invited to participate in this study. The questionnaire comprised 80 randomized questions, 20 for each of the four learning styles. The maximum possible score was 20 points for each learning style, and cumulative scores indicated the predominant learning styles among the participants. Honey-Mumford (1986 proposed five preference levels for each style (very low, low, moderate, high, and very high, called a general interpretation scale, to avoid student identification with one learning style and ignoring the characteristics of the other styles. Statistical analysis was performed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS version 20.0. Results: This study included 297 students (70% of all pharmacy students at the time with a median age of 21 years old. Women comprised 77.1% of participants. The predominant style among pharmacy students at the Federal University of Paraná was the pragmatist, with a median of 14 (high preference. The pragmatist style prevails in people who are able to discover techniques related to their daily learning because such people are curious to discover new strategies and attempt to verify whether the strategies are efficient and valid. Because these people are direct and objective in their actions, pragmatists prefer to focus on practical issues that are validated and on problem situations

  9. Predominant learning styles among pharmacy students at the Federal University of Paraná, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czepula, Alexandra I.; Bottacin, Wallace E.; Hipólito, Edson; Baptista, Deise R.; Pontarolo, Roberto; Correr, Cassyano J.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Learning styles are cognitive, emotional, and physiological traits, as well as indicators of how learners perceive, interact, and respond to their learning environments. According to Honey-Mumford, learning styles are classified as active, reflexive, theoretical, and pragmatic. Objective: The purpose of this study was to identify the predominant learning styles among pharmacy students at the Federal University of Paraná, Brazil. Methods: An observational, cross-sectional, and descriptive study was conducted using the Honey-Alonso Learning Style Questionnaire. Students in the Bachelor of Pharmacy program were invited to participate in this study. The questionnaire comprised 80 randomized questions, 20 for each of the four learning styles. The maximum possible score was 20 points for each learning style, and cumulative scores indicated the predominant learning styles among the participants. Honey-Mumford (1986) proposed five preference levels for each style (very low, low, moderate, high, and very high), called a general interpretation scale, to avoid student identification with one learning style and ignoring the characteristics of the other styles. Statistical analysis was performed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version 20.0. Results: This study included 297 students (70% of all pharmacy students at the time) with a median age of 21 years old. Women comprised 77.1% of participants. The predominant style among pharmacy students at the Federal University of Paraná was the pragmatist, with a median of 14 (high preference). The pragmatist style prevails in people who are able to discover techniques related to their daily learning because such people are curious to discover new strategies and attempt to verify whether the strategies are efficient and valid. Because these people are direct and objective in their actions, pragmatists prefer to focus on practical issues that are validated and on problem situations. There was no

  10. Predominant learning styles among pharmacy students at the Federal University of Paraná, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czepula, Alexandra I; Bottacin, Wallace E; Hipólito, Edson; Baptista, Deise R; Pontarolo, Roberto; Correr, Cassyano J

    2016-01-01

    Learning styles are cognitive, emotional, and physiological traits, as well as indicators of how learners perceive, interact, and respond to their learning environments. According to Honey-Mumford, learning styles are classified as active, reflexive, theoretical, and pragmatic. The purpose of this study was to identify the predominant learning styles among pharmacy students at the Federal University of Paraná, Brazil. An observational, cross-sectional, and descriptive study was conducted using the Honey-Alonso Learning Style Questionnaire. Students in the Bachelor of Pharmacy program were invited to participate in this study. The questionnaire comprised 80 randomized questions, 20 for each of the four learning styles. The maximum possible score was 20 points for each learning style, and cumulative scores indicated the predominant learning styles among the participants. Honey-Mumford (1986) proposed five preference levels for each style (very low, low, moderate, high, and very high), called a general interpretation scale, to avoid student identification with one learning style and ignoring the characteristics of the other styles. Statistical analysis was performed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version 20.0. This study included 297 students (70% of all pharmacy students at the time) with a median age of 21 years old. Women comprised 77.1% of participants. The predominant style among pharmacy students at the Federal University of Paraná was the pragmatist, with a median of 14 (high preference). The pragmatist style prevails in people who are able to discover techniques related to their daily learning because such people are curious to discover new strategies and attempt to verify whether the strategies are efficient and valid. Because these people are direct and objective in their actions, pragmatists prefer to focus on practical issues that are validated and on problem situations. There was no statistically significant difference

  11. Emerging Web Technologies in Higher Education: A Case of Incorporating Blogs, Podcasts and Social Bookmarks in a Web Programming Course Based on Students' Learning Styles and Technology Preferences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeed, Nauman; Yang, Yun; Sinnappan, Suku

    2009-01-01

    The adoption level of emerging web technologies is on the rise in academic settings. However, a major obstacle in the practice of web-based instruction is the limited understanding of learners' characteristics and perceptions about technology use. Thus there is a need to understand the relationship between students' learning styles and their…

  12. A Longitudinal Study in Learning Preferences and Academic Performance in First Year Medical School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yenya; Gao, Hong; Wofford, Marcia M; Violato, Claudio

    2017-12-18

    This is a longitudinal study of first year medical students that investigates the relationship between the pattern change of the learning preferences and academic performance. Using the visual, auditory, reading-writing, and kinesthetic inventory at the beginning of the first and second year for the same class, it was found that within the first year, 36% of the class remained unimodal (single) modality learners (SS), 14% changed from unimodal to multimodality learners (SM), 27% changed from multimodality to unimodal modality learners (MS) and 21% remained as multimodality learners (MM). Among the academic performance through subsequent didactic blocks from Clinical Anatomy, Cell and Subcellular Processes to Medical Neuroscience during first year, the SM group made more significant improvement compared to the SS group. Semi-structured interview results from the SM group showed that students made this transition between the Clinical Anatomy course and the middle of the Medical Neuroscience course, in an effort to improve their performance. This study suggests that the transition from unimodal to multimodality learning among academically struggling students improved their academic performance in the first year of medical school. Therefore, this may be considered as part of academic advising tools for struggling students to improve their academic performances. Anat Sci Educ. © 2017 American Association of Anatomists. © 2017 American Association of Anatomists.

  13. How Do Thresholds of Principle and Preference Influence Surgeon Assessments of Learner Performance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apramian, Tavis; Cristancho, Sayra; Sener, Alp; Lingard, Lorelei

    2017-05-01

    The present study asks whether intraoperative principles are shared among faculty in a single residency program and explores how surgeons' individual thresholds between principles and preferences might influence assessment. Surgical education continues to face significant challenges in the implementation of intraoperative assessment. Competency-based medical education assumes the possibility of a shared standard of competence, but intersurgeon variation is prevalent and, at times, valued in surgical education. Such procedural variation may pose problems for assessment. An entire surgical division (n = 11) was recruited to participate in video-guided interviews. Each surgeon assessed intraoperative performance in 8 video clips from a single laparoscopic radical left nephrectomy performed by a senior learner (>PGY5). Interviews were audio recorded, transcribed, and analyzed using the constant comparative method of grounded theory. Surgeons' responses revealed 5 shared generic principles: choosing the right plane, knowing what comes next, recognizing normal and abnormal, making safe progress, and handling tools and tissues appropriately. The surgeons, however, disagreed both on whether a particular performance upheld a principle and on how the performance could improve. This variation subsequently shaped their reported assessment of the learner's performance. The findings of the present study provide the first empirical evidence to suggest that surgeons' attitudes toward their own procedural variations may be an important influence on the subjectivity of intraoperative assessment in surgical education. Assessment based on intraoperative entrustment may harness such subjectivity for the purpose of implementing competency-based surgical education.

  14. Dietary fat preference and effects on performance of piglets at weaning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruey-Chee Weng

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective An experiment was to evaluate the interplay of dietary lipid sources and feeding regime in the transition from sow milk to solid food of abruptly weaned piglets. Methods Soon after weaning, 144 piglets were selected and were trained over a 15 day period to experience gradually reducing dietary fat content from 12% to 6% for lard (L, soybean oil (S, and coconut oil (C and their feeding behavior and diet preference then tested in a behavior observation experiment. Another 324 weaned piglets were used in three consecutive feeding experiments to measure the effect of different dietary fats on performance and feed choice in the four weeks after abrupt weaning. The lipid sources were used as supplements in a 3% crude fat corn/soya basal diet, with 6% of each being included to form diets 9C, 9S, and 9L respectively, and their effects on performance measured. Combinations of these diets were then further compared in fixed blends or free choice selection experiments. Results Piglets pre-trained to experience reducing lipid inclusion showed different subsequent preferences according to lipid source, with a preference for lard at 9%, soybean oil at 3%, and coconut oil at 6% inclusion rate (p<0.001. Following abrupt weaning, whilst after 4 weeks those fed 9C had the heaviest body weights (18.13 kg, p = 0.006. Piglets fed a fixed 1:1 blend of 9C+9S had a poorer feed conversion ratio (FCR = 1.80 than those fed a blend of 9C+9L (FCR = 1.4. The 9C and 9L combination groups showed better performance in both fixed blend and free choice feeding regimes. Conclusion After abrupt weaning, they still have dependence on high oleic acid lipids as found in sow milk. A feeding regime offering free choice combination of lipids might give the possibility for piglets to cope better with the transition at weaning, but further research is needed.

  15. Neural correlates of cognitive style and flexible cognitive control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Gyeonghee; Kim, Chobok

    2015-06-01

    Human abilities of flexible cognitive control are associated with appropriately regulating the amount of cognitive control required in response to contextual demands. In the context of conflicting situations, for instance, the amount of cognitive control increases according to the level of previously experienced conflict, resulting in optimized performance. We explored whether the amount of cognitive control in conflict resolution was related to individual differences in cognitive style that were determined with the Object-Spatial-Verbal cognitive style questionnaire. In this functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study, a version of the color-word Stroop task, which evokes conflict between color and verbal components, was employed to explore whether individual preferences for distracting information were related to the increases in neural conflict adaptation in cognitive control network regions. The behavioral data revealed that the more the verbal style was preferred, the greater the conflict adaptation effect was observed, especially when the current trial type was congruent. Consistent with the behavioral data, the imaging results demonstrated increased neural conflict adaptation effects in task-relevant network regions, including the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, left fusiform gyrus, and left precuneus, as the preference for verbal style increased. These results provide new evidence that flexible cognitive control is closely associated with individuals' preference of cognitive style. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. The Information Architecture of E-Commerce: An Experimental Study on User Performance and Preference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan Mohd, Wan Abdul Rahim; Md Noor, Nor Laila; Mehad, Shafie

    Too often, designers of e-commerce web sites use models, concepts, guidelines, and designs that focus on the artifacts while ignoring the context in which the artifacts will be used. Furthermore, the link between culture and usability in web site IA phenomenon is still considered as uncharted area, as it lacks much theoretical consideration. In an effort toward addressing the aforementioned issues, our study provides a theoretical and empirical link between cultural and usability through the application of ‘Venustas' (Delight) drawn from the architectural field and Hofstede's cultural dimensions. We use Islamic culture as the case study and report on the experiment to investigate the effect of the IA designs based on the cultural dimensions on e-commerce web sites. The result provides partial empirical support to the theorized link between culture and usability based on the usability measurement on user performance and preference. In addition, practical web site IA cultural design prescriptions are also provided.

  17. The Kansei Design Characteristics towards Learning Style

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haeryip Sihombing

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The individuals possess unique ways of how they learn. Based on this perspective, each of individuals will approach the general learning experiences in a personal and individualized way related to his/her performance and behavior. This study is to analyze the characteristics of product design using Kansei Engineering approach towards the student learning style based on Felder and Soloman's theory. Using the 8 (eight spectacles designs proposed comparing the emotional feeling towards design of product, the study involved 100 students who are using spectacles as the respondents. Focusing on the perception and input dimensions of the Felder-Soloman learning styles comprised in 22 questions and the Crane cognitive alert styles in 9 questions, the result of study shows that the students who are using spectacles are dominated by “the visual” type of Felder-Soloman learning styles. In addition, based on the using of Kansei Engineering, this study also found that the respondents tend to interpret the rimless design of spectacles as “fragile,” “unattractive,” “old-fashion” product, while the design with thicker frame as “durable,” “attractive,” cool,” “ergonomic” product. In this study, there are also the significant correlations proved against the preferences of product design based on quality affective (Kansei Engineering using learning styles and cognitive alert styles.

  18. Management training of physician executives, their leadership style, and care management performance: an empirical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xirasagar, Sudha; Samuels, Michael E; Curtin, Thomas F

    2006-02-01

    To examine associations between management training of physician executives and their leadership styles, as well as effectiveness in achieving disease management goals. Cross-sectional national survey. Executive directors of community health centers (269 respondents; response rate = 40.9%) were surveyed regarding their perceptions of the medical director's leadership, and for quantitative information on the center's achievement of clinical (mostly disease management) goals. The dependent variables were the medical director's scores (as perceived by the executive director) on transformational, transactional, and laissez-faire leadership, effectiveness, satisfaction with the leader, and subordinate extra effort, using an adapted Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire (43 items; 5-point Likert scale). The independent variable was the medical director's management training status. Compared with medical directors with or =30 days of in-service training, had 0.32, 0.35, 0.30, 0.36, and 0.37 higher scores on transformational leadership, transactional leadership, rated effectiveness, satisfaction, and subordinate extra effort, respectively, and 0.31 lower score on laissez-faire leadership (all P management degrees but with > or =30 days of in-service training had 0.34, 0.36, 0.50, and 0.47 higher scores on transformational leadership, transactional leadership, rated effectiveness, and satisfaction with the leader (all P leadership significantly influences achievement of disease management goals. Training may enable physician executives to develop leadership styles that are effective in influencing clinical providers' adoption of disease management guidelines under managed care.

  19. INFLUENCE OF ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE AND LEADERSHIP STYLE ON THE PERFORMANCE OF EMPLOYEES (Studies in Human Capital Group PT Bank Syariah Mandiri, Tbk.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hafiz Pradana

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study are: 1 To find a description of the organizational culture, leadership style, and performance of employees at PT Bank Syariah Mandiri, Tbk. 2 To test empirically the influence of organizational culture on employee performance at PT Bank Syariah Mandiri, Tbk. 3 To test empirically the influence of leadership style on the performance of employees at PT Bank Syariah Mandiri, Tbk. 4 To test empirically the influence of organizational culture and leadership style simultaneously on the performance of employees at PT Bank Syariah Mandiri, Tbk. The analysis of this study is descriptive and explanatory analysis. Research conducted on 63 employees of PT Bank Syariah Mandiri, Tbk., while the data collection techniques is used an observation, interview, and questionnaire, which are processed using by SPSS 16.0. The result of the hypothesis shows that there is a positive and significant influence between organizational culture on performance as well as a positive and significant influence of leadership style on performance. Organizational culture and leadership style also have an influence simultaneously positive and significant effect on performance.

  20. Evaluating the Performance Improvement Preferences of Disability Service Managers: An Exploratory Study Using Gilbert's Behavior Engineering Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wooderson, John R.; Cuskelly, Monica; Meyer, Kim A.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Front-line managers play an important role in managing the performance of staff working in services for people with intellectual disability, but little is known about the practices they prefer to use to improve staff performance and whether these align with what research has shown to be effective. Method: This study comprised two…

  1. The Relationship between the Physical Therapist Clinical Performance Instrument Scores and Doctor of Physical Therapy Student Learning Styles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courtright, Joachim

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION. The learning style of a student is an important factor in their ability to gain knowledge. This is especially important in challenging curriculums such as the Doctor of Physical Therapy (DPT) program. A common tool to assess one's learning style is The Kolb Learning Styles Inventory (LSI). A common tool used to measure the…

  2. On Linking Social Performance with Social Competence: Some Relations between Communicative Style and Attributions of Interpersonal Attractiveness and Effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, David R.

    1979-01-01

    Explores the process of impression formation in initial interactions as a function of a person's communicative style. Develops a method for measurement of interactive or communicative style and describes a study designed to empirically assess relations between style, attractiveness, and effectiveness. (JMF)

  3. Digit ratio (2D:4D), lateral preferences, and performance in fencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voracek, Martin; Reimer, Barbara; Ertl, Clara; Dressler, Stefan G

    2006-10-01

    The second to fourth digit ratio (2D:4D) is a sexually dimorphic trait (men tend to have lower values than women) and a likely biomarker for the organizational (permanent) effects of prenatal androgens on the human brain and body. Prenatal testosterone, as reflected by 2D:4D, has many extragenital effects, including its relevance for the formation of an efficient cardiovascular system. Previous research, reviewed here, has therefore investigated possible associations of 2D:4D with sport performance. Several studies found more masculinized digit ratio patterns (low 2D:4D values or a negative right-minus-left difference in 2D:4D) to be related to high performance in running, soccer, and skiing. The present research tested this hypothesis in a sample of 54 tournament fencers, predominantly from Austria. For men, negative right-left differences in 2D:4D corresponded significantly to better current as well as highest national fencing rankings, independent of training intensity and fencing experience. The mean 2D:4D values of these fencers were significantly lower and the proportion of left-handers was elevated relative to the local general population. For the right hand, the ratio was somewhat lower in male sabre fencers than in male epée and foil fencers combined and significantly lower in left-handed compared to right-handed fencers. Although nonsignificant due to low statistical power, effect sizes suggested that crossed versus congruent hand-eye and hand-foot preferences might also be related to fencing performance. The present findings add to the evidence that 2D:4D might be a performance indicator for men across a variety of sports.

  4. The Relationship between Age of Post-Graduate Adult Learning Students and Learning Style Preferences: A Case of Africa International University, Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngala, Francisca Wavinya

    2017-01-01

    This paper sought to examine the relationship between age and learning preferences of post- graduate students at Africa International University (AIU). The study employed a descriptive survey design which used cross-sectional approach to data collection. The population of the study consisted of all the 397 post-graduate students at Africa…

  5. Mind wandering during attention performance: Effects of ADHD-inattention symptomatology, negative mood, ruminative response style and working memory capacity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa M Jonkman

    Full Text Available In adulthood, depressive mood is often comorbid with ADHD, but its role in ADHD-inattentiveness and especially relations with mind wandering remains to be elucidated. This study investigated the effects of laboratory-induced dysphoric mood on task-unrelated mind wandering and its consequences on cognitive task performance in college students with high (n = 46 or low (n = 44 ADHD-Inattention symptomatology and Hyperactivity/Impulsivity symptoms in the normal range.These non-clinical high/low ADHD-Inattention symptom groups underwent negative or positive mood induction after which mind wandering frequency was measured in a sustained attention (SART, and a reading task. Effects of ruminative response style and working memory capacity on mind wandering frequency were also investigated.Significantly higher frequencies of self -reported mind wandering in daily life, in the SART and reading task were reported in the ADHD-Inattention symptom group, with detrimental effects on text comprehension in the reading task. Induced dysphoric mood did specifically enhance the frequency of mind wandering in the ADHD-Inattention symptom group only during the SART, and was related to their higher self-reported intrusive ruminative response styles. Working memory capacity did not differ between high/low attention groups and did not influence any of the reported effects.These combined results suggest that in a non-clinical sample with high ADHD-inattention symptoms, dysphoric mood and a ruminative response style seem to be more important determinants of dysfunctional mind wandering than a failure in working memory capacity/executive control, and perhaps need other ways of remediation, like cognitive behavioral therapy or mindfulness training.

  6. Mind wandering during attention performance: Effects of ADHD-inattention symptomatology, negative mood, ruminative response style and working memory capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonkman, Lisa M; Markus, C Rob; Franklin, Michael S; van Dalfsen, Jens H

    2017-01-01

    In adulthood, depressive mood is often comorbid with ADHD, but its role in ADHD-inattentiveness and especially relations with mind wandering remains to be elucidated. This study investigated the effects of laboratory-induced dysphoric mood on task-unrelated mind wandering and its consequences on cognitive task performance in college students with high (n = 46) or low (n = 44) ADHD-Inattention symptomatology and Hyperactivity/Impulsivity symptoms in the normal range. These non-clinical high/low ADHD-Inattention symptom groups underwent negative or positive mood induction after which mind wandering frequency was measured in a sustained attention (SART), and a reading task. Effects of ruminative response style and working memory capacity on mind wandering frequency were also investigated. Significantly higher frequencies of self -reported mind wandering in daily life, in the SART and reading task were reported in the ADHD-Inattention symptom group, with detrimental effects on text comprehension in the reading task. Induced dysphoric mood did specifically enhance the frequency of mind wandering in the ADHD-Inattention symptom group only during the SART, and was related to their higher self-reported intrusive ruminative response styles. Working memory capacity did not differ between high/low attention groups and did not influence any of the reported effects. These combined results suggest that in a non-clinical sample with high ADHD-inattention symptoms, dysphoric mood and a ruminative response style seem to be more important determinants of dysfunctional mind wandering than a failure in working memory capacity/executive control, and perhaps need other ways of remediation, like cognitive behavioral therapy or mindfulness training.

  7. Male foraging efficiency, but not male problem-solving performance, influences female mating preferences in zebra finches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Véronique Chantal

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Experimental evidence suggests that females would prefer males with better cognitive abilities as mates. However, little is known about the traits reflecting enhanced cognitive skills on which females might base their mate-choice decisions. In particular, it has been suggested that male foraging performance could be used as an indicator of cognitive capacity, but convincing evidence for this hypothesis is still lacking. In the present study, we investigated whether female zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata modify their mating preferences after having observed the performance of males on a problem-solving task. Specifically, we measured the females’ preferences between two males once before and once after an observation period, during which their initially preferred male was incapable of solving the task contrary to their initially less-preferred male. We also conducted a control treatment to test whether the shift in female preferences was attributable to differences between the two stimulus males in their foraging efficiency. Finally, we assessed each bird’s performance in a color associative task to check whether females can discriminate among males based on their learning speed. We found that females significantly increased their preference toward the most efficient male in both treatments. Yet, there was no difference between the two treatments and we found no evidence that females assess male cognitive ability indirectly via morphological traits. Thus, our results suggest that females would not use the males’ problem-solving performance as an indicator of general cognitive ability to gain indirect fitness benefits (i.e., good genes but rather to assess their foraging efficiency and gain direct benefits.

  8. Cognitive Styles, Demographic Attributes, Task Performance and Affective Experiences: An Empirical Investigation into Astrophysics Data System (ADS) Core Users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Rong

    As a primary digital library portal for astrophysics researchers, SAO/NASA ADS (Astrophysics Data System) 2.0 interface features several visualization tools such as Author Network and Metrics. This research study involves 20 ADS long term users who participated in a usability and eye tracking research session. Participants first completed a cognitive test, and then performed five tasks in ADS 2.0 where they explored its multiple visualization tools. Results show that over half of the participants were Imagers and half of the participants were Analytic. Cognitive styles were found to have significant impacts on several efficiency-based measures. Analytic-oriented participants were observed to spent shorter time on web pages and apps, made fewer web page changes than less-Analytic-driving participants in performing common tasks, whereas AI (Analytic-Imagery) participants also completed their five tasks faster than non-AI participants. Meanwhile, self-identified Imagery participants were found to be more efficient in their task completion through multiple measures including total time on task, number of mouse clicks, and number of query revisions made. Imagery scores were negatively associated with frequency of confusion and the observed counts of being surprised. Compared to those who did not claimed to be a visual person, self-identified Imagery participants were observed to have significantly less frequency in frustration and hesitation during their task performance. Both demographic variables and past user experiences were found to correlate with task performance; query revision also correlated with multiple time-based measurements. Considered as an indicator of efficiency, query revisions were found to correlate negatively with the rate of complete with ease, and positively with several time-based efficiency measures, rate of complete with some difficulty, and the frequency of frustration. These results provide rich insights into the cognitive styles of ADS' core

  9. Surgery resident learning styles and academic achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contessa, Jack; Ciardiello, Kenneth A; Perlman, Stacie

    2005-01-01

    To determine if surgical residents share a preferred learning style as measured by Kolb's Learning Style Inventory (LSI) and if a relationship exists between resident learning style and achievement as measured by a standardized examination (AME). Also, core faculty learning styles were assessed to determine if faculty and residents share a preferred learning style. Kolb's LSI, Version 3, was administered to 16 surgical residents and the residency program's core faculty of 6 attending physicians. To measure academic achievement, the American Medical Education (AME) examination was administered to residents. The Hospital of Saint Raphael, General Surgery Residency Program, New Haven, Connecticut. Both instruments were administered to residents during protected core curriculum time. Core faculty were administered the LSI on an individual basis. Surgical residents of the Hospital of Saint Raphael's General Surgery Residency Program and 6 core faculty members Analysis of resident learning style preference revealed Converging as the most commonly occurring style for residents (7) followed by Accommodating (5), Assimilating (3), and Diverging (1). The predominant learning style for core faculty was also Converging (4) with 2 Divergers. The average score for the Convergers on the AME was 62.6 compared with 42 for the next most frequently occurring learning style, Accommodators. In this surgical residency program, a preferred learning style for residents seems to exist (Converging), which confirms what previous studies have found. Additionally, residents with this learning style attained a higher average achievement score as measured by the AME. Also, core faculty share the same preferential learning style as this subset of residents.

  10. Revisiting the concept of 'style match'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li-fang; Sternberg, Robert J; Fan, Jieqiong

    2013-06-01

    Intellectual style, an encompassing term for such constructs as learning style, teaching style, teaching approach, and thinking style, refers to one's preferred way of processing information. For the past several decades, whether or not there is a need for a match between teachers' teaching styles and students' learning styles has been the focal point for debate among researchers, educators, and the general public. The preliminary objective of this research was to investigate the psychometric properties of the Preferred Teaching Approach Inventory (PTAI). The research's primary objective was to re-examine the concept of 'style match' through testing the predictive power of students' thinking styles for their preferred teaching approaches. Data were collected from two samples of university students, one each from Shanghai, mainland China (N = 236), and Hong Kong (N = 123). Participants provided the required demographic information and responded to two self-report inventories: the Thinking Styles Inventory - Revised II and the PTAI. Acceptable reliability and good validity were found for the PTAI. All of the eight multiple regressions indicated that students' thinking styles significantly contributed to their preferences for teachers' teaching approaches. These contributions varied by gender among the Shanghai students and by academic discipline among the Hong Kong students. Students, especially Shanghai female students and Hong Kong natural science students, are open to teaching approaches that do not precisely match their thinking styles. The concept of 'style match' requires new understanding. Findings have implications for research and education. © 2013 The British Psychological Society.

  11. Host Preference and Performance of the Yellow Peach Moth (Conogethes punctiferalis on Chestnut Cultivars.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanli Du

    Full Text Available Suitability of plant tissues as food for insects varies from plant to plant. In lepidopteran insects, fitness is largely dependent on the host-finding ability of the females. Existing studies have suggested that polyphagous lepidopterans preferentially select certain host plant species for oviposition. However, the mechanisms for host recognition and selection have not been fully elucidated. For the polyphagous yellow peach moth Conogethes punctiferalis, we explored the effect of chestnut cultivar on the performance and fitness and addressed the mechanisms of plant-volatile-mediated host recognition. By carrying out laboratory experiments and field investigation on four chestnut Castanea mollissima cultivars (Huaihuang, Huaijiu, Yanhong, and Shisheng, we found that C. punctiferalis females preferentially select Huaijiu for oviposition and infestation, and caterpillars fed on Huaijiu achieved slightly greater fitness than those fed on the other three chestnut cultivars, indicating that Huaijiu was a better suitable host for C. punctiferalis. Plant volatiles played important roles in host recognition by C. punctiferalis. All seven chestnut volatile compounds, α-pinene, camphene, β-thujene, β-pinene, eucalyptol, 3-carene, and nonanal, could trigger EAG responses in C. punctiferalis. The ubiquitous plant terpenoids, α-pinene, camphene and β-pinene, and their specific combination at concentrations and proportions similar to the emissions from the four chestnut cultivars, was sufficient to elicit host recognition behavior of female C. punctiferalis. Nonanal and a mixture containing nonanal, that mimicked the emission of C. punctiferalis infested chestnut fruits, caused avoidance response. The outcome demonstrates the effects of chestnut cultivars on the performance of C. punctiferalis and reveals the preference-performance relationship between C. punctiferalis adults and their offspring. The observed olfactory plasticity in the plant

  12. Influence of learning styles on the practical performance after the four-step basic life support training approach – An observational cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henke, Alexandra; Stieger, Lina; Beckers, Stefan; Biermann, Henning; Rossaint, Rolf; Sopka, Saša

    2017-01-01

    Background Learning and training basic life support (BLS)—especially external chest compressions (ECC) within the BLS-algorithm—are essential resuscitation training for laypersons as well as for health care professionals. The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of learning styles on the performance of BLS and to identify whether all types of learners are sufficiently addressed by Peyton’s four-step approach for BLS training. Methods A study group of first-year medical students (n = 334) without previous medical knowledge was categorized according to learning styles using the German Lernstilinventar questionnaire based on Kolb’s Learning Styles Inventory. Students’ BLS performances were assessed before and after a four-step BLS training approach lasting 4 hours. Standardized BLS training was provided by an educational staff consisting of European Resuscitation Council-certified advanced life support providers and instructors. Pre- and post-intervention BLS performance was evaluated using a single-rescuer-scenario and standardized questionnaires (6-point-Likert-scales: 1 = completely agree, 6 = completely disagree). The recorded points of measurement were the time to start, depth, and frequency of ECC. Results The study population was categorized according to learning styles: diverging (5%, n = 16), assimilating (36%, n = 121), converging (41%, n = 138), and accommodating (18%, n = 59). Independent of learning styles, both male and female participants showed significant improvement in cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) performance. Based on the Kolb learning styles, no significant differences between the four groups were observed in compression depth, frequency, time to start CPR, or the checklist-based assessment within the baseline assessment. A significant sex effect on the difference between pre- and post-interventional assessment points was observed for mean compression depth and mean compression frequency. Conclusions The findings

  13. Influence of learning styles on the practical performance after the four-step basic life support training approach - An observational cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schröder, Hanna; Henke, Alexandra; Stieger, Lina; Beckers, Stefan; Biermann, Henning; Rossaint, Rolf; Sopka, Saša

    2017-01-01

    Learning and training basic life support (BLS)-especially external chest compressions (ECC) within the BLS-algorithm-are essential resuscitation training for laypersons as well as for health care professionals. The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of learning styles on the performance of BLS and to identify whether all types of learners are sufficiently addressed by Peyton's four-step approach for BLS training. A study group of first-year medical students (n = 334) without previous medical knowledge was categorized according to learning styles using the German Lernstilinventar questionnaire based on Kolb's Learning Styles Inventory. Students' BLS performances were assessed before and after a four-step BLS training approach lasting 4 hours. Standardized BLS training was provided by an educational staff consisting of European Resuscitation Council-certified advanced life support providers and instructors. Pre- and post-intervention BLS performance was evaluated using a single-rescuer-scenario and standardized questionnaires (6-point-Likert-scales: 1 = completely agree, 6 = completely disagree). The recorded points of measurement were the time to start, depth, and frequency of ECC. The study population was categorized according to learning styles: diverging (5%, n = 16), assimilating (36%, n = 121), converging (41%, n = 138), and accommodating (18%, n = 59). Independent of learning styles, both male and female participants showed significant improvement in cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) performance. Based on the Kolb learning styles, no significant differences between the four groups were observed in compression depth, frequency, time to start CPR, or the checklist-based assessment within the baseline assessment. A significant sex effect on the difference between pre- and post-interventional assessment points was observed for mean compression depth and mean compression frequency. The findings of this work show that the four-step-approach for

  14. [Analysis of knowledge about healthy breakfast and its relation to life style habits and academic performance in compulsory secondary students].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Córdoba Caro, Luis Gonzalo; Luengo Pérez, Luis Miguel; García Preciado, Ventura

    2014-05-01

    The main objective of the study is to analyze whether students of Compulsory Secondary Education (ESO) of Badajoz city known foods that are part of a healthy breakfast. It also intends to see the relationship of this knowledge with lifestyle habits and academic performance. A representative sample of 1197 secondary students in the city of Badajoz (Spain) (50.1% female) was calculated their Body Mass Index (BMI) and were asked to fill in a questionnaire, previously validated in a pilot study, which included sociodemographic items as well as others related with life style habits. They were also asked to choose among a series of food, which of them were a part of a healthy breakfast. 49.2% of adolescents know foods which are a part of a healthy breakfast. Very low correlations were obtained between all the variables analyzed and knowledge of foods that make up a healthy breakfast. However, within a few variables are significant differences (P<.05) between subgroups, such as families of students with low cultural level of aided schools, repeaters, without reading habit, passing lot of time with friends, who have been on a diet, make less than 3 meals a day and spend less than 10minutes for breakfast and know the amount of fruit that should be consumed daily. Life style habits of adolescents are not related to the knowledge about the foods that are part of a healthy breakfast. Copyright © 2013 SEEN. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  15. THE EFFECT OF ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE, ENVIRONMENTAL WORK, LEADERSHIP STYLE ON THE JOB SATISFACTION AND ITS IMPACT ON THE PERFORMANCE OF TEACHING IN STATE COMMUNITY ACADEMY BOJONEGORO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meithiana Indrasari

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Tri Dharma college task, namely implements education and teaching, research and community service. Some of the factors that can affect the performance of the lecturer are organizational culture, work environment, leadership style, and job satisfaction. For this study aims to assess the effect of organizational culture, work environment, leadership style on job satisfaction lecturers as well as to analyze the influence of organizational culture, work environment, leadership style to the performance of lecturers. This study took 64 samples through census methods, and data collected through questionnaires in the form of Likert scale research.  Results of analysis proving the hypothesis indicated that organizational culture, work environment, leadership style positive impact significant job satisfaction lecturer Bojonegoro State Community College. As well as organizational culture, work environment, leadership style, job satisfaction and positive effect significant the performance of lecturers Bojonegoro State Community College. Suggested to the management community college that faculty performance can be optimized, provide incentives for lecturers in order to work in the world of education through awards, strive to the increase salaries, keeping in touch, comfort, creation of competition, healthy  performance appraisal is fair, providing an opportunity to follow the scientific activities at a cost from the academy. Encourage to continue their education to a higher level. Motivate to do research, and community service to the relevant fields at the expense of the institution/college or grants.

  16. An Automatic and Dynamic Approach for Personalized Recommendation of Learning Objects Considering Students Learning Styles: An Experimental Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorça, Fabiano A.; Araújo, Rafael D.; de Carvalho, Vitor C.; Resende, Daniel T.; Cattelan, Renan G.

    2016-01-01

    Content personalization in educational systems is an increasing research area. Studies show that students tend to have better performances when the content is customized according to his/her preferences. One important aspect of students particularities is how they prefer to learn. In this context, students learning styles should be considered, due…

  17. Learning styles and critical thinking relationship in baccalaureate nursing education: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreou, Christos; Papastavrou, Evridiki; Merkouris, Anastasios

    2014-03-01

    Critical thinking is a desirable competency for contemporary nurses although there are growing concerns supporting a disturbing paucity in its achievement. Learning styles reflect habitual behaviors which determine distinct preferences within learning situations. Evidence suggests that critical thinking could evolve through learning processes. Variances in critical thinking achievement by nursing students might therefore be influenced by individual learning preferences. The concepts "learning styles" and "critical thinking" have been independently examined in the nursing literature. No reviews were found however exploring their association in nursing education. To identify the potential relationships between learning styles and critical thinking in baccalaureate nursing students. Systematic review. Eleven electronic databases were utilized without geographical and time publishing filters. Hand-searching journals and scanning references from retrieved studies were also performed. Databases were searched for descriptive correlational studies which considered the relationship between learning styles and critical thinking in baccalaureate nursing students. The authors independently progressed three stage screening. Retrieved articles were reviewed at title, abstract and full text levels according to predetermined criteria. All included studies were quality appraised using a rating tool for descriptive studies. Six studies were finally included. Findings were grouped under four key themes: predominant learning styles, critical thinking scoring, critical thinking evolution across academic progress and learning styles-critical thinking correlations. Learning styles' diversities, weak critical thinking and inconsistent evolution through academic progress were revealed across studies. Critical thinking differed significantly between learning styles. Commonly accepted models in nursing education were lacking in both learning styles and critical thinking. Within studies

  18. EFL STUDENTS’ABILITY IN PERFORMING AUTONOMOUS LEARNING AND THEIR WRITING PROFICIENCY ACROSS COGNITIVE STYLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dyah Dewi Masita

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study is intended do investigate the relationship between students’ autonomy and their writing proficiency across cognitive styles. Correlational research design was fit to understand the relationship between two continuous variables. To obtain the required data, Writing Autonomy Questionnaire, and writing test was administered to 155 students of sixth semester from two private colleges at Malang. The result presented that there is significant and positive correlation between those variables (r = .437. Meanwhile variables pressented gave contribution to the other variable due to its correlationship. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui hubungan antara autonomy mahasiswa dan kemampuan menulis mereka berdasarkan gaya berpikir. Metode penelitian yang sesuai adalah korelasi untiuk memahami hubungan dua variabel. Writing Autonomy Questionnaire, dan tes menulis disebarkan kepada 155 siswa semester 6 untuk memperoleh data yang diperlukan. Hasil peneliatian ini menunjukkan bahwa ada hubungan positif dan signifikan antara kedua variabel tersebut (r = .437. Sementara itu variabel yang teridentifikasi tersebut saling berkontribusi dikarenakan hasil analisa yang menunjukkan hubungan positif dan signifikan.

  19. Performance of Arch-Style Road Crossing Structures from Relative Movement Rates of Large Mammals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Z. Andis

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades, an increasing number of highway construction and reconstruction projects have included mitigation measures aimed at reducing wildlife-vehicle collisions and maintaining habitat connectivity for wildlife. The most effective and robust measures include wildlife fences combined with wildlife underpasses and overpasses. The 39 wildlife crossing structures included along a 90 km stretch of US Highway 93 on the Flathead Indian Reservation in western Montana represent one of the most extensive of such projects. We measured movements of large mammal species at 15 elliptical arch-style wildlife underpasses and adjacent habitat between April and November 2015. We investigated if the movements of large mammals through the underpasses were similar to large mammal movements in the adjacent habitat. Across all structures, large mammals (all species combined were more likely to move through the structures than pass at a random location in the surrounding habitat. At the species level, white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus and mule deer (O. hemionus used the underpasses significantly more than could be expected based on their movement through the surrounding habitat. However, carnivorous species such as, black bear (Ursus americanus and coyote (Canis latrans moved through the underpasses in similar numbers compared to the surrounding habitat.

  20. Quality and Performance of LED Flashlights in Kenya: Common End User Preferences and Complaints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tracy, Jenny; Jacobson, Arne; Mills, Evan

    2009-09-14

    Flashlights that use LED technology have quickly emerged as the dominant source of portable lighting in Kenya. While flashlights do not normally provide a substitute for kerosene and other highly inefficient fuels, they are an important early manifestation of LED lighting in the developing world that can serve as a platform - or deterrent - to the diffusion of the technology into the broader off-grid lighting market. The lead acid batteries embedded in flashlights also represent an important source of hazardous waste, and flashlight durability is thus an important determinant of the rate of waste disposal. Low-cost LED flashlights with prices from $1 to $4 are now widely available in shops and markets throughout Kenya. The increased penetration of LED technology in the flashlight market is significant, as over half of all Kenyan households report owning a flashlight (Kamfor, 2002). While this shift from conventional incandescent technology to modern LEDs may appear to be a promising development, end users that our research team interviewed expressed a number of complaints about the quality and performance of these new flashlights. This raises concerns about the interests of low-income flashlight users, and it may also indicate the onset of a broader market spoiling effect for off-grid lighting products based on LED technology (Mills and Jacobson, 2008; Lighting Africa, 2007). The quality of low-cost LED flashlights can contribute to market spoiling because these products appear to represent the first contact that most Kenyans have with LED technology. In this report, our team uses interviews with 46 end users of flashlights to collect information about their experiences, perceptions, and preferences. We focus especially on highlighting common complaints from respondents about the flashlights that they have used, as well as on noting the features that they indicated were important when evaluating the quality of a flashlight. In previous laboratory tests, researchers

  1. Improving education under work-hour restrictions: comparing learning and teaching preferences of faculty, residents, and students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jack, Megan C; Kenkare, Sonya B; Saville, Benjamin R; Beidler, Stephanie K; Saba, Sam C; West, Alisha N; Hanemann, Michael S; van Aalst, John A

    2010-01-01

    Faced with work-hour restrictions, educators are mandated to improve the efficiency of resident and medical student education. Few studies have assessed learning styles in medicine; none have compared teaching and learning preferences. Validated tools exist to study these deficiencies. Kolb describes 4 learning styles: converging (practical), diverging (imaginative), assimilating (inductive), and accommodating (active). Grasha Teaching Styles are categorized into "clusters": 1 (teacher-centered, knowledge acquisition), 2 (teacher-centered, role modeling), 3 (student-centered, problem-solving), and 4 (student-centered, facilitative). Kolb's Learning Style Inventory (HayGroup, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania) and Grasha-Riechmann's TSS were administered to surgical faculty (n = 61), residents (n = 96), and medical students (n = 183) at a tertiary academic medical center, after informed consent was obtained (IRB # 06-0612). Statistical analysis was performed using χ(2) and Fisher exact tests. Surgical residents preferred active learning (p = 0.053), whereas faculty preferred reflective learning (p teaching preferences, although both groups preferred student-centered, facilitative teaching, faculty preferred teacher-centered, role-modeling instruction (p = 0.02) more often. Residents had no dominant teaching style more often than surgical faculty (p = 0.01). Medical students preferred converging learning (42%) and cluster 4 teaching (35%). Statistical significance was unchanged when corrected for gender, resident training level, and subspecialization. Significant differences exist between faculty and residents in both learning and teaching preferences; this finding suggests inefficiency in resident education, as previous research suggests that learning styles parallel teaching styles. Absence of a predominant teaching style in residents suggests these individuals are learning to be teachers. The adaptation of faculty teaching methods to account for variations in resident

  2. Catheter length preference in wheelchair-using men who perform routine clean intermittent catheterization

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Costa, J A; Menier, M; Doran, T J; Köhler, T S

    2013-01-01

    Prospective, unblinded, multicenter, randomized, controlled, cross-over study assessing user preference and ease of use characteristics of two gel intermittent catheters in 81 self-catheterizing wheelchair-using men...

  3. Learning styles favoured by professional, amateur, and recreational athletes in different sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Haro, Carlos; Calleja-González, Julio; Escanero, Jesus F

    2010-06-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize the learning styles of different groups of athletes grouped according to level of performance and sport. Seventy-one male athletes completed a questionnaire on learning styles at the beginning of the 2008-2009 training season. Learning styles were assessed using the Honey-Alonso Learning Styles Questionnaire, and were also converted into learning styles described by Kolb. The Honey-Alonso learning styles were compared among the various groups using one-way analysis of variance, and the Kolb learning styles that were most favoured using a chi-square test. Pearson's correlation coefficient was used to verify the relationships between variables. No significant differences were observed in learning styles between different sports and physical activities. Years of experience did not correlate strongly with learning styles. With respect to level of performance, the pragmatic component was significantly lower in professional athletes than amateur and recreational athletes. These characteristics of learning styles preferred by the athletes should help coaches and physical trainers to reflect on their role as educators in the context of planning sports training.

  4. The Effect of Organizational Culture, Leadership Style, and Functional Position on Organizational Commitment and Their Impact on the Performance of Internal Auditors in Aceh, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Shabri Abd. Majid

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aims at empirically examining the influence of the organizational culture, leadership style, and functional position of an auditor on organizational commitment and their impact on the performance of government internal auditors in Aceh, Indonesia. All 183 of the governmental internal auditors at the district level within the Province of Aceh, Indonesia, were investigated. Data, which are gathered by distributing questionnaires to the entire population, are then analysed by the Structural Equation Modelling (SEM technique.The study found that organizational culture, leadership style, and functional auditor have affected the performance of the governmental internal auditor either directly or indirectly through organizational commitment.Keywords: Organizational Culture, Leadership Style, Functional Auditor, Organizational Commitment, Internal Auditor Performance.

  5. Virtual Team E-Leadership: The Effects of Leadership Style and Conflict Management Mode on the Online Learning Performance of Students in a Business-Planning Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Wen-Long; Lee, Chun-Yi

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of leadership style, whether transactional or transformational, and conflict management mode on the online learning performance of students in a business-planning course. Conflict management was performed using the following five approaches: (1) avoidance, (2) accommodation, (3) competition,…

  6. Job-Preference and Job-Matching Assessment Results and Their Association with Job Performance and Satisfaction among Young Adults with Developmental Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Julie; Morgan, Robert L.; Salzberg, Charles L.

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the effects of preference and degree of match on job performance of four 19 to 20-year-old young adults with developmental disabilities placed in community-based job conditions. We identified high-preference, high-matched and low-preference, low-matched job tasks using a video web-based assessment program. The job matching…

  7. Do mothers really know best? Complexities in testing the preference-performance hypothesis in polyphagous frugivorous fruit flies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birke, A; Aluja, M

    2017-12-04

    The preference-performance hypothesis (PPH) has widely been used to explain host exploitation patterns by phytophagous insects. However, this hypothesis often fails in the case of polyphagous species when compared with specialists. One explanation, validated by the information-processing hypothesis (IPH), considers that polyphagous insects are unable to process a large array of cues, which hinders females from distinguishing between high- and low- quality hosts. Here we analyzed Anastrepha ludens female host preference and offspring performance, and tested if neuronal limitations could possibly play a role in the incapacity of the polyphagous A. ludens to make 'accurate decisions' and therefore partially explain mismatches related to PPH. Results testing the PPH by correlating female preference to six naturally occurring hosts and its offspring outcomes show that A. ludens females oviposited greater proportions of eggs on fruit according to hierarchical preferences. Infestation level was low in white sapote, the preferential and seemingly putative ancestral host, likely due to sapote defence mechanisms. Pupal weight and adult size were lower when A. ludens larvae developed in guava (conditional host that was artificially infested) and peach, a lower ranked host compared with 'Marsh' grapefruit, white sapote, and 'Manila' mango (three preferred hosts). Larvae reared in 'Manzano' pepper, a low-ranked host, performed better than in peach and guava. Results testing the IPH, show that polyphagous A. ludens females were less accurate when discerning between a non natural host (guava) when compared with a preferred, natural host (grapefruit): error rate was significantly higher, number of oviposited fruit in a 6-h period was extremely low, time searching and ovipositing took longer, and pupae recovery was extremely low. Our findings indicate that both hypotheses tested are complementary and help better understand host use by A. ludens. However, we also discuss the

  8. Performance of an image analysis processing system for hen tracking in an environmental preference chamber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashiha, Mohammad Amin; Green, Angela R; Sales, Tatiana Glogerley; Bahr, Claudia; Berckmans, Daniel; Gates, Richard S

    2014-10-01

    Image processing systems have been widely used in monitoring livestock for many applications, including identification, tracking, behavior analysis, occupancy rates, and activity calculations. The primary goal of this work was to quantify image processing performance when monitoring laying hens by comparing length of stay in each compartment as detected by the image processing system with the actual occurrences registered by human observations. In this work, an image processing system was implemented and evaluated for use in an environmental animal preference chamber to detect hen navigation between 4 compartments of the chamber. One camera was installed above each compartment to produce top-view images of the whole compartment. An ellipse-fitting model was applied to captured images to detect whether the hen was present in a compartment. During a choice-test study, mean ± SD success detection rates of 95.9 ± 2.6% were achieved when considering total duration of compartment occupancy. These results suggest that the image processing system is currently suitable for determining the response measures for assessing environmental choices. Moreover, the image processing system offered a comprehensive analysis of occupancy while substantially reducing data processing time compared with the time-intensive alternative of manual video analysis. The above technique was used to monitor ammonia aversion in the chamber. As a preliminary pilot study, different levels of ammonia were applied to different compartments while hens were allowed to navigate between compartments. Using the automated monitor tool to assess occupancy, a negative trend of compartment occupancy with ammonia level was revealed, though further examination is needed. ©2014 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  9. What Can We Learn from Our Learners' Learning Styles?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Bokyung; Kim, Haedong

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to investigate Korean university-level EFL learners' learning style preferences. The characteristics of their learning style preferences and implications for effective English learning were examined through the quantitative analysis of 496 subjects' responses to a learning style survey and their English achievement and term-end…

  10. Thermal preference and performance in a sub-Antarctic caterpillar: A test of the coadaptation hypothesis and its alternatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haupt, Tanya M; Sinclair, Brent J; Chown, Steven L

    2017-04-01

    Physiological ecologists have long assumed that thermoregulatory behaviour will evolve to optimise physiological performance. The coadaptation hypothesis predicts that an animal's preferred body temperature will correspond to the temperature at which its performance is optimal. Here we use a strong inference approach to examine the relationship between thermal preference and locomotor performance in the caterpillars of a wingless sub-Antarctic moth, Pringleophaga marioni Viette (Tineidae). The coadaptation hypothesis and its alternatives (suboptimal is optimal, thermodynamic effect, trait variation) are tested. Compared to the optimal movement temperature (22.5°C for field-fresh caterpillars and 25, 20, 22.5, 25 and 20°C following seven day acclimations to 0, 5, 10, 15 and 5-15°C respectively), caterpillar thermal preference was significantly lower (9.2°C for field-fresh individuals and 9.4, 8.8, 8.1, 5.2 and 4.6°C following acclimation to 0, 5, 10, 15 and 5-15°C, respectively). Together with the low degree of asymmetry observed in the performance curves, and the finding that acclimation to high temperatures did not result in maximal performance, all, but one of the above hypotheses (i.e. 'trait variation') was rejected. The thermal preference of P. marioni caterpillars more closely resembles temperatures at which survival is high (5-10°C), or where feeding is optimal (10°C), than where locomotion speed is maximal, suggesting that thermal preference may be optimised for overall fitness rather than for a given trait. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Evaluation of flat, angled, and vertical computer mice and their effects on wrist posture, pointing performance, and preference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odell, Dan; Johnson, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Modern computer users use the mouse almost three times as much as the keyboard. As exposure rates are high, improving upper extremity posture while using a computer mouse is desirable due to the fact that posture is one risk factor for injury. Previous studies have found posture benefits associated with using alternative mouse designs, but at the cost of performance and preference. To develop new computer mouse shapes, evaluate them versus benchmarks, and determine whether there are differences in wrist posture, pointing performance, and subjective measures. Three concept mice were designed and evaluated relative to two existing benchmark models: a traditional flat mouse, and an alternative upright mouse. Using a repeated measures design, twelve subjects performed a standardized point-and-click task with each mouse. Pointing performance and wrist posture was measured, along with perceived fatigue ratings and subjective preferences pre and post use. All of the concept mice were shown to reduce forearm pronation relative to the traditional flat mouse. There were no differences in pointing performance between the traditional flat mouse and the concept mice. In contrast, the fully vertical mouse reduced pronation but had the poorest pointing performance. Perceived fatigue and subjective preferences were consistently better for one concept mouse. Increasing mouse height and angling the mouse topcase can improve wrist posture without negatively affecting performance.

  12. Identifying learning styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Grace

    2016-12-14

    What was the nature of the CPD activity, practice-related feedback and/or event and/or experience in your practice? The article explored different learning styles and outlined some of the models that can be used to identify them. It discussed the limitations of these models, indicating that although they can be helpful in identifying a student's preferred learning style, this is not 'fixed' and might change over time. Learning is also influenced by other factors, such as culture and age.

  13. Learning Styles of Typical Readers and Dyslexic Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreou, Eleni; Vlachos, Filippos

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined the link between learning styles and dyslexia in secondary school students, using the Visual-Auditory-Kinesthetic (VAK) learning styles model. According to the VAK model, most people possess a dominant or preferred learning style, however some people have a mixed and evenly balanced blend of the three styles. Our…

  14. The impact of team cognitive styles on performance of radical and incremental NPD projects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Visser, Matthias; Faems, Dries; Visscher, Klaasjan; de Weerd-Nederhof, Petronella C.

    2014-01-01

    Although prior studies increased our understanding of the performance implications of new product development (NPD) team members’ functional backgrounds and demographic variables, they remained relatively silent on the impact of underlying psychological characteristics such as the team members’

  15. The Impact of Team Cognitive Styles on Performance of Radical and Incremental NPD Projects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Visser, Matthias; Faems, Dries; Visscher, Klaasjan; de Weerd-Nederhof, Petra

    2014-01-01

    Although prior studies increased our understanding of the performance implications of new product development (NPD) team members' functional backgrounds and demographic variables, they remained relatively silent on the impact of underlying psychological characteristics such as the team members'

  16. The Relationship between Sex and Learning Style and Graphicacy in 14-year-old Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riding, R. J.; Boardman, D. J.

    1983-01-01

    Preference for field dependence independence and verbal imagery was assessed in 96 14-year-olds. Their map reading performance was measured in terms of map-aerial photograph correlation, symbol translation, and view identification. The results suggest that map reading performance depends on the learning style, sex of the pupil, and the type of…

  17. Using Multiple-Stimulus without Replacement Preference Assessments to Increase Student Engagement and Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Adam D.; McKevitt, Brian C.; Farris, Allie M.

    2017-01-01

    Multiple-stimulus without replacement preference assessment is a research-based method for identifying appropriate rewards for students with emotional and behavioral disorders. This article presents a brief history of how this technology evolved and describes a step-by-step approach for conducting the procedure. A discussion of necessary materials…

  18. Oviposition preference and larval performance in Ceratitis capitata (Díptera, Tephritidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iara Sordi Joachim-Bravo

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available Experiments concerning oviposition preference were carried out on Ceratitis capitata to determine whether females are able to preferentially oviposit on natural hosts in which the larvae develop better. The results indicated that the females do not preferentially oviposit on hosts of better nutritive value for the larvae.

  19. Functional Movement Screening Performance of Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu Athletes From Brazil: Differences Considering Practice Time and Combat Style.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Vecchio, Fabrício Boscolo; Gondim, Denis Foster; Arruda, Antonio Carlos Pereira

    2016-08-01

    Boscolo Del Vecchio, F, Foster, D, and Arruda, A. Functional movement screening performance of Brazilian jiu-jitsu athletes from Brazil: differences considering practice time and combat style. J Strength Cond Res 30(8): 2341-2347, 2016-Brazilian jiu-jitsu (BJJ) is a grappling combat sport that athletes, lying (guard fighter) or kneeling (pass fighter) on the mat, attempt to force their opponents to submit. Brazilian jiu-jitsu practices may result in muscular imbalances, which increase the risk of injury. Instead, the Functional Movement Screen (FMS) is an evaluation routine that could be related to injury incidence and seeks to detect muscular imbalance and movement dysfunction. Thus, the aim of the study was to investigate the injury profile and the FMS score and their relationship, with consideration for the BJJ fight style. Sports injuries were recorded in the last 12 months of 33 BJJ athletes, and the statistical analyses were applied to a routine evaluation FMS and a score of 14 points or less was considered low performance in FMS. We used a logistic regression; the effect size (ES) was calculated, and 5% was assumed as the statistical significance level. Pass fighters showed a higher percentage of injuries on the thorax (24.24%) than did guard fighters (6.67%, p = 0.01). Upper limbs were the most injured part of the body (χ = 36.7; p statistical differences in the FMS performance between guard and pass fighters (t = 1.97; p = 0.05), its magnitude was considered medium (ES = 0.77). There was an association between FMS and presence of injury (χ = 4.95; p = 0.03). Considering the FMS score as a predictor and the presence or absence of injury as the dependent variable, the data met a Wald coefficient of 4.55, p = 0.03 and Exp (B) = 5.71. The study found that almost half of the sample had injuries in the upper limbs and a quarter had injuries in the lower limbs in the last year. A poor FMS score was observed, and lower scores in the FMS were associated with a

  20. The Effect of Leadership Styles on Learners' Performance. The Case of Asonomaso Nkwanta in the Kwabre District Assembly of Ashanti Region in Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyasi, Richard Sarfo; Xi, Wang Bao; Owusu-Ampomah, Yvonne

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the effect of leadership styles on academic performance in Junior High Schools (JHS) in Asonomaso Nkwanta in the Kwabre District Assembly of Ashanti Region in Ghana. The design for the study was a mixed study using both the qualitative and quantitative analyzes. It was a correlation survey designed to…

  1. Effect of the Parental Involvement Style Perceived by Elementary School Students at Home on Language and Mathematics Performance in Chilean Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gubbins, Verónica; Otero, Gabriel

    2016-01-01

    The present study intends to measure the effect of the parental involvement style perceived by fourth-grade students on their Language and Mathematics performance. It uses data taken from a sample of 55,401 students evaluated by the National Education Quality Measurement System [Sistema Nacional de Medición de la Calidad de la Educación, SIMCE].…

  2. The Influence of Leadership Styles, Work Environment and Job Satisfaction of Employee Performance--Studies in the School of SMPN 10 Surabaya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, Teddy; Priyono

    2016-01-01

    This research aims to know and test the influence of leadership styles, work environment and job satisfaction of employees on performance. Research methods with the use of a quantitative approach, the population in this study as many as 45 people while the sample in this research is 45 people. In this study the researchers data analysis using SPSS…

  3. A Comparative Study of the Influence of Head Teachers Management Styles on Pupils Performance in KCPE in Public and Private Primary Schools in Nakuru Municipality, Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibo, Margaret Nekesa

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the influence of management styles of head teacher's on pupils' performance in private and public primary schools in Nakuru municipality at Kenya Certificate of Primary Education level. The population comprised of teachers and head teachers in public primary schools. The study adopted the ex post facto…

  4. Mathematics Teacher-Candidates' Performance in Solving Problems with Different Representation Styles: The Trigonometry Example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dündar, Sefa

    2015-01-01

    Using multiple representations of a problem can reveal the relationship between complex concepts by expressing the same mathematical condition differently and can contribute to the meaningful learning of mathematical concepts. The purpose of this study is to assess the performances of mathematics teacher-candidates on trigonometry problems…

  5. Longitudinal Effects of Preschool Behavioral Styles on Early Adolescent School Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiLalla, L.F.; Marcus, J.L.; Wright-Phillips, M.V.

    2004-01-01

    Early behavioral problems and temperament as well as student-teacher relationships each have been shown to be important predictors of school performance. This longitudinal study investigated the relations between children's preschool behaviors and their early adolescent student-teacher relationships and academic achievement. It was hypothesized…

  6. Comparative performance of new, repaired, and remanufactured 48- by 40-inch GMA-style wood pallets

    Science.gov (United States)

    John W. Clarke; Marshall S. White; Philip A. Araman

    2005-01-01

    The pallet repair industry has been growing at significant rates in the United States. It has been estimated that the repair industry received 299 million pallets in 2001, and a majority went back into the marketplace as repaired or remanufactured pallets. Many question how well these pallets perform when compared to new pallets. The purpose of this research was to...

  7. Learning-Style Responsive Approaches for Teaching Typically Performing and At-Risk Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honigsfeld, Andera; Dunn, Rita

    2009-01-01

    The authors recommend practical techniques and resources for teaching at-risk secondary students, who are often nontraditional learners. The article describes tactual and kinesthetic instructional resources that research has shown are effective for typically performing and at-risk students who do not learn conventionally. (Contains 2 figures.)

  8. Consequences of adolescent's evening preference on psychological functioning: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan F. Díaz-Morales

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This review provides an overview of the role of circadian preference in psychological functioning of adolescents taking into account their shift to eveningness during this stage of life. After a brief explanation about morningness/eveningness and other terms related, an overview of the changes that occur on three of the most important areas in the adolescent's life is presented: school performance, personality styles, and health. Consequences of evening preference on school achievement are considered from the analysis of the relevance of sleep debt and time-of-day in cognition and mood aspects. In general, students who are able to choose activity times coinciding with their preferred times may have a greater opportunity to optimize their performance. The personality styles and health of morning and evening types are also important factors related to school and family adaptation. At last, some recommendations and conclusions in order to promote a healthy psychological functioning are described.

  9. Embodied Information in Cognitive Tasks: Haptic Weight Sensations Affect Task Performance and Processing Style.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaspar, Kai; Vennekötter, Alina

    2015-01-01

    Research in the field of embodied cognition showed that incidental weight sensations influence peoples' judgments about a variety of issues and objects. Most studies found that heaviness compared to lightness increases the perception of importance, seriousness, and potency. In two experiments, we broadened this scope by investigating the impact of weight sensations on cognitive performance. In Experiment 1, we found that the performance in an anagram task was reduced when participants held a heavy versus a light clipboard in their hands. Reduced performance was accompanied by an increase in the perceived effort. In Experiment 2, a heavy clipboard elicited a specific response heuristic in a two-alternative forced-choice task. Participants showed a significant right side bias when holding a heavy clipboard in their hands. After the task, participants in the heavy clipboard condition reported to be more frustrated than participants in the light clipboard condition. In both experiments, we did not find evidence for mediated effects that had been proposed by previous literature. Overall, the results indicate that weight effects go beyond judgment formation and highlight new avenues for future research.

  10. Evaluation of function, performance, and preference as transfemoral amputees transition from mechanical to microprocessor control of the prosthetic knee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafner, Brian J; Willingham, Laura L; Buell, Noelle C; Allyn, Katheryn J; Smith, Douglas G

    2007-02-01

    To evaluate differences in function, performance, and preference between mechanical and microprocessor prosthetic knee control technologies. A-B-A-B reversal design. Home, community, and laboratory environments. Twenty-one unilateral, transfemoral amputees. Mechanical control prosthetic knee versus microprocessor control prosthetic knee (Otto Bock C-Leg). Stair rating, hill rating and time, obstacle course time, divided attention task accuracy and time, Amputee Mobility Predictor score, step activity, Prosthesis Evaluation Questionnaire score, Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey score, self-reported frequency of stumbles and falls, and self-reported concentration required for ambulation. Stair descent score, hill descent time, and hill sound-side step length showed significant (Pmicroprocessor knee. Subject satisfaction with the C-Leg was significantly (Pprosthesis. The study population showed improved performance when negotiating stairs and hills, reduced frequency of stumbling and falling, and a preference for the microprocessor control C-Leg as compared with the mechanical control prosthetic knee.

  11. Mate choice in adult female Bengalese finches: females express consistent preferences for individual males and prefer female-directed song performances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunning, Jeffery L; Pant, Santosh; Bass, Aaron; Coburn, Zachary; Prather, Jonathan F

    2014-01-01

    In the process of mate selection by female songbirds, male suitors advertise their quality through reproductive displays in which song plays an important role. Females evaluate the quality of each signal and the associated male, and the results of that evaluation guide expression of selective courtship displays. Some studies reveal broad agreement among females in their preferences for specific signal characteristics, indicating that those features are especially salient in female mate choice. Other studies reveal that females differ in their preference for specific characteristics, indicating that in those cases female evaluation of signal quality is influenced by factors other than simply the physical properties of the signal. Thus, both the physical properties of male signals and specific traits of female signal evaluation can impact female mate choice. Here, we characterized the mate preferences of female Bengalese finches. We found that calls and copulation solicitation displays are equally reliable indicators of female preference. In response to songs from an array of males, each female expressed an individual-specific song preference, and those preferences were consistent across tests spanning many months. Across a population of females, songs of some males were more commonly preferred than others, and females preferred female-directed songs more than undirected songs, suggesting that some song features are broadly attractive. Preferences were indistinguishable for females that did or did not have social experience with the singers, indicating that female preference is strongly directed by song features rather than experiences associated with the singer. Analysis of song properties revealed several candidate parameters that may influence female evaluation. In an initial investigation of those parameters, females could be very selective for one song feature yet not selective for another. Therefore, multiple song parameters are evaluated independently

  12. GENDER DIFFERENCES IN LANGUAGE LEARNING STYLE AND LANGUAGE LEARNING STRATEGIES

    OpenAIRE

    Chayata Viriya; Sutthirak Sapsirin

    2014-01-01

    Abstract: This paper seeks to investigate the gender differences in language learning style and language learning strategies. The study used the perceptual learning-style preference questionnaire (PLSPQ) to investigate the learning style preferences and the Strategy Inventory for Language Learning (SILL) version 7.0 designed by Oxford (1990) to find the learning strategy preferences of first year University students at the faculty of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in Thailand....

  13. Leadership Styles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Val, Carlin; Kemp, Jess

    2012-01-01

    This study examines how a group's dynamic changes under the influence of different leadership styles, and determines what leadership style works best in a large group expedition. The main question identified was "What roles can a leader play in affecting the dynamic of a large group while partaking in a field expedition?" The following…

  14. Strategy Implementation and the Executive Style : A Study on Strategic Alignment and Performance in Small and Medium Industries of Rio Grande do Norte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvaro Fabiano Pereira de Macedo

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Small and midsize businesses are a number of restrictions on the market where they compete , they are caused by lack of resources or integration difficulties . For the company to develop and market in which it operates , highlights the role of the executive in the strategic process . This research investigation aims check for alignment between executive style and strategies and the impact of the performance of small and medium industries Mossley / RN . Methodologically , it is a descriptive study with data collection by surveying a structured and self-administered questionnaire , adapted from Håkonsson et al (2012 model was developed . Closed questions were asked , using Likert 5-point scale . The assumptions of the model were tested by Mann- Whitney test. It was found that the vast majority of companies presents a misalignment between the styles of business and enterprise strategy , the main type of misalignment : Style manager - analytical strategy . The general hypothesis , that the alignment between cognitive style and enterprise strategy leads to improved performance has been confirmed . The results corroborate the results obtained by Håkonsson et al (2012 .

  15. Learning Styles of Law Enforcement Officers: Does Police Work Affect How Officers Learn?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landry, John M.

    2011-01-01

    This quantitative study utilized the VARK learning style preference assessment instrument to examine how full-time sworn law enforcement officers learn and attempted to identify a predominant learning style preference among the participants. The primary question was: Which is the dominant learning style preference of full-time sworn law…

  16. Communication styles of undergraduate health students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Ted; Williams, Brett; Boyle, Malcolm; Molloy, Andrew; McKenna, Lisa; Palermo, Claire; Molloy, Liz; Lewis, Belinda

    2011-05-01

    Few empirical studies have been undertaken on the communication styles of specific health-related disciplines. The objective of this study is to identify the communication styles of undergraduate health students at an Australian university. A cross-sectional study using a paper-based version of the Communicator Style Measure (CSM) was administered to a cohort of students enrolled in eight different undergraduate health-related courses. There were 1459 health students eligible for inclusion in the study. 860 students (response rate of 59%) participated in the study. Participants overall preferred the Friendly and Attentive communicator styles and gave least preference to the Contentious and Dominant styles. There was considerable similarity between participants from each of the health-related courses. There was no statistical difference in relation to communicator styles between the age of the participant or the year level they were enrolled in. These results show a preference for communicator styles which are facilitative of a client-centred approach, empathetic, and positive with interpersonal relationships. The lack of significant difference in communicator styles by year level further suggests that people disposed to such communicator styles are drawn to these health-related courses, rather than the specific field of study affecting their style. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Effects of intraspecific and intra-individual differences in plant quality on preference and performance of monophagous aphid species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakobs, Ruth; Müller, Caroline

    2017-11-15

    Plant chemistry is one of the main drivers of herbivore distribution. Monophagous herbivore species are highly specialized, but even within their only host species the chemistry varies. The herbivore's choice is initially mainly guided by volatile plant compounds. Once on the plant, particularly for aphids the phloem quality affects their performance. However, little is known about the intraspecific and intra-individual variation in phloem sap and their influences on monophagous aphids. To determine potential mechanisms involved in aphid colonization, we tested the effects of intraspecific chemical variation in Tanacetum vulgare, which produces different chemotypes, on the preference of two monophagous aphid species. Moreover, we measured the performance of the aphids on different plant parts (stem close to the inflorescence, young and old leaves) of these chemotypes and analyzed their phloem sap composition. Both species preferred the β-thujone (THU) over the trans-carvyl acetate (CAR) chemotype in dual-choice assays. Survival of Macrosiphoniella tanacetaria was neither affected by intraspecific nor intra-individual variation, whereas the reproduction was highest on stems. In contrast, Uroleucon tanaceti survived and reproduced best on old leaves of the preferred chemotype. The sugar, organic acid and amino acid composition pronouncedly differed between phloem exudates of different plant parts, but less between chemotypes. Unexpectedly, high concentrations of amino acids did not necessarily enhance aphid performance. These different performance optima may cause niche differentiation and, therefore, enable co-existence. In conclusion, the tremendous variation in plant chemistry even within one species can affect the distribution of highly specialized aphids at various scales aphid species-specifically.

  18. ONE-DIMENSIONAL AND TWO-DIMENSIONAL LEADERSHIP STYLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikola Stefanović

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to motivate their group members to perform certain tasks, leaders use different leadership styles. These styles are based on leaders' backgrounds, knowledge, values, experiences, and expectations. The one-dimensional styles, used by many world leaders, are autocratic and democratic styles. These styles lie on the two opposite sides of the leadership spectrum. In order to precisely define the leadership styles on the spectrum between the autocratic leadership style and the democratic leadership style, leadership theory researchers use two dimensional matrices. The two-dimensional matrices define leadership styles on the basis of different parameters. By using these parameters, one can identify two-dimensional styles.

  19. Brain Processing Preferences: Key to an Organization's Success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piatt, James G.

    1983-01-01

    Outlining brain processing preference styles (dominant left, dominant right, or integrated), the author presents the assets and liabilities of the styles and points out the implications for management. (MD)

  20. Health worker preferences for performance-based payment schemes in a rural health district in Burkina Faso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurice Yé

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: One promising way to improve the motivation of healthcare providers and the quality of healthcare services is performance-based incentives (PBIs also referred as performance-based financing. Our study aims to explore healthcare providers’ preferences for an incentive scheme based on local resources, which aimed at improving the quality of maternal and child health care in the Nouna Health District. Design: A qualitative and quantitative survey was carried out in 2010 involving 94 healthcare providers within 34 health facilities. In addition, in-depth interviews involving a total of 33 key informants were conducted at health facility levels. Results: Overall, 85% of health workers were in favour of an incentive scheme based on the health district's own financial resources (95% CI: [71.91; 88.08]. Most health workers (95 and 96% expressed a preference for financial incentives (95% CI: [66.64; 85.36] and team-based incentives (95% CI: [67.78; 86.22], respectively. The suggested performance indicators were those linked to antenatal care services, prevention of mother-to-child human immunodeficiency virus transmission, neonatal care, and immunization. Conclusions: The early involvement of health workers and other stakeholders in designing an incentive scheme proved to be valuable. It ensured their effective participation in the process and overall acceptance of the scheme at the end. This study is an important contribution towards the designing of effective PBI schemes.

  1. The Scientific Status of Learning Styles Theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willingham, Daniel T.; Hughes, Elizabeth M.; Dobolyi, David G.

    2015-01-01

    Theories of learning styles suggest that individuals think and learn best in different ways. These are not differences of ability but rather preferences for processing certain types of information or for processing information in certain types of way. If accurate, learning styles theories could have important implications for instruction because…

  2. ONE-DIMENSIONAL AND TWO-DIMENSIONAL LEADERSHIP STYLES

    OpenAIRE

    Nikola Stefanović

    2007-01-01

    In order to motivate their group members to perform certain tasks, leaders use different leadership styles. These styles are based on leaders' backgrounds, knowledge, values, experiences, and expectations. The one-dimensional styles, used by many world leaders, are autocratic and democratic styles. These styles lie on the two opposite sides of the leadership spectrum. In order to precisely define the leadership styles on the spectrum between the autocratic leadership style and the democratic ...

  3. Leadership styles: The role of cultural intelligence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Solomon

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Within both the South African context and abroad, leaders are increasingly being required to engage with staff members whose cultures differ from their own. As the attractiveness of different leadership styles varies in line with staff member cultural preferences, the challenge leaders face is that their behaviours may no longer be apposite. To this end, it is mostly unknown whether those leaders who are deemed culturally intelligent behave in a specific manner, that is, display the empowering and directive leadership styles.Research purpose: The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between leader cultural intelligence and the empowering and directive styles of leadership, as perceived by subordinates.Motivation for the study: To operate successfully, leaders need to adopt and display those leadership styles that best match the cultural expectations of their staff members. Cultural intelligence may assist in this respect. Most of the studies on leader cultural intelligence and leadership styles have concentrated on the transformational leadership style. There is, thus, a requirement to examine how leader cultural intelligence relates to other leadership styles.Research design, approach and method: The study was quantitative in nature and made use of a cross-sectional survey design. Data were collected from 1140 staff members spread across 19 diverse organisations carrying on business activities in South Africa. Correlation and regression techniques were performed to identify relationships.Main findings: Leader cultural intelligence was found to have a stronger relationship with empowering leadership than it had with directive leadership. With empowering leadership, leader metacognitive and motivational cultural intelligence acted as important antecedents, whilst for directive leadership, leader’s motivational, cognitive and metacognitive cultural intelligence played a predictive part that carried a medium effect

  4. Study of the Relationship between Self-Reported Leadership Styles of Charter School Principals and Their Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alizor, John O.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this quantitative study, using the three-way repeated measures ANOVA, was to identify certain leadership styles used by effective and ineffective charter high school principals that impact the students' academic achievement. Principal ratings and school demographic characteristics were gathered from 19 charter schools. The study's…

  5. Cognitive Style Predicts Entry into Physical Sciences and Humanities: Questionnaire and Performance Tests of Empathy and Systemizing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billington, Jac; Baron-Cohen, Simon; Wheelwright, Sally

    2007-01-01

    It is often questioned as to why fewer women enter science. This study assesses whether a cognitive style characterized by systemizing being at a higher level than empathizing (S greater than E) is better than sex in predicating entry into the physical sciences compared to humanities. 415 students in both types of discipline (203 males, 212…

  6. Employer Preferences for Resumes and Cover Letters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schullery, Nancy M.; Ickes, Linda; Schullery, Stephen E.

    2009-01-01

    This article reports the results of a survey of employers' preferences for resume style, resume delivery method, and cover letters. Employers still widely prefer the standard chronological resume, with only 3% desiring a scannable resume. The vast majority of employers prefer electronic delivery, either by email (46%) or at the company's Web site…

  7. Goleman's Leadership styles at different hierarchical levels in medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Anurag; Desanghere, Loni; Stobart, Kent; Walker, Keith

    2017-09-19

    With current emphasis on leadership in medicine, this study explores Goleman's leadership styles of medical education leaders at different hierarchical levels and gain insight into factors that contribute to the appropriateness of practices. Forty two leaders (28 first-level with limited formal authority, eight middle-level with wider program responsibility and six senior- level with higher organizational authority) rank ordered their preferred Goleman's styles and provided comments. Eight additional senior leaders were interviewed in-depth. Differences in ranked styles within groups were determined by Friedman tests and Wilcoxon tests. Based upon style descriptions, confirmatory template analysis was used to identify Goleman's styles for each interviewed participant. Content analysis was used to identify themes that affected leadership styles. There were differences in the repertoire and preferred styles at different leadership levels. As a group, first-level leaders preferred democratic, middle-level used coaching while the senior leaders did not have one preferred style and used multiple styles. Women and men preferred democratic and coaching styles respectively. The varied use of styles reflected leadership conceptualizations, leader accountabilities, contextual adaptations, the situation and its evolution, leaders' awareness of how they themselves were situated, and personal preferences and discomfort with styles. The not uncommon use of pace-setting and commanding styles by senior leaders, who were interviewed, was linked to working with physicians and delivering quickly on outcomes. Leaders at different levels in medical education draw from a repertoire of styles. Leadership development should incorporate learning of different leadership styles, especially at first- and mid-level positions.

  8. Advertising styles in different cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krasulja Nevena

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Modern consumer is inhabitant of a "Global Village" as well as of its own national culture which largely influences his creation of a system of values, beliefs and style of life in general. According to adopted values and styles, consumers from different cultures have different buying behavior, different needs and preferences related to a product and they have their favorite advertising styles. As advertising reflects culture, symbols and rituals which are used are even more emphasized and strengthen cultural values, which are then used as a strong advertising style characteristic. Global advertisers are increasingly faced with different environment meaning. A fact that has been proved in practice is that standardized approach to advertising does not transmit values in a correct way, so the advertisers that want to achieve long term success must differentiate their brands to competitors'. In modern market environment strategy "Think globally, act locally" proved to be adequate for advertising in modern international market.

  9. Leisure Activities during School Break among Children with Learning Disabilities: Preference vs. Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yalon-Chamovitz, Shira; Mano, Tali; Jarus, Tal; Weinblatt, Nurit

    2006-01-01

    Participation in leisure activities may contribute to the development of social, motor, and language skills, and is therefore especially important for children with learning disabilities. Leisure activities of students in educational settings are performed mostly during breaks. While there have been some studies of the effect of breaks on…

  10. Survey and analysis of environmental performance indicators applied to thermoelectric generation styles; Levantamento e analise de indicadores de desempenho ambiental aplicados a empreendimentos termeletricos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freitas, Bruno Moreno Rodrigo de; Cardoso Junior, Ricardo Abranches Felix [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    Country economic growth is proportional bond to it electric generation increasing capacity. Brazil, which has a power matrix predominantly renewable, currently is increasing generation, from thermoelectricity, due, mainly, to major facilities in relation to environmental licensing. Since this new Thermal Power Plants operating, tied to the generation with those ones already installed, will result in environmental impacts that must be properly controlled. Such control should follow the Environmental Performance Evaluation guidance, standardized by ABNT NBR ISO 14031/04. Therefore, the following work presents the main Environmental Performance Indicators applied to several thermoelectric generation styles (Oil, Natural Gas, Diesel, Mineral Coal, Biomass, Waste, Solar and Nuclear). (author)

  11. Cognitive Style in Relation to Various Disciplines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saracho, Olivia, Ed.

    1998-01-01

    The 11 chapters of this theme issue explore important issues that relate cognitive style to educational concerns. They link cognitive style with reading comprehension, parental teaching, family qualities, teaching, distance learning, strategic learning, socialization, and athletic performance. (SLD)

  12. The Influence of Transaksional and Transformational Leadership Style on Employee Performance at PT Duta Mulia Cakrawala Manado

    OpenAIRE

    Surini, Ni Made; Kindangen, Paulus

    2015-01-01

    Someone in a particular field of expertise is indeed one of the reasons the company to contract employees. Thecompany's leadership style uses transformational and transactional leadership. Typically, Companies need experts to deal with a special work for a certain period of time. Especially if the experts is not employed by the company. In addition, high-level for work particular times (can be in the form of projects handled by employees of the company or the job regular), is also not the rea...

  13. Student Music Teachers' Learning Styles in Theoretical and Practical Situations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calissendorff, Maria

    2015-01-01

    This study analyzes and compares the results of a survey and an interview investigation concerning the learning styles of 32 student music teachers at The University College of Music Education (SMI) in Sweden. The students' learning style preferences were examined through a productivity environmental preference survey (PEPS), a computer-based…

  14. Styles of Creativity: Adaptors and Innovators in a Singapore Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ee, Jessie; Seng, Tan Oon; Kwang, Ng Aik

    2007-01-01

    Kirton (1976) described two creative styles, namely adaptors and innovators. Adaptors prefer to "do things better" whilst, innovators prefer to "do things differently". This study explored the relationship between two creative styles (adaptor and innovator) and the Big Five personality traits (extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness,…

  15. Effect of thermal acclimation on thermal preference, resistance and locomotor performance of hatchling soft-shelled turtle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei-Xian WU,Ling-Jun HU, Wei DANG, Hong-Liang LU, Wei-Guo DU

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The significant influence of thermal acclimation on physiological and behavioral performance has been documented in many ectothermic animals, but such studies are still limited in turtle species. We acclimated hatchling soft-shelled turtles Pelodiscus sinensis under three thermal conditions (10, 20 and 30 °C for 4 weeks, and then measured selected body temperature (Tsel, critical thermal minimum (CTMin and maximum (CTMax, and locomotor performance at different body temperatures. Thermal acclimation significantly affected thermal preference and resistance of P. sinensis hatchlings. Hatchling turtles acclimated to 10 °C selected relatively lower body temperatures and were less resistant to high temperatures than those acclimated to 20 °C and 30 °C. The turtles’ resistance to low temperatures increased with a decreasing acclimation temperature. The thermal resistance range (i.e. the difference between CTMax and CTMin, TRR was widest in turtles acclimated to 20 °C, and narrowest in those acclimated to 10 °C. The locomotor performance of turtles was affected by both body temperature and acclimation temperature. Hatchling turtles acclimated to relatively higher temperatures swam faster than did those acclimated to lower temperatures. Accordingly, hatchling turtles acclimated to a particular temperature may not enhance the performance at that temperature. Instead, hatchlings acclimated to relatively warm temperatures have a better performance, supporting the “hotter is better” hypothesis [Current Zoology 59 (6 : 718–724, 2013 ].

  16. Digital video, learning styles, and student understanding of kinematics graphs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hein, Teresa Lee

    1997-12-01

    Student ability to analyze and interpret motion graphs following laboratory instruction that utilized interactive digital video as well as traditional instructional techniques was investigated. Research presented suggested that digital video tools serve to motivate students and may be an effective mechanism to enhance student understanding of motion concepts. Two laboratory exercises involving motion concepts were developed for this study. Students were divided into two instructional groups. The treatment group used digital video techniques and the control group used traditional techniques to perform the laboratory exercises. Student understanding of motion concepts were assessed, in part, using the Test of Understanding Graphs-Kinematics. Other assessment measures included student responses to a set of written graphical analysis questions and two post-lab activities. Possible relationships between individual learning style preferences and student understanding of motion concepts were also addressed. Learning style preferences were assessed using the Productivity Environmental Preference Survey prior to the instructional treatments. Students were asked to comment in writing about their learning styles before and after they were given the learning style assessment. Student comments revealed that the results they received from Productivity Environmental Preference Survey accurately reflected their learning styles. Results presented in this study showed that no significant relationship exists between students' learning style preferences and their ability to interpret motion graphs as measured by scores on the Test of Understanding Graphs-Kinematics. In addition, the results showed no significant difference between instructional treatment and mean scores on the Test of Understanding Graphs-Kinematics. Analysis of writing activities revealed that students in the treatment group responded more effectively than students in the control group to graphical interpretation

  17. Evaluating the Effect of Arabic Engineering Students’ Learning Styles in Blended Programming Courses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Al-Azawei

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the complex relationship among learning styles, gender, perceived satisfaction, and academic performance across four programming courses supported by an e-learning platform. A total of 219 undergraduate students from a public Iraqi university who recently experienced e-learning voluntarily took place in the study. The integrated courses adopted a blended learning mode and all learners were provided the same learning content and pathway irrespective of their individual styles. Data were gathered using the Index of Learning Styles (ILS, three closed-ended questions, and the academic record. Traditional statistics and partial least squares structural equation modelling (PLS-SEM were performed to examine the proposed hypotheses. The findings of this research suggested that, overall, learning style dimensions are uncorrelated with either academic performance or perceived satisfaction, except for the processing dimension (active/reflective that has a significant effect on the latter. Furthermore, gender is unassociated with any of the proposed model’s constructs. Finally, there is no significant correlation between academic performance and perceived satisfaction. These results led to the conclusion that even though Arabic engineering students prefer active, sensing, visual, and sequential learning as do other engineering students from different backgrounds, they can adapt to a learning context even if their preferences are not met. The research contributes empirically to the existing debate regarding the potential implications of learning styles and for the Arabic context in particular, since respective research remains rare.

  18. Nutritional Ketosis Alters Fuel Preference and Thereby Endurance Performance in Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Pete J; Kirk, Tom; Ashmore, Tom; Willerton, Kristof; Evans, Rhys; Smith, Alan; Murray, Andrew J; Stubbs, Brianna; West, James; McLure, Stewart W; King, M Todd; Dodd, Michael S; Holloway, Cameron; Neubauer, Stefan; Drawer, Scott; Veech, Richard L; Griffin, Julian L; Clarke, Kieran

    2016-08-09

    Ketosis, the metabolic response to energy crisis, is a mechanism to sustain life by altering oxidative fuel selection. Often overlooked for its metabolic potential, ketosis is poorly understood outside of starvation or diabetic crisis. Thus, we studied the biochemical advantages of ketosis in humans using a ketone ester-based form of nutrition without the unwanted milieu of endogenous ketone body production by caloric or carbohydrate restriction. In five separate studies of 39 high-performance athletes, we show how this unique metabolic state improves physical endurance by altering fuel competition for oxidative respiration. Ketosis decreased muscle glycolysis and plasma lactate concentrations, while providing an alternative substrate for oxidative phosphorylation. Ketosis increased intramuscular triacylglycerol oxidation during exercise, even in the presence of normal muscle glycogen, co-ingested carbohydrate and elevated insulin. These findings may hold clues to greater human potential and a better understanding of fuel metabolism in health and disease. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Learning preference as a predictor of academic performance in first year accelerated graduate entry nursing students: a prospective follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Jane; Salamonson, Yenna; Rolley, John X; Davidson, Patricia M

    2011-08-01

    The growth of accelerated graduate entry nursing programs has challenged traditional approaches to teaching and learning. To date, limited research has been undertaken in the role of learning preferences, language proficiency and academic performance in accelerated programs. Sixty-two first year accelerated graduate entry nursing students, in a single cohort at a university in the western region of Sydney, Australia, were surveyed to assess their learning preference using the Visual, Aural, Read/write and Kinaesthetic (VARK) learning preference questionnaire, together with sociodemographic data, English language acculturation and perceived academic control. Six months following course commencement, the participant's grade point average (GPA) was studied as a measurement of academic performance. A 93% response rate was achieved. The majority of students (62%) reported preference for multiple approaches to learning with the kinaesthetic sensory mode a significant (p=0.009) predictor of academic performance. Students who spoke only English at home had higher mean scores across two of the four categories of VARK sensory modalities, visual and kinaesthetic compared to those who spoke non-English. Further research is warranted to investigate the reasons why the kinaesthetic sensory mode is a predictor of academic performance and to what extent the VARK mean scores of the four learning preference(s) change with improved English language proficiency. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Style Wars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Handberg, Kristian

    2011-01-01

    Postmodernismen er kommet på museum i Victoria and Alberts stort anlagte udstilling Postmodernism. Style and Subversion 1970-1990. Reportage fra en udstilling, der spænder fra filosofi til firserpop og tager den nære fortid på museum....

  1. What methods do stakeholders prefer for feeding back performance data: a qualitative study in palliative care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gysels, Marjolein; Hughes, Rhidian; Aspinal, Fiona; Addington-Hall, Julia M; Higginson, Irene J

    2004-10-01

    To investigate the opinions of stakeholders (service commissioners and providers) on how performance data should be presented, in order to develop effective feedback methods to facilitate the use of these data in decision making. A qualitative analysis of semi-structured face-to-face and telephone interviews. League tables and fictional box plots were presented as an illustrative guide. The themes covered in the interviews were the effectiveness of these two feedback formats, their positive and negative characteristics, and ideas for new and improved feedback mechanisms. Thirty-six stakeholders representing a range of clinical and non-clinical roles within palliative care and the wider health care system across a variety of statutory and non-statutory organizations from London and the West Midlands. Box plots were received more positively than league tables, and qualitative information was considered more appropriate than pictorial feedback. Conventional methods such as league tables and box plots were judged to lack essential information on which important decisions could be based, such as additional contextual information and the methodological assumptions of the instrument. Both feedback methods were considered useful as an impetus to further discussion. There was a consensus that feedback should be constructive and able to be adapted to the organizational realities in which UK health services function. Qualitative research was viewed as the right evidence for gaining an understanding of the quality of end of life care. Stakeholders highlighted the importance of the lay perspective, which requires approaches that illuminate the subjective meanings of patient experience.

  2. Learning style, judgements of learning, and learning of verbal and visual information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knoll, Abby R; Otani, Hajime; Skeel, Reid L; Van Horn, K Roger

    2017-08-01

    The concept of learning style is immensely popular despite the lack of evidence showing that learning style influences performance. This study tested the hypothesis that the popularity of learning style is maintained because it is associated with subjective aspects of learning, such as judgements of learning (JOLs). Preference for verbal and visual information was assessed using the revised Verbalizer-Visualizer Questionnaire (VVQ). Then, participants studied a list of word pairs and a list of picture pairs, making JOLs (immediate, delayed, and global) while studying each list. Learning was tested by cued recall. The results showed that higher VVQ verbalizer scores were associated with higher immediate JOLs for words, and higher VVQ visualizer scores were associated with higher immediate JOLs for pictures. There was no association between VVQ scores and recall or JOL accuracy. As predicted, learning style was associated with subjective aspects of learning but not objective aspects of learning. © 2016 The British Psychological Society.

  3. Conforming and nonconforming personality and stress coping styles in combat athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernacka Ryszarda Ewa

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study was to investigate whether the personality dimension of conformism/nonconformism was a predictor of stress coping styles in athletes training combat sports, and to present the characteristics of this personality dimension in the context of the competitors’ adaptive/innovative sport performance. Scores of 346 males practising combat sports such as kick boxing, MMA, thai boxing, boxing and wrestling were analyzed. The participants completed the Creative Behaviour Questionnaire (KANH III measuring the conformity/nonconformity personality dimension and the Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations (CISS measuring stress coping styles. The comparative analyses were conducted only for the groups of conformists and nonconformists. Differences in stress coping styles between conformists and nonconformists training combat sports were found as nonconformists tended to prefer the task-oriented coping style. Conclusively, a higher rate of nonconformity was associated with increasingly frequent occurrence of task-oriented coping and decreasingly frequent emotion-oriented coping.

  4. Conforming and nonconforming personality and stress coping styles in combat athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernacka, Ryszarda Ewa; Sawicki, Bogusław; Mazurek-Kusiak, Anna; Hawlena, Joanna

    2016-06-01

    The main objective of this study was to investigate whether the personality dimension of conformism/nonconformism was a predictor of stress coping styles in athletes training combat sports, and to present the characteristics of this personality dimension in the context of the competitors' adaptive/innovative sport performance. Scores of 346 males practising combat sports such as kick boxing, MMA, thai boxing, boxing and wrestling were analyzed. The participants completed the Creative Behaviour Questionnaire (KANH III) measuring the conformity/nonconformity personality dimension and the Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations (CISS) measuring stress coping styles. The comparative analyses were conducted only for the groups of conformists and nonconformists. Differences in stress coping styles between conformists and nonconformists training combat sports were found as nonconformists tended to prefer the task-oriented coping style. Conclusively, a higher rate of nonconformity was associated with increasingly frequent occurrence of task-oriented coping and decreasingly frequent emotion-oriented coping.

  5. Classroom Seating Arrangements: Instructional Communication Theory versus Student Preferences

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCroskey, James C.; McVetta, Rod W.

    1978-01-01

    Investigates student preferences for style of classroom seating arrangements (traditional straightrow, horseshoe, and modular) and concludes that seating preferences are influenced by both course attractiveness and student communication apprehension level. (MH)

  6. Dynamic modulation of an orientation preference map by GABA responsible for age-related cognitive performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamoto, Ai; Hasegawa, Jun; Hoshino, Osamu

    2012-11-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that cognitive declines in old (healthy) animals could arise from depression of intracortical inhibition, for which a decreased ability to produce GABA during senescence might be responsible. By simulating a neural network model of a primary visual cortical (V1) area, we investigated whether and how a lack of GABA affects cognitive performance of the network: detection of the orientation of a visual bar-stimulus. The network was composed of pyramidal (P) cells and GABAergic interneurons such as small (S) and large (L) basket cells. Intrasynaptic GABA-release from presynaptic S or L cells contributed to reducing ongoing-spontaneous (background) neuronal activity in a different manner. Namely, the former exerted feedback (S-to-P) inhibition and reduced the frequency (firing rate) of action potentials evoked in P cells. The latter reduced the number of saliently firing P cells through lateral (L-to-P) inhibition. Non-vesicular GABA-release, presumably from glia and/or neurons, into the extracellular space reduced the both, activating extrasynaptic GABAa receptors and providing P cells with tonic inhibitory currents. By this combinatorial, spatiotemporal inhibitory mechanism, the background activity as noise was significantly reduced, compared to the stimulus-evoked activity as signal, thereby improving signal-to-noise (S/N) ratio. Interestingly, GABA-spillover from the intrasynaptic cleft into the extracellular space was effective for improving orientation selectivity (orientation bias), especially when distractors interfered with detecting the bar-stimulus. These simulation results may provide some insight into how the depression of intracortical inhibition due to a reduction in GABA content in the brain leads to age-related cognitive decline.

  7. Learning styles of first-year medical students attending Erciyes University in Kayseri, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baykan, Zeynep; Naçar, Melis

    2007-06-01

    Educational researchers postulate that every individual has a different learning style. The aim of this descriptive study was to determine the learning styles of first-year medical students using the Turkish version of the visual, auditory, read-write, kinesthetic (VARK) questionnaire. This study was performed at the Department of Medical Education of Erciyes University in February 2006. The Turkish version of the VARK questionnaire was administered to first-year medical students to determine their preferred mode of learning. According to the VARK questionnaire, students were divided into five groups (visual learners, read-write learners, auditory learners, kinesthetic learners, and multimodal learners). The unimodality preference was 36.1% and multimodality was 63.9%. Among the students who participated in the study (155 students), 23.3% were kinesthetic, 7.7% were auditory, 3.2% were visual, and 1.9% were read-write learners. Some students preferred multiple modes: bimodal (30.3%), trimodal (20.7%), and quadmodal (12.9%). The learning styles did not differ between male and female students, and no statistically significant difference was determined between the first-semester grade average points and learning styles. Knowing that our students have different preferred learning modes will help the medical instructors in our faculty develop appropriate learning approaches and explore opportunities so that they will be able to make the educational experience more productive.

  8. The psychometric performance of generic preference-based measures for patients with pressure ulcers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palfreyman, Simon; Mulhern, Brendan

    2015-08-01

    Pressure ulcers are wounds that result from reduced mobility, and can have a significant impact on morbidity, mortality and quality of life. As pressure ulcers are a consequence of a wide range of conditions and interventions, it is unclear whether the best means of capturing the quality of life impacts is via generic or condition specific Patient Reported Outcome Measures (PROMs). The aim of this study was to investigate the psychometric performance of the generic EQ-5D and SF-6D amongst patients identified as having or being at risk of developing pressure ulceration. A survey of patients who were using pressure relieving mattresses and other equipment was undertaken within inpatient and community settings using a handheld tablet and postal survey. Data on EQ-5D-3L, SF-12 (used to calculate SF-6D), an EQ-5D dignity bolt-on question, demographic and wound specific questions were collected. Convergent validity was assessed using Spearman's correlations, and agreement using Bland-Altman plots. Known group validity was assessed by examining whether the instruments discriminated between different pressure ulcer severity groups. Multivariate linear regression was used to examine the impact of a range of pressure ulcer related variables. The total number of participants was 307, including 273 from the acute setting (52% response rate) and 41 from the community (32%). SF-6D and EQ-5D were moderately correlated (0.61), suggesting that both instruments were capturing similar quality of life impacts. Both measures were able to significantly discriminate between groups based on the ulcer grade. Presence of a pressure ulcer and number of comorbidities were significant explanatory variables of EQ-5D and SF-6D score. The results suggest that generic PROMs can effectively capture the impact of pressure ulcers on quality of life, although there are significant challenges in collecting data from this group of patients related to poor clinical condition and mental capacity. The most

  9. Indigenous Knowledge Systems and Leadership Styles in Nigerian Work Organisations

    OpenAIRE

    Osarumwense Iguisi

    2016-01-01

    This research project investigated four managerial leadership styles in Nigerian organizations. The research question that the research tries to address is: to what extent are the leadership styles expressed in modern management theories consistent with Nigerian Traditional values? The findings do confirm that the perceived leadership style in the organizations by the managers is autocratic, the preferred style is the paternalistic and the rejected is the autocratic. For about one in five Nig...

  10. Listening styles of undergraduate health students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, T; Boyle, M J; Williams, B; Molloy, A; McKenna, L; Palermo, C; Lewis, B; Molloy, L

    2010-11-01

    Concerns about poor communication in the medical and other healthcare professions are common in the empirical literature, with studies showing direct relationships between practitioners' effective listening and patients' satisfaction and less risk of litigation. Furthermore, people do not simply listen or not listen, rather they adopt particular listening styles, making the understanding and investigation of practitioner communication a complex topic. The objective of this study was to identify the listening styles of undergraduate health science students enrolled at one Australian university. A cross-sectional study using a paper-based version of the Listening Styles Profile (LSP-16) was administered to a cohort of students enrolled in undergraduate education programs in eight different health disciplines: emergency health (paramedics), nursing, midwifery, occupational therapy, physiotherapy, nursing/emergency health dual degree, health science and nutrition and dietetics. The LSP-16 is a validated and reliable scale that assesses participants' preferences for each of four distinct listening style constructs. There were 1459 health students eligible for inclusion in the study. Ethics approval was granted. A total of 860 students participated in the study (response rate of 58%), of whom 87.2% (n=750) were female. Across the group, a strong preference was shown for the People Listening Style (LS), which is a listening style characterised by a concern for people's feelings and emotions. Otherwise, an unexpected amount of homogeneity in preferred listening style was found within the group of health science students. Female students reported a slightly stronger preference for the People LS, whereas males reported slightly stronger preferences for the Action LS and Content LS. There were no statistical differences in preference for LS by students' age or year level of undergraduate enrolment. The health professional student participants of this study reported a

  11. Assessing learning styles of Saudi dental students using Kolb's Learning Style Inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ALQahtani, Dalal A; Al-Gahtani, Sara M

    2014-06-01

    Experiential learning theory (ELT), a theory developed by David Kolb that considers experience to be very important for learning, classifies learners into four categories: Divergers, Assimilators, Convergers, and Accommodators. Kolb used his Learning Style Inventory (LSI) to validate ELT. Knowing the learning styles of students facilitates their understanding of themselves and thereby increases teaching efficiency. Few studies have been conducted that investigate learning preferences of students in the field of dentistry. This study was designed to distinguish learning styles among Saudi dental students and interns utilizing Kolb's LSI. The survey had a response rate of 62 percent (424 of 685 dental students), but surveys with incomplete answers or errors were excluded, resulting in 291 usable surveys (42 percent of the student population). The independent variables of this study were gender, clinical experience level, academic achievement as measured by grade point average (GPA), and specialty interest. The Diverging learning style was the dominant style among those in the sample. While the students preferred the Assimilating style during their early preclinical years, they preferred the Diverging style during their later clinical years. No associations were found between students' learning style and their gender, GPA, or specialty interest. Further research is needed to support these findings and demonstrate the impact of learning styles on dental students' learning.

  12. Teaching for Success: Technology and Learning Styles in Preservice Teacher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solvie, Pamela; Sungur, Engin

    2012-01-01

    This study, using mixed methods design research, examined the achievement of third level preservice teachers when advice in the form of text and resources was provided based on students' identified learning styles. In this study, Kolb's learning style inventory was used to identify students' preferred learning style preferences, and an online…

  13. A study of the relationship between learning styles and cognitive abilities in engineering students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hames, E.; Baker, M.

    2015-03-01

    Learning preferences have been indirectly linked to student success in engineering programmes, without a significant body of research to connect learning preferences with cognitive abilities. A better understanding of the relationship between learning styles and cognitive abilities will allow educators to optimise the classroom experience for students. The goal of this study was to determine whether relationships exist between student learning styles, as determined by the Felder-Soloman Inventory of Learning Styles (FSILS), and their cognitive performance. Three tests were used to assess student's cognitive abilities: a matrix reasoning task, a Tower of London task, and a mental rotation task. Statistical t-tests and correlation coefficients were used to quantify the results. Results indicated that the global-sequential, active-referential, and visual-verbal FSILS learning styles scales are related to performance on cognitive tasks. Most of these relationships were found in response times, not accuracy. Differences in task performance between gender groups (male and female) were more notable than differences between learning styles groups.

  14. Exploring the relation between visualizer-verbalizer cognitive styles and performance with visual or verbal learning material

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kolloffel, Bas Jan

    2012-01-01

    A student might find a certain representational format (e.g., diagram, text) more attractive than other formats for learning. Computer technology offers opportunities to adjust the formats used in learning environments to the preferences of individual learners. The question addressed in the current

  15. Exploring the Relation between Visualizer-Verbalizer Cognitive Styles and Performance with Visual or Verbal Learning Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolloffel, Bas

    2012-01-01

    A student might find a certain representational format (e.g., diagram, text) more attractive than other formats for learning. Computer technology offers opportunities to adjust the formats used in learning environments to the preferences of individual learners. The question addressed in the current study was: does the match between a student's…

  16. Physiological preparedness and performance of Atlantic salmon Salmo salar smolts in relation to behavioural salinity preferences and thresholds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stich, D.S.; Zydlewski, G.B.; Zydlewski, Joseph D.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the relationships between behavioural responses of Atlantic salmon Salmo salarsmolts to saltwater (SW) exposure and physiological characteristics of smolts in laboratory experiments. It concurrently described the behaviour of acoustically tagged smolts with respect to SW and tidal cycles during estuary migration. Salmo salar smolts increased their use of SW relative to fresh water (FW) from April to June in laboratory experiments. Mean preference for SW never exceeded 50% of time in any group. Preference for SW increased throughout the course of smolt development. Maximum continuous time spent in SW was positively related to gill Na+, K+-ATPase (NKA) activity and osmoregulatory performance in full-strength SW (measured as change in gill NKA activity and plasma osmolality). Smolts decreased depth upon reaching areas of the Penobscot Estuary where SW was present, and all fish became more surface oriented during passage from head of tide to the ocean. Acoustically tagged, migrating smolts with low gill NKA activity moved faster in FW reaches of the estuary than those with higher gill NKA activity. There was no difference in movement rate through SW reaches of the estuary based on gill NKA activity. Migrating fish moved with tidal flow during the passage of the lower estuary based on the observed patterns in both vertical and horizontal movements. The results indicate that smolts select low-salinity water during estuary migration and use tidal currents to minimize energetic investment in seaward migration. Seasonal changes in osmoregulatory ability highlight the importance of the timing of stocking and estuary arrival.

  17. Physiological preparedness and performance of Atlantic salmon Salmo salar smolts in relation to behavioural salinity preferences and thresholds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stich, D S; Zydlewski, G B; Zydlewski, J D

    2016-02-01

    This study investigated the relationships between behavioural responses of Atlantic salmon Salmo salar smolts to saltwater (SW) exposure and physiological characteristics of smolts in laboratory experiments. It concurrently described the behaviour of acoustically tagged smolts with respect to SW and tidal cycles during estuary migration. Salmo salar smolts increased their use of SW relative to fresh water (FW) from April to June in laboratory experiments. Mean preference for SW never exceeded 50% of time in any group. Preference for SW increased throughout the course of smolt development. Maximum continuous time spent in SW was positively related to gill Na(+), K(+)-ATPase (NKA) activity and osmoregulatory performance in full-strength SW (measured as change in gill NKA activity and plasma osmolality). Smolts decreased depth upon reaching areas of the Penobscot Estuary where SW was present, and all fish became more surface oriented during passage from head of tide to the ocean. Acoustically tagged, migrating smolts with low gill NKA activity moved faster in FW reaches of the estuary than those with higher gill NKA activity. There was no difference in movement rate through SW reaches of the estuary based on gill NKA activity. Migrating fish moved with tidal flow during the passage of the lower estuary based on the observed patterns in both vertical and horizontal movements. The results indicate that smolts select low-salinity water during estuary migration and use tidal currents to minimize energetic investment in seaward migration. Seasonal changes in osmoregulatory ability highlight the importance of the timing of stocking and estuary arrival. © 2015 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  18. Toddlers' musical preferences: musical preference and musical memory in the early years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamont, Alexandra

    2003-11-01

    The current paper reports a pilot study of the preferences of children aged 2-3.5 years for different kinds of music. With the use of a novel interactive procedure to measure active preferences, preliminary results indicate general preferences for fast and loud music irrespective of style.

  19. LANGUAGE LEARNING STRATEGY PREFERENCES OF TURKISH STUDENTS

    OpenAIRE

    Selma Deneme

    2008-01-01

    A learning style is a preferred way of acquiring knowledge and processing information. Learning styles may differ depending on gender, age, or culture. Niles (1995) in his study “Cultural Differences in Learning Motivation and Learning Strategies” studied the cultural impact on learning strategies and found considerable differences between culturally different students.Providing evidence for the relationship between culture and learning strategy preference and use, this study aims at examinin...

  20. Detection Learning Style Vark For Out Of School Children (OSC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amran, Ali; Desiani, Anita; Hasibuan, MS

    2017-04-01

    Learning style is different for every learner especially for out of school children or OSC. They are not like formal students, they are learners but they don’t have a teacher as a guide for learning. E-learning is one of the solutions to help OSC to get education. E-learning should have preferred learning styles of learners. Data for identifying the learning style in this study were collected with a VARK questionnaire from 25 OSC in junior high school level from 5 municipalities in Palembang. The validity of the questionnaire was considered on basis of experts’ views and its reliability was calculated by using Cronbach’s alpha coefficients (α=0.68). Overall, 55% preferred to use a single learning style (Uni-modal). Of these, 27,76% preferred Aural, 20,57% preferred Reading Writing, 33,33% preferred Kinaesthetic and 23,13% preferred Visual. 45% of OSC preferred more than one style, 30% chose two-modes (bimodal), and 15% chose three-modes (tri-modal). The Most preferred Learning style of OSC is kinaesthetic learning. Kinaesthetic learning requires body movements, interactivities, and direct contacts with learning materials, these things can be difficult to implement in eLearning, but E-learning should be able to adopt any learning styles which are flexible in terms of time, period, curriculum, pedagogy, location, and language.