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Sample records for style predicted higher

  1. Physics Learning Styles in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loos, Rebecca; Ward, James

    2012-03-01

    Students in Physics learn in a variety ways depending on backgrounds and interests. This study proposes to evaluate how students in Physics learn using Howard Gardner's Theory of Multiple Intelligences. Physics utilizes numbers, conceptualization of models, observations and visualization skills, and the ability to understand and reflect on specific information. The main objective is to evaluate how Physics students learn specifically using spatial, visual and sequential approaches. This will be assessed by conducting a learning style survey provided by North Carolina State University (NCSU). The survey is completed online by the student after which the results are sent to NCSU. Students will print out the completed survey analysis for further evaluation. The NCSU results categorize students within five of ten learning styles. After the evaluation of Howard Gardner's Theory of Multiple Intelligences and the NCSU definitions of the ten learning styles, the NCSU sensing and visual learning styles will be defined as the Gardener's spatial, visual learning styles. NCSU's sequential learning style will be looked at separately. With the survey results, it can be determined if Physics students fall within the hypothesized learning styles.

  2. Generational Perspective of Higher Education Online Student Learning Styles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Chad J.; Matt, John J.; O'Reilly, Frances L.

    2014-01-01

    A study was conducted of students participating in on-line academic courses in institutions of higher education to ascertain if there was a generational influence on learning styles. The specific research question was: What, if any, relationships exist among learning styles, generational groups, and satisfaction with online learning? Inferential…

  3. The Learning Styles Myth is Thriving in Higher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, Philip M

    2015-01-01

    The existence of 'Learning Styles' is a common 'neuromyth', and their use in all forms of education has been thoroughly and repeatedly discredited in the research literature. However, anecdotal evidence suggests that their use remains widespread. This perspective article is an attempt to understand if and why the myth of Learning Styles persists. I have done this by analyzing the current research literature to capture the picture that an educator would encounter were they to search for "Learning Styles" with the intent of determining whether the research evidence supported their use. The overwhelming majority (89%) of recent research papers, listed in the ERIC and PubMed research databases, implicitly or directly endorse the use of Learning Styles in Higher Education. These papers are dominated by the VAK and Kolb Learning Styles inventories. These presence of these papers in the pedagogical literature demonstrates that an educator, attempting to take an evidence-based approach to education, would be presented with a strong yet misleading message that the use of Learning Styles is endorsed by the current research literature. This has potentially negative consequences for students and for the field of education research.

  4. Leadership Styles of Effective Female Administrators in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hough, Mayra Alayon

    2010-01-01

    The increase number of females in leadership positions provides new opportunities to observe them as leaders. The purpose of this research was to study leadership and to identify the contextual, societal and cultural factors that determined and influenced the styles of leadership of female executives in higher education. The study profiled the…

  5. Leadership Style and Job Satisfaction in Higher Education Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonderiene, Raimonda; Majauskaite, Modesta

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Although leadership is found to have impact on the followers' attitudes and performance there is a gap in leadership studies in HEIs, especially having Lithuania in mind. The purpose of this paper is to study the impact of leadership style on job satisfaction of faculty in higher education institutions (HEI). Design/methodology/approach:…

  6. The Learning Styles myth is thriving in higher education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phil eNewton

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The existence of ‘Learning Styles’ is a common ‘neuromyth’, and their use in all forms of education has been thoroughly and repeatedly discredited in the research literature. However, anecdotal evidence suggests that their use remains widespread. This perspective article is an attempt to understand if and why the myth of Learning Styles persists. I have done this by analysing the current research literature to capture the picture that an educator would encounter were they to search for Learning Styles with the intent of determining whether the research evidence supported their use.The overwhelming majority (89% of recent research papers, listed in the ERIC and PubMed research databases, implicitly or directly endorse the use of Learning Styles in Higher Education. These papers are dominated by the VAK and Kolb Learning Styles inventories. These presence of these papers in the pedagogical literature demonstrates that an educator, attempting to take an evidence-based approach to education, would be presented with a strong yet misleading message that the use of Learning Styles is endorsed by the current research literature. This has potentially negative consequences for students and for the field of education research.

  7. Negative cognitive style and looming cognitive style synergistically predict stress generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleiman, Evan M; Riskind, John H

    2014-05-01

    There is a growing body of evidence that suggests that cognitive vulnerabilities to depression or anxiety may lead individuals to generate negative interpersonal life events. However, there has been no study to date that examines the effects of co-occurring vulnerabilities to depression and anxiety. In a sample of 304 participants, we examined the potential interaction of co-occurring negative cognitive style, a vulnerability to depression and looming cognitive style, vulnerability to anxiety. Results indicate that co-occurring cognitive vulnerabilities synergistically predict higher levels of negative interpersonal life events six weeks later, even when controlling for initial levels of stressful life events and symptoms of depression and anxiety. Thus, co-occurring vulnerabilities may have stronger stress generating effects than would be expected from the additive effects of each vulnerability considered separately. This finding highlights the importance of examining cognitive vulnerabilities as interactive effects rather than as individual vulnerabilities.

  8. Predicting coping styles in adolescence following trauma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Dorte Mølgaard; Hansen, Maj; Elklit, Ask

    2013-01-01

    , there is a lack of research investigating the interplay between these individual characteristics and their combined effect on different coping styles. It is of special importance to identify maladaptive coping styles in adolescents because they may be prone to use these coping styles for the rest of their lives...

  9. Parental feeding practices predict authoritative, authoritarian, and permissive parenting styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbs-Tait, Laura; Kennedy, Tay Seacord; Page, Melanie C; Topham, Glade L; Harrist, Amanda W

    2008-07-01

    Our goal was to identify how parental feeding practices from the nutrition literature link to general parenting styles from the child development literature to understand how to target parenting practices to increase effectiveness of interventions. Stand-alone parental feeding practices could be targeted independently. However, parental feeding practices linked to parenting styles require interventions treating underlying family dynamics as a whole. To predict parenting styles from feeding practices and to test three hypotheses: restriction and pressure to eat are positively related whereas responsibility, monitoring, modeling, and encouraging are negatively related to an authoritarian parenting style; responsibility, monitoring, modeling, and encouraging are positively related whereas restriction and pressure to eat are negatively related to an authoritative parenting style; a permissive parenting style is negatively linked with all six feeding practices. Baseline data of a randomized-controlled intervention study. Two hundred thirty-nine parents (93.5% mothers) of first-grade children (134 boys, 105 girls) enrolled in rural public schools. Parental responses to encouraging and modeling questionnaires and the Child Feeding Questionnaire, as well as parenting styles measured by the Parenting Styles and Dimensions Questionnaire. Correlation and regression analyses. Feeding practices explained 21%, 15%, and 8% of the variance in authoritative, authoritarian, and permissive parenting, respectively. Restriction, pressure to eat, and monitoring (negative) significantly predicted an authoritarian style (Hypothesis 1); responsibility, restriction (negative), monitoring, and modeling predicted an authoritative style (Hypothesis 2); and modeling (negative) and restriction significantly predicted a permissive style (Hypothesis 3). Parental feeding practices with young children predict general parenting styles. Interventions that fail to address underlying parenting styles

  10. Predicting Learners Styles Based on Fuzzy Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alian, Marwah; Shaout, Adnan

    2017-01-01

    Learners style is grouped into four types mainly; Visual, auditory, kinesthetic and Read/Write. Each type of learners learns primarily through one of the main receiving senses, visual, listening, or by doing. Learner style has an effect on the learning process and learner's achievement. It is better to select suitable learning tool for the learner…

  11. Predicted Employee Compliance to Downward Communication Styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCallister, Linda

    1983-01-01

    Found that while beginning managers enrolled in a graduate management course overwhelmingly endorsed a nondirective/permissive style of manager-employee communication, they expected compliance from employees only when managers used a directive/autocratic style of communication. Discusses implications for management training and relationship with…

  12. Gender Differences in Leadership Style: A Study of Leader Effectiveness in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonaros, Mary E.

    2010-01-01

    This study examines gender differences in leadership style and the influence of these differences on perceived leader effectiveness in higher education. Leadership style is defined in gendered terms, which include traditionally agentic styles for men and communal styles for women, and therefore transformational and transactional leadership styles…

  13. Genetic selection for coping style predicts stressor susceptibility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veenema, AH; Meijer, OC; de Kloet, ER; Koolhaas, JM

    Genetically selected aggressive (SAL) and nonaggressive (LAL) male wild house-mice which show distinctly different coping styles, also display a differential regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis after exposure to an acute stressor. To test the hypothesis that coping style predicts

  14. Predicting Early Maladaptive Schemas Using Baumrind's Parenting Styles

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Esmali Kooraneh, Ahmad; Amirsardari, Leili

    2015-01-01

    .... The family provides the first and the most important social context for human development. The present study aimed to predict early maladaptive schemas using Baumrind's parenting styles (root development...

  15. Predicting coping style in adolescence following trauma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Dorte Mølgaard; Hansen, Maj; Elklit, Ask

    of research investigating the combined effect of several individual characteristics coping. It is of special importance to identify maladaptive coping in adolescents, because they are likely to use these coping styles for the rest of their lives. The present study used a cross-sectional design to investigate...

  16. Predicting Early Maladaptive Schemas Using Baumrind's Parenting Styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esmali Kooraneh, Ahmad; Amirsardari, Leili

    2015-06-01

    Families play an essential role in maintaining children's mental, social, and physical health. The family provides the first and the most important social context for human development. The present study aimed to predict early maladaptive schemas using Baumrind's parenting styles (root development). A total of 357 undergraduate students of Islamic Azad University, Urmia Branch, Iran, were selected through random cluster sampling during 2013 and 2014. The students were assessed using the Schema Questionnaire-Short Form (SQ-SF) and the Baumrind's parenting styles inventories. The result of regression analysis showed that Baumrind's parenting styles are significant predictors of early maladaptive schemas (P parenting style has some features such as showing high levels of warmth or encouraging kids to express their own possibly divergent opinions. The authoritarian parenting style, however, possesses traits such as heartlessness, impassiveness, strictness, and lack of attention to the children's developmental needs, which is not acceptable.

  17. Generational Perspective of Higher Education Online Student Learning Styles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Chad James

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether students associated with a generational group exhibit similar learning styles as identified by the Felder and Soloman Index of Learning Styles instrument. The secondary purpose was to determine to what degree these generational groups rate their satisfaction with online education through the use…

  18. Genetic selection for coping style predicts stressor susceptibility

    OpenAIRE

    Veenema, AH; Meijer, OC; de Kloet, ER; Koolhaas, JM

    2003-01-01

    Genetically selected aggressive (SAL) and nonaggressive (LAL) male wild house-mice which show distinctly different coping styles, also display a differential regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis after exposure to an acute stressor. To test the hypothesis that coping style predicts stressor susceptibility, the present study examined line differences in response to a chronic stressor. Chronic psychosocial stress was evoked using two paradigms. In the first paradigm, a SAL or LA...

  19. Productive procrastination: academic procrastination style predicts academic and alcohol outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westgate, Erin C; Wormington, Stephanie V; Oleson, Kathryn C; Lindgren, Kristen P

    2017-03-01

    Productive procrastination replaces one adaptive behavior with another adaptive-albeit less important-behavior (e.g., organizing notes instead of studying for an exam). We identified adaptive and maladaptive procrastination styles associated with academic and alcohol outcomes in 1106 college undergraduates. Cluster analysis identified five academic procrastination styles- non-procrastinators , academic productive procrastinators , non-academic productive procrastinators, non-academic procrastinators , and classic procrastinators . Procrastination style differentially predicted alcohol-related problems, cravings, risk of alcohol use disorders, and GPA (all ps procrastination and academic productive procrastination were most adaptive overall; non-academic productive procrastination, non-academic procrastination, and classic procrastination were least adaptive. Productive procrastination differed from other procrastination strategies, and maladaptive procrastination styles may be a useful risk indicator for preventative and intervention efforts.

  20. Personality and Defense Styles: Clinical Specificities and Predictive Factors of Alcohol Use Disorder in Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribadier, Aurélien; Dorard, Géraldine; Varescon, Isabelle

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated personality traits and defense styles in order to determine clinical specificities and predictive factors of alcohol use disorders (AUDs) in women. A female sample, composed of AUD outpatients (n = 48) and a control group (n = 50), completed a sociodemographic self-report and questionnaires assessing personality traits (BFI), defense mechanisms and defense styles (DSQ-40). Comparative and correlational analyses, as well as univariate and multivariate logistic regressions, were performed. AUD women presented with higher neuroticism and lower extraversion and conscientiousness. They used less mature and more neurotic and immature defense styles than the control group. Concerning personality traits, high neuroticism and lower conscientiousness were predictive of AUD, as well as low mature, high neurotic, and immature defense styles. Including personality traits and defense styles in a logistic model, high neuroticism was the only AUD predictive factor. AUD women presented clinical specificities and predictive factors in personality traits and defense styles that must be taken into account in AUD studies. Implications for specific treatment for women are discussed.

  1. Genetic selection for coping style predicts stressor susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veenema, A H; Meijer, O C; de Kloet, E R; Koolhaas, J M

    2003-03-01

    Genetically selected aggressive (SAL) and nonaggressive (LAL) male wild house-mice which show distinctly different coping styles, also display a differential regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis after exposure to an acute stressor. To test the hypothesis that coping style predicts stressor susceptibility, the present study examined line differences in response to a chronic stressor. Chronic psychosocial stress was evoked using two paradigms. In the first paradigm, a SAL or LAL male was living in sensory contact (except tactile contact) with a dominant SAL male for 25 days (sensory contact stress). In the second paradigm, a SAL or LAL male was, in addition to the first paradigm, defeated by a SAL male for 21 consecutive days (defeat stress). The sensory contact stressor induced in LAL mice chronic body weight loss and increased plasma adrenocorticotropic hormone levels compared to SAL mice and increased corticosterone levels, thymus involution and lower hippocampal mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) : glucocorticoid receptor (GR) ratio compared to LAL controls. The defeat stressor increased corticosterone secretion and caused adrenal hypertrophy and thymus involution in both mouse lines. Defeated LAL mice showed long-lasting body weight loss and higher corticosterone concentrations than SAL mice and lower hippocampal MR : GR ratio and decreased immobility behaviour in the forced swimming test than LAL controls. Hypothalamic corticotropin-releasing hormone mRNA expression was higher in defeated SAL than in controls. The present data show that both stress paradigms induced line-dependent physiological and neuroendocrine changes, but that the sensory contact stressor produced chronic stress symptoms in LAL mice only. This latter stress paradigm therefore seems promising to analyse the role of genetic factors in the individual differences in stress-related psychopathology.

  2. Decision Styles and Rationality: An Analysis of the Predictive Validity of the General Decision-Making Style Inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curseu, Petru Lucian; Schruijer, Sandra G. L.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the relationship between the five decision-making styles evaluated by the General Decision-Making Style Inventory, indecisiveness, and rationality in decision making. Using a sample of 102 middle-level managers, the results show that the rational style positively predicts rationality in decision making and negatively…

  3. Women in Leadership in Higher Education: Leadership Styles and the "Glass Ceiling"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael, Rebecka

    2013-01-01

    Women in upper-level leadership positions in higher education are underrepresented. This study examined the predominant leadership styles of women who have achieved upper-level leadership positions in higher education explored intentional changes in their leadership styles. Primarily, the study sought to determine if these leaders had similar…

  4. Can learning style predict student satisfaction with different instruction methods and academic achievement in medical education?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurpinar, Erol; Alimoglu, Mustafa Kemal; Mamakli, Sumer; Aktekin, Mehmet

    2010-12-01

    The curriculum of our medical school has a hybrid structure including both traditional training (lectures) and problem-based learning (PBL) applications. The purpose of this study was to determine the learning styles of our medical students and investigate the relation of learning styles with each of satisfaction with different instruction methods and academic achievement in them. This study was carried out with the participation of 170 first-year medical students (the participation rate was 91.4%). The researchers prepared sociodemographic and satisfaction questionnaires to determine the characteristics of the participants and their satisfaction levels with traditional training and PBL. The Kolb learning styles inventory was used to explore the learning styles of the study group. The participants completed all forms at the end of the first year of medical education. Indicators of academic achievement were scores of five theoretical block exams and five PBL exams performed throughout the academic year of 2008-2009. The majority of the participants took part in the "diverging" (n = 84, 47.7%) and "assimilating" (n = 73, 41.5%) groups. Numbers of students in the "converging" and "accommodating" groups were 11 (6.3%) and 8 (4.5%), respectively. In all learning style groups, PBL satisfaction scores were significantly higher than those of traditional training. Exam scores for "PBL and traditional training" did not differ among the four learning styles. In logistic regression analysis, learning style (assimilating) predicted student satisfaction with traditional training and success in theoretical block exams. Nothing predicted PBL satisfaction and success. This is the first study conducted among medical students evaluating the relation of learning style with student satisfaction and academic achievement. More research with larger groups is needed to generalize our results. Some learning styles may relate to satisfaction with and achievement in some instruction methods.

  5. Prediction of Addiction Potential in Youth According to Attachment Styles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdieh Adroom

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: The present study aim is to predict the psychological inclination to drug use in youths by studying their attachment styles. Materials and Methods: The research sample includes male and female students of Zahedan Medical Science University with the average age of 19-24. The proportional cluster random sampling was used for selection of participant. The hypotheses were analyzed, using Pearson correlation method, regression analysis, one way variance analysis and t-test for two independent groups4T. Results: The results indicated positive relationships among addiction aptitude and insecure-avoidant attachment style and negative relationship between addiction aptitude and secure attachment style4T. Conclusion: It is necessary to focus training intervention and prevention on all students4T.

  6. Evidence-Based Higher Education - Is the Learning Styles 'Myth' Important?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, Philip M; Miah, Mahallad

    2017-01-01

    The basic idea behind the use of 'Learning Styles' is that learners can be categorized into one or more 'styles' (e.g., Visual, Auditory, Converger) and that teaching students according to their style will result in improved learning. This idea has been repeatedly tested and there is currently no evidence to support it. Despite this, belief in the use of Learning Styles appears to be widespread amongst schoolteachers and persists in the research literature. This mismatch between evidence and practice has provoked controversy, and some have labeled Learning Styles a 'myth.' In this study, we used a survey of academics in UK Higher Education ( n = 114) to try and go beyond the controversy by quantifying belief and, crucially, actual use of Learning Styles. We also attempted to understand how academics view the potential harms associated with the use of Learning Styles. We found that general belief in the use of Learning Styles was high (58%), but lower than in similar previous studies, continuing an overall downward trend in recent years. Critically the percentage of respondents who reported actually using Learning Styles (33%) was much lower than those who reported believing in their use. Far more reported using a number of techniques that are demonstrably evidence-based. Academics agreed with all the posited weaknesses and harms of Learning Styles theory, agreeing most strongly that the basic theory of Learning Styles is conceptually flawed. However, a substantial number of participants (32%) stated that they would continue to use Learning Styles despite being presented with the lack of an evidence base to support them, suggesting that 'debunking' Learning Styles may not be effective. We argue that the interests of all may be better served by promoting evidence-based approaches to Higher Education.

  7. The importance of thinking styles in predicting binge eating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikčević, A V; Marino, C; Caselli, G; Spada, M M

    2017-08-01

    Impulsivity, Body Mass Index, negative emotions and irrational food beliefs are often reported as predictors of binge eating. In the current study we explored the role played by two thinking styles, namely food thought suppression and desire thinking, in predicting binge eating among young adults controlling for established predictors of this condition. A total of 338 university students (268 females) participated in this study by completing a battery of questionnaires measuring the study variables. Path analysis revealed that impulsivity was not associated with binge eating, that Body Mass Index and negative emotions predicted binge eating, and that irrational food beliefs only influenced binge eating via food thought suppression and desire thinking. In conclusion, thinking styles appear an important predictor of binge eating and they should be taken into consideration when developing clinical interventions for binge eating. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Predicting Early Maladaptive Schemas Using Baumrind?s Parenting Styles

    OpenAIRE

    Esmali Kooraneh, Ahmad; Amirsardari, Leili

    2015-01-01

    Background: Families play an essential role in maintaining children?s mental, social, and physical health. The family provides the first and the most important social context for human development. Objectives: The present study aimed to predict early maladaptive schemas using Baumrind?s parenting styles (root development). Patients and Methods: A total of 357 undergraduate students of Islamic Azad University, Urmia Branch, Iran, were selected through random cluster sampling during 2013 and 20...

  9. Evidence-Based Higher Education – Is the Learning Styles ‘Myth’ Important?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, Philip M.; Miah, Mahallad

    2017-01-01

    The basic idea behind the use of ‘Learning Styles’ is that learners can be categorized into one or more ‘styles’ (e.g., Visual, Auditory, Converger) and that teaching students according to their style will result in improved learning. This idea has been repeatedly tested and there is currently no evidence to support it. Despite this, belief in the use of Learning Styles appears to be widespread amongst schoolteachers and persists in the research literature. This mismatch between evidence and practice has provoked controversy, and some have labeled Learning Styles a ‘myth.’ In this study, we used a survey of academics in UK Higher Education (n = 114) to try and go beyond the controversy by quantifying belief and, crucially, actual use of Learning Styles. We also attempted to understand how academics view the potential harms associated with the use of Learning Styles. We found that general belief in the use of Learning Styles was high (58%), but lower than in similar previous studies, continuing an overall downward trend in recent years. Critically the percentage of respondents who reported actually using Learning Styles (33%) was much lower than those who reported believing in their use. Far more reported using a number of techniques that are demonstrably evidence-based. Academics agreed with all the posited weaknesses and harms of Learning Styles theory, agreeing most strongly that the basic theory of Learning Styles is conceptually flawed. However, a substantial number of participants (32%) stated that they would continue to use Learning Styles despite being presented with the lack of an evidence base to support them, suggesting that ‘debunking’ Learning Styles may not be effective. We argue that the interests of all may be better served by promoting evidence-based approaches to Higher Education. PMID:28396647

  10. Fuzzy-logic based learning style prediction in e-learning using web ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Sadhana; Volume 40; Issue 2. Fuzzy-logic based ... This paper identifies Felder–Silverman learning style model as a suitable model for learning style prediction, especially in web environments and proposes to use Fuzzy rules to handle the uncertainty in the learning style predictions. The evaluations have ...

  11. Democracy and Capitalism, Academic Style: Governance in Contemporary Higher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhoades, Gary

    Patterns of governance in U.S. higher education are being shaped by patterns of academic capitalism in a new economy. The past 30 years have seen a shift from an academy shaped by an "academic revolution" to one shaped by a "managerial revolution" of increasingly powerful strategic academic managers. The structure of the…

  12. Attachment style predicts affect, cognitive appraisals, and social functioning in daily life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheinbaum, Tamara; Kwapil, Thomas R; Ballespí, Sergi; Mitjavila, Mercè; Chun, Charlotte A; Silvia, Paul J; Barrantes-Vidal, Neus

    2015-01-01

    The way in which attachment styles are expressed in the moment as individuals navigate their real-life settings has remained an area largely untapped by attachment research. The present study examined how adult attachment styles are expressed in daily life using experience sampling methodology (ESM) in a sample of 206 Spanish young adults. Participants were administered the Attachment Style Interview (ASI) and received personal digital assistants that signaled them randomly eight times per day for 1 week to complete questionnaires about their current experiences and social context. As hypothesized, participants' momentary affective states, cognitive appraisals, and social functioning varied in meaningful ways as a function of their attachment style. Individuals with an anxious attachment, as compared with securely attached individuals, endorsed experiences that were congruent with hyperactivating tendencies, such as higher negative affect, stress, and perceived social rejection. By contrast, individuals with an avoidant attachment, relative to individuals with a secure attachment, endorsed experiences that were consistent with deactivating tendencies, such as decreased positive states and a decreased desire to be with others when alone. Furthermore, the expression of attachment styles in social contexts was shown to be dependent upon the subjective appraisal of the closeness of social contacts, and not merely upon the presence of social interactions. The findings support the ecological validity of the ASI and the person-by-situation character of attachment theory. Moreover, they highlight the utility of ESM for investigating how the predictions derived from attachment theory play out in the natural flow of real life.

  13. Attachment style predicts affect, cognitive appraisals, and social functioning in daily life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheinbaum, Tamara; Kwapil, Thomas R.; Ballespí, Sergi; Mitjavila, Mercè; Chun, Charlotte A.; Silvia, Paul J.; Barrantes-Vidal, Neus

    2015-01-01

    The way in which attachment styles are expressed in the moment as individuals navigate their real-life settings has remained an area largely untapped by attachment research. The present study examined how adult attachment styles are expressed in daily life using experience sampling methodology (ESM) in a sample of 206 Spanish young adults. Participants were administered the Attachment Style Interview (ASI) and received personal digital assistants that signaled them randomly eight times per day for 1 week to complete questionnaires about their current experiences and social context. As hypothesized, participants’ momentary affective states, cognitive appraisals, and social functioning varied in meaningful ways as a function of their attachment style. Individuals with an anxious attachment, as compared with securely attached individuals, endorsed experiences that were congruent with hyperactivating tendencies, such as higher negative affect, stress, and perceived social rejection. By contrast, individuals with an avoidant attachment, relative to individuals with a secure attachment, endorsed experiences that were consistent with deactivating tendencies, such as decreased positive states and a decreased desire to be with others when alone. Furthermore, the expression of attachment styles in social contexts was shown to be dependent upon the subjective appraisal of the closeness of social contacts, and not merely upon the presence of social interactions. The findings support the ecological validity of the ASI and the person-by-situation character of attachment theory. Moreover, they highlight the utility of ESM for investigating how the predictions derived from attachment theory play out in the natural flow of real life. PMID:25852613

  14. Perceived Principals' Leadership Styles and Faculty Job Satisfaction in Higher Theological Institutions of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: Is There a Difference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamrat Zeleke, Frew

    2013-01-01

    The job satisfaction of higher education faculty can be affected by the kind of leadership style practiced by leaders of an institution. This study examined perceived principals' leadership styles related to faculty job satisfaction in Higher Theological Institutions of Addis Ababa (HTIAA), Ethiopia. Leadership style in this study was defined as…

  15. The hypothesis of matching about styles of learning and teaching at Higher Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Clara Ventura

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A review of learning and teaching styles matching at university over the last ten years is presented. For this purpose, a review was carried out of the Dialnet, Redalyc, Scielo and Doaj data bases due to their scope and importance in the Hispanic context. The descriptors used in the search for information were the key words: learning styles, teaching styles and higher education. The data bases consulted produced a total of 53 papers, with only 17 of these complying with all the criteria for inclusion (paper: empirical research; sample: university;object: correspondence learning and teaching styles; time period 2002-2012; Spanish language. The literature review showed that the matching is researched and understanding from two approaches: (1 adaptive instruction or (2 stylistics. Results are discussed.

  16. Attachment Style Predicts Affect, Cognitive Appraisals, and Social Functioning in Daily Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara eSheinbaum

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The way in which attachment styles are expressed in the moment as individuals navigate their real-life settings has remained an area largely untapped by attachment research. The present study examined how adult attachment styles are expressed in daily life using Experience Sampling Methodology (ESM in a sample of 206 Spanish young adults. Participants were administered the Attachment Style Interview and received personal digital assistants that signaled them randomly eight times per day for one week to complete questionnaires about their current experiences and social context. As hypothesized, participants’ momentary affective states, cognitive appraisals, and social functioning varied in meaningful ways as a function of their attachment style. Individuals with an anxious attachment, as compared with securely attached individuals, endorsed experiences that were congruent with hyperactivating tendencies, such as higher negative affect, stress, and perceived social rejection. By contrast, individuals with an avoidant attachment, relative to individuals with a secure attachment, endorsed experiences that were consistent with deactivating tendencies, such as decreased positive states and a decreased desire to be with others when alone. Furthermore, the expression of attachment styles in social contexts was shown to be dependent upon the subjective appraisal of the closeness of social contacts, and not merely upon the presence of social interactions. The findings support the ecological validity of the Attachment Style Interview and the person-by-situation character of attachment theory. Moreover, they highlight the utility of ESM for investigating how the predictions derived from attachment theory play out in the natural flow of real life.

  17. Predicting Personality Disorder Functioning Styles by the Five-Factor Nonverbal Personality Questionnaire in Healthy Volunteers and Personality Disorder Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Qianqian; Ma, Guorong; Zhu, Qisha; Fan, Hongying; Wang, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Detecting personality disorders in the illiterate population is a challenge, but nonverbal tools measuring personality traits such as the Five-Factor Nonverbal Personality Questionnaire (FFNPQ) might help. We hypothesized that FFNPQ traits are associated with personality disorder functioning styles in a predictable way, especially in a sample of personality disorder patients. We therefore invited 106 personality disorder patients and 205 healthy volunteers to answer the FFNPQ and the Parker Personality Measure (PERM) which measures 11 personality disorder functioning styles. Patients scored significantly higher on the FFNPQ neuroticism and conscientiousness traits and all 11 PERM styles. In both groups, the 5 FFNPQ traits displayed extensive associations with the 11 PERM styles, respectively, and the associations were more specific in patients. Associations between neuroticism, extraversion and agreeableness traits and most PERM styles were less exclusive, but conscientiousness was associated with antisocial (-) and obsessive-compulsive styles, and openness to experience with schizotypal and dependent (-) styles. Our study has demonstrated correlations between FFNPQ traits and PERM styles, and implies the nonverbal measure of personality traits is capable of aiding the diagnoses of personality disorders in the illiterate population. Enlarging sample size and including the illiterate might make for more stable results. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. Investigating the Relationships between Teaching Strategies and Learning Styles in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tulbure, Cristina

    2012-01-01

    Within this paper, we are focusing on the relationships between teaching strategies, learning styles, and the students' academic achievement in higher education. The main objective of this study is to compare three groups of pre-service teachers having different majors (i.e., Educational Sciences, Economic Sciences, and Foreign Languages) in order…

  19. Intellectual ability, learning style, personality, achievement motivation and academic success of psychology students in higher education.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Busato, V.V.; Prins, F.J.; Elshout, J.J.; Hamaker, C.

    2000-01-01

    This study is directed towards an integration of intellectual ability, learning style, personality and achievement motivation as predictors of academic success in higher education. Correlational analyses partly confirmed and partly disconfirmed our expectations in a sample of 409 first-year

  20. Differentiating instruction upon learning styles in higher education: A controversial issue

    OpenAIRE

    Tulbure, C.

    2011-01-01

    Within the frame of this paper we are going to observe the extent to which differentiated instruction according to the student’s learning styles has as result the improvement of academic achievement on a higher educational level. Our study aims at providing support in both theory and research for differentiated instruction based on students’ learning preferences. Overall, this study brings arguments to illustrate the idea that differentiated instruction leads to higher academic achievement co...

  1. Analytic Cognitive Style Predicts Religious and Paranormal Belief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennycook, Gordon; Cheyne, James Allan; Seli, Paul; Koehler, Derek J.; Fugelsang, Jonathan A.

    2012-01-01

    An analytic cognitive style denotes a propensity to set aside highly salient intuitions when engaging in problem solving. We assess the hypothesis that an analytic cognitive style is associated with a history of questioning, altering, and rejecting (i.e., unbelieving) supernatural claims, both religious and paranormal. In two studies, we examined…

  2. Reward and Punishment Histories: A Way of Predicting Teaching Style?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Joan H.; Amidon, Edmund J.

    2004-01-01

    The authors used preservice teachers' (N = 172) reports of their childhood experiences involving reward and punishment within their families to identify ideal perceptions of direct or indirect teaching style. The most consistent relationship of childhood experience with reward and punishment and perceived teaching style was between the reward…

  3. Goal Orientation among Boys and Girls in Higher Secondary Schools of Kerala: How Parenting Styles Influence It?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gafoor, Kunnathodi Abdul; Kurukkan, Abidha

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to investigate the relation between parenting style and goal orientation among boys and girls in higher secondary schools of Kerala. Four types of parenting style and five categories of goal orientation. The sample comprised of 467 girls and 365 boys from higher secondary school in Kerala who were selected through…

  4. Psychoticism, Immature Defense Mechanisms and a Fearful Attachment Style are Associated with a Higher Homophobic Attitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciocca, Giacomo; Tuziak, Bogdan; Limoncin, Erika; Mollaioli, Daniele; Capuano, Nicolina; Martini, Alessia; Carosa, Eleonora; Fisher, Alessandra D; Maggi, Mario; Niolu, Cinzia; Siracusano, Alberto; Lenzi, Andrea; Jannini, Emmanuele A

    2015-09-01

    Homophobic behavior and a negative attitude toward homosexuals are prevalent among the population. Despite this, few researches have investigated the psychologic aspects associated with homophobia, as psychopathologic symptoms, the defensive system, and attachment styles. The aim of this study was to investigate the psychologic factors mentioned earlier and their correlation with homophobia. Five hundred fifty-one university students recruited, aged 18-30, were asked to complete several psychometric evaluation. In particular, Homophobia Scale (HS) was used to assess homophobia levels, the Symptoms Check List Revised (SCL-90-R) for the identification of psychopathologic symptoms, the Defence Style Questionnaire (DSQ-40) for the evaluation of defense mechanisms and the Relationship Questionnaire (RQ) for attachment styles. After a regression analysis, we found a significant predictive value of psychoticism (β = 0.142; P = 0.04) and of immature defense mechanisms (β = 0.257; P homophobia, while neurotic defense mechanisms (β = -0.123; P = 0.02) and depressive symptoms (β = -0.152; P = 0.04) have an opposite role. Moreover, categorical constructs of the RQ revealed a significant difference between secure and fearful attachments styles in levels of homophobia (secure = 22.09 ± 17.22 vs. fearful = 31.07 ± 25.09; P homophobia compared with the subjects demonstrating a fearful style of attachment. Hence, in the assessment of homophobia and in the relevant programs of prevention, it is necessary to consider the psychologic aspects described earlier. © 2015 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  5. Differentiating instruction upon learning styles in higher education: A controversial issue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tulbure, C.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Within the frame of this paper we are going to observe the extent to which differentiated instruction according to the student’s learning styles has as result the improvement of academic achievement on a higher educational level. Our study aims at providing support in both theory and research for differentiated instruction based on students’ learning preferences. Overall, this study brings arguments to illustrate the idea that differentiated instruction leads to higher academic achievement compared with the whole-class teaching-learning approach. Our conclusions provide a foundation on which research addressing differentiated instruction in higher education may continue to be built.

  6. The Role of Parenting Styles in Predicting Anxiety Thoughts and Obsessive Compulsive Symptoms in Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Z Khanjani; B Esmaeili Anamage; M Gholamzadeh

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Parents interaction styles with children or teens have an important impact on shaping their character and mental health and the incidence of some psychiatric symptoms. The aim of this study was to predict anxiety thought and obsessive - compulsive symptoms of the adolescents based on parents' parenting styles. Methods: This was a descriptive study. 180 male students in Marand were selected by cluster random sampling. We used Baumrind parents parenting style questionnaire, Wales ...

  7. Predicting personality disorder functioning styles by the Chinese Adjective Descriptors of Personality: a preliminary trial in healthy people and personality disorder patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Hongying; Zhu, Qisha; Ma, Guorong; Shen, Chanchan; Zhang, Bingren; Wang, Wei

    2016-08-30

    Cultural and personality factors might contribute to the clinical differences of psychiatric patients all over the world including China. One cultural oriented Chinese Adjective Descriptors of Personality (CADP) designed to measure normal personality traits, might be specifically associated with different personality disorder functioning styles. We therefore have invited 201 healthy volunteers and 67 personality disorder patients to undergo CADP, the Parker Personality Measure (PERM), and the Plutchik-van Praag Depression Inventory (PVP) tests. Patients scored significantly higher on PVP scale and all 11 PERM personality disorder functioning styles, as well as CADP Emotional and Unsocial traits. The PVP was significantly correlated with some CADP traits and PERM styles in both groups. In healthy volunteers, only one CADP trait, Unsocial, prominently predicted 11 PERM styles. By contrast in patients, CADP Intelligent predicted the PERM Narcissistic and Passive-Aggressive styles; CADP Emotional the PERM Paranoid, Borderline, and Histrionic styles; CADP Conscientious the PERM Obsessive-Compulsive style; CADP Unsocial the PERM Schizotypal, Antisocial, Narcissistic, Avoidant, Dependent, and Passive-Aggressive styles; CADP Agreeable the PERM Antisocial style. As a preliminary study, our results demonstrated that, in personality disorder patients, all five CADP traits were specifically associated with almost all 11 personality disorder functioning styles, indicating that CADP might be used as an aid to diagnose personality disorders in China.

  8. Are Learning Style Preferences of Health Science Students Predictive of Their Attitudes towards E-Learning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Ted; Zoghi, Maryam; Williams, Brett; Jaberzadeh, Shapour; Roller, Louis; Palermo, Claire; McKenna, Lisa; Wright, Caroline; Baird, Marilyn; Schneider-Kolsky, Michal; Hewitt, Lesley; Sim, Jenny; Holt, Tangerine-Ann

    2009-01-01

    The objective for this study was to determine whether learning style preferences of health science students could predict their attitudes to e-learning. A survey comprising the "Index of Learning Styles" (ILS) and the "Online Learning Environment Survey" (OLES) was distributed to 2885 students enrolled in 10 different health…

  9. Predicting Academic Success and Technological Literacy in Secondary Education: A Learning Styles Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avsec, Stanislav; Szewczyk-Zakrzewska, Agnieszka

    2017-01-01

    This paper aims to investigate the predictive validity of learning styles on academic achievement and technological literacy (TL). For this purpose, secondary school students were recruited (n = 150). An empirical research design was followed where the TL test was used with a learning style inventory measuring learning orientation, processing…

  10. Predictive value of self-reported and observer-rated defense style in depression treatment.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van, H.L.; Dekker, J.J.M.; Peen, J.; Abraham, R.E.; Schoevers, R.

    2009-01-01

    This study explored the predictive value of observer-rated and self-reported defensive functioning on the outcome of psychotherapy for the treatment of depression. Defense styles were measured according to the Developmental Profile (DP) and the Defense Style Questionnaire (DSQ) in 81 moderately

  11. Style

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rösing, Lilian Munk

    2017-01-01

    Defined as the tropes, figures, and grammar of the text, style is quite concrete, quite analyzable. Pure detection and identification of the tropes and figures of a text is not very interesting to literary studies, though, unless it is combined with interpretation, that is, unless you ask: What...... is the effect of those tropes and figures, how do they contribute to the signification of the text?...

  12. Comparative Study of Learning Styles in Higher Education Students from the Hidalgo State Autonomous University, in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canales Rodríguez, Emma Leticia; Garcia Robelo, Octaviano

    2013-01-01

    This is a study on learning styles based on the Kolb model (1984). It was conducted on a sample of Mexican higher education students, to develop a picture of their learning styles at three different stages during their studies. The intention was to determine whether there were differences between students majoring in educational sciences and law,…

  13. Preferred "Learning Styles" in Students Studying Sports-Related Programmes in Higher Education in the United Kingdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Derek; Jones, Gareth; Peters, John

    2008-01-01

    This article investigates the "preferred learning styles" and their relationship with grades for students undertaking sports-related undergraduate programmes at a higher education institution in the UK. Preferred "learning styles" in students in this discipline have been identified as auditory, kinaesthetic and group, although…

  14. INVESTIGATING THE RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN TEACHING STRATEGIES AND LEARNING STYLES IN HIGHER EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Tulbure

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Within this paper, we are focusing on the relationships between teaching strategies, learning styles, and the students’ academic achievement in higher education. The main objective of this study is to compare three groups of pre-service teachers having different majors (i.e., Educational Sciences, Economic Sciences, and Foreign Languages in order to identify the potential differences in their academic achievement. More precisely, we attempt to highlight the categories of teaching strategies that lead to the best academic achievement for students having the same learning style, and different fields of study. A sample of 269 pre-service teachers from three faculties belonging to Transilvania University of Braşov participated in the study. The data was collected through a survey method and the one-way analysis of variance was used to determine the differences among the groups. Significant differences among the three categories of students with different majors occurred in relation with the most effective teaching strategies corresponding to each learning style category.

  15. Predictive Power of Parenting Styles on Children’s Social Skills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Bartholomeu

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between parenting styles and children’s social skills, establishing significant correlations between those two constructs. A total of 202 children, 7 to 10 years old, male and female, attending second to fourth year of government schools in São Paulo, Brazil, were participants of this research. They collectively completed Children’s Social Skills Test (THAS-C and Parental Styles Inventory (IEP. Results suggest that positive parental styles are predictors of altruism, while negative parental styles are predictors of assertiveness, conversation, and social confidence. Regarding general social skills, variables that offered the best probable model were positive monitoring, lax discipline, moral behavior, and physical abuse (the higher the general social skill, the lesser the abusive parenting styles. As a conclusion, it seems that different social skills are related to positive and negative parenting styles, reinforcing the idea of a social skill as an attribute of behavior.

  16. The Role of Parenting Styles in Predicting Anxiety Thoughts and Obsessive Compulsive Symptoms in Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z Khanjani

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Parents interaction styles with children or teens have an important impact on shaping their character and mental health and the incidence of some psychiatric symptoms. The aim of this study was to predict anxiety thought and obsessive - compulsive symptoms of the adolescents based on parents' parenting styles. Methods: This was a descriptive study. 180 male students in Marand were selected by cluster random sampling. We used Baumrind parents parenting style questionnaire, Wales anxiety thoughts questionnaire and Maudsley obsessive- compulsive questionnaire. Data was analyzed by Pearson's correlation test and multiple regression analysis. Results: Data analysis showed that obsessive- compulsive symptoms and anxiety ideas were positively related to the authoritarian and permissive parenting styles and negatively related to authoritative parenting style. Parenting style is able to predict the level of obsessive - compulsive symptoms and adolescent anxiety ideas. Conclusion: The results showed that parents' parenting style is one of the influencing factors on adolescent health. Parents with authoritative parenting style, have the children with lower obsessive - compulsive symptoms and anxious thoughts.

  17. Predicting marital satisfaction from the attachment styles and gender ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study investigated the influence of attachment styles and gender on marital satisfaction. One hundred and fifty participants (73 males and 77 females) were randomly selected from members of a Christian organization, Ewet Offot and indigenous residents of Nwaniba Road, Uyo. Two instruments used were the Love ...

  18. Predictive value of parenting styles on the academic achievement of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the relationship between parenting styles and the academic achievement level of secondary school students in Benin City. A correlational research design was adopted in this study. Multistage random sampling procedure was used to obtain the sample of two hundred and thirty eight (238) ...

  19. Potential for Drug Abuse: the Predictive Role of Parenting Styles, Stress and Type D Personality

    OpenAIRE

    mahin soheili; Gholamreza Dehshiri; Seiyedeh Fatemeh Mousavi

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This study was an attempt to predict potential for drug abuse on the basis of three predictors of parenting style, stress and type D personality. Method: In this descriptive-correlational study, 200 students (100 males and 100 females) of Islamic Azad University of Karaj were selected by convenience sampling. For data collection, perceived parenting styles questionnaire, perceived stress scale, type D personality scale, and addiction potential scale were used. Results: The results ...

  20. Transformational and Transactional Leadership Styles as They Predict Constructive Culture and Defensive Culture

    OpenAIRE

    Eppard, Randy G.

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test a predictive model of several components of organizational and leadership Culture in a large sample of municipal employees using three sets of predictors: demographic/employment status of employees, measures of employeesâ judgments of their supervisorâ s transactional leadership styles, and measures of employeesâ judgments of their supervisorâ s transformational leadership style. To what extent does transformational and transactional leadership (bot...

  1. Predictive value of self-reported and observer-rated defense style in depression treatment.

    OpenAIRE

    Van, H.L.; Dekker, J.J.M.; Peen, J.; Abraham, R.E.; Schoevers, R.

    2009-01-01

    This study explored the predictive value of observer-rated and self-reported defensive functioning on the outcome of psychotherapy for the treatment of depression. Defense styles were measured according to the Developmental Profile (DP) and the Defense Style Questionnaire (DSQ) in 81 moderately severely depressed patients. All patients were treated with Short-term Psychodynamic Supportive Psychotherapy (SPSP). At baseline, women appeared to have a more mature level of overall defensive functi...

  2. Personality, emotions and coping styles: predictive value for the evolution of cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardenal, Violeta; Cerezo, M Victoria; Martínez, Joaquina; Ortiz-Tallo, Margarita; José Blanca, M

    2012-07-01

    This study had a twofold goal: to define differences in psychological aspects between cancer patients and a control group and to explore the predictive value of such aspects for the evolution of the disease two years later. Firstly, personality, anxiety, anger and depression were assessed in both groups. Results of t-analyses revealed significant group differences. In personality, cancer patients had higher levels of neuroticism and lower levels of extraversion, agreeableness and conscientiousness than the control group. In emotional variables, cancer patients had higher levels of anxiety and some aspects of anger, but there were no group differences in depression levels. Secondly, applying a quasi-prospective design, the predictive value of personality, emotions and coping styles for the evolution of cancer (favourable or unfavourable) was explored using generalized linear models and logistic regression. A four-predictor logistic model was fitted: Anger Expression-In, Resignation, Self-blame and Conscientiousness, indicating that the higher Anger Expression-in, Resignation, and Self-blame scores together with a lower Conscientiousness score, the more likely it is for patients' cancer to evolve unfavourably. These results indicate the crucial role of psychological aspects for the evolution of the disease and the need to include such aspects in the design of clinical interventions.

  3. Authentic Leadership Style and Academia’s Creativity in Higher Education Institutions: Intrinsic Motivation and Mood as Mediators

    OpenAIRE

    Ifzal AHMAD; Mueen Aizaz ZAFAR; Shahzad, Khurram

    2015-01-01

    Using multisource data of 302 paired responses (supervisor-employee dyads), this study examined the effect of Authentic Leadership Style (ALS) on academia’s creativity with mediating role of their intrinsic motivation and mood in higher education institutions (HEIs) of Pakistan. Heads of departments (HoDs) in HEIs were asked to report their leadership style and creativity of their academic staff, whereas academia rated their intrinsic motivation and mood at work. ALS was regressed with creati...

  4. Cognitive styles and life events interact to predict bipolar and unipolar symptomatology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly-Harrington, N A; Alloy, L B; Fresco, D M; Whitehouse, W G

    1999-11-01

    This study examined the interaction of cognitive style (as assessed self-report and information-processing battery) and stressful life events in predicting the clinician-rated depressive and manic symptomatology of participants with Research Diagnostic Criteria lifetime diagnoses of bipolar disorder (n = 49), unipolar depression (n = 97), or no lifetime diagnosis (n = 23). Bipolar and unipolar participants' attributional styles, dysfunctional attitudes, and negative self-referent information processing as assessed at Time 1 interacted significantly with the number of negative life events that occurred between Times 1 and 2 to predict increases in depressive symptoms from Time 1 to Time 2. Within the bipolar group, participants' Time 1 attributional styles and dysfunctional attitudes interacted significantly, and their self-referent information processing interacted marginally, with intervening life events to predict increases in manic symptoms from Time 1 to Time 2. These findings provide support for the applicability of cognitive vulnerability-stress theories of depression to bipolar spectrum disorders.

  5. Critical thinking in higher education: The influence of teaching styles and peer collaboration on science and math learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quitadamo, Ian Joseph

    Many higher education faculty perceive a deficiency in students' ability to reason, evaluate, and make informed judgments, skills that are deemed necessary for academic and job success in science and math. These skills, often collected within a domain called critical thinking (CT), have been studied and are thought to be influenced by teaching styles (the combination of beliefs, behavior, and attitudes used when teaching) and small group collaborative learning (SGCL). However, no existing studies show teaching styles and SGCL cause changes in student CT performance. This study determined how combinations of teaching styles called clusters and peer-facilitated SGCL (a specific form of SGCL) affect changes in undergraduate student CT performance using a quasi-experimental pre-test/post-test research design and valid and reliable CT performance indicators. Quantitative analyses of three teaching style cluster models (Grasha's cluster model, a weighted cluster model, and a student-centered/teacher-centered cluster model) and peer-facilitated SGCL were performed to evaluate their ability to cause measurable changes in student CT skills. Based on results that indicated weighted teaching style clusters and peer-facilitated SGCL are associated with significant changes in student CT, we conclude that teaching styles and peer-facilitated SGCL influence the development of undergraduate CT in higher education science and math.

  6. The determination of contribution of emotional intelligence and parenting styles components to predicts positive psychological components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    hosein Ebrahimi moghadam

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Since the essential of positive psychological components, as compliment of deficiency oriented approaches, has begun in recent days,we decided to take into account this new branch of psychology which scientifically considers studying forces of human, as well as because of the importance of this branch of psychology, we also tried to search the contribution of emotional intelligence and parenting styles components to predict positive psychological components. Materials and Methods:In this cross sectional study 200 psychological students of Azad university (Rudehen branch selected using cluster sampling method. Then they were estimated by Bradbery and Grivers emotional intelligence questionnaire , Bamrind parenting styles and Rajayi et al positive psychological components questionnaire. Research data was analyzed using descriptive statistics (mean and standard deviation, inferential statistics (multiple regression and Pierson correlation coefficient and SPSS software. Results:Among the components of emotional intelligence, the component of emotional self consciousness (β=0.464 had the greatest predictable , and reaction leadership showed no predictability in this research between parenting styles , authority parenting styles had positive significance relationship with positive psychological components. And no significant relationship was found between despot parenting styles and positive psychological components. Conclusion: Regarding the results of this research and importance of positive psychological components, it is suggested to treat the emotional intelligence from childhood and to learn it to parents and remind them the parenting way to decrease the satisfaction of individuals which leads to promotion of society mental health.

  7. The Role of Depression and Attachment Styles in Predicting Students’ Addiction to Cell Phones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghasempour, Abdollah; Mahmoodi-Aghdam, Mansour

    2015-01-01

    Background The present study aimed at investigating the role of depression and attachment styles in predicting cell phone addiction. Methods In this descriptive correlational study, a sample including 100 students of Payame Noor University (PNU), Reyneh Center, Iran, in the academic year of 2013-2014 was selected using volunteer sampling. Participants were asked to complete the adult attachment inventory (AAI), Beck depression inventory-13 (BDI-13) and the cell phone overuse scale (COS). Findings Results of the stepwise multiple regression analysis showed that depression and avoidant attachment style were the best predictors of students’ cell phone addiction (R2 = 0.23). Conclusion The results of this study highlighted the predictive value of depression and avoidant attachment style concerning students’ cell phone addiction. PMID:26885356

  8. The Role of Depression and Attachment Styles in Predicting Students' Addiction to Cell Phones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghasempour, Abdollah; Mahmoodi-Aghdam, Mansour

    2015-01-01

    The present study aimed at investigating the role of depression and attachment styles in predicting cell phone addiction. In this descriptive correlational study, a sample including 100 students of Payame Noor University (PNU), Reyneh Center, Iran, in the academic year of 2013-2014 was selected using volunteer sampling. Participants were asked to complete the adult attachment inventory (AAI), Beck depression inventory-13 (BDI-13) and the cell phone overuse scale (COS). Results of the stepwise multiple regression analysis showed that depression and avoidant attachment style were the best predictors of students' cell phone addiction (R(2) = 0.23). The results of this study highlighted the predictive value of depression and avoidant attachment style concerning students' cell phone addiction.

  9. Potential for Drug Abuse: the Predictive Role of Parenting Styles, Stress and Type D Personality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    mahin soheili

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study was an attempt to predict potential for drug abuse on the basis of three predictors of parenting style, stress and type D personality. Method: In this descriptive-correlational study, 200 students (100 males and 100 females of Islamic Azad University of Karaj were selected by convenience sampling. For data collection, perceived parenting styles questionnaire, perceived stress scale, type D personality scale, and addiction potential scale were used. Results: The results showed that rejecting/neglecting parenting style and emotional warmth were positively and negatively correlated with addiction potential, respectively. Conclusion: The child-parent relationship and also the relationship between stress and type D personality can be considered as predictive factors in addiction potential.

  10. Understanding Style, Language and Etiquette in Email Communication in Higher Education: A Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewin-Jones, Jenny; Mason, Victoria

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates academic staff and student attitudes to style and etiquette of emails. Data were collected through two online staff and student surveys. Reported use and acceptability of particular features of email style were assessed. Open-ended responses yielded four themes: the balance between formality and informality, relationships,…

  11. The Relevance of Learning Styles for International Pedagogy in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaves, Mina

    2011-01-01

    As the number of international students and transnational education agreements continue to rise at an unprecedented rate in many countries, an area of research that continues to lag behind is how far students' learning styles can adapt to different educational contexts. Learning styles research has recently developed from simplistic yet popular…

  12. Classroom Communicating Style in Higher Education: A Reformulation Based upon "Neo-constructivist" Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Susan Mallon

    This paper suggests a new way to approach the study style in instructional communication. First, the paper reviews and critiques existing approaches to communication style research. Following that it is suggested that a fundamental limitation of existitng approaches is that researchers have typically superimposed conventional criteria for teaching…

  13. The Prediction of Gender and Attachment Styles on Shame, Guilt, and Loneliness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbag, Muge; Imamoglu, Seval Erden

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the predictive power of attachment styles and gender on negative social emotions such as shame, guilt, and loneliness. The sample consists of 360 (183 female, 177 male) students attending to different departments of Marmara University. The Relationships Questionnaire, Guilt-Shame Scale, and UCLA Loneliness…

  14. Loneliness among University Students: Predictive Power of Sex Roles and Attachment Styles on Loneliness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilhan, Tahsin

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the predictive power of sex roles and attachment styles on loneliness. A total of 188 undergraduate students (114 female, and 74 male) from Gazi University completed the Bem Sex Role Inventory, UCLA Loneliness Scale, and Relationship Scales Questionnaire. Hierarchic Multiple Regression analysis and t-test were used to test…

  15. Incremental Validity of Thinking Styles in Predicting Academic Achievements: An Experimental Study in Hypermedia Learning Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Weiqiao; Zhang, Li-Fang; Watkins, David

    2010-01-01

    The study examined the incremental validity of thinking styles in predicting academic achievement after controlling for personality and achievement motivation in the hypermedia-based learning environment. Seventy-two Chinese college students from Shanghai, the People's Republic of China, took part in this instructional experiment. The…

  16. The Contributions of Attachment Styles, Irrational Beliefs and Psychological Symptoms to the Prediction of Cognitive Flexibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunduz, Bülent

    2013-01-01

    In this research, the contributions of styles of attachment, irrational beliefs and psychological symptoms to the prediction of cognitive flexibility were analysed. The sample consists of 436 students studying in various departments and faculties in Mersin University. The Cognitive Flexibility Scale, Relationships Scale, Irrational Beliefs Scale…

  17. The Role of Life Satisfaction and Parenting Styles in Predicting Delinquent Behaviors among High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onder, Fulya Cenkseven; Yilmaz, Yasin

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine whether the parenting styles and life satisfaction predict delinquent behaviors frequently or not. Firstly the data were collected from 471 girls and 410 boys, a total of 881 high school students. Then the research was carried out with 502 students showing low (n = 262, 52.2%) and high level of delinquent…

  18. Predicting recidivism with the Psychological Inventory of Criminal Thinking Styles (PICTS) in community-supervised male and female federal offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, Glenn D; Lowenkamp, Christopher T

    2016-06-01

    Higher order scores derived from the Psychological Inventory of Criminal Thinking Styles (PICTS; Walters, 1995) have been found to predict recidivism in released prison inmates with effect sizes in the low-moderate to medium range. The current study sought to determine whether the PICTS is capable of predicting general recidivism in a sample of 81,881 male and 14,519 female offenders on federal probation or supervised release. Results indicated that the PICTS General Criminal Thinking, Proactive, and Reactive scores and 6 of the 7 thinking style scales predicted recidivism in follow-ups of 6 or more months, 12 or more months, and 24 or more months with effect sizes in the low-moderate to medium range. The effect sizes were reduced to small and low-moderate, respectively, when age and prior arrests were controlled for in a series of partial correlations. It was also noted that the PICTS General Criminal Thinking score contributed significant diagnostic information to recidivism prediction in both males and females above and beyond the information provided by a comprehensive risk assessment procedure. These results indicate that the PICTS may be a useful adjunct to other risk assessment procedures in providing comprehensive risk prediction and management services to offenders under community supervision. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. Problem-solving styles in autism spectrum disorder and the development of higher cognitive functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constable, Paul A; Ring, Melanie; Gaigg, Sebastian B; Bowler, Dermot M

    2017-05-01

    The Vygotsky Blocks Test assesses problem-solving styles within a theoretical framework for the development of higher mental processes devised by Vygotsky. Because both the theory and the associated test situate cognitive development within the child's social and linguistic context, they address conceptual issues around the developmental relation between language and thought that are pertinent to development in autism. Our aim was to document the performance of adults with autism spectrum disorder on the Vygotsky Blocks Test, and our results showed that they made more errors than the typically developing participants and that these errors correlated with performance IQ. The autism spectrum disorder group also required more cues than the typically developing group to discern the conceptual structure of the blocks, a pattern that correlated with Autism Diagnostic Observational Schedule-Communication and Imagination/Creativity sub-scales. When asked to categorize the blocks in new ways, the autism spectrum disorder participants developed fewer principles on which to base new categorizations, which in contrast to the typically developing group correlated with verbal IQ and with the Imagination/Creativity sub-scale of the ADOS. These results are in line with a number of existing findings in the autism spectrum disorder literature and confirm that conceptualization in autism spectrum disorder seems to rely more on non-verbal and less on imaginative processes than in typically developing individuals. The findings represent first steps to the possibility of outlining a testable account of psychological development in autism spectrum disorder that integrates verbal, non-verbal and social factors into the transition from elementary to higher level processes.

  20. Role of Personality Traits, Learning Styles and Metacognition in Predicting Critical Thinking of Undergraduate Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soliemanifar O

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the role of personality traits, learning styles and metacognition in predicting critical thinking. Instrument & Methods: In this descriptive correlative study, 240 students (130 girls and 110 boys of Ahvaz Shahid Chamran University were selected by multi-stage random sampling method. The instruments for collecting data were NEO Five-Factor Inventory, learning style inventory of Kolb (LSI, metacognitive assessment inventory (MAI of Schraw & Dennison (1994 and California Critical Thinking Skills Test (CCTST. The data were analyzed using Pearson correlation coefficient, stepwise regression analysis and Canonical correlation analysis.  Findings: Openness to experiment (b=0.41, conscientiousness (b=0.28, abstract conceptualization (b=0.39, active experimentation (b=0.22, reflective observation (b=0.12, knowledge of cognition (b=0.47 and regulation of cognition (b=0.29 were effective in predicting critical thinking. Openness to experiment and conscientiousness (r2=0.25, active experimentation, abstract conceptualization and reflective observation learning styles (r2=0.21 and knowledge and regulation of cognition metacognitions (r2=0.3 had an important role in explaining critical thinking. The linear combination of critical thinking skills (evaluation, analysis, inference was predictable by a linear combination of dispositional-cognitive factors (openness, conscientiousness, abstract conceptualization, active experimentation, knowledge of cognition and regulation of cognition. Conclusion: Personality traits, learning styles and metacognition, as dispositional-cognitive factors, play a significant role in students' critical thinking.

  1. Leadership in Higher Education: An Analysis of the Leadership Styles of Academic Deans in Ohio's 13 State-Supported Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thrash, Alberta B.

    2009-01-01

    The role of academic deans is critical to the success of higher education academic institutions. However, little is known about the leadership styles of these chief academic officers. This study illustrated the leadership approach of Ohio's academic deans in the 13 state-supported universities. This quantitative study researched and analyzed…

  2. Predicting Child Physical Activity and Screen Time: Parental Support for Physical Activity and General Parenting Styles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crain, A. Lauren; Senso, Meghan M.; Levy, Rona L.; Sherwood, Nancy E.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To examine relationships between parenting styles and practices and child moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and screen time. Methods: Participants were children (6.9 ± 1.8 years) with a body mass index in the 70–95th percentile and their parents (421 dyads). Parent-completed questionnaires assessed parental support for child physical activity (PA), parenting styles and child screen time. Children wore accelerometers to assess MVPA. Results: Parenting style did not predict MVPA, but support for PA did (positive association). The association between support and MVPA, moreover, varied as a function of permissive parenting. For parents high in permissiveness, the association was positive (greater support was related to greater MVPA and therefore protective). For parents low in permissiveness, the association was neutral; support did not matter. Authoritarian and permissive parenting styles were both associated with greater screen time. Conclusions: Parenting practices and styles should be considered jointly, offering implications for tailored interventions. PMID:24812256

  3. Predicting child physical activity and screen time: parental support for physical activity and general parenting styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langer, Shelby L; Crain, A Lauren; Senso, Meghan M; Levy, Rona L; Sherwood, Nancy E

    2014-07-01

    To examine relationships between parenting styles and practices and child moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and screen time. Participants were children (6.9 ± 1.8 years) with a body mass index in the 70-95th percentile and their parents (421 dyads). Parent-completed questionnaires assessed parental support for child physical activity (PA), parenting styles and child screen time. Children wore accelerometers to assess MVPA. Parenting style did not predict MVPA, but support for PA did (positive association). The association between support and MVPA, moreover, varied as a function of permissive parenting. For parents high in permissiveness, the association was positive (greater support was related to greater MVPA and therefore protective). For parents low in permissiveness, the association was neutral; support did not matter. Authoritarian and permissive parenting styles were both associated with greater screen time. Parenting practices and styles should be considered jointly, offering implications for tailored interventions. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Pediatric Psychology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Predictive value of self-reported and observer-rated defense style in depression treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Henricus, L; Dekker, Jack; Peen, Jaap; Abraham, Robert E; Schoevers, Robert

    2009-01-01

    This study explored the predictive value of observer-rated and self-reported defensive functioning on the outcome of psychotherapy for the treatment of depression. Defense styles were measured according to the Developmental Profile (DP) and the Defense Style Questionnaire (DSQ) in 81 moderately severely depressed patients. All patients were treated with Short-term Psychodynamic Supportive Psychotherapy (SPSP). At baseline, women appeared to have a more mature level of overall defensive functioning. A lower level of defensive function was found in patients with recurrent depressions. We also found a rather modest relationship between self-reported and observer-rated defense. Remitted patients had a more mature overall defensive functioning on the DP and the DSQ. In particular, patients with a symbiotic defense style (giving up, apathetic withdrawal) were at risk for poor outcome. This exploratory study provides further evidence of the relevance of defense styles for depression. It suggests a differential predictive value of separate defense levels, which may help to tailor psychotherapeutic strategies.

  5. How coping styles, cognitive distortions, and attachment predict problem gambling among adolescents and young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calado, Filipa; Alexandre, Joana; Griffiths, Mark D

    2017-12-01

    Background and aims Recent research suggests that youth problem gambling is associated with several factors, but little is known how these factors might influence or interact each other in predicting this behavior. Consequently, this is the first study to examine the mediation effect of coping styles in the relationship between attachment to parental figures and problem gambling. Methods A total of 988 adolescents and emerging adults were recruited to participate. The first set of analyses tested the adequacy of a model comprising biological, cognitive, and family variables in predicting youth problem gambling. The second set of analyses explored the relationship between family and individual variables in problem gambling behavior. Results The results of the first set of analyses demonstrated that the individual factors of gender, cognitive distortions, and coping styles showed a significant predictive effect on youth problematic gambling, and the family factors of attachment and family structure did not reveal a significant influence on this behavior. The results of the second set of analyses demonstrated that the attachment dimension of angry distress exerted a more indirect influence on problematic gambling, through emotion-focused coping style. Discussion This study revealed that some family variables can have a more indirect effect on youth gambling behavior and provided some insights in how some factors interact in predicting problem gambling. Conclusion These findings suggest that youth gambling is a multifaceted phenomenon, and that the indirect effects of family variables are important in estimating the complex social forces that might influence adolescent decisions to gamble.

  6. Higher order influences on evaluative priming: Processing styles moderate congruity effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexopoulos, Theodore; Lemonnier, Aurore; Fiedler, Klaus

    2017-01-01

    A growing body of research challenges the automaticity of evaluative priming (EP). The present research adds to this literature by suggesting that EP is sensitive to processing styles. We relied on previous research showing that EP is determined by the extent to which the prime and the target events on a given trial are processed as a unified compound. Here, we further hypothesised that processing styles encouraging the inclusion of the prime to the target episode support congruity effects, whereas processing styles that enhance the exclusion of the prime from the target episode interrupt (or reverse) these effects. In Experiment 1, a preceding similarity search task produced a congruity effect, whereas a dissimilarity search task eliminated and (non-significantly) reversed this effect. In Experiments 2 and 3, we replicated and extended these findings using a global/local processing manipulation. Overall, these findings confirm that EP is flexible, open to top-down influences and strategic regulation.

  7. The Role of Depression and Attachment Styles in Predicting Students? Addiction to Cell Phones

    OpenAIRE

    Ghasempour, Abdollah; Mahmoodi-Aghdam, Mansour

    2015-01-01

    Background The present study aimed at investigating the role of depression and attachment styles in predicting cell phone addiction. Methods In this descriptive correlational study, a sample including 100 students of Payame Noor University (PNU), Reyneh Center, Iran, in the academic year of 2013-2014 was selected using volunteer sampling. Participants were asked to complete the adult attachment inventory (AAI), Beck depression inventory-13 (BDI-13) and the cell phone overuse scale (COS). Find...

  8. Personality, Cognitive Style, Motivation, and Aptitude Predict Systematic Trends in Analytic Forecasting Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Poore, Joshua C.; Forlines, Clifton L.; Miller, Sarah M.; Regan, John R.; Irvine, John M.

    2014-01-01

    The decision sciences are increasingly challenged to advance methods for modeling analysts, accounting for both analytic strengths and weaknesses, to improve inferences taken from increasingly large and complex sources of data. We examine whether psychometric measures?personality, cognitive style, motivated cognition?predict analytic performance and whether psychometric measures are competitive with aptitude measures (i.e., SAT scores) as analyst sample selection criteria. A heterogeneous, na...

  9. Perceived Leadership Style of Jordanian Academic Deans in Higher Education Institutions: Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Omari, Aieman Ahmad

    2011-01-01

    This qualitative study focuses on the perceptions of two academic deans and their leadership styles. The leadership Behavior Description Questionnaire is used as a frame for analyzing data. Using qualitative methods, observation and interview data were collected. Two themes emerged, Initiating Structure, and Consideration. The Initiating Structure…

  10. The Predictive Strength of Perceived Parenting and Parental Attachment Styles on Psychological Symptoms among Turkish University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Körük, Serdar; Öztürk, Abdülkadir; Kara, Ahmet

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the relationships between perceived parenting, parental attachment styles and psychological symptoms among Turkish university students and it also aims to find out which perceived parenting and parental attachment styles predict psychological symptoms which were measured. This study is a quantitative research and…

  11. Fold style inversion: Placing probabilistic constraints on the predicted shape of blind thrust faults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Benjamin A.; Sandvol, Eric; Ross, Andrew

    2000-06-01

    We develop a new methodology which compares quantitatively styles of folding from seismic reflection data. The goal of the "fold style inversion" (FSI) method is to provide an objective choice of the most appropriate model used when solving for the shape of an unimaged blind fault from folded layer geometry. FSI is a discretization of the dip isogon fold classification scheme reformulated as simple vector transformations. A data set's goodness of fit to parallel (class 1c) or similar (class 2) fold geometry is assessed by calculating misfit between the predicted and observed bed geometries through a grid search of the parameter space specific to each transformation; the two fold types correspond to the constant bed length and arbitrarily inclined simple shear (AISS) fault solution routines, respectively. For seismic reflection data, confidence estimates may be placed on the preference of fold style and its corresponding fault solution by Monte Carlo simulations of depth correlative, spatially limited depth conversion errors. For synthetic geometric examples FSI determines fold style preference and parameters exactly. At low fold limb dips (Barrancas/Lunlunta-Carrizal anticlinal complex in Mendoza, Argentina, FSI analysis determines 71% and 54% probability of similar preference for two seismic lines on separate structures. The corresponding fault solutions for the first example are well constrained, whereas for the second example the solutions are widely variant. This analysis helps to quantify the relationship between the predicted sub surface fault trajectories and hypocenter and aftershock data of the 1985 Mw 5.9 Mendoza earthquake, showing that the earthquake and the fault causing the Barrancas/Lunlunta-Carrizal anticlinorium are most likely unrelated.

  12. Authentic Leadership Style and Academia’s Creativity in Higher Education Institutions: Intrinsic Motivation and Mood as Mediators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ifzal AHMAD

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Using multisource data of 302 paired responses (supervisor-employee dyads, this study examined the effect of Authentic Leadership Style (ALS on academia’s creativity with mediating role of their intrinsic motivation and mood in higher education institutions (HEIs of Pakistan. Heads of departments (HoDs in HEIs were asked to report their leadership style and creativity of their academic staff, whereas academia rated their intrinsic motivation and mood at work. ALS was regressed with creativity, intrinsic motivation and mood of academia to measure the direct relationships, whereas mediations were tested using bootstrapping technique. A strong infl uence of ALS on academic staff’s creativity, their intrinsic motivation and mood were found. Additionally, a partial mediating role of intrinsic motivation and mood was found between ALS and creativity of academic staff.

  13. Analytic cognitive style, not delusional ideation, predicts data gathering in a large beads task study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Robert M; Pennycook, Gordon; McKay, Ryan; Gervais, Will M; Langdon, Robyn; Coltheart, Max

    2016-07-01

    It has been proposed that deluded and delusion-prone individuals gather less evidence before forming beliefs than those who are not deluded or delusion-prone. The primary source of evidence for this "jumping to conclusions" (JTC) bias is provided by research that utilises the "beads task" data-gathering paradigm. However, the cognitive mechanisms subserving data gathering in this task are poorly understood. In the largest published beads task study to date (n = 558), we examined data gathering in the context of influential dual-process theories of reasoning. Analytic cognitive style (the willingness or disposition to critically evaluate outputs from intuitive processing and engage in effortful analytic processing) predicted data gathering in a non-clinical sample, but delusional ideation did not. The relationship between data gathering and analytic cognitive style suggests that dual-process theories of reasoning can contribute to our understanding of the beads task. It is not clear why delusional ideation was not found to be associated with data gathering or analytic cognitive style.

  14. Predict group membership of smokers and nonsmokers students Based on coping styles, mental health and Sensation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soran Rajabi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: The main purpose of this research is to survey relation between mental health, sensation seeking and coping style with cigarette smoking. Material and Methods: Sample of this study were 312 boy students, who selected by simple randomly among total boys of Mohaghegh Ardabili university in 2013-14. This study is a correlation study. Data were collected with using the demographic characteristics Questionnaire, mental health of Goldberg, sensation-seeking of Arnet and Lazarus's & Folkman coping style Questionnaires. Results: The result showed that %37.8(n=118 of samples were cigarette smoker and %62.2 (n=194 were non cigarette smokers. The results of discriminant analysis showed that among variables, seeking social support, avoid, the high sensation seeking, coping confrontation, somatization symptoms, responsibility and depression can predict to join the group of male students smokers and nonsmokers.  Seeking social support was the best predictor to be in group of cigarette smoker and non-smoker boy student. Conclusion: This study showed the sensation seeking, coping styles and mental health are effective in approach to cigarette smoking. 

  15. Personal contextual characteristics and cognitions: predicting child abuse potential and disciplinary style.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Christina M

    2010-02-01

    According to Social Information Processing theory, parents' cognitive processes influence their decisions to engage in physical maltreatment, although cognitions occur in the context of other aspects of the parents' life. The present study investigated whether cognitive processes (external locus of control, inappropriate developmental expectations) predicted child abuse potential and overreactive disciplinary style beyond personal contextual factors characteristic of the parent (hostility, stress, and coping). 363 parents were recruited online. Results highlight the relative importance of the contextual characteristics (particularly stress, avoidant coping, and irritability) relative to cognitive processes in predicting abuse potential and overreactive discipline strategies, although an external locus of control also significantly contributed. Findings do not support that parents' developmental expectations uniquely predict elevated abuse risk. Results indicate stressed parents who utilize avoidance coping strategies are more likely to use overreactive discipline and report increased abuse potential. Findings are discussed with regard to implications for prevention/intervention efforts.

  16. Personality, Cognitive Style, Motivation, and Aptitude Predict Systematic Trends in Analytic Forecasting Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poore, Joshua C; Forlines, Clifton L; Miller, Sarah M; Regan, John R; Irvine, John M

    2014-12-01

    The decision sciences are increasingly challenged to advance methods for modeling analysts, accounting for both analytic strengths and weaknesses, to improve inferences taken from increasingly large and complex sources of data. We examine whether psychometric measures-personality, cognitive style, motivated cognition-predict analytic performance and whether psychometric measures are competitive with aptitude measures (i.e., SAT scores) as analyst sample selection criteria. A heterogeneous, national sample of 927 participants completed an extensive battery of psychometric measures and aptitude tests and was asked 129 geopolitical forecasting questions over the course of 1 year. Factor analysis reveals four dimensions among psychometric measures; dimensions characterized by differently motivated "top-down" cognitive styles predicted distinctive patterns in aptitude and forecasting behavior. These dimensions were not better predictors of forecasting accuracy than aptitude measures. However, multiple regression and mediation analysis reveals that these dimensions influenced forecasting accuracy primarily through bias in forecasting confidence. We also found that these facets were competitive with aptitude tests as forecast sampling criteria designed to mitigate biases in forecasting confidence while maximizing accuracy. These findings inform the understanding of individual difference dimensions at the intersection of analytic aptitude and demonstrate that they wield predictive power in applied, analytic domains.

  17. Predicting Job Stress Based on Elements of Coping Styles in Nurses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansoureh Nezari Sedeh

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Using coping methods can help to dominate on physical, mental, and social relationships, individual contradiction problems, and can be considered as one of effective factors in general and mental health of nurses. The objective of the present research is predicting job stress based on elements of coping styles in nurses. By correlative methodology for this research, 120 female20-45 years old nurses in Tehran city were selected by simple random sampling method based on Cochran formula. The research instrument includes job stress questionnaire and coping style questionnaire of Lazzarus & Folkman; the Pearson correlation coefficient test, and linear regression were used to test hypotheses and generalize the obtained information from tests. Findings showed that participants’ scores were near normal range and Cronbach’s alpha coefficient was 0.58 which indicated scores internal consistency. The obtained results showed that coping elements in 0.05 significant level with f-value of 12.403 significantly predicted job stress. In addition, regression coefficient among support, responsibility, and managerial solution elements was negative and positive with two other relationships including job stress and escape-avoidance. Therefore, it can be concluded that elements of support, responsibility, escape-avoidance, and managerial solution significantly predict nurses’ job stress among coping elements.

  18. Attachment style and respiratory sinus arrhythmia predict post-treatment quality of life in breast cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagundes, Christopher P; Jaremka, Lisa M; Malarkey, William B; Kiecolt-Glaser, Janice K

    2014-07-01

    Breast cancer is the most frequent malignant tumor among women in the industrialized world. The vast majority of these tumors can now be successfully treated. A subset of breast cancer survivors report quality of life (QOL) difficulties well after treatment is completed. The current study examined how individual differences in attachment style and self-regulatory capacity (as indexed by respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA)) were associated QOL among post-treatment breast cancer survivors. Women who had completed treatment for stage 0-IIIA breast cancer within the past 2 years participated in the study (N=96). RSA was assessed using electrocardiography data that was continuously measured non-invasively for 10 min. Attachment orientation was measured using a modified version of the Experiences in Close Relationships Scale and overall QOL by the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Breast scale. Breast cancer survivors with more attachment anxiety reported poorer QOL than those with less attachment anxiety. Women who were more avoidantly attached also reported poorer QOL compared with those who were less avoidantly attached. Furthermore, attachment avoidance interacted with RSA to predict QOL such that those with higher attachment avoidance were only vulnerable to poorer QOL if they also had lower self-regulatory capacity, as indexed by lower RSA. A better understanding of how attachment style and RSA contribute to breast cancer survivors QOL will help identify people at risk for QOL problems after treatment completion. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. A Prediction Method of Higher Harmonics Resonance in Distribution System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, Yuji; Toyama, Atushi; Takeda, Keiki; Naitoh, Tadashi; Masaki, Kazuyuki

    There are many PWM control apparatuses, which are higher harmonics current sources, in distribution systems. And higher harmonics causes over current by parallel resonance. To avoid the over current, it is necessary to predict frequency characteristics of resonance. In this paper, a new prediction method is proposed. Firstly the line model, in which frequency characteristics of line inductance and resistance are taken account, are approximated by R-L parallel circuits. And then, using eigen value and eigenvector, the problem is decomposed to each eigen mode problem. Moreover, to get a bird's-eye view of phenomenon, a variable separate type approximate is introduced. Finally a new index matrix, which gives the distribution of over current, is introduced.

  20. Persistent and stable biases in spatial learning mechanisms predict navigational style.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furman, Andrew J; Clements-Stephens, Amy M; Marchette, Steven A; Shelton, Amy L

    2014-12-01

    A wealth of evidence in rodents and humans supports the central roles of two learning systems--hippocampal place learning and striatal response learning--in the formation of spatial representations to support navigation. Individual differences in the ways that these mechanisms are engaged during initial encoding and subsequent navigation may provide a powerful framework for explaining the wide range of variability found in the strategies and solutions that make up human navigational styles. Previous work has revealed that activation in the hippocampal and striatal networks during learning could predict navigational style. Here, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate the relative activations in these systems during both initial encoding and the act of dynamic navigation in a learned environment. Participants learned a virtual environment and were tested on subsequent navigation to targets within the environment. We observed that a given individual had a consistent balance of memory system engagement across both initial encoding and subsequent navigation, a balance that successfully predicted the participants' tendencies to use novel shortcuts versus familiar paths during dynamic navigation. This was further supported by the observation that the activation during subsequent retrieval was not dependent on the type of solution used on a given trial. Taken together, our results suggest a model in which the place- and response-learning systems are present in parallel to support a variety of navigational behaviors, but stable biases in the engagement of these systems influence what solutions might be available for any given individual.

  1. Higher Education Mergers: Integrating Organisational Cultures and Developing Appropriate Management Styles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locke, William

    2007-01-01

    Research evidence indicates that an unusually broad range of issues take on strategic significance in a merger and that organisational cultures are critical to the successful integration of staff, students and other stakeholders within a newly combined higher education institution (HEI). This study was based on two specialist higher education (HE)…

  2. Negative Cognitive Style Interacts With Negative Life Events to Predict First Onset of a Major Depressive Episode in Adolescence via Hopelessness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mac Giollabhui, Naoise; Hamilton, Jessica L; Nielsen, Johanna; Connolly, Samantha L; Stange, Jonathan P; Varga, Sean; Burdette, Evan; Olino, Thomas M; Abramson, Lyn Y; Alloy, Lauren B

    2017-11-27

    The hopelessness theory of depression is a prominent account of depression that posits that individuals with a negative inferential style are more likely to become hopeless when they experience negative life events (NLEs) and that hopelessness is a proximal cause of depression. There is strong evidence supporting the role of a negative inferential style in the pathogenesis of major depression; however, substantially less is known about the proposed role played by hopelessness. The cornerstone hypothesis of hopelessness theory, that hopelessness is a proximal cause of major depression, is largely untested. A small number of studies have generated inconclusive evidence that hopelessness mediates the relationship between a negative inferential style, NLEs, and depressive symptoms. The current study tested whether hopelessness mediates the relationship between a Negative Inferential Style × NLEs interaction and (a) 1st onset of a major depressive episode (MDE) and (b) depressive symptoms in a fully prospective design. A diverse sample of 249 adolescents, ages 12-13 years, were assessed at baseline and at 2 or more follow-ups over approximately 2.5 years. Self-report as well as life event and diagnostic interviews assessed inferential style, NLEs, hopelessness, depressive symptoms, and depression diagnosis. Moderated mediation analyses indicated that hopelessness mediated the relationship between a Negative Inferential Style × NLEs interaction and (a) 1st onset of an MDE as well as (b) depressive symptoms at higher levels of multiple types of NLEs. The current study demonstrates the validity of the hopelessness theory of depression and its continued clinical relevance in predicting depression in adolescence. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. The Predictive Strength of Perceived Parenting and Parental Attachment Styles on Psychological Symptoms among Turkish University Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serdar Körük

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to investigate the relationships between perceived parenting, parental attachment styles and psychological symptoms among Turkish university students and it also aims to find out which perceived parenting and parental attachment styles predict psychological symptoms which were measured. This study is a quantitative research and uses causal comparative research design. The sample of this study consists of 400 university students. Young Parenting Inventory, Parental Bonding Instrument and Brief Symptom Inventory were used for gathering data. The depressive, hostility and anxiety symptoms were determined as the most prevalent psychological symptoms among the sample. The conditional/achievement-oriented and ruling/former mother perceptions were found as the most prevalent perceived parenting styles for mother and the conditional/achievement-oriented and close/repressed feelings perceived as parenting styles for father. Pessimistic/fearful mother, belittling/captious mother and overprotective/worrywart father were found as the most predictive perceived parenting styles which predict the psychological symptoms in a significant level and in a positive way

  4. Predicting recidivism in sex offenders with the Psychological Inventory of Criminal Thinking Styles (PICTS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, Glenn D; Deming, Adam; Casbon, Todd

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether the Psychological Inventory of Criminal Thinking Styles (PICTS) was capable of predicting recidivism in 322 male sex offenders released from prison-based sex offender programs in a Midwestern state. The Static-99R and PICTS General Criminal Thinking (GCT), Reactive (R), and Entitlement (En) scores all correlated significantly with general recidivism, the Static-99R correlated significantly with violent recidivism, and the Static-99R score and PICTS GCT, Proactive (P), and En scores correlated significantly with failure to register as a sex offender (FTR) recidivism. Area under the curve effect size estimates varied from small to large, and Cox regression analyses revealed that the PICTS En score achieved incremental validity relative to the Static-99R in predicting general recidivism and the PICTS GCT, P, and En scores achieved incremental validity relative to the Static-99R in predicting FTR recidivism. It is speculated that the PICTS in general and the En scale in particular may have utility in risk management and treatment planning for sex offenders by virtue of their focus on antisocial thinking. © The Author(s) 2014.

  5. Predicting Academic Success of Junior Secondary School Students in Mathematics through Cognitive Style and Problem Solving Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badru, Ademola K.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the prediction of academic success of Junior secondary school mathematics students using their cognitive style and problem solving technique. A descriptive survey of correlation type was adopted for this study. A purposive sampling procedure was used to select five Public Junior secondary schools in Ijebu-Ode local government…

  6. Predicting High School Student Use of Learning Strategies: The Role of Preferred Learning Styles and Classroom Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheema, Jehanzeb; Kitsantas, Anastasia

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the predictiveness of preferred learning styles (competitive and cooperative) and classroom climate (teacher support and disciplinary climate) on learning strategy use in mathematics. The student survey part of the Programme for International Student Assessment 2003 comprising of 4633 US observations was used in a weighted…

  7. Coping Styles, Social Support, Relational Self-Construal, and Resilience in Predicting Students' Adjustment to University Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahat, Enes; Ilhan, Tahsin

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to investigate how well coping styles, social support, relational self-construal, and resilience characteristics predict first year university students' ability to adjust to university life. Participants consisted of 527 at-risk students attending a state university in Turkey. The Personal Information Form, Risk…

  8. Cognitive Style Predicts Entry into Physical Sciences and Humanities: Questionnaire and Performance Tests of Empathy and Systemizing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billington, Jac; Baron-Cohen, Simon; Wheelwright, Sally

    2007-01-01

    It is often questioned as to why fewer women enter science. This study assesses whether a cognitive style characterized by systemizing being at a higher level than empathizing (S greater than E) is better than sex in predicating entry into the physical sciences compared to humanities. 415 students in both types of discipline (203 males, 212…

  9. Formal Operations and Learning Style Predict Success in Statistics and Computer Science Courses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudak, Mary A.; Anderson, David E.

    1990-01-01

    Studies 94 undergraduate students in introductory statistics and computer science courses. Applies Formal Operations Reasoning Test (FORT) and Kolb's Learning Style Inventory (LSI). Finds that substantial numbers of students have not achieved the formal operation level of cognitive maturity. Emphasizes need to examine students learning style and…

  10. Social Media Social Comparison of Ability (but not Opinion) Predicts Lower Identity Clarity: Identity Processing Style as a Mediator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chia-Chen; Holden, Sean M; Carter, Mollie D K

    2018-01-11

    Social comparison on social media has received increasing attention, but most research has focused on one type of social comparison and its psycho-emotional implications. Little is known about how different types of social comparison influence youth's identity development. Drawing on the theories of identity processing styles and social comparison, we examined how two different forms of social comparison on social media related to three identity processing styles, which in turn predicted youth's global self-esteem and identity clarity. We surveyed 219 college freshmen (M age  = 18.29; 74% female) once in the Fall and once in the Spring. Social comparison of ability on social media was related to concurrent diffuse-avoidant identity processing style, which predicted lower identity clarity months later. In contrast, social comparison of opinion on social media did not influence college freshmen's global self-esteem and identity clarity through identity processing styles. The findings clarified the implications of online social comparison for youth's identity development.

  11. Parenting style and child-feeding behaviour in predicting children's weight status change in Taiwan

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tung, Ho-Jui; Yeh, Ming-Chin

    .... Prior studies find that parents' child-feeding practices are associated with child weight status and the efficacy of specific parental child-feeding practices can be moderated by parenting styles...

  12. Self-Regulation and Dimensions of Parenting Styles Predict Psychological Procrastination of Undergraduate Students

    OpenAIRE

    Habibeh Mortazanajad; Faride mostafafi; Shahram Vahedi

    2009-01-01

    "n Objective: "n "nPrevious research has linked self regulation and parenting styles separately to academic procrastination. This article investigates the impact of the dimensions of parenting styles, behavioral self regulation and short term self regulation on procrastination of students. "nMethod: A sample of 249 adolescents (174 females and 75 male) aged 19 - 21 years completed measures of Parent as Social Context Questionnaire- Adolescent Report, Self-regulation Questionnaire (SRQ), ...

  13. Negative cognitive styles synergistically predict suicidal ideation in bipolar spectrum disorders: a 3-year prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stange, Jonathan P; Hamilton, Jessica L; Burke, Taylor A; Kleiman, Evan M; O'Garro-Moore, Jared K; Seligman, Nicole D; Abramson, Lyn Y; Alloy, Lauren B

    2015-03-30

    Rates of suicidal ideation and behavior are extremely high in bipolar spectrum disorders (BSDs). However, relatively little work has evaluated potentially synergistic relationships between cognitive and emotion-regulatory processes proposed by theoretical models of suicidality in BSDs. The present study evaluated whether negative cognitive style and subtypes of rumination would exacerbate the impact of self-criticism on suicidal ideation in a prospective study of individuals with BSDs. Seventy-two young adults with BSDs (bipolar II, bipolar NOS, or cyclothymia) completed diagnostic interviews and trait measures of self-criticism, negative cognitive style, and brooding and reflective rumination at a baseline assessment. The occurrence of suicidal ideation was assessed as part of diagnostic interviews completed every 4 months for an average of 3 years of follow-up. Negative cognitive style and reflective rumination strengthened the association between self-criticism and the prospective occurrence of suicidal ideation across follow-up. Individuals with high levels of self-criticism in conjunction with negative cognitive style or reflective rumination were most likely to experience the onset of suicidal ideation. Self-criticism may work synergistically with negative cognitive style and rumination to confer risk for suicidal ideation in bipolar spectrum disorders. These results support theoretical models of suicidality in BSDs and indicate that evaluating and understanding negative cognitive styles may help to identify individuals who are at risk of suicide. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Eating styles in the morbidly obese: restraint eating, but not emotional and external eating, predicts dietary behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brogan, Amy; Hevey, David

    2013-01-01

    The research explored (1) the relationships between self-reported eating style (restraint, emotional and external eating) and dietary intake and (2) emotional eater status as a moderator of food intake when emotional, in a morbidly obese population. A sample of 57 obese participants (BMI: M = 51.84, SD = 8.66) completed a five-day food diary together with a reflective diary, which assessed eating style and positive and negative affect daily. A dietician-scored food pyramid analysis of intake. Restraint eating was the only predictor (negative) of overall food intake and the variable most strongly associated with the consumption of top-shelf foods. Emotional and external eating were unrelated to food intake. Emotional eater status did not moderate food intake in response to positive and negative mood states. The findings indicated largely analogous relationships between eating style and dietary intake in this obese sample compared with previous results from healthy populations. The lack of predictive validity for emotional eating scales (when emotional) raises questions over people's ability to adequately assess their eating style and consequently, the overall validity of emotional eater scales.

  15. Attachment style predicts 6-month improvement in psychoticism in persons with at-risk mental states for psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quijada, Yanet; Tizón, Jorge L; Artigue, Jordi; Kwapil, Thomas R; Barrantes-Vidal, Neus

    2012-11-01

    Insecure attachment may influence vulnerability to and outcome of psychotic symptomatology. The present study examined whether attachment style predicted symptoms and functioning of at-risk mental state (ARMS) patients after 6 months of psychosocial intervention, over and above the effects of initial clinical severity and premorbid social adjustment (PSA). Symptoms and functioning were assessed at baseline and 6 months later in 31 ARMS patients (mean age = 15.7). No patient received antipsychotic medication, but all engaged in intense psychosocial needs-adapted treatment. Clinicians (unaware of the aims of the study) rated attachment, PSA, symptoms, and functioning. Attachment was not related to baseline clinical severity. However, improvement in psychoticism was predicted by attachment (in particular by secure, preoccupied and dismissing) beyond the effects of baseline clinical severity and PSA. Secure attachment also predicted improvements in disorganization and functioning. Poor PSA predicted less improvement in disorganization and negative symptoms but did not impact psychoticism. The three attachment prototypes that predicted improvement in psychoticism (secure, preoccupied and dismissing) share the existence of at least one positive psychological model (either about self or about others). It may be that the psychosocial intervention helped ARMS patients to disconfirm negative models and/or reinforce positive ones. Patients' attachment styles were not related to baseline clinical severity but impacted improvement of positive symptoms. These findings appear consistent with evidence that impaired self-esteem and dysfunctional self and others schemas constitute risk factors for reality distortion. © 2012 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  16. Analytic cognitive style predicts paranormal explanations of anomalous experiences but not the experiences themselves: Implications for cognitive theories of delusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Robert M; Hartig, Bjoern; McKay, Ryan

    2017-09-01

    It has been proposed that delusional beliefs are attempts to explain anomalous experiences. Why, then, do anomalous experiences induce delusions in some people but not in others? One possibility is that people with delusions have reasoning biases that result in them failing to reject implausible candidate explanations for anomalous experiences. We examine this hypothesis by studying paranormal interpretations of anomalous experiences. We examined whether analytic cognitive style (i.e. the willingness or disposition to critically evaluate outputs from intuitive processing and engage in effortful analytic processing) predicted anomalous experiences and paranormal explanations for these experiences after controlling for demographic variables and cognitive ability. Analytic cognitive style predicted paranormal explanations for anomalous experiences, but not the anomalous experiences themselves. We did not study clinical delusions. Our attempts to control for cognitive ability may have been inadequate. Our sample was predominantly students. Limited analytic cognitive style might contribute to the interpretation of anomalous experiences in terms of delusional beliefs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Social support coping style predicts women's cortisol in the laboratory and daily life: the moderating role of social attentional biases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sladek, Michael R; Doane, Leah D; Jewell, Shannon L; Luecken, Linda J

    2017-01-01

    Social stress and associated coping responses can profoundly influence women's stress physiology and health. Implicit social attentional biases can also influence psychological and physiological stress responses. The purpose of this study was to explore whether a coping style characterized by greater use of social support predicts indices of cortisol activity in laboratory and daily life contexts among female university students. We hypothesized that the relation of this coping style to cortisol activity would be moderated by women's attentional biases. Seventy-four women (Mage = 19.44, range: 17.8-27.8, 64% White) completed an interpersonal stress task and an attentional bias task in the lab, along with a self-report coping inventory. Participants provided five saliva samples during the lab protocol, followed by three saliva samples per day for three consecutive weekdays. Outcome measures included cortisol response to lab tasks (AUCg), diurnal cortisol slope, diurnal AUCg, and cortisol awakening response (CARi). A coping style characterized by greater use of social support predicted lower lab AUCg and lower, flatter average diurnal cortisol slope for women with attentional avoidance compared to women with attentional vigilance (ps stress by using social support is linked to lower cortisol responses to social stress and diurnal cortisol activity for women with implicit avoidance of social threat cues.

  18. Global discriminative learning for higher-accuracy computational gene prediction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Axel Bernal

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Most ab initio gene predictors use a probabilistic sequence model, typically a hidden Markov model, to combine separately trained models of genomic signals and content. By combining separate models of relevant genomic features, such gene predictors can exploit small training sets and incomplete annotations, and can be trained fairly efficiently. However, that type of piecewise training does not optimize prediction accuracy and has difficulty in accounting for statistical dependencies among different parts of the gene model. With genomic information being created at an ever-increasing rate, it is worth investigating alternative approaches in which many different types of genomic evidence, with complex statistical dependencies, can be integrated by discriminative learning to maximize annotation accuracy. Among discriminative learning methods, large-margin classifiers have become prominent because of the success of support vector machines (SVM in many classification tasks. We describe CRAIG, a new program for ab initio gene prediction based on a conditional random field model with semi-Markov structure that is trained with an online large-margin algorithm related to multiclass SVMs. Our experiments on benchmark vertebrate datasets and on regions from the ENCODE project show significant improvements in prediction accuracy over published gene predictors that use intrinsic features only, particularly at the gene level and on genes with long introns.

  19. Management Styles of Registrars and Officers of Admission. A Study of How Higher Education's Key Middle Managers Manage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, Robert J.; Ross, Elizabeth D.

    1991-01-01

    Based on results of a national survey, the managerial behavior of college registrars (n=303) and admissions officers (n=343) is defined and analyzed, pointing out similarities and differences in management styles (coercive, authoritative, affiliative, democratic, pacesetting, and coaching) and identifying situations in which particular management…

  20. The Relationship between Transformational Leadership Style and Employees' Perception of Leadership Success in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Tatrabian D.

    2016-01-01

    The problem addressed examined whether two merged academic institutions was successful in implementing a transformational leadership style within the united organization. Successful leadership cannot be limited to the perception of only the leader, but must include the perceptions of the follower as well. The focus of this study was to investigate…

  1. Learning styles of Chinese and Dutch students compared within the context of Dutch higher education in life sciences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biemans, H.J.A.; Mil, van M.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the extent to which the learning styles of Chinese students differ from those of Dutch students. The study was conducted within the context of Englishlanguage Bachelor of Science programmes thatWageningen University offers together with China Agricultural University to Dutch

  2. Peer Mentoring Styles and Their Contribution to Academic Success among Mentees: A Person-Oriented Study in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leidenfrost, Birgit; Strassnig, Barbara; Schabmann, Alfred; Spiel, Christiane; Carbon, Claus-Christian

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of our study was to explore peer mentoring styles and examine their contribution to academic success among mentees. Data were collected as part of a comprehensive evaluation of a peer mentoring program. The sample consisted of 49 mentors (advanced students) who supported 376 mentees (first year students) in small groups. Indicators for…

  3. A Study of the Leadership Styles of Campus Based Women's Centers in Higher Education in the Southeast United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLuz, Nikki

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the organizational and institutional variables that influence the leadership styles of directors of campus-based women's centers at public and private four-year universities in the southeast United States. The researcher examined the leadership frame (or frames), as measured by Bolman and Deal's (1990) Leadership Orientations…

  4. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN STUDENT CHARACTERISTICS, INCLUDING LEARNING STYLES, AND THEIR PERCEPTIONS AND SATISFACTION IN WEB-BASED COURSES IN HIGHER EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sami SAHIN

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTDistance education and web-based courses are mainstream in the United States higher education and growing (NCES, 2003 involving over 80% of four year public universities in 2002. The National Academy of Science review of “how people learn” suggests that technology-mediated learning can be used to respond to students’ preferences and related characteristics. This investigation of the relationships between learners’ characteristics and their perception of web-based learning and satisfaction with their course used Kolb’s (1984 Learning Styles Inventory and Walker’s (2003 distance education learning environment instrument plus demographic questions to survey 279 students in five web-based undergraduate courses in a Midwestern university. The study founds that the three dimensions of Moore’s Transactional Distance Theory may be linked with Kolb’s two dimensional views of individual learning styles. For example, introductory biology courses with high structure are perceived as more satisfactory by students who prefer a more “abstract conceptual” learning style for “knowledge grasping.” The author recommends that courses are designed to accommodate multiple learning styles with variety on all dimensions of transactional

  5. Workplace Incivility and Conflict Management Styles: Predicting Job Performance, Organizational Commitment and Turnover Intent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reio, Thomas G., Jr.; Trudel, Jeannie

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relations among conflict management styles and target and instigator incivility and job performance, organizational commitment, and turnover intent. Data from 270 employees suggested that experiencing and instigating uncivil behavior occurred frequently. Using an integrative conflict management style…

  6. Fuzzy-logic based learning style prediction in e-learning using web ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    humanoid robot. IJCSSE 26(3). Triantafillou E, Pomportsis A and Georgiadou E 2002 AES-CS: Adaptive educational system base on cognitive styles. In: Proceedings AH2002 Workshop, 10–20. Wilges B, Mateus G P, Nassar S M and Bastos R C 2012 Integration of BDI agent with fuzzy logic in a virtual learning environment.

  7. Maternal Reminiscing Style during Early Childhood Predicts the Age of Adolescents' Earliest Memories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jack, Fiona; MacDonald, Shelley; Reese, Elaine; Hayne, Harlene

    2009-01-01

    Individual differences in parental reminiscing style are hypothesized to have long-lasting effects on children's autobiographical memory development, including the age of their earliest memories. This study represents the first prospective test of this hypothesis. Conversations about past events between 17 mother-child dyads were recorded on…

  8. Perceived Social Competence, Negative Social Interactions, and Negative Cognitive Style Predict Depressive Symptoms during Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Adabel; Hankin, Benjamin L.; Mermelstein, Robin J.

    2010-01-01

    The current study examined whether negative interactions with parents and peers would mediate the longitudinal association between perceived social competence and depressive symptoms and whether a negative cognitive style would moderate the longitudinal association between negative interactions with parents and increases in depressive symptoms.…

  9. To What Extent Can the Big Five and Learning Styles Predict Academic Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köseoglu, Yaman

    2016-01-01

    Personality traits and learning styles play defining roles in shaping academic achievement. 202 university students completed the Big Five personality traits questionnaire and the Inventory of Learning Processes Scale and self-reported their grade point averages. Conscientiousness and agreeableness, two of the Big Five personality traits, related…

  10. You Have What? Personality! Traits That Predict Leadership Styles for Elementary Administrators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Melinda

    2013-01-01

    This research explored relationships between followers' perceptions of elementary school principals' Big Five Personality Traits, using the "International Personality Item Pool" (IPIP) (Goldberg, 1999), and principals' Leadership Styles, using the "Multi-factor Leadership Questionnaire" (MLQ) (Bass & Avolio, 2004). A sample…

  11. Social Support and Coping Styles in Predicting Suicide Probability among Turkish Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cenkseven-Önder, Fulya

    2018-01-01

    This study aims to investigate whether the perceived social support and coping styles are predictors of suicide probability by gender. The study was conducted with 445 high schools students, 227 girls, and 218 boys. The participants were aged between 14 and 18, and their average age was 15.90. Data were collected through the "Multidimensional…

  12. The Predictive Role of Teaching Styles on Omani Students' Mathematics Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldhafri, Said; Alrajhi, Marwa

    2014-01-01

    The current study explored the effects of two teaching styles, authoritative and authoritarian, on students' mathematics motivation. The two motivational constructs examined were intrinsic and extrinsic motivation. Data were collected from 425 Omani 8th grade students (males = 202/females = 223, mean age = 13.44, SD = 0.79). Through two…

  13. Parenting style and child-feeding behaviour in predicting children's weight status change in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tung, Ho-Jui; Yeh, Ming-Chin

    2014-05-01

    The prevalence of overweight and obesity among children is on the rise worldwide. Prior studies find that parents' child-feeding practices are associated with child weight status and the efficacy of specific parental child-feeding practices can be moderated by parenting styles. In the current longitudinal study, we examined the associations between child-feeding practices and weight status changes over 1 year among a sample of school-aged children in Taiwan. In autumn 2008, a child-feeding questionnaire and parenting-style questionnaire were administered to parents of the second and fourth graders in an elementary school in Taiwan. The weight and height of the students were measured by a trained school nurse in 2008 and again in 2009. An elementary school in central Taiwan. A total of 465 parent-child pairs were included in the analysis. Using a gender- and age-adjusted BMI classification scheme issued by the Taiwan Department of Health, 29·2 % of the students were considered overweight at the 2009 measurement. Controlling for 2008 weight status revealed moderating effects of parenting style on the relationship between child-feeding practices and child weight status. Both authoritative and authoritarian mothers might monitor their children's dietary intake; however, the effectiveness of this practice was better, in terms of weight status control, among the authoritative mothers. Findings suggest that parenting styles have a moderating effect on specific parental child-feeding practices. Parenting styles and parent's feeding practices could be an important focus for future public health interventions addressing the rising childhood obesity epidemic.

  14. Predicting perceptual learning from higher-order cortical processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fang; Huang, Jing; Lv, Yaping; Ma, Xiaoli; Yang, Bin; Wang, Encong; Du, Boqi; Li, Wu; Song, Yan

    2016-01-01

    Visual perceptual learning has been shown to be highly specific to the retinotopic location and attributes of the trained stimulus. Recent psychophysical studies suggest that these specificities, which have been associated with early retinotopic visual cortex, may in fact not be inherent in perceptual learning and could be related to higher-order brain functions. Here we provide direct electrophysiological evidence in support of this proposition. In a series of event-related potential (ERP) experiments, we recorded high-density electroencephalography (EEG) from human adults over the course of learning in a texture discrimination task (TDT). The results consistently showed that the earliest C1 component (68-84ms), known to reflect V1 activity driven by feedforward inputs, was not modulated by learning regardless of whether the behavioral improvement is location specific or not. In contrast, two later posterior ERP components (posterior P1 and P160-350) over the occipital cortex and one anterior ERP component (anterior P160-350) over the prefrontal cortex were progressively modified day by day. Moreover, the change of the anterior component was closely correlated with improved behavioral performance on a daily basis. Consistent with recent psychophysical and imaging observations, our results indicate that perceptual learning can mainly involve changes in higher-level visual cortex as well as in the neural networks responsible for cognitive functions such as attention and decision making. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Predicting molybdenum toxicity to higher plants: Influence of soil properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGrath, S.P., E-mail: steve.mcgrath@bbsrc.ac.u [Soil Science Department, Centre for Soils and Ecosystems Functions, Rothamsted Research, Harpenden, Hertfordshire AL5 2JQ (United Kingdom); Mico, C. [Soil Science Department, Centre for Soils and Ecosystems Functions, Rothamsted Research, Harpenden, Hertfordshire AL5 2JQ (United Kingdom); Curdy, R. [Laboratory for Environmental Biotechnology (LBE), Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Lausanne (EPFL) Station 6 CH, 1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Zhao, F.J. [Soil Science Department, Centre for Soils and Ecosystems Functions, Rothamsted Research, Harpenden, Hertfordshire AL5 2JQ (United Kingdom)

    2010-10-15

    The effect of soil properties on the toxicity of molybdenum (Mo) to four plant species was investigated. Soil organic carbon or ammonium-oxalate extractable Fe oxides were found to be the best predictors of the 50% effective dose (ED{sub 50}) of Mo in different soils, explaining > 65% of the variance in ED{sub 50} for four species except for ryegrass (26-38%). Molybdenum concentrations in soil solution and consequently plant uptake were increased when soil pH was artificially raised because sorption of Mo to amorphous oxides is greatly reduced at high pH. The addition of sulphate significantly decreased Mo uptake by oilseed rape. For risk assessment, we suggest that Mo toxicity values for plants should be normalised using soil amorphous iron oxide concentrations. - Amorphous iron oxides or organic carbon were found to be the best predictors of the toxicity threshold values of Mo to higher plants on different soils.

  16. Self-Regulation and Dimensions of Parenting Styles Predict Psychological Procrastination of Undergraduate Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habibeh Mortazanajad

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available "n Objective: "n "nPrevious research has linked self regulation and parenting styles separately to academic procrastination. This article investigates the impact of the dimensions of parenting styles, behavioral self regulation and short term self regulation on procrastination of students. "nMethod: A sample of 249 adolescents (174 females and 75 male aged 19 - 21 years completed measures of Parent as Social Context Questionnaire- Adolescent Report, Self-regulation Questionnaire (SRQ, Adolescent Self- Regulatory Inventory (ASRI and Procrastination Tendency scale. Correlation coefficient indicted that in contrast to harsh or unsupportive parenting (rejection, chaos, and coercion, authoritative parenting (warmth, structure, and autonomy support was inversely related with procrastination. "nResults: The results of hierarchical multiple regression analyses showed a clear negative relationship between a students' short term self regulation, dimensions of parenting styles (structure and warmth and procrastination consistent with the literature. "nConclusions: Surprisingly, in contrast to behavioral self regulation of Miler& Brown, short term self regulation was found to be negatively related to procrastination.

  17. Longitudinal prediction of early childhood discipline styles among heavy drinking parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Ellen P; Homish, Gregory G; Eiden, Rina D; Grohman, Kerry K; Leonard, Kenneth E

    2009-01-01

    This study sought to examine predictors of parenting trajectories in a sample of heavy drinking and abstaining/light drinking parents. Mixture modeling was used to estimate trajectories of parental discipline styles over time. Two dimensions of parenting were examined: laxness and overreactivity. Changes in these dimensions were examined for each parent. Trajectories for mothers and fathers were very similar and were generally stable from 18 months to 5-6 years child age. Fathers' binge drinking was associated with high levels of both paternal and maternal overreactivity. Mothers with depressed affect had the highest levels of overreactivity, whereas fathers reporting depressed affect were more likely to have moderate levels of laxness. Mothers with high levels of marital satisfaction were more likely to have partners in the stable low overreactivity group. Findings begin to elucidate the nature of early family processes that may contribute to maladaptive child outcomes in heavy drinking families.

  18. Positive emotional style predicts resistance to illness after experimental exposure to rhinovirus or influenza a virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Sheldon; Alper, Cuneyt M; Doyle, William J; Treanor, John J; Turner, Ronald B

    2006-01-01

    In an earlier study, positive emotional style (PES) was associated with resistance to the common cold and a bias to underreport (relative to objective disease markers) symptom severity. This work did not control for social and cognitive factors closely associated with PES. We replicate the original study using a different virus and controls for these alternative explanations. One hundred ninety-three healthy volunteers ages 21 to 55 years were assessed for a PES characterized by being happy, lively, and calm; a negative emotional style (NES) characterized by being anxious, hostile, and depressed; other cognitive and social dispositions; and self-reported health. Subsequently, they were exposed by nasal drops to a rhinovirus or influenza virus and monitored in quarantine for objective signs of illness and self-reported symptoms. For both viruses, increased PES was associated with lower risk of developing an upper respiratory illness as defined by objective criteria (adjusted odds ratio comparing lowest with highest tertile = 2.9) and with reporting fewer symptoms than expected from concurrent objective markers of illness. These associations were independent of prechallenge virus-specific antibody, virus type, age, sex, education, race, body mass, season, and NES. They were also independent of optimism, extraversion, mastery, self-esteem, purpose, and self-reported health. We replicated the prospective association of PES and colds and PES and biased symptom reporting, extended those results to infection with an influenza virus, and "ruled out" alternative hypotheses. These results indicate that PES may play a more important role in health than previously thought.

  19. An Investigation into the Roles of Theory of Mind, Emotion Regulation, and Attachment Styles in Predicting the Traits of Borderline Personality Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghiasi, Hamed; Mohammadi, Abolalfazl; Zarrinfar, Pouria

    2016-10-01

    Objective: Borderline personality disorder is one of the most complex and prevalent personality disorders. Many variables have so far been studied in relation to this disorder. This study aimed to investigate the role of emotion regulation, attachment styles, and theory of mind in predicting the traits of borderline personality disorder. Method: In this study, 85 patients with borderline personality disorder were selected using convenience sampling method. To measure the desired variables, the questionnaires of Gross emotion regulation, Collins and Read attachment styles, and Baron Cohen's Reading Mind from Eyes Test were applied. The data were analyzed using multivariate stepwise regression technique. Results: Emotion regulation, attachment styles, and theory of mind predicted 41.2% of the variance criterion altogether; among which, the shares of emotion regulation, attachment styles and theory of mind to the distribution of the traits of borderline personality disorder were 27.5%, 9.8%, and 3.9%, respectively.‎‎ Conclusion: The results of the study revealed that emotion regulation, attachment styles, and theory of mind are important variables in predicting the traits of borderline personality disorder and that these variables can be well applied for both the treatment and identification of this disorder.

  20. An Investigation into the Roles of Theory of Mind, Emotion Regulation, and Attachment Styles in Predicting the Traits of Borderline Personality Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamed Ghiasi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Borderline personality disorder is one of the most complex and prevalent personality disorders. Many variables have so far been studied in relation to this disorder. This study aimed to investigate the role of emotion regulation, attachment styles, and theory of mind in predicting the traits of borderline personality disorder.Method: In this study, 85 patients with borderline personality disorder were selected using convenience sampling method. To measure the desired variables, the questionnaires of Gross emotion regulation, Collins and Read attachment styles, and Baron Cohen's Reading Mind from Eyes Test were applied. The data were analyzed using multivariate stepwise regression technique.Results: Emotion regulation, attachment styles, and theory of mind predicted 41.2% of the variance criterion altogether; among which, the shares of emotion regulation, attachment styles and theory of mind to the distribution of the traits of borderline personality disorder were 27.5%, 9.8%, and 3.9%, respectively.‎‎Conclusion: The results of the study revealed that emotion regulation, attachment styles, and theory of mind are important variables in predicting the traits of borderline personality disorder and that these variables can be well applied for both the treatment and identification of this disorder.

  1. An Investigation into the Roles of Theory of Mind, Emotion Regulation, and Attachment Styles in Predicting the Traits of Borderline Personality Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghiasi, Hamed; Mohammadi, Abolalfazl; Zarrinfar, Pouria

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Borderline personality disorder is one of the most complex and prevalent personality disorders. Many variables have so far been studied in relation to this disorder. This study aimed to investigate the role of emotion regulation, attachment styles, and theory of mind in predicting the traits of borderline personality disorder. Method: In this study, 85 patients with borderline personality disorder were selected using convenience sampling method. To measure the desired variables, the questionnaires of Gross emotion regulation, Collins and Read attachment styles, and Baron Cohen's Reading Mind from Eyes Test were applied. The data were analyzed using multivariate stepwise regression technique. Results: Emotion regulation, attachment styles, and theory of mind predicted 41.2% of the variance criterion altogether; among which, the shares of emotion regulation, attachment styles and theory of mind to the distribution of the traits of borderline personality disorder were 27.5%, 9.8%, and 3.9%, respectively.‎‎ Conclusion: The results of the study revealed that emotion regulation, attachment styles, and theory of mind are important variables in predicting the traits of borderline personality disorder and that these variables can be well applied for both the treatment and identification of this disorder. PMID:28050180

  2. Teaching and Learning Styles in Higher Education: Analysis of Student Teachers’ Preferences in an English Pedagogy Program at Three Chilean Universities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constanza Rojas-Jara

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper shows the findings of a study conducted in three Chilean universities in 2014. It aims to analyze EFL student teachers’ preferences regarding their teaching and learning styles. 279 participants answered the teaching style inventory and 238 took the learning style questionnaire. These participants are first, third and fifth year student-teachers. This study uses Grasha and Riechman’s model to study teaching and learning styles. These authors propose a classification, cluster grouping and integrated clustering (Lewis, 2014; Grasha y Riechmann, 1975. The findings reveal that all student teachers favor the Facilitator teaching style and the Collaborative learning style.

  3. Self-reported leadership styles of deans of baccalaureate and higher degree nursing programs in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broome, Marion E

    2013-01-01

    Over the past decade there has been a lack of attention in the discipline paid to developing strong academic leaders. It is widely acknowledged that the role of the dean has shifted dramatically over the past two decades, with an increasing emphasis on interaction with and accountability to external constituencies at the university, community, and national levels. The overall purpose of this study was to investigate the self-reported leadership styles, behaviors, and experiences of deans of schools of nursing in the United States. The Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire (MLQ) was sent to 655 deans who were members of the American Association of Colleges of Nursing; 344 returned completed surveys for a return rate of 52.5%. Scores on the transformational scale (n = 321; 20 items) ranged from 2.75 to 4.0, with a mean of 3.79; transactional scores ranged from 1.3 to 4.0, with a mean of 3.3 and mode of 3.5. The passive leadership component was lowest, with a range of 0 to 3.75, mean of 1.1, and mode of 1.0. The highest scores for each dean were then examined and compared across the three components. Seventy-seven percent of the deans' highest scores fell on the transformational, 21% on the transactional, and 2% on the passive-avoidant scale. There were no significant differences in the most commonly reported leadership behaviors by gender, ethnicity, or terminal degree. Deans of nursing, compared with over 3,000 other leaders who have completed the MLQ, ranked in the 80th percentile for self-reported transformative behaviors and outcomes effectiveness. The findings from this sample, who were predominantly female, are congruent with previous research on women leaders. Recommendations for future research leadership development programs are presented. © 2013.

  4. The Effect of the Attachment Styles and Self-Efficacy of Adolescents Preparing for University Entrance Tests in Turkey on Predicting Test Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erzen, Evren; Odaci, Hatice

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of attachment styles and self-efficacy of adolescents preparing for university entrance exams in Turkey on predicting test anxieties. The study group consisted of 884 final-year high school students (423 female and 461 male) attending different types of high school, preparing for university…

  5. Predicting individual differences in decision-making process from signature movement styles: an illustrative study of leaders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connors, Brenda L.; Rende, Richard; Colton, Timothy J.

    2013-01-01

    There has been a surge of interest in examining the utility of methods for capturing individual differences in decision-making style. We illustrate the potential offered by Movement Pattern Analysis (MPA), an observational methodology that has been used in business and by the US Department of Defense to record body movements that provide predictive insight into individual differences in decision-making motivations and actions. Twelve military officers participated in an intensive 2-h interview that permitted detailed and fine-grained observation and coding of signature movements by trained practitioners using MPA. Three months later, these subjects completed four hypothetical decision-making tasks in which the amount of information sought out before coming to a decision, as well as the time spent on the tasks, were under the partial control of the subject. A composite MPA indicator of how a person allocates decision-making actions and motivations to balance both Assertion (exertion of tangible movement effort on the environment to make something occur) and Perspective (through movements that support shaping in the body to perceive and create a suitable viewpoint for action) was highly correlated with the total number of information draws and total response time—individuals high on Assertion reached for less information and had faster response times than those high on Perspective. Discussion focuses on the utility of using movement-based observational measures to capture individual differences in decision-making style and the implications for application in applied settings geared toward investigations of experienced leaders and world statesmen where individuality rules the day. PMID:24069012

  6. Predicting individual differences in decision-making process from signature movement styles: an illustrative study of leaders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connors, Brenda L; Rende, Richard; Colton, Timothy J

    2013-01-01

    There has been a surge of interest in examining the utility of methods for capturing individual differences in decision-making style. We illustrate the potential offered by Movement Pattern Analysis (MPA), an observational methodology that has been used in business and by the US Department of Defense to record body movements that provide predictive insight into individual differences in decision-making motivations and actions. Twelve military officers participated in an intensive 2-h interview that permitted detailed and fine-grained observation and coding of signature movements by trained practitioners using MPA. Three months later, these subjects completed four hypothetical decision-making tasks in which the amount of information sought out before coming to a decision, as well as the time spent on the tasks, were under the partial control of the subject. A composite MPA indicator of how a person allocates decision-making actions and motivations to balance both Assertion (exertion of tangible movement effort on the environment to make something occur) and Perspective (through movements that support shaping in the body to perceive and create a suitable viewpoint for action) was highly correlated with the total number of information draws and total response time-individuals high on Assertion reached for less information and had faster response times than those high on Perspective. Discussion focuses on the utility of using movement-based observational measures to capture individual differences in decision-making style and the implications for application in applied settings geared toward investigations of experienced leaders and world statesmen where individuality rules the day.

  7. Predicting Individual Differences in Decision-Making Process From Signature Movement Styles: An Illustrative Study of Leaders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brenda L. Connors

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available There has been a surge of interest in examining the utility of methods for capturing individual differences in decision-making style. We illustrate the potential offered by Movement Pattern Analysis (MPA, an observational methodology that has been used in business and by the U.S. Department of Defense to record body movements that provide predictive insight into individual differences in decision-making motivations and actions. Twelve military officers participated in an intensive two-hour interview that permitted detailed and fine-grained observation and coding of signature movements by trained practitioners using MPA. Three months later, these subjects completed four hypothetical decision-making tasks in which the amount of information sought out before coming to a decision, as well as the time spent on the tasks, were under the partial control of the subject. A composite MPA indicator of how a person allocates decision-making actions and motivations to balance both Assertion (exertion of tangible movement effort on the environment to make something occur and Perspective (through movements that support shaping in the body to perceive and create a suitable environment for action was highly correlated with the total number of information draws and total response time – individuals high on Assertion reached for less information and had faster response times than those high on Perspective. Discussion focuses on the utility of using movement-based observational measures to capture individual differences in decision-making style and the implications for application in applied settings geared toward investigations of experienced leaders and world statesmen where individuality rules the day.

  8. Leadership Styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzarella, Jo Ann; Smith, Stuart C.

    Chapter 2 of a revised volume on school leadership, this chapter reviews theories of leadership style--the way a leader leads. Although most experts agree that leadership style is important, they disagree concerning style components, leaders' capabilities for changing styles, the effects of personality traits on style, and the desirability of…

  9. Musical Styles as Communities of Practice: Challenges for Learning, Teaching and Assessment of Music in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewitt, Allan

    2009-01-01

    The last three decades have been marked by significant expansion of music education within higher education, the outcomes of which can be seen in the increased numbers of students studying music and in the diversity of activity and purpose within music courses. This article interrogates the relationship between stylistic diversity and music…

  10. The Relationship of Cultural Intelligence, Transformational Leadership Style, and Team Performance in Culturally Diverse Student Leaders in Christian Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menna, Tamene Yoseph

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between cultural intelligence, transformational leadership, and team performance in one private Christian higher education institution in Southern California. The study further conducted initial exploration of how student leaders' Christian worldview (humility) influences their cultural…

  11. What Style of Leadership Is Best Suited to Direct Organizational Change to Fuel Institutional Diversity in Higher Education?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adserias, Ryan P.; Charleston, LaVar J.; Jackson, Jerlando F. L.

    2017-01-01

    Implementing diversity agendas within decentralized, loosely coupled, and change-resistant institutions such as colleges and universities is a global challenge. A shift in the organizational climate and culture is imperative to produce the change needed in order for a diversity agenda to thrive. Higher education scholars have consistently…

  12. Hill Girls, Consumption Practices, Power, and City Style: Raced and Classed Production of Femininities in a Higher Education Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the ways a diverse group of university women in the USA utilised racialised and classed discourses of femininity in the creation of subjectivities. Interview and focus group data were collected over a two-year time period and focused on how women navigated the higher education setting. Two forms of femininity, "Hill girl"…

  13. Higher order predicted terms for an QCD observable, using PMS procedure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bakniehl [Institute for Theoretical Physics-II, Hamburg University, Luruper Chaussee 149, 22761 Hamburg (Germany); Mirjalili, A [Institute for Studies in Theoretical Physics and Mathematics (IPM), 19395-5531, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], E-mail: Mirjalili@ipm.ir

    2008-05-15

    In this letter, we first review the principle of minimum sensitivity (PMS) in NLO, NNLO and higher order approximations to find an optimized expression for the desired observable at specific order. It is possible to expand the optimized quantities in terms of the quantities which exist in the standard approach of QCD for the observable. In this case we are able to obtain the predicted higher order terms. The calculations indicate that the predicted term, in the NNLO and higher approximations is not unique.

  14. Illness behavior: prediction by symptoms, the Grossarth-Maticek and Eysenck Personality Types, neuroticism, life events, coping, health locus of control, social support, and attribution style.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orejudo Hernández, Santos; Froján Parga, María Xesús; Malo Aznar, Carmen

    2007-11-01

    A study was carried out with 501 persons to analyze the predictive capacity of various psychosocial variables-symptom perception, neuroticism, Personality Types 2 and 4 of Grossarth-Maticek and Eysenck, beliefs about health, social support, or certain coping styles-on two health-related behaviors: the frequency of visits to the doctor and self-medication. The results were analyzed by two structural equation models that revealed that some of the variables have direct effects on the behaviors, whereas other variables, such as attribution style, coping styles, or the impact of the stressors, have indirect effects via the reported symptoms or neuroticism. In addition, self-medication and the frequency of health service visits are independent of each other, which shows that their determinants are different. It is concluded that to address these factors in the two health indicators, it is also necessary to take in account the psychosocial variables considered herein.

  15. How predictive are sex and empathizing-systemizing cognitive style for entry into the academic areas of social or physical sciences?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groen, Y; Fuermaier, A B M; Tucha, L I; Koerts, J; Tucha, O

    2018-02-01

    Based on the Empathizing-Systemizing (E-S) theory, it was hypothesized that the underrepresentation of female students in the physical sciences and the underrepresentation of males in the social sciences relates to differences in E-S cognitive style between the sexes. This hypothesis was tested in 115 physical science students and 155 social science students from a university in the Netherlands. The students completed visuospatial tests and the systemizing quotient-revised (SQ-R) as measures for systemizing, and a Cartoon Prediction test and the empathy quotient (EQ) as measures for empathizing. Independent of sex, the physical science students scored significantly lower than social science students on EQ (with large effect size) and 'brain type' that represents the standardized difference score between EQ and SQ-R (with large effect size). Physical science students, furthermore, scored significantly higher on the Cartoon Prediction task and one of the visuospatial tasks; however, these effects were only small of size. Unlike the scores on the SQ-R and the performance tests, the 'brain type' score of the EQ and SQ-R questionnaires was a good predictor of entry into social or physical sciences. Interestingly, the typical sex differences in more empathizing and less systemizing in females compared to males were only small for EQ and 'brain type', and absent for the SQ-R and the performance tests. This study only partially confirms the E-S theory, because typical sex differences were only minor in this selective sample and only the self-report measures predicted academic area in the absence of a role for sex.

  16. Supplementary effects of higher levels of various disaccharides on processing yield, quality properties and sensory attributes of Chinese - style pork jerky

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Ming Chen

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective This study evaluated the supplementary effect of higher concentrations of various disaccharides on processing yield, major physicochemical properties, and sensory attributes of Chinese-style pork jerky (CSPJ. Methods CSPJ samples were prepared by marinating sliced ham (4 mm with three dissaccharides, including sucrose, lactose, and maltose, at 0%, 15%, 18%, 21%, and 24%. Subsequently, the CSPJ samples were dried and roasted. The moisture content, water activity, crude protein, moisture-to-protein ratio, pH, processing yield, shear force, color, and sensory attributes of the CSPJ samples were evaluated. Results The quality characteristics of CSPJ samples prepared with sucrose were more acceptable. By contrast, CSPJ samples prepared with lactose showed the lowest scores. However, the processing yield and moisture content were the highest for CSPJ samples prepared with lactose, which may be associated with improved benefits for cost reduction. Furthermore, sucrose and lactose supplementation resulted in contrasting quality characteristics; for example, CSPJ samples with sucrose and maltose supplementation had higher sensory scores for color than samples with lactose supplementation. Additionally, most quality characteristics of CSPJ samples with sucrose supplementation contrasted with those of the samples with lactose supplementation; for example, the samples with sucrose supplementation had higher scores for sensory attributes than those with lactose supplementation. Conclusion Sucrose supplementation up to 21% to 24% was associated with the highest overall acceptability scores (5.19 to 5.80, enhanced quality characteristics, increased processing yield, and reduced production cost.

  17. Supplementary effects of higher levels of various disaccharides on processing yield, quality properties and sensory attributes of Chinese - style pork jerky.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chih-Ming; Lin, Hsien-Tang

    2017-12-01

    This study evaluated the supplementary effect of higher concentrations of various disaccharides on processing yield, major physicochemical properties, and sensory attributes of Chinese-style pork jerky (CSPJ). CSPJ samples were prepared by marinating sliced ham (4 mm) with three dissaccharides, including sucrose, lactose, and maltose, at 0%, 15%, 18%, 21%, and 24%. Subsequently, the CSPJ samples were dried and roasted. The moisture content, water activity, crude protein, moisture-to-protein ratio, pH, processing yield, shear force, color, and sensory attributes of the CSPJ samples were evaluated. The quality characteristics of CSPJ samples prepared with sucrose were more acceptable. By contrast, CSPJ samples prepared with lactose showed the lowest scores. However, the processing yield and moisture content were the highest for CSPJ samples prepared with lactose, which may be associated with improved benefits for cost reduction. Furthermore, sucrose and lactose supplementation resulted in contrasting quality characteristics; for example, CSPJ samples with sucrose and maltose supplementation had higher sensory scores for color than samples with lactose supplementation. Additionally, most quality characteristics of CSPJ samples with sucrose supplementation contrasted with those of the samples with lactose supplementation; for example, the samples with sucrose supplementation had higher scores for sensory attributes than those with lactose supplementation. Sucrose supplementation up to 21% to 24% was associated with the highest overall acceptability scores (5.19 to 5.80), enhanced quality characteristics, increased processing yield, and reduced production cost.

  18. Principalship in an Indonesian School Context: Can Principal Decision-Making Styles Significantly Predict Teacher Job Satisfaction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hariri, Hasan; Monypenny, Richard; Prideaux, Murray

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines relationships between teacher-perceived principal decision-making styles and teacher job satisfaction in schools in Lampung Province, Indonesia. We use the General Decision-making Style instrument, the Job Satisfaction Survey and a demographic questionnaire developed for this study. Our findings show that: 12 out of the 15…

  19. The coping strategies during medical education predict style of success in medical career: a 10-year longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tartas, Małgorzata; Walkiewicz, Maciej; Budziński, Waldemar; Majkowicz, Mikołaj; Wójcikiewicz, Krzysztof; Zdun-Ryżewska, Agata

    2016-07-22

    The stress associated with the physician's work is generally acknowledged and is related to well-being and life satisfaction. The presented study was designed to extract the role of coping strategies in identifying differentiated styles of success in a medical career during medical education. The participants were examined when they applied to medical school and each subsequent academic year. The final study took place four years after graduation. The baseline questionnaire measured coping strategies. The follow-up questionnaire consisted of measures of: quality of life, work stress and burnout, satisfaction with medicine as a career, and professional competency. Based on coping strategies assessed during admission and preclinical years of medical study, some aspects of success in the participants' future medical career can be predicted. Students who take action and deal directly with a problem, neither accept resignation, nor reduce tension by expressing feelings would most probably resist future burnout. However, despite the fact that they obtain the highest quality of life or earn the highest income they would be, at the same time, the least satisfied with chosen career, as well as being more likely to be characterised by a low level of competence. Assessment of coping strategies at the beginning of medical education could be taken into consideration as an instrument to diagnose a specific trend in physicians' career development.

  20. A higher adherence to a mediterranean-style diet is inversely associated with the development of frailty in community-dwelling elderly men and women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Talegawkar, S.A.; Bandinelli, S.; Bandeen-Roche, K.; Chen, P.; Milaneschi, Y.; Tanaka, T.; Semba, R.D.; Guralnik, J.M.; Ferrucci, L.

    2012-01-01

    Adherence to a Mediterranean-style diet is associated with a lower risk for mortality, cognitive decline, and dementia. Whether adherence to a Mediterranean-style diet protects against age-related frailty is unclear. Therefore, our objective was to examine the association between a

  1. Reading the IT Leaves: Four Predictions for Higher Education Technology in 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grush, Mary

    2011-01-01

    No start to the new year is complete without media prognostications for the 12 months ahead. Leaving the social, political, and economic fad predictions to others, "CT" asked four members of its editorial and conference advisory boards to identify information technology trends in higher education that are beginning to take real hold in 2011--the…

  2. Predicting academic success in higher education: what’s more important than being smart?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kappe, F.R.; van der Flier, H.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the combined predictive validity of intelligence and personality factors on multiple measures of academic achievement. Students in a college of higher education in the Netherlands (N0137) completed a survey that measured intelligence, the Big Five personality traits,

  3. Predicting Academic Success in Higher Education: What's More Important than Being Smart?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kappe, Rutger; van der Flier, Henk

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the combined predictive validity of intelligence and personality factors on multiple measures of academic achievement. Students in a college of higher education in the Netherlands (N = 137) completed a survey that measured intelligence, the Big Five personality traits, motivation, and four specific personality traits.…

  4. The role of prior mathematical experience in predicting mathematics performance in higher education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faulkner, Fiona; Hannigan, Ailish; Fitzmaurice, Olivia

    2014-07-01

    Evidence of deficiencies in basic mathematical skills of beginning undergraduates has been documented worldwide. Many different theories have been set out as to why these declines in mathematical competency levels have occurred over time. One such theory is the widening access to higher education which has resulted in a less mathematically prepared profile of beginning undergraduates than ever before. In response to this situation, the present study details the examination of a range of methods through which a student's mathematical performance in higher education could be predicted at the beginning of their third-level studies. Several statistical prediction methods were examined and the most effective method in predicting students' mathematical performance was discriminant analysis. The discriminant analysis correctly classified 71.3% of students in terms of mathematics performance. An ability to carry out such a prediction in turn allows for appropriate mathematics remediation to be offered to students predicted to fail third-level mathematics. The results of the prediction of mathematical performance, which was carried out using a database consisting of over 1000 beginning undergraduates over a 3-year period, are detailed in this article along with the implications of such findings to educational policy and practice.

  5. Do emotion regulation, attentional control, and attachment style predict response to cognitive behavioral therapy for anxiety disorders? – an investigation in clinical settings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sara Kerstine Kaya; Hageman, Ida; Petersen, Anders

    2018-01-01

    Objective: Approximately, 50% of all individuals with anxiety disorders do not benefit from the “gold standard” treatment, namely cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT). Reliable predictors of treatment effect are lacking. The primary aim of this study was to investigate the predictive value of emotion...... regulation, attentional control, and attachment style for group-based CBT outcomes in routine clinical settings. Method: A total of 76 patients with anxiety disorders received manual-based group CBT at psychiatric outpatient clinics. Emotion regulation, attachment style, and attentional control were assessed...... with self-report measures and with an experimental computer-based attentional control task at baseline. The severity of anxiety was assessed at intake, post-treatment, and at a 6-month follow-up. Results: Attentional control, emotion regulation, and attachment avoidance did not predict treatment outcomes...

  6. Transformational Leadership Style as Predictor of Decision Making Styles: Moderating Role of Emotional Intelligence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rana Rashid Rehman

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The current study examines the relationship among transformational leadership style and decision making styles. It also determines the moderating role of emotional intelligence in predicting this relationship. Three hypotheses are generated for the study i.e., twohypotheses are to measure the relationship among transformational leadership style and decision making styles whereas third hypothesis is to assess the moderating effect of emotional intelligence. Questionnaire method is used to collect data from 113respondents. Regression analysis is utilized to study the relationship among transformational leadership style and decision making styles and step-wise regression analysis is used to study moderating effect of emotional intelligence. The study foundthat transformational leadership style strongly predicts rational and dependant decision making styles and weakly predict intuitive and spontaneous decision making styles while no association founds with avoidant decision making styles. Present research also foundthat emotional intelligence moderates the relationship among transformational leadership style and decision making styles.

  7. Predicting early academic achievement: The role of higher-versus lower-order personality traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zupančič Maja

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The study explored the role of children’s (N = 193 individual differences and parental characteristics at the beginning of the first year of schooling in predicting students’ attainment of academic standards at the end of the year. Special attention was paid to children’s personality as perceived by the teachers’ assistants. Along with parents’ education, parenting practices and first-graders’ cognitive ability, the incremental predictive power of children’s higher-order (robust personality traits was compared to the contribution of lower-order (specific traits in explaining academic achievement. The specific traits provided a somewhat more accurate prediction than the robust traits. Unique contributions of maternal authoritative parenting, children’s cognitive ability, and personality to academic achievement were established. The ratings of first-graders’ conscientiousness (a higher-order trait improved the prediction of academic achievement based on parenting and cognitive ability by 12%, whereas assistant teacher’s perceived children’s intelligence and low antagonism (lower-order traits improved the prediction by 17%.

  8. The Process of Admission as a Means of Predicting Academic Performance in Higher Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aída Cortés Flores

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this investigation was to find out the predictive validity of the admission process regarding academic performance during the first year towards a degree in a private university in Mexico City. The grades derived from the National Examination for Admission into Higher Education (EXANI II, the general average grades from Senior High school and the points obtained through a questionnaire on social problems (DIT were considered as variables for predicting performance. Two hundred and forty male and female students, registered in Psychology, took part in this investigation. Their average age was 20 years old. The results showed that the highest grades obtained in the EXANI II were in the areas of numericand verbal reasoning followed by Spanish. Likewise, it was found that the number of points obtained in the EXANI II, the average high school grades and the students’ moral development made it possible to predict academic performance for the first year of their career.

  9. Subalpine Pyrenees received higher nitrogen deposition than predicted by EMEP and CHIMERE chemistry-transport models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boutin, Marion; Lamaze, Thierry; Couvidat, Florian; Pornon, André

    2015-08-01

    Deposition of reactive nitrogen (N) from the atmosphere is expected to be the third greatest driver of biodiversity loss by the year 2100. Chemistry-transport models are essential tools to estimate spatially explicit N deposition but the reliability of their predictions remained to be validated in mountains. We measured N deposition and air concentration over the subalpine Pyrenees. N deposition was found to range from 797 to 1,463 mg N m-2 year-1. These values were higher than expected from model predictions, especially for nitrate, which exceeded the estimations of EMEP by a factor of 2.6 and CHIMERE by 3.6. Our observations also displayed a reversed reduced-to-oxidized ratio in N deposition compared with model predictions. The results highlight that the subalpine Pyrenees are exposed to higher levels of N deposition than expected according to standard predictions and that these levels exceed currently recognized critical loads for most high-elevation habitats. Our study reveals a need to improve the evaluation of N deposition in mountains which are home to a substantial and original part of the world’s biodiversity.

  10. The role of locus of control and coping style in predicting longitudinal PTSD-trajectories after combat exposure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karstoft, K. I.; Armour, C.; Elklit, A.

    2015-01-01

    trajectories in the CSR and the non-CSR group were significantly associated to varying degrees with perceived life threat during combat (ORs: 1.76-2.53), internal LOC (0.77-0.87), emotional coping style (0.28-0.34), and low use of problem-focused coping (2.12-3.11). In conclusion, assessment of LOC and coping......While longitudinal posttraumatic stress responses are known to be heterogeneous, little is known about predictors of those responses. We investigated if locus of control (LOC) and coping style are associated with long-term PTSD-trajectories after exposure to combat. Six hundred and seventy five...... Israeli soldiers with or without combat stress reaction (CSR) from the Lebanon war were assessed 1, 2, and 20 years after the war. Combat exposure, LOC, and coping style were then investigated as covariates of the trajectories of resilience, recovery, delayed onset, and chronicity. Symptomatic...

  11. On Predictive-Based Lossless Compression of Images with Higher Bit Depths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Avramović

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Due to the rapidly increasing requirements for data transmission and storage, applications for fast and efficient compression of data have a very important role. Lossless compression must be applied when data acquisition is expensive. For example, lossless image compression must be applied in aerial, medical and space imaging. Besides the requirements for high compression ratios as much as it is possible, lossless image coding algorithms should be as fast as possible. During the late nineties of the previous century, many predictive-based algorithms for lossless compression of 8-bit images were introduced. These algorithms were usually expanded to enable processing of images with higher bit depths. All predictive based algorithms used more or less efficient predictors to remove spatial redundancy in images. This paper gives a comparative analysis of predictor efficiency with special emphasis on images with higher bit depths. A novel predictive-based, lossless image compression algorithm with a simple context-based entropy coder is presented, as well. A comparison with standardized lossless compression algorithms JPEG-LS and JPEG2000 is made on a large set of 12-bit medical images of different modalities and 12-bit and 16-bit natural images. It is shown that the proposed solution can achieve approximately the same bitrates as standardized algorithms even though it is much simpler.

  12. Academic Performance and Learning Style Self-Predictions by Second Language Students in an Introductory Biology Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breckler, Jennifer; Teoh, Chia Shan; Role, Kemi

    2011-01-01

    Academic success in first-year college science coursework can strongly influence future career paths and usually includes a solid performance in introductory biology. We wanted to know whether factors affecting biology student performance might include learning style preferences and one's ability and confidence in self-assessing those learning…

  13. Coping style predicts the (in)sensitivity for developing hyperinsulinemia on a high fat diet in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boersma, Gretha J.; Benthem, Lambertus; van Dijk, Gertjan; Steimer, Thierry J.; Scheurink, Anton J. W.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore interactions between coping style and diet as risk factors for developing insulin resistance in rats. We hypothesized that rats characterized by a passive coping strategy are more susceptible for developing insulin resistance and visceral obesity than proactively

  14. Family function, Parenting Style and Broader Autism Phenotype as Predicting Factors of Psychological Adjustment in Typically Developing Siblings of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, Mohammadreza; Zarafshan, Hadi

    2014-04-01

    Siblings of children with autism are at a greater risk of experiencing behavioral and social problems. Previous researches had focused on environmental variables such as family history of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), behavior problems in the child with an ASD, parental mental health problems, stressful life events and "broader autism phenotype" (BAP), while variables like parenting style and family function that are shown to influence children's behavioral and psychosocial adjustment are overlooked. The aim of the present study was to reveal how parenting style and family function as well as BAP effect psychological adjustment of siblings of children with autism. The Participants included 65 parents who had one child with an Autism Spectrum Disorder and one typically developing child. Of the children with ASDs, 40 were boys and 25 were girls; and they were diagnosed with ASDs by a psychiatrist based on DSM-IV-TR criteria and Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R). The Persian versions of the six scales were used to collect data from the families. Pearson's correlation test and regression analysis were used to determine which variables were related to the psychological adjustment of sibling of children with ASDs and which variables predicted it better. Significant relationships were found between Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) total difficulties, prosocial behaviors and ASDs symptoms severity, parenting styles and some aspects of family function. In addition, siblings who had more BAP characteristics had more behavior problems and less prosocial behavior. Behavioral problems increased and prosocial behavior decreased with permissive parenting style. Besides, both of authoritarian and authoritative parenting styles led to a decrease in behavioral problems and an increase in prosocial behaviors. Our findings revealed that some aspects of family function (affective responsiveness, roles, problem solving and behavior control) were significantly

  15. Family function, Parenting Style and Broader Autism Phenotype as Predicting Factors of Psychological Adjustment in Typically Developing Siblings of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammadreza Mohammadi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Siblings of children with autism are at a greater risk of experiencing behavioral and social problems. Previous researches had focused on environmental variables such as family history of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs, behavior problems in the child with an ASD, parental mental health problems, stressful life events and "broader autism phenotype" (BAP, while variables like parenting style and family function that are shown to influence children's behavioral and psychosocial adjustment are overlooked. The aim of the present study was to reveal how parenting style and family function as well as BAP effect psychological adjustment of siblings of children with autism.The Participants included 65 parents who had one child with an Autism Spectrum Disorder and one typically developing child. Of the children with ASDs, 40 were boys and 25 were girls; and they were diagnosed with ASDs by a psychiatrist based on DSM-IV-TR criteria and Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R. The Persian versions of the six scales were used to collect data from the families. Pearson's correlation test and regression analysis were used to determine which variables were related to the psychological adjustment of sibling of children with ASDs and which variables predicted it better.Significant relationships were found between Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ total difficulties, prosocial behaviors and ASDs symptoms severity, parenting styles and some aspects of family function. In addition, siblings who had more BAP characteristics had more behavior problems and less prosocial behavior. Behavioral problems increased and prosocial behavior decreased with permissive parenting style. Besides, both of authoritarian and authoritative parenting styles led to a decrease in behavioral problems and an increase in prosocial behaviors. Our findings revealed that some aspects of family function (affective responsiveness, roles, problem solving and behavior control were

  16. Predicting the transition from anxiety to depressive symptoms in early adolescence: Negative anxiety response style as a moderator of sequential comorbidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starr, Lisa R; Stroud, Catherine B; Li, Yihan I

    2016-01-15

    Anxiety often precedes depression. The anxiety response styles theory of comorbidity suggests anxious individuals with a tendency to ruminate or make hopeless attributions about anxiety symptoms (negative anxiety response styles [NARS]) are more vulnerable to subsequent depressive symptoms. However, this theory has never been tested in adolescence, when the anxiety-depression transition may frequently occur, or using an extended (one-year) follow-up period. 128 early adolescent girls (M=12.39 years) participated with caregivers in a one-year longitudinal study. At baseline and follow-up, participants completed diagnostic interviews and self-report measures assessing child NARS and brooding rumination. T1 NARS predicted longitudinal elevations in depressive symptoms and increased associations between T1 anxiety and T2 depressive symptoms. This study examines anxiety and depression comorbidity using a community sample. The sample is relatively low on sociodemographic diversity. Results support the anxiety response styles theory, with potential implications for early identification of anxious youth at risk for later development of comorbid depression. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Predictive Power of Primary and Secondary School Success Criterion on Transition to Higher Education Examination Scores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atilla ÖZDEMİR

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available It is seen that education has a significant effect that changes an individual’s life in our country in which education is a way of moving up the social ladder. In order to continue to a higher education program after graduating from high school, students have to succeed in transition to higher education examination. Thus, the entrance exam is an important factor to determine the future of the students. In our country, middle school grades and high school grade point average that is added to university placement score are also determinants. When spiral structure of our curriculum is considered, it is expected that related courses’ grades at middle school will predict the scores obtained from the first stage of transition to higher education exam (YGS. Since high school grade point average forms university placement score, being aware of how related courses’ achievement scores at secondary school predict raw scores of YGS subtests is significant in terms of our education system’s feedback and integrity. As a result, observing students’ achievement scores in related courses during their middle and high school education longitudinally and predicting raw scores on the subtests of the first stage of university entrance exam, YGS, from middle school and high scool achievement scores are substantial with regards to provide feedback to our education system. Because of those reasons, the predictive power of 7th - 12th grade year-end grade point averages ofstudents who took YGS in 2013 on their 2013 YGS subtests’ raw scvores is examined. Students who took YGS exam in Ankara province at 2012-2013 school year formed the aimed population of this study and 533 students who took YGS exam in 2013 in Altındağ district of Ankara formed target population of the study. Data was obtained from 533 students at three different schools in Altındağ district of Ankara province. Stepwise multiple regression analysis was used to answer research questions

  18. The looming maladaptive style predicts shared variance in anxiety disorder symptoms: further support for a cognitive model of vulnerability to anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Nathan L; Shahar, Golan; Riskind, John H; Joiner, Thomas E

    2005-01-01

    Looming vulnerability pertains to a distinct cognitive phenomenology characterized by mental representations of dynamically intensifying danger and rapidly rising risk as one projects the self into an anticipated future [J. Pers. Soc. Psychol. 79 (2000) 837]. While looming appraisals can be experienced as state elicitation, some individuals are hypothesized to develop an enduring cognitive pattern of cross-situational looming appraisals, the looming maladaptive style (LMS), which functions as a cognitive vulnerability to anxiety. In the present study, we examined the extent to which the LMS predicts common variance in numerous anxiety disorder symptoms, independent of the potentially confounding effects of current depressive symptoms. Specifically, we hypothesized that controlling for depressive symptoms, LMS would predict shared variance in a latent factor comprised of indicators of five anxiety disorder symptoms: obsessive-compulsive disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, social phobia, and specific phobic fears. Measures of these anxiety disorder symptoms, depressive symptoms, and looming vulnerability were administered to unselected college student population. Structural equations modeling analyses provided support for our hypothesis that LMS predicts shared variance in anxiety disorder symptoms and suggest that this cognitive style may be an overarching dimension of vulnerability to anxiety.

  19. The predictive value of childhood recurrent abdominal pain for adult emotional disorders, and the influence of negative cognitive style. Findings from a cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kate Stein

    Full Text Available Recurrent abdominal pain (RAP in childhood is common, with no explanatory pathology identified in the majority of cases. Previous studies have consistently demonstrated an association between childhood RAP and later emotional distress disorders. The aim of this study was to replicate this finding through the analysis of a large dataset, and explore how a negative style of thinking could potentially influence this relationship.The Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC is a population cohort of children born in the Avon area of the UK, between 1991-1992. Data on childhood RAP was collected via maternal reports at 3, 4, 7 and 9 years. Mood, anxiety and cognitive style were measured at age 18. We controlled for various confounding factors, including maternal anxiety and the child's pre-existing psychopathology. Logistic regression models were used to examine associations, and moderation effects of cognitive style were analysed using likelihood ratios.Experiencing RAP at any one time-point is associated with an increased odds of depression and/or anxiety disorder at 18 (OR = 1.41, 95% CI 1.09-1.83. We found a dose-response relationship and each additional marker of RAP was associated with a 26% (CI: 7% to 47% increase in risk of having a mood and/or anxiety disorder. Individuals who attribute adversity to global, stable or personal factors were at amplified risk.Childhood RAP predicts depression and anxiety disorders at 18 and should be targeted for early intervention. Individuals with a negative cognitive style may be particularly vulnerable, suggesting that cognitive interpretations of physical symptoms could play an important role in long-term health outcomes.

  20. Emerging Web Technologies in Higher Education: A Case of Incorporating Blogs, Podcasts and Social Bookmarks in a Web Programming Course Based on Students' Learning Styles and Technology Preferences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeed, Nauman; Yang, Yun; Sinnappan, Suku

    2009-01-01

    The adoption level of emerging web technologies is on the rise in academic settings. However, a major obstacle in the practice of web-based instruction is the limited understanding of learners' characteristics and perceptions about technology use. Thus there is a need to understand the relationship between students' learning styles and their…

  1. Does a Strong El Niño Imply a Higher Predictability of Extreme Drought?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shanshan; Yuan, Xing; Li, Yaohui

    2017-01-17

    The devastating North China drought in the summer of 2015 was roughly captured by a dynamical seasonal climate forecast model with a good prediction of the 2015/16 big El Niño. This raises a question of whether strong El Niños imply higher predictability of extreme droughts. Here we show that a strong El Niño does not necessarily result in an extreme drought, but it depends on whether the El Niño evolves synergistically with Eurasian spring snow cover reduction to trigger a positive summer Eurasian teleconnection (EU) pattern that favors anomalous northerly and air sinking over North China. The dynamical forecast model that only well represents the El Niño underpredicts the drought severity, while a dynamical-statistical forecasting approach that combines both the low- and high-latitudes precursors is more skillful at long lead. In a warming future, the vanishing cryosphere should be better understood to improve predictability of extreme droughts.

  2. Culture shapes whether the pursuit of happiness predicts higher or lower well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Brett Q; Dmitrieva, Julia O; Heller, Daniel; Chentsova-Dutton, Yulia; Grossmann, Igor; Tamir, Maya; Uchida, Yukiko; Koopmann-Holm, Birgit; Floerke, Victoria A; Uhrig, Meike; Bokhan, Tatiana; Mauss, Iris B

    2015-12-01

    Pursuing happiness can paradoxically impair well-being. Here, the authors propose the potential downsides to pursuing happiness may be specific to individualistic cultures. In collectivistic (vs. individualistic) cultures, pursuing happiness may be more successful because happiness is viewed--and thus pursued--in relatively socially engaged ways. In 4 geographical regions that vary in level of collectivism (United States, Germany, Russia, East Asia), we assessed participants' well-being, motivation to pursue happiness, and to what extent they pursued happiness in socially engaged ways. Motivation to pursue happiness predicted lower well-being in the United States, did not predict well-being in Germany, and predicted higher well-being in Russia and in East Asia. These cultural differences in the link between motivation to pursue happiness and well-being were explained by cultural differences in the socially engaged pursuit of happiness. These findings suggest that culture shapes whether the pursuit of happiness is linked with better or worse well-being, perhaps via how people pursue happiness. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. Predicting Romantic Involvement, Relationship Cognitions, and Relationship Qualities from Physical Appearance, Perceived Norms, and Relational Styles Regarding Friends and Parents

    OpenAIRE

    Furman, Wyndol; Winkles, Jessica K

    2010-01-01

    Using a sample of 199 adolescents, the present study examined Furman and Wehner’s (1999) hypothesis that the predictors of the degree of romantic involvement and the predictors of romantic relationship cognitions and qualities differ. As hypothesized, physical appearance and friends’ normative romantic involvement were related to the degree of casual and serious romantic involvement, whereas relational styles regarding friends and parents were unrelated in almost all cases. On the other hand,...

  4. Individual differences in cognitive style and strategy predict similarities in the patterns of brain activity between individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Michael B; Donovan, Christa-Lynn; Bennett, Craig M; Aminoff, Elissa M; Mayer, Richard E

    2012-01-02

    Neuroimaging is being used increasingly to make inferences about an individual. Yet, those inferences are often confounded by the fact that topographical patterns of task-related brain activity can vary greatly from person to person. This study examined two factors that may contribute to the variability across individuals in a memory retrieval task: individual differences in cognitive style and individual differences in encoding strategy. Cognitive style was probed using a battery of assessments focused on the individual's tendency to visualize or verbalize written material. Encoding strategy was probed using a series of questions designed to assess typical strategies that an individual might utilize when trying to remember a list of words. Similarity in brain activity was assessed by cross-correlating individual t-statistic maps contrasting the BOLD response during retrieval to the BOLD response during fixation. Individual differences in cognitive style and encoding strategy accounted for a significant portion of the variance in similarity. This was true above and beyond individual differences in anatomy and memory performance. These results demonstrate the need for a multidimensional approach in the use of fMRI to make inferences about an individual. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Eating behavior style predicts craving and anxiety experienced in food-related virtual environments by patients with eating disorders and healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrer-Garcia, Marta; Pla-Sanjuanelo, Joana; Dakanalis, Antonios; Vilalta-Abella, Ferran; Riva, Giuseppe; Fernandez-Aranda, Fernando; Sánchez, Isabel; Ribas-Sabaté, Joan; Andreu-Gracia, Alexis; Escandón-Nagel, Neli; Gomez-Tricio, Osane; Tena, Virginia; Gutiérrez-Maldonado, José

    2017-10-01

    Eating behavior style (emotional, restrictive, or external) has been proposed as an explanation for the differences in response to food-related cues between people who overeat and those who do not, and has been also considered a target for the treatment of eating disorders (EDs) characterized by lack of control over eating and weight-related (overweight/obesity) conditions. The aim of this study was to analyze the relationship between eating behavior style and psychophysiological responses (self-reported food craving and anxiety) to food-related virtual reality (VR) environments in outpatients with bulimia nervosa (BN) and binge eating disorder (BED) and to compare them with healthy participants. Fifty-eight outpatients and 135 healthy participants were exposed to palatable foods in four experimental everyday real-life VR environments (kitchen, dining room, bedroom and café). During exposure, cue-elicited food craving and anxiety were assessed. Participants also completed standardized instruments for the study purposes. ED patients reported significantly higher levels of craving and anxiety when exposed to the virtual food than healthy controls. Eating behavior styles showed strong associations with cue-elicited food craving and anxiety. In the healthy group, external eating was the only predictor of cue-elicited craving and anxiety. In participants with BN and BED, external and emotional eating were the best predictors of cue-elicited craving and anxiety, respectively. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Trajectories of Delinquency and Parenting Styles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blokland, Arjan; Dubas, Judith Semon; Loeber, Rolf; Gerris, Jan R. M.; van der Laan, Peter H.

    2007-01-01

    We investigated trajectories of adolescent delinquent development using data from the Pittsburgh Youth Study and examined the extent to which these different trajectories are differentially predicted by childhood parenting styles. Based on self-reported and official delinquency seriousness, covering ages 10–19, we identified five distinct delinquency trajectories differing in both level and change in seriousness over time: a nondelinquent, minor persisting, moderate desisting, serious persisting, and serious desisting trajectory. More serious delinquents tended to more frequently engage in delinquency, and to report a higher proportion of theft. Proportionally, serious persistent delinquents were the most violent of all trajectory groups. Using cluster analysis we identified three parenting styles: authoritative, authoritarian (moderately supportive), and neglectful (punishing). Controlling for demographic characteristics and childhood delinquency, neglectful parenting was more frequent in moderate desisters, serious persisters, and serious desisters, suggesting that parenting styles differentiate non- or minor delinquents from more serious delinquents. PMID:17786548

  7. Trajectories of delinquency and parenting styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoeve, Machteld; Blokland, Arjan; Dubas, Judith Semon; Loeber, Rolf; Gerris, Jan R M; van der Laan, Peter H

    2008-02-01

    We investigated trajectories of adolescent delinquent development using data from the Pittsburgh Youth Study and examined the extent to which these different trajectories are differentially predicted by childhood parenting styles. Based on self-reported and official delinquency seriousness, covering ages 10-19, we identified five distinct delinquency trajectories differing in both level and change in seriousness over time: a nondelinquent, minor persisting, moderate desisting, serious persisting, and serious desisting trajectory. More serious delinquents tended to more frequently engage in delinquency, and to report a higher proportion of theft. Proportionally, serious persistent delinquents were the most violent of all trajectory groups. Using cluster analysis we identified three parenting styles: authoritative, authoritarian (moderately supportive), and neglectful (punishing). Controlling for demographic characteristics and childhood delinquency, neglectful parenting was more frequent in moderate desisters, serious persisters, and serious desisters, suggesting that parenting styles differentiate non- or minor delinquents from more serious delinquents.

  8. Higher triglyceride level predicts hyperuricemia: A prospective study of 6-year follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuan; Wei, Fengjiang; Chen, Chen; Cai, Chunyou; Zhang, Kai; Sun, Ning; Tian, Jianli; Shi, Wentao; Zhang, Miaomiao; Zang, Yong; Song, Jiani; He, Yukun; Feng, Jiayi; Zhou, Qianqian; Li, Mengyan; Bai, Pufei; Feng, Shuzhi; Li, Wei-Dong

    2017-11-07

    Despite abundant evidence indicating that higher triglyceride (TG) levels are associated with increased risks of hyperuricemia (HUA), it is unclear whether TG levels can independently predict the incidence of HUA. The aim of the study was to investigate whether TG is an independent risk factor of HUA in a cohort study. We explored the relationship between TG levels and HUA in a dynamic cohort established in 2009. During the 6 years of follow-up, 5442 subjects without HUA were studied. We divided subjects into 4 groups based on baseline TG levels and used the Cox hazard regression model to estimate HUA risk by TG quartile, after adjustment for potential confounding factors. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis compared the risk of HUA incidence among individuals in each TG quartile. The incidence of HUA in this cohort was 25.9%. The hazard ratios (95% confidence intervals) for HUA in the second, third, and fourth TG quartiles, compared with the first quartile, were 1.19 (1.01-1.40), 1.33 (1.13-1.57), and 1.62 (1.37-1.92), respectively. The Kaplan-Meier survival analysis suggested that higher TG levels predicted higher incidences of HUA in a dose-dependent relationship. Stratification analyses showed that the association between TG levels and the presence of HUA was more pronounced in individuals aged <50 years, of obese, with normal estimated glomerular filtration rate, and with hypertension. Our findings suggest that TG level is a significant and independent risk factor for HUA. Copyright © 2017 National Lipid Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Predicting dietary intake among children classified as overweight or at risk for overweight: Independent and interactive effects of parenting practices and styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langer, Shelby L; Seburg, Elisabeth; JaKa, Meghan M; Sherwood, Nancy E; Levy, Rona L

    2017-03-01

    Using baseline data from a randomized controlled pediatric obesity prevention trial, this study sought to examine general parenting style as a potential moderator of the association between feeding-specific parenting practices and child dietary intake. Four hundred and twenty-one parent-child dyads served as participants (49% girls and 93% mothers). Children were, on average, 6.6 years old and either overweight or at-risk for overweight (mean BMI percentile = 84.9). Data were collected in participants' homes. Study staff measured children's height and weight. Parents completed questionnaires designed to assess general parenting styles (authoritative, authoritarian and permissive) and child feeding practices (restriction and monitoring). Child dietary intake was assessed using a 24-h recall system. Outcomes were daily servings of fruits and vegetables, sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB), and unhealthy snacks. Results were as follows: Permissive parenting was inversely associated with fruit and vegetable consumption, and parental monitoring was inversely associated with SSB consumption. There were no other main effects of parenting style or feeding practice on child dietary consumption. Authoritarian parenting moderated the association between restriction and SSB intake (a marginally significant effect after correcting for multiple comparisons). Restriction was inversely associated with SSB consumption when authoritarianism was high but unassociated with SSB consumption when authoritarianism was low. Findings indicate that the parenting practice of monitoring child dietary intake was associated with more healthful consumption regardless of parenting style; interventions may thus benefit from encouraging parental monitoring. The parenting strategy of restricting child dietary intake, in contrast, was associated with lower SSB intake in the context of higher parental authoritarianism but inconsequential in the context of lower parental authoritarianism. This exploratory

  10. Declining cognitive development from 8 to 18 months in preterm children predicts persisting higher parenting stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brummelte, Susanne; Grunau, Ruth E; Synnes, Anne R; Whitfield, Michael F; Petrie-Thomas, Julianne

    2011-04-01

    Higher parenting stress in mothers of children born very preterm may be in part a response to poorer neurobehavioral development, reflecting realistic concerns in addition to adaptation to the trauma of preterm delivery. To our knowledge, there are few longitudinal studies of parenting stress that have addressed child cognitive competence. To examine parenting stress in preterm and full-term children at 8 and 18 months corrected chronological age (CCA), in relation to child cognitive development and behavior. Participants were N=152 children (98 preterm born ≤32 weeks gestation, and 54 full-term) seen at 8 and 18 months CCA, and the primary caregiver parent. STUDY DESIGN/OUTCOME MEASURES: The Parenting Stress Index questionnaire was completed by a parent, child interactive behavior was videotaped, and the Bayley Scales of Infant Development (BSID II, Mental Development Index; MDI) were administered at both ages. Total Parenting Stress was higher in preterm than full-term children at 8 and 18 months CCA (pparenting stress for preterm children. For full-term children, number of children in the home and child interactive behavior predicted parental stress at 18 months. Higher parenting stress persisting to 18 months CCA in preterm children may partly reflect realistic parental concerns with their child's development. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Role of parenting style in achieving metabolic control in adolescents with type 1 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shorer, Maayan; David, Ravit; Schoenberg-Taz, Michal; Levavi-Lavi, Ifat; Phillip, Moshe; Meyerovitch, Joseph

    2011-08-01

    To examine the role of parenting style in achieving metabolic control and treatment adherence in adolescents with type 1 diabetes. Parents of 100 adolescents with type 1 diabetes completed assessments of their parenting style and sense of helplessness. Parents and patients rated patient adherence to the treatment regimen. Glycemic control was evaluated by HbA(1c) values. An authoritative paternal parenting style predicted better glycemic control and adherence in the child; a permissive maternal parenting style predicted poor adherence. A higher sense of helplessness in both parents predicted worse glycemic control and lesser adherence to treatment. Parental sense of helplessness was a significant predictor of diabetes control after correcting for other confounders (patient age, sex, and treatment method). An authoritative nonhelpless parenting style is associated with better diabetes control in adolescents. Paternal involvement is important in adolescent diabetes management. These results have implications for psychological interventions.

  12. The Perfect Learner: An Expert Debate on Learning Styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delahoussaye, Martin

    2002-01-01

    Presents a discussion of learning styles by Lynn Curry, Rick Daly, Ashley Fields, Peter Honey, David Kolb, Patrick O'Brien and Gary Salton. Addresses learning style theories, style predictability, whether to teach exclusively to one style, and ways to make use of learning styles in corporate settings. (Author/JOW)

  13. Higher Self-Control Capacity Predicts Lower Anxiety-Impaired Cognition During Math Examinations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex eBertrams

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available We assumed that self-control capacity, self-efficacy, and self-esteem would enable students to keep attentional control during tests. Therefore, we hypothesized that the three personality traits would be negatively related to anxiety-impaired cognition during math examinations. Secondary school students (N = 158 completed measures of self-control capacity, self-efficacy, and self-esteem at the beginning of the school year. Five months later, anxiety-impaired cognition during math examinations was assessed. Higher self-control capacity, but neither self-efficacy nor self-esteem, predicted lower anxiety-impaired cognition five months later, over and above baseline anxiety-impaired cognition. Moreover, self-control capacity was indirectly related to math grades via anxiety-impaired cognition. The findings suggest that improving self-control capacity may enable students to deal with anxiety-related problems during school tests.

  14. Greenhouse crop residues: Energy potential and models for the prediction of their higher heating value

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Callejon-Ferre, A.J.; Lopez-Martinez, J.A.; Manzano-Agugliaro, F. [Departamento de Ingenieria Rural, Universidad de Almeria, Ctra. Sacramento s/n, La Canada de San Urbano, 04120 Almeria (Spain); Velazquez-Marti, B. [Departamento de Ingenieria Rural y Agroalimentaria, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Camino de Vera s/n, 46022 Valencia (Spain)

    2011-02-15

    Almeria, in southeastern Spain, generates some 1,086,261 t year{sup -1} (fresh weight) of greenhouse crop (Cucurbita pepo L., Cucumis sativus L., Solanum melongena L., Solanum lycopersicum L., Phaseoulus vulgaris L., Capsicum annuum L., Citrillus vulgaris Schrad. and Cucumis melo L.) residues. The energy potential of this biomass is unclear. The aim of the present work was to accurately quantify this variable, differentiating between crop species while taking into consideration the area they each occupy. This, however, required the direct analysis of the higher heating value (HHV) of these residues, involving very expensive and therefore not commonly available equipment. Thus, a further aim was to develop models for predicting the HHV of these residues, taking into account variables measured by elemental and/or proximate analysis, thus providing an economically attractive alternative to direct analysis. All the analyses in this work involved the use of worldwide-recognised standards and methods. The total energy potential for these plant residues, as determined by direct analysis, was 1,003,497.49 MW h year{sup -1}. Twenty univariate and multivariate equations were developed to predict the HHV. The R{sup 2} and adjusted R{sup 2} values obtained for the univariate and multivariate models were 0.909 and 0.946 or above respectively. In all cases, the mean absolute percentage error varied between 0.344 and 2.533. These results show that any of these 20 equations could be used to accurately predict the HHV of crop residues. The residues produced by the Almeria greenhouse industry would appear to be an interesting source of renewable energy. (author)

  15. Lower- and higher-order aberrations predicted by an optomechanical model of arcuate keratotomy for astigmatism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Rafael; Palos, Fernando; Lanchares, Elena; Calvo, Begoña; Cristóbal, José A

    2009-01-01

    To develop a realistic model of the optomechanical behavior of the cornea after curved relaxing incisions to simulate the induced astigmatic change and predict the optical aberrations produced by the incisions. ICMA Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas and Universidad de Zaragoza, Zaragoza, Spain. A 3-dimensional finite element model of the anterior hemisphere of the ocular surface was used. The corneal tissue was modeled as a quasi-incompressible, anisotropic hyperelastic constitutive behavior strongly dependent on the physiological collagen fibril distribution. Similar behaviors were assigned to the limbus and sclera. With this model, some corneal incisions were computer simulated after the Lindstrom nomogram. The resulting geometry of the biomechanical simulation was analyzed in the optical zone, and finite ray tracing was performed to compute refractive power and higher-order aberrations (HOAs). The finite-element simulation provided new geometry of the corneal surfaces, from which elevation topographies were obtained. The surgically induced astigmatism (SIA) of the simulated incisions according to the Lindstrom nomogram was computed by finite ray tracing. However, paraxial computations would yield slightly different results (undercorrection of astigmatism). In addition, arcuate incisions would induce significant amounts of HOAs. Finite-element models, together with finite ray-tracing computations, yielded realistic simulations of the biomechanical and optical changes induced by relaxing incisions. The model reproduced the SIA indicated by the Lindstrom nomogram for the simulated incisions and predicted a significant increase in optical aberrations induced by arcuate keratotomy.

  16. Leadership Styles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Val, Carlin; Kemp, Jess

    2012-01-01

    This study examines how a group's dynamic changes under the influence of different leadership styles, and determines what leadership style works best in a large group expedition. The main question identified was "What roles can a leader play in affecting the dynamic of a large group while partaking in a field expedition?" The following…

  17. Higher resting heart rate variability predicts skill in expressing some emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuck, Natalie L; Grant, Rosemary C I; Sollers, John J; Booth, Roger J; Consedine, Nathan S

    2016-12-01

    Vagally mediated heart rate variability (vmHRV) is a measure of cardiac vagal tone, and is widely viewed as a physiological index of the capacity to regulate emotions. However, studies have not directly tested whether vmHRV is associated with the ability to facially express emotions. In extending prior work, the current report tested links between resting vmHRV and the objectively assessed ability to facially express emotions, hypothesizing that higher vmHRV would predict greater expressive skill. Eighty healthy women completed self-reported measures, before attending a laboratory session in which vmHRV and the ability to express six emotions in the face were assessed. A repeated measures analysis of variance revealed a marginal main effect for vmHRV on skill overall; individuals with higher resting vmHRV were only better able to deliberately facially express anger and interest. Findings suggest that differences in resting vmHRV are associated with the objectively assessed ability to facially express some, but not all, emotions, with potential implications for health and well-being. © 2016 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  18. INFLUENCE OF VALUES ON LEADERSHIP STYLES: AN ANALYSIS ACCORDING TO BASS’ TRANSFORMATIONAL-TRANSACTIONAL LEADERSHIP MODEL

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    MARTÍN NADER; ALEJANDRO CASTRO SOLANO

    2007-01-01

    .... It was observed that the self transcendence and openness to change values predicted transformational leadership style whereas the self promotion values predicted the transactional leadership style...

  19. The Effects of Light Intensity, Casing Layers, and Layering Styles on Royal Sun Medicinal Mushroom, Agaricus brasiliensis (Higher Basidiomycetes) Cultivation in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adanacioglu, Neşe; Boztok, Kaya; Akdeniz, Ramazan Cengiz

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this research is to evaluate the effects of light intensity, casing layers, and layering styles on the production of the culinary-medicinal mushroom Agaricus brasiliensis in Turkey. The experiments were designed in split-split plots and replicated twice. Three different light intensities-I1, 350 lux; I2, 450 lux; and I3, 750 lux-were used in main plots as environmental factors. A mixture of 4 different casing layers- peat (100%), peat-perlite (75%:25%), peat-clinoptilolite (75%:25%), and peat-perlite-clinoptilolite (60%:20%:20%)-were used at split plots and at split plots. S1, a flat, 3-cm casing layer; S2, a flat, 5-cm casing layer; and S3, casing soil ridges 10 cm wide × 4 cm high, 10 cm apart, were deposited on top of 1-cm overall soil casing layers. At the end of the harvest phase, the total yield was estimated per 100 kg of substrate. Biological efficiency (percentage) was determined from the fresh weight of the mushrooms and the dry weight of the compost at the end of the harvesting period. The highest total yield (7.2 kg/100 kg compost) and biological efficiency (27.63%) were achieved from I2 × peat-perlite-clinoptilolite × S2 treatment. Influence of light intensity, casing layer, layering style, and their interaction in treatments with color values (L*, a*, b*, chroma*, and hue*) also were examined. It has been shown that within color values, chroma* (saturation) values of mushroom caps were affected by light intensity, casing layer, and layering style treatments and light intensity × casing layer treatments and the brightness of mushroom caps tended to increase as light intensity increased.

  20. Prediction of higher cost of antiretroviral therapy (ART) according to clinical complexity. A validated clinical index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velasco, Cesar; Pérez, Inaki; Podzamczer, Daniel; Llibre, Josep Maria; Domingo, Pere; González-García, Juan; Puig, Inma; Ayala, Pilar; Martín, Mayte; Trilla, Antoni; Lázaro, Pablo; Gatell, Josep Maria

    2016-03-01

    The financing of antiretroviral therapy (ART) is generally determined by the cost incurred in the previous year, the number of patients on treatment, and the evidence-based recommendations, but not the clinical characteristics of the population. To establish a score relating the cost of ART and patient clinical complexity in order to understand the costing differences between hospitals in the region that could be explained by the clinical complexity of their population. Retrospective analysis of patients receiving ART in a tertiary hospital between 2009 and 2011. Factors potentially associated with a higher cost of ART were assessed by bivariate and multivariate analysis. Two predictive models of "high-cost" were developed. The normalized estimated (adjusted for the complexity scores) costs were calculated and compared with the normalized real costs. In the Hospital Index, 631 (16.8%) of the 3758 patients receiving ART were responsible for a "high-cost" subgroup, defined as the highest 25% of spending on ART. Baseline variables that were significant predictors of high cost in the Clinic-B model in the multivariate analysis were: route of transmission of HIV, AIDS criteria, Spanish nationality, year of initiation of ART, CD4+ lymphocyte count nadir, and number of hospital admissions. The Clinic-B score ranged from 0 to 13, and the mean value (5.97) was lower than the overall mean value of the four hospitals (6.16). The clinical complexity of the HIV patient influences the cost of ART. The Clinic-B and Clinic-BF scores predicted patients with high cost of ART and could be used to compare and allocate costs corrected for the patient clinical complexity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  1. Does adult attachment style mediate the relationship between childhood maltreatment and mental and physical health outcomes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widom, Cathy Spatz; Czaja, Sally J; Kozakowski, Sandra Sepulveda; Chauhan, Preeti

    2017-05-15

    Attachment theory has been proposed as one explanation for the relationship between childhood maltreatment and problematic mental and physical health outcomes in adulthood. This study seeks to determine whether: (1) childhood physical abuse and neglect lead to different attachment styles in adulthood, (2) adult attachment styles predict subsequent mental and physical health outcomes, and (3) adult attachment styles mediate the relationship between childhood physical abuse and neglect and mental and physical health outcomes. Children with documented cases of physical abuse and neglect (ages 0-11) were matched with children without these histories and followed up in adulthood. Adult attachment style was assessed at mean age 39.5 and outcomes at 41.1. Separate path models examined mental and physical health outcomes. Individuals with histories of childhood neglect and physical abuse had higher levels of anxious attachment style in adulthood, whereas neglect predicted avoidant attachment as well. Both adult attachment styles (anxious and avoidant) predicted mental health outcomes (higher levels of anxiety and depression and lower levels of self-esteem), whereas only anxious adult attachment style predicted higher levels of allostatic load. Path analyses revealed that anxious attachment style in adulthood in part explained the relationship between childhood neglect and physical abuse to depression, anxiety, and self-esteem, but not the relationship to allostatic load. Childhood neglect and physical abuse have lasting effects on adult attachment styles and anxious and avoidant adult attachment styles contribute to understanding the negative mental health consequences of childhood neglect and physical abuse 30 years later in adulthood. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Differentiating Between Attachment Styles and Behaviors and their Association with Marital Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandberg, Jonathan G; Bradford, Angela B; Brown, Andrew P

    2017-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to distinguish between the influence of attachment styles and behaviors on marital quality for couples. Data were gathered from 680 couples in a married relationship. Results showed attachment style and behaviors predicted marital quality for both men and women, with higher levels of attachment related to greater quality. Attachment behaviors predicted more of the variance in quality than did styles. Specific implications regarding how therapists may wish to foster behaviors that promote attachment security in marriages are discussed. © 2015 Family Process Institute.

  3. To what extent does parenting style predict behavioural changes in a first-born child following the birth of a sibling?

    OpenAIRE

    Ramadhan, Z.

    2007-01-01

    This literature review provides a summary of a number of published studies which examine parenting styles and their impact on children's development. The paper considers the classification of parenting style the antecedents of parenting style and reviews studies investigating the impact of parenting style on children's social and developmental outcomes including: conscience development, academic achievement and psychological adjustment. Different factors that might impact on the association b...

  4. Racial Discrimination and Low Household Education Predict Higher Body Mass Index in African American Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Devin S; Gerras, Julia M; McGlumphy, Kellye C; Shaver, Erika R; Gill, Amaanat K; Kanneganti, Kamala; Ajibewa, Tiwaloluwa A; Hasson, Rebecca E

    2017-12-06

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between environmental factors, including household education, community violence exposure, racial discrimination, and cultural identity, and BMI in African American adolescents. A community-based sample of 198 African American youth (120 girls, 78 boys; ages 11-19 years) from Washtenaw County, Michigan, were included in this analysis. Violence exposure was assessed by using the Survey of Children's Exposure to Community Violence; racial discrimination by using the Adolescent Discrimination Distress Index; cultural identity by using the Acculturation, Habits, and Interests Multicultural Scale for Adolescents; and household education by using a seven-category variable. Measured height and body weight were used to calculate BMI. Racial discrimination was positively associated with BMI, whereas household education was inversely associated with BMI in African American adolescents (discrimination: β = 0.11 ± 0.04, p = 0.01; education: β = -1.13 ± 0.47, p = 0.02). These relationships were significant when accounting for the confounding effects of stress, activity, diet, and pubertal development. Significant gender interactions were observed with racial discrimination and low household education associated with BMI in girls only (discrimination: β = 0.16 ± 0.05, p = 0.003; education: β = -1.12 ± 0.55, p = 0.045). There were no significant relationships between culture, community violence exposure, and BMI (all p's > 0.05). Environmental factors, including racial discrimination and low household education, predicted higher BMI in African American adolescents, particularly among girls. Longitudinal studies are needed to better understand the mechanisms by which these environmental factors increase obesity risk in African American youth.

  5. Humor Ability Reveals Intelligence, Predicts Mating Success, and Is Higher in Males

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greengross, Gil; Miller, Geoffrey

    2011-01-01

    A good sense of humor is sexually attractive, perhaps because it reveals intelligence, creativity, and other "good genes" or "good parent" traits. If so, intelligence should predict humor production ability, which in turn should predict mating success. In this study, 400 university students (200 men and 200 women) completed…

  6. Intergroup Reconciliation between Flemings and Walloons: The Predictive Value of Cognitive Style, Authoritarian Ideology, and Intergroup Emotions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasper Van Assche

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Testifying to the gap in fundamental research on positive intergroup outcomes, we investigated reconciliation attitudes in a non-violent intergroup context (i.e., the linguistic conflict in Belgium. By incorporating both important predictors of negative outgroup attitudes (i.e., individual differences in rigid cognitive styles and authoritarian ideologies, and important predictors of reconciliation (i.e., intergroup emotions, we aimed to contribute to a more comprehensive theoretical framework for the analysis of intergroup relations. We recruited one Flemish ('N' = 310 and one Walloon ('N' = 365 undergraduate students sample to test the proposed model. Structural equation analyses with maximum likelihood estimation were conducted using the Lavaan package. In both samples, similar patterns were found. More in particular, the need for cognitive closure appeared to be the basic predictor of right-wing attitudes (i.e., right-wing authoritarianism and social dominance orientation and essentialist thinking, which were then associated with less outgroup empathy and trust, and more outgroup anger. Furthermore, outgroup trust and empathy were positively related to reconciliation. Interestingly, some differences between the Flemish and Walloon sample were found, such as the direct effects of need for closure and social dominance orientation in the first sample, and the non-significant effects of essentialism in the latter sample. Considering the ongoing public and political debate about the linguistic conflict in Belgium, these findings shed a new light on how individual differences relate to specific outgroup emotions, and how these are associated with important intergroup outcomes in the face of intergroup conflict.

  7. Longitudinal associations between parenting style and adolescent disordered eating behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubatsky, Max; Berge, Jerica; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2015-06-01

    The main purpose of this study was to identify the longitudinal association between specific parenting styles (authoritarian, authoritative, permissive, and neglectful) and adolescent disordered eating behaviors. The current study uses longitudinal data from a 5-year study to examine the associations between parenting style and disordered eating behaviors among adolescents. Data from adolescents (n = 2516) participating in Project EAT (Eating Among Teens), a population-based study from 31 Minnesota schools, were used in the analysis. Time 1 data were collected using in-class assessments of adolescents from Minneapolis/St. Paul schools, and Time 2 data were collected using mailed surveys 5 years later. General Linear Models were used to predict adolescent-reported disordered eating behaviors at Time 2 from adolescent-reported parenting style at Time 1. Adolescent boys and girls who had authoritarian mothers at Time 1 had a higher probability of extreme weight control behaviors 5 years later compared to adolescents with authoritative, permissive, or neglectful mothers. Adolescent girls with authoritarian mothers at Time 1 had a higher probability of engaging in binge-eating behaviors at Time 2 compared to adolescent girls with authoritative or permissive mothers. There were no significant associations between paternal parenting style and adolescent disordered eating behaviors. Although authoritarian parenting style served as a possible risk factor for disordered eating behaviors in adolescents, the findings were not conclusive. Future studies should investigate further the association between parenting style and weight control behaviors in adolescents.

  8. The Interactive Role of Emotional Intelligence, Attachment Style, and Resilience in the Prediction of Time Perception in Doctoral Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Precin, Patricia Jean

    2014-01-01

    The perception of time (the use of temporal categories to conceptualize experiences) affects human behavior. Students' time perspective predicts academic outcomes: those with future orientations tend to have better academic outcomes than those with past or present, according to Zimbardo and Boyd's psychology of time model, and may contribute to…

  9. Learning style, judgements of learning, and learning of verbal and visual information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knoll, Abby R; Otani, Hajime; Skeel, Reid L; Van Horn, K Roger

    2017-08-01

    The concept of learning style is immensely popular despite the lack of evidence showing that learning style influences performance. This study tested the hypothesis that the popularity of learning style is maintained because it is associated with subjective aspects of learning, such as judgements of learning (JOLs). Preference for verbal and visual information was assessed using the revised Verbalizer-Visualizer Questionnaire (VVQ). Then, participants studied a list of word pairs and a list of picture pairs, making JOLs (immediate, delayed, and global) while studying each list. Learning was tested by cued recall. The results showed that higher VVQ verbalizer scores were associated with higher immediate JOLs for words, and higher VVQ visualizer scores were associated with higher immediate JOLs for pictures. There was no association between VVQ scores and recall or JOL accuracy. As predicted, learning style was associated with subjective aspects of learning but not objective aspects of learning. © 2016 The British Psychological Society.

  10. Relationship of recalled parenting style to self-perception in Korean American college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyesoo; Chung, Ruth H Gim

    2003-12-01

    The authors examined the relationship of authoritarian, authoritative, and permissive parenting styles and the number of years in the United States with self-perception (academic competence, morality, and self-reliance) as recalled by Korean American college students (N = 144). Authoritative parenting behaviors were most common in Korean American families, followed by authoritarian behaviors, with permissive behaviors a distant 3rd. Authoritative parenting styles and the number of years lived in the United States were predictive of higher academic competence. Authoritarian and permissive parenting styles were predictive of lower self-reliance, whereas number of years lived in the United States was related to higher self-reliance. Those findings provide partial support for generalizing D. Baumrind's (1971) model of parenting styles to Korean American families, and the findings demonstrate the importance of considering acculturation issues in parenting studies.

  11. Revisiting the relationship between attributional style and academic performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Previous research into the relationship between attributions and academic performance has produced contradictory findings that have not been resolved. The present research examines the role of specific dimensions of attributional style in predicting subsequent academic performance in a sample of pupils (N = 979) from both high‐ and low‐achieving schools. Hierarchical regression and moderation analyses indicate that internal, stable, and global, attributional styles for positive events predict higher levels of academic performance. Global attributions for negative events were related to poorer performance across all schools. Stable attributions for negative events were related to higher levels of performance in high‐achieving schools but not in low‐achieving schools. Higher levels of internality for negative events were associated with higher performance only in low achieving schools. PMID:27594711

  12. Links between Adolescents’ Closeness to Adoptive Parents and Attachment Style in Young Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant-Marsney, Holly A.; Grotevant, Harold D.; Sayer, Aline G.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined whether adolescents’ closeness to adoptive parents (APs) predicted attachment styles in close relationships outside their family during young adulthood. In a longitudinal study of domestic infant adoptions, closeness to adoptive mother and adoptive father was assessed in 156 adolescents (M = 15.7 years). Approximately nine years later (M = 25.0 years), closeness to parents was assessed again as well as attachment style in their close relationships. Multilevel modeling was used to predict attachment style in young adulthood from the average and discrepancy of closeness to adolescents’ adoptive mothers and fathers and the change over time in closeness to APs. Less avoidant attachment style was predicted by stronger closeness to both APs during adolescence. Increased closeness to APs over time was related to less anxiety in close relationships. Higher closeness over time to either AP was related to less avoidance and anxiety in close relationships. PMID:25859067

  13. Differential effects of self-esteem and interpersonal competence on humor styles

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCosker, Bernadette; Moran, Carmen C

    2012-01-01

    Background In contrast with an early implicit “facilitative hypothesis” of humor, a revised specificity hypothesis predicts that the benefits of humor depend on the specific style of humor used. Information on predictors of these humor styles in turn enhances the ability to predict the effect on well-being. Methods We examined the relationships between interpersonal competence, self-esteem, and different styles of humor, while also examining the contributions of age and gender. Participants (n = 201) aged 18–63 years completed the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Inventory, the Interpersonal Competence Questionnaire, and the Humor Styles Questionnaire, and gave demographic information. Results High self-esteem was associated with higher use of affiliative, aggressive, and self-enhancing humor styles, but lower use of self-defeating humor. High interpersonal competence predicted greater use of affiliative humor, whereas low interpersonal competence predicted greater use of aggressive humor. Further analyses showed that initiation competence predicted affiliative humor (positively) but both initiation competence (positively) and conflict management competence (negatively) predicted aggressive humor. Conclusion The findings that both self-esteem and initiation competence contribute to use of aggressive humor add to knowledge of who is likely to use this potentially harmful humor style. We conclude that a readiness to initiate humorous interactions is not on its own a general and positive attribute contributing to “good” humor. PMID:23180973

  14. Style Wars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Handberg, Kristian

    2011-01-01

    Postmodernismen er kommet på museum i Victoria and Alberts stort anlagte udstilling Postmodernism. Style and Subversion 1970-1990. Reportage fra en udstilling, der spænder fra filosofi til firserpop og tager den nære fortid på museum....

  15. Dentist-assistant interaction styles in Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khader, Y S; Abu-Sharbain, G

    2009-05-01

    To assess dentist-assistant interaction and communication styles and their associated factors in Jordan. Three different areas in Amman where private dental clinics heavily cluster were chosen. The researcher visited all dental clinics in these areas and invited dentists to participate in this study. A structured self-administered questionnaire was designed and included the 22 items on staff communication that were used by Gorter and Freeman to assess communication styles. The culturally adapted items were analysed in such a way to reflect the structure that is used in the original study. There was a significant interaction between dentist's gender and communication styles (F = 3.8, P = 0.022). The only significant difference between men and women was for professional leadership style (P = 0.011) where men were more likely to adopt professional leadership style than women. For men, the average score for friendly leadership style was significantly lower than that for other styles. For women, the average score was the highest for gender interacting style which was significantly higher than that for friendly leadership style and professional interacting style, but not business leadership style. Communication and interaction styles between Jordanian dentists and their assistants differ according to gender. Jordanian dentists are less likely to adopt friendly leadership communication style compared with other styles.

  16. Predicting Public Confidence in Higher Education Institutions: An Analysis of Social Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunsaker, B. Tom; Thomas, Douglas E.

    2014-01-01

    Research indicates that there are two primary aims of the higher education institution: (a) scientific and scholarly inquiry, and (b) the instruction of students (Veblen, 1918). This aim has been reified consistently for nearly a century. By 2002, the pursuit of higher education had reached record levels. However, more recently, public confidence…

  17. Open-Source Learning Management Systems: A Predictive Model for Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Rooij, S. Williams

    2012-01-01

    The present study investigated the role of pedagogical, technical, and institutional profile factors in an institution of higher education's decision to select an open-source learning management system (LMS). Drawing on the results of previous research that measured patterns of deployment of open-source software (OSS) in US higher education and…

  18. Relations between quality of friendships and attachment styles in adolescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuruzović Nikolina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work relations between quality of friendship and attachment styles among adolescents were investigated. The question of the differences, among individuals of different styles of attachment in the quality of their friendly relations, both at the individual and at the dyadic level were investigated. Also, the predictive significance of attachment when it comes to the quality of friendship, were discussed. The study included 425 subjects of both genders, first grade secondary school students, aged 14 to 17 years. Following instruments were used: Friendship Quality Questionnaire, which was created for the purposes of this study, and assesses dimensions of affection, intimacy, interaction and conflicts in friendship, and a questionnaire for assessing styles of attachment UPIPAV (Nataša Hanak.Results indicate that participants of secure and insecure attachment styles differ significantly in all dimensions of quality of friendships. Secure participants have a higher level of affection, companionship, intimacy and conflict in relation to insecure subjects. Exceptions are subjects of fearful styles of attachment who have a similar level of affection in friendship to those of secure ones. When the above differences are observed at the dyadic level, the situation is as follows: couples of friends with secure styles of attachment at all dimensions of friendship have higher scores compared to couples with insecure styles. Regression analysis showed that attachment significantly contributes to the explanation of all the dimensions of friendship. The strongest individual contribution to the explanation of all dimensions of quality friendships have secure style of attachment. The results are discussed within the attachment theory perspective.

  19. Coping style in schizophrenia: associations with neurocognitive deficits and personality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lysaker, Paul H; Bryson, Gary J; Marks, Kriscinda; Greig, Tamasine C; Bell, Morris D

    2004-01-01

    It is widely recognized that persons with schizophrenia tend to cope with stress in a relatively avoidant and ineffectual manner. Less is understood, however, about the factors that affect coping style in schizophrenia. To determine the extent to which various neurocognitive deficits and personality dimensions are related to coping style in schizophrenia, measures of visual memory, verbal memory, executive function, neuroticism, and extroversion were correlated with concurrent self-reports of preference for a range of active and avoidant coping strategies. Participants were 71 persons with schizophrenia spectrum disorders enrolled in outpatient psychiatric care. Stepwise multiple regressions indicated that neurocognition and personality were independently related to coping style. Specifically, higher levels of various forms of neurocognitive impairment and neuroticism predicted greater reliance on passive avoidant strategies and reduced reliance on active problem solving. Higher levels of extroversion were related to greater social support seeking. Implications for understanding the genesis of psychosocial dysfunction and for the development of rehabilitative interventions are discussed.

  20. Coping styles in relation to cognitive rehabilitation and quality of life after brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolters, Gisela; Stapert, Sven; Brands, Ingrid; Van Heugten, Caroline

    2010-08-01

    This study investigated the changes in coping styles of patients with acquired brain injury who underwent cognitive rehabilitation, and the effects of these changes on their quality of life. Participants were 110 patients in the chronic phase post-injury, who underwent outpatient cognitive rehabilitation according to current guidelines and standards. Coping style (Utrecht Coping List) was measured at the start of rehabilitation (T0) and repeated at least 5 months later (T1). Coping style was related to quality of life measured at T1 (Life Satisfaction Questionnaire and Stroke-Adapted Sickness Impact Profile). Results indicated that active problem-focused coping styles decreased and passive emotion-focused coping styles increased significantly between T0 and T1. Furthermore, the study showed that increases in active problem-focused coping styles and decreases in passive emotion-focused coping styles predicted a higher quality of life in the long term. These changes in coping styles are adaptive for the adjustment process in the chronic phase post-injury. Overall however, most participants showed maladaptive changes in coping styles. Implications for cognitive rehabilitation are therefore discussed.

  1. Comprehensive in silico prediction and analysis of chlamydial outer membrane proteins reflects evolution and life style of the Chlamydiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myers Garry

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chlamydiae are obligate intracellular bacteria comprising some of the most important bacterial pathogens of animals and humans. Although chlamydial outer membrane proteins play a key role for attachment to and entry into host cells, only few have been described so far. We developed a comprehensive, multiphasic in silico approach, including the calculation of clusters of orthologues, to predict outer membrane proteins using conservative criteria. We tested this approach using Escherichia coli (positive control and Bacillus subtilis (negative control, and applied it to five chlamydial species; Chlamydia trachomatis, Chlamydia muridarum, Chlamydia (a.k.a. Chlamydophila pneumoniae, Chlamydia (a.k.a. Chlamydophila caviae, and Protochlamydia amoebophila. Results In total, 312 chlamydial outer membrane proteins and lipoproteins in 88 orthologous clusters were identified, including 238 proteins not previously recognized to be located in the outer membrane. Analysis of their taxonomic distribution revealed an evolutionary conservation among Chlamydiae, Verrucomicrobia, Lentisphaerae and Planctomycetes as well as lifestyle-dependent conservation of the chlamydial outer membrane protein composition. Conclusion This analysis suggested a correlation between the outer membrane protein composition and the host range of chlamydiae and revealed a common set of outer membrane proteins shared by these intracellular bacteria. The collection of predicted chlamydial outer membrane proteins is available at the online database pCOMP http://www.microbial-ecology.net/pcomp and might provide future guidance in the quest for anti-chlamydial vaccines.

  2. Self- and Co-regulation of Anger and Fear in Preschoolers with Autism Spectrum Disorders: The Role of Maternal Parenting Style and Temperament.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirschler-Guttenberg, Yael; Feldman, Ruth; Ostfeld-Etzion, Sharon; Laor, Nathaniel; Golan, Ofer

    2015-09-01

    Emotion regulation (ER) difficulties are a major concern in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Maternal temperament and parenting style have significant effects on children's ER. However, these effects have not been studied in children with ASD. Forty preschoolers with ASD and their mothers and forty matched controls engaged in fear and anger ER paradigms, micro-coded for child self- and co-regulatory behaviors and parent's regulation-facilitation. Mothers' parenting style and temperament were self-reported. In the ASD group only, maternal authoritarian style predicted higher self-regulation and lower co-regulation of anger and maternal authoritative style predicted higher self-regulation of fear. Maternal temperament did not predict child's ER. Findings emphasize the importance of maternal flexible parenting style in facilitating ER among children with ASD.

  3. Higher Levels of Psychopathy Predict Poorer Motor Control: Implications for Understanding the Psychopathy Construct

    OpenAIRE

    Robinson, Michael D.; Bresin, Konrad

    2014-01-01

    A review of the literature suggests that higher levels of psychopathy may be linked to less effective behavioral control. However, several commentators have urged caution in making statements of this type in the absence of direct evidence. In two studies (total N = 142), moment-to-moment accuracy in a motor control task was examined as a function of dimensional variations in psychopathy in an undergraduate population. As hypothesized, motor control was distinctively worse at higher levels of ...

  4. Engaging Students Emotionally: The Role of Emotional Intelligence in Predicting Cognitive and Affective Engagement in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maguire, Rebecca; Egan, Arlene; Hyland, Philip; Maguire, Phil

    2017-01-01

    Student engagement is a key predictor of academic performance, persistence and retention in higher education. While many studies have identified how aspects of the college environment influence engagement, fewer have specifically focused on emotional intelligence (EI). In this study, we sought to explore whether EI could predict cognitive and/or…

  5. Students-as-Customers' Satisfaction, Predictive Retention with Marketing Implications: The Case of Malaysian Higher Education Business Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Stephen; Yeo, Amy Chu-May

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate two areas of interest: first, to determine business student customer satisfiers that could be contributors to students' current and predicted retention in a higher educational institution (HEI) and second, to use these satisfiers to inform HEI marketing planning. Design/Methodology/Approach: The…

  6. The Relations between Lower and Higher Level Comprehension Skills and Their Role in Prediction of Early Reading Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Macarena; Cain, Kate

    2015-01-01

    This study of 4- to 6-year-olds had 2 aims: first, to determine how lower level comprehension skills (receptive vocabulary and grammar) and verbal memory support early higher level comprehension skills (inference and literal story comprehension), and second, to establish the predictive power of these skills on subsequent reading comprehension.…

  7. Improved prediction of higher heating value of biomass using an artificial neural network model based on proximate analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzun, Harun; Yıldız, Zeynep; Goldfarb, Jillian L; Ceylan, Selim

    2017-06-01

    As biomass becomes more integrated into our energy feedstocks, the ability to predict its combustion enthalpies from routine data such as carbon, ash, and moisture content enables rapid decisions about utilization. The present work constructs a novel artificial neural network model with a 3-3-1 tangent sigmoid architecture to predict biomasses' higher heating values from only their proximate analyses, requiring minimal specificity as compared to models based on elemental composition. The model presented has a considerably higher correlation coefficient (0.963) and lower root mean square (0.375), mean absolute (0.328), and mean bias errors (0.010) than other models presented in the literature which, at least when applied to the present data set, tend to under-predict the combustion enthalpy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Are parenting style and controlling feeding practices related?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blissett, J; Haycraft, E

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the relationships between parenting styles, feeding practices and BMI in a non-clinical sample of mothers and fathers of UK preschool children. Ninety-six cohabiting parents of 48 children (19 male, 29 female, mean age 42 months) completed a series of self-report questionnaires assessing parenting style, feeding practices, eating psychopathology and a range of demographic information. There were no relationships between authoritarian parenting and controlling feeding practices. In both mothers and fathers, permissive parenting style was related to lower monitoring of children's unhealthy food intake. Permissive parenting was also associated with increased use of restriction by mothers and pressure to eat by fathers. Authoritative parenting style was also related to lower use of pressure to eat by fathers only. Parenting styles were not related to child BMI in this sample. Higher child BMI was best predicted by lower paternal application of pressure to eat and greater paternal reports of drive for thinness. Parenting style may not have a direct impact on child BMI until child food selection and consumption becomes more autonomous.

  9. [A German version of the measure of parental style (MOPS)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumpold, Gerhard; Doering, Stephan; Höfer, Stefan; Schüssler, Gerhard

    2002-01-01

    The "Measure of Parental Style" (MOPS, Parker et al., 1997) represents an internationally accepted self-assessment instrument. A German translation of the questionnaire, the "Fragebogen dysfunktionaler elterlicher Beziehungsstile"(FDEB), is presented and its construct properties are evaluated. In addition, characteristic parental styles in different diagnostic groups are assessed. Psychometric testing was performed in a sample of 108 psychotherapeutic outpatients and 109 students. Parental styles of different diagnostic subgroups were compared to the whole sample. Using discriminant analysis the predictive value of parental style for psychiatric diagnoses was evaluated. The internal consistency of the instrument and its subscales revealed to be satisfactory. The three-factor solution of the English version explaining 55% of variance could be replicated: "Indifference", "over-control", and "abuse". Compared to students patients scored significantly higher on all three factors. Within different diagnostic groups characteristic parental styles could be identified that correctly described 82.2% of psychiatric diagnoses. We conclude that the German version of the MOPS represents a useful and reliable screening and research instrument for the assessment of parental styles.

  10. Predictive Power of Primary and Secondary School Success Criterion on Transition to Higher Education Examination Scores

    OpenAIRE

    ÖZDEMİR, Atilla; Selahattin GELBAL

    2016-01-01

    It is seen that education has a significant effect that changes an individual’s life in our country in which education is a way of moving up the social ladder. In order to continue to a higher education program after graduating from high school, students have to succeed in transition to higher education examination. Thus, the entrance exam is an important factor to determine the future of the students. In our country, middle school grades and high school grade point average that is added to u...

  11. The Academic and Social Life Styles of Students and Teachers of Higher Education Institutions in Bangladesh as Consequences of Using Social Network Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clement, Che Kum

    2014-01-01

    With the emergence of social network sites (SNS), students and teachers of higher education institutions all over the world have been making efforts to meet up with the demands of these information and communication technology (ICT) tools. This paper presents the findings of a study conducted at four private universities in Bangladesh with the aim…

  12. The Role of Prior Mathematical Experience in Predicting Mathematics Performance in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faulkner, Fiona; Hannigan, Ailish; Fitzmaurice, Olivia

    2014-01-01

    Evidence of deficiencies in basic mathematical skills of beginning undergraduates has been documented worldwide. Many different theories have been set out as to why these declines in mathematical competency levels have occurred over time. One such theory is the widening access to higher education which has resulted in a less mathematically…

  13. Positive Attitude toward Healthy Eating Predicts Higher Diet Quality at All Cost Levels of Supermarkets☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, Anju; Monsivais, Pablo; Cook, Andrea J.; Drewnowski, Adam

    2014-01-01

    Shopping at low-cost supermarkets has been associated with higher obesity rates. This study examined whether attitudes toward healthy eating are independently associated with diet quality among shoppers at low-cost, medium-cost, and high-cost supermarkets. Data on socioeconomic status (SES), attitudes toward healthy eating, and supermarket choice were collected using a telephone survey of a representative sample of adult residents of King County, WA. Dietary intake data were based on a food frequency questionnaire. Thirteen supermarket chains were stratified into three categories: low, medium, and high cost, based on a market basket of 100 commonly eaten foods. Diet-quality measures were energy density, mean adequacy ratio, and total servings of fruits and vegetables. The analytical sample consisted of 963 adults. Multivariable regressions with robust standard error examined relations between diet quality, supermarket type, attitudes, and SES. Shopping at higher-cost supermarkets was associated with higher-quality diets. These associations persisted after adjusting for SES, but were eliminated after taking attitudinal measures into account. Supermarket shoppers with positive attitudes toward healthy eating had equally higher-quality diets, even if they shopped at low-, medium-, or high-cost supermarkets, independent of SES and other covariates. These findings imply that shopping at low-cost supermarkets does not prevent consumers from having high-quality diets, as long as they attach importance to good nutrition. Promoting nutrition-education strategies among supermarkets, particularly those catering to low-income groups, can help to improve diet quality. PMID:23916974

  14. What Predicts International Higher Education Students' Satisfaction with Their Study in Ireland?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finn, Mairéad; Darmody, Merike

    2017-01-01

    The internationalisation of higher education--a facet of broader processes of globalisation--has resulted in increased study-related travel, and the development of policies to attract international students. Nevertheless, in the context of a strong drive to recruit international students, little is known about how they are faring during their…

  15. Predicting the Probability for Faculty Adopting an Audience Response System in Higher Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tan Fung Ivan Chan

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Instructional technologies can be effective tools to foster student engagement, but university faculty may be reluctant to integrate innovative and evidence-based modern learning technologies into instruction. Based on Rogers’ diffusion of innovation theory, this quantitative, nonexperimental, one-shot cross-sectional survey determined what attributes of innovation (relative advantage, compatibility, complexity, trialability, and observability predict the probability of faculty adopting the audience response system (ARS into instruction. The sample of the study consisted of 201 faculty at a university in the southeastern United States. Binary logistic regression analysis was used to determine the attributes of innovation that predict the probability of faculty adopting the ARS into instruction. Out of the five attributes, compatibility and trialability made significant contributions to the model. The implication of the findings is that, in order to maximize adoption, the faculty needs to be given the opportunity to pre-test the ARS prior to implementation, and they need to know how the technology will assist them in achieving their pedagogical goals. Recommendations were made to leverage these attributes to foster faculty adoption of the ARS into instruction.

  16. The Relationship Between Student Characteristics, Including Learning Styles and Their Perceptions and Satisfaction in Web-Based Courses in Higher Education

    OpenAIRE

    Sami SAHIN

    2015-01-01

    Distance education and web-based courses are mainstream in the United States higher education and growing (NCES, 2003) involving over 80% of four year public universities in 2002. The National Academy of Science review of “how people learn” suggests that technology-mediated learning can be used to respond to students’ preferences and related characteristics. This investigation of the relationships between learners’ characteristics and their perception of web-based learning and satisfactio...

  17. Positive attitude toward healthy eating predicts higher diet quality at all cost levels of supermarkets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, Anju; Monsivais, Pablo; Cook, Andrea J; Drewnowski, Adam

    2014-02-01

    Shopping at low-cost supermarkets has been associated with higher obesity rates. This study examined whether attitudes toward healthy eating are independently associated with diet quality among shoppers at low-cost, medium-cost, and high-cost supermarkets. Data on socioeconomic status (SES), attitudes toward healthy eating, and supermarket choice were collected using a telephone survey of a representative sample of adult residents of King County, WA. Dietary intake data were based on a food frequency questionnaire. Thirteen supermarket chains were stratified into three categories: low, medium, and high cost, based on a market basket of 100 commonly eaten foods. Diet-quality measures were energy density, mean adequacy ratio, and total servings of fruits and vegetables. The analytical sample consisted of 963 adults. Multivariable regressions with robust standard error examined relations between diet quality, supermarket type, attitudes, and SES. Shopping at higher-cost supermarkets was associated with higher-quality diets. These associations persisted after adjusting for SES, but were eliminated after taking attitudinal measures into account. Supermarket shoppers with positive attitudes toward healthy eating had equally higher-quality diets, even if they shopped at low-, medium-, or high-cost supermarkets, independent of SES and other covariates. These findings imply that shopping at low-cost supermarkets does not prevent consumers from having high-quality diets, as long as they attach importance to good nutrition. Promoting nutrition-education strategies among supermarkets, particularly those catering to low-income groups, can help to improve diet quality. Copyright © 2014 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Revisiting the concept of 'style match'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li-fang; Sternberg, Robert J; Fan, Jieqiong

    2013-06-01

    Intellectual style, an encompassing term for such constructs as learning style, teaching style, teaching approach, and thinking style, refers to one's preferred way of processing information. For the past several decades, whether or not there is a need for a match between teachers' teaching styles and students' learning styles has been the focal point for debate among researchers, educators, and the general public. The preliminary objective of this research was to investigate the psychometric properties of the Preferred Teaching Approach Inventory (PTAI). The research's primary objective was to re-examine the concept of 'style match' through testing the predictive power of students' thinking styles for their preferred teaching approaches. Data were collected from two samples of university students, one each from Shanghai, mainland China (N = 236), and Hong Kong (N = 123). Participants provided the required demographic information and responded to two self-report inventories: the Thinking Styles Inventory - Revised II and the PTAI. Acceptable reliability and good validity were found for the PTAI. All of the eight multiple regressions indicated that students' thinking styles significantly contributed to their preferences for teachers' teaching approaches. These contributions varied by gender among the Shanghai students and by academic discipline among the Hong Kong students. Students, especially Shanghai female students and Hong Kong natural science students, are open to teaching approaches that do not precisely match their thinking styles. The concept of 'style match' requires new understanding. Findings have implications for research and education. © 2013 The British Psychological Society.

  19. Generating Lies Produces Lower Memory Predictions and Higher Memory Performance Than Telling the Truth: Evidence for a Metacognitive Illusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besken, Miri

    2017-09-21

    Manipulations that induce disfluency during encoding generally produce lower memory predictions for the disfluent condition than for the fluent condition. Similar to other manipulations of disfluency, generating lies takes longer and requires more mental effort than does telling the truth; hence, a manipulation of lie generation might produce patterns similar to other types of fluency for memory predictions. The current study systematically investigates the effect of a lie-generation manipulation on both actual and predicted memory performance. In a series of experiments, participants told the truth or generated plausible lies to general knowledge questions and made item-by-item predictions about their subsequent memory performance during encoding, followed by a free recall test. Participants consistently predicted their memory performance to be higher for truth than for lies (Experiments 1 through 4), despite their typically superior actual memory performance for lies than for the truth (Experiments 1 through 3), producing double dissociations between memory and metamemory. Moreover, lying led to longer response latencies than did telling the truth, showing that generating lies is in fact objectively more disfluent. An additional experiment compared memory predictions for truth and lie trials via a scenario about the lie-generation manipulation used in the present study, which revealed superior memory predictions of truth than of lies, providing proof for a priori beliefs about the effects of lying on predicted memory (Experiment 5). The effects of the current lie-generation manipulation on metamemory are discussed in light of experience-based and theory-based processes on making judgments of learning. Theoretical and practical implications of this experimental paradigm are also considered. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. Why employees with higher challenging appraisals style are more affectively engaged at work? The role of challenging stressors: a moderated mediation model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shin-Huei; Wu, Chia-Huei; Chen, Mei-Yen; Chen, Lung Hung

    2014-10-01

    Challenging stressors have been positively linked to various work outcomes. However, the role of individual differences in stress appraisal in shaping the function of challenging stressors and work outcomes has been rarely discussed. Drawing on the individual differences perspective, the authors propose that employees higher in challenge appraisal are more likely to have challenging stressors and are more responsive to such stressors to have a higher positive affect at work. Results obtained from 117 employees supported the hypotheses. The results indicated that challenge appraisal is positively related to challenging stressors. In addition, challenging stressors has a positive association with positive affect at work when challenge appraisal is high but has a null association when challenge appraisal is low. The findings suggest that challenging stressors does not necessarily bring positive work outcomes as suggested in past studies and highlight the importance of considering dispositional tendency in stress appraisal when looking into the function of challenging stressors and work outcomes. © 2014 International Union of Psychological Science.

  1. The relations between lower and higher level comprehension skills and their role in prediction of early reading comprehension

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Macarena; Cain, Kate

    2015-01-01

    This study of 4- to 6-year-olds had two aims. First to determine how lower-level comprehension skills (receptive vocabulary and grammar) and verbal memory support early higher-level comprehension skills (inference and literal story comprehension). Second to establish the predictive power of these skills on subsequent reading comprehension. Eighty-two children completed assessments of nonverbal ability, receptive vocabulary and grammar, verbal short-term memory, and inferential and literal com...

  2. Higher Levels of GATA3 Predict Better Survival in Women with Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Nam K.; Maresh, Erin L.; Shen, Dejun; Elshimali, Yahya; Apple, Sophia; Horvath, Steve; Mah, Vei; Bose, Shikha; Chia, David; Chang, Helena R.; Goodglick, Lee

    2010-01-01

    The GATA family members are zinc finger transcription factors involved in cell differentiation and proliferation. GATA3 in particular is necessary for mammary gland maturation, and its loss has been implicated in breast cancer development. Our goal was to validate the ability of GATA3 expression to predict survival in breast cancer patients. Protein expression of GATA3 was analyzed on a high density tissue microarray consisting of 242 cases of breast cancer. We associated GATA3 expression with patient outcomes and clinicopathological variables. Expression of GATA3 was significantly increased in breast cancer, in situ lesions, and hyperplastic tissue compared to normal breast tissue. GATA3 expression decreased with increasing tumor grade. Low GATA3 expression was a significant predictor of disease-related death in all patients, as well as in subgroups of estrogen receptor positive or low grade patients. Additionally, low GATA3 expression correlated with increased tumor size and estrogen and progesterone receptor negativity. GATA3 is an important predictor of disease outcome in breast cancer patients. This finding has been validated in a diverse set of populations. Thus, GATA3 expression has utility as a prognostic indicator in breast cancer. PMID:21078439

  3. Specific psychological variables predict quality of diet in women of lower, but not higher, educational attainment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lawrence, Wendy; Schlotz, Wolff; Crozier, Sarah

    2011-01-01

    Our previous work found that perceived control over life was a significant predictor of the quality of diet of women of lower educational attainment. In this paper, we explore the influence on quality of diet of a range of psychological and social factors identified during focus group discussions......, and specify the way this differs in women of lower and higher educational attainment. We assessed educational attainment, quality of diet, and psycho-social factors in 378 women attending Sure Start Children's Centres and baby clinics in Southampton, UK. Multiple-group path analysis showed that in women...... of lower educational attainment, the effect of general self-efficacy on quality of diet was mediated through perceptions of control and through food involvement, but that there were also direct effects of social support for healthy eating and having positive outcome expectancies. There was no effect...

  4. Surgery resident learning styles and academic achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contessa, Jack; Ciardiello, Kenneth A; Perlman, Stacie

    2005-01-01

    To determine if surgical residents share a preferred learning style as measured by Kolb's Learning Style Inventory (LSI) and if a relationship exists between resident learning style and achievement as measured by a standardized examination (AME). Also, core faculty learning styles were assessed to determine if faculty and residents share a preferred learning style. Kolb's LSI, Version 3, was administered to 16 surgical residents and the residency program's core faculty of 6 attending physicians. To measure academic achievement, the American Medical Education (AME) examination was administered to residents. The Hospital of Saint Raphael, General Surgery Residency Program, New Haven, Connecticut. Both instruments were administered to residents during protected core curriculum time. Core faculty were administered the LSI on an individual basis. Surgical residents of the Hospital of Saint Raphael's General Surgery Residency Program and 6 core faculty members Analysis of resident learning style preference revealed Converging as the most commonly occurring style for residents (7) followed by Accommodating (5), Assimilating (3), and Diverging (1). The predominant learning style for core faculty was also Converging (4) with 2 Divergers. The average score for the Convergers on the AME was 62.6 compared with 42 for the next most frequently occurring learning style, Accommodators. In this surgical residency program, a preferred learning style for residents seems to exist (Converging), which confirms what previous studies have found. Additionally, residents with this learning style attained a higher average achievement score as measured by the AME. Also, core faculty share the same preferential learning style as this subset of residents.

  5. Leadership: Four Styles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, W. C.

    2005-01-01

    The Four Styles narrative of Leadership is written in three sections: (1) Overview of Leadership Styles; (2) Analysis of Leadership Styles; and (3) Applications of Leadership Styles. While the primary foundation for its development was generated from more than 30 years of research and studying leadership styles in education, the secondary…

  6. PREDICTING E-LEARNING APPLICATION IN AGRICULTURAL HIGHER EDUCATION USING TECHNOLOGY ACCEPTANCE MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud REZAEI

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available E-learning is significant breakthrough in teaching and learning. Internet or web technologies are important because they facilitate and enhance communications among instructors and learners and provide tools to encourage creativity and initiative. If internet-based learning environments are to benefit students, then it is important from the student’s perspective that they are not seen as overly complex and hard to use. The introduction of e-learning may hinder the learning process if the technology is perceived as being complex and not useful to enhanced performance, and thus a distraction to learning. In line with acceptance studies, this research proposed and tested students’ acceptance behavior of agricultural higher education for application of e-learning using technology acceptance model. Results demonstrated that there was positive relationship between students’ intention to use e-learning and its perceived usefulness, internet experience, computer self-efficacy and affect. Instead computer anxiety and age had negative relationship with students’ intention to use e-learning.

  7. A description of an 'obesogenic' eating style that promotes higher energy intake and is associated with greater adiposity in 4.5year-old children: Results from the GUSTO cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogel, Anna; Goh, Ai Ting; Fries, Lisa R; Sadananthan, Suresh Anand; Velan, S Sendhil; Michael, Navin; Tint, Mya Thway; Fortier, Marielle Valerie; Chan, Mei Jun; Toh, Jia Ying; Chong, Yap-Seng; Tan, Kok Hian; Yap, Fabian; Shek, Lynette P; Meaney, Michael J; Broekman, Birit F P; Lee, Yung Seng; Godfrey, Keith M; Chong, Mary Foong Fong; Forde, Ciarán G

    2017-07-01

    Recent findings confirm that faster eating rates support higher energy intakes within a meal and are associated with increased body weight and adiposity in children. The current study sought to identify the eating behaviours that underpin faster eating rates and energy intake in children, and to investigate their variations by weight status and other individual differences. Children (N=386) from the Growing Up in Singapore towards Healthy Outcomes (GUSTO) cohort took part in a video-recorded ad libitum lunch at 4.5years of age to measure acute energy intake. Videos were coded for three eating behaviours (bites, chews and swallows) to derive a measure of eating rate (g/min) and measures of eating microstructure: eating rate (g/min), total oral exposure (min), average bite size (g/bite), chews per gram, oral exposure per bite (s), total bites and proportion of active to total mealtime. Children's BMIs were calculated and a subset of children underwent MRI scanning to establish abdominal adiposity. Children were grouped into faster and slower eaters, and into healthy and overweight groups to compare their eating behaviours. Results demonstrate that faster eating rates were correlated with larger average bite size (r=0.55, pobesogenic eating style' that is characterised by faster eating rates, achieved through larger bites, reduced chewing and shorter oral exposure time. This obesogenic eating style supports acute energy intake within a meal and is more prevalent among, though not exclusive to, children with overweight. Clinical Trial Registry Number: NCT01174875; https://clinicaltrials.gov/. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Affective Style, Humor Styles and Happiness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas E. Ford

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study examined the relationships between dispositional approach and avoidance motives, humor styles, and happiness. In keeping with previous research, approach motives and the two positive humor styles (self-enhancing and affiliative positively correlated with happiness, whereas avoidance motives and the two negative humor styles (self-defeating and aggressive negatively correlated with happiness. Also, we found support for three new hypotheses. First, approach motives correlated positively with self-enhancing and affiliative humor styles. Second, avoidance motives correlated positively with self-defeating humor style, and third, the positive relationship between approach motives and happiness was mediated by self-enhancing humor style.

  9. Higher Facebook use predicts greater body image dissatisfaction during pregnancy: The role of self-comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, S; Brown, A

    2016-09-01

    poor body image during pregnancy is a growing issue. Similarly, emerging evidence is suggesting that social media use may increase the risk of poor well-being e.g. depression, anxiety and body image concerns amongst users. Research has not examined how social media use may influence women during pregnancy. The aim of this study was to therefore to explore the relationship between body image during pregnancy and Facebook use. a cross sectional self-report questionnaire. two hundred and sixty nine pregnant women. community groups and online forums. a self-report questionnaire exploring maternal body image, use of Facebook and how mothers perceived Facebook affected their body image. Descriptive statistics were used to explore body image perceptions. Partial correlations (controlling for maternal age, education, parity and gestation) were used to explore the association between Facebook use and body image during pregnancy. negative body image was common in the sample, increased with gestation and was unrelated to pre pregnancy weight. Mothers with a Facebook account had higher body image concerns than those without a Facebook account. Of those with an account, increased Facebook use was associated with increased body image dissatisfaction, particularly in terms of postnatal concerns for how their body would look with 56.5% reporting that they frequently compared their pregnant body to other pregnant women on the site. Facebook access was frequent with 85% of participants checking it at least once per day and the average participant spending over an hour per day on the site. although causality cannot be fully explained, Facebook use may increase mother's risk of poor body image dissatisfaction during pregnancy. Mothers with already poor body image may also be drawn to the site in order to make comparisons of their appearance. the potential impact of Facebook on increasing the risk of, or promoting existing poor body image is an important message for those working to

  10. Shame, internalized homophobia, identity formation, attachment style, and the connection to relationship status in gay men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Jac; Trevethan, Robert

    2010-09-01

    This study reports on a survey of 166 gay men in Sydney, Australia, that explores the links between internalized shame, internalized homophobia, and attachment style. These variables were linked to the age of coming out, family and peer acceptance of their sexuality, relationship status, and previous marriage. Findings suggest a strong relationship between shame, internalized homophobia, and anxious and avoidant attachment style. Shame was predicted by internalized homophobia and anxious and avoidant attachment style. A significant proportion of gay men reported that they were not easily accepted when they first came out. There was a significant relationship between coming out and internalized homophobia but not with shame and attachment style. Furthermore, men who had never come out to family and friends reported higher levels of internalized homophobia but not higher levels of shame and attachment style. Of particular significance was the connection between previous marriage and higher levels of shame and internalized homophobia. Finally, gay men who were not currently in a relationship reported higher levels of shame anxious and avoidant attachment style. These findings are related to therapeutic work with gay men who have previously been married and those who are concerned with their current single status.

  11. Differential effects of self-esteem and interpersonal competence on humor styles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McCosker B

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Bernadette McCosker, Carmen C MoranSchool of Psychology, Charles Sturt University, Wagga Wagga, NSW, AustraliaBackground: In contrast with an early implicit “facilitative hypothesis” of humor, a revised specificity hypothesis predicts that the benefits of humor depend on the specific style of humor used. Information on predictors of these humor styles in turn enhances the ability to predict the effect on well-being.Methods: We examined the relationships between interpersonal competence, self-esteem, and different styles of humor, while also examining the contributions of age and gender. Participants (n = 201 aged 18–63 years completed the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Inventory, the Interpersonal Competence Questionnaire, and the Humor Styles Questionnaire, and gave demographic information.Results: High self-esteem was associated with higher use of affiliative, aggressive, and self-enhancing humor styles, but lower use of self-defeating humor. High interpersonal competence predicted greater use of affiliative humor, whereas low interpersonal competence predicted greater use of aggressive humor. Further analyses showed that initiation competence predicted affiliative humor (positively but both initiation competence (positively and conflict management competence (negatively predicted aggressive humor.Conclusion: The findings that both self-esteem and initiation competence contribute to use of aggressive humor add to knowledge of who is likely to use this potentially harmful humor style. We conclude that a readiness to initiate humorous interactions is not on its own a general and positive attribute contributing to “good” humor.Keywords: self-esteem, interpersonal competence, humor styles, differential effects

  12. Leadership Styles at Syrian Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalifa, Bayan; Ayoubi, Rami M.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore the two major types of leadership, i.e transactional and transformational, and organizational learning at public and private universities in Syria. It further aims at exploring the role of transactional and transformational leadership in enhancing organizational learning at Syrian universities.…

  13. Higher-order QCD predictions for dark matter production at the LHC in simplified models with s-channel mediators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backović, Mihailo; Krämer, Michael; Maltoni, Fabio; Martini, Antony; Mawatari, Kentarou; Pellen, Mathieu

    Weakly interacting dark matter particles can be pair-produced at colliders and detected through signatures featuring missing energy in association with either QCD/EW radiation or heavy quarks. In order to constrain the mass and the couplings to standard model particles, accurate and precise predictions for production cross sections and distributions are of prime importance. In this work, we consider various simplified models with s-channel mediators. We implement such models in the FeynRules/MadGraph5_aMC@NLO framework, which allows to include higher-order QCD corrections in realistic simulations and to study their effect systematically. As a first phenomenological application, we present predictions for dark matter production in association with jets and with a top-quark pair at the LHC, at next-to-leading order accuracy in QCD, including matching/merging to parton showers. Our study shows that higher-order QCD corrections to dark matter production via s-channel mediators have a significant impact not only on total production rates, but also on shapes of distributions. We also show that the inclusion of next-to-leading order effects results in a sizeable reduction of the theoretical uncertainties.

  14. Predictive analysis of beer quality by correlating sensory evaluation with higher alcohol and ester production using multivariate statistics methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Jian-Jun; Li, Qing-Liang; Yin, Hua; Zhong, Cheng; Hao, Jun-Guang; Yang, Pan-Fei; Tian, Yu-Hong; Jia, Shi-Ru

    2014-10-15

    Sensory evaluation is regarded as a necessary procedure to ensure a reproducible quality of beer. Meanwhile, high-throughput analytical methods provide a powerful tool to analyse various flavour compounds, such as higher alcohol and ester. In this study, the relationship between flavour compounds and sensory evaluation was established by non-linear models such as partial least squares (PLS), genetic algorithm back-propagation neural network (GA-BP), support vector machine (SVM). It was shown that SVM with a Radial Basis Function (RBF) had a better performance of prediction accuracy for both calibration set (94.3%) and validation set (96.2%) than other models. Relatively lower prediction abilities were observed for GA-BP (52.1%) and PLS (31.7%). In addition, the kernel function of SVM played an essential role of model training when the prediction accuracy of SVM with polynomial kernel function was 32.9%. As a powerful multivariate statistics method, SVM holds great potential to assess beer quality. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Other-Regarding Preferences and Leadership Styles

    OpenAIRE

    Kocher, Martin G.; Pogrebna, Ganna; Sutter, Matthias

    2009-01-01

    We use a laboratory experiment to examine whether and to what extent other-regarding preferences of team leaders influence their leadership style in choice under risk. We find that leaders who prefer efficiency or report high levels of selfishness are more likely to exercise an autocratic leadership style by ignoring preferences of the other team members. Yet, inequity aversion has no significant impact on leadership styles. Elected leaders have a higher propensity than exogenously assigned l...

  16. Peer Groups as a Context for School Misconduct: The Moderating Role of Group Interactional Style.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Wendy; Zarbatany, Lynne; Chen, Xinyin; Kinal, Megan; Boyko, Lisa

    2017-01-20

    Peer group interactional style was examined as a moderator of the relation between peer group school misconduct and group members' school misconduct. Participants were 705 students (Mage  = 11.59 years, SD = 1.37) in 148 peer groups. Children reported on their school misconduct in fall and spring. In the winter, group members were observed in a limited-resource task and a group conversation task, and negative and positive group interactional styles were assessed. Multilevel modeling indicated that membership in groups that were higher on school misconduct predicted greater school misconduct only when the groups were high on negative or low on positive interactional style. Results suggest that negative laughter and a coercive interactional style may intensify group effects on children's misconduct. © 2017 The Authors. Child Development © 2017 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  17. Extreme response style as a cultural response to climato-economic deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jia; Van de Vliert, Evert; Van de Vijver, Fons J R

    2016-06-03

    We investigated the effects of climato-economic harshness on extreme response style. Climato-economic theorising postulates that a more threatening climate in poorer countries, in contrast to countries with a more comforting climate and richer countries with a more challenging climate, triggers intolerance of ambiguity and uncertainty avoidance inherent to conservatism, in-group favouritism and autocracy. Scores of extreme response style at country level, a proxy of this cluster of cultural characteristics, were extracted from students' responses in the Programme for International Student Assessment to test the hypothesis. In a series of hierarchical regression analysis across 64 countries, cold demands, heat demands and GDP per capita showed a highly significant interaction effect on extreme response style, predicting in total 30.7% of the variance. Extreme response style was highest in poorer countries with higher climatic demands, and lowest in richer countries with lower climate demands. Implications are discussed. © 2016 International Union of Psychological Science.

  18. Relationships between parenting styles and risk behaviors in adolescent health: an integrative literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Kathy; Harrison, Lynda; Dashiff, Carol; Davies, Susan

    2008-01-01

    Research over the past 20 years suggests that the quality of the parent-adolescent relationship significantly affects the development of risk behaviors in adolescent health. The purpose of this paper is to present a review of studies published between 1996-2007 that address specific relationships between parenting styles and six priority adolescent risk behaviors. The review supports the substantial influence of parenting style on adolescent development. Adolescents raised in authoritative households consistently demonstrate higher protective and fewer risk behaviors than adolescents from non-authoritative families. There is also considerable evidence to show that parenting styles and behaviors related to warmth, communication and disciplinary practices predict important mediators, including academic achievement and psychosocial adjustment. Careful examination of parenting style patterns in diverse populations, particularly with respect to physical activity and unintentional injury, will be a critical next step in the development of efficacious, culturally tailored adolescent health promotion interventions.

  19. Human In Silico Drug Trials Demonstrate Higher Accuracy than Animal Models in Predicting Clinical Pro-Arrhythmic Cardiotoxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Passini

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Early prediction of cardiotoxicity is critical for drug development. Current animal models raise ethical and translational questions, and have limited accuracy in clinical risk prediction. Human-based computer models constitute a fast, cheap and potentially effective alternative to experimental assays, also facilitating translation to human. Key challenges include consideration of inter-cellular variability in drug responses and integration of computational and experimental methods in safety pharmacology. Our aim is to evaluate the ability of in silico drug trials in populations of human action potential (AP models to predict clinical risk of drug-induced arrhythmias based on ion channel information, and to compare simulation results against experimental assays commonly used for drug testing. A control population of 1,213 human ventricular AP models in agreement with experimental recordings was constructed. In silico drug trials were performed for 62 reference compounds at multiple concentrations, using pore-block drug models (IC50/Hill coefficient. Drug-induced changes in AP biomarkers were quantified, together with occurrence of repolarization/depolarization abnormalities. Simulation results were used to predict clinical risk based on reports of Torsade de Pointes arrhythmias, and further evaluated in a subset of compounds through comparison with electrocardiograms from rabbit wedge preparations and Ca2+-transient recordings in human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (hiPS-CMs. Drug-induced changes in silico vary in magnitude depending on the specific ionic profile of each model in the population, thus allowing to identify cell sub-populations at higher risk of developing abnormal AP phenotypes. Models with low repolarization reserve (increased Ca2+/late Na+ currents and Na+/Ca2+-exchanger, reduced Na+/K+-pump are highly vulnerable to drug-induced repolarization abnormalities, while those with reduced inward current density

  20. Using MMPI-A Profiles to Predict Success in a Military-Style Residential Treatment Program for Adolescents with Academic and Conduct Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weis, Robert; Crockett, Thomas E.; Vieth, Sasha

    2004-01-01

    Military-style residential treatment for adolescents with academic and conduct problems is an increasingly popular alternative to traditional school-based services. However, dropout from "boot camp" programs is a primary reason for their high cost. Social-emotional functioning before referral may differentiate adolescents who…

  1. Humor and College Adjustment: The Predictive Nature of Humor, Academic Achievement, Authoritative Parenting Styles on the Initial Adjustment of Male and Female First-Year College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickman, Gregory P.; Andrews, David W.

    2003-01-01

    A self-report questionnaire on academic achievement, birth order, and family structure; the Student Adaptation to College Questionnaire; the Parental Authority Questionnaire; and the Coping Humor Scale were administered to 257 first-year college students. Researchers examined the relationships among (a) authoritative parenting style, (b) family…

  2. The Predictive Nature of Humor, Authoritative Parenting Style, and Academic Achievement on Indices of Initial Adjustment and Commitment to College among College Freshmen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickman, Gregory P.; Crossland, Garnet L.

    2004-01-01

    Through the administration of self-report surveys, this study examined the relationships among a) parenting styles, b) family structure, c) academic achievement, d) birth order, e) gender, and f) humor on the initial personal-emotional, social, academic, and commitment to college adjustment among 257 first-quarter college freshmen. Multiple…

  3. A higher-order free-wake method for aerodynamic performance prediction of propeller-wing systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Julia Ann

    A new higher-order free-wake (HOFW) method has been developed to enable conceptual design space explorations of propeller-wing systems. The method uses higher order vorticity elements to represent the wings and propeller blades as lifting surfaces. The higher order elements allow for better force resolution and more intrinsically computationally stable wakes than a comparable vortex-lattice method, while retaining the relative ease of geometric representation inherent to such methods. The propeller and wing surfaces and wakes are modeled within the same flow field, thus accounting for mutual interaction without the need for empirical models. The method was shown to be accurate through comparisons with other methods and experimental data. To ensure the method is capable of capturing an unsteady lift response, it was compared with a Kussner function approximation of the change in two-dimensional lift due to a sharp-edged gust. This study showed excellent agreement with an average error in the HOFW lift response of less than 3% from 0 to 10 semi-chords, but required high time and space resolution. The time-accurate lift response of a propeller-wing system as predicted with the HOFW method was then compared with fully unsteady CFD. These results showed that the HOFW method can identify the peak frequency and general amplitude of the lift oscillations at high resolution. Due to the high resolution requirements, this mode of analysis is not recommended for use in design studies. Time-averaged results found using the HOFW method were compared with experimental propeller, proprotor, and propeller-wing system data, along with two semi-empirical methods. The method matched experimental propeller efficiencies to within 4% for lightly loaded conditions. Increases in lift coefficient due to interaction with a propeller for a series of wings as analyzed with the HOFW method matched the average of those predicted with two semi-empirical methods with an average of 6.5% error for a

  4. Low-Wage Maternal Employment and Parenting Style

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Aurora P.; Bentler, Peter M.; Franke, Todd M.

    2009-01-01

    This 3-year longitudinal study investigated whether low-wage employment was associated with improved psychological and parenting outcomes in a sample of 178 single mothers who were employed and nonemployed current and former welfare recipients both before and subsequent to the passage of the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996. Participation in employment predicted fewer depressive symptoms and less negative parenting style over time. Employment at time 1 was associated with a reduced likelihood of receiving welfare in the interim between Time 1 and Time 2, less financial strain at Time 2, and (through these) a decrease in mothers’ depressive symptoms at Time 2. Fewer depressive symptoms at Time 2, in turn, predicted less negative parenting style, net of the mothers’ earlier demographic, mental health, and parenting characteristics. Mothers with higher educational attainment were more likely to be employed (and to earn more) at both time points. Implications of these findings for welfare policies are discussed. PMID:19275122

  5. Stress, self-perception and interpersonal style in patients with physical illnesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durak Batıgün, Ayşegül; Hisli Şahin, Nesrin; Karslı Demirel, Esra

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the role of self-perception, interpersonal style, and anger in the context of stress in patients with physical illnesses, including coronary artery disease, gastrointestinal disorders, dermatological disorders, and diabetes. The study sample included patients with physical illnesses (n = 124) and healthy controls (n = 209). Symptoms of stress, self-perception, interpersonal style, and anger were evaluated using the Stress Symptoms Scale, Social Comparison Scale, Interpersonal Style Scale, and Multidimensional Anger Questionnaire, respectively. The role of self-perception, interpersonal style, and anger in stress experienced in the patients and controls was compared. The patients had higher stress symptoms, perceived themselves more negatively, had more problematic interpersonal styles, and more intense anger than the controls. The higher stress symptoms in the patients and the lower symptoms in the controls was predicted by 4 common variables¾dissatisfaction with life, dissatisfaction with interpersonal relationships, negative self-perception, and aggressive expression of anger. Another predictive variable in the psychosomatic group was age, whereas in the control group gender and internalized anger were predictive variables. As the physical illnesses had by those in the patient group are stress-related, inclusion of psychosocial interventions in treatment protocols, such as communication skills, and stress and anger management training, and interventions aimed at increasing a positive self-perception might improve their QoL.

  6. Relationship between personality disorder functioning styles and the emotional states in bipolar I and II disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Jiashu; Xu, You; Qin, Yanhua; Liu, Jing; Shen, Yuedi; Wang, Wei; Chen, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Bipolar disorder types I (BD I) and II (BD II) behave differently in clinical manifestations, normal personality traits, responses to pharmacotherapies, biochemical backgrounds and neuroimaging activations. How the varied emotional states of BD I and II are related to the comorbid personality disorders remains to be settled. We therefore administered the Plutchick - van Praag Depression Inventory (PVP), the Mood Disorder Questionnaire (MDQ), the Hypomanic Checklist-32 (HCL-32), and the Parker Personality Measure (PERM) in 37 patients with BD I, 34 BD II, and in 76 healthy volunteers. Compared to the healthy volunteers, patients with BD I and II scored higher on some PERM styles, PVP, MDQ and HCL-32 scales. In BD I, the PERM Borderline style predicted the PVP scale; and Antisocial predicted HCL-32. In BD II, Borderline, Dependent, Paranoid (-) and Schizoid (-) predicted PVP; Borderline predicted MDQ; Passive-Aggressive and Schizoid (-) predicted HCL-32. In controls, Borderline and Narcissistic (-) predicted PVP; Borderline and Dependent (-) predicted MDQ. Besides confirming the different predictability of the 11 functioning styles of personality disorder to BD I and II, we found that the prediction was more common in BD II, which might underlie its higher risk of suicide and poorer treatment outcome.

  7. Relationship between personality disorder functioning styles and the emotional states in bipolar I and II disorders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiashu Yao

    Full Text Available Bipolar disorder types I (BD I and II (BD II behave differently in clinical manifestations, normal personality traits, responses to pharmacotherapies, biochemical backgrounds and neuroimaging activations. How the varied emotional states of BD I and II are related to the comorbid personality disorders remains to be settled.We therefore administered the Plutchick - van Praag Depression Inventory (PVP, the Mood Disorder Questionnaire (MDQ, the Hypomanic Checklist-32 (HCL-32, and the Parker Personality Measure (PERM in 37 patients with BD I, 34 BD II, and in 76 healthy volunteers.Compared to the healthy volunteers, patients with BD I and II scored higher on some PERM styles, PVP, MDQ and HCL-32 scales. In BD I, the PERM Borderline style predicted the PVP scale; and Antisocial predicted HCL-32. In BD II, Borderline, Dependent, Paranoid (- and Schizoid (- predicted PVP; Borderline predicted MDQ; Passive-Aggressive and Schizoid (- predicted HCL-32. In controls, Borderline and Narcissistic (- predicted PVP; Borderline and Dependent (- predicted MDQ.Besides confirming the different predictability of the 11 functioning styles of personality disorder to BD I and II, we found that the prediction was more common in BD II, which might underlie its higher risk of suicide and poorer treatment outcome.

  8. Cognitive Styles in Admission Procedures for Assessing Candidates of Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casakin, Hernan; Gigi, Ariela

    2016-01-01

    Cognitive style has a strong predictive power in academic and professional success. This study investigated the cognitive profile of candidates studying architecture. Specifically, it explored the relation between visual and verbal cognitive styles, and the performance of candidates in admission procedures. The cognitive styles of candidates who…

  9. Personal Style and Person-Environment Fit: A Pattern Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustafson, Sigrid B.; Mumford, Michael D.

    1995-01-01

    Personal style patterns and environmental constraints and opportunities of the workgroup were identified by 367 Navy personnel and 114 supervisors. Personal style predicted different job outcomes--performance, satisfaction, withdrawal--across the organization and within groups. Recognition of personal style and environmental patterns could enhance…

  10. Trajectories of delinquency and parenting styles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoeve, M.; Blokland, A.; Dubas, J.S.; Loeber, R.; Gerris, J.R.M.; Laan, P.H. van der

    2008-01-01

    We investigated trajectories of adolescent delinquent development using data from the Pittsburgh Youth Study and examined the extent to which these different trajectories are differentially predicted by childhood parenting styles. Based on self-reported and official delinquency seriousness, covering

  11. Trajectories of Delinquency and Parenting Styles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoeve, M.; Blokland, A.A.J.; Dubas, J.S.; Loeber, R.; Gerris, J.R.M.; Laan, P.H. van der

    2008-01-01

    We investigated trajectories of adolescent delinquent development using data from the Pittsburgh Youth Study and examined the extent to which these different trajectories are differentially predicted by childhood parenting styles. Based on self-reported and official delinquency seriousness, covering

  12. Eating disorder symptoms and parenting styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haycraft, Emma; Blissett, Jackie

    2010-02-01

    This study aimed to examine associations between symptoms of eating disorders and parenting style, in a non-clinical sample. One hundred and five mothers completed self-report measures of eating disorder symptoms and parenting style. Higher levels of eating disorder symptoms were associated with more authoritarian and permissive parenting styles. Authoritative parenting was not significantly related to eating disorder symptoms. The findings demonstrate that eating disorder symptoms in non-clinical individuals are related to less adaptive parenting styles. These findings have potential implications for clinicians working with mothers with eating disorders. 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. An Investigation of Decision Making Styles and the Five-Factor Personality Traits with Respect to Attachment Styles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deniz, M. Engin

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this research is to investigate if the attachment styles significantly predict the decision self-esteem, decision making styles and five-factor personality traits. Subjects of the study were 567 students in total from different faculties of Selcuk University. The results of the study showed that the attachment styles of the students…

  14. Humor styles, self-esteem, and subjective happiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Xiao Dong; Liu, Katy Wing-Yin; Jiang, Feng; Hiranandani, Neelam Arjan

    2014-10-01

    Summary.-This study examined how humor styles could mediate the effect of self-esteem on subjective happiness. 227 Hong Kong undergraduate students completed the Humor Styles Questionnaire, the Roxsenberg Self-esteem Scale, and the Subjective Happiness Scale. Results showed adaptive humor styles (affiliative humor and self-enhancing humor) significantly predicted self-esteem and subjective happiness and mediated the relationship between self-esteem and subjective happiness. Maladaptive humor styles (aggressive humor and self-defeating humor) did not strongly predict self-esteem or subjective happiness. The mediation effects of humor styles found in the present research provided useful suggestions for future studies.

  15. Reading Processes and Parenting Styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carreteiro, Rui Manuel; Justo, João Manuel; Figueira, Ana Paula

    2016-08-01

    Home literacy environment explains between 12 and 18.5 % of the variance of children's language skills. Although most authors agree that children whose parents encourage them to read tend to develop better and earlier reading skills, some authors consider that the impact of family environment in reading skills is overvalued. Probably, other variables of parent-child relationship, like parenting styles, might be relevant for this field. Nevertheless, no previous studies on the effect of parenting styles in literacy have been found. To analyze the role of parenting styles in the reading processes of children. Children's perceptions of parenting styles contribute significantly to the explanation of statistical variance of children's reading processes. 110 children (67 boys and 43 girls), aged between 7 and 11 years (M [Formula: see text] 9.22 and SD [Formula: see text] 1.14) from Portuguese schools answered to a socio-demographic questionnaire. To assess reading processes it was administered the Portuguese adaptation (Figueira et al. in press) of Bateria de Avaliação dos Processos Leitores-Revista (PROLEC-R). To assess the parenting styles Egna Minnen av Barndoms Uppfostran-parents (EMBU-P) and EMBU-C (children version) were administered. According to multiple hierarchical linear regressions, individual factors contribute to explain all reading tests of PROLEC-R, while family factors contribute to explain most of these tests. Regarding parenting styles, results evidence the explanatory power about grammatical structures, sentence comprehension and listening. Parenting styles have an important role in the explanation of higher reading processes (syntactic and semantic) but not in lexical processes, focused by main theories concerning dyslexia.

  16. Bidirectional Relations between Temperament and Parenting Styles in Chinese Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Erica H.; Zhou, Qing; Eisenberg, Nancy; Wang, Yun

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined bidirectional relations between child temperament and parenting styles in a sample (n = 425) of Chinese children during elementary school period (age range = 6 to 9 years at Wave 1). Using two waves (3.8 years apart) of longitudinal data, we tested two hypotheses: (1) whether child temperament (effortful control and anger/frustration) at Wave 1 predicts parenting styles (authoritative and authoritarian parenting) at Wave 2, controlling for Wave 1 parenting; and (2) whether parenting styles at Wave 1 predict Wave 2 temperament, controlling for Wave 1 temperament. We found support for bidirectional relations between temperament and authoritarian parenting, such that higher effortful control and lower anger/frustration were associated with higher authoritarian parenting across time and in both directions. There were no significant cross-time associations between children’s temperament and authoritative parenting. These findings extend the previous tests of transactional relations between child temperament and parenting in Chinese children and are consistent with the cultural values toward effortful control and control of anger/frustration in Chinese society. PMID:23482684

  17. Bidirectional Relations between Temperament and Parenting Styles in Chinese Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Erica H; Zhou, Qing; Eisenberg, Nancy; Wang, Yun

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined bidirectional relations between child temperament and parenting styles in a sample (n = 425) of Chinese children during elementary school period (age range = 6 to 9 years at Wave 1). Using two waves (3.8 years apart) of longitudinal data, we tested two hypotheses: (1) whether child temperament (effortful control and anger/frustration) at Wave 1 predicts parenting styles (authoritative and authoritarian parenting) at Wave 2, controlling for Wave 1 parenting; and (2) whether parenting styles at Wave 1 predict Wave 2 temperament, controlling for Wave 1 temperament. We found support for bidirectional relations between temperament and authoritarian parenting, such that higher effortful control and lower anger/frustration were associated with higher authoritarian parenting across time and in both directions. There were no significant cross-time associations between children's temperament and authoritative parenting. These findings extend the previous tests of transactional relations between child temperament and parenting in Chinese children and are consistent with the cultural values toward effortful control and control of anger/frustration in Chinese society.

  18. Maternal depression and socio-economic status moderate the parenting style/child obesity association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topham, Glade L; Page, Melanie C; Hubbs-Tait, Laura; Rutledge, Julie M; Kennedy, Tay S; Shriver, Lenka; Harrist, Amanda W

    2010-08-01

    The purpose of the study was to test the moderating influence of two risk factors, maternal depression and socio-economic status (SES), on the association between authoritarian and permissive parenting styles and child obesity. Correlational, cross-sectional study. Parenting style was measured with the Parenting Styles and Dimensions Questionnaire (PSDQ). Maternal depression was measured using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). BMI-for-age percentile was used to categorize children by weight status (children with BMI-for-age > or = 95th percentile were classified as obese). SES was computed from parent education and occupational status using the four-factor Hollingshead index. Rural public schools in a mid-western state in the USA. One hundred and seventy-six mothers of first-grade children (ninety-one boys, eighty-five girls) enrolled in rural public schools. Both maternal depression and SES were found to moderate the permissive parenting style/child obesity association, but not the authoritarian/child obesity association. For depressed mothers, but not for non-depressed mothers, more permissive parenting was predictive of child obesity. Similarly more permissive parenting was predictive of child obesity among higher SES mothers, but not for lower SES mothers. Maternal depression and SES interact with permissive parenting style to predict child obesity. Future research should examine the relationship among these variables using a longitudinal design.

  19. Does Prison Crowding Predict Higher Rates of Substance Use Related Parole Violations? A Recurrent Events Multi-Level Survival Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruderman, Michael A; Wilson, Deirdra F; Reid, Savanna

    2015-01-01

    This administrative data-linkage cohort study examines the association between prison crowding and the rate of post-release parole violations in a random sample of prisoners released with parole conditions in California, for an observation period of two years (January 2003 through December 2004). Crowding overextends prison resources needed to adequately protect inmates and provide drug rehabilitation services. Violence and lack of access to treatment are known risk factors for drug use and substance use disorders. These and other psychosocial effects of crowding may lead to higher rates of recidivism in California parolees. Rates of parole violation for parolees exposed to high and medium levels of prison crowding were compared to parolees with low prison crowding exposure. Hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using a Cox model for recurrent events. Our dataset included 13070 parolees in California, combining individual level parolee data with aggregate level crowding data for multilevel analysis. Comparing parolees exposed to high crowding with those exposed to low crowding, the effect sizes from greatest to least were absconding violations (HR 3.56 95% CI: 3.05-4.17), drug violations (HR 2.44 95% CI: 2.00-2.98), non-violent violations (HR 2.14 95% CI: 1.73-2.64), violent and serious violations (HR 1.88 95% CI: 1.45-2.43), and technical violations (HR 1.86 95% CI: 1.37-2.53). Prison crowding predicted higher rates of parole violations after release from prison. The effect was magnitude-dependent and particularly strong for drug charges. Further research into whether adverse prison experiences, such as crowding, are associated with recidivism and drug use in particular may be warranted.

  20. Are all models susceptible to dysfunctional cognitions about eating and body image? The moderating role of personality styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blasczyk-Schiep, Sybilla; Sokoła, Kaja; Fila-Witecka, Karolina; Kazén, Miguel

    2016-06-01

    We investigated dysfunctional cognitions about eating and body image in relation to personality styles in a group of professional models. Dysfunctional cognitions in professional models (n = 43) and a control group (n = 43) were assessed with the 'Eating Disorder Cognition Questionnaire' (EDCQ), eating attitudes with the 'Eating Attitudes Test' (EAT), and personality with the 'Personality Styles and Disorders Inventory' (PSDI-S). Models had higher scores than controls on the EDCQ and EAT and on nine scales of the PSDI-S. Moderation analyses showed significant interactions between groups and personality styles in predicting EDCQ scales: The ambitious/narcissistic style was related to "negative body and self-esteem", the conscientious/compulsive style to "dietary restraint", and the spontaneous/borderline style to "loss of control in eating". The results indicate that not all models are susceptible to dysfunctional cognitions about eating and body image. Models are at a higher risk of developing negative automatic thoughts and dysfunctional assumptions relating to body size, shape and weight, especially if they have high scores on the above personality styles.

  1. Style in Music

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dannenberg, Roger B.

    Because music is not objectively descriptive or representational, the subjective qualities of music seem to be most important. Style is one of the most salient qualities of music, and in fact most descriptions of music refer to some aspect of musical style. Style in music can refer to historical periods, composers, performers, sonic texture, emotion, and genre. In recent years, many aspects of music style have been studied from the standpoint of automation: How can musical style be recognized and synthesized? An introduction to musical style describes ways in which style is characterized by composers and music theorists. Examples are then given where musical style is the focal point for computer models of music analysis and music generation.

  2. Comparison of risk stratification tools in predicting outcomes of patients with higher-risk myelodysplastic syndromes treated with azanucleosides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeidan, A M; Sekeres, M A; Garcia-Manero, G; Steensma, D P; Zell, K; Barnard, J; Ali, N A; Zimmerman, C; Roboz, G; DeZern, A; Nazha, A; Jabbour, E; Kantarjian, H; Gore, S D; Maciejewski, J P; List, A; Komrokji, R

    2016-03-01

    Established prognostic tools in patients with myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) were largely derived from untreated patient cohorts. Although azanucleosides are standard therapies for higher-risk (HR)-MDS, the relative prognostic performance of existing prognostic tools among patients with HR-MDS receiving azanucleoside therapy is unknown. In the MDS Clinical Research Consortium database, we compared the prognostic utility of the International Prognostic Scoring System (IPSS), revised IPSS (IPSS-R), MD Anderson Prognostic Scoring System (MDAPSS), World Health Organization-based Prognostic Scoring System (WPSS) and the French Prognostic Scoring System (FPSS) among 632 patients who presented with HR-MDS and were treated with azanucleosides as the first-line therapy. Median follow-up from diagnosis was 15.7 months. No prognostic tool predicted the probability of achieving an objective response. Nonetheless, all five tools were associated with overall survival (OS, P=0.025 for the IPSS, P=0.011 for WPSS and Pfront transplantation or experimental approaches.

  3. Film Noir Style Genealogy

    OpenAIRE

    Dita Rietuma

    2012-01-01

    Annotation for the Doctoral Work Film Noir Style Genealogy (The Genealogy of the Film Noir Style) The doctoral work topic Film Noir Style Genealogy encompasses traditionally approved world film theory views on the concept of film noir and its related cinematographic heritage, and an exploration of its evolution and distinctive style, including – the development of film noir in the USA, Europe, and also in Latvia, within the context of both socio-political progression and the paradigm of m...

  4. Adolescent Learning Styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titus, Thomas G.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Results are reported from a study of the learning styles of 306 high school students. The study examined learning style characteristics (abstraction, concreteness, reflection, activity); comparisons between adolescent and adult learning styles; and differences between freshmen and seniors, males and females, and slow-track and fast-track learners.…

  5. Psychosomatic status, personality traits, and coping styles of bereaved and non-bereaved survivors of the 2008 Wenchuan Earthquake, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanhui eXiang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study examined personality, coping styles, and psychosomatic characteristics and their relationships in bereaved and non-bereaved earthquake survivors. Study design: Cross-sectional surveyMethods: A survey was conducted with a sample of 102 non-bereaved survivors and 79 bereaved survivors from Mianyang, Anyang, and similar districts 2 weeks after Wenchuan earthquake. Survivors completed questionnaires including items about demographics, personality characteristics, coping styles, and psychosomatic status. Results: Bereaved survivors had lower scores for gregariousness, trust, and optimism, but higher scores for depressed mood, loneliness, becoming easily fearful, irritation, and anxiety than non-bereaved survivors. In addition, bereaved participants scored higher for avoiding problems, self-blame, and fantasy coping styles than non-bereaved ones. Personality and coping styles significantly correlated with psychosomatic status in bereaved and non-bereaved survivors. Optimism and openness to feelings personality characteristics, and self-blame, avoiding problems, and rationalization coping styles significantly predicted psychosomatic status of bereaved survivors, while openness to fantasy, optimism, order, and trust personality characteristics, and self-blame and avoiding problems coping styles significantly predicted psychosomatic status of non-bereaved survivors. Conclusion: Earthquake survivors experienced PTSD symptoms and negative emotions. Bereaved survivors experienced more serious PTSD symptoms and negative emotions relative to non-bereaved survivors. Appropriate psychological crisis interventions should be conducted for earthquake survivors, especially bereaved survivors.

  6. Attachment styles and violence within couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, Sharon B; Bond, Michael

    2004-12-01

    This study examined whether an individual's attachment style and/or a couple's combination of attachment styles predicted violence within the marriage and explored whether other variables moderated the risk of violence. Measures of attachment style were administered to 41 discordant couples who presented to four different clinics. The couples' presenting complaints were not violence, and those who did report violence on questioning did not manifest severe violence, i.e., requiring shelters or legal intervention. Self-report measures of violence and marital satisfaction, including problem-solving communication, were also given. Using analysis of covariance and logistic regression, the relative contributions to strength of predicting being a victim of conjugal violence were calculated. An anxious attachment style was a significant predictor of females being victims of violence and of men not being victims. A dismissive style in men was predictive of men being victims when entered into the model with problem solving communication. The combination of anxiously attached females and dismissive males was a potent predictor of violence, and longer duration of marriage and poor problem-solving communication added power to the prediction. Marital interaction, which is influenced by couples' attachment styles and problem-solving communication, is a significant factor in marital partners experiencing physical violence. For couples with milder levels of violence, a more nuanced approach (compared with the legally based approach used for severe violence) seems indicated.

  7. Starlink Document Styles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawden, M. D.

    This document describes the various styles which are recommended for Starlink documents. It also explains how to use the templates which are provided by Starlink to help authors create documents in a standard style. This paper is concerned mainly with conveying the ``look and feel" of the various styles of Starlink document rather than describing the technical details of how to produce them. Other Starlink papers give recommendations for the detailed aspects of document production, design, layout, and typography. The only style that is likely to be used by most Starlink authors is the Standard style.

  8. Attachment style and adjustment to divorce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yárnoz-Yaben, Sagrario

    2010-05-01

    Divorce is becoming increasingly widespread in Europe. In this study, I present an analysis of the role played by attachment style (secure, dismissing, preoccupied and fearful, plus the dimensions of anxiety and avoidance) in the adaptation to divorce. Participants comprised divorced parents (N = 40) from a medium-sized city in the Basque Country. The results reveal a lower proportion of people with secure attachment in the sample group of divorcees. Attachment style and dependence (emotional and instrumental) are closely related. I have also found associations between measures that showed a poor adjustment to divorce and the preoccupied and fearful attachment styles. Adjustment is related to a dismissing attachment style and to the avoidance dimension. Multiple regression analysis confirmed that secure attachment and the avoidance dimension predict adjustment to divorce and positive affectivity while preoccupied attachment and the anxiety dimension predicted negative affectivity. Implications for research and interventions with divorcees are discussed.

  9. The Effect of Parenting Style on Social Smiling in Infants at High and Low Risk for ASD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harker, Colleen M.; Ibañez, Lisa V.; Nguyen, Thanh P.; Messinger, Daniel S.; Stone, Wendy L.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined how parenting style at 9 months predicts growth in infant social engagement (i.e., social smiling) between 9 and 18 months during a free-play interaction in infants at high (HR-infants) and low (LR-infants) familial risk for autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Results indicated that across all infants, higher levels of maternal…

  10. Trauma Symptoms, Perceived Social Support, Emotional Competence and Self-Esteem as Predictors of Nursing School Teachers' Behavior Styles in Social Conflicts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataša Vlah

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The aims of the study were to analyse the relationship between three styles used in social conflicts (cooperation, avoiding/adapting and winning and some personality traits shared by future nursery school teachers, and to explore the possibility of predicting styles used in social conflicts on the basis of these traits. One hundred and seven students of Early and Preschool Education in Rijeka (M=23 years, 98% female students completed a questionnaire that integrated the Scale of Attitudes Towards Behavioural Styles in Social Conflicts (Vlah, 2013, Trauma Symptoms Checklist (Šimić, Sesar, & Barišić, 2012, Social Support Appraisals Scale (Kurtović, 2013, Emotional Skills and Competence Questionnaire (Takšić, 2002, and Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (1979. Descriptive, correlation and regression analyses were used to analyse the data. All three styles used in social conflicts were correlated to other research variables. Older students and those more competent in perceiving and understanding emotions and those with higher self-esteem with regard to oneself are significantly more oriented towards the cooperation style. The avoiding/adapting style can be predicted on the basis of students' somatic symptoms, while trauma symptoms present in students predict the winning style.

  11. Attachment style and filial obligation in the burden of caregivers of dementia patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Juwon; Sohn, Bo Kyung; Lee, Hyunjoo; Seong, Su Jeong; Park, Soowon; Lee, Jun-Young

    2017-12-06

    Insecure attachment styles have been known to predict greater burden in caregivers of dementia patients. However, it has not been tested how filial obligation, which refers to one's sense of duty on helping elderly parents and is especially pronounced in Asian cultures, is involved in that relationship. We sought to identify whether the association between attachment style and caregiver burden differs according to the degree of filial obligation in caregivers of dementia patients. To assess filial obligation in Korean participants, a Korean filial obligation measure was developed. Ninety-eight Korean female caregivers of dementia patients reported their attachment style, filial obligation, burden, and patient behavioral symptoms. Patients' cognitive abilities, daily activity levels, and global dementia severities were obtained from hospital records. When adjusting for caregiver and patient characteristics, greater attachment anxiety predicted higher burden, corroborating literature findings. However, the association of attachment avoidance with burden was contingent on filial obligation: When obligation was high, greater avoidance associated with lower burden, which contrasts with previous negative implications of attachment insecurity. This implies a buffering role of attachment avoidance among those highly obligated. In addition, obligation positively predicted burden among those low in avoidance. This study is the first one to investigate and find conditional associations between attachment style, filial obligation, and caregiver burden. Given that filial obligation tends to be higher in caregivers of Eastern countries, this study provides quantitative evidence that the caregiving process may be different for them. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Higher energy efficiency and better water quality by using model predictive flow control at water supply systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, M.; Verberk, J.Q.J.C.; Palmen, L.J.; Sperber, V.; Bakker, G.

    2011-01-01

    Half of all water supply systems in the Netherlands are controlled by model predictive flow control; the other half are controlled by conventional level based control. The differences between conventional level based control and model predictive control were investigated in experiments at five full

  13. Subject-specific tendon-aponeurosis definition in Hill-type model predicts higher muscle forces in dynamic tasks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pauline Gerus

    Full Text Available Neuromusculoskeletal models are a common method to estimate muscle forces. Developing accurate neuromusculoskeletal models is a challenging task due to the complexity of the system and large inter-subject variability. The estimation of muscles force is based on the mechanical properties of tendon-aponeurosis complex. Most neuromusculoskeletal models use a generic definition of the tendon-aponeurosis complex based on in vitro test, perhaps limiting their validity. Ultrasonography allows subject-specific estimates of the tendon-aponeurosis complex's mechanical properties. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of subject-specific mechanical properties of the tendon-aponeurosis complex on a neuromusculoskeletal model of the ankle joint. Seven subjects performed isometric contractions from which the tendon-aponeurosis force-strain relationship was estimated. Hopping and running tasks were performed and muscle forces were estimated using subject-specific tendon-aponeurosis and generic tendon properties. Two ultrasound probes positioned over the muscle-tendon junction and the mid-belly were combined with motion capture to estimate the in vivo tendon and aponeurosis strain of the medial head of gastrocnemius muscle. The tendon-aponeurosis force-strain relationship was scaled for the other ankle muscles based on tendon and aponeurosis length of each muscle measured by ultrasonography. The EMG-driven model was calibrated twice - using the generic tendon definition and a subject-specific tendon-aponeurosis force-strain definition. The use of subject-specific tendon-aponeurosis definition leads to a higher muscle force estimate for the soleus muscle and the plantar-flexor group, and to a better model prediction of the ankle joint moment compared to the model estimate which used a generic definition. Furthermore, the subject-specific tendon-aponeurosis definition leads to a decoupling behaviour between the muscle fibre and muscle-tendon unit

  14. Attachment style, anxiety coping, and personality-styles in withdrawn alcohol addicted inpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wedekind, Dirk; Bandelow, Borwin; Heitmann, Soren; Havemann-Reinecke, Ursula; Engel, Kirsten R; Huether, Gerald

    2013-01-10

    Insecure early attachment experiences have been reported to play an important role in the manifestation in alcoholism. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship of attachment styles with anxiety, anxiety coping and dysfunctional personality styles, as well as with the prevalence of personality disorders, and adverse life-events in adolescence. 59 inpatient alcohol addicted male (n=43) and female (n=16) patients were characterized by an attachment style scale (Relationships-style-questionnaire-RSQ) and completed a questionnaire battery comprising the State-Trait-Anxiety-Inventory (STAI), the Anxiety-Coping-Inventory (ABI), Temperament-and-character-inventory (TCI), Personality-system-interaction-inventory (PSI), and gave information on sociodemography, alcohol history, and adolescent adverse events. A structured interview (SKID-II) was performed to diagnose personality disorders. Only 33% of subjects had a secure attachment style. Insecure attachment was associated with significantly higher trait-anxiety, higher cognitive avoidance to control anxiety, and higher values on most personality style dimensions directed to the pathological pole. Despite the limitation due to a small sample size, the results of this study show that the consideration of attachment styles is of significance in the diagnosis and therapy of alcohol addiction. Attachment may characterize different styles to control emotional aspects, anxiety cues and interpersonal relationships in individuals suffering from alcohol addiction.

  15. Gender and Leadership Style among School Principals: A Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eagly, Alice H.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Reviews 50 studies comparing the leadership styles of public school principals, finding some evidence for differences between the sexes. Female principals scored higher than males on task-oriented style measures but about the same on interpersonally oriented style measures. Females generally adopted a more democratic or participative style,…

  16. Leadership styles and theories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giltinane, Charlotte Louise

    It is useful for healthcare professionals to be able to identify the leadership styles and theories relevant to their nursing practice. Being adept in recognising these styles enables nurses to develop their skills to become better leaders, as well as improving relationships with colleagues and other leaders, who have previously been challenging to work with. This article explores different leadership styles and theories, and explains how they relate to nursing practice.

  17. Leadership and Gender in Higher Education: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Paula

    2004-01-01

    Literature concerning leadership styles in HE provides no distinct view on whether style relates to gender. Transformational styles are regarded by some as particularly suited to times of change, and likely to be adopted by women; but others argue such styles are unsuited to HE. In a study of leadership within an institute of higher education…

  18. Sexual attraction and psychological adjustment in Dutch adolescents: coping style as a mediator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bos, Henny; van Beusekom, Gabriël; Sandfort, Theo

    2014-11-01

    This study examined whether feelings of same-sex attraction (SSA) in 12- to 15-year-old Dutch adolescents were related to psychological health (self-esteem and psychological distress) and whether this relation was mediated by coping styles and moderated by biological sex. Data were collected from 1,546 high school students (802 boys and 744 girls; M age = 13.57 years) by means of standardized measurements. SSA was found to predict lower levels of self-esteem and higher levels of psychological distress. Further analyses showed that passive coping style partly mediated these associations. This mediation was not moderated by biological sex. The findings suggest that in understanding and addressing mental health disparities between sexual minorities and heterosexual youth attention should be paid to intrapersonal psychological factors such as coping styles.

  19. Parenting styles, adolescents' attributions, and educational outcomes in nine heterogeneous high schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glasgow, K L; Dornbusch, S M; Troyer, L; Steinberg, L; Ritter, P L

    1997-06-01

    This article examined the contemporaneous and predictive relations between parenting styles, adolescents' attributions, and 4 educational outcomes. Data were collected from adolescents attending 6 high schools in California and 3 high schools in Wisconsin during the 1987-1988 and 1988-1989 school years. The results of path analyses partially confirmed the central hypotheses. Adolescents who perceived their parents as being nonauthoritative were more likely than their peers to attribute achievement outcomes to external causes or to low ability. Furthermore, the higher the proportion of dysfunctional attributions made for academic successes and failures, the lower the levels of classroom engagement and homework 1 year later. Although adolescents' attributional style provided a bridge between parenting style and 2 educational outcomes, it did not fully explain the impact of parenting on those outcomes. Additional analyses within gender and ethnic subgroups reinforced the overall pattern of findings observed within the entire sample.

  20. Intergenerational Transmission of Family Factors: Parenting Styles, Attachment Styles & Family Climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    میرمحمدباقر آزادموسوی

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed to examine the relationship between parental styles (authoritative, permissive, authoritarian and neglectful, attachment styles (secure, avoidant and ambivalent & family climate (hot and cold of two generations. Subjects were 220 (110 boy students of third class of secondary schools of two districts of Qazvin, and 110 parents who were selected via cluster sampling. In this study, Schaffer,s parenting questionnaires styles (Naqashian, 1358 and Collins and Read,s attachment (Collins & Read, 1990 were used as measures for collecting required data. Analyzes were carried out using simple linear regression, pearson correlation and chi-square. Results revealed that parenting styles, attachment styles and family climate of parents, predict same variables in children as second generation.

  1. Creativity, visualization abilities, and visual cognitive style.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozhevnikov, Maria; Kozhevnikov, Michael; Yu, Chen Jiao; Blazhenkova, Olesya

    2013-06-01

    Despite the recent evidence for a multi-component nature of both visual imagery and creativity, there have been no systematic studies on how the different dimensions of creativity and imagery might interrelate. The main goal of this study was to investigate the relationship between different dimensions of creativity (artistic and scientific) and dimensions of visualization abilities and styles (object and spatial). In addition, we compared the contributions of object and spatial visualization abilities versus corresponding styles to scientific and artistic dimensions of creativity. Twenty-four undergraduate students (12 females) were recruited for the first study, and 75 additional participants (36 females) were recruited for an additional experiment. Participants were administered a number of object and spatial visualization abilities and style assessments as well as a number of artistic and scientific creativity tests. The results show that object visualization relates to artistic creativity and spatial visualization relates to scientific creativity, while both are distinct from verbal creativity. Furthermore, our findings demonstrate that style predicts corresponding dimension of creativity even after removing shared variance between style and visualization ability. The results suggest that styles might be a more ecologically valid construct in predicting real-life creative behaviour, such as performance in different professional domains. © 2013 The British Psychological Society.

  2. Style over substance: What can parenting styles tell us about ownership styles and obesity in companion animals?

    Science.gov (United States)

    German, Alexander J

    2015-01-01

    Obesity is a major medical concern in human subjects, and most concerning is the rapid recent increase in childhood obesity. Children are more likely to be obese if their parents are obese, an effect that is mediated both by genetics and environment, most notably parental influence. Four major parenting styles have been recognised: authoritative; authoritarian; indulgent; uninvolved. Too much parental control, as with the authoritarian style, is associated with a higher weight status in children. Conversely, indulgent feeding styles can also have negative consequences and, where control is too lax, a poor relationship with food develops, which may also lead to weight gain. Obesity is also a growing concern in companion animals, and it has parallels with obesity in children. For instance, overweight people are more likely to own overweight dogs. Furthermore, the care that people provide for their pets mirrors that which parents provide for children, and pets are commonly viewed as child substitutes. These similarities raise obvious questions about whether different styles of pet ownership exist, and what part they may play in attitudes to feeding as well as predisposition to obesity in pets. Future work could focus on determining to what extent styles of pet ownership mirror parenting styles, whether there are links to obesity in dogs and cats. Knowledge regarding the owner-pet bond might provide comparative insights into the links between parenting styles and childhood obesity.

  3. The Predictive Role of Maternal Parenting and Stress on Pupils' Bullying involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alizadeh Maralani, Fatemeh; Mirnasab, Mirmahmoud; Hashemi, Touraj

    2016-10-01

    The link between inappropriate parenting style and both bullying and victimization is well documented. However, it is not clear as to which kind of parenting style is associated with victimization. Furthermore, no studies have yet been conducted regarding the role of parental stress in bullying and victimization. This study aimed to examine the role of parenting styles and maternal stress in pupils' bullying and victimization. A total of 300 primary school pupils, enrolled in fourth and fifth grades, participated in the study. Initially, 100 noninvolved pupils were randomly selected using a multistage cluster sampling method. Then using a screening method, 100 bully pupils and 100 victimized peers were selected. Olweus Bullying Scale and teacher nomination were administered for screening these pupils. Baumrind Parenting Style Questionnaire and revised version of Abidin Parental Stress Index (short form) were also applied to all pupils in the study. Data were analyzed using discriminant function analysis. The findings showed that (a) with regard to parenting styles, significant differences were found among groups. Authoritarian parenting style could significantly predict pupils' bullying behavior, whereas victimization was predictable in families with permissive parenting style. In addition, noninvolved pupils were predicted to have authoritative parenting style. (b) Considering maternal stress, significant differences were observed across groups. Parents of bullies and victims were predicted to have higher maternal stress than noninvolved pupils. The implications of the study in relation to the role of mothers in bullying and victimization are discussed.

  4. Toward a New Predictive Model of Student Retention in Higher Education: An Application of Classical Sociological Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerby, Molly B.

    2015-01-01

    Theoretical models designed to predict whether students will persist or not have been valuable tools for retention efforts relative to the creation of services in academic and student affairs. Some of the early models attempted to explain and measure factors in the "college dropout process." For example, in his seminal work, Tinto…

  5. Prediction of outcome of bright light treatment in patients with seasonal affective disorder: Discarding the early response, confirming a higher atypical balance, and uncovering a higher body mass index at baseline as predictors of endpoint outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitrova, Tzvetelina D; Reeves, Gloria M; Snitker, Soren; Lapidus, Manana; Sleemi, Aamar R; Balis, Theodora G; Manalai, Partam; Tariq, Muhammad M; Cabassa, Johanna A; Karim, Naila N; Johnson, Mary A; Langenberg, Patricia; Rohan, Kelly J; Miller, Michael; Stiller, John W; Postolache, Teodor T

    2017-11-01

    We tested the hypothesis that the early improvement in mood after the first hour of bright light treatment compared to control dim-red light would predict the outcome at six weeks of bright light treatment for depressed mood in patients with Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD). We also analyzed the value of Body Mass Index (BMI) and atypical symptoms of depression at baseline in predicting treatment outcome. Seventy-eight adult participants were enrolled. The first treatment was controlled crossover, with randomized order, and included one hour of active bright light treatment and one hour of control dim-red light, with one-hour washout. Depression was measured on the Structured Interview Guide for the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression-SAD version (SIGH-SAD). The predictive association of depression scores changes after the first session. BMI and atypical score balance with treatment outcomes at endpoint were assessed using multivariable linear and logistic regressions. No significant prediction by changes in depression scores after the first session was found. However, higher atypical balance scores and BMI positively predicted treatment outcome. Absence of a control intervention for the six-weeks of treatment (only the first session in the laboratory was controlled). Exclusion of patients with comorbid substance abuse, suicidality and bipolar I disorder, and patients on antidepressant medications, reducing the generalizability of the study. Prediction of outcome by early response to light treatment was not replicated, and the previously reported prediction of baseline atypical balance was confirmed. BMI, a parameter routinely calculated in primary care, was identified as a novel predictor, and calls for replication and then exploration of possible mediating mechanisms. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Style as Supplement - Supplement as Style

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Bent

    , and to aim for an almost Brechtian Verfremdung-effect, but the film also uses this device as a stylistic trait to characterize something ‘essential' about Derrida and his style. Derrida strikes the same chord by insisting on drawing attention to the artificiality of the making of the film, where questions...... and deferrals. This is of course another link in the infinite Derridean chain of supplements to supplements of supplements - in his writings, his persona and the legacy of images of him left behind in the archives. How does this perpetual deferral reflect itself in Derrida's visual and verbal style...

  7. LEARNING STYLES AND SATISFACTION IN DISTANCE EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darren C. WU

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Although complex, controversial, and contradicting, learning styles is highly influential. Distance education (DE has experienced tremendous growth in the last few decades. The popularity of learning styles and DE necessitates research. This correlational research study was conducted to determine if there is any evidence to incorporate learning styles in DE. The following is the research question for this study. Are students’ learning styles based on the visual, auditory, tactile model correlated to satisfaction of course format in an online undergraduate course? The participants of this study were students enrolled in three sections of the Contemporary Worldviews course at a private higher education institution (HEI. Learning styles were determined by a variant of the visual, auditory, read/write, and kinesthetic (VARK framework. Satisfaction of course format was determined from one composite question with responses based on a Likert scale. The response rate was 53.5%. Statistical analysis determined that learning styles was not correlated to satisfaction of course format in this current study. There are implications from this study that curriculum can be designed for a single course that leaves students highly satisfied. Educators should saturate DE courses with as much variance as feasible given technology and cost limitations to account for possible learning style differences.

  8. Learning style preferences of surgical residency applicants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Roger H; Gilbert, Timothy

    2015-09-01

    The learning style preferences of general surgery residents have been previously reported; there is evidence that residents who prefer read/write learning styles perform better on the American Board of Surgery In-Training Examination (ABSITE). However, little is known regarding the learning style preferences of applicants to general surgery residency and their impact on educational outcomes. In this study, the preferred learning styles of surgical residency applicants were determined. We hypothesized that applicant rank data are associated with specific learning style preferences. The Fleming VARK learning styles inventory was offered to all general surgery residency applicants that were interviewed at a university hospital-based program. The VARK model categorizes learners as visual (V), aural (A), read/write (R), kinesthetic (K), or multimodal (MM). Responses on the inventory were scored to determine the preferred learning style for each applicant. Applicant data, including United States Medical Licensing Examination (USMLE) scores, class rank, interview score, and overall final applicant ranking, were examined for association with preferred learning styles. Sixty-seven applicants were interviewed. Five applicants were excluded due to not completing the VARK inventory or having incomplete applicant data. The remaining 62 applicants (92%) were included for analysis. Most applicants (57%) had a multimodal preference. Sixty-nine percent of all applicants had some degree of preference for kinesthetic learning. There were statistically significant differences between applicants of different learning styles in terms of USMLE step 1 scores (P = 0.001) and USMLE step 2 clinical knowledge scores (P = 0.01), but not for class ranks (P = 0.27), interview scores (P = 0.20), or final ranks (P = 0.14). Multiple comparison analysis demonstrated that applicants with aural preferences had higher USMLE 1 scores (233.2) than those with kinesthetic (211.8, P = 0.005) or multimodal

  9. Library Automation Style Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaylord Bros., Liverpool, NY.

    This library automation style guide lists specific terms and names often used in the library automation industry. The terms and/or acronyms are listed alphabetically and each is followed by a brief definition. The guide refers to the "Chicago Manual of Style" for general rules, and a notes section is included for the convenience of individual…

  10. Style and Sociolinguistic Variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckert, Penelope, Ed.; Rickford, John R., Ed.

    This collection of papers by leading experts from a range of disciplines is divided into four sections. Section 1, "Anthropological Approaches," includes: (1) "'Style' as Distinctiveness: The Culture and Ideology of Linguistic Differentiation" (Judith T. Irvine); (2) "Variety, Style-Shifting, and Ideology" (Susan…

  11. Is Cognitive Style Bipolar?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, David H.

    This study assessed the bipolarity of cognitive style for 970 clients of the Johnson O'Connor Research Foundation, a vocational guidance service. The 462 male and 508 female examinees were aged 14 to 65 years, with a median age of 24 years. Three cognitive style tests were investigated: (1) the Kagan Matching Familiar Figures Test (KMFFT); (2) the…

  12. Page Styles on steroids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Lars

    2008-01-01

    Designing a page style has long been a pain for novice users. Some parts are easy; others need strong LATEX knowledge. In this article we will present the memoir way of dealing with page styles, including new code added to the recent version of memoir that will reduce the pain to a mild annoyance...

  13. Relationship between parenting, alexithymia and adult attachment styles: a cross-national study in Sicilian and Andalusian young adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Pellerone

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Literature underline that attachment styles can be considered as an important factor that facilitates exploration of the self and environment, and influences individual’s thoughts, feelings and behavior, above all during adolescence. The purposes of the present study were the following: to investigate the relation between parenting, alexithymia and adult attachment styles; to measure the predictive variables of the adult attachment-related anxiety and avoidance, and the predictors of the level of alexithymia. Method: The participants were 217 students, of which: a group of 97 Andalusian academic students (44.7%, aged between 18 and 29 (M = 19.47; SD = 2.23; a group of 120 students from Sicilian academic students (55.3%, aged between 18 and 23 (M = 18.85; SD = 1.11. The participants were assigned to complete the following questionnaires: the Parental Bonding Instrument, the Toronto Alexithymia Scale, and the Experience in Close Relationships. Results: Findings suggest that there are differences between Italy and Spain in adult attachment styles: in particular, Italian students appeared to manifest a higher tendency to use the avoidance style than Spanish ones, which manifested a higher level of anxiety. Furthermore, belonging to the Andalusian culture, and above all, having an elevated perception of the paternal and maternal overprotection could represent possible predictive variables to the general level of alexithymia. Conclusions: The results of this study support the research hypothesis that alexithymia is associated with the perceived parental bonding and attachment style.

  14. A Study of the Learning Styles of Malaysian Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruslin Amir

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the learning style of students at Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia. A translated version of the Grasha-Riechmann Learning Style Inventory was distributed to students in pure science, social science and professional courses. Results indicated that students from different fields of study varied very slightly but not significantly in their learning style. The male students showed a slightly higher inclination towards Independence and Avoidance learning styles while female students were found to be slightly more Participative and Competitive. It was found that Collaborative and Competitive learning styles were dominant among UKM students and that Collaborative, Dependent and Participative styles were associated with academic performance. The implications of these findings are discussed in terms of university teaching and learning to accommodate different learning style of students in order to meet the objectives and vision of the national university.

  15. AUTOMATIC ARCHITECTURAL STYLE RECOGNITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mathias

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Procedural modeling has proven to be a very valuable tool in the field of architecture. In the last few years, research has soared to automatically create procedural models from images. However, current algorithms for this process of inverse procedural modeling rely on the assumption that the building style is known. So far, the determination of the building style has remained a manual task. In this paper, we propose an algorithm which automates this process through classification of architectural styles from facade images. Our classifier first identifies the images containing buildings, then separates individual facades within an image and determines the building style. This information could then be used to initialize the building reconstruction process. We have trained our classifier to distinguish between several distinct architectural styles, namely Flemish Renaissance, Haussmannian and Neoclassical. Finally, we demonstrate our approach on various street-side images.

  16. Higher hopelessness and suicide risk predict lower self-deception among psychiatric patients and non-clinical individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pompili, Maurizio; Iliceto, Paolo; Luciano, Debora; Innamorati, Marco; Serafini, Gianluca; Del Casale, Antonio; Tatarelli, Roberto; Girardi, Paolo; Lester, David

    2011-01-01

    The present study was designed to explore psychopathological correlates of self-deception in clinical and nonclinical individuals to ascertain whether self-deception was associated with higher hopelessness, a proxy of suicide risk. The patients were 58 consecutive psychiatric patients (30 men, 28 women) admitted to the Sant'Andrea Hospital's psychiatric ward in Rome. Controls were composed of a sample recruited from the general population (62 men and 80 women). All the participants completed the Beck Hopelessness Scale (BHS), and the Balanced Inventory of Desirable Responding-6 Form 40A (BIDR). More than 55% of the patients had BHS scores of 9 or higher indicating severe hopelessness, while only 32% of the control subjects reported scores of 9 or higher on the BHS (p suicide risk as individuals do not want to face self-awareness and get close to a highly negative self.

  17. Goleman's Leadership styles at different hierarchical levels in medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Anurag; Desanghere, Loni; Stobart, Kent; Walker, Keith

    2017-09-19

    With current emphasis on leadership in medicine, this study explores Goleman's leadership styles of medical education leaders at different hierarchical levels and gain insight into factors that contribute to the appropriateness of practices. Forty two leaders (28 first-level with limited formal authority, eight middle-level with wider program responsibility and six senior- level with higher organizational authority) rank ordered their preferred Goleman's styles and provided comments. Eight additional senior leaders were interviewed in-depth. Differences in ranked styles within groups were determined by Friedman tests and Wilcoxon tests. Based upon style descriptions, confirmatory template analysis was used to identify Goleman's styles for each interviewed participant. Content analysis was used to identify themes that affected leadership styles. There were differences in the repertoire and preferred styles at different leadership levels. As a group, first-level leaders preferred democratic, middle-level used coaching while the senior leaders did not have one preferred style and used multiple styles. Women and men preferred democratic and coaching styles respectively. The varied use of styles reflected leadership conceptualizations, leader accountabilities, contextual adaptations, the situation and its evolution, leaders' awareness of how they themselves were situated, and personal preferences and discomfort with styles. The not uncommon use of pace-setting and commanding styles by senior leaders, who were interviewed, was linked to working with physicians and delivering quickly on outcomes. Leaders at different levels in medical education draw from a repertoire of styles. Leadership development should incorporate learning of different leadership styles, especially at first- and mid-level positions.

  18. Therapists' honesty, humor styles, playfulness, and creativity as outcome predictors: A retrospective study of the therapist effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yonatan-Leus, Refael; Tishby, Orya; Shefler, Gaby; Wiseman, Hadas

    2017-02-24

    This study examined whether therapists' honesty, humor style, playfulness, and creativity would retrospectively predict the outcomes of therapies ended five years earlier. In the Jerusalem-Haifa study, 29 therapists treated 70 clients in dynamic psychotherapy for 1 year. The Outcome Questionnaire 45 scores were collected at five time points. Five years later, the therapists were contacted via email and asked to fill out honesty, humor styles, playfulness, and creativity self-report questionnaires. Five were excluded since they had only one client in the study each. The remaining 24 therapists treated 65 clients out of whom 20 therapists with 54 clients completed the questionnaires. Therapists' Aggressive Humor Style (AHS) was a significant negative predictor of clients' symptom change over time. The therapists' honesty scores were positively correlated with symptom change. That is, higher AHS therapists were more effective, while higher honesty therapists were less effective. Therapists' inferred traits of Honesty-Humility and AHS may influence the effectiveness of their treatments.

  19. Early Language Milestones Predict Later Language, but not Autism Symptoms in Higher Functioning Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenworthy, Lauren; Wallace, Gregory L.; Powell, Kelly; Anselmo, Cheryl; Martin, Alex; Black, David O.

    2012-01-01

    Language ability is a known predictor of outcome in children with autism but plays a more controversial role for higher functioning children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). We studied the relationship between early language milestones and later structural language, adaptive functioning and autism symptoms in a sample of 76 children (mean age…

  20. Style representation in design grammars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmad, Sumbul; Chase, Scott Curland

    2012-01-01

    to be transformed according to changing design style needs. Issues of formalizing stylistic change necessitate a lucid and formal definition of style in the design language generated by a grammar. Furthermore, a significant aspect of the definition of style is the representation of aesthetic qualities attributed...... to the style. We focus on grammars for representing and generating styles of design and review the use of grammar transformations for modelling changes in style and design language. We identify a gap in knowledge in the representation of style in grammars and in driving strategic style change using grammar...

  1. Pressuring and restrictive feeding styles influence infant feeding and size among a low-income African-American sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Amanda L; Adair, Linda S; Bentley, Margaret E

    2013-03-01

    The prevalence of overweight among infants and toddlers has increased dramatically in the past three decades, highlighting the importance of identifying factors contributing to early excess weight gain, particularly in high-risk groups. Parental feeding styles and the attitudes and behaviors that characterize parental approaches to maintaining or modifying children's eating behavior are an important behavioral component shaping early obesity risk. Using longitudinal data from the Infant Care and Risk of Obesity Study, a cohort study of 217 African-American mother-infant pairs with feeding styles, dietary recalls, and anthropometry collected from 3 to 18 months of infant age, we examined the relationship between feeding styles, infant diet, and weight-for-age and sum of skinfolds. Longitudinal mixed models indicated that higher pressuring and indulgent feeding style scores were positively associated with greater infant energy intake, reduced odds of breastfeeding, and higher levels of age-inappropriate feeding of liquids and solids, whereas restrictive feeding styles were associated with lower energy intake, higher odds of breastfeeding, and reduced odds of inappropriate feeding. Pressuring and restriction were also oppositely related to infant size with pressuring associated with lower infant weight-for-age and restriction with higher weight-for-age and sum of skinfolds. Infant size also predicted maternal feeding styles in subsequent visits indicating that the relationship between size and feeding styles is likely bidirectional. Our results suggest that the degree to which parents are pressuring or restrictive during feeding shapes the early feeding environment and, consequently, may be an important environmental factor in the development of obesity. Copyright © 2012 The Obesity Society.

  2. Effect of Attachment Styles to Parents on Sexual Dysfunction Domains of Married Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nia, Anvar Sadat Nayebi; Salari, Parvin; Sharifi, Nasibeh; Nooghani, Hadi Jabbari

    2017-01-01

    According to Bowbly attachment theory, attachment of a baby and its main care provider, influences on social growth and the baby's feelings throughout its life. The present study was performed aim to determine the effect of attachment style to parents on domains of sexual dysfunction in married women. This cross-sectional study was carried out on two hundred married women who were fertile, and referred private and governmental gynecology clinics in Mashhad, Iran, in 2014. Data collection tools were three questionnaires; Demographic and marital questionnaire, Female sexual function index questionnaire, and Adult attachment style questionnaire. Data were analyzed by SPSS version 20 (IBM© SPSS© Statistics version 20 using independent-samples t-test and logistic regression. The statistical tests were performed at the 95% confidence interval. Mean of safe attachment style to parents in all aspect of sexual dysfunction was significantly lower (p≤0.01), however, mean of distant attachment style to parents in all aspects of sexual dysfunction was significantly higher (p≤0.05). Secure and distance attachment style to the mother showed maximum power of prediction for sexual dysfunction, which indicates the importance of attachment to parents and its impact on adult relationships.

  3. Higher Leptin and Adiponectin Concentrations Predict Poorer Performance-based Physical Functioning in Midlife Women: the Michigan Study of Women's Health Across the Nation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karvonen-Gutierrez, Carrie A; Zheng, Huiyong; Mancuso, Peter; Harlow, Siobán D

    2016-04-01

    Excess fat mass is a greater contributor to functional limitations than is reduced lean mass or the presence of obesity-related conditions. The impact of fat mass on physical functioning may be due to adipokines, adipose-derived proteins that have pro- or anti-inflammatory properties. Serum samples from 1996 to 2003 that were assayed for leptin, adiponectin, and resistin were provided by 511 participants from the Michigan site of the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation. Physical functioning performance was assessed annually during study visits from 1996 to 2003. Among this population of Black and White women (mean baseline age = 45.6 years, SD = 2.7 years), all of whom were premenopausal at baseline, higher baseline leptin concentrations predicted longer stair climb, sit-to-rise, and 2-pound lift times and shorter forward reach distance (all p osteoarthritis, and C-reactive protein. Baseline total adiponectin concentrations did not predict any mobility measures but did predict quadriceps strength; a 1 µg/mL higher adiponectin concentration was associated with 0.64 Nm lower quadriceps strength (p = .02). Resistin was not associated with any of the physical functioning performance measures. Change in the adipokines was not associated with physical functioning. In this population of middle-aged women, higher baseline leptin concentrations predicted poorer mobility-based functioning, whereas higher adiponectin concentrations predicted reduced quadriceps strength. These findings suggest that the relationship between the adipokines and physical functioning performance is independent of other known correlates of poor functioning. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Higher Leptin and Adiponectin Concentrations Predict Poorer Performance-based Physical Functioning in Midlife Women: the Michigan Study of Women’s Health Across the Nation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Huiyong; Mancuso, Peter; Harlow, Siobán D.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Excess fat mass is a greater contributor to functional limitations than is reduced lean mass or the presence of obesity-related conditions. The impact of fat mass on physical functioning may be due to adipokines, adipose-derived proteins that have pro- or anti-inflammatory properties. Methods. Serum samples from 1996 to 2003 that were assayed for leptin, adiponectin, and resistin were provided by 511 participants from the Michigan site of the Study of Women’s Health Across the Nation. Physical functioning performance was assessed annually during study visits from 1996 to 2003. Results. Among this population of Black and White women (mean baseline age = 45.6 years, SD = 2.7 years), all of whom were premenopausal at baseline, higher baseline leptin concentrations predicted longer stair climb, sit-to-rise, and 2-pound lift times and shorter forward reach distance (all p osteoarthritis, and C-reactive protein. Baseline total adiponectin concentrations did not predict any mobility measures but did predict quadriceps strength; a 1 µg/mL higher adiponectin concentration was associated with 0.64 Nm lower quadriceps strength (p = .02). Resistin was not associated with any of the physical functioning performance measures. Change in the adipokines was not associated with physical functioning. Conclusion. In this population of middle-aged women, higher baseline leptin concentrations predicted poorer mobility-based functioning, whereas higher adiponectin concentrations predicted reduced quadriceps strength. These findings suggest that the relationship between the adipokines and physical functioning performance is independent of other known correlates of poor functioning. PMID:26302979

  5. Predicting higher selection in elite junior Australian Rules football: The influence of physical performance and anthropometric attributes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Sam; Woods, Carl; Gastin, Paul

    2015-09-01

    To develop a physiological performance and anthropometric attribute model to predict Australian Football League draft selection. Cross-sectional observational. Data was obtained (n=4902) from three Under-18 Australian football competitions between 2010 and 2013. Players were allocated into one of the three groups, based on their highest level of selection in their final year of junior football (Australian Football League Drafted, n=292; National Championship, n=293; State-level club, n=4317). Physiological performance (vertical jumps, agility, speed and running endurance) and anthropometric (body mass and height) data were obtained. Hedge's effect sizes were calculated to assess the influence of selection-level and competition on these physical attributes, with logistic regression models constructed to discriminate Australian Football League Drafted and National Championship players. Rule induction analysis was undertaken to determine a set of rules for discriminating selection-level. Effect size comparisons revealed a range of small to moderate differences between State-level club players and both other groups for all attributes, with trivial to small differences between Australian Football League Drafted and National Championship players noted. Logistic regression models showed multistage fitness test, height and 20 m sprint time as the most important attributes in predicting Draft success. Rule induction analysis showed that players displaying multistage fitness test scores of >14.01 and/or 20 m sprint times of football players being recruited to the highest level of the sport. Copyright © 2014 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The interrelationship between orthorexia nervosa, perfectionism, body image and attachment style.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Marta A; Caltabiano, Marie L

    2017-03-01

    We investigated whether perfectionism, body image, attachment style, and self-esteem are predictors of orthorexia nervosa. A cohort of 220 participants completed a self-administered, online questionnaire consisting of five measures: ORTO-15, the Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale (MPS), the Multidimensional Body-Self Relations Questionnaire-Appearance Scale (MBSRQ-AS), the Relationship Scales Questionnaire (RSQ), and Rosenberg's Self-Esteem Scale (RSES). Correlation analysis revealed that higher orthorexic tendencies significantly correlated with higher scores for perfectionism (self-oriented, others-oriented and socially prescribed), appearance orientation, overweight preoccupation, self-classified weight, and fearful and dismissing attachment styles. Higher orthorexic tendencies also correlated with lower scores for body areas satisfaction and a secure attachment style. There was no significant correlation between orthorexia nervosa and self-esteem. Multiple linear regression analysis revealed that overweight preoccupation, appearance orientation and the presence of an eating disorder history were significant predictors of orthorexia nervosa with a history of an eating disorder being the strongest predictor. Orthorexia nervosa shares similarities with anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa with regards to perfectionism, body image attitudes, and attachment style. In addition, a history of an eating disorder strongly predicts orthorexia nervosa. These findings suggest that these disorders might be on the same spectrum of disordered eating.

  7. Examining Identity Styles and Religiosity among Chilean Undergraduate Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grajales, Tevni E.; Leon, Vicente; Al Nasser, Fatimah; Hooley, Esther; Sample, Melina; Sommers, Brittany

    2016-01-01

    This study tested Berzsonky's theory of identity styles and identity commitment in predicting religiosity. Participants were university students (N = 320) from Chile who were surveyed with the ISI-3 and BRS-6 instruments to measure identity styles and religiosity. Path analysis was used to test the model, which suggested that the three identity…

  8. School Disciplinary Style and Adolescent Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Claudia; Wong, Mitchell; Dudovitz, Rebecca

    2018-02-01

    Parenting style is strongly associated with adolescent health. However, little is known about how school disciplinary style relates to health. We categorized adolescents' perceptions of their schools as authoritative, authoritarian, permissive, or neglectful, and test whether perceived school disciplinary style is associated with health. We analyze data from the RISE Up study (Reducing Health Inequities Through Social and Educational Change Follow-up), comprised of baseline (eighth grade) and 2-year follow-up surveys (10th grade) from 1,159 low-income minority adolescents in Los Angeles attending 157 schools. At 10th grade, students' ratings of school support and structure were used to categorize perceived school disciplinary style as authoritative (highest tertile for support and structure), authoritarian (low support, high structure), permissive (high support, low structure), neglectful (low on both dimensions), and average (middle tertile on either dimension). Mixed effects logistic regressions controlling for sociodemographic factors, parenting style, grades, and baseline health tested whether school disciplinary style was associated with substance use, violence, bullying, and depression symptoms. Risky behaviors varied by school disciplinary style. After adjusting for covariates, compared with an average school disciplinary style, a neglectful school was associated with higher odds of substance use (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 2.3, p bullying (AOR 1.5, p = .02), a permissive school was associated with higher odds of depression symptoms (AOR 2.1, p = .04), and an authoritative school was associated with lower odds of substance use (AOR .6, p = .049), violence (AOR .6, p = .03), and bullying (AOR .5, p = .001). Structured and supportive school environments may impact the health of vulnerable adolescents. Copyright © 2017 The Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Recognition of facial emotion and perceived parental bonding styles in healthy volunteers and personality disorder patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Leilei; Chai, Hao; Chen, Wanzhen; Yu, Rongrong; He, Wei; Jiang, Zhengyan; Yu, Shaohua; Li, Huichun; Wang, Wei

    2011-12-01

    Early parental bonding experiences play a role in emotion recognition and expression in later adulthood, and patients with personality disorder frequently experience inappropriate parental bonding styles, therefore the aim of the present study was to explore whether parental bonding style is correlated with recognition of facial emotion in personality disorder patients. The Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI) and the Matsumoto and Ekman Japanese and Caucasian Facial Expressions of Emotion (JACFEE) photo set tests were carried out in 289 participants. Patients scored lower on parental Care but higher on parental Freedom Control and Autonomy Denial subscales, and they displayed less accuracy when recognizing contempt, disgust and happiness than the healthy volunteers. In healthy volunteers, maternal Autonomy Denial significantly predicted accuracy when recognizing fear, and maternal Care predicted the accuracy of recognizing sadness. In patients, paternal Care negatively predicted the accuracy of recognizing anger, paternal Freedom Control predicted the perceived intensity of contempt, maternal Care predicted the accuracy of recognizing sadness, and the intensity of disgust. Parenting bonding styles have an impact on the decoding process and sensitivity when recognizing facial emotions, especially in personality disorder patients. © 2011 The Authors. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences © 2011 Japanese Society of Psychiatry and Neurology.

  10. Parenting style and family meals: cross-sectional and 5-year longitudinal associations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berge, Jerica M; Wall, Melanie; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; Larson, Nicole; Story, Mary

    2010-07-01

    Research on family meals in the past decade has shown a positive association between family meal frequency and adolescent healthy dietary intake. However, less is known about factors within the home environment, such as parenting style, that may be associated with family meal patterns. The purpose of this study is to test cross-sectional and 5-year longitudinal associations between parenting styles (authoritative, authoritarian, permissive, and neglectful) and the frequency of family meals among adolescents. Data were from Project Eating Among Teens, a population-based study comprised of youth from diverse ethnic/racial and socioeconomic backgrounds. Two cohorts of adolescents (middle school and high school) completed in-class surveys in 1999 (Time 1) and mailed surveys in 2004 (Time 2). Multiple linear regression models were used to predict mean frequency of family meals at Time 1 and Time 2 from adolescent report of parenting style (both mother and father) at Time 1. Cross-sectional analyses included both adolescent cohorts (n=4,746) and longitudinal analyses included only the younger cohort (n=806) because family meal frequency was not assessed in the older cohort at Time 2. Cross-sectional results for adolescent girls indicated a positive association between maternal and paternal authoritative parenting style and frequency of family meals. For adolescent boys, maternal authoritative parenting style was associated with more frequent family meals. Longitudinal results indicated that authoritative parenting style predicted higher frequency of family meals 5 years later, but only between opposite sex parent/adolescent dyads. Future research should identify additional factors within the home environment that are associated with family meal frequency to develop effective interventions that result in increased family meals for youth. Also, future research should investigate the mealtime behaviors of authoritative parents and identify specific behaviors that dietetics

  11. Thinking Styles: Teaching and Learning Styles in Graduate Education Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Tricia A.; Lesh, Jennifer J.; Trocchio, Jennie S.; Wolman, Clara

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between two intellectual styles approaches: Sternberg's thinking styles of teachers and Felder and Silverman's learning styles. Ninety-five graduate students majoring in special education, reading, educational leadership and curriculum, and elementary education completed the Thinking Styles in Teaching…

  12. A low bioimpedance phase angle predicts a higher mortality and lower nutritional status in chronic dialysis patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumler Md, Francis

    2010-04-01

    Bioelectrical impedance analysis is an established technique for body composition analysis. The phase angle parameter, an index of body cell mass, tissue hydration, and membrane integrity, makes it suitable for assessing nutritional status and survivability. We evaluated the significance of a low phase angle value on nutritional status and mortality in 285 chronic dialysis patients during a longitudinal prospective observational study. Patients in the lower phase angle tertile had decreased body weight, body mass index, fat free mass, body cell mass, and lower serum albumin concentrations than those in the higher tertile (Prisk for malnutrition and increased mortality.

  13. Cognitive styles and mental rotation ability in map learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pazzaglia, Francesca; Moè, Angelica

    2013-11-01

    In inspecting, learning and reproducing a map, a wide range of abilities is potentially involved. This study examined the role of mental rotation (MR) and verbal ability, together with that of cognitive styles in map learning. As regards cognitive styles, the traditional distinction between verbalizers and visualizers has been taken into account, together with a more recent distinction between two styles of visualization: spatial and object. One hundred and seven participants filled in two questionnaires on cognitive styles: the Verbalizer-Visualizer Questionnaire (Richardson in J Ment Imag 1:109-125, 1977) and the Object-Spatial Imagery Questionnaire (Blajenkova et al. in Appl Cogn Psych 20:239-263, 2006), performed MR and verbal tests, learned two maps, and were then tested for their recall. It was found that MR ability and cognitive styles played a role in predicting map learning, with some distinctions within cognitive styles: verbal style favoured learning of one of the two maps (the one rich in verbal labels), which in turn was disadvantaged by the adoption of spatial style. Conversely, spatial style predicted learning of the other map, rich in visual features. The discussion focuses on implications for cognitive psychology and everyday cognition.

  14. Visualizer cognitive style enhances visual creativity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmiero, Massimiliano; Nori, Raffaella; Piccardi, Laura

    2016-02-26

    In the last two decades, interest towards creativity has increased significantly since it was recognized as a skill and as a cognitive reserve and is now always more frequently used in ageing training. Here, the relationships between visual creativity and Visualization-Verbalization cognitive style were investigated. Fifty college students were administered the Creative Synthesis Task aimed at measuring the ability to construct creative objects and the Visualization-Verbalization Questionnaire (VVQ) aimed at measuring the attitude to preferentially use either imagery or verbal strategy while processing information. Analyses showed that only the originality score of inventions was positively predicted by the VVQ score: higher VVQ score (indicating the preference to use imagery) predicted originality of inventions. These results showed that the visualization strategy is involved especially in the originality dimension of creative objects production. In light of neuroimaging results, the possibility that different strategies, such those that involve motor processes, affect visual creativity is also discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The Effect of Parenting Styles on Children Attachment Dimensions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    علي زينالي

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to determine the effects of parenting style on prediction of children's attachment style. To achieve this aim, the study investigates whether different parenting styles (authoritative, authoritarian, permissive and neglectful Leads to shaping various attachment styles (secure, fearful, preoccupied and dismissing in children? 508 high school adolescent boys and girls with the age range of 14-19 participated in this study and were selected through Stratified Random Sampling method. Data were gathered through Parenting Style Questionnaire (PSQ and Attachment Style Questionnaire (ASQ. In order to analyze the data, the researcher used Multiple Regression statistics. The results showed, Authoritative, authoritarian, neglectful and permissive parenting styles have positive and significant relationships with secure, preoccupied, fearful and dismissing attachment in children respectively and are considered as direct and significant predictor of them in children. The present study, with emphasize on fundamental role of parenting styles, recommend learning of authoritative parenting style and correction of authoritarian, neglectful and permissive parenting styles to parents in family setting.

  16. Leadership style and patient safety: implications for nurse managers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrill, Katreena Collette

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between nurse manager (NM) leadership style and safety climate. Nursing leaders are needed who will change the environment and increase patient safety. Hospital NMs are positioned to impact day-to-day operations. Therefore, it is essential to inform nurse executives regarding the impact of leadership style on patient safety. A descriptive correlational study was conducted in 41 nursing departments across 9 hospitals. The hospital unit safety climate survey and multifactorial leadership questionnaire were completed by 466 staff nurses. Bivariate and regression analyses were conducted to determine how well leadership style predicted safety climate. Transformational leadership style was demonstrated as a positive contributor to safety climate, whereas laissez-faire leadership style was shown to negatively contribute to unit socialization and a culture of blame. Nursing leaders must concentrate on developing transformational leadership skills while also diminishing negative leadership styles.

  17. Cognitive style, cortical stimulation, and the conversion hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraemer, David J M; Hamilton, Roy H; Messing, Samuel B; Desantis, Jennifer H; Thompson-Schill, Sharon L

    2014-01-01

    What does it mean to have a "verbal cognitive style?" We adopt the view that a cognitive style represents a cognitive strategy, and we posit the conversion hypothesis - the notion that individuals with a proclivity for the verbal cognitive style tend to code nonverbal information into the verbal domain. Here we used repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) to disrupt this hypothesized verbal conversion strategy. Following our previous research implicating left supramarginal gyrus (SMG) in the verbal cognitive style, we used an fMRI paradigm to localize left SMG activity for each subject, then these functional peaks became rTMS targets. Left SMG stimulation impaired performance during a task requiring conversion from pictures to verbal labels. The magnitude of this effect was predicted by individuals' level of verbal cognitive style, supporting the hypothesized role of left SMG in the verbal labeling strategy, and more generally supporting the conversion hypothesis for cognitive styles.

  18. Cognitive style, cortical stimulation, and the conversion hypothesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David JM Kraemer

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available What does it mean to have a verbal cognitive style? We adopt the view that a cognitive style represents a cognitive strategy, and we posit the conversion hypothesis – the notion that individuals with a proclivity for the verbal cognitive style tend to code nonverbal information into the verbal domain. Here we used repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS to disrupt this hypothesized verbal conversion strategy. Following our previous research implicating left supramarginal gyrus (SMG in the verbal cognitive style, we used an fMRI paradigm to localize left SMG activity for each subject, then these functional peaks became rTMS targets. Left SMG stimulation impaired performance during a task requiring conversion from pictures to verbal labels. The magnitude of this effect was predicted by individuals’ level of verbal cognitive style, supporting the hypothesized role of left SMG in the verbal labeling strategy, and more generally supporting the conversion hypothesis for cognitive styles.

  19. Parenting Styles and Beliefs about Parental Authority.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smetana, Judith G.

    1994-01-01

    Suggests that models of parenting style, such as Baumrind's popular model, are insensitive to variations in parenting resulting from characteristics of the different situations in which the parenting is expressed. Argues that considering parenting in context adds greater specificity to the model and enhances the potential for predicting child…

  20. Demographic characteristics, leadership styles, job attitudes and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This purpose of this study was to investigate the predictive influence of demographic characteristics, leadership styles, job attitudes and personality on job performance among civil servants in Southwest Nigeria. The sample consists of 400 civil servants (males = 275, females = 125) randomly selected from Southwestern ...

  1. Supervision: Substance and Style

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gellerman, Saul W.

    1976-01-01

    Argues that managerial style and substance are inextricably intertwined, illustrating the discussion with excerpts from an extensive study and job analysis of first-line supervisors in a food packaging plant. (JG)

  2. Childhood abuse and stress generation: the mediational effect of depressogenic cognitive styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Richard T; Choi, Jimmy Y; Boland, Elaine M; Mastin, Becky M; Alloy, Lauren B

    2013-04-30

    According to the stress generation hypothesis (Hammen, 1991), depressed and depression-prone individuals experience higher rates of negative life events influenced by their own behaviors and characteristics (i.e., dependent events), which in part may account for the often recurrent nature of depression. Relatively little is known about the interrelation between stress generation predictors, and distal risk factors for this phenomenon. This study examined whether childhood emotional, sexual, and physical abuse, each uniquely predicted negative dependent events in individuals with a history of depression. The role of negative inferential styles as a potential mediator was also assessed. A sample of 66 adults with a history of depression completed self-report measures of childhood abuse history and negative inferential styles at baseline. The "contextual threat" method was used to assess the occurrence of negative life events over a 4-month prospective follow-up period. Childhood emotional abuse, but not sexual or physical abuse, prospectively predicted greater stress generation. Negative inferential styles mediated this relation. These findings suggest that targeting negative cognitive styles in clinical settings, especially in patients with a history of childhood emotional abuse, may be important for reducing the occurrence of negative life events, thereby possibly decreasing risk for depression recurrence. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Perceived Stress and Coping Styles among Malay Caregivers of Children with Learning Disabilities in Kelantan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isa, Siti Nor Ismalina; Ishak, Ismarulyusda; Rahman, Azriani Ab; Saat, Nur Zakiah Mohd; Din, Normah Che; Lubis, Syarif Husin; Ismail, Muhammad Faiz Mohd

    2017-03-01

    Caregivers of children with learning disabilities have been shown to experience increased stress and greater negative caregiving consequences than those with typically developing children. There remains a lack of studies focusing on stress and coping mechanisms among caregivers of a wider age group and diagnosis of individuals with disabilities in Asian countries. The current study examines levels of perceived stress and associated child and caregiver factors among caregivers of children with learning disabilities in the Malaysian context. An additional aim was to determine whether caregiver coping styles may be predictors of perceived stress. The Malay version of the Perceived Stress Scale with 10 items and the Brief COPE Scale were administered to a sample of 190 Malay caregivers of children with learning disabilities registered with community-based rehabilitation centres in Kelantan, a state in Peninsular Malaysia. Multiple linear regression analysis was applied to determine the predictors of perceived stress. The mean total perceived stress score of caregivers was 16.96 (SD = 4.66). The most frequently used coping styles found among caregivers included religion, acceptance and positive reframing, while substance use and behavioural disengagement were least frequently used. Higher perceived stress was significantly predicted among caregivers with fewer children, frequent use of instrumental support and behavioural disengagement coping, and lack of emotional support and religious coping. Findings indicate that the perceived stress levels among caregivers were significantly predicted by different coping styles. It is vital to help the caregivers improve their good coping styles in order to reduce their stress levels.

  4. Children's Responses to Literary Style.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henze, Mary Vance

    This study undertook to determine (1) whether teaching sixth grade children elements of style would increase their pleasure in listening to "The Hobbit," (2) whether children who learned the most about style would respond the most positively to Tolkien's style, and (3) what children's preferences would be for selected examples of Tolkien's style.…

  5. The role of psychological factors in bipolar disorder: prospective relationships between cognitive style, coping style and symptom expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Kathryn; Parker, Gordon; Manicavasagar, Vijaya

    2014-04-01

    Psychological factors contribute to bipolar disorder illness course, representing targets for psychological intervention. Research to date has focused on bipolar I disorder, extrapolating results to bipolar II disorder. The current study addresses this discrepancy by exploring cognitive and coping styles in patients diagnosed with bipolar I or II disorder. Participants were recruited from the Sydney-based Black Dog Institute. Diagnoses were derived via the MINI International Neuropsychiatric Interview. Baseline cognitive and coping style measures were completed, and mood symptoms assessed over a 6-month period. Clinician-rated mood status was assessed at follow-up to determine the predictive utility of cognitive and coping styles. The follow-up sample comprised 151 participants. Differential relationships between cognitive style, coping styles and mood symptoms emerged across the bipolar sub-types. Some key differences were that a broader set of negative cognitive styles were associated with bipolar II depression symptoms; while few relationships were observed between coping styles and bipolar II symptoms. Differences in cognitive and coping style relationships with symptom expression across bipolar I and II disorder may provide clinicians with fruitful guides for directing treatment interventions when relevant maladaptive styles are observed. Further exploration of differences in cognitive and coping styles in bipolar I and II disorder is warranted.

  6. Higher adsorption capacity of Spirulina platensis alga for Cr(VI) ions removal: parameter optimisation, equilibrium, kinetic and thermodynamic predictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunasundari, Elumalai; Senthil Kumar, Ponnusamy

    2017-04-01

    This study discusses about the biosorption of Cr(VI) ion from aqueous solution using ultrasonic assisted Spirulina platensis (UASP). The prepared UASP biosorbent was characterised by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, Brunauer-Emmet-Teller, scanning electron spectroscopy and energy dispersive X-ray and thermogravimetric analyses. The optimum condition for the maximum removal of Cr(VI) ions for an initial concentration of 50 mg/l by UASP was measured as: adsorbent dose of 1 g/l, pH of 3.0, contact time of 30 min and temperature of 303 K. Adsorption isotherm, kinetics and thermodynamic parameters were calculated. Freundlich model provided the best results for the removal of Cr(VI) ions by UASP. The adsorption kinetics of Cr(VI) ions onto UASP showed that the pseudo-first-order model was well in line with the experimental data. In the thermodynamic study, the parameters like Gibb's free energy, enthalpy and entropy changes were evaluated. This result explains that the adsorption of Cr(VI) ions onto the UASP was exothermic and spontaneous in nature. Desorption of the biosorbent was done using different desorbing agents in which NaOH gave the best result. The prepared material showed higher affinity for the removal of Cr(VI) ions and this may be an alternative material to the existing commercial adsorbents.

  7. Physicians’ leadership styles in rural primary medical care: How are they perceived by staff?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkhaug, Rudi

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Aim. This study investigates which leadership styles can be identified among general practice lead physicians and how they are associated with and predicted by staff and context characteristics like profession, gender, age, work experience, and team size. Method/material. In a cross-sectional study self-administered questionnaires were distributed to staff physicians (42% females) and support staff (98% females) at 101 primary health care centres in North Norway. A total of 127 and 222, respectively, responded (response rate 59%). Items were ranked on Likert scales (range 1–5). Results. Analysis revealed three significantly different styles (mean scores/Cronbach's alpha): change style (3.36/0.898), task style (3.17/0.885), and relation style (2.88/0.900). The lead physicians were perceived as practising change style the most and relation style the least. Males experienced significantly more of all three styles. Support staff scored lowest for all styles. Age was negatively correlated with relation style and change style, while work experience was negatively correlated with change style. No significant association was found between styles and team size. Conclusion. Leadership in rural general practice can be identified in terms of task, relation, and change styles. Change style is the most perceived style. Males seem to be most attentive to leadership styles. However, within the staff physician group, there is less difference between genders. Support staff scores lowest for all styles; this might indicate either less need for leadership or dissatisfaction with leadership. Age and work experience seem to reduce employees’ attention to relation and change styles, indicating that maturity reduces needs for these leadership styles. Due to growing demands for leaders to take care of efficiency and change in general practice, more young female physicians, and more diverse staff groups, these findings may be useful to understand leadership and leadership

  8. Physicians' leadership styles in rural primary medical care: how are they perceived by staff?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hana, Jan; Kirkhaug, Rudi

    2014-03-01

    This study investigates which leadership styles can be identified among general practice lead physicians and how they are associated with and predicted by staff and context characteristics like profession, gender, age, work experience, and team size. METHOD/MATERIAL: In a cross-sectional study self-administered questionnaires were distributed to staff physicians (42% females) and support staff (98% females) at 101 primary health care centres in North Norway. A total of 127 and 222, respectively, responded (response rate 59%). Items were ranked on Likert scales (range 1-5). Analysis revealed three significantly different styles (mean scores/Cronbach's alpha): change style (3.36/0.898), task style (3.17/0.885), and relation style (2.88/0.900). The lead physicians were perceived as practising change style the most and relation style the least. Males experienced significantly more of all three styles. Support staff scored lowest for all styles. Age was negatively correlated with relation style and change style, while work experience was negatively correlated with change style. No significant association was found between styles and team size. Leadership in rural general practice can be identified in terms of task, relation, and change styles. Change style is the most perceived style. Males seem to be most attentive to leadership styles. However, within the staff physician group, there is less difference between genders. Support staff scores lowest for all styles; this might indicate either less need for leadership or dissatisfaction with leadership. Age and work experience seem to reduce employees' attention to relation and change styles, indicating that maturity reduces needs for these leadership styles. Due to growing demands for leaders to take care of efficiency and change in general practice, more young female physicians, and more diverse staff groups, these findings may be useful to understand leadership and leadership training for general practice.

  9. Thinking Styles and Academic Stress Coping among Chinese Secondary School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Wei; Zhang, Li-Fang; Fu, Mingchen

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the predictive power of thinking styles for academic stress coping. Participants were 563 (280 males, 275 females, 8 gender unspecified) secondary school students in grades 7 through 12 from mainland China. Thinking styles were measured using the Thinking Styles Inventory-Revised II which was based on the theory of mental…

  10. Thrombocytopenia on the first day of emergency department visit predicts higher risk of acute kidney injury among elderly patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Chia-Ter; Tsai, Hung-Bin; Chiang, Chih-Kang; Huang, Jenq-Wen

    2017-02-10

    Few studies have addressed risk factors for acute kidney injury (AKI) in geriatric patients. We investigated whether thrombocytopenia was a risk factor for AKI in geriatric patients with medical illnesses. A prospective cohort study was conducted, by recruiting elderly (≥65 years) patients who visited the emergency department (ED) for medical illnesses during 2014. They all received hemogram for platelet count determination, and were stratified according to the presence of thrombocytopenia (platelets, thrombocytopenia and subsequent AKI after ED stay, using Cox proportional hazard modeling, with platelet count as a continuous variable or thrombocytopenia as a categorical variable. Of 136 elderly patients (mean age of 80.7 ± 8.2 years, 40% with chronic kidney disease, and 39% with diabetes) enrolled, 22.8% presented with thrombocytopenia, without differences in baseline renal function. After a mean ED stay of 4.4 ± 2.1 days, 41.9% developed AKI (52.6% Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes [KDIGO] grade 1, 24.6% grade 2, and 22.8% grade 3). Patients with higher AKI severity had stepwise lower platelet counts compared to those without AKI. The Cox proportional hazard model revealed that lower platelet count as a continuous variable (hazard ratio [HR] 0.984, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.975-0.994) and as a categorical variable (presence of thrombocytopenia) (HR 1.86, 95% CI 1.06-3.27) increased the risk of AKI. The sensitivity analyses accounting for nephrotoxic medications use, including non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, vancomycin, and contrast, yielded similar results. Thrombocytopenia is common among ED-visiting elderly, and the potential relationship between platelet counts and the risk of AKI suggests the utility of checking hemogram for those at-risk ofdeveloping adverse renal events. Thrombocytopenia on initial presentation might indicate an increased risk of AKI among elderly patients with medical illnesses.

  11. Relation of parenting styles, feeding styles and feeding practices to child overweight and obesity. Direct and moderated effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbs-Tait, Laura; Dickin, Katherine L; Sigman-Grant, Madeleine; Jahns, Lisa; Mobley, Amy R

    2013-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the direct and interacting relations of parenting styles, feeding styles, and feeding practices to child overweight and obesity. Participants were 144 mothers and children under 6 years of age. Mothers completed questionnaires about parenting and feeding styles and feeding practices. Researchers weighed and measured mothers and children or obtained measurements from a recent health report. Feeding practices were not directly related to child weight status. Compared to the uninvolved feeding style, authoritative and authoritarian feeding style categories were linked to lower odds of overweight. Feeding practices interacted with authoritative and authoritarian parenting styles to predict obesity: (1) healthful modeling was associated with 61% (OR = 0.39) reduced odds of obesity in children of authoritative mothers but with 55% (OR = 1.55) increased odds in children of non-authoritative mothers and (2) covert control was linked to 156% (OR = 2.56) increased odds of obesity in children of authoritarian mothers but with 51% (OR = 0.49) decreased odds in children of non-authoritarian mothers. Healthful modeling interacted with feeding style demandingness to predict overweight and with responsiveness to predict obesity. Findings suggest the need for research and interventions on mechanisms mediating between feeding practices and obesity in families characterized by non-authoritative parenting styles. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  12. Explanatory style and academic performance among college students beginning a major course of study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaForge, Mary C; Cantrell, Stephen

    2003-06-01

    Explanatory style, a cognitive variable, reflects how people typically explain the causes of bad events involving themselves. Explanatory style emerged from the attributional reformulation of the learned helplessness and depression model as a way of explaining individual differences in response to uncontrollability. A central prediction of the reformulation is that people with habitual explanatory tendencies differ, and individuals with a pessimistic explanatory style will be more likely to exhibit depressive symptoms following bad events than individuals with an optimistic explanatory style. 116 upper-level undergraduates beginning a degree program at this university completed the Attributional Style Questionnaire. Scores were correlated with students' cumulative grade point averages and their total points earned in Consumer Behavior, the first course required in the Marketing major. Students with pessimistic explanatory style scores outperformed colleagues with optimistic explanatory style scores. Implications of these findings and possible explanations for why explanatory style did not correlate in the theoretically predicted way with academic achievement are considered.

  13. Authoritarian and homophobic attitudes: gender and adult attachment style differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gormley, Barbara; Lopez, Frederick G

    2010-01-01

    This study explored the relations of gender and adult attachment styles to college students' scores on several measures of authoritarian attitudes (e.g., right-wing authoritarianism, ethnocentrism, homophobia, and religious fundamentalism). A multivariate analysis of authoritarian attitudes yielded significant main and interaction effects involving students' gender and their (categorical) attachment style scores. Relative to women, men reported higher levels of homophobia, ethnocentrism, and right-wing authoritarianism. Gender differences in homophobia were additionally conditioned by participants' adult attachment styles: Men with dismissing styles evidenced the highest levels of homophobia, whereas women with dismissing styles demonstrated the lowest levels; that is, a fear of intimacy seemed to contribute to homophobic attitudes found among heterosexual men. This was the first U.S. study of the relationship between adult attachment styles and right-wing authoritarianism, and further investigation is warranted.

  14. Manager and staff perceptions of the manager's leadership style.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Failla, Kim Reina; Stichler, Jaynelle F

    2008-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to look at manager and staff perceptions of the manager's leadership style and to determine what effect transformational leadership style has on job satisfaction. Nursing job satisfaction is a critical element in addressing the nursing shortage. Literature supports that job satisfaction is related to nurse manager leadership style. This fact has caused nurse managers to carefully consider their leadership style and the impact it has on the nurses they manage. A descriptive correlational, comparative design was used in a convenience sample of nurse managers and their direct report nursing staff (n = 92). A correlation was found between nurse manager transformational leadership style and nurse job satisfaction (r = 0.348, P leadership style was associated with higher levels of job satisfaction. The findings added to the knowledge about variables that are correlated with job satisfaction, which is a critical issue to nursing.

  15. Learning Style, Culture and Delivery Mode in Online Distance Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speece, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Adaptation to customer needs is a key component of competitiveness in any service industry. In online HE (higher education), which is increasingly worldwide, this adaptation must include consideration of learning styles. Most research shows that learning style has little impact on learning outcomes in online education. Nevertheless, students with…

  16. Profiling learning style preferences of first-year University students ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Widening access to higher education has meant an increasing need for flexibility in instruction and course design to accommodate students who utilize a wide range of learning style preferences. The purpose of this study was to identify the preferred learning styles of students and to plan instruction and course design ...

  17. An Examination of Midwest Community College Presidents' Leadership Styles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Marvin Jones

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the leadership styles of community college presidents and chancellors in the Midwestern part of the United States on leadership styles they embraced based on their personal characteristics, age, gender, education and experience in higher education, location, and other prevailing personal characteristics. The three leadership…

  18. Parenting Styles, Adolescent Substance Use, and Academic Achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Deborah A.; Rice, Janice

    1997-01-01

    Investigates how 386 matched parent-child pairs rated parenting styles and how this rating is associated with academic achievement and with alcohol and tobacco use. Results indicate that parents and children had different perceptions of parenting styles. High grades were associated with child and parent perception of higher authoritativeness.…

  19. Relationship between attachment styles and happiness in medical students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzyeh Moghadam

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Attachment theory is one of the most important achievements of contemporary psychology. Role of medical students in the community health is important, so we need to know about the situation of happiness and attachment style in these students. Objectives: This study was aimed to assess the relationship between medical students′ attachment styles and demographic characteristics. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on randomly selected students of Medical Sciences in Kurdistan University, in 2012. To collect data, Hazan and Shaver′s attachment style measure and the Oxford Happiness Questionnaire were used. The results were analyzed using the  SPSS software version 16 (IBM, Chicago IL, USA and statistical analysis was performed via t-test, Chi-square test, and multiple regression tests. Results: Secure attachment style was the most common attachment style and the least common was ambivalent attachment style. Avoidant attachment style was more common among single persons than married people (P = 0.03. No significant relationship was observed between attachment style and gender and grade point average of the studied people. The mean happiness score of students was 62.71. In multivariate analysis, the variables of secure attachment style (P = 0.001, male gender (P = 0.005, and scholar achievement (P = 0.047 were associated with higher happiness score. Conclusion: The most common attachment style was secure attachment style, which can be a positive prognostic factor in medical students, helping them to manage stress. Higher frequency of avoidant attachment style among single persons, compared with married people, is mainly due to their negative attitude toward others and failure to establish and maintain relationships with others.

  20. Adult attachment styles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maša Žvelc

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Theory of attachment primarily described early relationships between a child and his caretakers. In the last twenty years there is a growing interest in adult attachment research. Theories and research findings of adult attachment stem from two different methodological approaches. The first approach measures adult attachment through Adult Attachment Interview (AAI; Main, 1991 where the attachment is assessed through the narratives of adult people of their early child experiences with their primary caretakers. The second approach measures adult attachment with the help of self-evaluative questionnaires, developed by (a Hazan and Shaver (1987 who started this approach in the field of personality and social psychology, and (b Bartholomew and Horowitz (1991. Research shows that there is significant correlation between early and adult attachment style. Attachment styles are passed from generation to generation. Basic adult attachment styles are: securely attached, preoccupied, fearful-avoidant, dismissing-avoidant and disorganized. Previous research using Barholomew and Horowitz (1991 Relationship Questionnaire on 176 Slovenian students showed that 48% students are securely attached, 29% are fearful-avoidant, 10% are dismissing-avoidant, and 13% have preoccupied attachment style. Theory of attachment is very useful for understanding the behavior and subjective experiences of children and adults. It is applicable to different contexts (psychotherapy, counseling, education .... The paper proposes further research focused on integration of adult attachment styles and types of object relations measured by Test of object relations (Žvelc, 1998 and Pictorial test of Separation and Individuation (Žvelc, 2003.

  1. Toward a Theoretical Model of Decision-Making and Resistance to Change among Higher Education Online Course Designers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodd, Bucky J.

    2013-01-01

    Online course design is an emerging practice in higher education, yet few theoretical models currently exist to explain or predict how the diffusion of innovations occurs in this space. This study used a descriptive, quantitative survey research design to examine theoretical relationships between decision-making style and resistance to change…

  2. Management styles and motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shearer, Dana Ann

    2012-01-01

    According to a review of the current literature, common managerial styles are transformational, transactional, and laissez-faire. When managers expand their leadership skills to improve the staff's morale, they must use a combination of transformational leadership behaviors and transactional contingent rewards to maximize their effectiveness on employees. A motivation theory such as Herzberg and Maslow enhances employees' motivation, morale, and satisfaction. Being able to motivate, empower, and influence staff improves satisfaction and retention levels among the team. A manager's leadership style influences motivation, morale, and retention in staff. Leaders are influenced by their educational development and the organizational culture. Organizational culture has an impact on a manager's style, which is forwarded to their followers.

  3. Familial psychosocial risk classes and preschooler body mass index: The moderating effect of caregiver feeding style.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horodynski, Mildred A; Brophy-Herb, Holly E; Martoccio, Tiffany L; Contreras, Dawn; Peterson, Karen; Shattuck, Mackenzie; Senehi, Neda; Favreau, Zachary; Miller, Alison L; Sturza, Julie; Kaciroti, Niko; Lumeng, Julie C

    2017-12-26

    Early child weight gain predicts adolescent and adult obesity, underscoring the need to determine early risk factors affecting weight status and how risk factors might be mitigated. Socioeconomic status, food insecurity, caregiver depressive symptomology, single parenthood, and dysfunctional parenting each have been linked to early childhood weight status. However, the associations between these risk factors and children's weight status may be moderated by caregiver feeding styles (CFS). Examining modifiable factors buffering risk could provide key information to guide early obesity intervention efforts. This analysis used baseline data from the Growing Healthy project that recruited caregivers/child dyads (N = 626) from Michigan Head Start programs. Caregivers were primarily non-Hispanic white (62%) and African American (30%). After using latent class analysis to identify classes of familial psychosocial risk, CFS was tested as a moderator of the association between familial psychosocial risk class and child body mass index (BMI) z-score. Latent class analysis identified three familial psychosocial risk classes: (1) poor, food insecure and depressed families; (2) poor, single parent families; and (3) low risk families. Interactive effects for uninvolved feeding styles and risk group indicated that children in poor, food insecure, and depressed families had higher BMI z-scores compared to children in the low risk group. Authoritative feeding styles in low risk and poor, food insecure, and depressed families showed lower child BMI z-scores relative to poor, single parent families with authoritative feeding styles. Uninvolved feeding styles intensified the risk and an authoritative feeding style muted the risk conferred by living in a poor, food-insecure, and depressed family. Interventions that promote responsive feeding practices could help decrease the associations of familial psychosocial risks with early child weight outcomes. Copyright © 2017. Published by

  4. Leadership styles in nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cope, Vicki; Murray, Melanie

    2017-06-21

    Nurses are often asked to think about leadership, particularly in times of rapid change in healthcare, and where questions have been raised about whether leaders and managers have adequate insight into the requirements of care. This article discusses several leadership styles relevant to contemporary healthcare and nursing practice. Nurses who are aware of leadership styles may find this knowledge useful in maintaining a cohesive working environment. Leadership knowledge and skills can be improved through training, where, rather than having to undertake formal leadership roles without adequate preparation, nurses are able to learn, nurture, model and develop effective leadership behaviours, ultimately improving nursing staff retention and enhancing the delivery of safe and effective care.

  5. Example based style classification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Welnicka, Katarzyna; Bærentzen, Jakob Andreas; Aanæs, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    We address the problem of analysis of families of shapes which can be classified according to two categories: the main one corresponding usually to the coarse shape which we call the function and the more subtle one which we call the style. The style and the function both contribute to the overal...... this similarity should be reflected across different functions. We show the usability of our methods first on the example of a number of chess sets which our method helps sort. Next, we investigate the problem of finding a replacement for a missing tooth given a database of teeth....

  6. Demystifying APA style.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuddy, Claudia M

    2002-01-01

    Many nursing schools and health care journals have adopted the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (APA stylebook) as their guide to achieve uniformity and consistency in manuscript preparation as well as in usage and writing style. Published in 2001, the fifth edition of the APA stylebook contains 440 pages and can overwhelm someone who tries to use it for the first time. This article delineates main points in the areas of manuscript preparation, reference lists, in-text citations, and style choices.

  7. Identifying learning styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Grace

    2016-12-14

    What was the nature of the CPD activity, practice-related feedback and/or event and/or experience in your practice? The article explored different learning styles and outlined some of the models that can be used to identify them. It discussed the limitations of these models, indicating that although they can be helpful in identifying a student's preferred learning style, this is not 'fixed' and might change over time. Learning is also influenced by other factors, such as culture and age.

  8. The role of parenting styles and teacher interactional styles in children's reading and spelling development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiuru, Noona; Aunola, Kaisa; Torppa, Minna; Lerkkanen, Marja-Kristiina; Poikkeus, Anna-Maija; Niemi, Pekka; Viljaranta, Jaana; Lyyra, Anna-Liisa; Leskinen, Esko; Tolvanen, Asko; Nurmi, Jari-Erik

    2012-12-01

    This study examined the associations between parenting styles, teacher interactional styles, and children's reading and spelling skills. The sample consisted of 864 Finnish-speaking children and their parents (864 mothers, 864 fathers) and teachers (N=123). Children's risk for reading disabilities and reader status were assessed in kindergarten. Children were also tested on reading and spelling skills in Grades 1 and 2. Parenting styles and teacher interactional styles were measured using parents' and teachers' self-reports in Grade 1. First, the results indicated that both an authoritative parenting style and authoritative teacher interactional style positively predicted children's spelling skill development. Second, authoritative parenting was particularly beneficial for the spelling skill development of children who were at risk for reading disabilities. Third, authoritative teaching promoted spelling skill development particularly among children who were nonreaders in kindergarten but had no risk for reading disabilities. Finally, some evidence was found that authoritative teaching could compensate for the negative impact of nonauthoritative parenting on reading development among kindergarten nonreaders. Copyright © 2012 Society for the Study of School Psychology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Relationship of personal authoritarianism with parenting styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manuel, Laura

    2006-02-01

    This research investigated the relationship between the personality construct of right-wing authoritarianism and Baumrind's 1971 proposed parenting styles of authoritarian, authoritative, and permissive parenting. 68 youth ages 12-18 along with one of their parents participated. The children rated both parents on Buri's 1991 Parental Authority Questionnaire. One of the parents responded to Altemeyer's Right-Wing Authoritarian Scale. People with higher scores on Altemeyer's scale were more likely to prefer the authoritarian parenting style as their offspring reported (r = .33). Permissive parenting correlated negatively with the measure of authoritarianism as a personality variable (r = -.56).

  10. Leadership Styles of Oxford House Officers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komer, Anne C; Jason, Leonard A; Harvey, Ronald; Olson, Brad

    Oxford House recovery homes are unusual compared to most recovery homes in that they function entirely without the use of staff; instead members are elected to officer positions. The aim of this study was to perform preliminary analysis of the types of leadership styles utilized by members of oxford house. Twentynine house residents of five Oxford Houses were asked to rate their own leadership styles using the leader behavior description questionnaire and the multifactor leader questionnaire. Results showed that participants were more likely to use person-oriented behaviors above task-oriented actions. Transformational leadership was associated with higher outcomes than Transactional leadership. Implications for future research are discussed.

  11. Tympanic Membrane Temperature and Hemispheric Cognitive Style.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genovese, Jeremy E C; Sparks, Kenneth E; Little, Kathleen D

    2017-01-01

    The authors tested the hypothesis that there is a correlation between hemispheric cognitive style and ear temperature. A sample of 100 participants completed a measure of hemispheric cognitive style, the Hemispheric Consensus Prediction Profile. Ear temperatures were taken in 2 sessions, 2 times for each ear at each session. Average left ear temperature was subtracted from average right ear temperature as an index of dominant temperature. Only 56 of the participants showed a stable dominant ear temperature. For these 56 participants, there was a statistically significant positive correlation between scores on the Hemispheric Consensus Prediction Profile and tympanic member temperature (Spearman's  ρ =.29, 95% CI [.04,.51]). Individuals with a left hemispheric cognitive style tended to have a warmer left tympanic membrane temperature while those with a right hemispheric cognitive style tended to have a warmer right tympanic membrane temperature. Tympanic membrane temperatures are easily obtained using inexpensive and noninvasive technology. The relationship suggested by these findings may open new opportunities for the study of cerebral asymmetry.

  12. [The relationship between depression, and interpersonal style, self-perception, and anger].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hisli Şahin, Nesrin; Durak Batıgün, Ayşegül; Koç, Volkan

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between depressive symptoms, and self-concept, interpersonal style, and anger in a group of patients diagnosed with depression and a control group that included volunteers without clinical symptoms. The study included 64 patients (patient group) diagnosed with depression according to DSM IV and 71 volunteers (comparison group) without a psychiatric diagnosis. The participants were given a questionnaire to collect data on their demographic characteristics and life circumstances, along with the Interpersonal Style Scale, Brief Symptom Inventory, Multidimensional Anger Scale, Social Comparison Scale, and Beck Depression Inventory. T-test comparisons showed that the patient group had significantly higher negative interpersonal style scores, higher anger, and more negative self-perception. The results of regression analysis showed that the severity of depression in the patient group could be predicted by aggressive and internalized anger, dissatisfaction with interpersonal relationships, and negative self-perception. The less severe depressive symptoms in the comparison group was predicted by lower level of education, dissatisfaction with life in general, and a positive self-perception. Among both the patient and comparison groups, the depressive symptoms they experienced were closely related to how they perceived themselves, their life in general, and their interpersonal relationships. We therefore hypothesize that anger plays a significant role in the transformation of depressive symptoms into full-blown depression.

  13. Humor Styles and Leadership Styles: Community College Presidents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrica, Jennifer L.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between leadership styles (transformational, transactional, laissez-faire) and humor styles (affiliative, self-enhancing, aggressive, self-defeating) of community college presidents. Research has shown that humor and leadership styles are related and that humor may enhance interpersonal…

  14. The Impact of Mentor Leadership Styles on First-Year Adult Student Retention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith Staley, Charlesetta

    2012-01-01

    This quantitative study explored the leadership styles of mentors for retained first-year adult students to analyze whether the prevalent style had a higher impact on first-year adult student retention. The Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire (MLQ) 5x was used to collect data on the mentors' leadership styles from the perspective of retained…

  15. Cognitive style in bipolar disorder sub-types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Kathryn; Parker, Gordon; Manicavasagar, Vijaya

    2013-04-30

    Clearer understanding of psychological processes and mechanisms such as cognitive style inform more targeted psychological treatments for mood disorders. Studies to date have focused on bipolar I disorder or combined bipolar sub-types, precluding identification of any distinctive cognitive style profiles. We examined cognitive style separately in the bipolar sub-types, contrasted with unipolar and non-clinical controls. A total of 417 participants (94 bipolar I, 114 bipolar II, 109 unipolar, 100 healthy controls) completed cognitive style measures including the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, Dysfunctional Attitudes Scale, Inferential Styles Questionnaire, Stress Appraisal Measure and the Behavioural Inhibition System/Behavioural Activation System Scale. Overall, cognitive styles were similar in unipolar and bipolar participants, but with styles relevant to the Behavioral Activation System differentiating bipolar I disorder in particular. State anxiety influenced negative inferential style in unipolar participants and appraisal of stress in bipolar II participants. Analyses restricted to bipolar I vs. II comparisons revealed subtle differences in terms of dispositional stress appraisal, with higher scores on two stress appraisal sub-scales in the bipolar I group. Further exploration of cognitive style in bipolar sub-types is indicated in order to determine whether there are specific psychological vulnerabilities that would benefit from more targeted psychological interventions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Leadership Style: Attitudes and Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hersey, Paul; Blanchard, Kenneth H.

    1982-01-01

    Discusses significant differences between the Grid and Situational leadership styles. Examines the difference between attitudes and behaviors, gives examples, and explores the relationship between self-perception and leadership style. (CT)

  17. Style and creativity in design

    CERN Document Server

    Chan, Chiu-Shui

    2015-01-01

    This book looks at causative reasons behind creative acts and stylistic expressions. It explores how creativity is initiated by design cognition and explains relationships between style and creativity. The book establishes a new cognitive theory of style and creativity in design and provides designers with insights into their own cognitive processes and styles of thinking, supporting a better understanding of the qualities present in their own design.  An explanation of the nature of design cognition begins this work, with a look at how design knowledge is formulated, developed, structured and utilized, and how this utilization triggers style and creativity. The author goes on to review historical studies of style, considering a series of psychological experiments relating to the operational definition, degree, measurement, and creation of style. The work conceptually summarizes the recognition of individual style in products, as well as the creation of such styles as a process before reviewing studies on cr...

  18. Identity style and coping strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berzonsky, M D

    1992-12-01

    This study examined the relationship between identity style and strategies used to cope with stressors that potentially threaten one's sense of identity. Identity style refers to differences in the way individuals construct and revise or maintain their sense of identity. An informational style involves actively seeking out, evaluating, and utilizing self-relevant information. A normative style highlights the expectations and standards of significant others. A diffuse/avoidant style is characterized by procrastination and situation-specific reactions. Late-adolescent college subjects were administered measures of identity style, ways of coping with academic stressors, and test anxiety. Within this self-as-student context, subjects with diffuse and normative identity styles employed avoidant-oriented coping strategies (wishful thinking, distancing, and tension reduction). An informational style was associated with deliberate, problem-focused coping. Findings are discussed in terms of a process model of identity development.

  19. Gender Prediction of Journalists from Writing Style

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peshawa J. Muhammad Ali

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Web-based Kurdish media have seen a tangible growth in the last few years. There are many factors that have contributed into this rapid growth. These include an easy access to the internet connection, the low price of electronic gadgets and pervasive usage of social networking. The swift development of the Kurdish web-based media imposes new challenges that need to be addressed. For example, a newspaper article published online possesses properties such as author name, gender, age, and nationality among others. Determining one or more of these properties, when ambiguity arises, using computers is an important open research area. In this study the journalist’s gender in web-based Kurdish media determined using computational linguistic and text mining techniques. 75 web-based Kurdish articles used to train artificial model designed to determine the gender of journalists in web-based Kurdish media. Articles were downloaded from four different well known web-based Kurdish newspapers. 61 features were extracted from each article; these features are distinct in discriminating between genders. The Multi-Layer Perceptron (MLP artificial neural network is used as a classification technique and the accuracy received were 76%.

  20. Styles and Voices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turkle, Sherry; Papert, Seymour

    1993-01-01

    Case studies of elementary school and college students are used to examine the different styles of approach taken to computer programing. Introduces the term "bricoleur" to describe programers who do not take a structured approach to programing. Discusses gender differences among programers. (MDH)

  1. Styles of success

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahlgaard, Jens Jørn; Nørgaard, Anders; Jakobsen, Søren

    1997-01-01

    Corporate success stories tend to emphasize the "great men" theory of history. But now a European research project established the managerial attributes that can turn an ordinary leader into one ideal for the pursuit of business excellence. The emergence of five leadership styles as crucial drivers...

  2. Policy in style

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huitema, Dave; Van Snellenberg, Ton

    Environmental policy directed at industry is changing course. 'Shared responsibility' and related concepts reflect the idea that industry and government can now work together to solve environmental problems. In our view, this change implies a shift towards a more consensual policy style. This is

  3. Policy in style

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huitema, D.; van Snellenberg, A.H.L.M.

    1999-01-01

    Environmental policy directed at industry is changing course. 'Shared responsibility' and related concepts reflect the idea that industry and government can now work together to solve environmental problems. In our view, this change implies a shift towards a more consensual policy style. This is

  4. Cultural Styles of Persuasion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenn, E. S.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    Offers an alternative methodology for studying persuasive strategies by examining the persuasive strategies selected by professional persuaders representing those cultures being studied. Analyzes the persuasive styles of United States, Soviet Union and Arab diplomats involved in international negotiations in the Security Council of the United…

  5. Creating a Leadership Style

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnici, Charles A.

    2011-01-01

    Many articles about school improvement talk about data-driven instruction and statistics. In the barrage of evaluative numbers, school leaders can forget that teaching and leading are arts, not sciences. Positive outcomes depend on the ambience of the school, which is a direct result of the leadership style of its principal and assistant…

  6. Perspective: Louisville Style

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lott, Debra

    2010-01-01

    Louisville, Kentucky is an eclectic town of architectural styles from Greek revival to Renaissance Revival to Post modernism, not to mention an entire street dedicated to artsy mom and pop stores. Louisville is second only to the New York City Soho district in terms of the number of its cast-iron facades. Many of these building's fronts have…

  7. Tigers with Artistic Style.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Maureen

    2003-01-01

    Presents an art lesson used with sixth-grade students in which they painted their school mascot (a tiger) in the style of a famous artist. Explains that students selected an artist, such as Andrew Wyeth or Edvard Munch. Describes how the students created their tigers. (CMK)

  8. Styles of Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camelia M. Cmeciu

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Styles of Communicationeste o nouărevistăinternaţionalăcare va fipublicatăanual de Facultatea detiinţe ale Comunicării, Universitatea„Danubius” din Galaţi, în colaborare cu Comitetul de Filologie al Academieidetiinţe din Polonia, filiala Wroclaw.

  9. Growing for wine style

    Science.gov (United States)

    An overview of grape metabolites from anabolism and catabolism during berry development, and their significance to different wine styles. For example, grape secondary metabolites, such as phenolics, have long been valuable for the organoleptic properties they impart to fruit and wine, but more recen...

  10. The relation of parenting style to adolescent school performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dornbusch, S M; Ritter, P L; Leiderman, P H; Roberts, D F; Fraleigh, M J

    1987-10-01

    This article develops and tests a reformation of Baumrind's typology of authoritarian, permissive, and authoritative parenting styles in the context of adolescent school performance. Using a large and diverse sample of San Francisco Bay Area high school students (N = 7,836), we found that both authoritarian and permissive parenting styles were negatively associated with grades, and authoritative parenting was positively associated with grades. Parenting styles generally showed the expected relation to grades across gender, age, parental education, ethnic, and family structure categories. Authoritarian parenting tended to have a stronger association with grades than did the other 2 parenting styles, except among Hispanic males. The full typology best predicted grades among white students. Pure authoritative families (high on authoritative but not high on the other 2 indices) had the highest mean grades, while inconsistent families that combine authoritarian parenting with other parenting styles had the lowest grades.

  11. Relationship between attachment style, parental bonding and alexithymia in adults with somatoform disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedrosa Gil, Francisco; Scheidt, Carl Eduard; Hoeger, Diether; Nickel, Marius

    2008-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between parental bonding, adult attachment, and alexithymia in patients with Somatoform Disorders (SFD). There are few empirical studies to support the clinical hypothesis that alexithymia may be due to disturbances in the early parent-child relationship. In a cross-sectional study, data from 76 patients with SFD were obtained, consisting of questionnaire measures of alexithymia (TAS scale), attachment style (BFKE), and also the German version of the MOPS (Measure of Parental Style), the FDEB scale for measuring perceived parental attitude. A higher than average prevalence of insecure attachment (n = 67, 88.2%) was found in our sample with SFD and a T-value of 54.3 (9.5) in the TAS total score, 22% reaching clinically significant alexithymia. Regression analyses demonstrated the relationship between the "ambivalent clinging" and "ambivalent withdrawing" attachment style and more marked alexithymia features. Furthermore, alexithymia was positively predicted by "indifference" in the relationship to the father, BDI, and Global severity index (SCL-90-R). The results of this study support the hypothesis that alexithymia is associated with perceived parental bonding and attachment style.

  12. Neighborhood characteristics, parenting styles, and children's behavioral problems in Chinese American immigrant families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Erica H; Zhou, Qing; Ly, Jennifer; Main, Alexandra; Tao, Annie; Chen, Stephen H

    2014-04-01

    Using data from a socioeconomically diverse sample of Chinese American children (n = 258, aged 6-9 years) in immigrant families, we examined the concurrent relations among neighborhood economic disadvantage and concentration of Asian residents, parenting styles, and Chinese American children's externalizing and internalizing problems. Neighborhood characteristics were measured with 2000 U.S. Census tract-level data, parents (mostly mothers) rated their own parenting styles, and parents and teachers rated children's behavioral problems. Path analysis was conducted to test two hypotheses: (a) parenting styles mediate the relations between neighborhood characteristics and children's behavioral problems, and (b) children's behavioral problems mediate the relations between neighborhood and parenting styles. We found that neighborhood Asian concentration was positively associated with authoritarian parenting, which in turn was associated with Chinese American children's higher externalizing and internalizing problems (by parents' reports). In addition, neighborhood economic disadvantage was positively related to children's externalizing problems (by parents' reports), which in turn predicted lower authoritative parenting. The current results suggest the need to consider multiple pathways in the relations among neighborhood, family, and child adjustment, and they have implications for the prevention and intervention of behavioral problems in Chinese American children.

  13. Positive and negative affect, life satisfaction, and coping with stress by attachment styles in Turkish students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deniz, M Engin; Işik, Erkan

    2010-10-01

    The purpose was to investigate positive and negative affect, life satisfaction, and coping with stress in relation to attachment styles. Undergraduate students (N=421) completed the Relationship Scales Questionnaire, the Positive and Negative Affect Scale, the Satisfaction With Life Scale, and the Coping with Stress Scale. Results indicated that secure attachment style was the unique predictor of positive affect while fearful and preoccupied attachment styles significantly predicted negative affect. Regarding life satisfaction, a positive correlation with secure attachment style and a negative correlation with fearful and preoccupied styles were seen. However, the unique predictor of life satisfaction was preoccupied attachment style. In terms of coping with stress, there was no significant association between attachment variables and avoidance coping style, but significant links were observed between problem-focused coping and dismissing, and fearful and preoccupied attachment styles.

  14. Learned helplessness in children: a longitudinal study of depression, achievement, and explanatory style.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolen-Hoeksema, S; Girgus, J S; Seligman, M E

    1986-08-01

    In this longitudinal study, the depressive symptoms, life events, and explanatory styles of 168 school children were measured five times during the course of 1 year. Measures of school achievement were obtained once during the year. Depressive symptoms and explanatory styles were found to be quite stable over the year. As predicted by the reformulated learned helplessness theory, explanatory style both correlated with concurrent levels of depression and school achievement and predicted later changes in depression during the year. Depression also predicted later explanatory styles. The implications of these results for intervention with children with depressive symptoms or school achievement problems are discussed.

  15. Leadership Styles and Their Consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warrick, D. D.

    1981-01-01

    Discusses leadership style theories and offers an integration of the theories by describing typical characteristics, skills, philosophies, and consequences associated with each major style. An experiential exercise is described which portrays the major styles and the productivity and satisfaction each is likely to produce. Nine figures accompany…

  16. Learning styles in otolaryngology fellowships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varela, David A Diaz Voss; Malik, Mohammad U; Laeeq, Kulsoom; Pandian, Vinciya; Brown, David J; Weatherly, Robert A; Cummings, Charles W; Bhatti, Nasir I

    2011-12-01

    Previous studies have identified a predominant learning style in trainees from different specialties, more recently in otolaryngology residents. The purpose of our study was to determine a predominant learning style within otolaryngology fellowships and to identify any differences between otolaryngology fellows and residents. We conducted a survey of otolaryngology fellows at 25 otolaryngology fellowship programs accredited by the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education. We emailed Kolb's Learning Style Index version 3.1 to 16 pediatric otolaryngology (PO) and 24 otology/neurotology (ON) fellows. This index is a widely used 12-item questionnaire. The participants answered each item in the questionnaire as it applied to their preferred learning style: accommodating, converging, diverging, or assimilating. Results were then analyzed and compared between each subspecialty and the previously reported preferred styles of otolaryngology residents. Ten PO and 20 ON fellows completed the survey, with an overall response rate of 75%. PO and ON fellows (60% of each group) preferred a learning style that was "balanced" across all four styles. For ON fellows, 35% preferred converging and 5% preferred accommodating styles. For PO fellows, converging and accommodating styles accounted for 20% each. It was previously reported that 74.4% of otolaryngology residents prefer either converging or accommodating styles. We believe that the fellowship training environment calls for fellows to use more than one learning style to become proficient physicians, hence the trend toward potentially developing a balanced style when at this level. Copyright © 2011 The American Laryngological, Rhinological, and Otological Society, Inc.

  17. Strategies for Bridging Learning Styles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birchman, J. A.; Sadowski, M. A.

    2007-01-01

    Regardless of the instrument used to determine learning styles, it is commonly accepted that people learn in different ways. As Professors, we tend to teach in a style that matches the way we ourselves learn. Tis may or may not match the learning styles of the students in our classroom. As Graphics educators, we cannot meet every student's…

  18. Parenting Style Transitions and Delinquency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Ryan D.; Mowen, Thomas J.

    2014-01-01

    Parenting style has been extensively analyzed as a contributor to juvenile delinquency in the criminological literature, but no research to date has assessed the prevalence of parenting style changes during adolescence or the influence of such parenting style changes on juvenile delinquency. Drawing from the life course theory, the results show…

  19. Style drift in private equity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cumming, D.; Fleming, G.; Schwienbacher, A.

    2009-01-01

    We introduce the concept of style drift to private equity investment. We present theory and evidence pertaining to style drifts in terms of a fund manager's stated focus on particular stages of entrepreneurial development. We develop a model that derives conditions under which style drifts are less

  20. Effective Communication in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Melissa

    2014-01-01

    The intent for this paper is to show that communication within the higher education field is a current problem. By looking first at the different styles, forms, and audiences for communication, the reader will hopefully gain perspective as to why this is such a problem in higher education today. Since the Millennial generation is the newest set of…

  1. Leadership styles and quality of work life in SMEs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. S. Nanjundeswaraswamy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs in India are currently facing the challenges of increased competitions. In such environment, labor retention is very important factor for competition and survival. In this context, appropriate leadership styles and Quality of Work Life (QWL are very important factors for survival. Literature on QWL is limited to SMEs and several studies commonly correlated with only QWL dimensions but no study on QWL has association with Leadership styles. This empirical study is accomplished to predict QWL in relation to Transformational and Transactional leadership styles. The sample consists of 240 Mechanical Manufacturing SMEs in Bangalore, India. To draw the inference chi-square test, Pearson correlation and regression analysis was carried out for the collected data using Mini Tab14. The results indicate that 25% of SMEs have implemented good QWL, in 56.6% of SMEs have implemented Transformational leadership styles; QWL of SMEs has significant association with Leadership styles. QWL and Leadership styles of SMEs are independent of demographical factors of SMEs like age of the firms, size of the firms, and cost of the project. QWL dimensions like work environment, relation and cooperation, autonomy of work has a significant association with leadership style. For both transformational and transactional leadership style job satisfaction and job security has highest correlation coefficient.

  2. Relating Church-Style and Curry-Style Subtyping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Compagnoni

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Type theories with higher-order subtyping or singleton types are examples of systems where computation rules for variables are affected by type information in the context. A complication for these systems is that bounds declared in the context do not interact well with the logical relation proof of completeness or termination. This paper proposes a natural modification to the type syntax for F-Omega-Sub, adding variable's bound to the variable type constructor, thereby separating the computational behavior of the variable from the context. The algorithm for subtyping in F-Omega-Sub can then be given on types without context or kind information. As a consequence, the metatheory follows the general approach for type systems without computational information in the context, including a simple logical relation definition without Kripke-style indexing by context. This new presentation of the system is shown to be equivalent to the traditional presentation without bounds on the variable type constructor.

  3. Young Children’s Risk-Taking: Mothers’ Authoritarian Parenting Predicts Risk-Taking by Daughters but Not Sons

    OpenAIRE

    Erin E. Wood; Shelia M. Kennison

    2017-01-01

    We investigated how mothers’ parenting behaviors and personal characteristics were related to risk-taking by young children. We tested contrasting predictions from evolutionary and social role theories with the former predicting higher risk-taking by boys compared to girls and the latter predicting that mothers would influence children’s gender role development with risk-taking occurring more in children parented with higher levels of harshness (i.e., authoritarian parenting style). In our st...

  4. Adult Attachment Style, Hardiness, and Mood

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-01

    Maddi, S. R. (2004). Hardiness: An operationalization of existential cour- age. Journal of Humanistic Psychology , 44, 279–298. doi: 10.1177...but not challenge, predict positive mood. These results suggest that more secure attachment style and psychological hardiness serve as resilience...S. (1978). Pat- terns of attachment: A psychological study of the strange situation. Hill- sdale, NJ: Erlbaum. Ainsworth, M. D. S., & Wittig, B. A

  5. The origins of mental toughness – prosocial behavior and low internalizing and externalizing problems at age 5 predict higher mental toughness scores at age 14

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dena Sadeghi Bahmani

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: The concept of mental toughness has gained increasing importance among groups other than elite athletes by virtue of its psychological importance and explanatory power for a broad range of health-related behaviors. However, no study has focused so far on the psychological origins of mental toughness. Therefore, the aims of the present study were: to explore, to what extent the psychological profiles of preschoolers aged five were associated with both 1 mental toughness scores and 2 sleep disturbances at age 14, and 3 to explore possible gender differences.Method: Nine years after their first assessment at age five (preschoolers, a total of 77 adolescents (mean age: 14.35 years; SD = 1.22; 42% females took part in this follow-up study. At baseline, both parents and teachers completed the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ, covering internalizing and externalizing problems, hyperactivity, negative peer relationships, and prosocial behavior. At follow-up, participants completed a booklet of questionnaires covering socio-demographic data, mental toughness, and sleep disturbances.Results: Higher prosocial behavior, lower negative peer relationships, and lower internalizing and externalizing problems at age five, as rated by parents and teachers, were associated with self-reported higher mental toughness and lower sleep disturbances at age 14. At age 14, and relative to males, females had lower MT scores and reported more sleep disturbances.Results: Higher prosocial behavior, lower negative peer relationships, and lower internalizing and externalizing problems at age five, as rated by parents and teachers, predicted self-reported higher mental toughness and lower sleep disturbances at age 14. At age 14, and relative to males, females had lower MT scores and reported more sleep disturbance.Conclusions: The pattern of results suggests that mental toughness traits during adolescence may have their origins in the pre-school years.

  6. Relationships among gender, cognitive style, academic major, and performance on the Piaget water-level task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, R E; Hoffer, N; King, W L

    1995-06-01

    Many researchers have found that more college-age adults than would be expected fail Piaget's water-level task, with women failing more frequently than men. It has been hypothesized that differences in cognitive style may account for performance differences on the water-level task. In the present study, 27 male and 27 female architectural students and 27 male and 27 female liberal-arts students were assessed for their performance on both Piaget's Water-level Task and Witkin's Group Embedded Figures Test. No difference was found in performance of male and female architectural students on either task, but male liberal-arts students scored significantly higher than female liberal-arts students on both measures. A disembedding cognitive style predicted success on the water-level task for the architectural students but not for the liberal arts students.

  7. A cross-sectional investigation of parenting style and friendship as mediators of the relation between social class and mental health in a university community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Mark; Kelly, Benjamin M

    2015-10-05

    This study tested a novel explanation for the positive relation between social class and mental health among university students. Students with a higher social class were expected to have experienced more authoritative and less authoritarian parenting styles; these parenting styles were expected to lead to greater friendship and social integration at university; and greater friendship and integration were expected to lead to better mental health. To test this model, the researchers asked 397 Australian undergraduate students to complete an online survey. The research used a cross-sectional correlational design, and the data was analysed using bootstrapped multiple serial mediation tests. Consistent with predictions, parenting style, general friendship and support, and social integration at university mediated the relation between social class and mental health. The present results suggest that working-class parenting styles may inhibit the development of socially-supportive friendships that protect against mental health problems. The potential effectiveness of interventions based on (a) social integration and (b) parenting style is discussed. Future research in this area should employ a longitudinal research design in order to arrive at clearer causal conclusions about the relations between social class, parenting styles, friendship, social integration, and mental health.

  8. Strategic aspects of higher education reform to cultivate specialists in diagnostic and biopharma industry as applicable to Predictive, Preventive and Personalized Medicine as the Medicine of the Future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studneva, М; Mandrik, M; Song, Sh; Tretyak, E; Krasnyuk, I; Yamada, Y; Tukavin, A; Ansari, A; Kozlov, I; Reading, C; Ma, Y; Krapfenbauer, K; Svistunov, A; Suchkov, S

    2015-01-01

    Predictive, Preventive and Personalized Medicine as the Medicine of the Future represents an innovative model for advanced healthcare and robust platform for relevant industrial branches for diagnostics and pharmaceutics. However, rapid market penetration of new medicines and technologies demands the implementation of reforms not only in the spheres of biopharmaceutical industries and healthcare, but also in education. Therefore, the problem of the fundamental, modern preparation of specialists in bioengineering and affiliated fields is becoming particularly urgent, and it requires significant revision of training programs of higher education practice into current medical universities. Modernization and integration of widely accepted medical and teaching standards require consolidation of both the natural sciences and medical sciences that may become the conceptual basis for a university medical education. The main goal of this training is not simply to achieve advanced training and expansion of technological skills, but to provide development of novel multifaceted approaches to build academic schools for future generations.

  9. Higher sleep fragmentation predicts a lower magnitude of weight loss in overweight and obese women participating in a weight-loss intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawamoto, R; Nozaki, T; Furukawa, T; Tanahashi, T; Morita, C; Hata, T; Komaki, G; Sudo, N

    2014-10-27

    Sleep has been identified as having an influence on the success of weight-loss interventions; however, knowledge of the mechanisms and the extent to which sleep disturbances affect the magnitude of weight reduction is inconclusive. To determine if sleep duration and quality can predict the magnitude of weight reduction in a weight-loss intervention program for overweight and obese women. Ninety overweight and obese women aged 25-65 years completed the 7-month weight-loss phase of our weight-loss intervention. Sleep duration and quality were evaluated before the intervention by the Pittsburg Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), a self-report questionnaire, and by actigraphy. Serum levels of ghrelin, leptin, cortisol and insulin also were measured at baseline. Insulin resistance was measured by the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). The mean reduction rate of body mass index (BMI) after the intervention was 13.6%. Multiple linear regression revealed that the number of wake episodes (WEs) per night had a significant relationship with the reduction of BMI even after adjusting for other clinical variables (β=-0.341, P=0.001). The participants with five or more WEs per night (high-WE group) had a significantly lower reduction in BMI compared with those with fewer than five (normal-WE group), after adjusting for confounding variables. In contrast, the PSQI-assessed parameters, reflecting the subjective assessments of sleep quality and duration, failed to detect an association with the reduction in BMI. Baseline HOMA-IR was significantly higher in the high-WE group than in the normal-WE group after adjusting for confounding variables. Higher sleep fragmentation, as manifested by the increased number of WEs, predicts a lower magnitude of weight reduction in persons participating in weight-loss programs.

  10. Leadership styles: The role of cultural intelligence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Solomon

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Within both the South African context and abroad, leaders are increasingly being required to engage with staff members whose cultures differ from their own. As the attractiveness of different leadership styles varies in line with staff member cultural preferences, the challenge leaders face is that their behaviours may no longer be apposite. To this end, it is mostly unknown whether those leaders who are deemed culturally intelligent behave in a specific manner, that is, display the empowering and directive leadership styles.Research purpose: The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between leader cultural intelligence and the empowering and directive styles of leadership, as perceived by subordinates.Motivation for the study: To operate successfully, leaders need to adopt and display those leadership styles that best match the cultural expectations of their staff members. Cultural intelligence may assist in this respect. Most of the studies on leader cultural intelligence and leadership styles have concentrated on the transformational leadership style. There is, thus, a requirement to examine how leader cultural intelligence relates to other leadership styles.Research design, approach and method: The study was quantitative in nature and made use of a cross-sectional survey design. Data were collected from 1140 staff members spread across 19 diverse organisations carrying on business activities in South Africa. Correlation and regression techniques were performed to identify relationships.Main findings: Leader cultural intelligence was found to have a stronger relationship with empowering leadership than it had with directive leadership. With empowering leadership, leader metacognitive and motivational cultural intelligence acted as important antecedents, whilst for directive leadership, leader’s motivational, cognitive and metacognitive cultural intelligence played a predictive part that carried a medium effect

  11. Put Your Style at Stake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnsen, Christian Garmann; Olaison, Lena; Meier Sørensen, Bent

    2017-01-01

    This article uses the concept of style to rethink sustainable entrepreneurship. Our point of departure is the conceptual distinction between organization as style made durable and entrepreneurship as the disruption of style. We show that style is not simply an aesthetic category, but rather what...... that sustainable entrepreneurship consists of making an environmentally friendly and socially conscious style durable, but also of disrupting such a style. In order to illustrate our argument, we use the example of the sustainable smartphone producer Fairphone. In conclusion, we argue that the concept of style may...... ties different social practices together. While organization makes the connections between social practices durable, entrepreneurship disrupts such patterns. We further elucidate how organization and entrepreneurship are two intermingled processes – those of durability and disruption – that together...

  12. Prediction

    CERN Document Server

    Sornette, Didier

    2010-01-01

    This chapter first presents a rather personal view of some different aspects of predictability, going in crescendo from simple linear systems to high-dimensional nonlinear systems with stochastic forcing, which exhibit emergent properties such as phase transitions and regime shifts. Then, a detailed correspondence between the phenomenology of earthquakes, financial crashes and epileptic seizures is offered. The presented statistical evidence provides the substance of a general phase diagram for understanding the many facets of the spatio-temporal organization of these systems. A key insight is to organize the evidence and mechanisms in terms of two summarizing measures: (i) amplitude of disorder or heterogeneity in the system and (ii) level of coupling or interaction strength among the system's components. On the basis of the recently identified remarkable correspondence between earthquakes and seizures, we present detailed information on a class of stochastic point processes that has been found to be particu...

  13. Neighborhood Risk, Parental Socialization Styles, and Adolescent Conduct Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Gracia

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to analyze the influence of parental socialization styles (authoritarian, authoritative, indulgent and neglectful, and perceived neighborhood risk on three indicators of conduct problems in adolescence (school misconduct, delinquency, and drug use. The sample consists of 1,017 adolescents, aged between 12 and 17. Results from four multivariate factorial designs yielded only main effects of parenting styles and neighborhood risk. Adolescents from authoritative and indulgent families showed lower conduct problems than those with authoritarian and neglectful parents. Also, higher levels of perceived neighborhood risk were significantly associated with more conduct problems. There were no significant interaction effects between parenting styles and perceived neighborhood risk, but results yielded a significant interaction effect between neighborhood risk and sex. Overall, results do not support the idea that parenting styles are more effective under certain neighborhood risk conditions, and suggest that neighbourhood risk influences adolescents’ psychosocial adjustment beyond the influence of parental socialization styles.

  14. Managerial style in Spanish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dra. Cristina Etayo Pérez

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to study the management style of the Spanish advertising agencies. For this purpose, it explores the way in which the dimensions that define the nature of this concept arise in the sector chosen. The analysis begins with the definition of management style as concept followed by an exposition of its main functions and its fundamental dimensions. Then, the paper presents the methodology used to verify how these dimensions appear among managers as well as the results obtained during the fieldwork. Such methodology includes the achievement of in-depth interviews, with the help of a questionnaire of semi-structured questions, and the descriptive analysis of qualitative and quantitative information obtained from those interviews. The revision of these aspects enriches the study of management at the advertising agencies since it contributes to understand why certain actions have as a consequence one particular kind of relationship between directors and collaborators or another.

  15. New Oxford style manual

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    The New Oxford Style Manual brings together two essential reference works in a single volume: New Hart's Rules and the New Oxford Dictionary for Writers and Editors. New Hart's Rules, Oxford's definitive guide to style, consists of 20 chapters that provide authoritative and expert advice on how to prepare copy for publication. Topics covered include how to use italic, roman, and other type treatments, numbers and dates, law and legal references, illustrations, notes and references, and bibliographies. The guidelines are complemented by the New Oxford Dictionary for Writers and Editors, which features 25,000 alphabetically arranged entries giving authoritative advice on those words and names which raise questions time and time again because of spelling, capitalization, hyphenation, or cultural and historical context. Entries give full coverage of recommended spellings, variant forms, confusable words, hyphenation, capitalization, foreign and specialist terms, proper names, and abbreviations. The dictionary a...

  16. Bidirectional Relations between Temperament and Parenting Styles in Chinese Children

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Erica H.; Zhou, Qing; Eisenberg, Nancy; Wang, Yun

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined bidirectional relations between child temperament and parenting styles in a sample (n = 425) of Chinese children during elementary school period (age range = 6 to 9 years at Wave 1). Using two waves (3.8 years apart) of longitudinal data, we tested two hypotheses: (1) whether child temperament (effortful control and anger/frustration) at Wave 1 predicts parenting styles (authoritative and authoritarian parenting) at Wave 2, controlling for Wave 1 parenting; and (2) ...

  17. XML Style Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-01

    Transfer Standard URI uniform resource identifier W3C World Wide Web Consortium XML extensible markup language XSD XML schema definition XML Style...XML Overview The XML standard is a specification produced by the World Wide Web Consortium ( W3C ), whose original intent was to provide a machine...15, July 2015 10 Figure 7. IHAL Use Schema Modularity and Composability 4.2 Schema Format Define the schema according to the W3C XML schema

  18. Parenting styles and economics

    OpenAIRE

    Zilibotti, Fabrizio

    2015-01-01

    Does the economy influence the way people bring up their children? How can we determine and measure a child’s utility? How can parenting styles be categorized in an economic model? These are the questions that Professor Fabricio Zilibotti of the University of Zurich addressed in his honorary lecture ‘Parenting with Style’, which he delivered at the April International Academic Conference during the 5th LCSR international workshop ‘Social and Cultural Changes in Cross-National Perspective: Sub...

  19. Rondocubism versus National Style

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hnídková, Vendula

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available There is a range of various terms used to refer to architectural production from the period after the First World War, among the most common being 'Rondocubism' and the 'National Style'. The terminological ambiguity clearly points to the problem with the very character of the style of expression that lies behind these diverse labels. In the 1920s, figures of the interwar avant-garde were already sharply critical of the post-war decorative style, the leading figures of which were the architects Pavel Janák and Josef Gočár. While this negative stigma was later overcome, following several thematic studies, it is still possible to look for other inspiring sources outside aesthetic categories that were directed at clarifying this theme. Extensive social projects had architects employed in all sorts of artistic activities, and therefore a possible answer to what the essence of the style was is offered by the wider political and cultural context. After the foundation of the Czechoslovak Republic, the former protagonists of architectural Cubism and their colleagues from the Czechoslovak Workshop Association, Artěl and the School of Decorative Arts attained such social standing that they could effectively influence local artistic development. Through the individual conception applied to official commissions they created a visual identity of the new state system. As is apparent from their theoretical writings, they found their sources of information for ornamental decoration of buildings and craft artefacts by bonding with local tradition. This did not of course mean directly borrowing from folk-art prototypes. Advanced forms of national art were intended to help establish Czechoslovakia in the international scene and were also a conscious attempt through a more folkish form of expression to appeal to the wider strata of the population.

  20. Parenting style and adolescent fruit consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kremers, Stef P J; Brug, Johannes; de Vries, Hein; Engels, Rutger C M E

    2003-08-01

    The importance of the social environment for dietary behaviour has been highlighted in the past decade. A type of environmental influence that has received increasing research attention in recent years is the influence that parents can have on their children's dietary behaviour through food-related parenting practices. Much of the work done so far, however, has reported inconsistent findings and poorly understood mechanisms of influence. The present study aimed to explore the possible environmental influence of general parenting style on adolescent food choice patterns. Data were collected at schools (N=643; mean age 16.5 years), using self-administered questionnaires on parenting style, fruit intake behaviour and fruit-specific cognitions. Consistent and theoretically predictable differences were found between adolescents who described their parents as authoritative, authoritarian, indulgent or neglectful. Fruit consumption and fruit-specific cognitions were most favourable among adolescents who were being raised with an authoritative parenting style. Children of parents with indulgent parenting styles consumed more fruit than adolescents from authoritarian or neglectful homes. Consequences of these results for the interpretation of earlier studies on the influence of parenting practices are discussed, and a research model is proposed for future studies of parental influences on adolescent dietary behaviours.

  1. Framing Gangnam Style

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyunsun Catherine Yoon

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the way in which news about Gangnam Style was framed in the Korean press. First released on 15th July 2012, it became the first video to pass two billion views on YouTube. 400 news articles between July 2012 and March 2013 from two South Korean newspapers - Chosun Ilbo and Hankyoreh were analyzed using the frame analysis method in five categories: industry/economy, globalization, cultural interest, criticism, and competition. The right-left opinion cleavage is important because news frames interact with official discourses, audience frames and prior knowledge which consequently mediate effects on public opinion, policy debates, social movement and individual interpretations. Whilst the existing literature on Gangnam Style took rather holistic approach, this study aimed to fill the lacuna, considering this phenomenon as a dynamic process, by segmenting different stages - recognition, spread, peak and continuation. Both newspapers acknowledged Gangnam Style was an epochal event but their perspectives and news frames were different; globalization frame was most frequently used in Chosun Ilbo whereas cultural interest frame was most often used in Hankyoreh. Although more critical approaches were found in Hankyoreh, reflecting the right-left opinion cleavage, both papers lacked in critical appraisal and analysis of Gangnam Style’s reception in a broader context of the new Korean Wave.

  2. Women's higher health risks in the obesogenic environment: a gender nutrition approach to metabolic dimorphism with predictive, preventive, and personalised medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapira, Niva

    2013-01-12

    Women's evolution for nurturing and fat accumulation, which historically yielded health and longevity advantages against scarcity, may now be counteracted by increasing risks in the obesogenic environment, recently shown by narrowing gender health gap. Women's differential metabolism/disease risks, i.e. in fat accumulation/distribution, exemplified during puberty/adolescence, suggest gender dimorphism with obesity outcomes. Women's higher body fat percentage than men, even with equal body mass index, may be a better risk predictor. Differential metabolic responses to weight-reduction diets, with women's lower abdominal fat loss, better response to high-protein vs. high-carbohydrate diets, higher risks with sedentariness vs. exercise benefits, and tendency toward delayed manifestation of central obesity, metabolic syndrome, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and certain cancers until menopause-but accelerated thereafter-suggest a need for differing metabolic and chronological perspectives for prevention/intervention. These perspectives, including women's differential responses to lifestyle changes, strongly support further research with a gender nutrition emphasis within predictive, preventive, and personalized medicine.

  3. Identity Styles and Religiosity: Examining the Role of Identity Commitment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grajales, Tevni E.; Sommers, Brittany

    2016-01-01

    This study observed the role of identity styles, identity commitment, and identity statuses in predicting religiosity in a sample of undergraduate students attending a Seventh-day Adventist university (N = 138). Two structural models were evaluated via path analysis. Results revealed two strong models for the prediction of religiosity. Identity…

  4. Nursing Students’ Preferred Learning Styles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sh Salehi

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Background and purpose: Learning style is the processing of information and comprehension. If teachers present contents in a style that matches a student’s preferred learning style, academic performance and success will improve. If content retention improves it will result in an increase in thetest scores. It is also important to determine if students, as a group, fit into a particular style or a particular cycle as they move through an educational program.Methods: The study is a descriptive analytical research. Nursing Students at Isfahan Medical Sciences University completed a questionnaire  formulated to assess learning styles. Analysis of variance was used to investigate the possible relationship between learning cycle and student’s grades in the curriculum (i.e. freshman, sophomore, junior, or senior. Cross tabulation was used to test for a relationship between learning style and student academic year of study in the curriculum.Results: 294 students received the Kolb LSI questionnaire. The data demonstrated that juniors preferred a converger learning style and the senior students were in the abstract conceptualization cycle of learning. There were no relationships demonstrated between other groups in the study.Conclusion: The junior and senior students appear to prefer the stage of learning involving thinking and problem analysis. When a group of students demonstrate a preference for particular learning style teachers can develop their curriculum along their learning styleKey words: LEARNING STYLES, NURSING STUDENTS, FRESHMAN, SOPHOMORE, JUNIOR, SENIOR

  5. Entrepreneurs` Cognitive and Decision Making Styles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Motvaseli

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this study is to explore the relation between decision-making styles which are measured by the General decision-making style (GDMS test and information processing styles which are often termed cognitive styles and are, in this study, measured by Cognitive Style Inventory. The authors directed a survey research on 162 Iranian students. Structural equation modeling techniques were used to measure the impact of cognitive styles on decision-making styles. The authors found that cognitive styles have a positive impact on decision-making styles. In spite of the abundant research on factors that affect decision-making styles, few researches have tested the relationship between cognitive styles and decision-making styles. This study examines the impact of cognitive styles on decision-making styles in Iran. This study, like most research paper studies, cannot easily be generalized. Furthermore, the results of this study could be affected by economic conditions.

  6. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN NEGATIVE COGNITIVE STYLE AND DEPRESSION AMONG MEDICAL STUDENTS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perveen, Shagufta; Kazmi, Syeda Farhana; ur Rehman, Atiq

    2016-01-01

    Depression is one of the major problems faced by medical students, which have significant adverse effects on their social, academic and occupational functioning. The objectives of the study were to estimate the prevalence of depression and to explore the gender differences and interrelationship between the depression and negative cognitive style among medical students of First year (FY) Last year (LY) MBBS. A Cross sectional questionnaire based study was conducted in Ayub medical college Abbottabad; Khyber medical college Peshawar; Bannu medical college; Rawalpindi medical college; Punjab medical college Faisalabad and Allama Iqbal medical college Lahore, Pakistan. Applying stratified sampling technique a battery of questionnaires naming depression screening test, self-report depression scale and cognitive style questionnaire was filed by a sample of 1000 (first and last year) medical students. The data was analysed by SPSS 16. Positive relationship exists between depression and negative cognitive style (r = .57, p < .05) among medical students. Forty one percent male and 61% female students of FY and 58% males and 69% female of LY students exhibited depressive symptoms. Females have higher scores on cognitive style questionnaire t (998) = 3.70, p < .05, and depression t (998) = 4.28, p < .05. The t-test analysis also revealed that FY students were holding more negative cognitive style t (998) = 6.21, p < .05, whereas LY medical students to be more depressed t (998) = 5.43, p < .05. The study revealed significant distress among medical students. Negative cognitive style positively correlates with depression among medical students. Furthermore, it is noticed that among female students the prevalence of depressive symptoms and negative cognitive style was higher. Moreover, it is concluded that the prevalence of depression in LY and negative cognitive styles among FY was higher respectively. Students should be provided proper counselling to avoid and cope with faulty

  7. Relationship of Cognitive Style and Job Level: First Demonstration of Cultural Differences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetsuya Kageyama

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Higher-level managers are said to have a more intuitive cognitive style. To verify this hypothesis, we must consider three factors that have often been left out of account. Previous studies, related to managerial cognitive style and job level, used a unidimensional model of cognitive style, did not consider age, and have mainly been conducted in the UK. Our study replicated previous studies on a population of 1,533 Japanese fulltime workers, using a questionnaire based on a two-dimensional model of cognitive style and setting a frame by age for each job level. Our results showed that higher job levels are associated with more rational cognitive styles. There were significant main effects of the interaction of job level and job level by age in rational thinking style. There was no correlation between intuition and job level. Our findings are the first demonstration that the relationship between job level and cognitive style likely depends on culture.

  8. Relationship of Cognitive Style and Job Level: First Demonstration of Cultural Differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kageyama, Tetsuya; Sugiura, Motoaki

    2017-01-01

    Higher-level managers are said to have a more intuitive cognitive style. To verify this hypothesis, we must consider three factors that have often been left out of account. Previous studies, related to managerial cognitive style and job level, used a unidimensional model of cognitive style, did not consider age, and have mainly been conducted in the UK. Our study replicated previous studies on a population of 1,533 Japanese fulltime workers, using a questionnaire based on a two-dimensional model of cognitive style and setting a frame by age for each job level. Our results showed that higher job levels are associated with more rational cognitive styles. There were significant main effects of the interaction of job level and job level by age in rational thinking style. There was no correlation between intuition and job level. Our findings are the first demonstration that the relationship between job level and cognitive style likely depends on culture.

  9. Parents' perceptions of preschool children's ability to regulate eating. Feeding style differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankel, Leslie A; O'Connor, Teresia M; Chen, Tzu-An; Nicklas, Theresa; Power, Thomas G; Hughes, Sheryl O

    2014-05-01

    Parent feeding styles have been associated with children's eating behaviors and weight status across multiple studies. However, little is known about the mechanism through which parent feeding styles influence child weight status. Children's ability to self-regulate their eating may be the mechanism that links these two constructs. This study examined the relationship between parent feeding styles, child self-regulatory ability, and weight status to determine whether self-regulatory ability mediated the relationship between parent feeding styles and child weight status in a group of 296 parents and their preschool aged children. Indulgent feeding style was related to children having lessened satiety responsiveness and higher enjoyment of food (two components of self-regulation around eating) compared to other parent feeding styles. Children of parents with an indulgent feeding style were also higher in weight status compared to other feeding styles. Mediation analyses revealed that satiety responsiveness and enjoyment of food mediated the relationship between parent feeding style and child BMI z-score such that children of parents with indulgent feeding styles had lessened ability to self-regulate around eating and higher BMI z-scores. Findings from this study suggest that children's ability to self-regulate eating might be an important mechanism by which parent feeding style and child weight are related to each other. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Reduction in energy expenditure during weight loss is higher than predicted based on fat free mass and fat mass in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ten Haaf, Twan; Verreijen, Amely M; Memelink, Robert G; Tieland, Michael; Weijs, Peter J M

    2016-12-23

    The aim of this study was to describe a decrease in resting energy expenditure during weight loss that is larger than expected based on changes in body composition, called adaptive thermogenesis (AT), in overweight and obese older adults. Multiple studies were combined to assess AT in younger and older subjects. Body composition and resting energy expenditure (REE) were measured before and after weight loss. Baseline values were used to predict fat free mass and fat mass adjusted REE after weight loss. AT was defined as the difference between predicted and measured REE after weight loss. The median age of 55 y was used as a cutoff to compare older with younger subjects. The relation between AT and age was investigated using linear regression analysis. In this study 254 (M = 88, F = 166) overweight and obese subjects were included (BMI: 31.7 ± 4.4 kg/m2, age: 51 ± 14 y). The AT was only significant for older subjects (64 ± 185 kcal/d, 95% CI [32, 96]), but not for younger subjects (19 ± 152 kcal/d, 95% CI [-9, 46]). The size of the AT was significantly higher for older compared to younger adults (β = 47, p = 0.048), independent of gender and type and duration of the weight loss program. We conclude that adaptive thermogenesis is present only in older subjects, which might have implications for weight management in older adults. A reduced energy intake is advised to counteract the adaptive thermogenesis. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Predictors of obesity and overweight in preschoolers: The role of parenting styles and feeding practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melis Yavuz, H; Selcuk, Bilge

    2018-01-01

    Childhood obesity/overweight (OB/OW) displayed a rapid increase and high prevalence in the last few decades in preschool-aged children, which raised health concerns across the world and motivated researchers to investigate the factors that underlie childhood obesity. The current study examined parenting styles and child-feeding practices as potential predictors for OB/OW in preschool children, controlling for child's temperament, which has been shown to be linked with OB/OW. The sample included 61 normal weight (NW) and 61 obese/overweight (OB/OW) Turkish pre-schoolers (M age = 62.2 months; SD = 7.64, range = 45-80 months). Parenting styles (authoritarian, authoritative), child-feeding practices (restriction, pressure to eat, monitoring), and child's temperament (negative affectivity) were measured with mothers' reports. Results showed that authoritarian parenting and maternal pressure to eat were the two parenting variables that significantly predicted child's weight status; the odds of being OB/OW was 4.71 times higher in children whose mothers used higher authoritarian parenting style, and was 0.44 times lower when mothers pressured their child to eat. These findings suggest that understanding the unique role of different aspects of parenting in the risk of early OB/OW status of children would be important in developing more effective interventions from early years in life. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. INFLUENCE OF VALUES ON LEADERSHIP STYLES: AN ANALYSIS ACCORDING TO BASS’ TRANSFORMATIONAL-TRANSACTIONAL LEADERSHIP MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARTÍN NADER

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Data corresponding to a study made with 224 low and high level leaders (142 men and 84 women resident appear in Buenos Aires, which worked in small, medium and big companies which had as primary target to determine the influence that exerts the values of the leader on their leadership style. It was observed that the self transcendence and openness to change values predicted transformational leadership style whereas the self promotion values predicted the transactional leadership style. There was no interaction between conservation values and transactional leadership style.

  13. Relation between birth order and interpersonal styles

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    Mauro de Oliveira Magalhães

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Interpersonal style is an aspect of personality related to the particular way individuals participate and gain influence in social contexts. It has its origin in childhood’s first social interactions within the family group. It is suggested that the individual position in the family structure, namely birth order, is an important variable in this process. The present study investigated combined effects of sex and birth order on interpersonal style. A sample of 435 college students (196 men and 239 women with ranging in age from 18 to 40 years (M = 23,3 answered the BASIS-A (Basic Adlerian Scales of Interpersonal Styles and a brief demographic questionnaire. Interactions between sex and birth order were found. Lastborn women showed greater tendency to search for success and social approval than firstborn women and lastborn men. Among men, lastborn revealed less need for social approval compared to firstborn and only children. First born men showed a higher need to attend social conventions and obtain success. The interaction between sex and birth order was relevant for the understanding of personality development in the context of family relations.   Keywords: birth order; interpersonal styles; personality.

  14. Higher expression levels of the HOXA9 gene, closely associated with MLL-PTD and EZH2 mutations, predict inferior outcome in acute myeloid leukemia

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    Gao L

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Li Gao,1,* Junzhong Sun,2,* Fang Liu,2,3,* Hui Zhang,1 Yigai Ma1 1Department of Hematology, China–Japan Friendship Hospital, 2Department of Hematology and Oncology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Chinese PLA General Hospital, 3Department of Oncology, Chinese PLA General Hospital, Beijing, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: Although the biological insight of acute myeloid leukemia (AML has increased in the past few years, the discovery of novel discriminative biomarkers remains of utmost value for improving outcome predictions. Systematical studies concerning the clinical implications and genetic correlations of HOXA9 aberrations in patients with AML are relatively promising.Materials and methods: Here, we investigated mutational status and the mRNA levels of the HOXA9 gene in 258 patients with AML. Furthermore, hematological characteristics, chromosome abnormalities, and genetic mutations associated with AML were analyzed, followed by the assessment of clinical survival. Besides, the expression level and mutational status of MEIS1, a cofactor of HOXA9, were also detected in patients with AML with the aim of a deeper understanding about the homeodomain-containing transcription factors associated with hematological characteristics.Results: HOXA9 and MEIS1 mutations were detected in 4.26% and 3.49% AML cases, respectively. No correlations were detected between mutation status and clinical characteristics, cytogenetic and genetic aberrations, and clinical survival. Higher HOXA9 expression levels were correlated with white blood cell count and closely associated with unfavorable karyotype as well as MLL-PTD and EZH2 mutations, whereas, there was an inverse correlation with the French–American–British M3 subtype. Compared with patients with lower HOXA9 expression levels, those with higher HOXA9 expression levels had a lower complete remission rate and inferior survivals in both AML and

  15. Higher neonatal growth rate and body condition score at 7 months are predictive factors of obesity in adult female Beagle dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leclerc, Lucie; Thorin, Chantal; Flanagan, John; Biourge, Vincent; Serisier, Samuel; Nguyen, Patrick

    2017-04-13

    The risks during early growth on becoming overweight in adulthood are widely studied in humans. However, early-life predictive factors for canine adult overweight and obesity have not yet been studied. To identify factors that may help explain the development of overweight and obesity at adulthood in dogs, a longitudinal study of 2 years was conducted in 24 female Beagle dogs of the same age, sexual status, and raised under identical environmental conditions. By means of a hierarchical classification on principal components with the following quantitative values: fat-free mass (FFM), percentage fat mass and pelvic circumference at 2 years of age, three groups of dogs were established and were nominally named: ideal weight (IW, n = 9), slightly overweight (OW1, n = 6) and overweight (OW2, n = 9). With the aim of identifying predictive factors of development of obesity at adulthood parental characteristics, growth pattern, energy balance and plasma factors were analysed by logistic regression analysis. At 24 months, the group compositions were in line with the body condition scores (BCS 1-9) values of the IW (5 or 6/9), the OW1 (6/9) and the OW2 (7 or 8/9) groups. Logistic regression analysis permitted the identification of neonatal growth rate during the first 2 weeks of life (GR2W) and BCS at 7 months as predictors for the development of obesity at adulthood. Seventy percent of dogs with either GR2W >125% or with BCS > 6/9 at 7 months belonged to the OW2 group. Results from energy intake and expenditure, corrected for FFM, showed that there was a greater positive energy imbalance between 7 and 10 months for the OW2, compared to the IW group. This study expands the understanding of previously reported risk factors for being overweight or obese in dogs, establishing that (i) 15 out of 24 of the studied dogs became overweight and (ii) GR2W and BCS at 7 months of age could be used as predictive factors as overweight adult dogs in the OW2 group

  16. Parenting style, parenting stress, and children's health-related behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyunjeong; Walton-Moss, Benita

    2012-07-01

    Parental guidance is critical to the development of children's health-related behaviors. The purpose of this study was to look at the relationship between parenting factors, including parenting style and parenting stress, and children's health-related behaviors. In this descriptive, correlational study, 284 parents of preschool children were interviewed using the Child Rearing Questionnaire and the Korean Parenting Stress Index-Short Form. Parent distress, authoritative and permissive parenting styles, family income, and mother's education were significantly associated with children's health-related behaviors. These findings suggest that higher levels of warmth, characteristics of both parenting styles, may be a critical factor in the development of health-related behaviors.

  17. Attachment style and interpersonal trauma in refugees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morina, Naser; Schnyder, Ulrich; Schick, Matthis; Nickerson, Angela; Bryant, Richard A

    2016-12-01

    Refugees can suffer many experiences that threaten their trust in others. Although models of refugee mental health have postulated that attachment securities may be damaged by refugee experiences, this has yet to be empirically tested. This study aimed to understand the relationship between the nature of traumatic experiences sustained by refugees and attachment styles. In a cross-sectional study, treatment-seeking refugees (N = 134) were assessed for traumatic exposure using the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire and Posttraumatic Diagnostic Scale. Attachment style was assessed using the Experiences in Close Relationship Scale. Whereas gender and severity of interpersonal traumatic events predicted avoidant attachment style (accounting for 11% of the variance), neither these factors nor non-interpersonal trauma predicted anxious attachment. Exposure to interpersonal traumatic events, including torture, is associated with enduring avoidant attachment tendencies in refugees. This finding accords with attachment theories that prior adverse interpersonal experiences can undermine secure attachment systems, and may promote avoidance of attachment seeking. This finding may point to an important process maintaining poor psychological health in refugees affected by interpersonal trauma. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2016.

  18. Thermodynamic models to predict gas-liquid solubilities in the methanol synthesis, the methanol-higher alcohol synthesis, and the Fischer-Tropsch synthesis via gas-slurry processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breman, B.B; Beenackers, A.A C M

    1996-01-01

    Various thermodynamic models were tested concerning their applicability to predict gas-liquid solubilities, relevant for synthesis gas conversion to methanol, higher alcohols, and hydrocarbons via gas-slurry processes. Without any parameter optimization the group contribution equation of state

  19. Higher mini-BAL total protein concentration in early ARDS predicts faster resolution of lung injury measured by more ventilator-free days.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrickson, Carolyn M; Abbott, Jason; Zhuo, Hanjing; Liu, Kathleen D; Calfee, Carolyn S; Matthay, Michael A

    2017-05-01

    The protein concentration of alveolar edema fluid in acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is dynamic. It reflects alveolar flooding during acute injury, as well as fluid and protein clearance over time. We hypothesized that among ARDS patients treated with low tidal volume ventilation, higher concentrations of protein in mini-bronchoalveolar lavage (mBAL) samples would predict slower resolution of lung injury and worse clinical outcomes. Total protein and IgM concentrations in day 0 mBAL samples from 79 subjects enrolled in the aerosolized albuterol (ALTA) ARDS Network Albuterol Trial were measured by colorimetric assay and ELISA, respectively. Linear regression models were used to test the association of mBAL proteins with clinical outcomes and measures of length of illness, including ventilator-free days (VFDs). Median mBAL total protein concentration was 1,740 μg/ml [interquartile range (IQR): 890-3,170]. Each 500 μg/ml increase in day 0 mBAL total protein was associated with an additional 0.8 VFDs [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.05-1.6, P value = 0.038]. Median mBAL IgM concentration was 410 ng/ml (IQR: 340-500). Each 50 ng/ml increase in mBAL IgM was associated with an additional 1.1 VFDs (95% CI 0.2-2.1, P value = 0.022). These associations remained significant and were not attenuated in multivariate models adjusted for age, serum protein concentration, and vasopressor use in the 24 h before enrollment. Thus, higher mBAL total protein and IgM concentrations at day 0 are associated with more VFDs in patients with ARDS and may identify patients with preserved alveolar epithelial mechanisms for net alveolar fluid clearance. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  20. Stakeholder Analisys of Higher Education Institutions

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    Ivana Maric

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, knowledge, the human capital, and learning organizations have become the key determinants of current global progress. Higher educational sector has been faced with globalization and strong competition. Therefore, the need has arisen for professional management structures and more entrepreneurial style of leadership. Organizations have been transformed to learning organizations by the life long learning concept, while the knowledge management has become the leading tool in building competitive advantages. High education organizations are being pushed forward by competitiveness. That pressure requires continuous improvement emphasizing the need for measuring outcomes and building excellence. The paradigm of stakeholder analysis, applied to specific determinations of the system of higher education institutions, could be a good way for comprehending and predicting interests, needs and requirements of all key players in the environment. The purpose of this paper is to enhance the possibility of understanding the connection between higher education institutions and its environment in context of stakeholder analysis. The paper uses literature as a basis in identifying critical parameters for stakeholder analysis and its implementation to higher education sector. The findings of the paper reveal that the concept of stakeholders is critical and difficult to implement everywhere and to everything. There is a clear attempt of all organizations, especially those that create and encourage knowledge, to understand the actions of all participants and predictions of interests and requirements of the changing environment.

  1. Identity Styles: Predictors of Reading and Writing Abilities

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    Zohre Mohamadi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available How the individual differences prime different learning process is well addressed in literature. But, what is missing from these analyses is how learners with different identity styles approach reading and writing skills and if different identity styles can predict differentiated language performance. The present study aims at investigating the relationship between identity styles, and reading/writing skills of Iranian intermediate female EFL learners. One the basis of the results of Nelson language proficiency test, 120 participants were selected to participate in this research. Participants' answers to Berzonsky's Identity Style Inventory (ISI3 and reading and writing parts of Preliminary English Test were analyzed. The results indicated that informational and normative identity styles were found to be positively correlated and diffuse-avoidant style was negatively correlated with reading and writing abilities whereas commitment identity didn't bear any significant relationships. The findings also indicated that informational style acted as the best predictor of these skills. Implications for language teachers are suggested.

  2. Process modeling style

    CERN Document Server

    Long, John

    2014-01-01

    Process Modeling Style focuses on other aspects of process modeling beyond notation that are very important to practitioners. Many people who model processes focus on the specific notation used to create their drawings. While that is important, there are many other aspects to modeling, such as naming, creating identifiers, descriptions, interfaces, patterns, and creating useful process documentation. Experience author John Long focuses on those non-notational aspects of modeling, which practitioners will find invaluable. Gives solid advice for creating roles, work produ

  3. Higher body mass index and lower intake of dairy products predict poor glycaemic control among Type 2 Diabetes patients in Malaysia.

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    Ping Soon Shu

    Full Text Available This cross-sectional study was designed to determine factors contributing to glyceamic control in order to provide better understanding of diabetes management among Type 2 Diabetes patients. A pre-tested structured questionnaire was used to obtain information on socio-demographic and medical history. As a proxy measure for glycaemic control, glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c was obtained as secondary data from the medical reports. Perceived self-care barrier on diabetes management, diet knowledge and skills, and diet quality were assessed using pretested instruments. With a response rate of 80.3%, 155 subjects were recruited for the study. Mean HbA1c level of the subjects was 9.02 ± 2.25% with more than 70% not able to achieve acceptable level in accordance to WHO recommendation. Diet quality of the subjects was unsatisfactory especially for vegetables, fruits, fish and legumes as well as from the milk and dairy products group. Higher body mass index (BMI, poorer medication compliance, lower diet knowledge and skill scores and lower intake of milk and dairy products contributed significantly on poor glycaemic control. In conclusion, while perceived self-care barriers and diet quality failed to predict HbA1c, good knowledge and skill ability, together with appropriate BMI and adequate intake of dairy products should be emphasized to optimize glycaemic control among type 2 diabetes patients.

  4. Correlations between coping styles and symptom expectation for rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Robert; Russell, Anthony S

    2010-12-01

    In pain conditions, active coping has been found to be associated with less severe depression, increased activity level and less functional impairment. Studies indicate that there is a high expectation for chronic disability following a diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis. The objective of this study was to compare both the expectations and the coping style for rheumatoid arthritis in disease-naïve subjects. The Vanderbilt Pain Management Inventory was administered to university students. Subjects who had not yet experienced rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and did not know a person with RA were given a vignette concerning a new onset diagnosis of RA and were asked to indicate how likely they were to have thoughts or behaviours indicated in the coping style questionnaire. Subjects also completed expectations regarding daily functioning according to the Stanford Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ) for RA. The mean active coping style score for RA was 27.3 ± 4.6 (40 is the maximum score for active coping). The mean passive coping style score was 26.2 ± 7.0 (50 is the maximum score for passive coping). Those with high passive coping styles had a higher mean expectation score (higher HAQ score) of disability from rheumatoid arthritis. The correlation between passive coping style score and expectation score was 0.48, while the correlation between active coping style score and expectation was -0.34. Both expectations and coping styles may interact or be co-modifiers in the outcomes of RA patients. Further studies of coping styles and expectations in RA are required.

  5. Style in science communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucchi, Massimiano

    2013-11-01

    There is little doubt that during the past few decades science communication efforts aimed at non-expert audiences have increased in quantity and intensity on a global scale. Public engagement and outreach activities have now become a routine - when not a prominent - feature for several research institutions in Europe. However, it would be difficult for both scholars and those involved in science communication to agree on the impact of these activities, on the long-term implications of the 'science communication movement' and on the indicators we should develop and employ in order to assess impact. The paper argues that quality is a relevant issue and challenge for contemporary science communication. Style is relevant to addressing that challenge, insofar as it relates to discussions about how to strengthen the quality of science communication, suggesting a different perspective other than the traditional normative/prescriptive framework. The notion of style also fruitfully connects the debate on science communication with a rich tradition of studies in the history and sociology of science.

  6. Ward leadership styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, G

    1989-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to devise a leadership style scale based in the authoritarian/democratic concept of leadership and to test it with a group of nurses. The working hypothesis was that nurses, working by primary nursing methods, would have a more democratic attitude to leadership than those nurses working in a traditional task allocation system. Recent papers such as that of Henry & Tuxill (1) plead for the caring professions to take on board the concept of the 'person'. Not only is the traditional model of nursing care seen as bad for the patient; it is seen also as harmful to the nurses. Fretwell (2) describes the task system as essentially an industrial model rather than a professional one which tends to satisfy the needs of the doctor rather than the patient or nurse. Kinston (3) describes nursing decision-making and work as Level I work (tradesmen). Current models of care that individualize the nurse's response to work and decision-making become Level II type (professional). Primary nursing fulfils the need for professionalizing nursing and meeting the need for more independence as well as respecting the patient as a 'person' with the organisation there to facilitate interaction between qualified nurse and patient. Changes in attitude and relationships are essential if work is to change from task to person-centred. Styles of leadership in nurses need to alter as our orientation to care issues change (4).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  7. Traduction automatique et style (Machine Translation and Style).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loffler-Laurian, Anne-Marie

    1985-01-01

    Machine translation has been criticized for its inability to provide language style, but for specialized or technical texts, of which there are increasing numbers, machine translation with its obligatory post-editing may be effective, and the "style" of these translations may be a reflection of the error patterns caught in post-editing. (MSE)

  8. Perceived Stress and Coping Styles among Malay Caregivers of Children with Learning Disabilities in Kelantan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isa, Siti Nor Ismalina; Ishak, Ismarulyusda; Rahman, Azriani Ab; Saat, Nur Zakiah Mohd; Din, Normah Che; Lubis, Syarif Husin; Ismail, Muhammad Faiz Mohd

    2017-01-01

    Background Caregivers of children with learning disabilities have been shown to experience increased stress and greater negative caregiving consequences than those with typically developing children. There remains a lack of studies focusing on stress and coping mechanisms among caregivers of a wider age group and diagnosis of individuals with disabilities in Asian countries. The current study examines levels of perceived stress and associated child and caregiver factors among caregivers of children with learning disabilities in the Malaysian context. An additional aim was to determine whether caregiver coping styles may be predictors of perceived stress. Methods The Malay version of the Perceived Stress Scale with 10 items and the Brief COPE Scale were administered to a sample of 190 Malay caregivers of children with learning disabilities registered with community-based rehabilitation centres in Kelantan, a state in Peninsular Malaysia. Multiple linear regression analysis was applied to determine the predictors of perceived stress. Results The mean total perceived stress score of caregivers was 16.96 (SD = 4.66). The most frequently used coping styles found among caregivers included religion, acceptance and positive reframing, while substance use and behavioural disengagement were least frequently used. Higher perceived stress was significantly predicted among caregivers with fewer children, frequent use of instrumental support and behavioural disengagement coping, and lack of emotional support and religious coping. Conclusion Findings indicate that the perceived stress levels among caregivers were significantly predicted by different coping styles. It is vital to help the caregivers improve their good coping styles in order to reduce their stress levels. PMID:28381931

  9. Relationship between Academic Performance, Spatial Competence, Learning Styles and Attrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianela Noriega Biggio

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the results of research on factors affecting academic performance and attrition in a sample of 1,500 freshman students majoring in architecture, design and urbanism at the Universidad de Buenos Aires, Argentina [University of Buenos Aires, Argentina] who were enrolled in a drafting course. The hypotheses we tested concern the mediating role of learning styles on the relationship between spatial competence and academic performance, learning-style differences by gender and cohort, and the relationship between attrition, spatial competence level and learning style. Statistical analysis of the data was performed and spatial competence enhanced by motivational profile was found to predict final achievement. Educational implications are identified, highlighting the need to promote in students those academic behaviors that characterize a self-regulated learning style and encourage the use of specific intellectual abilities.

  10. Is Experiential-intuitive Cognitive Style More Inclined to Err on Conjunction Fallacy than Analytical-rational Cognitive Style?

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    Yong eLu

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In terms of prediction by Epstein’s integrative theory of personality, Cognitive-Experiential Self-Theory (CEST, those people with experiential-intuitive cognitive style are more inclined to induce errors than the other people with analytical-rational cognitive style in the conjunction fallacy (two events that can occur together are seen as more likely than at least one of the two events. We tested this prediction in a revised Linda problem. The results revealed that rational and experiential cognitive styles do not statistically influence the propensity for committing the conjunction fallacy, which is contrary to the CEST’s predictions. Based on the assumption that the rational vs. experiential processing is a personality trait with comparatively stabile specialities, these findings preliminarily indicate that those people who are characterized by rational thinking are not more inclined to use Bayes’ deduction than the other people who are labeled by intuitive thinking or by poor thinking.

  11. Is experiential-intuitive cognitive style more inclined to err on conjunction fallacy than analytical-rational cognitive style?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yong

    2015-01-01

    In terms of prediction by Epstein's integrative theory of personality, cognitive-experiential self-theory (CEST), those people with experiential-intuitive cognitive style are more inclined to induce errors than the other people with analytical-rational cognitive style in the conjunction fallacy (two events that can occur together are seen as more likely than at least one of the two events). We tested this prediction in a revised Linda problem. The results revealed that rational and experiential cognitive styles do not statistically influence the propensity for committing the conjunction fallacy, which is contrary to the CEST's predictions. Based on the assumption that the rational vs. experiential processing is a personality trait with comparatively stabile specialities, these findings preliminarily indicate that those people who are characterized by "rational thinking" are not more inclined to use Bayes' deduction than the other people who are labeled by "intuitive thinking" or by "poor thinking."

  12. Leadership styles, emotion regulation, and burnout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Kara A; Connelly, Catherine E; Walsh, Megan M; Martin Ginis, Kathleen A

    2015-10-01

    This study investigated the potential impact of leadership style on leaders' emotional regulation strategies and burnout. Drawing on the full-range model of leadership and Conservation of Resources (COR) theory, we tested whether transformational, contingent reward, management by exception-active and -passive, or laissez-faire leadership exert direct effects on leaders' reported use of surface acting, deep acting, and genuine emotion. In turn, we hypothesized and tested the indirect effect of leadership on burnout through surface acting. Three waves of data from 205 leaders were analyzed using OLS regression. Transformational leadership predicted deep acting and genuine emotion. Contingent reward predicted both surface and deep acting. Management by exception-active and -passive predicted surface acting, and laissez faire predicted genuine emotion. The indirect effects of management by exception-active and -passive on burnout through surface acting were not significant. Indirect effects of transformational leadership and laissez-faire on burnout through genuine emotion, however, were significant. This study provides empirical evidence for the hypothesized relationships between leadership style, emotion regulation, and burnout, and provides the basis for future research and theory building on this topic. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. EFL teachers’ teaching style, creativity, and burnout: A path analysis approach

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    Afsaneh Ghanizadeh

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study delved into a rarely explored construct in the domain of English as a foreign language (EFL, i.e. teaching style. We hypothesized that teacher creativity plays a role in the styles teachers adopt in language institutes. It was also conjectured that teaching style affects burnout. The role of burnout in teacher creativity was also investigated. To measure teaching style, Grasha’s Teaching Style Inventory comprising five teaching styles (Expert, Authority, Model, Facilitator, and Delegator on a continuum of teacher vs. learner-oriented styles was employed. The educator version of the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI-ES and the English Language Teacher Creativity Scale (ELT-CS were utilized to gauge burnout and creativity, respectively. To examine these causal associations, a path analysis was run. The results demonstrated the role of teachers’ creativity in their preferred teaching style. In particular, it was found that teacher creativity predicts Facilitator and Delegator positively; whereas, it predicts Authority and Expert in a negative direction. The results also revealed that three teaching styles (Model, Facilitator, and Delegator appear to contribute to burnout prevention whereas the other two teaching styles (Expert and Authority have no significant role. Finally, the debilitative role of teacher burnout in creativity was demonstrated.

  14. Life Style Assessment: So What!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubry, William E.

    The construct life style was used by Alfred Adler to describe the characteristic way in which individuals act and think. Followers of his theories are now collecting evidence to support or validate his contentions. The assessment of client life styles serves: (1) to make the client aware of his misconceptions, (2) as a reference point for therapy,…

  15. Learning Styles and Native Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browne, Dauna Bell

    1990-01-01

    Reviews 5 models of learning or cognitive styles and the concept of brain hemispheric functions. Discusses the right hemisphere dominant learning style of many Native American children. Presents points to consider when modifying curricula or designing a reading program aimed at all learners. Contains 19 references. (SV)

  16. Supervisory Styles: A Contingency Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehe, Dirk Michael

    2016-01-01

    While the contingent nature of doctoral supervision has been acknowledged, the literature on supervisory styles has yet to deliver a theory-based contingency framework. A contingency framework can assist supervisors and research students in identifying appropriate supervisory styles under varying circumstances. The conceptual study reported here…

  17. Intercultural conflict styles: literature review

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    Batkhina A.A.

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Analytical review of foreign psychological research on the international conflict styles is presented in this article. Intercultural conflict is understood as an interpersonal conflict between representatives of different cultures. The main models describing the intercultural conflict styles are analyzed: the dual concern model, the intercultural conflict styles inventory model, the face negotiation model. The publication provides a brief review of modern studies’ results of behavior predictors in the intercultural conflict; special attention is paid to the analysis of the influence of culture and intercultural communication apprehension on the choice of conflict styles. The importance of assessing the conflict styles effectiveness used in the situation of intercultural interaction is noted. In conclusion, unresolved problems and actual trends in the study of behavior in the intercultural conflict are designated.

  18. Perturbation and Nonlinear Dynamic Analysis of Different Singing Styles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butte, Caitlin J.; Zhang, Yu; Song, Huangqiang; Jiang, Jack J.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Previous research has used perturbation analysis methods to study the singing voice. Using perturbation and nonlinear dynamic analysis (NDA) methods in conjunction may provide more accurate information on the singing voice and may distinguish vocal usage in different styles. Acoustic samples from different styles of singing were compared using nonlinear dynamic and perturbation measures. Twenty-six songs from different musical styles were obtained from an online music database (Rhapsody, RealNetworks, Inc., Seattle, WA). One-second samples were selected from each song for analysis. Perturbation analyses of jitter, shimmer, and signal-to-noise ratio and NDA of correlation dimension (D2) were performed on samples from each singing style. Percent jitter and shimmer median values were low normal for country (0.32% and 3.82%), musical theater (MT) (0.280% and 2.80%), jazz (0.440% and 2.34%), and soul (0.430% and 6.42%). The popular style had slightly higher median jitter and shimmer values (1.13% and 6.78%) than other singing styles, although this was not statistically significant. The opera singing style had median jitter of 0.520%, and yielded significantly high shimmer (P = 0.001) of 7.72%. All six singing styles were measured reliably using NDA, indicating that operatic singing is notably more chaotic than other singing styles. Median correlation dimension values were low to normal, compared to healthy voices, in country (median D2 = 2.14), jazz (median D2 = 2.24), pop (median D2 = 2.60), MT (median D2 = 2.73), and soul (mean D2 = 3.26). Correlation dimension was significantly higher in opera (P singing gave significantly high values for shimmer and D2, suggesting that it is more irregular than other singing styles; a previously unknown quality of opera singing. Perturbation analysis also suggested significant differences in vocal output in different singing styles. This preliminary study using acoustic analysis with nonlinear dynamic measures and

  19. Net Generation's Learning Styles in Nursing Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christodoulou, Eleni; Kalokairinou, Athina

    2015-01-01

    Numerous surveys have confirmed that emerging technologies and Web 2.0 tools have been a defining feature in the lives of current students, estimating that there is a fundamental shift in the way young people communicate, socialize and learn. Nursing students in higher education are characterized as digital literate with distinct traits which influence their learning styles. Millennials exhibit distinct learning preferences such as teamwork, experiential activities, structure, instant feedback and technology integration. Higher education institutions should be aware of the implications of the Net Generation coming to university and be prepared to meet their expectations and learning needs.

  20. Parenting Styles and Home Obesogenic Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Ihmels

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Parenting behaviors are known to have a major impact on childhood obesity but it has proven difficult to isolate the specific mechanism of influence. The present study uses Baumrind’s parenting typologies (authoritative, authoritarian, and permissive to examine associations between parenting styles and parenting practices associated with childhood obesity. Data were collected from a diverse sample of children (n = 182, ages 7–10 in an urban school district in the United States. Parenting behaviors were assessed with the Parenting Styles and Dimension Questionnaire (PSDQ, a 58-item survey that categorizes parenting practices into three styles: authoritative, authoritarian, and permissive. Parent perceptions of the home obesogenic environment were assessed with the Family Nutrition and Physical Activity (FNPA instrument, a simple 10 item instrument that has been shown in previous research to predict risk for overweight. Cluster analyses were used to identify patterns in the PSDQ data and these clusters were related to FNPA scores and measured BMI values in children (using ANCOVA analyses that controlled for parent income and education to examine the impact of parenting styles on risk of overweight/obesity. The FNPA score was positively (and significantly associated with scores on the authoritative parenting scale (r = 0.29 but negatively (and significantly associated with scores on the authoritarian scale (r = −0.22 and permissive scale (r = −0.20. Permissive parenting was significantly associated with BMIz score but this is the only dimension that exhibited a relationship with BMI. A three-cluster solution explained 40.5% of the total variance and clusters were distinguishable by low and high z-scores on different PSDQ sub-dimensions. A cluster characterized as Permissive/Authoritarian (Cluster 2 had significantly lower FNPA scores (more obesogenic than clusters characterized as Authoritative (Cluster 1 or Authoritarian

  1. Parenting styles and home obesogenic environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Rachel; Welk, Greg; Saint-Maurice, Pedro F; Ihmels, Michelle

    2012-04-01

    Parenting behaviors are known to have a major impact on childhood obesity but it has proven difficult to isolate the specific mechanism of influence. The present study uses Baumrind's parenting typologies (authoritative, authoritarian, and permissive) to examine associations between parenting styles and parenting practices associated with childhood obesity. Data were collected from a diverse sample of children (n = 182, ages 7-10) in an urban school district in the United States. Parenting behaviors were assessed with the Parenting Styles and Dimension Questionnaire (PSDQ), a 58-item survey that categorizes parenting practices into three styles: authoritative, authoritarian, and permissive. Parent perceptions of the home obesogenic environment were assessed with the Family Nutrition and Physical Activity (FNPA) instrument, a simple 10 item instrument that has been shown in previous research to predict risk for overweight. Cluster analyses were used to identify patterns in the PSDQ data and these clusters were related to FNPA scores and measured BMI values in children (using ANCOVA analyses that controlled for parent income and education) to examine the impact of parenting styles on risk of overweight/obesity. The FNPA score was positively (and significantly) associated with scores on the authoritative parenting scale (r = 0.29) but negatively (and significantly) associated with scores on the authoritarian scale (r = -0.22) and permissive scale (r = -0.20). Permissive parenting was significantly associated with BMIz score but this is the only dimension that exhibited a relationship with BMI. A three-cluster solution explained 40.5% of the total variance and clusters were distinguishable by low and high z-scores on different PSDQ sub-dimensions. A cluster characterized as Permissive/Authoritarian (Cluster 2) had significantly lower FNPA scores (more obesogenic) than clusters characterized as Authoritative (Cluster 1) or Authoritarian/Authoritative (Cluster 3) after

  2. The relationship between teaching styles and motivation to teach among physical education teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hein, Vello; Ries, Francis; Pires, Francisco; Caune, Agnese; Heszteráné Ekler, Judit; Emeljanovas, Arunas; Valantiniene, Irena

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to investigate how teachers' motivation to teach is related to different teaching styles. A hundred and seventy six physical education teachers from five European countries participated in the study. Teachers' motivation was measured using an instrument developed by Roth et al., 2007 based on the Self-Determination Theory (Deci and Ryan, 1985) which was tested for suitability for use with physical education teachers. The use of teaching styles was assessed through teachers' self-reported data according to the description of teaching styles presented by Curtner-Smith et al., 2001. The revised confirmatory factor model of the teachers' motivation instrument, with three factors, met the criteria for satisfactory fit indices. The results showed that teachers were more intrinsically motivated to teach than externally. Cross-cultural comparison indicated that the Spanish teachers were more intrinsically motivated whilst Lithuanian teachers were more externally motivated than teachers from the other four countries. Teachers from all five countries reported a more frequent use of reproductive styles than productive styles. The results of the present study confirmed the hypotheses that teachers' autonomous motivation is related to the student-centered or productive teaching styles whilst non-autonomously motivated teachers adopt more teacher-centered or reproductive teaching styles. Intrinsic and introjected motivation was significantly higher among teachers who more frequently employed productive teaching styles than teachers who used them less frequently. Intrinsically motivated teachers using more productive teaching styles can contribute more to the promotion physical activity among students. PE teachers were more intrinsically motivated to teach than externally.Spanish PE teachers were more intrinsically motivated, whereas Lithuanian PE teachers were more externally motivated.Teachers from all five countries reported a more frequent use of reproductive

  3. Grapheme-color synaesthesia is associated with a distinct cognitive style.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Beat; Rothen, Nicolas

    2013-01-01

    In this study we investigated whether synaesthesia is associated with a particular cognitive style. Cognitive style refers to preferred modes of information processing, such as a verbal style or a visual style. We reasoned that related to the enriched world of experiences created by synaesthesia, its association with enhanced verbal and visual memory, higher imagery and creativity, synaesthetes might show enhanced preference for a verbal as well as for a visual cognitive style compared to non-synaesthetes. In Study 1 we tested a large convenience sample of 1046 participants, who classified themselves as grapheme-color, sound-color, lexical-gustatory, sequence-space, or as non-synaesthetes. To assess cognitive style, we used the revised verbalizer-visualizer questionnaire (VVQ), which involves three independent cognitive style dimensions (verbal style, visual-spatial style, and vivid imagery style). The most important result was that those who reported grapheme-color synaesthesia showed higher ratings on the verbal and vivid imagery style dimensions, but not on the visual-spatial style dimension. In Study 2 we replicated this finding in a laboratory study involving 24 grapheme-color synaesthetes with objectively confirmed synaesthesia and a closely matched control group. Our results indicate that grapheme-color synaesthetes prefer both a verbal and a specific visual cognitive style. We suggest that this enhanced preference, probably together with the greater ease to switch between a verbal and a vivid visual imagery style, may be related to cognitive advantages associated with grapheme color synaesthesia such as enhanced memory performance and creativity.

  4. Grapheme-colour synaesthesia is associated with a distinct cognitive style

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beat eMeier

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study we investigated whether synaesthesia is associated with a particular cognitive style. Cognitive style refers to preferred modes of information processing, such as a verbal style or a visual style. We reasoned that related to the enriched world of experiences created by synaesthesia, its association with enhanced verbal and visual memory, higher imagery and creativity, synaesthetes might show enhanced preference for a verbal as well as for a visual cognitive style compared to non-synaesthetes. In Study 1 we tested a large convenience sample of 1046 participants, who classified themselves as grapheme-colour, sound-colour, lexical-gustatory, sequence-space or as non-synaesthetes. To assess cognitive style, we used the revised verbalizer-visualizer questionnaire, which involves three independent cognitive style dimensions (verbal style, visual-spatial style, and vivid imagery style. The most important result was that those who reported grapheme-colour synaesthesia showed higher ratings on the verbal and vivid imagery style dimensions, but not on the visual-spatial style dimension. In Study 2 we replicated this finding in a laboratory study involving 24 grapheme-colour synaesthetes with objectively confirmed synaesthesia and a closely matched control group. Our results indicate that grapheme-colour synaesthetes prefer both a verbal and a specific visual cognitive style. We suggest that this enhanced preference, probably together with the greater ease to switch between a verbal and a vivid visual imagery style, may be related to cognitive advantages associated with grapheme colour synaesthesia such as enhanced memory performance and creativity.

  5. Linking fearfulness and coping styles in fish.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catarina I M Martins

    Full Text Available Consistent individual differences in cognitive appraisal and emotional reactivity, including fearfulness, are important personality traits in humans, non-human mammals, and birds. Comparative studies on teleost fishes support the existence of coping styles and behavioral syndromes also in poikilothermic animals. The functionalist approach to emotions hold that emotions have evolved to ensure appropriate behavioral responses to dangerous or rewarding stimuli. Little information is however available on how evolutionary widespread these putative links between personality and the expression of emotional or affective states such as fear are. Here we disclose that individual variation in coping style predicts fear responses in Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus, using the principle of avoidance learning. Fish previously screened for coping style were given the possibility to escape a signalled aversive stimulus. Fearful individuals showed a range of typically reactive traits such as slow recovery of feed intake in a novel environment, neophobia, and high post-stress cortisol levels. Hence, emotional reactivity and appraisal would appear to be an essential component of animal personality in species distributed throughout the vertebrate subphylum.

  6. Does the supervisor's teaching style influence the supervisee's learning prescribed techniques?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Timothy; Crowley, Maryellen J; Binder, Jeffrey L; Heckman, Bernadette D; Patterson, Candace L

    2017-09-01

    This study examined the directive and non-directive supervisors' instructional styles, supervisees' interactive communications within supervision sessions as well as the relative success of supervisees' learning to apply specific techniques within psychotherapy. The developers of Time-Limited Dynamic Psychotherapy (TLDP) provided the supervised training for 16 therapists as part of the "Vanderbilt II" psychotherapy project. Supervision sessions were rated for supervisors' adherence to TLDP content. Both supervisors and supervisee were rated for classroom interactive behaviors of "initiation" speech (e.g., introducing ideas) and "responsive" speech (e.g., amplifying the other speaker's topic). The third therapy session was targeted for discussion within supervision. Therapy sessions immediately before and after supervision were rated on TLDP adherence. One of the supervisors (Supervisor A) was found to use an instructional style of relatively more initiation-based speech, whereas the other (Supervisor B) used more response-based speech. Technical adherence for supervisees of Supervisor A was significantly higher than those assigned to Supervisor B. Supervisees' initiation-based speech during supervision predicted less use of TLDP techniques in the therapy session after supervision. Supervisors' interactive style was not associated with therapy adherence. Relatively more directive and structured supervision may influence the acquisition and use of manual-prescribed therapy techniques.

  7. Attachment Style Is Related to Quality of Life for Assistance Dog Owners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Naomi; Mills, Daniel; Hall, Sophie

    2017-06-19

    Attachment styles have been shown to affect quality of life. Growing interest in the value of companion animals highlights that owning a dog can also affect quality of life, yet little research has explored the role of the attachment bond in affecting the relationship between dog ownership and quality of life. Given that the impact of dog ownership on quality of life may be greater for assistance dog owners than pet dog owners, we explored how anxious attachment and avoidance attachment styles to an assistance dog affected owner quality of life (n = 73). Regression analysis revealed that higher anxious attachment to the dog predicted enhanced quality of life. It is suggested that the unique, interdependent relationship between an individual and their assistance dog may mean that an anxious attachment style is not necessarily detrimental. Feelings that indicate attachment insecurity in other relationships may reflect more positive aspects of the assistance dog owner relationship, such as the level of support that the dog provides its owner.

  8. Parental sedentary restriction, maternal parenting style, and television viewing among 10- to 11-year-olds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jago, Russell; Davison, Kirsten K; Thompson, Janice L; Page, Angie S; Brockman, Rowan; Fox, Kenneth R

    2011-09-01

    To examine whether parenting styles or practices were associated with children's television (TV) viewing. A total of 431 parent-child dyads (10- to 11-year-old children) from Bristol, United Kingdom, were included. Child and parent TV viewing were self-reported and categorized as 4 hours/day. Children reported maternal parenting style (authoritarian, authoritative, or permissive). Child-reported maternal and paternal sedentary restriction scores were combined to create a family-level restriction score. Multinomial logistic regression was used to examine whether child TV viewing was predicted by parenting style or family restriction. A greater proportion of children with permissive mothers watched >4 hours of TV per day, compared with children with authoritarian or authoritative mothers (P = .033). A greater proportion of children for whom both parents demonstrated high restriction watched 4 hours (vs 4 hours of TV per day was 5.2 times higher for children with permissive (versus authoritative) mothers (P = .010). Clinicians need to talk directly with parents about the need to place limitations on children's screen time and to encourage both parents to reinforce restriction messages.

  9. The relationship between attachment style and placement of parents in adults' attachment networks over time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julal, F S; Carnelley, K B; Rowe, A

    2017-08-01

    Using a bull's-eye hierarchical mapping technique (HMT), the present study examined placement of parents in adults' attachment networks over time. We hypothesized that attachment style would predict distance at which network members (mother, father, and romantic partner) would be placed from the core-self over time. Participants completed the HMT on two occasions, 12 months apart. Concurrently and over time, fathers were placed further from the core-self than mothers. Attachment style explained unique variance, beyond that accounted for by individual and relationship characteristics. Specifically, network members with whom participants reported greater attachment insecurity were placed further from the core-self concurrently. Mothers with whom participants reported greater attachment insecurity were placed further from the core-self over time. Unsatisfactory attachment relationships with father and partner and those marked by higher attachment insecurity were more likely to be excluded from attachment networks over time. Findings suggest that attachment style, relationship quality, romantic relationship status, and parents' marital status determine the placement of parents in adults' attachment networks.

  10. Parenting style is related to executive dysfunction after brain injury in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, Jennifer L; Wade, Shari L; Walz, Nicolay C; Cassedy, Amy; Stevens, M Hank; Yeates, Keith O; Taylor, H Gerry

    2011-11-01

    The goal of this study was to examine how parenting style (authoritarian, authoritative, permissive) and family functioning are related to behavioral aspects of executive function following traumatic brain injury (TBI) in young children. Participants included 75 children with TBI and 97 children with orthopedic injuries (OI), ages 3-7 years at injury. Pre-injury parenting behavior and family functioning were assessed shortly after injury, and postinjury executive functions were assessed using the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Functioning (BRIEF; Gioia & Isquith, 2004) at 6, 12, and 18 months postinjury. Mixed model analyses, using pre-injury executive functioning (assessed by the BRIEF at baseline) as a covariate, examined the relationship of parenting style and family characteristics to executive functioning in children with moderate and severe TBI compared to OI. Among children with moderate TBI, higher levels of authoritarian parenting were associated with greater executive difficulties at 12 and 18 months following injury. Permissive and authoritative parenting styles were not significantly associated with postinjury executive skills. Finally, fewer family resources predicted more executive deficits across all of the groups, regardless of injury type. These findings provide additional evidence regarding the role of the social and familial environment in emerging behavior problems following childhood TBI.

  11. Attachment Style Is Related to Quality of Life for Assistance Dog Owners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naomi White

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Attachment styles have been shown to affect quality of life. Growing interest in the value of companion animals highlights that owning a dog can also affect quality of life, yet little research has explored the role of the attachment bond in affecting the relationship between dog ownership and quality of life. Given that the impact of dog ownership on quality of life may be greater for assistance dog owners than pet dog owners, we explored how anxious attachment and avoidance attachment styles to an assistance dog affected owner quality of life (n = 73. Regression analysis revealed that higher anxious attachment to the dog predicted enhanced quality of life. It is suggested that the unique, interdependent relationship between an individual and their assistance dog may mean that an anxious attachment style is not necessarily detrimental. Feelings that indicate attachment insecurity in other relationships may reflect more positive aspects of the assistance dog owner relationship, such as the level of support that the dog provides its owner.

  12. Towards a concept of food-related life style

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus G.

    Life style has become popular in explaining food choice. In this paper the way life style studies are usually conducted is criticized based on a) that the methods lack a theoretical foundation, b) that the statistical methods are questionable, and c)that the explanatory power with regard to food...... choice remains to be demonstrated. A cognitive deductive approach is presented as a theoretically more well-founded alternative. It defines life style as the system of cognitive categories, scripts, and their associations, which relate a set of products to a set of values. A concept of food-related life...... style should hence contain elements like shopping scripts, meal preparation scripts, desired higher-order food attributes, food usage situations, and desired consequences of food products....

  13. Parenting styles, adolescent substance use, and academic achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, D A; Rice, J

    1997-01-01

    This article investigates how children and their parents rate their parenting styles, and how this rating is associated with academic achievement, alcohol, and tobacco use. We surveyed students and their parents in two public school districts. A total of 386 matched parent-child pairs from eighth- and ninth-grade students were analyzed for parent and student classification of parents as authoritative, authoritarian, permissive, or mixed parenting styles. Agreement on parenting styles between parents and children was poor. Students perceived parents as less authoritative, less permissive and more authoritarian than parents considered themselves. High grades were associated with child and parent perception of higher authoritativeness, lower permissiveness, and lower authoritarianism. Child tobacco and alcohol use was associated with child perception of lower authoritativeness, and higher permissiveness while parent perception of parenting style was not associated with child substance use. This study provides further evidence that parenting styles and adolescents' perceptions of them are associated with child achievement and substance use. While we cannot determine whether child or parent perception of parenting style is more accurate, child perception is more strongly associated with grades and substance use than is parent perception. It is likely that parents would benefit from understanding how they are perceived by their children.

  14. Examination of Relationship between Anxiety Sensitivity and Parenting Styles in Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erozkan, Atilgan

    2012-01-01

    This research investigated the relationships between anxiety sensitivity and perceived parenting styles of adolescents and the predictive role of perceived parenting styles on anxiety sensitivity. The study group was composed by 545 (255 females; 290 males) students studying in different high schools in Mugla. The data were collected using the…

  15. The Effects of Mood, Cognitive Style, and Cognitive Ability on Implicit Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pretz, Jean E.; Totz, Kathryn Sentman; Kaufman, Scott Barry

    2010-01-01

    In an experiment with 109 undergraduates, we examined the effect of mood, cognitive style, and cognitive ability on implicit learning in the Artificial Grammar (AG) and Serial Reaction Time (SRT) tasks. Negative mood facilitated AG learning, but had no significant effect on SRT learning. Rational cognitive style predicted greater learning on both…

  16. The Relationship between Stress, Coping Style, and Academic Satisfaction: A Quantitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodge-Windover, Sheila T.

    2017-01-01

    College students experience a great deal of stress, which is associated with poor health and poor levels of academic satisfaction which can lead to low retention. The purpose of this quantitative correlational study was to investigate how stress and coping style predict academic satisfaction and understand how and if coping style moderates the…

  17. Mothers' and Fathers' Parenting Styles and Associations with Toddlers' Externalizing, Internalizing, and Adaptive Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinaldi, Christina M.; Howe, Nina

    2012-01-01

    The two primary objectives of the present study were to (a) investigate mothers' and fathers' reports of their own as well as their partner's parenting styles, and (b) assess how mothers' and fathers' parenting styles uniquely and jointly predicted toddlers' externalizing, internalizing, and adaptive behaviors. Fifty-nine mothers and fathers…

  18. Personality Traits and Learning Styles of Secondary School Students in Serbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djigic, Gordana; Stojiljkovic, Snežana; Markovic, Andrijana

    2016-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the personality dimensions and learning styles of secondary school students, attending grammar and technical vocational school. The aim of the study is to examine differences in personality traits and learning styles between students from these types of schools, as well as to determine the predictive power of…

  19. Influence of Parenting Styles on the Adjustment and Academic Achievement of Traditional College Freshmen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickman, Gregory P.; Bartholomae, Suzanne; McKenry, Patrick C.

    2000-01-01

    Examines the relationship between parenting styles and academic achievement and adjustment of traditional college freshmen (N=101). Multiple regression models indicate that authoritative parenting style was positively related to student's academic adjustment. Self-esteem was significantly predictive of social, personal-emotional, goal…

  20. Field Dependence/Independence Cognitive Styles: Are They Significant at Different Levels of Vocabulary Knowledge?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rostampour, Mohammad; Niroomand, Seyyedeh Mitra

    2014-01-01

    Cognitive styles influence the performance of language learners and can predict their success in the process of language learning. Considering field dependence/independence cognitive styles, this study aims at determining if they are significant in English vocabulary knowledge. A number of EFL university students took part in the study. The…

  1. The Relationship between Family Environment and Parenting Style: A Preliminary Study of African American Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Nancy E.

    1995-01-01

    The influence of parenting style on aspects of family environment was studied with 174 9th graders, 11th graders and college freshmen (96% African American). Findings demonstrate that types of parenting styles are significantly related to outcome measures of family environment as predicted. Implications of authoritative parenting among blacks are…

  2. An Examination of Mathematically Gifted Students' Learning Styles by Decision Trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esra Aksoy

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine mathematically gifted students' learning styles through data mining method. ‘Learning Style Inventory’ and ‘Multiple Intelligences Scale’ were used to collect data. The sample included 234 mathematically gifted middle school students. The construct decision tree was examined predicting mathematically gifted students’ learning styles according to their multiple intelligences and gender and grade level. Results showed that all the variables used in the study had a significant effect on mathematically gifted students’ learning styles, but the most effective attribute found was intelligence type.

  3. Associations of parenting dimensions and styles with externalizing problems of children and adolescents: An updated meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinquart, Martin

    2017-05-01

    The present meta-analysis integrates research from 1,435 studies on associations of parenting dimensions and styles with externalizing symptoms in children and adolescents. Parental warmth, behavioral control, autonomy granting, and an authoritative parenting style showed very small to small negative concurrent and longitudinal associations with externalizing problems. In contrast, harsh control, psychological control, authoritarian, permissive, and neglectful parenting were associated with higher levels of externalizing problems. The strongest associations were observed for harsh control and psychological control. Parental warmth, behavioral control, harsh control, psychological control, autonomy granting, authoritative, and permissive parenting predicted change in externalizing problems over time, with associations of externalizing problems with warmth, behavioral control, harsh control, psychological control, and authoritative parenting being bidirectional. Moderating effects of sampling, child's age, form of externalizing problems, rater of parenting and externalizing problems, quality of measures, and publication status were identified. Implications for future research and practice are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. Remembered Parenting Styles and Adjustment in Middle and Late Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooney, Teresa M.; An, Jeong Shin

    2009-01-01

    Background Authoritative parenting is the parenting style often associated with positive outcomes for children and adolescents. This study considers whether remembered parenting styles in childhood predict multiple dimensions of functioning in adulthood. Methods We used the 1995 National Survey of Midlife Development in the United States data set (N = 2,232) to assess the association between parenting behaviors remembered from childhood—classified as authoritative, authoritarian, indulgent, and uninvolved—and psychological well-being, depressive symptoms, and substance abuse, in a subsample of mid- and later-life adults. Differences in outcomes by sex, race, and childhood socioeconomic status were also examined across parenting styles. Results Adults who remembered authoritative compared with authoritarian and uninvolved parents reported greater psychological well-being and fewer depressive symptoms, and those with uninvolved parents noted greater substance abuse. No outcome differences were found between remembered authoritative and indulgent parenting styles. A few sex and race interactions were identified: Authoritative parenting (compared with uninvolved) was more strongly associated with men's psychological well-being than women's, and authoritative parenting (compared with authoritarian) predicted reduced depressive symptoms for Whites more than non-Whites. Conclusions There is some support that remembered parenting styles continue to be related to functioning across the lifespan. There is also evidence of resiliency, flexibility, and malleability in human development. PMID:19176484

  5. Remembered parenting styles and adjustment in middle and late adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothrauff, Tanja C; Cooney, Teresa M; An, Jeong Shin

    2009-01-01

    Authoritative parenting is the parenting style often associated with positive outcomes for children and adolescents. This study considers whether remembered parenting styles in childhood predict multiple dimensions of functioning in adulthood. We used the 1995 National Survey of Midlife Development in the United States data set (N = 2,232) to assess the association between parenting behaviors remembered from childhood-classified as authoritative, authoritarian, indulgent, and uninvolved-and psychological well-being, depressive symptoms, and substance abuse, in a subsample of mid- and later-life adults. Differences in outcomes by sex, race, and childhood socioeconomic status were also examined across parenting styles. Adults who remembered authoritative compared with authoritarian and uninvolved parents reported greater psychological well-being and fewer depressive symptoms, and those with uninvolved parents noted greater substance abuse. No outcome differences were found between remembered authoritative and indulgent parenting styles. A few sex and race interactions were identified: Authoritative parenting (compared with uninvolved) was more strongly associated with men's psychological well-being than women's, and authoritative parenting (compared with authoritarian) predicted reduced depressive symptoms for Whites more than non-Whites. There is some support that remembered parenting styles continue to be related to functioning across the lifespan. There is also evidence of resiliency, flexibility, and malleability in human development.

  6. Cognitive style and Computer-Assisted Learning: problems and a possible solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John A. Clarke

    1993-12-01

    Full Text Available Although the notion of cognitive style has been around for some time, only in relatively recent times has there been a research interest in examining its effect on the performance of Computer-Assisted Learning (CAL users. There are a number of practical difficulties associated with catering for different cognitive styles of CAL users. This paper identifies not only a style which influences CAL-user performance and overcomes many of the difficulties, but also a possible suitable measure of that style. Data on the reliability of this measure is reported, along with preliminary work on its use to cater for CAL users with different cognitive styles. Future work will focus on the development of the package and the predictive validity of the style measure.

  7. Food-related life style: Development of a cross-culturally valid instrument for market surveillance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus G.; Brunsø, Karen; Bisp, Søren

    1993-01-01

    an important input to a food producer's strategy formation. 2. Life style measurement has been widely used in marketing, namely for guiding advertising strategy, segmentation, and product development. Life style is potentially a valuable tool for market surveillance. 3. Life style studies as they are currently...... done in market research have been criticized on several grounds: they lack a theoretical foundation, they lack cross-cultural validity, their ability to predict behaviour is limited, and the derivation of so-called basic life style dimensions is unclear. 4. We propose an instrument called food......-related life style that avoids these problems and is geared towards market surveillance in the food industry. It is rooted in the cognitive approach to explain human behaviour, and the main assertion is that life style is how consumers mentally link products to the attainment of life values. 5. Food...

  8. Attachment Styles as a Predictor of Emotional Intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamarta, Erdal; Deniz, M. Engin; Saltali, Neslihan

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine if attachment styles predict emotional intelligence (intrapersonal, interpersonal, adaptability, stress management, and general mood). Participants of the study consisted of 463 (272 females, 191 males) undergraduate students selected randomly from different faculties of Selcuk University. Regression and…

  9. Coping Styles in Youths with Insulin-Dependent Diabetes Mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Cindy L.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Evaluated relationships between two coping styles and two health outcomes in 135 youth with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM). Found that poor adherence to treatment, older adolescent age, and long duration of IDDM correlated with ventilation and avoidance coping. High ventilation and avoidance coping was predicted by high stress, low…

  10. Organizational Conspiracy Beliefs: Implications for Leadership Styles and Employee Outcomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Prooijen, Jan-Willem; de Vries, Reinout Everhard

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Belief in conspiracy theories about societal events is widespread among citizens. The extent to which conspiracy beliefs about managers and supervisors matter in the micro-level setting of organizations has not yet been examined, however. We investigated if leadership styles predict

  11. Parenting Style and Adolescents' School Performance in Mainland China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Yanrong; Moore, Joyce

    2011-01-01

    Parenting style, as a widely studied topic, has been used by researchers and educators in the US to predict students' academic achievements. Despite its theoretical and practical significance, no much work has been conducted to test the generalizability of parenting research framed in the Western culture to the Chinese population. Parenting styles…

  12. The effect of parents' conversational style and disciplinary knowledge on children's observation of biological phenomena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberbach, Catherine

    This study was designed to better understand how children begin to make the transition from seeing the natural world to scientifically observing the natural world during shared family activity in an informal learning environment. Specifically, this study addressed research questions: (1) What is the effect of differences in parent conversational style and disciplinary knowledge on children's observations of biological phenomena? (2) What is the relationship between parent disciplinary knowledge and conversational style to children's observations of biological phenomena? and (3) Can parents, regardless of knowledge, be trained to use a teaching strategy with their children that can be implemented in informal learning contexts? To address these questions, 79 parent-child dyads with children 6-10 years old participated in a controlled study in which half of the parents used their natural conversational style and the other half were trained to use particular conversational strategies during family observations of pollination in a botanical garden. Parents were also assigned to high and low knowledge groups according to their disciplinary knowledge of pollination. Data sources included video recordings of parent-child observations in a garden, pre-post child tasks, and parent surveys. Findings revealed that parents who received training used the conversational strategies more than parents who used their natural conversational style. Parents and children who knew more about pollination at the start of the study exhibited higher levels of disciplinary talk in the garden, which is to be expected. However, the use of the conversational strategies also increased the amount of disciplinary talk in the garden, independent of what families knew about pollination. The extent to which families engaged in disciplinary talk in the garden predicted significant variance in children's post-test scores. In addition to these findings, an Observation Framework (Eberbach & Crowley, 2009

  13. Young Children’s Risk-Taking: Mothers’ Authoritarian Parenting Predicts Risk-Taking by Daughters but Not Sons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin E. Wood

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated how mothers’ parenting behaviors and personal characteristics were related to risk-taking by young children. We tested contrasting predictions from evolutionary and social role theories with the former predicting higher risk-taking by boys compared to girls and the latter predicting that mothers would influence children’s gender role development with risk-taking occurring more in children parented with higher levels of harshness (i.e., authoritarian parenting style. In our study, mothers reported their own gender roles and parenting styles as well as their children’s risk-taking and activities related to gender roles. The results were only partially consistent with the two theories, as the amount of risk-taking by sons and daughters did not differ significantly and risk-taking by daughters, but not sons, was positively related to mothers’ use of the authoritarian parenting style and the girls’ engagement in masculine activities. Risk-taking by sons was not predicted by any combination of mother-related variables. Overall, mothers who were higher in femininity used more authoritative and less authoritarian parenting styles. Theoretical implications as well as implications for predicting and reducing children’s risk-taking are discussed.

  14. Breaking the Rules in Style.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, Tom

    1988-01-01

    Describes how allowing students to break the rules of standard writing can increase students' creativity in their written expression. Discusses several traits of this alternate style, or "Grammar B," including sentence fragments, double voice, lists, and spelling variations. (MM)

  15. Attachment Styles and Risky Behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeynab Mohammadalipoor

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Current challengeable life, faces young with varied damages. The Purpose of this research was appointment of role of attachment styles in the risky behaviors of students. Method: the method of the project was attachment in descriptive ones. 273 people of students were selected via several stage cluster sample, and answered to questionner of adult attachment and risky behaviors. Results: Results of analyses of data showed that secure attachment style related with risky behaviors negatively and ambivalence attachment style and avoidant attachment style related with risky behaviors positively. Conclusion: Therefore is emphasized on the importance of instruction of families in the field of creation of secure relationship with children and also importance of plans for heighten secure attachment by counseling centers of university.

  16. German Memo and Letter Style.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Arthur H.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Describes German correspondence styles in order to assist American managers. Explains typical conventions of both letter and memo formats, emphasizing the need to appreciate differences between formal and informal modes of communication. (RS)

  17. Advertising styles in different cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krasulja Nevena

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Modern consumer is inhabitant of a "Global Village" as well as of its own national culture which largely influences his creation of a system of values, beliefs and style of life in general. According to adopted values and styles, consumers from different cultures have different buying behavior, different needs and preferences related to a product and they have their favorite advertising styles. As advertising reflects culture, symbols and rituals which are used are even more emphasized and strengthen cultural values, which are then used as a strong advertising style characteristic. Global advertisers are increasingly faced with different environment meaning. A fact that has been proved in practice is that standardized approach to advertising does not transmit values in a correct way, so the advertisers that want to achieve long term success must differentiate their brands to competitors'. In modern market environment strategy "Think globally, act locally" proved to be adequate for advertising in modern international market.

  18. Attachment style in parents of children with chronic gastrointestinal disease.

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    Knez, Rajna; Francisković, Tanja; Samarin, Radenka Munjas; Niksić, Milan

    2011-09-01

    Attachment is a point of interest in psychosomatic research since it influences a wide array of biopsychosocial phenomena. Data from literature highlights the role of this concept in the context of Inflammatory Bowel disease (IBD), still, there is a lack of data regarding attachment among parents of children with chronic gastrointestinal diseases. The main hypothesis for the current study is that parents of children with IBD will have a more insecure attachment than parents of children with celiac disease (CD) and parents of healthy children. The second hypothesis is that insecure attachment among parents of sick children will be associated with lower parental quality of life (QoL). 46 parents of children with IBD, 42 parents of children with CD and 43 parents of healthy children completed the validated modification of the Brennan's Experiences in Close Relationship Inventory. Results were categorized as secure and insecure attachment. In order to assess parental QoL, the WHOQOL-BREF questionnaire was used. The Total QoL was calculated as a sum of all domain items. Secure attachment was found in 45.7% parents of children with IBD, in 35.7% parents of children with CD and in 32.6% parents of healthy children. Surprisingly, the lowest rate of secure attachment was found in parents of healthy children. However, significant differences among groups do not exist. For all groups of parents the attachment style is associated with Total QoL, although only among parents of children with IBD, the secure attachment independently and significantly predicts higher parental Total QoL. According to results, we might say that parental attachment style does not have a role that exclusively belongs in the context of paediatric chronic gastrointestinal diseases. However, parents of children with IBD who have insecure attachment represent target group for psychosocial support in order to improve their QoL.

  19. Thinking style preference, emotional intelligence and leadership effectiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tessie H. Herbst

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the researchers investigate the relationship between thinking style preference, emotional intelligence and leadership effectiveness in an institution of higher education. The measuring instruments used were the Neethling Brain Preference Profle (NBPP and the Mayer, Salovey and Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT, as well as the Kouzes and Posner Leadership Practices Inventory (LPI. The sample comprised 138 managers within a higher education institution. The researchers found some evidence to support the relationship between thinking style, emotional intelligence (EI and leadership effectiveness. The researchers concluded that facets of brain dominance and emotional intelligence may be potentially useful predictors of transformational leadership behaviours.

  20. [Life style and affective disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raboch, Jiří

    2017-01-01

    Life style significantly affects the health status of each person. Life style medicine is an evidence based practice, which is trying to develop patterns of healthy behavior. Most evidence exists about the effect of suitable diet (eg. unsaturated fatty acids) and adequate aerobic exercise. Combination of lifestyle modification to standard psychopharmacologic and psychotherapeutic techniques can improve the results of preventive and therapeutic programs for people with depressive issues.