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Sample records for sturm-liouville problems related

  1. Green's functions and trace formulas for generalized Sturm-Liouville problems related by Darboux transformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulze-Halberg, Axel

    2010-01-01

    We study Green's functions of the generalized Sturm-Liouville problems that are related to each other by Darboux -equivalently, supersymmetrical - transformations. We establish an explicit relation between the corresponding Green's functions and derive a simple formula for their trace. The class of equations considered here includes the conventional Schroedinger equation and generalizations, such as for position-dependent mass and with linearly energy-dependent potential, as well as the stationary Fokker-Planck equation.

  2. Multiparameter eigenvalue problems Sturm-Liouville theory

    CERN Document Server

    Atkinson, FV

    2010-01-01

    One of the masters in the differential equations community, the late F.V. Atkinson contributed seminal research to multiparameter spectral theory and Sturm-Liouville theory. His ideas and techniques have long inspired researchers and continue to stimulate discussion. With the help of co-author Angelo B. Mingarelli, Multiparameter Eigenvalue Problems: Sturm-Liouville Theory reflects much of Dr. Atkinson's final work.After covering standard multiparameter problems, the book investigates the conditions for eigenvalues to be real and form a discrete set. It gives results on the determinants of fun

  3. Characterizing degenerate Sturm-Liouville problems

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    Angelo B. Mingarelli

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Consider the Dirichlet eigenvalue problem associated with the real two-term weighted Sturm-Liouville equation $$-(p(xy'' = lambda r(xy$$ on the finite interval [a,b]. This eigenvalue problem will be called degenerate provided its spectrum fills the whole complex plane. Generally, in degenerate cases the coefficients $p(x, r(x$ must each be sign indefinite on [a,b]. Indeed, except in some special cases, the quadratic forms induced by them on appropriate spaces must also be indefinite. In this note we present a necessary and sufficient condition for this boundary problem to be degenerate. Some extensions are noted.

  4. Fundamental Results of Conformable Sturm-Liouville Eigenvalue Problems

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    Mohammed Al-Refai

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We suggest a regular fractional generalization of the well-known Sturm-Liouville eigenvalue problems. The suggested model consists of a fractional generalization of the Sturm-Liouville operator using conformable derivative and with natural boundary conditions on bounded domains. We establish fundamental results of the suggested model. We prove that the eigenvalues are real and simple and the eigenfunctions corresponding to distinct eigenvalues are orthogonal and we establish a fractional Rayleigh Quotient result that can be used to estimate the first eigenvalue. Despite the fact that the properties of the fractional Sturm-Liouville problem with conformable derivative are very similar to the ones with the classical derivative, we find that the fractional problem does not display an infinite number of eigenfunctions for arbitrary boundary conditions. This interesting result will lead to studying the problem of completeness of eigenfunctions for fractional systems.

  5. An efficient method for solving fractional Sturm-Liouville problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Mdallal, Qasem M.

    2009-01-01

    The numerical approximation of the eigenvalues and the eigenfunctions of the fractional Sturm-Liouville problems, in which the second order derivative is replaced by a fractional derivative, is considered. The present results can be implemented on the numerical solution of the fractional diffusion-wave equation. The results show the simplicity and efficiency of the numerical method.

  6. The Sturm-Liouville spectrum problem: quartic oscillator case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voros, Andre.

    1982-11-01

    The Sturm-Liouville eigenvalue problem given by the steady-state Schroedinger equation in quantum mechanics is considered on the real axis. There are, however, exact expressions available only for a harmonic oscillator (the Hermite equation); consequently, semi-classical asymptotic methods (in powers of the Planck's constant), which yield very good approximations, have been much studied analytically and as regards their relationships to geometrical optics. These methods relate the asymptotic form of the spectrum to the closed orbits of the Hamiltonian vector field of the function H(p,q) = p 2 + V(q) in the phase space R 2 . We seek to show that these supposedly approximate methods are in fact an exact way of solving the problem. The quartic oscillator, with V(q) = q 4 , is used as an example [fr

  7. Adomian decomposition method for nonlinear Sturm-Liouville problems

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    Sennur Somali

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the Adomian decomposition method is applied to the nonlinear Sturm-Liouville problem-y" + y(tp=λy(t, y(t > 0, t ∈ I = (0, 1, y(0 = y(1 = 0, where p > 1 is a constant and λ > 0 is an eigenvalue parameter. Also, the eigenvalues and the behavior of eigenfuctions of the problem are demonstrated.

  8. Exactly solvable quantum Sturm-Liouville problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buyukasik, Sirin A.; Pashaev, Oktay K.; Tigrak-Ulas, Esra

    The harmonic oscillator with time-dependent parameters covers a broad spectrum of physical problems from quantum transport, quantum optics, and quantum information to cosmology. Several methods have been developed to quantize this fundamental system, such as the path integral method, the

  9. On operators associated with the product of solutions of two Sturm-Liouville problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christov, E.Ch.

    1988-01-01

    Expansion formulae over the product of the solutions of two selfadjoint Sturm-Liouville problems are obtained. An explicit form of the operators for which these formulae are expansions of the unit is constructed. 9 refs

  10. Hardy inequality and properties of the quasilinear Sturm-Liouville problem

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Drábek, P.; Kufner, Alois

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 18, č. 1 (2007), s. 125-138 ISSN 1120-6330 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : Hardy inequality * weighted spaces * Sturm-Liouville problem Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics

  11. Inverse Problems for the Quadratic Pencil of the Sturm-Liouville Equations with Impulse

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    Rauf Kh. Amırov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study some inverse problems for a boundary value problem generated with a quadratic pencil of Sturm-Liouville equations with impulse on a finite interval are considered. Some useful integral representations for the linearly independent solutions of a quadratic pencil of Sturm-Liouville equation have been derived and using these, important spectral properties of the boundary value problem are investigated; the asymptotic formulas for eigenvalues, eigenfunctions, and normalizing numbers are obtained. The uniqueness theorems for the inverse problems of reconstruction of the boundary value problem from the Weyl function, from the spectral data, and from two spectra are proved.

  12. Some nonlinear and nonlocal Sturm-Liouville problems motivated by the problem of flutter

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    B. P. Belinskiy

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available We study three internally connected Sturm-Liouville problems for nonlinear ordinary differential equations that are motivated by the problem of aeroelastic instability. Solutions are analyzed and asymptotic results are presented. A numerical study using a development of simple shooting reveals the spectrum and corresponding eigenfunctions.

  13. Accurate high-lying eigenvalues of Schroedinger and Sturm-Liouville problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanden Berghe, G.; Van Daele, M.; De Meyer, H.

    1994-01-01

    A modified difference and a Numerov-like scheme have been introduced in a shooting algorithm for the determination of the (higher-lying) eigenvalues of Schroedinger equations and Sturm-Liouville problems. Some numerical experiments are introduced. Time measurements have been performed. The proposed algorithms are compared with other previously introduced shooting schemes. The structure of the eigenvalue error is discussed. ((orig.))

  14. The Sturm-Liouville inverse spectral problem with boundary conditions depending on the spectral parameter

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    Cornelis van der Mee

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available We present the complete version including proofs of the results announced in [van der Mee C., Pivovarchik V.: A Sturm-Liouville spectral problem with boundary conditions depending on the spectral parameter. Funct. Anal. Appl. 36 (2002, 315–317 [Funkts. Anal. Prilozh. 36 (2002, 74–77 (Russian

  15. Fractional power function spaces associated to regular Sturm-Liouville problems

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    Sofiane El-Hadi Miri

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Using spectral properties of the regular Sturm-Liouville problems, we construct a collection of abstract function spaces. Then we find the smallest index for which these spaces are mapped continuously in to the space of continuous functions. We also give some applications of these spaces for variational methods.

  16. Riesz bases generated by the spectra of Sturm-Liouville problems

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    Tigran Harutyunyan

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Let ${lambda _n^2} _{n = 0}^infty$ be the spectra of a Sturm-Liouville problem on $[0,pi ]$. We investigate the question: Do the systems ${ cos(lambda_nx} _{n = 0}^infty$ or ${ sin(lambda_n x} _{n = 0}^infty$ form Riesz bases in ${L^2}[0,pi ]$? The answer is almost always positive.

  17. Existence and boundary behavior of positive solutions for a Sturm-Liouville problem

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    Syrine Masmoudi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we discuss existence, uniqueness and boundary behavior of a positive solution to the following nonlinear Sturm-Liouville problem \\[\\begin{aligned}&\\frac{1}{A}(Au^{\\prime }^{\\prime }+a(tu^{\\sigma}=0\\;\\;\\text{in}\\;(0,1,\\\\ &\\lim\\limits_{t\\to 0}Au^{\\prime}(t=0,\\quad u(1=0,\\end{aligned}\\] where \\(\\sigma \\lt 1\\, \\(A\\ is a positive differentiable function on \\((0,1\\ and \\(a\\ is a positive measurable function in \\((0,1\\ satisfying some appropriate assumptions related to the Karamata class. Our main result is obtained by means of fixed point methods combined with Karamata regular variation theory.

  18. Existence of positive solutions and eigenvalues intervals for nonlinear Sturm Liouville problems with a singular interface

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    D. K. K. Vamsi

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we define the Green's matrix for a nonlinear Sturm Liouville problem associated with a pair of dynamic equations on time scales with a singularity at the point of interface. Then using iterative techniques, we obtain eigenvalue intervals for which there exist positive solutions. Then we present iterative schemes for approximating the solutions, and discus an example that illustrates the the results obtained.

  19. Sturm-Liouville operators and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Marchenko, Vladimir A

    2011-01-01

    The spectral theory of Sturm-Liouville operators is a classical domain of analysis, comprising a wide variety of problems. Besides the basic results on the structure of the spectrum and the eigenfunction expansion of regular and singular Sturm-Liouville problems, it is in this domain that one-dimensional quantum scattering theory, inverse spectral problems, and the surprising connections of the theory with nonlinear evolution equations first become related. The main goal of this book is to show what can be achieved with the aid of transformation operators in spectral theory as well as in their

  20. A Numerical method for solving a class of fractional Sturm-Liouville eigenvalue problems

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    Muhammed I. Syam

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This article is devoted to both theoretical and numerical studies of eigenvalues of regular fractional $2\\alpha $-order Sturm-Liouville problem where $\\frac{1}{2}< \\alpha \\leq 1$. In this paper, we implement the reproducing kernel method RKM to approximate the eigenvalues. To find the eigenvalues, we force the approximate solution produced by the RKM satisfy the boundary condition at $x=1$. The fractional derivative is described in the Caputo sense. Numerical results demonstrate the accuracy of the present algorithm. In addition, we prove the existence of the eigenfunctions of the proposed problem. Uniformly convergence of the approximate eigenfunctions produced by the RKM to the exact eigenfunctions is proven.

  1. Analysis and Numerical Solutions of Positive and Dead Core Solutions of Singular Sturm-Liouville Problems

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    Gernot Pulverer

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we investigate the singular Sturm-Liouville problem u′′=λg(u, u′(0=0, βu′(1+αu(1=A, where λ is a nonnegative parameter, β≥0, α>0, and A>0. We discuss the existence of multiple positive solutions and show that for certain values of λ, there also exist solutions that vanish on a subinterval [0,ρ]⊂[0,1, the so-called dead core solutions. The theoretical findings are illustrated by computational experiments for g(u=1/u and for some model problems from the class of singular differential equations (ϕ(u′′+f(t,u′=λg(t,u,u′ discussed in Agarwal et al. (2007. For the numerical simulation, the collocation method implemented in our MATLAB code bvpsuite has been applied.

  2. An anisotropic standing wave braneworld and associated Sturm-Liouville problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gogberashvili, Merab; Herrera-Aguilar, Alfredo; Malagón-Morejón, Dagoberto

    2012-01-01

    We present a consistent derivation of the recently proposed 5D anisotropic standing wave braneworld generated by gravity coupled to a phantom-like scalar field. We explicitly solve the corresponding junction conditions, a fact that enables us to give a physical interpretation to the anisotropic energy-momentum tensor components of the brane. So matter on the brane represents an oscillating fluid which emits anisotropic waves into the bulk. We also analyze the Sturm-Liouville problem associated with the correct localization condition of the transverse to the brane metric and scalar fields. It is shown that this condition restricts the physically meaningful space of solutions for the localization of the fluctuations of the model. (paper)

  3. Expansions with respect to squares, symplectic and Poisson structures associated with the Sturm-Liouville problem. II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arkad'ev, V.A.; Pogrebkov, A.K.; Polivanov, M.K.

    1988-01-01

    The concept of tangent vector is made more precise to meet the specific nature of the Sturm-Liouville problem, and on this basis a Poisson bracket that is modified compared with the Gardner form by special boundary terms is derived from the Zakharov-Faddeev symplectic form. This bracket is nondegenerate, and in it the variables of the discrete and continuous spectra are separated

  4. Gauss and Markov quadrature formulae with nodes at zeros of eigenfunctions of a Sturm-Liouville problem, which are exact for entire functions of exponential type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorbachev, D V; Ivanov, V I

    2015-01-01

    Gauss and Markov quadrature formulae with nodes at zeros of eigenfunctions of a Sturm-Liouville problem, which are exact for entire functions of exponential type, are established. They generalize quadrature formulae involving zeros of Bessel functions, which were first designed by Frappier and Olivier. Bessel quadratures correspond to the Fourier-Hankel integral transform. Some other examples, connected with the Jacobi integral transform, Fourier series in Jacobi orthogonal polynomials and the general Sturm-Liouville problem with regular weight are also given. Bibliography: 39 titles

  5. Existence of 2m-1 Positive Solutions for Sturm-Liouville Boundary Value Problems with Linear Functional Boundary Conditions on the Half-Line

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    Yanmei Sun

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available By using the Leggett-Williams fixed theorem, we establish the existence of multiple positive solutions for second-order nonhomogeneous Sturm-Liouville boundary value problems with linear functional boundary conditions. One explicit example with singularity is presented to demonstrate the application of our main results.

  6. Sturm-Liouville BVPs with Caratheodory nonlinearities

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    Abdelhamid Benmezai

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In this article we study the existence and multiplicity of solutions for several classes of Sturm-Liouville boundary value problems having Caratheodory nonlinearities. Many results existing in the literature for such boundary value problems in the continuous framework will find in this work their extensions to the Caratheodory setting.

  7. Spectral theory of Sturm-Liouville differential operators: proceedings of the 1984 workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaper, H.G.; Zettl, A. (eds.)

    1984-12-01

    This report contains the proceedings of the workshop which was held at Argonne during the period May 14 through June 15, 1984. The report contains 22 articles, authored or co-authored by the participants in the workshop. Topics covered at the workshop included the asymptotics of eigenvalues and eigenfunctions; qualitative and quantitative aspects of Sturm-Liouville eigenvalue problems with discrete and continuous spectra; polar, indefinite, and nonselfadjoint Sturm-Liouville eigenvalue problems; and systems of differential equations of Sturm-Liouville type.

  8. The eigenvalue function of a family of Sturm-Liouville operators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arutyunyan, Tigran N.

    2010-06-01

    We define a function \\mu^-(\\gamma) in such a way that its value at every point \\gamma\\in(-\\infty,\\pi), \\gamma=\\beta-\\pi n, \\beta\\in \\lbrack 0,\\pi), n=0,1,2,\\dots, coincides with an eigenvalue \\mu_n(\\alpha,\\beta) of the Sturm-Liouville problem -y''+q(x)y=\\mu y, y(0)\\cos\\alpha+y'(0)\\sin\\alpha=0, y(\\pi)\\cos\\beta+y'(\\pi)\\sin\\beta=0 (for some \\alpha\\,{\\in}\\,(0,\\pi \\rbrack ). We find necessary and sufficient conditions for a function to have this property for a real q\\in L^1 \\lbrack 0,\\pi \\rbrack .

  9. Relations between transfer matrices and numerical stability analysis to avoid the $\\Omega d$ problem

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez-Álvarez, R.; Pernas-Salomón, R.; Velasco, V. R.

    2015-01-01

    The transfer matrix method is usually employed to study problems described by $N$ equations of matrix Sturm-Liouville (MSL) kind. In some cases a numerical degradation (the so called $\\Omega d$ problem) appears thus impairing the performance of the method. We present here a procedure that can overcome this problem in the case of multilayer systems having piecewise constant coefficients. This is performed by studying the relations between the associated transfer matrix and other transfer matri...

  10. Limit-point criteria for the matrix Sturm-Liouville operator and its powers

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    Irina N. Braeutigam

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider matrix Sturm-Liouville operators generated by the formal expression \\[l[y]=-(P(y^{\\prime}-Ry^{\\prime}-R^*P(y^{\\prime}-Ry+Qy,\\] in the space \\(L^2_n(I\\, \\(I:=[0, \\infty\\. Let the matrix functions \\(P:=P(x\\, \\(Q:=Q(x\\ and \\(R:=R(x\\ of order \\(n\\ (\\(n \\in \\mathbb{N}\\ be defined on \\(I\\, \\(P\\ is a nondegenerate matrix, \\(P\\ and \\(Q\\ are Hermitian matrices for \\(x \\in I\\ and the entries of the matrix functions \\(P^{-1}\\, \\(Q\\ and \\(R\\ are measurable on \\(I\\ and integrable on each of its closed finite subintervals. The main purpose of this paper is to find conditions on the matrices \\(P\\, \\(Q\\ and \\(R\\ that ensure the realization of the limit-point case for the minimal closed symmetric operator generated by \\(l^k[y]\\ (\\(k \\in \\mathbb{N}\\. In particular, we obtain limit-point conditions for Sturm-Liouville operators with matrix-valued distributional coefficients.

  11. Weyl-Titchmarsh theory for Sturm-Liouville operators with distributional potentials

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    Jonathan Eckhardt

    2013-01-01

    In particular, this setup implies that \\(\\tau\\ permits a distributional potential coefficient, including potentials in \\(H_{loc}^{-1}((a,b\\. We study maximal and minimal Sturm-Liouville operators, all self-adjoint restrictions of the maximal operator \\(T_{max}\\, or equivalently, all self-adjoint extensions of the minimal operator \\(T_{min}\\, all self-adjoint boundary conditions (separated and coupled ones, and describe the resolvent of any self-adjoint extension of \\(T_{min}\\. In addition, we characterize the principal object of this paper, the singular Weyl-Titchmarsh-Kodaira m-function corresponding to any self-adjoint extension with separated boundary conditions and derive the corresponding spectral transformation, including a characterization of spectral multiplicities and minimal supports of standard subsets of the spectrum. We also deal with principal solutions and characterize the Friedrichs extension of \\(T_{min}\\. Finally, in the special case where \\(\\tau\\ is regular, we characterize the Krein-von Neumann extension of \\(T_{min}\\ and also characterize all boundary conditions that lead to positivity preserving, equivalently, improving, resolvents (and hence semigroups.

  12. Calculating the Price for Derivative Financial Assets of Bessel Processes Using the Sturm-Liouville Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burtnyak Ivan V.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In the paper we apply the spectral theory to find the price for derivatives of financial assets assuming that the processes described are Markov processes and such that can be considered in the Hilbert space L^2 using the Sturm-Liouville theory. Bessel diffusion processes are used in studying Asian options. We consider the financial flows generated by the Bessel diffusions by expressing them in terms of the system of Bessel functions of the first kind, provided that they take into account the linear combination of the flow and its spatial derivative. Such expression enables calculating the size of the market portfolio and provides a measure of the amount of internal volatility in the market at any given moment, allows investigating the dynamics of the equity market. The expansion of the Green function in terms of the system of Bessel functions is expressed by an analytic formula that is convenient in calculating the volume of financial flows. All assumptions are natural, result in analytic formulas that are consistent with the empirical data and, when applied in practice, adequately reflect the processes in equity markets.

  13. On the inverse scattering problem for Jacobi matrices with the spectrum on an interval, a finite system of intervals or a Cantor set of positive length

    OpenAIRE

    Volberg, A.; Yuditskii, P.

    2001-01-01

    Solving inverse scattering problem for a discrete Sturm-Liouville operator with the fast decreasing potential one gets reflection coefficients $s_\\pm$ and invertible operators $I+H_{s_\\pm}$, where $ H_{s_\\pm}$ is the Hankel operator related to the symbol $s_\\pm$. The Marchenko-Fadeev theorem (in the continuous case) and the Guseinov theorem (in the discrete case), guarantees the uniqueness of solution of the inverse scattering problem. In this article we asks the following natural question --...

  14. On the Similarity of Sturm-Liouville Operators with Non-Hermitian Boundary Conditions to Self-Adjoint and Normal Operators

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krejčiřík, David; Siegl, Petr; Železný, Jakub

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 1 (2014), s. 255-281 ISSN 1661-8254 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC06002; GA MŠk LC527; GA ČR GAP203/11/0701 Grant - others:GA ČR(CZ) GD202/08/H072 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : Sturm-Liouville operators * non-symmetric Robin boundary conditions * similarity to normal or self-adjoint operators * discrete spectral operator * complex symmetric operator * PT-symmetry * metric operator * C operator * Hilbert-Schmidt operators Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics Impact factor: 0.545, year: 2014

  15. On Euler's problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Egorov, Yurii V [Institute de Mathematique de Toulouse, Toulouse (France)

    2013-04-30

    We consider the classical problem on the tallest column which was posed by Euler in 1757. Bernoulli-Euler theory serves today as the basis for the design of high buildings. This problem is reduced to the problem of finding the potential for the Sturm-Liouville equation corresponding to the maximum of the first eigenvalue. The problem has been studied by many mathematicians but we give the first rigorous proof of the existence and uniqueness of the optimal column and we give new formulae which let us find it. Our method is based on a new approach consisting in the study of critical points of a related nonlinear functional. Bibliography: 6 titles.

  16. The inverse spectral problem for pencils of differential operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guseinov, I M; Nabiev, I M

    2007-01-01

    The inverse problem of spectral analysis for a quadratic pencil of Sturm-Liouville operators on a finite interval is considered. A uniqueness theorem is proved, a solution algorithm is presented, and sufficient conditions for the solubility of the inverse problem are obtained. Bibliography: 31 titles.

  17. Infinitely Many Solutions for a Boundary Value Problem with Discontinuous Nonlinearities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The existence of infinitely many solutions for a Sturm-Liouville boundary value problem, under an appropriate oscillating behavior of the possibly discontinuous nonlinear term, is obtained. Several special cases and consequences are pointed out and some examples are presented. The technical approach is mainly based on a result of infinitely many critical points for locally Lipschitz functions.

  18. Efficient approximations of dispersion relations in optical waveguides with varying refractive-index profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yutian; Zhu, Jianxin

    2015-05-04

    In this paper we consider the problem of computing the eigen-modes for the varying refractive-index profile in an open waveguide. We first approximate the refractive-index by a piecewise polynomial of degree two, and the corresponding Sturm-Liouville problem (eigenvalue problem) of the Helmholtz operator in each layer can be solved analytically by the Kummer functions. Then, analytical approximate dispersion equations are established for both TE and TM cases. Furthermore, the approximate dispersion equations converge fast to the exact ones for the continuous refractive-index function as the maximum value of the subinterval sizes tends to zero. Suitable numerical methods, such as Müller's method or the chord secant method, may be applied to the dispersion relations to compute the eigenmodes. Numerical simulations show that our method is very practical and efficient for computing eigenmodes.

  19. An inverse Sturm–Liouville problem with a fractional derivative

    KAUST Repository

    Jin, Bangti

    2012-05-01

    In this paper, we numerically investigate an inverse problem of recovering the potential term in a fractional Sturm-Liouville problem from one spectrum. The qualitative behaviors of the eigenvalues and eigenfunctions are discussed, and numerical reconstructions of the potential with a Newton method from finite spectral data are presented. Surprisingly, it allows very satisfactory reconstructions for both smooth and discontinuous potentials, provided that the order . α∈. (1,. 2) of fractional derivative is sufficiently away from 2. © 2012 Elsevier Inc.

  20. Introduction to Mathematical Physics. Calculus of Variations and Boundary-value Problems

    OpenAIRE

    Adamyan, V. M.; Sushko, M. Ya.

    2013-01-01

    This book considers posing and the methods of solving simple linear boundary-value problems in classical mathematical physics. The questions encompassed include: the fundamentals of calculus of variations; one-dimensional boundary-value problems in the oscillation and heat conduction theories, with a detailed analysis of the Sturm-Liouville boundary-value problem and substantiation of the Fourier method; sample solutions of the corresponding problems in two and three dimensions, with essentia...

  1. Program for calculation of energy levels and wave functions of hydrogen mesic molecules in adiabatic representation of the three-body problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gocheva, A.D.; Puzynin, I.V.

    1987-01-01

    The description of BSMADM program package for numerical solution of a particular Sturm-Liouville problem is presented. This problem arises in the calculation of energy levels and wave functions of bound states of three particles with Coulomb interaction in adiabatic representation. The program package was used for calculating characteristics of weakly bound states of mesic molecules ddμ and dtμ which are of main interest for muon-catalysed fusion

  2. A tutorial on inverse problems for anomalous diffusion processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Bangti; Rundell, William

    2015-03-01

    Over the last two decades, anomalous diffusion processes in which the mean squares variance grows slower or faster than that in a Gaussian process have found many applications. At a macroscopic level, these processes are adequately described by fractional differential equations, which involves fractional derivatives in time or/and space. The fractional derivatives describe either history mechanism or long range interactions of particle motions at a microscopic level. The new physics can change dramatically the behavior of the forward problems. For example, the solution operator of the time fractional diffusion diffusion equation has only limited smoothing property, whereas the solution for the space fractional diffusion equation may contain weak singularity. Naturally one expects that the new physics will impact related inverse problems in terms of uniqueness, stability, and degree of ill-posedness. The last aspect is especially important from a practical point of view, i.e., stably reconstructing the quantities of interest. In this paper, we employ a formal analytic and numerical way, especially the two-parameter Mittag-Leffler function and singular value decomposition, to examine the degree of ill-posedness of several ‘classical’ inverse problems for fractional differential equations involving a Djrbashian-Caputo fractional derivative in either time or space, which represent the fractional analogues of that for classical integral order differential equations. We discuss four inverse problems, i.e., backward fractional diffusion, sideways problem, inverse source problem and inverse potential problem for time fractional diffusion, and inverse Sturm-Liouville problem, Cauchy problem, backward fractional diffusion and sideways problem for space fractional diffusion. It is found that contrary to the wide belief, the influence of anomalous diffusion on the degree of ill-posedness is not definitive: it can either significantly improve or worsen the conditioning of

  3. Symplectic finite element scheme: application to a driven problem with a regular singularity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pletzer, A. [Ecole Polytechnique Federale, Lausanne (Switzerland). Centre de Recherche en Physique des Plasma (CRPP)

    1996-02-01

    A new finite element (FE) scheme, based on the decomposition of a second order differential equation into a set of first order symplectic (Hamiltonian) equations, is presented and tested on one-dimensional, driven Sturm-Liouville problem. Error analysis shows improved cubic convergence in the energy norm for piecewise linear `tent` elements, as compared to quadratic convergence for the standard and hybrid FE methods. The convergence deteriorates in the presence of a regular singular point, but can be recovered by appropriate mesh node packing. Optimal mesh packing exponents are derived to ensure cubic (respectively quadratic) convergence with minimal numerical error. A further suppression of the numerical error by a factor proportional to the square of the leading exponent of the singular solution, is achieved for a model problem based on determining the nonideal magnetohydrodynamic stability of a fusion plasma. (author) 7 figs., 14 refs.

  4. Unstable even-parity eigenmodes of the regular static SU(2) Yang-Mills-Dilaton solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strel'tsova, O.I.; Donets, E.E.; Ajryan, Eh.A.; Boyadzhiev, T.L.; Georgieva, D.A.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, we obtain unstable even-parity eigenmodes of the regular static spherically symmetric solutions of the SU(2) Yang-Mills-dilation coupled system of equations in the 3+1 Minkowski space-time. The corresponding matrix Sturm-Liouville problem is solved numerically by means of the continuous analogue of Newton's method. The method, being a powerful tool for solving both boundary-value and Sturm-Liouville problems, is described in detail

  5. A simple finite element method for boundary value problems with a Riemann–Liouville derivative

    KAUST Repository

    Jin, Bangti

    2016-02-01

    © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. We consider a boundary value problem involving a Riemann-Liouville fractional derivative of order α∈(3/2,2) on the unit interval (0,1). The standard Galerkin finite element approximation converges slowly due to the presence of singularity term xα-1 in the solution representation. In this work, we develop a simple technique, by transforming it into a second-order two-point boundary value problem with nonlocal low order terms, whose solution can reconstruct directly the solution to the original problem. The stability of the variational formulation, and the optimal regularity pickup of the solution are analyzed. A novel Galerkin finite element method with piecewise linear or quadratic finite elements is developed, and L2(D) error estimates are provided. The approach is then applied to the corresponding fractional Sturm-Liouville problem, and error estimates of the eigenvalue approximations are given. Extensive numerical results fully confirm our theoretical study.

  6. An Inverse Eigenvalue Problem for a Vibrating String with Two Dirichlet Spectra

    KAUST Repository

    Rundell, William

    2013-04-23

    A classical inverse problem is "can you hear the density of a string clamped at both ends?" The mathematical model gives rise to an inverse Sturm-Liouville problem for the unknown density ñ, and it is well known that the answer is negative: the Dirichlet spectrum from the clamped end-point conditions is insufficient. There are many known ways to add additional information to gain a positive answer, and these include changing one of the boundary conditions and recomputing the spectrum or giving the energy in each eigenmode-the so-called norming constants. We make the assumption that neither of these changes are possible. Instead we will add known mass-densities to the string in a way we can prescribe and remeasure the Dirichlet spectrum. We will not be able to answer the uniqueness question in its most general form, but will give some insight to what "added masses" should be chosen and how this can lead to a reconstruction of the original string density. © 2013 Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics.

  7. Levinson's theorem for non-local interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Zhongqi; Dai Anying

    1987-08-01

    The Levinson theorem for a Schroedinger equation with both local and non-local symmetric potentials is studied in terms of the Sturm-Liouville theorem. A new convention for the phase shifts is applied instead of the usual one. It is proved that the usual Levinson theorem holds for the case with both local potential and non-local symmetric cutoff potential which is not necessary to be separable. The problems related with the positive energy bound states and the physical redundant states are also discussed in this paper. (author). 17 refs

  8. On the Hochstadt-Lieberman theorem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinyuk, O.; Pivovarchik, V.

    2010-03-01

    A method of recovering the potential of the Sturm-Liouville equation on a half-interval using a known potential on another half-interval and the spectrum of the Dirichlet-Dirichlet problem on the whole interval is proposed.

  9. Positive solutions for system of 2n-th order Sturm–Liouville ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Proceedings – Mathematical Sciences; Volume 124; Issue 1. Positive Solutions for System of 2-th Order Sturm-Liouville Boundary Value Problems on time Scales. K R Prasad A Kameswara Rao B Bharathi. Volume 124 Issue 1 February 2014 pp 67-79 ...

  10. Traction-related problems after hip arthroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Lone; Lund, Bent; Grønbech Nielsen, Torsten

    2017-01-01

    . The questionnaire included questions on patients' perceptions of traction-related problems in the groin area, at the knee and ankle and how patients had coped with these problems. A total of 100 consecutive patients undergoing hip arthroscopy filled out the questionnaire. Primary findings of this study were that 74......% of patients reported some sort of traction-related problems after hip arthroscopy. About 32% of the patients had problems in the groin area and 49% of the patients complained of symptoms in the knee joint. A total of 37% of the patients had experienced problems from the traction boot in the ankle area....... The complications were found to be temporary and disappeared after 2-4 weeks. Five patients still had complaints after 3 months. All five patients had a pre-existing knee injury prior to undergoing hip arthroscopy. Traction-related problems after hip arthroscopy are a challenge and our study showed that 74...

  11. Traction-related problems after hip arthroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, Bent; Grønbech Nielsen, Torsten; Lind, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Traction-related problems are poorly described in the existing literature. The purpose of this prospective study was to describe traction-related problems and how patients perceive these problems. The study was a descriptive cohort study and data were collected from questionnaires and patient files. The questionnaire included questions on patients’ perceptions of traction-related problems in the groin area, at the knee and ankle and how patients had coped with these problems. A total of 100 consecutive patients undergoing hip arthroscopy filled out the questionnaire. Primary findings of this study were that 74% of patients reported some sort of traction-related problems after hip arthroscopy. About 32% of the patients had problems in the groin area and 49% of the patients complained of symptoms in the knee joint. A total of 37% of the patients had experienced problems from the traction boot in the ankle area. The complications were found to be temporary and disappeared after 2–4 weeks. Five patients still had complaints after 3 months. All five patients had a pre-existing knee injury prior to undergoing hip arthroscopy. Traction-related problems after hip arthroscopy are a challenge and our study showed that 74% of the patients reported traction-related problems. This is significantly higher than previously reported. The present study found a high rate of complaints from the knee and ankle joints that have not previously been reported. The presented data suggest the need for more pre-surgery patient information about possible traction-related problems. PMID:28630721

  12. Depression and Related Problems in University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, Tiffany; Diego, Miguel; Pelaez, Martha; Deeds, Osvelia; Delgado, Jeannette

    2012-01-01

    Method: Depression and related problems were studied in a sample of 283 university students. Results: The students with high depression scores also had high scores on anxiety, intrusive thoughts, controlling intrusive thoughts and sleep disturbances scales. A stepwise regression suggested that those problems contributed to a significant proportion…

  13. Solving work-related ethical problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laukkanen, Laura; Suhonen, Riitta; Leino-Kilpi, Helena

    2016-12-01

    Nurse managers are responsible for solving work-related ethical problems to promote a positive ethical culture in healthcare organizations. The aim of this study was to describe the activities that nurse managers use to solve work-related ethical problems. The ultimate aim was to enhance the ethical awareness of all nurse managers. The data for this descriptive cross-sectional survey were analyzed through inductive content analysis and quantification. Participants and research context: The data were collected in 2011 using a questionnaire that included an open-ended question and background factors. Participants were nurse managers working in Finnish healthcare organizations (n = 122). Ethical considerations: Permission for the study was given by the Finnish Association of Academic Managers and Experts of Health Sciences. Nurse managers identified a variety of activities they use to solve work-related ethical problems: discussion (30%), cooperation (25%), work organization (17%), intervention (10%), personal values (9%), operational models (4%), statistics and feedback (4%), and personal examples (1%). However, these activities did not follow any common or systematic model. In the future, nurse managers need a more systematic approach to solve ethical problems. It is important to establish new kinds of ethics structures in organizations, such as a common, systematic ethical decision-making model and an ethics club for nurse manager problems, to support nurse managers in solving work-related ethical problems.

  14. Nintendo related injuries and other problems: review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalink, Maarten B; Heineman, Erik; Pierie, Jean-Pierre E N; ten Cate Hoedemaker, Henk O

    2014-12-16

    To identify all reported cases of injury and other problems caused by using a Nintendo video gaming system. Review. Search of PubMed and Embase in June 2014 for reports on injuries and other problems caused by using a Nintendo gaming system. Most of the 38 articles identified were case reports or case series. Injuries and problems ranged from neurological and psychological to surgical. Traditional controllers with buttons were associated with tendinitis of the extensor of the thumb. The joystick on the Nintendo 64 controller was linked to palmar ulceration. The motion sensitive Wii remote was associated with musculoskeletal problems and various traumas. Most problems are mild and prevalence is low. The described injuries were related to the way the games are controlled, which varies according to the video game console. © Jalink et al 2014.

  15. Nuclear submarine decommissioning and related environmental problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarkisov, A.

    1998-01-01

    The issue of nuclear powered submarines occupies a particular place among the problems related to nuclear wastes. Nuclear submarines that were withdrawn from military service as well as those intended fro utilization represent a potential source of both nuclear and radiation hazard. By the beginning of 1966 more than one hundred and fifty nuclear powered vessels were decommissioned in Russia both for the reason of expiration of their service life and due to treaties on reduction of strategic offensive weapons. By 200 this number is expected to increase to one hundred and seventy-eighty units. According to published data the number of nuclear submarines decommissioned in USA to date exceeds twenty units. Major problems associated with utilization of nuclear submarines are related to safety and special security measures are to undertaken for decommissioned nuclear submarines. One of the most significant problems is related with management and/or storage of spent fuel from decommissioned nuclear submarines

  16. Drug-related problems in hospitalised patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Bemt, PMLA; Egberts, TCG; de Jong-van den Berg, LTW; Brouwers, JRBJ

    Drug-related problems include medication errors (involving an error in the process of prescribing, dispensing, or administering a drug, whether there are adverse consequences or not) and adverse drug reactions (any response to a drug which is noxious and unintended, and which occurs at doses

  17. Initial Value Problem in General Relativity

    OpenAIRE

    Isenberg, James

    2013-01-01

    This article, written to appear as a chapter in "The Springer Handbook of Spacetime", is a review of the initial value problem for Einstein's gravitational field theory in general relativity. Designed to be accessible to graduate students who have taken a first course in general relativity, the article first discusses how to reformulate the spacetime fields and spacetime covariant field equations of Einstein's theory in terms of fields and field equations compatible with a 3+1 foliation of sp...

  18. Problems related to fossil fuels utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rota, R.

    1999-01-01

    Fossil fuels still present the main energy source in the world since about 90% of the energy produced comes from combustion. This paper, based on the lectures given at the conference of Energy and Environment hold at the Accademia dei Lincei in 1998, presents a short review of some of the problems related to the utilization of fossil fuels, such as their availability in the medium period, the effect of pollutant dispersion in the atmosphere as well as the available technologies to deal with such problems [it

  19. ADHD Medication and Substance-Related Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Patrick D; Chang, Zheng; Hur, Kwan; Gibbons, Robert D; Lahey, Benjamin B; Rickert, Martin E; Sjölander, Arvid; Lichtenstein, Paul; Larsson, Henrik; D'Onofrio, Brian M

    2017-09-01

    Substance use disorders are major contributors to excess mortality among individuals with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), yet associations between pharmacological ADHD treatment and substance-related problems remain unclear. This study investigated concurrent and long-term associations between ADHD medication treatment and substance-related events. The authors analyzed 2005-2014 commercial health care claims from 2,993,887 (47.2% female) adolescent and adult ADHD patients. Within-individual analyses compared the risk of substance-related events (i.e., emergency department visits related to substance use disorders) during months in which patients received prescribed stimulant medication or atomoxetine relative to the risk during months in which they did not. In adjusted within-individual comparisons, relative to periods in which patients did not receive ADHD medication, male patients had 35% lower odds of concurrent substance-related events when receiving medication (odds ratio=0.65, 95% CI=0.64-0.67), and female patients had 31% lower odds of concurrent substance-related events (odds ratio=0.69, 95% CI=0.67-0.71). Moreover, male patients had 19% lower odds of substance-related events 2 years after medication periods (odds ratio=0.81, 95% CI=0.78-0.85), and female patients had 14% lower odds of substance-related events 2 years after medication periods (odds ratio=0.86, 95% CI= 0.82-0.91). Sensitivity analyses supported most findings but were less consistent for long-term associations among women. These results provide evidence that receiving ADHD medication is unlikely to be associated with greater risk of substance-related problems in adolescence or adulthood. Rather, medication was associated with lower concurrent risk of substance-related events and, at least among men, lower long-term risk of future substance-related events.

  20. Energy problem and harmony in international relations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogata, Akira

    1975-01-01

    Energy problems and harmony in international relation are closely related with world politics. Oil is destined to remain as the primary energy source for the time being. The situation of oil has different implications to the U.S. and U.S.S.R., oil producing countries, and consumer countries. The hasty attitude in the past to attain energy sufficiency must be avoided by all means. Congenial harmony is to be established in international relation to meet world energy requirement. This also applies to the case of nuclear power in future. (Mori, K.)

  1. Shift work-related health problems in

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Khavaji

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and aimsShift work is a major feature of working life that affects diverse aspects of human life. The main purposes of this study were to investigate shift work-related health problems and their risk factors among workers of "12-hour shift" schedule.MethodsThis cross-sectional study was carried out at 8 petrochemical industries in Asalooyeh area. Study population consisted of 1203 workers including 549 shift worker (46% and 654 day worker (54%. Data on personal details, shift schedule and adverse effects of shift work werecollected by anonymous questionnaire. Statistical analyses were performed using SPSS, version 11.5. The level of significance was set at 5%.ResultsAlthough, the results showed that health problems among shift workers was more prevalent than day workers, but the differences were just significant in gastrointestinal and musculoskeletal disorders (p<0.05. Multiple linear regressions indicated that in addition to shift working, other variants such as long work hours, type of employment, second job, number of children and job title were associated with health problems.ConclusionPrevalence rates of gastrointestinal and musculoskeletal problems among shift workers were significantly higher than that of day workers. Although, working in shift system was the main significant factor associated with the reported problems, but other demographic andwork variables were also found to have association.

  2. Trapping neutral fermions with kink-like potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro, Antonio S. de; Hott, Marcelo

    2006-01-01

    The intrinsically relativistic problem of neutral fermions subject to kink-like potentials (∼tanhγx) is investigated and the exact bound-state solutions are found. Apart from the lonely hump solutions for E=+/-mc 2 , the problem is mapped into the exactly solvable Sturm-Liouville problem with a modified Poschl-Teller potential. An apparent paradox concerning the uncertainty principle is solved by resorting to the concepts of effective mass and effective Compton wavelength

  3. Drug-related problems in cardiac children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabry, Nirmeen; Farid, Samar; Dawoud, Dalia

    2016-04-01

    A drug-related problem (DRP) may be defined as "an event or circumstance involving drug therapy that actually or potentially interferes with the desired health outcome". Our aim was to determine the frequency and characteristics of DRPs in pediatric patients admitted to a tertiary cardiac care center in the Egyptian capital, Cairo. A prospective observational cohort study involving review of case notes for children aged 0-18 years, admitted to the medical ward and intensive care unit (ICU), was conducted at a tertiary cardiac care center in Egypt. Data collection took place over a three-month period. Daily reviews of patients' records, medication charts and laboratory data were undertaken by the clinical pharmacists to identify DRPs. A total of 60 patients were included in the study (mean age 4.8 years; 53.33% males). Over a three-month period, a total of 313 DRPs were recorded corresponding to an average of 5.22 problems per patient. The most commonly recorded problems related to drug-drug interaction (45.69%), prescribing unnecessary medication (31.95%), under-dosing (21.09%), inappropriate medication (0.96%) and adverse drug reaction (0.32%). Prophylactic antibiotics represented the only unnecessarily prescribed medications. Of the pharmacist suggested interventions, 65% were accepted by the responsible physician. DRPs occurred frequently during the study period. Drug-drug interactions, drug choice and drug dosing problems represented the majority of the identified DRPs, necessitating targeted prescriber education interventions in these areas. There is a clear need for clinical pharmacists' involvement on the ward level to identify and rectify these frequently occurring and very costly problems.

  4. BSATOM - package of programs for calculating the energy levels and wave functions of helium-like systems taking into account isotope effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abrashkevich, A.G.; Abrashkevich, D.G.; Vinitskij, S.I.; Puzynin, I.V.

    1989-01-01

    Description of package BCATOM for calculating the energy levels and wave functions of helium-like systems in the hyperspherical adiabatic approach taking into account the isotopic effects is given. The corresponding Sturm-Liouville problems are approximated by the difference method and the high order accuracy finite element method. The obtained generalized algebraic eigenvalue problems are solved by subspace iteration method. Possibilities of the package are demonstrated by calculating the ground state characteristics of a negative hydrogen ion. 33 refs.; 1 fig

  5. Uniqueness theorems for differential pencils with eigenparameter boundary conditions and transmission conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chuan-Fu

    Inverse spectral problems are considered for differential pencils with boundary conditions depending polynomially on the spectral parameter and with a finite number of transmission conditions. We give formulations of the associated inverse problems such as Titchmarsh-Weyl theorem, Hochstadt-Lieberman theorem and Mochizuki-Trooshin theorem, and prove corresponding uniqueness theorems. The obtained results are generalizations of the similar results for the classical Sturm-Liouville operator on a finite interval.

  6. Special relativity as a simple geometry problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abreu, Rodrigo de; Guerra, Vasco

    2009-01-01

    The null result of the Michelson-Morley experiment and the constancy of the one-way speed of light in the 'rest system' are used to formulate a simple problem, to be solved by elementary geometry techniques using a pair of compasses and non-graduated rulers. The solution consists of a drawing allowing a direct visualization of all the fundamental effects of standard relativistic kinematics, namely time dilation, length contraction and relativity of simultaneity. Moreover, it also provides an immediate image of other important and more subtle aspects, often passed by in relativity courses, such as the conventionality of simultaneity thesis, possible non-invariance of the one-way speed of light and compatibility between the Lorentz-Poincare and Einstein-Minkowski philosophies. The geometric scheme so constructed constitutes a powerful tool to clearly illustrate both traditional and not-so-traditional aspects of special relativity teaching

  7. Two stability problems related to resistive magnetohydrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tasso, H.

    1994-01-01

    Two general problems related to resistive magnetohydrodynamic stability are addressed in this paper. First, a general stability condition previously derived by the author for a class of real systems, occurring especially in plasma physics, is proved to persist to second order, despite the addition of several antisymmetric operators of first order in the linearized stability equation. Second, for a special but representative choice of the stability operators, a nonperturbative analysis demonstrates the existence of a critical density for the appearance of an overstability and the connected Hopf bifurcation, as suggested in a previous paper [Phys. Lett. A 180, 257 (1993)

  8. Factors related to problem-drinking rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, J L; Mulford, H A

    1984-09-01

    Intercorrelation and regression analyses of data obtained from a drinking-related behavior and attitude household survey (N = 1127) of adults (age 18+) in Iowa are reported. The consumption variables were based on the 30 days prior to interview and included total ounces of absolute alcohol consumed; number of days the subject drank beer, wine and distilled spirits separately; typical quantity of each beverage consumed on drinking days; and the number of days drank five or more drinks within a couple of hours. The drinking attitude variables included level of tolerance (approve, indifferent, disapprove) of others' (men, women, spouse, son and daughter) drinking, getting high and getting intoxicated; a balance score of the proportion of positive and negative definitions of alcoholic beverages endorsed; an level of concern (not worried, somewhat worried and very worried) for eight possible consequences of heavy drinking. The drinking context variables used were the number of past 30 days that respondents drank at a bar or tavern, restaurant or club, home, others' homes, sports event and outdoor recreation; and number past 30 days drank alone, with relatives, work associates and close friends who are not work associates. The family environment variables included the respondent's report of whether any blood-related relatives had experienced alcohol-related problems, and of whether beverage alcohol was used in their childhood home.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  9. Intrinsic self adjointness and the calculus of variations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morsy, M.W.; Embaby, M.

    1986-07-01

    In the present paper, an attempt is made for generalizing the calculus of variations in such a way that the end points are left without being constrained, with the purpose of generating Sturm-Liouville differential operators and the like, that are intrinsically self-adjoint. This approach is not only different from the hermitization prescription, but also more superior in view of the fact that self-adjointness is built in naturally. The proposed generalization of the variational calculus provides an Euler-Lagrange differential equation with a differential boundary term, that is responsible for restoring self-adjointness. In this frame, functionals containing higher order derivatives, and multi-dimensional dependent as well as independent variables which may or may not be subjected to some integral constraints are extremized. As a typical example, the Sturm-Liouville problem is considered, in which intrinsic self adjointness is incorporated. (author)

  10. Finite elements for partial differential equations: An introductory survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Succi, S.

    1988-03-01

    After presentation of the basic ideas behind the theory of the Finite Element Method, the application of the method to three equations of particular interest in Physics and Engineering is discussed in some detail, namely, a one-dimensional Sturm-Liouville problem, a two-dimensional linear Fokker-Planck equation and a two-dimensional nonlinear Navier-Stokes equation. 6 refs, 8 figs

  11. Relating Actor Analysis Methods to Policy Problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Lei, T.E.

    2009-01-01

    For a policy analyst the policy problem is the starting point for the policy analysis process. During this process the policy analyst structures the policy problem and makes a choice for an appropriate set of methods or techniques to analyze the problem (Goeller 1984). The methods of the policy

  12. Regulatory problems relating to energy in Hungary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Remenyi, K.

    2002-01-01

    One of basic problems of the transition in the energy economy is, how far the process of liberalisation and privatisation could go, i.e. to what extent the control of state/government would be given up, and how the breakdown of the commanding positions of the government would be managed. The transition in the energy sector toward a market economy is characterised by restructuring the regulatory framework of the energy industry, changing the operational structure of the sector and profound reshaping of ownership structures of the enterprises. In Hungary the government, being convinced of the importance of the implementation of the market forces, in 1991 made the first step on the way of restructuring the energy sector in order to increase economic efficiency, to enable companies to react to market forces and to privatise them. Parallel and partly after the restructuring, a profound modification of legal and regulatory framework took place and finally a relatively large scale of privatisation has newly emerged, which will continue in future, too. The process of the energy sector liberalisation in Hungary has a stop and go character and the game is not over. The process can be characterised by institutional restructuring in the energy sector (coal, oil/gas, power ), which is the basic condition for market liberalisation and privatisation, and by the creation of an appropriate environment (regulatory framework, pricing policy, etc. ) for the smooth implementation of the liberation process(author)

  13. Anholonomic Cauchy problem in general relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stachel, J.

    1980-01-01

    The Lie derivative approach to the Cauchy problem in general relativity is applied to the evolution along an arbitrary timelike vector field for the case where the dynamical degrees of freedom are chosen as the (generally anholonomic) metric of the hypersurface elements orthogonal to the vector field. Generalizations of the shear, rotation, and acceleration are given for a nonunit timelike vector field, and applied to the three-plus-one breakup of the Riemann tensor into components parallel and orthogonal to the vector field, resulting in the anholonomic Gauss--Codazzi equations. A similar breakup of the Einstein field equations results in the form of the constraint and evolution equations for the anholonomic case. The results are applied to the case of a space--time with a timelike Killing vector field (stationary field) to demonstrate their utility. Other possible applications, such as in the numerical integration of the field equations, are mentioned. Definitions are given of three-index shear, rotation, and acceleration tensors, and their use in a two-plus-two decomposition of the Riemann tensor and field equations is indicated

  14. Congestion Network Problems and Related Games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quant, M.; Borm, P.E.M.; Reijnierse, J.H.

    2003-01-01

    This paper analyzes network problems with congestion effects from a cooperative game theoretic perspective.It is shown that for network problems with convex congestion costs, the corresponding games have a non-empty core.If congestion costs are concave, then the corresponding game has not

  15. On recursive relations and moment problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Wahbi, B.; Rachidi, M.; Zerouali, E.H.

    2001-09-01

    We investigate in this paper the link between the moment problem for sequences, the associated Jacobi matrices and the Pade approximants of the associated analytic functions. We generalize some classical results by providing simple proofs that use functional calculus. (author)

  16. Special Relativity as a Simple Geometry Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Abreu, Rodrigo; Guerra, Vasco

    2009-01-01

    The null result of the Michelson-Morley experiment and the constancy of the one-way speed of light in the "rest system" are used to formulate a simple problem, to be solved by elementary geometry techniques using a pair of compasses and non-graduated rulers. The solution consists of a drawing allowing a direct visualization of all the fundamental…

  17. Hyperbolic differential operators and related problems

    CERN Document Server

    Ancona, Vincenzo

    2003-01-01

    Presenting research from more than 30 international authorities, this reference provides a complete arsenal of tools and theorems to analyze systems of hyperbolic partial differential equations. The authors investigate a wide variety of problems in areas such as thermodynamics, electromagnetics, fluid dynamics, differential geometry, and topology. Renewing thought in the field of mathematical physics, Hyperbolic Differential Operators defines the notion of pseudosymmetry for matrix symbols of order zero as well as the notion of time function. Surpassing previously published material on the top

  18. The initial value problem as it relates to numerical relativity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tichy, Wolfgang

    2017-02-01

    Spacetime is foliated by spatial hypersurfaces in the 3+1 split of general relativity. The initial value problem then consists of specifying initial data for all fields on one such a spatial hypersurface, such that the subsequent evolution forward in time is fully determined. On each hypersurface the 3-metric and extrinsic curvature describe the geometry. Together with matter fields such as fluid velocity, energy density and rest mass density, the 3-metric and extrinsic curvature then constitute the initial data. There is a lot of freedom in choosing such initial data. This freedom corresponds to the physical state of the system at the initial time. At the same time the initial data have to satisfy the Hamiltonian and momentum constraint equations of general relativity and can thus not be chosen completely freely. We discuss the conformal transverse traceless and conformal thin sandwich decompositions that are commonly used in the construction of constraint satisfying initial data. These decompositions allow us to specify certain free data that describe the physical nature of the system. The remaining metric fields are then determined by solving elliptic equations derived from the constraint equations. We describe initial data for single black holes and single neutron stars, and how we can use conformal decompositions to construct initial data for binaries made up of black holes or neutron stars. Orbiting binaries will emit gravitational radiation and thus lose energy. Since the emitted radiation tends to circularize the orbits over time, one can thus expect that the objects in a typical binary move on almost circular orbits with slowly shrinking radii. This leads us to the concept of quasi-equilibrium, which essentially assumes that time derivatives are negligible in corotating coordinates for binaries on almost circular orbits. We review how quasi-equilibrium assumptions can be used to make physically well motivated approximations that simplify the elliptic

  19. Current problems in Russian-Latvian relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mezhevich Nikolay

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Current relations between Russia and Latvia are still influenced by a series of mutual claims that appeared after the demise of the USSR. Latvia — as well as Estonia and Lithuania — is both an EU and NATO member state. However, unlike the above mentioned countries, its relations with Russia are developing at a more pragmatic level. Numerous political differences often result in economic losses both for Latvia and Russia. Despite the fact that Latvia has been an independent state for more than 20 years, there are still some unresolved issues in its relations with Russia. Today, relations between the two countries are often viewed through the prism of EU — Russia relations. Nonetheless, they often do not fit this context. Settling differences between Latvia and Russia will contribute to trade relations, which are increasingly important for both parties. In order to prevent and localise emerging conflicts, diplomats, politicians, and experts should interpret Russian-Latvian relations in view of the national features without referring to theoretical models based on the mythological “unity” of the three Baltic States.

  20. Management of Amiodarone-Related Thyroid Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayana, Shashithej K.; Woods, David R.; Boos, Christopher J.

    2011-01-01

    Amiodarone is a highly effective and well-established antiarrrhythmic drug. It can be used to treat supraventricular and ventricular tachyarrhythmias and has the added advantage of being well tolerated in patients with impaired left ventricular systolic function with a low incidence of arrhythmic events, such as torsades de pointes. However, owing to its marked lipid affinity, it is highly concentrated in tissues and is linked to a number of adverse effects, including thyroid dysfunction. Amiodarone can lead to both hypothyroidism (amiodarone-induced hypothyroidism) and less commonly hyperthyroidism (amiodarone-induced thyrotoxicosis) and relates to high iodine content within the molecule as well as to several unique intrinsic properties of amiodarone. Dronedarone is a recently approved antiarrhythmic drug. It is structurally very similar to amiodarone, however the iodine moiety, present with amiodarone has been removed and replaced with a methylsulfonamide group to reduce fat solubility and adverse effects. We present an overview of the effects of amiodarone on thyroid function and the treatment options available, as well as a brief insight into dronedarone and its potential as an alternative to amiodarone. PMID:23148177

  1. Hydrogen problems related to reactor accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bujor, A.

    1993-09-01

    At reactor accidents, the combustion of hydrogen causes pressure and temperature transients which pose supplementary loads in containment. In certain conditions, they could reach hazardous levels and impair the integrity of the containment and the operability of the safety systems. The mechanisms of chemical reactions specific for the hydrogen-oxygen system are presented. Conditions in which combustion can occur and the various combustion modes, including the transition to detonation are also described. The related safety aspects and mitigation methods are discussed. Examples for particular applications and safety approaches for various types of reactors, included those promoted for the advanced reactors are also given. Presentation of the experimental research completed at AECL-Research, Whiteshell Laboratory is given, where the multi-point ignition effects for constant volume and for vented combustion of dry hydrogen-air mixtures in various geometries have been investigated. Various aspects of modelling and simulation of hydrogen combustion are discussed. The adaptations and the new models implemented in the codes VENT and CONTAIN, aimed to widen the simulation capabilities of hydrogen combustion models are described. The capabilities and limitations of the modelling assumptions of these two codes are also evaluated. (EG) (11 tabs., 39 ills., 82 refs.)

  2. Alcohol-Related Problems And High Risk Sexual Behaviour In ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There was a significant association between alcohol-related problems and risky sexual behavior. Alcohol-related problems are fairly common in people already infected with HIV/AIDS and are associated with high-risk sexual behavior. Thus, screening and treatment should be part of an effective HIV intervention program.

  3. Indwelling Urinary Catheter-Related Problems After Laparoscopic Radical Prostatectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuvers, Sarah; Zonneveld, Willemijn; Meiland-van Bakel, Marja; Putter, Hein; Nicolai, Melianthe; Pelger, Rob; Elzevier, Henk

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine occurrence rates of catheter-related problems and their association to pertinent clinical characteristics in men with indwelling urinary catheters following laparoscopic radical prostatectomy. Descriptive, correlational study. One hundred twelve men who underwent laparoscopic radical prostatectomy between December 2010 and December 2012 at the Leiden University Medical Centre in the Netherlands were included in this study. After surgery, a Charriere 20 (20F) silicone catheter was left indwelling for 1 week. Data were gathered from 2 sources; we reviewed participants' medical records, and participants completed a questionnaire designed for this study. Pearson χ tests were used to analyze associations between dichotomous and ordinal variables and catheter-related problems. Univariate logistic regression analyses were used to analyze the relationships between continuous factors and catheter-related problems. Seventy-five percent of participants reported at least 1 catheter-related problem. Univariate regression analyses revealed correlations between body weight and experiencing catheter-related problems (odds ratio [OR] = 1.050; P = .028) and between body mass index and experiencing catheter-related problems (OR = 1.159; P = .049). Indwelling catheter-related problems after laparoscopic radical prostatectomy are prevalent, and they may occur at any time during the entire period of catheter use. High body mass index and high body weight were associated with an increased likelihood of catheter-related problems following radical prostatectomy.

  4. Study on sociological approach to resolve maintenance related social problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoki, Takayuki

    2007-01-01

    This study proposes a sociological approach to resolve maintenance related social problems. As a result of consideration, the followings were found. (1) In general, solutions to some kinds of questions can be deduced from basic laws using some theories or methodologies in the field of the natural science or engineering. The approach to resolve maintenance related social problems is similar to the approach in the natural science or engineering. (2) The points of view based on fundamental human rights, market principles and community principles, and so on, are very important in resolving maintenance related social problems and can be placed as theories or tools for resolution. (3) If such theories or tools for resolving maintenance related social problems as described above are systematically prepared, it is estimated that it becomes very much easier to resolve maintenance related social problems. (author)

  5. Variables Related to Sleep Problems in Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayes, Susan Dickerson; Calhoun, Susan L.

    2009-01-01

    Our study of 477 children with autism (1-15 years, IQs 9-146) showed that parent reported sleep problems are found in most children with autism and are not significantly related to age, IQ, gender, race, parent occupation, neuropsychological functioning, and learning ability. However, sleep problems increased with severity of autistic symptoms and…

  6. Using the internet: skill related problems in users’ online behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Deursen, Alexander Johannes Aloysius Maria; van Dijk, Johannes A.G.M.

    2009-01-01

    This study extends the conventional and superficial notion of measuring digital skills by proposing definitions for operational, formal, information and strategic skills. The main purpose was to identify individual skill related problems that users experience when navigating the Internet. In

  7. Review of xenon-133 production and related problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrachina, M.; Ropero, M.

    1980-01-01

    A literature survey is given on the production methods of fission xenon-133 and related problems, such as purification, metrological and dosimetrical aspects, preparation of isotopic solutions, recycling, etc. (author)

  8. Review of xenon-133 production and related problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrachina, M.; Ropero, M.

    1980-01-01

    A literature survey is given on the production methods of fission xenon-133 and related problems, such as purification, metrological and dosimetric aspects, preparation of isotopic solutions, recycling, etc. 127 references are included. (Author) 127 refs

  9. Work-Related Health Problems among Nursing Personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umesh, Sasikala R; David, Shirley; Segaran, Florence; Venkatesh, K

    2014-01-01

    Work-related injuries among nursing personnel are quite frequent and costly problems in terms of both workers'pain and suffering as well as medical expenses, and lost work for organisations. A descriptive study was conducted in Christian Medical College, Vellore to assess the prevalence of selected work-related health problems among nursing personnel. Total of 500 Nursing personnel were included in the study. The instruments used were Modified Cornell Musculoskeletal discomfort questionnaire to assess and score the musculoskeletal discomfort and CEAP (C-clinical, E-Etiologic, A-Anatomic, P- Pathophysiologic) classification to assess the presence and grade the varicose veins. Results demonstrated that 84.4 percent of the participants had musculoskeletal discomfort and 29.6 percent of the participants had varicose veins. Findings of the study demonstrated that there is a need to increase the awareness among nurses regarding the problems and to follow specific strategies to prevent work-related health problems.

  10. Estimates of azimuthal numbers associated with elementary elliptic cylinder wave functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovalev, V. A.; Radaev, Yu. N.

    2014-05-01

    The paper deals with issues related to the construction of solutions, 2 π-periodic in the angular variable, of the Mathieu differential equation for the circular elliptic cylinder harmonics, the associated characteristic values, and the azimuthal numbers needed to form the elementary elliptic cylinder wave functions. A superposition of the latter is one possible form for representing the analytic solution of the thermoelastic wave propagation problem in long waveguides with elliptic cross-section contour. The classical Sturm-Liouville problem for the Mathieu equation is reduced to a spectral problem for a linear self-adjoint operator in the Hilbert space of infinite square summable two-sided sequences. An approach is proposed that permits one to derive rather simple algorithms for computing the characteristic values of the angular Mathieu equation with real parameters and the corresponding eigenfunctions. Priority is given to the application of the most symmetric forms and equations that have not yet been used in the theory of the Mathieu equation. These algorithms amount to constructing a matrix diagonalizing an infinite symmetric pentadiagonal matrix. The problem of generalizing the notion of azimuthal number of a wave propagating in a cylindrical waveguide to the case of elliptic geometry is considered. Two-sided mutually refining estimates are constructed for the spectral values of the Mathieu differential operator with periodic and half-periodic (antiperiodic) boundary conditions.

  11. Internet skill-related problems in accessing online health information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Deursen, Alexander J A M

    2012-01-01

    Despite the amount of health information available online, there are several barriers that limit the Internet from being adopted as a source of health information. The purpose of this study was to identify individual skill-related problems that users experience when accessing the Internet for health information and services. Between November 2009 and February 2010, 88 subjects participated in a performance test in which participants had to complete health-related assignments on the Internet. Subjects were randomly selected from a telephone book. A selective quota sample was used and was divided over equal subsamples of gender, age, and education. Each subject was required to complete nine assignments on the Internet. The general population experiences many Internet skill-related problems, especially those related to information and strategic Internet skills. Aging and lower levels of education seemed to contribute to the amount of operational and formal skill-related problems experienced. Saving files, bookmarking websites, and using search engines were troublesome for these groups of people. With respect to information skills, the higher the level of educational attainment, the less problems the participants experienced. Although younger subjects experienced far less operational and formal skill-related problems, it was revealed that older subjects were less likely to select and use irrelevant search results and unreliable sources. Concerning the strategic Internet skills it was revealed that older subjects were less likely to make inappropriate decisions based on information gathered. The amount of online health-related information and services is consistently growing; however, it appears that the general population experiences many skill-related problems, particularly those related to information and strategic Internet skills, and they become very important when it comes to health. These skills are also problematic for younger generations who are often seen as

  12. Travel-related health problems in Japanese travelers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuno, Yasutaka; Kudo, Koichiro

    2009-09-01

    Although the number of Japanese individuals traveling abroad has increased steadily, reaching approximately 17.3 million in 2007, the incidence of various travel-related health problems in Japan remains unknown. The travel-related health problems of Japanese travelers returning to Japan from abroad are analyzed by assessing the records. Data were collected retrospectively on returning travelers who visited the authors' travel clinic during the period from January 2005 through to December 2006 with any health problem acquired overseas. A total of 345 patients were included in this study (200 male, 145 female; average age, 34+/-12.3 years). Reasons for travel included leisure (45.8%); business (39.1%); visiting friends and relatives or accompanying other travelers (8.7%); volunteering (3.8%); and long stays in order to study or live (2.6%). The most visited destination was Asia (n=260), followed by Africa (n=105). The most commonly reported health problems were gastro-intestinal infections (39.1%), followed by respiratory tract infections (16.2%), animal bites (8.1%), and skin problems (5.8%). Together, malaria and dengue accounted for 10% of diagnoses in 125 febrile patients (36.2%). Although the profile of travel-related health problems in Japanese travelers is similar to that of Western travelers, the characteristics of travel were quite different. Therefore Japanese travel advice should be tailored to suit the Japanese traveler.

  13. Health related quality of life and psychological problems in Egyptian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eman A. Abdel-Aziz

    2014-01-31

    Jan 31, 2014 ... ORIGINAL ARTICLE. Health related quality of life and psychological problems in Egyptian children with simple obesity in relation to body mass index. Eman A. Abdel-Aziz, ... negative self-evaluation, decreased self-image, anxiety and depression [2]. While aspects of self-esteem may predict psy- chological ...

  14. Computer Use and Vision‑Related Problems Among University ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ocular complaints of computer users have been grouped together and collectively termed as computer vision syndrome. (CVS).[2] It is defined by the American Optometric Association as “a complex of eye and vision problems related to activities, which stress the near vision and which are experienced in relation or during ...

  15. Some human-related problems in radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshizawa, Yasuo

    1980-01-01

    Radiation protection includes both human and source-related problems. The human problems have not only medical but also social aspects, such as labor management. Special attention should be paid to the fact that the subject of radiation protection is not a human being as living thing but as member of society. ICRP recommended that conditions of work can be divided into two classed, working condition A and B, according to annual exposure. This application is of great value to radiation protection practice. Nevertheless the legal regulations do not adopt it yet. The present condition of the medical surveillance of radiation workers is not appropriate from the scientific standpoint. This is the difficult problem which is caused by the delay of the legal application of ICRP recommendation. Compensation for occupational radiation hazards should be overlooked. This problem have been investigated by an authorized committee, but a number of unsolved problems still remain. (author)

  16. Press problem related to nuclear energy news reporting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arai, Mitsuo

    2008-01-01

    Since the event of Niigataken Chuetsu-oki Earthquake in 2007 and the subsequent press reports on damage of nuclear power station after it, a stance of media is being questioned. In order to clear this problem, basic organizational structure of the press related to nuclear energy news was analyzed. Local news department, social news department, science news department and economical news department involve in nuclear energy news the accordance with their own situations and concerns. This structure makes problem of nuclear energy news reporting complicated. Changing this system is required but very difficult. It is concluded that the press problem around nuclear energy news is strange. (author)

  17. Special relativity. An introduction with 200 problems and solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsamparlis, Michael

    2010-01-01

    This textbook develops Special Relativity in a systematic way assuming no prior knowledge of Relativity; however the student is assumed to be familiar with the basics of the standard vector calculus. The approach is structural in the sense that it develops Special Relativity in Minkowski space following the same steps with the development of Newtonian Physics in Euclidian space. A second characteristic of the book is that it discusses the mathematics of the theory independently of the physical principles, so that the reader will appreciate its role in the development of the physical theory. The book is intended to be used both as a text-book for a teaching course in Special Relativity but also as a reference book for the future. In that respect it is linked to an online repository with more than 500 problems, carefully classified according to subject area and solved in detail, providing an independent problem book on Special Relativity. (orig.)

  18. Special Relativity An Introduction with 200 Problems and Solutions

    CERN Document Server

    Tsamparlis, Michael

    2010-01-01

    This textbook develops Special Relativity in a systematic way assuming no prior knowledge of Relativity; however the student is assumed to be familiar with the basics of the standard vector calculus. The approach is structural in the sense that it develops Special Relativity in Minkowski space following the same steps with the development of Newtonian Physics in Euclidian space. A second characteristic of the book is that it discusses the mathematics of the theory independently of the physical principles, so that the reader will appreciate its role in the development of the physical theory. The book is intended to be used both as a text-book for a teaching course in Special Relativity but also as a reference book for the future. In that respect it is linked to an online repository with more than 500 problems, carefully classified according to subject area and solved in detail, providing an independent problem book on Special Relativity.

  19. Anxiety Sensitivity and Sleep-Related Problems in Anxious Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiner, Courtney L.; Elkins, Meredith; Pincus, Donna; Comer, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    Anxiety disorders constitute the most common mental health disturbance experienced by youth. Sleep-related problems (SRPs) are highly prevalent among anxious youth and encompass a variety of problems including nighttime fears, insomnia, and refusal to sleep alone. Given that chronic sleep disturbance is associated with a range of behavioral and physical problems in youth and predicts future psychopathology, it is important to elucidate the nature of SRPs in anxious youth. The present study investigated the relationship between sleep problems and anxiety sensitivity in a sample of 101 anxious youth, ages 6–17. Heightened anxiety sensitivity significantly predicted prolonged sleep onset latency across the sample, even after accounting for severity of anxiety, depression, and age. Results support previous research indicating that SRPs are common among anxious youth and suggest that anxiety sensitivity may play a particularly important role in sleep onset latency. PMID:25863826

  20. The cosmological constant as an eigenvalue of the Hamiltonian constraint in a varying speed of light theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garattini, Remo [Univ. degli Studi di Bergamo, Dalmine (Italy). Dept. of Engineering and Applied Sciences; I.N.F.N., Sezione di Milano, Milan (Italy); De Laurentis, Mariafelicia [Tomsk State Pedagogical Univ. (Russian Federation). Dept. of Theoretical Physics; INFN, Sezione di Napoli (Italy); Complutense Univ. di Monte S. Angelo, Napoli (Italy)

    2017-01-15

    In the framework of a Varying Speed of Light theory, we study the eigenvalues associated with the Wheeler-DeWitt equation representing the vacuum expectation values associated with the cosmological constant. We find that the Wheeler-DeWitt equation for the Friedmann-Lemaitre-Robertson-Walker metric is completely equivalent to a Sturm-Liouville problem provided that the related eigenvalue and the cosmological constant be identified. The explicit calculation is performed with the help of a variational procedure with trial wave functionals related to the Bessel function of the second kind K{sub ν}(x). After having verified that in ordinary General Relativity no eigenvalue appears, we find that in a Varying Speed of Light theory this is not the case. Nevertheless, instead of a single eigenvalue, we discover the existence of a family of eigenvalues associated to a negative power of the scale. A brief comment on what happens at the inflationary scale is also included. (copyright 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  1. Problems Associated with Relating Normative and Skill Tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temkin, Sanford

    How to describe the Individually Prescribed Instruction (IPI) Placement Tests to the non-IPI community; how to assess student performance over a period of time, and what information can be obtained relative to the IPI curriculum: such are the concerns of this study. A possible solution to the first problem is to describe the IPI Placement Test…

  2. Pharmacist intervention in drug-related problems for patients with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the role of the community pharmacist in identifying, preventing and resolving drug related problems (DRPs) encountered by patients, with particular emphasis on cardiovascular drugs in community pharmacies in Northern Cyprus, Turkey. Methods: A prospective observational study for the ...

  3. Contributions to Statistical Problems Related to Microarray Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Feng

    2009-01-01

    Microarray is a high throughput technology to measure the gene expression. Analysis of microarray data brings many interesting and challenging problems. This thesis consists three studies related to microarray data. First, we propose a Bayesian model for microarray data and use Bayes Factors to identify differentially expressed genes. Second, we…

  4. Issues related to topology optimization of snap-through problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindgaard, Esben; Dahl, Jonas

    2012-01-01

    This work focuses on issues related to topology optimization of static geometrically nonlinear structures experiencing snap-through behaviour. Different compliance and buckling criterion functions are studied and applied to topology optimization of a point loaded curved beam problem with the aim...

  5. a survey on drug related problems in cervical cancer patients

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    userpc

    Cisplatin/5FU/paclitaxel. 6. 9.23. 6. Seizure. Cisplatin. 2. 3.08. 7. Loss of hair. Cisplatin/5FU/Paclitaxel. 3. 4.62. 8. Nephrotoxicity. Cisplatin. 3. 4.62. 9. Hypotension. Paclitaxel. 3. 4.62. TOTAL. 65. 100. Table 3: Relationship between cervical cancer patients' factors and DRPs. Patients Factor. Drug Related Problems (DRPs).

  6. Pharmacists' Intervention to Reduce Drug Related Problems in HIV ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Despite advances in the use of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in the management of HIV/AIDS, drug-related problems (DRPs) still remain an issue, particularly in developing countries. This study evaluated the incidence of DRPs among HIV/AIDS patients in a HIV/AIDS care centre in southern Nigeria and the ...

  7. Refinements, Generalizations, and Applications of Jordan's Inequality and Related Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Qi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This is a survey and expository article. Some new developments on refinements, generalizations, and applications of Jordan's inequality and related problems, including some results about Wilker-Anglesio's inequality, some estimates for three kinds of complete elliptic integrals, and several inequalities for the remainder of power series expansion of the exponential function, are summarized.

  8. Factors and Problems Related to Female Genital Mutilation as Seen ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To determine the aetiological factors and problems related to female genital mutilation as seen in children at St. Gaspar Hospital. Data source: Secondary data were obtained from St. Gaspar Hospital, records, registers and patients files or case notes from children ward were retrieved and reviewed, later a special ...

  9. Computer Use and Vision.Related Problems Among University ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: High prevalence of vision related problems was noted among university students. Sustained periods of close screen work without screen filters were found to be associated with occurrence of the symptoms and increased interruptions of work of the students. There is a need to increase the ergonomic awareness ...

  10. Assessment of the environment-related problems and prospects of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study attempted to assess the environment-related problems and prospects of vegetable production in peri – urban areas of Lagos state, Nigeria. A total of one hundred and twenty (120) farmers were interviewed. Data collected were analyzed using frequency, percentages and Pearson Product Moment Correlation ...

  11. College Students' Alcohol-Related Problems: An Autophotographic Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, Patrick F.; Dollinger, Stephen J.

    2007-01-01

    This study related standard self-report measures to an innovative approach (the autophotographic essay) as a way to provide insight into patterns of alcohol consumption and associated problem behaviors. College students (N = 135) completed self-report measures of alcohol consumption and created autophotographic essays of identity coded for alcohol…

  12. Employers’ View on Problems Related to Workforce Skills and Qualification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klimplová Lenka

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this exploratory study is to reveal employers’ views on problems related to workforce human capital (skills and qualification. Where do employers themselves view the core of difficulties with ensuring adequately skilled workforce? Do they assign them to technological and organizational changes (a functional concept of job-specific human capital obsolescence, or do they see these problems as a result of other circumstances, such as macro-structural conditions or institutional settings? To answer these questions selected employers in mechanical engineering and information technology sectors in the Czech Republic were interviewed. The results show that the employers see the problems: 1 on the side of workforce – insufficient abilities and skills, exaggerated demands and low motivation; 2 as inadequate capacities and capabilities of the organization itself; 3 at macro-level as institutional shortcomings in the initial educational system and social benefits system. The problems related to workforce skills and qualification cannot be, thus, interpreted only in the functionalist view as job-specific human capital obsolescence, but the formulation of the problems is significantly affected by the institutional framework.

  13. A Framework for Problem-Based Learning: Teaching Mathematics with a Relational Problem-Based Pedagogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schettino, Carmel

    2016-01-01

    One recommendation for encouraging young women and other underrepresented students in their mathematical studies is to find instructional methods, such as problem-based learning (PBL), that allow them to feel included in the learning process. Using a more relationally centered pedagogy along with more inclusive instructional methods may be a way…

  14. On the Relationships between (Relatively) Advanced Mathematical Knowledge and (Relatively) Advanced Problem-Solving Behaviours

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koichu, Boris

    2010-01-01

    This article discusses an issue of inserting mathematical knowledge within the problem-solving processes. Relatively advanced mathematical knowledge is defined in terms of "three mathematical worlds"; relatively advanced problem-solving behaviours are defined in terms of taxonomies of "proof schemes" and "heuristic behaviours". The relationships…

  15. Exposure to alcohol advertisements and teenage alcohol-related problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grenard, Jerry L; Dent, Clyde W; Stacy, Alan W

    2013-02-01

    This study used prospective data to test the hypothesis that exposure to alcohol advertising contributes to an increase in underage drinking and that an increase in underage drinking then leads to problems associated with drinking alcohol. A total of 3890 students were surveyed once per year across 4 years from the 7th through the 10th grades. Assessments included several measures of exposure to alcohol advertising, alcohol use, problems related to alcohol use, and a range of covariates, such as age, drinking by peers, drinking by close adults, playing sports, general TV watching, acculturation, parents' jobs, and parents' education. Structural equation modeling of alcohol consumption showed that exposure to alcohol ads and/or liking of those ads in seventh grade were predictive of the latent growth factors for alcohol use (past 30 days and past 6 months) after controlling for covariates. In addition, there was a significant total effect for boys and a significant mediated effect for girls of exposure to alcohol ads and liking of those ads in 7th grade through latent growth factors for alcohol use on alcohol-related problems in 10th grade. Younger adolescents appear to be susceptible to the persuasive messages contained in alcohol commercials broadcast on TV, which sometimes results in a positive affective reaction to the ads. Alcohol ad exposure and the affective reaction to those ads influence some youth to drink more and experience drinking-related problems later in adolescence.

  16. Schroedinger covariance states in anisotropic waveguides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angelow, A.; Trifonov, D.

    1995-03-01

    In this paper Squeezed and Covariance States based on Schroedinger inequality and their connection with other nonclassical states are considered for particular case of anisotropic waveguide in LiNiO 3 . Here, the problem of photon creation and generation of squeezed and Schroedinger covariance states in optical waveguides is solved in two steps: 1. Quantization of electromagnetic field is provided in the presence of dielectric waveguide using normal-mode expansion. The photon creation and annihilation operators are introduced, expanding the solution A-vector(r-vector,t) in a series in terms of the Sturm - Liouville mode-functions. 2. In terms of these operators the Hamiltonian of the field in a nonlinear waveguide is derived. For such Hamiltonian we construct the covariance states as stable (with nonzero covariance), which minimize the Schroedinger uncertainty relation. The evolutions of the three second momenta of q-circumflex j and p-circumflex j are calculated. For this Hamiltonian all three momenta are expressed in terms of one real parameters s only. It is found out how covariance, via this parameter s, depends on the waveguide profile n(x,y), on the mode-distributions u-vector j (x,y), and on the waveguide phase mismatching Δβ. (author). 37 refs

  17. Use of Dirac Coulomb Sturmians of the first order for relativistic calculations of two-photon bound bound transition amplitudes in hydrogen-like ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tetchou Nganso, H. M.; Njock, M. G. Kwato

    2007-03-01

    A fully relativistic treatment of the S-matrix elements describing two-photon bound-bound transition amplitudes in hydrogen-like ions is undertaken in the present work. Several selected transitions from the ground state |12Srang towards the L and M shells (|22Srang, |32Srang, |32D3/2rang and |32D5/2rang) are described. For that purpose, we use the complete set of relativistic Sturmian functions derived by Szmytkowski (1997 J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 30 825) from the first-order Sturm-Liouville problems for the Dirac equation. The method followed consists of writing the matrix elements in terms of Green functions expanded over the first-order Dirac-Coulomb Sturmians. Previous approaches used a Sturmian basis associated with the Gell-Mann-Feynman equation. On the other hand, a distinctive feature of our tensor treatment is that the expressions derived are quite general and could be applied to any multipole of the two-photon bound-bound transitions. In the case of dipole transitions, considered also by Szymanowski et al (1997 Phys. Rev. A 56 700) in their calculations, the selection rules derived from our method lead to two additional terms related to l1p = 2 and l2p = 2. The numerical results obtained for the transition from the ground state |12Srang towards the L and M shells enable us to draw inferences as to the improvements of our method.

  18. Two Dimensional Temperature Distributions in Plate Heat Exchangers: An Analytical Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Reza Ansari Dezfoli

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Analytical solutions are developed to work out the two-dimensional (2D temperature changes of flow in the passages of a plate heat exchanger in parallel flow and counter flow arrangements. Two different flow regimes, namely, the plug flow and the turbulent flow are considered. The mathematical formulation of problems coupled at boundary conditions are presented, the solution procedure is then obtained as a special case of the two region Sturm-Liouville problem. The results obtained for two different flow regimes are then compared with experimental results and with each other. The agreement between the analytical and experimental results is an indication of the accuracy of solution method.

  19. The problem of time quantum mechanics versus general relativity

    CERN Document Server

    Anderson, Edward

    2017-01-01

    This book is a treatise on time and on background independence in physics. It first considers how time is conceived of in each accepted paradigm of physics: Newtonian, special relativity, quantum mechanics (QM) and general relativity (GR). Substantial differences are moreover uncovered between what is meant by time in QM and in GR. These differences jointly source the Problem of Time: Nine interlinked facets which arise upon attempting concurrent treatment of the QM and GR paradigms, as is required in particular for a background independent theory of quantum gravity. A sizeable proportion of current quantum gravity programs - e.g. geometrodynamical and loop quantum gravity approaches to quantum GR, quantum cosmology, supergravity and M-theory - are background independent in this sense. This book's foundational topic is thus furthermore of practical relevance in the ongoing development of quantum gravity programs. This book shows moreover that eight of the nine facets of the Problem of Time already occur upon ...

  20. Ear-related problems among children attending the paediatric and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2006-08-31

    Aug 31, 2006 ... Results: Three thousand and twenty-one children were seen during the study period. Out of these, 248 children (8.2%) pre- sented with ear-related problems. Chronic otitis media (30.5%), acute otitis media (29.9%), cerumen auris (11.3%), otitis ex- terna(10.1%), hearing impairment (7.3%) and foreign body ...

  1. Drug-related problems : Nurses role and responsibility

    OpenAIRE

    Bergqvist, Monica

    2010-01-01

    Drug-related problems (DRPs) are common and can cause serious adverse effects, even death. The elderly are an exposed group having a higher prevalence of DRPs. As nurses are involved in all steps of the medication process they are particularly well positioned to detect, prevent and alert for DRPs. Nurses are usually situated in thefrontline when medication errors occur and are thus exposed to being responsible for such. The aims of this thesis was to evaluate if nurses can i...

  2. Relations Between Toddler Sleep Characteristics, Sleep Problems, and Temperament

    OpenAIRE

    Molfese, Victoria J.; Rudasill, Kathleen M.; Prokasky, Amanda; Champagne, Carly; Holmes, Molly; Molfese, Dennis; Bates, Jack

    2015-01-01

    Two sources of information (parent reported sleep diaries and actigraph records) were used to investigate how toddler sleep characteristics (bed time/sleep onset, wake time/sleep offset, total nighttime sleep and total sleep time) are related to sleep problems and temperament. There were 64 toddler participants in the study. Consistent with studies of older children, parent reports differed from actigraph based records. The findings that parent reported and actigraph recorded sleep characteri...

  3. Terrorism-related trauma in Africa, an increasing problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfa-Wali, Maryam; Sritharan, Kaji; Mehes, Mira; Abdullah, Fizan; Rasheed, Shahnawaz

    2015-06-01

    Global terrorist activities have increased significantly over the past decade. The impact of terrorism-related trauma on the health of individuals in low- and middle-income countries is under-reported. Trauma management in African countries in particular is uncoordinated, with little or no infrastructure to cater for emergency surgical needs. This article highlights the need for education, training and research to mitigate the problems related to terrorism and surgical public health. Copyright © 2014 Ministry of Health, Saudi Arabia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Gambling and gambling-related problems in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valleur, Marc

    2015-12-01

    To provide an overview of the gambling landscape and gambling-related problems in France, including the history, legislation, gambling policy and epidemiological data on excessive gambling. A literature review, using Medline, PsycInfo and Toxibase/OFDT databases, based on the systematic monitoring of scientific literature since 2008 (including French and international papers). Since 1776 and the creation of the royal lottery, state monopoly has been the main pillar of gambling policy in France. Increases in gambling venues and opportunities, growing evidence of gambling-related problems, pressures from the European Commission and the growth of on-line gambling have led to major changes in this policy: while land-based gambling remains mainly in the form of a state monopoly, on-line gambling was partially liberalized in 2010, and regulation authorities were established. The first epidemiological survey was conducted in 2010. Rates of problematic gambling in France are within the average of other European countries. Treatment has begun to be made available within addiction centres. A majority of on-line gamblers in France use legal websites, which was one of the initial goals of liberalization. Recent studies confirm that the prevalence of problem gambling in France is far higher among on-line gamblers than among land-based gamblers; however, this difference cannot be attributed only to greater addictiveness of on-line gambling. © 2015 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  5. Mathematics for quantum mechanics an introductory survey of operators, eigenvalues, and linear vector spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Jackson, John David

    1962-01-01

    Advanced undergraduates and graduate students studying quantum mechanics will find this text a valuable guide to mathematical methods. Emphasizing the unity of a variety of different techniques, it is enduringly relevant to many physical systems outside the domain of quantum theory.Concise in its presentation, this text covers eigenvalue problems in classical physics, orthogonal functions and expansions, the Sturm-Liouville theory and linear operators on functions, and linear vector spaces. Appendixes offer useful information on Bessel functions and Legendre functions and spherical harmonics.

  6. Stochastic partial differential equations in turbulence related problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, P.-L.

    1978-01-01

    The theory of stochastic partial differential equations (PDEs) and problems relating to turbulence are discussed by employing the theories of Brownian motion and diffusion in infinite dimensions, functional differential equations, and functional integration. Relevant results in probablistic analysis, especially Gaussian measures in function spaces and the theory of stochastic PDEs of Ito type, are taken into account. Linear stochastic PDEs are analyzed through linearized Navier-Stokes equations with a random forcing. Stochastic equations for waves in random media as well as model equations in turbulent transport theory are considered. Markovian models in fully developed turbulence are discussed from a stochastic equation viewpoint.

  7. Statistics and Corporate Environmental Management: Relations and Problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Henning; Ulhøi, John Parm

    1997-01-01

    Statistical methods have long been used to analyse the macroeconomic consequences of environmentally damaging activities, political actions to control, prevent, or reduce these damages, and environmental problems in the natural environment. Up to now, however, they have had a limited and not very...... in the external environment. The nature and extent of the practical use of quantitative techniques in corporate environmental management systems is discussed on the basis of a number of company surveys in four European countries.......Statistical methods have long been used to analyse the macroeconomic consequences of environmentally damaging activities, political actions to control, prevent, or reduce these damages, and environmental problems in the natural environment. Up to now, however, they have had a limited and not very...... specific use in corporate environmental management systems. This paper will address some of the special problems related to the use of statistical techniques in corporate environmental management systems. One important aspect of this is the interaction of internal decisions and activities with conditions...

  8. A Note on the Room-Mates Problem and a Related Revenue Allocation Problem

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel Granot

    1984-01-01

    We introduce in this note the consistent organizational structure (COS) problem, which can be viewed as a generalization of the college admission and room-mates problems. Both the room-mates problem and the COS problem may have no stable solution. When side payments are allowed, the COS problem, but not the room-mates problem, always has a nonempty core. We further study some nucleoli of the COS problem with side payments.

  9. Origins and development of the Cauchy problem in general relativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ringström, Hans

    2015-06-01

    The seminal work of Yvonne Choquet-Bruhat published in 1952 demonstrates that it is possible to formulate Einstein's equations as an initial value problem. The purpose of this article is to describe the background to and impact of this achievement, as well as the result itself. In some respects, the idea of viewing the field equations of general relativity as a system of evolution equations goes back to Einstein himself; in an argument justifying that gravitational waves propagate at the speed of light, Einstein used a special choice of coordinates to derive a system of wave equations for the linear perturbations on a Minkowski background. Over the following decades, Hilbert, de Donder, Lanczos, Darmois and many others worked to put Einstein's ideas on a more solid footing. In fact, the issue of local uniqueness (giving a rigorous justification for the statement that the speed of propagation of the gravitational field is bounded by that of light) was already settled in the 1930s by the work of Stellmacher. However, the first person to demonstrate both local existence and uniqueness in a setting in which the notion of finite speed of propagation makes sense was Yvonne Choquet-Bruhat. In this sense, her work lays the foundation for the formulation of Einstein's equations as an initial value problem. Following a description of the results of Choquet-Bruhat, we discuss the development of three research topics that have their origin in her work. The first one is local existence. One reason for addressing it is that it is at the heart of the original paper. Moreover, it is still an active and important research field, connected to the problem of characterizing the asymptotic behaviour of solutions that blow up in finite time. As a second topic, we turn to the questions of global uniqueness and strong cosmic censorship. These questions are of fundamental importance to anyone interested in justifying that the Cauchy problem makes sense globally. They are also closely

  10. Ocular Problems Related to Television Falls in Childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esra Savku

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Television (TV falls cause serious morbidity and mortality in children. Head trauma is frequently seen, and cranial nerve palsies ( 6th and 7th nerves are more frequently affected are associated with head trauma. Strabismus surgery can be performed in cases not resolving with conservative treatment, however, the delay in treatment related to associated traumas and systemic problems may result in amblyopia. There is no previous report in the literature about ocular findings accompanied by body and head trauma in children after television falls. In order to share our experience, we retrospectively evaluated the records of three patients that were admitted to our clinic with the history of TV-related injuries. The visual acuities of patients, anterior segment and fundus findings as well as the characteristics of the television (tube or LCD, size of the screen, height of the easel were recorded. (Turk J Ophthalmol 2013; 43: 451-4

  11. Resonances under rank-one perturbations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourget, Olivier; Cortés, Víctor H.; Del Río, Rafael; Fernández, Claudio

    2017-09-01

    We study resonances generated by rank-one perturbations of self-adjoint operators with eigenvalues embedded in the continuous spectrum. Instability of these eigenvalues is analyzed and almost exponential decay for the associated resonant states is exhibited. We show how these results can be applied to Sturm-Liouville operators. Main tools are the Aronszajn-Donoghue theory for rank-one perturbations, a reduction process of the resolvent based on the Feshbach-Livsic formula, the Fermi golden rule, and a careful analysis of the Fourier transform of quasi-Lorentzian functions. We relate these results to sojourn time estimates and spectral concentration phenomena.

  12. Treatment for alcohol-related problems: special populations: research opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomberg, Edith S Lisansky

    2003-01-01

    For the subgroups indicated, a few questions/issues are relevant to all three (women, elderly, minorities): 1. Heterogeneity of the special populations, for example, Hispanic-Americans are from different countries with different cultures. Women and the elderly vary by age, education, income, social class, health status, etc., to say nothing of ethnicity/color/religion. 2. Of therapy modalities, professional and indigenous, which are more efficacious? 3. Are group-specific therapies needed, or will sensitivity to a particular group work as well? WOMEN: Stereotypes and myths have prevailed, for example, the long-standing belief that women have poorer prognoses than male alcoholics. When female and male alcoholics are compared, women report more positive family history, a later onset of drinking and problems, more marital disruption, more comorbidity, etc. The review of treatment outcomes (Vannicelli, 1986) showed few significant gender differences in outcomes. Research recommendations include biological and genetic studies, women's view of and use of therapeutic modalities, and outcome studies of different modalities, including all female facilities. ELDERLY: Medications are used more by older patients, and such patients are more likely to experience adverse drug reactions. In the moderate social use of alcohol, there are conflicting reports and the extent of elderly use awaits decisive study. The etiology of problem drinking by older persons is studied rarely. An attempt has been made to explain onset later in life (vs. earlier onset) based on the stresses of aging (loss, loneliness, health problems, etc.); research results have not been supportive. Consequences of older persons' heavy drinking seems to be most often alcohol-related medical disorders, although there are often familial and social consequences. Atkinson (1995) recommended the development of elder-specific outcome measures, study of the efficacy of different treatment modalities, and study of the

  13. The principle of relativity and the problem of knowledge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suarez Antola, R.

    2011-01-01

    This book can be considered as an introduction to some issues on the border between philosophy and science. It is intended for an audience interested in the problems that arise in scientific knowledge about the so-called post-modern era, and willing to study in some detail and depth the physical and mathematical foundations of the theory of relativity, and some of applications in astrophysics and cosmology. It assumes familiarity with the epistemology and other branches of philosophy. The philosophical content, including epistemological, are introduced as needed, starting with the first chapter is intended entirely to them, culminating in the fourteenth chapter, which discusses the structure of the theory of relativity, the theory general physics and cosmology from that point of view. In his chapters describes: the development of ideas in the Newtonian mechanics of particles and the classical theory of fields, including electromagnetism, the crisis in the foundations of nineteenth-century physics, the foundations, limitations and some applications of restricted theory, knowledge of mathematics, calculus of variations, foundations of general relativity theory, applications Schwartzschild solution, applications in astronomy and cosmology, relativistic physics issues and finally, aspects of scientific research work from the point of psychological and sociological

  14. Cannabis-related impairment: the impacts of social anxiety and misconceptions of friends' cannabis-related problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ecker, Anthony H; Richter, Ashley A; Buckner, Julia D

    2014-12-01

    Socially anxious cannabis users are especially vulnerable to cannabis-related impairment, yet mechanisms underlying this vulnerability remain unclear. Socially anxious persons may use cannabis despite related problems if they believe such problems are common, and thus socially acceptable. Yet no known studies have examined the impact of beliefs regarding others' cannabis-related problems on one's own use-related problems. This study investigated the impact of beliefs about a close friend's experience with cannabis-related problems on the relationship between social anxiety and cannabis-related problems. The sample consisted of 158 (75% female) current (past-month) cannabis-using undergraduates. Believing one's friend experienced more cannabis problems was related to experiencing more cannabis-related problems oneself. In fact, perceived friend's problems accounted for 40% of the unique variance in one's own cannabis problems. Descriptive norms (others' use) and injunctive norms (others' approval of risky use) were unrelated to the number of one's own problems. Social anxiety was related to experiencing more cannabis problems. This relation was moderated by perceived friend's problems such that greater social anxiety was related to more cannabis-related problems among participants who believed their friend experienced more cannabis-related problems. This was not the case among participants who believed their friend experienced fewer problems. Normative beliefs regarding a close friend's cannabis problems were robustly and uniquely related to experiencing more cannabis-related impairment. Beliefs regarding friends' experience with cannabis-related problems may play an especially important role in the experience of cannabis-related problems among socially anxious users. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Cannabis-Related Impairment: The Impacts of Social Anxiety and Misconceptions of Friends’ Cannabis-Related Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ecker, Anthony H.; Richter, Ashley A.; Buckner, Julia D.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Socially anxious cannabis users are especially vulnerable to cannabis-related impairment, yet mechanisms underlying this vulnerability remain unclear. Socially anxious persons may use cannabis despite related problems if they believe such problems are common, and thus socially acceptable. Yet no known studies have examined the impact of beliefs regarding others’ cannabis-related problems on one’s own use-related problems. Method This study investigated the impact of beliefs about a close friend’s experience with cannabis-related problems on the relationship between social anxiety and cannabis-related problems. The sample consisted of 158 (75% female) current (past-month) cannabis-using undergraduates. Results Believing one’s friend experienced more cannabis problems was related to experiencing more cannabis-related problems oneself. In fact, perceived friend’s problems accounted for 40% of the unique variance in one’s own cannabis problems. Descriptive norms (others’ use) and injunctive norms (others’ approval of risky use) were unrelated to number of one’s own problems. Social anxiety was related to experiencing more cannabis problems. This relation was moderated by perceived friend’s problems such that greater social anxiety was related to more cannabis-related problems among participants who believed their friend experienced more cannabis-related problems. This was not the case among participants who believed their friend experienced fewer problems. Conclusions Normative beliefs regarding a close friend’s cannabis problems were robustly and uniquely related to experiencing more cannabis-related impairment. Beliefs regarding friends’ experience with cannabis-related problems may play an especially important role in the experience of cannabis-related problems among socially anxious users. PMID:25119421

  16. Relations among stress, coping strategies, coping motives, alcohol consumption and related problems: a mediated moderation model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbin, William R; Farmer, Nicole M; Nolen-Hoekesma, Susan

    2013-04-01

    Although prominent models of alcohol use and abuse implicate stress as an important motivator of alcohol consumption, research has not consistently identified a relationship between stress and drinking outcomes. Presumably stress leads to heavier alcohol consumption and related problems primarily for individuals who lack other adaptive methods for coping effectively with stressful experiences. To test this hypothesis, we examined four adaptive coping approaches (active coping, planning, suppression of competing activities, and restraint), as predictors of alcohol use and related problems as well as moderators of relations between stress and drinking outcomes in an undergraduate population (N=225). Further, we examined coping motives for drinking as potential mediators of the effects of coping strategies as well as stress by coping strategy interactions. Analyses supported both restraint and suppression of competing activities as moderators of the influence of stress on alcohol use but not problems. The stress by restraint interaction was also evident in the prediction of coping motives, and coping motives were related to higher levels of both weekly drinking and alcohol-related problems. Finally, coping motives for drinking served to mediate the stress by restraint interaction on weekly drinking. Overall, these results suggest that efforts to suppress competing activities and restrain impulsive responses in the face of stress may reduce the risk for heavy drinking during the transition from high school to college. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Intercultural communication problems relating to translation from English into Sesotho

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastacia Sara Motsei

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article, certain translative communication problems associated with the linguistic and stylistic differences between English and Sesotho are identified and discussed. With a view to help improve translation between the two languages where inaccurate and stilted communication frequently occurs, issues of equivalence, fidelity/faithfulness and the purpose of translation are delved into. It is furthermore argued that in South African multilingual contexts, like legal courts, criminal cases/hearings and hospitals clinics and similar health establishments, inaccurate translation and/or misinterpreting can lead to serious miscarriages of justice and poor service delivery. The reasons for such unfortunate eventualities sometimes relate to the translator-interpreter’s poor understanding of the cultural factors behind the English or Sesotho message. As such, emphasis is lain on the need for a translator-interpreter’s cultural understanding of the source language/text (SL/T and target language/text (TL/T to deliver an accurate version (in the target language or text – TL/T of the original message. It is furthermore shown that one cause of social and legal injustice is closely related to the translator- interpreter’s insufficient knowledge of both the English and Sesotho culture as it exists in grammatical forms, idiomatic structures, collocation patterns and stylistic patterns of the SL/T and the TL/T.

  18. Pediatrician-parent-child communication: problem-related or not?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dulmen, S. van

    2004-01-01

    Pediatricians are generally confronted with a variety of health problems. Each of these problems may benefit from another pattern of healthcare communication. It is unknown whether the communication process during pediatric visits actually differs by the nature of the child's problem. This study

  19. Energy use and related risk management problems in CEE countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ney, R.; Michna, J.; Ekmanis, J.; Zeltins, N.; Zebergs, V.

    2008-01-01

    Nowadays, the efficiency of energy use in the Central and East-European (CEE) countries is insufficient, being much lower than in the 'Old Europe'. The problem becomes increasingly pressing due to non-stop increasing prices of energy carriers (especially of crude oil). The authors trace the development of research activities in this sphere, classifying the revealed changes in parameters of energy consumption processes in particular time intervals into deterministic, probabilistic, and fuzzy. The paper presents a thorough analysis of decision-making in the energy management at its different levels normative, strategic, and operative. Particular attention is given to the management under uncertainty conditions - i.e. to the risk management. The most wanted research directions in this area proposed by the energy and environment policy (EEP) Center specially created for CEE countries concern management under risk connected with innovations, international activities, loss of reputation, etc.. The authors consider in detail the risk management with insufficient knowledge (non-knowledge) and under chaos. Much consideration is given to the scenario management and the game theory principles as related to the sphere of energy use. (Authors)

  20. Water Related Health Problems in Central Asia—A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zakir Bekturganov

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The present paper provides an extensive literature review on water related health issues in Central Asia. Even though the per capita amount of available freshwater is substantial in all Central Asian states the uneven distribution in time and space creates problems for water availability. Due to this, the Central Asian economies are developing under increasing water deficiency. The degradation of water supply systems and sewage treatment plants is often severe leading to potentially high water loss rates and inadequate accessibility to safe water supply. In this context, rural areas are the most affected. Low tariffs in combination with absent metering and low collection rates for water fees mean that operation and maintenance costs for basic services of water supply and sanitation are not covered. Unsafe water supply contains both microbiological and non-microbiological contaminants. Helminthiasis and intestinal protozoa infections are of considerable public health importance in Central Asia. Agricultural and industrial pollution is especially affecting downstream areas of Amu Darya and Syr Darya rivers. In large areas copper, zinc, and chromium concentrations in water exceed maximum permissible concentration. Thus, there is an urgent need to strengthen the environmental monitoring system. Small-scale water supply and sanitation systems need to be developed in line with more efficient public spending on these.

  1. Problems Related to the Abolition of Divided Real Estate Ownership

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinsberga Jolanta

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Legal relationship between apartment owners in residential buildings and the land owners, that is, divided real estate ownership, was created in the Republic of Latvia in 1990, within the framework of the Land Reform, restoring property rights of the former owners or their heirs or privatising apartments in multi-apartment residential buildings. The existence of such legal relationship created different lease problems and restrictions on the property rights to the owners of both the building and the land. To abolish the legal relationship related to divided real estate ownership, the Ministry of Justice of the Republic of Latvia has developed a draft law Regarding the Abolition of Mandatory Divided Real Estate Ownership in Multi-Apartment Buildings (hereinafter referred to as Draft Law. Unfortunately, in the opinion of authors of this article, there are serious shortcomings to the Draft Law which must be corrected. The aim of the research is to identify the problematic issues by selecting and analysing the legislation on the abolition of the divided real estate ownership, which is related to the calculation of redemption price, payment method and consequences of non-payment, which are not regulated by the new Draft Law. The article reflects research on the determination and calculation of redemption price reglamented by the Draft Law and also analyses the Law of December 8, 1938, On the Abolition of Divided Real Estate Ownership and its practical implementation, which may significantly influence the redemption price and the method of its calculation; however, the mentioned law has been disregarded in developing the Draft Law. Thus the research has both theoretical and practical significance. For the research purposes general research methods, such as historical, analytical, inductive, deductive, logical-constructive and descriptive methods, are used. For the interpretation of legislation norms, grammatical, systemic, teleological and historical

  2. Community Mobilization and the Framing of Alcohol-Related Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Herd

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to describe how activists engaged in campaigns to change alcohol policies in inner city areas framed alcohol problems, and whether or not their frameworks reflected major models used in the field, such as the alcoholism as a disease model, an alcohol problems perspective, or a public health approach to alcohol problems. The findings showed that activists’ models shared some aspects with dominant approaches which tend to focus on individuals and to a lesser extent on regulating alcohol marketing and sales. However, activists’ models differed in significant ways by focusing on community level problems with alcohol; on problems with social norms regarding alcohol use; and on the relationship of alcohol use to illicit drugs.

  3. Problems Related to Computer Ethics: Origins of the Problems and Suggested Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzu, Abdullah

    2009-01-01

    Increasing use of information and communication technologies (ICTs) help individuals to solve several everyday problems, which used to be harder, more complicated and time consuming. Even though ICTs provide individuals with many advantages, they might also serve as grounds for several societal and ethical problems which vary in accordance with…

  4. Sensitivity problems related to certain bifurcations in non-linear recurrence relations

    CERN Document Server

    Gumowski, I.

    1969-01-01

    This paper is concerned with certain qualitative aspects of the sensitivity problem in relation to small variations of a parameter of a system, the behaviour of which can be described by an autonomous recurrence relation: V$_{n+1}$ = F(V$_{n}, \\lambda$) (1) V being a vector, $\\lambda$ the parameter. The problem consists in the determination of the bifurcation values $\\lambda_{0}$ of $\\lambda$, i.e. values such that the qualitative behaviour of a solution of (1) should be different for $\\lambda = \\lambda \\pm \\epsilon$ where $\\epsilon$ is a small quantity. Bifurcations that correspond to a critical case in the Liapunov sense, and the crossing through this critical case, are considered. Examples of bifurcations, not connected with the presence of a critical case, and which correspond to a large deformation of the stability domain boundary of an equilibrium point, a fixed point of (1), under the effect of a parameter variation, are given where V is a two dimensional vector.

  5. NTU-Bankruptcy Problems : Consistency and the Relative Adjustment Principle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dietzenbacher, Bas; Borm, Peter; Estevez Fernandez, M.A.

    2017-01-01

    This paper axiomatically studies bankruptcy problems with nontransferable utility by adequately generalizing and analyzing properties for bankruptcy rules. In particular, we discuss several consistency notions and introduce the class of parametric bankruptcy rules. Moreover, we introduce the class

  6. NTU-Bankruptcy Problems: Consistency and the Relative Adjustment Principle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dietzenbacher, B.; Borm, Peter; Estevez Fernandez, M.A.

    2017-01-01

    This paper axiomatically studies bankruptcy problems with nontransferable utility by adequately generalizing and analyzing properties for bankruptcy rules. In particular, we discuss several consistency notions and introduce the class of parametric bankruptcy rules. Moreover, we introduce the class

  7. Drug addiction problem in Poland in relation to international comparisons

    OpenAIRE

    Anna, Kowalczyk; Olga, Dąbska; Martyna, Warchoł; Rafał, Gotowski

    2017-01-01

    It is commonly assumed that increasing drug problem is caused by global and multicultural changes, as well as infiltration of trends from more developed European countries. Effects of drug abuse are alarming, among others in development of psychoses, depressive and anxiety conditions, as well as viscera defects – mainly kidneys, liver, hematopoietic necrosis. The problem of drug addiction regards also people from the sick environment, because by their behavior affects destructively on the oth...

  8. The relationships between problem characteristics, achievement-related behaviors, and academic achievement in problem-based learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N. Sockalingam (Nachamma); J.I. Rotgans (Jerome); H.G. Schmidt (Henk)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractThis study investigated the influence of five problem characteristics on students' achievement-related classroom behaviors and academic achievement. Data from 5,949 polytechnic students in PBL curricula across 170 courses were analyzed by means of path analysis. The five problem

  9. Dismantling of nuclear facilities and related problems - Conference proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tournebize, Frederic; Bordet, Didier; Charlety, Philippe; Gore, Thierry; Estrade, Jerome; Lemaire, Hermine; Ginet, Annick; Fabrier, Lionel; Evrard, Lydie; Furois, Timothee; Butez, Marc; Dutzer, Michel; Faure, Vincent; Billarand, Yann; Menuet, Lise; Lahaye, Thierry; Pin, Alain; Mougnard, Philippe; Charavy, Sylvain; Poncet, Philippe; Moggia, Fabrice; Dochy, Arnaud; Benjamin, Patrick; Poncet, Pierre-Emmanuel; Beneteau, Yannick; Richard, Jean-Baptiste; Pellenz, Gilles; Ollivier Dehaye, Catherine; Gerard, Stephane; Denissen, Luc; Davain, Henri; Duveau, Florent; Guyot, Jean-Luc; Ardellier, Luc

    2012-11-01

    The oldest French nuclear facilities, built for some of them in the 1950's for research or power generation purposes, have reached more or less the end of their life. More than 30 facilities have entered the shutdown or dismantling phase, among which 8 reactors of the very first generations of Electricite de France (EdF) reactors. The aim of this two-days conference is to take stock of the present day status and perspectives of the dismantling activity, to approach the question of the management of the wastes produced, and to share experience about large scale operations already carried out. This document gathers the available presentations given during this conference: 1 - the 'Passage' project (F. Tournebize); 2 - CEA-Grenoble: from Louis Neel to key enabling technologies (D. Bordet); 3 - Dismantling actions in France (L. Evrard); 4 - Securing control of long-term charges funding (T. Furois); 5 - Waste disposal projects and their contribution to the management of dismantling wastes (M. Butez); 6 - Specificities linked with dismantling activities (Y. Billarand); 7 - Dismantling safety: the ASN's point of view (L. Evrad); 8 - Labor Ministry viewpoint about the dismantling related questions (T. Lahaye); 9 - Consideration of organizational and human factors in dismantling operations: a new deal in the operators-service providers relation (L. Menuet); 10 - Diploma and training experience (A. Pin); 11 - Glove-boxes dismantling at La Hague plant - status and experience feedback (P. Mougnard); 12 - Dismantling of Siloe reactor (CEA-Grenoble): application of the ALARA approach (P. Charlety); 13 - BR3 - a complex dismantling: the neutron shield tank (NST) in remote operation and indirect vision (L. Denissen); 14 - Cleansing and dismantling of the Phebus PF containment (S. Charavy); 15 - Integration of dismantling at the design and exploitation stages of nuclear facilities (P. Poncet); 16 - Consideration during the design and exploitation stages of dispositions aiming at

  10. Efficient parallel algorithms for string editing and related problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apostolico, Alberto; Atallah, Mikhail J.; Larmore, Lawrence; Mcfaddin, H. S.

    1988-01-01

    The string editing problem for input strings x and y consists of transforming x into y by performing a series of weighted edit operations on x of overall minimum cost. An edit operation on x can be the deletion of a symbol from x, the insertion of a symbol in x or the substitution of a symbol x with another symbol. This problem has a well known O((absolute value of x)(absolute value of y)) time sequential solution (25). The efficient Program Requirements Analysis Methods (PRAM) parallel algorithms for the string editing problem are given. If m = ((absolute value of x),(absolute value of y)) and n = max((absolute value of x),(absolute value of y)), then the CREW bound is O (log m log n) time with O (mn/log m) processors. In all algorithms, space is O (mn).

  11. Drug-related problems and pharmacy interventions in community practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westerlund, Tommy; Almarsdóttir, Anna Birna; Melander, Arne

    1999-01-01

    the interventions made by pharmacy personnel with patients and prescribers. Method. Random samples of pharmacists, prescriptionists and pharmacy technicians were drawn nationwide in Sweden; 144 (63 per cent) of the employees fulfilling the inclusion criteria agreed to take part. The participants documented drug...... of the patients. The median number of problems identified per 100 patients was greater for pharmacists (6.1) than for prescriptionists (2.6) and pharmacy technicians (1.1). About one in three problems was presented to the participants by their patients, while two thirds were detected by the pharmacy staff. One...

  12. Environmental problems related to winter traffic safety conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Hääl, Maire-Liis; Sürje, Peep

    2006-01-01

    The changeable Nordic climate has added problems to road maintenance and the environment to ensure traffic safety under winter conditions. The widespread use of salt (NaCl) for snow and ice removal from roads has resulted in environmental impacts in many areas. Some of the problems associated with the use of NaCl are the corrosion of bridges, road surfaces and vehicles and damage to roadside vegetation and aquatic system that are affected by water from de-iced roads. Accumulation of hard meta...

  13. Reconstruction of the residual stresses in a hyperelastic body using ultrasound techniques

    KAUST Repository

    Joshi, Sunnie

    2013-09-01

    This paper focuses on a novel approach for characterizing the residual stress field in soft tissue using ultrasound interrogation. A nonlinear inverse spectral technique is developed that makes fundamental use of the finite strain nonlinear response of the material to a quasi-static loading. The soft tissue is modeled as a nonlinear, prestressed and residually stressed, isotropic, slightly compressible elastic body with a rectangular geometry. A boundary value problem is formulated for the residually stressed and prestressed soft tissue, the boundary of which is subjected to a quasi-static pressure, and then an idealized model for the ultrasound interrogation is constructed by superimposing small amplitude time harmonic infinitesimal vibrations on static finite deformation via an asymptotic construction. The model is studied, through a semi-inverse approach, for a specific class of deformations that leads to a system of second order differential equations with homogeneous boundary conditions of Sturm-Liouville type. By making use of the classical theory of inverse Sturm-Liouville problems, and root finding and optimization techniques, several inverse spectral algorithms are developed to approximate the residual stress distribution in the body, given the first few eigenfrequencies of several induced static pressures. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Mental Health Problems and Related Factors in Ecuadorian College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Claudia; Otero, Patricia; Bustamante, Byron; Blanco, Vanessa; Díaz, Olga; Vázquez, Fernando L

    2017-05-15

    Although the mental health problems of college students have been the subject of increasing research, there are no studies about its prevalence in Ecuadorian college students. The aim of this study was to determine the mental health problems and their associated factors in Ecuadorian freshmen university students. A sample of 1092 students (53.7% women; mean age = 18.3 years) were recruited from the Technical Particular University of Loja (Ecuador). Socio-demographic, academic, and clinical characteristics were gathered, as well as information on the participants' mental health through a number of mental health screens. Prevalence of positive screens was 6.2% for prevalence of major depressive episodes, 0.02% for generalized anxiety disorders, 2.2% for panic disorders, 32.0% for eating disorders, 13.1% for suicidal risk. Mental health problems were significantly associated with sex, area of study, self-esteem, social support, personality and histories of mental health problems. The findings offer a starting point for identifying useful factors to target prevention and intervention strategies aimed at university students.

  15. Delayed Stochastic Linear-Quadratic Control Problem and Related Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Chen

    2012-01-01

    stochastic differential equations (FBSDEs with Itô’s stochastic delay equations as forward equations and anticipated backward stochastic differential equations as backward equations. Especially, we present the optimal feedback regulator for the time delay system via a new type of Riccati equations and also apply to a population optimal control problem.

  16. Income Inequality, Alcohol Use, and Alcohol-Related Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    C. M. Roberts, Sarah; Bond, Jason

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. We examined the relationship between state-level income inequality and alcohol outcomes and sought to determine whether associations of inequality with alcohol consumption and problems would be more evident with between-race inequality measures than with the Gini coefficient. We also sought to determine whether inequality would be most detrimental for disadvantaged individuals. Methods. Data from 2 nationally representative samples of adults (n = 13 997) from the 2000 and 2005 National Alcohol Surveys were merged with state-level inequality and neighborhood disadvantage indicators from the 2000 US Census. We measured income inequality using the Gini coefficient and between-race poverty ratios (Black–White and Hispanic–White). Multilevel models accounted for clustering of respondents within states. Results. Inequality measured by poverty ratios was positively associated with light and heavy drinking. Associations between poverty ratios and alcohol problems were strongest for Blacks and Hispanics compared with Whites. Household poverty did not moderate associations with income inequality. Conclusions. Poverty ratios were associated with alcohol use and problems, whereas overall income inequality was not. Higher levels of alcohol problems in high-inequality states may be partly due to social context. PMID:23237183

  17. Mental Health Problems and Related Factors in Ecuadorian College Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Torres

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Although the mental health problems of college students have been the subject of increasing research, there are no studies about its prevalence in Ecuadorian college students. The aim of this study was to determine the mental health problems and their associated factors in Ecuadorian freshmen university students. A sample of 1092 students (53.7% women; mean age = 18.3 years were recruited from the Technical Particular University of Loja (Ecuador. Socio-demographic, academic, and clinical characteristics were gathered, as well as information on the participants’ mental health through a number of mental health screens. Prevalence of positive screens was 6.2% for prevalence of major depressive episodes, 0.02% for generalized anxiety disorders, 2.2% for panic disorders, 32.0% for eating disorders, 13.1% for suicidal risk. Mental health problems were significantly associated with sex, area of study, self-esteem, social support, personality and histories of mental health problems. The findings offer a starting point for identifying useful factors to target prevention and intervention strategies aimed at university students.

  18. Relative Effects of Problem-Solving and Concept Mapping ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper discussed various types of teaching strategies and they can aid the academic achievement of students in Economics. Also problem-solving and concept mapping strategies are also discussed and their significance and importance to students. The research design employed a 3x2 pre test, post test, control group, ...

  19. Gambling behaviors and psychopathology related to Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in problem and non-problem adult gamblers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatseas, Melina; Alexandre, Jean-Marc; Vénisse, Jean-Luc; Romo, Lucia; Valleur, Marc; Magalon, David; Chéreau-Boudet, Isabelle; Luquiens, Amandine; Guilleux, Alice; Groupe Jeu; Challet-Bouju, Gaëlle; Grall-Bronnec, Marie

    2016-05-30

    Previous studies showed that Pathological Gambling and Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) often co-occur. The aim of this study was to examine whether ADHD is associated with specific severity patterns in terms of gambling behavior, psychopathology and personality traits. 599 problem and non-problem-gamblers were recruited in addiction clinics and gambling places in France. Subjects were assessed with the Wender-Utah Rating Scale-Child, the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale, the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview, the Temperament and Character Inventory, the South Oaks Gambling Screen and questionnaires assessing gambling related cognitive distortions and gambling habits. 20.7% (n=124) of gamblers were screened positive for lifetime or current ADHD. Results from the multivariate analysis showed that ADHD was associated with a higher severity of gambling-related problems and with more psychiatric comorbidity. Among problem gamblers, subjects with history of ADHD were also at higher risk for unemployment, psychiatric comorbidity and specific dysfunctional personality traits. This study supports the link between gambling related problems and ADHD in a large sample of problem and non-problem gamblers, including problem-gamblers not seeking treatment. This points out the necessity to consider this disorder in the prevention and in the treatment of pathological gambling. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Relative clauses in Latin: some problems of description

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pinkster, H.; da Cunha Corrêa, P.; Martinho, M.; Macedo, J.M.; Pineiro Hasegawa, A.

    2012-01-01

    Latin grammars usually describe relative clauses as attributes of a head constituent. Independently used relative clauses are regarded as derived from the first type. Latin has in fact two types of relative clauses which should not be regarded as derived from each other.

  1. Exact methods for time constrained routing and related scheduling problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kohl, Niklas

    1995-01-01

    , Desrosiers and Solomon (1992) who were able to solve 50 of the problems, and Halse (1992) who solved 33. The main reason for the success of the algorithm is the exploitation of valid inequalities. The increase in speed of computers since 1992 play only a minor role. In the last part of the dissertation...... application of valid inequalities on the VRPTW. The algorithm developed represents a major step forward in terms of computational ability to solve the VRPTW. Solutions to a large number of previously unsolved problems are reported....... can be improved further by incorporation of valid inequalities . We show how this can be done computationally and we introduce a number of valid inequalities for the VRPTW. Finally we present a number of strategies, primarily branch-and-bound, to obtain integer solutions. In the computational part...

  2. Open Problems Related to the Hurwitz Stability of Polynomials Segments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baltazar Aguirre-Hernández

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In the framework of robust stability analysis of linear systems, the development of techniques and methods that help to obtain necessary and sufficient conditions to determine stability of convex combinations of polynomials is paramount. In this paper, knowing that Hurwitz polynomials set is not a convex set, a brief overview of some results and open problems concerning the stability of the convex combinations of Hurwitz polynomials is then provided.

  3. State Confessional Relations: Problem of the Subject Structure

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandra A. Dorskaya

    2014-01-01

    In the article various existing definitions of the concept "state and confessional relations" are analyzed, also author's definition is offered. Three levels of the state and confessional relations are revealed: conceptual, legislative and administrative-managerial. In the article it is shown that in Russia a tradition of only two subjects of the state and confessional relations – government bodies and the religious organizations allocation exists. It is revealed that at the present stage man...

  4. Current problems of foreign practice-related educational psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.D. Andreeva

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The article regards the questions of scientific-methodological provision of psychologist’s activity in an educational settlement which are urgent for the activity of practical educational psychologist in Russia as well. The presented information concerns the psychologist’s particular strands of work which can be both developing (development of ABM and psycho-correcting (reasons and forms of school phobias, bullying displays, lying. The ethical problems of psychologist’s work with families namely in case of the parent-child conflicts is also reviewed in the article.

  5. Magnitude and Prevention of College Drinking and Related Problems

    OpenAIRE

    Hingson, Ralph W.

    2010-01-01

    In 2002, the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) issued a report entitled A Call to Action: Changing the Culture of Drinking at U.S. Colleges. Data on the magnitude of college drinking problems in 1998 to 1999 were reported. From 1999 to 2005, the proportion of college students aged 18–24 who drank five or more drinks on a single occasion in the past month increased from 41.7 percent to 45.2 percent. The proportion who drove under the influence of alcohol increased from...

  6. Actual problems of accession in relation with library statistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tereza Poličnik-Čermelj

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Accession is the process of recording bibliographic units in an accession register. Typically,library materials are acquired by purchase, exchange, gift or legal deposit. How-ever, COBISS (Cooperative Online Bibliographic System and Services Holdings software module includes some additional methods of acquisition which causes problems in gathering and presenting statistical data on local holdings. The article explains how to record holdings of different types of library materials and how to record retrospective collections. It describes necessary procedures in case the codes that define the publication pattern of the holdings are changed with special attention to integrating resources. Procedures of accession and circulation of bound materials, supplementary materials, teaching sets, multi parts, multimedia and collection level catalogue records are described. The attention is given to errors in recording lost item replacements and to the problems of circulation of certain types of library materials. The author also suggests how to record remote electronic resources. It is recommended to verify holdings data before the accession register is generated. The relevant and credible statistical data on collection development can only be created by librarians with sufficient acquisition and cataloguing skills.

  7. Relative information entropy in cosmology: The problem of information entanglement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Czinner, Viktor G., E-mail: czinner.viktor@wigner.mta.hu [Centro de Matemática, Universidade do Minho, Campus de Gualtar, 4710-057 Braga (Portugal); HAS Wigner Research Centre for Physics, H-1525 Budapest, P.O. Box 49 (Hungary); Mena, Filipe C., E-mail: fmena@math.uminho.pt [Centro de Matemática, Universidade do Minho, Campus de Gualtar, 4710-057 Braga (Portugal)

    2016-07-10

    The necessary information to distinguish a local inhomogeneous mass density field from its spatial average on a compact domain of the universe can be measured by relative information entropy. The Kullback–Leibler (KL) formula arises very naturally in this context, however, it provides a very complicated way to compute the mutual information between spatially separated but causally connected regions of the universe in a realistic, inhomogeneous model. To circumvent this issue, by considering a parametric extension of the KL measure, we develop a simple model to describe the mutual information which is entangled via the gravitational field equations. We show that the Tsallis relative entropy can be a good approximation in the case of small inhomogeneities, and for measuring the independent relative information inside the domain, we propose the Rényi relative entropy formula.

  8. China's tax system relatively benign, but problems remain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cannon, M.

    1994-01-01

    Recent developments in China's oil market have reignited the interest of multinational oil and gas companies in China. New onshore and offshore blocks are being granted, and the Tarim basin has been opened to foreign participation for the first time. Foreign participation is also being sought in refining and other downstream areas. Though Chinese officials have long been viewed as difficult negotiators, the tax provisions applicable to oil and gas exploration and production in China are some of the more generous in the area. This article describes some of the relevant features of the system and some of the problem areas. The paper describes production sharing contracts, applicable taxes, gross income determination, taxable income, tax consolidation, overseas charges, and withholding taxes on payments to subcontractors and employees

  9. Phase transition in anisotropic holographic superfluids with arbitrary dynamical critical exponent z and hyperscaling violation factor α

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Miok [Korea Institute for Advanced Study, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jiwon; Oh, Jae-Hyuk [Hanyang University, Department of Physics, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-11-15

    Einstein-scalar-U(2) gauge field theory is considered in a spacetime characterized by α and z, which are the hyperscaling violation factor and the dynamical critical exponent, respectively. We consider a dual fluid system of such a gravity theory characterized by temperature T and chemical potential μ. It turns out that there is a superfluid phase transition where a vector order parameter appears which breaks SO(3) global rotation symmetry of the dual fluid system when the chemical potential becomes a certain critical value. To study this system for arbitrary z and α, we first apply Sturm-Liouville theory and estimate the upper bounds of the critical values of the chemical potential. We also employ a numerical method in the ranges of 1 ≤ z ≤ 4 and 0 ≤ α ≤ 4 to check if the Sturm-Liouville method correctly estimates the critical values of the chemical potential. It turns out that the two methods are agreed within 10 percent error ranges. Finally, we compute free energy density of the dual fluid by using its gravity dual and check if the system shows phase transition at the critical values of the chemical potential μ{sub c} for the given parameter region of α and z. Interestingly, it is observed that the anisotropic phase is more favored than the isotropic phase for relatively small values of z and α. However, for large values of z and α, the anisotropic phase is not favored. (orig.)

  10. Alcohol- and drug-related absenteeism: a costly problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roche, Ann; Pidd, Ken; Kostadinov, Victoria

    2016-06-01

    Absenteeism related to alcohol and other drug (AOD) use can place a substantial burden on businesses and society. This study estimated the cost of AOD-related absenteeism in Australia using a nationally representative dataset. A secondary analysis of the 2013 National Drug Strategy Household Survey (n=12,196) was undertaken. Two measures of AOD-related absenteeism were used: participants' self-reported absence due to AOD use (M1); and the mean difference in absence due to any illness/injury for AOD users compared to abstainers (M2). Both figures were multiplied by $267.70 (average day's wage in 2013 plus 20% on-costs) to estimate associated costs. M1 resulted in an estimation of 2.5 million days lost annually due to AOD use, at a cost of more than $680 million. M2 resulted in an estimation of almost 11.5 million days lost, at a cost of $3 billion. AOD-related absenteeism represents a significant and preventable impost upon Australian businesses. Workplaces should implement evidence-based interventions to promote healthy employee behaviour and reduce AOD-related absenteeism. © 2015 Public Health Association of Australia.

  11. Workers' Education in Industrialised Countries and Its Specific Problems in Relation to Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labour Education, 1986

    1986-01-01

    Examines several problems that need to be addressed concerning world crisis: war, poverty, unemployment, overpopulation, environmental issues, and housing; developed versus developing countries; and social justice. The task for workers' education in relation to these problems is discussed. (CT)

  12. Christian – Muslim Relations in Nigeria: The Problems and Prospects

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Inter-religious relations imply possible and practicable cordial relationship that exists between religions in a society. Its instrument is interfaith dialogue aimed at cordiality, togetherness, tolerance and acceptance that will be the true sign of a new era in the religious history of humanity. On both international and national ...

  13. Pharmacist intervention in drug-related problems for patients with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    assistant [13]. In all of our interventions, one to one patient counseling was performed. Consultation with the physician was performed by 48 %, while intervention was carried out with the patients and patients' relatives and the physician was contacted in the ratio of 2 %. In the study performed by Rahbi et al, interventions.

  14. Malting and Brewing Industries Encounter Fusarium spp. Related Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina Mastanjević

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Versatile microbiota are inevitably naturally present on cereals. Fungi, yeasts and bacteria and their metabolites all contribute to the quality and safety of the final products derived from most common beer cereals—barley and wheat. The microorganisms that are most often associated with the safety and quality of cereals for beer production belong to the Fusarium spp. They greatly influence yields from the field, and can modify and diminish economic success for farmers. However, the real problem is their harmful metabolites—mycotoxins—that affect the health of humans and animals. In the era of emerging analytical methodologies, the spectrum of known toxins originating from microorganisms that can pose a threat to humans has grown tremendously. Therefore, it is necessary to monitor microflora throughout the productive “barley to beer” chain and to act suppressive on the proliferation of unwanted microorganisms, before and during malting, preventing the occurrence of mycotoxins in final products and by-products. Multi-mycotoxin analyses are very advanced and useful tools for the assessment of product safety, and legislation should follow up and make some important changes to regulate as yet unregulated, but highly occurring, microbial toxins in malt and beer.

  15. On a covariant 2+2 formulation of the initial value problem in general relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smallwood, J.

    1980-03-01

    The initial value problems in general relativity are considered from a geometrical standpoint with especial reference to the development of a covariant 2+2 formalism in which space-time is foliated by space-like 2-surfaces under the headings; the Cauchy problem in general relativity, the covariant 3+1 formulation of the Cauchy problem, characteristic and mixed initial value problems, on locally imbedding a family of null hypersurfaces, the 2+2 formalism, the 2+2 formulation of the Cauchy problem, the 2+2 formulation of the characteristic and mixed initial value problems, and a covariant Lagrangian 2+2 formulation. (U.K.)

  16. Relations over Time among Children's Shyness, Emotionality, and Internalizing Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggum, Natalie D.; Eisenberg, Nancy; Reiser, Mark; Spinrad, Tracy L.; Valiente, Carlos; Sallquist, Julie; Michalik, Nicole M.; Liew, Jeffrey

    2012-01-01

    Data regarding children's shyness and emotionality were collected at three time points, two years apart (T1: N = 214, M = 6.12 years; T2: N = 185, M = 7.67 years; T3: N = 185, M = 9.70 years), and internalizing data were collected at T1 and T3. Relations among parent-rated shyness, emotionality [parent- and teacher-rated anger, sadness, and…

  17. Gender-related voice problems in transsexuals - therapeutical demands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misołek, Maciej; Niebudek-Bogusz, Ewa; Morawska, Joanna; Orecka, Bogusława; Ścierski, Wojciech; Lisowska, Grażyna

    2016-01-01

    The paper presents a case study of a transsexual patient who underwent a voice pitch elevation surgery performed in Poland for the first time. The human voice is a reflection of the working of hormones and human psyche. This fact is of particular importance in transsexualism, a disorder consisting in incongruence between the individual's biological sex and their identified gender. For many transsexual people, especially of the MTF (male to female) type, who have undergone hormonal and surgical sex change, the voice still presents a major problem, causing difficulties in everyday life. Hormonal treatment does not influence feminisation of the larynx. In the described MTF case, the patient's low androphonic voice was perceived as a male voice. In order to feminise the patient's voice a phonosurgical procedure was performed: the length of the vibrating portion of the vocal folds was shortened by over 50% of their total length by means of suturing of the anterior part of the vocal fold. As a result of the surgical treatment the pitch of voice was raised considerably, with F0 of spoken voice increased from 109 Hz to 209 Hz. The voice range also changed towards female tones, from 59-146 Hz to 148-343 Hz. Pitch elevation positively influenced the patient's subjective voice assessment: total score of the Voice Handicap Index (VHI) improved from 99 to 19 points, and the score of its emotional sub-scale: 39 and 2 points, respectively. The described case of a surgical male-to-female voice change presents one of the dilemmas faced by modern medicine. (Endokrynol Pol 2016; 67 (4): 452-455).

  18. Charles François Sturm and Differential Equations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lützen, Jesper; Mingarelli, Angelo

    2008-01-01

    An analysis of Sturm's works on differential equations, in particular Sturm-Liouville theory. The historical connection to Sturm's theorem about real roots of polynomials is established......An analysis of Sturm's works on differential equations, in particular Sturm-Liouville theory. The historical connection to Sturm's theorem about real roots of polynomials is established...

  19. Moisture and Home Energy Conservation: How to Detect, Solve and Avoid Related Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Center for Appropriate Technology, Butte, MT.

    Moisture problems are identified as an important element in home energy conservation programs. A systematic approach to understanding, recognizing, solving, and preventing moisture-related problems is offered in this four-section report. Section I examines the root of moisture problems. Section II discusses symptoms and causes of excess moisture…

  20. Drug-related problems identified in medication reviews by Australian pharmacists

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stafford, Andrew C; Tenni, Peter C; Peterson, Gregory M

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: In Australia, accredited pharmacists perform medication reviews for patients to identify and resolve drug-related problems. We analysed the drug-related problems identified in reviews for both home-dwelling and residential care-facility patients. The objective of this study was to exam......OBJECTIVE: In Australia, accredited pharmacists perform medication reviews for patients to identify and resolve drug-related problems. We analysed the drug-related problems identified in reviews for both home-dwelling and residential care-facility patients. The objective of this study....... These reviews had been self-selected by pharmacists and submitted as part of the reaccreditation process to the primary body responsible for accrediting Australian pharmacists to perform medication reviews. The drug-related problems identified in each review were classified by type and drugs involved. MAIN...... OUTCOME MEASURE: The number and nature of drug-related problems identified in pharmacist-conducted medication reviews. RESULTS: There were 1,038 drug-related problems identified in 234 medication reviews (mean 4.6 (+/-2.2) problems per review). The number of problems was higher (4.9 +/- 2.0 vs. 3.9 +/- 2...

  1. Alcohol-related problems of future physicians prior to medical training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richman, J A; Flaherty, J A

    1990-07-01

    Time 1 data are presented from an ongoing longitudinal study of drinking patterns and problems of future physicians from medical school entrance through 2.5 years of training. The data in this report address the prevalence and psychosocial correlates of alcohol-related problems experienced prior to medical school training. A group of 167 students (91% of the cohort) was surveyed. Self-report questionnaires included: alcohol-related problems (the MAST), earlier parent-child relationships, personality characteristics (external locus of control, self-esteem, dependency, masculinity-femininity), life events, social supports, motivations for drinking and symptomatic distress. The male students manifested a higher mean level of alcohol problems, and the sexes differed at the trend level when the MAST was scored to distinguish "problem" from "nonproblem" drinkers (with 18.4% of the students reporting 5 or more problem points and 7.4% reporting 4 problem points). The significant correlates of alcohol problems included: perceived lack of earlier maternal affectivity (for men) and perceived lack of earlier paternal affectivity (for women), and lack of emotional support (for men). Moreover, escape motives for men were the motives most highly correlated with alcohol problems. Symptomatic distress (anxiety and hostility) was significantly correlated with alcohol-related problems in men but not women. Future reports will depict the psychosocial experiences and alcohol-related problems manifested by this cohort during medical training.

  2. Drinking motives as moderators of the effect of ambivalence on drinking and alcohol-related problems

    OpenAIRE

    Foster, Dawn W.; Neighbors, Clayton; Prokhorov, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    The current study seeks to evaluate relationships between drinking motives and alcohol-related ambivalence in the prediction of problem drinking. We expected that: 1) main effects would emerge such that alcohol-related ambivalence would be positively associated with peak drinking and problems; drinking motives would be positively associated with drinking and problems, and 2) interactions would emerge between motives and ambivalence in predicting problematic drinking such that drinking motives...

  3. Spectral transform and solvability of nonlinear evolution equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Degasperis, A.

    1979-01-01

    These lectures deal with an exciting development of the last decade, namely the resolving method based on the spectral transform which can be considered as an extension of the Fourier analysis to nonlinear evolution equations. Since many important physical phenomena are modeled by nonlinear partial wave equations this method is certainly a major breakthrough in mathematical physics. We follow the approach, introduced by Calogero, which generalizes the usual Wronskian relations for solutions of a Sturm-Liouville problem. Its application to the multichannel Schroedinger problem will be the subject of these lectures. We will focus upon dynamical systems described at time t by a multicomponent field depending on one space coordinate only. After recalling the Fourier technique for linear evolution equations we introduce the spectral transform method taking the integral equations of potential scattering as an example. The second part contains all the basic functional relationships between the fields and their spectral transforms as derived from the Wronskian approach. In the third part we discuss a particular class of solutions of nonlinear evolution equations, solitons, which are considered by many physicists as a first step towards an elementary particle theory, because of their particle-like behaviour. The effect of the polarization time-dependence on the motion of the soliton is studied by means of the corresponding spectral transform, leading to new concepts such as the 'boomeron' and the 'trappon'. The rich dynamic structure is illustrated by a brief report on the main results of boomeron-boomeron and boomeron-trappon collisions. In the final section we discuss further results concerning important properties of the solutions of basic nonlinear equations. We introduce the Baecklund transform for the special case of scalar fields and demonstrate how it can be used to generate multisoliton solutions and how the conservation laws are obtained. (HJ)

  4. Development and application of measurement methods focusing on medication related problems in elderly hospitalised patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wierenga, P.C.

    2013-01-01

    In conclusion, elderly hospitalised patients form a patient group that is at higher risk for medication related problems compared to younger patients. In order to measure medication related problems in hospitalised elderly and to ultimately improve their pharmaceutical care we examined three

  5. Development and psychometric properties of a pain-related problem list for adolescents (PPL)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Weel (Sara); V.P.B.M. Merlijn (Vivian); J. Passchier (Jan); B.W. Koes (Bart); J.C. van der Wouden (Hans); L.W.A. van Suijlekom-Smit (Lisette); J.A.M. Hunfeld (Joke)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractInstruments for measuring pain-related problems in adolescents with chronic pain are sparse, especially those based on the personal experiences of these adolescents. This study aimed to develop and test such an instrument, the pain-related problem list for adolescents (PPL). A sample of

  6. Problems of Development of the Turkish-Iranian Relations after Islamic Revolution of 1979

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A V Suleymanov

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Problems of development of the Turkish-Iranian relations after Islamic revolution of 1979 are considered in the article. Based on comparative, historical and system methods, the author analyzes in details ideological and political problems of mutual relations of the subsequent periods, their characteristic and distinctive features.

  7. Parenting and Children's Adjustment Problems: The Mediating Role of Self-Esteem and Peer Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiou, Nicos A.; Stavrinides, Panayiotis; Georgiou, Stelios

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of parental and personal characteristics on children's internalizing/externalizing problems. Further, this study aimed to examine personal characteristics (self-esteem, peer relations) as mediators in the relation between parenting and internalizing/externalizing problems. In order to address…

  8. Beating the Odds: Preparing Graduates to Address Gambling-Related Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, Rafael J.; Bechtold, Jody; Kim, Yoonmi; Mulvaney, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    As gambling opportunities proliferate, social workers are likely to see clients with gambling-related problems, but they often lack the expertise to address these concerns. This descriptive study assessed the inclusion of content on gambling-related problems in graduate social work curricula. Responses to an online survey from 86 (43.7%) of the…

  9. Problems of Development of the Turkish-Iranian Relations after Islamic Revolution of 1979

    OpenAIRE

    A V Suleymanov

    2013-01-01

    Problems of development of the Turkish-Iranian relations after Islamic revolution of 1979 are considered in the article. Based on comparative, historical and system methods, the author analyzes in details ideological and political problems of mutual relations of the subsequent periods, their characteristic and distinctive features.

  10. Adjustment problems and maladaptive relational style: a mediational model of sexual coercion in intimate relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salwen, Jessica K; O'Leary, K Daniel

    2013-07-01

    Four hundred and fifty-three married or cohabitating couples participated in the current study. A meditational model of men's perpetration of sexual coercion within an intimate relationship was examined based on past theories and known correlates of rape and sexual coercion. The latent constructs of adjustment problems and maladaptive relational style were examined. Adjustment problem variables included perceived stress, perceived low social support, and marital discord. Maladaptive relational style variables included psychological aggression, dominance, and jealousy. Sexual coercion was a combined measure of men's reported perpetration and women's reported victimization. As hypothesized, adjustment problems significantly predicted sexual coercion. Within the meditational model, adjustment problems were significantly correlated with maladaptive relational style, and maladaptive relational style significantly predicted sexual coercion. Once maladaptive relational style was introduced as a mediator, adjustment problems no longer significantly predicted sexual coercion. Implications for treatment, limitations, and future research are discussed.

  11. Health-related problems in a vulnerable population: pregnant teens and adolescent mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesser, J; Escoto-Lloyd, S

    1999-06-01

    Childbearing adolescents are susceptible to a myriad of health-related problems. For these youth, health-related problems include both physiological and psychological disease states that negatively impact both their own and their children's lives. Suicide attempts, parenting problems (including child abuse), domestic violence, poor birth outcomes, and sexually-transmitted diseases (including HIV) are just some of the problems encountered. This article focuses on the relationship between lack of social and environmental resources and the risk factors for health problems in adolescent mothers and provides recommendations for nursing assessment and intervention. The complex nature of the relationship between lack of resources and the many risk factors for health-related problems in the lives of childbearing adolescents makes comprehensive health care a requirement. Nurses in school-based clinics and community settings are in a unique position to provide access to the physical and mental health services necessary for pregnant adolescents and teen mothers.

  12. Cannabis-Related Problems and Social Anxiety: The Mediational Role of Post-Event Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ecker, Anthony H; Buckner, Julia D

    2018-01-02

    Cannabis is the most commonly used illicit drug in the US, and is associated with a range of psychological, social, and physical health-related problems. Individuals who endorse elevated levels of social anxiety are especially at risk for experiencing cannabis-related problems, including cannabis use disorder, despite not using cannabis more often than those with more normative social anxiety. Identification of mechanisms that underlie the relationship between social anxiety and cannabis-related problems may inform treatment and prevention efforts. Post-event processing (PEP, i.e., cognitively reviewing past social interactions/performances) is a social anxiety-related phenomenon that may be one such mechanism. The current study sought to test PEP as a mediator of the relationship between social anxiety and cannabis-related problems, adjusting for cannabis use frequency. Cannabis-using (past 3-month) undergraduate students recruited in 2015 (N = 244; 76.2% female; 74.2% Non-Hispanic Caucasian) completed an online survey of cannabis use, cannabis-related problems, social anxiety, and PEP. Bootstrap estimate of the indirect effect of social anxiety through PEP was significant, suggesting PEP is a mediator of the social anxiety-cannabis-related problems relationship. Conclusions/Importance: Treatment and prevention efforts may benefit from targeting PEP among individuals with elevated social anxiety and cannabis-related problems.

  13. The Public Stigma of Problem Gambling: Its Nature and Relative Intensity Compared to Other Health Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hing, Nerilee; Russell, Alex M T; Gainsbury, Sally M; Nuske, Elaine

    2016-09-01

    Problem gambling attracts considerable public stigma, with deleterious effects on mental health and use of healthcare services amongst those affected. However, no research has examined the extent of stigma towards problem gambling within the general population. This study aimed to examine the stigma-related dimensions of problem gambling as perceived by the general public compared to other health conditions, and determine whether the publicly perceived dimensions of problem gambling predict its stigmatisation. A sample of 2000 Australian adults was surveyed, weighted to be representative of the state population by gender, age and location. Based on vignettes, the online survey measured perceived origin, peril, concealability, course and disruptiveness of problem gambling and four other health conditions, and desired social distance from each. Problem gambling was perceived as caused mainly by stressful life circumstances, and highly disruptive, recoverable and noticeable, but not particularly perilous. Respondents stigmatised problem gambling more than sub-clinical distress and recreational gambling, but less than alcohol use disorder and schizophrenia. Predictors of stronger stigma towards problem gambling were perceptions it is caused by bad character, is perilous, non-recoverable, disruptive and noticeable, but not due to stressful life circumstances, genetic/inherited problem, or chemical imbalance in the brain. This new foundational knowledge can advance understanding and reduction of problem gambling stigma through countering inaccurate perceptions that problem gambling is caused by bad character, that people with gambling problems are likely to be violent to other people, and that people cannot recover from problem gambling.

  14. Obstacles Related to Structuring for Mathematization Encountered by Students when Solving Physics Problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niss, Martin

    2017-01-01

    This paper studies the cognitive obstacles related to one aspect of mathematization in physics problem-solving, namely, what might be called structuring for mathematization, where the problem situation is structured in such a way that a translation to a mathematical universe can be done. We report...... the results of an analysis of four protocols from task-based interviews with university students working on physics problems in pairs who fail when solving the problems. The obstacles encountered by the students are shown to be related to how the students approach the structuring for mathematization...

  15. Anxiety sensitivity and cannabis use-related problems: The impact of race.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Kimberlye E; Ecker, Anthony H; Buckner, Julia D

    2017-04-01

    Cannabis is the most widely used illicit substance among young adults. Anxiety sensitivity (AS; ie, fear of anxiety-related symptoms) is positively related to coping motives for cannabis use (which are robustly positively linked to cannabis-related problems). However, AS is unrelated to cannabis use-related problems. Yet, extant studies have been conducted on primarily White samples. It may be that among Black students, AS-physical concerns (ie, fear of physical anxiety-related sensations) are related to cannabis problems given that Black individuals are more likely than White individuals to report experiencing greater and more intense somatic symptoms when experiencing anxiety. Black individuals may rely on cannabis to cope with fear of these somatic symptoms, continuing to use despite cannabis-related problems. The current study tested whether race moderated the relation between AS-physical concerns and cannabis problems among 102 (85.3% female) current cannabis using undergraduates who were either non-Hispanic Black (n = 51) or non-Hispanic White (n = 51). After controlling for frequency of cannabis use, income, and gender, race significantly moderated the relation between AS-physical concerns and cannabis use-related problems such that AS-physical concerns significantly predicted cannabis-related problems among Black and not White individuals. Findings highlight the importance of considering race in identifying psychosocial predictors of cannabis-related problems. Intervention strategies for Black cannabis users may benefit from examining and targeting AS-physical concerns. (Am J Addict 2017;26:209-214). © 2017 American Academy of Addiction Psychiatry.

  16. The internal gravity wave spectrum in two high-resolution global ocean models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbic, B. K.; Ansong, J. K.; Buijsman, M. C.; Kunze, E. L.; Menemenlis, D.; Müller, M.; Richman, J. G.; Savage, A.; Shriver, J. F.; Wallcraft, A. J.; Zamudio, L.

    2016-02-01

    We examine the internal gravity wave (IGW) spectrum in two sets of high-resolution global ocean simulations that are forced concurrently by atmospheric fields and the astronomical tidal potential. We analyze global 1/12th and 1/25th degree HYCOM simulations, and global 1/12th, 1/24th, and 1/48th degree simulations of the MITgcm. We are motivated by the central role that IGWs play in ocean mixing, by operational considerations of the US Navy, which runs HYCOM as an ocean forecast model, and by the impact of the IGW continuum on the sea surface height (SSH) measurements that will be taken by the planned NASA/CNES SWOT wide-swath altimeter mission. We (1) compute the IGW horizontal wavenumber-frequency spectrum of kinetic energy, and interpret the results with linear dispersion relations computed from the IGW Sturm-Liouville problem, (2) compute and similarly interpret nonlinear spectral kinetic energy transfers in the IGW band, (3) compute and similarly interpret IGW contributions to SSH variance, (4) perform comparisons of modeled IGW kinetic energy frequency spectra with moored current meter observations, and (5) perform comparisons of modeled IGW kinetic energy vertical wavenumber-frequency spectra with moored observations. This presentation builds upon our work in Muller et al. (2015, GRL), who performed tasks (1), (2), and (4) in 1/12th and 1/25th degree HYCOM simulations, for one region of the North Pacific. New for this presentation are tasks (3) and (5), the inclusion of MITgcm solutions, and the analysis of additional ocean regions.

  17. Indoor and Outdoor Air Pollution- related Health Problem in Ethiopia: Review of Related Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tefera, Worku; Asfaw, Araya; Gilliland, Frank; Worku, Alemayehu; Wondimagegn, Mehari; Kumie, Abera; Samet, Jonathan; Berhane, Kiros

    2016-01-01

    The health effects of air pollution are generally global problems, but they have, since recently become issues of particular concern for developing countries. This review assessed the situation of air pollution and related health effects in the context of Ethiopia. The materials reviewed in this publication are published scientific papers from online search engines, unpublished government reports and academic theses/dissertations. In addition, interview data obtained from authorities and experts involved in the management of air quality were analyzed, interpreted and reported in the article. Review of the few studies conducted in Ethiopia showed that average concentrations of PM 2.5 reached as high as 280 µg/m 3 for 24-hour measurements (range: 2,417-12,739 µg/m 3 ). Indoor carbon monoxide (CO) levels were universally higher than regulatory limits for the United States and were found to be much higher among households using traditional stoves and solid biomass fuels. The use of traditional stoves and solid biomass fuels was reported in >95% of the households considered. High average levels of NO 2 (97 ppb) were reported in a large longitudinal study. The ambient PM 10 level was below the WHO guideline values in the majority of the samples. About 50% of the on-road CO samples taken from traffic roads in Addis Ababa were found to be less than the guideline values while the number of motor vehicles in Ethiopia is reported to be increasing by more than 9% per annum. There is a very limited air quality monitoring capacity in the country. The co-ordination between stakeholders in this regard is also inadequate. The limited evidence available on health effects of air pollution indicates that the prevalence of acute respiratory illness among children living in households using crude biomass fuels is significantly higher than the national average figures. The limited evidence reviewed and reported in this article indicates high levels of indoor air pollution and trends of

  18. Personality-related problems and the five-factor model of personality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudreaux, Michael J

    2016-10-01

    This paper examines the empirical associations of a relatively broad and inclusive list of personality-related problems with both the high and low poles of the five-factor model of personality (FFM). Several studies have documented links between impaired functioning and the FFM, but these associations have largely been confined to the socially undesirable poles. In this study, a list of 310 personality-related problems was developed and administered to a large college student sample along with the International Personality Item Pool Representation of the Revised NEO Personality Inventory (IPIP-NEO) and an experimental manipulation of the NEO PI-R items (EXP-NEO). Numerous problems were associated with both poles of each trait domain and facet of the FFM, but both the IPIP-NEO and EXP-NEO were required to capture problems at both ends. Potential implications of emphasizing problems at one or both poles of trait continua are discussed. Future research should evaluate the structure and inclusiveness of the current list of personality-related problems against other representations of problem behavior, examine base rates of problems in other populations, and seek to understand the psychological mechanisms that might explain associations of problems across the full range of trait continua. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. Callous-unemotional behaviors in young girls: shared and unique effects relative to conduct problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hipwell, Alison E; Pardini, Dustin A; Loeber, Rolf; Sembower, Mark; Keenan, Kate; Stouthamer-Loeber, Magda

    2007-01-01

    Among girls, little is known about the shared and unique associations that callous-unemotional (CU) behaviors and conduct problems have with aspects of emotional and behavioral dysregulation and with parenting practices. This study examined these associations using a large community-based sample of young girls (N = 990). The findings revealed that hyperactivity-impulsivity and negative emotionality were positively and uniquely associated with conduct problems, but not with CU behaviors, after controlling for co-occurring conduct problems. Conduct problems were also positively associated with both generalized anxiety and panic/somatic anxiety. In contrast, CU behaviors were negatively related to generalized anxiety problems after controlling for co-occurring conduct problems. The results also indicated that conduct problems were more closely associated with harsh punishment and low parental warmth among girls with low versus high CU behaviors.

  20. The relation between college students’ academic mindsets and their persistence during math problem solving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shen, Chen

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study examined the extent to which college students’ academic mindsets predicted their persistence when solving challenging math problems. The study included an experimental manipulation, in which participants initially received either an easy or a difficult arithmetic task. Following the manipulation, all participants solved two target math problems: one that was solvable but very hard and another that was unsolvable. Time spent attempting to solve each problem served as a measure of persistence. Results showed the predicted pattern for the solvable target problem, but not for the unsolvable problem. That is, for the solvable problem, the more of a fixed mindset participants had, the less persistent they were after completing a relatively difficult arithmetic task than after completing an easy task. The results suggest that, for certain types of math problems, students’ persistence may vary as a function of academic mindset and previous experiences of math success or failure.

  1. Playing-Related Health Problems Among Instrumental Music Students at a University in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lonsdale, Karen; Boon, Ong Kuan

    2016-09-01

    Musicians from a wide range of backgrounds experience playing-related health problems including musculoskeletal disorders, hearing loss, and performance anxiety. Few studies have focused specifically on the health concerns of musicians in Malaysia. This study aimed to investigate playing-related health problems among student musicians at a university in Malaysia as well as their knowledge and awareness of playing-related health problems. Instrumental music students enrolled in undergraduate and post-graduate university music courses (n=98) participated in a self-report online survey which addressed aspects such as educational background, playing experience, knowledge and awareness of musicians' health issues, history of physical problems, lifestyle factors, and prevention and management strategies. Of the total participants, 28.9% reported that they were currently experiencing playing-related pain in a body part, and 46.4% had experienced playing-related pain at some time. More than half (56.7%) felt that they have not received enough information or advice on playing-related health during their current studies. Musicians who experienced playing-related pain, tension, and discomfort reported the main problem sites to be the fingers and hands, arms, neck, and shoulders. The study results demonstrate that Malaysian university music students are affected by similar types of playing-related physical problems as their counterparts around the world. A greater awareness and knowledge of injury prevention and management strategies is needed so that these music students can sustain healthy playing careers.

  2. Science and technology related global problems: An international survey of science educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bybee, Rodger W.; Mau, Teri

    This survey evaluated one aspect of the Science-Technology-Society theme, namely, the teaching of global problems related to science and technology. The survey was conducted during spring 1984. Two hundred sixty-two science educators representing 41 countries completed the survey. Response was 80%. Findings included a ranking of twelve global problems (the top six were: World Hunger and Food Resources, Population Growth, Air Quality and Atmosphere, Water Resources, War Technology, and Human Health and Disease). Science educators generally indicated the following: the science and technology related global problems would be worse by the year 2000; they were slightly or moderately knowledgeable about the problems; print, audio-visual media, and personal experiences were their primary sources of information; it is important to study global problems in schools; emphasis on global problems should increase with age/grade level; an integrated approach should be used to teach about global problems; courses including global problems should be required of all students; most countries are in the early stages of developing programs including global problems; there is a clear trend toward S-T-S; there is public support for including global problems; and, the most significant limitations to implementation of the S-T-S theme (in order of significance) are political, personnel, social, psychological, economic, pedagogical, and physical. Implications for research and development in science education are discussed.

  3. Obstacles Related to Structuring for Mathematization Encountered by Students When Solving Physics Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niss, Martin

    2017-01-01

    This paper studies the cognitive obstacles related to one aspect of mathematization in physics problem-solving, namely, what might be called "structuring for mathematization," where the problem situation is structured in such a way that a translation to a mathematical universe can be done. We report the results of an analysis of four…

  4. Sleep-related problems and minor psychiatric disorders among Brazilian shift workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olinto, Maria Teresa Anselmo; Garcez, Anderson; Henn, Ruth Liane; Macagnan, Jamile Block Araldi; Paniz, Vera Maria Vieira; Pattussi, Marcos Pascoal

    2017-11-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the association between sleep-related problems with the occurrence of minor psychiatric disorders in shift workers of southern Brazil. A cross-sectional study with 1202 workers (785 females) aged 18-50 years was carried out. Minor psychiatric disorders were assessed using the Self-Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ-20), and four sleep problems were collected and analyzed: sleep deprivation (≤ 5h), difficulty falling asleep, waking up during sleep, and sleep medication use. Results show that the overall prevalence of minor psychiatric disorders was 26.8%, but it was more prevalent among females than males (30.2% vs. 20.4%). Nightshift work was significantly associated with the occurrence of sleep-related problems. After adjusting for confounding factors, the number of sleep-related problems showed a positive linear trend with psychiatric disorders in both sexes. Having two or more sleep-related problems was associated with increased probability of psychiatric disorders approximately three-fold among males and two-fold among females, when compared with those without sleep problems. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that sleep-related problems have a strong and independent association with psychiatric disorders among shift workers. Furthermore, the prevalence of both conditions was higher among females than males; however, the strength of these associations was higher in males. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Alcohol and Illicit Drug Use Are Important Factors for School-Related Problems among Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ove Heradstveit

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the association between alcohol and drug use, and school-related problems measured by low grade point average (GPA and high school attendance. We also examined potential confounding effects from mental health problems. Although the issue is not new within current literature, the present study has its strengths in a large number of participants and the utilization of registry-based data on school-related functioning. A cross-sectional design is employed in this study using data from a large population-based sample of adolescents, youth@hordaland, in a linkage to official school registry data, and the current study presents data from N = 7,874. The main independent variables were alcohol use and drug use, as well as potential alcohol- and drug-related problems. The dependent variables were registry-based school attendance and grades. All the alcohol- and drug measures included were consistently associated with low GPA (Odds ratios (OR ranging 1.82–2.21, all p < 0.001 and high levels of missed days from school (ORs ranging 1.79–3.04, all p < 0.001 and high levels of hours missed from school (ORs ranging 2.17–3.44, all p < 0.001. Even after adjusting for gender, age, socioeconomic status and mental health problems all the associations between alcohol and illicit drug use and the school-related outcomes remained statistically significant. Increasing number of indications on alcohol/drug-related problems and increasing levels of alcohol consumption were associated with more negative school-related outcomes. The results suggest that alcohol- and drug use, and particularly alcohol/drug-related problems, are important factors for school-related problems independently of mental health problems.

  6. Mapping of Junior High School Students’ Social Relation Problem and the Needed Assisting Model

    OpenAIRE

    Arbin Janu Setiyowati; Marthen Pali; Bambang Budi Wiyono; Triyono

    2017-01-01

    This research aims to describe Junior High School students’ social relation problem and the needed assisting model. This research used descriptive design with survey method. The subjects of this research were Junior High School students in the three cities in East Java. This research used purposive sampling as well. The data was collected by using questionnaire. The data analysis was conducted descriptively. This research found that Junior High School students’ social relation problems includ...

  7. Linking Family Characteristics with Poor Peer Relations: The Mediating Role of Conduct Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bierman, Karen Linn; Smoot, David L.

    2012-01-01

    Parent, teacher, and peer ratings were collected for 75 grade school boys to test the hypothesis that certain family interaction patterns would be associated with poor peer relations. Path analyses provided support for a mediational model, in which punitive and ineffective discipline was related to child conduct problems in home and school settings which, in turn, predicted poor peer relations. Further analyses suggested that distinct subgroups of boys could be identified who exhibited conduct problems at home only, at school only, in both settings, or in neither setting. Boys who exhibited cross-situational conduct problems were more likely to experience multiple concurrent problems (e.g., in both home and school settings) and were more likely than any other group to experience poor peer relations. However, only about one-third of the boys with poor peer relations in this sample exhibited problem profiles consistent with the proposed model (e.g., experienced high rates of punitive/ineffective home discipline and exhibited conduct problems in home and school settings), suggesting that the proposed model reflects one common (but not exclusive) pathway to poor peer relations. PMID:1865049

  8. Bivariate Developmental Relations between Calculations and Word Problems: A Latent Change Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Jennifer K; Fuchs, Lynn S

    2017-10-01

    The relation between 2 forms of mathematical cognition, calculations and word problems, was examined. Across grades 2-3, performance of 328 children (mean starting age 7.63 [ SD =0.43]) was assessed 3 times. Comparison of a priori latent change score models indicated a dual change model, with consistently positive but slowing growth, described development in each domain better than a constant or proportional change model. The bivariate model including change models for both calculations and word problems indicated prior calculation performance and change were not predictors of subsequent word-problem change, and prior word-problem performance and change were not predictors of subsequent calculation change. Results were comparable for boys versus girls. The bivariate model, along with correlations among intercepts and slopes, suggest calculation and word-problem development are related, but through an external set of overlapping factors. Exploratory supplemental analyses corroborate findings and provide direction for future study.

  9. Morse Theory and Relative Equilibria in the Planar n-Vortex Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Gareth E.

    2018-04-01

    Morse theoretical ideas are applied to the study of relative equilibria in the planar n-vortex problem. For the case of positive circulations, we prove that the Morse index of a critical point of the Hamiltonian restricted to a level surface of the angular impulse is equal to the number of pairs of real eigenvalues of the corresponding relative equilibrium periodic solution. The Morse inequalities are then used to prove the instability of some families of relative equilibria in the four-vortex problem with two pairs of equal vorticities. We also show that, for positive circulations, relative equilibria cannot accumulate on the collision set.

  10. The relation of narcissism and self-esteem to conduct problems in children: a preliminary investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, Christopher T; Frick, Paul J; Killian, Amber L

    2003-03-01

    Investigated several possible models to explain the seemingly discrepant relations between self-esteem and conduct problems, as both low self-esteem and exaggerated levels of self-esteem, thought to be captured by narcissism, have been associated with aggressive and antisocial behavior. Our sample consisted of 98 nonreferred children (mean age = 11.9 years; SD = 1.68 years) recruited from public schools to oversample children at risk for severe aggressive and antisocial behavior. Results indicated that certain aspects of narcissism (i.e., those indicating a need to be evaluated well by, and obtain status over, others) were particularly predictive of maladaptive characteristics and outcomes such as low self-esteem, callous-unemotional (CU) traits, and conduct problems. In addition, the relation between narcissism and conduct problems was moderated by self-esteem level, such that children with relatively high levels of narcissism and low self-esteem showed the highest rates of conduct-problem symptoms.

  11. Building Maintenance in Old Buildings Conservation Approach: An Overview of Related Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brit Kayan

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Building maintenance in conservation of old buildings is one of the approaches applied within the built environment of Malaysia. For instance, it is realised that these old buildings contribute an important significance to our nation's priceless heritage and unique historical development. However, most of these buildings' maintenance is influenced by related problems that affect the overall building conservation approach. Therefore, these old buildings face problems which greatly affect their overall condition and performance: building structure; building appearance and aesthetic; building materials and building character. In most critical situations, there is a greater possibility that we could lose the cultural significance and heritage values of these old buildings through ignoring the related problems. This paper tries to identify the related problems, reveal the findings and discuss suitable approaches to conserving these old buildings.

  12. Discrimination and alcohol-related problems among college students: a prospective examination of mediating effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatzenbuehler, Mark L; Corbin, William R; Fromme, Kim

    2011-06-01

    Discrimination is a risk factor for health-risk behaviors, including alcohol abuse. Far less is known about the mechanisms through which discrimination leads to alcohol-related problems, particularly during high-risk developmental periods such as young adulthood. The present study tested a mediation model using prospective data from a large, diverse sample of 1539 college students. This model hypothesized that discrimination would be associated with established cognitive (positive alcohol expectancies) and affective (negative affect and coping motives) risk factors for alcohol-related problems, which would account for the prospective association between discrimination and alcohol problems. Structural equation modeling indicated that discrimination was associated cross-sectionally with negative affect and more coping motives for drinking, but not with greater alcohol expectancies. Coping motives mediated the prospective relationship between discrimination and alcohol-related problems. Additionally, results indicated significant indirect effects from discrimination to alcohol-related problems through negative affect and coping motives. These associations were evident for multiple groups confronting status-based discrimination, including women, racial/ethnic minorities, and lesbian/gay/bisexual individuals. This study identified potential affective mechanisms linking discrimination to alcohol-related problems. Results suggest several avenues for prevention and intervention efforts with individuals from socially disadvantaged groups. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Marijuana Effect Expectancies: Relations to Social Anxiety and Marijuana Use Problems

    OpenAIRE

    Buckner, Julia D.; Schmidt, Norman B.

    2008-01-01

    High social anxiety is related to marijuana problems, yet the nature of this relation remains unclear. We examined relations between marijuana effect expectancies, social anxiety, and marijuana among undergraduates (N=337). Social anxiety was related positively to negative expectancies and negatively to Tension Reduction Expectancies. Among socially anxious individuals, greater belief that marijuana produces cognitive/behavioral impairment was associated with greater marijuana use rates. Nega...

  14. Risk factors in equine transport-related health problems: A survey of the Australian equine industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padalino, B; Raidal, S L; Hall, E; Knight, P; Celi, P; Jeffcott, L; Muscatello, G

    2017-07-01

    Transportation can affect equine health and is a potential source of economic loss to the industry. To identify journey (duration, vehicle, commercial or noncommercial) and horse (sex, age, breed, use, amateur or professional status) characteristics associated with the development of transport-related health problems in horses. Cross-sectional online survey. An online survey was conducted targeting amateur and professional participants in the Australian equine industry; eligible respondents were required to organise horse movements at least monthly. Respondents provided details of the last case of a transport-related health problem that had affected their horse(s). Associations between type of health problem, journey and horse characteristics were examined with multivariable multinomial regression analysis. Based on 214 responses, health problems were classified as injuries, muscular problems, heat stroke, gastrointestinal and respiratory problems, and death or euthanasia. Respiratory problems were reported most frequently (33.7%), followed by gastrointestinal problems (23.8%) and traumatic injuries (16.3%). The type of health problem was associated with journey duration (Pproblems, and death or euthanasia) were more likely to occur on long journeys. Using Standardbreds as the reference group, Thoroughbreds, Arabians and Warmbloods were more likely to experience a severe illness than an injury. Self-selected participation in the study and the self-reported nature of transport-related problems. Horses undertaking journeys of longer than 24 h are at greater risk for the development of severe disease or death. Further studies on long-haul transportation effects are required to safeguard the welfare of horses moved over long distances. © 2016 EVJ Ltd.

  15. Emotion dysregulation and peer drinking norms uniquely predict alcohol-related problems via motives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, Raluca M; Hahn, Austin M; Simons, Jeffrey S; Murase, Hanako

    2017-08-01

    This study examined the relationships between emotion dysregulation, peer drinking norms, drinking motives, and alcohol-related outcomes among 435 college students. We examined the mediating roles of drinking motives when predicting alcohol consumption and related problems from the subscales of the Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale (DERS; Gratz and Roemer, 2004) via negative and positive reinforcement models. First, we hypothesized that individuals who lack in emotion regulation strategies or have difficulties in accepting negative emotions are more likely to drink to cope. Additionally, we hypothesized that individuals who act impulsively or become distracted when upset as well as those with higher peer drinking norms are more likely to drink for social and enhancement motives. The results of the path model indicated that limited access to emotion regulation strategies significantly predicted alcohol-related problems via both depression and anxiety coping motives, but did not predict alcohol consumption. Nonacceptance of emotional responses was not significantly associated with coping motives. Impulsivity had a significant direct relationship with alcohol problems. Difficulty in engaging in goal-directed behaviors predicted both enhancement and social motives, but only enhancement motives in turn predicted consumption. Norms indirectly predicted problems via enhancement motives and consumption. The results indicated that using alcohol to reduce negative or to increase positive emotions increases alcohol consumption and alcohol-related problems. Overall, results advance our understanding of the mechanisms of increased alcohol use and problems among college students. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. How Are 2-Year US Colleges Addressing Student Alcohol Use and Related Problems?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenk, Kathleen M.; Nelson, Toben F.; Erickson, Darin J.; Toomey, Traci L.

    2015-01-01

    A considerable amount of attention and research has been dedicated to addressing alcohol use and related problems among students at 4-year colleges; however, less attention has been given to alcohol-related issues among students at 2-year technical/community colleges. This article describes research that expands on a study by Chiauzzi and…

  17. Sleep-Related Problems among Children and Adolescents with Anxiety Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfano, Candice A.; Ginsburg, Golda S.; Kingery, Julie Newman

    2007-01-01

    Objective: The present study examined sleep-related problems (SRPs) among a large sample (n = 128) of youth with anxiety disorders (i.e., generalized, separation, and social). The frequency of eight specific SRPs was examined in relation to age, gender, type of anxiety disorder, anxiety severity, and functional impairment. The impact of…

  18. Perceived problems with computer gaming and Internet use are associated with poorer social relations in adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Mette; Meilstrup, Charlotte Riebeling; Bendtsen, Pernille; Pedersen, Trine Pagh; Nielsen, Line; Madsen, Katrine Rich; Holstein, Bjørn E

    2015-02-01

    Young people's engagement in electronic gaming and Internet communication have caused concerns about potential harmful effects on their social relations, but the literature is inconclusive. The aim of this paper was to examine whether perceived problems with computer gaming and Internet communication are associated with young people's social relations. Cross-sectional questionnaire survey in 13 schools in the city of Aarhus, Denmark, in 2009. Response rate 89%, n = 2,100 students in grades 5, 7, and 9. Independent variables were perceived problems related to computer gaming and Internet use, respectively. Outcomes were measures of structural (number of days/week with friends, number of friends) and functional (confidence in others, being bullied, bullying others) dimensions of student's social relations. Perception of problems related to computer gaming were associated with almost all aspects of poor social relations among boys. Among girls, an association was only seen for bullying. For both boys and girls, perceived problems related to Internet use were associated with bullying only. Although the study is cross-sectional, the findings suggest that computer gaming and Internet use may be harmful to young people's social relations.

  19. Student Drinking-Related Problems in an Urban Campus: Implications for Research and Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avci, Ozgur; Fendrich, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Researchers who study the etiology of college drinking typically employ measures of alcohol-use behaviors as outcomes; however, relatively little is known about the properties of alcohol-related problems (AP). This study aims to develop a single continuous measure of AP. Participants: The sample included 531 undergraduate college…

  20. Identification the Relation between Active Basketball Classification Referees' Empathetic Tendencies and Their Problem Solving Abilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaçam, Aydin; Pulur, Atilla

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to determine the relation between basketball classification referees' problem solving ability and empathetic tendencies. Research model of the study is relational screening model. Sampling of the study is constituted by 124 male and 18 female basketball classification referees who made active refereeing within Turkish Basketball…

  1. The Relations of Coping and Family Environment to Preschoolers' Problem Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halpern, Leslie F.

    2004-01-01

    This study examined preschoolers' self-reported coping strategies in response to several stressor contexts, the relations of coping and family environment to children's problem behavior, and the extent to which coping moderates the relation between family environment and preschoolers' psychological adjustment. Fifty-eight preschool children and…

  2. Solving Relational Database Problems with ORDBMS in an Advanced Database Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ming

    2011-01-01

    This paper introduces how to use the object-relational database management system (ORDBMS) to solve relational database (RDB) problems in an advanced database course. The purpose of the paper is to provide a guideline for database instructors who desire to incorporate the ORDB technology in their traditional database courses. The paper presents…

  3. Return to Play Guidelines Cannot Solve the Football-Related Concussion Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, L. Syd M.

    2012-01-01

    Background: High school football players are the single largest cohort of athletes playing tackle football, and account for the majority of sport-related concussions. Return to play guidelines (RTPs) have emerged as the preferred approach for addressing the problem of sport-related concussion in youth athletes. Methods: This article reviews…

  4. Asian American and White College Students' Heavy Episodic Drinking Behaviors and Alcohol-Related Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwamoto, Derek K; Grivel, Margaux M; Cheng, Alice W; Zamboanga, Byron L

    2016-08-23

    Heavy episodic drinking (HED) and alcohol-related problems appears to be a growing problem among young adult Asian Americans. One promising factor that helps explain within-group differences among Asian American includes nativity. Nativity refers to whether an individual was born in (i.e., second generation or higher) or outside (i.e., first generation) of the United States. Despite this theoretically promising variable, there has been a paucity of literature examining comparing drinking patterns between first and second generation Asians Americans and White college men. The current study examined the relationship between HED and alcohol-related problems among first- and second-generation Asian American, and White college male students. Interaction between race and the variables in HED and alcohol-related problems models were also investigated. A total of 630 men were recruited of which 489 were Asian American men (407 second generation and 82 first generation) and 148 White students attending a public university in southern California (USA) were recruited. Results revealed no differences in HED rates between second-generation Asian American and White male college students; however, White students reported higher rates of HED compared to first-generation Asian Americans. No differences in alcohol-related problems were found between all three groups. There were no significant interactions between racial groups, drinking to cope, Greek/fraternity status, and descriptive norms on the alcohol outcomes. Conclusion/importance: Second-generation Asian American young adult men reported similar HED and rates of alcohol-related problems as White men. The present findings suggest that alcohol-related problems among Asian American men are a larger public health concern than previously believed.

  5. Frequency, types and severity of medication use-related problems among medical outpatients in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusuff, Kazeem B; Tayo, Fola

    2011-06-01

    To determine the frequency, types and severity of medications use-related problems among medical outpatients in a tertiary care setting in southwestern Nigeria. Medical outpatient clinics of a 900-bed Teaching Hospital located in Ibadan, Southwestern Nigeria. A prospective cross-sectional medication use review was conducted by ten pharmacists for 400 randomly selected medical outpatients over a 4 week period at a 900-bed premier teaching hospital located in Ibadan, Nigeria. Severity assessment of medication use-related problems was done by 3 independent assessors with a modified severity index. Frequency, types and severity of medication use-related problems identified through pharmacist-initiated medication use review. Of the 400 randomly selected patients, 324 (81.0%) consented and were interviewed. One hundred and sixty-three (50.3%) of the cohort were males and 161 (49.7%) were females; with mean ages 51.5 ± 17.6 and 52.1 ± 17.4 years respectively. Median no. of drugs prescribed per patient per day was 4 (Minimum-Maximum, 1-7). About 27.5% were self medicating with orthodox (prescription-only and over-the-counter) and/or herbal medicines; and only 14.6% claimed disclosure to their physicians. The proportion of patients self medicating with orthodox medicines was significantly higher (P medication use-related problems were identified from 58.6% of patients, but the highest number (5) was identified among 2.6% of patients. The frequency of medication use-related problems appear strongly related to the number of medicines prescribed (r = 0.71, P = 0.006). The majority of medication use-related problems were ranked as potentially harmful [Inter-rater reliability coefficient: Gwet AC1: 0.7214 (P ≤ 0.001)]. Non-adherence (43.8%), problems associated with self medication (39.3%) and adverse drug reactions (15.6%) were the most frequent. Unauthorized drug holidays (46.5%) and stoppage of prescribed prescription-only medications for local herbs (29.3%) were the

  6. Depressed mood and antisocial behavior problems as correlates for suicide-related behaviors in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Kimberly B; Borges, Guilherme; Medina-Mora, Maria-Elena; Orozco, Ricardo; Ouéda, Christiane; Wilcox, Holly C

    2011-05-01

    Suicide rates in Mexico have been rising steadily for several decades. This study examined the relationship of depressed mood and antisocial behavior problems with thoughts of death, suicide plans and attempts. Data from 22,966 individuals who participated in a population-based nationally-representative survey in Mexico were analyzed. After adjusting for covariates, all odds ratios for thoughts of death and suicidal behaviors were statistically significant in relation to antisocial behavior problems and depressed mood, both moderate and severe. Multiplicative effects of depressed mood and antisocial problems were found, with comorbid individuals showing increased risk of thoughts of death and suicidal plans and attempts, compared to individuals displaying none. Possible explanations, particularly for the multiplicative effect of both mood and problem behaviors on suicide-related behaviors, are discussed in the context of prior findings and directions for future research. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Selected Physical Characteristics and Playing-Related Musculoskeletal Problems in Adolescent String Instrumentalists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinci, Stefano; Smith, Anne; Ranelli, Sonia

    2015-09-01

    Music research has investigated the prevalence of playing-related musculoskeletal problems in adults and children, but the prevalence in adolescents has not been established. String instrumentalists report high problem rates, though it is unclear whether rates vary between upper and lower strings in adolescent instrumentalists. Further, there is limited evidence for the association between physical characteristics and playing problems in this group of musicians. Seventy-six adolescent string musicians from the West Australian Youth Orchestras were surveyed. Their experience of playing problems, both symptoms (PRMS) and disorders (PRMD), within the last month and measurements of body mass index, hand span, and joint mobility (Beighton scale) were obtained. Prevalence rates were calculated and compared between upper and lower string instrumentalists using a chi-squared test. Logistic regression examined the association of physical measures with playing problems, adjusting for confounding factors. Within the last month, 73.5% participants reported experiencing a PRMS and 26.5percnt; reported experiencing a PRMD. There was no significant difference between the problem rates in upper and lower string instrumentalists. After adjusting for potential confounders, an increasing count of hypermobile joints remained significantly associated with problems (OR 1.76, CI 1.02 to 3.04, p=0.042). This study found playing problems are common in adolescent string instrumentalists, though rates did not differ between upper and lower string players. Joint hypermobility was associated with playing-related problems in adolescent musicians. Early identification of problems in this group of maturing musicians may help prevent disabling disorders and maximize performance.

  8. Computation of optimal transport and related hedging problems via penalization and neural networks

    OpenAIRE

    Eckstein, Stephan; Kupper, Michael

    2018-01-01

    This paper presents a widely applicable approach to solving (multi-marginal, martingale) optimal transport and related problems via neural networks. The core idea is to penalize the optimization problem in its dual formulation and reduce it to a finite dimensional one which corresponds to optimizing a neural network with smooth objective function. We present numerical examples from optimal transport, martingale optimal transport, portfolio optimization under uncertainty and generative adversa...

  9. Feeding Problems in Healthy Young Children: Prevalence, Related Factors and Feeding Practices

    OpenAIRE

    Benjasuwantep, Banchaun; Chaithirayanon, Suthida; Eiamudomkan, Monchutha

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence, characteristics, and factors related to feeding problems among normal children, and the differences in feeding practices between those with and without feeding problems. Caregivers of 402 healthy children aged between one and four years of age were interviewed by pediatricians involved in the research. Data included the child’s medical history, food intake within a day, and feeding behaviors and practices. Parental socio-economic and demo...

  10. Relation of constipation problem and physical activity level in university students

    OpenAIRE

    ilkim Citak Karakaya; Zeynep Kilic; Umut Yilmaz; Mehmet Gurhan Karakaya

    2015-01-01

    Background: Physical activity is a rarely investigated issue in studies focusing on constipation problem in university students. Therefore, the aim of this cross-sectional study is to investigate the relation of constipation problem and physical activity level in university students, and to find out the strategies they use to cope with constipation. Methods: Socio-demographic characteristics of 194 collegians were recorded and presence of constipation was determined by Rome II Criteria for Co...

  11. Relations of social problem solving with interpersonal competence in Japanese students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumi, Katsunori

    2011-12-01

    To clarify the relations of the dimensions of social problem solving with those of interpersonal competence in a sample of 234 Japanese college students, Japanese versions of the Social Problem-solving Inventory-Revised and the Social Skill Scale were administered. Pearson correlations between the two sets of variables were low, but higher within each set of subscales. Cronbach's alpha was low for four subscales assessing interpersonal competence.

  12. Solitary cannabis use frequency mediates the relationship between social anxiety and cannabis use and related problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckner, Julia D; Ecker, Anthony H; Dean, Kimberlye E

    2016-03-01

    Individuals with elevated social anxiety are seven times more likely to meet criteria for cannabis use disorders, yet social anxiety is unrelated to more frequent cannabis use. The lack of relation to cannabis use frequency may be at least partially due to lack of attention to cannabis use context. It may be that socially anxious persons engage in frequent solitary cannabis use, perhaps using before social situations in the hope that being intoxicated during the social event will help them feel less anxious. In fact, using cannabis alone has been associated with experiencing more cannabis-related problems in prior work. The current study sought to identify whether solitary cannabis use frequency mediated the relationship between social anxiety and cannabis-related problems among 276 current cannabis using undergraduates who completed an online survey of putative predictors of substance use. Social anxiety was robustly related to more frequent solitary (but not social) cannabis use and solitary cannabis use frequency uniquely mediated the relation of social anxiety to cannabis use and related problems. Frequent solitary use appears to play an important role in the experience of cannabis-related problems among socially anxious persons. Intervention strategies may benefit from targeting frequent solitary cannabis use, particularly among at-risk users such as those with elevated social anxiety. © American Academy of Addiction Psychiatry.

  13. Solitary Cannabis Use Frequency Mediates the Relationship Between Social Anxiety and Cannabis Use and Related Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckner, Julia D.; Ecker, Anthony H.; Dean, Kimberlye E.

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives Individuals with elevated social anxiety are seven times more likely to meet criteria for cannabis use disorders, yet social anxiety is unrelated to more frequent cannabis use. The lack of relation to cannabis use frequency may be at least partially due to lack of attention to cannabis use context. It may be that socially anxious persons engage in frequent solitary cannabis use, perhaps using before social situations in the hope that being intoxicated during the social event will help them feel less anxious. In fact, using cannabis alone has been associated with experiencing more cannabis-related problems in prior work. Methods The current study sought to identify whether solitary cannabis use frequency mediated the relationship between social anxiety and cannabis-related problems among 276 current cannabis using undergraduates who completed an online survey of putative predictors of substance use. Results Social anxiety was robustly related to more frequent solitary (but not social) cannabis use and solitary cannabis use frequency uniquely mediated the relation of social anxiety to cannabis use and related problems. Discussion and Conclusions Frequent solitary use appears to play an important role in the experience of cannabis-related problems among socially anxious persons. Scientific Significance Intervention strategies may benefit from targeting frequent solitary cannabis use, particularly among at-risk users such as those with elevated social anxiety. PMID:26890064

  14. Substance-related health problems during rave parties in The Netherlands (1997-2008.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Krul

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to describe a 12-year (1997-2008 observation of substance-related incidents occurring at rave parties in the Netherlands, including length of visits to first-aid stations, substances used, and severity of the incidents. During rave parties, specifically trained medical and paramedical personnel staffed first aid stations. Visitors were diagnosed and treated, and their data were recorded using standardized methods. During the 12-year period with 249 rave parties involving about 3,800,000 visitors, 27,897 people visited a first aid station, of whom 10,100 reported having a substance-related problem. The mean age of these people was 22.3+/-5.4 years; 52.4% of them were male. Most (66.7% substance-related problems were associated with ecstasy or alcohol use or both. Among 10,100 substance-related cases, 515 required professional medical care, and 16 of these cases were life threatening. People with a substance-related problem stayed 20 min at the first aid station, which was significantly longer than the 5 min that those without a substance-related health problem stayed. These unique data from the Netherlands identify a variety of acute health problems related to the use of alcohol, amphetamines, cannabis, cocaine, ecstasy, and GHB. Although most problems were minor, people using GHB more often required professional medical care those using the other substances. We recommended adherence to harm and risk reduction policy, and the use of first aid stations with specially trained staff for both minor and serious incidents.

  15. [Parental Monitoring and its Relation to Behaviour Problems and Risk Behaviour in an Adolescent School Sample].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trick, Sarah; Jantzer, Vanessa; Haffner, Johann; Parzer, Peter; Resch, Franz

    2016-10-01

    Parental Monitoring and its Relation to Behaviour Problems and Risk Behaviour in an Adolescent School Sample Numerous research studies emphasize parental monitoring as a protective factor for adolescent problem behaviour. The purpose of the study presented was to use Stattin and Kerr's (2000) monitoring subscales for the first time in a German-speaking area and to explore the relations to behaviour problems in an adolescent school sample. The two active monitoring strategies "parental control" and "parental solicitation" as well as "parental knowledge" and "child disclosure" relating to behaviour problems and risk behaviour were examined. A sample of 494 pupils, grades 5, 7 and 9, of German secondary schools and their parents answered questions on "parental knowledge", "control", "solicitation" and "child disclosure". Adolescents also answered the German version of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) and items about risk behaviour like frequency of violence, delinquency, substance abuse, self-injuring behaviour and school absenteeism. Behaviour problems in terms of the SDQ could be predicted sufficiently by "parental knowledge", but for the prediction of risk behaviour, the active parental monitoring strategies were of importance, too. More "parental knowledge", more "control" and less "solicitation" could predict less risk behaviour. Results confirm "parental knowledge" as a general protective factor for problem behaviour. However, they show the importance of "parental control" for adolescent risk behaviour.

  16. Students’ Relational Thinking of Impulsive and Reflective in Solving Mathematical Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satriawan, M. A.; Budiarto, M. T.; Siswono, T. Y. E.

    2018-01-01

    This is a descriptive research which qualitatively investigates students’ relational thinking of impulsive and reflective cognitive style in solving mathematical problem. The method used in this research are test and interview. The data analyzed by reducing, presenting and concluding the data. The results of research show that the students’ reflective cognitive style can possibly help to find out important elements in understanding a problem. Reading more than one is useful to identify what is being questioned and write the information which is known, building relation in every element and connecting information with arithmetic operation, connecting between what is being questioned with known information, making equation model to find out the value by using substitution, and building a connection on re-checking, re-reading, and re-counting. The impulsive students’ cognitive style supports important elements in understanding problems, building a connection in every element, connecting information with arithmetic operation, building a relation about a problem comprehensively by connecting between what is being questioned with known information, finding out the unknown value by using arithmetic operation without making any equation model. The result of re-checking problem solving, impulsive student was only reading at glance without re-counting the result of problem solving.

  17. The arithmetic problem size effect in children: an event-related potential study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leen eVan Beek

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study used for the first time event-related potentials (ERPs to examine the well-known arithmetic problem size effect in children. The electrophysiological correlates of this problem size effect have been well documented in adults, but such information in children is lacking. In the present study, 22 typically developing 12-year-olds were asked to solve single-digit addition problems of small (sum ≤ 10 and large problem size (sum > 10 and to speak the solution into a voice key while ERPs were recorded. Children displayed similar early and late components compared to previous adult studies on the problem size effect. There was no effect of problem size on the early components P1, N1 and P2. The peak amplitude of the N2 component showed more negative potentials on left and right anterior electrodes for large additions compared to small additions, which might reflect differences in attentional and working memory resources between large and small problems. The mean amplitude of the late positivity component (LPC, which follows the N2, was significantly larger for large than for small additions at right parieto-occipital electrodes, in line with previous adult data. The ERPs of the problem size effect during arithmetic might be a useful neural marker for future studies on fact retrieval impairments in children with mathematical difficulties.

  18. Associations between butane hash oil use and cannabis-related problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Madeline H

    2017-10-01

    High-potency cannabis concentrates are increasingly popular in the United States, and there is concern that use of high-potency cannabis might increase risk for cannabis-related problems. However, little is known about the potential negative consequences of concentrate use. This study reports on associations between past-year use of a high-potency cannabis concentrate, known as butane hash oil (BHO), and cannabis-related problems. A sample of 821 college students were recruited to complete a survey about their health and behavior. Participants who had used cannabis in the past year (33%, n=273) completed questions about their cannabis use, including their use of BHO and cannabis-related problems in eight domains: physical dependence, impaired control, academic-occupational problems, social-interpersonal problems, self-care problems, self-perception, risk behavior, and blackouts. Approximately 44% (n=121) of past-year cannabis users had used BHO in the past year. More frequent BHO use was associated with higher levels of physical dependence (RR=1.8, pcannabis-related academic/occupational problems (RR=1.5, p=0.004), poor self-care (RR=1.3, p=0.002), and cannabis-related risk behavior (RR=1.2, p=0.001). After accounting for sociodemographic factors, age of onset of cannabis use, sensation seeking, overall frequency of cannabis use, and frequency of other substance use, BHO use was still associated with higher levels of physical dependence (RR=1.2, p=0.014). BHO use is associated with greater physiological dependence on cannabis, even after accounting for potential confounders. Longitudinal research is needed to determine if cannabis users with higher levels of physiological dependence seek out BHO and/or if BHO use increases risk for physiological dependence. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. The Meaning of Emotional Overinvolvement in Early Development: Prospective Relations with Child Behavior Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khafi, Tamar Y.; Yates, Tuppett M.; Sher-Censor, Efrat

    2015-01-01

    Emotional Overinvolvement (EOI) in parents’ Five Minute Speech Samples (FMSS; Magaña-Amato, 1993) is thought to measure overconcern and enmeshment with one’s child. Although related to maladaptive outcomes in studies of adult children, FMSS-EOI evidences varied relations with behavior problems in studies with young children. These mixed findings may indicate that certain FMSS-EOI criteria reflect inappropriate and excessive involvement with adult children, but do not indicate maladaptive processes when parenting younger children. Thus, this study evaluated relations of each FMSS-EOI criterion with changes in child behavior problems from preschool to first grade in a community sample of 223 child-mother dyads (47.98% female; Mage_W1 = 49.08 months; 56.50% Hispanic/Latina). Maternal FMSS-EOI ratings were obtained at wave 1, and independent examiners rated child externalizing and internalizing behavior problems at wave 1 and two years later. Path analyses indicated that both the Self-Sacrifice/Overprotection (SSOP) and Statements of Attitude (SOAs) FMSS-EOI criteria predicted increased externalizing problems. In contrast, Excessive Detail and Exaggerated Praise were not related to child externalizing behavior problems, and Emotional Display was not evident in this sample. None of the FMSS-EOI criteria evidenced significant relations with internalizing behavior problems. Multigroup comparisons indicated that the effect of SOAs on externalizing behavior problems was significant for boys but not for girls, and there were no significant group differences by race/ethnicity. These findings point to the salience of SSOP and SOAs for understanding the developmental significance of EOI in early development. PMID:26147935

  20. The Meaning of Emotional Overinvolvement in Early Development: Prospective Relations With Child Behavior Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khafi, Tamar Y; Yates, Tuppett M; Sher-Censor, Efrat

    2015-08-01

    Emotional overinvolvement (EOI) in parents’ Five Minute Speech Samples (FMSSs; Magaña-Amato, 1993) is thought to measure overconcern and enmeshment with one’s child. Although related to maladaptive outcomes in studies of adult children, FMSS EOI evidences varied relations with behavior problems in studies with young children. These mixed findings may indicate that certain FMSS EOI criteria reflect inappropriate and excessive involvement with adult children, but do not indicate maladaptive processes when parenting younger children. Thus, this study evaluated relations of each FMSS EOI criterion with changes in child behavior problems from preschool to first grade in a community sample of 223 child–mother dyads (47.98% female; Wave 1 M(age) 49.08 months; 56.50% Hispanic/Latina). Maternal FMSS EOI ratings were obtained at Wave 1, and independent examiners rated child externalizing and internalizing behavior problems at Wave 1 and again 2 years later. Path analyses indicated that both the self-sacrifice/overprotection (SSOP) and statements of attitude (SOAs) FMSS EOI criteria predicted increased externalizing problems. In contrast, excessive detail and exaggerated praise were not related to child externalizing behavior problems, and Emotional Display was not evident in this sample. None of the FMSS EOI criteria evidenced significant relations with internalizing behavior problems. Multigroup comparisons indicated that the effect of SOAs on externalizing behavior problems was significant for boys but not for girls, and there were no significant group differences by race/ethnicity. These findings point to the salience of SSOP and SOAs for understanding the developmental significance of EOI in early development.

  1. Factors influencing the detection rate of drug-related problems in community pharmacy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westerlund, T; Almarsdóttir, A B; Melander, A

    1999-01-01

    This study analyzes relationships between the number of drug-related problems detected in community pharmacy practice and the educational level and other characteristics of pharmacy personnel and their work sites. Random samples of pharmacists, prescriptionists and pharmacy technicians were drawn...... by each professional. The regression analysis showed the educational level of the professional to have a statistically significant effect on the detection rate, with pharmacists finding on average 2.5 more drug-related problems per 100 patients than prescriptionists and about 3.6 more than technicians....... The results of this study indicate the importance of education and training of pharmacy personnel in detection of drug-related problems. This findings speaks in favor of increasing the pharmacist to other personnel ratio, provided the higher costs will be offset by societal benefits....

  2. Noise levels, noise annoyance, and hearing-related problems in a dental college.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Hafiz Omer; Ali, Wesal Jasim

    2017-05-04

    Through a cross-sectional survey and integrated sound level meter, this research examined noise exposure and auditory- and nonauditory-related problems experienced by students of a dentistry college located in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). A structured interview questionnaire was used to examine hearing-related problems, noise annoyance, and awareness of 114 students toward noise. The results showed that maximum noise levels were between 65 and 79 dB(A) with peak levels (high and low frequencies) ranging between 89 and 93 dB(A). Around 80% of the students experienced a certain degree of noise annoyance; 54% reported one of the hearing-related problems; and about 10% claimed to have hearing loss to a certain extent. It is recommended that sound-absorbent materials be used during the construction of dental clinics and laboratories to reduce the noise levels.

  3. Surgical management of temple-related problems following lateral wall rim-sparing orbital decompression for thyroid-related orbitopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siah, We Fong; Patel, Bhupendra Ck; Malhotra, Raman

    2016-08-01

    To report a case series of patients with persistent temple-related problems following lateral wall rim-sparing (LWRS) orbital decompression for thyroid-related orbitopathy and to discuss their management. Retrospective review of medical records of patients referred to two oculoplastic centres (Corneoplastic Unit, Queen Victoria Hospital, East Grinstead, UK and Moran Eye Center, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, USA) for intervention to improve/alleviate temple-related problems. All patients were seeking treatment for their persistent, temple-related problems of minimum 3 years' duration post decompression. The main outcome measure was the resolution or improvement of temple-related problems. Eleven orbits of six patients (five females) with a median age of 57 years (range 23-65) were included in this study. Temple-related problems consisted of cosmetically bothersome temple hollowness (n=11; 100%), masticatory oscillopsia (n=8; 73%), temple tenderness (n=4; 36%), 'clicking' sensation (n=4; 36%) and gaze-evoked ocular pain (n=4; 36%). Nine orbits were also complicated by proptosis and exposure keratopathy. Preoperative imaging studies showed the absence of lateral wall in all 11 orbits and evidence of prolapsed lacrimal gland into the wall defect in four orbits. Intervention included the repair of the lateral wall defect with a sheet implant, orbital decompression involving fat, the medial wall or orbital floor and autologous fat transfer or synthetic filler for temple hollowness. Postoperatively, there was full resolution of masticatory oscillation, temple tenderness, 'clicking' sensation and gaze-evoked ocular pain, and an improvement in temple hollowness. Pre-existing diplopia in one patient resolved after surgery while two patients developed new-onset diplopia necessitating strabismus surgery. This is the first paper to show that persistent, troublesome temple-related problems following LWRS orbital decompression can be surgically corrected. Patients

  4. Factors influencing the detection rate of drug-related problems in community pharmacy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westerlund, T; Almarsdóttir, Anna Birna; Melander, A

    1999-01-01

    This study analyzes relationships between the number of drug-related problems detected in community pharmacy practice and the educational level and other characteristics of pharmacy personnel and their work sites. Random samples of pharmacists, prescriptionists and pharmacy technicians were drawn....... The results of this study indicate the importance of education and training of pharmacy personnel in detection of drug-related problems. This findings speaks in favor of increasing the pharmacist to other personnel ratio, provided the higher costs will be offset by societal benefits....

  5. Tobacco-related mortality among persons with mental health and substance abuse problems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank C Bandiera

    Full Text Available The rate of cigarette smoking is greater among persons with mental health and/or substance abuse problems. There are few population-based datasets with which to study tobacco mortality in these vulnerable groups. The Oregon Health Authority identified persons who received publicly-funded mental health or substance abuse services from January 1996 through December 2005. These cases were then matched to Oregon Vital Statistics records for all deaths (N= 148,761 in the period 1999-2005. The rate of tobacco-related death rates was higher among persons with substance abuse problems only (53.6% and those with both substance abuse and mental health problems (46.8%, as compared to the general population (30.7%. The rate of tobacco-related deaths among persons with mental health problems (30% was similar to that in the general population. Persons receiving substance abuse treatment alone, or receiving both substance abuse and mental health treatment, were more likely to die and more likely to die prematurely of tobacco-related causes as compared to the general population. Persons receiving mental health services alone were not more likely to die of tobacco-related causes, but tobacco-related deaths occurred earlier in this population.

  6. Tobacco-related mortality among persons with mental health and substance abuse problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandiera, Frank C; Anteneh, Berhanu; Le, Thao; Delucchi, Kevin; Guydish, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    The rate of cigarette smoking is greater among persons with mental health and/or substance abuse problems. There are few population-based datasets with which to study tobacco mortality in these vulnerable groups. The Oregon Health Authority identified persons who received publicly-funded mental health or substance abuse services from January 1996 through December 2005. These cases were then matched to Oregon Vital Statistics records for all deaths (N= 148,761) in the period 1999-2005. The rate of tobacco-related death rates was higher among persons with substance abuse problems only (53.6%) and those with both substance abuse and mental health problems (46.8%), as compared to the general population (30.7%). The rate of tobacco-related deaths among persons with mental health problems (30%) was similar to that in the general population. Persons receiving substance abuse treatment alone, or receiving both substance abuse and mental health treatment, were more likely to die and more likely to die prematurely of tobacco-related causes as compared to the general population. Persons receiving mental health services alone were not more likely to die of tobacco-related causes, but tobacco-related deaths occurred earlier in this population.

  7. Recovery of material parameters of soft hyperelastic tissue by an inverse spectral technique

    KAUST Repository

    Gou, Kun

    2012-07-01

    An inverse spectral method is developed for recovering a spatially inhomogeneous shear modulus for soft tissue. The study is motivated by a novel use of the intravascular ultrasound technique to image arteries. The arterial wall is idealized as a nonlinear isotropic cylindrical hyperelastic body. A boundary value problem is formulated for the response of the arterial wall within a specific class of quasistatic deformations reflective of the response due to imposed blood pressure. Subsequently, a boundary value problem is developed via an asymptotic construction modeling intravascular ultrasound interrogation which generates small amplitude, high frequency time harmonic vibrations superimposed on the static finite deformation. This leads to a system of second order ordinary Sturm-Liouville boundary value problems that are then employed to reconstruct the shear modulus through a nonlinear inverse spectral technique. Numerical examples are demonstrated to show the viability of the method. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Marijuana-related problems and social anxiety: the role of marijuana behaviors in social situations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckner, Julia D; Heimberg, Richard G; Matthews, Russell A; Silgado, Jose

    2012-03-01

    Individuals with elevated social anxiety appear particularly vulnerable to marijuana-related problems. In fact, individuals with social anxiety may be more likely to experience marijuana-related impairment than individuals with other types of anxiety. It is therefore important to determine whether constructs particularly relevant to socially anxious individuals play a role in the expression of marijuana-related problems in this vulnerable population. Given that both social avoidance and using marijuana to cope with negative affect broadly have been found to play a role in marijuana-related problems, the current study utilized a new measure designed to simultaneously assess social avoidance and using marijuana to cope in situations previously identified as anxiety-provoking among those with elevated social anxiety. The Marijuana Use to Cope with Social Anxiety Scale (MCSAS) assessed behaviors regarding 24 social situations: marijuana use to cope in social situations (MCSAS-Cope) and avoidance of social situations if marijuana was unavailable. In Study 1, we found preliminary support for the convergent and discriminant validity and internal consistency of the MCSAS scales. In Study 2, we examined if MCSAS scores were related to marijuana problems among those with (n = 44) and without (n = 44) clinically elevated social anxiety. Individuals with clinically meaningful social anxiety were more likely to use marijuana to cope in social situations and to avoid social situations if marijuana was unavailable. Of importance, MCSAS-Cope uniquely mediated the relationship between social anxiety group status and marijuana-related problems. Results highlight the importance of contextual factors in assessing marijuana-related behaviors among high-risk populations. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved.

  9. Parents' Attributions for Negative and Positive Child Behavior in Relation to Parenting and Child Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Joanne L; Johnston, Charlotte; Colalillo, Sara; Williamson, David

    2016-04-12

    Previous research has stressed the importance of parents' attributions and parenting for child problems. Based on social cognitive models, studies have focused on the interrelations among parents' child-responsibility attributions for negative behavior, harsh parenting, and child problems. Little is known about the extent to which child-responsibility attributions for positive behavior and other types of parenting play a role in these models. The purpose of this study was to examine whether parents' child-responsibility attributions for positive and negative child behaviors are related to child problems, and whether these relations are mediated by harsh, lax, and positive parenting. Mothers' and fathers' attributions and parenting were examined separately. A community sample of 148 couples and their 9- to 12-year-old child (50% boys) participated in the study. Mothers and children participated by completing questionnaires and a laboratory interaction task. Fathers participated by completing the same questionnaires as mothers. Harsh parenting was the only parenting variable that uniquely mediated the relations between more child-responsibility attributions for (a) negative child behaviors and child problems for both parents and (b) the inverse relation between attributions for positive child behaviors and child problems for fathers. Findings confirm the importance of harsh parenting and demonstrate the importance of parents' attributions for positive child behaviors in relation to decreasing harsh parenting and child problems. Clinically, it may be useful not only to reduce child-responsibility attributions for negative behaviors but also to increase the extent to which parents give their child credit for positive behaviors.

  10. Recurrent abdominal pain among a sample of Egyptian children in relation to family and school related problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd El-Mageid, F Y; Abou-El Fetouh, A M; Abou-Hatab, Maha F

    2002-01-01

    Recurrent Abdominal pain (RAP) is a common feature of growing children especially above the age of five. It may be experienced for either organic or non-organic (psychogenic) reasons. The main objective of the present study is to investigate the possible relation between the occurrence of RAP and some family and school related problems. It is a descriptive cross sectional study designed to assess children aged 7-12 years, of both sexes, attending El-Salam health insurance clinic (Eastern Cairo) for their RAP. Seven hundred children (400 boys and 300 girls) suffering from RAP were investigated. They were subjected to routine investigations (urine and stool analysis, complete blood picture, x-ray abdomen) to exclude the possible organic cause for their RAP. A specially designed questionnaire for the purpose of the present study was applied after testing its validity (it was judged by 10 professors of Psychology, Psychiatry and community medicine before its use). It was applied individually on each child (or his/her caregiver). Data were collected from each subject as regard: His/her personal history, socio-demographic characteristics, characters of RAP (its type, severity, onset, duration, frequency, site and its relation to other symptoms), some organic and psychological symptoms and history of family troubles and school related problems. Data were collected, tabulated and analyzed using Chi- square test to compare children of organic and non-organic RAP. Results revealed that RAP was mostly non-organic in origin (65.7%). It was commonly associated with family troubles (59.7%) and school related problems (40.3%). Children with non-organic RAP expressed many psychological symptoms especially; tantrums (41.1%), phobias related to school (17.4%) as well as continuous crying (13%) and appetite loss (14%). There was significant female predominance (p = 0.0000) in expressing RAP in direct relation to family troubles and school related problems compared to boys. Non

  11. Ostomy-related problems and their impact on quality of life of colorectal cancer ostomates: a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sylvia M. Vonk-Klaassen; Hilde M. de Vocht; Erik Hans Eddes; Prof. Dr. Marieke J. Schuurmans; Marjolein E.M. den Ouden

    2016-01-01

    Aim Many long-term ostomates are ‘out-of-sight’ of healthcare, and it is unknown how ostomates deal with ostomy- related problems and how these problems affect their quality of life (QOL). The aim is to examine patient-related studies describing ostomy-related problems and their impact on the

  12. Ostomy-related problems and their impact on quality of life of colorectal cancer ostomates : a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vonk-Klaassen, Sylvia M.; de Vocht, Hilde M.; den Ouden, Marjolein E M; Eddes, Eric Hans; Schuurmans, Marieke J.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Many long-term ostomates are ‘out-of-sight’ of healthcare, and it is unknown how ostomates deal with ostomy-related problems and how these problems affect their quality of life (QOL). The aim is to examine patient-related studies describing ostomy-related problems and their impact on the

  13. Menstrual Characteristics and Related Problems in 9-18 Year- Old Turkish School Girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yücel, Gül; Kendirci, Mustafa; Gül, Ülkü

    2018-03-14

    To determine the cross-sectional characteristics of menstruating girls, dysmenorrhea and the frequencies of related problems. Descripitive, cross-sectional study. Randomly selected primary, junior and high schools in the city center of Kayseri. 2000 female adolescents of ages between 9 and 18 years. We used a questionnaire addressing the epidemiological characteristics of menstruation, such as age at menarche, duration of menstrual intervals, average days of bleeding, and any menstrual problems and their frequencies. This study consists of a sufficient number of participants from all age groups. Of the participant (n= 2000) girls, 63.7% (n: 1274) had started menstruating. The mean age at menarche was 12.74 ± 1.03 years. With a prevalence of 84.8% (n: 1080), dysmenorrhea was the most prevalent menstrual problem and the average pain score was 5.87 ± 2.45. Of the menstruating girls, 34% (n: 439) used painkillers, the most commonly used was acetaminophen; during their period the prevalence of non-medical methods to relieve pain was % 35.2; the rate of seeking medical help for dysmenorrhea was 9.3 % (n: 119). In menstruating participants, 90.8 % was discussed their menstrual problems with their mothers. The rate of school absenteeism in menstruating girls was 15.9 % in general and 18 % in those with dysmenorrhea. Problems related to menstruation are common in adolescents and these problems affect their social life. In adolescent girls, the most common menstrual problem is dysmenorrhea and it affects school performance and attendance. Girls with menstrual problems showed a low rate of seeking medical help. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. Effective chronic disease management: patients' perspectives on medication-related problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Karen; Smith, Felicity; Dhillon, Soraya

    2007-03-01

    To examine medication-related problems from the perspective of patients with a chronic condition and to identify how they may be supported in managing their medication. Patients prescribed medication for cardiovascular disease were recruited through five general medical surgeries and four community pharmacies in south London. Data were collected in 98 face-to-face interviews in participants' own homes. Interviews were designed to enable a detailed and holistic exploration of medication-related problems from participants' perspectives. Data were audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim to allow qualitative analysis. Five broad categories of medication-related problem emerged which were examined in the context of patients' perspectives on, and experiences of, the use of medicines and health services. These were concerns about and management of side effects; differing views regarding the use of medicines; cognitive, practical and sensory problems; lack of information or understanding; and problems with access to, and organisation of, services. All categories of problem had potential implications for the success of therapy in that they created barriers to adherence, access to medication or informed decision-making. The study demonstrated how patients actively engage in decision-making about their medicines in the home, if not in the consultation. The five categories of problem provide a focus for interventions by health professionals to support patients in achieving optimal theory outcomes. They demonstrate the need for a comprehensive approach, spanning patient education to the systems of delivery of care. Within the NHS in Britain, policy and practice initiatives are being designed to achieve this end. Further research should focus on the evaluation of professional practices and service developments in supporting patients in the self-management of their medicines.

  15. Complex symptomatology among young women who present with stress-related problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strömbäck, Maria; Wiklund, Maria; Renberg, Ellinor Salander; Malmgren-Olsson, Eva-Britt

    2015-06-01

    In Scandinavia and globally, mental health and stress-related problems among adolescent girls and young women are public health concerns that need attention. The aim of this study was to investigate mental health and somatic symptoms with a special focus on internalised problems, self-image and body-mind aspects of body perception in a group of adolescent girls and young women presenting with stress-related problems at a youth-friendly Swedish health centre, and to compare them with normative and clinical reference groups. The participants were 47 adolescent girls and young women, aged 17-25 years. The adult self-report (ASR), social analysis of social behaviour (SASB) and body perception questionnaire (BPQ) were used to measure multiple symptom areas. Compared to reference groups, adolescent girls and young women report complex symptomatology with high levels of internalised problems such as anxiousness, depression and somatic complaints. This manifested in attention problems, negative self-image and perceived bodily discomfort and distrust. Adolescent girls and young women emerging into adulthood present complex symptomatology of stress-related problems. This study gathered valuable information about their symptoms when they were seeking help. These young women showed higher symptom frequency than normative groups, and similar or higher symptom frequency than other clinical groups. Our findings of internalised and cognitive problems, including impaired self-image and body perceptions, point to the need for preventive strategies and tailored multidisciplinary interventions involving body-based methods to meet this complexity. Using tenets of stress theory, the complex symptomatology may be understood as logical responses to overwhelming stimuli and demands that exceed their ability to cope and disturb their 'equilibrium'. However, the complex gendered interplays between various external/internal stressors and a broad range of stress responses and health outcomes

  16. Lagrangian relative equilibria for a gyrostat in the three-body problem: bifurcations and stability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guirao, Juan L G; Vera, Juan A, E-mail: juan.garcia@upct.e, E-mail: juanantonio.vera@upct.e [Departamento de Matematica Aplicada y EstadIstica, Universidad Politecnica de Cartagena, Hospital de Marina, 30203 Cartagena, Region de Murcia (Spain)

    2010-05-14

    In this paper we consider the non-canonical Hamiltonian dynamics of a gyrostat in the frame of the three-body problem. Using geometric/mechanic methods we study the approximate dynamics of the truncated Legendre series representation of the potential of an arbitrary order. Working in the reduced problem, we study the existence of relative equilibria that we refer to as Lagrange type following the analogy with the standard techniques. We provide necessary and sufficient conditions for the linear stability of Lagrangian relative equilibria if the gyrostat morphology form is close to a sphere. Thus, we generalize the classical results on equilibria of the three-body problem and many results on them obtained by the classic approach for the case of rigid bodies.

  17. Prevalence and correlates of sleep-related problems in adults receiving medical cannabis for chronic pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cranford, James A; Arnedt, J Todd; Conroy, Deirdre A; Bohnert, Kipling M; Bourque, Carrie; Blow, Frederic C; Ilgen, Mark

    2017-11-01

    To examine the prevalence and correlates of sleep problems in a sample of medical cannabis patients. Adults ages 21 and older (N=801,M age=45.8) who were seeking medical cannabis certification (either for the first time or as a renewal) for chronic pain at medical cannabis clinics in southern Michigan completed baseline measures of cannabis use, sleep, pain, and other related constructs. Over half of the sample (59%) met criteria for past 1-month sleep disturbance, defined as at least one sleep problem occurring on 15 or more nights in the past month. Most participants (86%) reported that sleep problems were due to their current pain. Approximately 80% of participants reported using cannabis in the past 6 months to improve sleep and, among these participants, cannabis was rated as helpful for improving sleep. Sleep-related cannabis side effects were rare (35%), but sleep-related cannabis withdrawal symptoms were relatively common (65%). Statistically significant correlates of past 1-month sleep disturbance included a) being female, b) being white, c) being on disability, d) not having a medical cannabis card, and e) frequency of using cannabis to help sleep. Sleep problems are highly prevalent and frequent in medical cannabis patients and are closely tied to pain. Sleep-related cannabis withdrawal symptoms are relatively common but their clinical relevance is unknown. The association between frequency of cannabis use to help sleep with higher odds of sleep problems will need to be clarified by longitudinal studies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Investigating Possible Reciprocal Relations Between Depressive and Problem Gambling Symptoms in Emerging Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinneck, Annie; Mackinnon, Sean P; Stewart, Sherry H

    2016-02-01

    Previous cross-sectional research has shown that depression and problem gambling co-occur. Longitudinal research, however, allows for a better determination of directionality, as behavioural changes in gambling involvement can be more reliably studied over time. Our study assesses symptoms of depression and problem gambling across 4 waves and addresses whether their relation is directional (with one reliably preceding the other), bidirectional, or pathoplastic. As part of the Manitoba Longitudinal Study of Young Adults, prospective data were collected on Canadian young adults' (Wave 1: n = 679, 51.8% female, aged 18 to 20 years) depressive symptoms, involvement in gambling, and risky gambling behaviour. Recruitment and the first cycle of data collection (Wave 1) took place in fall 2007. Three additional waves of data collection then occurred in 12- to 18-month intervals: fall 2008, spring 2010, and spring 2011. The Problem Gambling Severity Index and the Composite International Diagnostic Interview-Short Form were administered through telephone interview at each wave. Bivariate growth curves showed that depressive and problem gambling symptoms were positively correlated at Wave 1, Wave 2, and Wave 4. Neither disorder was found to be a risk factor for the other, and depression and problem gambling were not pathoplastically related (that is, increases in one did not result in increases in the other over time, and vice versa). While depression and problem gambling are related, their co-occurrence may be better explained not by depressive- or gambling-related risk, but by the presence of a common underlying factor (such as substance abuse). © The Author(s) 2016.

  19. Cognitive Biases in Individuals with Mild to Borderline Intellectual Disability and Alcohol Use-Related Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Duijvenbode, Neomi; Didden, Robert; Voogd, Hubert; Korzilius, Hubert P. L. M.; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.

    2012-01-01

    The primary aim of the present pilot study was to examine cognitive biases in individuals with mild to borderline ID and alcohol use-related problems. Participants (N = 57) performed the approach avoidance task, picture rating task and visual dot probe task, which was combined with eye-tracking methodology. They were admitted to a forensic setting…

  20. Alcohol Prevention Strategies on College Campuses and Student Alcohol Abuse and Related Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ringwalt, Christopher L.; Paschall, Mallie J.; Gitelman, Amy M.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between colleges' alcohol abuse prevention strategies and students' alcohol abuse and related problems. Alcohol prevention coordinators and first year students in 22 colleges reported whether their schools were implementing 48 strategies in six domains, and students (N = 2041) completed another survey…

  1. Identification of drug-related problems by a clinical pharmacist in addition to computerized alerts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.J. Zaal (Rianne); M.M.P.M. Jansen (Mark M. P.); M. Duisenberg-Van Essenberg (Marjolijn); C.C. Tijssen (Cees); J.A. Roukema; P.M.L.A. van den Bemt (Patricia)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractBackground Both clinical pharmacists and computerized physician order entry systems with clinical decision support (CPOE/CDSS) can reduce drug-related problems (DRPs). However, the contribution of a clinical pharmacist in addition to CPOE/CDSS has not been established in a prospective

  2. Identification of drug-related problems by a clinical pharmacist in addition to computerized alerts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zaal, R.J.; Jansen, M.; Duisenberg-van Essenberg, M.; C.C., Tijssen; Roukema, J.A.; van den Bemt, P.M.

    2013-01-01

    Background Both clinical pharmacists and computerized physician order entry systems with clinical decision support (CPOE/CDSS) can reduce drug-related problems (DRPs). However, the contribution of a clinical pharmacist in addition to CPOE/CDSS has not been established in a prospective study.

  3. Relation between Cyberbullying and Problem Solving: A Study on Turkish University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gokler, Riza

    2013-01-01

    In this study, cyberbullying living frequency, what the cyber environments in which cyberbullying is lived are, and the relation between "being victim of cyberbullying" and "being cyberbullying" status and problem solving skill of university students are analysed. This research is done by attendance of 460 students from five…

  4. Pre-Service Teachers' Level of Problem Solving and Its Relation with Creative Drama Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslan, Suna

    2015-01-01

    This study seeks an answer to the question "Can Creative Drama programs be benefited from in developing the experiences of noticing educational and psychosocial problems and solving them in relation with the teaching profession?." The importance given to Creative Drama method in educational programs increases day by day. Drama education…

  5. A free-boundary value problem related to auto ignition of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We examine a free boundary value problem related to auto ignition of combustible fluid in insulation materials. The criteria for the existence of similarity solution of the model equations are established. The conditions for the existence of unique solution are also stated. The numerical results which show the influence of ...

  6. Different Pathways Explain Alcohol-Related Problems in Female and Male College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedrelli, Paola; Collado, Anahi; Shapero, Benjamin G.; Brill, Charlotte; MacPherson, Laura

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Comprehensive models elucidating the intricate associations of depressive symptoms, coping motives, alcohol use, alcohol-related problems (ARPs), and gender among young adults have been scarcely examined. This study investigated relationships among these variables and the effect of gender on these pathways. Methods: College students (N…

  7. Mothers' Predictions of Their Son's Executive Functioning Skills: Relations to Child Behavior Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Charlotte

    2011-01-01

    This study examined mothers' ability to accurately predict their sons' performance on executive functioning tasks in relation to the child's behavior problems. One-hundred thirteen mothers and their 4-7 year old sons participated. From behind a one-way mirror, mothers watched their sons perform tasks assessing inhibition and planning skills.…

  8. Developmental Trajectories of Chinese Children's Relational and Physical Aggression: Associations with Social-Psychological Adjustment Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawabata, Yoshito; Tseng, Wan-Ling; Murray-Close, Dianna; Crick, Nicki R.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this short-term longitudinal study was to examine Chinese children's trajectories of physical and relational aggression and their association with social-psychological adjustment problems (i.e., depressive symptoms and delinquency) and gender. Fourth and fifth grade children in Taiwan (n = 739, age 9-11) were followed across 1 year.…

  9. Multivariate Analyses of Predictors of Heavy Episodic Drinking and Drinking-Related Problems among College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenzel, L. Mickey

    2005-01-01

    The present study examines predictors of heavy drinking frequency and drinking-related problems among more than 600 college students. Controlling for high school drinking frequency, results of multiple regression analyses showed that more frequent heavy drinking was predicted by being male and risk factors of more frequent marijuana and tobacco…

  10. Proximity alert! Distance related cuneus activation in military veterans with anger and aggression problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heesink, Lieke; Edward Gladwin, Thomas; Terburg, David; van Honk, Jack; Kleber, Rolf; Geuze, Elbert

    2017-08-30

    Problems involving anger and aggression are common after military deployment, and may involve abnormal responses to threat. This study therefore investigated effects on neural activation related to threat and escapability among veterans with deployment experience. Twenty-seven male veterans with anger and aggression problems (Anger group) and 30 Control veterans performed a virtual predator-task during fMRI measurement. In this task, threat and proximity were manipulated. The distance of cues determined their possibility for escape. Cues signaled impending attack by zooming in towards the participant. If Threat cues, but not Safe cues, reached the participants without being halted by a button press, an aversive noise (105dB scream) was presented. In both the Threat and the Safe condition, closer proximity of the virtual predator resulted in stronger activation in the cuneus in the Anger versus Control group. The results suggest that anger and aggression problems are related to a generalized sensitivity to proximity rather than preparatory processes related to task-contingent aversive stimuli. Anger and aggression problems in natural, dynamically changing environments may be related to an overall heightened vigilance, which is non-adaptively driven by proximity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Current Problems of Trade Union-Party Relations in Switzerland: Reorientation Versus Inertia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegenthaler, Jurg K.

    1975-01-01

    The postwar realignment of union-party relations in Switzerland severed old formal ties but left some important links undisturbed; practical and effective cooperation on legislative items supports current informal union-party alliances. Major current problems include the unions' demand for codetermination in industry and the huge numbers of…

  12. Is There a Causal Relation between Mathematical Creativity and Mathematical Problem-Solving Performance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyagi, Tarun Kumar

    2016-01-01

    The relationship between mathematical creativity (MC) and mathematical problem-solving performance (MP) has often been studied but the causal relation between these two constructs has yet to be clearly reported. The main purpose of this study was to define the causal relationship between MC and MP. Data from a representative sample of 480…

  13. Aspects of the future Physics teachers imaginary related to problem solving and Nuclear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thirza Pavan Sorpreso

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we try to put in evidence some aspects of the future Physics teachers imaginary when they are is related to work with problem solving and with Nuclear Physics inclusion in High School. We show that this imaginary is evidenced and suffers displacements from specific conditions of production.

  14. Internet skill-related problems in accessing online health information and services

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Deursen, Alexander Johannes Aloysius Maria

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Despite the amount of health information available online, there are several barriers that limit the Internet from being adopted as a source of health information. The purpose of this study was to identify individual skill-related problems that users experience when accessing the Internet

  15. Using Text Mining to Uncover Students' Technology-Related Problems in Live Video Streaming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdous, M'hammed; He, Wu

    2011-01-01

    Because of their capacity to sift through large amounts of data, text mining and data mining are enabling higher education institutions to reveal valuable patterns in students' learning behaviours without having to resort to traditional survey methods. In an effort to uncover live video streaming (LVS) students' technology related-problems and to…

  16. The Effects of Sleep Problems and Depression on Alcohol-Related Negative Consequences among College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wattenmaker McGann, Amanda

    2013-01-01

    Previous literature provides an overview of the multiple relationships between alcohol use, protective behavioral strategies (PBS), alcohol-related negative consequences, depression, and sleep problems among college students, as well as differences by individual level characteristics, such as age, gender, and race/ethnicity. The purpose of this…

  17. Sleep Problem Risk for Adolescents With Sickle Cell Disease: Sociodemographic, Physical, and Disease-related Correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valrie, Cecelia R; Trout, Krystal L; Bond, Kayzandra E; Ladd, Rebecca J; Huber, Nichelle L; Alston, Kristen J; Sufrinko, Alicia M; Everhart, Erik; Fuh, Beng R

    2018-03-01

    The aims of the current study were to investigate whether SCD incurs an additional risk for poor sleep over and above the influence of sociodemographic factors (ie, race and sex) during adolescence, and to explore the relationships between sociodemographic, physical (ie, age and pubertal status), and disease-related factors (ie, SCD genotype and hydroxyurea use) on sleep problem risk during adolescence. Black adolescents (age, 12 to 17 y) with SCD (n=53) were recruited from regional pediatric SCD clinics in the southeast and a sample of healthy black adolescents (n=160) were recruited from middle and high schools. Regression analyses indicated that SCD was uniquely related to sleeping more, and worse sleep quality over and above the influence of sociodemographic factors. Having a more severe SCD genotype was related to worse sleep quality and higher pubertal status was related to sleeping longer during the week. Results indicate the need for systematic assessments of sleep problems, with more a focus on youth with more severe genotypes and higher pubertal status. Future research should focus on characterizing trajectories of sleep problems in this population, identifying key risk factors, and elucidating mechanisms linking risk factors to sleep problem risk to aid in tailoring interventions for this population.

  18. Perceived problems with computer gaming and Internet use are associated with poorer social relations in adolescence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Mette; Meilstrup, Charlotte Riebeling; Bendtsen, Pernille

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Young people's engagement in electronic gaming and Internet communication have caused concerns about potential harmful effects on their social relations, but the literature is inconclusive. The aim of this paper was to examine whether perceived problems with computer gaming and Intern...

  19. Prevalence of work-related health problems among providers of car ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    With urbanization, there is increasing use of automobiles, automobile batteries and consequently, there are an increasing number of lead acid battery repairers in the major cities of developing countries. This study assessed the prevalence of work-related health problems among lead-acid battery repairers in Ilorin, Nigeria.

  20. Prevalence of drug-related problems in self-medication in Danish community pharmacies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bente Frøkjær

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Drug-related problems are known to be a major problem associated with pharmacotherapy. A broad range of studies, mainly in the area of prescription-only medicines, supports this fact. Only a few studies have evaluated drug-related problems with over-the-counter medicine and the role of community pharmacies in this. Purpose: To quantify drug-related problems in self-medication (use of over-the-counter medicine identified by community pharmacies in Denmark and to document the interventions by pharmacy staff in relation to the identified drug-related problems. Method: A descriptive study mapping drug-related problems in self-medication registered at the counter at a selected number of Danish community pharmacies. Results: Data for 3,868 consecutive customers with requests for over-the-counter (OTC medicines were registered at 39 community pharmacies. The pharmacies registered a total number of 4,324 OTC medicines requests, illustrating that a customer requested 1.1 OTC medicines on average. Drug-related problems (DRPs were identified for 813 customers, equivalent to DRPs for 21.0 % of all customers, presenting symptoms or requesting OTC medicines, and for 20 % of all over-the-counter medicines requests. 1,239 DRPs were registered, corresponding to an average of 1.5 DRPs per customer requesting OTC medicines. Community pharmacies estimated that they solved or partly solved 76.2 % of the detected DRPs; 73 % were solved without involving a general practitioner. Conclusions: DRPs were identified for 21.0 % of the pharmacy customers presenting a symptom or asking for an OTC medicine. The community pharmacy counselled the customers with DRPs more thoroughly than other customers by giving 2.4 pieces of professional advice, compared to an average of 2.1 to customers in general. It is not possible to determine the magnitude of the safety risk involved. Based on the most frequent categories of DRPs, there were risks of insufficient effect

  1. Prevalence of drug-related problems in self-medication in Danish community pharmacies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotte Rossing

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Drug-related problems are known to be a major problem associated with pharmacotherapy. A broad range of studies, mainly in the area of prescription-only medicines, supports this fact. Only a few studies have evaluated drug-related problems with over-the-counter medicine and the role of community pharmacies in this.Purpose: To quantify drug-related problems in self-medication (use of over-the-counter medicine identified by community pharmacies in Denmark and to document the interventions by pharmacy staff in relation to the identified drug-related problems.Method: A descriptive study mapping drug-related problems in self-medication registered at the counter at a selected number of Danish community pharmacies.Results: Data for 3,868 consecutive customers with requests for over-the-counter (OTC medicines were registered at 39 community pharmacies. The pharmacies registered a total number of 4,324 OTC medicines requests, illustrating that a customer requested 1.1 OTC medicines on average. Drug-related problems (DRPs were identified for 813 customers, equivalent to DRPs for 21.0 % of all customers, presenting symptoms or requesting OTC medicines, and for 20 % of all over-the-counter medicines requests. 1,239 DRPs were registered, corresponding to an average of 1.5 DRPs per customer requesting OTC medicines.Community pharmacies estimated that they solved or partly solved 76.2 % of the detected DRPs; 73 % were solved without involving a general practitioner.Conclusions: DRPs were identified for 21.0 % of the pharmacy customers presenting a symptom or asking for an OTC medicine. The community pharmacy counselled the customers with DRPs more thoroughly than other customers by giving 2.4 pieces of professional advice, compared to an average of 2.1 to customers in general. It is not possible to determine the magnitude of the safety risk involved. Based on the most frequent categories of DRPs, there were risks of insufficient effect, unintended

  2. Investigating Relationships Between Health-Related Problems and Online Health Information Seeking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Young Sam; Song, Na Kyoung

    2017-01-01

    Online health information seeking (OHIS) functions as a coping strategy to relieve health-related stress and problems. When people rate their health as poor or felt concern about their health, they frequently visit the Internet to seek health-related information in order to understand their symptoms and treatments. Regarding this role of OHIS, it is important to understand the relationships between health-related problems and OHIS. This study applies the Common-Sense Model as a theoretical lens to examine the relationship between health-related problems (ie, diagnosis of cancer, poor self-rated health, and psychological distress) and OHIS of adults in the US. Using the Health Information National Trends Survey 4 Cycle 1 (2012), a total of 2351 adult Internet users was included in this research. Hierarchical logistic regression analyses were conducted to examine the research model, and the model adding psychological distress resulted in a statistically significant improvement in model fit. In this study, lower levels of self-rated health and higher levels of psychological distress were significantly associated with higher odds of OHIS. Study findings support the idea that individuals' low levels of self-rated health and high levels of perceived psychological distress make people search for health-related information via the Internet in order to cope with health-related concern and distress.

  3. Job dissatisfaction as a contributor to stress-related mental health problems among Japanese civil servants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatsuse, Takashi; Sekine, Michikazu

    2013-01-01

    Although studies on the association of job dissatisfaction with mental health have been conducted in the past, few studies have dealt with the complicated links connecting job stress, job dissatisfaction, and stress-related illness. This study seeks to determine how job dissatisfaction is linked to common mental health issues. This study surveyed 3,172 civil servants (2,233 men and 939 women) in 1998, taking poor mental functioning, fatigue, and sleep disturbance as stress-related mental health problems. We examine how psychosocial risk factors at work and job dissatisfaction are associated independently with poor mental functioning, fatigue, and sleep disturbance after adjustment for other known risk factors, and how job dissatisfaction contributes to change in the degree of association between psychosocial risk factors at work and mental health problems. In general, psychosocial risk factors were independently associated with mental health problems. When adjusted for job dissatisfaction, not only was job satisfaction independently associated with mental health problems but it was also found that the association of psychosocial risk factors with mental health problems declined. Our results suggest that, although longitudinal research is necessary, attitudes toward satisfaction at work can potentially decrease the negative effects of psychosocial risk factors at work on mental health.

  4. Singularities of the transmission coefficient and anomalous scattering by a dielectric slab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shestopalov, Yury

    2018-03-01

    We prove the existence and describe the distribution on the complex plane of the singularities, resonant states (RSs), of the transmission coefficient in the problem of the plane wave scattering by a parallel-plate dielectric slab in free space. It is shown that the transmission coefficient has isolated poles all with nonzero imaginary parts that form countable sets in the complex plane of the refraction index or permittivity of the slab with the only accumulation point at infinity. The transmission coefficient never vanishes and anomalous scattering, when its modulus exceeds unity, occurs at arbitrarily small loss of the dielectric filling the layer. These results are extended to the cases of scattering by arbitrary multi-layer parallel-plane media. Connections are established between RSs, spectral singularities, eigenvalues of the associated Sturm-Liouville problems on the line, and zeros of the corresponding Jost function.

  5. Factors associated with alcohol consumption, problem drinking, and related consequences among high school students in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Mei-Yu

    2006-02-01

    This research evaluated the risk factors associated with alcohol consumption, problem drinking, and related consequences among high school students in Taiwan. A total of 779 10th grade students from four randomly selected high schools in eastern Taiwan were included in the survey. Survey data were self-reported by students and analyzed using logistic regression methods. The results showed that alcohol consumption and problem drinking was 2.22-2.71-fold greater in male than in female adolescents. Parents and peer groups were the determinants influencing alcohol consumption, and these influences could be enhanced particularly by the drinking behaviors of fathers and peer groups, and the relationship of students with their peer groups. The probability of developing adolescent problem drinking was fourfold greater in students whose fathers had habits of drinking. Ethnicity had a notable impact on the risk of problem drinking. The occurrence of problem drinking among indigenous adolescents was 2.98-fold higher than among Hans, indicating a diversity of biological factors, social norms, and expectation for alcohol drinking between these two ethnic groups. This study suggests that a policy for preventing alcohol abuse among high school students should start by addressing the two major associated problems: a need to earn peer group recognition, and the lack of family support among at-risk students.

  6. Infant Neurobehavioral Dysregulation Related to Behavior Problems in Children with Prenatal Substance Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester, Barry M.; Bagner, Daniel M.; Liu, Jing; LaGasse, Linda L.; Seifer, Ronald; Bauer, Charles R.; Shankaran, Seetha; Bada, Henrietta; Higgins, Rosemary D.; Das, Abhik

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To test a developmental model of neurobehavioral dysregulation relating prenatal substance exposure to behavior problems at age 7. PATIENTS AND METHODS The sample included 360 cocaine-exposed and 480 unexposed children from lower to lower middle class families of which 78% were African American. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to test models whereby prenatal exposure to cocaine and other substances would result in neurobehavioral dysregulation in infancy, which would predict externalizing and internalizing behavior problems in early childhood. SEM models were developed for individual and combined parent and teacher report for externalizing, internalizing, and total problem scores on the Child Behavior Checklist. RESULTS The Goodness of Fit Statistics indicated that all of the models met criteria for adequate fit with 7 of the 9 models explaining 18 to 60% of the variance in behavior problems at age 7. The paths in the models indicate that there are direct effects of prenatal substance exposure on 7-year behavior problems as well as indirect effects, including neurobehavioral dysregulation. CONCLUSIONS Prenatal substance exposure affects behavior problems at age 7 through two mechanisms. The direct pathway is consistent with a teratogenic effect. Indirect pathways suggest cascading effects where prenatal substance exposure results in neurobehavioral dysregulation manifesting as deviations in later behavioral expression. Developmental models provide an understanding of pathways that describe how prenatal substance exposure affects child outcome and have significant implications for early identification and prevention. PMID:19822596

  7. Health-related quality of life in patients with diabetic foot problems in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazlina, M; Shamsul, A S; Jeffery, F A Saini

    2011-08-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the impact of foot problems on health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in patients with diabetes in Malaysia. Short-Form 36 (SF-36) questionnaire was used to assess the HRQoL of 140 diabetic patients with foot problems attending outpatient diabetic foot clinic in a tertiary hospital, University Malaya Medical Centre. Their HRQoL were compared with 134 diabetic patients without foot problems attending the same clinic. The median score of all the eight SF-36 domains differed significantly between the two groups, where patients with foot problems having statistically significant lower scores. The two domains that were most severely compromised were components of the physical health: Physical Functioning and Role Physical domains. The SF-36 scale scores in diabetic patients with foot problems were also lower than those of the SF-36 norms for the Malaysian population. In conclusion, the results showed that diabetic foot problems negatively affect the patients' HRQoL in both physical and mental health aspects based on the SF-36.

  8. Attentional bias and disinhibition toward gaming cues are related to problem gaming in male adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Holst, Ruth J; Lemmens, Jeroen S; Valkenburg, Patti M; Peter, Jochen; Veltman, Dick J; Goudriaan, Anna E

    2012-06-01

    The aim of this study was to examine whether behavioral tendencies commonly related to addictive behaviors are also related to problematic computer and video game playing in adolescents. The study of attentional bias and response inhibition, characteristic for addictive disorders, is relevant to the ongoing discussion on whether problematic gaming should be classified as an addictive disorder. We tested the relation between self-reported levels of problem gaming and two behavioral domains: attentional bias and response inhibition. Ninety-two male adolescents performed two attentional bias tasks (addiction-Stroop, dot-probe) and a behavioral inhibition task (go/no-go). Self-reported problem gaming was measured by the game addiction scale, based on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-fourth edition criteria for pathological gambling and time spent on computer and/or video games. Male adolescents with higher levels of self-reported problem gaming displayed signs of error-related attentional bias to game cues. Higher levels of problem gaming were also related to more errors on response inhibition, but only when game cues were presented. These findings are in line with the findings of attentional bias reported in clinically recognized addictive disorders, such as substance dependence and pathological gambling, and contribute to the discussion on the proposed concept of "Addiction and Related Disorders" (which may include non-substance-related addictive behaviors) in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-fourth edition. Copyright © 2012 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Family residency and psychosomatic problems among adolescents in Sweden: The impact of child-parent relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagquist, Curt

    2016-02-01

    Profound changes in family structure took place in many countries, during the second part of the previous century. The purpose of this paper is to analyse the association between the type of family residency and psychosomatic problems in younger and older adolescents, particularly focusing on alternate residency, and to examine the impact of child-parent relations. We used data collected in 2009 by Statistics Sweden among 172,298 Swedish students in Grade 6 and Grade 9 (approximate ages 12 and 15 years old); comprising 80% and 86%, respectively, of the entire population of students in those grades. We collected the data with a questionnaire, completed anonymously in school: We used the Psychosomatic Problems (PSP) scale as the outcome measure. The type of family residency showed a weaker association with psychosomatic problems than the child-parent relationships did. Living in non-intact families increased the probability of adolescent psychosomatic problems by 0-0.05, compared to intact families. In Grade 9, there were no differences in psychosomatic problems between the students in alternate residency and those living with their two parents; and in Grade 6, these differences were relatively small. In comparison, a worse relationship with parents increased the probability of psychosomatic problems by 0.11-0.17, depending on the school grade and type of family residency. The structure of the family, as well as the child-parent relationships needs to be taken into account, to properly estimate the magnitude of the family situation as a determinant of adolescent psychosomatic problems. Our results justify universal intervention at the policy level. © 2015 the Nordic Societies of Public Health.

  10. Postnatal Environmental Tobacco Smoke Exposure Related to Behavioral Problems in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chastang, Julie; Baïz, Nour; Cadwallader, Jean Sébastien; Cadwalladder, Jean Sébastien; Robert, Sarah; Dywer, John L; Dywer, John; Charpin, Denis André; Caillaud, Denis; de Blay, Frédéric; Raherison, Chantal; Lavaud, François; Annesi-Maesano, Isabella

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the association between pre and post environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure and behavioral problems in schoolchildren. In the cross-sectional 6 cities Study conducted in France, 5221 primary school children were investigated. Pre- and postnatal exposure to secondhand tobacco smoke at home was assessed using a parent questionnaire. Child's behavioral outcomes (emotional symptoms and conduct problems) were evaluated by the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) completed by the parents. ETS exposure during the postnatal period and during both pre- and postnatal periods was associated with behavioral problems in children. Abnormal emotional symptoms (internalizing problems) were related to ETS exposure in children who were exposed during the pre- and postnatal periods with an OR of 1.72 (95% Confidence Interval (CI)= 1.36-2.17), whereas the OR was estimated to be 1.38 (95% CI= 1.12-1.69) in the case of postnatal exposure only. Abnormal conduct problems (externalizing problems) were related to ETS exposure in children who were exposed during the pre- and postnatal periods with an OR of 1.94 (95% CI= 1.51-2.50), whereas the OR was estimated to be 1.47 (95% CI=1.17-1.84) in the case of postnatal exposure only. Effect estimates were adjusted for gender, study center, ethnic origin, child age, low parental education, current physician diagnosed asthma, siblings, preterm birth and single parenthood. Postnatal ETS exposure, alone or in association with prenatal exposure, increases the risk of behavioral problems in school-age children.

  11. Postnatal Environmental Tobacco Smoke Exposure Related to Behavioral Problems in Children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Chastang

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine the association between pre and post environmental tobacco smoke (ETS exposure and behavioral problems in schoolchildren.In the cross-sectional 6 cities Study conducted in France, 5221 primary school children were investigated. Pre- and postnatal exposure to secondhand tobacco smoke at home was assessed using a parent questionnaire. Child's behavioral outcomes (emotional symptoms and conduct problems were evaluated by the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ completed by the parents.ETS exposure during the postnatal period and during both pre- and postnatal periods was associated with behavioral problems in children. Abnormal emotional symptoms (internalizing problems were related to ETS exposure in children who were exposed during the pre- and postnatal periods with an OR of 1.72 (95% Confidence Interval (CI= 1.36-2.17, whereas the OR was estimated to be 1.38 (95% CI= 1.12-1.69 in the case of postnatal exposure only. Abnormal conduct problems (externalizing problems were related to ETS exposure in children who were exposed during the pre- and postnatal periods with an OR of 1.94 (95% CI= 1.51-2.50, whereas the OR was estimated to be 1.47 (95% CI=1.17-1.84 in the case of postnatal exposure only. Effect estimates were adjusted for gender, study center, ethnic origin, child age, low parental education, current physician diagnosed asthma, siblings, preterm birth and single parenthood.Postnatal ETS exposure, alone or in association with prenatal exposure, increases the risk of behavioral problems in school-age children.

  12. Maternal anxiety versus depressive disorders: specific relations to infants' crying, feeding and sleeping problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petzoldt, J; Wittchen, H-U; Einsle, F; Martini, J

    2016-03-01

    Maternal depression has been associated with excessive infant crying, feeding and sleeping problems, but the specificity of maternal depression, as compared with maternal anxiety remains unclear and manifest disorders prior to pregnancy have been widely neglected. In this prospective longitudinal study, the specific associations of maternal anxiety and depressive disorders prior to, during and after pregnancy and infants' crying, feeding and sleeping problems were investigated in the context of maternal parity. In the Maternal Anxiety in Relation to Infant Development (MARI) Study, n = 306 primiparous and multiparous women were repeatedly interviewed from early pregnancy until 16 months post partum with the Composite International Diagnostic Interview for Women (CIDI-V) to assess DSM-IV anxiety and depressive disorders. Information on excessive infant crying, feeding and sleeping problems was obtained from n = 286 mothers during postpartum period via questionnaire and interview (Baby-DIPS). Findings from this study revealed syndrome-specific risk constellations for maternal anxiety and depressive disorders as early as prior to pregnancy: Excessive infant crying (10.1%) was specifically associated with maternal anxiety disorders, especially in infants of younger and lower educated first-time mothers. Feeding problems (36.4%) were predicted by maternal anxiety (and comorbid depressive) disorders in primiparous mothers and infants with lower birth weight. Infant sleeping problems (12.2%) were related to maternal depressive (and comorbid anxiety) disorders irrespective of maternal parity. Primiparous mothers with anxiety disorders may be more prone to anxious misinterpretations of crying and feeding situations leading to an escalation of mother-infant interactions. The relation between maternal depressive and infant sleeping problems may be better explained by a transmission of unsettled maternal sleep to the fetus during pregnancy or a lack of daily

  13. Reduced heart rate variability in pet dogs affected by anxiety-related behaviour problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wormald, Dennis; Lawrence, Andrew J; Carter, Gabrielle; Fisher, Andrew D

    2017-01-01

    We present here the first evidence of correlation between canine anxiety-related behavioural problems and heart rate variability (HRV). HRV is known to be related to a range of mental disorders in humans; however this has not been explored in dogs. Behavioural problems in dogs can result in suffering, property destruction and human injury. Dog behaviour problems were assessed by owner questionnaire and the extreme high and low scoring dogs were recruited into either affected (n=10) or unaffected (n=20) groups. HRV was assessed in dogs at their homes, while being held in lateral recumbency for 5min using manual restraint. Salivary cortisol samples were taken before and after HRV testing. Dogs were assessed as either being reactive to the procedure (barking, growling, struggling or shaking) or unreactive. There was no effect of reactivity or behaviour problems on salivary cortisol levels at baseline or in response to the treatment. There was a significant effect of reactivity on HR (F 1,26 =5.54; P=0.026), and no effect of behaviour problems (F 1,26 =1.07; P=0.311). There was no effect of reactivity on any of the HRV measures. The presence of behaviour problems had a significant effect on a range of measures of HRV, with unaffected dogs having higher standard deviation of RR intervals (F 1,26 =6.39; P=0.018), higher high frequency spectrum (F 1,26 =5.23; P=0.031) and higher low frequency spectrum (F 1,26 =9.25; P=0.005) power. There was no effect of behaviour problems on very low frequency spectrum power (F 1,26 =1.40; P=0.248). Together these results provide evidence for a fundamental physiological difference between dogs affected or unaffected with behaviour problems. This study provides evidence for further investigation into the role of HRV in the pathophysiology of canine anxiety-related behaviour problems. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. Building characteristics associated with moisture related problems in 8,918 Swedish dwellings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hagerhed-Engman, L.; Bornehag, Carl-Gustaf; Sundell, Jan

    2009-01-01

    s, houses with a concrete slab on the ground that were built before 1983. Moreover, tenancy and earlier renovation due to mould or moisture problems was strongly associated with dampness. A perception of dry air was associated with windowpane condensation, e. g. humid indoor air.......Moisture problems in buildings have in a number of studies been shown to increase the risk for respiratory symptoms. The study Dampness in Buildings and Health (DBH) was initiated with the aim to identify health relevant exposures related to dampness in buildings. A questionnaire study about home...

  15. Personality-Related Problems and the Five-Factor Model of Personality

    OpenAIRE

    Boudreaux, Michael

    2014-01-01

    This research identifies a broad and inclusive set of personality-related problems and examines their empirical associations with both the high and low poles of the five-factor model of personality (FFM). McCrae, Widiger, and colleagues (e.g., McCrae, 1994; McCrae, Löckenhoff, & Costa, 2005; Widiger, Costa, & McCrae, 2002, 2012) have proposed that individuals with particular personality traits may be predisposed to particular kinds of problems in life, and suggested that the FFM serve as a ba...

  16. Comparison of Shift Work-related Health Problems in 12-hour Shift Schedules of Petrochemical Industries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Khavvaji

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims Shiftwork that affects diverse aspects of human life is arranged in various schedules, each has its own advantages and disadvantages. This study was carried out with the objectives of determination of common 12-hour shift schedules in petrochemical plants, comparison of shift work health-related problems among employees working in different shift schedules and recommendation of appropriate shift schedule for decrement of related health problems.      methodsThis cross-sectional study was conducted at 8 petrochemical plants in Asalooyeh region related to National Petrochemical Industries in which 12-hour shift schedules were applied. Study population consisted of 549 shift workers with age mean of 29.83±5.75 years. Data on personal details, shift schedule and adverse health effects of shiftwork (i.e. gastrointestinal, cardiovascular, musculoskeletal, psychological, sleep etc. disorders were collected by anonymous questionnaire.   Results Among 549 studied shift employees, 39.6% worked in 4N-7D-3N-7Res (4night-7day-3night-7rest, 29.1% in 7N-7D-7Res and 31.3% in 7D-7N-7Res schedules. Statistical comparison showed that the prevalence of h ealth problems such as gastrointestinal, cardiovascular and musculoskeletal disorders among 7D-7N-7Res schedule shiftworkers were significantly higher than that of other schedules (p0.05.     Conclusion Prevalence of gastrointestinal, cardiovascular and musculoskeletal disorders in all schedules were high, but odds ratios of all problems among 7D-7N-7Res schedule shiftworkers were significantly more than those of the shiftworkers of the other schedules. This schedule should, therefore, be changed to decrease related-health problems. Fixed 14D/14N schedule may be an appropriate substitution.  

  17. Food Insecurity and the Burden of Health-Related Social Problems in an Urban Youth Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baer, Tamara E; Scherer, Emily A; Fleegler, Eric W; Hassan, Areej

    2015-12-01

    Our study objectives were to (1) determine the prevalence of food insecurity; (2) examine the association between presence and level of food insecurity with other health-related social problems; and (3) assess the predictive values of a two-item food insecurity screen in an urban youth population. Patients aged 15-25 years completed a Web-based screening tool. Validated questions were used to identify problems in seven health-related social domains (food insecurity, health care access, education, housing, income insecurity, substance use, and intimate partner violence). Chi-square and Kruskal-Wallis tests and logistic regression models controlled for age, sex, and race/ethnicity, assessed the association between food insecurity and health-related social problems. Predictive values of a two-item food insecurity screen compared with the United States Department of Agriculture Food Security Survey were calculated. Among 400 patients (mean age 18 years; 69.2% female; 54.6% black; 58.9% public insurance), 32.5% screened positive for food insecurity. Increasing food insecurity level was significantly associated with cumulative burden of social problems (p insecurity was associated with problems with health care access (aOR = 2.6, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.7-4.1), education (aOR = 2.8, 95% CI 1.6-5.1), housing (aOR = 2.8, 95% CI 1.8-4.4), income insecurity (aOR = 2.3, 95% CI 1.2-4.5), and substance use (aOR = 2.5, 95% CI 1.5-4.3). The two-item screen demonstrated sensitivity of 88.5% and specificity of 84.1%. One-third of youth in sample experienced food insecurity, which was strongly associated with presence of other health-related social problems. The two-item screen effectively detected food insecurity. Food insecurity screening may lead to identification of other health-related social problems that when addressed early may improve adolescent health. Copyright © 2015 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Reply to C. M. Will on the axially symmetric two-body problem in general relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooperstock, F.I.; Lim, P.H.

    1985-01-01

    The recent paper by Will (1983) is considered which purports to demonstrate that the gravitational radiation which the authors had computed from their model two-body free-fall system is consistent with the so-called quadrupole formula. It is shown that in fact the system presented by Will is different from the authors and that the illegitimate application of the quadrupole formula to the authors system leads to a smaller flux than that which is correctly deduced using general relativity and a proper consideration of nonlinearities. It is demonstrated that a judicious choice of stress release is propagated through the bodies as a superposition of plane and spherical waves leading to pressure fluctuations to the order in question. This underlines the essential distinction between the authors problem and the Will problem. Various aspects of the problem are also discussed. 25 references

  19. Some problems of geologic relations between the Amazon craton and east margins fold belts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almeida, F.F.M. de

    1986-01-01

    This paper deals with some geologic problems related to the limits between the Amazon craton and the fold belts developed at its margins during the Precambrian. These limits are diversified but clearly recognized. To the north, the Araguaia-Tocantins fold belt, of presumed Middle Proterozoic age, is separated from the cratonic block by a deep marginal fracture zone permeated by mafic and ultramafic rocks. The geologic, magmatic and aeromagnetic characteristics of this zone point out the presence of deep faults, supposed to be of Middle Proterozoic age. The southern Paraguay fold belt constitutes and accurated zone of linear structures supposed to be of Late Proterozoic development. Despite the great increase of knowledge during the last ten years many tectonic, stratigraphic and geochronologic problems remain unsolved. The aim of this paper is to point out some of these problems and suggest specific studies to solve them. (author)

  20. Improved solution methods for an inverse problem related to a population balance model in chemical engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groh, Andreas; Krebs, Jochen

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, a population balance equation, originating from applications in chemical engineering, is considered and novel solution techniques for a related inverse problem are presented. This problem consists in the determination of the breakage rate and the daughter drop distribution of an evolving drop size distribution from time-dependent measurements under the assumption of self-similarity. We analyze two established solution methods for this ill-posed problem and improve the two procedures by adapting suitable data fitting and inversion algorithms to the specific situation. In addition, we introduce a novel technique that, compared to the former, does not require certain a priori information. The improved stability properties of the resulting algorithms are substantiated with numerical examples. (paper)

  1. Relations between Parent Psychopathology, Family Functioning, and Adolescent Problems in Substance-Abusing Families: Disaggregating the Effects of Parent Gender

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burstein, Marcy; Stanger, Catherine; Dumenci, Levent

    2012-01-01

    The present study: (1) examined relations between parent psychopathology and adolescent internalizing problems, externalizing problems, and substance use in substance-abusing families; and (2) tested family functioning problems as mediators of these relations. Structural equation modeling was used to estimate the independent effects of parent…

  2. Daily mood and sleep: reciprocal relations and links with adjustment problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouros, Chrystyna D; El-Sheikh, Mona

    2015-02-01

    Children's sleep problems are common and associated with increased risk for adjustment problems. We examined daily links between children's sleep and mood, using a daily diary method and actigraphy. We also tested children's daily mood as a mediator of relations among sleep and children's broader internalizing and externalizing symptoms. A community sample of 142 children (mean age = 10.69 years; 57% girls; 69% European American, 31% African American) and their parents participated. For 1 week, children wore actigraphs and parents completed a daily telephone interview about their child's mood. Following the week of actigraphy, mothers and fathers reported on their child's adjustment. Multi-level models indicated within-person relations between children's mood and subsequent sleep fragmentation (indicated by increased activity) and sleep latency, and between-person relations between sleep latency and subsequent mood on the next day. Significant indirect effects were found such that a more negative daily mood (aggregated across diary days) mediated relations between poor sleep efficiency and longer sleep latency and parent-reported internalizing and externalizing symptoms. Findings extend previous research by highlighting disruptions to children's daily mood as a potential mechanism linking sleep problems to children's mental health. © 2014 European Sleep Research Society.

  3. Differential relations between youth internalizing/externalizing problems and cortisol responses to performance vs. interpersonal stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurent, Heidemarie; Vergara-Lopez, Chrystal; Stroud, Laura R

    2016-09-01

    Efforts to define hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis profiles conferring risk for psychopathology have yielded inconclusive results, perhaps in part due to limited assessment of the stress response. In particular, research has typically focused on HPA responses to performance tasks, while neglecting the interpersonal stressors that become salient during adolescence. In this study we investigated links between psychosocial adjustment - youth internalizing and externalizing problems, as well as competence - and HPA responses to both performance and interpersonal stressors in a normative sample of children and adolescents. Participants (n = 59) completed a set of performance (public speaking, mental arithmetic, mirror tracing) and/or interpersonal (peer rejection) tasks and gave nine saliva samples, which were assayed for cortisol. Hierarchical linear models of cortisol response trajectories in relation to child behavior checklist (CBCL) scores revealed stressor- and sex-specific associations. Whereas internalizing problems related to earlier peaking, less dynamic cortisol responses to interpersonal stress (across males and females), externalizing problems related to lower, earlier peaking and less dynamic cortisol responses to performance stress for males only, and competence-related to later peaking cortisol responses to interpersonal stress for females only. Implications for understanding contextual stress profiles underlying different forms of psychopathology are discussed.

  4. Alcohol-related problems and life satisfaction predict motivation to change among mandated college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diulio, Andrea R; Cero, Ian; Witte, Tracy K; Correia, Christopher J

    2014-04-01

    The present study investigated the role specific types of alcohol-related problems and life satisfaction play in predicting motivation to change alcohol use. Participants were 548 college students mandated to complete a brief intervention following an alcohol-related policy violation. Using hierarchical multiple regression, we tested for the presence of interaction and quadratic effects on baseline data collected prior to the intervention. A significant interaction indicated that the relationship between a respondent's personal consequences and his/her motivation to change differs depending upon the level of concurrent social consequences. Additionally quadratic effects for abuse/dependence symptoms and life satisfaction were found. The quadratic probes suggest that abuse/dependence symptoms and poor life satisfaction are both positively associated with motivation to change for a majority of the sample; however, the nature of these relationships changes for participants with more extreme scores. Results support the utility of using a multidimensional measure of alcohol related problems and assessing non-linear relationships when assessing predictors of motivation to change. The results also suggest that the best strategies for increasing motivation may vary depending on the types of alcohol-related problems and level of life satisfaction the student is experiencing and highlight potential directions for future research. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Internalized heterosexism, alcohol use, and alcohol-related problems among lesbians and gay men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amadio, Dean M

    2006-07-01

    Research regarding internalized heterosexism in relation to alcohol use and alcohol-related problems has suffered from methodological problems. Moreover, the results of the research have been mixed. The purpose of the current study was to examine internalized heterosexism in relation to alcohol use and alcohol-related problems among a sample of 335 lesbians and gay men recruited through lesbian and gay events, listserves, and friendship networks. Females completed the Lesbian Internalized Homophobia Scale [Szymanski, D. M., & Chung, Y. B. (2001). The internalized homophobia scale for lesbians: A rational/theoretical approach. Journal of Homosexuality, 41(2), 37-52.]; males completed the Internalized Homonegativity Inventory [Mayfield, W. (2001). The development of an internalized homonegativity inventory for gay men. Journal of Homosexuality, 41(2), 53-76.]. Items from the National Household Survey on Drug Abuse [Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. (2000). National household survey on drug abuse: main findings 1998. Rockville, MD: Author.] measured alcohol consumption. The Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test [Selzer, M. L. (1971). The Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test: the quest for a new diagnostic instrument. American Journal of Psychiatry, 127, 89-94.] and the Drinker Inventory of Consequences [Miller, W. R., Tonigan, J. S., & Longabaugh, R. (1995). The drinker inventory of consequences (DrInC): An instrument for assessing adverse consequences of alcohol abuse test manual. National institute on alcohol abuse and alcoholism project match monograph series volume 4. Rockville, MD: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.] measured alcohol-related problems. The hypothesis that a positive relationship exists was partially supported for lesbians, but generally not supported for males.

  6. Relations between shyness-sensitivity and internalizing problems in Chinese children: moderating effects of academic achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xinyin; Yang, Fan; Wang, Li

    2013-07-01

    Shy-sensitive children are likely to develop adjustment problems in today's urban China as the country has evolved into an increasingly competitive, market-oriented society. The main purpose of this one-year longitudinal study was to examine the moderating effects of academic achievement on relations between shyness-sensitivity and later internalizing problems in Chinese children. A sample of 1171 school-age children (591 boys, 580 girls) in China, initially at the age of 9 years, participated in the study. Data on shyness, academic achievement, and internalizing problems were collected from multiple sources including peer evaluations, teacher ratings, self-reports, and school records. It was found that shyness positively and uniquely predicted later loneliness, depression, and teacher-rated internalizing problems, with the stability effect controlled, for low-achieving children, but not for high-achieving children. The results indicate that, consistent with the stress buffering model, academic achievement may be a buffering factor that serves to protect shy-sensitive children from developing psychological problems.

  7. Age-related physical and psychological vulnerability as pathways to problem gambling in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parke, Adrian; Griffiths, Mark; Pattinson, Julie; Keatley, David

    2018-03-01

    Background To inform clinical treatment and preventative efforts, there is an important need to understand the pathways to late-life gambling disorder. Aims This study assesses the association between age-related physical health, social networks, and problem gambling in adults aged over 65 years and assesses the mediating role of affective disorders in this association. Methods The sample comprised 595 older adults (mean age: 74.4 years, range: 65-94 years; 77.1% female) who were interviewed using a structured questionnaire to assess physical frailty, geriatric pain, loneliness, geriatric depression, geriatric anxiety, and problem gambling. Results Pathway analysis demonstrated associations between these variables and gambling problems, providing a good fit for the data, but that critically these relationships were mediated by both anxiety and depression symptoms. Conclusions This study indicates that late-life problem gambling may develop as vulnerable individuals gamble to escape anxiety and depression consequent to deteriorating physical well-being and social support. When individuals develop late-life problem gambling, it is recommended that the treatment primarily focuses upon targeting and replacing avoidant coping approaches.

  8. Investigating grade nine textbook problems for characteristics related to mathematical literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafiepour Gatabi, Abolfazl; Stacey, Kaye; Gooya, Zahra

    2012-12-01

    This study presents a content analysis of the new Iranian Grade 9 mathematics textbook and two Australian Year 9 mathematics textbooks, examining the extent to which the problems show characteristics associated in the literature with promoting mathematical literacy. The new Iranian book was produced to meet a range of needs including several well aligned with mathematical literacy for all students. Australia was selected as the comparison country because of its relatively high international achievement in mathematical literacy. Three comparable chapters in each book were analysed for these characteristics. When considering the percentages of problems showing each characteristic, there was considerable similarity between the textbooks. However, the Australian mathematics textbooks contain many more problems than the Iranian textbook and each chapter includes problems in a diverse range of contexts and the mathematical tasks range from simple applications of formulas to real world modelling although of a constrained nature. With many fewer problems, the Iranian textbook has considerably less diversity of context and very little opportunity for students to engage in mathematical modelling, the key process of mathematical literacy.

  9. Basic problems of management in the sphere of forest relations in retrospect of public prosecutor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Kuzmin

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Public administration of forests is one of the most important sectors of ecological public administration at the national and local levels. Forest legislation is the legal basis for management, whose quality and regulatory capacity ensure the effectiveness of state power activities aimed at sustainable use, protection and regeneration of forests. The need for reforming and properly updating forest legislation and law enforcement is long overdue, which is confirmed by scientific studies and actual facts. A basic problem of forest management is the absence of an official definition of «forest» and «urban forest». Problems of forest fire protection and management problems in the forest sector (e.g. related to the provision of forest plots and the sale and purchase of forest stands are widespread. Management problems also cover a mismatch of legislative activity of the competent entities regarding the regulation of forestry relations, the one-time combination of regulatory and supervisory functions in the same bodies, as well as the lack of a single current and objective system of state cadastral registration. The paper mentions peculiarities of identifying legal responsibility for forest offenses. It is noted that office of public prosecutor, being a central supervisory agency of the state due to the nature of its job and position in a system of separation of powers, has vast (if compared with other subjects of administrative relations opportunities to identify, overcome and eliminate the problems of management of forests. The paper considers separate case materials that show an active role of the national public prosecutor’s office in supporting law and order in the examined field. Generalized conclusions are drawn based on the results of the study.

  10. Still a difficult business? Negotiating alcohol-related problems in general practice consultations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapley, Tim; May, Carl; Frances Kaner, Eileen

    2006-11-01

    This paper describes general practitioners' (GPs) experiences of detecting and managing alcohol and alcohol-related problems in consultations. We undertook qualitative research in two phases in the North-East of England. Initially, qualitative interviews with 29 GPs explored their everyday work with patients with alcohol-related issues. We then undertook group interviews--two with GPs and one with a primary care team--where they discussed and challenged findings of the interviews. The GPs reported routinely discussing alcohol with patients with a range of alcohol-related problems. GPs believed that this work is important, but felt that until patients were willing to accept that their alcohol consumption was problematic they could achieve very little. They tentatively introduced alcohol as a potential problem, re-introduced the topic periodically, and then waited until the patient decided to change their behaviour. They were aware that they could identify and manage more patients. A lack of time and having to work with the multiple problems that patients brought to consultations were the main factors that stopped GPs managing more risky drinkers. Centrally, we compared the results of our study with [Thom, B., & Tellez, C. (1986). A difficult business-Detecting and managing alcohol-problems in general-practice. British Journal of Addiction, 81, 405-418] seminal study that was undertaken 20 years ago. We show how the intellectual, moral, emotional and practical difficulties that GPs currently face are quite similar to those faced by GPs from 20 years ago. As the definition of what could constitute abnormal alcohol consumption has expanded, so the range of consultations that they may have to negotiate these difficulties in has also expanded.

  11. The initial boundary value problem for free-evolution formulations of general relativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilditch, David; Ruiz, Milton

    2018-01-01

    We consider the initial boundary value problem for free-evolution formulations of general relativity coupled to a parametrized family of coordinate conditions that includes both the moving puncture and harmonic gauges. We concentrate primarily on boundaries that are geometrically determined by the outermost normal observer to spacelike slices of the foliation. We present high-order-derivative boundary conditions for the gauge, constraint violating and gravitational wave degrees of freedom of the formulation. Second order derivative boundary conditions are presented in terms of the conformal variables used in numerical relativity simulations. Using Kreiss–Agranovich–Métivier theory we demonstrate, in the frozen coefficient approximation, that with sufficiently high order derivative boundary conditions the initial boundary value problem can be rendered boundary stable. The precise number of derivatives required depends on the gauge. For a choice of the gauge condition that renders the system strongly hyperbolic of constant multiplicity, well-posedness of the initial boundary value problem follows in this approximation. Taking into account the theory of pseudo-differential operators, it is expected that the nonlinear problem is also well-posed locally in time.

  12. What is the problem? A taxonomy of life problems and their relation to subjective well-being in middle and late adulthood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerhof, G.J.; Thissen, A.J.C.; Dittmann-Kohli, F.; Stevens, N.L.

    2006-01-01

    Research on subjective well-being has focused mainly on positive values and goals. This article studies the structure and content of life problems from a theory of personal meaning as well as the relation of these problems to subjective well-being. Data from the German Aging Survey, a representative

  13. Posttraumatic stress and sleep: differential relations across types of symptoms and sleep problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babson, Kimberly; Feldner, Matthew; Badour, Christal; Trainor, Casey; Blumenthal, Heidemarie; Sachs-Ericsson, Natalie; Schmidt, Norman

    2011-06-01

    Posttraumatic stress symptoms and self-reported sleep problems reliably covary. The current study investigated how posttraumatic stress symptom clusters (i.e., hyperarousal, avoidance, and reexperiencing) relate to trouble initiating and maintaining sleep and nightmares. Participants included traumatic event-exposed respondents from the NCS-R. Results suggested that posttraumatic stress symptom severity is related to trouble initiating and maintaining sleep and nightmares. Investigation of symptom clusters indicated that reexperiencing symptoms were related to trouble initiating and maintaining sleep and nightmares, while hyperarousal symptoms were related to trouble maintaining sleep and nightmares. Findings partially support both reexperiencing and hyperarousal-based models of the relation between sleep and posttraumatic stress. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Subpicosecond pulse propagation in optical fibres with transverse and longitudinal inhomogeneities

    CERN Document Server

    Bisyarin, M A

    2003-01-01

    Short optical pulse propagation is investigated in the light guide characterized with a strong dependence of the fibre material refractive index on the radial coordinate and a weak dependence on the longitudinal coordinate, with a weak spatial bending of the light guide axis being allowed as well. A three-dimensional nonlinear wave equation used in modeling the process is solved asymptotically with respect to a small parameter setting the order of magnitude of the pulse amplitude. A relationship between the propagating modes and the eigenvalues and eigenfunctions of a singular Sturm-Liouville problem is elucidated. The pulse propagation is shown to be three-scale: the high-frequency carrier is modulated with the envelope which evolves in a two-scale manner and is described with a nonlinear Schroedinger equation with coefficients depending on the longitudinal coordinate. For several types of the transverse and longitudinal inhomogeneities, expressions through elementary functions are obtained for the transvers...

  15. Many-circuit canard trajectories and their applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glyzin, S. D.; Kolesov, A. Yu; Rozov, N. Kh

    2017-08-01

    We study the case when two distinct curves of slow motion in a two-dimensional relaxation system with cylindrical phase space intersect each other in a generic way. We establish that the so-called canard trajectories can arise in this situation. They differ from ordinary canard trajectories in the following respect. The passage from the stable curve of slow motion to the unstable one is performed via finitely many asymptotically quick rotations of the phase point around the axis of the cylinder. The results obtained are used in the asymptotic analysis of eigenvalues of a boundary-value problem of Sturm-Liouville type for a singularly perturbed linear Schrödinger equation.

  16. Effects of backreaction on power-Maxwell holographic superconductors in Gauss-Bonnet gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salahi, Hamid Reza; Montakhab, Afshin [Shiraz University, Physics Department and Biruni Observatory, College of Sciences, Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Sheykhi, Ahmad [Shiraz University, Physics Department and Biruni Observatory, College of Sciences, Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Research Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics of Maragha (RIAAM), P.O. Box 55134-441, Maragha (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    We analytically and numerically investigate the properties of s-wave holographic superconductors by considering the effects of scalar and gauge fields on the background geometry in five-dimensional Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet gravity. We assume the gauge field to be in the form of the power-Maxwell nonlinear electrodynamics. We employ the Sturm-Liouville eigenvalue problem for analytical calculation of the critical temperature and the shooting method for the numerical investigation. Our numerical and analytical results indicate that higher curvature corrections affect condensation of the holographic superconductors with backreaction. We observe that the backreaction can decrease the critical temperature of the holographic superconductors, while the power-Maxwell electrodynamics and Gauss-Bonnet coefficient term may increase the critical temperature of the holographic superconductors. We find that the critical exponent has the mean-field value β = 1/2, regardless of the values of Gauss-Bonnet coefficient, backreaction and power-Maxwell parameters. (orig.)

  17. Numerical multistep methods for the efficient solution of quantum mechanics and related problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anastassi, Z.A.; Simos, T.E.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we present the recent development in the numerical integration of the Schroedinger equation and related systems of ordinary differential equations with oscillatory solutions, such as the N-body problem. We examine several types of multistep methods (explicit, implicit, predictor-corrector, hybrid) and several properties (P-stability, trigonometric fitting of various orders, phase fitting, high phase-lag order, algebraic order). We analyze the local truncation error and the stability of the methods. The error for the Schroedinger equation is also presented, which reveals the relation of the error to the energy. The efficiency of the methods is evaluated through the integration of five problems. Figures are presented and analyzed and some general conclusions are made. Code written in Maple is given for the development of all methods analyzed in this paper. Also the subroutines written in Matlab, that concern the integration of the methods, are presented.

  18. Age-related physical and psychological vulnerability as pathways to problem gambling in older adults

    OpenAIRE

    Parke, A; Griffiths, M; Pattinson, J; Keatley, D

    2018-01-01

    Background: To inform clinical treatment and preventative efforts, there is an important need to understand the pathways to late-life gambling disorder. Aims: This study assesses the association between age-related physical health, social networks, and problem gambling in adults aged over 65 years and assesses the mediating role of affective disorders in this association. Methods: The sample comprised 595 older adults (mean age: 74.4 years, range: 65–94 years; 77.1% female) who were interview...

  19. Gambling related family coping and the impact of problem gambling on families in Hong Kong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elda Mei Lo Chan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Despite substantial evidence that problem gambling is associated with a wide range of family difficulties, limited effort has been devoted to studying the negative impacts on family members as a result of problem gambling and how they cope and function under the impacts of problem gambling in Chinese communities. Among the very few Chinese-specific gambling-related family impact studies, none have examined how gambling-related family coping responses are related to gambling-related family impacts. Based on a sample of treatment-seeking Chinese family members of problem gamblers, this study aimed to explore: (1 the demographic characteristics and health and psychological well-being of the family members; (2 the gambling-related family member impacts (active disturbance, worrying behavior; (3 the family coping strategies (engaged, tolerant-inactive and withdrawal coping; (4 the relationship between gambling-related family member impacts, psychological distress and family coping strategies. It was hypothesized that positive significant relationships would be found between family member impacts, psychological distress and family coping strategies. From March 2011 to February 2012, a total of 103 family members of problem gamblers who sought help from Tung Wah Group of Hospitals Even Centre in Hong Kong were interviewed. Results showed that a majority of family members were partners or ex-partners of the gambler with low or no income. A large proportion of participants reported moderate to high psychological distress (72.6 %, poor to fair general health (60.2 %, and poor to neither good nor bad quality of life (61.1 %. Family member impacts were positively significantly correlated to all family coping strategies and psychological distress. Tolerant-inactive coping had the strongest relationships with family member impacts and psychological distress. Strong relationships between family member impacts and psychological distress were also

  20. Gambling related family coping and the impact of problem gambling on families in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Elda Mei Lo; Dowling, Nicki A; Jackson, Alun C; Shek, Daniel Tan-Lei

    Despite substantial evidence that problem gambling is associated with a wide range of family difficulties, limited effort has been devoted to studying the negative impacts on family members as a result of problem gambling and how they cope and function under the impacts of problem gambling in Chinese communities. Among the very few Chinese-specific gambling-related family impact studies, none have examined how gambling-related family coping responses are related to gambling-related family impacts. Based on a sample of treatment-seeking Chinese family members of problem gamblers, this study aimed to explore: (1) the demographic characteristics and health and psychological well-being of the family members; (2) the gambling-related family member impacts (active disturbance, worrying behavior); (3) the family coping strategies (engaged, tolerant-inactive and withdrawal coping); (4) the relationship between gambling-related family member impacts, psychological distress and family coping strategies. It was hypothesized that positive significant relationships would be found between family member impacts, psychological distress and family coping strategies. From March 2011 to February 2012, a total of 103 family members of problem gamblers who sought help from Tung Wah Group of Hospitals Even Centre in Hong Kong were interviewed. Results showed that a majority of family members were partners or ex-partners of the gambler with low or no income. A large proportion of participants reported moderate to high psychological distress (72.6 %), poor to fair general health (60.2 %), and poor to neither good nor bad quality of life (61.1 %). Family member impacts were positively significantly correlated to all family coping strategies and psychological distress. Tolerant-inactive coping had the strongest relationships with family member impacts and psychological distress. Strong relationships between family member impacts and psychological distress were also found. The results

  1. Feeding tube-related complications and problems in patients receiving long-term home enteral nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasileios Alivizatos

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the long-term complications and problems related to gastrostomy and jejunostomy feeding tubes used for home enteral nutrition support and the effect these have on health care use. Materials and Methods: The medical records of 31 patients having gastrostomy (27 patients and jejunostomy (4 feeding tubes inserted in our Department were retrospectively studied. All were discharged on long-term (>3 months enteral nutrition and followed up at regular intervals by a dedicated nurse. Any problem or complication associated with tube feeding as well as the intervention, if any, that occurred, was recorded. Data were collected and analyzed. Results: All the patients were followed up for a mean of 17.5 months (4-78. The most frequent tube-related complications included inadvertent removal of the tube (broken tube, plugged tube; 45.1%, tube leakage (6.4%, dermatitis of the stoma (6.4%, and diarrhea (6.4%. There were 92 unscheduled health care contacts, with an average rate of such 2.9 contacts over the mean follow-up time of 17.5 months. Conclusion: In patients receiving long-term home enteral nutrition, feeding tube-related complications and problems are frequent and result in significant health care use. Further studies are needed to address their optimal prevention modalities and management.

  2. ALAM/CLAM and some applications of computer algebra systems to problems in general relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russell-Clark, R.A.

    1973-01-01

    This paper is divided into three parts. Part A presents a historical survey of the development of the system, a brief description of its features and, finally, a critical assessment. ALAM and CLAM have been used in many problems in General Relativity; the vast majority of these belong to a set of standard calculations termed ''metric applications''. However, four large non-standard applications have been attempted successfully and these are described in Part B. CAMAL is the only other system which has been used extensively for work in relativity. CAMAL has played an important role in two research projects and details of these are given in Part C

  3. Problems Related to Use of Some Terms in System Reliability Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadezda Hanusova

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with problems of using dependability terms, defined in actual standard STN IEC 50 (191: International electrotechnical dictionary, chap. 191: Dependability and quality of service (1993, in a technical systems dependability analysis. The goal of the paper is to find a relation between terms introduced in the mentioned standard and used in the technical systems dependability analysis and rules and practices used in a system analysis of the system theory. Description of a part of the system life cycle related to reliability is used as a starting point. The part of a system life cycle is described by the state diagram and reliability relevant therms are assigned.

  4. Non-powered hand tool improvement research for prevention of work-related problems: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Rahul; Sain, Manoj Kumar; Meena, Makkhan Lal; Dangayach, Govind Sharan; Bhardwaj, Awadhesh Kumar

    2017-03-28

    In lower-middle-income countries, most of the work is performed manually using non-ergonomic hand tools which results in work-related health problems. Using hand tools designed in line with ergonomic principles may play an important role in reducing work-related health concerns significantly. Scientific databases (PubMed, EBSCOhost) and e-publishers were searched for articles from 1985 to 2015 using the following keywords: 'hand tool', 'ergonomics', 'usability' and 'design'. After applying selection criteria to 614 articles, 58 articles related to the physical design of hand tools were selected. Seventeen articles were related to hand tool improvement in the manufacturing sector. Musculoskeletal disorders were found to be the most frequently occurring work-related health problems. Most of the articles focused on product and qualitative variables for improvement in hand tools, while few articles considered human and task variables. Literature shows that hand tool improvement studies have been given less importance in low-income and lower-middle-income countries. However, some work of significance is reported in the agriculture sectors of these countries. Hence, it is concluded that ergonomic intervention in hand tools is much needed for those industries which employ traditional methods of working.

  5. Young adult drinking partnerships: alcohol-related consequences and relationship problems six years later.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiersma, Jacquelyn D; Fischer, Judith L

    2014-07-01

    This study examines the association between young adult drinking partnerships (ages 18-26 years) and later alcohol-related problems and consequences, alcohol use, relationship quality, and relationship dissolution in adult relationships (ages 26-35). Data came from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health; Waves III and IV) with 1,347 young adults and their partners at Wave III, including dating, cohabiting, and married couples, and individual adult behaviors at Wave IV, 6 years later. Drinking partnerships were based on alcohol use frequency, quantity, heavy episodic drinking, and getting drunk. Four clusters included (a) congruent light and infrequent, (b) discrepant male heavy and frequent, (c) discrepant female heavy and frequent, and (d) congruent heavy and frequent drinkers. Young adult discrepant partnerships reported more alcohol-related problems and consequences 6 years later. Young adults in the congruent heavy drinking partnership indicated more separation/divorce and alcohol use as adults. Young adult married men who drank discrepantly and higher compared to their wives reported higher rates of adult drinking and problems than other men. There were a number of negative effects from congruent heavy drinking, especially for women. These findings demonstrated that there are multiple types of young adult drinking partnerships based on couples' alcohol use behaviors. Men may be at risk for serious alcohol-related problems later in adulthood, especially when paired with discrepant drinking partners and congruent heavy drinking partners. Women are at risk when in congruent, heavy and frequent drinking partnerships. Studying romantic relationships and drinking has implications for broad aspects of young adult and adult development.

  6. Drug related problems in type 2 diabetes patients with hypertension: a cross-sectional retrospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaman Huri Hasniza

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Type 2 diabetes (T2DM patients with hypertension are at increased risk for experiencing drug-related problems (DRPs since they often receive multiple medications and have multiple comorbidities. To date, there is a lack of studies conducted in T2DM patients with hypertension. This study aims to analyze the DRPs and identify factors affecting the DRPs in this patient population. Method This retrospective study involved T2DM patients with hypertension and was conducted at a tertiary hospital in Malaysia from January 2009 to December 2011. The assessment of DRPs was based on the Pharmaceutical Network Care Europe (PCNE tool version 5.01. Results Two hundred patients with a total of 387 DRPs were identified. Among these patients, 90.5% had at least one DRP, averaging 1.9 ± 1.2 problems per patient. The most common DRPs encountered were insufficient awareness of health and diseases (26%, drug choice problems (23%, dosing problems (16% and drug interactions (16%. The most implicated drugs were aspirin, clopidogrel, simvastatin, amlodipine and metformin. The six domains of DRPs found to have statistically significant associations were renal impairment, polypharmacy, cardiovascular disease, elderly status, and duration of hospital stay. Conclusions Early identification of the types and patterns of DRPs and the factors associated to them may enhance the prevention and management of DRPs in T2DM patients with hypertension.

  7. Memphis: Finding and Fixing NUMA-related Performance Problems on Multi-core Platforms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCurdy, Collin B [ORNL; Vetter, Jeffrey S [ORNL

    2010-01-01

    Until recently, most high-end scientific applications have been immune to performance problems caused by Non-Uniform Memory Access (NUMA). However, current trends in micro-processor design are pushing NUMA to smaller and smaller scales. This paper examines the current state of NUMA and makes several contributions. First, we summarize the performance problems that NUMA can present for multithreaded applications and describe methods of addressing them. Second, we demonstrate that NUMA can indeed be a significant problem for scientific applications, showing that it can mean the difference between an application scaling perfectly and failing to scale at all. Third, we describe, in increasing order of usefulness, three methods of using hardware performance counters to aid in finding NUMA-related problems. Finally, we introduce Memphis, a data-centric toolset that uses Instruction Based Sampling to help pinpoint problematic memory accesses, and demonstrate how we used it to improve the performance of several production-level codes - HYCOM, XGC1 and CAM - by 13%, 23% and 24% respectively.

  8. Socio-Demographic and Practice-Oriented Factors Related to Proficiency in Problem Solving: A Lifelong Learning Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desjardins, Richard; Ederer, Peer

    2015-01-01

    This article explores the relative importance of different socio-demographic and practice-oriented factors that are related to proficiency in problem solving in technology-rich environments (PSTREs) and by extension may be related to complex problem solving (CPS). The empirical analysis focuses on the proficiency measurements of PSTRE made…

  9. Response inhibition toward alcohol-related cues using an alcohol go/no-go task in problem and non-problem drinkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreusch, Fanny; Vilenne, Aurélie; Quertemont, Etienne

    2013-10-01

    Previous results suggested that alcohol abusers and alcohol dependent patients show cognitive biases in the treatment of alcohol-related cues, especially approach and inhibition deficit biases. Response inhibition was often tested using the go/no-go task in which the participants had to respond as quickly as possible to a class of stimuli (go stimuli) while refraining from responding to another class of stimuli (no-go stimuli). Previous studies assessing specific response inhibition deficits in the process of alcohol-related cues obtained conflicting results. The aims of the present study were to clarify response inhibition for alcohol cues in problem and non-problem drinkers, male and female and to test the effect of alcohol brand logos. Thirty-six non-problem drinker and thirty-five problem drinker undergraduate students completed a modified alcohol go/no-go task using alcohol and neutral object pictures, with or without brand logos, as stimuli. An additional control experiment was carried out to check whether participants' awareness that the study tested their response to alcohol might have biased the results. All participants, whether problem or non-problem drinkers, showed significantly shorter mean reaction times when alcohol pictures are used as go stimuli and significantly higher percentages of commission errors (false alarms) when alcohol pictures are used as no-go stimuli. Identical effects were obtained in the control experiment when participants were unaware that the study focused on alcohol. Shorter reaction times to alcohol-related cues were observed in problem drinkers relative to non-problem drinkers but only in the experimental condition with no brand logos on alcohol pictures. The addition of alcohol brand logos further reduced reaction times in light drinkers, thereby masking group differences. There was a tendency for female problem drinkers to show higher rates of false alarms for alcohol no-go stimuli, although this effect was only very close

  10. Relations between parent psychopathology, family functioning, and adolescent problems in substance-abusing families: disaggregating the effects of parent gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burstein, Marcy; Stanger, Catherine; Dumenci, Levent

    2012-08-01

    The present study: (1) examined relations between parent psychopathology and adolescent internalizing problems, externalizing problems, and substance use in substance-abusing families; and (2) tested family functioning problems as mediators of these relations. Structural equation modeling was used to estimate the independent effects of parent psychopathology and family functioning problems by parent gender. Participants included 242 parents in treatment for substance abuse and/or dependence and 59 of their coparents (16.9% in treatment for substance-abuse/dependence) from middle income households (SES: M = 4.7; SD = 2.1). Ratings were obtained for 325 adolescents (48% female; 27.8% non-Caucasian) between the ages of 10 and 18 years (M = 13.5 years; SD = 2.5 years). Parent psychopathology, family functioning problems, and adolescent problems were assessed with parent and coparent ratings on the Symptom Checklist (SCL-90)/Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI), the Family Relationship Measure, and the Child Behavior Checklist, respectively. Results indicated that maternal psychopathology was directly related to adolescent internalizing problems and substance use, but maternal perceptions of family functioning problems failed to mediate relations between maternal psychopathology and adolescent problems. By contrast, paternal perceptions of family functioning problems uniquely mediated relations between paternal psychopathology and adolescent externalizing problems. Findings underscore the importance of examining how mothers and fathers may differentially impact adolescent problems in substance-abusing families.

  11. Drug-related problems among community-dwelling older adults in mainland China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jiadan; Meng, Long; Liu, Yu; Lv, Liping; Sun, Shusen; Long, Rui; Shan, Xuefeng; Song, Jie; Qiu, Feng

    2018-04-01

    Background Little is known about the extent of drug-related problems (DRPs) in community-dwelling older adult patients with chronic diseases in mainland China. Setting A medication therapy review service at a community health center in Chongqing, China. Objective To identify and categorize DRPs along with pharmacists' recommendations in addressing the DRPs identified. Method The study was conducted between May 2015 and July 2016. A total of 102 community-dwelling older adults were included. MTR was carried out by clinical pharmacists. DRPs and pharmacotherapy recommendations were recorded and analyzed. Main outcome measure The number of drug-related problems and main problem categories. Results The average age of patients was 69.4 years. Patients took an average of 6.3 medications. A total of 489 DRPs were identified (mean of 4.8 per patient). The most common category was under-treated (27.8%) followed by over- or under-dose (18.8%) and monitoring (17.8%). The number of medications taken was the significant associated factor for DRPs. Pharmacists made 526 recommendations to address the DRPs (mean of 1.1 recommendations per DRP). Primary care providers accepted 68.1% of these recommendations, and implemented 60.9% of them. Conclusion The prevalence of DRPs among studied patient population was high. Pharmacists may play a vital role in addressing the DRPs and optimize pharmacotherapy through MTR service located in community health centers.

  12. Environmental correlates of underage alcohol use and related problems of college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wechsler, H; Kuo, M; Lee, H; Dowdall, G W

    2000-07-01

    Underage alcohol use is a major contributor to morbidity and mortality in adolescents and young adults. This study examined drinking levels and ensuing problems among college students and factors associated with binge drinking. The Harvard School of Public Health College Alcohol Study conducted a self-administered survey. The participants include a random sample of 7061 students aged colleges in 39 states. The outcomes of the study include self-reports of alcohol use, binge drinking (defined as five or more drinks in a row for men and four or more for women at least once in a 2-week period), alcohol-related problems, preferred type of drink, access to alcohol, and price paid per drink. Underage students drink less often but have more drinks per occasion, are more likely to drink in private settings (off-campus, dormitory, and fraternity parties), and pay less per drink than do of-age students. Correlates of underage binge drinking include residence in a fraternity or sorority (odds ratio [OR]=6.2), very easy access to alcohol (OR=3.3), obtaining drinks at lower prices (OR=2.1, for under $1 each or a set fee for unlimited drinks), and drinking beer (OR=9.5). Effective controls on price, access, and fraternity and off-campus parties, and reinforcing minimum drinking age laws are needed to reduce the high levels of binge drinking and related health and behavioral problems of underage students.

  13. What do patients and relatives know about problems and failures in care?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iedema, Rick; Allen, Suellen; Britton, Katherine; Gallagher, Thomas H

    2012-03-01

    To understand what patients and family members know about problems and failures in healthcare. Qualitative, semistructured open-ended interviews were conducted with 39 patients and 80 family members about their experiences of incidents in tertiary healthcare. Nineteen interviews involved more than one respondent, yielding 100 interviews in total. Participants were recruited through advertisements in the national broadsheet and tabloid print media (43%), with the help of the health services where the incidents occurred (28%), through invitations sent out by two internet marketing companies (27%) and by consumer organisations (2%). Interviews were conducted in the homes of the respondents or over the phone. One participant emailed her responses to the questionnaire. Analysis of the interview data revealed: (1) considerable knowledge on the part of patients and relatives about health service risks, problems and incidents; (2) the insight of interviewees into care improvement opportunities; and (3) challenges faced by patients and relatives when trying to negotiate their knowledge and insights with health service staff. Patients (and family members) need access to structured processes ensuring dialogue with health service personnel about perceived risks, problems and incidents. Such dialogue would reveal patients' and family members' questions and knowledge about improvement opportunities, and minimise the risk that their questions and knowledge are ignored.

  14. How Do Sleep-Related Health Problems Affect Functional Status According to Sex?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boccabella, Allegra; Malouf, John

    2017-05-15

    To measure differences in functional status between men and women presenting with sleep-related health problems. A retrospective clinical audit of 744 Australian patients across 7 private general practices between April 2013 and January 2015 was conducted. Patients completed an electronic survey as part of their routine consultation, which included the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS), the Functional Outcomes of Sleep Questionnaire 10 (FOSQ-10), and other questions relating to the effect of their sleep problem. The proportion of males and females with ESS and FOSQ-10 scores associated with disorders of daytime sleepiness and burden of symptoms due to sleepiness, respectively, were compared, as well as reported differences between the sexes in memory, concentration, issues with relationships, feeling depressed, and trouble sleeping. On presentation, females were more likely to have sleeping disorders associated with daytime sleepiness (median ESS score of 9 for females versus 8 for males, P = .038; proportion ESS > 9 was 49.0% for females versus 36.9% for males, P = .003). Women were also more likely to report an increased burden of symptoms due to sleepiness compared to men, as shown by lower FOSQ-10 scores ( P memory and concentration, and have trouble sleeping at night. Snoring kept partners awake in roughly the same proportion of males and females, and a larger proportion of the partners of males were forced out of the room. Sleep-related health issues both manifest in and affect the lives of males and females differently. Sleep health professionals should recognize these differences on all levels of disease prevention and health promotion from patient education, to diagnosis and management to improve quality of life for those with sleep-related health problems. © 2017 American Academy of Sleep Medicine

  15. Consumers' willingness to pay for pharmacy services that reduce risk of medication-related problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suh, D C

    2000-01-01

    To measure willingness to pay (WTP) for pharmacists' services directed toward reducing the risk of medication-related problems and to determine factors that have a significant influence on WTP. WTP was measured using a contingent valuation method that involved asking respondents about their maximum WTP for pharmacists' services using a self-administered questionnaire. Respondents' WTP through ex post (out of pocket) and ex ante (insurance premium) methods were measured using three hypothetical scenarios illustrating reductions in the risk of medication-related problems. Logistic regression and semilog regression were performed to evaluate the responses to the survey. Outpatient clinic of Robert Wood Johnson University Hospital and two physician offices located in New Jersey. A convenience sample of 316 patients and/or family members, who visited the study site between March 1 and September 15, 1999, were included. Amounts patients were willing to pay out of pocket or through insurance premiums for pharmacists' services. The mean WTP out of pocket for pharmacy services ranged from $4.02 to $5.48 per prescription, depending on the level of risk reduction. Mean WTP through an increased insurance premium ranged from $28.79 to $36.29 per year. Overall, the average WTP for a pharmacist's consultation was $5.57, and WTP increased by $0.87 as counseling time increased by 1 minute. WTP was sensitive to changes in the magnitude of risk reduction in both ex post and ex ante scenarios. Income was positively related to WTP, but not to the level of statistical significance. Respondents were willing to pay for pharmacists' services that reduce the risk of medication-related problems. Additional investigations to determine the factors that influence WTP for health care professionals' services are warranted.

  16. Upgrade of RMS computers for Y2K problems in RX and related building of HANARO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jung Taek; Kim, J. T.; Ham, C. S.; Kim, C. H.; Lee, Bong Jae; Jae, Yoo Kyung

    2000-08-01

    The Objectives of this Project are as follows : - To resolve the problems of Y2k and operation and maintenance of RMS Computers in RX and related Building of HANARO - To upgrade 486 PC to Pentium II PC - To make Windows NT-Based platform for aspects of user - To make an information structure for radiation using ireless and network devices The Contents of the Project are as follows : - To make Windows NT-Based platform for Radiation Monitoring System - To make Software Platform and Environment for the developing the application program - To design and implement Database Structure - To implement RS232c communication program between local indicators and scanning computers - To implement IEEE 802.3 ethernet communication program between scanning computers and RMTs - To implement user interface for radiation monitoring - To test and inspect Y2k problems

  17. Mercury exposure of workers and health problems related with small-scale gold panning and extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, S.; Shah, M.T.; Din, I.U.; Rehman, S.

    2012-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate mercury (Hg) exposure and health problems related to small-scale gold panning and extraction (GPE) in the northern Pakistan. Urine and blood samples of occupational and non-occupational persons were analyzed for total Hg, while blood's fractions including red blood cells and plasma were analyzed for total Hg and its inorganic and organic species. The concentrations of Hg in urine and blood samples were significantly (P<0.01) higher in occupational persons as compared to non-occupational and exceeded the permissible limits set by World Health Organization (WHO) and United State Environmental Protection Agency (US-EPA). Furthermore, the data indicated that numerous health problems were present in occupational persons involved in GPE. (author)

  18. Does Helping Keep Teens Protected? Longitudinal Bidirectional Relations Between Prosocial Behavior and Problem Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla-Walker, Laura M; Carlo, Gustavo; Nielson, Matthew G

    2015-01-01

    The current study examined bidirectional, longitudinal links between prosocial and problem behavior. Participants (N = 500) were recruited from a Northwestern city in the United States and assessed for 3 consecutive years from 2009 to 2011 (M(age) of youth at Time 1 = 13.32, SD = 1.05; 52% girls; 67% European American, 33% single-parent families). Results suggested that effects of earlier prosocial behavior toward family and strangers were predictive of fewer problem behaviors 2 years later, while results for prosocial behavior toward friends were more mixed. Results also suggested depression predicted lower prosocial behavior toward family members and anxiety predicted higher prosocial behavior toward friends. Findings show a complex pattern of relations that demonstrate the need to consider targets of helping. © 2015 The Authors. Child Development © 2015 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  19. Classification of Traffic Related Short Texts to Analyse Road Problems in Urban Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saldana-Perez, A. M. M.; Moreno-Ibarra, M.; Tores-Ruiz, M.

    2017-09-01

    The Volunteer Geographic Information (VGI) can be used to understand the urban dynamics. In the classification of traffic related short texts to analyze road problems in urban areas, a VGI data analysis is done over a social media's publications, in order to classify traffic events at big cities that modify the movement of vehicles and people through the roads, such as car accidents, traffic and closures. The classification of traffic events described in short texts is done by applying a supervised machine learning algorithm. In the approach users are considered as sensors which describe their surroundings and provide their geographic position at the social network. The posts are treated by a text mining process and classified into five groups. Finally, the classified events are grouped in a data corpus and geo-visualized in the study area, to detect the places with more vehicular problems.

  20. The use of genetic algorithms with niching methods in nuclear reactor related problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sacco, Wagner Figueiredo

    2000-03-01

    Genetic Algorithms (GAs) are biologically motivated adaptive systems which have been used, with good results, in function optimization. However, traditional GAs rapidly push an artificial population toward convergence. That is, all individuals in the population soon become nearly identical. Niching Methods allow genetic algorithms to maintain a population of diverse individuals. GAs that incorporate these methods are capable of locating multiple, optimal solutions within a single population. The purpose of this study is to test existing niching techniques and two methods introduced herein, bearing in mind their eventual application in nuclear reactor related problems, specially the nuclear reactor core reload one, which has multiple solutions. Tests are performed using widely known test functions and their results show that the new methods are quite promising, specially in real world problems like the nuclear reactor core reload. (author)

  1. An investigation into drug-related problems identifiable by commercial medication review software

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin Curtain

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundAccredited pharmacists conduct home medicines reviews (HMRs to detect and resolve potential drug-related problems (DRPs. A commercial expert system, Medscope Review Mentor (MRM, has been developed to assist pharmacists in the detection and resolution of potential DRPs.AimsThis study compares types of DRPs identified with the commercial system which uses multiple classification ripple down rules (MCRDR with the findings of pharmacists.Method HMR data from 570 reviews collected from accredited pharmacists was entered into MRM and the DRPs were identified. A list of themes describing the main concept of each DRP identified by MRM was developed to allow comparison with pharmacists. Theme types, frequencies, similarity and dissimilarity were explored.ResultsThe expert system was capable of detecting a wide range of potential DRPs: 2854 themes; compared to pharmacists: 1680 themes. The system identified the same problems as pharmacists in many patient cases. Ninety of 119 types of themes identifiable by pharmacists were also identifiable by software. MRM could identify the same problems in the same patients as pharmacists for 389 problems, resulting in a low overlap of similarity with an averaged Jaccard Index of 0.09. ConclusionMRM found significantly more potential DRPs than pharmacists. MRM identified a wide scope of DRPs approaching the range of DRPs that were identified by pharmacists. Differences may be associated with system consistency and perhaps human oversight or human selective prioritisation. DRPs identified by the system were still considered relevant even though the system identified a larger number of problems.

  2. How are effective breastfeeding technique and pacifier use related to breastfeeding problems and breastfeeding duration?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kronborg, Hanne; Vaeth, Michael

    2009-03-01

    Inconsistent findings leave uncertainty about the impact of pacifier use on effective breastfeeding technique. The purpose of this study was to investigate how breastfeeding technique and pacifier use were related to breastfeeding problems and duration of breastfeeding. Data were collected from the intervention group of a randomized trial in which health visitors followed up with mothers for 6 months after childbirth. The health visitors classified the breastfeeding technique at approximately 1 week after birth and repeated the observation if a correction was necessary. Effective technique included positioning, latch, sucking, and milk transfer. Data on breastfeeding problems and pacifier use were obtained from self-reported questionnaires. The study population included 570 mother-baby pairs with complete information on breastfeeding technique and pacifier use. The primary outcome was duration of exclusive breastfeeding. One-half of the mothers showed ineffective breastfeeding technique at the first\\ observation, most frequently ineffective position (61%) and latch (52%). In the unadjusted analysis, only sucking and milk transfer were associated with breastfeeding duration. In the adjusted analysis, ineffective technique was significantly associated with mothers reporting early breastfeeding problems, which thereby influenced the breastfeeding duration. Pacifier use had an independent negative impact on duration of breastfeeding. A single correction of the breastfeeding technique was not associated with duration or occurrence of problems. Observation of breastfeeding technique may help mothers in the stage of when they are establishing breastfeeding to avoid early and later problems, but breastfeeding technique is less useful in predicting breastfeeding duration. Use of a pacifier should be avoided in the first weeks after birth.

  3. Utilization of health services in relation to mental health problems in adolescents: A population based survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rödje Kjetil

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Only a minority of adolescents reporting symptoms above case-levels on screenings for mental health seeks and receives help from specialist health services. The objective of this study was to a examine help-seeking for symptoms of anxiety and depression in relation to symptom load dimensionally, b identify the level of specialization in mental health among service-providers, and c identify associations between mental health problems and contact with different types of health services. Methods This cross-sectional school-based study (response-rate 88%, n = 11154 is based on Norwegian health surveys among 15 and 16 year olds. Results We found a dose-response association between symptom-load and help seeking. Only 34% of individuals with mental symptom-load above 99th percentile reported help-seeking in the last 12 months. Forty percent of help seekers were in contact with specialists (psychiatrists or psychologists, the remaining were mainly in contact with GPs. Mental health problems increased help seeking to all twelve service providers examined. Conclusion It might not be reasonable to argue that all adolescents with case-level mental health problems are in need of treatment. However, concerning the 99th percentile, claiming treatment need is less controversial. Even in the Norwegian context where mental health services are relatively available and free of charge, help-seeking in individuals with the highest symptom-loads is still low. Most help seekers achieved contact with health care providers, half of them at a non specialized level. Our results suggest that adolescents' recognition of mental health problems or intention to seek help for these are the major "filters" restricting treatment.

  4. French adolescent attitudes towards informal care for physical and emotional or relational problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pommier, J; Billot, L; Mouchtouris, A; Deschamps, J P; Romero, M I; Zubarew, T

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine adolescents' attitudes concerning the use of self-care and traditional medicines. A self-administered anonymous questionnaire with open-ended questions was completed by 543 adolescents aged 15-19 y. The results showed that the most frequent self-care activity for general health problems, in more than three-quarters of them, was self-medication; 14% of them resorted to minor home treatment such as taking care of wounds, bandaging or massages. Instructions for use were mentioned by 69% of adolescents as a way of choosing self-prescribed drugs. Natural medicines were used by 32% of the girls and 23% of the boys, mainly herbal teas or plant-based medicines, followed by homoeopathy. Self-care for emotional and relational problems mainly involved thinking about the problem and questioning themselves about their own behaviour or about the way they are. They also mentioned activities such as sports, going out, listening to music, watching television, and trying to think about something else by keeping themselves occupied. Natural medicines were used by 19% of the girls and 13% of the boys. Plant-based medicines or herbal teas were used most often, followed by drugs or alcohol, with homoeopathy in third place. Self-care and alternative medicines were used by adolescents in this study for physical as well as for emotional or relational problems. Their use did not reflect dissatisfaction with physicians and hospital treatment or an objection to formal services, but rather was a choice of these approaches for their own specific characteristics. They were also viewed as being less harmful than conventional treatment.

  5. Intellectual disability among Dutch homeless people: prevalence and related psychosocial problems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Van Straaten

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: There is a higher prevalence of intellectual disability (ID among homeless people than in the general population. However, little is known about the additional psychosocial problems faced by homeless people with ID. We describe the prevalence of ID in a cohort of homeless people in the Netherlands, and report relationships between ID and psychosocial problems in terms of psychological distress, substance (misuse and dependence, as well as demographic characteristics in this cohort. METHODS: This cross-sectional study is part of a cohort study among homeless people in the four major cities of the Netherlands. Data were derived from 387 homeless people who were interviewed and screened for ID six months after the baseline measurement. Multivariate logistic regression analyses and χ2 tests were performed to analyze relationships between ID, psychosocial problems and demographic characteristics. FINDINGS: Of all cohort members, 29.5% had a suspected ID. Participants with a suspected ID had a higher mean age, were more likely to be male and to fall in the lowest category of education than participants without a suspected ID. Having a suspected ID was related to general psychological distress (OR  = 1.56, p<0.05, somatization (OR  = 1.84, p<0.01, depression (OR  = 1.58, p<0.05 and substance dependence (OR  = 1.88, p<0.05. No relationships were found between a suspected ID and anxiety, regular substance use, substance misuse and primary substance of use. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of ID among Dutch homeless people is higher than in the general population, and is related to more psychosocial problems than among homeless people without ID. Homeless people with a suspected ID appear to be a vulnerable subgroup within the homeless population. This endorses the importance of the extra attention required for this subgroup.

  6. Stressor-related drinking and future alcohol problems among university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Michael A; Almeida, David M; Maggs, Jennifer L

    2017-09-01

    Research using daily designs has shown that daily stressors (i.e., conflict, school/work demands) are associated with alcohol use, and that the strength of within-person links between stressors and alcohol use differs from person to person. However, to our knowledge no research has tested whether individual differences in stressor-related drinking-characterized by within-person associations between daily stressors and drinking-predict risk for future alcohol problems, a relationship suggested by theoretical models. The current study used an Internet-based daily diary design among 744 university students to (a) examine the day-level relationship between stressors and alcohol use during the first 3 years of college, and (b) test whether individual differences in the stressor-drinking relationship, captured by person-specific slopes generated from multilevel models, predicted alcohol problems as measured by the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) in the fourth year of college. Results showed that students were more likely to drink on days with many versus fewer stressors, and on drinking days, students consumed more drinks with each additional stressor they experienced. Next, using individual multilevel modeling slopes as predictors, we found that students whose odds of drinking alcohol increased more sharply on high- versus low-stressor days (steeper slopes) had more severe AUDIT alcohol problems in the fourth year than students whose drinking odds increased less sharply (flatter slopes). Findings highlight the role of daily stressors in college student drinking and suggest stressor-related drinking as a risk factor for future alcohol problems. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. Roles of Communication Problems and Communication Strategies on Resident-Related Role Demand and Role Satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savundranayagam, Marie Y; Lee, Christopher

    2017-03-01

    This study investigated the impact of dementia-related communication difficulties and communication strategies used by staff on resident-related indicators of role demand and role satisfaction. Formal/paid long-term care staff caregivers (N = 109) of residents with dementia completed questionnaires on dementia-related communication difficulties, communication strategies, role demand (ie, residents make unreasonable demands), and role satisfaction (measured by relationship closeness and influence over residents). Three types of communication strategies were included: (a) effective repair strategies, (b) completing actions by oneself, and (c) tuning out or ignoring the resident. Analyses using structural equation modeling revealed that communication problems were positively linked with role demand. Repair strategies were positively linked with relationship closeness and influence over residents. Completing actions by oneself was positively linked to role demand and influence over residents, whereas tuning out was negatively linked with influence over residents. The findings underscore that effective caregiver communication skills are essential in enhancing staff-resident relationships.

  8. Relative deprivation in the Nordic countries-child mental health problems in relation to parental financial stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunnarsdóttir, Hrafnhildur; Hensing, Gunnel; Povlsen, Lene; Petzold, Max

    2016-04-01

    The Nordic welfare system has been acknowledged as favourable for children, successfully contributing to low child mortality and poverty rates. Nevertheless, mental health problems among children and adolescents are common and the economic situation of the family has been highlighted as an important determinant. In spite of similar social, political and cultural structures, the Nordic countries differ; Iceland was most affected by the global financial crisis in 2008. The aim of this study was to examine potential differences in parental financial stress and the associations to child mental health between the Nordic countries as well as age and gender differences.  The study sample consisted of 6330 children aged 4-16 years old included in the 2011 version of the Nordic Study of Children's Health, Wellbeing and Quality of life. The Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire was used to measure mental health problems.  In Iceland, 47.7% of the parents reported financial stress while ≤20% did so in the other countries except for Finland (33.5%). However, in case of parental financial stress the OR of mental health problems comparing children to parents with and without financial stress was significantly lower among the Icelandic children (OR 1.60, 95% CI 1.15-2.24) than among the others: Denmark OR 3.07 (95% CI 2.15-4.39), Finland OR 2.28 (95% CI 1.60-3.25), Norway OR 2.77 (95% CI 1.86-4.12), Sweden OR 3.31(95% CI 2.26-4.86). No significant age or gender differences in the ORs were observed.  Besides socioeconomic situation, relative deprivation should be considered an important determinant of child mental health. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  9. Positive alcohol expectancies mediate associations between ADHD behaviors and alcohol-related problems among college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmore, Alexis; Nikolas, Molly; Canu, Will

    2018-03-01

    An increasing percentage of college students report being affected by ADHD behaviors, and this population is at increased risk of experiencing negative consequences associated with alcohol consumption. However, specific factors motivating alcohol consumption and contributing to negative outcomes among these individuals are not well understood. Recent work suggests alcohol expectancies may interact with ADHD behaviors to influence negative drinking-related outcomes among those with elevated inattention and/or hyperactivity-impulsivity. Seven-hundred-forty emerging adults (M age = 19.13 [SD = 2.25] years; 72.1% female; 85.8% Caucasian) enrolled in two public universities in the Southeast and Midwest USA completed the Brief Comprehensive Effects of Alcohol Survey (B-CEOA) and provided self-reports of ADHD symptoms and drinking-related outcomes. Multiple mediation analyses were conducted to evaluate effects of ADHD behaviors (i.e., hyperactivity-impulsivity, and inattention) and related impairment in major life domains (e.g., social interactions, occupational and educational activities, fulfillment of daily responsibilities) on drinking-related outcomes via positive and negative alcohol expectancies, controlling for sex, age, co-occurring oppositional behaviors, and data collection site. Inattention, hyperactivity-impulsivity, and impairment directly predicted both personal and social problems consequent to alcohol use. Effects of ADHD behaviors and impairment on drinking-related personal and social problems were partially mediated by positive expectancies. Findings are consistent with and extend prior work supporting a role of positive alcohol expectancies in alcohol-related negative outcomes among college students experiencing mild to moderate symptoms of ADHD.

  10. Extent of Playing-Related Musculoskeletal Problems in the Irish Traditional Music Community: A Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Mark; Wilson, Iseult M; Doherty, Liz; Magee, Justin

    2018-03-01

    The literature related to playing-related musculoskeletal disorders (PRMDs) primarily includes classical musicians and instrument-specific studies. Previous work by our team identified that PRMDs are an issue for Irish traditional fiddle players; however, the extent of the problem was not known. To identify the type and extent of PRMDs in the Irish traditional music population, specifically fiddle players. A questionnaire was developed and administered to faculty and students related to all Irish traditional music courses in all higher education institutions in Ireland. Seven institutions were included. The response rate was 77.5% (n=79 of 102 possible respondents). A fifth of respondents never had a PRMD, 36.7% (n=29) currently had a PRMD, and 34.2% (n=27) had a previous experience of a PRMD. The main symptoms were pain (62%, n=49), stiffness (41.8%, n=33), and tingling (35.4%, n=28). There was a positive association between the development of PRMDs and increased hours of play (p=0.017). PRMDs are a problem for Irish traditional fiddle players, especially during times of intense playing such as festivals.

  11. How economic crises affect alcohol consumption and alcohol-related health problems: a realist systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Goeij, Moniek C M; Suhrcke, Marc; Toffolutti, Veronica; van de Mheen, Dike; Schoenmakers, Tim M; Kunst, Anton E

    2015-04-01

    Economic crises are complex events that affect behavioral patterns (including alcohol consumption) via opposing mechanisms. With this realist systematic review, we aimed to investigate evidence from studies of previous or ongoing crises on which mechanisms (How?) play a role among which individuals (Whom?). Such evidence would help understand and predict the potential impact of economic crises on alcohol consumption. Medical, psychological, social, and economic databases were used to search for peer-reviewed qualitative or quantitative empirical evidence (published January 1, 1990-May 1, 2014) linking economic crises or stressors with alcohol consumption and alcohol-related health problems. We included 35 papers, based on defined selection criteria. From these papers, we extracted evidence on mechanism(s), determinant, outcome, country-level context, and individual context. We found 16 studies that reported evidence completely covering two behavioral mechanisms by which economic crises can influence alcohol consumption and alcohol-related health problems. The first mechanism suggests that psychological distress triggered by unemployment and income reductions can increase drinking problems. The second mechanism suggests that due to tighter budget constraints, less money is spent on alcoholic beverages. Across many countries, the psychological distress mechanism was observed mainly in men. The tighter budget constraints mechanism seems to play a role in all population subgroups across all countries. For the other three mechanisms (i.e., deterioration in the social situation, fear of losing one's job, and increased non-working time), empirical evidence was scarce or absent, or had small to moderate coverage. This was also the case for important influential contextual factors described in our initial theoretical framework. This realist systematic review suggests that among men (but not among women), the net impact of economic crises will be an increase in harmful

  12. Selected problems relating to the dynamics of block-type foundations for machines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Zombroń

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Atypical but real practical problems relating to the dynamics of block-type foundations for machines are considered using the deterministic approach and assuming that the determined parameters are random variables. A foundation model in the form of an undeformable solid on which another undeformable solid modelling a machine is mounted via viscoelastic constraints was adopted. The dynamic load was defined by a harmonically varying signal and by a series of short duration signals. The vibration of the system was investigated for the case when stratified ground (groundwater occurred within the side backfill was present. Calculation results illustrating the theoretical analyses are presented.

  13. Suicide Ideation, Alcohol Consumption, Motives, and Related Problems: Exploring the Association in College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauthier, Jami M; Witte, Tracy K; Correia, Christopher J

    2017-04-01

    Previous findings on the relationship between suicide ideation (SI) and alcohol misuse among college students are inconsistent, leading to conflicting clinical implications. We aimed to clarify this relationship in order to determine the utility of regarding alcohol misuse as a risk factor for SI in this population. Unselected college students (N = 545) completed an online survey including measures of alcohol consumption, problems, drinking motives, SI, and related variables. Our results suggest alcohol misuse is not a correlate of SI among college students; therefore, one should not assume that students who misuse alcohol are necessarily at increased risk for SI. © 2016 The American Association of Suicidology.

  14. KARAKTERISTIK DAN ANALISIS DRUG RELATED PROBLEMS (DRPs PASIEN PENDERITA TUBERKULOSIS DI PUSKESMAS TEMINDUNG SAMARINDA KALIMANTAN TIMUR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurul Fauziah

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A study concerning the characteristics and Analysis of Drug Related Problems (DRPs Patients with Tuberculosis Patients in Public Health Center (PHC Temindung, Samarinda in East Kalimantan. The study was conducted using a prospective approach to the study of data sources in the form of primary data and secondary data. The primary data source is data from interviews with patients and through the provision of questionnaires and secondary data in this research is a Tuberculosis patient medical record data. Data collection was performed by analyzing the accuracy of the DRPs categories of accuracy of drugs, side effects and patient non-compliance. As well as the data recorded in the form of research support patient characteristics are age, sex, and education. Data were analyzed descriptively. Data obtained from patients with male gender 63.6% and women 36.4. Patient with age 50 years 27.3% . Based on the patient's level of education, no school 9.1%, graduated from elementary school22.7%, graduated from high school18.2%, graduated from high school40.1%, scholar 9.1%. Incidence of DRPs on drugs interactions 507%. Tuberculosis patient compliance rate of 81.8% in PHC Temindung adherent patients and 18.2% of patients do not comply Keywords: Tuberculosis, Drug Related Problems (DRPs drugs interactions and patient compliance   ABSTRAK Telah  dilakukan penelitian tentang Karakteristik dan Analisis Drug Related Problems(DRPs Pasien Penderita Tuberkulosis di Puskesmas Temindung, Samarinda Kalimantan Timur. Penelitian ini dilakukan dengan menggunakan pendekatan prospektif dengan sumber data penelitian berupa data primer dan data sekunder. Sumber data primer  adalah data hasil wawancara dengan pasien dan melalui pemberian kuisioner sedangkan data sekunder dalam penelitian ini adalah data rekam medik pasien Tuberkulosis. Pengumpulan data dilakukan dengan menganalisis DRPs kategori interaksi obat dan ketidakpatuhan pasien. Serta dicatat data pendukung penelitian

  15. The Promises, Problems, and Potentials of a Bourdieu-Inspired Staging of International Relations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leander, Anna

    2011-01-01

    The promise of Bourdieu-inspired analysts to provide a “different reading” of the international is receiving increasing attention in the academic discipline of international relations (IR). This attention also generates awareness and of problems inherent in the Bourdieuian approach and a desire...... to develop it further (or abandon it). These discussions have often focused on the difficulties that arise for IR as a consequence of the structuralism of Bourdieu’s approach, and as such they dovetail with the discussions between Bourdieu’s “critical sociology” and the “pragmatic school” in the French...

  16. Throat related symptoms and voice: development of an instrument for self assessment of throat-problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eriksson Jacqueline

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Symptoms from throat (sensation of globus; frequent throat clearing; irritated throat are common in patients referred to voice clinics and to ENT specialists. The relation to symptoms of voice discomfort is unclear and in some cases patients do not have voice problems at all. Instruments for patients' self-reporting of symptoms, and assessment of handicap, such as the Voice Handicap Index (VHI, are in common use in voice clinics. Symptoms from throat are however only marginally covered. Purpose: To develop and evaluate an instrument that could make the patients' estimation of symptoms from the throat possible. Further to facilitate the consideration of the relation between throat- and voice problems with the Throat subscale together with a Swedish translation of the Voice Handicap Index. Finally to try the VHI with the Throat subscale: the VHI-T, for test-retest reliability and validity. Methods A subscale with 10 throat related items was developed for appliance with the VHI. The VHI was translated to Swedish and retranslated to English. The questionnaire was tried in two phases on a total of 23+144 patients and 12+58 voice healthy controls. The reliability was calculated with Cronbach's alpha, ICC and Pearson's correlation coefficient. The validity was estimated by independent T-test. Results The difference in VHI-T scores between the patients and the voice-healthy controls was significant (p = r = 0,90 and that for the Throat subscale separately a value of r = 0,87 which shows a high degree of reliability. Conclusions For the estimation of self-perceived throat and voice problems the scale on throat related problems together with the present Swedish translation of the Voice Handicap Index, (VHI the VHI-Throat, proves to be a valid and reliable instrument. The throat subscale seems to help revealing a category of symptoms that are common in our patients. These are symptoms that have not earlier been possible to cover with

  17. Overview of the 1995 NATO ARW on nuclear submarine decommissioning and related problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LeSage, L.G.

    1997-01-01

    The NATO Advanced Research Workshop on Nuclear Submarine Decommissioning and Related Problems was held in Moscow June 19--22, 1995. It was preceded by a visit to the Zvezdotchka Shipyard at Severodvinsk, a repair and maintenance yard for Russian nuclear submarines, for a subgroup of the workshop attendees. Most of the material in this paper is drawn directly form the workshop proceedings. Slightly less than 500 nuclear ships and submarines (the vast majority are submarines) have been constructed by the countries with nuclear navies. This includes approximately 250 by Russia, 195 by the United States, 23 by the United Kingdom, 11 by France and 6 by China. By the year 2000 it is expected that approximately one-half of these nuclear vessels will be removed from service and in various states of decommissioning. A newspaper account in June 1997 indicated that 156 Russian nuclear submarines had been removed from service. In August 1996 it was reported that 55 reactor compartment sections from US nuclear submarines were already in long-term storage at Hanford. Overall the dismantlement of nuclear submarines and the processing, storage and disposal of nuclear fuel, activated components and section of the hulls, and the liquid and solid radioactive and hazardous wastes is an enormous problem. This problem has been exacerbated by the accelerated decommissioning schedule associated with treaty obligations

  18. Family Chaos and Child Functioning in Relation to Sleep Problems Among Children at Risk for Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boles, Richard E; Halbower, Ann C; Daniels, Stephen; Gunnarsdottir, Thrudur; Whitesell, Nancy; Johnson, Susan L

    2017-01-01

    This study evaluated the influence of child and family functioning on child sleep behaviors in low-income minority families who are at risk for obesity. A cross-sectional study was utilized to measure child and family functioning from 2013 to 2014. Participants were recruited from Head Start classrooms while data were collected during home visits. A convenience sample of 72 low-income Hispanic (65%) and African American (32%) families of preschool-aged children were recruited for this study. We assessed the association of child and family functioning with child sleep behaviors using a multivariate multiple linear regression model. Bootstrap mediation analyses examined the effects of family chaos between child functioning and child sleep problems. Poorer child emotional and behavioral functioning related to total sleep behavior problems. Chaos associated with bedtime resistance significantly mediated the relationship between Behavioral and Emotional Screening System (BESS) and Bedtime Resistance. Families at high risk for obesity showed children with poorer emotional and behavioral functioning were at higher risk for problematic sleep behaviors, although we found no link between obesity and child sleep. Family chaos appears to play a significant role in understanding part of these relationships. Future longitudinal studies are necessary to establish causal relationships between child and family functioning and sleep problems to further guide obesity interventions aimed at improving child sleep routines and increasing sleep duration.

  19. Factorization, Singular Operators and Related Problems : Conference in Honour of Professor Georgii Litvinchuk

    CERN Document Server

    Lebre, Amarino; Santos, António

    2003-01-01

    These proceedings comprise a large part of the papers presented at the International Conference Factorization, Singular Operators and related problems, which was held from January 28 to February 1, 2002, at the University of th Madeira, Funchal, Portugal, to mark Professor Georgii Litvinchuk's 70 birth­ day. Experts in a variety of fields came to this conference to pay tribute to the great achievements of Professor Georgii Litvinchuk in the development of vari­ ous areas of operator theory. The main themes of the conference were focussed around the theory of singular type operators and factorization problems, but other topics such as potential theory and fractional calculus, to name but a couple, were also presented. The goal of the conference was to bring together mathematicians from var­ ious fields within operator theory and function theory in order to highlight recent advances in problems many of which were originally studied by Profes­ sor Litvinchuk and his scientific school. A second aim was to sti...

  20. Technical problems in relation to an entirely renewable energy-based electricity supply system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zahedi, A. [Monash Univ., Caulfield (Australia). Dept. of Electrical and Computer Systems Engineering

    1995-11-01

    The objectives of this contribution to the conference is to discuss the technical problems in relation to connection of renewable energy to utility distribution networks and to introduce a technique which has been developed for solving the power fluctuation problem which is a result of this connection. The generation of electricity from wind energy and solar energy has been considered world wide, particularly in the United States and Europe. The integration of wind power and solar power with the utility network create some technical problems. Electric power generated from wind generators for example is a function of wind velocity which varies stochastically. The variation of wind velocity causes the rotor speed, the terminal voltage, the frequency of generator and the output power to vary. This paper describes integrated renewable energy and energy storage system (IREES), which delivers power from intermittent renewable sources to interconnected networks at a constant rate. The IREES system is a totally renewable energy based electricity supply system. It finds many applications, as it can be used as a large scale power supply being connected to national distribution networks as well as small scale power supply for remote areas. 16 refs, 6 figs

  1. Drug-related problems in patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia: a cross sectional retrospective study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasniza Zaman Huri

    Full Text Available Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH patients are at risk of acquiring drug-related problems (DRPs, as it is present in the majority of aging men. To date, DRPs among BPH patients have not been well studied. We conducted this retrospective study in a tertiary hospital in Malaysia from January 2009 to June 2012 with the aim of identifying the factors associated with DRPs among BPH patients. The Pharmaceutical Care Network Europe Classification Version (PCNE 5.01 was used as a tool to classify DRPs. We enrolled 203 patients from 259 hospital admissions. A total of 390 DRPs were found and there was an average of 1.5±1.3 problems per hospitalization. 76.1% of hospital admissions included at least one DRP. The most common DRP categories encountered were drug choice problems (45.9%, drug interactions (24.9%, and dosing problems (13.3%. Factors such as advanced age (p = 0.005, a hospital stay of more than 6 days (p = 0.001, polydrug treatments (p<0.001, multiple comorbidities (p<0.001, and comorbid cardiovascular disease (p = 0.011, diabetes mellitus(p = 0.001, hypertension (p<0.001 and renal impairment (p = 0.011 were significantly associated with the occurrence of DRPs. These data indicated that the prevalence of DRPs is high among BPH patients. The identification of different subtypes of DRPs and the factors associated with DRPs may facilitate risk reduction for BPH patients.

  2. Drug-related problems in patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia: a cross sectional retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaman Huri, Hasniza; Hui Xin, Chong; Sulaiman, Che Zuraini

    2014-01-01

    Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH) patients are at risk of acquiring drug-related problems (DRPs), as it is present in the majority of aging men. To date, DRPs among BPH patients have not been well studied. We conducted this retrospective study in a tertiary hospital in Malaysia from January 2009 to June 2012 with the aim of identifying the factors associated with DRPs among BPH patients. The Pharmaceutical Care Network Europe Classification Version (PCNE) 5.01 was used as a tool to classify DRPs. We enrolled 203 patients from 259 hospital admissions. A total of 390 DRPs were found and there was an average of 1.5±1.3 problems per hospitalization. 76.1% of hospital admissions included at least one DRP. The most common DRP categories encountered were drug choice problems (45.9%), drug interactions (24.9%), and dosing problems (13.3%). Factors such as advanced age (p = 0.005), a hospital stay of more than 6 days (p = 0.001), polydrug treatments (p<0.001), multiple comorbidities (p<0.001), and comorbid cardiovascular disease (p = 0.011), diabetes mellitus(p = 0.001), hypertension (p<0.001) and renal impairment (p = 0.011) were significantly associated with the occurrence of DRPs. These data indicated that the prevalence of DRPs is high among BPH patients. The identification of different subtypes of DRPs and the factors associated with DRPs may facilitate risk reduction for BPH patients.

  3. Legislative provisions related to marriage and divorce of persons with mental health problems: a global review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhugra, Dinesh; Pathare, Soumitra; Nardodkar, Renuka; Gosavi, Chetna; Ng, Roger; Torales, Julio; Ventriglio, Antonio

    2016-08-01

    Realization of right to marry by a person is an exercise of personal liberty, even if concepts of marriage and expectations from such commitment vary across cultures and societies. Once married, if an individual develops mental illness the legal system often starts to discriminate against the individual. There is no doubt that every individual's right to marry or remain married is regulated by their country's family codes, civil codes, marriage laws, or divorce laws. Historically mental health condition of a spouse or intending spouse has been of interest to lawmakers in a number of ways from facilitating divorce to helping the individual with mental illness. There is no doubt that there are deeply ingrained stereotypes that persons with mental health problems lack capacity to consent and, therefore, cannot enter into a marital contract of their own free will. These assumptions lead to discrimination both in practice and in law. Furthermore, the probability of mental illness being genetically transmitted and passed on to offspring adds yet another dimension of discrimination. Thus, the system may also raise questions about the ability of persons with mental health problems to care, nurture, and support a family and children. Internationally, rights to marry, the right to remain married, and dissolution of marriage have been enshrined in several human rights instruments. Domestic laws were studied in 193 countries to explore whether laws affected the rights of people with mental illness with respect to marriage; it was found that 37% of countries explicitly prohibit marriage by persons with mental health problems. In 11% (21 countries) the presence of mental health problems can render a marriage void or can be considered grounds for nullity of marriage. Thus, in many countries basic human rights related to marriage are being flouted.

  4. Work-related health problems among resident immigrant workers in Italy and Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldo Rosano

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Background: in both Spain and Italy the number of immigrants has strongly increased in the last 20 years, currently representing more than the 10% of workforce in each country. The segregation of immigrants into unskilled or risky jobs brings negative consequences for their health. The objective of this study is to compare prevalence of work-related health problems between immigrants and native workers in Italy and Spain.

    Methods: data come from the Italian Labour Force Survey (n=65 779 and Spanish Working Conditions Survey (n=11 019, both conducted in 2007. We analyzed merged datasets to evaluate whether interviewees, both natives and migrants, judge their health being affected by their work conditions and, if so, which specific diseases. For migrants, we considered those coming from countries with a value of the Human Development Index lower than 0.85. Logistic regression models were used, including gender, age, and education as adjusting factors.

    Results: migrants reported skin diseases (Mantel-Haenszel pooled OR=1.49; 95%CI: 0.59-3.74 and musculoskeletal problems among those employed in agricultural sector (Mantel-Haenszel pooled OR=1.16; 95%CI: 0.69-1.96 more frequently than natives; country-specific analysis showed higher risks of musculoskeletal problems among migrants compared to the non-migrant population in Italy (OR=1.17; 95% CI: 0.48-1.59 and of respiratory problems in Spain (OR=2.02; 95%CI: 1.02-4.0. In both countries the risk of psychological stress was predominant among national workers.

    Conclusions: this collaborative study allows to strength the evidence concerning the health of migrant workers in Southern European countries.

  5. Realism and Control Problem-based learning programs as a data source for work-related research

    OpenAIRE

    Zolin, Roxanne; Fruchter, Renate; Levitt, Raymond E.

    2003-01-01

    Problem-based learning (PBL) is a pedagogical methodology that presents the learner with a problem to be solved to stimulate and situate learning. This paper presents key characteristics of a problem-based learning environment that determines its suitability as a data source for work-related research studies. To date, little has been written about the availability and validity of PBL environments as a data source and its suitability for work-related research. We describe pro...

  6. Conformal changes of metrics and the initial-value problem of general relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mielke, E.W.

    1977-01-01

    Conformal techniques are reviewed with respect to applications to the initial-value problem of general relativity. Invariant transverse traceless decompositions of tensors, one of its main tools, are related to representations of the group of 'conformeomorphisms' acting on the space of all Riemannian metrics on M. Conformal vector fields, a kernel in the decomposition, are analyzed on compact manifolds with constant scalar curvature. The realization of arbitrary functions as scalar curvature of conformally equivalent metrics, a generalization of Yamabe's (Osaka Math. J.; 12:12 (1960)) conjecture, is applied to the Hamiltonian constraint and to the issue of positive energy of gravitational fields. Various approaches to the solution of the initial-value equations produced by altering the scaling behaviour of the second fundamental form are compared. (author)

  7. Health-related problems in adult cancer survivors : Development and validation of the Cancer Survivor Core Set

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geerse, O. P.; Wynia, K.; Kruijer, M.; Schotsman, M. J.; Hiltermann, T. J. N.; Berendsen, A. J.

    Improved survival rates from cancer have increased the need to understand the health-related problems of cancer treatment. We aimed to develop and validate the "Cancer Survivor Core Set" representing the most relevant health-related problems in adult cancer survivors using the International

  8. Alcohol-Related Problems and Risk of Suicide among College Students: The Mediating Roles of Belongingness and Burdensomeness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamis, Dorian A.; Malone, Patrick S.

    2011-01-01

    The relationship among alcohol-related problems, perceived burdensomeness, thwarted belongingness, and suicide proneness in undergraduate college students (N = 996) was examined. As hypothesized, alcohol-related problems, perceived burdensomeness, and thwarted belongingness were all significantly and positively correlated with suicide proneness.…

  9. Evaluation of sleep related breathing problems and sleep disturbances among health related employees at Fayoum University Hospitals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radwa Ahmed Elhefny

    2016-07-01

    Conclusion: Our findings indicate that the daytime somnolence is common among health care workers followed by nocturnal sleep problems. Urbanization and large scale of industrialization can explain the incidence of sleep problems among rural living.

  10. Educational problems related to quantitative EEG changes in benign childhood epilepsy with centrotemporal spikes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tedrus, Glória M A S; Fonseca, Lineu C; Melo, Elisa M V; Ximenes, Valeria L

    2009-08-01

    The relationship between educational problems and clinical/electroencephalographic aspects was assessed in 38 children with benign childhood epilepsy with centrotemporal spikes (BECTS). Children were assessed using the School Performance Test; questionnaires on learning difficulties administered to parents and teachers; the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, Third Edition; and EEGs. Absolute and relative amplitudes in the classic bands (quantitative EEG) and characteristics of epileptiform activity on the EEG were examined. Educational problems were observed in 7 (18.4%) children with BECTS. In this subgroup, relative alpha amplitudes at the central and parietal electrodes were lower as compared with those of the BECTS subgroup with normal educational performance and a control group matched for age, gender, and socioeconomic status. The data indicated a possible relationship between alterations in background brain electrical activity and the tendency toward inferior educational performance in children with BECTS. This study suggested that quantitative EEGs are a possible physiological tool in the assessment of cognitive aspects in children with BECTS.

  11. Prevalence of major depressive disorder in Nigerian college students with alcohol-related problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adewuya, Abiodun O

    2006-01-01

    The study aimed to estimate the prevalence of major depressive disorder (MDD) among Nigerian college students with alcohol-related problems (ARP) and compare the estimated prevalence with their counterparts without ARP. A cross-sectional survey of a representative sample of students (n=2658) in six colleges in Osun state, Western Nigeria. The students were independently assessed for ARP and MDD with the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI). The current (2 weeks) prevalence of MDD in college students with alcohol dependence is 23.8%; alcohol abuse 17.2% and hazardous use 12.4%. Compared with total abstainers, major depressive disorder is significantly more likely to be associated with diagnosis of alcohol dependence (OR 3.14, 95% CI 1.42-6.96), alcohol abuse (OR 2.27, 95% CI 1.38-3.72) and hazardous use (OR 1.64, 95% CI 1.12-2.38), but less associated with alcohol users without ARP (OR 0.93, 95% CI 0.69-1.25). Nigerian college students with ARP are significantly more at risk of depressive disorders than those without ARP. Early recognition and treatment of depression are important considerations when planning preventive strategies for alcohol-related problems in college students.

  12. Dark personality traits and impulsivity among adolescents: Differential links to problem behaviors and family relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubas, Judith Semon; Baams, Laura; Doornwaard, Suzan M; van Aken, Marcel A G

    2017-10-01

    Research on how dark personality traits develop and relate to risky behaviors and family relations during adolescence is scarce. This study used a person-oriented approach to examine (a) whether distinct groups of adolescents could be identified based on their developmental profiles of callous-unemotional (CU), grandiose manipulative (GM), and dysfunctional impulsivity (DI) traits and (b) whether these groups differ in their problem behaviors and parent-adolescent relationship quality. Latent class growth analyses on 4-wave data of 1,131 Dutch adolescents revealed 3 personality profiles: (1) a dark impulsive group (13.9%), with high scores on all 3 traits (CU, GM, and DI) that were stable over time; (2) an impulsive group (26.1%), with high and increasing levels of impulsivity and relatively low scores on CU and GM; and (3) and a low risk group (60.0%), with relatively low levels on all 3 personality characteristics, with impulsivity decreasing over time. Compared with adolescents in the low risk group, adolescents in the dark impulsive and impulsive groups reported higher initial levels of substance use, sexual risk behaviors, permissive sexual attitudes, parent-adolescent conflict, and lower parent-adolescent satisfaction, as well as greater increases in sexual risk behavior over time. Compared with adolescents in the impulsive group, those in the dark impulsive group showed the highest levels of risk behaviors. Hence, dark personality traits coupled with impulsivity may be indicative of an earlier and more severe trajectory of problem behaviors that may differ from the trajectory of youth who are only impulsive. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. Eigenfunction expansions of a quadratic pencil of differential operator with periodic generalized potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manaf Manafov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article we obtain the eigenfunction expansions of a quadratic pencil of Sturm-Liouville operators with periodic coefficients. The important point to note here is the given potential is a first order generalized function.

  14. Omega-3 Supplementation and Loneliness-Related Memory Problems: Secondary Analyses Of A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaremka, Lisa M.; Derry, Heather M.; Bornstein, Robert; Prakash, Ruchika Shaurya; Peng, Juan; Belury, Martha A.; Andridge, Rebecca R.; Malarkey, William B.; Kiecolt-Glaser, Janice K.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Loneliness enhances risk for episodic memory declines over time. Omega-3 supplementation can improve cognitive function for people experiencing mild cognitive difficulties. Accordingly, we explored whether omega-3 supplementation would attenuate loneliness-related episodic memory problems. Methods Participants (N=138) from a parent randomized controlled trial (RCT) were randomized to the placebo, 1.25 grams/day of omega-3, or 2.50 grams/day of omega-3 conditions for a 4-month period. They completed a baseline loneliness questionnaire and a battery of cognitive tests both at baseline and at the end of the RCT. Results Controlling for baseline verbal episodic memory scores, lonelier people within the placebo condition had poorer verbal episodic memory post-supplementation, as measured by immediate (b = −0.28, t(117) = −2.62, p = .010) and long-delay (b = −.06, t(116) = −2.07, p = .040) free recall, than their less lonely counterparts. This effect was not observed in the 1.25 grams/day and 2.50 grams/day supplementation groups, all p values > .10. The plasma omega-6:omega-3 ratio data mirrored these results. There were no loneliness-related effects of omega-3 supplementation on short-delay recall or the other cognitive tests, all p values > .32. Conclusion These results suggest that omega-3 supplementation attenuates loneliness-related verbal episodic memory declines over time and support the utility of exploring novel interventions for treating episodic memory problems among lonely people. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00385723 PMID:25264972

  15. Numerical investigation of zeros of some dispersion relations appearing in sound attenuation problems in a circular lined duct

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loredana TANASIE

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the zeros of some dispersion relations apperaring in sound attenuation problems in circular lined ducts, carrying a gas flow, are investigated numerically. To find the values of frequencies for which the dispersion relations vanish is not easy at all. That is beacause these relations contain the solution of an initial value problem which depends on the unknown frequency and can not be found explicitly. In order to overcome this difficulty we consider approximate dispersion relations, obtained by replacing in the shear flow the solution of the initial value problem by its Taylor’s polynomial approximate. For numerical computations typical aeronautical examples are considered.

  16. On Geometric Problems Related to Brown-York and Liu-Yau Quasilocal Mass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Pengzi; Shi, Yuguang; Tam, Luen-Fai

    2010-09-01

    We discuss some geometric problems related to the definitions of quasilocal mass proposed by Brown and York (Contemporary mathematics, vol 132, American Mathematical Society, Providence, pp 129-142, 1992; Phys Rev D (3) 47(4):1407-1419, 1993) and Liu and Yau (Phys Rev Lett 90(23):231102, 2003; J Am Math Soc 19(1):181-204, 2006). Our discussion consists of three parts. In the first part, we propose a new variational problem on compact manifolds with boundary, which is motivated by the study of Brown-York mass. We prove that critical points of this variation problem are exactly static metrics. In the second part, we derive a derivative formula for the Brown-York mass of a smooth family of closed two dimensional surfaces evolving in an ambient three dimensional manifold. As a by-product, we are able to write the ADM mass (Arnowitt et al. in Phys. Rev. (2), 122:997-1006, 1961) of an asymptotically flat 3-manifold as the sum of the Brown-York mass of a coordinate sphere S r and an integral of the scalar curvature plus a geometrically constructed function Φ( x) in the asymptotic region outside S r . In the third part, we prove that for any closed, spacelike, 2-surface Σ in the Minkowski space {mathbb {R}^{3,1}} for which the Liu-Yau mass is defined, if Σ bounds a compact spacelike hypersurface in {mathbb {R}^{3,1}} , then the Liu-Yau mass of Σ is strictly positive unless Σ lies on a hyperplane. We also show that the examples given by Ó Murchadha et al. (Phys Rev Lett 92:259001, 2004) are special cases of this result.

  17. Medication-related problem type and appearance rate in ambulatory hemodialysis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drayer Debra K

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hemodialysis (HD patients are at risk for medication-related problems (MRP. The MRP number, type, and appearance rate over time in ambulatory HD patients has not been investigated. Methods Randomly selected HD patients were enrolled to receive monthly pharmaceutical care visits. At each visit, MRP were identified through review of the patient chart, electronic medical record, patient interview, and communications with other healthcare disciplines. All MRP were categorized by type and medication class. MRP appearance rate was determined as the number of MRP identified per month/number of months in study. The number of MRP per patient-drug exposures were determined using: {[(number of patients × (mean number of medications]/(number of months of study} /number of MRP identified. Results were expressed as mean ± standard deviation or percentages. Results Patients were 62.6 ± 15.9 years old, had 6.4 ± 2.0 comorbid conditions, were taking 12.5 ± 4.2 medications, and 15.7 ± 7.2 doses per day at baseline. Medication-dosing problems (33.5%, adverse drug reactions (20.7%, and an indication that was not currently being treated (13.5% were the most common MRP. 5,373 medication orders were reviewed and a MRP was identified every 15.2 medication exposures. Overall MRP appearance rate was 0.68 ± 0.46 per patient per month. Conclusion MRP continue to occur at a high rate in ambulatory HD patients. Healthcare providers taking care of HD patients should be aware of this problem and efforts to avoid or resolve MRP should be undertaken at all HD clinics.

  18. Drug-related problems observed in a pharmaceutical care service, Belo Horizonte, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yone de Almeida Nascimento

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This present observational, longitudinal, and non-concurrent study was developed with the purposes of evaluate the profile of patients attended by a pharmacotherapeutic follow-up service and describe the Drug-Related Problems (DRPs found over there; determine the proportion of DRPs between the health problems presented by the studied population, classifying them and identifying the situations related with their appearance. The study was developed at the School Pharmacy of Newton Paiva University Center, Belo Horizonte, MG, during the period from 2001 November up to 2003 November. Ninety seven patients have been evaluated, the majority of female sex (66.0%, with up to 8 years of scholarship (45.4%, mean age of 56.7 ± 13.0 years; mean of 4 ± 2 diagnosed diseases; 7 ± 6 complaints and 4 ± 2 medications per patient. Nine hundred and twelve health problems have been identified: 56.5% uncontrolled. From the uncontrolled problems, 380 (73.6% were DRPs and between these, 81 (21.3% were risks for DRP. From the 97 followed-up patients, 89 (91.7% have presented at least one DRP during the follow-up. The more frequent DRPs were related to effectiveness (53.2%, to necessity (25.2% and to safety (21.6%. A great number of uncontrolled problems was observed, as well as the possibility to resolve them by means of pharmaceutical care, indicating so the resolutive potential of this practice.O presente estudo observacional, longitudinal, não concorrente teve por objetivos avaliar o perfil dos pacientes atendidos por um serviço de acompanhamento farmacoterapêutico e descrever os 'problemas relacionados com medicamento' (PRM encontrados; determinar a proporção de PRM dentre os problemas de saúde apresentados pela população estudada, classificá-los e identificar situações relacionadas com seu surgimento. O estudo foi realizado na Farmácia Escola do Centro Universitário Newton Paiva, em Belo Horizonte, MG, durante o período de novembro de 2001 a

  19. What are the advantages and disadvantages of imaging modalities to diagnose wear-related corrosion problems?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Denis; Barrack, Robert L; Potter, Hollis G

    2014-12-01

    Adverse tissue reactions are known to occur after total hip arthroplasty using both conventional and metal-on-metal (MoM) bearings and after MoM hip resurfacing arthroplasty (SRA). A variety of imaging tools, including ultrasound (US), CT, and MRI, have been used to diagnose problems associated with wear after MoM hip arthroplasty and corrosion at the head-trunnion junction; however, the relative advantages and disadvantages of each remain a source of controversy. The purposes of this review were to evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of (1) US; (2) CT; and (3) MRI as diagnostic tools in the assessment of wear-related corrosion problems after hip arthroplasty. A systematic literature review was performed through Medline, EMBASE, Scopus CINAHL, and the Cochrane Library without time restriction using search terms related to THA, SRA, US, CT, MRI, adverse tissue reactions, and corrosion. Inclusion criteria were Level I through IV studies in the English language, whereas expert opinions and case reports were excluded. The quality of included studies was judged by their level of evidence, method of intervention allocation, outcome assessments, and followup of patients. Four hundred ninety unique results were returned and 40 articles were reviewed. The prevalence of adverse local tissue reactions in both asymptomatic and symptomatic patients varies based on the method of evaluation (US, CT, MRI) and imaging protocols. US is accessible and relatively inexpensive, yet has not been used to report synovial thicknesses in the setting of wear-related corrosion. CT scans are highly sensitive and provide information regarding component positioning but are limited in providing enhanced soft tissue contrast and require ionizing radiation. MRI has shown promise in predicting both the presence and severity of adverse local tissue reactions but is more expensive. All three imaging modalities have a role in the assessment of adverse local tissue reactions and tribocorrosion

  20. Back and neck pain are related to mental health problems in adolescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O'Sullivan Peter B

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a high prevalence of mental health problems amongst adolescents. In addition there is a high prevalence of spinal pain in this population. Evidence suggests that these conditions are related. This study sought to extend earlier findings by examining the relationship between mental health problems as measured by the Child Behaviour Check List (CBCL and the experience of back and neck pain in adolescents. Methods One thousand five hundred and eighty participants (mean age 14.1 years from the Western Australian Pregnancy (Raine Study provided cross-sectional spinal pain and CBCL data. Results As predicted, there was a high prevalence of back and neck pain in this cohort. On the whole, females reported more mental health difficulties than males. There were strong relationships between the majority of symptom scales of the CBCL and back and neck pain. Scores on the CBCL were associated with higher odds of comorbid back and neck pain. Conclusions These findings strongly support the need to consider both psychological and pain symptoms when providing assessments and treatment for adolescents. Further research is required to inform causal models.

  1. Back and neck pain are related to mental health problems in adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background There is a high prevalence of mental health problems amongst adolescents. In addition there is a high prevalence of spinal pain in this population. Evidence suggests that these conditions are related. This study sought to extend earlier findings by examining the relationship between mental health problems as measured by the Child Behaviour Check List (CBCL) and the experience of back and neck pain in adolescents. Methods One thousand five hundred and eighty participants (mean age 14.1 years) from the Western Australian Pregnancy (Raine) Study provided cross-sectional spinal pain and CBCL data. Results As predicted, there was a high prevalence of back and neck pain in this cohort. On the whole, females reported more mental health difficulties than males. There were strong relationships between the majority of symptom scales of the CBCL and back and neck pain. Scores on the CBCL were associated with higher odds of comorbid back and neck pain. Conclusions These findings strongly support the need to consider both psychological and pain symptoms when providing assessments and treatment for adolescents. Further research is required to inform causal models. PMID:21609488

  2. THE PROBLEM OF REVERSION OF OKINAWA IN THE US-JAPAN POSTWAR RELATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Д В Стрельцов

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In the postwar period the Okinawa problem for many years was a stumbling block in the relations between Japan and the United States, creating the risk of undermining the foundations of the alliance. In fact, Okinawa personified a deep contradiction between the diplomatic and military-strategic interests of the United States in East Asia and the national interests of Japan, for which Okinawa was a primarily domestic political problem. In the mid-1960 's, despite the increasing role of Okinawa in the American global strategy after the start of the Vietnam war, the United States came to the conclusion of the speedy reversion of Okinawa to Japan. The main obstacle for the implementation of this decision was the nuclear weapon stored in Okinawa, which played an important role in the global strategy of Pentagon. The United States managed to find an option of reversion Okinawa to Japan in 1972, under which they retained the right to store nuclear weapons in Okinawa and to transit them through the island in the case of emergency. The transfer administrative right on Okinawa to Japan was a symbolic act, by which the United States demonstrated their willingness for Japan to play a ‘responsible role’ in the alliance as an active actor, not just a junior partner.

  3. Sleep Problems in Relation to Smoking and Alcohol Use in Chinese Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hua; Bo, Qi-Gui; Jia, Cun-Xian; Liu, Xianchen

    2017-05-01

    This study examined sleep patterns and sleep problems in relation to smoking and alcohol use in Chinese adolescents. A questionnaire survey of 2090 adolescent students was conducted in Lijin County, Shandong, China. A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect the data. After adjustment for demographics and internalizing and externalizing problems, poor sleep quality was associated with increased risk of smoking (odds ratio [OR], 2.59; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.24-5.40), alcohol use (OR, 2.65; 95% CI, 2.81-3.89), and getting drunk (OR, 2.81; 95% CI, 1.72-4.57); sleeping 7 hours (OR, 1.64; 95% CI, 1.20-2.43) and sleeping 6 hours or less per night on weekdays (OR, 1.97; 95% CI, 1.25-3.10) were significantly associated with increased risk for alcohol use, and sleeping 6 hours or less per night on weekends (OR, 2.09; 95% CI, 1.18-3.70) were significantly associated with increased risk for getting drunk; and hypnotic medication use was significantly associated with ever smoking (OR, 1.80; 95% CI, 1.08-2.99). These findings highlight the potential role of sleep intervention in the prevention of adolescent substance use.

  4. Adolescents' viewing of suicide-related web-content and psychological problems: differentiating the roles of cyberbullying involvement

    OpenAIRE

    Görzig, Anke

    2016-01-01

    Possible links of cyberbullying with suicide and psychological problems have recently received considerable attention. Suicide-related behaviours have also been linked with viewing of associated web-content. Studies on traditional bullying indicate that the roles of bullying involvement (bullies, victims and bully-victims) matter in terms of associations with specific suicide-related behaviours and psychological problems. Yet, related research in the area of cyberbullying is lacking. The curr...

  5. Health-related quality of life and mental health problems after a disaster: are chronically ill survivors more vulnerable to health problems?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, B. van den; Velden, P.G. van der; Yzermans, C.J.; Stellato, R.K.; Grievink, L.

    2006-01-01

    Studies have shown that the chronically ill are at higher risk for reduced health-related quality of life (HRQL) and for mental health problems. A combination with traumatic events might increase this risk. This longitudinal study among 1216 survivors of a disaster examines whether chronically ill

  6. Health-related quality of life and mental health problems after a disaster: Are chronically ill survivors more vulnerable to health problems?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, Bellis van den; Velden, Peter G van der; Yzermans, C Joris; Stellato, Rebecca K; Grievink, Linda

    2006-01-01

    Studies have shown that the chronically ill are at higher risk for reduced health-related quality of life (HRQL) and for mental health problems. A combination with traumatic events might increase this risk. This longitudinal study among 1216 survivors of a disaster examines whether chronically ill

  7. A national drug related problems database: evaluation of use in practice, reliability and reproducibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Lene Juel; Birkholm, Trine; Fischer, Hanne Lis

    2014-01-01

    Background A drug related problems database (DRP-database) was developed on request by clinical pharmacists. The information from the DRP-database has only been used locally e.g. to identify focus areas and to communicate identified DRPs to the hospital wards. Hence the quality of the data...... by clinical pharmacists with categorization performed by the project group. Reproducibility was explored by re-categorization of a sample of existing records in the DRP-database by two project group members individually. Main outcome measures Observed proportion of agreement and Fleiss' kappa as measures...... reliability study of 34 clinical pharmacists showed high inter-rater reliability with the project group (Fleiss' kappa = 0.79 with 95 % CI (0.70; 0.88)), and the reproducibility study also documented high inter-rater reliability of a sample of 379 records from the DRP-database re-categorized by two project...

  8. Different pathways explain alcohol-related problems in female and male college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedrelli, Paola; Collado, Anahi; Shapero, Benjamin G; Brill, Charlotte; MacPherson, Laura

    2016-10-01

    Comprehensive models elucidating the intricate associations of depressive symptoms, coping motives, alcohol use, alcohol-related problems (ARPs), and gender among young adults have been scarcely examined. This study investigated relationships among these variables and the effect of gender on these pathways. College students (N = 163; 49.7% female) completed self-report measures on alcohol consumption, depressive symptoms, coping motives, and ARPs. Structural equation modeling showed that the association between depressive symptoms and ARPs was mediated by coping motives in both females and males. However, frequency of heavy alcohol use mediated the association between depressive symptoms and ARPs in females but not in males. Different models explain the association between depressive symptoms and ARPs in male and female college students. Prevention programs aimed at reducing ARPs should focus on increasing alcohol screening among students with depressive symptoms, teaching coping skills, and emphasizing moderation in alcohol consumption.

  9. Some classes of inelastic materials related problems basic to future technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drucker, D.C.

    1980-01-01

    This mainly philosophic look ahead to the future highlights a number of developing classes of materials-related mechanics problems on the microscale and the macroscale. Each appears to be of considerable practical importance, intellectually stimulating, and likely to be very difficult. The list includes: the mechanics of response of lightly and heavily damaged structures and microstructures to further loading, the development of design theorems for the microscale and macroscale which contain suitable measures of damage, mechanics guidance for the development and interpretation of the remarkably sensitive and discerning NDE ultrasonic measurements that are now becoming possible for creep and fatigue damage, the mechanics of chemically active solids, and the mechanics of enormous strain rates, strains, stresses and temperatures likely to be encountered in power generation by fusion. The paper closes with attention to the need to capture the essence of reality rather than its full complexity. (orig.)

  10. Baroreflex sensitivity is associated with sleep-related breathing problems in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coverdale, Nicole S; Fitzgibbon, Laura K; Reid, Graham J; Wade, Terrance J; Cairney, John; O'Leary, Deborah D

    2012-04-01

    To examine the relationship between sleep-related breathing problems (SRBPs) and baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) among adolescents and assesses whether body mass influences this relationship. SRBPs were assessed in 106 adolescents aged 11-14 years using the Pediatric Sleep Questionnaire. Body mass index (BMI) was calculated, and 5 minutes of continuous beat-to-beat blood pressure (Finapres) and R-R interval were recorded (standard electrocardiogram) after 15 minutes of supine rest. Spectral indices were computed using fast Fourier transform, and transfer function analysis was used to compute BRS. Regression analyses indicate an interaction between BMI and SRBPs (b=-.151, P=.015) on BRS. Graphing the interaction showed that those with higher SRBP scores had lower BRS but that this effect was stronger for those with higher BMI. Adolescents with elevated SRBP scores had lower BRS. In addition, higher BMI amplified the risk of higher SRBP scores on BRS. Copyright © 2012 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Procedures for Measuring Women's Influence: Data translation and manipulation and related problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Penelope Allison

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Preparing data from artefact catalogues of previously published German excavation reports, in the project 'Engendering Roman Spaces', required ongoing refinement of data translation and digital manipulation using a variety of software packages. This process included the use of Optical Character Recognition (OCR software, spreadsheets, database and graphics programs, and the final presentation of the data in ArcGIS as an interpretative tool. With each step, a number of challenges were encountered relating to the quality of the data and original cataloguing processes, and the limitations of the software packages being used. Excavation reports of four Roman military sites - the forts of Vetera I, Ellingen, Oberstimm and Rottweil - are used in this article to highlight the range of problems encountered and solutions arrived to resolve them, a process requiring constant revision and refinement.

  12. Knowledge and attitudes of nurses towards alcohol and related problems: the impact of an educational intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janaina Soares

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available An exploratory study of quasi-experimental approach that aimed to verify the impact of an educational intervention on attitudes and knowledge of nurses towards alcohol use and associated problems. The sample included 185 nurses, divided into two groups: 84 submitted to a training course and formed the experimental group. Data were collected through a knowledge survey and an attitude scale. The attitudes of the participants of both groups were positive. There were no significant differences between groups in relation to knowledge. The strongest predictors of positive attitudes were possessed preparation to act with chemical dependents (OR = 2.18, "have received increased workload during graduation on the theme, 'alcohol and other drugs'" (OR = 1.70, and "completed graduate school" (OR = 2.59. The educational intervention had a positive impact on the attitudes of nurses towards alcoholics, work and interpersonal relationships with such clientele.

  13. Different pathways explain alcohol related problems in female and male college students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedrelli, P.; Collado, A.; Shapero, B. G.; Brill, C.; MacPherson, L.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Comprehensive models elucidating the intricate associations of depressive symptoms, coping motives, alcohol use, alcohol-related problems (ARP) and gender among young adults have been scarcely examined. This study investigated relationships among these variables and the effect of gender on these pathways. Methods College students (N = 163; 49.7% female) completed self-report measures on alcohol consumption, depressive symptoms, coping motives, and ARPs. Results Structural equation modeling showed that the association between depressive symptoms and ARPs was mediated by coping motives in both females and males. However, frequency of heavy alcohol use mediated the association between depressive symptoms and ARPs in females but not in males. Conclusions Different models explain the association between depressive symptoms and ARPs in male and female college students. Prevention programs aimed at reducing ARPs should focus on increasing alcohol screening among students with depressive symptoms, teaching coping skills, and emphasizing moderation in alcohol consumption. PMID:27219280

  14. Data-Driven Subtyping of Executive Function-Related Behavioral Problems in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bathelt, Joe; Holmes, Joni; Astle, Duncan E

    2018-04-01

    Executive functions (EF) are cognitive skills that are important for regulating behavior and for achieving goals. Executive function deficits are common in children who struggle in school and are associated with multiple neurodevelopmental disorders. However, there is also considerable heterogeneity across children, even within diagnostic categories. This study took a data-driven approach to identify distinct clusters of children with common profiles of EF-related difficulties, and then identified patterns of brain organization that distinguish these data-driven groups. The sample consisted of 442 children identified by health and educational professionals as having difficulties in attention, learning, and/or memory. We applied community clustering, a data-driven clustering algorithm, to group children by similarities on a commonly used rating scale of EF-associated behavioral difficulties, the Conners 3 questionnaire. We then investigated whether the groups identified by the algorithm could be distinguished on white matter connectivity using a structural connectomics approach combined with partial least squares analysis. The data-driven clustering yielded 3 distinct groups of children with symptoms of one of the following: (1) elevated inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity, and poor EF; (2) learning problems; or (3) aggressive behavior and problems with peer relationships. These groups were associated with significant interindividual variation in white matter connectivity of the prefrontal and anterior cingulate cortices. In sum, data-driven classification of EF-related behavioral difficulties identified stable groups of children, provided a good account of interindividual differences, and aligned closely with underlying neurobiological substrates. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Gender-related pathways for behavior problems in the offspring of alcoholic fathers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.F. Furtado

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to examine gender differences in the influence of paternal alcoholism on children's social-emotional development and to determine whether paternal alcoholism is associated with a greater number of externalizing symptoms in the male offspring. From the Mannheim Study of Risk Children, an ongoing longitudinal study of a high-risk population, the developmental data of 219 children [193 (95 boys and 98 girls of non-alcoholic fathers, non-COAs, and 26 (14 boys, 12 girls of alcoholic fathers, COAs] were analyzed from birth to the age of 11 years. Paternal alcoholism was defined according to the ICD-10 categories of alcohol dependence and harmful use. Socio-demographic data, cognitive development, number and severity of behavior problems, and gender-related differences in the rates of externalizing and internalizing symptoms were assessed using standardized instruments (IQ tests, Child Behavior Checklist questionnaire and diagnostic interviews. The general linear model analysis revealed a significant overall effect of paternal alcoholism on the number of child psychiatric problems (F = 21.872, d.f. = 1.217, P < 0.001. Beginning at age 2, significantly higher numbers of externalizing symptoms were observed among COAs. In female COAs, a pattern similar to that of the male COAs emerged, with the predominance of delinquent and aggressive behavior. Unlike male COAs, females showed an increase of internalizing symptoms up to age 11 years. Of these, somatic complaints revealed the strongest discriminating effect in 11-year-old females. Children of alcoholic fathers are at high risk for psychopathology. Gender-related differences seem to exist and may contribute to different phenotypes during development from early childhood to adolescence.

  16. Eradication of Productivity Related Problems Through Lean Principles In Integrated Manufacturing Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahul

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In this competitive era, manufacturing enterprises struggle to adopt cost-effective manufacturing systems. Overview of the recent manufacturing enterprises shows that successful global manufacturing enterprises have distributed their manufacturing capabilities over the globe. The successes of distributed integrated manufacturing enterprises depend upon the adaptation of appropriate manufacturing technologies like computer integrated manufacturing (CIM under the global collaborative environment along with the principles of lean manufacturing so that their corporate goals are achieved. CIM is an umbrella term which involves automated design, analysis, planning manufacturing, dispatching, customer-interaction, purchasing, cost accounting, inventory control and factory floor functions, which are inter-linked through the computer, to control all the campus-wide manufacturing related operations. It helps to improve the performance of a firm by integrating various areas of manufacturing business in which most of lean ideas are embedded. These lean ideas cause work in a process to be performed with minimum of non-value adding activities and focus on customers’ needs by delivering them at minimum time, with high quality and at minimum cost by eliminating hidden waste. What happens at the shop floor of even an integrated industry is that proper and timely attention is not paid to the intangible lean principles in the manual part of the CIM system which results in substantial loss of the plant productivity. Therefore the objective of this research paper is to investigate the different poor productivity-related problems in a partially integrated manufacturing environment and lay down the remedial measures to eradicate them using ‘Juran’s problem solving techniques’ and various ‘lean tools’ which results in the reduced wastages and hence improved productivity.

  17. Child Problems as a Moderator of Relations Between Maternal Impulsivity and Family Environment in a High-Risk Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Carly K; Ryan, Stacy R; Charles, Nora E; Mathias, Charles W; Acheson, Ashley; Dougherty, Donald M

    2016-08-23

    Previous studies have suggested that maternal characteristics are related to family environment; however, the relation between maternal impulsivity, in particular, and family environment is not well understood. As such, we examined direct relations between maternal impulsivity and family environment, as well as whether the relation between maternal impulsivity and family environment was moderated by child problems for sons and daughters. We hypothesized that child problems would moderate the association between maternal impulsivity and family environment. We also explored whether these associations differ for boys and girls. Data from the initial visit of a longitudinal study was used for the current study. Participants included 297 youth (137 boys; 160 girls) of 10 to 12 years of age (M = 10.99, SD = .84) and their mothers. The majority of the sample had a family history of substance use disorder (n = 236). Hierarchical linear regressions showed that for sons there was a significant interaction between maternal impulsivity and child problems on family environment. Maternal impulsivity was positively related to family environment problems among sons with few emotional and behavioral problems, but there was no significant correlation among sons with high problem levels. Among daughters, there was no significant interaction between maternal impulsivity and child emotional and behavioral problems on family environment. The results suggest that the association between maternal impulsivity and family environment may depend on problem level and child gender. Thus, addressing maternal impulsivity in therapy may benefit some families.

  18. Balance Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... often, it could be a sign of a balance problem. Balance problems can make you feel unsteady. You may ... related injuries, such as a hip fracture. Some balance problems are due to problems in the inner ...

  19. Perceived injunctive norms and cannabis-related problems: The interactive influence of parental injunctive norms and race.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ecker, Anthony H; Dean, Kimberlye E; Buckner, Julia D; Foster, Dawn W

    2017-07-05

    Cannabis use among college students is associated with negative consequences, including those that can negatively affect academic functioning. Perceived descriptive and injunctive norms are among the strongest predictors of college cannabis use and related problems, and perceived norms differentially relate to cannabis outcomes depending on the reference group (e.g., close friends, family members). However, no known studies have examined the effect of race on these relationships. Yet, given that African American students are more strongly affected by parental influence than Caucasian students and that they endorse more social motives for cannabis use, African American students may be affected by perceived norms regarding parents and friends differentially from Caucasian students. The current study tested the moderational role of race on the relationship between perceived norms and cannabis use and related problems. Cannabis-using undergraduates (N = 103; 78.6% female) completed an online survey. Race moderated the relationship between injunctive norms regarding parents and cannabis-related problem severity such that among African American students (but not Caucasian students), endorsement of more permissive perceived parental injunctive norms was related to greater cannabis-related problem severity (but not cannabis use frequency). Interactions were not significant between race and descriptive norms or between race and peer injunctive norms. African American students who perceive that their parents are more accepting of cannabis use may be especially at risk for cannabis-related problems. Results underscore the importance of considering cultural factors in identification of vulnerability factors related to cannabis problems.

  20. Adolescents' Viewing of Suicide-Related Web Content and Psychological Problems: Differentiating the Roles of Cyberbullying Involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Görzig, Anke

    2016-08-01

    Possible links of cyberbullying with suicide and psychological problems have recently received considerable attention. Suicide-related behaviors have also been linked with viewing of associated web content. Studies on traditional bullying indicate that the roles of bullying involvement (bullies, victims, and bully-victims) matter in terms of associations with specific suicide-related behaviors and psychological problems. Yet, related research in the area of cyberbullying is lacking. The current study investigates the association of cyberbullying roles with viewing of specific suicide-related web content and psychological problems. Data from N = 19,406 (50 percent girls) 11-16-year-olds (M = 13.54, SD = 1.68) of a representative sample of Internet-using children in Europe were analyzed. Self-reports were obtained for cyberbullying role, viewing of web content related to self-harm, and suicide, as well as the emotional, peer, and conduct problem subscales of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). Multinomial logistic regression analyses revealed that compared with those not involved in cyberbullying, viewing of web content related to suicide was higher for cybervictims and cyberbully-victims, but not for cyberbullies. Viewing of web content related to self-harm was higher for all cyberbullying roles, especially for cyberbully-victims. Rates of emotional problems were higher among cybervictims and cyberbully-victims, rates of peer problems were higher for cybervictims, and rates of conduct problems were higher for all cyberbullying roles. Moreover, the links between cyberbullying role and viewing of suicide-related web content were independent of psychological problems. The results can be useful to more precisely target efforts toward the specific problems of each cyberbullying role. The outcomes on viewing of web content also indicate an opportunity to enhance the presence of health service providers on Internet platforms.

  1. Utility of a Brief Screening Tool for Medication-Related Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Margie E.; Pater, Karen S.; Frail, Caitlin K.; Hudmon, Karen Suchanek; Doebbeling, Brad N.; Smith, Randall B.

    2014-01-01

    Background Medication therapy management (MTM) services position pharmacists to prevent, detect, and resolve medication-related problems (MRPs.) However, selecting patients for MTM who are most at risk for MRPs is a challenge. Using self-administered scales that are practical for use in clinical practice are one approach. Objective The objective of this study was to estimate the psychometric properties of a brief self-administered scale as a screening tool for MRPs. Methods This was a non-randomized study utilizing questionnaires administered cross-sectionally. In Phase 1, patients (n=394) at community pharmacies and outpatient clinics completed 78 items, provided to the study team by item authors, assessing perceived MRPs. These data were used to select items for further investigation as a brief, self-administered scale, and estimate the reliability and construct validity of the resulting instrument. In Phase 2, a convenience sample of patients (n=200) at community pharmacies completed a nine-item, self-administered scale. After completion, they were engaged in a comprehensive medication review by their pharmacist who was blinded to questionnaire responses. The main outcome measure for estimating the criterion-related validity of the scale was the number of pharmacist-identified medication-related problems (MRPs.) Item statistics were computed as well as bivariate associations between scale scores and other variables with MRPs. A multivariate model was constructed to examine the influence of scale scores on MRPs after controlling for other significant variables. Results Higher scores on the questionnaire were positively correlated with more pharmacist-identified MRPs (r = 0.24; p= 0.001) and scores remained as a significant predictor (p= 0.031) when controlling for other relevant variables in a multivariate regression model (R2= 0.21; p < 0.001.) Conclusions Patient responses on the scale may have a modest role in predicting MRPs. The use of self

  2. Computerized pharmacy surveillance and alert system for drug-related problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrández, O; Urbina, O; Grau, S; Mateu-de-Antonio, J; Marin-Casino, M; Portabella, J; Mojal, S; Riu, M; Salas, E

    2017-04-01

    Because of the impact of drug-related problems (DRPs) on morbidity and mortality, there is a need for computerized strategies to increase drug safety. The detection and identification of the causes of potential DRPs can be facilitated by the incorporation of a pharmacy warning system (PWS) in the computerized prescriber order entry (CPOE) and its application in the routine validation of inpatient drug therapy. A limited number of studies have evaluated a clinical decision support system to monitor drug treatment. Most of these applications have utilized a small range of drugs with alerts and/or types of alert. The objective of this study was to describe the implementation of a PWS integrated in the electronic medical record (EMR). The PWS was developed in 2003-2004. Pharmacological information to generate drug alerts was entered on demographic data, drug dosage, laboratory tests related to the prescribed drug and drug combinations (interactions, duplications and necessary combinations). The PWS was applied in the prescription reviews conducted in patients admitted to the hospital in 2012. Information on 83% of the drugs included in the pharmacopeia was introduced into the PWS, allowing detection of 2808 potential DRPs, representing 79·1% of all potential DRPs detected during the study period. Twenty per cent of PWS DRPs were clinically relevant, requiring pharmacist intervention. The PWS detected most potential DRPs, thus increasing inpatient safety. The detection ability of the PWS was higher than that reported for other tools described in the literature. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Investigating Prospective Teachers' Perceived Problem-Solving Abilities in Relation to Gender, Major, Place Lived, and Locus of Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çakir, Mustafa

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate prospective teachers' perceived personal problem-solving competencies in relation to gender, major, place lived, and internal-external locus of control. The Personal Problem-Solving Inventory and Rotter's Internal-External Locus of Control Scale were used to collect data from freshman teacher candidates…

  4. Multidisciplinary Team Dynamics in the Production of Problem-Based-Learning Cases in Issues Related to Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silver, Sylvia; Turley, Catherine; Smith, Carol; Laird, Johanna; Majewski, Theresa; Maguire, Brian; Orndorff, Jon; Rice, Linda; Vowels, Robert

    1999-01-01

    Despite logistical disadvantages of geographic distance and scheduling, using multidisciplinary allied health teams to develop problem-based cases related to older adults has several advantages: increasing cross-disciplinary awareness, building a cadre with team experience, and expanding knowledge of the problem-based learning method. (SK)

  5. The Longitudinal Relation between Childhood Autistic Traits and Psychosexual Problems in Early Adolescence: The Tracking Adolescents' Individual Lives Survey Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekker, Linda P.; Hartman, Catharina A.; van der Vegt, Esther J. M.; Verhulst, Frank C.; van Oort, Floor V. A.; Greaves-Lord, Kirstin

    2015-01-01

    Individuals with autistic traits are considered to be prone to develop psychosexual problems due to their limited social skills and insight. This study investigated the longitudinal relation between autistic traits in childhood (T1; age 10-12 years) and parent-reported psychosexual problems in early adolescence (T2; age 12-15 years). In a general…

  6. Behaviour Problems, Maternal Internalising Symptoms and Family Relations in Families of Adolescents and Adults with Fragile X Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, J. K.; Seltzer, M. M.; Greenberg, J. S.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Studies have linked the behaviour problems of children with fragile X syndrome (FXS) to maternal well-being, but less is known about how behaviour problems relate to important family factors such as marital satisfaction and family cohesion. Methods: Married mothers of 115 adolescents and adults with FXS completed questionnaires and…

  7. Strategies for Solving Three Fraction-Related Word Problems on Speed: A Comparative Study between Chinese and Singaporean Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Chunlian; Chua, Boon Liang

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the results obtained from a study comparing the strategies used by 1,070 Chinese students and 1,002 Singaporean students from primary grade 6 to secondary year 2 in solving three fraction-related problems. It is part of the author's Ph.D. study, which involves more word problems on speed. The Chinese students performed better…

  8. Does Mother–Child Interaction Mediate the Relation Between Maternal Depressive Symptoms and Children’s Mental Health Problems?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Doorn, Marleen M. E. M.; Kuijpers, Rowella C. W. M.; Lichtwarck-aschoff, Anna; Bodden, Denise; Jansen, Mélou; Granic, Isabela

    2016-01-01

    The relation between maternal depressive symptoms and children’s mental health problems has been well established. However, prior studies have predominantly focused on maternal reports of children’s mental health problems and on parenting behavior, as a broad and unilateral concept. This

  9. Procedural versus Content-Related Hints for Word Problem Solving: An Exploratory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kock, W. D.; Harskamp, E. G.

    2016-01-01

    For primary school students, mathematical word problems are often more difficult to solve than straightforward number problems. Word problems require reading and analysis skills, and in order to explain their situational contexts, the proper mathematical knowledge and number operations have to be selected. To improve students' ability in solving…

  10. Adopted Children's Problem Behavior Is Significantly Related to Their Ego Resiliency, Ego Control, and Sociometric Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juffer, Femmie; Stams, Geert-Jan J. M.; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H.

    2004-01-01

    Background: Many studies have documented that adopted children are at higher risk for behavior problems, but less is known about the correlates of their problem behavior. Method: The correlates of parent-reported and teacher-reported problem behavior in 7-year-old internationally adopted children (N = 176) were investigated by examining these…

  11. Functional Analysis of Precursors for Serious Problem Behavior and Related Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langdon, Nancy A.; Carr, Edward G.; Owen-DeSchryver, Jamie S.

    2008-01-01

    Precursor behaviors are innocuous behaviors that reliably precede the occurrence of problem behavior. Intervention efforts applied to precursors might prevent the occurrence of severe problem behavior. We examined the relationship between precursor behavior and problem behavior in three individuals with developmental disabilities. First, a…

  12. Problems of Foreign Economic Relations Development of Ural Regions with BRICS Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikhail Ivanovich Maslennikov

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In the article, the basic vocabulary of BRICS countries, its regional tendencies of business development, and its share taken in the foreign-economic activity are analyzed. Contribution of different foreign trade fields of regions into economic development is revealed. Indicators of development levels of external economic links are reviewed. Alternative options of the foreign trade development, expenses and benefits from its reorientation, and the reason of low indicators of development of foreign trade activity of the Ural regions with BRICS countries are evaluated, and measures for their improvement and development are offered. The mechanism and tools of stimulation of foreign economic relations development of regions with BRICS countries are investigated. The internal and external motives and incentives of expansion of these relations are examined. The factors influencing the regional markets development and revealing multidirectional tendencies in activities of business, government, society for development of foreign economic relations of the Ural regions with BRICS countries, and first of all with Brazil, India, China and the Republic of South Africa are investigated. The export-import features of the foreign trade operations with these countries, and also possible ways and the directions of expansion of the prognostics of foreign economic relations in the conditions of toughening and restriction of similar operations and financial sources from the developed countries, first of all the USA and EU countries are represented. Author examines the reasons and scenario, problems and difficulties for the country and the Ural regions in refocusing of international economic relation from Western Europe to the South-East Asia countries. Real opportunities of participation of regions of the country in the import substitution and development of own resource and production base are analyzed. The research is focused on analysis of international economic

  13. Drug-related problems in institutionalized, polymedicated elderly patients: opportunities for pharmacist intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Cristina; Ramalho, Célia; Luz, Isabel; Monteiro, Joaquim; Fresco, Paula

    2015-04-01

    An aging population and the increasing prevalence of chronic diseases have led to the increased use of medicines. Portugal is one of the European countries where more medicines are consumed and the associated expense is higher. Medicines are associated with enormous health benefits but also with the potential to cause illness and death. A drug related problem (DRP) is an "an event or circumstance involving drug therapy that actually or potentially interferes with desired health outcomes". In the U.S., they represent the 4th-6th leading cause of death and have an estimated cost of 130 billion dollars. Moreover, many of these DRP can be avoided. Elderly are at increased risk of DRP due to multiple factors: pluripathology and consequent polypharmacy, complex dosing regimens, pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic and functional/cognitive changes. Therefore, this population would be the one who would benefit most from the prevention, detection and control of DRP. The role of the pharmacist as an integral element of health care has been recognized by various international and European organizations. Providing pharmaceutical care as a patient-centered activity, focusing on their needs related to pharmacotherapy, contributes to guarantee that drug expenditure is a good investment, with benefits that outweigh potential risks. To evaluate the need for pharmaceutical care implementation in institutionalized, polymedicated elderly. Descriptive observational cross-sectional study carried out in six Portuguese nursing homes, selected by convenience, in November-December 2013. Each institution selected up to six patients, according to the following inclusion criteria: age ≥65 years, number of medications ≥5 and ability to respond to an interview. All participants signed an informed consent form. Pharmacists carried out a structured interview with each patient and consulted patient medical records to gather demographic data and information on health problems and medications used. To

  14. The impact of drug related problems on health-related quality of life among hypertensive patients in Jordan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abu Farha R

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hypertension is a major cause of cardiovascular diseases with a high prevalence in Jordan. No previous studies have been carried out to determine the effect of the presence of drug-related problems (DRPs on the health-related quality of life (HRQOL among hypertensive patients. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to identify the influence of different types of DRPs on the HRQOL of hypertensive patients. Methods: A total of 200 hypertensive patients were recruited in this cross-sectional correlation study that was conducted across the cardiac outpatient clinic at Jordan University Hospital. Ethical approval was obtained and patients were recruited using convenience sampling technique. During the study period, patients’ data was used to evaluate their quality of life using RAND-12 scale and to identify DRPs utilizing a systematic evidence based approach. Results: 200 hypertensive patients (mean age 59.7 years (SD=10.2 were recruited in this study. Patients showed a poor quality of life on both the physical and mental domains of the RAND-12 scale. The average number of DRPs was 5.1 (SD=2.3. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that among DRPs categories, non-adherence to medications, non-adherence to non-pharmacological therapies and inadequate knowledge about medications were among the main predictors of the poor physical domain of the RAND-12 (Beta= -0.149, -0.226 and -0.230 respectively, p-value < 0.05 for all. On the other hand, only non-adherence to medication and non-adherence to non-pharmacological therapies were significantly associated with poor mental domain of the RAND-12 (Beta= -0.208 and -0.191 respectively, p-value < 0.05 for both. Conclusion: Prevalence of DRPs among hypertensive patients is a concern that needs attention. These DRPs were associated with poor HRQOL on both the physical and mental domain of the RAND-12 scale. The pharmaceutical care service delivered by pharmacists is needed to identify

  15. PTSD Symptom Severities, Interpersonal Traumas, and Benzodiazepines Are Associated with Substance-Related Problems in Trauma Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guina, Jeffrey; Nahhas, Ramzi W.; Goldberg, Adam J.; Farnsworth, Seth

    2016-01-01

    Background: Trauma is commonly associated with substance-related problems, yet associations between specific substances and specific posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms (PTSSs) are understudied. We hypothesized that substance-related problems are associated with PTSS severities, interpersonal traumas, and benzodiazepine prescriptions. Methods: Using a cross-sectional survey methodology in a consecutive sample of adult outpatients with trauma histories (n = 472), we used logistic regression to examine substance-related problems in general (primary, confirmatory analysis), as well as alcohol, tobacco, and illicit drug problems specifically (secondary, exploratory analyses) in relation to demographics, trauma type, PTSSs, and benzodiazepine prescriptions. Results: After adjusting for multiple testing, several factors were significantly associated with substance-related problems, particularly benzodiazepines (AOR = 2.78; 1.99 for alcohol, 2.42 for tobacco, 8.02 for illicit drugs), DSM-5 PTSD diagnosis (AOR = 1.92; 2.38 for alcohol, 2.00 for tobacco, 2.14 for illicit drugs), most PTSSs (especially negative beliefs, recklessness, and avoidance), and interpersonal traumas (e.g., assaults and child abuse). Conclusion: In this clinical sample, there were consistent and strong associations between several trauma-related variables and substance-related problems, consistent with our hypotheses. We discuss possible explanations and implications of these findings, which we hope will stimulate further research, and improve screening and treatment. PMID:27517964

  16. How to minimise the incidence of transport-related problem behaviours in horses: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    York, Amanda; Matusiewicz, Judith; Padalino, Barbara

    2017-01-01

    This review aims to provide practical outcomes on how to minimise the incidence of transport-related problem behaviours (TRPBs) in horses. TRPBs are unwanted behaviours occurring during different phases of transport, most commonly, a reluctance to load and scrambling during travelling. TRPBs can result in injuries to horses and horse handlers, horse trailer accidents, disruption of time schedules, inability to attend competitions, and poor performance following travel. Therefore, TRPBs are recognised as both a horse-related risk to humans and a human-related risk to horses. From the literature, it is apparent that TRPBs are common throughout the entire equine industry, and a YouTube keyword search of 'horse trailer loading' produced over 67,000 results, demonstrating considerable interest in this topic and the variety of solutions suggested. Drawing upon articles published over the last 35 years, this review summarises current knowledge on TRPBs and provides recommendations on their identification, management, and prevention. It appears that a positive human-horse relationship, in-hand pre-training, systematic training for loading and travelling, appropriate horse handling, and the vehicle driving skills of the transporters are crucial to minimise the incidence of TRPBs. In-hand pre-training based on correct application of the principles of learning for horses and horse handlers, habituation to loading and travelling, and self-loading appear to minimise the risk of TRPBs and are therefore strongly recommended to safeguard horse and horse-handler health and welfare. This review indicates that further research and education with respect to transport management are essential to substantially decrease the incidence of TRPBs in horses.

  17. Environmental pollutions associated to conflicts in Iraq and related health problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Shammari, Ahmed Majeed

    2016-06-01

    Several wars and a 13-year embargo as well as several years of civil war with the recent war on terrorism have cumulatively damaged Iraq's land, air, water, and health infrastructure. The sand particles in Iraq contain toxic substances, which dates back to the pollution caused by military actions that disassemble the desert sands and turn it into light dust. This dust reaches cities as dust storms that effect most Iraqi cities. The presence of depleted uranium (DU) in the Iraqi food chain is documented by measuring the uranium in animals organs in different Iraqi cities with the highest concentration in the south of Iraq. One of the major sites of pollution in Iraq is the Al-twaitha nuclear research site. The nuclear research reactors were destroyed in the 1991 Gulf War. Barrels containing radioactive materials and sources were stolen from the site in the 2003 war. This resulted in considerable radioactive pollution at the site and in its surrounding areas. Soil sample have been found to be contaminated by Cs-137and Co-60. Cancer and birth defects are most associated with the environmental pollution caused by the conflicts. All studies related to this by Iraqi researchers are discussed in this review. From studying the Iraqi scientific publications, we can conclude that Basrah, Baghdad, Faluja, Mosul and Thi-Qar are the most effected cities in Iraq. This review concludes that the presence of a heavily contaminated environment with war related pollutants in most of the Iraqi cities needs much attention and huge effort to reduce the related health problems.

  18. Condom-related problems among a racially diverse sample of young men who have sex with men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du Bois, Steve N; Emerson, Erin; Mustanski, Brian

    2011-10-01

    We described frequencies of condom-related problems in a racially diverse sample of young men who have sex with men (YMSM), and tested these condom-related problems as an explanation for racial disparities in HIV rates among YMSM. Participants were 119 YMSM from a longitudinal study of sexual minority health behaviors. Almost all participants (95.4%) experienced at least one condom error. On average, African American and non-African American YMSM experienced the same number of recent condom-related problems. Therefore, differences in condom-related problems are unlikely to explain racial disparities in HIV rates among YMSM. When serving YMSM, providers should both promote condom use and explain steps to correct condom use.

  19. Review of xenon-133 production and related problems; Estudio bibliografico de la produccion de xenon-133 y problemas afines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrachina, M.; Ropero, M.

    1980-07-01

    A literature survey is given on the production methods of fission xenon-133 and related problems, such as purification, metrological and dosimetric aspects, preparation of isotopic solutions, recycling, etc. 127 references are included. (Author) 127 refs.

  20. Convergence Theorems for a Common Point of Solutions of Equilibrium and Fixed Point of Relatively Nonexpansive Multivalued Mapping Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Zegeye

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We introduce an iterative process which converges strongly to a common point of set of solutions of equilibrium problem and set of fixed points of finite family of relatively nonexpansive multi-valued mappings in Banach spaces.

  1. Under-Researched Demographics: Heavy Episodic Drinking and Alcohol-Related Problems Among Asian Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwamoto, Derek Kenji; Kaya, Aylin; Grivel, Margaux; Clinton, Lauren

    2016-01-01

    Asian Americans represent the fastest- growing population in the United States (Le 2010). At the same time, there is evidence that problematic drinking rates are increasing among young-adult Asian Americans (Grant et al. 2004). Accordingly, it is essential to understand the etiological determinants and mechanisms of risk that may help explain this growth in problematic alcohol use among this group. The high prevalence of the ALDH2*2 and ADH1B*2 alleles in a large percentage of Asian subgroups has been studied as a potential protective factors against alcohol abuse, yet some individuals who possess these genes still engage in problematic alcohol use (Wall et al. 2001). Other social and psychological factors may account for this discrepancy. Thus, some factors, such as negative physiological alcohol expectancies, are protective against alcohol abuse in this population (Hendershot et al. 2009). Sociocultural factors such as acculturation and nativity also may help explain drinking patterns among this group. The literature suggests that vast and significant within-group differences exist among Asian Americans, such that individuals who were born in the United States and/or are more acculturated are at elevated risk for alcohol abuse and related problems (Hahm et al. 2003). Differences also have been observed among Asian-American ethnic subgroups, with some groups (e.g., Japanese, Korean, and multi-Asian Americans) reporting higher rates of drinking compared with others (e.g., Chinese and Vietnamese Americans) (Iwamoto et al. 2012). Furthermore, Asian Americans who report higher levels of depressive symptoms, psychological distress, and perceived discrimination seem to be at a heightened risk for abusing alcohol (Iwamoto et al. 2011a; Nishimura et al. 2005; Yoo et al. 2010). Finally, an emerging body of research examining gender-relevant factors, including feminine and masculine norms, may help explain within-group differences among Asian-American women and men. Thus

  2. A national drug related problems database: evaluation of use in practice, reliability and reproducibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjeldsen, Lene Juel; Birkholm, Trine; Fischer, Hanne; Graabæk, Trine; Hansen, Merete Kjær; Kibsdal, Karina Porsborg; Ravn-Nielsen, Lene Vestergaard; Truelshøj, Tania Holtum

    2014-08-01

    A drug related problems database (DRP-database) was developed on request by clinical pharmacists. The information from the DRP-database has only been used locally e.g. to identify focus areas and to communicate identified DRPs to the hospital wards. Hence the quality of the data at the national level is unknown, which may compromise national analyses for benchmarking and identification of national focus areas. The aim of the study was to evaluate the use in practice, reliability and reproducibility of the DRPs documented in the Danish drug related problems database. Danish hospital pharmacies. Practice use of the DRP-database was explored by an electronic questionnaire distributed to hospital pharmacies, and consisted of questions regarding current and previous use of the DRP-database. The reliability was evaluated by comparing the categorization of 24 cases by clinical pharmacists with categorization performed by the project group. Reproducibility was explored by re-categorization of a sample of existing records in the DRP-database by two project group members individually. Observed proportion of agreement and Fleiss' kappa as measures of inter-rater reliability and reproducibility. The practice use study of 12 hospital pharmacy locations revealed that when implementing the DRP-database, the majority of identified DRPs are documented in the DRP-database, however, some variations throughout the country exist. The interrater reliability study of 34 clinical pharmacists showed high inter-rater reliability with the project group (Fleiss' kappa = 0.79 with 95 % CI (0.70; 0.88)), and the reproducibility study also documented high inter-rater reliability of a sample of 379 records from the DRP-database re-categorized by two project group members (Fleiss' kappa = 0.81 with 95 % CI (0.78; 0.85)). The study showed high reliability and reproducibility of the DRP-database, however, some local variation in the use of the DRP-database throughout the country existed affecting

  3. Stress and coping mediate relationships between contingent and global self-esteem and alcohol-related problems among college drinkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomaka, Joe; Morales-Monks, Stormy; Shamaley, Angelee Gigi

    2013-08-01

    This study examined the hypotheses that contingent self-esteem would be positively associated with alcohol-related problems and that global self-esteem would be negatively associated with such problems. It also examined the hypothesis that high stress and maladaptive coping would mediate these relationships. A sample of college students (n = 399) who were predominantly Hispanic (89%) completed measures of global and contingent self-esteem; stress and coping; and alcohol-related problems. Correlational and latent variable analyses indicated that contingent self-esteem positively related to alcohol-related problems, with maladaptive coping mediating this relationship. In contrast, global self-esteem negatively related to such problems, a relationship that was also mediated by maladaptive coping and stress. Overall, the results highlight the potentially harmful consequences of contingent self-worth and the adaptive nature of non-contingent self-esteem. They also demonstrate the important role that coping plays in mediating self-esteem's associations with alcohol-related problems. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Getting the party started--Alone: Solitary predrinking mediates the effect of social anxiety on alcohol-related problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keough, Matthew T; Battista, Susan R; O'Connor, Roisin M; Sherry, Simon B; Stewart, Sherry H

    2016-04-01

    Predrinking (or pregaming) is common among undergraduates and has been linked with problem alcohol use. While many students predrink to save money, evidence suggests that some students predrink to cope with social anxiety (SA). Tension reduction and cognitive theories predict that those high in SA may predrink to reduce anticipatory anxiety before attending social events and their predrinking may be done alone rather than in normative social contexts. Available data suggest that, relative to social drinking, solitary drinking elevates risk for alcohol use and related problems. Informed by this evidence, we speculated that context for predrinking may be an important mechanism by which SA-risk for alcohol use unfolds. Specifically, we offered the novel hypothesis that those high in SA would engage frequently in solitary predrinking and this in turn would be associated with elevated alcohol use and related problems. Undergraduate drinkers (N=293; 70% women) completed self-reports of social anxiety, predrinking context (social, solitary), alcohol use, and alcohol-related problems. In partial support of our hypotheses, SA was a positive predictor of solitary predrinking, which in turn predicted elevated alcohol-related problems, but not alcohol use. While not hypothesized, we also found that SA was a negative predictor of social predrinking, which in turn reduced risk for alcohol use and related problems. Our study is the first in the literature to show that solitary predrinking helps explain the well-documented association between SA and alcohol-related problems. These findings may inform etiological models and clinical interventions, suggesting that SA-risk for problem drinking begins even before the party starts. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Persisting problems related to race and ethnicity in public health and epidemiology research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Claude Moubarac

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available A recent and comprehensive review of the use of race and ethnicity in research that address health disparities in epidemiology and public health is provided. First it is described the theoretical basis upon which race and ethnicity differ drawing from previous work in anthropology, social science and public health. Second, it is presented a review of 280 articles published in high impacts factor journals in regards to public health and epidemiology from 2009-2011. An analytical grid enabled the examination of conceptual, theoretical and methodological questions related to the use of both concepts. The majority of articles reviewed were grounded in a theoretical framework and provided interpretations from various models. However, key problems identified include a a failure from researchers to differentiate between the concepts of race and ethnicity; b an inappropriate use of racial categories to ascribe ethnicity; c a lack of transparency in the methods used to assess both concepts; and d failure to address limits associated with the construction of racial or ethnic taxonomies and their use. In conclusion, future studies examining health disparities should clearly establish the distinction between race and ethnicity, develop theoretically driven research and address specific questions about the relationships between race, ethnicity and health. One argue that one way to think about ethnicity, race and health is to dichotomize research into two sets of questions about the relationship between human diversity and health.

  6. Problems related to design and construction of industrial radiography exposure room - an experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siti Madiha Muhammad Amir; Mohd Khairi Mohd Said; Abdul Nassir Ibrahim; Ab Razak Hamzah

    2009-01-01

    In Non-Destructive Testing (NDT), especially in radiography method, inspections of components are executed either on-site or in-house. For in-house inspections, work must be performed in a specially constructed exposure room. The design of the exposure room must be according to specific requirements described in various documents related to radiation safety. Stringent requirements specified for the exposure room is for the purpose of ensuring the safety of public and radiation workers. These requirements are never compromised. One of the AELB requirements that need to be complied is that the permissible dose limit anywhere outside the room must be less than 0.25 mR/hr. In designing and constructing the exposure room, many factors must be taken into account such as shielding thickness, density of shielding, thickness of lead door, the roof design of the exposure room and many more. This paper highlights problems encountered and the considerations taken to design and construct the exposure room so that the exposure room will comply with the permissible dose limit set by the regulatory body. (Author)

  7. Who Are the Subjects with Gambling-Related Problems Requiring Treatment? A Study in Northern Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fioritti, Angelo; Marani, Silvia; Gambini, Daniele; Turino, Elsa; Piazza, Antonella

    2018-01-01

    Background: This study analyzes data related to Hospital (HOS), Public Treatment Service Dedicated to Drug Addicts (SERD), or Community Mental Health Center (CMHC) clients with a first diagnosis of Pathological Gambling (PG) in the period 2000/2016 in Northern Italy. The aims were to describe trends and characteristics of pathological gamblers (PGs) and to estimate the prevalence of other diagnoses before or after the diagnosis of PG. Methods: Participants aged over 17 years with an ICD-9 or ICD-10 PG diagnosis were selected. Results: 680 PGs were identified, mean age 47.4 years, 20% female, 13% non-natives, 30% had other mental disorders diagnoses, 9% had alcohol dependence syndrome, and 11% had drug dependence. Most participants with comorbid disorders were diagnosed before PG, with a more elevated prevalence regarding mental disorders. Almost seven years had elapsed on average between the first admission and the diagnosis of PG. Conclusions: The results of this study highlight a growing demand for PG treatment addressed not only to SERD, but also to psychiatric and hospital services, based on the increase in SERD attendance from 2013. Many of them had already been treated for mental health problems before, but their percentage remained costant over time. PMID:29652821

  8. Who Are the Subjects with Gambling-Related Problems Requiring Treatment? A Study in Northern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raimondo Maria Pavarin

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study analyzes data related to Hospital (HOS, Public Treatment Service Dedicated to Drug Addicts (SERD, or Community Mental Health Center (CMHC clients with a first diagnosis of Pathological Gambling (PG in the period 2000/2016 in Northern Italy. The aims were to describe trends and characteristics of pathological gamblers (PGs and to estimate the prevalence of other diagnoses before or after the diagnosis of PG. Methods: Participants aged over 17 years with an ICD-9 or ICD-10 PG diagnosis were selected. Results: 680 PGs were identified, mean age 47.4 years, 20% female, 13% non-natives, 30% had other mental disorders diagnoses, 9% had alcohol dependence syndrome, and 11% had drug dependence. Most participants with comorbid disorders were diagnosed before PG, with a more elevated prevalence regarding mental disorders. Almost seven years had elapsed on average between the first admission and the diagnosis of PG. Conclusions: The results of this study highlight a growing demand for PG treatment addressed not only to SERD, but also to psychiatric and hospital services, based on the increase in SERD attendance from 2013. Many of them had already been treated for mental health problems before, but their percentage remained costant over time.

  9. Admissions through the emergency department due to drug-related problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yosef H Al-Olah; Khalifa M Al Thiab

    2010-01-01

    Hospital admissions due to drug-related problems (DRPs) have been studied internationally, but local data are limited. Therefore, we undertook a prospective, observational study of all admissions through the emergency department (ED) at a tertiary referral hospital in Saudi Arabia to determine the incidence of admissions through the ED due to DRPs, types of DRPs, length of stay (LOS) in the hospital after ED admissions due to DRPs, and assessment of preventability of admissions due to DRPs.All admissions through the ED over a period of 28 consecutive days were evaluated to determine if they were due to definite or possible DRPs. Data was collected on a daily basis for each admission over the previous 24 hours. Each incident was assessed by three investigators Of 557 patients admitted through the ED, 82 (14.7%) admissions were due to DRP (53 definite, 29 possible). The most common types of DRP were failure to receive medication in 25 cases (47.2%), an adverse drug reaction in 13 cases (24.5%), and drug overdose in 6 cases (11.3%). In the definite DRP group, 83.0% were definitely preventable, 3.8% were possibly preventable and 13.2% were definitely non-preventable.DRPs are a serious and costly issue facing health care professionals and health care systems. Most admissions due to DRPs are avoidable (Author).

  10. Midwives' Experiences in Providing Care and Counselling to Women with Female Genital Mutilation (FGM Related Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth Isman

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The aim of this study was to elucidate midwives experiences in providing care and counselling to women with FGM related problems. Setting. The study was conducted at a maternity clinic in Hargeisa, Somaliland. Method. A qualitative, inductive study were performed with eight midwives living in Somaliland. The interviews had semi-structured questions. Content analysis was used for the analysis. Findings. The main findings of the present study were how midwives are challenged by culture and religion when providing FGM counselling. The most prominent challenge is the perception that FGM is an important part of the culture and from this point of view the midwives work is apprehended as interfering and subverting the Somali culture. Having personal experience of FGM emerged as a benefit when counselling women. Conclusion. There is a contradiction between the professional actions of performing FGM despite a personal belief against FGM. Midwives as a professional group could be important agents of change and further research is needed about the midwives role in this process.

  11. Party package travel: alcohol use and related problems in a holiday resort: a mixed methods study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reinholdt Tine

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background People travelling abroad tend to increase their use of alcohol and other drugs. In the present study we describe organized party activities in connection with young tourists' drinking, and the differences between young people travelling with and without organized party activities. Methods We conducted ethnographic observations and a cross-sectional survey in Sunny Beach, Bulgaria. Results The behaviour of the guides from two travel agencies strongly promoted heavy drinking, but discouraged illicit drug use. Even after controlling for several potential confounders, young people who travelled with such "party package travel agencies" were more likely to drink 12 or more units when going out. In univariate analyses, they were also more likely to get into fights, but were not more likely to seek medical assistance or medical assistance for an accident or an alcohol-related problem. After controlling for confounders, the association between type of travel agency and getting into fights was no longer significant. Short-term consequences of drinking in the holiday resort did not differ between party package travellers and ordinary package travellers. Conclusion There may be a small impact of party package travels on young people's drinking. Strategies could be developed used to minimise the harm associated with both party package travel and other kinds of travel where heavy substance use is likely to occur.

  12. Reliability of screening tests for health-related problems among low-income elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valéria Teresa Saraiva Lino

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Screening tests for health problems can identify elderly people who should undergo the Comprehensive Geriatric Assessment, enabling the planning of actions to prevent disability. The aim of this study was to analyze the inter-rater reliability (IRR of self-assessment questions (SAQ and performance tests (PT recommended in Brazil, in a sample of low-income elderly people, through an exploratory study performed with 165 elderly assessed by two professionals on different days. IRR was evaluated using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC for continuous variables and the kappa statistic for categorical ones. The IRR for the PT (muscle strength, mobility body mass index, vision was excellent and presented ICC values greater than 0.75. By contrast, the IRR for SAQ (urinary incontinence, self-perceived health and hearing impairment was intermediate. Only the fall-related item presented a good IRR. In this study single SAQ had poor reliability when compared to PT, suggesting the necessity of revision of subjective self-assessment items with low reproducibility before implementation.

  13. Speed and Complexity Characterize Attention Problems in Children with Localization-Related Epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berl, Madison; Terwilliger, Virginia; Scheller, Alexandra; Sepeta, Leigh; Walkowiak, Jenifer; Gaillard, William D.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Objective Children with epilepsy (EPI) have a higher rate of ADHD (28–70%) than typically developing (TD) children (5–10%); however, attention is multidimensional. Thus, we aimed to characterize the profile of attention difficulties in children with epilepsy. Methods Seventy-five children with localization-related epilepsy ages 6–16 and 75 age-matched controls were evaluated using multimodal, multidimensional measures of attention including direct performance and parent ratings of attention as well as intelligence testing. We assessed group differences across attention measures, determined if parent rating predicted performance on attention measures, and examined if epilepsy characteristics were associated with attention skills. Results The EPI group performed worse than the TD group on timed and complex attention aspects of attention (p<.05), while performance on simple visual and simple auditory attention tasks was comparable. Children with EPI were 12 times as likely as TD children to have clinically elevated symptoms of inattention as rated by parents, but ratings were a weak predictor of attention performance. Earlier age of onset was associated with slower motor speed (p<.01), but no other epilepsy-related clinical characteristics were associated with attention skills. Significance This study clarifies the nature of the attention problems in pediatric epilepsy, which may be under recognized. Children with EPI had difficulty with complex attention and rapid response, not simple attention. As such, they may not exhibit difficulty until later in primary school when demands increase. Parent report with standard ADHD screening tools may underdetect these higher order attention difficulties. Thus, monitoring through direct neuropsychological performance is recommended. PMID:25940056

  14. Drug-related problems and quality of life in arthritis and low back pain sufferers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, Michael E; Iyer, Shrividya S; Doucette, William R

    2003-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the relationship between drug-related problems (DRPs) and health-related quality-of-life (HRQoL) in ambulatory, community-dwelling patients with musculoskeletal disorders. A 12-month, prospective, observational study was conducted in 12 independent community pharmacies in eastern Iowa. Ambulatory patients with self-reported diagnoses of osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, or low back pain were invited to participate. During quarterly visits to the pharmacy, patients used touch-screen computers to fill out the Short Form-36 (SF-36) general health survey. Using the results of these point-of-service health status assessments, community pharmacists interviewed patients to assess for DRPs. To examine the influences of different DRP characteristics on HRQoL and controlling for potential confounders, both univariate and multivariate analyses were performed using the change in physical component summary (PCS) score and mental component summary (MCS) score of the SF-36 from baseline to 12 months as the dependent variables. In each regression, the independent variables were those significant variables from the univariate analyses, as well as the types of DRPs and their outcomes. A total of 461 patients were enrolled in the study. Through 12 months, 926 cumulative DRPs were identified. Overall regression models were significant for the PCS and MCS scores, respectively. Two types of DRPs showed significant negative associations with change in PCS: wrong drug and needs additional drug therapy. One type of DRP showed significant negative association with change in MCS: needs additional drug therapy. Resolution or improvement in DRPs showed a significant positive correlation with change in MCS but not PCS. Two DRPs, needs additional drug therapy and wrong drug, are associated with reduced self-reported physical health in arthritis and low back pain, while the DRP needs additional drug therapy is also associated with reduced self

  15. Evaluation of the non-radiological environmental problems relating to the WIPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baca, T.E.

    1983-02-01

    The major non-radiological environmental problems addressed are: air pollution, water pollution and sanitary waste, solid waste, domestic drinking water, occupational health and safety and toxic chemicals

  16. Profiles of Childhood Trauma in Patients with Alcohol Dependence and Their Associations with Addiction-Related Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotzin, Annett; Haupt, Lena; von Schönfels, Julia; Wingenfeld, Katja; Schäfer, Ingo

    2016-03-01

    The high occurrence of childhood trauma in individuals with alcohol dependence is well-recognized. Nevertheless, researchers have rarely studied which types of childhood trauma often co-occur and how these combinations of different types and severities of childhood trauma are related to the patients' current addiction-related problems. We aimed to identify childhood trauma profiles in patients with alcohol dependence and examined relations of these trauma profiles with the patients' current addiction-related problems. In 347 alcohol-dependent patients, 5 types of childhood trauma (sexual abuse, physical abuse, emotional abuse, emotional neglect, and physical neglect) were measured using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire. Childhood trauma profiles were identified using cluster analysis. The patients' current severity of addiction-related problems was assessed using the European Addiction Severity Index. We identified 6 profiles that comprised different types and severities of childhood trauma. The patients' trauma profiles predicted the severity of addiction-related problems in the domains of psychiatric symptoms, family relationships, social relationships, and drug use. Childhood trauma profiles may provide more useful information about the patient's risk of current addiction-related problems than the common distinction between traumatized versus nontraumatized patients. Copyright © 2016 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  17. A Longitudinal Examination of the Associations Between Shyness, Drinking Motives, Alcohol Use, and Alcohol-Related Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Chelsie M; DiBello, Angelo M; Traylor, Zachary K; Zvolensky, Michael J; Neighbors, Clayton

    2015-09-01

    The current study evaluated the roles of drinking motives and shyness in predicting problem alcohol use over 2 years. First-year college student drinkers (n = 818) completed assessments of alcohol use and related problems, shyness, and drinking motives every 6 months over a 2-year period. Generalized linear mixed models indicated that shyness was associated with less drinking, but more alcohol-related problems. Further, shyness was associated with coping, conformity, and enhancement drinking motives, but was not associated with social drinking motives. However, when examining coping motives, moderation analyses revealed that social drinking motives were more strongly associated with coping motives among individuals higher in shyness. In addition, coping, conformity, and enhancement motives, but not social motives, mediated associations between shyness and alcohol-related problems over time. Finally, coping motives mediated the association between the interaction of shyness and social motives and alcohol-related problems. Together, the results suggest that shy individuals may drink to reduce negative affect, increase positive affect, and fit in with others in social situations, which may then contribute to greater risk for subsequent alcohol-related problems. Copyright © 2015 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  18. The green eyed monster in the bottle: Relationship contingent self-esteem, romantic jealousy, and alcohol-related problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiBello, Angelo M; Rodriguez, Lindsey M; Hadden, Benjamin W; Neighbors, Clayton

    2015-10-01

    Previous research suggests that both jealousy and relationship contingent self-esteem (RCSE) are related to alcohol use and alcohol-related problems. No work, however, has examined these two constructs together as they relate to motives for alcohol use and alcohol-related problems. The current study aims to build upon emerging literature examining different types of jealousy (i.e., emotional, cognitive, and behavioral), relationship quality (i.e., satisfaction, commitment, closeness), RCSE, and alcohol use. More specifically, the current study aimed to examine the associations between RCSE and drinking to cope and RCSE and alcohol-related problems, in the context of the different types of jealousy. Moreover, the current study aimed to assess whether the associations between RCSE, jealousy, and drinking outcomes vary as a function of relationship quality. Two hundred and seventy seven individuals (87% female) at a large southern university participated in the study. They completed measures of RCSE, relationship satisfaction, commitment, closeness, and jealousy as well as alcohol-related outcomes. Using PROCESS, moderated mediational analyses were used to evaluate different types of jealousy as mediators of the association between RCSE and drinking to cope/alcohol-related problems. Further, we aimed to examine whether relationship quality moderated the association between RCSE and jealousy in predicting alcohol-related variables. Results indicated that cognitive jealousy mediated the association between both RCSE and drinking to cope and RCSE and alcohol-related problems. Further, relationship satisfaction, commitment, and closeness were all found to moderate the association between RSCE and cognitive jealousy such that at lower, but not higher levels of satisfaction, commitment, and closeness, cognitive jealousy mediated the association between RCSE and drinking to cope and RCSE and alcohol-related problems. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. CHRISTMAS 2014 : GOING TO EXTREMES Nintendo related injuries and other problems: review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jalink, Maarten B.; Heineman, Erik; Pierie, Jean-Pierre E. N.; Hoedemaker, Henk O. ten Cate

    2014-01-01

    Objective To identify all reported cases of injury and other problems caused by using a Nintendo video gaming system. Design Review. Data sources and review methods Search of PubMed and Embase in June 2014 for reports on injuries and other problems caused by using a Nintendo gaming system. Results

  20. Is the general practitioner’s sensitivity to their patients’ psychological problems related to their workload?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zantinge, E.M.; Verhaak, P.F.M.; Kerssens, J.J.; Bensing, J.M.

    2006-01-01

    Background: Many mental problems are not recognized by the general practitioner (GP). Recognition of these problems is important because it is one of the critical stages in finding appropriate care for the patient. GPs are sometimes reluctant to get involved in mental health care because it requires

  1. Gender Differences in the Relation between Mothering Behaviors and Child-Behavior Problems among Hispanic Preschoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caughy, Margaret O'Brien; Peredo, Tatiana Nogueira; Owen, Margaret Tresch; Mills, Britain

    2016-01-01

    This is a report of an examination of gender differences in behavior problems and a prediction of their changes from 2.5 to 3.5 years from mothering qualities among 209 low-income Hispanic children. Externalizing behaviors declined over this time somewhat more for girls than for boys. Fewer externalizing behavior problems at age 3.5 were…

  2. Problem video game playing is related to emotional distress in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzálvez, María T; Espada, José P; Tejeiro, Ricardo

    2017-06-28

    Problem use of video games is an increasing risk behaviour. High exposure of adolescents to video games has been linked to a variety of disorders, but the relationship between problem video game playing and emotional welfare is unknown. The aim of the study is to analyse problem video game playing in a sample of adolescents and to determine whether there are differences between online and offline players, in addition to examining its relationship with anxiety and depressive symptomatology. A sample of adolescents (N = 380) completed self-reports measuring video game use and symptoms of anxiety and depression. We found that 7.4% of females and 30% of males can be considered as playing at problem levels. Online players were almost 12 times more likely to play at high frequency than offline players (χ2 (1, 267) = 72.72, p < .001, OR = 11.63, 95% CI [6.31, 21.43]). Males play more frequently, and play more online (χ2 (1, 267) = 50.85, p < .001, OR = 6.74, 95% CI [3.90, 11.64]), with a clear relationship between problem video game playing and anxiety (r = .24; p < .001). In females, there is a relationship between problem video game playing and depression (r = .19; p < .05). Our findings contribute to a better understanding of the psychological variables involved in problem video game playing. The implementation of strategies is suggested in order to prevent pathological gaming and associated problems.

  3. Alcohol-related social problems among Mexican Americans living in U.S.-Mexico border and non-border areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaeth, Patrice A C; Caetano, Raul; Mills, Britain A; Rodriguez, Lori A

    2012-08-01

    This paper examines alcohol-related social problems among Mexican Americans living along the U.S.-Mexico border and in non-border areas. Interviews were conducted among Mexican Americans in the border regions of California, Arizona, New Mexico, and Texas (N=1307). Non-border respondents were interviewed primarily in Houston and Los Angeles (N=1288) as part of the Hispanic Americans Baseline Alcohol Survey (HABLAS). Both the border and HABLAS surveys employed multistage cluster sample designs (response rates were 67% and 76%, respectively). In the bivariate analysis, there were no significant differences between border and non-border areas in the proportion of those with one or more social problem. In non-border areas, the prevalence of alcohol problems did not differ significantly by age. However, along the border the prevalence of alcohol problems was significantly different across age groups, with 18 to 29year old men and women having the highest prevalence. The final models showed no residence effect on problem likelihood. Drinking was strongly associated with problems. Although young border residents had higher problem prevalence rates than older residents, the logistic regression models showed no effect of border residence on the likelihood of problems, indicating that problems are due to alcohol consumption, not the border environment. The border, however, did appear to influence more drinking among young people. Regardless of residence, alcohol treatment and preventive interventions tailored to Mexican Americans are essential and special attention should be focused on younger individuals near the border. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Dress-Related Behavioral Problems and Violence in the Public School Setting: Prevention, Intervention, and Policy--A Holistic Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holloman, Lillian; LaPoint, Velma; Alleyne, Sylvan I.; Palmer, Ruth J.; Sanders-Phillips, Kathy

    1996-01-01

    Addresses clothing-related behavioral problems for public school children and the increasing use of dress codes and uniform policies as preventive measures. It describes dress-related conflicts for black public school students and parents across socialization and contextual settings. The implications of preventive policies and practices are…

  5. Handling drug-related problems in rehabilitation patients: a randomized study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willoch, Karin; Blix, Hege Salvesen; Pedersen-Bjergaard, Anne Marit; Eek, Anne Kathrine; Reikvam, Aasmund

    2012-04-01

    Drug-related problems (DRPs) have been found to be associated with increased morbidity, mortality, and health costs. To investigate whether the inclusion of pharmacists in a rehabilitation team influences the handling of DRPs in the ward and whether an intervention in hospital affects drug use after discharge. The rehabilitation ward of a general hospital in Oslo, Norway. Patients were randomized into an intervention group (IG) or a usual care group (CG). The IG patients were followed prospectively by a pharmacist, who reviewed the patients' drug therapies using information from their medical records and patient interviews. The pharmacist identified DRPs and suggested solutions during multidisciplinary team meetings. The IG patients received targeted drug counselling from the pharmacist before discharge. The drug therapy in the CG, for the period from study randomization to discharge, was assessed retrospectively by the pharmacist, who identified DRPs and recorded how they were acted upon. Three months after discharge, pharmacists who were blinded to the patient randomization, visited the patients at home and interviewed them about their medication. Types and frequencies of DRPs in the IG and CG were compared at hospital admission, at discharge, and 3 months after discharge. Of the 77 patients included, 40 belonged to the IG and 37 to the CG. Patient characteristics (IG vs CG) were as follows: age 73.5 versus 76.8 years; female 58 versus 68%; mean number of drugs at admission 8.3 versus 7.8; and mean number of drugs at discharge 8.5 versus 7.7. At admission, 4.4 DRPs per patient were recorded in the IG and 4.2 in the CG. Significantly more DRPs were acted upon and resolved in the IG; at discharge, the IG had 1.2 DRPs per patient and the CG had 4.0 (P drug-therapy management, including participation in multidisciplinary team discussions, markedly improved the identification and resolution of DRPs during a hospital stay. The benefit persisted after discharge.

  6. Pregnancy complications, mental health-related problems and type 2 diabetes mellitus in Malaysian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Syed Shahzad; Thiruchelvam, Kaeshaelya; Ahmed, Syed Imran; Clavarino, Alexandra M; Mamun, Abdullah A; Kairuz, Therese

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the association between pregnancy complications, mental health-related problems, and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in Malaysian women. A case-control study of women with T2DM (n=160) matched by age range to controls without T2DM (n=160). Data were collected in the Negeri Sembilan and PutraJaya regions in Malaysia, from two hospital outpatient clinics, PutraJaya Hospital and Tuanku Jaa'far Hospital Seremban, and one health clinic at Seremban. Validated, interviewer-administered questionnaires were used to obtain the data. The unadjusted and adjusted estimates were calculated using the Mantel-Haenszel method. Neither depression (RR 0.74, 95% CI: 0.39-1.41) nor anxiety (RR 1.00, 95% CI: 0.53-1.88) symptoms increased the risk of T2DM significantly. However, gestational diabetes (RR 1.35, 95% CI: 1.02-1.79), and ≥3 pregnancies (RR 1.39, 95% CI: 1.08-1.79) were significant risk factors for the development of T2DM. T2DM was not a significant risk factor for either depression (RR 1.26, 95% CI: 0.91-1.74) or anxiety symptoms (RR 1.13, 95% CI: 0.59-2.19). In this study, T2DM is not a significant risk factor for depression and anxiety; similarly, neither are depression and anxiety significant risk factors for T2DM. Although prevalence of depression and anxiety is not alarming, the findings reported here should alert clinicians to screen and treat anxiety and depression in people with diabetes and also note the importance of monitoring women with complications in pregnancy for risk of later T2DM. Copyright © 2013 Diabetes India. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. A contribution to raise awareness on ethical problems related to radiological protection in future health physicists

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cantone, M.C.; Birattari, C.; Merzagora, M.

    2006-01-01

    It is widely accepted that Radiological Protection has a real social dimension and it is not restricted to the pure scientific and quantitative aspects. The quality in radiation protection is not reached by simply complying with current technical standards or by enforcing an improved or restricted regulation, but must also be pursued by promoting a culture of radiation protection. An effective dissemination of a radiation protection culture has to include education and training for those students who will become researchers in the involved fields, or who will be called in risk management and, as protection managers, will be asked to inform and train workers or to communicate with the public. Today, in most universities the education in ethics is a significant part of the training in medical, biological and biotechnological curricula but, it is still of poor consideration in those curricula which are traditionally related to Physical Science and even in those areas, like Health Physics, where implementation of interdisciplinary approaches and methodologies are important sources for progress. Moreover, recent advances in the research field of risk perception and communication are very rarely included in those courses. At the Health Physics post-graduate School of Milano State University, within the course of Radiation Protection, a new subject has been recently introduced facing the question of ethical problems and risk perception in radiation protection, and dealing with the activity of international organisations aimed to establish ethical principles for protection against ionising radiation. By referring to this context, students realize how the analysis of radiological risk includes both technological and ethical aspects. The hope is that a new generation of experts in heath physics will promote a dynamic development of knowledge and a higher degree of awareness even in ethical aspects within the academic, institutional or professional fields of radiation

  8. Characteristics of Mexican women admitted to emergency care units: alcohol consumption and related problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romero Martha

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. This article describes the demographic characteristics and psychological differences in a sample of female heavy and non-heavy drinkers who attended three emergency services of the Mexican city of Pachuca, Hidalgo. Material and Methods. A sample of patients seen at emergency services (ES patients over the age of 18 was selected using ES admission forms. Twenty-five-minute, face-to-face interviews were conducted by a group of trained interviewers. Patients answered various questionnaires and scales to measure alcohol consumption and to provide information on variables that have proved to be related to female drinking. Results. Thirty-six women (5.2% out of 717 of the total number of women were found to be heavy drinkers according to the TWEAK scale. This group of women had 2.3 times the risk of becoming depressed, 2.87 times the risk of taking other drugs, 1.95 times the likelihood of having been sexually abused and 1.57 times the risk of displaying suicidal ideation. Conclusions. Data from this small analysis confirm international findings that problem drinking among females throughout the life cycle is linked to depression. As regards the screening instruments employed, it is necessary to conduct more in-depth research to enrich their contents and increase their reliability and validity when used among female populations. In this study, the TWEAK proved to be extremely useful for studies in emergency services. The English version of this paper is available too at: http://www.insp.mx/salud/index.html

  9. Proceedings of the 11th forum: Croatian Energy Day: Regulation problems relating to energy service markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The main goals of the majority of processes and developments relating to energy sectors of today present the enhancement of energy sector efficiency, ensuring of stable financial sources and safe return of the means invested through practice of activities at the market of energy and energy services, i.e. public services or monopoly. This is to be achieved by means of energy sector restructuring and liberalisation, pluralism of ownership and transparency of the organisational and management scheme. Thereby, an important role and significance for the realisation of these aims, for the development and energy market functioning on the national level, as well as for the achievement of reciprocity and complementarity of national markets with regional and multi-national energy markets, is held by models and forms of energy activity regulation. In a limited sense, the regulation itself should constitute an adequate stimulating framework for free energy flows, transparent and non- discriminating conditions for the utilisation of transmission and transportation systems and networks, protection of supplier choice rights, pluralism of ownership and ownership rights, protection of energy and energy services' quality, environmental protection, protection of purchasers and consumers and protection of energy subjects. For all these reasons, aspects and problems appertaining to energy sector and energy activities' regulation have been chosen as the theme and contents of the 11th Forum. Various countries have undertaken and implemented or are in the process of implementation of different models and contents referring to energy sector and energy activity regulation. Experience and legislative practice are quoted as the main criteria. The aim of this Forum is to set forth and clarify experiences and solutions connected to the regulation of energy activities in numerous European countries or in the world

  10. Women's awareness of the human papilloma virus and related health problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akyuz, Aygul; Yılmaz, Cevriye; Yenen, Müfit Cemal; Yavan, Tülay; Kılıç, Ayşe

    2011-12-01

    This paper is a report of a study of women's awareness of the human papilloma virus and related health problems. Cervical cancer is an important cause of mortality, making up approximately 12% of all cancers in women. Awareness on the part of carriers of human papilloma virus is crucial in preventing transmission of the infection and protecting against cervical cancer. The study was performed as a cross-sectional descriptive study. The study consists of 79 human papilloma virus-positive women who had not been diagnosed with cervical cancer and 150 women who had not been diagnosed with human papilloma virus. Data were collected via questionnaires between November 2007 and April 2008. Percentages and chi-square test were used. A significantly higher percentage of women with positive human papilloma virus knew the definition of human papilloma virus, the fact that it is transmitted via sexual contact and that it can lead to cervical cancer than did women with negative human papilloma virus. It was established that approximately half the women with positive human papilloma virus presented at the hospital with a genital wart. None of the women knew that a Pap smear test was a necessary tool in the prevention of cervical cancer. Women with positive human papilloma virus have insufficient knowledge of human papilloma virus, sexually transmitted diseases, the health risks associated with human papilloma virus and the means of preventing these risks. It is therefore necessary to evaluate the education of health workers, and especially of nurses, on human papilloma virus and its prevention. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  11. Drug related problems identified by clinical pharmacist at the Internal Medicine Ward in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abunahlah, Nibal; Elawaisi, Anfal; Velibeyoglu, Fatih Mehmet; Sancar, Mesut

    2018-01-29

    Background Drug-related problems (DRPs) interfere with patient optimal therapeutic outcomes and may be associated with higher morbidity, mortality and healthcare expenditures. Objective This study aimed to identify DRPs and their causes in a Turkish hospital. Setting Bakirkoy Dr. Sadi Konuk Teaching and Research Hospital, Internal Medicine Ward, Istanbul, Turkey. Method Cross-sectional study included a total of 100 patients. Patient demographics, medications, and history were evaluated. Data regarding recent medications were analyzed by two clinical pharmacists and an Internal Medicine physician. The DRPs were identified via V7.0 PCNE classification. Lexicomp ® was used to assess the drug-drug interactions. UpToDate ® recommendations and national guidelines were applied in the assessment of compliance with approved medication procedures. Main outcome measures Number and causes of the potential DRPs. Results At least one potential DRP was seen in 80% of the patients and 163 potential DRPs were identified (average = 1.6 DRPs/patient). The most common causes of DRPs were errors in drug selection (44.78%), dose selection (27.61%) and medication procedures (21.47%). There were significant correlations (p < 0.05) between DRPs and age (r = 0.4), number of drugs used (r = 0.32), duration of hospitalization (r = 0.25), renal impairment (r = - 0.34) and inflammation (r = 0.31). Conclusion The majority of the patients had DRPs. Patients with renal impairment, inflammation, polypharmacy or an extended hospital stay had a much higher chance of developing DRPs.

  12. A Nationwide Cross-Sectional Survey of Sleep-Related Problems in Japanese Visually Impaired Patients: Prevalence and Association with Health-Related Quality of Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamura, Norihisa; Sasai-Sakuma, Taeko; Morita, Yuko; Okawa, Masako; Inoue, Shigeru; Inoue, Yuichi

    2016-12-15

    This questionnaire-based cross-sectional study was conducted (1) to estimate the prevalence of sleep-related problems, and (2) to explore factors associated with lower physical/mental quality of life (QOL), particularly addressing sleep-related problems among Japanese visually impaired people. This nationwide questionnaire-based survey was administered to visually impaired individuals through the Japan Federation of the Blind. Visually impaired individuals without light perception (LP) (n = 311), those with LP (n = 287), and age-matched and gender-matched controls (n = 615) were eligible for this study. Study questionnaires elicited demographic information, and information about visual impairment status, sleep-related problems, and health-related quality of life. Visually impaired individuals with and without LP showed higher prevalence rates of irregular sleep-wake patterns and difficulty maintaining sleep than controls (34.7% and 29.4% vs. 15.8%, 60.1% and 46.7% vs. 26.8%, respectively; p sleep-related problems were observed more frequently in visually impaired individuals without LP than in those with LP. Non-restorative sleep or excessive daytime sleepiness was associated with lower mental/physical QOL in visually impaired individuals with LP and in control subjects. However, visually impaired individuals without LP showed irregular sleep-wake pattern or difficulty waking up at the desired time, which was associated with lower mental/physical QOL. Sleep-related problems were observed more frequently in visually impaired individuals than in controls. Moreover, the rates of difficulties were higher among subjects without LP. Sleep-related problems, especially circadian rhythm-related ones, can be associated with lower mental/physical QOL in visually impaired individuals without LP. © 2016 American Academy of Sleep Medicine

  13. Dynamic longitudinal relations between binge eating symptoms and severity and style of interpersonal problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Xiaochen; Nuttall, Amy K; Locke, Kenneth D; Hopwood, Christopher J

    2018-01-01

    Despite wide recognition of the importance of interpersonal problems in binge eating disorder (BED), the nature of this association remains unclear. Examining the direction of this longitudinal relationship is necessary to clarify the role that interpersonal problems play in the course of binge eating problems, and thus to specify treatment targets and mechanisms. This study aimed to articulate the bidirectional, longitudinal associations between BED and both the general severity of interpersonal problems as well as warm and dominant interpersonal styles. Severity and styles of interpersonal problems and BED symptoms were measured at baseline, 12 weeks, 24 weeks, and 36 weeks in a sample of 107 women in treatment for BED. Results from bivariate latent change score models indicated that interpersonal problem severity and BED symptoms are associated longitudinally but do not directly influence each other. The results indicated a bidirectional interrelation between binge eating symptoms and dominance such that less dominance predicted greater decreases in binge eating problems, and less binge eating symptoms predicted greater increases in dominance. We also found that binge eating symptoms positively predicted changes in warmth (i.e., less binge eating symptoms predicted less increases or more decreases in warmth). These findings highlight the importance of using dynamic models to examine directionality and delineate the distinct roles of interpersonal severity and styles in BED trajectories. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. Evaluation of students’ mathematical problem solving skills in relation to their reading levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gökhan Özsoy

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the current study is to investigate the correlation between students’ reading levels and mathematical problem solving skills. The present study was conducted in line with a qualitative research method, i.e., the phenomenological method. The study group of the current research is composed of six third grade students with different reading levels. The data of the study were collected through the reading of texts, the Ekwall/Shanker reading inventory and the problem solving think-aloud protocol. The collected data were evaluated using a descriptive analysis method. Once the study had been completed, it was concluded that problem solving skills varied according to reading level.

  15. Emotional/psychological and related problems among truant youths: An exploratory latent class analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dembo, Richard; Briones-Robinson, Rhissa; Ungaro, Rocio; Gulledge, Laura; Karas, Lora; Winters, Ken C; Belenko, Steven; Greenbaum, Paul E

    2012-09-01

    Latent class analysis was conducted on the psychosocial problems experienced by truant youths. Data were obtained from baseline interviews completed on 131 youths and their parents/guardians involved in a NIDA-funded, Brief Intervention Project. Results identified two classes of youths: Class 1(n=94): youths with low levels of delinquency, mental health and substance abuse issues, Class 2(n=37): youths with high levels of these problems. Comparison of these two classes on their urine analysis test results and parent/guardian reports of traumatic events found significant (p<.05) differences between them that were consistent with their problem group classification. Our results have important implications for research and practice.

  16. Framework for regional environmental management. [Problem-solving techniques; public relations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sievering, H.; Sinopoli, J.

    1976-04-01

    A framework for environmental decision-making is described in which both qualitative and quantitative aspects of regional problems can be integrated into a problem-solving context. The techniques employed in this framework are computer simulation, games, and vote-trading. The paper concludes that through this framework: (a) environmental analysts can assess public value structure goal sets which can be used in the development of regional simulations, and (b) in turn, the quantitative aspects of the problems will be more easily communicated to the affected public. A brief description of the application of the framework is also presented.

  17. How Do Discrepancies between Victimization and Rejection Expectations in Gay and Bisexual Men Relate to Mental Health Problems?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sattler, Frank A; Christiansen, Hanna

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Victimization and rejection expectations predict mental health problems in gay and bisexual men. Furthermore, it was shown that victimization predicts rejection expectations. Nevertheless, the levels of these two variables do not necessarily correspond as indicated by low inter-correlations, resulting in the question "How do discrepancies in the two variables relate to mental health problems?" This study tests if non-corresponding levels of victimization and rejection expectations in gay and bisexual men relate to mental health problems differently than corresponding levels of victimization and rejection expectations. It furthermore tests for linear and curvilinear relationships between victimization, rejection expectations, and mental health problems. Methods: Data from N = 1423 gay and bisexual men were obtained online. Victimization and rejection expectations were tested for discrepant values (differing 0.5 SD or more) and those that were in agreement (differing less than 0.5): 33.7% of participants were in agreement, 33.0% reported higher rejection expectations than victimization, and 33.3% v.v. Then, a polynomial regression and a surface analysis were conducted. Results: Discrepant values in victimization and rejection expectations or the direction of the discrepancy did not relevantly predict mental health problems. Findings indicate that victimization and rejection expectations predict mental health problems linearly as well as convexly (upward curving) in gay and bisexual men. Discussion: This study replicates findings that gay and bisexual men with more experiences of victimization and rejection expectations demonstrated more mental health problems. Furthermore, this study is the first one to find a convex relationship between these predictors and mental health problems, implicating that disproportionally high mental health problems exist in those gay and bisexual men with high levels of victimization and rejection expectations. On the other

  18. Anxiety and cannabis-related problem severity among dually diagnosed outpatients: The impact of false safety behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckner, Julia D; Zvolensky, Michael J; Ecker, Anthony H; Jeffries, Emily R; Lemke, Austin W; Dean, Kimberlye E; Businelle, Michael S; Gallagher, Matthew W

    2017-07-01

    Cannabis use disorder (CUD) co-occurs with anxiety disorders at high rates. Little is known about the mechanisms linking CUD and anxiety disorders. One theoretically-driven perspective is that individuals with anxiety disorders may be more apt to use FSBs (i.e., behaviors that may be effective in decreasing anxiety in the short-term, but can maintain and even exacerbate anxiety in the long-term), which can perpetuate cannabis use despite cannabis-related problems. The present study tested whether FSB use explained the relation of anxiety symptom severity with cannabis quantity and related problems among 77 adults with CUD and comorbid anxiety disorders seeking outpatient CUD treatment. Results indicated that FSB frequency was significantly related to anxiety symptom severity and cannabis problem severity, but not cannabis quantity. Anxiety symptom severity was indirectly (via FSB frequency) related to cannabis problem severity, but not to cannabis quantity. These novel findings suggest that more frequent use of FSBs may play an important role in cannabis problem severity among individuals with CUD and anxiety disorders. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Gender-specific mediational links between parenting styles, parental monitoring, impulsiveness, drinking control, and alcohol-related problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patock-Peckham, Julie A; King, Kevin M; Morgan-Lopez, Antonio A; Ulloa, Emilio C; Moses, Jennifer M Filson

    2011-03-01

    Recently, it has been suggested that traits may dynamically change as conditions change. One possible mechanism that may influence impulsiveness is parental monitoring. Parental monitoring reflects a knowledge regarding one's offspring's whereabouts and social connections. The aim of this investigation was to examine potential gender-specific parental influences to impulsiveness (general behavioral control), control over one's own drinking (specific behavioral control), and alcohol-related problems among individuals in a period of emerging adulthood. Direct and mediational links between parenting styles (permissive, authoritarian, and authoritative), parental monitoring, impulsiveness, drinking control, and alcohol-related problems were investigated. A multiple-group, SEM model with (316 women, 265 men) university students was examined. In general, the overall pattern among male and female respondents was distinct. For daughters, perceptions of a permissive father were indirectly linked to more alcohol-related problems through lower levels of monitoring by fathers and more impulsive symptoms. Perceptions of an authoritative father were also indirectly linked to fewer impulsive symptoms through higher levels of monitoring by fathers among daughters. For men, perceptions of a permissive mother were indirectly linked to more alcohol-related problems through lower levels of monitoring by mothers and more impulsive symptoms. For sons, perceptions of mother authoritativeness were indirectly linked to fewer alcohol-related problems through more monitoring by mothers and fewer impulsive symptoms. Monitoring by an opposite-gender parent mediated the link between parenting styles (i.e., permissive, authoritative) on impulsiveness.

  20. ADHD-related symptoms, emotional/behavioral problems, and physical conditions in Taiwanese children with epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang-Ju Tsai

    2013-07-01

    Conclusion: Our findings imply that clinicians should assess physical and emotional/behavioral problems among children with epilepsy in order to provide interventions to offset possible adverse psychiatric outcomes.

  1. Social information processing problems related to reactive and proactive aggression of adolescents in residential treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oostermeijer, S.; van Nieuwenhuijzen, M.; van de Ven, P.M.; Popma, A.; Jansen, L.M.C.

    2016-01-01

    Adolescents in residential treatment predominantly show externalizing problems. To provide more tailored treatments, gaining knowledge on underlying processes is important. Aggression is often subdivided in defensive/reactive, and instrumental/proactive aggression. The social information processing

  2. Distress Tolerance Among Students Referred for Treatment Following Violation of Campus Cannabis Use Policy: Relations to Use, Problems, and Motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckner, Julia D; Jeffries, Emily R; Terlecki, Meredith A; Ecker, Anthony H

    2016-09-01

    Students referred to treatment after violating campus drug policies represent a high-risk group. Identification of factors related to these students' cannabis use could inform prevention and treatment efforts. Distress tolerance (DT) is negatively related to substance-related behaviors and may be related to high-risk cannabis use vulnerability factors that can impact treatment outcome. Thus, the current study tested whether DT was related to cannabis use frequency, cannabis-related problems, and motivation to change cannabis use among 88 students referred for treatment after violating campus cannabis policies. DT was robustly, negatively related to cannabis use and related problems. DT was also significantly, negatively correlated with coping, conformity, and expansion motives. DT was directly and indirectly related to cannabis problems via coping (not conformity or expansion) motives. Motives did not mediate the relation of DT to cannabis use frequency. DT may be an important target in treatment with students who violate campus cannabis policies. © The Author(s) 2015.

  3. Experiences of physical and relational victimization in children with ADHD: The role of social problems and aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQuade, Julia D; Breslend, Nicole L; Groff, Destin

    2018-04-16

    The social risk factors for physical and relational peer victimization were examined within a mixed-gender sample of children with and without attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Participants were 124 children (ages 8-12 years; 48% boys), with 47% exhibiting sub-clinical or clinical elevations in ADHD symptoms. ADHD and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) symptom counts were assessed based on parent- and teacher-reports; parents rated children's social problems and teachers rated children's use of physical and relational aggression and experiences of physical and relational victimization. A multiple mediator model was used to test whether there were indirect effects of ADHD or ODD symptoms on physical and relational victimization through social problems, physical aggression, or relational aggression. At the bivariate level, ADHD and ODD symptoms were both significantly associated with higher rates of physical and relational victimization. In the mediational model, there were significant indirect effects of ADHD symptoms on relational victimization via social problems, of ODD on relational victimization via relational aggression, and of ODD symptoms on physical victimization via physical aggression. Results suggest that there are distinct risk factors implicated in the physical and relational victimization of youth with ADHD and that the co-occurrence of ODD symptoms is important to assess. Clinical implications for addressing victimization in children with ADHD are discussed. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Are Survivors Who Report Cancer-Related Financial Problems More Likely to Forgo or Delay Medical Care?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, Erin E.; Forsythe, Laura P.; Yabroff, K. Robin; Weaver, Kathryn E.; de Moor, Janet S.; Rodriguez, Juan L.; Rowland, Julia H.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Financial problems caused by cancer and its treatment can substantially affect survivors and their families and create barriers to seeking health care. METHODS The authors identified cancer survivors diagnosed as adults (n = 1556) from the nationally representative 2010 National Health Interview Survey. Using multivariable logistic regression analyses, the authors report sociodemographic, clinical, and treatment-related factors associated with perceived cancer-related financial problems and the association between financial problems and forgoing or delaying health care because of cost. Adjusted percentages using the predictive marginals method are presented. RESULTS Cancer-related financial problems were reported by 31.8% (95% confidence interval, 29.3%–34.5%) of survivors. Factors found to be significantly associated with cancer-related financial problems in survivors included younger age at diagnosis, minority race/ethnicity, history of chemotherapy or radiation treatment, recurrence or multiple cancers, and shorter time from diagnosis. After adjustment for covariates, respondents who reported financial problems were more likely to report delaying (18.3% vs 7.4%) or forgoing overall medical care (13.8% vs 5.0%), prescription medications (14.2% vs 7.6%), dental care (19.8% vs 8.3%), eyeglasses (13.9% vs 5.8%), and mental health care (3.9% vs 1.6%) than their counterparts without financial problems (all Pfinancial problems are not only disproportionately represented in survivors who are younger, members of a minority group, and have a higher treatment burden, but may also contribute to survivors forgoing or delaying medical care after cancer. PMID:23907958

  5. A Family of Symmetric Linear Multistep Methods for the Numerical Solution of the Schroedinger Equation and Related Problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anastassi, Z. A.; Simos, T. E.

    2010-01-01

    We develop a new family of explicit symmetric linear multistep methods for the efficient numerical solution of the Schroedinger equation and related problems with oscillatory solution. The new methods are trigonometrically fitted and have improved intervals of periodicity as compared to the corresponding classical method with constant coefficients and other methods from the literature. We also apply the methods along with other known methods to real periodic problems, in order to measure their efficiency.

  6. Patients' experiences of lupus-related foot problems: a qualitative investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, A E; Blake, A; Cherry, L; Alcacer-Pitarch, B; Edwards, C J; Hopkinson, N; Vital, E M J; Teh, L S

    2017-10-01

    Background Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) can present with a variety of symptoms. Previous research has shown there is a high prevalence of lower limb and foot problems in patients with SLE associated with the musculoskeletal, vascular and neurological changes. Furthermore, there is a high prevalence of infections affecting the feet and a range of common skin and nail problems. However, it is not known how these foot problems impact upon people's lives. Therefore, we aimed to explore this using a qualitative approach. Method Following ethical approval, 12 participants were recruited who had a diagnosis of SLE, current and/or past experience of foot problems and were over 18 years in age. Following consent, interviews were carried out with an interpretivist phenomenological approach to both data collection and analysis. Results Seven themes provide insight into: foot problems and symptoms; the impact of these foot problems and symptoms on activities; disclosure and diagnosis of foot problems; treatment of foot problems and symptoms; perceived barriers to professional footcare; unanswered questions about feet and footcare; and identification of the need for professional footcare and footcare advice. Conclusion These participants tend to "self-treat" rather than disclose that they may need professional footcare. A lack of focus upon foot health within a medical consultation is attributed to the participant's belief that it is not within the doctor's role, even though it is noted to contribute to reduced daily activity. There is a need for feet to be included as a part of patient monitoring and for foot health management to be made accessible for people with SLE.

  7. A framework for prioritising practices to overcome cost-related problems in reverse logistics

    OpenAIRE

    Amanda Badenhorst

    2013-01-01

    Reverse logistics has gained increasing attention in recent years. One of the biggest problems for organisations and supply chains is reducing cost in reverse logistics. This study attempted to gain a better understanding of reverse logistics and the costs associated with it. A literature study was conducted to identify the cost problems in reverse logistics and possible practices to overcome them. Following that, a survey was conducted to determine whether the practices identified in literat...

  8. Anxiety sensitivity components in relation to alcohol and cannabis use, motives, and problems in treatment-seeking cigarette smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillot, Casey R; Blumenthal, Heidemarie; Zvolensky, Michael J; Schmidt, Norman B

    2018-03-08

    Anxiety sensitivity (AS)- fear of anxiety symptoms and their potential negative consequences-has been implicated in the development of substance use problems and motivation to use substances for coping with distress, though the AS components (physical, cognitive, and social concerns) have not been studied extensively in relation to alcohol- and cannabis-related variables. In a cross-sectional design, self-report measures of AS and alcohol and cannabis use, motives, and problems were administered to 364 treatment-seeking cigarette smokers with a history of alcohol and cannabis use. In both adjusted and unadjusted analyses, linear regression models indicated that AS cognitive concerns are related to cannabis-use conformity motives, alcohol-use coping motives, and alcohol problems; AS physical and cognitive concerns are related to greater cannabis problems specifically in males; and AS social concerns are associated with greater social, coping, enhancement, and conformity drinking motives. AS cognitive and physical concerns were also related to greater alcohol and cannabis problems, respectively, in subsamples limited to 214 current alcohol users and 170 current cannabis users. Together with prior work, current findings suggest that it may be beneficial to focus more on addressing AS cognitive concerns in individuals with tobacco-alcohol problem comorbidity, whereas it may be beneficial to focus on addressing both AS physical and cognitive concerns in males with tobacco-cannabis problem comorbidity. In addition, cigarette smokers high in AS social concerns may benefit from relaxation training to lessen their social anxiety as well as behavioral activation to enhance their positive affect. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The relation between personal relative deprivation and the urge to gamble among gamblers is moderated by problem gambling severity: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callan, Mitchell J; Shead, N Will; Olson, James M

    2015-06-01

    One psychosocial factor that has been identified to motivate gambling is personal relative deprivation (PRD), which refers to resentment stemming from the belief that one is deprived of a desired and deserved outcome compared to some referent. Although several lines of evidence point to a positive association between PRD and the urge to gamble, the factors that might moderate this relation have yet to be investigated. Through a quantitative research synthesis, we sought to test (a) the overall relation between PRD and gambling urges among people reporting recent gambling experience, and (b) whether this relation is moderated by problem gambling severity. Meta-analysis revealed that, overall, higher self-reported PRD was associated with stronger urges to gamble (r=.26). A meta-regression revealed that, across studies, the strength of this relation depended on problem gambling severity, such that the relation between PRD and gambling urges was stronger among samples higher in average problem gambling severity. This pattern was corroborated by an analysis of the aggregated individual participant data (N=857), such that PRD predicted gambling urges only among participants higher in problem gambling severity. The potential practical implications and limitations of these results are discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Client and clinician-rated characteristics of problem gamblers with and without history of gambling-related illegal behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Jennifer D; Lister, Jamey J; Struble, Cara A; Cairncross, Molly; Carr, Meagan M; Ledgerwood, David M

    2018-03-12

    Individuals with gambling disorder are at an elevated risk for engaging in gambling-related illegal behaviors. The present study examined client (N = 88) and clinician ratings (N = 30) of client characteristics associated with a history of gambling-related illegal behaviors. We also examined client characteristics associated with history of arrest for a gambling-related crime. Gambling-related illegal behaviors and arrest were common (57.3% and 23.9%, respectively) in the present sample. Clients of younger age, and those with greater gambling-related financial consequences, lifetime alcohol problems, impulsivity, mood symptoms, and daily living role difficulties were more likely to report gambling-related illegal behaviors. Clients who had been arrested for a gambling-related crime were more likely to report daily living and role functioning difficulties and lifetime alcohol problems. Clinicians rated clients with a history of gambling-related illegal behaviors and/or gambling-related arrests as more impulsive, and clinicians also endorsed higher rates of treatment failure among these clients. Both client and clinician report suggested that clients with a history of illegal behaviors may have a variety of comorbid problems that may be a focus of clinical intervention. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Nursing outcome "Severity of infection": conceptual definitions for indicators related to respiratory problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Acelas, Alba Luz; Reich, Rejane; de Abreu Almeida, Miriam; Oliveira Crossetti, Maria da Graça; de Fátima Lucena, Amália

    2016-04-01

    Build conceptual definitions for some indicators of the nursing outcome Infection Severity in the Nursing Outcomes Classification (NOC) related to respiratory problems, based on scientific evidence of signs and symptoms of infection in adults. Integrative literature review with search in the databases PubMed, CINAHL, LILACS and SCOPUS. Studies whose full texts were available, published in Spanish, Portuguese or English, using the descriptors infection severity, nursing outcomes classification NOC, respiratory infections and respiratory signs and symptoms. Nine publications were analyzed that supported the elaboration of the conceptual definitions for eight indicators of the Nursing Outcome Infection Severity: purulent drainage, fever, chilling, unstable temperature, pain, colonization of drainage cultivation, white blood cell count elevation and white blood cell count drop. This study contributed to understand the terms used in the nursing outcome Infection Severity, in order to improve and facilitate the use of the NOC, as it enhances the conceptual clarity of the selected indicators with a view to producing better scientific evidence.Objetivo.Construir definições conceituais para alguns indicadores do resultado de enfermagem Gravidade de Infecção da Nursing Outcomes Classification (NOC) relacionados aos problemas respiratórios, a partir de evidências científicas sobre sinais e sintomas de infecção em pessoas adultas. Métodos. Revisão integrativa da literatura com busca nas bases de dados PubMed, CINAHL, LILACS e SCOPUS. Foram incluídos estudos com textos na integra, publicados em espanhol, português ou inglês, usando os descritores gravidade da infecção, classificação dos resultados de enfermagem da NOC, infecções respiratórias, e sinais e sintomas respiratórios. Resultados. Analisaram-se nove publicações que embasaram a elaboração das definições conceituais de oitos indicadores do Resultado de Enfermagem Gravidade de Infec

  12. Racial/Ethnic Differences of Justice-Involved Youth in Substance-Related Problems and Services Received.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heaton, Leanne L

    2018-01-18

    This study examined differences in substance-related problems and receipt of substance-specific counseling in 7 different racial/ethnic groups of justice-involved youth. Data came from a nationally representative sample of 7,073 youth in residential placement across 36 states representing 5 program types. Descriptive analyses and regression modeling techniques were used to examine the relationship between race/ethnicity, substance problems, and substance services. Results show that more than 2/3 report a history of at least 1 substance-related problem. Yet, over 12% of youth in residential placement are in programs that do not offer any substance-related services. This has the greatest implications for African American and Hispanic youth, who are most likely to be the programs without these services. Moreover, there are substantive differences in the prevalence of substance problems by race and ethnicity. American Indian/Alaska Natives and multiracial youth were significantly more likely to have substance problems, to be under the influence of drugs and/or alcohol at the time of the current offense, go have a history of substance problems and above average mental health need, and to have a history of substance problems and a lifetime suicide attempt compared to African Americans. Asian youth were similar to African Americans and had lower rates of substance problems. Asian youth were also the least likely to be under the influence of drugs and/or alcohol at the time of the current offense. This study provides important preliminary findings about Asian, Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander, and multiracial justice-involved youth and adds to the knowledge about American Indian/Alaska Native populations. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. Dyadic conflict, drinking to cope, and alcohol-related problems: A psychometric study and longitudinal actor-partner interdependence model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambe, Laura; Mackinnon, Sean P; Stewart, Sherry H

    2015-10-01

    The motivational model of alcohol use posits that individuals may consume alcohol to cope with negative affect. Conflict with others is a strong predictor of coping motives, which in turn predict alcohol-related problems. Two studies examined links between conflict, coping motives, and alcohol-related problems in emerging adult romantic dyads. It was hypothesized that the association between conflict and alcohol-related problems would be mediated by coping-depression and coping-anxiety motives. It was also hypothesized that this would be true for actor (i.e., how individual factors influence individual behaviors) and partner effects (i.e., how partner factors influence individual behaviors) and at the between- (i.e., does not vary over the study period) and within-subjects (i.e., varies over the study period) levels. Both studies examined participants currently in a romantic relationship who consumed ≥12 alcoholic drinks in the past year. Study 1 was cross-sectional using university students (N = 130 students; 86.9% female; M = 21.02 years old, SD = 3.43). Study 2 used a 4-wave, 4-week longitudinal design with romantic dyads (N = 100 dyads; 89% heterosexual; M = 22.13 years old, SD = 5.67). In Study 2, coping-depression motives emerged as the strongest mediator of the conflict-alcohol-related problems association, and findings held for actor effects but not partner effects. Supplemental analyses revealed that this mediational pathway only held among women. Within any given week, alcohol-related problems changed systematically in the same direction between romantic partners. Interventions may wish to target coping-depression drinking motives within couples in response to conflict to reduce alcohol-related problems. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. Feasibility of a self-administered survey to identify primary care patients at risk of medication-related problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makowsky MJ

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Mark J Makowsky,1 Andrew J Cave,2 Scot H Simpson1 1Faculty of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, 2Department of Family Medicine, Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada Background and objectives: Pharmacists working in primary care clinics are well positioned to help optimize medication management of community-dwelling patients who are at high risk of experiencing medication-related problems. However, it is often difficult to identify these patients. Our objective was to test the feasibility of a self-administered patient survey, to facilitate identification of patients at high risk of medication-related problems in a family medicine clinic. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional, paper-based survey at the University of Alberta Hospital Family Medicine Clinic in Edmonton, Alberta, which serves approximately 7,000 patients, with 25,000 consultations per year. Adult patients attending the clinic were invited to complete a ten-item questionnaire, adapted from previously validated surveys, while waiting to be seen by the physician. Outcomes of interest included: time to complete the questionnaire, staff feedback regarding impact on workflow, and the proportion of patients who reported three or more risk factors for medication-related problems. Results: The questionnaire took less than 5 minutes to complete, according to the patient's report on the last page of the questionnaire. The median age (and interquartile range of respondents was 57 (45–69 years; 59% were women; 47% reported being in very good or excellent health; 43 respondents of 100 had three or more risk factors, and met the definition for being at high risk of a medication-related problem. Conclusions: Distribution of a self-administered questionnaire did not disrupt patients, or the clinic workflow, and identified an important proportion of patients at high risk of medication-related problems. Keywords: screening tool, pharmacists, primary

  15. Identification of significant problems related to light water reactor piping systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-07-01

    Work on the project was divided into three tasks. In Task 1, past surveys of LWR piping system problems and recent Licensee Event Report summaries are studied to identify the significant problems of LWR piping systems and the primary causes of these problems. Pipe cracking is identified as the most recurring problem and is mainly due to the vibration of pipes due to operating pump-pipe resonance, fluid-flow fluctuations, and vibration of pipe supports. Research relevant to the identified piping system problems is evaluated. Task 2 studies identify typical LWR piping systems and the current loads and load combinations used in the design of these systems. Definitions of loads are reviewed. In Task 3, a comparative study is carried out on the use of nonlinear analysis methods in the design of LWR piping systems. The study concludes that the current linear-elastic methods of analysis may not predict accurately the behavior of piping systems under seismic loads and may, under certain circumstances, result in nonconservative designs. Gaps at piping supports are found to have a significant effect on the response of the piping systems

  16. The ChlorOut concept. A method to reduce alkali-related problems during combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kassman, Haakan [ChlorOut AB c/o Vattenfall AB, Nykoeping (Sweden); Wollner, Lothar [Boehringer Ingelheim Pharma GmbH und Co. KG, Ingelheim am Rhein (Germany); Berg, Magnus [ChlorOut AB c/o Vattenfall AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2013-06-01

    Combustion of biomass with a high content of alkali and chlorine (Cl) can result in operational problems including deposit formation and superheater corrosion. The strategies applied to reduce such problems include co-combustion and the use of additives. Ammonium sulphate is a part of the ChlorOut concept which is applied in a range of commercial boilers. This concept is based on dosing of sulphate-containing additives to the flue gases and a unique measurement device for on-line measurement of gaseous alkali chlorides called IACM (in-situ alkali chloride monitor). The focus of the present paper is on evaluation of long-term experiences from two full-scale boilers. The operational problems with deposit formation and superheater corrosion decreased in these boilers after installing the ChlorOut concept. (orig.)

  17. Health-related quality of life among children with mental health problems: a population-based approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dey Michelle

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Children with mental health problems have been neglected in health-related quality of life (HRQOL studies. Therefore, the aims of the current study were 1 to assess the influence of the presence of mental or physical health problems on HRQOL; and 2 to analyze the effects of item overlap between mental health problems and HRQOL-measurements. Methods Proxy- and self-rated HRQOL (KIDSCREEN-27 of children 9–14 years old was assessed across children with mental health problems (n = 535, children with physical health problems (n = 327, and healthy controls (n = 744. Multiple linear regression analyses were conducted with health status, severity of symptoms, status of medication use, gender and nationality as independent, and HRQOL scores as dependent variables. The effects of item overlap were analyzed by repeating regression analyses while excluding those HRQOL items that contextually overlapped the most frequently-occurring mental health problem (attention deficits. Results Severity of symptoms was the strongest predictor of reduced HRQOL. However, all other predictors (except for the status of medication use also contributed to the prediction of some HRQOL scores. Controlling for item overlap did not meaningfully alter the results. Conclusions When children with different health constraints are compared, the severity of their particular health problems should be considered. Furthermore, item overlap seems not to be a major problem when the HRQOL of children with mental health problems is studied. Hence, HRQOL assessments are useful to gather information that goes beyond the clinical symptoms of a health problem. This information can, for instance, be used to improve clinical practice.

  18. The role of decision-making in cannabis-related problems among young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Raul; Schuster, Randi M; Mermelstein, Robin M; Diviak, Kathleen R

    2015-09-01

    Deficits in decision-making and episodic memory are often reported among heavy cannabis users, yet little is known on how they influence negative consequences from cannabis use. Individual differences in decision-making may explain, in part, why some individuals experience significant problems from their cannabis use whereas others do not. We hypothesized that poor decision-making would moderate relationships between amount of cannabis use and problems from cannabis use whereas episodic memory performance would not. Young adult cannabis users (n=52) with cannabis as their drug of choice and with minimal comorbidities completed semi-structured interviews, self-report questionnaires, and measures of neurocognitive functioning, with decision-making accessed via the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT), episodic memory via the Hopkins Verbal Learning Test - Revised (HVLT) and problems from cannabis use with the Marijuana Problems Scale. Strong relationships were observed between amount of cannabis use (lifetime, 12-month, and 30-day) and problems reported from use, but only among participants with low (impaired) decision-making (R(2)=.39 to .51; pdecision-making performance (p>.05). In contrast, episodic memory performance was not a significant moderator of the relationship between amount of cannabis use and cannabis problems (p>.05). Cannabis users with poor decision-making may be at greater risk for experiencing significant negative consequences from their cannabis use. Our results lend further support to emerging evidence of decision-making as a risk factor for addiction and extend these findings to cannabis users. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Validation of a Crowdsourcing Methodology for Developing a Knowledge Base of Related Problem-Medication Pairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCoy, A B; Wright, A; Krousel-Wood, M; Thomas, E J; McCoy, J A; Sittig, D F

    2015-01-01

    Clinical knowledge bases of problem-medication pairs are necessary for many informatics solutions that improve patient safety, such as clinical summarization. However, developing these knowledge bases can be challenging. We sought to validate a previously developed crowdsourcing approach for generating a knowledge base of problem-medication pairs in a large, non-university health care system with a widely used, commercially available electronic health record. We first retrieved medications and problems entered in the electronic health record by clinicians during routine care during a six month study period. Following the previously published approach, we calculated the link frequency and link ratio for each pair then identified a threshold cutoff for estimated problem-medication pair appropriateness through clinician review; problem-medication pairs meeting the threshold were included in the resulting knowledge base. We selected 50 medications and their gold standard indications to compare the resulting knowledge base to the pilot knowledge base developed previously and determine its recall and precision. The resulting knowledge base contained 26,912 pairs, had a recall of 62.3% and a precision of 87.5%, and outperformed the pilot knowledge base containing 11,167 pairs from the previous study, which had a recall of 46.9% and a precision of 83.3%. We validated the crowdsourcing approach for generating a knowledge base of problem-medication pairs in a large non-university health care system with a widely used, commercially available electronic health record, indicating that the approach may be generalizable across healthcare settings and clinical systems. Further research is necessary to better evaluate the knowledge, to compare crowdsourcing with other approaches, and to evaluate if incorporating the knowledge into electronic health records improves patient outcomes.

  20. Regulatory problems relating to physical protection of nuclear plants and materials in Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nocera, F.

    1981-10-01

    Although the questions raised by physical protection have an international charater, it is important to know of national regulations in that field since exchange of information and study of common problems help to achieve satisfactory results. This paper analyses the Italian situation, by illustrating legislative and administrative actions undertaken as well as the practices adopted in Italy to meet problems of prevention of malevolent acts against nuclear installations and substances, until such time an Act is passed in this respect. Finally, the author is in favour of the 1980 Convention of Physical Protection of Nuclear Material being ratified soon by a large number of countries. (NEA) [fr

  1. Criticality Safety Problems Related to Storage of Highly Active Liquid Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amin, E.

    1999-01-01

    The geometries of liquid waste storage tanks are not generally safe against criticality. Normally, this does not cause problems as fissile materials exist in nitric acid solution only as depleted uranium or in insignificant concentration of the originally reprocessed inventory of plutonium. However, if sedimentation of solid particles would occur, the deposited material would cause criticality safety problems. Particularly, non-horizontal installation of the storage tanks would increase the Eigen value. The effect of the storage tank inclination and the presence of transplutonium elements on the criticality safety are investigated using the NCNSRC code packages. The results are compared well with a similar German published results

  2. Consequences of activation policy targeting young adults with health-related problems in Sweden and Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hultqvist, Sara; Nørup, Iben

    2017-01-01

    The Scandinavian countries have a long history of active labor market policy and over the years, activation has been used as a method to combat unemployment amongst those with no problems besides unemployment. However, activation policy is now permeating social policies providing economic...... protection for young adults who cannot work for health reasons . A strong emphasis on paid work as the main source to social participation has legitimized work-promoting activation that targets socially vulnerable groups such as young adults with comprehensive health problems. In this paper we discuss...

  3. Health related quality of life and psychological problems in Egyptian children with simple obesity in relation to body mass index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eman A. Abdel-Aziz

    2014-04-01

    Conclusions: Obese children and adolescents have lower health-related QOL that correlated negatively with BMI, also they are more susceptible to anxiety and depression symptoms than non obese children.

  4. Game On: Past Year Gambling, Gambling-Related Problems, and Fantasy Sports Gambling Among College Athletes and Non-athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Ryan J; Nelson, Sarah E; Gallucci, Andrew R

    2016-06-01

    College students experience higher rates of gambling-related problems than most other population segments, including the general population. Although Division I (D1) athletes often have more at stake than the average student if and when they gamble (e.g., the potential to lose their athletic eligibility), relatively few studies have assessed the gambling behavior of this population and none have specifically assessed fantasy sports gambling. We conducted a study to examine gambling behavior (past-year gambling, gambling-related problems, and fantasy sport gambling) among a sample (N = 692) of college students at a private religiously affiliated university in the Southwest US. The sample for our study was unique in that approximately 30 % of the participants were D1 athletes. We compared the gambling behavior among three groups based on the athlete status: D1 athletes, club/intramural/recreational (CIR) athletes, and non-athletes (NAs). Compared to females in our sample, males observed higher rates of past year gambling, fantasy sports participation, fantasy sports gambling, and gambling-related problems. Among males, we found that CIR athletes observed the highest rates of past year gambling and fantasy sports participation and D1 athletes observed higher rates than NAs. We did not find differences in fantasy sport gambling and past year gambling-related problems based on athlete status in males or females.

  5. Annealed Scaling for a Charged Polymer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caravenna, F.; Hollander, F. den; Pétrélis, N.; Poisat, J.

    2016-01-01

    This paper studies an undirected polymer chain living on the one-dimensional integer lattice and carrying i.i.d. random charges. Each self-intersection of the polymer chain contributes to the interaction Hamiltonian an energy that is equal to the product of the charges of the two monomers that meet. The joint probability distribution for the polymer chain and the charges is given by the Gibbs distribution associated with the interaction Hamiltonian. The focus is on the annealed free energy per monomer in the limit as the length of the polymer chain tends to infinity. We derive a spectral representation for the free energy and use this to prove that there is a critical curve in the parameter plane of charge bias versus inverse temperature separating a ballistic phase from a subballistic phase. We show that the phase transition is first order. We prove large deviation principles for the laws of the empirical speed and the empirical charge, and derive a spectral representation for the associated rate functions. Interestingly, in both phases both rate functions exhibit flat pieces, which correspond to an inhomogeneous strategy for the polymer to realise a large deviation. The large deviation principles in turn lead to laws of large numbers and central limit theorems. We identify the scaling behaviour of the critical curve for small and for large charge bias. In addition, we identify the scaling behaviour of the free energy for small charge bias and small inverse temperature. Both are linked to an associated Sturm-Liouville eigenvalue problem. A key tool in our analysis is the Ray-Knight formula for the local times of the one-dimensional simple random walk. This formula is exploited to derive a closed form expression for the generating function of the annealed partition function, and for several related quantities. This expression in turn serves as the starting point for the derivation of the spectral representation for the free energy, and for the scaling theorems

  6. Tactics for modeling multiple salivary analyte data in relation to behavior problems: Additive, ratio, and interaction effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Frances R; Raine, Adrian; Granger, Douglas A

    2015-01-01

    Individual differences in the psychobiology of the stress response have been linked to behavior problems in youth yet most research has focused on single signaling molecules released by either the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis or the autonomic nervous system. As our understanding about biobehavioral relationships develops it is clear that multiple signals from the biological stress systems work in coordination to affect behavior problems. Questions are raised as to whether coordinated effects should be statistically represented as ratio or interactive terms. We address this knowledge gap by providing a theoretical overview of the concepts and rationales, and illustrating the analytical tactics. Salivary samples collected from 446 youth aged 11-12 were assayed for salivary alpha-amylase (sAA), dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate (DHEA-s) and cortisol. Coordinated effect of DHEA-s and cortisol, and coordinated effect of sAA and cortisol on externalizing and internalizing problems (Child Behavior Checklist) were tested with the ratio and the interaction approaches using multi-group path analysis. Findings consistent with previous studies include a positive association between cortisol/DHEA-s ratio and internalizing problems; and a negative association between cortisol and externalizing problems conditional on low levels of sAA. This study highlights the importance of matching analytical strategy with research hypothesis when integrating salivary bioscience into research in behavior problems. Recommendations are made for investigating multiple salivary analytes in relation to behavior problems. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Relative deprivation in the Nordic countries-child mental health problems in relation to parental financial stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gunnarsdóttir, Hrafnhildur; Hensing, Gunnel; Povlsen, Lene

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The Nordic welfare system has been acknowledged as favourable for children, successfully contributing to low child mortality and poverty rates. Nevertheless, mental health problems among children and adolescents are common and the economic situation of the family has been highlighted...... as an important determinant. In spite of similar social, political and cultural structures, the Nordic countries differ; Iceland was most affected by the global financial crisis in 2008. The aim of this study was to examine potential differences in parental financial stress and the associations to child mental...... health between the Nordic countries as well as age and gender differences.  METHODS:  The study sample consisted of 6330 children aged 4-16 years old included in the 2011 version of the Nordic Study of Children's Health, Wellbeing and Quality of life. The Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire was used...

  8. Social Information Processing in Preschool Children: Relations to Sociodemographic Risk and Problem Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziv, Yair; Sorongon, Alberto

    2011-01-01

    Using a multicomponent, process-oriented approach, the links between social information processing during the preschool years and (a) sociodemographic risk and (b) behavior problems in preschool were examined in a community sample of 196 children. Findings provided support for our initial hypotheses that aspects of social information processing in…

  9. Working Memory and Behavioural Problems in Relation to Malay Writing of Primary School Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Teo-Sieak; Jiar, Yeo-Kee

    2017-01-01

    Deficit in working memory is common among young children across multiple abilities. Teachers have pointed to poor memory as one contributing factor to inattentiveness and short attention spans as well as some behavioural problems among students. This study aimed to explore the relationship among working memory, externalizing and internalizing…

  10. Agenesis of the Corpus Callosum: Assessment and Remediation of School-Related Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puente, Antonio, E.

    The paper examines three cases of children born with brain damage (absence of corpus callosum). Common problems (attentional, cognitive, visuo-motor, and motor deficits) are noted, and the impact of secondary emotional involvement is considered. Intervention approaches with two of the children are described as inconsistent and inadequate, while…

  11. Mental health problems during puberty : Tanner stage-related differences in specific symptoms. The TRAILS study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oldehinkel, Albertine J.; Verhulst, Frank C.; Ormel, Johan

    The aim of this study was to investigate associations between specific mental health problems and pubertal stage in (pre)adolescents participating in the Dutch prospective cohort study TRAILS (first assessment: N = 2230, age 11.09 +/- 0.56, 50.8% girls; second assessment: N = 2149, age 13.56 +/-

  12. In Search of Facilitating Citizens' Problem Solving: Public Libraries' Collaborative Development of Services with Related Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeya, Nozomi; Tamura, Shunsaku; Miwa, Makiko; Koshizuka, Mika; Saito, Seiichi; Kasai, Yumiko

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: The paper attempts to understand value constellations in organising and using the business information service that was recently developed by various stakeholders with libraries who were in pursuit of supporting people's problem solving in Japanese public libraries. Method: In-depth interviews were conducted not only with users and…

  13. Intellectual Disability among Dutch Homeless People: Prevalence and Related Psychosocial Problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Straaten, B. Van; Schrijvers, C.T.; Laan, J. van der; Boersma, S.N.; Rodenburg, G.; Wolf, J.R.L.M.; Mheen, D. Van de

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There is a higher prevalence of intellectual disability (ID) among homeless people than in the general population. However, little is known about the additional psychosocial problems faced by homeless people with ID. We describe the prevalence of ID in a cohort of homeless people in the

  14. Intellectual disability among Dutch homeless people: Prevalence and related psychosocial problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. van Straaten (Barbara); C.Th.M. Schrijvers (Carola); J. Van Der Laan (Jorien); S.N. Boersma (Sandra N.); G. Rodenburg (Gerda); J.R.L.M. Wolf (Judith R. L. M.); H. van de Mheen (Dike)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractBackground: There is a higher prevalence of intellectual disability (ID) among homeless people than in the general population. However, little is known about the additional psychosocial problems faced by homeless people with ID. We describe the prevalence of ID in a cohort of homeless

  15. Decision making under ambiguity but not under risk is related to problem gambling severity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brevers, Damien; Cleeremans, Axel; Goudriaan, Anna E.; Bechara, Antoine; Kornreich, Charles; Verbanck, Paul; Noël, Xavier

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the relationship between problem gambling severity and decision-making situations that vary in two degrees of uncertainty (probability of outcome is known: decision-making under risk; probability of outcome is unknown: decision-making under ambiguity). For

  16. Teachers' Beliefs on the Relative Effectiveness of Reforms for Motivating Pupils and Alleviating Behavior Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Robert B.

    1977-01-01

    A survey of 231 British teachers assessed their ratings of classroom reforms which might stimulate student interest and reduce behavior problems. Results correlate with those from a study in 1952, showing abolition of corporal punishment as having little effect and smaller class size, remedial courses, and parental support as being most effective.…

  17. Parenting Dimensions in Relation to Pre-Schoolers' Behaviour Problems in Latvia and Lithuania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebre, Sandra B.; Jusiene, Roma; Dapkevice, Egle; Skreitule-Pikse, Inga; Bieliauskaite, Rasa

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine associations between parenting and child behaviour problems in two neighbouring countries with subtle, yet apparent cultural differences. Participants were mothers and fathers of preschool-age children from Latvia and Lithuania. Parents completed a measure of child-rearing attitudes and reported on their…

  18. Policy-dependent determinants of several important health problems and related actors in policy-making

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lucht F van der; Jansen J; NsPh; VTV

    2002-01-01

    The exploratory study reported on here investigated the possibilities offered by intersectoral (health) policy. The study consisted of two parts. First, a broad description was given of determinants of five health problems (cancer, Chronic non specific lung disease (CNSLD), heart disease, injury due

  19. Parenting Stress Related to Behavioral Problems and Disease Severity in Children with Problematic Severe Asthma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verkleij, Marieke; van de Griendt, E-J.; Colland, V.; Van Loey, N.E.E.; Beelen, A.; Geenen, R.

    2015-01-01

    Our study examined parenting stress and its association with behavioral problems and disease severity in children with problematic severe asthma. Research participants were 93 children (mean age 13.4 ± 2.7 years) and their parents (86 mothers, 59 fathers). As compared to reference groups analyzed in

  20. Fast computation of categorical richness on raster data sets and related problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Berg, Mark; Tsirogiannis, Constantinos; Wilkinson, Bryan T.

    2015-01-01

    In many scientific fields, it is common to encounter raster data sets consisting of categorical data, such as soil type or land usage of a terrain. A problem that arises in the presence of such data is the following: given a raster G of n cells storing categorical data, compute for every cell c...