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Sample records for studying intestinal cancer

  1. Intestinal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... connects your stomach to your large intestine. Intestinal cancer is rare, but eating a high-fat diet ... increase your risk. Possible signs of small intestine cancer include Abdominal pain Weight loss for no reason ...

  2. Small Intestine Cancer Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... all of an organ that contains cancer. The resection may include the small intestine and nearby organs (if the cancer has spread). The doctor may remove the section of the small intestine that contains cancer and perform an anastomosis (joining the cut ends of the intestine together). ...

  3. Stages of Small Intestine Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... all of an organ that contains cancer. The resection may include the small intestine and nearby organs (if the cancer has spread). The doctor may remove the section of the small intestine that contains cancer and perform an anastomosis (joining the cut ends of the intestine together). ...

  4. Risk of extra-intestinal cancer in inflammatory bowel disease: meta-analysis of population-based cohort studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Eva Natalia G.; Duricova, Dana; Elkjaer, Margarita

    2010-01-01

    Extra-intestinal manifestations of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are relatively common, whereas the risk of extra-intestinal cancer (EIC) remains uncertain. The aim of this study was to obtain a reliable estimate of the risk of EIC in Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC...

  5. Treatment Option Overview (Small Intestine Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... all of an organ that contains cancer. The resection may include the small intestine and nearby organs (if the cancer has spread). The doctor may remove the section of the small intestine that contains cancer and perform an anastomosis (joining the cut ends of the intestine together). ...

  6. General Information about Small Intestine Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... all of an organ that contains cancer. The resection may include the small intestine and nearby organs (if the cancer has spread). The doctor may remove the section of the small intestine that contains cancer and perform an anastomosis (joining the cut ends of the intestine together). ...

  7. Increased risk of intestinal cancer in Crohn's disease: A meta-analysis of population-based cohort studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jess, Tine; Gamborg, Michael; Matzen, Peter

    2005-01-01

    , time of follow-up, and observed to expected cancer rates. STATA meta-analysis software was used to perform overall pooled risk estimates (standardized incidence ratio (SIR), observed/expected) and meta-regression analyses of the influence of specific variables on SIR. RESULTS: Six papers fulfilled......OBJECTIVES: The risk of intestinal malignancy in Crohn's disease (CD) remains uncertain since risk estimates vary worldwide. The global CD population is growing and there is a demand for better knowledge of prognosis of this disease. Hence, the aim of the present study was to conduct a meta......-analysis of population-based data on intestinal cancer risk in CD. METHODS: The MEDLINE search engine and abstracts from international conferences were searched for the relevant literature by use of explicit search criteria. All papers fulfilling the strict inclusion criteria were scrutinized for data on population size...

  8. The effect of fucoidan on intestinal flora and intestinal barrier function in rats with breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Meilan; Ji, Xinqiang; Liang, Hui; Liu, Ying; Wang, Bing; Sun, Lingling; Li, Weiwei

    2018-02-21

    Recent research studies have shown that the intestinal flora are related to the occurrence and progress of breast cancer. This study investigates the effect of fucoidan on intestinal flora and intestinal barrier function in rats with 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA)-induced breast cancers. Sixty female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to the control group, the model group, and the F1 and F2 groups, which were fed fucoidan at concentrations of 200 and 400 mg per kg bw (body weight), respectively. Intestinal histopathological analysis was performed and 16S rDNA high-throughput sequencing was used to provide an overview of the intestinal flora composition. The contents of d-lactic acid (d-LA), diamine oxidase (DAO) and endotoxin in plasma were detected by ELISA. Expression levels of the tight junction (TJ) proteins, phosphorylated p38 MAPK and ERK1/2 were measured using western blotting. Our results suggested that the intestinal wall of the model group was damaged. However, after fucoidan intervention, the villi were gradually restored. ELISA showed that the levels of plasma endotoxin, d-LA and DAO decreased in the F1 and F2 groups compared to those in the model group. Fucoidan treatment also increased the expressions of ZO-1, occludin, claudin-1 and claudin-8. Furthermore, the expression levels of phosphorylated p38 MAPK and ERK1/2 were upregulated in fucoidan treatment groups. The results of 16S rDNA high-throughput sequencing indicated that fucoidan increased the diversity of the intestinal microbiota and induced changes in microbial composition, with the increased Bacteroidetes/Firmicutes phylum ratio. In conclusion, the supplement of fucoidan could improve the fecal microbiota composition and repair the intestinal barrier function. The study suggested the use of fucoidan as an intestinal flora modulator for potential prevention of breast cancer.

  9. Preliminary Comparison of Oral and Intestinal Human Microbiota in Patients with Colorectal Cancer: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edda Russo

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study Next-Generation Sequencing (NGS was used to analyze and compare human microbiota from three different compartments, i.e., saliva, feces, and cancer tissue (CT, of a selected cohort of 10 Italian patients with colorectal cancer (CRC vs. 10 healthy controls (saliva and feces. Furthermore, the Fusobacterium nucleatum abundance in the same body site was investigated through real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR to assess the association with CRC. Differences in bacterial composition, F. nucleatum abundance in healthy controls vs. CRC patients, and the association of F. nucleatum with clinical parameters were observed. Taxonomic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene, revealed the presence of three main bacterial phyla, which includes about 80% of reads: Firmicutes (39.18%, Bacteroidetes (30.36%, and Proteobacteria (10.65%. The results highlighted the presence of different bacterial compositions; in particular, the fecal samples of CRC patients seemed to be enriched with Bacteroidetes, whereas in the fecal samples of healthy controls Firmicutes were one of the major phyla detected though these differences were not statistically significant. The CT samples showed the highest alpha diversity values. These results emphasize a different taxonomic composition of feces from CRC compared to healthy controls. Despite the low number of samples included in the study, these results suggest the importance of microbiota in the CRC progression and could pave the way to the development of therapeutic interventions and novel microbial-related diagnostic tools in CRC patients.

  10. Inflammasome in Intestinal Inflammation and Cancer

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    Tiago Nunes

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The activation of specific cytosolic pathogen recognition receptors, the nucleotide-binding-oligomerization-domain- (NOD- like receptors (NLRs, leads to the assembly of the inflammasome, a multimeric complex platform that activates caspase-1. The caspase-1 pathway leads to the upregulation of important cytokines from the interleukin (IL-1 family, IL-1β, and IL-18, with subsequent activation of the innate immune response. In this review, we discuss the molecular structure, the mechanisms behind the inflammasome activation, and its possible role in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel diseases and intestinal cancer. Here, we show that the available data points towards the importance of the inflammasome in the innate intestinal immune response, being the complex involved in the maintenance of intestinal homeostasis, correct intestinal barrier function and efficient elimination of invading pathogens.

  11. Surgical treatment of colorectal cancer complicated with acute intestinal obstruction

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    S. N. Schaeva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The main reason for urgent complications of colon cancer is an acute intestinal obstruction (AIO. This is complex pathological condition in 90 % of cases caused by colorectal cancer (CRC.Objective – to evaluate radicality of the performed operations in complicated colorectal cancer in general surgical hospitals. Dependence of the severity of intestinal obstruction by tumor localization, its morphological characteristics, determine dependence of the type of the surgical operation performed on the severity of intestinal obstruction.Materials and methods. We have studied the data on 667 patients with colorectal cancer complicated by acute intestinal obstruction. These patients were treated in the period from 2001 to 2013 in general surgical hospital in the territory of Smolensk and Smolensk region. For the processing of the obtained results we have used software Statistica 6.1. Differences were considered statistically at p ≤ 0.05.Results. All the patients were divided into 3 groups by the expression of intestinal obstruction. Group 1 (n = 279 consisted of patients with the presence of decompensated intestinal obstruction (DIO, group 2 (n = 313 consisted of patients with subcompensated intestinal obstruction (SIO, group 3 (n = 75 included patients with compensated intestinal obstruction (CIO. In case of tumor localization in right halfof the colon we most commonly observed clinical picture of acute development of decompensated intestinal obstruction (p = 0.041. Subcompensated intestinal obstruction prevailed in case of tumor localization in left half of the colon and rectal localization. In general surgical hospitals it is not always possible to speak about radicality of surgical treatment, as in a large number of cases (62.5 % the number of examined lymph nodes was less than 4. When DIO patients are admitted in the clinic, the percentage of singlestage operations is equal to 7.5 % (n = 21. In case of DIO and SIO there was a high

  12. Gene expression study and pathway analysis of histological subtypes of intestinal metaplasia that progress to gastric cancer.

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    Osmel Companioni

    Full Text Available Intestinal metaplasia (IM is a precursor lesion that precedes gastric cancer (GC. There are two IM histological subtypes, complete (CIM and incomplete (IIM, the latter having higher progression rates to GC. This study was aimed at analysing gene expression and molecular processes involved in the progression from normal mucosa to IM, and also from IM subtypes to GC.We used expression data to compare the transcriptome of healthy gastric mucosa to that of IM not progressing to GC, and the transcriptome of IM subtypes that had progressed to GC to those that did not progress. Some deregulated genes were validated and pathway analyses were performed.Comparison of IM subtypes that had progressed to GC with those that did not progress showed smaller differences in the expression profiles than the comparison of IM that did not progress with healthy mucosa. New transcripts identified in IM not progressing to GC included TRIM, TMEM, homeobox and transporter genes and SNORD116. Comparison to normal mucosa identified non tumoral Warburg effect and melatonin degradation as previously unreported processes involved in IM. Overexpressed antigen processing is common to both IM-subtypes progressing to GC, but IIM showed more over-expressed oncogenic genes and molecular processes than CIM.There are greater differences in gene expression and molecular processes involved in the progression from normal healthy mucosa to IM than from IM to gastric cancer. While antigen processing is common in both IM-subtypes progressing to GC, more oncogenic processes are observed in the progression of IIM.

  13. Intestinal microbiota, probiotics and human gastrointestinal cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlando, Antonella; Russo, Francesco

    2013-06-01

    Cancers of the gastrointestinal tract account for 25 % of all cancers and for 9 % of all causes of cancer death in the world, so gastrointestinal cancers represent a major health problem. In the past decades, an emerging role has been attributed to the interactions between the gastrointestinal content and the onset of neoplasia. Thus, exogenous microbial administration of peculiar bacterial strains (probiotics) has been suggested as having a profound influence on multiple processes associated with a change in cancer risk. Probiotics are mono or mixed cultures of live microorganisms that might beneficially affect the host by improving the characteristics of indigenous microflora. Although the effects of probiotic administration has been intensively investigated in vitro, in animal models, in healthy volunteers, and in some human gastrointestinal diseases, very little is still known about the possible cross-interactions among probiotic administration, changes of intestinal flora, and the neoplastic transformation of gastrointestinal mucosa. Theoretically, probiotics are able to reduce cancer risk by a number of mechanisms: (a) binding and degradation of potential carcinogens; (b) quantitative, qualitative and metabolic alterations of the intestinal microflora; (c) production of anti-tumorigenic or anti-mutagenic compounds; (d) competitive action towards pathogenic bacteria; (e) enhancement of the host's immune response; (f) direct effects on cell proliferation. This review will attempt to highlight the literature on the most widely recognized effects of probiotics against neoplastic transformation of gastrointestinal mucosa and in particular on their effects on cell proliferation.

  14. The effects of fluorouracil, epirubicin, and cyclophosphamide (FEC60 on the intestinal barrier function and gut peptides in breast cancer patients: an observational study

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    Russo Francesco

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several GI peptides linked to intestinal barrier function could be involved in the modification of intestinal permeability and the onset of diarrhea during adjuvant chemotherapy. The aim of the study was to evaluate the circulating levels of zonulin, glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2, epidermal growth factor (EGF and ghrelin and their relationship with intestinal permeability and chemotherapy induced diarrhea (CTD. Methods Sixty breast cancer patients undergoing an FEC60 regimen were enrolled, 37 patients completed the study. CTD(+ patients were discriminated by appropriate questionnaire and criteria. During chemotherapy, intestinal permeability was assessed by lactulose/mannitol urinary test on day 0 and day 14. Zonulin, GLP-2, EGF and ghrelin circulating levels were evaluated by ELISA tests at five time-points (days 0, 3, 10, 14, and 21. Results During FEC60 administration, the lactulose/mannitol ratio was significantly higher on day 14 than at baseline. Zonulin levels were not affected by chemotherapy, whereas GLP-2 and EGF levels decreased significantly. GLP-2 levels on day 14 were significantly lower than those on day 0 and day 3, while EGF values were significantly lower on day 10 than at the baseline. In contrast, the total concentrations of ghrelin increased significantly at day 3 compared to days 0 and 21, respectively. Ten patients (27% suffered from diarrhea. On day 14 of chemotherapy, a significant increase of the La/Ma ratio occurred in CTD(+ patients compared to CTD(− patients. With regards to circulating gut peptides, the AUCg of GLP-2 and ghrelin were significantly lower and higher in CTD(+ patients than CTD(− ones, respectively. Finally in CTD(+ patients a significant and inverse correlation between GLP-2 and La/Ma ratio was found on day 14. Conclusions Breast cancer patients undergoing FEC60 showed alterations in the intestinal permeability, which was associated with modifications in the levels of GLP-2

  15. The effects of fluorouracil, epirubicin, and cyclophosphamide (FEC60) on the intestinal barrier function and gut peptides in breast cancer patients: an observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Francesco; Linsalata, Michele; Clemente, Caterina; D'Attoma, Benedetta; Orlando, Antonella; Campanella, Giovanna; Giotta, Francesco; Riezzo, Giuseppe

    2013-02-04

    Several GI peptides linked to intestinal barrier function could be involved in the modification of intestinal permeability and the onset of diarrhea during adjuvant chemotherapy. The aim of the study was to evaluate the circulating levels of zonulin, glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2), epidermal growth factor (EGF) and ghrelin and their relationship with intestinal permeability and chemotherapy induced diarrhea (CTD). Sixty breast cancer patients undergoing an FEC60 regimen were enrolled, 37 patients completed the study. CTD(+) patients were discriminated by appropriate questionnaire and criteria. During chemotherapy, intestinal permeability was assessed by lactulose/mannitol urinary test on day 0 and day 14. Zonulin, GLP-2, EGF and ghrelin circulating levels were evaluated by ELISA tests at five time-points (days 0, 3, 10, 14, and 21). During FEC60 administration, the lactulose/mannitol ratio was significantly higher on day 14 than at baseline. Zonulin levels were not affected by chemotherapy, whereas GLP-2 and EGF levels decreased significantly. GLP-2 levels on day 14 were significantly lower than those on day 0 and day 3, while EGF values were significantly lower on day 10 than at the baseline. In contrast, the total concentrations of ghrelin increased significantly at day 3 compared to days 0 and 21, respectively. Ten patients (27%) suffered from diarrhea. On day 14 of chemotherapy, a significant increase of the La/Ma ratio occurred in CTD(+) patients compared to CTD(-) patients. With regards to circulating gut peptides, the AUCg of GLP-2 and ghrelin were significantly lower and higher in CTD(+) patients than CTD(-) ones, respectively. Finally in CTD(+) patients a significant and inverse correlation between GLP-2 and La/Ma ratio was found on day 14. Breast cancer patients undergoing FEC60 showed alterations in the intestinal permeability, which was associated with modifications in the levels of GLP-2, ghrelin and EGF. In CTD(+) patients, a different GI peptide

  16. Intestinal parasites in cancer patients in the South of Brazil

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    S. Jeske

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Intestinal parasitic infections in immunocompromised patients can lead to serious complications when not diagnosed and treated early. This study aimed to investigate the frequency of intestinal parasites in cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy in the South of Brazil. Three fecal samples collected from each patient (73 individuals were processed by Ritchie and Faust techniques and submitted to specific staining methods for intestinal protozoa. A 61.6% parasite and/or commensal positivity was found. Helminths identified were Ascaris lumbricoides (33.3%, Taenia spp. (6.6%, Strongyloides stercoralis (4.4% and Trichuris trichiura (2.2%. Among protozoans, Giardia lamblia (26.6%, Cryptosporidium spp. (13.3% and Cystoisospora belli (4.4% were identified. The presence of Entamoeba coli, Endolimax nana and Entamoeba hartmanni was also recorded. The results obtained warn of the importance of fecal parasitological diagnosis and the use of specific staining methods for the detection of intestinal parasites in cancer patients. These exams should be regularly requested at the patient’s first clinic visit, given the high prevalence found in this study and the possible severity of such conditions for these individuals.

  17. [Effect of perioperative intestinal probiotics on intestinal flora and immune function in patients with colorectal cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Dajian; Chen, Xiaowu; Wu, Jinhao; Ju, Yongle; Feng, Jing; Lu, Guangsheng; Ouyang, Manzhao; Ren, Baojun; Li, Yong

    2012-08-01

    To investigate the effect of perioperative application of intestinal probiotics to substitute oral intestinal antimicrobial agents on intestinal flora and immune function in surgical patients with colorectal cancer. Sixty patients with colorectal cancer undergoing elective laparoscopic radical surgery were randomized to receive preoperative bowel preparation using oral intestinal antimicrobial agents (n=20) or using oral intestinal probiotics (Jinshuangqi Tablets, 2.0 g, 3 times daily) since the fifth day before the operation and at 24 h after the operation for 7 consecutive days. Upon admission and 7 days after the operation, fecal samples and fasting peripheral venous blood were collected from the patients to examine the intestinal flora and serum levels of interleukin-2 (IL-2), IgA, IgG, and IgM, NK cell activity, T lymphocytes subsets CD3(+), CD4(+), CD8(+) and CD4(+)/CD8(+) ratio. At 7 days after the operation, the patients receiving probiotics showed significantly increased counts of intestinal Bifidobacterium, Lactobacillus, and Enterococcus (Pprobiotics group compared with those in patients with conventional intestinal preparation (Pprobiotics to replace preoperative oral intestinal antimicrobial agents can effectively correct intestinal flora imbalance and improve the immune function of surgical patients with colorectal cancer.

  18. Increased risk of intestinal cancer in Crohn's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jess, Tine; Gamborg, Michael; Matzen, Peter

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The risk of intestinal malignancy in Crohn's disease (CD) remains uncertain since risk estimates vary worldwide. The global CD population is growing and there is a demand for better knowledge of prognosis of this disease. Hence, the aim of the present study was to conduct a meta......-analysis of population-based data on intestinal cancer risk in CD. METHODS: The MEDLINE search engine and abstracts from international conferences were searched for the relevant literature by use of explicit search criteria. All papers fulfilling the strict inclusion criteria were scrutinized for data on population size......, time of follow-up, and observed to expected cancer rates. STATA meta-analysis software was used to perform overall pooled risk estimates (standardized incidence ratio (SIR), observed/expected) and meta-regression analyses of the influence of specific variables on SIR. RESULTS: Six papers fulfilled...

  19. Wnt Lipidation and Modifiers in Intestinal Carcinogenesis and Cancer

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    Elke Kaemmerer

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The wingless (Wnt signaling is suggested as a fundamental hierarchical pathway in regulation of proliferation and differentiation of cells. The Wnt ligands are small proteins of about 40 kDa essentially for regulation and initiation of the Wnt activity. They are secreted proteins requiring acylation for activity in the Wnt signaling cascade and for functional interactivity with transmembrane proteins. Dual lipidation is important for posttranslational activation of the overwhelming number of Wnt proteins and is probably involved in their spatial distribution. The intestinal mucosa, where Wnt signaling is essential in configuration and maintenance, is an established model to study Wnt proteins and their role in carcinogenesis and cancer. The intestinal crypt-villus/crypt-plateau axis, a cellular system with self-renewal, proliferation, and differentiation, is tightly coordinated by a Wnt gradient. In the review, some attention is given to Wnt3, Wnt3A, and Wnt2B as important members of the Wnt family to address the role of lipidation and modifiers of Wnt proteins in intestinal carcinogenesis. Wnt3 is an important player in establishing the Wnt gradient in intestinal crypts and is mainly produced by Paneth cells. Wnt2B is characterized as a mitochondrial protein and shuttles between mitochondria and the nucleus. Porcupine and ACSL5, a long-chain fatty acid activating enzyme, are introduced as modifiers of Wnts and as interesting strategy to targeting Wnt-driven carcinogenesis.

  20. Microenvironmental regulation of stem cells in intestinal homeostasis and cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Medema, Jan Paul; Vermeulen, Louis

    2011-01-01

    The identification of intestinal stem cells as well as their malignant counterparts, colon cancer stem cells, has undergone rapid development in recent years. Under physiological conditions, intestinal homeostasis is a carefully balanced and efficient interplay between stem cells, their progeny and

  1. An innately dangerous balancing act: intestinal homeostasis, inflammation, and colitis-associated cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is characterized by dysregulated immune responses to the intestinal microbiota, and by chronic intestinal inflammation. Several recent studies demonstrate the importance of innate microbial recognition by immune and nonimmune cells in the gut. Paradoxically, either diminished or exacerbated innate immune signaling may trigger the breakdown of intestinal homeostasis, leading to IBD and colitis-associated cancer (CAC). This dichotomy may reflect divergent functional roles for immune sensing in intestinal epithelial cells and leukocytes, which may vary with distinct disease mechanisms. PMID:20679404

  2. Galacto-oligosaccharides and Colorectal Cancer: Feeding our Intestinal Probiome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruno-Barcena, Jose M; Azcarate-Peril, M Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Prebiotics are ingredients selectively fermented by the intestinal microbiota that promote changes in the microbial community structure and/or their metabolism, conferring health benefits to the host. Studies show that β (1-4) galacto-oligosaccharides [β (1-4) GOS], lactulose and fructo-oligosaccharides increase intestinal concentration of lactate and short chain fatty acids, and stool frequency and weight, and they decrease fecal concentration of secondary bile acids, fecal pH, and nitroreductase and β-glucuronidase activities suggesting a clear role in colorectal cancer (CRC) prevention. This review summarizes research on prebiotics bioassimilation, specifically β (1-4) GOS, and their potential role in CRC. We also evaluate research that show that the impact of prebiotics on host physiology can be direct or through modulation of the gut intestinal microbiome, specifically the probiome (autochtonous beneficial bacteria), we present studies on a potential role in CRC progression to finally describe the current state of β (1-4) GOS generation for industrial production.

  3. Clinical Implications of Intestinal Stem Cell Markers in Colorectal Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Espersen, Maiken Lise Marcker; Olsen, Jesper; Linnemann, Dorte

    2015-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) still has one of the highest incidence and mortality rate among cancers. Therefore, improved differential diagnostics and personalized treatment are still needed. Several intestinal stem cell markers have been found to be associated with CRC and might have a prognostic...

  4. Ultrasound colonography in visualization of large intestine cancer pathology

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    N. V. Tumanskaya

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: colon oncopathology takes the 2-nd place among different kinds of cancer and tends to grow constantly. Thus, the incidence of colorectal cancer (CRC in Ukraine is 20.6 cases per 100 thousands of population. 70-75% of patients are diagnosed only at the 3-4 stage of the disease, due to its long asymptomatic initial period. The gold standard of diagnostic of CRC is endoscopy, which enables not only to visualize altered intestinal mucosa, but also to perform a biopsy for morphological study. Modern imaging diagnostic methods (virtual CT colonography, MRI, PET / CT, which are used in developed countries, are not been widely spreded in Ukraine, unfortunately. Complex ultrasound examination reveals new diagnostic capabilities in the solution of this problem. Ultrasound colonography allows morphology assessing of all parts of the large intestine. This method is primarily justified for those patients who can’t be examined with conventional irrigoscopy and endoscopic colonoscopy because of some objective reasons. Objectives of the research: to objectify the diagnostic capabilities of ultrasound colonography as an alternative method of imaging of colorectal cancer. Matherials and methods: The colonography was performed with the ultrasound scanner HD11 (Philips in 26 patients with clinically suspected large intestine pathology. There were 10 male and 16 female patients with the average age 55,3±9,2. All patients were performed X-ray multislice computed tomography (MSCT as the reference method. 9 patients were operated on with the followed morphological analysis of affected parts of the intestine. Results and discussion: the colon pathology in our research was found in 10 patients (38.5% of the patients. Among them stenotic form of colorectal cancer was diagnosed in 6 patients (22.8%. In 4 patients (15.2% the polypoid form of colorectal cancer was found. In both cases, the affected area was located in the region of rectosigmoid junction. In

  5. Culturing intestinal stem cells: applications for colorectal cancer research

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    Masayuki eFujii

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Recent advance of sequencing technology has revealed genetic alterations in colorectal cancer. The biological function of recurrently mutated genes has been intensively investigated through mouse genetic models and colorectal cancer cell lines. Although these experimental models may not fully reflect biological traits of human intestinal epithelium, they provided insights into the understanding of intestinal stem cell self-renewal, leading to the development of novel human intestinal organoid culture system. Intestinal organoid culture enabled to expand normal or tumor epithelial cells in vitro retaining their stem cell self-renewal and multiple differentiation. Gene manipulation of these cultured cells may provide an attractive tool for investigating genetic events involved in colorectal carcinogenesis.

  6. Intestinal perfusion in the study of intestinal absorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, S.J.

    1976-01-01

    Several techniques for studying absorption by means of intestinal perfusion have been developed. While the principle is simple, the practice is complicated by absorption of the solvent and by excretion of fluid into the lumen. To improve reliability a ''marker'' is incorporated into the system; it should behave as nearly as possible like the nutrient of interest, except that it should be unabsorbable. A great many markers, including several labelled with radionuclides, have been developed for use with numerous nutrients, and perfusion methods using double or triple tubes or occlusive balloons have been tested. The perfusion technique is too complicated for routine diagnostic use, but it offers at present the only possibility of studying the function of defined sections of the small intestine in the intact human. (author)

  7. Comparative study of mutations in SNP loci of K-RAS, hMLH1 and hMSH2 genes in neoplastic intestinal polyps and colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Zhi-Hui; Cui, Li-Hong; Wang, Xiao-Hui; Li, Chao; He, Xing

    2014-12-28

    To clarify the molecular mechanism involved in pathogenesis of colorectal cancer as well as clinical significance of genetic analysis of histological samples. A total of 480 blood and tissue specimens were collected in our hospital from January 2011 to October 2012. In the observation group, there were 120 blood specimens and 120 intestinal tract tissue specimens collected from patients with neoplastic intestinal polyps. In the control group I there were 80 blood specimens and 80 intestinal tract tissue specimens collected from patients with colorectal cancer. In the control group II there were 40 blood specimens and 40 intestinal tract tissue specimens collected from healthy individuals. The gene segments were amplified using PCR and DNA gel electrophoresis along with DNA sequence analysis were employed for the detection of the following single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs): K-RAS codons 12 and 13; hMLH1 (human mutS homolog 1) gene missense mutation at Va1384Asp; hMSH2 (human mutS homolog 2) gene missense mutation at 2783C/A. The mutation rate of the SNP at Va1384Asp locus of the hMLH1 gene from blood and tissue specimens in the observation group showed no statistical difference from those in the control group I. The mutation rates of SNPs in codons 12 and 13 of K-RAS and at 2783C/A locus of the hMSH2 gene were significantly lower in the observation group than in the control group I (χ(2) = 15.476, 29.670, 10.811, 16.618, 33.538, 7.898, P polyps and colorectal cancer in terms of the mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis.

  8. Wnt signaling in adult intestinal stem cells and cancer

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krausová, Michaela; Kořínek, Vladimír

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 26, č. 3 (2014), s. 570-579 ISSN 0898-6568 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP305/12/2347; GA ČR GAP305/11/1780 Institutional support: RVO:68378050 Keywords : Wnt * intestine * cancer Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 4.315, year: 2014

  9. A genetically inducible porcine model of intestinal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Callesen, Morten M.; Árnadóttir, Sigrid S.; Lyskjær, Iben

    2017-01-01

    of intestinal cancer. Transgenic (TG) minipigs were generated using somatic cell nuclear transfer by handmade cloning. The pigs encode two TG cassettes: (a) an Flp recombinase-inducible oncogene cassette containing KRAS-G12D, cMYC, SV40LT - which inhibits p53 - and pRB and (b) a 4-hydroxytamoxifen (4-OHT...

  10. Wnt, stem cells and cancer in the intestine.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pinto, D.; Clevers, J.C.

    2005-01-01

    The intestinal epithelium is a self-renewing tissue which represents a unique model for studying interconnected cellular processes such as proliferation, differentiation, cell migration and carcinogenesis. Although the stem cells of the intestine have not yet been physically characterized or

  11. The Contributions of Human Mini-Intestines to the Study of Intestinal Physiology and Pathophysiology.

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    Yu, Huimin; Hasan, Nesrin M; In, Julie G; Estes, Mary K; Kovbasnjuk, Olga; Zachos, Nicholas C; Donowitz, Mark

    2017-02-10

    The lack of accessibility to normal and diseased human intestine and the inability to separate the different functional compartments of the intestine even when tissue could be obtained have held back the understanding of human intestinal physiology. Clevers and his associates identified intestinal stem cells and established conditions to grow "mini-intestines" ex vivo in differentiated and undifferentiated conditions. This pioneering work has made a new model of the human intestine available and has begun making contributions to the understanding of human intestinal transport in normal physiologic conditions and the pathophysiology of intestinal diseases. However, this model is reductionist and lacks many of the complexities of normal intestine. Consequently, it is not yet possible to predict how great the advances using this model will be for understanding human physiology and pathophysiology, nor how the model will be modified to include multiple other intestinal cell types and physical forces necessary to more closely approximate normal intestine. This review describes recent studies using mini-intestines, which have readdressed previously established models of normal intestinal transport physiology and newly examined intestinal pathophysiology. The emphasis is on studies with human enteroids grown either as three-dimensional spheroids or two-dimensional monolayers. In addition, comments are provided on mouse studies in cases when human studies have not yet been described.

  12. The role of intestinal microflora and probiotic bacteria in prophylactic and development of colorectal cancer

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    Ewa Wasilewska

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The gut microbiota comprises a large and diverse range of microorganisms whose activities have a significant impact on health. It interacts with its host at both the local and systemic level, resulting in a broad range of beneficial or detrimental outcomes for nutrition, infections, xenobiotic metabolism, and cancer. The current paper reviews research on the role of intestinal microflora in colorectal cancer development. Especially a protective effect of beneficial bacteria and probiotics on the risk of cancer development is highly discussed. There is substantial experimental evidence that the beneficial gut bacteria and their metabolism have the potential to inhibit the development and progression of neoplasia in the large intestine. Most of the data derive, however, from experimental and animal trials. Over a dozen well-documented animal studies have been published, wherein it has been clearly revealed that some lactic acid bacteria, especially lactobacilli and bifidobacteria, inhibit initiation and progression of colorectal cancer. Studies on cancer suppression in humans as a result of the consumption of probiotics are still sparse. Nevertheless, some epidemiological and interventional studies seem to confirm the bacterial anticancerogenic activity also in human gut. The mechanism by which probiotics may inhibit cancer development is unknown. Probiotics increase the amount of beneficial bacteria and decrease the pathogen level in the gut, consequently altering metabolic, enzymatic and carcinogenic activity in the intestine, decreasing inflammation and enhancing immune function, which may contribute to cancer defense.

  13. Caecal metastasis from breast cancer presenting as intestinal obstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siddiqui Muhammad S

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gastrointestinal metastsasis from the breast cancer are rare. We report a patient who presented with intestinal obstruction due to solitary caecal metastasis from infiltrating ductal carcinoma of breast. We also review the available literature briefly. Case presentation A 72 year old lady with past history of breast cancer presented with intestinal obstruction due to a caecal mass. She underwent an emergency right hemicolectomy. The histological examination of the right hemicolectomy specimen revealed an adenocarcinoma in caecum staining positive for Cytokeratin 7 and Carcinoembryonic antigen and negative for Cytokeratin 20, CDX2 and Estrogen receptor. Eight out of 11 mesenteric nodes showed tumour deposits. A histological diagnosis of metastatic breast carcinoma was given. Conclusion To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case report of solitary metastasis to caecum from infiltrating ductal carcinoma of breast. Awareness of this possibility will aid in appropriate management of such patients.

  14. Intestinal bacterium-derived cyp27a1 prevents colon cancer cell apoptosis

    OpenAIRE

    Ji, Yan-Chao; Liu, Chang; Zhang, Xia; Zhang, Cheng-Sen; Wang, Dong; Zhang, Yan

    2016-01-01

    The pathogenesis of metastasis of colon cancer (Cca) is to be further investigated. The dysfunction of apoptotic mechanism plays a role in the cancer cell over growth. This study tests a hypothesis by which intestinal bacterium-derived cyp27a1 prevents apoptosis in colon cancer cells. In this study, the levels of cyp27a1 in human stool samples were assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The apoptosis of Cca cells was observed by flow cytometry. The expression of cyp27a1 was assessed b...

  15. Expression profiling and intracellular localization studies of the novel Proline-, Histidine-, and Glycine-rich protein 1 suggest an essential role in gastro-intestinal epithelium and a potential clinical application in colorectal cancer diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oltedal, Satu; Skaland, Ivar; Maple-Grødem, Jodi; Tjensvoll, Kjersti; Janssen, Emiel A M; Gilje, Bjørnar; Smaaland, Rune; Heikkilä, Reino; Nordgård, Oddmund

    2018-02-07

    The primary function of the intestines is the absorption of water and nutrients. Although our knowledge about these processes on the cellular level is extensive, a number of important intracellular elements remain unknown. Here, we characterize the novel proline-, histidine-, glycine-rich 1 (PHGR1) mRNA and protein on the molecular level and propose a functional role of the PHGR1 protein in the intestinal and gastric epithelium. PHGR1 mRNA and protein expression in human tissues and cell lines were characterized by quantitative RT-PCR, in situ hybridization, Northern blotting, Western blotting, and immunohistochemistry. Glycosylation was assessed by a chemical deglycosylation assay, whereas intracellular localization was studied by immunofluorescent staining of cell line cells. PHGR1 mRNA levels in HT29 cells was reduced by RNA interference and the resulting global changes in gene expression assessed by microarray hybridization. PHGR1 mRNA and protein were found to be expressed specifically in epithelial cells of intestinal mucosa, with the highest expression in the most mature and differentiated cells. PHGR1 protein was found to be glycosylated and to localize to both the cytoplasm and nucleus. Transcript profiling and gene ontology analysis of HT29 cells subjected to PHGR1 knockdown suggested a functional relationship with transport and metabolic processes. Examination of PHGR1 mRNA and protein levels in lymph nodes with known colorectal cancer metastases indicated that they may serve as biomarkers for detection of such metastases. Functional analyses of the novel PHGR1 mRNA and protein suggest an essential role in gastrointestinal epithelium and a clinical application in detection of colorectal cancer lymph node metastases.

  16. Effects of resveratrol, an important component of red wine, on intestinal cancer development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoying Zhang

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Xiaoying Zhang1, Jan Anderson1, Radhey S Kaushik2,3, Chandradhar Dwivedi11Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences; 2Department of Veterinary Sciences; 3Department of Biology/Microbiology, South Dakota State University, Brookings, SD, USAAbstract: Resveratrol, a natural product derived from grapes and an important component of red wine, has been shown to inhibit cyclooxygenase and prevent various cancers. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of dietary grape extract, a source of resveratrol on intestinal cancer development in rats and to determine effects of resveratrol on cell growth in human colonic adenocarcinoma (Caco-2 cells, thus elucidating possible mechanisms of action of resveratrol. Results showed that dietary grape extract (5%, about 7 μg resveratrol consumed daily significantly decreased the incidence and multiplicity of tumors in small intestine in rats and resveratrol significantly inhibited cell viability and cell proliferation in Caco-2 cells.Keywords: resveratrol, grapes, colonic adenocarcinoma, Caco-2 cells

  17. Intestinal stem cells and the colorectal cancer microenvironment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Bryan A; Vega, Kenneth J; Houchen, Courtney W

    2014-02-28

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) remains a highly fatal condition in part due to its resilience to treatment and its propensity to spread beyond the site of primary occurrence. One possible avenue for cancer to escape eradication is via stem-like cancer cells that, through phenotypic heterogeneity, are more resilient than other tumor constituents and are key contributors to cancer growth and metastasis. These proliferative tumor cells are theorized to possess many properties akin to normal intestinal stem cells. Not only do these CRC "stem" cells demonstrate similar restorative ability, they also share many cell pathways and surface markers in common, as well as respond to the same key niche stimuli. With the improvement of techniques for epithelial stem cell identification, our understanding of CRC behavior is also evolving. Emerging evidence about cellular plasticity and epithelial mesenchymal transition are shedding light onto metastatic CRC processes and are also challenging fundamental concepts about unidirectional epithelial proliferation. This review aims to reappraise evidence supporting the existence and behavior of CRC stem cells, their relationship to normal stem cells, and their possible dependence on the stem cell niche.

  18. Pathology of Rodent Models of Intestinal Cancer: Progress Report and Recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washington, Mary Kay; Powell, Anne E.; Sullivan, Ruth; Sundberg, John; Wright, Nicholas; Coffey, Robert J.; Dove, William F.

    2013-01-01

    In October 2010, a pathology review of rodent models of intestinal neoplasia was held at The Jackson Laboratory. This review complemented 2 other concurrent events: a workshop on methods of modeling colon cancer in rodents and a conference on current issues in murine and human colon cancer. We summarize the results of the pathology review and the committee’s recommendations for tumor nomenclature. A virtual high-resolution image slide box of these models has been developed. This report discusses significant recent developments in rodent modeling of intestinal neoplasia, including the role of stem cells in cancer and the creation of models of metastatic intestinal cancer. PMID:23415801

  19. Role of intestinal flora in colorectal cancer from the metabolite perspective: a systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Shuwen; Gao, Jianlan; Zhou, Qing; Liu, Shanshan; Wen, Caixia

    2018-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is one of the most common human malignant tumors. Recent research has shown that colorectal cancer is a dysbacteriosis-induced disease; however, the role of intestinal bacteria in colorectal cancer is unclear. This review explores the role of intestinal flora in colorectal cancer. In total, 57 articles were included after identification and screening. The pertinent literature on floral metabolites in colorectal cancer from three metabolic perspectives – including carbohydrate, lipid, and amino acid metabolism – was analyzed. An association network regarding the role of intestinal flora from a metabolic perspective was constructed by analyzing the previous literature to provide direction and insight for further research on intestinal flora in colorectal cancer. PMID:29440929

  20. Surveillance of gastric intestinal metaplasia for the prevention of gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Anthony; McNamara, Deirdre; O'Moráin, Colm A

    2013-09-23

    Adenocarcinoma of the stomach is the second leading cause of cancer related death in the world. Gastric intestinal metaplasia (GIM) is a recognised premalignant condition of the stomach. It has been described as occurring in up to one in five patients in western countries. Although there is a definite risk of progression from GIM to cancer, published guidelines and statements differ as to the utility and structure of surveillance programs for this condition. To see whether or not endoscopic or biochemical surveillance of patients with gastric intestinal metaplasia (GIM) could result in increased detection of dysplasia and early gastric cancer to decrease gastric cancer mortality. We performed a search of the following electronic databases from inception to October 2012: CENTRAL, EMBASE, MEDLINE and LILACS. We handsearched for abstracts from relevant conferences. Randomised controlled trials only were included. No studies met the inclusion criteria. No studies met the inclusion criteria. There is a lack of randomised data on the utility of surveillance of GIM. The observational data from non-randomised studies are discussed and would suggest that although a randomised trial would be a desirable undertaking to attain the highest grade of clinical evidence, given the ethical and acceptability issues involved, further non-randomised clinical studies focussing on surveillance protocols and the role of Helicobacter pylori eradication may be a more pragmatic means of addressing the core clinical question.

  1. Small Intestine Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... disease Crohn's disease Infections Intestinal cancer Intestinal obstruction Irritable bowel syndrome Ulcers, such as peptic ulcer Treatment of disorders of the small intestine depends on the cause.

  2. Comparison of abdominal adiposity and overall obesity in relation to risk of small intestinal cancer in a European Prospective Cohort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lu, Yunxia; Cross, Amanda J.; Murphy, Neil; Freisling, Heinz; Travis, Ruth C.; Ferrari, Pietro; Katzke, Verena A.; Kaaks, Rudolf; Olsson, Åsa; Johansson, Ingegerd; Renström, Frida; Panico, Salvatore; Pala, Valeria; Palli, Domenico; Tumino, Rosario; Peeters, Petra H.; Siersema, Peter D.; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. B.; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Klinaki, Eleni; Tsironis, Christos; Agudo, Antonio; Navarro, Carmen; Sánchez, María José; Barricarte, Aurelio; Boutron-Ruault, Marie Christine; Fagherazzi, Guy; Racine, Antoine; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Gunter, Marc J.; Riboli, Elio

    Background: The etiology of small intestinal cancer (SIC) is largely unknown, and there are very few epidemiological studies published to date. No studies have investigated abdominal adiposity in relation to SIC. Methods: We investigated overall obesity and abdominal adiposity in relation to SIC in

  3. Intestinal paracoccidioidomycosis simulating colon cancer Paracoccidioidomicose intestinal simulando câncer de cólon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubens Chojniak

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of intestinal involvement of Paracoccidioidomycosis, in a patient considered to have colonic cancer. The diagnosis of this mycosis should be considered when an abdominal mass associated with intra-lesional calcifications on X-ray is observed. CT scans increase the findings.Relatamos um caso de envolvimento intestinal pela Paracoccidioidomicose, em paciente considerado como portador de câncer. O diagnóstico desta micose deve ser considerado na presença de massa abdominal associada a calcificações intralesionais ao raio X. A tomografia amplia os achados.

  4. Evaluation of intestinal absorption of amtolmetin guacyl in rats: breast cancer resistant protein as a primary barrier of oral bioavailability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rong, Zhihui; Xu, Yanjiao; Zhang, Chengliang; Xiang, Daochun; Li, Xiping; Liu, Dong

    2013-02-27

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the role of efflux transporters on the intestinal absorption of amtolmetin guacyl (MED-15). The effects of P-glycoprotein (P-gp), multiple resistance-associated protein 2 (MRP2), and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) inhibitors on intestinal absorption amount of MED-5 (tolmetin-glycine amide derivative), the metabolite formed from MED-15 in the intestinal epithelial cells were studied in the in vitro everted gut sac experiments. Moreover, the in situ single-pass intestine perfusion was adopted to clarify the role of efflux transporters in excreting MED-5 in knockout mice. The plasma concentration of MED-5 and tolmetin, the metabolite formed from MED-5 was determined in Bcrp1 knockout mice and wild-type mice. BCRP inhibitor Ko143 (50 μM and 100 μM) significantly increased the intestinal absorption amount in jejunum, ileum and colon (pintestinal segment. Furthermore, the plasma concentration MED-5 and tolmetin, metabolites of MED-15, increased 2-fold and 4-fold, respectively, in Bcrp1 knockout mice compared with wild-type mice after the single-pass perfusion of small intestine with MED-15. It may be concluded that BCRP plays an important role in the intestinal efflux of MED-5 and limits the bioavailability after oral administration of MED-15. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. Experimental study on induction of intestinal metaplasia in the gastric mucosa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Hiromitsu

    1979-01-01

    Attempts were made to learn about an optimal condition for the induction of intestinal metaplasia in the gastric mucosa. The gastric region of 5-week-old female A/HeJ mice or Wistar rats were irradiated with a total of 3,000 rad x-ray. In addition, the effect of immunization by allogenic stomach antigen on the intestinalization was studied in rats irradiated with 500 rads of x-ray daily for 6 times. Disaccharidase and alkaline phosphatase activities appeared but morphological intestinal metaplasia was not observed in A/HeJ mice irradiated with 500 rads x 6 of x-ray. The appearance of marker enzymes of small intestine preceeded that of crypts having a few goblet cell among normal gastric cells in rats irradiated with 500 rads of x-ray. In groups of rats injected with allogenic stomach antigen plus x-irradiation the process of intestinalization was accelerated. The similar results were obtained in rats irradiated with 1,000 rad of x-ray 3 times There was several glands with intestinal metaplasia in the intact pyloric mucosa, but not in the ulcerative mucosa. On the other hand, intestinal metaplasia developed more later in fundic mucosa which was usually atrophy due to the loss of parietal cell mass. There was an intimate association among the parietal cell loss in the fundic gland, a rise in pH value and the development of intestinal metaplasia. In above groups with a smaller divided dose no case of gastric adenocarcinoma was detected during observation period up to 52nd or 80th week. Although a larger divided dose (1,500 rads x 2) was effective in inducing gastric adenocarcinoma (57.1%) but less effective in inducing intestinalization of any kind. No evidence of direct association between intestinalization and cancerization in the glandular stomach was demonstrated in the present study. (author)

  6. Regulation of APC and AXIN2 expression by intestinal tumor suppressor CDX2 in colon cancer cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Anders Krüger; Coskun, Mehmet; Bzorek, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Wnt signaling is often constitutively active in colorectal cancer cells. The expression of the intestinal specific transcription factor CDX2 is found to be transiently decreased in invasive cells at the tumor/stroma interface. A recent ChIP-Seq study has indicated that several Wnt signaling...... suggest that a low CDX2 level has influence on the Wnt signaling in invasive colon cancer cells possibly promoting cellular migration....

  7. Intestinal bacterium-derived cyp27a1 prevents colon cancer cell apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Yan-Chao; Liu, Chang; Zhang, Xia; Zhang, Cheng-Sen; Wang, Dong; Zhang, Yan

    2016-01-01

    The pathogenesis of metastasis of colon cancer (Cca) is to be further investigated. The dysfunction of apoptotic mechanism plays a role in the cancer cell over growth. This study tests a hypothesis by which intestinal bacterium-derived cyp27a1 prevents apoptosis in colon cancer cells. In this study, the levels of cyp27a1 in human stool samples were assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The apoptosis of Cca cells was observed by flow cytometry. The expression of cyp27a1 was assessed by real time RT-PCR and Western blotting. We observed higher levels of cyp27a1 in the stool samples of Cca patients than that from healthy subjects. Cca colon epithelial biopsy contained high levels of cyp27a1 protein, but not the cyp27a1 mRNA. Cyp27a1 prevented Cca cell apoptosis induced by vitamin D3. In conclusion, intestinal bacterium-derived cyp27a1 facilitates Cca survival by inhibiting Cca cell apoptosis.

  8. Cysteine-Rich Intestinal Protein 1 Silencing Inhibits Migration and Invasion in Human Colorectal Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Guoyang; Zou, Liyuan; Zhou, Lin; Gao, Peiqiong; Qian, Xinlai; Cui, Jing

    2017-01-01

    Cysteine-rich intestinal protein 1 (CRIP1), a member of the LIM/double zinc finger protein family, is abnormally expressed in several tumour types. However, few data are available on the role of CRIP1 in cancer. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the expression profile and functions of CRIP1 in colorectal cancer. To examine the protein expression level of CRIP1, immunohistochemistry (IHC) was performed on 56 pairs of colon cancer tissue samples. Western blotting was performed to investigate CRIP1 protein expression in four colon cancer cell lines. The endogenous expression of CRIP1 was suppressed using short interfering RNAs (siRNAs). Cell proliferation assays were used to determine whether CRIP1 silencing affected cell proliferation. Flow cytometry analysis was used to detect cell apoptosis. The effects of silencing CRIP1 on cell migration and invasion was detected using the transwell and wound-healing assays. IHC analysis showed that protein level of CRIP1 was significantly higher in tumour tissue samples than in paired non-tumour tissue samples and that the CRIP1 level was higher in metastatic tissue samples than in non-metastatic tissue samples. In addition, protein levels of CRIP1 were higher in highly metastatic colon cancer cell lines than in colon cancer cell lines with low metastasis. Further, CRIP1 silencing had no effect on cell proliferation or apoptosis in SW620 and HT29 cells. CRIP1 silencing suppressed cell migration and invasion obviously in SW620 and HT29 cells. The present study provides new evidence that abnormal expression of CRIP1 might be related to the degree of metastasis in colorectal cancer and that CRIP1 silencing could effectively inhibit migration and invasion during colorectal cancer development. These findings might aid the development of a biomarker for colon cancer prognosis and metastasis, and thus help to treat this common type of cancer. © 2017 The Author(s). Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. A Retrospective Study Of Intestinal Helminthosis As A Cause Of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A 10-year (1994-2003) retrospective study was carried out to investigate the occurrence of clinical cases due to intestinal helminths in dogs treated at Sokoine University of Agriculture Veterinary Clinic, Morogoro, Tanzania. A total of 546 clinical cases of intestinal helminthosis in dogs were examined and these included 295 ...

  10. In vitro methods to study intestinal drug metabolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Kerkhof, Esther G.; de Graaf, Inge A. M.; Groothuis, Geny M. M.

    2007-01-01

    Although the liver has long been thought to play the major role in drug metabolism, also the metabolic capacity of the intestine is more and more recognized. In vivo studies eventually pointed out not only the significance of first-pass metabolism by the intestinal wall for the bioavailability of

  11. Precision cut intestinal slices are an appropriate ex vivo model to study NSAID-induced intestinal toxicity in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niu, Xiaoyu; de Graaf, Inge A. M.; van der Bij, Hendrik A.; Groothuis, Geny M. M.

    2014-01-01

    Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are widely used therapeutic agents, however, they are associated with a high prevalence of intestinal side effects. In this investigation, rat precision cut intestinal slices (PCIS) were evaluated as an ex vivo model to study NSAID-induced intestinal

  12. Comparing intestinal versus diffuse gastric cancer using a PEFF-oriented proteomic pipeline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wippel, Helisa Helena; Santos, Marlon Dias Mariano; Clasen, Milan Avila; Kurt, Louise Ulrich; Nogueira, Fabio Cesar Sousa; Carvalho, Carlos Eduardo; McCormick, Thaís Messias; Neto, Guilherme Pinto Bravo; Alves, Lysangela Ronalte; da Gloria da Costa Carvalho, Maria; Carvalho, Paulo Costa; Fischer, Juliana de Saldanha da Gama

    2018-01-16

    Gastric cancer is the fifth most common malignant neoplasia and the third leading cause of cancer death worldwide. Mac-Cormick et al. recently showed the importance of considering the anatomical region of the tumor in proteomic gastric cancer studies; more differences were found between distinct anatomical regions than when comparing healthy versus diseased tissue. Thus, failing to consider the anatomical region could lead to differential proteins that are not disease specific. With this as motivation, we compared the proteomic profiles of intestinal and diffuse adenocarcinoma from the same anatomical region, the corpus. To achieve this, we used isobaric labeling (iTRAQ) of peptides, a 10-step HILIC fractionation, and reversed-phase nano-chromatography coupled online with a Q-Exactive Plus mass spectrometer. We updated PatternLab to take advantage of the new Comet-PEFF search engine that enables identifying post-translational modifications and mutations included in neXtProt's PSI Extended FASTA Format (PEFF) metadata. Our pipeline then uses a text-mining tool that automatically extracts PubMed IDs from the proteomic result metadata and drills down keywords from manuscripts related with the biological processes at hand. Our results disclose important proteins such as apolipoprotein B-100, S100 and 14-3-3 proteins, among many others, highlighting the different pathways enriched by each cancer type. Gastric cancer is a heterogeneous and multifactorial disease responsible for a significant number of deaths every year. Despite the constant improvement of surgical techniques and multimodal treatments, survival rates are low, mostly due to limited diagnostic techniques and late symptoms. Intestinal and diffuse types of gastric cancer have distinct clinical and pathological characteristics; yet little is known about the molecular mechanisms regulating these two types of gastric tumors. Here we compared the proteomic profile of diffuse and intestinal types of gastric cancer

  13. Current Hypothesis for the Relationship between Dietary Rice Bran Intake, the Intestinal Microbiota and Colorectal Cancer Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    So, Winnie K W; Law, Bernard M H; Law, Patrick T W; Chan, Carmen W H; Chair, Sek Ying

    2016-09-15

    Globally, colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common form of cancer. The development of effective chemopreventive strategies to reduce CRC incidence is therefore of paramount importance. Over the past decade, research has indicated the potential of rice bran, a byproduct of rice milling, in CRC chemoprevention. This was recently suggested to be partly attributable to modification in the composition of intestinal microbiota when rice bran was ingested. Indeed, previous studies have reported changes in the population size of certain bacterial species, or microbial dysbiosis, in the intestines of CRC patients and animal models. Rice bran intake was shown to reverse such changes through the manipulation of the population of health-promoting bacteria in the intestine. The present review first provides an overview of evidence on the link between microbial dysbiosis and CRC carcinogenesis and describes the molecular events associated with that link. Thereafter, there is a summary of current data on the effect of rice bran intake on the composition of intestinal microbiota in human and animal models. The article also highlights the need for further studies on the inter-relationship between rice bran intake, the composition of intestinal microbiota and CRC prevention.

  14. Biopharmaceutics classification and intestinal absorption study of apigenin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jianjun; Liu, Dapeng; Huang, Yanting; Gao, Yuan; Qian, Shuai

    2012-10-15

    The aim of the study was to characterize the biopharmaceutics classification system (BCS) category of apigenin (AP) using intrinsic dissolution rate (IDR) and rat intestinal permeability, and to investigate the intestinal absorption mechanism of AP in rats. In the present investigation, equilibrium solubility and intrinsic dissolution rate (IDR) of AP were estimated in phosphate buffers. Effective intestinal permeability (P(eff)) of AP was determined using single-pass intestinal perfusion (SPIP) technique in four segments (duodenum, jejunum, ileum and colon) of rat intestine at three concentrations (10, 50 and 100 μg/ml). The aqueous solubility of AP in tested phosphate buffers was very poor with maximum solubility of 2.16 μg/ml at pH 7.5. The IDR of AP was very low with a value of 0.006 mg/min/cm(2). The minimum and maximum P(eff)s determined by SPIP were 0.198×10(-4) and 0.713×10(-4) cm/s at jejunum and duodenum site, respectively. In addition, the concentration-dependent permeability behavior was observed in the duodenum and jejunum, which suggested that AP was transported by both passive and active carrier-mediated saturable mechanism in these two intestinal segments. However, the observed concentration-independent permeability behavior in ileum and colon indicated primarily passive transport mechanism of absorption of AP in the last two intestinal segments. AP was classified as class II drug of the BCS due to its low solubility and high intestinal permeability. AP could be well absorbed in the whole intestine with the main absorption site at duodenum. The absorption of AP in four intestinal segments exhibited different transport mechanisms. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Analysis of the intestinal lumen microbiota in an animal model of colorectal cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingchao Zhu

    Full Text Available Recent reports have suggested that multiple factors such as host genetics, environment and diet can promote the progression of healthy mucosa towards sporadic colorectal carcinoma. Accumulating evidence has additionally associated intestinal bacteria with disease initiation and progression. In order to examine and analyze the composition of gut microbiota in the absence of confounding influences, we have established an animal model of 1, 2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH-induced colon cancer. Using this model, we have performed pyrosequencing of the V3 region of the 16S rRNA genes in this study to determine the diversity and breadth of the intestinal microbial species. Our findings indicate that the microbial composition of the intestinal lumen differs significantly between control and tumor groups. The abundance of Firmicutes was elevated whereas the abundance of Bacteroidetes and Spirochetes was reduced in the lumen of CRC rats. Fusobacteria was not detected in any of the healthy rats and there was no significant difference in observed Proteobacteria species when comparing the bacterial communities between our two groups. Interestingly, the abundance of Proteobacteria was higher in CRC rats. At the genus level, Bacteroides exhibited a relatively higher abundance in CRC rats compared to controls (14.92% vs. 9.22%, p<0.001. Meanwhile, Prevotella (55.22% vs. 26.19%, Lactobacillus (3.71% vs. 2.32% and Treponema (3.04% vs. 2.43%, were found to be significantly more abundant in healthy rats than CRC rats (p<0.001, respectively. We also demonstrate a significant reduction of butyrate-producing bacteria such as Roseburia and Eubacterium in the gut microbiota of CRC rats. Furthermore, a significant increase in Desulfovibrio, Erysipelotrichaceae and Fusobacterium was also observed in the tumor group. A decrease in probiotic species such as Ruminococcus and Lactobacillus was likewise observed in the tumor group. Collectively, we can conclude that a significant

  16. Modulation of the intestinal microbiota alters colitis-associated colorectal cancer susceptibility.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua M Uronis

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available It is well established that the intestinal microbiota plays a key role in the pathogenesis of Crohn's disease (CD and ulcerative colitis (UC collectively referred to as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD. Epidemiological studies have provided strong evidence that IBD patients bear increased risk for the development of colorectal cancer (CRC. However, the impact of the microbiota on the development of colitis-associated cancer (CAC remains largely unknown. In this study, we established a new model of CAC using azoxymethane (AOM-exposed, conventionalized-Il10(-/- mice and have explored the contribution of the host intestinal microbiota and MyD88 signaling to the development of CAC. We show that 8/13 (62% of AOM-Il10(-/- mice developed colon tumors compared to only 3/15 (20% of AOM- wild-type (WT mice. Conventionalized AOM-Il10(-/- mice developed spontaneous colitis and colorectal carcinomas while AOM-WT mice were colitis-free and developed only rare adenomas. Importantly, tumor multiplicity directly correlated with the presence of colitis. Il10(-/- mice mono-associated with the mildly colitogenic bacterium Bacteroides vulgatus displayed significantly reduced colitis and colorectal tumor multiplicity compared to Il10(-/- mice. Germ-free AOM-treated Il10(-/- mice showed normal colon histology and were devoid of tumors. Il10(-/-; Myd88(-/- mice treated with AOM displayed reduced expression of Il12p40 and Tnfalpha mRNA and showed no signs of tumor development. We present the first direct demonstration that manipulation of the intestinal microbiota alters the development of CAC. The TLR/MyD88 pathway is essential for microbiota-induced development of CAC. Unlike findings obtained using the AOM/DSS model, we demonstrate that the severity of chronic colitis directly correlates to colorectal tumor development and that bacterial-induced inflammation drives progression from adenoma to invasive carcinoma.

  17. Studies on the Intestinal Worm (Helminthiasis) infestation in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Studies on the Intestinal Worm (Helminthiasis) infestation in a Central Nigerian Rural Community. JC Anosike, VO Zaccheaus, CM Adeiyongo, OC Abanobi, EO Dada, EE Oku, IR Keke, JC Uwaezuoke, OU Amajuoyi, CE Obiukwu, DC Nsowu, FI Ogbusu ...

  18. The use of metabolic balance studies in the objective discrimination between intestinal insufficiency and intestinal failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prahm, August P; Brandt, Christopher F; Askov-Hansen, Carsten

    2017-01-01

    Background: In research settings that use metabolic balance studies (MBSs) of stable adult patients with short bowel syndrome, intestinal failure (IF) and dependence on parenteral support (PS) have been defined objectively as energy absorption metabolic rate (BMR), wet......, to objectivize the cause of nutritional dyshomeostasis (oral failure, malabsorption, or both), and to quantify the effects of treatment....

  19. Spectrum of Intestinal Neoplasms: A study of 400 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aminder Singh

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The present study is a five-year analysis of all the tumors of small and large intestine received in the Pathology Department of Dayanand Medical College and Hospital, Ludhiana. Methods: All the cases were grossly and microscopically examined and were staged according to Astler Coller Staging and classified and subtyped according to WHO classification. The important differences between the small and large intestine tumors were also analyzed. Results: There were 400 cases out of which 356 were in large intestine while 44 were in the small intestine. There were only 56 benign neoplasms while 344 were malignant tumors. Adenomas were the most common benign tumors while majority of malignant tumors were adenocarcinomas. Lymphomas, mesenchymal tumors, and carcinoid tumors were much more common in a small intestine as compared to large intestine. Majority of adenocarcinomas were located in the large intestine with most of them being moderately differentiated having Astler Coller Stage B II. Mucinous carcinomas had the worst prognosis as compared to adenocarcinomas. Anal canal had mainly squamous cell carcinomas. Conclusions: Tumors of large intestine were much commoner than of small intestine. There was a higher incidence of tumor in males with M:F ratio of 2.2:1. Mean age of presentation of benign tumor was younger, i.e., 32.6 years when compared to 54.5 years for malignant tumors. Tubular adenoma was the most common benign tumor and adenocarcinoma the commonest malignant neoplasm. [J Interdiscipl Histopathol 2015; 3(1.000: 19-23

  20. A role for endothelial nitric oxide synthase in intestinal stem cell proliferation and mesenchymal colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peñarando, Jon; López-Sánchez, Laura M; Mena, Rafael; Guil-Luna, Silvia; Conde, Francisco; Hernández, Vanessa; Toledano, Marta; Gudiño, Victoria; Raponi, Michela; Billard, Caroline; Villar, Carlos; Díaz, César; Gómez-Barbadillo, José; De la Haba-Rodríguez, Juan; Myant, Kevin; Aranda, Enrique; Rodríguez-Ariza, Antonio

    2018-01-10

    Nitric oxide (NO) has been highlighted as an important agent in cancer-related events. Although the inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) isoform has received most attention, recent studies in the literature indicate that the endothelial isoenzyme (eNOS) can also modulate different tumor processes including resistance, angiogenesis, invasion, and metastasis. However, the role of eNOS in cancer stem cell (CSC) biology and mesenchymal tumors is unknown. Here, we show that eNOS was significantly upregulated in VilCre ERT2 Apc fl/+ and VilCre ERT2 Apc fl/fl mouse intestinal tissue, with intense immunostaining in hyperproliferative crypts. Similarly, the more invasive VilCre ERT2 Apc fl/+ Pten fl/+ mouse model showed an overexpression of eNOS in intestinal tumors whereas this isoform was not expressed in normal tissue. However, none of the three models showed iNOS expression. Notably, when 40 human colorectal tumors were classified into different clinically relevant molecular subtypes, high eNOS expression was found in the poor relapse-free and overall survival mesenchymal subtype, whereas iNOS was absent. Furthermore, Apc fl/fl organoids overexpressed eNOS compared with wild-type organoids and NO depletion with the scavenger carboxy-PTIO (c-PTIO) decreased the proliferation and the expression of stem-cell markers, such as Lgr5, Troy, Vav3, and Slc14a1, in these intestinal organoids. Moreover, specific NO depletion also decreased the expression of CSC-related proteins in human colorectal cancer cells such as β-catenin and Bmi1, impairing the CSC phenotype. To rule out the contribution of iNOS in this effect, we established an iNOS-knockdown colorectal cancer cell line. NO-depleted cells showed a decreased capacity to form tumors and c-PTIO treatment in vivo showed an antitumoral effect in a xenograft mouse model. Our data support that eNOS upregulation occurs after Apc loss, emerging as an unexpected potential new target in poor-prognosis mesenchymal colorectal tumors

  1. Risk of cancer, with special reference to extra-intestinal malignancies, in patients with inflammatory bowel disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Algaba, Alicia; Guerra, Iván; Castaño, Angel; de la Poza, Gema; Castellano, Víctor M; López, Montserrat; Bermejo, Fernando

    2013-12-28

    To determine the incidence and characteristics of intestinal and extra-intestinal cancers among patients with inflammatory bowel disease in a Spanish hospital and to compare them with those of the local population. This was a prospective, observational, 7-year follow-up, cohort study. Cumulative incidence, incidence rates based on person-years of follow-up and relative risk were calculated for patients with inflammatory bowel disease and compared with the background population. The incidence of cancer was determined using a hospital-based data registry from Hospital Universitario de Fuenlabrada. Demographic data and details about time from diagnosis of inflammatory bowel disease to occurrence of cancer, disease extent, inflammatory bowel disease treatment, cancer therapy and cancer evolution were also collected in the inflammatory bowel disease cohort. Eighteen of 590 patients with inflammatory bowel disease developed cancer [cumulative incidence = 3% (95%CI: 1.58-4.52) vs 2% (95%CI: 1.99-2.11) in the background population; RR = 1.5; 95%CI: 0.97-2.29]. The cancer incidence among inflammatory bowel disease patients was 0.53% (95%CI: 0.32-0.84) per patient-year of follow-up. Patients with inflammatory bowel disease had a significantly increased relative risk of urothelial carcinoma (RR = 5.23, 95%CI: 1.95-13.87), appendiceal mucinous cystadenoma (RR = 36.6, 95%CI: 7.92-138.4), neuroendocrine carcinoma (RR = 13.1, 95%CI: 1.82-29.7) and rectal carcinoid (RR = 8.94, 95%CI: 1.18-59.7). Colorectal cancer cases were not found. The overall risk of cancer did not significantly increase in our inflammatory bowel disease patients. However, there was an increased risk of urinary bladder cancer and, with less statistical power, an increased risk of appendiceal mucinous cystadenoma and of neuroendocrine tumors. Colorectal cancer risk was low in our series.

  2. Essential Oil from Myrica rubra Leaves Potentiated Antiproliferative and Prooxidative Effect of Doxorubicin and its Accumulation in Intestinal Cancer Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrož, Martin; Hanušová, Veronika; Skarka, Adam; Boušová, Iva; Králová, Věra; Langhasová, Lenka; Skálová, Lenka

    2016-01-01

    Essential oil from the leaves of Myrica rubra, a subtropical Asian fruit tree traditionally used in folk medicines, has a significant antiproliferative effect in several intestinal cancer cell lines. Doxorubicin belongs to the most important cytostatics used in cancer therapy. The present study was designed to evaluate the effects of defined essential oil from M. rubra leaves on efficacy, prooxidative effect, and accumulation of doxorubicin in cancer cell lines and in non-cancerous cells. For this purpose, intestinal adenocarcinoma CaCo2 cells were used. Human fibroblasts (periodontal ligament) and a primary culture of rat hepatocytes served as models of non-cancerous cells. The results showed that the sole essential oil from M. rubra has a strong prooxidative effect in cancer cells while it acts as a mild antioxidant in hepatocytes. Combined with doxorubicin, the essential oil enhanced the antiproliferative and prooxidative effects of doxorubicin in cancer cells. At higher concentrations, synergism of doxorubicin and essential oil from M. rubra was proved. In non-cancerous cells, the essential oil did not affect the toxicity of doxorubicin and the doxorubicin-mediated reactive oxygen species formation. The essential oil increased the intracellular concentration of doxorubicin and enhanced selectively the doxorubicin accumulation in nuclei of cancer cells. Taken together, essential oil from M. rubra leaves could be able to improve the doxorubicin efficacy in cancer cells due to an increased reactive oxygen species production, and the doxorubicin accumulation in nuclei of cancer cells. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  3. Aneuploidy involving chromosome 1 may be an early predictive marker of intestinal type gastric cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, L.; Somasekar, A.; Davies, D.J.; Cronin, J.; Doak, S.H.; Alcolado, R.; Williams, J.G.; Griffiths, A.P.; Baxter, J.N.; Jenkins, G.J.S.

    2009-01-01

    Intestinal type gastric cancer is a significant cause of mortality, therefore a better understanding of its molecular basis is required. We assessed if either aneuploidy or activity of the oncogenic transcription factor nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB), increased incrementally during pre-malignant gastric histological progression and also if they correlated with each other in patient samples, as they are both induced by oxygen free radicals. In a prospective study of 54 (aneuploidy) and 59 (NF-κB) consecutive patients, aneuploidy was assessed by interphase fluorescent in situ hybridisation (FISH) for chromosome 1. NF-κB was assessed by expression of interleukin-8 (IL-8), and in a subset, by immunohistochemistry (IHC) for active p65. Aneuploidy levels increased incrementally across the histological series. 2.76% of cells with normal histology (95% CI, 2.14-3.38%) showed background levels of aneuploidy, this increased to averages of 3.78% (95% CI, 3.21-4.35%), 5.89% (95% CI, 3.72-8.06%) and 7.29% (95% CI, 4.73-9.85%) of cells from patients with gastritis, Helicobacter pylori positive gastritis and atrophy/intestinal metaplasia (IM) respectively. IL-8 expression was only increased in patients with current H. pylori infection. NF-κB analysis showed some increased p65 activity in inflamed tissues. IL-8 expression and aneuploidy level were not linked in individual patients. Aneuploidy levels increased incrementally during histological progression; were significantly elevated at very early stages of neoplastic progression and could well be linked to cancer development and used to assess cancer risk. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) induced in early gastric cancer are presumably responsible for the stepwise accumulation of this particular mutation, i.e. aneuploidy. Hence, aneuploidy measured by fluorescent in situ hybridisation (FISH) coupled to brush cytology, would be worthy of consideration as a predictive marker in gastric cancer and could be clinically useful in pre

  4. Aneuploidy involving chromosome 1 may be an early predictive marker of intestinal type gastric cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, L. [Royal Glamorgan Hospital, Ynysmaerdy, Llantrisant CF72 8XR (United Kingdom); Somasekar, A. [Institute of Life Science, Swansea School of Medicine, Swansea University, Swansea SA28PP (United Kingdom); Neath Port Talbot Hospital, Abertawe Bro Morgannwg University NHS Trust, Baglan Way, Port Talbot SA12 7BX (United Kingdom); Davies, D.J.; Cronin, J.; Doak, S.H. [Institute of Life Science, Swansea School of Medicine, Swansea University, Swansea SA28PP (United Kingdom); Alcolado, R. [Royal Glamorgan Hospital, Ynysmaerdy, Llantrisant CF72 8XR (United Kingdom); Williams, J.G. [Neath Port Talbot Hospital, Abertawe Bro Morgannwg University NHS Trust, Baglan Way, Port Talbot SA12 7BX (United Kingdom); Griffiths, A.P. [Department of Histopathology, Morriston Hospital, Abertawe Bro Morgannwg University NHS Trust, Morriston, SA66NL (United Kingdom); Baxter, J.N. [Department of Surgery, Morriston Hospital, Abertawe Bro Morgannwg University NHS Trust, Morriston, SA66NL (United Kingdom); Jenkins, G.J.S., E-mail: g.j.jenkins@swansea.ac.uk [Institute of Life Science, Swansea School of Medicine, Swansea University, Swansea SA28PP (United Kingdom)

    2009-10-02

    Intestinal type gastric cancer is a significant cause of mortality, therefore a better understanding of its molecular basis is required. We assessed if either aneuploidy or activity of the oncogenic transcription factor nuclear factor kappa B (NF-{kappa}B), increased incrementally during pre-malignant gastric histological progression and also if they correlated with each other in patient samples, as they are both induced by oxygen free radicals. In a prospective study of 54 (aneuploidy) and 59 (NF-{kappa}B) consecutive patients, aneuploidy was assessed by interphase fluorescent in situ hybridisation (FISH) for chromosome 1. NF-{kappa}B was assessed by expression of interleukin-8 (IL-8), and in a subset, by immunohistochemistry (IHC) for active p65. Aneuploidy levels increased incrementally across the histological series. 2.76% of cells with normal histology (95% CI, 2.14-3.38%) showed background levels of aneuploidy, this increased to averages of 3.78% (95% CI, 3.21-4.35%), 5.89% (95% CI, 3.72-8.06%) and 7.29% (95% CI, 4.73-9.85%) of cells from patients with gastritis, Helicobacter pylori positive gastritis and atrophy/intestinal metaplasia (IM) respectively. IL-8 expression was only increased in patients with current H. pylori infection. NF-{kappa}B analysis showed some increased p65 activity in inflamed tissues. IL-8 expression and aneuploidy level were not linked in individual patients. Aneuploidy levels increased incrementally during histological progression; were significantly elevated at very early stages of neoplastic progression and could well be linked to cancer development and used to assess cancer risk. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) induced in early gastric cancer are presumably responsible for the stepwise accumulation of this particular mutation, i.e. aneuploidy. Hence, aneuploidy measured by fluorescent in situ hybridisation (FISH) coupled to brush cytology, would be worthy of consideration as a predictive marker in gastric cancer and could be

  5. Experiences of the family caregiver of a person with intestinal ostomy due to colorectal cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gláucia Sousa Oliveira

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This is a study with the objective to know the experiences of the family caregiver of a person with intestinal ostomy due to colorectal cancer. A qualitative research, grounded on the humanization referential, made in 2013, through serialized semi-structured interviews and inductive analysis. It was approved by the Ethics and Research Committee under legal opinion no. 237,771. Seven family caregivers participated in this study in a county of southern Minas Gerais state, Brazil. Three categories emerged from the data: Relation with the disease and its treatments; Impact facing treatment and rehabilitation and Nets of support. The representation of the disease associated to finitude is reaffirmed. In order to lessen anguish and suffering, the family caregivers search support, mainly in spirituality. The impact resulting from the illness and the rehabilitation process imposes a new order to the caregivers, with personal and social renouncing, which provides a closer and more dedicated relation with the patient.

  6. Wnt signaling in the intestinal epithelium: from endoderm to cancer.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gregorieff, A.; Clevers, J.C.

    2005-01-01

    The Wnt pathway controls cell fate during embryonic development. It also persists as a key regulator of homeostasis in adult self-renewing tissues. In these tissues, mutational deregulation of the Wnt cascade is closely associated with malignant transformation. The intestinal epithelium represents

  7. Plasticity of intestinal epithelial cells in regeneration and cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tetteh, Paul W.

    2015-01-01

    Cellular plasticity refers to the ability of a cell to change its fate or identity in response to external or intrinsic factors. Regeneration of the intestinal epithelium after injury is driven mainly by plasticity of crypt stem cells that can rapidly divide to replace all the lost cells. Stem cell

  8. Surveillance of gastric intestinal metaplasia for the prevention of gastric cancer.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Connor, Anthony

    2013-01-01

    Adenocarcinoma of the stomach is the second leading cause of cancer related death in the world. Gastric intestinal metaplasia (GIM) is a recognised premalignant condition of the stomach. It has been described as occurring in up to one in five patients in western countries. Although there is a definite risk of progression from GIM to cancer, published guidelines and statements differ as to the utility and structure of surveillance programs for this condition.

  9. The use of metabolic balance studies in the objective discrimination between intestinal insufficiency and intestinal failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prahm, August P; Brandt, Christopher F; Askov-Hansen, Carsten; Mortensen, Per B; Jeppesen, Palle B

    2017-09-01

    Background : In research settings that use metabolic balance studies (MBSs) of stable adult patients with short bowel syndrome, intestinal failure (IF) and dependence on parenteral support (PS) have been defined objectively as energy absorption absorption Intestinal absorption was measured from April 2003 to March 2015 in 175 consecutive patients with intestinal insufficiency (INS) in 96-h MBSs. They had not received PS 3 mo before referral. Results: To avoid the need for PS, the minimum absorptive requirements were energy absorption of ≥81% of BMR and WW absorption of ≥21 g · kg body weight -1 · d -1 , which were equivalent to findings in research settings (differences of 3.6% and 8.7%; P = 0.65 and 0.60, respectively). Oral failure defined as energy intake absorption and WW absorption, respectively. Conclusions: In clinical settings, the borderlines between INS and IF were not significantly different from those in research settings, even in an unselected patient population in which oral failure was also a predominant cause of nutritional dyshomeostasis. MBSs may be recommended to identify the individual patient in the spectrum from INS to IF, to objectivize the cause of nutritional dyshomeostasis (oral failure, malabsorption, or both), and to quantify the effects of treatment. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  10. Epidemiology of large intestinal cancer in Nagasaki city with reference to atomic bomb exposure, 1973∼1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinoshita, Shingo; Shimokawa, Isao; Iwasaki, Keisuke; Sakai, Hidetaka; Matsuo, Takeshi; Ikeda, Takayoshi; Mori, Hiroyuki; Mine, Mariko

    1988-01-01

    Epidemiological studies were conducted on 1098 cases of large intestinal cancer (615 cases of colon cancer and 483 cases of rectum cancer) registered at the Nagasaki Tumor Registry from 1973 to 1982, with emphasis on the relation to radiation exposure. The incidence in atomic bomb survivors was not significantly different from that in non-exposed persons, but the incidence in persons exposed at a young age tends to be higher, particularly the incidence of colon cancer in females. By site, about 56% of all colorectal cases investigated were shown to originate in the colon. In the colon, sigmoid cancer was the most frequent in both males and females, but there was no difference with regard to exposure status. In a comparison of the incidence during the first and second halves of the period examined, colorectal cancer revealed a general increasing trend, particularly for colon cancer in males and rectum cancer in females. Histologically, over 90% was differentiated adenocarcinoma and showed no difference by age, sex or exposure status. Nevertheless, it is noteworthy that musinous carcinoma was more frequent in atomic bomb survivors than in non-exposed people. Further analysis of the incidence, site and histologic type of colorectal cancer, especially in the group exposed at a young age, is necessary. (author)

  11. Intestinal parasites: a study of human appendices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerva, L; Schrottenbaum, M; Kliment, V

    1991-01-01

    Histological sections of 414 appendices were examined parasitologically. Enterobius vermicularis was found in 8.7%, eggs of Ascaris lumbricoides in 0.5%, trophozites of Dientamoeba fragilis in 4.8%, Endolimax nana in 2.2%, Entamoeba coli in 1% and cysts of Giardia intestinalis in 1.9% of cases. Appendicopathies associated with Enterobius were most frequent in the age group from 6 to 10 years (24.3%) and from 21 to 25 years (12.2%). Patients older than 15 years were practically women only. Dientamoeba was most frequent in the age group from 11 to 15 years (11.3%). In women D. fragilis was three times more frequent than in men. The coincidence of D. fragilis and E. vermicularis infections was 50%. No interactions were seen between the protozoans in the contents of the appendix and its mucous membrane. Statistical evaluation indicates possible etiologic role of E. vermicularis in the occurrence of acute appendicities. D. fragilis appears to be the most common intestinal protozoan parasite in Bohemia.

  12. A Comparative Study of the Gastro-Intestinal Helminth Parasites ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A comparative study of the gastro-intestinal helminth parasites infection of fresh and brackish water fishes from Warri river, Southern Nigeria, was undertaken. Eight hundred (800) fishes examined during the investigation belong to 30 families, 45 genera and 56 species. The study revealed a highly significant relationship (P ...

  13. Small intestinal mucin antigen (SIMA); a novel tumour marker in colorectal cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eskelinen, M; Pasanen, P; Janatuinen, E; Pettersson, N; Linnane, A; Alhava, E

    1995-01-01

    The aim of the present prospective study was to evaluate the clinical value of a new serum tumour marker small intestinal mucin antigen (SIMA) in the diagnosis of colorectal cancer. The serum SIMA values were measured in a prospective series of patients with colorectal cancer (n = 73) and patients with benign gastrointestinal disease (n = 87). SIMA values were determined using two different techniques. The cut-off levels (90 % specificity) determined for each test were 12.0 U/ml for SIMA I (Delphia), 9.8 U/ml for SIMA II (PCA-Delphia), 2.5 ng/ml for CEA, 17 U/ml for CA 50 and 17 U/ml for CA 242. The diagnostic sensitivity of the SIMA I test was 0.27, of the SIMA II test it was 0.19, of the CEA test it was 0.63, of the CA 50 test it was 0.30 and 0.30 for the CA 242 test in detecting colorectal cancer. The correlation coefficients (Pearson's r) in colorectal cancer patients between SIMA I and SIMA II measurements were 0.99, 0.71 between CEA and CA 50, 0.70 between CEA and CA 242 and 0.96 between CA 50 and CA 242 measurements. The correlation coefficients in colorectal cancer patients between other serum markers were non-significant. All marker tests were entered in a multivariate analysis to find the best combination of independent predictors of colorectal cancer. The most important predictor of colorectal cancer was SIMA I. In order to calculate the contributions of tumour marker tests, a diagnostic score (DS) was developed. The sensitivity of the DS in detecting colorectal cancer was 0.33 with a specificity of 0.90 and an efficiency of 0.65. In conclusion, the results indicate that the diagnostic sensitivity of a new tumour marker SIMA is equal to CA50 and CA 242, but inferior to the diagnostic sensitivity of the CEA test. However, multivariate discriminant analysis suggests some diagnostic value for SIMA I test because of its independent discriminant value.

  14. A Case of Advanced Descending Colon Cancer in an Adult Patient with Intestinal Malrotation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshifumi Nakayama

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This report presents an operative case of advanced descending colon cancer in an adult patient with intestinal malrotation. A 63-year-old Japanese male was suffering from left side abdominal pain, abdominal distension, and constipation. An endoscopic examination revealed an advanced tumor in the descending colon. Computed tomography (CT of the abdomen revealed the thickening of the descending colon wall and superior mesenteric vein rotation. An opaque enema detected severe stenosis of the descending colon. An abdominal X-ray examination revealed the dilation of the colon and small intestine with niveau. At the insertion of an ileus tube, the C-loop of the duodenum was observed to be absent and the small intestine was located on the right side of the abdomen. After the decompression of the bowel contents, laparotomy was performed. Descending colon cancer was observed to have directly invaded the left side of the transverse colon. Left hemicolectomy, lymph node dissection, and appendectomy were performed. The patient had an uneventful recovery and was discharged from the hospital on the 16th day after surgery. This report presents a rare operative case of descending colon cancer in an adult patient with intestinal malrotation.

  15. Minimum pathology reporting standard for gastro-intestinal cancers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aim: To develop and adopt minimum pathology reporting checklists for gastric and colorectal cancers in Nigeria Methods: Three pathologists with special interest in Gastrointestinal (GI) pathology were mandated to develop minimum data to be included in pathology reporting of GI cancers in Nigeria. Their proposals were ...

  16. Stomach microbiota composition varies between patients with non-atrophic gastritis and patients with intestinal type of gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aviles-Jimenez, Francisco; Vazquez-Jimenez, Flor; Medrano-Guzman, Rafael; Mantilla, Alejandra; Torres, Javier

    2014-02-26

    We aimed to characterize microbiota of the gastric mucosa as it progress to intestinal type of cancer. Study included five patients each of non-atrophic gastritis (NAG), intestinal metaplasia (IM) and intestinal-type gastric cancer (GC). Gastric tissue was obtained and DNA extracted for microbiota analyses using the microarray G3 PhyloChip. Bacterial diversity ranged from 8 to 57, and steadily decreased from NAG to IM to GC (p = 0.004). A significant microbiota difference was observed between NAG and GC based on Unifrac-presence/absence and weighted-Unifrac-abundance metrics of 283 taxa (p < 0.05). HC-AN analyses based on presence/absence of 238 taxa revealed that GC and NAG grouped apart, whereas IM overlapped with both. An ordinated analyses based on weighted-Unifrac distance given abundance of 44 taxa showing significance across categories revealed significant microbiota separation between NAG and GC. This study is the first to show a gradual shift in gastric microbiota profile from NAG to IM to GC.

  17. Background Intestinal 18F-FDG Uptake Is Related to Serum Lipid Profile and Obesity in Breast Cancer Patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai-Jeon Yoon

    Full Text Available This study investigated the relationships between background intestinal uptake on 18F-FDG PET and cardio-metabolic risk (CMR factors.A total of 326 female patients that underwent 18F-FDG PET to determine the initial stage of breast cancer were enrolled. None of the patients had history of diabetes or hypertension. The background intestinal uptake on PET was visually graded (low vs. high uptake group and quantitatively measured using the maximal standardized uptake value (SUVmax. SUVmax of 7 bowel segments (duodenum, jejunum, ileum, cecum, hepatic flexure, splenic flexure, and descending colon-sigmoid junction were averaged for the total bowel (TB SUVmax. Age, body mass index (BMI, fasting blood glucose level (BST, triglyceride (TG, cholesterol, high density lipoprotein (HDL, and low density lipoprotein (LDL were the considered CMR factors. The relationships between background intestinal 18F-FDG uptake on PET and diverse CMR factors were analyzed.The visual grades based on background intestinal 18F-FDG uptake classified 100 (30.7% patients into the low uptake group, while 226 (69.3% were classified into the high uptake group. Among CMR factors, age (p = 0.004, BMI (p<0.001, and TG (p<0.001 were significantly different according to visual grade of background intestinal 18F-FDG uptake. Quantitative TB SUVmax showed significant positive correlation with age (r = 0.203, p<0.001, BMI (r = 0.373, p<0.001, TG (r = 0.338, p<0.001, cholesterol (r = 0.148, p = 0.008, and LDL (r = 0.143, p = 0.024 and significant negative correlation with HDL (r = -0.147, p = 0.022. Multivariate analysis indicated that BMI and TG were independent factors in both visually graded background intestinal 18F-FDG uptake (p = 0.027 and p = 0.023, respectively and quantitatively measured TB SUVmax (p = 0.006 and p = 0.004, respectively.Increased background intestinal 18F-FDG uptake on PET may suggest alteration of lipid metabolism and risk of cardio-metabolic disease in non

  18. Comparative study of intestine length, weight and digestibility on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Comparative study of intestine length, weight and digestibility on different body weight chickens. HM Yang, W Wang, ZY Wang, J Wang, YJ Cao, YH Chen. Abstract. This experiment was conducted to compare the difference of digestibility on different body weight chickens. Twenty-seven (27) 58-week-old New Yangzhou ...

  19. Study on gastro intestinal parasite of cattle at Horoguduru Animal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cross sectional study was conducted to determine the prevalence of gastro intestinal parasite and protozoan emeria, to determine the common risk factor and to identify the commonly existing ... Carpological examination was done at Wollega University Shambu campus animal science and, food and nutrition department.

  20. Radiographic demonstration of small intestinal villi on routine clinical studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gelfand, D.W.; Ott, D.J.

    1981-01-01

    The radiographic demonstration of the small intestinal villi is reported. The villi were demonstrable with both single- and double-contrast methods on routine clinical studies. The primary requirement for their delineation appears to be employment of a high-resolution radiographic system. (orig.) [de

  1. A STUDY ON UPPER GASTRO INTESTINAL ENDOSCOPIC FINDINGS IN PATIENTS ADMITTED WITH UPPER GASTRO INTESTINAL BLEEDING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudhakar Merugu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Endoscopy is key diagnostic tool for management of upper gastro intestinal bleeding. In addition it provides a unique therapeutic opportunity which has over years reduced the need for emergency surgery, but the impact on survival is less dramatic with the mortality from severe upper gastro intestinal bleeding remaining fairly constant. MATERIALS AND METHODS Hundred Patients who were giving definite history of vomiting of frank blood or coffee ground coloured vomit and or passed dark coloured stools were admitted during study period and were subjected to endoscopy to identify the aetiology. RESULTS In this study of 100 patients mean age of the patients was 48 years. Majority of them are males (82% and Male to Female ratio was 4.5:1. The most common cause of UGIB was portal hypertension related variceal bleed seen in 28% of patients. Peptic ulcer related bleed was seen in 25% of patients. Mallory Weiss tear was seen in 15% of patients, Oesophagitis (12% of patients, gastric erosions 7% of patients, duodenitis 6% of patients, GAVE accounted for 3% of patients, 2% of patients showing normal endoscopic findings, post EVL variceal bleed (1% and carcinoma stomach accounted for 1% of cases. CONCLUSION In present study variceal bleed was the most common cause of UGIB, followed by peptic ulcer bleed and variceal bleed was most common cause for major UGI bleed.

  2. NIH mouse study finds gut microorganisms may determine cancer treatment outcome

    Science.gov (United States)

    An intact gut commensal microbiota, which is a population of microorganisms living in the intestine, is required for optimal response to cancer therapy, according to a mouse study by scientists at the National Cancer Institute (NCI)

  3. Bacterial Signaling at the Intestinal Epithelial Interface in Inflammation and Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivia I. Coleman

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The gastrointestinal (GI tract provides a compartmentalized interface with an enormous repertoire of immune and metabolic activities, where the multicellular structure of the mucosa has acquired mechanisms to sense luminal factors, such as nutrients, microbes, and a variety of host-derived and microbial metabolites. The GI tract is colonized by a complex ecosystem of microorganisms, which have developed a highly coevolved relationship with the host’s cellular and immune system. Intestinal epithelial pattern recognition receptors (PRRs substantially contribute to tissue homeostasis and immune surveillance. The role of bacteria-derived signals in intestinal epithelial homeostasis and repair has been addressed in mouse models deficient in PRRs and signaling adaptors. While critical for host physiology and the fortification of barrier function, the intestinal microbiota poses a considerable health challenge. Accumulating evidence indicates that dysbiosis is associated with the pathogenesis of numerous GI tract diseases, including inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD and colorectal cancer (CRC. Aberrant signal integration at the epithelial cell level contributes to such diseases. An increased understanding of bacterial-specific structure recognition and signaling mechanisms at the intestinal epithelial interface is of great importance in the translation to future treatment strategies. In this review, we summarize the growing understanding of the regulation and function of the intestinal epithelial barrier, and discuss microbial signaling in the dynamic host–microbe mutualism in both health and disease.

  4. Influence of radiotherapy on intestinal microflora in cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuzzolin, L; Zambreri, D; Donini, M; Griso, C; Benoni, G

    1992-06-01

    We investigated in 15 patients with carcinoma of the uterine cervix or endometrium, who were undergoing postoperative radiation therapy, the effects of different fractionated radiation exposures on counts of fecal bacteria, on the growth of Clostridium difficile and Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin production. We observed a generally significant decrease in intestinal microflora after the first radiation exposure, whereas at the end of radiotherapy all bacteria increased and reached basal values except Enterococcus faecium 1, lactobacilli and total anaerobes. In some patients we observed an overgrowth of some Clostridium spp. which were potential pathogens associated with clinical symptoms. We did not observe an influence of multiple radiations on C. perfringens enterotoxin fecal contents. We conclude that patients receiving radiotherapy may benefit from the intake of oral bacteriotherapy, i.e. live beneficial bacteria such as Bacillus subtilis at the beginning of the irradiation exposure.

  5. Radiation, an ideal cytotoxic for the study of cell biology in the small intestine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potten, C.

    2003-01-01

    Epithelial tissues are highly polarised with the proliferative compartment sometimes subdivided into units of proliferation in many instances. My interests have been in trying to understand how many cellular constituents exist, what their function is and intercommunicants are that ensure appropriate steady state cell replacement rates. Radiation has proved to be a valuable tool to induce cell death, reproductive sterilisation, and regenerative proliferation in these systems, the responses to which can provide information on the number of regenerative cells (a function associated with stem cells). Such studies have helped define the epidermal proliferative units and the structurally similar units on the dorsal surface of the tongue. The radiation responses considered in conjunction with a wide range of cell kinetic lineage tracking and somatic mutation studies with complex mathematical modelling, provide insights into the functioning of the poliferative units (crypts) of the small intestine. Comparative studies have then been undertaken with the crypts in the large bowel. In the small intestine, which rarely develops cancer, various protective mechanisms have evolved to ensure the genetic integrity of the stem cell compartment. Stem cells in the small intestinal crypts have an intolerance of genotoxic damage (including that induced by very low doses of radiation), they do not undergo cell cycle arrest and repair but commit an altruistic p53 dependent cell suicide (apoptosis). This process is compromised in the large bowel by bcl-2 expression. Recent studies have suggested a second genome protection mechanism operating in the stem cells of the small intestinal crypts that may also have a p53 dependence. Such studies have allowed the cell lineages and genome protection mechanisms operating in the small intestinal crypts to be defined

  6. In vivo studies of biotin absorption in distal rat intestine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowman, B.B.; Rosenberg, I.H.

    1986-01-01

    The authors have extended their previous studies of biotin absorption in rat proximal jejunum (PJ) to examine biotin absorptive capacity of rat ileum (I) and proximal colon (PC) using in vivo intestinal loop technique. Intestinal loops (2.5 cm) were filled with 0.3 ml of solution containing ( 3 H)-biotin and ( 14 C)-inulin in phosphate buffer, pH 6.5. Biotin absorption was determined on the basis of luminal biotin disappearance after correction for inulin recovery and averaged (pmol/loop-10 min; X +/- SEM). In related experiments, 5-cm loops of PJ, distal I (DI), or PC were filled with 0.5 ml of solution of similar composition (1.0 μM biotin). The abdominal cavity was closed and the rats were allowed to recover from anesthesia, then sacrificed 3 hr after injection. Biotin absorption averaged 96.2% (PJ), 93.2% (DI), and 25.8% (PC) of the dose administered. These differences were reflected in the radioactive biotin content of plasma and intestinal loop, kidney, and liver. These data demonstrate significant biotin absorption in rat DI and PC, as required if the intestinal microflora are to be considered as a source of biotin for the host

  7. STUDYING OF FUNCTIONAL CONDITION OF THE SMALL INTESTINE IN CHOLELITHIASIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya. M. Vakhrushev

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. Complex research of the functional condition of the small intestine in different stages of cholelithiasis.Materials and methods. 47 patients with different stages of cholelithiasis were examined. There were 29 patients with the first (prestone stage and 18 — with the second (stone stage of cholelithiasis. In an assessment of the functional condition of the small intestine were used clinical data and results of the load tests by sugars. Cavitary digestion was studied by load test with polysaccharide (soluble starch, membrane digestion — with disaccharide (sucrose, absorption — with monosaccharide (glucose. Glucose level in blood was determined on an empty stomach, then after oral reception of 50g of glucose, sucrose or starch in 30, 60 and 120 minutes.Results. Researchers showed that in the most of patients with cholelithiasis there were disturbances in clinical and functional condition of the small intestine. In an assessment of the cavitary digestion the level of glycemia was authentically lowered by 43% in prestone stage and by 66% in stone stage of cholelithiasis in comparison with control. In an assessment of membrane digestion in patients with the stone stage of cholelithiasis the level of glycemia was lowered in comparison with group of control and with the prestone stage by 30% and 19% respectively.Conclusion. In prestone stage of cholelithiasis there were decrease of the cavitary digestion primary, and in stone stage of cholelithiasis — all stages of hydrolysis-resorptive process in the small intestine were disturbed.

  8. Cystic Fibrosis & disorders of the large intestine: DIOS, constipation, and colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, James M; Taylor, Christopher J

    2017-11-01

    Since 1966 when the Cystic Fibrosis Foundation Patient Registry (CFFPR) was founded, clinicians have witnessed significant advances in both the quality and quantity of life for patients living with Cystic Fibrosis (CF). As patients with CF live longer and fuller lives, increasing encumbrances from gastrointestinal manifestations of CF will be observed. This article serves to discuss "below the diaphragm" concerns involving the large intestine (Distal Intestinal Obstruction Syndrome, Constipation, and Colorectal Cancer). Avenues for development and implementation of clinical care protocols, particularly regarding proactive management of known associated conditions and cancer screening, will continue to be refined in the coming years. It falls to the multidisciplinary CF care team to be actively engaged in addressing these concerns effectively as priority shifts from relative acuity (typically related to early nutrition and lung function) to the travails of longevity as the CF population continues to age. Copyright © 2017 European Cystic Fibrosis Society. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Risk of Gastric Cancer Among Patients With Intestinal Metaplasia of the Stomach in a US Integrated Health Care System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Kavya M; Chang, Jonathan I; Shi, Jiaxiao M; Wu, Bechien U

    2016-10-01

    Gastric intestinal metaplasia (GIM) is a common finding from routine endoscopies. Although GIM is an early step in gastric carcinogenesis, there is controversy regarding routine surveillance of patients with GIM in regions with a low prevalence of gastric cancer. We aimed to determine the incidence of gastric cancer among patients with GIM and risk factors for gastric cancer. We performed a retrospective cohort study of patients from the Kaiser Permanente Southern California region diagnosed with GIM from 2000 through 2011. GIM was identified by a keyword search of pathology reports; gastric cancer cases were identified by cross-reference with an internal cancer registry. The incidence of gastric cancer in patients with GIM (n = 923; median age at diagnosis, 68 y) was compared with that of an age- and sex-matched reference population (controls). Risk factors such as ethnicity, smoking status, history of Helicobacter pylori infection, and family history of gastric cancer were evaluated by individual Cox proportional hazards regression. We then performed a second case-cohort study to evaluate the risk of gastric cancer based on the location and extent of GIM. The median duration of follow-up evaluation was 4.6 years (interquartile range, 3.0-6.7 y). We identified 25 patients with GIM who developed gastric cancers. Seventeen cases of cancer were diagnosed at the same time as the diagnosis of GIM. Eight cases of cancer were identified within a median time period of 4.6 years after a diagnosis of GIM (interquartile range, 2-5.7 y). The overall incidence rate for the cohort was 1.72 (95% confidence interval, 0.74-3.39). Among the risk factors evaluated, only family history (hazard ratio, 3.8; 95% confidence interval, 1.5-9.7; P = .012) and extent of GIM (odds ratio, 9.4; 95% confidence interval, 1.8-50.4) increased the risk for gastric cancer. The incidence rate for gastric cancer in patients with a positive family history was 8.12 (95% confidence interval, 1

  10. WNT signaling controls expression of pro-apoptotic BOK and BAX in intestinal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeilstra, Jurrit; Joosten, Sander P.J.; Wensveen, Felix M.; Dessing, Mark C.; Schuetze, Denise M.; Eldering, Eric; Spaargaren, Marcel; Pals, Steven T.

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Intestinal adenomas initiated by aberrant activation of the WNT pathway displayed an increased sensitivity to apoptosis. → Expression profiling of apoptosis-related genes in Apc Min/+ mice revealed the differential expression of pro-apoptotic Bok and Bax. → APC-mutant adenomatous crypts in FAP patients showed strongly increased BAX immunoreactivity. → Blocking of β-catenin/TCF-4-mediated signaling in colon cancer cells reduced the expression of BOK and BAX. -- Abstract: In a majority of cases, colorectal cancer is initiated by aberrant activation of the WNT signaling pathway. Mutation of the genes encoding the WNT signaling components adenomatous polyposis coli or β-catenin causes constitutively active β-catenin/TCF-mediated transcription, driving the transformation of intestinal crypts to cancer precursor lesions, called dysplastic aberrant crypt foci. Deregulated apoptosis is a hallmark of adenomatous colon tissue. However, the contribution of WNT signaling to this process is not fully understood. We addressed this role by analyzing the rate of epithelial apoptosis in aberrant crypts and adenomas of the Apc Min/+ mouse model. In comparison with normal crypts and adenomas, aberrant crypts displayed a dramatically increased rate of apoptotic cell death. Expression profiling of apoptosis-related genes along the crypt-villus axis and in Apc mutant adenomas revealed increased expression of two pro-apoptotic Bcl-2 family members in intestinal adenomas, Bok and Bax. Analysis of the colon of familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) patients along the crypt-to-surface axis, and of dysplastic crypts, corroborated this expression pattern. Disruption of β-catenin/TCF-4-mediated signaling in the colorectal cancer cell line Ls174T significantly decreased BOK and BAX expression, confirming WNT-dependent regulation in intestinal epithelial cells. Our results suggest a feedback mechanism by which uncontrolled epithelial cell proliferation in the

  11. Validation of the Intestinal Part of the Prostate Cancer Questionnaire 'QUFW94': Psychometric Properties, Responsiveness, and Content Validity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reidunsdatter, Randi J.; Lund, Jo-Asmund; Fransson, Per; Widmark, Anders

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Several treatment options are available for patients with prostate cancer. Applicable and valid self-assessment instruments for assessing health-related quality of life (HRQOL) are of paramount importance. The aim of this study was to explore the validity and responsiveness of the intestinal part of the prostate cancer-specific questionnaire QUFW94. Methods and Materials: The content of the intestinal part of QUFW94 was examined by evaluation of experienced clinicians and reviewing the literature. The psychometric properties and responsiveness were assessed by analyzing HRQOL data from the randomized study Scandinavian Prostate Cancer Group 7 (SPCG)/Swedish Association for Urological Oncology 3 (SFUO). Subscales were constructed by means of exploratory factor analyses. Internal consistency was assessed by Cronbach's alpha. Responsiveness was investigated by comparing baseline scores with the 4-year posttreatment follow-up. Results: The content validity was found acceptable, but some amendments were proposed. The factor analyses revealed two symptom scales. The first scale comprised five items regarding general stool problems, frequency, incontinence, need to plan toilet visits, and daily activity. Cronbach's alpha at 0.83 indicated acceptable homogeneity. The second scale was less consistent with a Cronbach's alpha at 0.55. The overall responsiveness was found to be very satisfactory. Conclusion: Two scales were identified in the bowel dimension of the QUFW94; the first one had good internal consistency. The responsiveness was excellent, and some modifications are suggested to strengthen the content validity.

  12. The intestinal microbiota, gastrointestinal environment and colorectal cancer: a putative role for probiotics in prevention of colorectal cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azcárate-Peril, M Andrea; Sikes, Michael; Bruno-Bárcena, José M

    2011-09-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most commonly diagnosed cancer in the United States, and, even though 5-15% of the total CRC cases can be attributed to individual genetic predisposition, environmental factors could be considered major factors in susceptibility to CRC. Lifestyle factors increasing the risks of CRC include elevated body mass index, obesity, and reduced physical activity. Additionally, a number of dietary elements have been associated with higher or lower incidence of CRC. In this context, it has been suggested that diets high in fruit and low in meat might have a protective effect, reducing the incidence of colorectal adenomas by modulating the composition of the normal nonpathogenic commensal microbiota. In addition, it has been demonstrated that changes in abundance of taxonomic groups have a profound impact on the gastrointestinal physiology, and an increasing number of studies are proposing that the microbiota mediates the generation of dietary factors triggering colon cancer. High-throughput sequencing and molecular taxonomic technologies are rapidly filling the knowledge gaps left by conventional microbiology techniques to obtain a comprehensive catalog of the human intestinal microbiota and their associated metabolic repertoire. The information provided by these studies will be essential to identify agents capable of modulating the massive amount of gut bacteria in safe noninvasive manners to prevent CRC. Probiotics, defined as "live microorganisms which, when administered in adequate amounts, confer a health benefit on the host" (219), are capable of transient modulation of the microbiota, and their beneficial effects include reinforcement of the natural defense mechanisms and protection against gastrointestinal disorders. Probiotics have been successfully used to manage infant diarrhea, food allergies, and inflammatory bowel disease; hence, the purpose of this review was to examine probiotic metabolic activities that may have an effect

  13. Differences between polydioxanone and poliglactin in intestinal anastomoses – a comparative study of intestinal anastomoses

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    Carlos Henrique Marques dos Santos

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Intestinal anastomosis is a surgical practice constantly realized by surgeons worldwide. When the option is to perform manual anastomosis, which is still widely used for its low cost, the question arises as to the best material to be applied. Objective: To compare polydioxanone and polyglactin threads for healing and tensile strength in intestinal anastomosis in rats. Method: We used 25 rats Wistar; after anesthesia, in groups A and B (10 rats each, laparotomy was performed, transection of the ileum at 5 and 10 cm proximally to the ileocecal valve; in group A, anastomosis was performed with 4 separate extra mucosal sutures with polidioxanone; in group B, anastomosis was performed with polyglactin; in group C (5 rats, laparotomy and manipulation of the ileum were performed. After 21 days, the animals were anesthetized and submitted to euthanasia. The specimens were sent for histopathological study and tensile strength analysis. Statistical analysis was performed using the Turkey and Student's t tests, with a significance of p < 0.05. Results: The results showed that in the tensile strength analysis, there were no significant differences between them. The histological analysis showed significant differences between the cicatrization pattern, where polydioxanone caused less fibrosis than polyglactin. Conclusion: Polydioxanone caused less fibrosis than polyglactin in intestinal anastomoses of rats. Resumo: Introdução: Anastomose intestinal é uma prática cirúrgica constantemente realizada pelos cirurgiões em todo o mundo. Quando a opção é a anastomose manual – um procedimento ainda amplamente empregado, graças a seu baixo custo – coloca-se o problema de saber qual é o melhor material a ser aplicado. Objetivo: Comparar fios de polidioxanona e poliglactina quanto à cicatrização e resistência à tração em anastomoses intestinais em ratos. Método: Utilizamos 25 ratos Wistar; depois da anestesia, foi realizada

  14. Intestinal rehabilitation for children with intestinal failure is cost-effective : a simulation study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groen, Henk; Neelis, Esther G; Poley, Marten J; Olieman, Joanne F; Scheenstra, René; Krabbe, Paul Fm; Dijkstra, Gerard; Rings, Edmond Hhm

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Children with intestinal failure (IF) depend on parenteral nutrition (PN). The goal in the treatment of IF is to wean children off PN through intestinal rehabilitation (IR). Although the healthcare burden of IF is enormous, to our knowledge there has been no previous cost-effectiveness

  15. Intestinal rehabilitation for children with intestinal failure is cost-effective : a simulation study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groen, Henk; Neelis, Esther G.; Poley, Marten J.; Olieman, Joanne F.; Scheenstra, Rene; Krabbe, Paul F. M.; Dijkstra, Gerard; Rings, Edmond H. H. M.

    Background: Children with intestinal failure (IF) depend on parenteral nutrition (PN). The goal in the treatment of IF is to wean children off PN through intestinal rehabilitation (IR). Although the healthcare burden of IF is enormous, to our knowledge there has been no previous cost-effectiveness

  16. Reduction of inflammatory hyperplasia in the intestine in colon cancer-prone mice by water-extract of Cistanche deserticola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Yamin; Guan, Qiunong; Guo, Yuhai; Du, Caigan

    2012-06-01

    Cistanche deserticola has commonly been used in traditional Chinese medicine to treat many health problems including irritable bowel syndrome or constipation. This study was designed to test the efficacy of a water-extract of C. deserticola in the prevention of colorectal cancer in a mouse model. Polysaccharide-rich water-extract of C. deserticola was prepared by boiling its stem powder in distilled water. Tgfb1Rag2 null mice were used as an experimental model. Here we showed that feeding of water-extract of C. deserticola significantly reduced the number of mucosal hyperplasia and intestinal helicobacter infection in mice. This beneficial effect correlated with significant stimulation of the immune system, evidenced by the enlargement of the spleens with increased number of splenic macrophage and natural killer cells, and with more potent cytotoxicity of splenocytes. In vitro water-extract of C. deserticola enhanced the cytotoxicity of naïve splenocytes against a human colon cancer cell line, and in macrophage cultures up-regulated nitric oxide synthase II expression and stimulated phagocytosis. In conclusion, our data indicate that oral administration of C. deserticola extract reduces inflammatory hyperplastic polyps and helicobacter infection in mice by its immune-stimulatory activity, suggesting that C. deserticola extract may have potential in preventing intestinal inflammation disorders including colorectal cancer. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. DIAGNOSIS AND MANAGEMENT OF SUBACUTE INTESTINAL OBSTRUCTION: A PROSPECTIVE STUDY

    OpenAIRE

    Amit; Anjani; Shaleen; Vikram; Prasheel

    2014-01-01

    Intestinal obstruction can be defined as impairment to the abnormal passage of intestinal contents that may be due to either mechanical obstruction or failure of normal intestinal motility in the absence of an obstructing lesion. Intestinal obstruction is the most common surgical disorder of the small intestine. SAIO implies incomplete obstruction. It has been defined in a number of ways and there are many gray zones in the treatment protocols. It is characterized by conti...

  18. Effects of Probiotics on Intestinal Mucosa Barrier in Patients With Colorectal Cancer after Operation: Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dun; Jiang, Xiao-Ying; Zhou, Lan-Shu; Song, Ji-Hong; Zhang, Xuan

    2016-04-01

    Many studies have found that probiotics or synbiotics can be used in patients with diarrhea or inflammatory bowel disease for the prevention and treatment of some pathologies by improving gastrointestinal barrier function. However, there are few studies availing the use of probiotics in patients with colorectal cancer. To lay the foundation for the study of nutritional support in colorectal cancer patients, a meta-analysis has been carried out to assess the efficacy of probiotics on the intestinal mucosa barrier in patients with colorectal cancer after operation. To estimate the efficacy of probiotics on the intestinal mucosa barrier in patients with colorectal cancer after operation, a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials has been conducted. Databases including PubMed, Ovid, Embase, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and the China National Knowledge Infrastructure have been searched to identify suitable studies. Stata 12.0 was used for statistical analysis, and sensitivity analysis was also conducted. Six indicators were chosen to evaluate probiotics in protecting the intestinal mucosa barrier in patients with colorectal cancer. Ratios of lactulose to mannitol (L/M) and Bifidobacterium to Escherichia (B/E), occludin, bacterial translocation, and levels of secretory immunoglobulin A (SIgA), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and C-reactive protein (CRP) were chosen to evaluate probiotics in protecting the intestinal mucosa barrier in patients with colorectal cancer. Seventeen studies including 1242 patients were selected for meta-analysis, including 5 English studies and 12 Chinese studies. Significant effects were found in ratios of L/M (standardized mean difference = 3.83, P = 0.001) and B/E (standardized mean difference = 3.91, P = 0.000), occludin (standardized mean difference = 4.74, P = 0.000), bacterial translocation (standardized mean difference = 3.12, P = 0.002), and levels of SIgA (standardized mean

  19. Quantitative and qualitative study of intestinal flora in neonates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nidhi Sharma

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available ackground: In the neonatal period the developing intestinal barrier function provides a sub-optimal mucosal defense against infection. Establishment of the normal commensal micro-flora plays a vital role in this process. Aims: To determine aerobic and anaerobic bacteria by quantitative and qualitative methods from faecal samples of neonates. Settings and Design: A prospective study was carried out in two groups in a tertiary care hospital, Group A-comprised preterm infant and in group B-full term infants. Materials and Methods: Sixty two preterm infants with the weight 0.05. On day 21 there was a significant change in colonization of both bacterial sp (P < 0.05. Potential pathogenic aerobic bacteria dominate the intestinal flora of premature babies nursed in neonatal unit. There is a need to investigate interventions to offset this imbalance in gut micro-ecology of premature babies.

  20. Acute intestinal obstruction: an electromyographic study in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summers, R W; Yanda, R; Prihoda, M; Flatt, A

    1983-12-01

    We have investigated the motility effects of acute experimental canine intestinal obstruction. A 30-min midjejunal obstruction was produced by clamping a Biebl loop or by inflating an intraluminal balloon. Spike bursts from serosal electrodes proximal to the site of obstruction increased markedly, while those from distal electrodes decreased. When the obstruction from an intraluminal Foley catheter was continued for 5.5 h, the inhibition persisted distally but the proximal contractile activity gradually fell to control levels. The reduced proximal activity after prolonged obstruction was largely due to clusters of regular intense spike bursts preceded and followed by lengthening periods of absent motor activity. Similar clustered contractions obliterated the lumen when the passage of barium through a Thiry-Vella loop was monitored fluoroscopically. Significant motility changes occur in intestinal obstruction, but an increased understanding of the mechanisms involved awaits future studies.

  1. Intestinal Malabsorption in Long-Term Survivors of Cervical Cancer Treated With Radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vistad, Ingvild; Kristensen, Gunnar B.; Fossa, Sophie D.; Dahl, Alv A.; Morkrid, Lars

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this cross-sectional study is to investigate the associations between pelvic radiotherapy (RT) and markers of intestinal absorption in cervical cancer survivors (CCSs). We compared patient data with normative data from a reference population and explored the associations between cobalamin status and clinically significant diarrhea and depression. Methods and Materials: Fifty-five CCSs treated with RT in 1994-1999 were included in 2005 in a follow-up questionnaire study exploring physical and psychological symptoms. Blood tests, including serum (S)-vitamin B 12, S-methylmalonic acid, S-folate, erythrocyte-folate, and plasma homocysteine, were analyzed. Differences in median values between CCSs and reference populations were evaluated by using Wilcoxon tests. Associations between variables were examined by means of multiple regression analyses. Results: Median S-vitamin B 12 level was significantly lower and median S-methylmalonic acid level was significantly higher in CCSs compared with the reference population (p 12 level is recommended, and regular intake of cobalamin should be considered in CCSs treated with RT

  2. Radiologic study on differential diagnosis of intestinal tuberculosis and intestinal Behcet's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jong Chul; Kim, Young Goo; Kim, Sang Joon; Choi, Byung Ihn; Park, Jae Hyung

    1986-01-01

    Radiologic findings in 30 patients with intestinal tuberculosis and 10 patients with intestinal Behcet's disease, who had been diagnosed at Seoul National University Hospital during the recent 5 years, were analysed retrospectively to evaluate the radiologic differential diagnosis of the two diseases. Intestinal tuberculosis severely involved the cecum, the ileocecal valve, the distal ileum and colons, but Behcet's disease mainly involved the distal ileum and infrequently the ileocecal valve and the cecum. The ulcers in tuberculosis were usually multiple small barium collected areas among pseudopolyps, on the contrary, those in Behcet's disease were multiple, discrete, well marinated, geographic, ring-like deep penetrating or collar-button shaped. Intestinal tuberculosis tended to involved long segments of intestines, with severer mucosal irregularity and deformity of the ileocecal valve and the ascending colon in comparison with Behcet's disease. Mesenteric and/or peritoneal involvement were accompanied in 1/3 cases of intestinal tuberculosis, and active pulmonary tuberculosis or pleural effusion also in 1/3 cases of intestinal tuberculosis.

  3. Effect of colibacillosis or coccidiosis on expression of breast cancer resistance protein in small intestine and liver of chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, L; Dong, L; Bughio, S; Guo, M; Wang, L

    2014-02-01

    Breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP, ABCG2) is a member of ABC (ATP-binding cassette) transporter superfamily that occurs in a variety of tissues including liver and small intestine of animals. As BCRP is involved in drug absorption, distribution, and elimination, modulation of its expression may affect the clinical efficacy of drugs. However, little is known about the effects of coccidiosis or colibacillosis infection on the levels of BCRP expression in chickens. Here, we studied the effect of infection with Escherichia coli (E. coli) or Eimeriida mixture (E. necatrix and E. tenella) on the expression levels of ABCG2 mRNA and BCRP in the different segments of small intestine and liver in chickens. Expression of ABCG2 mRNA or BCRP was detected in the entire small intestine and liver of healthy chickens, and the expression levels in liver and ileum were significantly higher than duodenum and jejunum. Infection with E. coli or Eimeriida mixture resulted in significant decrease in ABCG2 mRNA and BCRP expression in liver, ileum, and jejunum, but not in duodenum, in comparison with noninfection control. The results indicate that coccidiosis or colibacillosis infection inhibits BCRP expression in chickens, which may consequently influence drug distribution and therapeutic efficacy. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Studies on intestinal copper and zinc absorption in the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oestreicher, P.

    1985-01-01

    An attempt is made to examine the interactions zinc and copper undergo at the absorptive level in the rat. In addition, the kinetics of zinc transport by rat intestinal basolateral membrane vesicles are described. The influence copper and zinc exert on each other's absorption was studied using the isolated, vascularly and luminally perfused rat intestine system. Rats were fed one of nine diets for one week, each with a different copper and zinc concentration representing low, adequate and high dietary concentrations (1-36 mg/kg Cu 2+ and 5-180 mg/kg Zn 2+ ). Experiments to describe zinc transport out of intestinal cells were carried out using a membrane fraction enriched with basolateral membrane vesicles (BLMV). Initial rates of 65 Zn 2+ uptake (extravesicular Zn 2+ concentrations of 5 μM to 625 μM) with BLMV from zinc-adequate and zinc-deficient rats fit Michaelis-Menten saturation kinetics indicating a carrier-mediated transport process. The Km and Jmax were not significantly changed by dietary zinc status. SDS-PAGE of BLMV from rats of different zinc status did not show differences in the number of abundance of protein bands. Na + did not alter 65 Zn 2+ uptake. ATP caused a reduction in 65 Zn 2+ uptake due to complex formation with zinc ions thereby decreasing the amount of zinc available for transport

  5. [Multiple primary cancer of the gastro-intestinal tract].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knysh, V I; Cherkes, V L; Anan'ev, V S; Sel'chuk, V Iu; Vladanov, I P

    1986-01-01

    Peculiarities of the clinical course of primary multiple malignant tumors of the gastrointestinal tract are discussed. Out of 25 cases of synchronous gastrointestinal malignancies, both stomach and large bowel tumors were found in 10 patients and simultaneous neoplasms in different segments of the large bowel--in 15. In the latter group, radical surgery was performed in 13 patients. Out of 54 cases of metachronous cancer, 28 revealed combinations of stomach and large bowel tumors, while in 26 cases metachronous tumors appeared in succession in different segments of the large bowel. Synchronous single and multiple polyps of the large bowel were detected in 19 out of 54 patients. Radical surgery was carried out in 33 and palliative surgery--in 6 patients.

  6. Pilot study of lithium to restore intestinal barrier function in severe graft-versus-host disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gideon Steinbach

    Full Text Available Severe intestinal graft-vs-host disease (GVHD after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT causes mucosal ulceration and induces innate and adaptive immune responses that amplify and perpetuate GVHD and the associated barrier dysfunction. Pharmacological agents to target mucosal barrier dysfunction in GVHD are needed. We hypothesized that induction of Wnt signaling by lithium, an inhibitor of glycogen synthase kinase (GSK3, would potentiate intestinal crypt proliferation and mucosal repair and that inhibition of GSK3 in inflammatory cells would attenuate the deregulated inflammatory response to mucosal injury. We conducted an observational pilot study to provide data for the potential design of a randomized study of lithium. Twenty patients with steroid refractory intestinal GVHD meeting enrollment criteria were given oral lithium carbonate. GVHD was otherwise treated per current practice, including 2 mg/kg per day of prednisone equivalent. Seventeen patients had extensive mucosal denudation (extreme endoscopic grade 3 in the duodenum or colon. We observed that 8 of 12 patients (67% had a complete remission (CR of GVHD and survived more than 1 year (median 5 years when lithium administration was started promptly within 3 days of endoscopic diagnosis of denuded mucosa. When lithium was started promptly and less than 7 days from salvage therapy for refractory GVHD, 8 of 10 patients (80% had a CR and survived more than 1 year. In perspective, a review of 1447 consecutive adult HCT patients in the preceding 6 years at our cancer center showed 0% one-year survival in 27 patients with stage 3-4 intestinal GVHD and grade 3 endoscopic appearance in the duodenum or colon. Toxicities included fatigue, somnolence, confusion or blunted affect in 50% of the patients. The favorable outcomes in patients who received prompt lithium therapy appear to support the future conduct of a randomized study of lithium for management of severe GVHD with

  7. The SIRT1 deacetylase suppresses intestinal tumorigenesis and colon cancer growth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ron Firestein

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Numerous longevity genes have been discovered in model organisms and altering their function results in prolonged lifespan. In mammals, some have speculated that any health benefits derived from manipulating these same pathways might be offset by increased cancer risk on account of their propensity to boost cell survival. The Sir2/SIRT1 family of NAD(+-dependent deacetylases is proposed to underlie the health benefits of calorie restriction (CR, a diet that broadly suppresses cancer in mammals. Here we show that CR induces a two-fold increase SIRT1 expression in the intestine of rodents and that ectopic induction of SIRT1 in a beta-catenin-driven mouse model of colon cancer significantly reduces tumor formation, proliferation, and animal morbidity in the absence of CR. We show that SIRT1 deacetylates beta-catenin and suppresses its ability to activate transcription and drive cell proliferation. Moreover, SIRT1 promotes cytoplasmic localization of the otherwise nuclear-localized oncogenic form of beta-catenin. Consistent with this, a significant inverse correlation was found between the presence of nuclear SIRT1 and the oncogenic form of beta-catenin in 81 human colon tumor specimens analyzed. Taken together, these observations show that SIRT1 suppresses intestinal tumor formation in vivo and raise the prospect that therapies targeting SIRT1 may be of clinical use in beta-catenin-driven malignancies.

  8. The SIRT1 Deacetylase Suppresses Intestinal Tumorigenesis and Colon Cancer Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberdoerffer, Philipp; Ogino, Shuji; Campbell, Jennifer; Bhimavarapu, Anupama; Luikenhuis, Sandra; de Cabo, Rafael; Fuchs, Charles; Hahn, William C.; Guarente, Leonard P.; Sinclair, David A.

    2008-01-01

    Numerous longevity genes have been discovered in model organisms and altering their function results in prolonged lifespan. In mammals, some have speculated that any health benefits derived from manipulating these same pathways might be offset by increased cancer risk on account of their propensity to boost cell survival. The Sir2/SIRT1 family of NAD+-dependent deacetylases is proposed to underlie the health benefits of calorie restriction (CR), a diet that broadly suppresses cancer in mammals. Here we show that CR induces a two-fold increase SIRT1 expression in the intestine of rodents and that ectopic induction of SIRT1 in a β-catenin-driven mouse model of colon cancer significantly reduces tumor formation, proliferation, and animal morbidity in the absence of CR. We show that SIRT1 deacetylates β-catenin and suppresses its ability to activate transcription and drive cell proliferation. Moreover, SIRT1 promotes cytoplasmic localization of the otherwise nuclear-localized oncogenic form of β-catenin. Consistent with this, a significant inverse correlation was found between the presence of nuclear SIRT1 and the oncogenic form of β−catenin in 81 human colon tumor specimens analyzed. Taken together, these observations show that SIRT1 suppresses intestinal tumor formation in vivo and raise the prospect that therapies targeting SIRT1 may be of clinical use in β−catenin-driven malignancies. PMID:18414679

  9. Intestinal metabolism of PAH: in vitro demonstration and study of its impact on PAH transfer through the intestinal epithelium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cavret, Severine; Feidt, Cyril

    2005-01-01

    Food would seem to be one of the main ways of animal and human contamination with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). In vivo studies suggest a transfer in intestinal epithelium by diffusion, which appears extensively governed by the physicochemical properties of PAHs, particularly lipophilicity. However, other mechanisms, such as metabolism, are considered to intervene. Our work aimed at testing in vitro intestinal metabolism and defining its impact on transepithelial transport of PAHs. Caco-2 cells were cultivated on permeable filters and incubated with 14 C-labeled benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), pyrene (Pyr), and phenanthrene (Phe), which differ in their physicochemical properties. The results showed that the cells were able to metabolize the compounds. In basal media, Phe appeared to be the least hydroxylated molecule (45% after a 6-h exposure), followed by Pyr (65%) and finally BaP (96%). Inhibition of PAH metabolism showed a determinant effect on kinetics profiles. Transfer in the basal compartment of BaP, Pyr, and Phe radioactivities was, respectively, 26, 4, and 2 times lower with inhibitors, corroborating that intestinal metabolism of PAHs would have a positive impact on their transfer, an impact that increased with their lipophilicity. Furthermore, after a 6-h incubation, metabolites were also detected in apical medium. These findings suggested that intestinal metabolism might play a key role in intestinal barrier permeability and thus in the bioavailability of tested micropollutants

  10. [Study on absorption ingredients of yuanhuzhitong pill by everted intestinal sac method].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaomeng; Zhang, Yingchun; Lin, Shuo; Yang, Hongjun; Wu, Hongwei; Li, Shaojing; Li, Defeng; Xu, Haiyu

    2012-07-01

    To establish an everted intestinal sac method for determining absorption ingredients of yuanhuzhitong pill and study absorption characteristics of major chemical constituents of yuanhuzhitong pill. The everted intestinal sac model was adopted. Intestinal sac fluid samples at different time points after administration of three concentrations of Yuanhuzhitong pill were collected and determined by HPLC. The accumulative absorbed doses of active constituents were calculated, while the proportion between samples of yuanhuzhitong pill and absorption ingredients was compared. Eight ingredients of Yuanhuzhitong pill can be detected in intestinal sac, they are protopine, palmatine, coptisine, imperatorin, berberine, byakangelicin, alpha-allocryptopine and tetrahydropalmatine. The absorption rate constants (Ka) of eight constituents increased in jejunum and ileum with the increase in concentration of Yuanhuzhitong pill extracts (P absorption. As ingredients are selectively absorbed in intestinal sac, the everted intestinal sac method is selected to assess the intestinal absorption characteristics of ingredients of Yuanhuzhitong prescription.

  11. Cancer in inflammatory bowel disease 15 years after diagnosis in a population-based European Collaborative follow-up study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katsanos, Konstantinos H; Tatsioni, Athina; Pedersen, Natalia

    2011-01-01

    To determine the occurrence of intestinal and extraintestinal cancers in the 1993-2009 prospective European Collaborative Inflammatory Bowel Disease (EC-IBD) Study Group cohort.......To determine the occurrence of intestinal and extraintestinal cancers in the 1993-2009 prospective European Collaborative Inflammatory Bowel Disease (EC-IBD) Study Group cohort....

  12. Meta'omic analytic techniques for studying the intestinal microbiome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Xochitl C; Huttenhower, Curtis

    2014-05-01

    Nucleotide sequencing has become increasingly common and affordable, and is now a vital tool for studies of the human microbiome. Comprehensive microbial community surveys such as MetaHit and the Human Microbiome Project have described the composition and molecular functional profile of the healthy (normal) intestinal microbiome. This knowledge will increase our ability to analyze host and microbial DNA (genome) and RNA (transcriptome) sequences. Bioinformatic and statistical tools then can be used to identify dysbioses that might cause disease, and potential treatments. Analyses that identify perturbations in specific molecules can leverage thousands of culture-based isolate genomes to contextualize culture-independent sequences, or may integrate sequence data with whole-community functional assays such as metaproteomic or metabolomic analyses. We review the state of available systems-level models for studies of the intestinal microbiome, along with analytic techniques and tools that can be used to determine its functional capabilities in healthy and unhealthy individuals. Copyright © 2014 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Review of Atrophic Gastritis and Intestinal Metaplasia as a Premalignant Lesion of Gastric Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Yo Han; Kim, Nayoung

    2015-01-01

    Atrophic gastritis (AG) and intestinal metaplasia (IM) are the main precursor lesions of gastric cancer as the incidence of gastric cancer increases in the gastric mucosa involved with AG and IM. The prevalence of AG and IM vary depending on countries, even it represents diverse results in the same nation. Usually AG is antecedent of IM but the etiologies of AG and IM are not always the same. The sensitivity and specificity of diagnostic methods to detect AG and IM are different. Furthermore, the management strategy of AG and IM has not been established, yet. Helicobacter pylori infection has been proved as the most important cause of AG and IM. Thus the eradication of H. pylori is very important to prevent the progression to gastric cancer which is still placed in the high rank in morbidity and mortality among cancers. However, the reversibility of AG and IM by eradication of H. pylori which was assumed to be certain by meta-analysis is; however, controversial now. Therefore, the understanding and early diagnosis of AG and IM are very important, especially, in high incidence area of gastric cancer such as Republic of Korea. PMID:25853101

  14. Fusion between Intestinal epithelial cells and macrophages in a cancer context results in nuclear reprogramming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Anne E; Anderson, Eric C; Davies, Paige S; Silk, Alain D; Pelz, Carl; Impey, Soren; Wong, Melissa H

    2011-02-15

    The most deadly phase in cancer progression is attributed to the inappropriate acquisition of molecular machinery leading to metastatic transformation and spread of disease to distant organs. Although it is appreciated that metastasis involves epithelial-mesenchymal interplay, the underlying mechanism defining this process is poorly understood. Specifically, how cancer cells evade immune surveillance and gain the ability to navigate the circulatory system remains a focus. One possible mechanism underlying metastatic conversion is fusion between blood-derived immune cells and cancer cells. While this notion is a century old, in vivo evidence that cell fusion occurs within tumors and imparts genetic or physiologic changes remains controversial. We have previously demonstrated in vivo cell fusion between blood cells and intestinal epithelial cells in an injury setting. Here, we hypothesize that immune cells, such as macrophages, fuse with tumor cells imparting metastatic capabilities by transferring their cellular identity. We used parabiosis to introduce fluorescent-labeled bone marrow-derived cells to mice with intestinal tumors, finding that fusion between circulating blood-derived cells and tumor epithelium occurs during the natural course of tumorigenesis. Moreover, we identify the macrophage as a key cellular partner for this process. Interestingly, cell fusion hybrids retain a transcriptome identity characteristic of both parental derivatives, while also expressing a unique subset of transcripts. Our data supports the novel possibility that tumorigenic cell fusion may impart physical behavior attributed to migratory macrophages, including navigation of circulation and immune evasion. As such, cell fusion may represent a promising novel mechanism underlying the metastatic conversion of cancer cells. ©2011 AACR.

  15. Quality of life of patients with an intestinal stoma constructed in the course of treatment of rectal and sigmoid colon cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Pierzak

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The increased human life span is accompanied by a growing number of carcinomas, including colorectal cancer. This is due not only to genetic conditioning but also exposure to hazardous factors present in the environment. A stoma is the consequence of surgical treatment of colorectal cancer. Aim of the research : The objective of the study is to determine the level of quality of life of patients with an intestinal stoma, which would allow an evaluation of the effect of a stoma on the bio-psychosocial functioning of patients, as well as precise specification of discomfort of living with a stoma. Material and methods: The study was conducted during the period from January to April 2015, in the Surgical Clinic of the Regional Cancer Centre in Kielce, and included 102 patients with a stoma, aged 35–75. The study group included 65 males and 37 females, with a stoma constructed mainly from the sigmoid colon or rectum within various periods after surgical treatment. The method of a diagnostic survey was applied, and a questionnaire was selected as the research instrument. The patients were both rural and urban inhabitants. Statistical calculations were performed using the 2 test. Results: Based on the analysis of the results of the study, the quality of life of patients with an intestinal stoma formed in the course of surgical treatment of sigmoid colon and rectal cancer was investigated. The quality of life of patients is at a medium level (neither good nor poor. Conclusions: The quality of life of patients with an intestinal stoma depends on the degree of acceptance of the stoma and the present body image. The quality of life of patients with an intestinal stoma depends on the duration of the disease and of the stoma. There is no relationship between the degree of acceptance of the stoma by the patient and support received from family and friends. The stoma affects the quality of the sex life of patients.

  16. A comparative study on the metabolism of Epimedium koreanum Nakai-prenylated flavonoids in rats by an intestinal enzyme (lactase phlorizin hydrolase) and intestinal flora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jing; Chen, Yan; Wang, Ying; Gao, Xia; Qu, Ding; Liu, Congyan

    2013-12-24

    The aim of this study was to compare the significance of the intestinal hydrolysis of prenylated flavonoids in Herba Epimedii by an intestinal enzyme and flora. Flavonoids were incubated at 37 °C with rat intestinal enzyme and intestinal flora. HPLC-UV was used to calculate the metabolic rates of the parent drug in the incubation and LC/MS/MS was used to determine the chemical structures of metabolites generated by different flavonoid glycosides. Rates of flavonoid metabolism by rat intestinal enzyme were quicker than those of intestinal flora. The sequence of intestinal flora metabolic rates was icariin>epimedin B>epimedin A>epimedin C>baohuoside I, whereas the order of intestinal enzyme metabolic rates was icariin>epimedin A>epimedin C>epimedin B>baohuoside I. Meanwhile, the LC/MS/MS graphs showed that icariin produced three products, epimedin A/B/C had four and baohuoside I yielded one product in incubations of both intestinal enzyme and flora, which were more than the results of HPLC-UV due to the fact LC/MS/MS has lower detectability and higher sensitivity. Moreover, the outcomes indicated that the rate of metabolization of flavonoids by intestinal enzyme were faster than those of intestinal flora, which was consistent with the HPLC-UV results. In conclusion, the metabolic pathways of the same components by intestinal flora and enzyme were the same. What's more, an intestinal enzyme such as lactase phlorizin hydrolase exhibited a more significant metabolic role in prenylated flavonoids of Herba Epimedi compared with intestinal flora.

  17. Using primary murine intestinal enteroids to study dietary TAG absorption, lipoprotein synthesis, and the role of apoC-III in the intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jattan, Javeed; Rodia, Cayla; Li, Diana; Diakhate, Adama; Dong, Hongli; Bataille, Amy; Shroyer, Noah F; Kohan, Alison B

    2017-05-01

    Since its initial report in 2009, the intestinal enteroid culture system has been a powerful tool used to study stem cell biology and development in the gastrointestinal tract. However, a major question is whether enteroids retain intestinal function and physiology. There have been significant contributions describing ion transport physiology of human intestinal organoid cultures, as well as physiology of gastric organoids, but critical studies on dietary fat absorption and chylomicron synthesis in primary intestinal enteroids have not been undertaken. Here we report that primary murine enteroid cultures recapitulate in vivo intestinal lipoprotein synthesis and secretion, and reflect key aspects of the physiology of intact intestine in regard to dietary fat absorption. We also show that enteroids can be used to elucidate intestinal mechanisms behind CVD risk factors, including tissue-specific apolipoprotein functions. Using enteroids, we show that intestinal apoC-III overexpression results in the secretion of smaller, less dense chylomicron particles along with reduced triacylglycerol secretion from the intestine. This model significantly expands our ability to test how specific genes or genetic polymorphisms function in dietary fat absorption and the precise intestinal mechanisms that are critical in the etiology of metabolic disease. Copyright © 2017 by the American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  18. STUDY ON INTESTINAL PROTOZOA IN SEVEN VILLAGES OF BANDARABASS

    OpenAIRE

    J.Sheiban; M.Rezaian

    1981-01-01

    A survey was carried out in seven villages around Bandarabass, on Persion Gulf, to determine the prevalence of the intestinal protozoa infections. Out of the 835 stool specimens examined, 676 samples were positive with single and multiple infections. The most prevalent of intestinal protozoa in Bandarabass were Entamoeba histolytica, Entamoeba coli, Giardia lambia and Iodamoeba butschlii.

  19. Study of Human Gastro-Intestinal Parasites Among Primary School ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The results suggest a very high prevalence of intestinal parasitosis (40.9%) among the pupils. Four different intestinal parasites were encountered. The respective infection rates of each parasite were; Ascaris lumbricoides (14.9%), Entamoeba histolytica (13.7%), Trichuris trichiura (6.9%) and hookworms (5.4%). Infections ...

  20. Anti-inflammatory mechanism of metformin and its effects in intestinal inflammation and colitis-associated colon cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Seong-Joon; Kim, Jung Mogg; Kim, In-Kyoung; Ko, Su Hyuk; Kim, Joo Sung

    2014-03-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of metformin on intestinal inflammation. COLO205 cells were pretreated with metformin and stimulated with tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α. Expression of interleukin (IL)-8 was determined by luciferase assay and real-time PCR. Inhibitor of kappaB (IκB) phosphorylation/degradation and adenosine monohosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activity were evaluated by Western blotting. DNA-binding activity of transcription factor nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB) was assessed by electrophoretic mobility shift assay. In an acute colitis model, mice were given 4% dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) for 5 days. IL-10−/− mice were used to evaluate the effect of metformin on chronic colitis. In an inflamation-associated tumor model, mice were given a single intraperitoneal injection of azoxymethane followed by three cycles of 2% DSS for 5 days and 2 weeks of free water consumption. Metformin significantly inhibited IL-8 induction in COLO 205 cells stimulated with TNF-α. Metformin attenuated IκBα phosphorylation and NF-κB DNA-binding activity. Administration of metformin significantly reduced the severity of DSS-induced colitis. In addition, DSS-induced IκB kinase (IKK) activation was significantly reduced in mice treated with metformin. Metformin significantly attenuated the severity of colitis in IL-10−/− mice, induced AMPK activity in intestinal epithelial cells, and inhibited the development of colitic cancer in mice. These results indicate that metformin suppresses NF-κB activation in intestinal epithelial cells and ameliorates murine colitis and colitis-associated tumorigenesis in mice, suggesting that metformin could be a potential therapeutic agent for the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease.

  1. Studies on the intestinal absorption of vitamin B2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, Keiko; Moriwaki, Chiaki

    1978-01-01

    The intestinal absorption of vitamin B 2 was studied by in situ mesenteric perfusion system. Free form riboflavin (FR), FMN and FAD (1 mg each) were injected into the ligated jejunum of rat which was infused Krebs Ringer bicarbonate solution from the superior mesenteric artery. Perfusate was recovered from the mesenteric vein and the recoveries of the total riboflavin during 120 min after the administration of these 3 types vitamin B 2 were 1.0, 1.5 and 2.8%, respectively. Furthermore, riboflavin and its esters were detected in the perfusates from 14 C-FR and 14 C-FAD given rats. There was a considerable amount of labeled substance which was not vitamin B 2 derivatives in the radiopaperchromatogram of the perfusate of 14 C-FR dosed rats, and it is suggested that a portion of riboflavin is decomposed in the process of absorption. (auth.)

  2. Body consciousness of people with intestinal stomach: A phenomenological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Dean Barbosa Marques

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: to describe the bodily awareness of people with stomies. Method: a descriptive study with a qualitative approach, carried out in the Ostomized Association of the State of Ceará, through semi-structured interviews with ten people with intestinal stomies, according to Merleau-Ponty's phenomenological thinking. Results: two categories of analysis emerged: The body that I have, in which the sensations of deficiency, imperfection and bad odor add to the feeling of strangeness towards one's own body, affecting the way of being in the world of each deponent; and The body that others perceive, in which the stoma is seen as an embarrassing and complex experience, since it hampers daily activities and conviviality with other people. Final considerations: The corporeal consciousness of Being-Stomp-in-the-world requires the movement to reconstruct the senses of the body from the body I have and from that which others perceive.

  3. Effect of kefir on Fusobacterium nucleatum in potentially preventing intestinal cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeynep Banu Guzel-Seydim

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Fusobacterium spp. are known to be part of mouth and intestinal microbiota. Fusobacterium nucleatum is an obligate anaerobe, Gram negative, non-spore forming pleomorphic bacillus that can cause diseases not only in the mouth and teeth but also in the brain, pleura, lungs and liver. It was noted that F. nucleatum induces fetal death (fetal demise in pregnant women. Recent studies indicate that F. nucleatum could lead to colon cancer by binding to the epithelial tissue. Kefir is produced from kefir grains that are a source of probiotics. Fermented dairy products and especially kefir and yogurt are significant for functional nutrition. In kefir grains, lactic acid bacteria, acetic acid bacteria and yeasts are embedded in a polysaccharide matrix, called kefiran. When kefir grains are added to milk and incubated for approximately 22 h at 25°C, microorganisms in the grains continue to proliferate in milk with the production of functional metabolic compounds. While yogurt has mainly two bacteria, authentic kefir has its characteristic Lactobacillus kefiranofaciens, Lactobacillus kefir and Lactobacillus kefirgranum, in addition to many other types of lactic acid bacteria (LAB. Previous studies have indicated that fermented dairy products can cause probiotic effects such as improvement in digestive system health, reduction in serum cholesterol, improvement in lactose tolerance, improvement in immune function, control of irritable bowel symptoms, and anticarcinogenic properties. Objective: The aim of this research was to report the effects of fermented dairy products in vitro on the growth of F. nucleatum. Milk, kefir made from natural kefir grains, commercial kefir produced from kefir starter culture, yogurt produced from natural yogurt starter culture and commercial yogurt produced from yogurt starter culture were used against F. nucleatum. Methods: F. nucleatum (ATCC 25586 was grown in Fluid Thioglycollate Medium at 37°C for 3 days under

  4. Roles of amino acids in preventing and treating intestinal diseases: recent studies with pig models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yulan; Wang, Xiuying; Hou, Yongqing; Yin, Yulong; Qiu, Yinsheng; Wu, Guoyao; Hu, Chien-An Andy

    2017-08-01

    Animal models are needed to study and understand a human complex disease. Because of their similarities in anatomy, structure, physiology, and pathophysiology, the pig has proven its usefulness in studying human gastrointestinal diseases, such as inflammatory bowel disease, ischemia/reperfusion injury, diarrhea, and cancer. To understand the pathogenesis of these diseases, a number of experimental models generated in pigs are available, for example, through surgical manipulation, chemical induction, microbial infection, and genetic engineering. Our interests have been using amino acids as therapeutics in pig and human disease models. Amino acids not only play an important role in protein biosynthesis, but also exert significant physiological effects in regulating immunity, anti-oxidation, redox regulation, energy metabolism, signal transduction, and animal behavior. Recent studies in pigs have shown that specific dietary amino acids can improve intestinal integrity and function under normal and pathological conditions that protect the host from different diseases. In this review, we summarize several pig models in intestinal diseases and how amino acids can be used as therapeutics in treating pig and human diseases.

  5. A stromal cell population in the large intestine identified by tissue factor expression that is lost during colorectal cancer progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksson, Oskar; Asplund, Anna; Hegde, Geeta; Edqvist, Per-Henrik; Navani, Sanjay; Pontén, Fredrik; Siegbahn, Agneta

    2016-11-30

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality, and the composition of the tumour stroma is a strong predictor of survival in this cancer type. Tissue factor (TF) functions as the trigger of haemostasis together with its ligand coagulation factor VII/VIIa, and TF expression has been found in tumour cells of colorectal tumours. However, TF expression in the CRC tumour stroma or its relationship to patient outcome has not yet been studied. To address this question we developed and validated a specific anti-TF antibody using standardised methods within the Human Protein Atlas project. We used this antibody to investigate TF expression in normal colorectal tissue and CRC using immunofluorescence and immunohistochemistry in two patient cohorts. TF was strongly expressed in a cell population immediately adjacent to the colorectal epithelium. These TF-positive cells were ACTA2-negative but weakly vimentin-positive, defining a specific population of pericryptal sheath cells. In colorectal tumours, TF-positive sheath cells were progressively lost after the adenoma-to-carcinoma transition, demonstrating downregulation of this source of TF in CRC. Furthermore, loss of sheath cell TF was significantly associated with poor overall and disease-specific survival in rectal but not colon cancers. In conclusion, we demonstrate that TF is a marker of a specific cell population in the large intestine, which is lost during CRC progression. Our results highlight the role of the tumour stroma in this cancer type and suggest TF to be a potential prognostic biomarker in rectal cancers through the identification of pericryptal sheath cells.

  6. Surveillance strategy of atrophic gastritis and intestinal metaplasia in a country with a high prevalence of gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Woon Geon; Kim, Heung Up; Song, Ho June; Hong, Su Jin; Shim, Ki-Nam; Sung, In-Kyung; Kim, Jae Gyu

    2012-03-01

    It is not clear which screening examinations are best suited for gastric cancer prevention, especially in patients with atrophic gastritis and intestinal metaplasia. Therefore, we investigated the gastric cancer screening methods and intervals that are performed in clinical practice in an area with a high prevalence of gastric cancer. Eighty-seven physicians voted by keypad and discussed the consistency of endoscopic diagnosis of atrophic gastritis and intestinal metaplasia at the Annual Symposium of the Korean College of Helicobacter and Upper Gastrointestinal Research. Additionally, 100 core members of this academic society were asked via e-mail to complete the questionnaires related to screening strategies for gastric cancer. The most common recommendation for the subjects with intestinal metaplasia was an annual endoscopic follow-up (95.5% vs. 80.4% in the expert and non-expert groups, respectively; P = 0.118). Annual endoscopic follow-up was also the most predominant recommendation for atrophic gastritis (95.5% vs. 76.5%; P = 0.092), regardless of the physicians' endoscopic experience, position, and degree of the hospital. However, the correct answer rate for the diagnosis of normal endoscopic findings was only 16.7 and 14.1% in the expert and non-expert groups, respectively (P = 0.883). The most common practical screening strategy for patients with atrophic gastritis and intestinal metaplasia in Korea was annual endoscopic examination. However, a new program estimating individualized gastric cancer risk might be needed because of the low inter-observer agreement in the endoscopic diagnosis of atrophic gastritis and intestinal metaplasia.

  7. Methylation of polycomb target genes in intestinal cancer is mediated by inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Maria A; Hahn, Torsten; Lee, Dong-Hyun; Esworthy, R Steven; Kim, Byung-Wook; Riggs, Arthur D; Chu, Fong-Fong; Pfeifer, Gerd P

    2008-12-15

    Epigenetic changes are strongly associated with cancer development. DNA hypermethylation is associated with gene silencing and is often observed in CpG islands. Recently, it was suggested that aberrant CpG island methylation in tumors is directed by Polycomb (PcG) proteins. However, specific mechanisms responsible for methylation of PcG target genes in cancer are not known. Chronic infection and inflammation contribute to up to 25% of all cancers worldwide. Using glutathione peroxidase, Gpx1 and Gpx2, double knockout (Gpx1/2-KO) mice as a model of inflammatory bowel disease predisposing to intestinal cancer, we analyzed genome-wide DNA methylation in the mouse ileum during chronic inflammation, aging, and cancer. We found that inflammation leads to aberrant DNA methylation in PcG target genes, with 70% of the approximately 250 genes methylated in the inflamed tissue being PcG targets in embryonic stem cells and 59% of the methylated genes being marked by H3K27 trimethylation in the ileum of adult wild-type mice. Acquisition of DNA methylation at CpG islands in the ileum of Gpx1/2-KO mice frequently correlates with loss of H3K27 trimethylation at the same loci. Inflammation-associated DNA methylation occurs preferentially in tissue-specific silent genes and, importantly, is much more frequently represented in tumors than is age-dependent DNA methylation. Sixty percent of aberrant methylation found in tumors is also present in the inflamed tissue. In summary, inflammation creates a signature of aberrant DNA methylation, which is observed later in the malignant tissue and is directed by the PcG complex.

  8. Differences in gastric mucosal microbiota profiling in patients with chronic gastritis, intestinal metaplasia, and gastric cancer using pyrosequencing methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eun, Chang Soo; Kim, Byung Kwon; Han, Dong Soo; Kim, Seon Young; Kim, Kyung Mo; Choi, Bo Youl; Song, Kyu Sang; Kim, Yong Sung; Kim, Jihyun F

    2014-12-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection plays an important role in the early stage of cancer development. However, various bacteria that promote the synthesis of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species may be involved in the later stages. We aimed to determine the microbial composition of gastric mucosa from the patients with chronic gastritis, intestinal metaplasia, and gastric cancer using 454 GS FLX Titanium. Gastric mucosal biopsy samples were collected from 31 patients during endoscopy. After the extraction of genomic DNA, variable region V5 of the 16S rRNA gene was amplified. PCR products were sequenced using 454 high-throughput sequencer. The composition, diversity, and richness of microbial communities were compared between three groups. The composition of H. pylori-containing Epsilonproteobacteria class appeared to be the most prevalent, but the relative increase in the Bacilli class in the gastric cancer group was noticed, resulting in a significant difference compared with the chronic gastritis group. By analyzing the Helicobacter-dominant group at a family level, the relative abundance of Helicobacteraceae family was significantly lower in the gastric cancer group compared with chronic gastritis and intestinal metaplasia groups, while the relative abundance of Streptococcaceae family significantly increased. In a UPGMA clustering of Helicobacter-dominant group based on UniFrac distance, the chronic gastritis group and gastric cancer group were clearly separated, while the intestinal metaplasia group was distributed in between the two groups. The evenness and diversity of gastric microbiota in the gastric cancer group was increased compared with other groups. In Helicobacter predominant patients, the microbial compositions of gastric mucosa from gastric cancer patients are significantly different to chronic gastritis and intestinal metaplasia patients. These alterations of gastric microbial composition may play an important, as-yet-undetermined role in

  9. A Prevalence Study of Intestinal Parasites in Southern Belize

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Aimpun, Pote

    2000-01-01

    A biomedical survey of stool specimens from 82% of the population (n=672) of S villages in Toledo District, Belize were examined by the formalin-ethyl acetate concentration technique for the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections...

  10. Hospital discharge diagnostic and procedure codes for upper gastro-intestinal cancer: how accurate are they?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stavrou Efty

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Population-level health administrative datasets such as hospital discharge data are used increasingly to evaluate health services and outcomes of care. However information about the accuracy of Australian discharge data in identifying cancer, associated procedures and comorbidity is limited. The Admitted Patients Data Collection (APDC is a census of inpatient hospital discharges in the state of New South Wales (NSW. Our aim was to assess the accuracy of the APDC in identifying upper gastro-intestinal (upper GI cancer cases, procedures for associated curative resection and comorbidities at the time of admission compared to data abstracted from medical records (the ‘gold standard’. Methods We reviewed the medical records of 240 patients with an incident upper GI cancer diagnosis derived from a clinical database in one NSW area health service from July 2006 to June 2007. Extracted case record data was matched to APDC discharge data to determine sensitivity, positive predictive value (PPV and agreement between the two data sources (κ-coefficient. Results The accuracy of the APDC diagnostic codes in identifying site-specific incident cancer ranged from 80-95% sensitivity. This was comparable to the accuracy of APDC procedure codes in identifying curative resection for upper GI cancer. PPV ranged from 42-80% for cancer diagnosis and 56-93% for curative surgery. Agreement between the data sources was >0.72 for most cancer diagnoses and curative resections. However, APDC discharge data was less accurate in reporting common comorbidities - for each condition, sensitivity ranged from 9-70%, whilst agreement ranged from κ = 0.64 for diabetes down to κ  Conclusions Identifying incident cases of upper GI cancer and curative resection from hospital administrative data is satisfactory but under-ascertained. Linkage of multiple population-health datasets is advisable to maximise case ascertainment and minimise false

  11. Intestinal volvulus in dogs: a study of four clinical cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cairo, J.; Font, J.; Gorraiz, J.; Martin, N.; Pons, C.

    1999-01-01

    Four cases of intestinal volvulus in German shepherd dogs are described. A definitive diagnosis was achieved by exploratory laparotomy in three case sand after necropsy in the remaining animal. Clinical signs, laboratory investigations and radiological changes are reported for three of the dogs. These dogs were all euthanased. Treatment of complete intestinal volvulus is difficult. By the time the condition is diagnosed, the pathological changes are irreversible, with consequent poor prognosis

  12. Intestinal volvulus in dogs: a study of four clinical cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cairó, J; Font, J; Gorraiz, J; Martin, N; Pons, C

    1999-03-01

    Four cases of intestinal volvulus in German shepherd dogs are described. A definitive diagnosis was achieved by exploratory laparotomy in three cases and after necropsy in the remaining animal. Clinical signs, laboratory investigations and radiological changes are reported for three of the dogs. These dogs were all euthanased. Treatment of complete intestinal volvulus is difficult. By the time the condition is diagnosed, the pathological changes are irreversible, with consequent poor prognosis.

  13. [Study on absorption kinetics of betulic acid in rat's intestines].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Huijun; Ren, Xiaohua; Du, Yingfeng; Zhang, Lantong; Li, Tao; Ge, Ying; Wang, Huijie

    2012-02-01

    To establish a HPLC-DAD method for determining concentrations of betulic acid and phenol red in intestinal circulation liquid, and probe into the absorption kinetic characteristics of betulic acid at different intestine segments in rats and the effect of different drug concentrations on absorption. The rat intestinal absorption model was established to detect the impact of absorption site, drug concentration and pH value on drug absorption. Within the range from 75-125 mg x L(-1), the absorption rate and the quality concentration of betulic acid had a linear relation, with Ka value keeping unchanged. The absorption rate for each intestinal segment showed no remarkable difference, with Ka values in duodenum, jejunum, ileum and colon being (0.151 +/- 0.0049), (0.159 +/- 0.0056), (0.156 +/- 6.0083), (0.149 +/- 0.0041) h(-1), respectively. Betulic acid is proved to be well absorbed in intestines marked by no specific absorption site in the intestine. The absorption mechanism of the drug conforms to passive transport mechanism and first-order kinetics. The bioavailability of betulic acid preparation can be increased by enhancing the dissolution rate and the solubility.

  14. Vasoactive intestinal peptide induces CD14+HLA-DR‑/low myeloid-derived suppressor cells in gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Gang; Wu, Ke; Tao, Kaixiong; Lu, Xiaoming; Ma, Jianhua; Mao, Zhengqiang; Li, Hang; Shi, Liang; Li, Jing; Niu, Yanfeng; Xiang, Fan; Wang, Guobin

    2015-07-01

    Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) are a heterogeneous group of cells, which have been revealed to inhibit T-cell responses in tumor-bearing mice. In addition, a number of immune suppressive mechanisms have linked MDSCs and the development of human cancer. However, the role of MDSCs in human gastric cancer tissue remains to be elucidated as specific markers are lacking. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the frequency and immune suppressive function of MDSCs denoted in the present study as cluster of differentiation 14 (CD14)+human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-DR-/low in gastric cancer patients. In the present study, MDSCs were directly isolated and characterized from the tumor and adjacent normal tissue of gastric cancer patients. Functional analysis of the CD14+HLA-DR-/low MDSCs co-cultured with allogeneic CD4+ T cells were performed and compared with controls. In addition, the interferon-γ (IFN-γ) and interleukin (IL)-2 production was compared in order to investigate the capacity of vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) to induce CD14+HLA-DR(-/low) MDSC-mediated CD4+ T-cell dysfunction and whether IL-10 secretion is involved in this mechanism. As a result, the quantity of CD14+HLA-DR(-/low) cells in tumor tissue from gastric cancer patients was significantly higher than that in the adjacent normal tissue. In addition, CD14+HLA-DR-/low MDSCs isolated from tumor tissue were observed to inhibit the CD4+ T-cells' immune responses in comparison with those from the adjacent normal tissue. Furthermore, VIP was able to induce the differentiation of CD14+ mononuclear cells isolated from healthy donor peripheral blood mononuclear cells into activated MDSC cells. Of note, the immunosuppressive effect of VIP-induced CD14+HLA-DR(-/low) MDSCs on CD4+ T cells was mediated by IL-10 secretion, which was demonstrated in the subsequent decrease of IFN-γ and IL-2 production. In conclusion, CD14+HLA-DR(-/low) cells were significantly increased in gastric

  15. Intestinal parasitic infections in Okada rural community, Edo State, Nigeria: a four year retrospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bankole H. Oladeinde

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Intestinal parasitic infections are associated with morbidity and mortality worldwide. Data on prevalence of intestinal parasitic infection is sparse in rural Nigeria. Against this background, this study aimed at determining the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections within a four year period in the rural community of Okada, Edo State, Nigeria. Fecal samples obtained from 1528 patients (consisting of 740 males and 788 females presenting with signs and symptoms of gastroenteritis at the Igbinedion University Teaching Hospital, Okada were examined for presence of ova, cyst and trophozoites of parasites using standard methods. Patient’s age ranged from 6 months to 73 years. Study was conducted between 2007 and 2010. The prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections increased significantly (P=0.003 from 14.7% in 2007 to 22.5% in 2010. In the study period, gender did not affect the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infection (P>0.05. Patients within <1-10 years had significantly higher prevalence of intestinal parasitic infection. Ascaris lumbricoides was the most predominant parasitic agent, while Schistosoma japonicum was the least prevalent. With respect to parasite, males were observed to have consistently higher prevalence of Entamoeba histolytica infection. The prevalence of intestinal parasitic infection was observed to significantly increase from 2007 to 2010. Age was a risk factor for acquiring intestinal parasitic infection. Ascaris lumbricoides was the most predominant parasitic agent in all years of study. Control and prevention measures are advocated.

  16. Concise review: the yin and yang of intestinal (cancer) stem cells and their progenitors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stange, D.E.; Clevers, H.

    2013-01-01

    The intestine has developed over the last few years into a prime model system for adult stem cell research. Intestinal cells have an average lifetime of 5 days, moving within this time from the bottom of intestinal crypts to the top of villi. This rapid self-renewal capacity combined with an easy to

  17. [Study on intestinal absorption of ingredients from different compatibilities of Shaoyao Gancao decoction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ting-ting; He, Rui; Gong, Mu-xin; Xu, Yong-song; Li, Jing; Zhai, Yong-song; Wan, Guang

    2015-11-01

    To study the compatible mechanisms and compatible proportion of Shaoyao Gancao decoction, the intestinal absorption of main ingredients in Shaoyao Gancao decoction SG11 (Baishao-Zhigancao 1: 1) , SG31 (Baishao-Zhigancao 3: 1), Baishao water decoction S and Zhigancao (G) were investigated and compared using in vitro everted intestinal sac model and in situ single pass intestinal perfusion (SPIP) model. The concentration of paeoniflorin (PF), liquiritin (LQ) and mono-ammonium glycyrrhizinate (GL) in test samples and samples of intestinal sac and intestinal perfusion was determined by HPLC. The intestinal absorptive amount and absorption parameters were calculated. Results showed that in the everted intestinal sac model, three ingredients could be absorbed by duodenum, jejunum and ileum, and the absorption in the jejunum was best for all 3 ingredients. The absorption rate of three ingredients in SG11 was significantly higher than that in single decoction (P absorption rate constant K(a), the apparent absorption coefficient P(app) and the absorption rate of three ingredients in SG11 were significantly higher than those in single decoction. Parameters of PF and GL in SG11 were significantly higher than those in SG31, but had no differences of LQ. It proved that the compatibility of Baishao and Zhigancao could improve the intestinal absorption of PF, LQ and GL. The absorption of each ingredient in SG11 was better than that in SG31.

  18. [Study on intestinal absorption features of oligosaccharides in Morinda officinalis How. with sigle-pass perfusion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Shao-Dong; Zhang, Peng; Lin, Li; Xiao, Feng-Xia; Lin, Jing-Ran

    2015-01-01

    To study the in situ intestinal absorption of five oligosaccharides contained in Morinda officinalis How. (sucrose, kestose, nystose, 1F-Fructofuranosyinystose and Bajijiasu). The absorption of the five oligosaccharides in small intestine (duodenum, jejunum and ileum) and colon of rats and their contents were investigated by using in situ single-pass perfusion model and HPLC-ELSD. The effects of drug concentration, pH in perfusate and P-glycoprotein inhibitor on the intestinal absorption were investigated to define the intestinal absorption mechanism of the five oligosaccharides in rats. According to the results, all of the five oligosaccharides were absorbed in the whole intestine, and their absorption rates were affected by the pH of the perfusion solution, drug concentration and intestinal segments. Verapamil Hydrochloride could significantly increase the absorptive amount of sucrose and Bajijiasu, suggesting sucrose and Bajijiasu are P-gp's substrate. The five oligosaccharides are absorbed mainly through passive diffusion in the intestinal segments, without saturated absorption. They are absorbed well in all intestines and mainly in duodenum and jejunum.

  19. Identification of biomarkers for radiation-induced acute intestinal symptoms (RIAISs) in cervical cancer patients by serum protein profiling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chai Yanlan; Wang Juan; Gao Ying

    2015-01-01

    Radiation-induced acute intestinal symptoms (RIAISs) are the most frequent complication of radiotherapy that causes great pain and limits the treatment efficacy. The aim of this study was to identify serum biomarkers of RIAISs in cervical cancer patients by surface-enhanced laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (SELDI-TOF MS). Serum samples were collected from 66 cervical cancer patients prior to pelvic radiotherapy. In our study, RIAISs occurred in 11 patients. An additional 11 patients without RIAISs were selected as controls, whose age, stage, histological type and treatment methods were matched to RIAISs patients. The 22 sera were subsequently analyzed by SELDI-TOF MS, and the resulting protein profiles were evaluated to identify biomarkers using appropriate bioinformatics tools. Comparing the protein profiles of serum samples from the RIAIS group and the control group, it was found that 22 protein peaks were significantly different (P < 0.05), and six of these peaks with mass-to-charge (m/z) ratios of 7514.9, 4603.94, 6887.41, 2769.21, 3839.72 and 4215.7 were successfully identified. A decision tree model of biomarkers was constructed based on three biomarkers (m/z 1270.88, 1503.23 and 7514.90), which separated RIAIS-affected patients from the control group with an accuracy of 81%. This study suggests that serum proteomic analysis by SELDI-TOF MS can identify cervical cancer patients that are susceptible to RIAISs prior to pelvic radiotherapy. (author)

  20. Epidemiology of small intestinal atresia in Europe: a register-based study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Best, Kate E

    2012-09-01

    The epidemiology of congenital small intestinal atresia (SIA) has not been well studied. This study describes the presence of additional anomalies, pregnancy outcomes, total prevalence and association with maternal age in SIA cases in Europe.

  1. Case Studies - Cervical Cancer

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-10-15

    Dr. Alan Waxman, a professor of obstetrics and gynecology at the University of New Mexico and chair of the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) committee for the underserved, talks about several case studies for cervical cancer screening and management.  Created: 10/15/2010 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP), Division of Cancer Prevention and Control (DCPC).   Date Released: 6/9/2010.

  2. Intestinal candidiasis and antibiotic usage in children: case study of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Overgrowth of candida results from factors that disrupt the intestinal microbial balance, such as the use of antibiotics. Unregulated antibiotic use and rampant practice of self-medication in Nigeria, is a cause for concern. Methods: A total of 314 stool specimens were collected from children <1 to 12 years of age ...

  3. Comparative study of intestinal parasitic infections in asymptomatic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Using structured questionnaire and laboratory diagnostic techniques, blood samples and stool specimens of 371 patients attending selected hospitals and medical laboratories in Jimeta, a suburb of Yola, Nigeria, were screened for HIV antibodies and intestinal parasites. HIV tests were conducted on blood sera using ...

  4. Immunoelectrophoretic studies on pig intestinal brush border proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danielsen, Erik Michael; Sjöström, H; Norén, O

    1977-01-01

    Brush borders were prepared from pig intestinal mucosa and the membrane proteins solubilized with either Triton X-100 or papain. Proteins, thus released, were used as antigens to raise antisera in rabbits. The immunoglobulin G fractions were isolated and shown by the double layer immunofluorescence...

  5. Comparative study of intestine length, weight and digestibility on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2013-08-07

    Aug 7, 2013 ... cottonseeds depress protein digestibility and intestinal uptakes of dietary (Selle et al., 2010). Feeding slowly digestible starch can improve protein and energy utilization in broiler chickens (Weurding et al., 2003). Many researchers have indicated correlation of body weight (BW) with other parameters ...

  6. Intestinal candidiasis and antibiotic usage in children: case study of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    3. Whitman WB, Coleman DC, Wiebe WJ. Prokaryotes: The unseen majority. Proceedings of the National Acad- emy of Science USA. 1998; 95: 6578–6583. 4. Ley RE, Gordon JI. Unpublished data as cited in Bäck- hed F, Ley RE, Sonnenburg JL, Peterson DA, Gordon JI. Host-bacterial mutualism in the human intestine.

  7. Intestinal accumulation of /sup 111/In-granulocytes in patients studied because of occult infection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Syrjaelae, M.T.; Valtonen, V.; Liewendahl, K.; Gripenberg, J.

    1987-06-01

    /sup 111/In-granulocyte scintigraphy was performed on 245 patients in whom a localized infection was suspected. In 123 patients scintigraphy was positive and of these 35 (28%) had intestinal accumulations of /sup 111/In-granulocytes. Specific local causes for the intestinal uptake of radioactivity were antibiotic associated colitis (eight patients), local pyogenic bowel infection (four patients), systemic disease (two patients), bowel necrosis (two patients), colonic cancer (one patient) and Stevens-Johnson's syndrome (one patient). Nonspecific mechanisms of bowel accumulation were desquamation of labelled granulocytes (12 patients) and bleeding (two patients). In three cases the mechanism of colonic accumulation of granulocytes was not revealed. These results show that unexpected accumulations of labelled granulocytes in the gut is not a rare phenomenon and is often due to clinically significant intestinal inflammation or other disease, especially in patients who do not have signs of respiratory, pancreatic or oesophageal inflammation causing desquamated granulocytes to accumulate in the gut.

  8. International prospective study of distal intestinal obstruction syndrome in cystic fibrosis: Associated factors and outcome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Munck, Anne; Alberti, Corinne; Colombo, Carla; Kashirskaya, Nataliya; Ellemunter, Helmut; Fotoulaki, Maria; Houwen, Roderick; Robberecht, Eddy; Boizeau, Priscilla; Wilschanski, Michael

    Background Distal intestinal obstruction syndrome (DIOS) is a specific complication of cystic fibrosis. Methods A study was performed in 10 countries to prospectively evaluate the incidence, associated factors, and treatment modalities in children and adults. Results 102 patients presented 112

  9. Innovative methods to study human intestinal drug metabolism in vitro : Precision-cut slices compared with Ussing chamber preparations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Kerkhof, Esther G.; Ungell, Anna-Lena B.; Sjoberg, Asa K.; de Jager, Marina H.; Hilgendorf, Constanze; de Graaf, Inge A. M.; Groothuis, Geny M. M.

    2006-01-01

    Predictive in vitro methods to investigate drug metabolism in the human intestine using intact tissue are of high importance. Therefore, we studied the metabolic activity of human small intestinal and colon slices and compared it with the metabolic activity of the same human intestinal segments

  10. Changes in the Abundance of Faecalibacterium prausnitzii Phylogroups I and II in the Intestinal Mucosa of Inflammatory Bowel Disease and Patients with Colorectal Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Siles, Mireia; Martinez-Medina, Margarita; Surís-Valls, Romà; Aldeguer, Xavier; Sabat-Mir, Miriam; Duncan, Sylvia H; Flint, Harry J; Garcia-Gil, L Jesús

    2016-01-01

    Faecalibacterium prausnitzii comprises 2 phylogroups, whose abundance in healthy and diseased gut and in conjunction with Escherichia coli has not yet been studied. This work aims to determine the contribution of F. prausnitzii phylogroups I and II in intestinal disease and to assess their potential diagnostic usefulness as biomarkers for gut diseases. Total F. prausnitzii, its phylogroups, and E. coli loads were determined by quantitative polymerase chain reaction targeting the 16S rRNA gene on biopsies from 31 healthy controls (H), 45 patients with Crohn's disease (CD), 25 patients with ulcerative colitis, 10 patients with irritable bowel syndrome, and 20 patients with colorectal cancer. Data were normalized to total bacterial counts and analyzed according to patients' disease location and clinical characteristics. Lower levels of both total F. prausnitzii and phylogroup I were found in subjects with CD, ulcerative colitis, and colorectal cancer (P bowel disease location. Phylogroup I was lower in active patients with CD, whereas those CD with intestinal resection showed a reduction in phylogroup II. Treatments with mesalazine and immunosuppressants did not result in the recovery of F. prausnitzii phylogroups abundance. F. prausnitzii phylogroup I was depleted in CD, ulcerative colitis, and colorectal cancer, whereas phylogroup II was specifically reduced in CD. Quantification of F. prausnitzii phylogroups and E. coli may help to identify gut disorders and to classify inflammatory bowel disease location.

  11. In vitro studies of intestinal permeability and hepatic and intestinal metabolism of 8-prenylnaringenin, a potent phytoestrogen from hops (Humulus lupulus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolic, Dejan; Li, Yongmei; Chadwick, Lucas R; van Breemen, Richard B

    2006-05-01

    The absorption potential and metabolism of 8-prenylnaringenin (8-PN) from hops (Humulus lupulus L.) were investigated. 8-PN is a potent estrogen with the potential to be used for the relief of menopausal symptoms in women. Monolayers of the human intestinal epithelial cancer cell line Caco-2 and human hepatocytes were incubated with 8-PN to model its intestinal absorption and hepatic metabolism, respectively. The apparent permeability coefficients for 8-PN in the apical-to-basolateral and basolateral-to-apical directions of a Caco-2 monolayer were 5.2 +/- 0.7 x 10(-5) and 4.9 +/- 0.5 x 10(-5) cm/s, respectively, indicating good intestinal absorption via passive diffusion. Both glucuronide and sulfate conjugates of 8-PN were detected in the Caco-2 cell incubations. The 4'-O-glucuronide was the predominant Caco-2 cell metabolite, followed by 7-O-sulfate and 4'-O-sulfate. Both phase I and phase II metabolites of 8-PN were formed by human hepatocytes. The 7-O-glucuronide was the most abundant hepatocyte metabolite, and no sulfate conjugates were detected. Incubations with various cDNA-expressed UDP-glucuronosyltransferases indicated that the isozymes UGT1A1, UGT1A6, UGT1A8, and UGT1A9 were responsible for glucuronidation of 8-PN. Although orally administered 8-PN should be readily absorbed from the intestine, its bioavailability should be reduced significantly by intestinal and hepatic metabolism.

  12. A metagenomic study of the preventive effect of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG on intestinal polyp formation in ApcMin/+mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Y; Wong, V H Y; Tai, W C S; Li, J; Wong, W Y; Lee, M M L; Fong, F L Y; El-Nezami, H; Panagiotou, G

    2017-03-01

    To investigate the in vivo effects of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) on intestinal polyp development and the interaction between this single-organism probiotic and the gut microbiota therein. The Apc Min/+ mouse model was used to study the potential preventive effect of LGG on intestinal polyposis, while shotgun metagenomic sequencing was employed to characterize both taxonomic and functional changes within the gut microbial community. We found that the progression of intestinal polyps in the control group altered the community functional profile remarkably despite small variation in the taxonomic diversity. In comparison, the consumption of LGG helped maintain the overall functional potential and taxonomic profile in the resident microbes, thereby leading to a 25% decrease of total polyp counts. Furthermore, we found that LGG enriched those microbes or microbial activities related to short-chain fatty acid production (e.g. Roseburia and Coprococcus), as well as suppressed the ones that can lead to inflammation (e.g. Bilophila wadsworthia). Our study using shotgun metagenomics highlights how single probiotic LGG may exert its beneficial effects and decrease polyp formation in mice by maintaining gut microbial functionality. This probiotic intervention targeting microbiota may be used in conjugation with other dietary supplements or drugs as part of prevention strategies for early-stage colon cancer, after further clinical validations in human. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  13. The mediating role of resilience in the relationship between social support and posttraumatic growth among colorectal cancer survivors with permanent intestinal ostomies: A structural equation model analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Xiaoling; Li, Guopeng; Liu, Chunlei; Kong, Linghua; Fang, Yueyan; Kang, Xiaofei; Li, Ping

    2017-08-01

    Information on posttraumatic growth (PTG) among colorectal cancer (CRC) survivors with permanent intestinal ostomies is limited. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to investigate the occurrence of PTG among CRC survivors with permanent intestinal ostomies and its association with perceived social support and resilience. This study was conducted with 164 CRC survivors with permanent intestinal ostomies at least one month after surgery. Participants completed questionnaires assessing socio-demographic and clinical characteristics, perceived social support, resilience and PTG. The mean total score on the Post Traumatic Growth Inventory was 66.74 (SD = 13.99). Perceived social support (r = 0.450) and resilience (r = 0.545) were significantly positively correlated with PTG. Structural equation modeling analysis showed that resilience mediated the relationship between perceived social support and PTG in which the indirect effect of perceived social support on PTG through resilience was 0.203 (P resilience might be scientific intervention strategies for promoting PTG among CRC survivors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Fasting and Postprandial Plasma Citrulline and the Correlation to Intestinal Function Evaluated by 72-Hour Metabolic Balance Studies in Short Bowel Jejunostomy Patients With Intestinal Failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fjermestad, Hilde; Hvistendahl, Mark; Jeppesen, Palle Bekker

    2018-01-01

    absorption parameters in short bowel syndrome patients with intestinal failure (SBS-IF). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Eight patients with SBS-IF and 8 healthy controls (HCs) were given a standardized mixed test meal, and p-citrulline was measured 15 minutes before and 60, 120, and 180 minutes after completion...... of the meal. The patients with SBS-IF had their intestinal absorption of wet weight, energy, macronutrients, and electrolytes measured in relation to 72-hour metabolic balance studies. We investigated the possible correlations between p-citrulline and short bowel length, absorptive parameters......-citrulline and bowel length, bowel absorptive function, or the dependence on PS were found. Even when excluding 2 patients in whom the intestinal absorption was adjacent to the intestinal insufficiency borderlines, these correlations were not significant. CONCLUSION: Based on findings in this small study, the optimal...

  15. Small intestinal emptying time in normal Beagle dogs: a contrast radiographic study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyabayashi, T.; Morgan, J.P.; Atilola, M.A.O.; Muhumuza, L.

    1986-01-01

    Gastric emptying time and small intestinal transit time in dogs are frequently discussed. However, it is often of interest to the radiologist to know what normal small intestinal emptying times should be. A total of 15 upper gastrointestinal studies was performed on five internal parasite-free, normal, standard Beagle dogs with three studies on each dog, 6 days apart. The ages and weights of the dogs ranged from 2–8 years and from 12.4–13.7 kg, respectively. Following 24-hour fasting, a dose of 10 ml/kg bw of 60% wt/vol barium sulfate suspension was administered through a stomach tube. Then, sequential radiographs were made at 30-minute intervals until the entire contrast medium column was in the colon and cecum. The mean, standard deviation, and range of gastric emptying time, small intestinal transit time, and small intestinal emptying time were 76 ± 16.7 (30–120), 73 ± 16.4 (30–120), and 214 ± 25.1 (180–300) minutes, respectively. This study offers the possibility that small intestinal emptying time may be used to further evaluate patients with suspected small intestinal partial obstruction, pseudo-obstruction, ischemia, or lymphangiectasia

  16. Milk products and intestinal health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Meer, R; Bovee-Oudenhoven, IMJ; Sesink, ALA; Kleibeuker, JH

    Milk products may improve intestinal health by means of the cytoprotective effects of their high calcium phosphate (CaPi) content. We hypothesized that this cytoprotection may increase host defenses against bacterial infections as well as decrease colon cancer risk. This paper summarizes our studies

  17. A five patient’s case study on the influence of two different probiotics on individual intestinal microbiota

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoko Uchiyama-Tanaka

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTBackground: The composition and activities of indigenous intestinal microbiota are of paramount importance to human immunity, nutrition, and pathological processes, and hence, the health of the individual. It is well established that the intestine is an important site for local immunity. It is known that the effect of probiotics increases beneficial microbiota and improves chronic conditions such as atopic diseases, irritable bowel disease, and obesity. However, as there are so many probiotics, it is unknown which probiotics might have more of an impact upon intestinal microbiota.Objective: To understand how two different types of probiotics influence human intestinal microbiota, we analyzed human fecal microbiota after taking each of the probiotics.Methods: Five outpatients from Yoko Clinic (1 male and 4 females; aged between 34–46 years old were enrolled in this study. None of the subjects had cancer or any active inflammatory diseases. The five patients took Lactobacillus buchneri (SU for 4 weeks, no probiotics the following week, and mixed probiotics (NS which are Lactobacillus plantarum (NS-5, Lactobacillus rhamnosus (NS-11, Lactobacillus delbruekii (NS-12, Lactobacillus helveticus (NS-8, Lactobacillus fermentum (NS-9 for the following 4 weeks. Fecal samples were collected before and after the outpatients took each of the two probiotics, and were then analyzed using a kit from Techno Suruga Laboratory Co., Ltd. The analysis of the microbiota was performed by targeting bacterial 16S rRNA genes with a terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis program (Nagashima method.Results: Three patients of the five patients decreased the percentage of beneficial bacteria(Lactobacillales, Bifidobacteria after taking SU (13.7 ± 7.1% to 4.0 ± 3.5%, whereas the remaining two patients showed an increased percentage of beneficial bacteria (16.8 ± 3.4% to 30.4 ± 4.6%. After taking NS, the three patients who decreased the

  18. Study of Intestinal Protozoan Parasites in Rural Inhabitants of Mazandaran Province, Northern Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Rezaeian

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Intestinal parasites of humans are important health problems of most communities, especially those situated in tropical and subtropical areas. This study was carried out in rural population of Mazandaran Province, northern Iran, during 2004-2005, with the purpose of achieving a better understanding of the distribution of intestinal protozoan parasites in this province.Methods: A total of 855 stool specimens were collected randomly from rural inhabitants (384 males and 471 females and examined by the formalin-ethyl-acetate concentration technique. In addition, a modified version of the Ziehl-Neelsen tech­nique was used for the staining of Cryptosporidium and other intestinal coccidian parasites.Results: The general prevalence of intestinal protozoans was found as 25%. The prevalence of every intestinal protozoan parasite was as follows: Giardia lamblia (10.2%, Entamoeba histolytica/dispar (1.2%, Dientamoeba fragilis (1.1%, Blastocystis hominis (9.8%, Entamoeba coli (5%, Endolimax nana (0.7%, Iodamoeba butschlii (1.3%, and Entamoeba hartmani (0.4%.Conclusion: The present study revealed that the prevalence of intestinal protozoan parasites among rural inhabitants of Ma­zandaran Province are  still so high that implies performing special control measures.

  19. Elevated Levels of Interferon-γ Are Associated with High Levels of Epstein-Barr Virus Reactivation in Patients with the Intestinal Type of Gastric Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María G. Cárdenas-Mondragón

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The inflammatory response directed against Helicobacter pylori (HP is believed to be one of the main triggers of the appearance of gastric lesions and their progression to gastric cancer (GC. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV has been found responsible for about 10% of all GCs, but the inflammatory response has not been studied in GC patients with evidence of high levels of EBV reactivation. Objective. To determine the relationship between inflammation and antibodies against EBV reactivation antigens, HP, and the bacterium virulence factor CagA in patients with GC. Methods. 127 GC patients, 46 gastritis patients, and 197 healthy subjects were studied. IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, TNF-α, TGF-β, MCP-1, and IFN-γ levels were measured in serum or plasma and compared against the antibody titers of VCA-IgG, HP, and the HP virulence factor CagA. Statistical associations were estimated. Results. Significant ORs and positive trends were found between VCA-IgG and IFN-γ, specifically for patients with GC of intestinal type (OR: 6.4, 95% C.I. 1.2–35.4 (p<0.044. Conclusions. We confirmed a positive association between a marker of EBV reactivation and intestinal gastric cancer and present evidence of a correlation with elevated serum levels of IFN-γ, but not with the other cytokines.

  20. Cloning of the rat ecotropic retroviral receptor and studies of its expression in intestinal tissues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puppi, M.; Henning, S.J. [Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX (United States)

    1995-05-01

    A long-term goal of our laboratory is to establish a rat model to study the feasibility of using the intestinal tract as a site for somatic gene therapy. As a step toward that goal, the current study reports the cloning of the rat ecotropic retroviral receptor (EcoR) cDNA and the study of various aspects of its expression in the intestinal cDNA library with mouse EcoR cDNA. A clone of approximately 7 kb, designated MP10, was obtained. Partial sequencing of MP10 from the 5{prime} end revealed a level of similarity of 92% compared with mouse EcoR. The presence of a 5{prime} untranslated region and a 3{prime} poly(A)tract, together with the overall size of the cDNA, suggest that is very close to being a full-length cDNA for this large transcript. Northern blots with MP10 showed an RNA of approximately 7.9 kb present along the entire length of the small intestine and somewhat less abundant in the colon. Developmental studies showed high levels of EcoR in fetal rat intestine, a decline in the early postnatal period, then a gradual rise to adulthood. Caco-2 cells were used to assess the expression of EcoR in proliferating compared with differentiated intestinal epithelial cells. EcoR mRNA was found to be very much more abundant in nondifferentiated cells and declined to low levels as the cells underwent spontaneous differentiation. These patterns of EcoR expression indicate that ecotropic retroviruses should be suitable vectors with which to attempt gene transfer into the intestinal epithelium. In addition, since the endogenous role of EcoR is as the y{sup +} cationic amino acid transporter, these data have significance for understanding patterns of amino acid transport in the intestinal epithelium. 37 refs., 4 figs.

  1. Reprogramming Intestinal Immunity by Novel L. Acidophilus Strains Results in Protective Immunity against Colon Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-01

    particular, gastrointestinal (GI) inflammation and the predisposition to cancer. Probiotic lactobacilli have received much attention as examples of... genetic mutations that can potentially render the neoplasm less dependent on the immediate tumor microenvironment. To test the protective or otherwise...superimposition of a secondary genetic event on the tumor suppressor APC genetic defect. Large scale studies have revealed loss of heterozygosity at

  2. A clinical study of 68 cases of small intestinal perforation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogura, Masaharu; Tanaka, Nobutaka; Furuya, Takatoshi; Nomura, Yukihiro; Nagai, Motoki; Takahashi, Michiro; Takayama, Toshio; Hirao, Hirofumi

    2010-01-01

    From January 2000 to September 2008 we analyzed the clinical features of 68 patients attending our hospital who had undergone surgery for small intestinal perforations. The nature of the rupture in 51 patients was endogenous, and endogenous in the other 17. Endogenous ruptures included ileus in 16 cases, tumors in 7 cases, of unknown origin in 5 cases, and blunt trauma in 23 cases. Exogenous rupture included iatrogenic in 5, foreign body digestion in 5, and penetrating trauma in 7. Postoperative complications occurred significantly more in the endogenous rupture cases than in the exogenous ones. There were 4 hospital deaths, which were in all endogenous cases. The high complication rate and a certain proportion of poor prognosis in cases of endogenous rupture necessitate imminent treatment as soon as an endogenous perforation is suspected. (author)

  3. Effect of Small Intestine Strangulation Obstruction on Clinical and Histopathological Parameters An Experimental Study in Donkeys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heba Mohamed M. Kuraa

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available To study clinical and histopathological changes occur within the first 12 hours of strangulating obstruction of the small intestine in equine, twenty five adult donkeys were used in an experimental study. Strangulation obstruction of the small intestine was performed for 3, 6, 9 and 12 hours, respectively. Clinical examination was done before surgery and at 3 hours intervals postoperatively. After euthanasia, histopathological examination was made 10 cm, 1, 2 and 3 meters proximal to the strangulated part. Three hours postoperatively, the animals began to show signs of abdominal pain, they were looking around, stamping the hind feet, falling down suddenly. Nine hours postoperatively, animals showed signs of depression with intermittent nervous movements in the form of circle movement. After 12 hours, the animals were lying down; There were a significant reduction in the body temperature, respiratory rate, pulse rate, heart rate with significant increase in capillary refill time. Macroscopic changes of the strangulated part were congestion, edema, and dark red discoloration of the intestinal wall and mesentery. Distension of the intestine proximal to the strangulation extended more with increase the period of strangulation. Microscopic examination showed showed severe congestion, dark brown to blackish discoloration with fibrous shreds on the strangulated segment. Peticheal hemorrhages were observed in the intestinal wall and its mesentery for a distance up to 3 meters. The severity of signs varies according to the duration of obstruction which could give a remarkable justification of the prognosis of the patient and the availability of treatment.

  4. Generation of EST and Microarray Resources for Functional Genomic Studies on Chicken Intestinal Health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hemert, van S.; Ebbelaar, B.H.; Smits, M.A.; Rebel, J.M.J.

    2003-01-01

    Expressed sequenced tags (ESTs) and microarray resources have a great impact on the ability to study host response in mice and humans. Unfortunately, these resources are not yet available for domestic farm animals. The aim of this study was to provide genomic resources to study chicken intestinal

  5. Light and electron microscopic studies of the intestinal epithelium in Notoplana humilis (Platyhelminthes, Polycladida): the contribution of mesodermal/gastrodermal neoblasts to intestinal regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okano, Daisuke; Ishida, Sachiko; Ishiguro, Sei-ichi; Kobayashi, Kazuya

    2015-12-01

    Some free-living flatworms in the phylum Platyhelminthes possess strong regenerative capability that depends on putative pluripotent stem cells known as neoblasts. These neoblasts are defined based on several criteria, including their proliferative capacity and the presence of cellular components known as chromatoid bodies. Polyclads, which are marine flatworms, have the potential to be a good model system for stem cell research, yet little information is available regarding neoblasts and regeneration. In this study, transmission electron microscopy and immunostaining analyses, using antibodies against phospho-histone H3 and BrdU, were used to identify two populations of neoblasts in the polyclad Notoplana humilis: mesodermal neoblasts (located in the mesenchymal space) and gastrodermal neoblasts (located within the intestine, where granular club cells and phagocytic cells are also located). Light and electron microscopic analyses also suggested that phagocytic cells and mesodermal/gastrodermal neoblasts, but not granular club cells, migrated into blastemas and remodeled the intestine during regeneration. Therefore, we suggest that, in polyclads, intestinal regeneration is accomplished by mechanisms underlying both morphallaxis (remodeling of pre-existing tissues) and epimorphosis (de novo tissue formation derived from mesodermal/gastrodermal neoblasts). Based on the assumption that gastrodermal neoblasts, which are derived from mesodermal neoblasts, are intestinal stem cells, we propose a model to study intestinal regeneration.

  6. Autoradiographic and enzyme histochemical studies of intestinal metaplasia in human stomach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashimoto, Masayoshi

    1982-01-01

    The relationship between growth potency and alkaline phosphatase activity of intestinal metaplasia of human stomach was studied using enzyme histochemical and autoradiographic technique. Both alkaline phosphatase positive and negative glands were seen in the intestinal metaplasia. Two types of alkaline phosphatase positive glands were observed, one in which alkaline phosphatase positive cells were distributed from the lower part to the surface of the gland and the other in which alkaline phosphatase positive cells were localized only at the surface of the gland. 3 H-Thymidine labelled cells in the former gland were localized only at the bottom but the labelled cells in the latter were distributed in the lower part of the gland. 3 H-Thymidine labelled cells in alkaline phosphatase negative gland were distributed from the bottom to middle part of the gland. These results imply that the intestinal metaplasia in which cell proliferative zone was localized at the bottom of the gland showed alkaline phosphatase activity just like the activity in the small intestine, however the gland in which the cell proliferative zone was prolonged showed the alkaline phosphatase activity different from the small intestine. (author)

  7. Time course study of intestinal epithelial barrier disruption in acute mesenteric venous thrombosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shuofei; Chen, Jiaquan; Ni, Qihong; Qi, Haozhe; Guo, Xiangjiang; Zhang, Lan; Xue, Guanhua

    2018-04-01

    Acute superior mesenteric venous thrombosis (ASMVT) is an abdominal vascular condition. Early recanalization is essential to successful treatment. The aim of the study was to establish rabbit models of ASMVT and assess the time course of intestinal epithelial barrier disruption. After surgical exposure of superior mesenteric vein (Sham group), large-vessel (L-group) and small-vessel (S-group) models were established by endothelium damage, stenosis creation, and thrombin injection. At baseline, 6, 9, and 12 h, hemodynamic and serum parameters were tested. Serum from ASMVT patients diagnosed at 24, 36, 48, and 60 h from symptom onset was collected. Intestinal barrier disruption was assessed by tight junction (TJ) protein expression, morphology changes, and bacterial translocation. Mesenteric arteriospasm was measured by flow velocity and intestinal wet/dry weight ratio. The serum level of intestinal fatty acid-binding protein and endotoxin in patients was also measured as an indicator for intestinal barrier function. Severe acidosis and lacticemia were observed in both the groups. The L-group experienced greater hemodynamic alteration than the S-group. Intestinal barrier disruption was detected by significantly decreased TJ protein expression, histology and ultrastructure injury of TJ, increased permeability, and bacterial translocation, at 9 h in the S-group and 12 h in the L-group. Secondary mesenteric arteriospasm occurred at the same time of complete intestinal barrier disruption and could be a significant cause of bowel necrosis. Significant increased level of intestinal fatty acid-binding protein and endotoxin was found in patients at 48 h in the S-group type and 60 h in the L-group type. The ASMVT animal models of both the types were first established. The loss of intestinal barrier function occurred at 6 h in the S-group model and 9 h in the L-group model. For clinical patients, the time window extended to 36 h in the S-group type and 48 h in the L

  8. Soy, Probiotics, and Breast Cancer Prevention

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kurzer, Mindy

    2001-01-01

    .... The methods include in vitro studies to determine the intestinal microflora responsible for phytoestrogen metabolism, and a human feeding study in which 20 postmenopausal breast cancer survivors...

  9. Soy, Probiotics, and Breast Cancer Prevention

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kurzer, Mindy

    2000-01-01

    .... The methods include in vitro studies to determine the intestinal microflora responsible for phytoestrogen metablism, and a human feeding study in which 18 postmenopausal breast cancer survivors...

  10. A study of blood and gastro-intestinal parasites in Edo state | Mordi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A four-year study to determine the prevalence of both blood and gastro-intestinal parasites of man was done in all the eighteen local government areas of Edo State, Nigeria. The study, which commenced in January of 2000, ended in December of 2004. Of the 136,360 samples examined, 1000 that is 0.7% had parasites.

  11. Lack of efficacy of blueberry in nutritional prevention of azoxymethane-initiated cancers of rat small intestine and colon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Xianli

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Blueberries may lower relative risk for cancers of the gastrointestinal tract. Previous work indicated an inhibitory effect of consumed blueberry (BB on formation of aberrant crypt foci (ACF in colons of male Fisher F344 rats (inbred strain. However, effects of BB on colon tumors and in both genders are unknown. Methods We examined efficacy of BB in inhibition of azoxymethane (AOM-induced colon ACF and intestine tumors in male and female Sprague-Dawley rats (outbred strain. Pregnant rats were fed a diet with or without 10% BB powder; progeny were weaned to the same diet as their dam and received AOM as young adults. Results Male and female rats on control diet had similar numbers of ACF at 6 weeks after AOM administration. BB increased (P P P > 0.05 to reduce overall gastrointestinal tract tumor incidence in males, however, tumor incidence in females was unaffected (P > 0.1 by BB. There was a tendency (0.1 > P > 0.05 for fewer adenocarcinomas (relative to total of adenomatous polyps plus adenocarcinomas in colons of female than male tumor-bearing rats; in small intestine, this gender difference was significant (P P Conclusion Results did not indicate robust cancer-preventive effects of BB. Blueberry influenced ACF occurrence in distal colon and tumor progression in duodenum, in gender-specific fashion. Data indicate the potential for slowing tumor progression (adenomatous polyp to adenocarcinoma by BB.

  12. Clinical picture and treatment of complications of lower part of large intestine resulting from radiotherapy for intra-pelvic cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikeda, Yoshihito; Sunagawa, Keishin; Matsumura, Shigejiro; Watanabe, Kenji; Masaoka, Yoshio

    1976-01-01

    The authors described clinical pictures and those treatments of 40 patients with complications of the lower part of the large intestine resulting from radiotherapy for cancer of the uterus, ovarium or the penis. As the radiotherapy, 60 Co-telecobalt (6,000-16,000R) and 60 Co-needle (1,000-8,568 mch) intracavitary irradiation were used alone or in combination. Findings in the complications of the lower part of the large intestine were classified into Grade I (13 cases), II (14), III (14), and IV (4) according to Sherman. The prodromal symptoms of the complications appeared in 2-6 months following the irradiation in more than a half of the patients, and it appeared within a year in most of the patients. Most of the patients complained about melena, anemia, proctagra, tenesmus and diarrhea. In the cases of Grade III, the symptoms of ileus such as constipation, abdominal distention, and abdominal pain appeared. Internal treatment was given principally, and preternal anus was made when frequent blood transfusion was required. Fourteen cases of those in Grade I and II recovered within 1-3 years. The cases which received proctostomy, including those who had bleeding, stricture and fistulation, had favorable prognosis. This result suggested that the radiotherapy for intra-pelvic cancer should be controlled to prevent further development of the complications in the rectum beyond Grade I. (Serizawa, K.)

  13. Internal radiotherapy of liver cancer with rat hepato-carcinoma-intestine-pancreas gene as a liver tumor-specific promoter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herve, J.; Cunha, A. Sa; Liu, B.; Valogne, Y.; Longuet, M.; Bregerie, O.; Guettier, C.; Samuel, D.; Brechot, C.; Faivre, J. [Hop Paul Brousse, INSERM, Hepatobiliary Ctr, U785, F-94800 Villejuif (France); Herve, J.; Cunha, A. Sa; Liu, B.; Valogne, Y.; Longuet, M.; Bregerie, O.; Guettier, C.; Samuel, D.; Brechot, C.; Faivre, J. [Univ Paris Sud, Fac Med, F-94800 Villejuif (France); Boisgard, R.; Tavitian, B. [INSERM, U803, F-91400 Orsay (France); Boisgard, R.; Tavitian, B. [CEA, Serv Hosp Frederic Joliot, Lab Imagerie Mol Expt, F-91400 Orsay (France); Roux, J.; Cales, P. [Univ Angers, UPRES EA 3859, Lab Hemodynam Interact Fibrose et Invas Tumorale H, Angers (France); Clerc, J. [Hop Cochin, AP HP, Dept Nucl Med, F-75014 Paris (France)

    2008-07-01

    The hepato-carcinoma-intestine-pancreas (HIP) gene, also called pancreatitis-associated protein-1 (PAP1) or Reg III {alpha}, is activated in most human hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs) but not in normal liver, which suggests that HIP regulatory sequence could be used as efficient liver tumor-specific promoters to express a therapeutic polynucleotide in liver cancer. The sodium iodide sym-porter (NIS), which has recognized therapeutic and reporter gene properties, is appropriate to evaluate the transcriptional strength and specificity of the HIP promoter in HCC. For this purpose, we constructed a recombinant rat HIP-NIS adeno-viral vector (AdrHIP-NIS), and evaluated its performance as a mediator of selective radio-iodide uptake in tumor hepatocytes. Western blot, immunofluorescence, and iodide uptake assays were performed in AdrHIP-NIS-infected primary hepatocytes and transformed hepatic and non-hepatic cells. Nuclear imaging, tissue counting and immuno-histo-chemistry were performed in normal and HCC-bearing Wistar rats infected with AdrHIP-NIS intra-tumorally or via the hepatic artery. In AdrHIP-NIS-infected transformed hepatic cells, functional NIS was strongly expressed, as in cells infected with a cytomegalovirus-NIS vector. No NIS expression was found in AdrHIP-NIS-infected normal hepatocytes or transformed non-hepatic cells. In rats bearing multi-nodular HCC, AdrHIP-NIS triggered functional NIS expression that was preferential in tumor hepatocytes. Administration of 18 mCi of {sup 131}I resulted in the destruction of AdrHIP-NIS-injected nodules. This study has identified the rHIP regulatory sequence as a potent liver tumor-specific promoter for the transfer of therapeutic genes, and AdrHIP-NIS-mediated. {sup 131}I therapy as a valuable option for the treatment of multi-nodular HCC. (authors)

  14. Population-based study of esophageal and small intestinal atresia/stenosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Daijiro; Hiroma, Takehiko; Takamizawa, Shigeru; Nakamura, Tomohiko

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the prevalence of esophageal atresia/stenosis and small intestinal atresia/stenosis in Nagano, Japan, together with associated anomalies, prenatal diagnosis and survival. A population-based cohort study of the prevalence of esophageal atresia/stenosis and small intestinal atresia/stenosis was conducted in Nagano in January 1993-December 2011. The Mann-Whitney test, χ(2) test and Kruskal-Wallis test were used to compare variables. P atresia/stenosis and 87 cases of small intestinal atresia/stenosis (31 duodenal, 56 jejuno-ileal) were identified. Prevalences were 1.97 for esophageal atresia/stenosis and 2.23 for small intestinal atresia/stenosis (0.83 for duodenal atresia/stenosis and 1.49 for jejuno-ileal atresia/stenosis) per 10,000 births, respectively. The prevalence of esophageal atresia/stenosis increased significantly from 1993-2001 to 2002-2011 (relative risk [RR], 1.6), as did the prevalences of duodenal atresia/stenosis (RR, 2.2) and jejuno-ileal atresia/stenosis (RR, 3.1). Chromosomal anomalies, particularly trisomy 21, were seen significantly more often in association with duodenal atresia/stenosis (55%) than with esophageal atresia/stenosis (28%, P atresia/stenosis (2%, P atresia/stenosis group. The prevalence of esophageal and small intestinal atresia/stenosis increased significantly from 1993-2001 to 2002-2011. Prenatally diagnosed esophageal atresia/stenosis is associated with multiple anomalies, particularly chromosomal anomalies, compared to other small intestine atresia/stenosis. © 2014 Japan Pediatric Society.

  15. Study of Intestinal Helminthes of Stray Dogs and Thir Public Heath Importance in Hamadan City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kh. Rahmati

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Intestinal helminthesof dogs are a serious threat to human health and may cause dangerous diseases such as: hydatidosis and visceral larva migrans, that which cause severe complications in human. Th aim of this study was to determine the prevalenceof intestinal helminthes of stray dogs in Hamadan city, Iran.. Methods: A total of 103 stray dogswere shot in the inner and around of the city in year 2015. Following necropsy, the intestines' contents of dogs were examined for helminthes macroscopically. Thn, the collected worms, aftr washing with saline,were counted and identifid according to being Nematode, Cestodeor Acantcephala. Thn, collected Nematodes were put in glass containers containing 70% ethanol-glycerine and Cestodes aftr processing on slides were put in the 10% formalin. To identify the species of helminthes, the Cestodes were stained using carmine acid and Nematodes were cleared in lacto-phenol. Results: Result indicated that, 74(71.8%stray dogs were infected at least by one species of intestinal helminthes. Th species of parasites were as follows: Echinococcus granulosus 37.9%, Dipylidium caninum 51.5%, Toxocara canis 19.4%, Taenia hydatigena 24.3%, T. multiceps 2.9%, T. ovis 1.9%, Mesocest oideslineatus 4.9%, and Acantho cephala 5.8%. Thre was no association between insex, season and region with prevalence of intestinal helminthes (P 0.05 between the prevalence of intestinal helminthes and dogs' age. Conclusions: Ths study indicatesd that,infection rate of helminthes in stray dogs is washigh in Hamadan city. Thse parasites are important in terms of human health and economic aspects. Threfore, it is more essential that public health authoritiesto develop control strategies for stray dogs population.

  16. Plexus muscularis profundus and associated interstitial cells. I. Light microscopical studies of mouse small intestine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rumessen, J J; Thuneberg, L

    1982-01-01

    muscularis profundus (PMP). PMP was revealed throughout the small intestine as a continuous network of elongated, circularly oriented meshes. The pattern of connections between PMP and the other enteric plexuses was studied stereoscopically. Ganglion cells intrinsic to PMP occurred widely scattered...

  17. Zonulin and its regulation of intestinal barrier function: the biological door to inflammation, autoimmunity, and cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fasano, Alessio

    2011-01-01

    The primary functions of the gastrointestinal tract have traditionally been perceived to be limited to the digestion and absorption of nutrients and to electrolytes and water homeostasis. A more attentive analysis of the anatomic and functional arrangement of the gastrointestinal tract, however, suggests that another extremely important function of this organ is its ability to regulate the trafficking of macromolecules between the environment and the host through a barrier mechanism. Together with the gut-associated lymphoid tissue and the neuroendocrine network, the intestinal epithelial barrier, with its intercellular tight junctions, controls the equilibrium between tolerance and immunity to non-self antigens. Zonulin is the only physiological modulator of intercellular tight junctions described so far that is involved in trafficking of macromolecules and, therefore, in tolerance/immune response balance. When the finely tuned zonulin pathway is deregulated in genetically susceptible individuals, both intestinal and extraintestinal autoimmune, inflammatory, and neoplastic disorders can occur. This new paradigm subverts traditional theories underlying the development of these diseases and suggests that these processes can be arrested if the interplay between genes and environmental triggers is prevented by reestablishing the zonulin-dependent intestinal barrier function. This review is timely given the increased interest in the role of a "leaky gut" in the pathogenesis of several pathological conditions targeting both the intestine and extraintestinal organs.

  18. Intestinal biospy in children with coeliac disease; a Swedish national study of radiation dose and risk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Persliden, J.; Pettersson, H.B.L. [Linkoeping Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Radiation Physics; Faelth-Magnusson, K. [University of Linkoeping (Sweden). Faculty of Health Sciences

    1995-12-31

    In paediatric patients, fluoroscopy is used to monitor intestinal biopsies obtained for the diagnosis of coeliac disease. The radiation dose to the child is dependent on the equipment, the sedation of the patient and the experience of the operator. This study presents patient measurements from a national study in Sweden. The cancer excess lifetime mortality risk (CELMR) and the loss of life expectancy (LLE) are calculated for this patient group. TLD measurements were performed by dosemeters at 40 Swedish paediatric departments performing these biopsies. Information was received on sedation techniques, equipment used and fluoroscopy duration. An exponential curve fit was applied to the entrance and exit dose values and this dose distribution was integrated to get the integral dose. From this the mean absorbed dose in the irradiated volume was calculated. The mean and the median of the mean absorbed dose in the irradiated volume to the children was found to be 1.3 mGy (range 0.05-17.5 mGy) and 0.56 mGy respectively. The mean value of the entrance surface dose was 3.0 mGy (range 0.10-27.1 mGy) and the median was 1.4 mGy. The annual collective dose was calculated to 3.3 man Gy, based on 2500 biopsies per year. Variation in doses was found to depend on, e.g. the age of the equipment, focus to patient distance, sedation and operator experience. With this knowledge of doses received by the children in the diagnosis of coeliac disease, CELMR was found to be 0.5 per 25000 biopsies and LLE was 18 years. Recommendations are given on the proper choice of equipment for the reduction of fluoroscopy doses in pediatric radiology. (Author).

  19. Modeling intestinal disorders using zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, X; Pack, M

    2017-01-01

    Although the zebrafish was initially developed as a model system to study embryonic development, it has gained increasing attention as an advantageous system to investigate human diseases, including intestinal disorders. Zebrafish embryos develop rapidly, and their digestive system is fully functional and visible by 5days post fertilization. There is a large degree of homology between the intestine of zebrafish and higher vertebrate organisms in terms of its cellular composition and function as both a digestive and immune organ. Furthermore, molecular pathways regulating injury and immune responses are highly conserved. In this chapter, we provide an overview of studies addressing developmental and physiological processes relevant to human intestinal disease. These studies include those related to congenital disorders, host-microbiota interactions, inflammatory diseases, motility disorders, and intestinal cancer. We also highlight the utility of zebrafish to functionally validate candidate genes identified through mutational analyses and genome-wide association studies, and discuss methodologies to investigate the intestinal biology that are unique to zebrafish. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Myo-inositol inhibits intestinal glucose absorption and promotes muscle glucose uptake: a dual approach study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chukwuma, Chika Ifeanyi; Ibrahim, Mohammed Auwal; Islam, Md Shahidul

    2016-12-01

    The present study investigated the effects of myo-inositol on muscle glucose uptake and intestinal glucose absorption ex vivo as well as in normal and type 2 diabetes model of rats. In ex vivo study, both intestinal glucose absorption and muscle glucose uptake were studied in isolated rat jejunum and psoas muscle respectively in the presence of increasing concentrations (2.5 % to 20 %) of myo-inositol. In the in vivo study, the effect of a single bolus dose (1 g/kg bw) of oral myo-inositol on intestinal glucose absorption, blood glucose, gastric emptying and digesta transit was investigated in normal and type 2 diabetic rats after 1 h of co-administration with 2 g/kg bw glucose, when phenol red was used as a recovery marker. Myo-inositol inhibited intestinal glucose absorption (IC 50  = 28.23 ± 6.01 %) and increased muscle glucose uptake, with (GU 50  = 2.68 ± 0.75 %) or without (GU 50  = 8.61 ± 0.55 %) insulin. Additionally, oral myo-inositol not only inhibited duodenal glucose absorption and reduced blood glucose increase, but also delayed gastric emptying and accelerated digesta transit in both normal and diabetic animals. Results of this study suggest that dietary myo-inositol inhibits intestinal glucose absorption both in ex vivo and in normal or diabetic rats and also promotes muscle glucose uptake in ex vivo condition. Hence, myo-inositol may be further investigated as a possible anti-hyperglycaemic dietary supplement for diabetic foods and food products.

  1. Effects of colchicine on the intestinal transport of endogenous lipid. Ultrastructural, biochemical, and radiochemical studies in fasting rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavelka, M.; Gangl, A.

    1983-01-01

    The involvement of microtubules in the transepithelial transport of exogenous lipid in intestinal absorptive cells has been suggested. Using electronmicroscopic, biochemical, and radiochemical methods, researchers have studied the effects of the antimicrotubular agent colchicine on the intestinal mucosa and on the intestinal transport of endogenous lipid of rats in the fasting state. After colchicine treatment, the concentration of triglycerides in intestinal mucosa of rats fasted for 24 h doubled, and electron microscopic studies showed a striking accumulation of lipid particles in absorptive epithelial cells of the tips of jejunal villi. These findings suggest that colchicine interferes with the intestinal transepithelial transport of endogenous lipoproteins. Additional studies, using an intraduodenal pulse injection of [ 14 C]linoleic acid, showed that colchicine does not affect the uptake of fatty acids by intestinal mucosa. However, it had divergent effects on fatty acid esterification, enhancing their incorporation into triglycerides relative to phospholipids, and caused a significant accumulation of endogenous diglycerides, triglycerides, and cholesterol esters within the absorptive intestinal epithelium. Detailed ultrastructural and morphometric studies revealed a decrease of visible microtubules, and a displacement of the smooth and rough endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi apparatus. Furthermore, it is shown that after colchicine treatment, microvilli appear at the lateral plasma membrane of intestinal absorptive cells, a change not previously reported to our knowledge. Thus, our study shows that colchicine causes significant changes in enterocyte ultrastructure and colchicine perturbs the reesterification of absorbed endogenous fatty acids and their secretion in the form of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins from the enterocyte

  2. Paediatric intestinal cancer and polyposis due to bi-allelic PMS2 mutations : Case series, review and follow-up guidelines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herkert, Johanna C; Niessen, Renée C; Olderode-Berends, Maria J W; Veenstra-Knol, Hermine E; Vos, Yvonne J; van der Klift, Heleen M; Scheenstra, Rene; Tops, Carli M J; Karrenbeld, Arend; Peters, Frans T M; Hofstra, Robert M W; Kleibeuker, Jan H; Sijmons, Rolf H

    BACKGROUND: Bi-allelic germline mutations of one of the DNA mismatch repair genes, so far predominantly found in PMS2, cause constitutional MMR-deficiency syndrome. This rare disorder is characterised by paediatric intestinal cancer and other malignancies. We report the clinical, immunohistochemical

  3. Comparative study of cotton, polyglactin and polyglecaprone sutures in intestinal anastomoses in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernis-Filho, Walter Octaviano; Wouters, Flademir; Wouters, Angélica Aparecida Barth; Bernis, Valéria Magro Octaviano; Lopes, Luiz Roberto; Andreollo, Nelson Adami

    2013-01-01

    Over the years, many sutures were developed and then abandoned. Until now was not found an ideal suture to the intestinal tract or other tissues in general, making the choice a difficult task. To evaluate, macroscopically and microscopically, the healing process of intestinal anastomoses in dogs using polyglecaprone 25, polyglactin 910 and cotton sutures. Twenty adult male dogs were operated on and underwent to three small bowel anastomosis using the technique with submucosal sutures. Were used three threads and the anastomoses were evaluated at different postoperative periods - group I - three days; group II - seven days; group III - 14 days and group IV - 21days. Macroscopic analysis was to assess the presence or absence of peritonitis, aspect of the anastomosis and adhesions. Histological studies of the anastomoses, using hematoxylin and eosin and Masson's trichrome analyzed the exudative inflammation, granulomatous inflammation, the mucosal epithelial coating and collagen fibers. The macroscopic analysis showed good coaptation of the edges with a moderate degree of adhesion between the intestines and omentum three to 21 days after surgery. The microscopic evaluation revealed exudative inflammation with neutrophils and fibrin, which ranged from mild to moderate until the 14th day; granulomatous inflammation with macrophages, multinucleated giant cells and epithelioid cells were more evident at 14th day for the cotton, presence of granulation tissue (fibroblasts) and collagen fibers, a moderate way, from the 7th for the three threads. All three threads showed similar behavior and thus they can be indicated for anastomoses of the small intestine.

  4. Effect of fasting in the digestive system: histological study of the small intestine in house sparrows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funes, Samanta Celeste; Filippa, Verónica Palmira; Cid, Fabricio Damián; Mohamed, Fabián; Caviedes-Vidal, Enrique; Chediack, Juan Gabriel

    2014-10-01

    In birds and mammals the metabolic response to fasting has been studied and can be characterized by three consecutive phases reflecting metabolic and physiological adjustments. An effective way to minimize energy expenditure during food scarcity is to decrease the mass of the organs. As the digestive system is metabolically expensive to maintain, the small intestine and the liver are the most affected organs. We evaluated the effects of phase III starvation on the mass of the different organs and histological parameters on house sparrows, a small non-migrant bird. In a short period of time (34 h) we observed a larger reduction in the digestive organ mass when compared to the mass of the body and non-alimentary tissues. Furthermore, the intestinal mass was proportionally more reduced than its length and nominal surface area. A reduction on the intestinal mucosal layer also resulted in a shortening of villus (length and thickness) and crypt depth. Moreover, the morphology of the enterocytes changed from cylindrical to cubical, suggesting that the surface exposed to the lumen was conserved. This may indicate an adaptive response to the moment of refeeding. The nominal surface area/body mass remained constant in both groups and several histological parameters were reduced, suggesting that starving induces the atrophy of the small intestine. However, the goblet cells were conserved after fasting indicating a protective tendency. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Nutritional Status and Intestinal Parasite in School Age Children: A Comparative Cross-Sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berhanu Elfu Feleke

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The objectives of this study were to determine the burden of underweight and intestinal parasitic infection in the urban and rural elementary school children. Methods. A comparative cross-sectional study design was conducted. Binary logistic regression was used to identify the determinants of malnutrition or intestinal parasites. Two independent samples’ t-test was used to identify the effect of malnutrition on school performance or hemoglobin level. Results. A total of 2372 students were included. Quarters (24.8% of school children were underweight. Underweight was associated with sex [adjusted odds ratio (AOR 0.61; 95% CI = 0.47–0.78], age [AOR = 0.21; 95% CI = 0.16–0.28], intestinal parasitic infection [AOR 2.67; 95% CI = 2–3.55], and family size [AOR 23; 95% CI = 17.67–30.02]. The prevalence of intestinal parasite among school children was 61.7% [95% CI = 60%–64%]. Shoe wearing practice [AOR 0.71; 95% CI = 0.58–0.87], personal hygiene [AOR 0.8; 95% CI = 0.65–0.99], availability of latrine [AOR 0.34; 95% CI = 0.27–0.44], age [AOR 0.58; 95% CI = 0.48–0.7], habit of eating raw vegetables [AOR 3.71; 95% CI = 3.01–4.46], and family size [AOR 1.96; 95% CI = 1.57–2.45] were the predictors of intestinal parasitic infection.

  6. A review of spatial computational models for multi-cellular systems, with regard to intestinal crypts and colorectal cancer development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Matteis, Giovanni; Graudenzi, Alex; Antoniotti, Marco

    2013-06-01

    Colon rectal cancers (CRC) are the result of sequences of mutations which lead the intestinal tissue to develop in a carcinoma following a "progression" of observable phenotypes. The actual modeling and simulation of the key biological structures involved in this process is of interest to biologists and physicians and, at the same time, it poses significant challenges from the mathematics and computer science viewpoints. In this report we give an overview of some mathematical models for cell sorting (a basic phenomenon that underlies several dynamical processes in an organism), intestinal crypt dynamics and related problems and open questions. In particular, major attention is devoted to the survey of so-called in-lattice (or grid) models and off-lattice (off-grid) models. The current work is the groundwork for future research on semi-automated hypotheses formation and testing about the behavior of the various actors taking part in the adenoma-carcinoma progression, from regulatory processes to cell-cell signaling pathways.

  7. Intestinal parasitosis among Yemeni patients with cancer, Sana'a, Yemen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Qobati, Salah A; Al-Maktari, Mohamed T; Al-Zoa, Abdulla M Bin; Derhim, Mohamed

    2012-12-01

    The profile of intestinal parasitosis was assessed among patients on anticancer chemotherapy in Sana'a city, Yemen during the period from April to December 2011. A total of 206 patients (115 males & 91 females), aged 3 to 18 years with mean of 14.17 +/- 3.13 were subjected to stool examinations by different techniques. The overall rate of intestinal parasites was 63.1%. Cryptosporidium parvum was the highest (30.1%) followed by G. lamblia (18.0%) and then C. cayetanensis (5.3%). Blastocystis hominis and E. histolytica/dispar were detected in 4.9% & 2.4% respectively. E. coli, H. nana and A. lumbricoides were diagnosed in an equal of 1.5% and S. stercoralis was seen in one case only. The majority of infected patients suffered from diarrhea. They showed 4.64 risk of protozoan infections compared to those who passed formed stool with statistically significant difference. Diarrhea was associated with higher risk of cryptosporidiosis and giardiasis (OR = 2.73 & 2.67 respectively). The risk of intestinal parasitosis neither differed significantly with patients' age nor sex.

  8. Oral cancer: A multicenter study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhanuthai, K; Rojanawatsirivej, S; Thosaporn, W; Kintarak, S; Subarnbhesaj, A; Darling, M; Kryshtalskyj, E; Chiang, C-P; Shin, H-I; Choi, S-Y; Lee, S-S; Aminishakib, P

    2018-01-01

    To determine the prevalence and clinicopathologic features of the oral cancer patients. Biopsy records of the participating institutions were reviewed for oral cancer cases diagnosed from 2005 to 2014. Demographic data and site of the lesions were collected. Sites of the lesion were subdivided into lip, tongue, floor of the mouth, gingiva, alveolar mucosa, palate, buccal/labial mucosa, maxilla and mandible. Oral cancer was subdivided into 7 categories: epithelial tumors, salivary gland tumors, hematologic tumors, bone tumors, mesenchymal tumors, odontogenic tumors, and others. Data were analyzed by descriptive statistics using SPSS software version 17.0. Of the 474,851 accessioned cases, 6,151 cases (1.30%) were diagnosed in the category of oral cancer. The mean age of the patients was 58.37±15.77 years. A total of 4,238 cases (68.90%) were diagnosed in males, whereas 1911 cases (31.07%) were diagnosed in females. The male-to-female ratio was 2.22:1. The sites of predilection for oral cancer were tongue, labial/buccal mucosa, gingiva, palate, and alveolar mucosa, respectively. The three most common oral cancer in the descending order of frequency were squamous cell carcinoma, non-Hodgkin lymphoma and mucoepidermoid carcinoma. Although the prevalence of oral cancer is not high compared to other entities, oral cancer pose significant mortality and morbidity in the patients, especially when discovered late in the course of the disease. This study highlights some anatomical locations where oral cancers are frequently encountered. As a result, clinicians should pay attention to not only teeth, but oral mucosa especially in the high prevalence area as well since early detection of precancerous lesions or cancers in the early stage increase the chance of patient being cured and greatly reduce the mortality and morbidity. This study also shows some differences between pediatric and elderly oral cancer patients as well as between Asian and non-Asian oral cancer patients.

  9. [Study on effect of oligochitosan in promoting intestinal absorption of protoberberine alkaloids in extracts from Corydalis saxicola total alkaloids].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xin-yang; Xie, Hui; Lu, Tu-lin; Shi, Yue-jiao; Zhang, Xing-de; Liu, Ting

    2015-05-01

    To investigate the effect of oligochitosan in promoting intestinal absorption of protoberberine alkaloids in extracts from Corydalis saxicola total alkaloids. The in vitro single-pass intestinal perfusion model in rats was established to study the changes in absorption kinetic parameters of dehydrocavidine, berberine hydrochloride and palmatine chloride in C. saxicola total alkaloids after the addition of different concentrations oligochitosan and evaluate the effect of oligochitosan in promoting intestinal absorption of the drugs. The concentration of oligochitosan had different effects on the absorption rate constant (Ka) and apparent permeability coefficient (Peff) of the three active component in rat intestines. Ka and Peff in 0.5% oligochitosan group significantly increased, indicating a stronger effect in promoting the absorption. Oligochitosan has a certain effect in promoting the intestinal absorptions of protoberberine alkaloids in C. saxicola total alkaloids.

  10. Particularly acute intestinal infections in children with atopic dermatitis. Case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Khaliullina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim — determine the clinical and laboratory features of acute intestinal infection in children, occurring in conjunction with atopic dermatitis (AD.Material and methods. We conducted a study of «case-control», which included observation of 144 children hospitalized in the infectious hospital with a clinic of acute infectious diarrhea in the period from January to December 2012. In the study group were selected 72 children with atopic dermatitis clinic and acute infectious diarrhea in a couple of which, from the group of patients without burdened premorbid background were selected 72 «controls» matched by sex, age and etiology developed acute intestinal infection. The observation time was 5±2 days, which corresponds to the average length of stay of the child, patients with moderate forms of acute intestinal infection in the hospital.Results and discussion. About 2 times more often than in the control, acute intestinal infections in children with atopic dermatitis lesions were characterized by clinic middle and lower gastrointestinal — 31.9% (CI 21,1–42,7 vs. 15.3% (CI 7–23 6, p=0.03. A number of bowel movements 6 or more times per day significantly more frequently observed in children with a combination of acute intestinal infections and atopic dermatitis — 54.1% (CI 42,6–65,6 vs. 33.3% (CI 22,4–43.9 in the control, p=0.011. The duration of diarrhea was higher in the study group (Med 6 IQR 4–7 days and Med 5 IQR 3–6 days, respectively, p=0.046. The proportion of patients with high fever was also higher in the study group than in the controls –15.3% (CI 7–23,6 vs. 2,8% (CI 1–6,6, p=0.016.Conclusion. Acute intestinal infections in children with atopic dermatitis have a more pronounced clinical symptoms, which is characterized by clinic enterocolitis, severity and duration of diarrhea syndrome, usually accompanied by a high fever. 

  11. Robotically assisted small intestinal strictureplasty in dogs: a survival study involving 16 Heineke-Mikulicz strictureplasties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonoda, T; Lee, S; Whelan, R L; Le, D; Foglia, C; Venturero, M; Hunt, D; Nakajima, K; Milsom, J W

    2007-12-01

    Robotically assisted surgery offers the advantages of improved dexterity and elimination of tremor over conventional laparoscopic surgery. There have been few studies to date, however, examining the role of robotics in intestinal surgery. This study was undertaken to determine the feasibility and safety of using a robotic surgical system in the performance of intracorporeal small bowel strictureplasties in dogs. Using a robotic surgical system, a total of 16 strictureplasties were performed in the small bowel of eight dogs (two strictureplasties per dog). Using only intracorporeal robotic surgery, a 2.5 cm enterotomy was made longitudinally in the small bowel, and then closed in a Heineke-Mikulicz configuration with a one-layer running 3-0 braided absorbable suture (strictureplasty). All animals were allowed to survive for 7 days with prospective monitoring of bowel movements, level of activity, oral intake, and abdominal examination. After 7 days, necropsy was performed, examining all strictureplasty sites for signs of sepsis. The endpoints of the study were recovery of normal intestinal function (bowel movements), intraoperative and postoperative complications, and the appearance of the anastomoses at necropsy. There was no intraoperative morbidity or mortality. All eight dogs survived 7 days and recovered well. All dogs had a bowel movement on the first postoperative day, and appeared healthy throughout the study period. Necropsy revealed that all 16 strictureplasty sites were healing without signs of sepsis. The median time per strictureplasty was 65 min (range, 45-110 min). One dog developed a superficial wound infection at a trocar site. A robotic surgical system can successfully be employed in the performance of intestinal strictureplasties in dogs. This study supports further investigation into the role of robotics in intestinal surgery in humans.

  12. Trends in upper gastro-intestinal cancer among the elderly in Denmark, 1980-2012

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schønnemann, Katrine R; Mortensen, Michael B; Krogh, Merete

    2016-01-01

    from the Danish Cancer Registry and the Danish Cause of Death Registry with follow-up for death or emigration until the end of 2013.Results The proportion of male patients over the age of 70 years diagnosed with esophageal cancer was constant over time (around 42%) but increased in females to 49...

  13. ASSOCIATION OF INTESTINAL AMOEBIASIS WITH NONALCOHOLIC FATTY LIVER DISEASE (NAFLD- A CASE-CONTROL STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amarendra Narayan Choudhary

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Little work has been done to show the association of intestinal amoebiasis with the nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. There are so many factors, which are related with the causation of NAFLD as for example obesity, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, hypercholesteraemia and sedentary living. Besides these, there are many unknown or little known factors, which should be studied. Amoebiasis is very common infection in North India including Gangetic plain of Bihar. These two conditions are very frequently observed together in a same person; therefore, a case-control study was done to confirm the association between these two conditions. MATERIALS AND METHODS In the present study, 120 cases of diagnosed NAFLD were taken of the age group between 30 years to 60 years, both male and female. 130 persons who were not suffering from NAFLD were taken as a control group in the same age and sex composition in the same community. Stool examination of all these 250 persons were done and cases of amoebiasis were diagnosed after getting at least two positive findings out of three examinations. RESULTS Prevalence of amoebiasis was clearly in excess in the NAFLD group in comparison to control group. This difference was tested statistically by calculating standard error of difference between two proportions and Chi-square test. The result showed a positive, strong and statistically significant association between NAFLD and intestinal amoebiasis. CONCLUSION There is a strong association between NAFLD and intestinal amoebiasis and further study is needed to show the biological plausibility to establish the causation.

  14. In vitro co-culture experiments on prostate cancer and small intestine cells irradiated with carbon ions and x-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neubeck, C. von; Weyrather, W.-K.; Durante, M.

    2009-01-01

    Intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) delivers the dose in many small irradiation fields of different beam direction to achieve a 3 dimensional tumour conformal dose overlapping with a maximum of normal tissue protection. In 2006 a study was started at GSI to treat prostate cancer patients with a boost irradiation of carbon ions in combination with an IMRT treatment administered at the Uniklinikum Heidelberg. The carbon ions are delivered in two opposing fields. So IMRT irradiation includes more normal tissue than carbon ion treatment but even here parts of the rectum and the bladder are in the irradiated field. This raises the question whether the irradiated tumor cells influence the normal cells (irradiated/ unirradiated) but also whether the normal irradiated cells influences normal tissue in a different way for carbon and photon irradiation. To study this problem, we established an in vitro co-culture model of prostate cancer and small intestine cells of the rat to simulate the patient treatment situation for analyzing tissue reaction exemplary. For characterization of the cells lines the parameters alpha and beta (linear quadratic model) for clonogenic survival were determined for x-rays and for carbon ions of different energies. For co-culture experiments unirradiated and irradiated cells were seeded together and the survival was analyzed

  15. Inhibition of growth and reduction in tumorigenicity of UCI-107 ovarian cancer by antagonists of growth hormone-releasing hormone and vasoactive intestinal peptide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatzistamou, I; Schally, A V; Varga, J L; Groot, K; Armatis, P; Bajo, A M

    2001-11-01

    To evaluate the tumor inhibitory activities of antagonists of growth hormone-releasing hormone (GH-RH) and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) in UCI-107 human ovarian cancer model, and to investigate the role of the insulin-like growth factor (IGF) system in the response. In the present study we investigated the effects of GH-RH antagonist JV-1-36 and VIP antagonist JV-1-52, on the growth and tumorigenicity of UCI-107 ovarian cell carcinoma xenografted into nude mice. Studies on the effects of hGH-RH(1-29)NH2, IGF-I, IGF-II, JV-1-36, and JV-1-52 on the proliferation of UCI-107 cells cultured in vitro were also performed. After 22 days of therapy with JV-1-36 or JV-1-52 at the dose of 20 microg/day, the final volume of UCI-107 tumors was significantly (PUCI-107 cells in nude mice. All ten mice injected with cells treated with medium alone developed tumors within 23 days after cell inoculation, while only eight of ten and four of ten mice injected with cells exposed to JV-1-36 or JV-1-52, respectively, had tumors. In vitro exposure of UCI-107 cells to 5-35 ng/ml IGF-II produced a significant suppression in the rate of cell proliferation (P UCI-107 ovarian cell carcinoma by mechanisms that appear to involve direct effects on the cancer cells.

  16. Comparative histological studies of mechanically versus manually processed sheep intestines used to make natural sausage casings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koolmees, P A; Tersteeg, M H G; Keizer, G; van den Broek, J; Bradley, R

    2004-12-01

    The natural sausage casings industry is large and worldwide, and casings prepared from the small intestine of sheep form a large part of it. Food safety authorities in several countries have been concerned about the risk to consumers from the bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) agent. Although this agent could enter the European small ruminant population via infected feed, there is no evidence that it has. Because the BSE agent introduced experimentally into sheep and goats has a tissue distribution very similar to that found in animals with natural cases of scrapie, the agent would likely be found in the intestine and lymph nodes of some infected sheep from an early age. When natural casings are prepared from the intestine, the ileum (known to be infected in animals with natural cases of scrapie) is removed and the intestine is cleaned such that the inner (tunica mucosa) and outer (tunica serosa and tunica muscularis) layers are removed, leaving only the submucosa. There are two main methods for cleaning the intestine: manual and mechanical. The cleaning efficiency of these two methods was examined in the commercial environment as practiced on healthy sheep considered fit for human consumption in Turkey and Great Britain. The investigation involved a qualitative and quantitative histological approach. There was no significant difference in cleaning efficiency between the two methods, although there was some variation. No Peyer's patches or residues of them were found in any part of the cleaned casings. This finding is important because in sheep infected with transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) Peyer's patches are likely to contain a major part of the intestinal infectivity. No serosa was found in any casing, but some residual mucosa and muscularis was retained, with more of the former than the latter. The results indicate that the cleaning efficiency of the two methods was broadly equivalent, that there was significant removal of tissue that could

  17. Methodological issues in the study of intestinal microbiota in irritable bowel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taverniti, Valentina; Guglielmetti, Simone

    2014-07-21

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is an intestinal functional disorder with the highest prevalence in the industrialized world. The intestinal microbiota (IM) plays a role in the pathogenesis of IBS and is not merely a consequence of this disorder. Previous research efforts have not revealed unequivocal microbiological signatures of IBS, and the experimental results are contradictory. The experimental methodologies adopted to investigate the complex intestinal ecosystem drastically impact the quality and significance of the results. Therefore, to consider the methodological aspects of the research on IM in IBS, we reviewed 29 relevant original research articles identified through a PubMed search using three combinations of keywords: "irritable bowel syndrome + microflora", "irritable bowel syndrome + microbiota" and "irritable bowel syndrome + microbiome". For each study, we reviewed the quality and significance of the scientific evidence obtained with respect to the experimental method adopted. The data obtained from each study were compared with all considered publications to identify potential inconsistencies and explain contradictory results. The analytical revision of the studies referenced in the present review has contributed to the identification of microbial groups whose relative abundance significantly alters IBS, suggesting that these microbial groups could be IM signatures for this syndrome. The identification of microbial biomarkers in the IM can be advantageous for the development of new diagnostic tools and novel therapeutic strategies for the treatment of different subtypes of IBS.

  18. Study of the usefulness of large intestine screening inspections using multi-slice CT (MSCT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamasaki, Michihiro; Nonogaki, Hidehiko; Hara, Koji; Naruse, Yutaka; Hara, Hiroto; Suematsu, Seiji; Yanase, Tadahiko; Otou, Taiji

    2005-01-01

    CT-colonography (CT-C), a new diagnostic imaging technique for cancer of the large intestine-which is increasing rapidly owing to westernized eating habits-has advanced from the developmental stage to the stage of practical application, thanks to progress in MSCT and workstation development. Therefore, based on the results of CT-C application using 16 lines of MSCT to a screening test, we reviewed the usefulness of CT-C in our clinic. We supplemented defective depiction, and found that change of position was effective for virtual image exclusion. We consider that CT-C can support diagnosis if the target of screening tests is a polypoid lesion of more than 6 mm. In addition, it is expected that the number of examinations performed during office visits will increase because of the decreased invasiveness of the procedure, its lack of pain, and its ability to provide early lesion detection. (author)

  19. Studies on the Inhibition of Intestinal Absorption of Radioactive Strontium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldron-Edward, Deirdre; Paul, T. M.; Skoryna, Stanley C.

    1964-01-01

    A method is reported which permits selective suppression of absorption of radioactive strontium from ingested food material, permitting calcium to be available to the body. Studies were carried out by measuring bone uptake of Sr89 and Ca45 when various amounts of sodium alginate were fed with the diet. Long-term studies were made in which two different levels of radioactivity were used, to determine the pattern of Sr89 deposition with continuous intake of binding agent. It was found that administration of sodium alginate as a jelly overcomes the problem of constipation and effectively reduces Sr89 uptake, up to 83%. This fact represents a significant finding with respect to the use of the compound in human subjects. Addition of sodium alginate to drinking water is effective with low levels of Sr89 intake. This naturally occurring water-soluble macromolecular substance possesses several advantages in use for the suppression of absorption of radioactive strontium when compared with synthetic ion exchange resins: there is no disturbance of electrolyte balance; efficiency is not reduced by treatment over a prolonged period of time; and finally, the product is palatable. PMID:14222668

  20. [Comparative study of absorption kinetics in intestines of rats on Xianlinggubao capsule prepared by different technologies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Huichao; Du, Shouying; Lu, Yang; Chen, Wen; Ma, Yong; Li, Pengyue

    2011-04-01

    To study the characteristics of intestinal absorption of psoralen and isopsoralen of Xianlinggubao capsule, and compare the absorption of Xianlinggubao capsule prepared by different technologies. Non everted gut sac method was applied to investigate the influence of absorption sites and drug concentration on psoralen and isopsoralen absorption, which were determined by HPLC. Although the absorption rate constants of psoralen and isopsoralen in duodenum were more than that in jejunum and ileum, there was no significance difference between them. The absorption rate constants of psoralen kept at the same level when the concentrations of drug solution were at middle and low level, while the absorption rate constant at high level was absolutely lower than them (P Intestinal absorption of psoralen and isopsoralen may be affected by the dissolution. The absorption rate constants of psoralen and isopsoralen in new Xianlinggubao capsules are higher. The absorptions of active components absorption has significant difference in different preparation processes of Xianlinggubao capsule.

  1. Prevalence of Intestinal Protozoa among Saudi Patients with Chronic Renal Failure: A Case-Control Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yousry A. Hawash

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available It has been hypothesized that chronic renal failure (CRF predisposes patients to infection with intestinal protozoa. We tested this hypothesis with a matched case-control study to determine the prevalence of these protozoa and their diarrhea associated symptoms among 50 patients with CRF (cases from Taif, western Saudi Arabia. Fifty diarrheal patients without CRF were recruited in the study as controls. Participants were interviewed by a structured questionnaire and stool samples were collected. Samples were thoroughly examined with microscopy and three coproantigens detection kits. Enteric protozoa were detected in 21 cases and 14 controls. Blastocystis spp. were the most predominant parasite (16% in cases versus 8% in controls, followed by Giardia duodenalis (10% in cases versus 12% in controls and Cryptosporidium spp. (10% in cases versus 6% in controls. Cyclospora cayetanensis was identified in two cases, while Entamoeba histolytica was described in one case and one control. Intestinal parasitism was positively associated with the male gender, urban residence, and travel history. Clinical symptoms of nausea/vomiting and abdominal pain were significantly varied between the parasitized cases and controls (P value ≤ 0.05. Given the results, we recommend screening all diarrheal feces for intestinal protozoa in the study’s population, particularly those with CRF.

  2. Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG antagonizes Giardia intestinalis induced oxidative stress and intestinal disaccharidases: an experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, Nisha; Rishi, Praveen; Shukla, Geeta

    2013-06-01

    The present study describes the in vivo modulatory potential of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG), an effective probiotic, in Giardia intestinalis-infected BALB/c mice. Experimentally, it was observed that oral administration of lactobacilli prior or simultaneous with Giardia trophozoites to mice, efficiently (p Giardia-infected mice, showed a significant increase in the levels of antioxidants [reduced glutathione (GSH) and superoxide dismutase (SOD)] and intestinal disaccharidases [sucrase and lactase] and decreased levels of oxidants in the small intestine, in comparison with Giardia-infected mice. Histopathological findings also revealed almost normal cellular morphology of the small intestine in probiotic-fed Giardia-infected mice compared with fused enterocytes, villous atrophy and increased infiltration of lymphocytes in Giardia-infected mice. The results of the present study has shed new light on the anti-oxidative properties of LGG in Giardia mediated tissue injury, thereby suggesting that the effects of probiotic LGG are biologically plausible and could be used as an alternative microbial interference therapy.

  3. Histological and mucin histochemical study of the small intestine of the Persian squirrel (Sciurus anomalus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tootian, Zahra; Sadeghinezhad, Javad; Sheibani, Mohammad Taghi; Fazelipour, Simin; De Sordi, Nadia; Chiocchetti, Roberto

    2013-01-01

    This article describes the histological and mucin histochemical properties of the small intestine of the Persian squirrel (Sciurus anomalus). This species is widely distributed in the Middle East and can be found as a companion animal. The histological studies revealed that the plicae circulares were not visible in the tunica mucosa. The maximum height and width of the villi were observed in the duodenum, which then decreased toward the ileum. The muscularis mucosa was scattered, whereas the tunica submucosa was composed of dense connective tissue. The lymphatic nodules were seen in the submucosa of the distal part of the jejunum and ileum, and Brunner's glands were embedded in the initial portion of the duodenum. The tunica muscularis was significantly thicker in the ileum, and the circular muscle layer was thicker than the longitudinal muscle layer throughout the entire length of the small intestine. The mucin histochemistry, which was examined using the periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) and alcian blue (AB) (pH 1.0 and 2.5) and also PAS-AB (pH 2.5) and aldehyde fuchsin-AB (pH 2.5) techniques coupled with methylation and saponification reaction for some sections, showed that the small intestine mucous content included both carboxylated and sulfated acidic mucins with few neutral mucins. The results of this study contribute to the knowledge of the histological and histochemical characteristics of the gastrointestinal tracts of exotic mammals and provide data for comparison with other mammals.

  4. Comprehensive study of the intestinal stage of listeriosis in a rat ligated ileal loop system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pron, B; Boumaila, C; Jaubert, F; Sarnacki, S; Monnet, J P; Berche, P; Gaillard, J L

    1998-02-01

    The intestinal stage of listeriosis was studied in a rat ligated ileal loop system. Listeria monocytogenes translocated to deep organs with similar efficiencies after inoculation of loops with or without Peyer's patches. Bacterial seeding of deep organs was demonstrated as early as 15 min after inoculation. It was dose dependent and nonspecific, as the delta inlAB, the delta hly, and the delta actA L. monocytogenes mutants and the nonpathogenic species, Listeria innocua, translocated similarly to wild-type L. monocytogenes strains. The levels of uptake of listeriae by Peyer's patches and villous intestine were similar and low, 50 to 250 CFU per cm2 of tissue. No listeria cells crossing the epithelial sheet of Peyer's patches and villous intestine were observed by transmission electron microscopy. The lack of significant interaction of listeriae and the follicle-associated epithelium of Peyer's patches was confirmed by scanning electron microscopy. The follicular tissue of Peyer's patches was a preferential site of Listeria replication. With all doses tested, the rate of bacterial growth was 10 to 20 times higher in Peyer's patches than in villous intestine. At early stages of Peyer's patch infection, listeriae were observed inside mononuclear cells of the dome area. Listeriae then disseminated throughout the follicular tissue except for the germinal center. The virulence determinants hly and, to a lesser extent, actA, but not inlAB, were required for the completion of this process. This study suggests that Peyer's patches are preferential sites for replication rather than for entry of L. monocytogenes, due to the presence of highly permissive mononuclear cells whose nature remains to be defined.

  5. A morphological and quantitative immunohistochemical study of the interstitial cells of Cajal in the normal equine intestinal tracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavone, S; Mandara, M T

    2010-05-01

    The interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) play a key role in the control of intestinal motility and have been implicated in several human gastrointestinal dysmotility syndromes, in equine grass sickness and in other intestinal disorders where a significant reduction in ICC density was observed. To investigate the density of ICC in clinically normal horses, ICC c-Kit expression was evaluated by image analysis in order to obtain numerical data. Intestinal samples from the jejunum to small colon from 5 clinically normal horses were studied. Immunohistochemical labelling of ICC was performed using an anti-c-Kit antibody. Density of ICC was calculated using image analysis software. In the equine intestinal tract 2 types of ICC were observed: intramuscular ICC, i.e. ICC in the internal circular layer (IC-CM) and ICC in the external longitudinal layer (IC-LM), and myenteric ICC (IC-MY). The density of IC-MY was found to be higher throughout the small intestine. IC-MY density in the large intestine appeared to be greatest in the right ventral colon and in the small colon. IC-MY density in the ileocaecal junction showed an intermediate value compared to the small and large intestine. On the other hand, the density of IC-CM was found to be higher in the ileocaecal junction, whereas the caecum, left ventral colon and the left dorsal colon showed the lowest c-Kit immunoreactivity. The ileal tract and the ileocaecal junction showed an appreciable IC-LM density. Image analysis is a rapid and reproducible method to establish the density of ICC in the normal equine intestinal tract. This study corroborates the findings of previous studies and provides a platform for further future pathological investigations of the equine intestine by supplying usable numerical data as comparative elements.

  6. Helicobacter pylori and early gastric cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Craanen, M. E.; Blok, P.; Dekker, W.; Tytgat, G. N.

    1994-01-01

    The relation between Helicobacter pylori, intestinal metaplasia, and early gastric cancer was studied by examining gastrectomy specimens from 31 intestinal type and 22 diffuse type carcinomas. A total of 298 patients with antral gastritis were used as controls. Atrophic changes and intestinal

  7. Oral cancer: A multicenter study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojanawatsirivej, Somsri; Thosaporn, Watcharaporn; Kintarak, Sompid; Subarnbhesaj, Ajiravudh; Darling, Mark; Kryshtalskyj, Eugene; Chiang, Chun-Pin; Shin, Hong-In; Choi, So-Young; Lee, Sang-shin; Shakib, Pouyan-Amini

    2018-01-01

    Background To determine the prevalence and clinicopathologic features of the oral cancer patients. Material and Methods Biopsy records of the participating institutions were reviewed for oral cancer cases diagnosed from 2005 to 2014. Demographic data and site of the lesions were collected. Sites of the lesion were subdivided into lip, tongue, floor of the mouth, gingiva, alveolar mucosa, palate, buccal/labial mucosa, maxilla and mandible. Oral cancer was subdivided into 7 categories: epithelial tumors, salivary gland tumors, hematologic tumors, bone tumors, mesenchymal tumors, odontogenic tumors, and others. Data were analyzed by descriptive statistics using SPSS software version 17.0. Results Of the 474,851 accessioned cases, 6,151 cases (1.30%) were diagnosed in the category of oral cancer. The mean age of the patients was 58.37±15.77 years. A total of 4,238 cases (68.90%) were diagnosed in males, whereas 1911 cases (31.07%) were diagnosed in females. The male-to-female ratio was 2.22:1. The sites of predilection for oral cancer were tongue, labial/buccal mucosa, gingiva, palate, and alveolar mucosa, respectively. The three most common oral cancer in the descending order of frequency were squamous cell carcinoma, non-Hodgkin lymphoma and mucoepidermoid carcinoma. Conclusions Although the prevalence of oral cancer is not high compared to other entities, oral cancer pose significant mortality and morbidity in the patients, especially when discovered late in the course of the disease. This study highlights some anatomical locations where oral cancers are frequently encountered. As a result, clinicians should pay attention to not only teeth, but oral mucosa especially in the high prevalence area as well since early detection of precancerous lesions or cancers in the early stage increase the chance of patient being cured and greatly reduce the mortality and morbidity. This study also shows some differences between pediatric and elderly oral cancer patients as well as

  8. [Relationships between the enrichment of ETBF, Fn, Hp in intestinal and colorectal cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, J; Lu, X L; Zhao, G; Shi, H T; Geng, Y; Zhong, W T; Dong, L

    2018-02-23

    Objective: To explore relationships between the enrichment of ETBF, Fn, Hp in feces, tissues and colorectal cancer. Methods: Feces, lesion tissue and adjacent tissue from 24 patients with colorectal cancer and 31 patients with adenomas were collected, and we collected Feces and tissue of 20 healthy control persons. Then the copy numbers of enterotoxigenic B. fragilis (ETBF), Fusobacterium nucleatum (Fn) and Helicobacter pylori (Hp) were determined by quantitative real-time PCR. Immunohistochemical method was used to examine the expression intensity of EGFR and p53, and the relationships between different expression intensity of EGFR, p53 and the numbers of three bacterias. Results: In the feces, copy numbers of ETBF and Fn were as follous: colorectal cancer group>adenomas group>healthy control group ( P healthy control group ( P healthy control group ( P adenomas group>healthy control group ( P healthy control group ( P healthy control group ( P bacteria in the lesion tissue and the adjacent tissue had no significant difference. This happened both in colorectal cancer group and adenomas group. The different expression intensity of EGFR, p53 and the number of three bacteria showed no obviously statistical correlation( P >0.05). Conclusion: Adenomatous polyp and colorectal cancer patients show high enrichment of ETBF, Fn and Hp in both feces and tissues. ETBF, Fn and Hp probably contribute to the development of adenomatous polyp and colorectal cancer. Trial registration Chinese Clinical Trial Registry, ChiCTR-BOC-17012509.

  9. Gastric intestinal metaplasia: an intermediate precancerous lesion in the cascade of gastric carcinogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malik, T.H.; Hong, X.; Sayahan, M.Y.A.

    2017-01-01

    Gastric intestinal metaplasia, an intermediate lesion in the development of intestinal-type gastric cancer, is observed in the milieu of long standing non-atrophic gastritis and atrophic gastritis. Most patients with intestinal metaplasia remain asymptomatic unless cobalamin deficiency occurs secondary to loss of glands (that produce intrinsic factor and acid). Genetic events that predispose to development of gastric intestinal metaplasia remains an enigma. Mechanisms leading to the progression of atrophy to metaplasia still needs to be comprehensively explored. Many studies in the literature describe a positive effect of typing intestinal metaplasia and concluded that intestinal metaplasia type III carries the highest risk for developing gastric cancer while others refute it. It is well established that Helicobacter pylori infection is the most important factor for the development of chronic gastritis, gastric intestinal metaplasia as well as gastric cancer. Countries with a higher prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection and gastric cancer also have a high tendency of being prevalent for intestinal metaplasia. However, it remains elusive whether eradication of Helicobacter pylori infection tends to regress gastric intestinal metaplasia or reduce the subsequent risk of cancer development. Putting together, more prospective cohort studies should be designed to identify factors (antioxidants; anti-inflammatory drugs; food therapy) that may contribute in the regression of intestinal metaplasia, when used simultaneously with eradication therapy. Furthermore, molecular markers for evaluation of intestinal metaplasia, and the potential point-of-no-return should be further investigated. Consensus is also required to advocate a timeframe for surveillance of patients with gastric intestinal metaplasia. (author)

  10. Clinical studies of intestinal 47Ca absorption test by external arm counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebisuno, Shoichi; Morimoto, Shigeyoshi; Torizumi, Kazutami; Yamada, Ryusaku; Ohta, Kiichiro; Ohkawa, Tadashi

    1984-01-01

    An arm counter used to measure fractional accumulation of 47 Ca on the forearm following an intravenous and a later oral dose of the radioisotope, and the intestinal 47 Ca absorption rate was calculated. Clinical studies were carried out in normal subjects and patients with some disorders of calcium metabolism, using this external counting techinique. The following results were obtained; (1) In 12 healthy control men (mean age 31.8 y), calcium absorption rate ranged from 42.5% to 59.6% (mean+-SD; 54.1+-4.7%). In 6 healthy women (mean age 31.4 y), the rate ranged from 46.8% to 57.3% (mean+-SD; 51.3+- 4.3%). The intestinal calcium absorption was not related to the sex in younger adult. (2) The fractional absorption of calcium were significantly increased in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism, whereas reduced in hypoparathyroidism. (3) In 5 female subjects affected by osteoporosis, a defective intestinal absorption of calcium was observed. (4) The calcium absorption tests were carried out on normo- and hypercalciuric patients with calcium urolithiasis. Higher absorption of calcium was recognized in some hypercalciuric patients. (5) In hypercalciuric calcium stone formers with rice-bran treatment, 47 Ca absorption from gut were decreased significantly. (6) This method is very convenient to determine the intestinal absorption of 47 Ca. When a protective covering of lead is prepared for scintiscanner, the 47 Ca absorption test can be done for the patients with calcium metabolic disorder on a routine examination. (author)

  11. Three-Dimensional Organotypic Co-Culture Model of Intestinal Epithelial Cells and Macrophages to Study "Salmonella Enterica" Colonization Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ott, Mark; Yang, J; Barilla, J.; Crabbe, A.; Sarker, S. F.; Liu, Y.

    2017-01-01

    Three-dimensional/3-D organotypic models of human intestinal epithelium mimic the differentiated form and function of parental tissues often not exhibited by 2-D monolayers and respond to Salmonella in ways that reflect in vivo infections. To further enhance the physiological relevance of 3-D models to more closely approximate in vivo intestinal microenvironments during infection, we developed and validated a novel 3-D intestinal co-culture model containing multiple epithelial cell types and phagocytic macrophages, and applied to study enteric infection by different Salmonella pathovars.

  12. Effects of xylitol on carbohydrate digesting enzymes activity, intestinal glucose absorption and muscle glucose uptake: a multi-mode study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chukwuma, Chika Ifeanyi; Islam, Md Shahidul

    2015-03-01

    The present study investigated the possible mechanism(s) behind the effects of xylitol on carbohydrate digesting enzymes activity, muscle glucose uptake and intestinal glucose absorption using in vitro, ex vivo and in vivo experimental models. The effects of increasing concentrations of xylitol (2.5%-40% or 164.31 mM-2628.99 mM) on alpha amylase and alpha glucosidase activity in vitro and intestinal glucose absorption and muscle glucose uptake were investigated under ex vivo conditions. Additionally, the effects of an oral bolus dose of xylitol (1 g per kg BW) on gastric emptying and intestinal glucose absorption and digesta transit in the different segments of the intestinal tract were investigated in normal and type 2 diabetic rats at 1 hour after dose administration, when phenol red was used as a recovery marker. Xylitol exhibited concentration-dependent inhibition of alpha amylase (IC₅₀ = 1364.04 mM) and alpha glucosidase (IC₅₀ = 1127.52 mM) activity in vitro and small intestinal glucose absorption under ex vivo condition. Xylitol also increased dose dependent muscle glucose uptake with and without insulin, although the uptake was not significantly affected by the addition of insulin. Oral single bolus dose of xylitol significantly delayed gastric emptying, inhibited intestinal glucose absorption but increased the intestinal digesta transit rate in both normal and diabetic rats compared to their respective controls. The data of this study suggest that xylitol reduces intestinal glucose absorption via inhibiting major carbohydrate digesting enzymes, slowing gastric emptying and fastening the intestinal transit rate, but increases muscle glucose uptake in normal and type 2 diabetic rats.

  13. The Ussing Chamber Assay to Study Drug Metabolism and Transport in the Human Intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kisser, Beatrice; Mangelsen, Eva; Wingolf, Caroline; Partecke, Lars Ivo; Heidecke, Claus-Dieter; Tannergren, Christer; Oswald, Stefan; Keiser, Markus

    2017-06-22

    The Ussing chamber is an old but still powerful technique originally designed to study the vectorial transport of ions through frog skin. This technique is also used to investigate the transport of chemical agents through the intestinal barrier as well as drug metabolism in enterocytes, both of which are key determinants for the bioavailability of orally administered drugs. More contemporary model systems, such as Caco-2 cell monolayers or stably transfected cells, are more limited in their use compared to the Ussing chamber because of differences in expression rates of transporter proteins and/or metabolizing enzymes. While there are limitations to the Ussing chamber assay, the use of human intestinal tissue remains the best laboratory test for characterizing the transport and metabolism of compounds following oral administration. Detailed in this unit is a step-by-step protocol for preparing human intestinal tissue, for designing Ussing chamber experiments, and for analyzing and interpreting the findings. © 2017 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  14. Impact of Prematurity and Perinatal Antibiotics on the Developing Intestinal Microbiota: A Functional Inference Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arboleya, Silvia; Sánchez, Borja; Solís, Gonzalo; Fernández, Nuria; Suárez, Marta; Hernández-Barranco, Ana M; Milani, Christian; Margolles, Abelardo; de Los Reyes-Gavilán, Clara G; Ventura, Marco; Gueimonde, Miguel

    2016-04-29

    The microbial colonization of the neonatal gut provides a critical stimulus for normal maturation and development. This process of early microbiota establishment, known to be affected by several factors, constitutes an important determinant for later health. We studied the establishment of the microbiota in preterm and full-term infants and the impact of perinatal antibiotics upon this process in premature babies. To this end, 16S rRNA gene sequence-based microbiota assessment was performed at phylum level and functional inference analyses were conducted. Moreover, the levels of the main intestinal microbial metabolites, the short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) acetate, propionate and butyrate, were measured by Gas-Chromatography Flame ionization/Mass spectrometry detection. Prematurity affects microbiota composition at phylum level, leading to increases of Proteobacteria and reduction of other intestinal microorganisms. Perinatal antibiotic use further affected the microbiota of the preterm infant. These changes involved a concomitant alteration in the levels of intestinal SCFA. Moreover, functional inference analyses allowed for identifying metabolic pathways potentially affected by prematurity and perinatal antibiotics use. A deficiency or delay in the establishment of normal microbiota function seems to be present in preterm infants. Perinatal antibiotic use, such as intrapartum prophylaxis, affected the early life microbiota establishment in preterm newborns, which may have consequences for later health.

  15. Clinical studies of intestinal /sup 47/Ca absorption test by external arm counter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebisuno, Shoichi; Morimoto, Shigeyoshi; Torizumi, Kazutami; Yamada, Ryusaku; Ohta, Kiichiro; Ohkawa, Tadashi

    1984-08-01

    An arm counter used to measure fractional accumulation of /sup 47/Ca on the forearm following an intravenous and a later oral dose of the radioisotope, and the intestinal /sup 47/Ca absorption rate was calculated. Clinical studies were carried out in normal subjects and patients with some disorders of calcium metabolism, using this external counting techinique. In 12 healthy control men (mean age 31.8 y), calcium absorption rate ranged from 42.5% to 59.6%. In 6 healthy women (mean age 31.4 y), the rate ranged from 46.8% to 57.3%. The intestinal calcium absorption was not related to the sex in younger adults. The fractional absorption of calcium was significantly increased in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism, whereas it was reduced in hypoparathyroidism. In 5 female subjects affected by osteoporosis, a defective intestinal absorption of calcium was observed. The calcium absorption tests were carried out on normo- and hypercalciuric patients with calcium urolithiasis. Higher absorption of calcium was recognized in some hypercalciuric patients. In hypercalciuric calcium stone formers with rice-bran treatment, /sup 47/Ca absorption from the gut was decreased significantly.

  16. Assessment of anastomotic reliability with pulse oximetry in graded intestinal ischemia: an experimental study in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Türkyilmaz, Z; Sönmez, K; Başaklar, A C; Demiroğullari, B; Numanoğlu, V; Ekingen, G; Dursun, A; Altin, M A; Kale, N

    1997-12-01

    Pulse oximetry has been proposed as an appropriate and feasible technique in the assessment of intestinal ischemia in recent years. In this study the authors aimed to assess the reliability of anastomoses in the dog small intestine in which there is graded irreversible ischemia as measured by pulse oxymeter. In a control group of four dogs, without any devascularization, three small bowel anastomoses were formed in each dog. The study group consisted of 12 dogs. In each animal three intestinal segments with different levels of ischemia were created by ligating the marginal vessels proximally and distally in sequence beginning from the midpoint of the segmental vascular arcade. Preanastomotic pulse oximeter readings between 80% and 90% were assigned to mild ischemia, 70% and 80% to moderate, and 60% and 70% to severe ischemia group. Pulse oximetry measurements were obtained from probes applied to the antimesenteric serosal surfaces at the midpoint of small intestinal segments. A total of 48 intestinal segments (12 nonischemic in the control group and 36 with three different levels of ischemia in the study group) were transected in the midpoint and anastomosed in double layers. Postanastomotic SaO2 values were also noted. The anastomoses were evaluated 48 hours later macroscopically if there was any leakage, and biopsy specimens were obtained for histopathologic ischemic gradings. All results were studied statistically. Histopathologic grades between each group were statistically different (P .05), worsening as the level of ischemia increased. Pre- and postanastomotic pulse oximetry measurements correlated very well with the histological gradings (r = -0.90, P anastomoses) in severe ischemia groups. In the moderate ischemia group with an average preanastomotic pulse reading of 76.75%, each of the leaking anastomoses had a postanastomotic pulse measurement of lower than 70%. The finding that the difference between histopathologic grades of control and mild ischemia

  17. Non-Meckel Small Intestine Diverticulitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shamim Ejaz

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Non-Meckel small intestine diverticulitis can have many manifestations and its management is not well-defined. We report 4 unselect cases of small intestine diverticulitis; all patients were seen by the same physician at the Emergency Center at The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center between 1999 and 2014. The median age at diagnosis of these patients was 82 years (range, 76–87 years. All 4 patients presented with acute onset of abdominal pain, and computed tomography scans showed characteristics of small intestine diverticulitis unrelated to cancer. Most of the diverticula were found in the region of the duodenum and jejuno-ileal segments of the small intestine. The patients, even those with peripancreatic inflammation and localized perforation, were treated conservatively. Non-Meckel diverticulitis can be overlooked in the initial diagnosis because of the location of the diverticulosis, the age of the patient, and the rarity of the disease. Because patients with non-Meckel small intestine diverticulitis can present with acute abdominal pain, non-Meckel small intestine diverticulitis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of patients with acute abdominal pain, and computed tomography scans can help identify the condition. Because of the rarity of non-Meckel small intestine diverticulitis, few studies have been published, and the data are inconclusive about how best to approach these patients. Our experience with these 4 elderly patients indicates that non-Meckel small intestine diverticulitis can be treated conservatively, which avoids the potential morbidity and mortality of a surgical approach.

  18. Integrated Cancer Repository for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-05

    Pancreatic Cancer; Thyroid Cancer; Lung Cancer; Esophageal Cancer; Thymus Cancer; Colon Cancer; Rectal Cancer; GIST; Anal Cancer; Bile Duct Cancer; Duodenal Cancer; Gallbladder Cancer; Gastric Cancer; Liver Cancer; Small Intestine Cancer; Peritoneal Surface Malignancies; Familial Adenomatous Polyposis; Lynch Syndrome; Bladder Cancer; Kidney Cancer; Penile Cancer; Prostate Cancer; Testicular Cancer; Ureter Cancer; Urethral Cancer; Hypopharyngeal Cancer; Laryngeal Cancer; Lip Cancer; Oral Cavity Cancer; Nasopharyngeal Cancer; Oropharyngeal Cancer; Paranasal Sinus Cancer; Nasal Cavity Cancer; Salivary Gland Cancer; Skin Cancer; CNS Tumor; CNS Cancer; Mesothelioma; Breastcancer; Leukemia; Melanoma; Sarcoma; Unknown Primary Tumor; Multiple Myeloma; Ovarian Cancer; Endometrial Cancer; Vaginal Cancer

  19. A prospective randomized controlled study of erythromycin on gastric and small intestinal distention: Implications for MR enterography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bharucha, Adil E., E-mail: bharucha.adil@mayo.edu [Clinical Enteric Neuroscience Translational and Epidemiological Research (C.E.N.T.E.R.) Program, Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, College of Medicine, Mayo Clinic, 200 First St. S.W., Rochester, MN 55905 (United States); Fidler, Jeff L., E-mail: fidler.jeff@mayo.edu [Department of Radiology, College of Medicine, Mayo Clinic, 200 First St. S.W., Rochester, MN 55905 (United States); Huprich, James E., E-mail: huprich@mayo.edu [Department of Radiology, College of Medicine, Mayo Clinic, 200 First St. S.W., Rochester, MN 55905 (United States); Ratuapli, Shiva K., E-mail: ratuapli.shiva@mayo.edu [Clinical Enteric Neuroscience Translational and Epidemiological Research (C.E.N.T.E.R.) Program, Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, College of Medicine, Mayo Clinic, 200 First St. S.W., Rochester, MN 55905 (United States); Holmes, David R., E-mail: holmes.david3@mayo.edu [Biomedical Imaging Resource, College of Medicine, Mayo Clinic, 200 First St. S.W., Rochester, MN 55905 (United States); Riederer, Stephen J., E-mail: riederer@mayo.edu [MR Research Laboratory, College of Medicine, Mayo Clinic, 200 First St. S.W., Rochester, MN 55905 (United States); Zinsmeister, Alan R., E-mail: zinsmeis@mayo.edu [Division of Biomedical Statistics and Informatics, College of Medicine, Mayo Clinic, 200 First St. S.W., Rochester, MN 55905 (United States)

    2014-11-15

    Highlights: • Suboptimal small intestinal distention limits jejunal visualization during MRI. • In this controlled study, erythromycin increased gastric emptying measured with MRI. • However, effects on small intestinal dimensions were variable. - Abstract: Objectives: To assess if erythromycin increases gastric emptying and hence improves small intestinal distention during MR enterography. Methods: Gastric, small intestinal, and large intestinal volumes were assessed with MR after neutral oral contrast (1350 ml in 45 min) and balanced randomization to erythromycin (200 mg i.v., age 31 ± 3y, 13 females), or placebo (37 ± 3y, 13 females) in 40 healthy asymptomatic volunteers. Fat-suppressed T2-weighted MR images of the abdomen were acquired on a 1.5 T magnet at standard delay times for enterography. Gastric, small, and large intestinal volumes were measured by specialized software. In addition, two radiologists manually measured diameters and percentage distention of jejunal and ileal loops. Treatment effects were evaluated by an ITT analysis based on ANCOVA models. Results: All subjects tolerated erythromycin. MRI scans of the stomach and intestine were obtained at 62 ± 2 (mean ± SEM) and 74 ± 2 min respectively after starting oral contrast. Gastric volumes were lower (P < 0.0001) after erythromycin (260 ± 49 ml) than placebo (688 ± 63 ml) but jejunal, ileal, and colonic volumes were not significantly different. However, maximum (76–100%) jejunal distention was more frequently observed (P = 0.03) after erythromycin (8/20 subjects [40%]) than placebo (2/20 subjects [10%]). The diameter of a representative ileal loop was greater (P = 0.001) after erythromycin (18.8 ± 4.3 mm) than placebo (17.3 ± 2.8 mm) infusion. Conclusions: After ingestion of oral contrast, erythromycin accelerated gastric emptying but effects on small intestinal dimensions were variable. In balance, erythromycin did not substantially enhance small intestinal distention during

  20. A prospective randomized controlled study of erythromycin on gastric and small intestinal distention: Implications for MR enterography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bharucha, Adil E.; Fidler, Jeff L.; Huprich, James E.; Ratuapli, Shiva K.; Holmes, David R.; Riederer, Stephen J.; Zinsmeister, Alan R.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Suboptimal small intestinal distention limits jejunal visualization during MRI. • In this controlled study, erythromycin increased gastric emptying measured with MRI. • However, effects on small intestinal dimensions were variable. - Abstract: Objectives: To assess if erythromycin increases gastric emptying and hence improves small intestinal distention during MR enterography. Methods: Gastric, small intestinal, and large intestinal volumes were assessed with MR after neutral oral contrast (1350 ml in 45 min) and balanced randomization to erythromycin (200 mg i.v., age 31 ± 3y, 13 females), or placebo (37 ± 3y, 13 females) in 40 healthy asymptomatic volunteers. Fat-suppressed T2-weighted MR images of the abdomen were acquired on a 1.5 T magnet at standard delay times for enterography. Gastric, small, and large intestinal volumes were measured by specialized software. In addition, two radiologists manually measured diameters and percentage distention of jejunal and ileal loops. Treatment effects were evaluated by an ITT analysis based on ANCOVA models. Results: All subjects tolerated erythromycin. MRI scans of the stomach and intestine were obtained at 62 ± 2 (mean ± SEM) and 74 ± 2 min respectively after starting oral contrast. Gastric volumes were lower (P < 0.0001) after erythromycin (260 ± 49 ml) than placebo (688 ± 63 ml) but jejunal, ileal, and colonic volumes were not significantly different. However, maximum (76–100%) jejunal distention was more frequently observed (P = 0.03) after erythromycin (8/20 subjects [40%]) than placebo (2/20 subjects [10%]). The diameter of a representative ileal loop was greater (P = 0.001) after erythromycin (18.8 ± 4.3 mm) than placebo (17.3 ± 2.8 mm) infusion. Conclusions: After ingestion of oral contrast, erythromycin accelerated gastric emptying but effects on small intestinal dimensions were variable. In balance, erythromycin did not substantially enhance small intestinal distention during

  1. Preliminary study of the effects of Okadaic Acid in the intestinal tract of mouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Alberto Fernández

    2014-06-01

    Our results support the little morphological effect of OA on intestinal cells. However, more interdisciplinary research is needed to obtain precise and reliable data to clarify the effects of OA in the intestinal epithelium and its relation with the diarrhea.

  2. Intestinal obstruction: predictor of poor prognosis in colorectal carcinoma?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Azri Mohd Suan

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The goal of this study was to assess the relationship between intestinal obstruction and the prognosis of colorectal carcinoma. METHODS: Data pertaining to 4,501 colorectal carcinoma patients were extracted from the national colorectal registry and analysed. Survival analysis was performed using the Kaplan-Meier method. The log-rank test was used to compare the survival rate between patients with intestinal obstruction and those without intestinal obstruction. The p-values<0.05 were considered to indicate statistical significance. Simple Cox proportional hazards regression analysis was used to estimate the crude hazard ratio of mortality from colorectal cancer. RESULTS: Intestinal obstruction was reported in more than 13% of patients. The 3-year survival rate after treatment was 48.3% (95% confidence interval [CI], 43.9 to 52.8 for patients with intestinal obstruction (n=593 and 54.9% (95% CI, 53.1 to 56.6 for patients without intestinal obstruction (n=3,908. The 5-year survival rate for patients with intestinal obstruction was 37.3% (95% CI, 31.9 to 42.8, which was lower than that of patients without intestinal obstruction (45.6%; 95% CI, 43.5 to 47.7. After adjusting the hazard ratio for other prognostic variables, intestinal obstruction had a statistically significant negative correlation with the survival rate of colorectal cancer patients, with an adjusted hazard ratio of 1.22 (p=0.008. CONCLUSIONS: The presence of intestinal obstruction is associated with a lower survival rate among colorectal cancer patients.

  3. Intestinal parasites and tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anuar Alonso Cedeño-Burbano

    2017-10-01

    Conclusions: The available evidence was insufficient to affirm that intestinal parasites predispose to developing tuberculous. The studies carried out so far have found statistically insignificant results.

  4. WNT signaling controls expression of pro-apoptotic BOK and BAX in intestinal cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeilstra, Jurrit; Joosten, Sander P. J.; Wensveen, Felix M.; Dessing, Mark C.; Schütze, Denise M.; Eldering, Eric; Spaargaren, Marcel; Pals, Steven T.

    2011-01-01

    In a majority of cases, colorectal cancer is initiated by aberrant activation of the WNT signaling pathway. Mutation of the genes encoding the WNT signaling components adenomatous polyposis coli or beta-catenin causes constitutively active beta-catenin/TCF-mediated transcription, driving the

  5. Regional differences of physiological functions and cancer susceptibility in the human large intestine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cats, A; DeVries, EGE; Mulder, NH; Kleibeuker, JH

    1996-01-01

    Regional differences in function, metabolism and morphology between proximal colon, distal colon and rectum may be important in the pathogenesis and biologic behaviour of tumours originating from these segments. Thus, the effect of primary prevention of colorectal cancer may also differ from one

  6. Identification of interstitial cells of Cajal. Significance for studies of human small intestine and colon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rumessen, J J

    1994-01-01

    Interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) were described a century ago by Ramón y Cajal a.o. as primitive neurons in the intestines. In the period 1900-1960 a large number of light microscopical studies of ICC were published, in which ICC were identified by heir characteristic morphology. After 1960...... muscle. These studies strongly suggested that ICC were fundamental regulators of external muscle function. These hypotheses have since been supported by independent morphological and electrophysiological evidence, strongly suggesting a pacemaker role of some ICC populations as well as other regulatory...

  7. History, Pathogenesis, and Management of Familial Gastric Cancer: Original Study of John XXIII's Family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Corso

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Hereditary diffuse gastric cancer is associated with the E-cadherin germline mutations, but genetic determinants have not been identified for familial intestinal gastric carcinoma. The guidelines for hereditary diffuse gastric cancer are clearly established; however, there are no defined recommendations for the management of familial intestinal gastric carcinoma. Methods. In this study we describe Pope John XXIII's pedigree that harboured gastric cancer as well as six other family members. Family history was analysed according to the International Gastric Cancer Linkage Consortium criteria, and gastric tumours were classified in accord with the last Japanese guidelines. Results. Seven out of 109 members in this pedigree harboured gastric cancer, affecting two consecutive generations. John XXIII's clinical tumour (cTN was classified as cT4bN3a (IV stage. In two other cases, gastric carcinomas were classified as intestinal histotype and staged as pT1bN0 and pT2N2, respectively. Conclusions. Pope John XXIII's family presents a strong aggregation for gastric cancer affecting almost seven members; it spreads through two consecutive generations. In absence of defined genetic causes and considering the increased risk of gastric cancer’s development in these families, as well as the high mortality rates and advanced stages, we propose an intensive surveillance protocol for asymptomatic members.

  8. Healthy effects of prebiotics and their metabolites against intestinal diseases and colorectal cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Fernández

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available A specific group of plant and animal oligosaccharides does not suffer enzymatic digestion in the human upper intestinal tract, achieving the colon microbial ecosystem in intact form. The reason for that is their diverse glycosidic bond structure, in comparison with common energetic polysaccharides as starch or glycogen. In this complex ecosystem, these molecules serve as energy sources, via fermentation, of distinctive beneficial bacterial groups, mainly belonging to the Anaerostipes, Bifidobacterium, Coprococcus, Faecalibacterium, Lactobacillus, Roseburia and other genera. The main catabolic products of these fermentations are short-chain fatty acids (SCFA as acetate, propionate and butyrate, which appear in high concentrations in the lumen around the colon mucosa. Acetate and propionate are associated to energetic purposes for enterocytes, hepatocytes and other cells. Butyrate is the preferred energy source for colonocytes where it controls their cell cycle; butyrate is able to induce cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in tumor colonocytes. These oligosaccharides that increase beneficial colon bacterial populations and induce SCFA production in this ecosystem are called prebiotics. Here, different sources and chemical structures for prebiotics are described, as well as their modulatory effect on the growth of specific probiotic bacterial groups in the colon, and how their fermentation renders diverse SCFA, with beneficial effects in gut health.

  9. Hereditary intestinal polyposis syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, P A

    1996-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is one of the most common cancers in the world, with overall mortality exceeding 40% even with treatment. Effective efforts for screening and prevention are most likely to succeed in patient groups identified as high risk for colorectal cancer, most notably the hereditary intestinal polyposis syndromes. In these syndromes, benign polyps develop throughout the intestinal tract prior to the development of colorectal cancer, marking the patient and associated family for precancer diagnosis followed by either close surveillance or preventive treatment. This review article was undertaken to discuss the most recent developments in the knowledge of hereditary intestinal polyposis syndromes, emphasizing the clinical approach to diagnosis and treatment relative to preventing the development of cancer. The most common of the hereditary polyposis syndromes is familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP), which is characterized by the development of hundreds to thousands of adenomatous polyps in the colon followed at an early age by colorectal cancer. Colorectal cancer can be prevented in this autosomal dominant condition by prophylactic colectomy, though a risk for other tumors, including periampullary cancers, remains throughout life. Variant of FAP associated with fewer and smaller polyps (hereditary flat adenoma syndrome), or even CNS tumors (Turcot's syndrome) also carry this high risk of colorectal cancer. Hereditary hamartomatous polyposis syndromes such as juvenile polyposis and Peutz-Jeghers syndrome (also autosomal dominant) are characterized by less frequent polyps. Though these are generally benign polyps, they are also associated with a significant risk of colorectal and other cancers. Other polyposis syndromes, including neurofibromatosis and Cowden's disease, do not carry this increased risk of colorectal cancer, and therefore affect different treatment strategies. Analysis of genetic factors responsible for these and other hereditary syndromes with

  10. A cross-sectional study on intestinal parasitic infections in rural communities, northeast Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boonjaraspinyo, Sirintip; Boonmars, Thidarut; Kaewsamut, Butsara; Ekobol, Nuttapon; Laummaunwai, Porntip; Aukkanimart, Ratchadawan; Wonkchalee, Nadchanan; Juasook, Amornrat; Sriraj, Pranee

    2013-12-01

    Despite the existence of effective anthelmintics, parasitic infections remain a major public health problem in Southeast Asia, including Thailand. In rural communities, continuing infection is often reinforced by dietary habits that have a strong cultural basis and by poor personal hygiene and sanitation. This study presents a survey of the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections among the people in rural Thailand. The community-based cross-sectional study was conducted in villages in Khon Kaen Province, northeastern Thailand, from March to August 2013. A total of 253 stool samples from 102 males and 140 females, aged 2-80 years, were prepared using formalin-ethyl acetate concentration methods and examined using light microscopy. Ninety-four individuals (37.2%) were infected with 1 or more parasite species. Presence of parasitic infection was significantly correlated with gender (P=0.001); nearly half of males in this survey (49.0%) were infected. Older people had a higher prevalence than younger members of the population. The most common parasite found was Opisthorchis viverrini (26.9%), followed by Strongyloides stercoralis (9.5%), Taenia spp. (1.6%), echinostomes (0.4%), and hookworms (0.4%). The prevalence of intestinal protozoa was Blastocystis hominis 1.6%, Entamoeba histolytica 0.8%, Entamoeba coli 0.8%, Balantidium coli 0.4%, Iodamoeba bütschlii 0.4%, and Sarcocystis hominis 0.4%. Co-infections of various helminths and protozoa were present in 15.9% of the people. The present results show that the prevalence of parasitic infections in this region is still high. Proactive education about dietary habits, personal hygiene, and sanitation should be provided to the people in this community to reduce the prevalence of intestinal parasite infections. Moreover, development of policies and programs to control parasites is needed.

  11. Socioenvironmental conditions and intestinal parasitic infections in Brazilian urban slums: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Ferraz Ignacio

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Intestinal parasitic infections (IPIs are neglected diseases with limited data regarding prevalence in Brazil and many other countries. In increasingly urban societies, investigating the profile and socioenvironmental determinants of IPIs in the general population of slum dwellers is necessary for establishing appropriate public policies catered to these environments. This study assessed the socioenvironmental conditions and prevalence of IPIs in slums of Rio de Janeiro, RJ State, Brazil. Methods A cross-sectional study covering an agglomeration of urban slums was conducted between 2015 and 2016 using participants observation, a socioeconomic survey, and the spontaneous sedimentation method with three slides per sample to analyze fresh stool specimens ( n =595 searching for intestinal parasites. Results Endolimax nana ( n =95, 16.0% and Entamoeba coli ( n =65, 10.9% were the most frequently identified agents, followed by Giardia intestinalis ( n =24, 4.0% and Ascaris lumbricoides ( n =11, 1.8%. Coinfections caused by E. nana and E. histolytica/dispar and by Entamoeba coli/A. lumbricoides were significant. The use of piped water as drinking water, the presence of A. lumbricoides , and contamination with coliform bacteria and Escherichia coli were more common in major area (MA 1. Children (0-19 years had a greater chance of living in poverty (OR 3.36; 95% CI: 2.50- 4.52; p <0.001 which was pervasive. The predominance of protozoa parasites suggests that a one-size-fits-all approach focusing on preventive chemotherapy for soil-transmitted helminths is not appropriate for all communities in developing countries. It is important that both residents and health professionals consider the socioenvironmental conditions of urban slums when assessing intestinal parasitic infections for disease control and health promotion initiatives.

  12. A Cross-Sectional Study on Intestinal Parasitic Infections in Rural Communities, Northeast Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boonjaraspinyo, Sirintip; Kaewsamut, Butsara; Ekobol, Nuttapon; Laummaunwai, Porntip; Aukkanimart, Ratchadawan; Wonkchalee, Nadchanan; Juasook, Amornrat; Sriraj, Pranee

    2013-01-01

    Despite the existence of effective anthelmintics, parasitic infections remain a major public health problem in Southeast Asia, including Thailand. In rural communities, continuing infection is often reinforced by dietary habits that have a strong cultural basis and by poor personal hygiene and sanitation. This study presents a survey of the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections among the people in rural Thailand. The community-based cross-sectional study was conducted in villages in Khon Kaen Province, northeastern Thailand, from March to August 2013. A total of 253 stool samples from 102 males and 140 females, aged 2-80 years, were prepared using formalin-ethyl acetate concentration methods and examined using light microscopy. Ninety-four individuals (37.2%) were infected with 1 or more parasite species. Presence of parasitic infection was significantly correlated with gender (P=0.001); nearly half of males in this survey (49.0%) were infected. Older people had a higher prevalence than younger members of the population. The most common parasite found was Opisthorchis viverrini (26.9%), followed by Strongyloides stercoralis (9.5%), Taenia spp. (1.6%), echinostomes (0.4%), and hookworms (0.4%). The prevalence of intestinal protozoa was Blastocystis hominis 1.6%, Entamoeba histolytica 0.8%, Entamoeba coli 0.8%, Balantidium coli 0.4%, Iodamoeba bütschlii 0.4%, and Sarcocystis hominis 0.4%. Co-infections of various helminths and protozoa were present in 15.9% of the people. The present results show that the prevalence of parasitic infections in this region is still high. Proactive education about dietary habits, personal hygiene, and sanitation should be provided to the people in this community to reduce the prevalence of intestinal parasite infections. Moreover, development of policies and programs to control parasites is needed. PMID:24516280

  13. Quantitative study of soybean-induced changes in proliferation and programmed cell death in the intestinal mucosa of young rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godlewski, M M; Slazak, P; Zabielski, R; Piastowska, A; Gralak, M A

    2006-11-01

    The use of soybean in human and animal nutrition is limited because of high content of bioactive compounds: enzyme inhibitors, polyphenols, goitrogens, phytates, saponins, sugars, and agglutinins. The damage of intestinal mucosa structure was previously observed in animals fed soybean supplemented diets. Hence, the objectives of the presented study were to compare intensity of epithelium remodeling processes in different intestinal segments, and to evaluate the influence of the 1% of soybean dietary supplementation on the processes in intestinal mucosa. The experiment was performed on 30 Wistar rats fed AIN-93 based diets. Animals were divided randomly into three groups: control (CTRL), with 1% of raw soybean (RS) and with 1% of soaked and boiled soybean (BS). The samples of: duodenum (DUO), proximal jejunum (PROX), mid-jejunum (MID), distal-jejunum (DIST) and ileum (ILE) were collected. The following processes in these samples were evaluated: mitosis (Ki-67), apoptosis (Cpp32), autophagy (MAP I LC3) and DNA damage (p53). Present data show that modification of soybean by soaking and subsequent boiling markedly influences the enterocyte turnover in the small intestine mucosa. Increased mitotic ratio in the intestine of rats fed with boiled soybean masks the negative effects of soybean on the small intestine structure.

  14. CT evaluation of mechanical intestinal obstruction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Sung Tag; Kim, Ho Kyun; Jeon, Jeong Dong; Kim, Young Tong [Gollege of Medicine, Inje University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-11-15

    To evaluate the usefulness of CT for the diagnosis and treatment planning of mechanical intestinal obstruction. We retrospectively reviewed 38 patients who were clinically suspected of mechanical intestinal obstruction and had undergone abdominal CT. The CT scans were evaluated for the absence or presence, severity, cause and site of intestinal obstruction. CT findings were compared with the results of laparotomy, barium study and clinical course. The absence or presence and severity of intestinal obstruction were classified into no obstruction, partial obstruction, complete obstruction. Diagnosis was established by means of laparotomy in 20 cases, barium study in 9 cases and clinical course in 9 cases. Of 38 cases, 7(18.4%) showed no obstruction, 22(57.9%) showed partial obstruction, and 9(23.7%) showed complete obstruction. The presence or absence and severity on CT scans were correctly predicted in 36 of 38 cases (sensitivity 95 %, specificity 97 %, accuracy 96 %) (in case of no obstruction: sensitivity 100 %, specificity 94%, accuracy 95%; in case of partial obstruction : sensitivity 91%, specificity 100%, accuracy 95%; in case of complete obstruction : sensitivity 100%, specificity 100%, accuracy 100%). All 9 cases with complete obstruction underwent prompt and immediate laparotomy. 13 cases, excluding those with mass around the site of transition and adhesion with strangulation, with partial obstruction improved with conservative treatment without laparotomy. The causes of obstruction were adhesion in 13, hernia in 6, primary cancer in 5, metastatic cancer in 3, abscess in 2, intestinal tbc in 1, and Crohn's disease in 1. The cause of obstruction on CT scans were correctly predicted in 27 of 31 cases (87.1 %). The sites of obstruction on CT scans were correctly predicted in 22 of 26 cases (84.6%). CT is valuable in the evaluation of absence or presence, severity, cause and site of intestinal obstruction, and is considered to be helpful in treatment

  15. Intestinal Obstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the obstruction along the intestines. Treatment Suction via nasogastric tube Fluids given by vein Surgery for strangulation Sometimes ... nose and placed in the stomach (called a nasogastric tube) or into the intestine. Suction is applied to ...

  16. Validity of two recently-proposed prognostic grading indices for lung, gastro-intestinal, breast and renal cell cancer patients with radiosurgically-treated brain metastases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Masaaki; Serizawa, Toru; Sato, Yasunori; Kawabe, Takuya; Higuchi, Yoshinori; Nagano, Osamu; Barfod, Bierta E; Ono, Junichi; Kasuya, Hidetoshi; Urakawa, Yoichi

    2013-02-01

    We tested the validity of two prognostic indices for stereotactic radiosurgically (SRS)-treated patients with brain metastases (BMs) from five major original cancer categories. The two indices are Diagnosis-Specific Graded Prognostic Assessment (DS-GPA) and our Modified Recursive Partitioning Analysis (RPA). Forty-six hundred and eight BM patients underwent gamma knife SRS during the 1998-2011 period. Primary cancer categories were non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC, 2827 patients), small cell lung cancer (SCLC, 460), gastro-intestinal cancer (GIC, 582), breast cancer (BC, 547) and renal cell cancer (RCC, 192). There were statistically significant survival differences among patients stratified into four groups based on the DS-GPA systems (p failed to reach statistical significance with this system. There were, however, statistically significant MST differences (p < 0.001) among the three groups without overlapping of 95 % CIs between any two pairs of groups with the Modified RPA system in all five categories. The DS-GPA system is applicable to our set of patients with NSCLC only. However, the Modified RPA system was shown to be applicable to patients with five primary cancer categories. This index should be considered when designing future clinical trials involving BM patients.

  17. Essential oils in the treatment of intestinal dysbiosis: A preliminary in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawrelak, Jason A; Cattley, Trudi; Myers, Stephen P

    2009-12-01

    Dysbiosis is associated with a number of gastrointestinal and systemic disorders. There is a need for selectively acting antimicrobial agents capable of inhibiting the growth of potentially pathogenic microorganisms, or those found to be out of balance, while not negatively impacting the bulk gastrointestinal tract microflora. The purpose of this in vitro study is to examine the potential of a selection of essential oils as agents to treat dysbiosis. Eight essential oils were examined using the agar dilution method, including Carum carvi, Citrus aurantium var. amara, Foeniculum vulgare dulce, Illicium verum, Lavandula angustifolia, Mentha arvensis, Mentha x piperita, and Trachyspermum copticum. Doubling dilutions of the essential oils were tested against 12 species of intestinal bacteria, which represent the major genera found in the human gastrointestinal tract (GIT). Carum carvi, Lavandula angustifolia, Trachyspermum copticum, and Citrus aurantium var. amara essential oils displayed the greatest degree of selectivity, inhibiting the growth of potential pathogens at concentrations that had no effect on the beneficial bacteria examined. The most promising essential oils for the treatment of intestinal dysbiosis are Carum carvi, Lavandula angustifolia, Trachyspermum copticum, and Citrus aurantium var. amara. The herbs from which these oils are derived have long been used in the treatment of gastrointestinal symptoms and the in vitro results of this study suggest that their ingestion will have little detrimental impact on beneficial members of the GIT microflora. More research is needed, however, to investigate tolerability and safety concerns, and verify the selective action of these agents.

  18. Cancer cervix?: a retrospective study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirapara, Pushpendra H.; Patidar, Arvindkumar; Walke, Rahul; Jakhar, Shankar Lal; Sharma, Neeti; Kumar, H.S.; Jain, Sandeep; Kalwar, Ashok; Bardia, M.R.

    2012-01-01

    Anemia is very commonly seen in most of the malignancies including cancer cervix. Anemia has long been reported to adversely affect the efficacy of radiation treatment in cervical cancer. At our center, carcinoma cervix accounts for approximately 8-10% of all malignancies. The objective of this study is to see the impact of anemia in the treatment of cancer cervix. In the present study, we collected data of treatment results of FIGO stage II and III cancer cervix patients retrospectively treated in years of 2009-10. We have tried to assess the outcome of results in patients whom haemoglobin (Hb) level < 10 gm/dl and e''10 gm/dl. Out of 200 patients of disease with baseline Hb less than 10 gm/dl, 80(40%) patients had residual disease after 4 weeks of completion of treatment. Out of 168 patients with baseline Hb more than 10 gm/dl, 42(25%) had residual disease (p-0.0012 i.e highly significant). Our study shows that there is a good disease control at local site in patients with higher pretreatment Hb level. Effect of pretreatment Hb on treatment outcome in terms of overall survival, disease free survival, and local relapse free survival along with effect on corrective measures should be studied in detail. (author)

  19. STUDY OF ANTIMICROBIAL ACTION OF COMBINED DOSAGE FORM FOR THE TREATMENT OF INTESTINAL INFECTIONS

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    Bobritskaya LA

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Intestinal infection (II of various etiologies is among to the most widespread diseases in the world. The treatment regimen bacterial etiology involves the suppression of pathogenic and conditionally pathogenic with the restoration of the normal intestinal microflora. For effective antibiotic pharmacotherapy of intestinal infections are widely used drug combinations with the additionof nifuroxazide, as well as enzymatic and normalizing bowel motility broad-spectrum drugs. Intestinal antiseptics nifuroxazide characterized by broad spectrum of antibacterial action against Staphylococcus spp, Clostridium spp, E. coli, Salmonella spp, Shigellaspp, Proteus spp, Klebsiellaspp, Enterobacter spp, V. cholerae, H. pylori, Yersinia spp, and also the lack of effect on the normal intestinal flora, high safety profile. Recently, for the treatment of intestinal infections nifuroxazide often combined with pre- and probiotics for complex correction of the intestinal microflora disorders. For complex therapy of intestinal infections, we have developed an original combined medicine "Diaplant", in the form of capsules, comprising as active ingredients nifuroxazide (200 mg in combination with plant substance plantaglucide (200 mg. Plantaglucide drug obtained from Plantago major has spasmolytic, antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory activity, normalizes bowel peristalsis, while reducing the tone of smooth muscles of the stomach and intestines, reduces swelling folds of the gastric mucosa, and contained therein polysaccharides in the form of pectins have properties of prebiotic and have immunostimulatory effects. Aim of the work – study of antibacterial action of combined drug "Diaplant" containing nifuroxazide and plantaglucide in regard to test strains and clinical strains of microorganisms allocated from patients with bacterial diarrhea. Materials and methods. Estimation of antimicrobial activity was performed under conditions in vitro by method of serial dilutions

  20. [Three Cases of Unresectable, Advanced, and Recurrent Colorectal Cancer Associated with Gastrointestinal Obstruction That Were Treated with Small Intestine-Transverse Colon Bypass Surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ida, Arika; Miyaki, Akira; Miyauchi, Tatsuomi; Yamaguchi, Kentaro; Naritaka, Yoshihiko

    2016-11-01

    Herein, we report 3cases of unresectable, advanced, and recurrent colorectal cancer associated with gastrointestinal obstruction. The patients were treated with small intestine-transverse colon bypass surgery, which improved the quality of life (QOL)in all cases. Case 1 was an 80-year-old woman who presented with subileus due to ascending colon cancer. After surgery, her oral intake was reestablished, and she was discharged home. Case 2 was an 89-year-old woman whose ileus was caused by cecal cancer with multiple hepatic metastases. After surgery, the patient was discharged to a care facility. Case 3 was an 83-year-old man whose ileus was caused by a local recurrence and small intestine infiltration after surgery for rectosigmoid cancer. He underwent surgery after a colonic stent was inserted. His oral intake was re-established and he was discharged home. Small bowel-transverse colon bypass surgery can be used to manage various conditions rostral to the transverse colon. It is still possible to perform investigations in patients whose general condition is poorer than that of patients who undergo resection of the primary lesion. This avoids creating an artificial anus and allows continuation of oral intake, which are useful for improving QOL in terminal cases.

  1. The insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS1 in intestinal epithelial differentiation and in colorectal cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana L Esposito

    Full Text Available Colorectal cancer (CRC is associated with lifestyle factors that affect insulin/IGF signaling, of which the insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS1 is a key transducer. We investigated expression, localization and pathologic correlations of IRS1 in cancer-uninvolved colonic epithelium, primary CRCs with paired liver metastases and in vitro polarizing Caco2 and HT29 cells. IRS1 mRNA and protein resulted higher, relative to paired mucosa, in adenomas of familial adenomatous polyposis patients and in CRCs that overexpressed c-MYC, ß-catenin, InsRß, and IGF1R. Analysis of IRS1 immunostaining in 24 cases of primary CRC with paired colonic epithelium and hepatic metastasis showed that staining intensity was significantly higher in metastases relative to both primary CRC (P<0.01 and colonic epithelium (P<0.01. Primary and metastatic CRCs, compared to colonic epithelium, contained significantly higher numbers of IRS1-positive cells (P = 0.013 and P = 0.014, respectively. Pathologic correlations in 163 primary CRCs revealed that diffuse IRS1 staining was associated with tumors combining differentiated phenotype and aggressive markers (high Ki67, p53, and ß-catenin. In Caco 2 IRS1 and InsR were maximally expressed after polarization, while IGF1R was highest in pre-polarized cells. No nuclear IRS1 was detected, while, with polarization, phosphorylated IRS1 (pIRS1 shifted from the lateral to the apical plasma membrane and was expressed in surface cells only. In HT29, that carry mutations constitutively activating survival signaling, IRS1 and IGF1R decreased with polarization, while pIRS1 localized in nuclear spots throughout the course. Overall, these data provide evidence that IRS1 is modulated according to CRC differentiation, and support a role of IRS1 in CRC progression and liver metastatization.

  2. The meaning of being a man with intestinal stoma due to colorectal cancer: an anthropological approach to masculinities El significado de ser un hombre com estoma intestinal por cáncer de colorectal: un abordaje antropológico de la masculinidad Os sentidos de ser homem com estoma intestinal por câncer colorretal: uma abordagem na antropologia das masculinidades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliza Maria Rezende Dázio

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes the meanings that men with intestinal stoma attribute to their colorectal cancer experience and its treatment. The medical anthropology framework, gender identity and the ethnographic methods were used. A total of 16 men from 40 to 79 years of age, residents in Ribeirão Preto and neighboring cities, SP, Brazil participated in the study. Data collection was carried out through participant observation and semi-structured interviews. Two groups of meanings were selected through inductive data analysis: acknowledging the severity of the disease and the distress of having cancer, and being submitted to surgery and suffering from a stoma. These meanings revealed the tension that develops between traditional patterns of masculinity and the new identities resulting from the experience. The understanding of these meanings from a cultural perspective favors nurse-patient communication and enables planning of care appropriate to these patients' needs.El estudio tuvo como objetivo analizar el significado que los hombres, con estoma intestinal, atribuyen a la experiencia de la enfermedad y al tratamiento de cáncer de colorectal. Fueron utilizadas las referencias teóricas de la antropología médica, de la masculinidad y del método etnográfico. Participaron del estudio 16 hombres en el intervalo de edad de 40 a 79 años, residentes en Ribeirao Preto, SP, y región. La recolección de los datos fue realizada por medio de observaciones participantes y entrevistas semiestructuradas. Por medio del análisis inductivo de los datos, se seleccionó de los núcleos de significados: el reconocimiento de la gravedad de la enfermedad y el sufrimiento de tener cáncer, someterse a la cirugía y al estoma. Esos significados revelan la tensión que se desarrolla entre los estándares tradicionales de masculinidad y las nuevas formas de identidad provocadas por la experiencia. Conocer esos significados, bajo la perspectiva cultural, facilita la

  3. Primary culture of intestinal epithelial cells as a potential model for Toxoplasma gondii enteric cycle studies

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    Marcos de Assis Moura

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The primary culture of intestinal epithelial cells from domestic cats is an efficient cellular model to study the enteric cycle of Toxoplasma gondii in a definitive host. The parasite-host cell ratio can be pointed out as a decisive factor that determines the intracellular fate of bradyzoites forms. The development of the syncytial-like forms of T. gondii was observed using the 1:20 bradyzoite-host cell ratio, resulting in similar forms described in in vivo systems. This alternative study potentially opens up the field for investigation into the molecular aspects of this interaction. This can contribute to the development of new strategies for intervention of a main route by which toxoplasmosis spreads.

  4. The Oral β-Lactamase SYN-004 (Ribaxamase) Degrades Ceftriaxone Excreted into the Intestine in Phase 2a Clinical Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokai-Kun, John F; Roberts, Tracey; Coughlin, Olivia; Sicard, Eric; Rufiange, Marianne; Fedorak, Richard; Carter, Christian; Adams, Marijke H; Longstreth, James; Whalen, Heidi; Sliman, Joseph

    2017-03-01

    SYN-004 (ribaxamase) is a β-lactamase designed to be orally administered concurrently with intravenous β-lactam antibiotics, including most penicillins and cephalosporins. Ribaxamase's anticipated mechanism of action is to degrade excess β-lactam antibiotic that is excreted into the small intestine. This enzymatic inactivation of excreted antibiotic is expected to protect the gut microbiome from disruption and thus prevent undesirable side effects, including secondary infections such as Clostridium difficile infections, as well as other antibiotic-associated diarrheas. In phase 1 clinical studies, ribaxamase was well tolerated compared to a placebo group and displayed negligible systemic absorption. The two phase 2a clinical studies described here were performed to confirm the mechanism of action of ribaxamase, degradation of β-lactam antibiotics in the human intestine, and were therefore conducted in subjects with functioning ileostomies to allow serial sampling of their intestinal chyme. Ribaxamase fully degraded ceftriaxone to below the level of quantitation in the intestines of all subjects in both studies. Coadministration of oral ribaxamase with intravenous ceftriaxone was also well tolerated, and the plasma pharmacokinetics of ceftriaxone were unchanged by ribaxamase administration. Since ribaxamase is formulated as a pH-dependent, delayed-release formulation, the activity of ribaxamase in the presence of the proton pump inhibitor esomeprazole was examined in the second study; coadministration of these drugs did not adversely affect ribaxamase's ability to degrade ceftriaxone excreted into the intestine. These studies have confirmed the in vivo mechanism of action of ribaxamase, degradation of β-lactam antibiotics in the human intestine (registered at ClinicalTrials.gov under NCT02419001 and NCT02473640). Copyright © 2017 Kokai-Kun et al.

  5. An epidemiological study of intestinal parasites of dogs from Yucatan, Mexico, and their risk to public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Vivas, Roger Ivan; Gutierrez-Ruiz, Edwin; Bolio-González, Manuel Emilio; Ruiz-Piña, Hugo; Ortega-Pacheco, Antonio; Reyes-Novelo, Enrique; Manrique-Saide, Pablo; Aranda-Cirerol, Francisco; Lugo-Perez, J A

    2011-08-01

    The prevalence of intestinal parasites in dogs and factors associated were studied in a rural community of Yucatan (southern Mexico), with special attention to those gastrointestinal parasites potentially transmitted to man. One hundred thirty dogs from 91 households were studied. Fecal samples were processed by the centrifugation-flotation and the McMaster techniques. To determine factors associated with zoonotic parasites in dogs, univariate analysis was performed, using sex, age, and body condition as independent variables. Variables with p Mexico, with poor body condition had a higher prevalence of intestinal zoonotic parasites as these factors were associated with a higher risk of becoming infected.

  6. Nurses’ Knowledge About Fecal Intestinal Ostomies’s Care: A Cross-Sectional Study

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    Maryam Bagheri

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background Investigation of various aspects of care in ostomy patients is of clinical importance, as the level of knowledge and skills of nurses directly influences the quality of patient education and satisfaction with received care. Objectives The purpose of this study was to determine knowledge of nurses in general surgery wards regarding fecal intestinal ostomies. Methods This cross-sectional study was performed during year 2015 at teaching hospitals (Ghaem, Imam Reza and Omid hospitals affiliated to Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Iran. We used census for sampling, and the study population included all nurses, who were working in intestinal ostomy surgery wards. Inclusion criteria were having an undergraduate degree in nursing and at least one-year work experience at the surgical ward. Data collection tools were a demographic information questionnaire and a researcher-made survey of “assessment of knowledge of nurses in ostomy care”. Data were analyzed using SPSS software version 11.5. Results Overall, 83.9% of participants were female and mean work experience at the surgical ward was 4.23 (SD = 3.73. More than half of the nurses gave incorrect answers to questions related to the use of powders and sprays associated with skin itching and sensitivity (64.3%, and how to care for ostomy with a rod (66.1%. Nurses also showed low and very low levels of knowledge on symptoms and control of obstruction (57.1%, change duration in the size of ostomy (66%, sexual intercourse (57.1%, colostomy complications (51.8% and ileostomy (57.1% and authorized or unauthorized activities (50% as well as how to perform bowel irrigation (75%. Conclusions According to the results of this study, the knowledge of nurses was not enough to provide primary care for ostomy; thus due to the importance of adequate knowledge and because of needs assessments, it is recommended for nursing managers to conduct retraining courses and other educational approaches for

  7. A safety and pharmacokinetic dosing study of glucagon-like peptide 2 in infants with intestinal failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sigalet, David L; Brindle, Mary E; Boctor, Dana

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS: Glucagon-like peptide 2 (GLP-2) analogues are approved for adults with intestinal failure (IF), but no studies have included infants. This study examined the pharmacokinetics (PK), safety, and nutritional effects of GLP-2 in infants with IF. METHODS: With parental consent (Health...

  8. Prevalence and factors associated with intestinal parasitic infections among food handlers of Southern Ethiopia: cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mama, Mohammedaman; Alemu, Getaneh

    2016-02-01

    Globally about one third of the total population is estimated to be infected with intestinal parasites, of which, the majority are people living in tropical and sub-tropical parts of the world. Cases of intestinal parasitosis are also highly abundant in Ethiopia and hence the aim of present study was to assess prevalence and predictors of intestinal parasitic infections among food handlers working in Arba Minch University students' cafeteria, South Ethiopia. A cross sectional study was conducted among food handlers working in Arba Minch University from April to June, 2015. A pretested structured questionnaire was used for collecting data about socio-demographic characteristics and possible risk factors. Stool specimens were collected and examined microscopically for the presence of eggs, cysts and trophozoites of intestinal parasites. Data entry and analysis were done using SPSS version 20 software. A total of 376 food handlers were enrolled in the study of which thirty one of them were not willing to participate for a stool examination. The majority of study participants were females 273 (72.6 %). About 123 (36 %) of food handlers were found to be positive for different intestinal parasites with the most abundant parasite of Entamoeba histolytica/dispar 48 (14 %) followed by Ascaris lumbricoides 32 (9.27 %). Finger nail status (AOR: 2.2, 95 % CI: 1.29-3.72), hand washing practice after toilet (AOR: 1.71, 95 % CI: 1.06-2.77), hand washing practice before food handling (AOR: 1.69, 95 % CI: 1.04-2.75), preparing food when suffering from diseases (AOR: 3.08, 95 % CI: 1.17-8.13), and using common knife for cutting raw flesh food and other food (AOR: 1.72, 95 % CI: 1.01-2.92) were independent predictors of intestinal parasitic infection among the food handlers. This study revealed a high prevalence of intestinal parasites among food handlers. Since most of the intestinal parasites are transmitted by the feco-oral route, food handlers could be an important source of

  9. Transmission studies of intestinal schistosomiasis in Lake Albert, Uganda and experimental compatibility of local Biomphalaria spp

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kazibwe, F.; Makanga, B.; Rubaire-Akiiki, C.

    2010-01-01

    Despite ongoing preventive chemotherapy campaigns, intestinal schistosomiasis is hyper-endemic in shoreline communities living along Lake Albert, Uganda. To provide a deeper insight into the local epidemiology of Schistosoma mansoni, a variety of field-based studies were undertaken focusing upon...... schistosome-snail interactions and confirmation of transmission foci. Cercarial shedding patterns of field-caught Biomphalaria spp., as identified by morphology, were hourly observed over a ten day period and showed that Biomphalaria stanleyi produced significantly more cercariae than Biomphalaria sudanica....... Biomphalaria stanleyi was a more permissive host. After ascertaining appropriate conditions for infection of laboratory mice, 28 groups of between 5 and 6 naïve mice were placed in floatation cages at four suspected shoreline transmission sites for a 30 minute period of exposure. Eight weeks later, mice (n=142...

  10. A model to study intestinal and hepatic metabolism of propranolol in the dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, P C; Siebert, G A; Roberts, M S

    2004-02-01

    A model to investigate hepatic drug uptake and metabolism in the dog was developed for this study. Catheters were placed in the portal and hepatic veins during exploratory laparotomy to collect pre- and posthepatic blood samples at defined intervals. Drug concentrations in the portal vein were taken to reflect intestinal uptake and metabolism of an p.o. administered drug (propranolol), while differences in drug and metabolite concentrations between portal and hepatic veins reflected hepatic uptake and metabolism. A significant difference in propranolol concentration between hepatic and portal veins confirmed a high hepatic extraction of this therapeutic agent in the dog. This technically uncomplicated model may be used experimentally or clinically to determine hepatic function and metabolism of drugs that may be administered during anaesthesia and surgery.

  11. Studying aerococci impact on colonization of intestinal mucous membrane with vibrions and ability to destroy staphilococus toxin

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    Stepanskyi D.О.

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available One of the promising methods of prevention and treatment of intestinal infections is the use of probiotics. A series of experiments was carried out to study the protective effect of A. viridans vibrio in experimental vibroinfection and the introduction of staphylococcus toxin. In the intestine of animals receiving aerococcus competitive colonization takes place. Results of experiments on colonization in experimental animals which survived without signs of NAG infection showed that vibrios in the intestinal wall were almost absent, but a large number of aerococcus was found (2,5±0,2 *105. In cases of infectious process development, but in a mild form, aerococci prevailed over vibrios: (2,7±0,6 *104, and (2,0±0.2 *103 respectively. Aerococci injected subcutaneously can maintain livelihoods for several hours, destroying totally or partially introduced staphylococcus exotoxin, reducing the strength of its lethal activity

  12. Frequency of Intestinal Parasites in Patients with Malignancy in Ardabil Province, Northwest Iran

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    Ali Pezeshki

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Despite continued and comprehensive planning of the world health organization (WHO, intestinal parasitic infections are a serious public problem in developing countries. Due to the high prevalence of cancers in Ardabil province and subsequently the high possibility of intestinal parasitic infections among the people, the aim of this study was to assess the frequency of intestinal parasites in patients with malignancy in this area. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 100 fecal samples were collected from patients with cancer during February to September 2015. The specimens were examined for intestinal parasites using direct smear, formal-ethyl acetate concentration, agar plate culture and Ziel-Neelsen staining technique. Results: The overall frequency of intestinal parasitic infections in studied cancer patients was 10%. The infection rates of detected intestinal parasites were Cryptosporidium spp. oocyst 4%, Blastocystis hominis 3%, Giardia lamblia 2% and Taenia spp. 1%. Conclusion: Despite the low frequency of intestinal parasites, there is a need to screen cancer patients for some important parasitic infections such as Cryptosporidium spp. and Strongiloides stercoralis because of irreparable effects of those parasites on the patients and to increase awareness among clinicians regarding the occurrence of parasitic infections in these patients.

  13. Gastro-intestinal and genito-urinary morbidity after 3D conformal radiotherapy of prostate cancer: observations of a randomized trial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koper, Peter C.; Jansen, Peter; Putten, Wim van; Os, Marjolein van; Wijnmaalen, Arend J.; Lebesque, Joos V.; Levendag, Peter C.

    2004-01-01

    Background and purpose: The late morbidity of a randomized study was analyzed after a follow up of 2 years. The difference in intestinal morbidity was analyzed as a function of the treatment arm and dose volume parameters. The correlation with acute toxicity and (pre-existing) bowel complaints was investigated. Patients and methods: 266 T1-4N0M0 prostate cancer patients were randomized for conventional (open fields) and 3D conformal radiotherapy using beams eye view blocked fields with the same dose (66 Gy) and gross target volume-planning target volume margin (15 mm). Apart from the RTOG toxicity scoring system a patient self-assessment questionnaire was used to obtain detailed information on morbidity. Results: At 2 years there is only a trend for less rectal toxicity (grade≥1) in favor of the conformal radiotherapy (grade 1, 47 versus 40% and grade 2, 10 versus 7% for conventional and conformal radiotherapy, respectively (P=0.1). A significant relation was found between late rectal toxicity (grade≥1) and the volume of the anus and rectum exposed to≥90% tumor dose (TD). A highly significant relationship is observed between acute rectum and anal toxicity and late rectal toxicity. The patient self-assessment questionnaire analysis revealed that patients are most bothered by compliance related symptoms like urgency, soiling and fecal loss. In a multivariate analysis, all other variables loose significance, when anal volume exposed to≥90% TD and pre-treatment defaecation frequency are accounted for. Late anal toxicity is low and related only to acute anal toxicity. Late bladder toxicity is related solely to pre-treatment frequency and overall urological symptoms. The incidence of grade 2 toxicity increases with a factor 2.5-4 when (stool or urine) frequency is unfavorable at the start of treatment. Conclusions: Conformal radiotherapy at the dose level of 66 Gy does not significantly decrease the incidence of rectal, anal and bladder toxicity compared to

  14. Do intestinal hyperpermeability and the related food antigens play a role in the progression of IgA nephropathy? I. Study of intestinal permeability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kovács, T.; Kun, L.; Schmelczer, M.; Wagner, L.; Davin, J. C.; Nagy, J.

    1996-01-01

    Intestinal permeability was investigated by using 51Cr-EDTA as a probe molecule in 29 patients with immunoglobulin A nephropathy (IgA NP) and 20 healthy controls in 1990. Intestinal permeability was significantly higher in the IgA NP patients than in the controls (IgA NP, 3.86 +/- 0.29%; controls,

  15. Safety and Dosing Study of Glucagon-Like Peptide 2 in Children With Intestinal Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigalet, David L; Brindle, Mary; Boctor, Dana; Casey, Linda; Dicken, Bryan; Butterworth, Sonia; Lam, Viona; Karnik, Vikram; de Heuvel, Elaine; Hartmann, Bolette; Holst, Jens

    2017-07-01

    A glucagon-like peptide 2 (GLP-2) analogue is approved for adults with intestinal failure, but no studies of GLP-2 have included children. This study examined the pharmacokinetics, safety, and nutritional effects of GLP-2 in children with intestinal failure. Native human GLP-2(1-33) was synthesized following good manufacturing practices. In an open-label trial, with parental consent, 7 parenteral nutrition-dependent pediatric patients were treated with subcutaneous GLP-2 (20 µg/kg/d) for 3 days (phase 1) and, if tolerated, continued for 42 days (phase 2). Nutritional treatment was directed by the primary caregivers. Patients were followed to 1 year. Seven patients were enrolled (age: 4.0 ± 0.8 years; bowel length, mean ± SEM: 24% ± 4% of predicted). All were parenteral nutrition dependent since birth, receiving 44% ± 5% of calories by parenteral nutrition. GLP-2 treatment had no effect on vital signs (blood pressure, heart rate, and temperature) and caused no significant adverse events. Peak GLP-2 levels were 380 pM (day 3) and 295 pM (day 42), with no change in half-life or endogenous GLP-2 levels. Nutritional indices showed a numeric improvement in z scores and citrulline levels; the z score was maintained while citrulline levels returned to baseline once GLP-2 was discontinued. GLP-2 was well tolerated in children, with a pharmacokinetic profile similar to that of adults. There were no changes in endogenous GLP-2 release or metabolism. These results suggest that GLP-2 ligands may be safely used in pediatric patients; larger trials are suggested to investigate nutritional effects.

  16. The Effects of Deoxynivalenol and Zearalenone on the Pig Large Intestine. A Light and Electron Microscopy Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Przybylska-Gornowicz

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The contamination of feed with mycotoxins results in reduced growth, feed refusal, immunosuppression, and health problems. Deoxynivalenol (DON and zearalenone (ZEN are among the most important mycotoxins. The aim of the study was to examine the effects of low doses of these mycotoxins on the histological structure and ultrastructure of the large intestine in the pig. The study was performed on 36 immature gilts of mixed breed (White Polish Big × Polish White Earhanging, which were divided into four groups administrated per os with ZEN at 40 µg/kg BW, DON at 12 µg/kg BW, a mixture of ZEN (40 µg/kg BW and DON (12 µg/kg BW or a placebo. The pigs were killed by intravenous overdose of pentobarbital after one, three, and six weeks of treatment. The cecum, ascending and descending colon samples were prepared for light and electron microscopy. Administration of toxins did not influence the architecture of the mucosa and submucosa in the large intestine. ZEN and ZEN + DON significantly decreased the number of goblet cells in the cecum and descending colon. The mycotoxins changed the number of lymphocytes and plasma cells in the large intestine, which usually increased in number. However, this effect differed between the intestine segments and toxins. Mycotoxins induced some changes in the ultrastructure of the mucosal epithelium. They did not affect the expression of proliferative cell nuclear antigen and the intestinal barrier permeability. The obtained results indicate that mycotoxins especially ZEN may influence the defense mechanisms of the large intestine.

  17. Intestinal Barrier and Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julio-Pieper, M; Bravo, J A

    2016-01-01

    The intestinal barrier function contributes to gut homeostasis by modulating absorption of water, electrolytes, and nutrients from the lumen into the circulation while restricting the passage of noxious luminal substances and microorganisms. Chronic conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease, and celiac disease are associated to intestinal barrier dysfunction. Here, the hypothesis is that a leaky intestinal wall allowing for indiscriminate passage of intraluminal compounds to the vascular compartment could in turn lead to systemic inflammation. An increasing number of studies are now investigating the association between gut permeability and CNS disorders, under the premise that translocation of intestinal luminal contents could affect CNS function, either directly or indirectly. Still, it is unknown whether disruption of intestinal barrier is a causative agent or a consequence in these situations. Here, we discuss the latest evidence pointing to an association between increased gut permeability and disrupted behavioral responses. © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Protective Effects of Female Reproductive Factors on Lauren Intestinal-Type Gastric Adenocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Su Mi; Min, Byung Hoon; Lee, Jeeyun; An, Ji Yeong; Lee, Jun Ho; Sohn, Tae Sung; Bae, Jae Moon; Kim, Jae J; Kang, Won Ki; Kim, Sung; Choi, Min Gew

    2018-01-01

    Gastric cancer shows a male predominance that might be explained by protective effects from estrogens in females. Two Lauren classification histological subtypes, intestinal and diffuse, have distinct carcinogeneses. The purpose of this study was to estimate the effects of sex hormone on female gastric cancer according to Lauren classification. We reviewed medical records for and administered questionnaires, surveying reproductive and hormonal factors, to 758 patients who underwent gastrectomy for gastric cancer at Samsung Medical Center from May 2012 to November 2014. Clinicopathological characteristics were compared between females and males. The incidence of intestinal-type gastric cancer was compared between females subgroups, consist of premenopausal women and three groups of postmenopausal women (five-year intervals after menopause), and males. The association between reproductive factors and intestinal-type gastric cancer was analyzed by multivariate models for the female group. In total, 227 females (29.9%) and 531 males (70.9%) were included in the analysis. Undifferentiated adenocarcinoma and diffuse-type histology were more frequent in female patients than male patients. While 221 (41.6%) male patients had intestinal-type gastric cancer, no premenopausal female patient had this type of gastric cancer. The incidence of intestinal-type gastric cancer increased with time after menopause, and was similar to males after 10 years from menopause. Parity was associated with an increased risk of intestinal-type gastric cancer in menopausal women. These findings support that female sex hormones might be protective against intestinal-type gastric cancer. © Copyright: Yonsei University College of Medicine 2018

  19. Three years of distribution of intestinal parasites in an Education and Research Hospital: A retrospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bayram Pektaş

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: In this study, we aimed to evaluate the patients who applied to various clinics in our hospital with gastrointestinal complaints in terms of intestinal parasites, retrospectively. Methods: Totally 41967 stool samples of patients applied to Parasitology laboratory in Konya Education and Research Hospital in January 2010-December 2012 were investigated under microscope after multiplexing by native lugol and formol ethyl acetate method. Trichrome dying was performed to the suspected samples. The stool samples, in which Entamoeba histolytica /E.dispar cannot be differentiated, were investigated by ELISA method in order to identify adhesin antigens. Results: Intestinal parasite was determined in 2145 (5.11% of 41.967 patients who applied to our laboratory in 3 years. 39.4%, 44.3% and 16.2% of positive patients were 0-15, 16-50 and >50 years old, respectively. Blastocyctis hominis, Entamoeba spp and Giardia intestinalis were found in 59.9%, 25% and 13.7% of the positive samples, respectively. Entamoeba spp and Giardia intestinalis were found most frequently in 0-15 years old patients, while Blastocyctis hominis was found most frequently in 15-49 years old patients. There was a statistically significant difference between these parasites and age groups (p<0.01. The distribution of the positive cases among the years was found as 6.8% in 2010, 5.4% in 2011, 3.3% in 2012 and there was a statistically significant difference between the years (p<0.01. Conclusion: According to our results, the frequency of parasite infection still maintains its importance, although the frequency was decreased compared to previous years. J Clin Exp Invest 2015; 6 (3: 269-273

  20. A functional study on small intestinal smooth muscles in jejunal atresia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preeti Tyagi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present study was aimed to assess the contractile status of neonatal small intestinal smooth muscle of dilated pre-atretic part of intestinal atresia to resolve debatable issues related to mechanisms of persistent dysmotility after surgical repair. Materials and Methods: A total of 34 longitudinally sectioned strips were prepared from pre-atretic dilated part of freshly excised 8 jejunal atresia type III a cases. Spontaneous as well as acetylcholine- and histamine-induced contractions were recorded in vitro by using organ bath preparations. Chemically evoked contractions were further evaluated after application of atropine (muscarinic blocker, pheniramine (H1 blocker, and lignocaine (neuronal blocker to ascertain receptors and neuronal involvement. Histological examinations of strips were made by using Masson trichrome stain to assess the fibrotic changes. Results: All 34 strips, except four showed spontaneous contractions with mean frequency and amplitude of 5.49 ± 0.26/min and 24.41 ± 5.26 g/g wet tissue respectively. The response to ACh was nearly twice as compared to histamine for equimolar concentrations (100 μM. ACh (100 μM induced contractions were attenuated (by 60% by atropine. Histamine (100 μM-induced contractions was blocked by pheniramine (0.32 μM and lignocaine (4 μM by 74% and 78%, respectively. Histopathological examination showed varying degree of fibrotic changes in muscle layers. Conclusions: Pre-atretic dilated part of jejunal atresia retains functional activity but with definitive histopathologic abnormalities. It is suggested that excision of a length of pre-atretic part and early stimulation of peristalsis by locally acting cholinomimetic or H1 agonist may help in reducing postoperative motility problems in atresia patients.

  1. A functional study on small intestinal smooth muscles in jejunal atresia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyagi, Preeti; Mandal, Maloy B; Gangopadhyay, Ajay N; Patne, Shashikant C U

    2016-01-01

    The present study was aimed to assess the contractile status of neonatal small intestinal smooth muscle of dilated pre-atretic part of intestinal atresia to resolve debatable issues related to mechanisms of persistent dysmotility after surgical repair. A total of 34 longitudinally sectioned strips were prepared from pre-atretic dilated part of freshly excised 8 jejunal atresia type III a cases. Spontaneous as well as acetylcholine- and histamine-induced contractions were recorded in vitro by using organ bath preparations. Chemically evoked contractions were further evaluated after application of atropine (muscarinic blocker), pheniramine (H1 blocker), and lignocaine (neuronal blocker) to ascertain receptors and neuronal involvement. Histological examinations of strips were made by using Masson trichrome stain to assess the fibrotic changes. All 34 strips, except four showed spontaneous contractions with mean frequency and amplitude of 5.49 ± 0.26/min and 24.41 ± 5.26 g/g wet tissue respectively. The response to ACh was nearly twice as compared to histamine for equimolar concentrations (100 μM). ACh (100 μM) induced contractions were attenuated (by 60%) by atropine. Histamine (100 μM)-induced contractions was blocked by pheniramine (0.32 μM) and lignocaine (4 μM) by 74% and 78%, respectively. Histopathological examination showed varying degree of fibrotic changes in muscle layers. Pre-atretic dilated part of jejunal atresia retains functional activity but with definitive histopathologic abnormalities. It is suggested that excision of a length of pre-atretic part and early stimulation of peristalsis by locally acting cholinomimetic or H1 agonist may help in reducing postoperative motility problems in atresia patients.

  2. The Homeodomain Transcription Factor Cdx1 Does Not Behave as an Oncogene in Normal Mouse Intestine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Ann S. Crissey

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The Caudal-related homeobox genes Cdx1 and Cdx2 are intestine-specific transcription factors that regulate differentiation of intestinal cell types. Previously, we have shown Cdx1 to be antiproliferative and to promote cell differentiation. However, other studies have suggested that Cdx1 may be an oncogene. To test for oncogenic behavior, we used the murine villin promoter to ectopically express Cdx1 in the small intestinal villi and colonic surface epithelium. No changes in intestinal architecture, cell differentiation, or lineage selection were observed with expression of the transgene. Classic oncogenes enhance proliferation and induce tumors when ectopically expressed. However, the Cdx1 transgene neither altered intestinal proliferation nor induced spontaneous intestinal tumors. In a murine model for colitis-associated cancer, the Cdx1 transgene decreased, rather than increased, the number of adenomas that developed. In the polyps, the expression of the endogenous and the transgenic Cdx1 proteins was largely absent, whereas endogenous Villin expression was retained. This suggests that transgene silencing was specific and not due to a general Villin inactivation. In conclusion, neither the ectopic expression of Cdx1 was associated with changes in intestinal cell proliferation or differentiation nor was there increased intestinal cancer susceptibility. Our results therefore suggest that Cdx1 is not an oncogene in normal intestinal epithelium.

  3. [Study on intestinal absorption of formononetin in Millettia nitita var. hirsutissima in rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ya-Li; Xiong, Xian-Bing; Su, Dan; Song, Yong-Gui; Zhang, Ling; Yang, Shi-Lin

    2013-10-01

    To use the single-pass intestine perfusion (SPIP) model and HPLC to determine the concentration of formononetin, the effect of quality concentrations of formononetin, different intestinal segments and P-glycoprotein inhibitor on intestinal absorption of formononetin, in order to observe the intestinal absorption mechanism of formononetin from Millettia nitita var. hirsutissima in rats. The experimental results showed that the qulaity concentration of formononetin in the perfusate had no significant effect on the absorption rate constant (K(a)) and the apparent absorption coefficient (P(app)); K(a) and P(app) of formononetin in duodenum, jejunum and ileum showed no significant difference. However, K(a) was significantly higher than that in colon (P intestinal segments (P absorption mechanism of formononein in rat intestinal tracts passive diffusion, without any saturated absorption. Formononein is absorbed well in all intestines. Their absorption windows were mainly concentrated in the intestinum tenue, without specific absorption sites. Formononein may be the substrate of P-glycoprotein.

  4. Patient delay in cancer studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Rikke Sand; Vedsted, Peter; Olesen, Frede

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There is no validated way of measuring the prevalence and duration of patient delay, and we do not know how people perceive and define the time intervals they are asked to report in patient delay studies. This lack of a validated measure hampers research in patient delay...... as symptoms related to a specific cancer diagnosis is embedded within a social and cultural context. We therefore cannot assume that respondents define delay periods in identical ways. SUMMARY: In order to improve the validity of patient delay studies, it is suggested that research be strengthened on three...

  5. Regulation of the epithelial Ca2+ channels in small intestine as studied by quantitative mRNA detection.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abel, M. van; Hoenderop, J.G.J.; Kemp, J.W.C.M. van der; Leeuwen, J.P.P.M. van; Bindels, R.J.M.

    2003-01-01

    The epithelial Ca2+ channels TRPV5 and TRPV6 are localized to the brush border membrane of intestinal cells and constitute the postulated rate-limiting entry step of active Ca2+ absorption. The aim of the present study was to investigate the hormonal regulation of these channels. To this end, the

  6. Krüppel-like factor 4 regulates intestinal epithelial cell morphology and polarity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tianxin Yu

    Full Text Available Krüppel-like factor 4 (KLF4 is a zinc finger transcription factor that plays a vital role in regulating cell lineage differentiation during development and maintaining epithelial homeostasis in the intestine. In normal intestine, KLF4 is predominantly expressed in the differentiated epithelial cells. It has been identified as a tumor suppressor in colorectal cancer. KLF4 knockout mice demonstrated a decrease in number of goblet cells in the colon, and conditional ablation of KLF4 from the intestinal epithelium led to altered epithelial homeostasis. However, the role of KLF4 in differentiated intestinal cells and colon cancer cells, as well as the mechanism by which it regulates homeostasis and represses tumorigenesis in the intestine is not well understood. In our study, KLF4 was partially depleted in the differentiated intestinal epithelial cells by a tamoxifen-inducible Cre recombinase. We found a significant increase in the number of goblet cells in the KLF4-deleted small intestine, suggesting that KLF4 is not only required for goblet cell differentiation, but also required for maintaining goblet cell numbers through its function in inhibiting cell proliferation. The number and position of Paneth cells also changed. This is consistent with the KLF4 knockout study using villin-Cre [1]. Through immunohistochemistry (IHC staining and statistical analysis, we found that a stem cell and/or tuft cell marker, DCAMKL1, and a proliferation marker, Ki67, are affected by KLF4 depletion, while an enteroendocrine cell marker, neurotensin (NT, was not affected. In addition, we found KLF4 depletion altered the morphology and polarity of the intestinal epithelial cells. Using a three-dimensional (3D intestinal epithelial cyst formation assay, we found that KLF4 is essential for cell polarity and crypt-cyst formation in human colon cancer cells. These findings suggest that, as a tumor suppressor in colorectal cancer, KLF4 affects intestinal epithelial cell

  7. Intestine transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadeja Pintar

    2011-02-01

    Conclusion: Intestine transplantation is reserved for patients with irreversible intestinal failure due to short gut syndrome requiring total paranteral nutrition with no possibility of discontinuation and loss of venous access for patient maintenance. In these patients complications of underlying disease and long-term total parenteral nutrition are present.

  8. Preclinical Cancer Chemoprevention Studies Using Animal Model of Inflammation-Associated Colorectal Carcinogenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, Takuji [Cytopatholgy Division, Tohkai Cytopathology Institute, Cancer Research and Prevention (TCI-CaRP), 5-1-2 Minami-uzura, Gifu 500-8285 (Japan); Department of Tumor Pathology, Gifu University Graduate School of Medicine, 1-1 Yanagido, Gifu 501-1194 (Japan)

    2012-07-16

    Inflammation is involved in all stages of carcinogenesis. Inflammatory bowel disease, such as ulcerative colitis and Crohn’s disease is a longstanding inflammatory disease of intestine with increased risk for colorectal cancer (CRC). Several molecular events involved in chronic inflammatory process are reported to contribute to multi-step carcinogenesis of CRC in the inflamed colon. They include over-production of free radicals, reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, up-regulation of inflammatory enzymes in arachidonic acid biosynthesis pathway, up-regulation of certain cytokines, and intestinal immune system dysfunction. In this article, firstly I briefly introduce our experimental animal models where colorectal neoplasms rapidly develop in the inflamed colorectum. Secondary, data on preclinical cancer chemoprevention studies of inflammation-associated colon carcinogenesis by morin, bezafibrate, and valproic acid, using this novel inflammation-related colorectal carcinogenesis model is described.

  9. Preclinical Cancer Chemoprevention Studies Using Animal Model of Inflammation-Associated Colorectal Carcinogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Takuji

    2012-01-01

    Inflammation is involved in all stages of carcinogenesis. Inflammatory bowel disease, such as ulcerative colitis and Crohn’s disease is a longstanding inflammatory disease of intestine with increased risk for colorectal cancer (CRC). Several molecular events involved in chronic inflammatory process are reported to contribute to multi-step carcinogenesis of CRC in the inflamed colon. They include over-production of free radicals, reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, up-regulation of inflammatory enzymes in arachidonic acid biosynthesis pathway, up-regulation of certain cytokines, and intestinal immune system dysfunction. In this article, firstly I briefly introduce our experimental animal models where colorectal neoplasms rapidly develop in the inflamed colorectum. Secondary, data on preclinical cancer chemoprevention studies of inflammation-associated colon carcinogenesis by morin, bezafibrate, and valproic acid, using this novel inflammation-related colorectal carcinogenesis model is described

  10. Noninvasive monitoring of gas in the lungs and intestines of newborn infants using diode lasers: feasibility study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundin, Patrik; Svanberg, Emilie Krite; Cocola, Lorenzo; Xu, Märta Lewander; Somesfalean, Gabriel; Andersson-Engels, Stefan; Jahr, John; Fellman, Vineta; Svanberg, Katarina; Svanberg, Sune

    2013-12-01

    Preterm newborn infants have a high morbidity rate. The most frequently affected organs where free gas is involved are the lungs and intestines. In respiratory distress syndrome, both hyperexpanded and atelectatic (collapsed) areas occur, and in necrotizing enterocolitis, intramural gas may appear in the intestine. Today, these conditions are diagnosed with x-ray radiography. A bed-side, rapid, nonintrusive, and gas-specific technique for in vivo gas sensing would improve diagnosis. We report the use of noninvasive laser spectroscopy, for the first time, to assess gas content in the lungs and intestines of three full-term infants. Water vapor and oxygen were studied with two low-power diode lasers, illuminating the skin and detecting light a few centimeters away. Water vapor was easily detected in the intestines and was also observed in the lungs. The relatively thick chest walls of the infants prevented detection of the weaker oxygen signal in this study. However, results from a previous phantom study, together with scaling of the results presented here to the typical chest-wall thickness of preterm infants, suggest that oxygen also should be detectable in their lungs.

  11. Impact of palm date consumption on microbiota growth and large intestinal health: a randomised, controlled, cross-over, human intervention study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eid, Noura; Osmanova, Hristina; Natchez, Cecile; Walton, Gemma; Costabile, Adele; Gibson, Glenn; Rowland, Ian; Spencer, Jeremy P E

    2015-10-28

    The reported inverse association between the intake of plant-based foods and a reduction in the prevalence of colorectal cancer may be partly mediated by interactions between insoluble fibre and (poly)phenols and the intestinal microbiota. In the present study, we assessed the impact of palm date consumption, rich in both polyphenols and fibre, on the growth of colonic microbiota and markers of colon cancer risk in a randomised, controlled, cross-over human intervention study. A total of twenty-two healthy human volunteers were randomly assigned to either a control group (maltodextrin-dextrose, 37·1 g) or an intervention group (seven dates, approximately 50 g). Each arm was of 21 d duration and was separated by a 14-d washout period in a cross-over manner. Changes in the growth of microbiota were assessed by fluorescence in situ hybridisation analysis, whereas SCFA levels were assessed using HPLC. Further, ammonia concentrations, faecal water genotoxicity and anti-proliferation ability were also assessed using different assays, which included cell work and the Comet assay. Accordingly, dietary intakes, anthropometric measurements and bowel movement assessment were also carried out. Although the consumption of dates did not induce significant changes in the growth of select bacterial groups or SCFA, there were significant increases in bowel movements and stool frequency (Pconsumption of dates, relative to baseline. Furthermore, date fruit intake significantly reduced genotoxicity in human faecal water relative to control (Pconsumption of date fruit may reduce colon cancer risk without inducing changes in the microbiota.

  12. Chemotherapeutic prevention studies of prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Djavan, Bob; Zlotta, Alexandre; Schulman, Claude

    2004-01-01

    Despite advances in the detection and management of prostate cancer, this disease remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality in men. Increasing attention has focused on the role of chemoprevention for prostate cancer, ie the administration of agents that inhibit 1 or more steps in the natural...... history of prostate carcinogenesis. We review prostate cancer chemoprevention studies in Europe....

  13. Study of the effects of dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids: Molecular mechanisms involved intestinal inflammation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knoch, B.; Barnett, M. P. G.; Roy, N. C.; McNabb, W. C.

    2009-07-01

    The use of omics techniques in combination with model systems and molecular tools allows to understand how foods and food components act on metabolic pathways to regulate transcriptional processes. Polyunsaturated fatty acids have distinctive nutritional and metabolic effects because they give rise to lipid mediated products and affect the expression of various genes involved in intestinal inflammation. The present review focuses on the molecular effects of dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids on intestinal inflammation. (Author) 74 refs.

  14. Clinical significance of spasmolytic polypeptide-expressing metaplasia and intestinal metaplasia in Epstein-Barr virus-associated and Epstein-Barr virus-negative gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu; Chen, Jian-Ning; Dong, Min; Zhang, Zhi-Gang; Zhang, Yi-Wang; Wu, Jun-Yan; Du, Hong; Li, Hai-Gang; Huang, Yan; Shao, Chun-Kui

    2017-05-01

    Spasmolytic polypeptide-expressing metaplasia (SPEM) and intestinal metaplasia (IM) have been recognized as neoplastic precursors in gastric carcinogenesis. We explored the relationship between SPEM and IM in Epstein-Barr virus-associated (EBVaGC) and Epstein-Barr virus-negative (EBVnGC) gastric cancer. Sixty-four EBVaGC and one hundred and fifty-four EBVnGC patients were included. EBV positivity was identified using Epstein-Barr virus-encoded RNA-1 in situ hybridization. SPEM was subclassified into absent, early, and advanced SPEM. Acute and chronic inflammation was graded as absent, mild, moderate, and marked. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were conducted to analyze the correlation between SPEM, IM, and inflammation. Our study revealed that SPEM was detected in 87.5% EBVaGC and 85.1% EBVnGC patients. Distribution of patients according to the SPEM classification was significantly different between EBVaGC and EBVnGC groups (P=.038). IM was observed less frequently in EBVaGC when compared with EBVnGC patients (P<.001). No difference was observed between EBVaGC and EBVnGC in the levels of acute and chronic inflammation. A positive correlation between IM and SPEM status was observed in both EBVaGC and EBVnGC patients. Furthermore, advanced SPEM was an independent influential factor to IM in EBVnGC (P=.013). In conclusion, SPEM was associated with both EBVaGC and EBVnGC more frequently than IM. Moreover, advanced SPEM had a stronger association with IM than early SPEM in EBVnGC. These results suggest that identification of SPEM should be used as a high-risk indicator for detecting early gastric carcinoma, and should be brought to the attention of pathologists and clinicians. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Dietary fibre, transit-time, faecal bacteria, steroids, and colon cancer in two Scandinavian populations. Report from the International Agency for Research on Cancer Intestinal Microecology Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maclennan, R; Jensen, O M

    1977-07-30

    A comparison of dietary intake and faecal characteristics in population samples from two areas of Denmark and Finland with 4-fold variation in colon-cancer incidence suggests that the aetiology of colon cancer may be multifactorial and is not associated in a simple manner with dietary fat, neutral steroids, acid steroids, or their bacterial metabolites. However, meat consumption was greater in the high-incidence areas. Higher intakes of dietary fibre and milk in the low-incidence area suggest a possible protective effect, unrelated to mouth-anus transit-time. Further careful dietary and metabolic studies are needed to clarify the relationships between possible carcinogenic and protective effects of diet.

  16. Intestinal fatty acid-binding protein levels in Necrotizing Enterocolitis correlate with extent of necrotic bowel: results from a multicenter study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heida, F.H.; Hulscher, J.B.; Schurink, M.; Timmer, A.; Kooi, E.M.; Bos, A.F; Bruggink, J.L.; Kasper, D.C.; Pones, M.; Benkoe, T.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Intestinal fatty acid-binding protein (I-FABP) is considered as a specific marker for enterocyte damage in necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the association of plasma and urinary I-FABP levels with the extent of macroscopic intestinal

  17. Small intestinal cytochromes P450.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaminsky, L S; Fasco, M J

    1991-01-01

    P450 activity. The role of intestinal P450 in toxifying or detoxifying specific xenobiotics has been clearly demonstrated to only a limited extent. However, elevated intestinal P450 levels have been indirectly linked to gastrointestinal cancer. Intestinal metabolism of 2,2,2-trifluoroethanol produces intestinal lesions with consequent systemic bacterial infection.

  18. [Studies on the biotransformation of escin Ia by human intestinal bacteria and the anti-tumor activities of desacylescin I].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiu-Wei; Zhao, Jing; Cui, Jing-Rong; Guo, Wei

    2004-02-01

    To study Biotransformation of escin Ia by the crude enzymes of human intestinal bacteria and Lactobacillus brevis, determine the structures of biotransformation products and assay the inhibitory effect of desacylescin I on the tumor cell growth. The escin Ia was incubated with crude enzymes of human intestinal bacteria and Lactobacillus brevis in vitro, respectively. The biotransformation products were isolated and purified by the chromatographic methods and the structures were determined by the spectroscopic techniques. Escin Ia was converted into isoescin Ia, desacylescin I, 21beta-O-tigloylprotoaescigenin and protoaescigenin by crude enzymes of human intestinal bacteria and Lactobacillus brevis. Desacylescin I showed potentially inhibitory effects on tumor cell growth of mouse sarcoma-180, hepatic carcinoma H(22) and lung carcinoma in vivo. The results suggest that Escin Ia was a prodrug and its structure can be converted by human intestinal bacteria and Lactobacillus brevis. Desacylescin I as a biotransformation product showed potentially inhibitory effects on mouse tumor, and a potential candidate for anti tumor agents.

  19. PVA gel as a potential adhesion barrier: a safety study in a large animal model of intestinal surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renz, Bernhard W; Leitner, Kurt; Odermatt, Erich; Worthley, Daniel L; Angele, Martin K; Jauch, Karl-Walter; Lang, Reinhold A

    2014-03-01

    Intra-abdominal adhesions following surgery are a major source of morbidity and mortality including abdominal pain and small bowel obstruction. This study evaluated the safety of PVA gel (polyvinyl alcohol and carboxymethylated cellulose gel) on intestinal anastomoses and its potential effectiveness in preventing adhesions in a clinically relevant large animal model. Experiments were performed in a pig model with median laparotomy and intestinal anastomosis following small bowel resection. The primary endpoint was the safety of PVA on small intestinal anastomoses. We also measured the incidence of postoperative adhesions in PVA vs. control groups: group A (eight pigs): stapled anastomosis with PVA gel compared to group B (eight pigs), which had no PVA gel; group C (eight pigs): hand-sewn anastomosis with PVA gel compared to group B (eight pigs), which had no anti-adhesive barrier. Animals were sacrificed 14 days after surgery and analyzed. All anastomoses had a patent lumen without any stenosis. No anastomoses leaked at an intraluminal pressure of 40 cmH2O. Thus, anastomoses healed very well in both groups, regardless of whether PVA was administered. PVA-treated animals, however, had significantly fewer adhesions in the area of stapled anastomoses. The hand-sewn PVA group also had weaker adhesions and trended towards fewer adhesions to adjacent organs. These results suggest that PVA gel does not jeopardize the integrity of intestinal anastomoses. However, larger trials are needed to investigate the potential of PVA gel to prevent adhesions in gastrointestinal surgery.

  20. Study of the influence of homologous serum globulin preparations on the intestinal automicroflora in irradiated mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinegin, B.V.; Klemparskaya, N.N.; Mal' tsev, V.N.; Korshunov, G.A.; Shal' nova, G.A.; Kuz' mina, T.D.

    1984-09-01

    In spite of considerable experience of practical use of serum globulin preparations, their effect on automicroflora wasn't studied. The favorable effect of therapeutic injection of homologous serum globulin preparations on automicroflora of small and large intestine of mices was established for the model of acute radiation sickness caused by /sup 60/Co irradiation with 700 R dose. The effect of injecting two types of globulin preparations was studied: ones prepared of blood of intact and hemostimulated mices (to increase the content of normal antitissue antibodies in the serum). Besides the general globulin fraction isolated by ammonium sulfate precipitation a study was made on the effect of purified IgG and IgM preparations. Threefold subcutaneous or intraperitoneal globulin in ection of 1 ..mu..g dose in a mice prevented after 2, 24, 48 h after irradiation the development of bacteriosis, typical for radiation injury - decreased accumulation of putrefactive bacteria and reduced the suppression of lactobacilli content. Globulin preparations and fractions of hemostimulated mice serum, enriched by normal antitissue antibodies are the most effective ones.

  1. Inhibitiory properties of cytoplasmic extract of Lactobacilli isolated from common carp intestine on human chronic myelocytic leukemia K562 cell line: an in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kabiri F

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available "n Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1":*{behavior:url(#ieooui } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Background: Lactobacillus species are genetically diverse groups of Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB that have been introduced as probiotics, because of some characteristics such as their anti-tumor properties, helping the intestinal flora balance, production of antibiotics, stimulation of host immune response, etc. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of cytoplasmic extraction and cell wall of Lactobacillus species isolated from the intestine of common carp on human chronic myelocytic leukemia or K562 cancer cell lines."n"nMethods: The intestinal contents of 115 common carp captured from the natural resources of West Azerbaijan province in Iran were examined for LAB. After isolation, the identification of Lactobacilli was done according to traditional and molecular bacteriological tests. Subsequently, a suspension of each bacterium was prepared and the protein content of the cytoplasm was extracted. Cell wall disintegration was done by cell lysis buffer and sonication. The effects of cytoplasmic extraction and cell wall on K562 cell line proliferation were investigated by MTT assays."n"nResults: The cytoplasmic extraction of the isolated Lactobacilli had significant (p<0.05 anti

  2. Prevalence of Small Intestinal Bacterial Overgrowth in Multiple Sclerosis: a Case-Control Study from China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yongbo; Liu, Guoyi; Duan, Yuanli; Han, Xinwen; Dong, Huihua; Geng, Jia

    2016-12-15

    It's hypothesized that gastrointestinal microbiota might play an important role in pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis (MS). The aim of the present study was to assess the prevalence of small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) in MS patients compared with sex and age matched controls without MS. The present study was a case-control type, it included 118 patients with definitive MS and 118 age-sex matched controls. Progression of disability was assessed using the Multiple Sclerosis Severity Score (MSSS). All patients and controls underwent the glucose breath test to assess SIBO. Forty-five of the 118 MS patients were SIBO positive (38.14%; 95%CI: 29.37%-46.90%) compared with 10 of 118 in the control group (8.47%; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 3.45%-13.50%); the difference was statistically significant (Ppresented at least one GI symptom. Constipation (78.0%), Bloating (46.6%), and fecal incontinence (44.1%) were common. Multivariate analysis showed that expanded disability status scale (EDSS) score and MSSS were the only factors associated with the SIBO-positive status in MS patients (OR, 3.44; 95% CI, 1.56-6.99; and OR, 2.76; 95% CI, 1.42-4.94, respectively). SIBO is highly prevalent in Chinese patients with MS. Further analytical work is required to establish a causal association between SIBO and MS risk and progression. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Intestinal permeability study of minoxidil: assessment of minoxidil as a high permeability reference drug for biopharmaceutics classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozawa, Makoto; Tsume, Yasuhiro; Zur, Moran; Dahan, Arik; Amidon, Gordon L

    2015-01-05

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate minoxidil as a high permeability reference drug for Biopharmaceutics Classification System (BCS). The permeability of minoxidil was determined in in situ intestinal perfusion studies in rodents and permeability studies across Caco-2 cell monolayers. The permeability of minoxidil was compared with that of metoprolol, an FDA reference drug for BCS classification. In rat perfusion studies, the permeability of minoxidil was somewhat higher than that of metoprolol in the jejunum, while minoxidil showed lower permeability than metoprolol in the ileum. The permeability of minoxidil was independent of intestinal segment, while the permeability of metoprolol was region-dependent. Similarly, in mouse perfusion study, the jejunal permeability of minoxidil was 2.5-fold higher than that of metoprolol. Minoxidil and metoprolol showed similar permeability in Caco-2 study at apical pH of 6.5 and basolateral pH of 7.4. The permeability of minoxidil was independent of pH, while metoprolol showed pH-dependent transport in Caco-2 study. Minoxidil exhibited similar permeability in the absorptive direction (AP-BL) in comparison with secretory direction (BL-AP), while metoprolol had higher efflux ratio (ER > 2) at apical pH of 6.5 and basolateral pH of 7.4. No concentration-dependent transport was observed for either minoxidil or metoprolol transport in Caco-2 study. Verapamil did not alter the transport of either compounds across Caco-2 cell monolayers. The permeability of minoxidil was independent of both pH and intestinal segment in intestinal perfusion studies and Caco-2 studies. Caco-2 studies also showed no involvement of carrier mediated transport in the absorption process of minoxidil. These results suggest that minoxidil may be an acceptable reference drug for BCS high permeability classification. However, minoxidil exhibited higher jejunal permeability than metoprolol and thus to use minoxidil as a reference drug would raise the

  4. Intestinal Ischemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... weight loss Intestinal ischemia Symptoms & causes Diagnosis & treatment Advertisement Mayo Clinic does not endorse companies or products. ... a Job Site Map About This Site Twitter Facebook Google YouTube Pinterest Mayo Clinic is a not- ...

  5. Studies on the nitrogen metabolism of the large intestine of ruminants. 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kijora, C.; Simon, O.; Bergner, H.; Goersch, R.; Jacobi, U.; Rossow, N.

    1986-01-01

    Two experiments were performed on sheep, receiving on maintenance level a pelleted straw ration high in crude fibre (straw 70.5%; dried sugar beet pulp 12%; cereals 10%; urea 2%; ammonium hydrogen carbonate 3%; minerals 2.5%). The animals were fitted with ileo-cecal re-entrant cannulas. The effects of the introduction of partly hydrolyzed straw meal into the digesta of the large intestine on the digestion processes in that segment were studied. Under these conditions the metabolism of 14 C and 15 N-labelled urea, which was given into the cecum, was estimated. In experiment 1 (E1; 2 animals) unlabelled, precollected digesta were hourly reintroduced together with 14 C and 15 N-labelled urea via the cecal cannula. In experiment 2 (E2; 3 animals) the digesta were supplemented with partly hydrolyzed straw meal (10% of the mean daily dry matter intake with the ration). The supplement of partly hydrolyzed straw meal caused an increase of the 15 N excretion with feces from 13.4% (E1) to 19.8% (E2) of the dose. The 15 N was mainly incorporated in the bacterial fraction (98% E1; 96% E2). As a reason for the increased 15 N incorporation into the bacterial fraction of 106.4 mg 15 N' in E2 vs. 67.3 mg 15 N' in the experiment without straw meal supplement the higher supply of energy as fermentable carbohydrates was assumed. (author)

  6. [Cross-sectional study of intestinal parasitosis in child populations in Argentina].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navone, Graciela Teresa; Zonta, María Lorena; Cociancic, Paola; Garraza, Mariela; Gamboa, María Inés; Giambelluca, Luis Alberto; Dahinten, Silvia; Oyhenart, Evelia Edith

    2017-06-08

    Determine the distribution of intestinal parasitosis in children in nine provinces representative of Argentina's mosaic of contrasting environments. Descriptive, observational, cross-sectional study of preschool children (5 years old or under) and school-age children (6-14 years) in the provinces of Buenos Aires (sample taken between 2005 and 2013), Chubut (2010-2013), Corrientes (2012), Entre Ríos (2010-2012), Formosa (2014), La Pampa (2006), Mendoza (2008-2011), Misiones (2005-2008 and 2013), and Salta (2012-2013). Serial samples, fecal samples, and anal swabs were processed using concentration techniques. The results were analyzed by sex, age interval, and province. Frequency of parasitosis (monoparasitosis and multiple parasitoses), wealth of species, and Sørensen similarity coefficient were calculated. Misiones presented the highest frequency of parasitized children and Chubut the lowest (82.0% vs 38.4%; p parasitosis in Formosa (69.2%). The most frequent species in the majority of provinces were Blastocystis sp. and Enterobius vermicularis. Misiones presented the highest frequency of soil-transmitted helminthes (23.3%) and Mendoza the lowest (0.6%); none were found in Chubut, La Pampa, or Salta. Buenos Aires, Formosa, and Misiones presented a similar species composition, as did Chubut and La Pampa. The frequency of parasitosis in Argentina corresponds to the country's complex mosaic of climatic and socioeconomic variability and shows a declining trend from north to south and from east to west.

  7. Techniques and problems in studying intestinal absorption with radioactive isotopes in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    James, W.P.T.; Waterlow, J.C.

    1976-01-01

    Radioactive isotopes give substantial promise for assisting the study of gastrointestinal absorption in children in that they allow reduction or elimination of the collection of blood, urine and faeces specimens. These operations are particularly difficult and unreliable in infants, on whom greatest interest in paediatric gastroenterology is centred in the tropics. Here intestinal malabsorption is most commonly associated with malnutrition, lactose intolerance, gastroenteritis, parasitic infestation and iron-deficiency anaemia. Two general techniques that have been employed are whole-body counting and analyses of 14 CO 2 exhaled in the breath after the feeding of 14 C-labelled nutrients. The former is advantageous if radionuclides suitable for the test at hand exist; the latter may be hard to interpret because of problems in the distribution and metabolism of the nutrient and intermediary products. Proper selection and understanding of the tests is particularly important in paediatric work, where the use of radioactive tracer techniques is unacceptable merely for the convenience of the investigator. (author)

  8. Substitution of porcine small intestinal submucosa for rabbit Achilles tendon, an experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Yan; Dai, Kerong

    2002-09-25

    To study the effect of substitution of porcine small intestinal submucosa (SIS) for rabbit Achilles tendon. Porcine SIS was taken out and processed. Part of Achilles tendons of 20 rabbits' right legs were removed and substituted by porcine SIS and the Achilles tendon of the left legs were used as controls. One, four, eight, twelve, and sixteen weeks after the operation 4 rabbits were killed and their right Achilles tendons were taken out to be examined histologically and their maximum load was tested. One week after the operation, the porcine SIS was already fused with the remaining part of rabbit Achilles tendon. Sixteen weeks after all the Achilles tendons looked like normal one. The maximum load of experimental Achilles tendon was 48 N +/- 9 N one week after the operation, and increased gradually. In the 16th week after the operation, the maximum load was 178 N +/- 6 N for the experimental Achilles tendon and 174 N +/- 10 N for the control tendon. The differences of maximum load between different weeks after operation, except that between one week and 4 weeks after, were statistically significant (P Achilles tendon is effective, thus proving the feasibility of in vivo tissue engineering technology.

  9. Study of biocompatibility of small intestinal submucosa (SIS) with Schwann cells in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Yan; Zeng, Bing-Fang; Zhang, Chang-Qing; Zhang, Kai-Gang; Xie, Xue-Tao

    2007-05-11

    No satisfactory method currently exists for repairing long peripheral nerve defects. Efforts have been made to fabricate bioactive artificial nerve conduits, comprised of a biomaterial pre-seeded with Schwann cells (SCs), which creating a favorable micro-environment for axonal regeneration, to be an alternative to autografting by means of tissue engineering. Small intestinal submucosa (SIS) possesses special biological characteristics and is comprehensively researched for tissue repairing at varied tissues and organs. This study investigated the biocompatibility of SIS with SCs in vitro. Cultured rat SCs were seeded on SIS. Cell morphology was observed by light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscope. The viability of SCs was measured by MTT assay. Secretion of NGF-beta and BDNF was quantitatively assessed by ELISA, and NGF-beta mRNA and BDNF mRNA were semi-quantitatively assessed by RT-PCR. The results indicated that SCs could adhere, migrate and proliferate on the surface of SIS in good condition with productive function of secreting growth factors. SIS has a good biocompatibility with SCs and SIS pre-seeded with SCs has potential to be an alternate candidate of autografting for repairing long peripheral nerve defects.

  10. Social adaptation following intestinal stoma formation in people living at home: a longitudinal phenomenological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorpe, Gabrielle; McArthur, Maggie

    2017-11-01

    Intestinal stoma formation profoundly changes the relationship between a person and their social world. The aim of this study was to understand the experience of living with a new stoma; this paper explores the theme "disrupted social world," highlighting how stoma-forming surgery impacts on individuals' abilities to participate and interact socially over time. A longitudinal phenomenological approach. Twelve participants with a new stoma were recruited using purposeful sampling. Data were collected at three, nine and 15 months following surgery through in-depth, unstructured interviews and analysed using a bespoke iterative framework. Three categories were identified: participation in the social environment; interpersonal relationships: changes and challenges; and setting and achieving goals. Stoma-forming surgery changes the ways people relate to their social environment and connect with others, creating self-consciousness and impeding social confidence and autonomy. Understanding the social implications of stoma-forming surgery can help clinicians to provide responsive and appropriate support to facilitate social rehabilitation. Implications for Rehabilitation Assisting people with a stoma to develop competent stoma self-care skills will promote social adaptation and self-acceptance. Clinicians should promote access to others with a stoma, an important source of support for many people adjusting to a new stoma. Graded exposure to social participation can engender feelings of control and confidence for people with a stoma. Clinicians can help individuals with a stoma to set realistic goals for their recovery, while encouraging a range of positive coping strategies.

  11. The viability and intestinal epithelial cell adhesion of probiotic strain combination--in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piątek, Jacek; Gibas-Dorna, Magdalena; Olejnik, Anna; Krauss, Hanna; Wierzbicki, Krzysztof; Żukiewicz-Sobczak, Wioletta; Głowacki, Maciej

    2012-01-01

    To be effective, probiotic bacteria must exhibit a number of functional characteristics, including the resistance to gastric acidity and the ability to adhere to the intestinal epithelium. In this study, we examined in vitro the viability of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) combination after exposure to low pH, and the adhesion of LAB to Caco-2 cells during coincubation of 9 bacterial strains. To test bacterial viability, 6 commercially available products were incubated in 0.1 N HCl at pH 1.2 for 60 min. The greatest growth inhibition was noted for the non-capsulated product containing the Lactobacillus rhamnosus strain (log reduction of CFU = 6.4), and the best survival observed for the product containing 9 bacterial strains, equipped with a modern capsule made according to the Multi-Resistant Encapsulation technology (log reduction of CFU = 0.1). In the adhesion experiment, the combination of 9 bacterial strains was added to 17-day-old Caco-2 cell culture for 90 min. The greatest efficiency of adhesion was observed for the inoculum containing 5.5x10(8) CFU/mL/9.6 cm(2) of Caco-2 and the dose of probiotic bacteria of 190 cells per one Caco-2 cell. As a result, approximately 157 bacterial cells adhered to one Caco-2 cell. The results indicate that the combination of 9 bacterial strains in the examined product is characterized as highly adhesive.

  12. Using human intestinal biopsies to study the pathogenesis of irritable bowel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasser, Y; Boeckxstaens, G E; Wouters, M M; Schemann, M; Vanner, S

    2014-04-01

    Although animal models of the irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) have provided important insights, there are no models that fully express the features of this complex condition. One alternative approach is the use of human intestinal biopsies obtained during endoscopic procedures to examine peripheral mechanisms in this disorder. These studies have served to confirm the existence of peripheral pathways in humans with IBS and have provided many new mechanistic insights. Two general approaches have been employed; one approach has been to examine the biological activity of mediators within the mucosal tissue of IBS patients and the other has been to examine changes in the structural properties of key signaling pathways contained within the biopsies. Using these approaches, important changes have been discovered involving the enteric nervous system and the extrinsic sensory pathway (dorsal root ganglia neurons), the immune system, and epithelial signaling in IBS patients compared to healthy subjects. This review will systematically explore these mechanistic pathways, highlight the implications of these novel findings and discuss some of the important limitations of this approach. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. [Comparative study of intestinal anastomosis with manual suture and biofragmentable ring in dogs under corticosteroid administration].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, L C; Matos, D; Novelli, M D; Kim, S B

    2000-01-01

    This study analyzed intestinal anastomoses by manual suture and by compression with biofragmentable ring under delay of cicatrization administering parenteral corticoids. Twenty dogs were divided into two groups: control and test, the latter submitted to intramuscular administration of hydrocortisone hemisuccinate, 25 to 33 mg/kg/day, on the 30th preoperative and 7th postoperative days. During surgery, each animal underwent two colon sections with anastomosis by manual suture in a single extramucous plane and compression with biofragmentable ring. The animals were sacrificed 7 days after the procedure to evaluate the anastomoses. In the postoperative period, one death occurred in the test group and two in the control group, caused by nonblocked fistula in the anastomoses by ring compression. Statistically, there was a similar incidence of adherences, fistulas, afferent dilatation and obstruction using comparison methods. On microscopy, deficiency in mucous regeneration of the anastomoses by compression was observed. Computerized histological analysis evidenced in the anastomoses by compression, a greater inflammatory reaction, greater edema of the submucous membrane and enlarged scars. It was concluded that, with the biofragmentable ring, in colonic anastomosis under delay of cicatrization induced by corticoids, similar results to manual suture regarding to postoperative complications incidence were obtained; ring, however, determined worse mucous regeneration and greater cicatricial inflammatory reaction.

  14. Intestinal Coccidia

    OpenAIRE

    MJ Ggaravi

    2007-01-01

    Intestinal Coccidia are a subclass of Apicomplexa phylum. Eucoccidida are facultative heteroxenous, but some of them are monoxenous. They have sexual and asexual life cycle. Some coccidia are human pathogens, for example: Cryptosporidium: Cryptosporidiums has many species that are mammalian intestinal parasites.C. Parvum specie is a human pathogenic protozoa. Cryptosporidum has circle or ellipse shapes and nearly 4-6 mm. It is transmitted in warm seasons. Oocyst is obtained insexual life cycl...

  15. The role of the intestinal microvasculature in inflammatory bowel disease: studies with a modified Caco-2 model including endothelial cells resembling the intestinal barrier in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasper, Jennifer Y; Hermanns, Maria Iris; Cavelius, Christian; Kraegeloh, Annette; Jung, Thomas; Danzebrink, Rolf; Unger, Ronald E; Kirkpatrick, Charles James

    2016-01-01

    The microvascular endothelium of the gut barrier plays a crucial role during inflammation in inflammatory bowel disease. We have modified a commonly used intestinal cell model based on the Caco-2 cells by adding microvascular endothelial cells (ISO-HAS-1). Transwell filters were used with intestinal barrier-forming Caco-2 cells on top and the ISO-HAS-1 on the bottom of the filter. The goal was to determine whether this coculture mimics the in vivo situation more closely, and whether the model is suitable to evaluate interactions of, for example, prospective nanosized drug vehicles or contrast agents with this coculture in a physiological and inflamed state as it would occur in inflammatory bowel disease. We monitored the inflammatory responsiveness of the cells (release of IL-8, soluble intercellular adhesion molecule 1, and soluble E-selectin) after exposure to inflammatory stimuli (lipopolysaccharide, TNF-α, INF-γ, IL1-β) and a nanoparticle (Ba/Gd: coprecipitated BaSO4 and Gd(OH)3), generally used as contrast agents. The barrier integrity of the coculture was evaluated via the determination of transepithelial electrical resistance and the apparent permeability coefficient (Papp) of NaFITC. The behavior of the coculture Caco-1/ISO-HAS-1 was compared to the respective monocultures Caco-2 and ISO-HAS-1. Based on transepithelial electrical resistance, the epithelial barrier integrity of the coculture remained stable during incubation with all stimuli, whereas the Papp decreased after exposure to the cytokine mixture (TNF-α, INF-γ, IL1-β, and Ba/Gd). Both the endothelial and epithelial monocultures showed a high inflammatory response in both the upper and lower transwell-compartments. However, in the coculture, inflammatory mediators were only detected on the epithelial side and not on the endothelial side. Thus in the coculture, based on the Papp, the epithelial barrier appears to prevent a potential inflammatory overreaction in the underlying endothelial cells

  16. Applications of ribosomal in situ hybridization for the study of bacterial cells in the mouse intestine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Licht, Tine Rask; Poulsen, Lars Kongsbak; Molin, Søren

    1997-01-01

    Localization of E. coli and S. typhimurium in the large and small intestine of streptomycin-treated mice was visualized by in situ hybridization with specific rRNA target probes and epi-fluorescence microscopy. Growth rates of E. coli BJ4 colonizing the large intestine of streptomycin-treated mice...... were estimated by quantitative hybridization. The ribosomal contents were measured in bacteria isolated from cecal mucus, cecal contents and feces and correlated with the ribosomal contents of bacteria growing in vitro with defined rates. The data suggest that E. coli BJ4 grows with an apparent...

  17. [Study on treatment of irritable bowel syndrome: based on relationship between heart and intestines].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Su-Na; Wang, Zu-Hong; Xie, Su-Juan; Han, Li-Bing; Yi, Rong

    2010-11-01

    The article puts forward the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome through regulating heart vitality since it is held that the pathological factors of the disease lay in dysfunction of heart and intestines as well as disorder of qi circulation. At the same time, the internal-external relationship between the heart the small intestine is discussed from the theory of Brain-gut Axis in modern medicine, which provides theoretical base of modern medicine for the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome through regulation of the heart functions.

  18. An in vitro study to assess the impact of tetracycline on the human intestinal microbiome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Ji Young; Ahn, Youngbeom; Khare, Sangeeta; Gokulan, Kuppan; Piñeiro, Silvia A; Cerniglia, Carl E

    2018-02-01

    The human intestinal microbiome, a generally stable ecosystem, could be potentially altered by the ingestion of antimicrobial drug residues in foods derived from animals. Data and the scientific published literature on the effects of antimicrobial residues on the human intestinal microbiome are reviewed by national regulatory authorities as part of the human food safety evaluation of veterinary antimicrobial agents used in food-producing animals. In this study, we determined if tetracycline, at low residue concentrations, could impact the human intestinal microbiome structure and the resistance-gene profile, following acute and subchronic exposure. The effects of 0.15, 1.5, 15, and 150 μg/ml of tetracycline, after 24 h and 40 days of exposure, in 3% human fecal suspensions, collected from three individuals (A, B, and C) were investigated using in vitro batch cultures. Results were variable, with either no change or minor changes in total bacterial 16S rRNA gene copies after exposure of fecal samples to tetracycline, because of the inter-individual variation of human gastrointestinal tract microbiota. Bacterial community analysis using rRNA-based pyrosequencing revealed that Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes were the predominant phyla in the three fecal samples; the ratio of phylotypes varied among individuals. The evaluation of bacterial community changes at the genus level, from control to tetracycline-treated fecal samples, suggested that tetracycline under the conditions of this study could lead to slight differences in the composition of intestinal microbiota. The genus Bacteroides (of the Bacteroidetes) was consistently altered from 1.68 to 5.70% and 4.82-8.22% at tetracycline concentrations of 0.15 μg/ml or above at both time points for individual A, respectively, and increased 5.13-13.50% and 10.92-22.18% for individual B, respectively. Clostridium family XI increased 3.50-25.34% in the presence of tetracycline at 40 days for individual C. Principal

  19. SU-F-P-29: Impact of Oral Contrast Agent for Assisting in Outlining Small Intestine On Pelvic IMAT Dose in Patients with Cervical Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, R; Bai, W; Fan, X [The Fourth Hospital of Hebei Medical University, Shijiazhuang, Hebei (China)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: As the advanced intensity modulated arc therapy(IMAT) delivery systems becoming a main role of treatment ways, which places even greater demands on delivering accuracy. The impact of oral contrast agent (meglumine diatrizoate) for assisting in outlining the small intestine on pelvic IMAT dose in patients with cervical cancer was investigated. Methods: Ten cervical cancer patients for postoperative radiotherapy underwent CT scans, and the planning target volumes (PTV) and organs at risk (including the small intestine, rectum, bladder, colon and the left and right femoral head) were contoured. The IMAT plans were generated on Oncentra v4.1 planning system for each case, PTV was prescribed to 50.4 Gy in 28 fractions. Then another plan was generated by re-calculating the radiation dose after changing the electron density of the small bowel. The first plan (plan A) was the conventional IMAT plan (with oral contrast agent), and the second one (plan B) specified the electron density of the small bowel (without oral contrast agent). Paired t-test was used to compare the dose distribution between the two plans. Results: The PTV’s D2, D50, D95, V110, conformity index, and homogeneity index of plans A and B were 5610.5 vs. 5611.4 cGy (P=0.175), 5348.5 vs. 5348.0 cGy (P=0.869), 5039 vs. 5042.3 (P=0.518), 6.0% vs. 6.1 %( P=0.886), 0.1269 vs. 0.1271 (P=0.34) and 0.8421 vs. 0.8416 (P=0.598), respectively. The volumes of the small bowel receiving at least 30 Gy (V30) and the minimum dose of 2% volume accepted (D2) for plans A and B were 31.6% vs. 31.9% (P=0.371) and 5067.8 vs. 5085.4 cGy (P=0.377), while rectum V50 of the two plans was 12.4% vs. 12.1% (P=0.489). Conclusion: The oral contrast agent (meglumine diatrizoate) filling the small intestine does not lead to a significant increase in the pelvic IMAT dose in patients with cervical cancer.

  20. In Situ Intestinal Perfusion in Rodents: Future Perspectives for Application on Absorption Studies and Classification of Drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dezani, Thaisa Marinho; Dezani, Andre Bersani; de Silva, Monica Maria Coquemala; Dos Reis Serra, Cristina Helena

    2017-01-01

    In 1995, the Biopharmaceutics Classification System (BCS) was proposed by Amidon and colleagues as a tool that considers two important parameters regarding drugs: solubility and permeability. Since then, several methods for solubility and permeability studies have been developed for drug delivery and absorption prediction. In recent years, permeability has gained a great highlight and the interaction between a molecule and a biological membrane is not enough to predict the in vivo behavior of a compound. Thus, different methods for permeability assessment are currently used for mechanistic studies including involvement of carriers and several transport pathways. Furthermore, the investigation regarding metabolism has been a focus in recent researches. Based on this idea, Wu and Benet proposed a new tool called Biopharmaceutics Drug Disposition Classification System (BDDCS), where drugs are classified into four classes considering their solubility and metabolism. Among several methods for permeability studies, the in situ intestinal perfusion is considered the closest to in vivo conditions due advantages as intact blood supply and innervation. This review presents the in situ intestinal perfusion model and its application for permeability/ transport studies of drugs and intestinal metabolism. Also, this paper discusses about how the in situ perfusion studies can be used for classification of drugs and the future perspectives for in vivo absorption prediction. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  1. Expression of the Na+/l- symporter (NIS is markedly decreased or absent in gastric cancer and intestinal metaplastic mucosa of Barrett esophagus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wapnir Irene L

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The sodium/iodide symporter (NIS is a plasma membrane glycoprotein that mediates iodide (I- transport in the thyroid, lactating breast, salivary glands, and stomach. Whereas NIS expression and regulation have been extensively investigated in healthy and neoplastic thyroid and breast tissues, little is known about NIS expression and function along the healthy and diseased gastrointestinal tract. Methods Thus, we investigated NIS expression by immunohistochemical analysis in 155 gastrointestinal tissue samples and by immunoblot analysis in 17 gastric tumors from 83 patients. Results Regarding the healthy Gl tract, we observed NIS expression exclusively in the basolateral region of the gastric mucin-producing epithelial cells. In gastritis, positive NIS staining was observed in these cells both in the presence and absence of Helicobacter pylori. Significantly, NIS expression was absent in gastric cancer, independently of its histological type. Only focal faint NIS expression was detected in the direct vicinity of gastric tumors, i.e., in the histologically intact mucosa, the expression becoming gradually stronger and linear farther away from the tumor. Barrett mucosa with junctional and fundic-type columnar metaplasia displayed positive NIS staining, whereas Barrett mucosa with intestinal metaplasia was negative. NIS staining was also absent in intestinalized gastric polyps. Conclusion That NIS expression is markedly decreased or absent in case of intestinalization or malignant transformation of the gastric mucosa suggests that NIS may prove to be a significant tumor marker in the diagnosis and prognosis of gastric malignancies and also precancerous lesions such as Barrett mucosa, thus extending the medical significance of NIS beyond thyroid disease.

  2. Methods to Study Epithelial Transport Protein Function and Expression in Native Intestine and Caco-2 Cells Grown in 3D.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anabazhagan, Arivarasu N; Chatterjee, Ishita; Priyamvada, Shubha; Kumar, Anoop; Tyagi, Sangeeta; Saksena, Seema; Alrefai, Waddah A; Dudeja, Pradeep K; Gill, Ravinder K

    2017-03-16

    The intestinal epithelium has important transport and barrier functions that play key roles in normal physiological functions of the body while providing a barrier to foreign particles. Impaired epithelial transport (ion, nutrient, or drugs) has been associated with many diseases and can have consequences that extend beyond the normal physiological functions of the transporters, such as by influencing epithelial integrity and the gut microbiome. Understanding the function and regulation of transport proteins is critical for the development of improved therapeutic interventions. The biggest challenge in the study of epithelial transport is developing a suitable model system that recapitulates important features of the native intestinal epithelial cells. Several in vitro cell culture models, such as Caco-2, T-84, and HT-29-Cl.19A cells are typically used in epithelial transport research. These cell lines represent a reductionist approach to modeling the epithelium and have been used in many mechanistic studies, including their examination of epithelial-microbial interactions. However, cell monolayers do not accurately reflect cell-cell interactions and the in vivo microenvironment. Cells grown in 3D have shown to be promising models for drug permeability studies. We show that Caco-2 cells in 3D can be used to study epithelial transporters. It is also important that studies in Caco-2 cells are complemented with other models to rule out cell specific effects and to take into account the complexity of the native intestine. Several methods have been previously used to assess the functionality of transporters, such as everted sac and uptake in isolated epithelial cells or in isolated plasma membrane vesicles. Taking into consideration the challenges in the field with respect to models and the measurement of transport function, we demonstrate here a protocol to grow Caco-2 cells in 3D and describe the use of an Ussing chamber as an effective approach to measure serotonin

  3. Factors influencing intestinal cadmium uptake in pregnant Bangladeshi women-A prospective cohort study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kippler, M. [Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Box 210, SE-171 77 Stockholm (Sweden); Goessler, W. [Institut fuer Chemie-Analytische Chemie, Karl-Franzens-Universitaet, Universitaetsplatz 1, 8010 Graz (Austria); Nermell, B. [Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Box 210, SE-171 77 Stockholm (Sweden); Ekstroem, E.C. [Department of Women' s and Children' s Health, International Maternal and Child Health, Uppsala University, SE-751 85 Uppsala (Sweden); Loennerdal, B. [Department of Nutrition, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); El Arifeen, S. [International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh (ICDDR,B), GPO Box 128, Dhaka 100 (Bangladesh); Vahter, M., E-mail: Marie.Vahter@ki.se [Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Box 210, SE-171 77 Stockholm (Sweden)

    2009-10-15

    Experimental studies indicate that zinc (Zn) and calcium (Ca) status, in addition to iron (Fe) status, affect gastrointestinal absorption of cadmium (Cd), an environmental pollutant that is toxic to kidneys, bone and endocrine systems. The aim of this study was to evaluate how various nutritional factors influence the uptake of Cd in women, particularly during pregnancy. The study was carried out in a rural area of Bangladesh, where malnutrition is prevalent and exposure to Cd via food appears elevated. The uptake of Cd was evaluated by associations between erythrocyte Cd concentrations (Ery-Cd), a marker of ongoing Cd exposure, and concentrations of nutritional markers. Blood samples, collected in early pregnancy and 6 months postpartum, were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS). Ery-Cd varied considerably (range: 0.31-5.4 {mu}g/kg) with a median of 1.1 {mu}g/kg (approximately 0.5 {mu}g/L in whole blood) in early pregnancy. Ery-Cd was associated with erythrocyte manganese (Ery-Mn; positively), plasma ferritin (p-Ft; negatively), and erythrocyte Ca (Ery-Ca; negatively) in decreasing order, indicating common transporters for Cd, Fe and Mn. There was no evidence of Cd uptake via Zn transporters, but the association between Ery-Cd and p-Ft seemed to be dependent on adequate Zn status. On average, Ery-Cd increased significantly by 0.2 {mu}g/kg from early pregnancy to 6 months postpartum, apparently due to up-regulated divalent metal transporter 1 (DMT1). In conclusion, intestinal uptake of Cd appears to be influenced either directly or indirectly by several micronutrients, in particular Fe, Mn and Zn. The negative association with Ca may suggest that Cd inhibits the transport of Ca to blood.

  4. An ex-vivo human intestinal model to study Entamoeba histolytica pathogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devendra Bansal

    Full Text Available Amoebiasis (a human intestinal infection affecting 50 million people every year is caused by the protozoan parasite Entamoeba histolytica. To study the molecular mechanisms underlying human colon invasion by E. histolytica, we have set up an ex vivo human colon model to study the early steps in amoebiasis. Using scanning electron microscopy and histological analyses, we have established that E. histolytica caused the removal of the protective mucus coat during the first two hours of incubation, detached the enterocytes, and then penetrated into the lamina propria by following the crypts of Lieberkühn. Significant cell lysis (determined by the release of lactodehydrogenase and inflammation (marked by the secretion of pro-inflammatory molecules such as interleukin 1 beta, interferon gamma, interleukin 6, interleukin 8 and tumour necrosis factor were detected after four hours of incubation. Entamoeba dispar (a closely related non-pathogenic amoeba that also colonizes the human colon was unable to invade colonic mucosa, lyse cells or induce an inflammatory response. We also examined the behaviour of trophozoites in which genes coding for known virulent factors (such as amoebapores, the Gal/GalNAc lectin and the cysteine protease 5 (CP-A5, which have major roles in cell death, adhesion (to target cells or mucus and mucus degradation, respectively were silenced, together with the corresponding tissue responses. Our data revealed that the signalling via the heavy chain Hgl2 or via the light chain Lgl1 of the Gal/GalNAc lectin is not essential to penetrate the human colonic mucosa. In addition, our study demonstrates that E. histolytica silenced for CP-A5 does not penetrate the colonic lamina propria and does not induce the host's pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion.

  5. Rapid conversion of the ester prodrug abiraterone acetate results in intestinal supersaturation and enhanced absorption of abiraterone: in vitro, rat in situ and human in vivo studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stappaerts, Jef; Geboers, Sophie; Snoeys, Jan; Brouwers, Joachim; Tack, Jan; Annaert, Pieter; Augustijns, Patrick

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the intestinal disposition of abiraterone acetate, an ester prodrug of the anticancer agent abiraterone. Stability of the prodrug and solubility and dissolution characteristics of both abiraterone and abiraterone acetate were monitored in vitro. Moreover, the in vivo intraluminal concentrations of abiraterone and abiraterone acetate upon intake of one tablet of 250 mg abiraterone acetate were assessed in healthy volunteers. The intestinal absorption resulting from the intraluminal behavior of the ester prodrug was determined using the rat in situ intestinal perfusion technique with mesenteric blood sampling. Simulated and aspirated human intestinal fluids of the fasted state were used as solvent systems. Upon incubation of abiraterone acetate in human intestinal fluids in vitro, rapid hydrolysis of the prodrug was observed, generating abiraterone concentrations largely exceeding the apparent solubility of abiraterone, suggesting the existence of intestinal supersaturation. These findings were confirmed in vivo, by intraluminal sampling of duodenal fluids upon oral intake of an abiraterone acetate tablet by healthy volunteers. Rat in situ intestinal perfusion experiments performed with suspensions of abiraterone and abiraterone acetate in human intestinal fluids of the fasted state revealed significantly higher flux values upon perfusion with the prodrug than with abiraterone. Moreover, rat in situ intestinal perfusion with abiraterone acetate suspensions in simulated fluids of the fasted state in presence or absence of esterases demonstrated that increased hydrolytic activity of the perfusion medium was beneficial to the intestinal absorption of abiraterone. In conclusion, the rapid hydrolysis of abiraterone acetate in the intraluminal environment appears to result in fast and extensive generation of abiraterone supersaturation, creating a strong driving force for abiraterone absorption. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All

  6. Contaminated small drinking water supplies and risk of infectious intestinal disease: a prospective cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen L Risebro

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: This study sought to identify whether elevated risk of infectious intestinal disease (IID exists in contaminated small water supply consumers compared with consumers drinking from small supplies complying with current standards and whether this effect is modified by age. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A prospective cohort study of 611 individuals receiving small supplies in England was conducted. Water supplies received sanitary inspection and examination for indicator bacteria and participants maintained a daily record of IID. Regression modeling with generalized estimating equations that included interaction terms between age and indicators of fecal pollution was performed. Crude IID prevalence was 9 · 3 days with symptoms/1000 person days (95%CI: 8 · 4, 10 · 1 and incidence was 3 · 2 episodes/1000 person days (95%CI, 2 · 7, 3 · 7 or 1 · 2 episodes per person year. Although there was no overall association between IID risk and indicator presence, there was strong interaction between age and indicator presence. In children under ten, relative risk (RR of IID in those drinking from enterococci contaminated supplies was 4.8 (95%CI: 1.5, 15.3 for incidence and 8.9 (95%CI: 2.8, 27.5 for prevalence. In those aged 10 to 59, IID risk was lower but not statistically significant. CONCLUSIONS: Contaminated small water supplies pose a substantial risk of IID to young children who live in homes reliant on these supplies. By contrast older children and adults do not appear to be at increased risk. Health care professionals with responsibility for children living in homes provided by very small water supplies should make parents aware of the risk.

  7. Predictors of intestinal parasitosis in school children of Kashmir: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Charanjit; Zargar, Showkat Ali; Masoodi, Ibrahim; Shoukat, Abid; Ahmad, Bilal

    2010-01-01

    To identify the factors associated with intestinal parasitosis in rural and urban school children of Kashmir. Single fresh stool samples from rural and urban school children in three age groups: a) 5 to intestinal helminths. Concentration methods were used if egg count was low. 274 stool samples from rural school children and 240 samples were taken from urban school children respectively. 214 (46.7%) students had stool tests positive for parasitosis. Ascariasis was the most prevalent parasitosis (28%) followed by Giardiasis (7%), Trichuriasis( 5%) and Taeniasis( 4%). There was higher prevalence of parasitosis among rural orphanage children compared to urban orphanage students (76% vs. 48% p parasitosis compared to those who were using tap water. 202 students were found to have poor personal hygiene and parasitosis was higher in them compared to students with good personal hygiene (p intestinal infestation besides socio economic status. Regular deworming programmes need to be adopted at school level especially in 8-11 years old children to check the surge of intestinal parasites and their subsequent morbidities.

  8. Study on intestinal /sup 47/Ca absorption test by employing scintillation camera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torizumi, K.; Yamada, R.; Ota, K.; Ebisuno, S.

    1987-05-01

    In order to evaluate the clinical application of the calcium absorption test from the intestine, the intestinal /sup 47/Ca absorption test by using a scintillation camera was carried out in our laboratory. The results in the intestinal /sup 47/Ca absorption test using a scintillation camera showed a good correlation to the results which were estimated by using an arm counter previously reported by us. The rate of intestinal /sup 47/Ca absorption in 8 healthy volunteers (5 male, 3 female, average age: 37.6 +- 9.5 years) was 52.0 +- 3.8 %, 74.3 % in a patient with primary hyperparathyroidism 30.4 %, and 32.7 % in two patients with idiopathic hypoparathyroidism respectively. This method is more easily handled and can be performed for only 4 days in institutes that are set up with scintillation camera without any special preparations, and it is recommended to be of clinical usefulness for the diagnosis of calcium metabolic disorders.

  9. A study on intestinal 47Ca absorption test by employing scintillation camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torizumi, Kazutami; Yamada, Ryusaku; Ota, Kiichiro; Ebisuno, Shoichi

    1987-01-01

    In order to evaluate the clinical application of the calcium absorption test from the intestine, the intestinal 47 Ca absorption test by using a scintillation camera was carried out in our laboratory. The results in the intestinal 47 Ca absorption test using a scintillation camera showed a good correlation to the results which were estimated by using an arm counter previously reported by us. The rate of intestinal 47 Ca absorption in 8 healthy volunteers (5 male, 3 female, average age: 37.6 ± 9.5 years) was 52.0 ± 3.8 %, 74.3 % in a patient with primary hyperparathyroidism 30.4 % and 32.7 % in two patients with idiopathic hypoparathyroidism respectively. This method is more easily handled and can be performed for only 4 days in institutes that are set up with scintillation camera without any special preparations, and it is recommended to be of clinical usefulness for the diagnosis of calcium metabolic disorders. (author)

  10. Plexus muscularis profundus and associated interstitial cells. II. Ultrastructural studies of mouse small intestine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rumessen, J J; Thuneberg, L; Mikkelsen, H B

    1982-01-01

    The ultrastructure of plexus muscularis profundus (PMP) of the mouse small intestine was investigated subsequent to vascular perfusion with ruthenium red-containing and routine aldehyde fixatives. Four types of nerve terminals were revealed. Type I: numerous 500-A agranular vesicles and few 1,000-A...

  11. Ghrelin improves intestinal mucosal atrophy during parenteral nutrition: An experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Waka; Kaji, Tatsuru; Onishi, Shun; Nakame, Kazuhiko; Yamada, Koji; Kawano, Takafumi; Mukai, Motoi; Souda, Masakazu; Yoshioka, Takako; Tanimoto, Akihide; Ieiri, Satoshi

    2016-12-01

    Total parenteral nutrition (TPN) has been reported to be associated with mucosal atrophy of the small intestine. Ghrelin has hormonal, orexigenic, and metabolic activities. We investigated whether ghrelin improved intestinal mucosal atrophy using a TPN-supported rat model. Rats underwent jugular vein catheterization and were divided into four groups: TPN alone (TPN), TPN plus low-dose ghrelin (TPNLG), TPN plus high-dose ghrelin (TPNHG), and oral feeding with normal chow (OF). Ghrelin was administered continuously at dosages of 10 or 50 μg/kg/day. On day 6 rats were euthanized, and the small intestine was harvested and divided into the jejunum and ileum. Then the villus height (VH) and crypt depth (CD) were evaluated. The jejunal and ileal VH and CD in the TPN group were significantly decreased compared with those in the OF group. TPNHG improved only VH of the jejunum. TPNLG improved VH and CD of the jejunum and CD of the ileum. The improvement of TPNLG was significantly stronger than that in CD of the jejunum and ileum. TPN was more strongly associated with mucosal atrophy in the jejunum than in the ileum. Low-dose intravenous administration of ghrelin improved TPN-associated intestinal mucosal atrophy more effectively than high-dose administration. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Biosynthesis of intestinal microvillar proteins. Pulse-chase labelling studies on maltase-glucoamylase, aminopeptidase A and dipeptidyl peptidase IV

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danielsen, E M; Sjöström, H; Norén, Ove

    1983-01-01

    The biogenesis of three intestinal microvillar enzymes, maltase-glucoamylase (EC 3.2.1.20), aminopeptidase A (aspartate aminopeptidase, EC 3.4.11.7) and dipeptidyl peptidase IV (EC 3.4.14.5), was studied by pulse-chase labelling of pig small-intestinal explants kept in organ culture. The earliest...... of chase, maltase-glucoamylase, aminopeptidase A and dipeptidyl peptidase IV were further modified to yield the mature polypeptides of Mr 245000, 170000 and 137000 respectively, which were expressed at the microvillar membrane after 60-90 min of chase. The fact that the enzymes before reaching...... the microvillar membrane were found in a Ca2+-precipitated membrane fraction (intracellular and basolateral membranes), but not in soluble form, indicates that during biogenesis maltase-glucoamylase, aminopeptidase A and dipeptidyl peptidase IV are transported and assembled in a membrane-bound state....

  13. Fractionation study: survival of mouse intestinal crypts to exposure of 60Co and 11 MeV electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coffey, C.W.

    1975-01-01

    The study was conducted to determine a statistical procedure for the quantification of time, dose, fraction relations for mouse intestinal crypt survival after fractionated Co-60 and 11-MeV electron irradiation. In the initial phase of the investigation CDF/1 male mice were exposed to fractionated Co-60 irradiation. A completely randomized experimental design with three factors, total time from initiation to completion of fractionation schedule, number of fractions, and total dose was utilized. The experimental animals were irradiated with a Co-60 panoramic irradiator unit at an absorbed dose rate of approximately 51 rads per minute. Two days after completion of the fractionation schedule, the experimental animals were sacrificed by cervical dislocation. Sections of intestinal jejunum were resected and routine histological preparations performed. The surviving crypts were scored with a compound microscope using a quantitative counting technique. The resulting crypt survival was observed to increase for increasing total times and fraction numbers

  14. Porcine small intestinal submucosa (SIS) myringoplasty in children: A randomized controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Eredità, Riccardo

    2015-07-01

    A novel bioactive material for tissue graft, derived from porcine small intestinal mucosa (SIS) has been marketed. This material promotes early vessel growth, provides scaffolding for the remodeling tissues, and is inexpensive and ready-to-use. We evaluated efficacy, safety, and surgery time of SIS myringoplasty, in comparison with autologous temporalis fascia (PTF) repair in children in a prospective, two-group (SIS and PTF) randomized, blinded study at a tertiary-care pediatric institution. 404 children with tympanic membrane (TM) repair were randomly assigned to receive SIS or PTF myringoplasty. Primary outcome was the healing of the TM at 6 months. Secondary outcomes were surgical time, and adverse events. Long-term follow-up ranging from 11 to 2 years was obtained in all enrolled children. Audiometric tests as pure-tone thresholds were applied in all patients. The Fisher's exact test and the Kriskal-Wallis test were applied for statistical analysis. Four-hundred-thirty-two TM perforations were treated, 217 in the SIS and 215 in the PTF groups. There were 209 stable TM closures in the SIS (96.3%) and 204 (94.8%) in the PTF arm. This difference was not statistically significant (odds ratio=0.4, 95%; confidence interval=0.12-1.41). SIS myringoplasty yielded reduced surgical time. No adverse reaction to SIS was encountered. Audiometric tests revealed no statistically significant difference in the two groups. SIS myringoplasty is a safe and effective method for TM closure in children with reduced surgical time, as compared to PTF. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Colorectal tissue engineering: A comparative study between porcine small intestinal submucosa (SIS) and chitosan hydrogel patches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denost, Quentin; Adam, Jean-Philippe; Pontallier, Arnaud; Montembault, Alexandra; Bareille, Reine; Siadous, Robin; Delmond, Samantha; Rullier, Eric; David, Laurent; Bordenave, Laurence

    2015-12-01

    Tissue engineering may provide new operative tools for colorectal surgery in elective indications. The aim of this study was to define a suitable bioscaffold for colorectal tissue engineering. We compared 2 bioscaffolds with in vitro and in vivo experiments: porcine small intestinal submucosa (SIS) versus chitosan hydrogel matrix. We assessed nontoxicity of the scaffold in vitro by using human adipose-derived stem cells (hADSC). In vivo, a 1 × 2-cm colonic wall defect was created in 16 rabbits. Animals were divided randomly into 2 groups according to the graft used, SIS or chitosan hydrogel. Graft area was explanted at 4 and 8 weeks. The end points of in vivo experiments were technical feasibility, behavior of the scaffold, in situ putative inflammatory effect, and the quality of tissue regeneration, in particular smooth muscle layer regeneration. In vitro, hADSC attachment and proliferation occurred on both scaffolds without a substantial difference. After proliferation, hADSCs kept their mesenchymal stem cell characteristics. In vivo, one animal died in each group. Eight weeks after implantation, the chitosan scaffold allowed better wound healing compared with the SIS scaffold, with more effective control of inflammatory activity and an integral regeneration of the colonic wall including the smooth muscle cell layer. The outcomes of in vitro experiments did not differ greatly between the 2 groups. Macroscopic and histologic findings, however, revealed better wound healing of the colonic wall in the chitosan group suggesting that the chitosan hydrogel could serve as a better scaffold for colorectal tissue engineering. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Low Rectal Cancer Study (MERCURY II)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-11

    Adenocarcinoma; Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous; Carcinoma; Neoplasms, Glandular and Epithelial; Neoplasms by Histologic Type; Neoplasms; Neoplasms, Cystic, Mucinous, and Serous; Colorectal Neoplasms; Intestinal Neoplasms; Gastrointestinal Neoplasms; Digestive System Neoplasms; Neoplasms by Site; Digestive System Diseases; Gastrointestinal Diseases; Intestinal Diseases; Rectal Diseases

  17. The feasibility of wireless capsule endoscopy in detecting small intestinal pathology in children under the age of 8 years: a multicentre European study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fritscher-Ravens, A.; Scherbakov, P.; Bufler, P.; Torroni, F.; Ruuska, T.; Nuutinen, H.; Thomson, M.; Tabbers, M.; Milla, P.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To systematically evaluate the feasibility and methodology to carry out wireless capsule endoscopy (WCE) in children,8 years to define small intestinal pathology. Design: Prospective European multicentre study with negative prior investigation. Patients and interventions: 83 children aged

  18. Levothyroxine therapy and impaired clearance are the strongest contributors to small intestinal bacterial overgrowth: Results of a retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brechmann, Thorsten; Sperlbaum, Andre; Schmiegel, Wolff

    2017-02-07

    To identify a set of contributors, and weight and rank them on a pathophysiological basis. Patients who have undergone a lactulose or glucose hydrogen breath test to rule out small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) for various clinical symptoms, including diarrhoea, weight loss, abdominal pain, cramping or bloating, were seen as eligible for inclusion in a retrospective single-centre study. Clinical data such as co-morbidities, medication, laboratory parameters and other possible risk factors have been identified from the electronic data system. Cases lacking or with substantially incomplete clinical data were excluded from the analysis. Suspected contributors were summarised under four different pathophysiological pathways (impaired gastric acid barrier, impaired intestinal clearance, immunosuppression and miscellaneous factors including thyroid gland variables) and investigated using the χ 2 test, Student's t -test and logistic regression models. A total of 1809 patients who had undergone hydrogen breath testing were analysed. Impairment of the gastric acid barrier (gastrectomy, odds ratio: OR = 3.5, PPI therapy OR = 1.4), impairment of intestinal clearance (any resecting gastric surgery OR = 2.6, any colonic resection OR = 1.9, stenosis OR = 3.4, gastroparesis OR = 3.4, neuropathy 2.2), immunological factors (any drug-induced immunosuppression OR = 1.8), altered thyroid gland metabolism (hypothyroidism OR = 2.6, levothyroxine therapy OR = 3.0) and diabetes mellitus (OR = 1.9) were associated significantly to SIBO. Any abdominal surgery, ileocecal resection, vagotomy or IgA-deficiency did not have any influence, and a history of appendectomy decreased the risk of SIBO. Multivariate analysis revealed gastric surgery, stenoses, medical immunosuppression and levothyroxine to be the strongest predictors. Levothyroxine therapy was the strongest contributor in a simplified model (OR = 3.0). The most important contributors for the development of SIBO in ascending

  19. [The experimental study on melatonin gastro intestinal motility and plasma levels of stress hormones in overtraining rat].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Hui-feng; Wang, Xiao-mei

    2015-09-01

    To study the effect of melatonin on the gastrointestinal motility and plasma levels of the stress hormone in overtraining rats. Thirty adult SD rats were randomly divided into three groups (n = 10): control group, over-training group, melatonin intervention group. 30 min before each training, rats in the control and over-training groups were fed with normal saline (15 mg/kg) once a day and 5 times per week, while rats in the melatonin intervention group were administrated with melatonin, perfusion in the intervention group (15 mg/kg). Excessive training group and melatonin intervention group rats were subjected to excessive training at 5 times a week for 6 weeks. After 6 weeks, the gastric emptying rate, small intestinal propulsion ratio and levels of plasma motilin (MTL) and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), cortisol (CORT) and catecholamines (CA) were observed in all groups. Compared with the control group, the gastric emptying rate, small intestinal propulsion ratio and levels of plasma MTL, CORT and CA were increased significantly (P melatonin, this trend was reversed, that was, the gastric emptying rate, small intestinal propulsion ratio and levels of plasma MTL, CORT and CA were surpressed significantly (P Melatonin plays an important role in protecting gastrointestinal tract from dysfunction, in which MTL, CGRP, CORT and CA are all involved.

  20. Anatomical study on The Arm Greater Yang Small Intestine Meridian Muscle in Human

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyoung-Sik, Park

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried to identify the component of Small Intestine Meridian Muscle in human, dividing the regional muscle group into outer, middle, and inner layer. the inner part of body surface were opened widely to demonstrate muscles, nerve, blood vessels and the others, displaying the inner structure of Small Intestine Meridian Muscle. We obtained the results as follows; 1. Small Intestine Meridian Muscle is composed of the muscle, nerve and blood vessels. 2. In human anatomy, it is present the difference between a term of nerve or blood vessels which control the muscle of Meridian Muscle and those which pass near by Meridian Muscle. 3. The inner composition of meridian muscle in human arm is as follows ; 1 Muscle ; Abd. digiti minimi muscle(SI-2, 3, 4, pisometacarpal lig.(SI-4, ext. retinaculum. ext. carpi ulnaris m. tendon.(SI-5, 6, ulnar collateral lig.(SI-5, ext. digiti minimi m. tendon(SI-6, ext. carpi ulnaris(SI-7, triceps brachii(SI-9, teres major(SI-9, deltoid(SI-10, infraspinatus(SI-10, 11, trapezius(Sl-12, 13, 14, 15, supraspinatus(SI-12, 13, lesser rhomboid(SI-14, erector spinae(SI-14, 15, levator scapular(SI-15, sternocleidomastoid(SI-16, 17, splenius capitis(SI-16, semispinalis capitis(SI-16, digasuicus(SI-17, zygomaticus major(Il-18, masseter(SI-18, auriculoris anterior(SI-19 2 Nerve ; Dorsal branch of ulnar nerve(SI-1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, br. of mod. antebrachial cutaneous n.(SI-6, 7, br. of post. antebrachial cutaneous n.(SI-6,7, br. of radial n.(SI-7, ulnar n.(SI-8, br. of axillary n.(SI-9, radial n.(SI-9, subscapular n. br.(SI-9, cutaneous n. br. from C7, 8(SI-10, 14, suprascapular n.(SI-10, 11, 12, 13, intercostal n. br. from T2(SI-11, lat. supraclavicular n. br.(SI-12, intercostal n. br. from C8, T1(SI-12, accessory n. br.(SI-12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, intercostal n. br. from T1,2(SI-13, dorsal scapular n.(SI-14, 15, cutaneous n. br. from C6, C7(SI-15, transverse cervical n.(SI-16, lesser occipital n. & great auricular n. from

  1. Saireito (TJ-114, a Japanese traditional herbal medicine, reduces 5-fluorouracil-induced intestinal mucositis in mice by inhibiting cytokine-mediated apoptosis in intestinal crypt cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinichi Kato

    Full Text Available Clinical chemotherapy frequently causes intestinal mucositis as a side effect, which is accompanied by severe diarrhea. We recently showed that the cytokine-mediated apoptotic pathway might be important for the development of intestinal mucositis induced by 5-fluorouracil (5-FU. Saireito, the traditional Japanese herbal (Kampo medicine, is widely used to treat diarrhea and various inflammatory diseases in Japan. In the present study, we investigated the effect of saireito on 5-FU-induced intestinal mucositis in mice, especially in relation to apoptosis in the intestinal crypt. Male C57BL/6 mice were given 5-FU (50 mg/kg, i.p. once daily for 6 days. Intestinal mucositis was evaluated histochemically. Saireito (100-1000 mg/kg was administered p.o. twice daily for 6 days. Repeated 5-FU treatment caused severe intestinal mucositis including morphological damage, which was accompanied by body weight loss and diarrhea. Daily administration of saireito reduced the severity of intestinal mucositis in a dose-dependent manner. Body weight loss and diarrhea during 5-FU treatment were also significantly attenuated by saireito administration. The number of apoptotic and caspase-3-activated cells in the intestinal crypt was increased, and was accompanied by up-regulated tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α and interleukin (IL-1β mRNA within 24 h of the first 5-FU injection. However, all of these measures were significantly lower after saireito administration. These results suggest that saireito attenuates 5-FU-induced intestinal mucositis. This action may come from the reduction of apoptosis in the intestinal crypt via suppression of the up-regulation of inflammatory cytokines. Therefore, saireito may be clinically useful for the prevention of intestinal mucositis during cancer chemotherapy.

  2. Learning about Colon Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... What do we know about heredity and colon cancer? Colon cancer, a malignant tumor of the large intestine, ... page Additional Resources for Information on Hereditary Colon Cancer Colon and Rectal Cancer Information [cancer.gov] The most ...

  3. Novel Polyfermentor intestinal model (PolyFermS for controlled ecological studies: validation and effect of pH.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annina Zihler Berner

    Full Text Available In vitro gut fermentation modeling offers a useful platform for ecological studies of the intestinal microbiota. In this study we describe a novel Polyfermentor Intestinal Model (PolyFermS designed to compare the effects of different treatments on the same complex gut microbiota. The model operated in conditions of the proximal colon is composed of a first reactor containing fecal microbiota immobilized in gel beads, and used to continuously inoculate a set of parallel second-stage reactors. The PolyFermS model was validated with three independent intestinal fermentations conducted for 38 days with immobilized human fecal microbiota obtained from three child donors. The microbial diversity of reactor effluents was compared to donor feces using the HITChip, a high-density phylogenetic microarray targeting small subunit rRNA sequences of over 1100 phylotypes of the human gastrointestinal tract. Furthermore, the metabolic response to a decrease of pH from 5.7 to 5.5, applied to balance the high fermentative activity in inoculum reactors, was studied. We observed a reproducible development of stable intestinal communities representing major taxonomic bacterial groups at ratios similar to these in feces of healthy donors, a high similarity of microbiota composition produced in second-stage reactors within a model, and a high time stability of microbiota composition and metabolic activity over 38 day culture. For all tested models, the pH-drop of 0.2 units in inoculum reactors enhanced butyrate production at the expense of acetate, but was accompanied by a donor-specific reorganization of the reactor community, suggesting a concerted metabolic adaptation and trigger of community-specific lactate or acetate cross-feeding pathways in response to varying pH. Our data showed that the PolyFermS model allows the stable cultivation of complex intestinal microbiota akin to the fecal donor and can be developed for the direct comparison of different

  4. Usefulness of computed tomography enteroclysis in the intestinal tract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onoda, Hideko; Shimizu, Kensaku; Washida, Yasuo; Matsunaga, Naofumi; Higaki, Shingo; Hashimoto, Shinichi; Matsunaga, Takaharu; Sakaida, Isao

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate computed tomography enteroclysis (CTE) of the small intestinal tract. A total of 36 patients underwent CTE for further examination of small intestinal disease. The indications were obscure gastrointestinal bleeding (OGIB) (n=16), suspected Crohn's disease (n=7), suspected and diagnosed by exclusion a small intestinal tumor (n=5), and others (n=8). Regarding OGIB, positive findings were observed in nine patients: angiodysplasia (n=2), suspected ileac tumor (n=2), colon cancer (n=1), colon diverticulosis and diverticulitis (n=2), Crohn's disease (n=1), and enteritis (n=1). As for Crohn's disease, hyperplasia of the small intestinal wall was shown in six patents. Positive findings of a small intestinal tumor were observed in two patients. In the 'others' category, colon diverticulitis was found in three patients and isolated dissection of the superior mesenteric artery in one of four patients with abdominal pain. Primary carcinoid was identified in the pancreas in one patient, with liver carcinoid metastasis in the remaining four patients. CT enteroclysis is a noninvasive method and useful approach in the diagnosis of small intestinal diseases. (author)

  5. Validation study of villous atrophy and small intestinal inflammation in Swedish biopsy registers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montgomery Scott M

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Small intestinal biopsy with villous atrophy (VA is the gold standard for the diagnosis of celiac disease (CD. We validated VA (Marsh 3 and small intestinal inflammation without VA (Marsh 1+2 in Swedish regional biopsy registers. Methods All pathology departments in Sweden (n = 28 were searched to identify individuals with VA or duodenal/jejunal inflammation. The validation consisted of blinded examination of biopsy samples, manual review of biopsy reports, web surveys, and patient chart reviews of 121 individuals with VA and 39 with inflammation. Results We identified 29,148 individuals with VA and 13,446 individuals with inflammation. In a blinded examination, Swedish pathologists correctly classified 90% of biopsies with VA. Manual screening of 1,534 biopsy reports (performed by co-author JFL and a research assistant found that comorbidity other than CD was rare. IBD was the most common comorbidity and occurred in 0.3% of biopsies with VA (1.6% in inflammation. Among 114 patients with VA and available data, 108 (95% had a clinical diagnosis of CD. 79% of the validated individuals with VA and 64% of those with inflammation had documented gastrointestinal symptoms prior to biopsy. 88% of the validated individuals with VA had positive CD serology before their first biopsy. 172/180 (96% of Swedish gastroenterologists and 68/68 (100% of pediatricians perform a small intestinal biopsy in at least 9 out of 10 individuals prior to diagnosis of CD. Conclusion Regional biopsy data are feasible to identify individuals with CD and small-intestinal inflammation. The specificity of CD is high in villous atrophy.

  6. Intestinal microbiota in pediatric patients with end stage renal disease: a Midwest Pediatric Nephrology Consortium study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crespo-Salgado, Janice; Vehaskari, V Matti; Stewart, Tyrus; Ferris, Michael; Zhang, Qiang; Wang, Guangdi; Blanchard, Eugene E; Taylor, Christopher M; Kallash, Mahmoud; Greenbaum, Larry A; Aviles, Diego H

    2016-09-17

    End-stage renal disease (ESRD) is associated with uremia and increased systemic inflammation. Alteration of the intestinal microbiota may facilitate translocation of endotoxins into the systemic circulation leading to inflammation. We hypothesized that children with ESRD have an altered intestinal microbiota and increased serum levels of bacterially derived uremic toxins. Four groups of subjects were recruited: peritoneal dialysis (PD), hemodialysis (HD), post-kidney transplant and healthy controls. Stool bacterial composition was assessed by pyrosequencing analysis of 16S rRNA genes. Serum levels of C-reactive protein (CRP), D-lactate, p-cresyl sulfate and indoxyl sulfate were measured. Compared to controls, the relative abundance of Firmicutes (P = 0.0228) and Actinobacteria (P = 0.0040) was decreased in PD patients. The relative abundance of Bacteroidetes was increased in HD patients (P = 0.0462). Compared to HD patients the relative abundance of Proteobacteria (P = 0.0233) was increased in PD patients. At the family level, Enterobacteriaceae was significantly increased in PD patients (P = 0.0020) compared to controls; whereas, Bifidobacteria showed a significant decrease in PD and transplant patients (P = 0.0020) compared to control. Alpha diversity was decreased in PD patients and kidney transplant using both phylogenetic and non-phylogenetic diversity measures (P = 0.0031 and 0.0003, respectively), while beta diversity showed significant separation (R statistic = 0.2656, P = 0.010) between PD patients and controls. ESRD patients had increased serum levels of p-cresyl sulfate and indoxyl sulfate (P intestinal microbiota and CRP, D-lactate, or uremic toxins. Oral iron supplementation results in expansion of the phylum Proteobacteria. Children with ESRD have altered intestinal microbiota and increased bacterially derived serum uremic toxins.

  7. Intestinal functions in animals : An experimental study on horses, pigs, cows and fish

    OpenAIRE

    Collinder, Eje

    2001-01-01

    Animals and humans live in symbiosis with an active gastrointestinal ecosystem. The balance of the system is maintained by the main actors, the macroorganism, the microflora and the environment, in concert. Microflora-associated characteristics (MACs), defined as the recording of any anatomical structure, physiological, biochemical or immunological function in the host (macroorganism) that has been influenced by the intestinal microflora, are parameters reflecting the ecosys...

  8. Experimental study on the hydroxyproline content of enteroanastomoses established in irradiated intestines of rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winter, S.

    1984-01-01

    Cross-bred Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to percutaneous X-irradiation of the rectosigmoid using a split-dose regimen and focal dose of 50 Gy. One day as well as one, two and four months after the cessation of irradiation a termino-terminal anastomosis was established in the area exposed to radiation. On days, 3, 7, 14 and 21 after surgery those parts of the intestine, which had been united by anastomosis, were removed in order to determine the hydroxyproline content of the latter. Further determinations were made in specimens of the tissue 1 cm above the anastomosis and carried out before surgery, after intraperitoneal injection of the anaesthetic alone or in animals subjected to laparatomy including intestinal exposure, where no anastomosis was established. In general, the collagen levels determined in colon anastomoses of irradiated or non-irradiated intestines of rats did not point to any adverse effects from radiation on the healing process. This result appears to be largely consistent with the experiences so far gained at the clinical level in the preoperative irradiation of colon carcinomas. (orig./MG) [de

  9. The application of fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH technique for studying the microbial communities in intestinal tissues of white shrimp (Penaeus vannamei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supamattaya, K.

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Fluorescence in situ hybridization technique is very useful for the evaluation of microbial communities in various environments. It is possible to apply this technique to study the intestinal microflora in white shrimp (Penaeus vannamei. Different fixatives and storage temperature were tested in this technique. It was found that fixation with 10% buffered formalin for 12 hours and changed to 70% ethanol shown positive results when compared to the fixation with Davidson's fixative or RF fixative. The best signaling was obtainedfrom the samples which were stored in -20ºC. By using the DNA probe targeted to the Eubacteria domain (EUB338 probe, 5′-GCT GCC TCC CGT AGG AGT-3′ labeled with fluorescein as a hybridizing probe, it was found that most intestinal microflora were aggregated with the intestinal contents, or dispersed in the lumen. There was not evidence of the attachment of the microflora with the intestinal epithelium in this study.

  10. Recent trends in feline intestinal neoplasia: an epidemiologic study of 1,129 cases in the veterinary medical database from 1964 to 2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rissetto, Kerry; Villamil, J Armando; Selting, Kim A; Tyler, Jeff; Henry, Carolyn J

    2011-01-01

    A retrospective epidemiologic study evaluated 1,129 feline intestinal tumor patients via data entered into the Veterinary Medical Database (VMDB) from 1964 to 2004. Cases were analyzed by breed, age, yr of diagnosis, tumor type, and location. The VMDB incidence of all intestinal tumors reported during this 40 yr period was 0.4%, with small intestinal tumors predominating. The most common intestinal tumor was lymphoma, but the most common nonlymphoid tumor was adenocarcinoma. The Siamese breed and increasing age after 7 yr conferred an increased risk. Intact males and females appeared to have a decreased risk compared with neutered patients, but this may be explained by the age difference among these patients as older patients were more likely to be neutered. Prospective studies evaluating neuter status predilection and prognosis are warranted.

  11. Interstitial cells of Cajal and Auerbach's plexus. A scanning electron microscopical study of guinea-pig small intestine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jessen, Harry; Thuneberg, Lars

    1991-01-01

    Anatomy, interstitial cells of Cajal, myenteric plexus, small intestine, guinea-pig, scanning electron microscopy......Anatomy, interstitial cells of Cajal, myenteric plexus, small intestine, guinea-pig, scanning electron microscopy...

  12. Loss of HLTF function promotes intestinal carcinogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandhu Sumit

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background HLTF (Helicase-like Transcription Factor is a DNA helicase protein homologous to the SWI/SNF family involved in the maintenance of genomic stability and the regulation of gene expression. HLTF has also been found to be frequently inactivated by promoter hypermethylation in human colon cancers. Whether this epigenetic event is required for intestinal carcinogenesis is unknown. Results To address the role of loss of HLTF function in the development of intestinal cancer, we generated Hltf deficient mice. These mutant mice showed normal development, and did not develop intestinal tumors, indicating that loss of Hltf function by itself is insufficient to induce the formation of intestinal cancer. On the Apcmin/+ mutant background, Hltf- deficiency was found to significantly increase the formation of intestinal adenocarcinoma and colon cancers. Cytogenetic analysis of colon tumor cells from Hltf -/-/Apcmin/+ mice revealed a high incidence of gross chromosomal instabilities, including Robertsonian fusions, chromosomal fragments and aneuploidy. None of these genetic alterations were observed in the colon tumor cells derived from Apcmin/+ mice. Increased tumor growth and genomic instability was also demonstrated in HCT116 human colon cancer cells in which HLTF expression was significantly decreased. Conclusion Taken together, our results demonstrate that loss of HLTF function promotes the malignant transformation of intestinal or colonic adenomas to carcinomas by inducing genomic instability. Our findings highly suggest that epigenetic inactivation of HLTF, as found in most human colon cancers, could play an important role in the progression of colon tumors to malignant cancer.

  13. Low SP1 expression differentially affects intestinal-type compared with diffuse-type gastric adenocarcinoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hun Seok Lee

    Full Text Available Specificity protein 1 (SP1 is an essential transcription factor that regulates multiple cancer-related genes. Because aberrant expression of SP1 is related to cancer development and progression, we focused on SP1 expression in gastric carcinoma and its correlation with disease outcomes. Although patient survival decreased as SP1 expression increased (P<0.05 in diffuse-type gastric cancer, the lack of SP1 expression in intestinal-type gastric cancer was significantly correlated with poor survival (P<0.05. The knockdown of SP1 in a high SP1-expressing intestinal-type gastric cell line, MKN28, increased migration and invasion but decreased proliferation. Microarray data in SP1 siRNA-transfected MKN28 revealed that the genes inhibiting migration were downregulated, whereas the genes negatively facilitating proliferation were increased. However, both migration and invasion were decreased by forced SP1 expression in a low SP1-expressing intestinal-type gastric cell line, AGS. Unlike the intestinal-type, in a high SP1-expressing diffuse-type gastric cell line, SNU484, migration and invasion were decreased by SP1 siRNA. In contrast to previous studies that did not identify differences between the 2 histological types, our results reveal that low expression of SP1 is involved in cancer progression and metastasis and differentially affects intestinal-type compared with diffuse-type gastric adenocarcinoma.

  14. Surrogate for oropharyngeal cancer HPV status in cancer database studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megwalu, Uchechukwu C; Chen, Michelle M; Ma, Yifei; Divi, Vasu

    2017-12-01

    The utility of cancer databases for oropharyngeal cancer studies is limited by lack of information on human papillomavirus (HPV) status. The purpose of this study was to develop a surrogate that can be used to adjust for the effect of HPV status on survival. The study cohort included 6419 patients diagnosed with oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma between 2004 and 2012, identified in the National Cancer Database (NCDB). The HPV surrogate score was developed using a logistic regression model predicting HPV-positive status. The HPV surrogate score was predictive of HPV status (area under the curve [AUC] 0.73; accuracy of 70.4%). Similar to HPV-positive tumors, HPV surrogate positive tumors were associated with improved overall survival (OS; hazard ratio [HR] 0.73; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.59-0.91; P = .005), after adjusting for important covariates. The HPV surrogate score is useful for adjusting for the effect of HPV status on survival in studies utilizing cancer databases. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Upper intestinal and biliary tract endoprosthesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tytgat, G. N.; Bartelsman, J. F.; den Hartog Jager, F. C.; Huibregtse, K.; Mathus-Vliegen, E. M.

    1986-01-01

    The endoscopic insertion of an endoprosthesis is now a standard procedure in the ultimate palliation of malignant obstructing upper gastrointestinal and biliary malignancy. The commercially available prostheses and introducing devices are adequate for the majority of upper intestinal cancers. For

  16. Gintonin absorption in intestinal model systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byung-Hwan Lee

    2018-01-01

    Conclusion: The present study shows that gintonin could be absorbed in the intestine through transcellular and paracellular diffusion, and active transport. In addition, the lipid component of gintonin might play a key role in its intestinal absorption.

  17. Case Study: Pancreas cancer with Whipple's operation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PhD Nutrition), Associate Professor, Stellenbosch University. Correspondence to: Renée Blaauw, e-mail: rb@sun.ac.za. Keywords: pancreas cancer, Whipple procedure, SASPEN case study. Introduction. A pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD), also ...

  18. Transcriptomic Analysis of Intestinal Tissues from Two 90-Day Feeding Studies in Rats Using Genetically Modified MON810 Maize Varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jutta Sharbati

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Global as well as specific expression profiles of selected rat tissues were characterized to assess the safety of genetically modified (GM maize MON810 containing the insecticidal protein Cry1Ab. Gene expression was evaluated by use of Next Generation Sequencing (NGS as well as RT-qPCR within rat intestinal tissues based on mandatory 90-day rodent feeding studies. In parallel to two 90-day feeding studies, the transcriptional response of rat tissues was assessed as another endpoint to enhance the mechanistic interpretation of GM feeding studies and/or to facilitate the generation of a targeted hypothesis. Rats received diets containing 33% GM maize (MON810 or near-isogenic control maize. As a site of massive exposure to ingested feed the transcriptomic response of ileal and colonic tissue was profiled via RT-qPCR arrays targeting apoptosis, DNA-damage/repair, unfolded protein response (UPR. For global RNA profiling of rat ileal tissue, we applied NGS.Results: No biological response to the GM-diet was observed in male and in female rat tissues. Transcriptome wide analysis of gene expression by RNA-seq confirmed these findings. Nevertheless, gene ontology (GO analysis clearly associated a set of distinctly regulated transcripts with circadian rhythms. We confirmed differential expression of circadian clock genes using RT-qPCR and immunoassays for selected factors, thereby indicating physiological effects caused by the time point of sampling.Conclusion: Prediction of potential unintended effects of GM-food/feed by transcriptome based profiling of intestinal tissue presents a novel approach to complement classical toxicological testing procedures. Including the detection of alterations in signaling pathways in toxicity testing procedures may enhance the confidence in outcomes of toxicological trials. In this study, no significant GM-related changes in intestinal expression profiles were found in rats fed GM-maize MON810. Relevant

  19. Transcriptomic Analysis of Intestinal Tissues from Two 90-Day Feeding Studies in Rats Using Genetically Modified MON810 Maize Varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharbati, Jutta; Bohmer, Marc; Bohmer, Nils; Keller, Andreas; Backes, Christina; Franke, Andre; Steinberg, Pablo; Zeljenková, Dagmar; Einspanier, Ralf

    2017-01-01

    Background: Global as well as specific expression profiles of selected rat tissues were characterized to assess the safety of genetically modified (GM) maize MON810 containing the insecticidal protein Cry1Ab. Gene expression was evaluated by use of Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) as well as RT-qPCR within rat intestinal tissues based on mandatory 90-day rodent feeding studies. In parallel to two 90-day feeding studies, the transcriptional response of rat tissues was assessed as another endpoint to enhance the mechanistic interpretation of GM feeding studies and/or to facilitate the generation of a targeted hypothesis. Rats received diets containing 33% GM maize (MON810) or near-isogenic control maize. As a site of massive exposure to ingested feed the transcriptomic response of ileal and colonic tissue was profiled via RT-qPCR arrays targeting apoptosis, DNA-damage/repair, unfolded protein response (UPR). For global RNA profiling of rat ileal tissue, we applied NGS. Results: No biological response to the GM-diet was observed in male and in female rat tissues. Transcriptome wide analysis of gene expression by RNA-seq confirmed these findings. Nevertheless, gene ontology (GO) analysis clearly associated a set of distinctly regulated transcripts with circadian rhythms. We confirmed differential expression of circadian clock genes using RT-qPCR and immunoassays for selected factors, thereby indicating physiological effects caused by the time point of sampling. Conclusion: Prediction of potential unintended effects of GM-food/feed by transcriptome based profiling of intestinal tissue presents a novel approach to complement classical toxicological testing procedures. Including the detection of alterations in signaling pathways in toxicity testing procedures may enhance the confidence in outcomes of toxicological trials. In this study, no significant GM-related changes in intestinal expression profiles were found in rats fed GM-maize MON810. Relevant alterations of

  20. Experimental studies on cancer chemotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-08-01

    The further development of the chemotherapy of cancer in the experimental and clinical fields necessitates a profound knowledge of its chemical, biochemical and pharmacological fundamentals and the mechanism of physiological and pathological growth processes. The 'Arbeitsgemeinschaft Zytostatika' includes chemists, biochemists, pharmacologists, molecular biologists, physicians and immunologists of various scientific institutes and clinics in the Federal Republic of Germany and in West Berlin. It is their aim to carry out basic research as well as clinical-orientated research in the field of the chemotherapy of cancer. In the 15 years of cooperation, fundamental knowledge was gained, especially in the field of the cytotoxic specificity and cancerotoxic selectivity of alkylating cytostatics. New cytostatics with a greater oncostatic selectivity and an altered spectrum of activity were tested and greater knowledge was won on the molecular-biological prerequisites of a rational drug design. (orig.) [de

  1. Studies on the age-dependent proliferation kinetics of the epithelium of the rat small intestine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kranz, D.; Dietze, F.; Laue, R.; Fuhrmann, I.

    1980-01-01

    The small intestine of 244 Wistar rats, aged 6 days, 6 weeks, 6, 12, 23, and 28 months, respectively. were investigated autoradiographically as to their age-dependent cell proliferation kinetics of the mucosal epithelial cells. There were age-dependent differences concerning the hourly regeneration ratio of the crypt cells and the migration velocity of the enterocytes. Both parameters became greater while the existing non growth fraction became smaller with increasing age. The non growth fraction seems to be a reserve being involved into the proliferating pool if required

  2. Cancer incidence study in Mesa County, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ouimette, D.R.; Ferguson, S.W.; Zoglo, D.; Murphy, S.; Alley, S.; Bahler, S.

    1983-01-01

    In November of 1982 the Colorado Department of Health completed an epidemiologic investigation of leukemia, multiple myeloma, and cancers of the lung, stomach, pancreas and colon in Mesa County, Colorado for the years 1970 to 1979. This investigation was performed in response to a concern that the presence of uranium mill tailings in some Mesa County homes presents a potential cancer hazard. The results of the investigation show that the incidence of multiple myeloma, colon, stomach and pancreatic cancer are not above expected rates. The incidence of leukemia is not above expected rates for the entire study period, 1970 to 1979. The incidence of lung cancer appears elevated when compared to the The Third National Cancer Survey data for Colorado but lower than expected when compared to Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results data. To further examine the leukemia and lung cancer incidence findings, a case/control study was conducted. The controls consisted of colon, stomach and pancreatic cancer cases. The results of the leukemia case/control analysis show no association with the radiation exposure variables: occupational radiation exposure; uranium mining exposure; having ever lived in a type A home (uranium tailings home); and radiation therapy. The lung cancer case/control analysis shows a significant association with only the radiation exposure variable, uranium mining history, indicating cases were more likely to have been uranium miners than were controls. As with leukemia, the study found no association between lung cancer and living in a uranium mill tailings home. The relatively low radiation exposures typical of type A homes and the small number of persons exposed make it very difficult to establish, by epidemiologic methods, that a risk exists

  3. Surgical management of short bowel syndrome by construction of an isoperistaltic intestinal valve: an experimental study in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papaziogas, T; Tassiopoulos, A; Papaziogas, B; Koutsias, S; Alexandrakis, A; Sakellaridis, D; Galanis, N

    1999-08-01

    To develop of an isoperistaltic invaginated valve for the treatment of short bowel syndrome. Randomised experimental study University Hospital, Greece 8 mongrel dogs 90% resection of the small bowel, followed by construction of an invaginated valve one month later. weight loss, fat excretion in the faeces, radiographic and histological examination of the valve, pressure curve along the valve. Weight loss and steatorrhoea were reversed over a period of 2-3 months without evidence of intestinal obstruction in any of the animals. The construction of an isoperistaltic invaginated valve could be a solution to the management of the short gut syndrome.

  4. Interaction of Food Additives with Intestinal Efflux Transporters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjöstedt, Noora; Deng, Feng; Rauvala, Oskari; Tepponen, Tuomas; Kidron, Heidi

    2017-11-06

    Breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP), multidrug resistance associated protein 2 (MRP2) and P-glycoprotein (P-gp) are ABC transporters that are expressed in the intestine, where they are involved in the efflux of many drugs from enterocytes back into the intestinal lumen. The inhibition of BCRP, MRP2, and P-gp can result in enhanced absorption and exposure of substrate drugs. Food additives are widely used by the food industry to improve the stability, flavor, and consistency of food products. Although they are considered safe for consumption, their interactions with intestinal transporters are poorly characterized. Therefore, in this study, selected food additives, including preservatives, colorants, and sweeteners, were studied in vitro for their inhibitory effects on intestinal ABC transporters. Among the studied compounds, several colorants were able to inhibit BCRP and MRP2, whereas P-gp was fairly insensitive to inhibition. Additionally, one sweetener was identified as a potent inhibitor of BCRP. Dose-response studies revealed that the IC 50 values of the inhibitors were lower than the estimated intestinal concentrations after the consumption of beverages containing food colorants. This suggests that there is potential for previously unrecognized transporter-mediated food additive-drug interactions.

  5. Small intestine diverticuli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pomakov, P.; Risov, A.

    1991-01-01

    The routine method of contrast matter passage applied to 850 patients with different gastrointestinal diseases proved inefficient to detect any small-intestinal diverticuli. The following modiffications of the method have been tested in order to improve the diagnostic possibilities of the X-ray: study at short intervals, assisted passage, enteroclysm, pharmacodynamic impact, retrograde filling of the ileum by irrigoscopy. Twelve diverticuli of the small-intestinal loops were identified: 5 Meckel's diverticuli, 2 solitary of which one of the therminal ileum, 2 double diverticuli and 1 multiple diverticulosis of the jejunum. The results show that the short interval X-ray examination of the small intestines is the method of choice for identifying local changes in them. The solitary diverticuli are not casuistic scarcity, its occurrence is about 0.5% at purposeful X-ray investigation. The assisted passage method is proposed as a method of choice for detection of the Meckel's diverticulum. 5 figs., 3 tabs. 18 refs

  6. Chronic intestinal pseudoobstruction syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeon, Kyung Mo; Seo, Jeong Kee; Lee, Yong Seok

    1992-01-01

    Chronic intestinal pseudoobstruction syndrome is a rare clinical condition in which impaired intestinal peristalsis causes recurrent symptoms of bowel obstruction in the absence of a mechanical occlusion. This syndrome may involve variable segments of small or large bowel, and may be associated with urinary bladder retention. This study included 6 children(3 boys and 3 girls) of chronic intestinal obstruction. Four were symptomatic at birth and two were of the ages of one month and one year. All had abdominal distension and deflection difficulty. Five had urinary bladder distension. Despite parenteral nutrition and surgical intervention(ileostomy or colostomy), bowel obstruction persisted and four patients expired from sepses within one year. All had gaseous distension of small and large bowel on abdominal films. In small bowel series, consistent findings were variable degree of dilatation, decreased peristalsis(prolonged transit time) and microcolon or microrectum. This disease entity must be differentiated from congenital megacolon, ileal atresia and megacystis syndrome

  7. Proteomics in studying cancer stem cell biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kranenburg, Onno; Emmink, Benjamin L; Knol, Jaco; van Houdt, Winan J; Rinkes, Inne H M Borel; Jimenez, Connie R

    2012-06-01

    Normal multipotent tissue stem cells (SCs) are the driving force behind tissue turnover and repair. The cancer stem cell theory holds that tumors also contain stem-like cells that drive tumor growth and metastasis formation. However, very little is known about the regulation of SC maintenance pathways in cancer and how these are affected by cancer-specific genetic alterations and by treatment. Proteomics is emerging as a powerful tool to identify the signaling complexes and pathways that control multi- and pluri-potency and SC differentiation. Here, the authors review the novel insights that these studies have provided and present a comprehensive strategy for the use of proteomics in studying cancer SC biology.

  8. Rana catesbeiana, pólvora e modulação supramolecular cicatrização intestinal e prognóstico no câncer de cólon: uma mesma origem biológica para o insucesso? Rana catesbeiana, Gunpowder and Supramolecular Modulation Intestinal Healing and Prognosis in Colon Cancer: The Same Biological Origin of the Failure?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edna Delabio-Ferraz

    2010-06-01

    studying tadpole resorption of the American bullfrog. Metalloproteinases activity in cancer research, has taken a special place. Currently, evidences points to the cancer cell ability to interfere with enzymatic activity modulation - an co-factor which affects local invasiveness and metastatic dissemination. Both MMPs-2 and -7 have been frequently observed in colon cancer. Moreover, MMP-12 seems to counteract MMP-7 effect therefore considered as a protector and associated with better prognosis, in contrast to MMP-3, which may be responsible for a worse outcome. Association between high activity of MMPs, the prognosis of cancer and increased risk of intestinal anastomotic leakage has been highlighted, suggesting a consistent trilogy. Pharmacological therapy using MMPs inhibitors has been extensively studied, especially targeted for cancer control. The article discusses the most relevant information and updated information on the subject.

  9. Intestinal ischemia-reperfusion induced diaphragm contractility dysfunction: Electrophysiological and ultrastructural study in a neonatal rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taşkınlar, Hakan; Naycı, Ali; Çömelekoğlu, Ülkü; Polat, Gürbüz; Zorludemir, Suzan; Avlan, Dinçer

    2016-03-01

    To evaluate the remote effect of intestinal ischemia reperfusion (IR) injury mediated by tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) on diaphragm contractility functions and whether administration of NAC may counteract the possible detrimental effects in an experimental neonatal rat model. 40 Wistar rat pups were randomized into four groups; ten animals in each. Intestinal ischemia was conducted by obstructing mesentery of intestines by a silk loop. In the control group; only laparotomy was performed. After 1h ischemia, reperfusion was conducted for 1h in 1h group, 24h for 24h group and 24h for 24h+NAC group but administration of NAC (150mg/kg/day) intraperitoneally twice a day was performed. Inflammatory response was evaluated by tissue TNF-α level and contractility functions by mechanic activity studies of the diaphragm. Electrophysiology of the diaphragm and the phrenic nerve was conducted to determine neuropathy or myopathy and transmission electron microscopy was performed to evaluate ultrastructural changes in the phrenic nerve. Diaphragm tissue TNF-α level significantly increased in 1h and 24h groups (P=0.004, P=0.0001; respectively). Diaphragm mechanic activation force and duration significantly decreased at 1h and 24h (P=0.004, P=0.02 and P=0.0001, P=0.0001; respectively). NAC administration significantly prevented decrease in the maximal contraction and the duration (PIntestinal IR induced elevation of TNF-α level in the diaphragm. Impairment in the diaphragm contractility and neuropathic changes in the phrenic nerve occurred even in the first hour of reperfusion. NAC administration prevented these detrimental effects. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Relationship between intestinal microflora imbalance and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MA Ruijuan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The intestinal microecosystem is composed of natural microflora, intestinal epithelial cells, and intestinal mucosal immune system. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD is a metabolic stress-induced liver injury associated with insulin resistance and genetic susceptibility. In recent years, there has been increasing evidence showing the involvement of imbalanced intestinal microflora in the pathogenesis of NAFLD. Overgrowth of intestinal microflora, increased permeability of intestinal mucosa, intestinal endotoxemia, and production of inflammatory cytokines play important roles in the development of NAFLD. Further studies on the relationship between intestinal microflora imbalance and the pathogenesis of NAFLD may shed light on the treatment and prevention of NAFLD.

  11. Childhood intestinal obstruction in Northwestern Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    of childhood intestinal obstruction in this study agrees with those reportedis'gi m3 from other parts of the coun- try. Mortality from childhood intestinal obstruction is still high in our environment. References. 1. Otu AA. Tropical surgical abdominal emergencies: acute intestinal obstruction. Postgrad. Doctor (Afr) 1992; 14: 51. 2.

  12. Childhood intestinal obstruction in Northwestern Nigeria | Uba ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Intestinal obstruction is a common cause of childhood surgical emergency in the tropics. The aim of this paper was to assess the pattern and the outcome of mangement of intestinal obstruction in Nigerian children. Study design: The clinical reccords of all the cases of childhood intestinal obstructions managed ...

  13. The TNO gastro-intestinal model (TIM)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Minekus, M.

    2015-01-01

    The TNO Gastro–Intestinal Model (TIM) is a multi–compartmental model, designed to realistically simulate conditions in the lumen of the gastro–intestinal tract. TIM is successfully used to study the gastro–intestinal behavior of a wide variety of feed, food and pharmaceutical products. Experiments

  14. The intestinal calcistat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M K Garg

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The main physiological function of vitamin D is maintenance of calcium homeostasis by its effect on calcium absorption, and bone health in association with parathyroid gland. Vitamin D deficiency (VDD is defined as serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25OHD levels <20 ng/ml. Do all subjects with VDD have clinical disease according to this definition? We hypothesize that there exist an intestinal calcistat, which controls the calcium absorption independent of PTH levels. It consists of calcium sensing receptor (CaSR on intestinal brush border, which senses calcium in intestinal cells and vitamin D system in intestinal cells. CaSR dampens the generation of active vitamin D metabolite in intestinal cells and decrease active transcellular calcium transport. It also facilitates passive paracellular diffusion of calcium in intestine. This local adaptation adjusts the fractional calcium absorption according the body requirement. Failure of local adaptation due to decreased calcium intake, decreased supply of 25OHD, mutation in CaSR or vitamin D system decreases systemic calcium levels and systemic adaptations comes into the play. Systemic adaptations consist of rise in PTH and increase in active vitamin D metabolites. These adaptations lead to bone resorption and maintenance of calcium homeostasis. Not all subjects with varying levels of VDD manifest with secondary hyperparathyroidism and decreased in bone mineral density. We suggest that rise in PTH is first indicator of VDD along with decrease in BMD depending on duration of VDD. Hence, subjects with any degree of VDD with normal PTH and BMD should not be labeled as vitamin D deficient. These subjects can be called subclinical VDD, and further studies are required to assess beneficial effect of vitamin D supplementation in this subset of population.

  15. NIH study confirms risk factors for male breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pooled data from studies of about 2,400 men with breast cancer and 52,000 men without breast cancer confirmed that risk factors for male breast cancer include obesity, a rare genetic condition called Klinefelter syndrome, and gynecomastia.

  16. Neuropilin-2 mediated β-catenin signaling and survival in human gastro-intestinal cancer cell lines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaija Samuel

    Full Text Available NRP-2 is a high-affinity kinase-deficient receptor for ligands belonging to the class 3 semaphorin and vascular endothelial growth factor families. NRP-2 has been detected on the surface of several types of human cancer cells, but its expression and function in gastrointestinal (GI cancer cells remains to be determined. We sought to determine the function of NRP-2 in mediating downstream signals regulating the growth and survival of human gastrointestinal cancer cells. In human gastric cancer specimens, NRP-2 expression was detected in tumor tissues but not in adjacent normal mucosa. In CNDT 2.5 cells, shRNA mediated knockdown NRP-2 expression led to decreased migration and invasion in vitro (p<0.01. Focused gene-array analysis demonstrated that loss of NRP-2 reduced the expression of a critical metastasis mediator gene, S100A4. Steady-state levels and function of β-catenin, a known regulator of S100A4, were also decreased in the shNRP-2 clones. Furthermore, knockdown of NRP-2 sensitized CNDT 2.5 cells in vitro to 5FU toxicity. This effect was associated with activation of caspases 3 and 7, cleavage of PARP, and downregulation of Bcl-2. In vivo growth of CNDT 2.5 cells in the livers of nude mice was significantly decreased in the shNRP-2 group (p<0.05. Intraperitoneal administration of NRP-2 siRNA-DOPC decreased the tumor burden in mice (p = 0.01. Collectively, our results demonstrate that tumor cell-derived NRP-2 mediates critical survival signaling in gastrointestinal cancer cells.

  17. Prions efficiently cross the intestinal barrier after oral administration: Study of the bioavailability, and cellular and tissue distribution in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urayama, Akihiko; Concha-Marambio, Luis; Khan, Uffaf; Bravo-Alegria, Javiera; Kharat, Vineetkumar; Soto, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    Natural forms of prion diseases frequently originate by oral (p.o.) infection. However, quantitative information on the gastro-intestinal (GI) absorption of prions (i.e. the bioavailability and subsequent biodistribution) is mostly unknown. The main goal of this study was to evaluate the fate of prions after oral administration, using highly purified radiolabeled PrPSc. The results showed a bi-phasic reduction of PrPSc with time in the GI, except for the ileum and colon which showed sustained increases peaking at 3–6 hr, respectively. Plasma and whole blood 125I-PrPSc reached maximal levels by 30 min and 3 hr, respectively, and blood levels were constantly higher than plasma. Upon crossing the GI-tract 125I-PrPSc became associated to blood cells, suggesting that binding to cells decreased the biological clearance of the agent. Size-exclusion chromatography revealed that oligomeric 125I-PrPSc were transported from the intestinal tract, and protein misfolding cyclic amplification showed that PrPSc in organs and blood retained the typical prion self-replicating ability. Pharmacokinetic analysis found the oral bioavailability of 125I-PrPSc to be 33.6%. Interestingly, 125I-PrPSc reached the brain in a quantity equivalent to the minimum amount needed to initiate prion disease. Our findings provide a comprehensive and quantitative study of the fate of prions upon oral infection. PMID:27573341

  18. MicroRNAs and the regulation of intestinal homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runtsch, Marah C; Round, June L; O'Connell, Ryan M

    2014-01-01

    The mammalian intestinal tract is a unique site in which a large portion of our immune system and the 10(14) commensal organisms that make up the microbiota reside in intimate contact with each other. Despite the potential for inflammatory immune responses, this complex interface contains host immune cells and epithelial cells interacting with the microbiota in a manner that promotes symbiosis. Due to the complexity of the cell types and microorganisms involved, this process requires elaborate regulatory mechanisms to ensure mutualism and prevent disease. While many studies have described critical roles for protein regulators of intestinal homeostasis, recent reports indicate that non-coding RNAs are also major contributors to optimal host-commensal interactions. In particular, there is emerging evidence that microRNAs (miRNAs) have evolved to fine tune host gene expression networks and signaling pathways that modulate cellular physiology in the intestinal tract. Here, we review our present knowledge of the influence miRNAs have on both immune and epithelial cell biology in the mammalian intestines and the impact this has on the microbiota. We also discuss a need for further studies to decipher the functions of specific miRNAs within the gut to better understand cellular mechanisms that promote intestinal homeostasis and to identify potential molecular targets underlying diseases such as inflammatory bowel disease and colorectal cancer.

  19. Intestinal inflammatory myofibroblastic tumour

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abdominal X-ray of patients 1, 3 and 4 demonstrated dilated small bowel loops with fluid levels in keeping with intestinal ... myxoid/vascular pattern characterised by a variable admixture of capillary-calibre blood vessels, .... in the present study had a past history of abdominal trauma or surgery. Ancillary histopathological ...

  20. Mesenchymal Cells in Colon Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koliaraki, Vasiliki; Pallangyo, Charles K; Greten, Florian R; Kollias, George

    2017-04-01

    Mesenchymal cells in the intestine comprise a variety of cell types of diverse origins, functions, and molecular markers. They provide mechanical and structural support and have important functions during intestinal organogenesis, morphogenesis, and homeostasis. Recent studies of the human transcriptome have revealed their importance in the development of colorectal cancer, and studies from animal models have provided evidence for their roles in the pathogenesis of colitis-associated cancer and sporadic colorectal cancer. Mesenchymal cells in tumors, called cancer-associated fibroblasts, arise via activation of resident mesenchymal cell populations and the recruitment of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells and fibrocytes. Cancer-associated fibroblasts have a variety of activities that promote colon tumor development and progression; these include regulation of intestinal inflammation, epithelial proliferation, stem cell maintenance, angiogenesis, extracellular matrix remodeling, and metastasis. We review the intestinal mesenchymal cell-specific pathways that regulate these processes, with a focus on their roles in mediating interactions between inflammation and carcinogenesis. We also discuss how increasing our understanding of intestinal mesenchymal cell biology and function could lead to new strategies to identify and treat colitis-associated cancers. Copyright © 2017 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Studies on the nitrogen metabolism of the large intestine of ruminants. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sommer, A.; Ceresnakova, Z.; Szakacs, J.; Chrastinova, L.; Bergner, H.; Simon, O.

    1986-01-01

    3 bulls with body weights of 201, 168 and 190 kg, were equipped with a ileo-cecal re-entrant cannula and with catheters in the jugular veins on both sides. The pelleted ration was composed of straw 70-72%, cereals 10%, molasses 12-41% ammoniumhydrogencarbonate 3%, urea 2% and mineral mixture 1%. During a preliminary period ileal digesta were collected, deep-freezed and stored. During the main experiment 15 N-urea was infused intravenously for 24 hours. In this period and during the following 6 hours outflowing ileal digesta were collected quantitatively. At the same time precollected, unlabelled digesta together with a supplement of partly hydrolyzed straw meal were reintroduced into the cecal part of the cannula. Plasma urea N, urinary N as well as several N fractions of feces and digesta were analyzed for 15 N abundance. A urea flux rate of 27.9 +- 3.4 μmol per minute per kg/sup 0.75/ was estimated. It was calculated that 52% of this amount of urea was transfered into the digestive tract. In both, digesta and feces NH 3 nitrogen was highest 15 N-labelled indicating a direct urea entry and degradation in both segments of the digestive tract. The amounts of 15 N excess found during the period of digesta replacement were in feces 0.25 and in ileal digesta 4.02% of the infused 15 N. Although the microbial utilization of endogenous urea N was generally low in the large intestine there was a clear stimulation of this process due to the additional supply of the large intestine with a fermentable source. (author)

  2. Molecular and cellular studies on the absorption, function, and safety of food components in intestinal epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satsu, Hideo

    2017-03-01

    The intestinal tract comes into direct contact with the external environment despite being inside the body. Intestinal epithelial cells, which line the inner face of the intestinal tract, have various important functions, including absorption of food substances, immune functions such as cytokine secretion, and barrier function against xenobiotics by means of detoxification enzymes. It is likely that the functions of intestinal epithelial cells are regulated or modulated by these components because they are frequently exposed to food components at high concentrations. This review summarizes our research on the interaction between intestinal epithelial cells and food components at cellular and molecular levels. The influence of xenobiotic contamination in foods on the cellular function of intestinal epithelial cells is also described in this review.

  3. Effect of polydextrose on intestinal microbes and immune functions in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fava, Francesca; Mäkivuokko, Harri; Siljander-Rasi, Hilkka; Putaala, Heli; Tiihonen, Kirsti; Stowell, Julian; Tuohy, Kieran; Gibson, Glenn; Rautonen, Nina

    2007-07-01

    Dietary fibre has been proposed to decrease risk for colon cancer by altering the composition of intestinal microbes or their activity. In the present study, the changes in intestinal microbiota and its activity, and immunological characteristics, such as cyclo-oxygenase (COX)-2 gene expression in mucosa, in pigs fed with a high-energy-density diet, with and without supplementation of a soluble fibre (polydextrose; PDX) (30 g/d) were assessed in different intestinal compartments. PDX was gradually fermented throughout the intestine, and was still present in the distal colon. Irrespective of the diet throughout the intestine, of the four microbial groups determined by fluorescent in situ hybridisation, lactobacilli were found to be dominating, followed by clostridia and Bacteroides. Bifidobacteria represented a minority of the total intestinal microbiota. The numbers of bacteria increased approximately ten-fold from the distal small intestine to the distal colon. Concomitantly, also concentrations of SCFA and biogenic amines increased in the large intestine. In contrast, concentrations of luminal IgA decreased distally but the expression of mucosal COX-2 had a tendency to increase in the mucosa towards the distal colon. Addition of PDX to the diet significantly changed the fermentation endproducts, especially in the distal colon, whereas effects on bacterial composition were rather minor. There was a reduction in concentrations of SCFA and tryptamine, and an increase in concentrations of spermidine in the colon upon PDX supplementation. Furthermore, PDX tended to decrease the expression of mucosal COX-2, therefore possibly reducing the risk of developing colon cancer-promoting conditions in the distal intestine.

  4. Ketogenesis contributes to intestinal cell differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qingding; Zhou, Yuning; Rychahou, Piotr; Fan, Teresa W-M; Lane, Andrew N; Weiss, Heidi L; Evers, B Mark

    2017-03-01

    The intestinal epithelium undergoes a continual process of proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis. Previously, we have shown that the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway has a critical role in intestinal homeostasis. However, the downstream targets mediating the effects of mTOR in intestinal cells are not known. Here, we show that the ketone body β-hydroxybutyrate (βHB), an endogenous inhibitor of histone deacetylases (HDACs) induces intestinal cell differentiation as noted by the increased expression of differentiation markers (Mucin2 (MUC2), lysozyme, IAP, sucrase-isomaltase, KRT20, villin, Caudal-related homeobox transcription factor 2 (CDX2) and p21 Waf1 ). Conversely, knockdown of the ketogenic mitochondrial enzyme hydroxymethylglutaryl CoA synthase 2 (HMGCS2) attenuated spontaneous differentiation in the human colon cancer cell line Caco-2. Overexpression of HMGCS2, which we found is localized specifically in the more differentiated portions of the intestinal mucosa, increased the expression of CDX2, thus further suggesting the contributory role of HMGCS2 in intestinal differentiation. In addition, mice fed a ketogenic diet demonstrated increased differentiation of intestinal cells as noted by an increase in the enterocyte, goblet and Paneth cell lineages. Moreover, we showed that either knockdown of mTOR or inhibition of mTORC1 with rapamycin increases the expression of HMGCS2 in intestinal cells in vitro and in vivo, suggesting a possible cross-talk between mTOR and HMGCS2/βHB signaling in intestinal cells. In contrast, treatment of intestinal cells with βHB or feeding mice with a ketogenic diet inhibits mTOR signaling in intestinal cells. Together, we provide evidence showing that HMGCS2/βHB contributes to intestinal cell differentiation. Our results suggest that mTOR acts cooperatively with HMGCS2/βHB to maintain intestinal homeostasis.

  5. Study on human intestinal bacterium Blautia sp. AUH-JLD56 for the conversion of arctigenin to (-)-3'-desmethylarctigenin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ming-Yue; Li, Meng; Wang, Xiu-Ling; Liu, Peng; Hao, Qing-Hong; Yu, Xiu-Mei

    2013-12-11

    Arctium lappa L. (A. lappa) is a popularly used vegetable as well as herbal medicine. Human intestinal microflora was reported to convert arctiin, the lignan compound with highest content in the dried fruits of Arctium lappa, to a series of metabolites. However, the specific bacterium responsible for the formation of 3'-desmethylarctigenin (3'-DMAG), the most predominant metabolite of arctiin by rat or human intestinal microflora, has not been isolated yet. In the present study, we isolated one single bacterium, which we named Blautia sp. AUH-JLD56, capable of solely biotransforming arctiin or arctigenin to (-)-3'-DMAG. The structure of the metabolite 3'-DMAG was elucidated by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) and (1)H and (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The biotransforming kinetics and maximum biotransforming capacity of strain AUH-JLD56 was investigated. In addition, the metabolite 3'-DMAG showed significantly higher 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging activity than that of the substrate arctigenin at the concentrations tested.

  6. Histopathological and ultrastructural studies of a Henneguya species (Myxozoa: Myxosporea) infesting the intestine of Clarias gariepinus from Benin (West Africa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tossavi, Nounagnon Darius; Gbankoto, Adam; Yessoufou, Akadiri; Escande, Marie-Line; Dimitri, Gorand; Ribou, Anne-Cécile; Moutaïrou, Kabirou; Sakiti, Gilbert Nestor

    2015-03-01

    Fish culture is the best alternative to fill the gap between natural fish catches and estimated needs of populations in animal protein consumption. In West Africa, this goal required to have suitable fishes for aquaculture which are Clariidae and Tilapia. Clarias gariepinus (Clariidae) fetches a higher price than tilapias as it can be sold alive at the market but a high infestation by Henneguya leads to decrease this commercial value. Those reasons lead us to perform studies on seasonal variations, histopathological aspects and life cycle of Henneguya sp. infecting the intestine of C. gariepinus using light and electron microscope. From November 2011 to December 2012, 339 specimens were collected from Ouémé River (Benin) and examined. An overall prevalence of 7.37 % was recorded for plasmodia of Henneguya sp. Parasite occurrence did not vary significantly between seasons (χ(2) = 12.235; df = 3; p > 0.05), nor sexes (χ(2) = 2.992; df = 7; p > 0.05) while differences were significant between classes of weight (χ(2) = 39.929; df = 5; p < 0.05). The highest prevalence was recorded in host ranging from 300 to 374 g. Histopathological analysis showed that the mass continuous development of the plasmodium produced thickening of the intestine wall and compressed neighboring tissues and destroyed villi and smooth muscle layers. The stages of the parasite development including sporogenesis, capsulogenesis, and valvogenesis were asynchronous. Investigations are still running by molecular approaches in order to identify accurately this species.

  7. [Comparative study on absorption kinetics in intestines of rats of epimedii foliunm of Xianlinggubao capsules prepared by different processes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Huichao; Lu, Yang; Du, Shouying; Chen, Wen; Wang, Yue

    2011-10-01

    To study the characteristics of intestinal absorption of icariin and epimedin C of Xianlinggubao capsules, and compare the absorption of Xianlinggubao capsules prepared by different processes. Non everted gut sac method was applied to investigate the influence of absorption sites and concentration on icariin and epimedin C, which were determined by HPLC. The absorption rate constants of epimedin C in duodenum were absolutely more than that in jejunum and ileum (P absorption rate constants of icariin in jejunum were absolutely less than that in duodenum and ileum (P absorption rate constants of epimedin C and icariin kept at the same level when the concentrations of drug solution were at high, middle and low level. The Ka of epimedin C at three levels were 0.040, 0.058, 0.061 h(-1) , respectively, and the Ka of icariin at three levels were 0.002, 0.007, 0.003 h(-1), respectively. Intestinal absorption of icariin and epimedin C is not effected by concentrations. The absorption rate constants of icariin and epimedin C in new Xianlinggubao capsules are higher.

  8. Effect of Bifidobacterium breve on the Intestinal Microbiota of Coeliac Children on a Gluten Free Diet: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Quagliariello

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Coeliac disease (CD is associated with alterations of the intestinal microbiota. Although several Bifidobacterium strains showed anti-inflammatory activity and prevention of toxic gliadin peptides generation in vitro, few data are available on their efficacy when administered to CD subjects. This study evaluated the effect of administration for three months of a food supplement based on two Bifidobacterium breve strains (B632 and BR03 to restore the gut microbial balance in coeliac children on a gluten free diet (GFD. Microbial DNA was extracted from faeces of 40 coeliac children before and after probiotic or placebo administration and 16 healthy children (Control group. Sequencing of the amplified V3-V4 hypervariable region of 16S rRNA gene as well as qPCR of Bidobacterium spp., Lactobacillus spp., Bacteroides fragilis group Clostridium sensu stricto and enterobacteria were performed. The comparison between CD subjects and Control group revealed an alteration in the intestinal microbial composition of coeliacs mainly characterized by a reduction of the Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio, of Actinobacteria and Euryarchaeota. Regarding the effects of the probiotic, an increase of Actinobacteria was found as well as a re-establishment of the physiological Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio. Therefore, a three-month administration of B. breve strains helps in restoring the healthy percentage of main microbial components.

  9. Intestinal absorption of aloin, aloe-emodin, and aloesin; A comparative study using two in vitro absorption models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Mi-Young; Kwon, Hoon-Jeong; Sung, Mi-Kyung

    2009-01-01

    Aloe products are one of the top selling health-functional foods in Korea, however the adequate level of intake to achieve desirable effects are not well understood. The objective of this study was to determine the intestinal uptake and metabolism of physiologically active aloe components using in vitro intestinal absorption model. The Caco-2 cell monolayer and the everted gut sac were incubated with 5-50 microM of aloin, aloe-emodin, and aloesin. The basolateral appearance of test compounds and their glucuronosyl or sulfated forms were quantified using HPLC. The % absorption of aloin, aloe-emodin, and aloesin was ranged from 5.51% to 6.60%, 6.60% to 11.32%, and 7.61% to 13.64%, respectively. Up to 18.15%, 18.18%, and 38.86% of aloin, aloe-emodin, and aloesin, respectively, was absorbed as glucuronidated or sulfated form. These results suggest that a significant amount is transformed during absorption. The absorption rate of test compounds except aloesin was similar in two models; more aloesin was absorbed in the everted gut sac than in the Caco-2 monolayer. These results provide information to establish adequate intake level of aloe supplements to maintain effective plasma level.

  10. Intestinal pseudo-obstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Primary intestinal pseudo-obstruction; Acute colonic ileus; Colonic pseudo-obstruction; Idiopathic intestinal pseudo-obstruction; Ogilvie syndrome; Chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction; Paralytic ileus - pseudo-obstruction

  11. Studies on retrospective analysis of leading primary cancers and improvement of cancer treatment method in Korea cancer center hospital

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jong In; Lee, Kang Hyun; Choi, Soo Yong; Kim, Ki Wha; Kang, Sung Mok

    2000-12-01

    a. Retrospective studies included cancers of the stomach, breast, bladder, salivary gland, thyroid, esophagus, endometrium and ovary. (1) Study cancers were analyzed about clinical characteristics, prognostic factors influenced on survival time, survival rate, etc. (2) Among 5,305 study patients, 1,405(26.5%) were identified with death, 3,485(65.7%) were alive and 415(7.8%) were not identified. b. Prospective studies included 10 subjects such as bladder cancer, retinoblastoma, malignant patients, gastric cancer, uterine cervix cancer and ovary cancer. We are continuing registering eligible study patients. c. Results for 11 papers were published at the journal. d. We established follow-up system in order to identify the survival for study subjects through National Statistical Office, Government Provincial Office and Cancer Registration System at Korea Cancer Center Hospital. e. At present, we are establishing computerized registration system about case report form for study cancers

  12. Studies on retrospective analysis of leading primary cancers and improvement of cancer treatment method in Korea cancer center hospital

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jong In; Lee, Kang Hyun; Choi, Soo Yong; Kim, Ki Wha; Kang, Sung Mok

    2000-12-01

    a. Retrospective studies included cancers of the stomach, breast, bladder, salivary gland, thyroid, esophagus, endometrium and ovary. (1) Study cancers were analyzed about clinical characteristics, prognostic factors influenced on survival time, survival rate, etc. (2) Among 5,305 study patients, 1,405(26.5%) were identified with death, 3,485(65.7%) were alive and 415(7.8%) were not identified. b. Prospective studies included 10 subjects such as bladder cancer, retinoblastoma, malignant patients, gastric cancer, uterine cervix cancer and ovary cancer. We are continuing registering eligible study patients. c. Results for 11 papers were published at the journal. d. We established follow-up system in order to identify the survival for study subjects through National Statistical Office, Government Provincial Office and Cancer Registration System at Korea Cancer Center Hospital. e. At present, we are establishing computerized registration system about case report form for study cancers.

  13. Intestinal myiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U S Udgaonkar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Intestinal myiasis is a condition when the fly larvae inhabit the gastrointestinal tract and are passed out in faeces. This type of infestation results when eggs or larvae of the fly, deposited on food are inadvertently taken by man. They survive the unfavourable conditions within the gastrointestinal tract and produce disturbances, which may vary from mild to severe. The condition is not uncommon and is often misdiagnosed as pinworm infestation. Correct diagnosis by the clinical microbiologist is important to avoid unnecessary treatment. Materials and Methods: We had 7 cases of intestinal myiasis. In 2 cases the larvae were reared to adult fly in modified meat and sand medium (developed by Udgaonkar. This medium is simple and can be easily prepared in the laboratory. Results: Of the 7 larvae, 5 were Sarcophaga haemorrhoidalis, 1 Megaselia species and 1 was identified as Muscina stabulans. Conclusions: S. haemorrhoidalis was the commonest maggot involved. A high index of suspicion is required for clinical diagnosis when the patient complains of passing wriggling worms in faeces for a long period without any response to antihelminthics. The reason for long duration of illness and recurrence of infestation is baffling. The nearest to cure was colonic wash. We feel prevention is of utmost importance, which is to avoid eating food articles with easy access to flies.

  14. Statistical study on cancer patients of cancer research hospital

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shim, Yun Sang; Choi, Soo Yong; Kim, Ki Wha; Kang, Sung Mok

    1993-01-01

    The total number of malignant neoplasms included in this study 15,737 cases(11.8%) among 133,251 cases for 3 years. On sex, females with 52.9% were much more than males with 47.1%. The highest proportion of cancer patients by age was 33.7% in males and 28.5% in females, respectivelty for 50-59 age group. The most frequent primary site among males was found to be stomach with 35.5%, followed by liver(14.7%), lung(13.0%), esophagus(5.4%) and colon (3.2%). In females, the first order was uterine cervix with 40.6%, followed by stomach(17.2%), breast(14.4), rectum(3.7%) and lung(3.4%). The most common type of morphology of malignant neoplasms was adenocarcinoma(47.4%) in males an squamous cell carcinoma(58.0%) in females. Among the cancer patients initially diagnosed in this hospital, the proportion of malignant neoplasms by the exent of disease was 2.5% for patient with carcinoma-in-situ, 54.1% for patients with localized involvement, 13.3% for patients with regional involvement and 8.5% for patients with distant involvement. Among the cancer patients initially treatment in this hospital, the proportion of malignant neoplasms by the method of treatment was 23.6% for surgery, 25.3% for radiotherapy and 30.3% for chemotherapy. Among the cancer patients confirmed by medical records, 7.7% was traced more than 5 years. (Author)

  15. Influência do antibiótico nas lesões de isquemia e reperfusão intestinal: estudo experimental em ratos The influence of antibiotics on intestinal ischemia and reperfusion: experimental study in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria de Lourdes Pessole Biondo-Simões

    2000-01-01

    reperfusion have been studied. Free radicals appear to be envolved in the phisiopathology of the ischemia and reperfusions lesions. The intestinal barrier disruption would allow bacterial translocation and increase in the severity of such lesions. The aim of the present study was to evaluate intestinal injury after ischemia and reperfusion with and without antibiotic coverage. Under ether anesthesia forty-two Wistar male rats were submitted to an abdominal midline incision. The mesenteric arteries were clamped for 30 minutes. After this period of ischemia, reperfusion was induced for equal period of time. Twenty-one rats received eritromicin, 50mg/kg orally, 24 hours before the operation. The remain animals were operated without antibiotics coverage. Each of the two groups animals were divided into 3 others groups: control, ischemia and ischemia-reperfusion groups. After the reperfusion period, a intestinal segment was excised for histopathological studies. Results were evaluated according to the criteria of CHIU and col. and were submitted to statical analysis. In the control group any difference was found in the intestines of the animals with and without antibiotic coverage. The ischemia group, with or without antibiotic, showed lesions that ranged from vilos loss to mucosal infarction. The lesions were similar in the ischemia-reperfusion group. We verified that intestines submitted to reperfusion under antibiotic coverage showed more severe lesions than ischemic intestines without antibiotics coverage (p= 0,0303. We can conclude that the administrations of antibiotics before the induction of ischemia or ischemia-reperfusion does not improve the severity of histological lesions.

  16. The intestinal microbiota modulates the anticancer immune effects of cyclophosphamide.

    OpenAIRE

    Viaud S; Saccheri F; Mignot G; Yamazaki T; Daill\\xere R; Hannani D; Enot DP; Pfirschke C; Engblom C; Pittet MJ; Schlitzer A; Ginhoux F; Apetoh L; Chachaty E; Woerther PL

    2013-01-01

    Cyclophosphamide is one of several clinically important cancer drugs whose therapeutic efficacy is due in part to their ability to stimulate anti-tumor immune responses. Studying mouse models, we demonstrate that cyclophosphamide alters the composition of microbiota in the small intestine and induces the translocation of selected species of Gram+ bacteria into secondary lymphoid organs. There, these bacteria stimulate the generation of a specific subset of “pathogenic” T helper 17 (pTh17) cel...

  17. A Prospective, Multicentered Study to Assess Social Adjustment in Patients With an Intestinal Stoma in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karadağ, Ayişe; Karabulut, Hatice; Baykara, Zehra G; Harputlu, Deniz; Toyluk, Eylem; Ulusoy, Birgül; Karadağ, Sercan; Kahraman, Aysel; Hin, Aysel Ören; Altinsoy, Meral; Akıl, Yasemin; Leventoğlu, Sezai

    2015-10-01

    Patients with a stoma undergo physiological, psychological, and social adjustment to their new life situation. A descriptive, prospective study was conducted to assess adaptation among patients >18 years of age with a new temporary or permanent colostomy or ileostomy living in Turkey and receiving care at a participating stomatherapy unit. The study took place between September 1, 2011, and September 1, 2012. During hospitalization and following discharge, patients with a stoma received training and counseling according to their individual characteristics and their physiological, psychological, and social needs. Each participant completed the 19-item "Identification Form for Patients with a Stoma" at the beginning of the study to document sociodemographic and stoma characteristics. To assess adjustment to the stoma, The Ostomy Assessment Inventory (OAI-23) was administered 2 times - the first within 1 month and the second within 6 months after surgery or when a temporary stoma was closed (whichever came first). This instrument comprised 23 items regarding adaptation to the stoma using Likert-type response options (0-4 range). Total scores ranged from 10 to 92, with higher scores indicating better adjustment. The instruments were completed by stoma and wound care nurses during face-to-face interviews. Data were analyzed using the Kruskal-Wallis, Mann-Whitney, and Wilcoxon tests. Of the 135 participants, the majority (77, 57.0%) were male; 73 (54.1%) had a colostomy, and 106 (78.5%) had a temporary stoma. The primary reason for stoma creation was cancer (89, 65.9%). Mean total OAI-23 scores were 48.63 ± 13.75 at the first administration and 50.59 ± 13.89 for the second. In terms of sociodemographic factors, significant increases in mean scores from the first to the second survey time were noted among patients in the 50-69 age group, women, married persons, and unemployed persons (P less than 0.05). With regard to stoma characteristics, the OAI-23 scores of patients

  18. Autoimmunity and Gastric Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bizzaro, Nicola; Antico, Antonio; Villalta, Danilo

    2018-01-01

    Alterations in the immune response of patients with autoimmune diseases may predispose to malignancies, and a link between chronic autoimmune gastritis and gastric cancer has been reported in many studies. Intestinal metaplasia with dysplasia of the gastric corpus-fundus mucosa and hyperplasia of chromaffin cells, which are typical features of late-stage autoimmune gastritis, are considered precursor lesions. Autoimmune gastritis has been associated with the development of two types of gastric neoplasms: intestinal type and type I gastric carcinoid. Here, we review the association of autoimmune gastritis with gastric cancer and other autoimmune features present in gastric neoplasms. PMID:29373557

  19. Autoimmunity and Gastric Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Bizzaro

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Alterations in the immune response of patients with autoimmune diseases may predispose to malignancies, and a link between chronic autoimmune gastritis and gastric cancer has been reported in many studies. Intestinal metaplasia with dysplasia of the gastric corpus-fundus mucosa and hyperplasia of chromaffin cells, which are typical features of late-stage autoimmune gastritis, are considered precursor lesions. Autoimmune gastritis has been associated with the development of two types of gastric neoplasms: intestinal type and type I gastric carcinoid. Here, we review the association of autoimmune gastritis with gastric cancer and other autoimmune features present in gastric neoplasms.

  20. Morphological changes in the enteric nervous system caused by carcinoma of the human large intestine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janusz Godlewski

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The innervations of the large intestine is responsible for it peristalsis and contractibility. Investigations of the enteric nervous system in many colon diseases have revealed changes in this structure. No study has been carried out on morphological changes of the enteric nervous system in the human large intestine with carcinoma. The aim of this study was to investigate potential changes in the structure of the enteric neurons in patients with sigmoid and rectal cancer. Material for the study was obtained from patients undergoing operations due to carcinoma of the sigmoid colon and rectum. Microscopic observation of the cancerous tumor of the human large intestine revealed changes in the enteric nervous system innervating this part of the gastrointestinal tract. In the region of the enteric plexuses located close to the tumour, disruption of their correct placement and structure was observed. The changes also consisted of the disappearance of neurons and nerve fibers forming these plexuses. In the solid cancerous tumour, elements of the enteric nervous system were not present. Destruction of the enteric nervous system in the course of carcinoma of the large intestine may cause disruption of proper intestinal function and may be responsible for part of symptoms which the patients suffer.

  1. Czech studies of lung cancer and radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomasek, L.

    2002-01-01

    According to the International Agency for Research on Cancer, there is a significant evidence to classify radon as a carcinogen. Using extrapolations from occupational studies, it can be shown that for some countries environmental exposure to radon is the second most important cause of lung cancer in the general population after cigarette smoking. Czech studies among uranium miners, established in 1970 by Josef Sevc, and in the general population aim to contribute to knowledge on the risk from radon, particularly by evaluating temporal factors and interaction of radon exposure and smoking

  2. Human mini-guts: new insights into intestinal physiology and host-pathogen interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    In, Julie G; Foulke-Abel, Jennifer; Estes, Mary K; Zachos, Nicholas C; Kovbasnjuk, Olga; Donowitz, Mark

    2016-11-01

    The development of indefinitely propagating human 'mini-guts' has led to a rapid advance in gastrointestinal research related to transport physiology, developmental biology, pharmacology, and pathophysiology. These mini-guts, also called enteroids or colonoids, are derived from LGR5 + intestinal stem cells isolated from the small intestine or colon. Addition of WNT3A and other growth factors promotes stemness and results in viable, physiologically functional human intestinal or colonic cultures that develop a crypt-villus axis and can be differentiated into all intestinal epithelial cell types. The success of research using human enteroids has highlighted the limitations of using animals or in vitro, cancer-derived cell lines to model transport physiology and pathophysiology. For example, curative or preventive therapies for acute enteric infections have been limited, mostly due to the lack of a physiological human intestinal model. However, the human enteroid model enables specific functional studies of secretion and absorption in each intestinal segment as well as observations of the earliest molecular events that occur during enteric infections. This Review describes studies characterizing these human mini-guts as a physiological model to investigate intestinal transport and host-pathogen interactions.

  3. Human mini-guts: new insights into intestinal physiology and host–pathogen interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    In, Julie G.; Foulke-Abel, Jennifer; Estes, Mary K.; Zachos, Nicholas C.; Kovbasnjuk, Olga; Donowitz, Mark

    2016-01-01

    The development of indefinitely propagating human ‘mini-guts’ has led to a rapid advance in gastrointestinal research related to transport physiology, developmental biology, pharmacology, and pathophysiology. These mini-guts, also called enteroids or colonoids, are derived from LGR5+ intestinal stem cells isolated from the small intestine or colon. Addition of WNT3A and other growth factors promotes stemness and results in viable, physiologically functional human intestinal or colonic cultures that develop a crypt–villus axis and can be differentiated into all intestinal epithelial cell types. The success of research using human enteroids has highlighted the limitations of using animals or in vitro, cancer-derived cell lines to model transport physiology and pathophysiology. For example, curative or preventive therapies for acute enteric infections have been limited, mostly due to the lack of a physiological human intestinal model. However, the human enteroid model enables specific functional studies of secretion and absorption in each intestinal segment as well as observations of the earliest molecular events that occur during enteric infections. This Review describes studies characterizing these human mini-guts as a physiological model to investigate intestinal transport and host pathogen interactions. PMID:27677718

  4. Small intestine and microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotter, Paul D

    2011-03-01

    To highlight the recent studies which have enhanced our appreciation of the composition of the microbiota in the human small intestine and its relevance to the health of the host. In the past number of years, the composition of the microorganisms present in our small intestines has been the subject of greater scrutiny than ever before. These investigations have been possible as a consequence of the development and utilization of new molecular tools which have revolutionized the field of microbial ecology and have focused predominantly on the small intestinal microbiota associated with pediatric celiac disease, inflammatory bowel disease, irritable bowel syndrome and pouchitis. The impact of invasive procedures, such as small bowel transplant, ileostomy and ileal pouch anal anastomosis, on the ileal microbiota has also been investigated. The ever greater appreciation of the link between the small intestinal microbiota and the health status of the host has the potential to lead to the development of new strategies to alter this microbiota in a targeted way to prevent or treat specific disorders.

  5. A etiological factors in mechanical intestinal obstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asad, S.; Khan, H.; Khan, I.A.; Ghaffar, S.; Rehman, Z.U.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Intestinal obstruction occurs when the normal flow of intestinal contents is interrupted. The most frequent causes of intestinal obstruction are postoperative adhesions and hernias, which cause extrinsic compression of the intestine. Less frequently, tumours or strictures of the bowel can cause intrinsic blockage. Objective of the study was to find out the various a etiological factors of mechanical intestinal obstruction and to evaluate the morbidity and mortality in adult patients presenting to Surgical 'A' unit of Ayub teaching hospital with mechanical intestinal obstruction. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted from March 2009 to September, 2009. All patients presenting with intestinal obstruction and were above the age of 12 years were included in the study. Patients with non-mechanical obstruction were excluded from the study and those who responded to conservative measures were also excluded. Results: A total of 36 patients with age ranging from 12 to 80 years (Mean age 37.72+-19.74 years) and male to female ratio of 1.77:1, were treated for mechanical intestinal obstruction. The most common cause for mechanical intestinal obstruction was adhesions (36.1%). Intestinal tuberculosis was the second most common cause (19.4%), while hernias and sigmoid volvulus affected 13.9% patients each. Malignancies were found in 5.6% cases. Conclusion: Adhesions and Tuberculosis are the leading causes of mechanical intestinal obstruction in Pakistan. Although some patients can be treated conservatively, a substantial portion requires immediate surgical intervention. (author)

  6. Dosimetry studies during breast cancer radiation treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, M. O. M.

    2005-06-01

    Previous studies indicated that breast cancer is wildly spread especially in women as compared to men. It is increased after an age of thirty five years in women so it is important to study the effect of exposure to the radiation on the intact breast during the treatment of the breast suffering from cancer. In this work the scattered doses for the intact breast during the treatment of the breast suffering from cancer were measured and also the probability of inducing cancer in it is also discussed. The study was performed for a group of patients composed of twenty five females. Also the backscattered doses to the intact breast were measured for thirteen female patients. During the treatment using gamma rays from Co-60 source the two tangential fields (lateral and medial) were selected for the measurements. The results of exposure to gamma radiation for the lateral and medial fields showed that the mean scattered and backscattered doses to the intact breast were (241.26 cGY,47.49 cGY) and (371.6 cGY,385.4 cGY), respectively. Beside that the somatic risk of induced cancer to the intact breast was found to be (6 .1X10 -3 ,1.2X10 -3 ) and (9.29X10 -3 , 9.63X10 -3 ), respectively. From the results obtained it was concluded that the intact breast received small amounts of radiation doses which may lead to breast cancer for the healthy breast. The recommendations from the present study are to take care of radiation protection to the patient, and also to take care of the patient treatment conditions like temperature, pressure and humidity during the radiation exposure.(Author)

  7. Colorectal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... rectum are part of the large intestine. Colorectal cancer occurs when tumors form in the lining of ... men and women. The risk of developing colorectal cancer rises after age 50. You're also more ...

  8. Gallbladder Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your gallbladder and liver to your small intestine. Cancer of the gallbladder is rare. It is more ... the abdomen It is hard to diagnose gallbladder cancer in its early stages. Sometimes doctors find it ...

  9. Evaluation of jojoba oil as a low-energy fat. 2. Intestinal transit time, stomach emptying and digestibility in short-term feeding studies in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verschuren, P M; Nugteren, D H

    1989-01-01

    The influence of jojoba oil (JO) incorporation in the diet on stomach emptying and intestinal transit time, and the digestion and absorption of JO were investigated in short-term feeding studies in rats. The animals were fed purified diets containing 18% (w/w) fat, of which half consisted of a mixture of lard and sunflower seed oil (SF) supplemented with an equivalent amount of JO. The control animals were fed a mixture of lard and SF (18%). No treatment-related differences were observed in the rate of stomach emptying or the intestinal transit time. Comparative lipid analysis of lymph, intestinal content, intestinal mucosa and faeces indicated that most of the ingested JO was degraded and absorbed. Part of the JO was present as wax ester in the lymph. Hydrolysis of JO was much slower than that of triacylglycerols and continued in the alimentary tract beyond the small intestine due to bacterial processes. JO did not influence the absorption of the conventional fat.

  10. Intestinal Failure (Short Bowel Syndrome)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intestinal Failure (Short Bowel Syndrome) What is intestinal failure? Intestinal failure occurs when a significant portion of the small ... intestine does. Who is at risk for intestinal failure? N Babies (usually premature) who have had surgery ...

  11. [Preclinical studies of cucurbita maxima (pumpkin seeds) a traditional intestinal antiparasitic in rural urban areas].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz Obregón, Daysi; Lloja Lozano, Luis; Carbajal Zúñiga, Victor

    2004-01-01

    Experimental research was carried out at the Parasitology and Chemistry laboratories of the Jorge Basadre Grohmann National University, in Tacna. The process involved two phases: (1) determination of the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of Cucurbita Maxima as an antiparasitic agent using canine tapeworms with an intestinal isolation of 5 to 6 hours, and (2) determination of the side-effects of Curbita Maxima on exposed albino rats. It was found that the MIC of 23 gr. of pumpkin seed in 100 ml. of distilled water can produce an antihelminthic effect. This concentration is equivalent to +/- 73 pumpkin seeds (x2 = 5.6, p 23 gr. There is a protheolithic effect with an average survival time of 38.4 minutes. Microscopically the mature proglottids present a destruction of the tegument involving the basal membrane. In the gravid proglottids there is egg destruction. These findings are accentuated when experimenting with Cucurbita Maxima in a concentration of 30 and 32 gr. Superficial non-erosive gastritis was found in weys rats after 4 hours of administering 9 gr/kg.

  12. Effect of Gum Chewing on Intestinal Functions after Gynecological Operations: A Randomized Controlled Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taylan Şenol

    2016-12-01

    RESULTS: There was no difference between groups in terms of age, duration of operation, intraoperative blood loss, pre and postoperative serum hemoglobin levels, duration to first bowel sound, flatulence and defecation (p>0.05. Age (r=0.234, p=0.032, type of incision (r=0.228, p=0.037 were significantly correlated with the time to first bowel sound. Type of incision (r=0.295, p=0.006, duration of operation (r=0.277, p=0.01 and intraoperative blood loss (r=0.298, p=0.006 were significantly correlated with the time to first flatulence. In multivariate regression analyses, none of the variables were found to be significant parameter for time to first bowel sound (p>0.05. CONCLUSION: Gum chewing does not affect some of the gastrointestinal functions after gynecological operations and there is no single parameter for time to first bowel sound, first flatulence and first defecation, individual surgical and medical condition differences should be kept in mind while evaluating intestinal functions.

  13. Computational Studies of Drug Release, Transport and Absorption in the Human Intestines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behafarid, Farhad; Brasseur, J. G.; Vijayakumar, G.; Jayaraman, B.; Wang, Y.

    2016-11-01

    Following disintegration of a drug tablet, a cloud of particles 10-200 μm in diameter enters the small intestine where drug molecules are absorbed into the blood. Drug release rate depends on particle size, solubility and hydrodynamic enhancements driven by gut motility. To quantify the interrelationships among dissolution, transport and wall permeability, we apply lattice Boltzmann method to simulate the drug concentration field in the 3D gut released from polydisperse distributions of drug particles in the "fasting" vs. "fed" motility states. Generalized boundary conditions allow for both solubility and gut wall permeability to be systematically varied. We apply a local 'quasi-steady state' approximation for drug dissolution using a mathematical model generalized for hydrodynamic enhancements and heterogeneity in drug release rate. We observe fundamental differences resulting from the interplay among release, transport and absorption in relationship to particle size distribution, luminal volume, motility, solubility and permeability. For example, whereas smaller volume encourages higher bulk concentrations and reduced release rate, it also encourages higher absorption rate, making it difficult to generalize predictions. Supported by FDA.

  14. A Study of Triple Negative Breast Cancer at a Tertiary Cancer Care ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Breast cancer is the most common female cancer and the leading cause of cancer deaths worldwide. ... Background: Triple negative breast cancers (TNBCs) are a diverse and heterogeneous group of tumors that by definition lack ..... setting could provide an opportunity to study the impact of systemic therapies on breast ...

  15. DNA extraction protocols may influence biodiversity detected in the intestinal microbiome: a case study from wild Prussian carp, Carassius gibelio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashinskaya, Elena N; Andree, Karl B; Simonov, Evgeniy P; Solovyev, Mikhail M

    2017-02-01

    In this investigation, we examined the influence of different DNA extraction protocols on results obtained for intestinal microbiota of Prussian carp. We showed that significant differences were observed in numbers of reads, OTUs, Shannon index and taxonomic composition between two different DNA extraction protocols for intestine of Prussian carp (Carassius gibelio), and differences were also evident between microbial communities in the intestinal mucosa and intestinal content. Statistical analyses of 25 published articles also revealed a significant relationship between methods of DNA extraction and bacterial diversity in fish intestine of freshwater species. Microbial diversity, community structure, proportions of read numbers derived from each OTU and the total number of OTU's obtained by different DNA extraction protocols could lead to a bias in results obtained in some cases, and therefore researchers should be conservative in conclusions about community structures. © FEMS 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Modulation of Intestinal Microbiome Prevents Intestinal Ischemic Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Bertacco

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Butyrate protects against ischemic injury to the small intestine by reducing inflammation and maintaining the structure of the intestinal barrier, but is expensive, short-lived, and cannot be administered easily due to its odor. Lactate, both economical and more palatable, can be converted into butyrate by the intestinal microbiome. This study aimed to assess in a rat model whether lactate perfusion can also protect against intestinal ischemia.Materials and Methods: Rat intestinal segments were loaded in an in vitro bowel perfusion device, and water absorption or secretion was assessed based on fluorescence of FITC-inulin, a fluorescent marker bound to a biologically inert sugar. Change in FITC concentration was used as a measure of ischemic injury, given the tendency of ischemic cells to retain water. Hematoxylin and eosin-stained sections at light level microscopy were examined to evaluate intestinal epithelium morphology. Comparisons between the data sets were paired Student t-tests or ANOVA with p < 0.05 performed on GraphPad.Results: Lactate administration resulted in a protective effect against intestinal ischemia of similar magnitude to that observed with butyrate. Both exhibited approximately 1.5 times the secretion exhibited by control sections (p = 0.03. Perfusion with lactate and methoxyacetate, a specific inhibitor of lactate-butyrate conversion, abolished this effect (p = 0.09. Antibiotic treatment also eliminated this effect, rendering lactate-perfused sections similar to control sections (p = 0.72. Perfusion with butyrate and methoxyacetate did not eliminate the observed increased secretion, which indicates that ischemic protection was mediated by microbial conversion of lactate to butyrate (p = 0.71.Conclusions: Lactate's protective effect against intestinal ischemia due to microbial conversion to butyrate suggests possible applications in the transplant setting for reducing ischemic injury and ameliorating intestinal

  17. High prevalence of Schistosoma mansoni and other intestinal parasites among elementary school children in Southwest Ethiopia: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jejaw, Ayalew; Zemene, Endalew; Alemu, Yayehirad; Mengistie, Zemenu

    2015-07-02

    Intestinal parasitic infections (IPIs) pose significant public health challenges in school children in developing countries. The aim of this study is to determine prevalence of intestinal parasites among elementary school children in Mizan-Aman town, southwest Ethiopia. Institution-based cross-sectional study involving 460 elementary school children in Mizan-Aman Town was conducted from May to June 2013. The school children were selected using multistage sampling technique. Data on demography and predisposing factors of IPIs were collected using pretested questionnaire. Moreover, single stool specimen was examined microscopically after wet mount and formol-ether sedimentation concentration procedures. Infection intensity of Schistosoma mansoni and soil-transmitted helminths (STHs) was estimated using Kato-Katz egg counting method. Age of the children ranged from 5 to 17 years. Overall, 76.7% (95%CI: 72.8-80.6) of the children harbored at least one species of intestinal parasite. Eight species of intestinal parasites were detected with S. mansoni (44.8%) and Ascaris lumbricoides (28.7%) being predominant. Helminths and pathogenic intestinal protozoa were detected in 73.9 and 7.8% of the children, respectively. After adjusting for other variables, age between 5 and 9 years (AOR, 2.6, 95%CI, 1.552-4.298), male gender (AOR, 2.1, 95%CI, 1.222-3.526), attending public school (AOR, 0.1, 95%CI, 0.060-0.256), using river/well water (AOR, 2.4, 95%CI, 0.912-6.191), irregular washing of hands before meal (AOR, 0.5, 95%CI, 0.254-0.865), consuming street food (AOR, 2.3, 95%CI, 1.341-3.813) and raw vegetables (AOR, 2.7, 95%CI, 1.594-4.540) were significantly associated with IPIs in the study participants. Prevalence of intestinal parasites among the school children was high. Deworming of the school children and continuous follow up is required.

  18. Childhood Cancer Survivor Study: An Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Study (Jul. 2014, Lancet Oncology; see the journal article ) Aging and risk of severe, disabling, life-threatening, and ... 2013, Journal of Clinical Oncology; see the journal article ) Radiation-related risk of basal cell carcinoma : A Report from the Childhood Cancer Survivor ...

  19. Study of the incidence of intestinal parasites in vegetables commercializes in free trade fair and supermarket Londrina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila Ruzzon Nomura

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the presence of intestinal parasites in samples of lettuce and chicory sold in street market and supermarket Londrina city, Paraná. For this purpose, eight samples of lettuce (Lactuca sativa and eight samples of chicory (Cichorium intybus were collected and analyzed. The analysis was performed at the Laboratory for Extension and Research in Enteroparasitosis – L.E.P.En. Cysts of Endolimax nana, Entamoeba coli, Entamoeba histolytica, Balantidium coli and Strongyloides stercoralis larvae, Hookworm larvae and eggs, and eggs of Ascaris spp were found in the samples. These results demonstrate the need for hygienic-sanitary measures, aimed at educating the community, enabling the improvement in living conditions of the population.

  20. In vivo study on selection of ESBL-producing Escherichia coli in the intestinal tract of pigs treated with extended-spectrum cephalosporins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Concalves Cavaco, Lina Maria; Aarestrup, Frank; Abatih Nji, Emmanuel

    2007-01-01

    In vivo study on selection of ESBL-producing Escherichia coli in the intestinal tract of pigs treated with extended-spectrum cephalosporins   Cavaco, LM1,2, Aarestrup FM2, Abatih, E1, Guardabassi, L1 1- Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Copenhagen, DK-1870 Frederiksberg C; Denmark 2- National...... ß-lactam antibiotics on selection of ESBL-producing E. coli in the intestinal microflora . Twenty female 8 week-old specific pathogen-free pigs were randomly allocated into 4 groups of 5 pigs each. All pigs were inoculated intragastrically with a blaCTX-M-positive Escherichia coli of porcine origin...... considered since selection of ESBL-producing E .coli in the intestinal microflora is likely to increase the risk of carcass contamination during the slaughtering process and the consequent risk of foodborne transmission to humans.  ...

  1. The effect of soy isoflavones on the development of intestinal neoplasia in Apc(Min) mouse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Ilona Kryspin; Kristiansen, Eva; Mortensen, Alicja

    1998-01-01

    Data from epidemiological studies suggest that isoflavones in soy may have a protective effect on the development of colon cancer in humans. Therefore, we have investigated whether soy isoflavones will inhibit intestinal tumour development in Apc(Min) mice. The mice were fed a Western-type high r...

  2. How patients experience the surroundings in relation to patient participation: a qualitative study of inpatients with intestinal failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thyssen GD

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Gunvor Dichmann Thyssen, Anne BeckDepartment of Hepatology and Gastroenterology, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, DenmarkIntroduction: Patient participation is known to improve patients' motivation, compliance, treatment results, and satisfaction with the received care. It is well known that the physical environment is of great importance in supporting patient involvement. A systematic literature search has shown a lack of articles on the subject of “surroundings” in relation to patient participation, for all patient groups.Aim: We aimed to investigate how patients with intestinal failure experience their hospital surroundings in relation to patient participation.Methods: The study included eight patients admitted for at least 2 weeks at the Intestinal Failure Unit, H8, Salford Royal NHS Foundation Trust, Manchester, United Kingdom. Included patients had a good level of consciousness with no confusion. The included patients participated in a semistructured interview. The interviews were analyzed using Malterud's principles of systematic text condensation.Results: The patients described that the surroundings enabled them to participate in their treatment and care. The surroundings made it possible for them and encouraged them to participate through: the possibility to seek and get information and the possibility to participate in daily activities. This led to a feeling of independence, reassurance, normality, control, responsibility, and confidence.Conclusion: The findings in this study indicate that the hospital surroundings are essential for the patients with respect to their ability to participate in their own care and treatment. The surroundings, in relation to patient participation, should be considered when planning and organizing nursing care. Further research is needed to increase the understanding of the surroundings in relation to patient participation - this research could, for eg, include the nurse's perspective

  3. Prevalence and co-infection of intestinal parasites among thai rural residents at high-risk of developing cholangiocarcinoma: a cross-sectional study in a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Songserm, Nopparat; Promthet, Supannee; Wiangnon, Surapon; Sithithaworn, Paiboon

    2012-01-01

    Intestinal parasitic infections (IPIs) are still important to the health of Thai rural residents. IPIs are the cause of many chronic diseases with, for example, opisthorchiasis resulting in progression to cholangiocarcinoma (CCA). This cross-sectional study in a prospective cohort study aimed to examine the prevalence and co- infection of intestinal parasites among Northeastern Thai rural residents, recruited into the Khon Kaen Cohort Study (KKCS), and who were residing in areas of high-risk for developing CCA. On recruitment, subjects had completed questionnaires and provided fecal samples for IPI testing using the formalin ethyl acetate concentration technique. Data on selected general characteristics and the results of the fecal tests were analysed. IPI test results were available for 18,900 of cohort subjects, and 38.50% were found to be positive for one or more types of intestinal parasite. The prevalence of Opisthorchis viverrini (O. viverrini) infection was the highest (45.7%), followed by intestinal flukes (31.9%), intestinal nematodes (17.7%), intestinal protozoa (3.02%), and intestinal cestodes (1.69%). The pattern of different infections was similar in all age groups. According to a mapping analysis, a higher CCA burden was correlated with a higher prevalence of O. viverrini and intestinal flukes and a greater intensity of O. viverrini. Both prevention and control programs against liver fluke and other intestinal parasites are needed and should be delivered simultaneously. We can anticipate that the design of future control and prevention programmes will accommodate a more community-orientated and participatory approach.

  4. Sugars in diet and risk of cancer in the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasevska, Nataša; Jiao, Li; Cross, Amanda J; Kipnis, Victor; Subar, Amy F; Hollenbeck, Albert; Schatzkin, Arthur; Potischman, Nancy

    2012-01-01

    Prospective epidemiologic data on the effects of different types of dietary sugars on cancer incidence have been limited. In this report, we investigated the association of total sugars, sucrose, fructose, added sugars, added sucrose and added fructose in the diet with risk of 24 malignancies. Participants (n = 435,674) aged 50-71 years from the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study were followed for 7.2 years. The intake of individual sugars was assessed using a 124-item food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Cox proportional hazards regression was used to estimate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) in multivariable models adjusted for confounding factors pertinent to individual cancers. We identified 29,099 cancer cases in men and 13,355 cases in women. In gender-combined analyses, added sugars were positively associated with risk of esophageal adenocarcinoma (HR(Q5 vs. Q1) : 1.62, 95% CI: 1.07-2.45; p(trend) = 0.01), added fructose was associated with risk of small intestine cancer (HR(Q5 vs. Q1) : 2.20, 95% CI: 1.16-4.16; p(trend) = 0.009) and all investigated sugars were associated with increased risk of pleural cancer. In women, all investigated sugars were inversely associated with ovarian cancer. We found no association between dietary sugars and risk of colorectal or any other major cancer. Measurement error in FFQ-reported dietary sugars may have limited our ability to obtain more conclusive findings. Statistically significant associations observed for the rare cancers are of interest and warrant further investigation. Copyright © 2011 UICC.

  5. Sugars in diet and risk of cancer in the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasevska, Nataša; Jiao, Li; Cross, Amanda J.; Kipnis, Victor; Subar, Amy F.; Hollenbeck, Albert; Schatzkin, Arthur; Potischman, Nancy

    2012-01-01

    Prospective epidemiologic data on the effects of different types of dietary sugars on cancer incidence have been limited. In this report, we investigated the association of total sugars, sucrose, fructose, added sugars, added sucrose and added fructose in the diet with risk of 24 malignancies. Participants (n = 435,674) aged 50–71 years from the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study were followed for 7.2 years. The intake of individual sugars was assessed using a 124-item food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Cox proportional hazards regression was used to estimate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) in multivariable models adjusted for confounding factors pertinent to individual cancers. We identified 29,099 cancer cases in men and 13,355 cases in women. In gender-combined analyses, added sugars were positively associated with risk of esophageal adenocarcinoma (HRQ5 vs. Q1: 1.62, 95% CI: 1.07–2.45; Ptrend = 0.01); added fructose was associated with risk of small intestine cancer (HRQ5 vs. Q1: 2.20, 95% CI: 1.16–4.16; Ptrend = 0.009); and all investigated sugars were associated with increased risk of pleural cancer. In women, all investigated sugars were inversely associated with ovarian cancer. We found no association between dietary sugars and risk of colorectal or any other major cancer. Measurement error in FFQ-reported dietary sugars may have limited our ability to obtain more conclusive findings. Statistically significant associations observed for the rare cancers are of interest and warrant further investigation. PMID:21328345

  6. Effects of digested onion extracts on intestinal gene expression: an interspecies comparison using different intestine models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hulst, M.M.; Meulen, van der J.; Hoekman, A.J.W.; Smits, M.A.

    2016-01-01

    Applicability of in vitro (human Caco-2 cells) and ex vivo intestine models (rat precision cut intestine slices and the pig in-situ small intestinal segment perfusion (SISP) technique) to study the effect of food compounds. In vitro digested yellow (YOd) and white onion extracts (WOd) were used as

  7. Neural influences on human intestinal epithelium in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krueger, Dagmar; Michel, Klaus; Zeller, Florian; Demir, Ihsan E; Ceyhan, Güralp O; Slotta-Huspenina, Julia; Schemann, Michael

    2016-01-15

    We present the first systematic and, up to now, most comprehensive evaluation of the basic features of epithelial functions, such as basal and nerve-evoked secretion, as well as tissue resistance, in over 2200 surgical specimens of human small and large intestine. We found no evidence for impaired nerve-evoked epithelial secretion or tissue resistance with age or disease pathologies (stomach, pancreas or colon cancer, polyps, diverticulitis, stoma reversal). This indicates the validity of future studies on epithelial secretion or resistance that are based on data from a variety of surgical specimens. ACh mainly mediated nerve-evoked and basal secretion in the small intestine, whereas vasoactive intestinal peptide and nitric oxide were the primary pro-secretory transmitters in the large intestine. The results of the present study revealed novel insights into regional differences in nerve-mediated secretion in the human intestine and comprise the basis by which to more specifically target impaired epithelial functions in the diseased gut. Knowledge on basic features of epithelial functions in the human intestine is scarce. We used Ussing chamber techniques to record basal tissue resistance (R-basal) and short circuit currents (ISC; secretion) under basal conditions (ISC-basal) and after electrical field stimulation (ISC-EFS) of nerves in 2221 resectates from 435 patients. ISC-EFS was TTX-sensitive and of comparable magnitude in the small and large intestine. ISC-EFS or R-basal were not influenced by the patients' age, sex or disease pathologies (cancer, polyps, diverticulitis). Ion substitution, bumetanide or adenylate cyclase inhibition studies suggested that ISC-EFS depended on epithelial cAMP-driven chloride and bicarbonate secretion but not on amiloride-sensitive sodium absorption. Although atropine-sensitive cholinergic components prevailed for ISC-EFS of the duodenum, jejunum and ileum, PG97-269-sensitive [vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) receptor 1

  8. Computer vision-based diameter maps to study fluoroscopic recordings of small intestinal motility from conscious experimental animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez, I; Pantrigo, J J; Montemayor, A S; López-Pérez, A E; Martín-Fontelles, M I; Brookes, S J H; Abalo, R

    2017-08-01

    When available, fluoroscopic recordings are a relatively cheap, non-invasive and technically straightforward way to study gastrointestinal motility. Spatiotemporal maps have been used to characterize motility of intestinal preparations in vitro, or in anesthetized animals in vivo. Here, a new automated computer-based method was used to construct spatiotemporal motility maps from fluoroscopic recordings obtained in conscious rats. Conscious, non-fasted, adult, male Wistar rats (n=8) received intragastric administration of barium contrast, and 1-2 hours later, when several loops of the small intestine were well-defined, a 2 minutes-fluoroscopic recording was obtained. Spatiotemporal diameter maps (Dmaps) were automatically calculated from the recordings. Three recordings were also manually analyzed for comparison. Frequency analysis was performed in order to calculate relevant motility parameters. In each conscious rat, a stable recording (17-20 seconds) was analyzed. The Dmaps manually and automatically obtained from the same recording were comparable, but the automated process was faster and provided higher resolution. Two frequencies of motor activity dominated; lower frequency contractions (15.2±0.9 cpm) had an amplitude approximately five times greater than higher frequency events (32.8±0.7 cpm). The automated method developed here needed little investigator input, provided high-resolution results with short computing times, and automatically compensated for breathing and other small movements, allowing recordings to be made without anesthesia. Although slow and/or infrequent events could not be detected in the short recording periods analyzed to date (17-20 seconds), this novel system enhances the analysis of in vivo motility in conscious animals. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. [Study on antibiotic resistance ofEscherichia coliandEnterococcuscolonized in intestine of neonates from neonatal intensive care unit].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, X F; Liu, Z J; Chen, X; Li, J; Cui, Z G; Kan, B; Ma, J R; Cui, J H

    2017-09-10

    Objective: To understand the antibiotic resistance of bacteria colonized in intestine of the neonates from neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) and provide evidence to guide clinical antibiotic treatment. Methods: From May, 2014 to May, 2015, a total of 572 stool samples were collected from the neonates of NICU in our hospital. Escherichia coli and Enterococcus were detected with VITEK-2 system. Results: A total of 328 strains of E. coli and 243 strains of Enterococcus were isolated respectively in this study. The 199 strains of E. coli selected for drug susceptibility test showed lower resistant rate to imipenem, ertapenem, amikacin, nitrofurantoin, ranging from 0.50 % to 3.52 % and showed higher resistant rate to ampicillin, tetracycline, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole and cefazolin, ranging from 54.27 % to 84.92 % . No meropenem resistant strainsere were found. The percentage of ESBLs production strains was 45 % . The multi drug resistance test showed that 34.6 % of the strains were resistant to four antibiotics. Three strains were resistant to seven antibiotics. The 243 strains of Enterococcus showed lower resistant rate to quinupristin/dalfopristin, nitrofurantoin, streptomycin, ranging from 0.41 % to 4.53 % and showed higher resistant rate to ampicillin, benzylpenicillin, ciprofloxacin, tetracycline, gentamicin and erythromycin, ranging from 70.78 % to 91.77 % . No strains which were resistant to tigecycline, vancomycin, rina thiazole amine/ketone were found. The multi drug-resistance test showed that 86.5 % of the strains were resistant to five antibiotics. Conclusions: According to the analysis of the 199 strains of E. coli and 243 strains of Enterococcus isolated from the neonates, we found that the resistance of intestinal bacteria in the neonates was very serious, showing multi drug resistance. It is necessary to use antibiotics according to the drug susceptibility test results in clinical treatment.

  10. Risk of Salivary Gland Cancer After Childhood Cancer: A Report From the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boukheris, Houda [Radiation Epidemiology Branch, Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland (United States); Stovall, Marilyn [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Gilbert, Ethel S. [Radiation Epidemiology Branch, Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland (United States); Stratton, Kayla L. [Division of Public Health Sciences, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, Washington (United States); Smith, Susan A.; Weathers, Rita [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Hammond, Sue [Department of Pathology, Ohio State University School of Medicine, Columbus, Ohio (United States); Mertens, Ann C. [Department of Pediatrics, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); Donaldson, Sarah S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University Medical Center, Stanford, California (United States); Armstrong, Gregory T.; Robison, Leslie L. [Department of Epidemiology and Cancer Control, St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee (United States); Neglia, Joseph P. [Department of Pediatrics, University of Minnesota Medical School, Minneapolis, Minnesota (United States); Inskip, Peter D., E-mail: inskippe@mail.nih.gov [Radiation Epidemiology Branch, Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland (United States)

    2013-03-01

    Purpose: To evaluate effects of radiation therapy, chemotherapy, cigarette smoking, and alcohol consumption on the risk of second primary salivary gland cancer (SGC) in the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study (CCSS). Methods and Materials: Standardized incidence ratios (SIR) and excess absolute risks (EAR) of SGC in the CCSS were calculated using incidence rates from Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results population-based cancer registries. Radiation dose to the salivary glands was estimated based on medical records. Poisson regression was used to assess risks with respect to radiation dose, chemotherapy, smoking, and alcohol consumption. Results: During the time period of the study, 23 cases of SGC were diagnosed among 14,135 childhood cancer survivors. The mean age at diagnosis of the first primary cancer was 8.3 years, and the mean age at SGC diagnosis was 24.8 years. The incidence of SGC was 39-fold higher in the cohort than in the general population (SIR = 39.4; 95% CI = 25.4-57.8). The EAR was 9.8 per 100,000 person-years. Risk increased linearly with radiation dose (excess relative risk = 0.36/Gy; 95% CI = 0.06-2.5) and remained elevated after 20 years. There was no significant trend of increasing risk with increasing dose of chemotherapeutic agents, pack-years of cigarette smoking, or alcohol intake. Conclusion: Although the cumulative incidence of SGC was low, childhood cancer survivors treated with radiation experienced significantly increased risk for at least 2 decades after exposure, and risk was positively associated with radiation dose. Results underscore the importance of long-term follow up of childhood cancer survivors for the development of new malignancies.

  11. Risk of Salivary Gland Cancer After Childhood Cancer: A Report From the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boukheris, Houda; Stovall, Marilyn; Gilbert, Ethel S.; Stratton, Kayla L.; Smith, Susan A.; Weathers, Rita; Hammond, Sue; Mertens, Ann C.; Donaldson, Sarah S.; Armstrong, Gregory T.; Robison, Leslie L.; Neglia, Joseph P.; Inskip, Peter D.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate effects of radiation therapy, chemotherapy, cigarette smoking, and alcohol consumption on the risk of second primary salivary gland cancer (SGC) in the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study (CCSS). Methods and Materials: Standardized incidence ratios (SIR) and excess absolute risks (EAR) of SGC in the CCSS were calculated using incidence rates from Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results population-based cancer registries. Radiation dose to the salivary glands was estimated based on medical records. Poisson regression was used to assess risks with respect to radiation dose, chemotherapy, smoking, and alcohol consumption. Results: During the time period of the study, 23 cases of SGC were diagnosed among 14,135 childhood cancer survivors. The mean age at diagnosis of the first primary cancer was 8.3 years, and the mean age at SGC diagnosis was 24.8 years. The incidence of SGC was 39-fold higher in the cohort than in the general population (SIR = 39.4; 95% CI = 25.4-57.8). The EAR was 9.8 per 100,000 person-years. Risk increased linearly with radiation dose (excess relative risk = 0.36/Gy; 95% CI = 0.06-2.5) and remained elevated after 20 years. There was no significant trend of increasing risk with increasing dose of chemotherapeutic agents, pack-years of cigarette smoking, or alcohol intake. Conclusion: Although the cumulative incidence of SGC was low, childhood cancer survivors treated with radiation experienced significantly increased risk for at least 2 decades after exposure, and risk was positively associated with radiation dose. Results underscore the importance of long-term follow up of childhood cancer survivors for the development of new malignancies

  12. Diagnosis of intestinal and extra intestinal amoebiasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez, Myriam Consuelo; Quiroz, Damian Arnoldo; Pinilla, Analida Elizabeth

    2007-01-01

    The objective is to carry out a review of the national and international literature as of the XXth century in order to update the advances for the diagnosis of complex odd Entamoeba histolytic / Entamoeba dispar and that of intestinal and extra intestinal amoebiasis that may be of use to the scientific community. As well as to unify the diagnostic criteria of this parasitosis known as a public health problem, and as a consequence of that, optimize the quality of population care. Data source: there was a systematic search for the scientific literature Publisher in Spanish and English since 1960 until today, this selection started on the first semester of 2006 until 2007, in the development of the line on intestinal and extra-intestinal amoebiasis of the Medical School of the National University of Colombia. A retrospective search process was carried out, systematically reviewing the most relevant articles as well as the products of this research line. In deciding how to make this article, there was a continuous search in different data bases such as Medline, SciELO and other bases in the library of the National University of Colombia, as well as other classical books related to the subject. For that purpose the terms amoebiasis, odd Entamoeba histolytic, Entamoeba, diagnosis, epidemiology, dysentery, amoebic liver abscess, were used. Studies selection: titles and abstracts were reviewed to select the original publications and the most representative ones related to this article's subject. Data extraction: the articles were classified according to the subject, the chronology and the authors according to the scientific contribution to solve the problem. Synthesis of the data: in the fi rst instance, a chronological critical analysis was carried out to order and synthesize the progress made in the diagnosis until confirmation of the experts' agreements in the field of amoebiasis was obtained throughout the world. Conclusion: this article summarizes what has taken place

  13. The feasibility of wireless capsule endoscopy in detecting small intestinal pathology in children under the age of 8 years: a multicentre European study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fritscher-Ravens, A.; Scherbakov, P.; Bufler, P.; Torroni, F.; Ruuska, T.; Nuutinen, H.; Thomson, M.; Tabbers, M.; Milla, P.

    2009-01-01

    To systematically evaluate the feasibility and methodology to carry out wireless capsule endoscopy (WCE) in children <8 years to define small intestinal pathology. Prospective European multicentre study with negative prior investigation. Patients and 83 children aged 1.5-7.9 years were recruited.

  14. Prostate Cancer Biospecimen Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    1, Month 6-12 5. PCBN-related travel a. PCBN EAB meetings – Year 1, – 100% complete b. 1-day meeting to present on progress at Integration Panel...study is in progress. 5. PCBN related travel a. PCBN EAB meeting on October 27, 2016 6. Pathological review b. Dr. Jennifer Sehn is the pathologist...vertebrate animals, biohazards, and/or select agents Nothing to Report Significant changes in use or care of human subjects Nothing to Report

  15. Functions and Signaling Pathways of Amino Acids in Intestinal Inflammation

    OpenAIRE

    Fang He; Chenlu Wu; Pan Li; Nengzhang Li; Dong Zhang; Quoqiang Zhu; Wenkai Ren; Yuanyi Peng

    2018-01-01

    Intestine is always exposed to external environment and intestinal microorganism; thus it is more sensitive to dysfunction and dysbiosis, leading to intestinal inflammation, such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), and diarrhea. An increasing number of studies indicate that dietary amino acids play significant roles in preventing and treating intestinal inflammation. The review aims to summarize the functions and signaling mechanisms of amino acids in intestin...

  16. Uranium miner lung cancer study. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saccomanno, G.

    1986-06-01

    This study on uranium miners was started in 1957 and extended through June 30, 1986. It consisted of the routine screening of sputum from uranium miners of the Colorado Plateau, and collection of surgical and autopsy material from uranium miners who developed lung cancer. The projects resulted in: (1) Proof, for the first time, that cancer takes from 10 to 15 years to develop from the maximum accumulated carcinogenic insult and can be demonstrated through progressive cellular changes of the bronchial tree; (2) Development of a method for preserving, concentrating, and processing sputum samples. This is known as the Saccomanno Technique, and is used worldwide in diagnosing lung cancer; (3) Publication of the 1st and 2nd editions of a full-color textbook entitled ''Diagnostic Pulmonary Cytology;'' (4) Presentation of conclusive data on the effects of cigarette smoking and alpha progeny radiation on uranium miners, and information on safe radiation exposure levels; (5) Development of a brush-wash tube for collecting, concentrating, and preparing bronchial brushings and washings; (6) Development of cytological criteria which has improved sensitivity from 30% to about 60%; (7) Development of criteria for cytologic identification of carcinoma in situ, making it possible to diagnose lung cancer before it can be detected on chest x-ray

  17. Obstrução intestinal no idoso Intestinal obstruction in the elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Aparecida Coelho de Arruda Henry

    2007-12-01

    patients hospitalized from January 2002 to December 2006. A group of fifty patients comprising 24 males and 26 females at a mean age of 74.7 ± 7.4 years were studied. RESULTS: The main causes for intestinal obstruction were: adhesion (38%, colon cancer (24%, hernia (12%, fecal impaction (12%, carcinomatosis (10% and sigmoid volvulus (4%. Mortality was of 18%, being associated with infection complications in all patients. CONCLUSIONS: a The distinction between functional and organic intestinal obstruction in elderly individuals is difficult; b Colon cancer is an important cause of intestinal obstruction, since obstructive conditions may be the first clinical manifestation of such tumors; c Adhesion and hernia are equally important in the etiology of bowel obstruction, the former so being in terms of incidence and the latter in relation to the possibility of developing bowel strangling; d The clinical signs of obstruction are not evident in elderly individuals and leukocyte count can be more reliable for this diagnosis.

  18. Weight loss and morphometric study of intestinal mucosa in rats after massive intestinal resection: influence of a glutamine-enriched diet Perda de peso e estudo morfométrico da mucosa intestinal de ratos submetidos à ressecção subtotal de intestino delgado: influência do uso de dieta com glutamina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidney Resende Ribeiro

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Short-bowel syndrome is responsible for significant metabolic alterations that compromise nutritional status. Glutamine is considered an essential nutrient for enterocytes, so beneficial effects from supplementation of the diet with glutamine are hypothesized. PURPOSE: In this study, the effect of a diet enriched with glutamine was evaluated in rats undergoing extensive small bowel resection, with analysis of postoperative weight loss and intestinal morphometrics of villi height, crypt depth, and thickness of the duodenal and remnant jejunal mucosa. METHODS: Three groups of male Wistar rats were established receiving the following diets: with glutamine, without glutamine, and the standard diet of laboratory ration. All animals underwent an extensive small bowel resection, including the ileocecal valve, leaving a remnant jejunum of only 25 cm from the pylorus that was anastomosed lateral-laterally to the ascendant colon. The animals were weighed at the beginning and end of the experiment (20th postoperative day. Then they were killed and the remnant intestine was removed. Fragments of duodenal and jejunal mucosa were collected from the remnant intestine and submitted to histopathologic exam. The morphometric study of the intestinal mucosa was accomplished using a digital system (KS 300 connected to an optic microscope. Morphometrics included villi height, crypt depth, and the total thickness of intestinal mucosa. RESULTS: The weight loss comparison among the 3 groups showed no significant loss difference. The morphometric studies showed significantly taller duodenal villi in the glutamine group in comparison to the without glutamine group, but not different from the standard diet group. The measurements obtained comparing the 3 groups for villi height, crypt depth, and thickness of the remnant jejunum mucosa were greater in the glutamine-enriched diet group than for the without-glutamine diet group, though not significantly different from with

  19. Intestinal microcirculatory dysfunction and neonatal necrotizing enterocolitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hong-yi; Wang, Fang; Feng, Jie-xiong

    2013-01-01

    Based on the observation that coagulation necrosis occurs in the majority of neonatal necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) patients, it is clear that intestinal ischemia is a contributing factor to the pathogenesis of NEC. However, the published studies regarding the role of intestinal ischemia in NEC are controversial. The aim of this paper is to review the current studies regarding intestinal microcirculatory dysfunction and NEC, and try to elucidate the exact role of intestinal microcirculatory dysfunction in NEC. The studies cited in this review were mainly obtained from articles listed in Medline and PubMed. The search terms used were "intestinal microcirculatory dysfunction" and "neonatal necrotizing enterocolitis". Mainly original milestone articles and critical reviews written by major pioneer investigators in the field were selected. Immature regulatory control of mesentery circulation makes the neonatal intestinal microvasculature vulnerable. When neonates are subjected to stress, endothelial cell dysfunction occurs and results in vasoconstriction of arterioles, inflammatory cell infiltration and activation in venules, and endothelial barrier disruption in capillaries. The compromised vasculature increases circulation resistance and therefore decreases intestinal perfusion, and may eventually progress to intestinal necrosis. Intestinal ischemia plays an important role through the whole course of NEC. New therapeutic agents targeting intestinal ischemia, like HB-EGF, are promising therapeutic agents for the treatment of NEC.

  20. The effect of gastric inhibitory polypeptide on intestinal glucose absorption and intestinal motility in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogawa, Eiichi [Department of Diabetes and Clinical Nutrition, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University (Japan); Hosokawa, Masaya [Department of Diabetes and Clinical Nutrition, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University (Japan); Faculty of Human Sciences, Tezukayama Gakuin University, Osaka (Japan); Harada, Norio; Yamane, Shunsuke; Hamasaki, Akihiro; Toyoda, Kentaro; Fujimoto, Shimpei; Fujita, Yoshihito; Fukuda, Kazuhito [Department of Diabetes and Clinical Nutrition, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University (Japan); Tsukiyama, Katsushi; Yamada, Yuichiro [Department of Diabetes and Clinical Nutrition, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University (Japan); Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Geriatric Medicine, Akita University School of Medicine, Akita (Japan); Seino, Yutaka [Department of Diabetes and Clinical Nutrition, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University (Japan); Kansai Electric Power Hospital, Osaka (Japan); Inagaki, Nobuya, E-mail: inagaki@metab.kuhp.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Department of Diabetes and Clinical Nutrition, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University (Japan); CREST of Japan Science and Technology Cooperation (JST), Kyoto (Japan)

    2011-01-07

    Research highlights: {yields} Exogenous GIP inhibits intestinal motility through a somatostatin-mediated pathway. {yields} Exogenous GIP inhibits intestinal glucose absorption by reducing intestinal motility. {yields} The GIP-receptor-mediated action in intestine does not involve in GLP-1-mediated pathway. -- Abstract: Gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP) is released from the small intestine upon meal ingestion and increases insulin secretion from pancreatic {beta} cells. Although the GIP receptor is known to be expressed in small intestine, the effects of GIP in small intestine are not fully understood. This study was designed to clarify the effect of GIP on intestinal glucose absorption and intestinal motility. Intestinal glucose absorption in vivo was measured by single-pass perfusion method. Incorporation of [{sup 14}C]-glucose into everted jejunal rings in vitro was used to evaluate the effect of GIP on sodium-glucose co-transporter (SGLT). Motility of small intestine was measured by intestinal transit after oral administration of a non-absorbed marker. Intraperitoneal administration of GIP inhibited glucose absorption in wild-type mice in a concentration-dependent manner, showing maximum decrease at the dosage of 50 nmol/kg body weight. In glucagon-like-peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor-deficient mice, GIP inhibited glucose absorption as in wild-type mice. In vitro examination of [{sup 14}C]-glucose uptake revealed that 100 nM GIP did not change SGLT-dependent glucose uptake in wild-type mice. After intraperitoneal administration of GIP (50 nmol/kg body weight), small intestinal transit was inhibited to 40% in both wild-type and GLP-1 receptor-deficient mice. Furthermore, a somatostatin receptor antagonist, cyclosomatostatin, reduced the inhibitory effect of GIP on both intestinal transit and glucose absorption in wild-type mice. These results demonstrate that exogenous GIP inhibits intestinal glucose absorption by reducing intestinal motility through a somatostatin

  1. The effect of gastric inhibitory polypeptide on intestinal glucose absorption and intestinal motility in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogawa, Eiichi; Hosokawa, Masaya; Harada, Norio; Yamane, Shunsuke; Hamasaki, Akihiro; Toyoda, Kentaro; Fujimoto, Shimpei; Fujita, Yoshihito; Fukuda, Kazuhito; Tsukiyama, Katsushi; Yamada, Yuichiro; Seino, Yutaka; Inagaki, Nobuya

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Exogenous GIP inhibits intestinal motility through a somatostatin-mediated pathway. → Exogenous GIP inhibits intestinal glucose absorption by reducing intestinal motility. → The GIP-receptor-mediated action in intestine does not involve in GLP-1-mediated pathway. -- Abstract: Gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP) is released from the small intestine upon meal ingestion and increases insulin secretion from pancreatic β cells. Although the GIP receptor is known to be expressed in small intestine, the effects of GIP in small intestine are not fully understood. This study was designed to clarify the effect of GIP on intestinal glucose absorption and intestinal motility. Intestinal glucose absorption in vivo was measured by single-pass perfusion method. Incorporation of [ 14 C]-glucose into everted jejunal rings in vitro was used to evaluate the effect of GIP on sodium-glucose co-transporter (SGLT). Motility of small intestine was measured by intestinal transit after oral administration of a non-absorbed marker. Intraperitoneal administration of GIP inhibited glucose absorption in wild-type mice in a concentration-dependent manner, showing maximum decrease at the dosage of 50 nmol/kg body weight. In glucagon-like-peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor-deficient mice, GIP inhibited glucose absorption as in wild-type mice. In vitro examination of [ 14 C]-glucose uptake revealed that 100 nM GIP did not change SGLT-dependent glucose uptake in wild-type mice. After intraperitoneal administration of GIP (50 nmol/kg body weight), small intestinal transit was inhibited to 40% in both wild-type and GLP-1 receptor-deficient mice. Furthermore, a somatostatin receptor antagonist, cyclosomatostatin, reduced the inhibitory effect of GIP on both intestinal transit and glucose absorption in wild-type mice. These results demonstrate that exogenous GIP inhibits intestinal glucose absorption by reducing intestinal motility through a somatostatin-mediated pathway rather

  2. Mortality in children with complicated severe acute malnutrition is related to intestinal and systemic inflammation: an observational cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Attia, Suzanna; Versloot, Christian J.; Voskuijl, Wieger; van Vliet, Sara J.; Di Giovanni, Valeria; Zhang, Ling; Richardson, Susan; Bourdon, Céline; Netea, Mihai G.; Berkley, James A.; van Rheenen, Patrick F.; Bandsma, Robert Hj

    2016-01-01

    Diarrhea affects a large proportion of children with severe acute malnutrition (SAM). However, its etiology and clinical consequences remain unclear. We investigated diarrhea, enteropathogens, and systemic and intestinal inflammation for their interrelation and their associations with mortality in

  3. Mortality in children with complicated severe acute malnutrition is related to intestinal and systemic inflammation : an observational cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Attia, Suzanna; Versloot, Christian J.; Voskuijl, Wieger; van Vliet, Sara J.; Di Giovanni, Valeria; Zhang, Ling; Richardson, Susan; Bourdon, Celine; Netea, Mihai G.; Berkley, James A.; van Rheenen, Patrick F.; Bandsma, Robert H. J.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Diarrhea affects a large proportion of children with severe acute malnutrition (SAM). However, its etiology and clinical consequences remain unclear. Objective: We investigated diarrhea, enteropathogens, and systemic and intestinal inflammation for their interrelation and their

  4. Mortality in children with complicated severe acute malnutrition is related to intestinal and systemic inflammation: an observational cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Attia, S.; Versloot, C.J.; Voskuijl, W.; Vliet, S.J. van; Giovanni, V. Di; Zhang, L.; Richardson, S.; Bourdon, C.; Netea, M.G.; Berkley, J.A.; Rheenen, P.F. van; Bandsma, R.H.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Diarrhea affects a large proportion of children with severe acute malnutrition (SAM). However, its etiology and clinical consequences remain unclear. OBJECTIVE: We investigated diarrhea, enteropathogens, and systemic and intestinal inflammation for their interrelation and their

  5. Experimental study of small intestine resorptive function in diffuse purulent peritonitis with the use of 131I-albumin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Likhtarev, I.A.; Eryukhin, I.A.; Pichuev, A.V.; Belyj, V.Ya.

    1980-01-01

    A kinetic model was constructed and substantiated; it combined the constants of the speed of absorbing high molecular substances from the small intestine and besides that took account of the transport of these substances in the circulatory system. Experiments in 52 dogs revealed a number of regularities characterizing both disorders in the processes of absorption from the small intestine lumen and changes in hemodynamic characteristics of the vascular spaces of the portal vein and the extrahepatic blood flow in diffuse purulent peritonitis

  6. Study of nutritive utilization of protein and magnesium in rats with resection of the distal small intestine. Beneficial effect of goat milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Aliaga, I; Alferez, M J M; Barrionuevo, M; Nestares, T; Sanz Sampelayo, M R; Campos, M S

    2003-09-01

    The search for diets to improve the nutritive utilization of protein and magnesium in malabsorption syndrome led us to study goat milk, because of its particular nutritional characteristics, and to compare it with cow milk, which is most commonly consumed. We studied the nutritive utilization of protein and magnesium in transected rats (control) and in rats with resection of 50% of the distal small intestine. The diets used were the standard diet recommended by the American Institute of Nutrition and diets based on lyophilized goat or cow milk. The consumption of goat milk produces better protein efficiency ratio and food conversion efficiency values, particularly in rats with intestinal resection, together with a higher nutritive utilization of protein. Magnesium apparent digestibility coefficient is not modified by intestinal resection in rats fed with goat milk-based diet, on the contrary to the standard and cow milk diets. Magnesium apparent digestibility coefficient is greater for the goat milk group, which is reflected in the greater quantity of this mineral stored in bone. These results demonstrate the beneficial effect of goat milk on the nutritive utilization of protein and on magnesium bioavailability, especially in animals with resection of the distal small intestine.

  7. Gastric cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mineur, L.; Jaegle, E.; Pointreau, Y.; Denis, F.

    2010-01-01

    Radio-chemotherapy Gastro-intestinal inter-group study have demonstrated a convincing local control and overall survival benefit. Oncologists and GI workshops have in the present not had a major interest in the radiotherapy treatment of gastric cancer due to a number of factors. Primary because toxicities may be severe, second physicians may have low experience in definition of clinical target volume and in third perioperative chemotherapy is widely used in this indication. In Summary this issue should be used as guides for defining appropriate radiation planning treatment for the adjuvant postoperative therapy of gastric cancer. (authors)

  8. Study of the association between blood types and breast cancer among Isfahanian women with breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Hossein Mirlohi Flavarjani

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: According to the obtained results from this study, there was no relative frequency in specific blood group for these three types of cancer and the blood type could not be influenced as a risk factor in breast cancer.

  9. The Heritability of Breast Cancer among women in the Nordic Twin Study of Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Möller, Sören; Mucci, Lorelei A; Harris, Jennifer R

    2016-01-01

    and heritability of breast cancer among 21,054 monozygotic and 30,939 dizygotic female twin pairs from the Nordic Twin Study of Cancer, the largest twin study of cancer in the world. We accounted for left-censoring, right-censoring, as well as the competing risk of death. Results From 1943 through 2010, 3...

  10. Immunogenetic control of the intestinal microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marietta, Eric; Rishi, Abdul; Taneja, Veena

    2015-07-01

    All vertebrates contain a diverse collection of commensal, symbiotic and pathogenic microorganisms, such as bacteria, viruses and fungi, on their various body surfaces, and the ecological community of these microorganisms is referred to as the microbiota. Mucosal sites, such as the intestine, harbour the majority of microorganisms, and the human intestine contains the largest community of commensal and symbiotic bacteria. This intestinal community of bacteria is diverse, and there is a significant variability among individuals with respect to the composition of the intestinal microbiome. Both genetic and environmental factors can influence the diversity and composition of the intestinal bacteria with the predominant environmental factor being diet. So far, studies have shown that diet-dependent differences in the composition of intestinal bacteria can be classified into three groups, called enterotypes. Other environmental factors that can influence the composition include antibiotics, probiotics, smoking and drugs. Studies of monozygotic and dizygotic twins have proven that genetics plays a role. Recently, MHC II genes have been associated with specific microbial compositions in human infants and transgenic mice that express different HLA alleles. There is a growing list of genes/molecules that are involved with the sensing and monitoring of the intestinal lumen by the intestinal immune system that, when genetically altered, will significantly alter the composition of the intestinal microflora. The focus of this review will be on the genetic factors that influence the composition of the intestinal microflora. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Alcohol intake and mortality among survivors of colorectal cancer: The Cancer Prevention Study II Nutrition Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Baiyu; Gapstur, Susan M; Newton, Christina C; Jacobs, Eric J; Campbell, Peter T

    2017-06-01

    Alcohol consumption is associated with a higher risk of colorectal cancer, but to the authors' knowledge its influence on survival after a diagnosis of colorectal cancer is unclear. The authors investigated associations between prediagnosis and postdiagnosis alcohol intake with mortality among survivors of colorectal cancer. The authors identified 2458 men and women who were diagnosed with invasive, nonmetastatic colorectal cancer between 1992 (enrollment into the Cancer Prevention Study II Nutrition Cohort) and 2011. Alcohol consumption was self-reported at baseline and updated in 1997, 1999, 2003, and 2007. Postdiagnosis alcohol data were available for 1599 participants. Of the 2458 participants diagnosed with colorectal cancer, 1156 died during follow-up through 2012. Prediagnosis and postdiagnosis alcohol consumption were not found to be associated with all-cause mortality, except for an association between prediagnosis consumption of mortality (relative risk [RR], 0.86; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 0.74-1.00) compared with never drinking. Alcohol use was generally not associated with colorectal cancer-specific mortality, although there was some suggestion of increased colorectal cancer-specific mortality with postdiagnosis drinking (RR, 1.27 [95% CI, 0.87-1.86] for current drinking of mortality among individuals with nonmetastatic colorectal cancer. The association between postdiagnosis drinking and colorectal cancer-specific mortality should be examined in larger studies of individuals diagnosed with nonmetastatic colorectal cancer. Cancer 2017;123:2006-2013. © 2017 American Cancer Society. © 2017 American Cancer Society.

  12. Coniferyl Aldehyde Ameliorates Radiation Intestine Injury via Endothelial Cell Survival

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Ye Ji; Jung, Myung Gu; Lee, Yoonjin; Lee, Haejune [Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Yunsil [Ewha Woman' s Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Ko, Younggyu [Korea Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    Cancer treatments related gastrointestinal toxicity has also been recognized as a significant economic burden. Especially, extensive apoptosis of microvascular endothelial cell of the lamina propria is the primary lesion initiating intestinal radiation damage after abdominal radiation therapy. Coniferyl aldehyde (CA) is phenolic compounds isolated from cork stoppers, and one of the major pyrolysis products of lignin. Shi H. was support for the empirical use of CA as a medicinal food for cardiovascular diseases. CA has positive effect in broad way but there is no consequence in radiation induced intestine damage. Here, we investigate effect of CA on small intestine after abdominal IR to mice in this study. In this study, CA increased the survival rate in C3H mice against 13.5 Gy abdominal IR. We found CA protects small intestine via preventing endothelial cell apoptosis and enhancing their angiogenic activity. CA also showed protective effect on crypt cell survival. Endothelial cell survival may affect crypt cell protection against IR. From this data, we concluded that CA is effective for protection against abdominal radiation injury. CA could ameliorate side-effect of radiation therapy.

  13. Empowerment Needs of Women With Breast Cancer: A Qualitative Study

    OpenAIRE

    Taleghani, Fariba; Bahrami, Masoud; Loripoor, Marzeyeh; Yousefi, Alireza

    2014-01-01

    Background: Due to the increasing number of women suffering from breast cancer worldwide, promoting the empowerment of these patients is an important factor affecting their survival. Objectives: Few studies have investigated the empowerment needs of the breast cancer women, especially in Iran. Therefore, this study was performed to explain the empowerment needs of women with breast cancer in Iran. Patients and Methods: In this qualitative study, 19 women with breast cancer were interviewed re...

  14. Anxiety and depression in patients with advanced ovarian cancer: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mielcarek, Piotr; Nowicka-Sauer, Katarzyna; Kozaka, Joanna

    2016-01-01

    Survival of ovarian cancer patients is still unsatisfactory despite the introduction of new diagnostic and therapeutic methods. Women with advanced ovarian cancer with long-term survival are at persistent risk of anxiety and reactive depression due to poor prognosis and risk of burdensome symptoms. The aim of the study was to assess changes in anxiety and depression during multimodality ovarian cancer treatment and to identify correlates of anxiety and depression. The study included 106 consecutive patients with advanced ovarian cancer. Mean age of the study group was 53.9 years (SD = 10.8, range: 23-79). The participants completed Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory four times: prior to and one week after surgery, and before the second and the fourth course of adjuvant chemotherapy. Multivariate analysis was performed to identify the independent determinants of distress at various stages of treatment. The level of anxiety and the prevalence of pathological anxiety (74%) were the highest prior to surgery and gradually decreased thereafter. Irrespective of the treatment stage, the level of anxiety was higher than the corresponding level of depression. History of abortion, presence of intestinal stoma, poor general status, residual disease and time from the initial diagnosis were the main determinants of distress in ovarian cancer patients. Significant changes in the level of anxiety and slight fluctuations in the depression level experienced during ovarian cancer treatment are mostly determined by clinical variables. Identification of individuals with psychological comorbidities is a vital component of patient-oriented multidisciplinary care.

  15. Incorporating measures of sleep quality into cancer studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redeker, Nancy S; Pigeon, Wilfred R; Boudreau, Eilis A

    2015-04-01

    Sleep disturbance may influence the development of cancer and responses to treatment. It is also closely tied to recovery and quality of life in cancer patients, survivors, and caregivers, and recent studies have begun to show beneficial effects of sleep-promoting interventions. Despite the importance of sleep to cancer and its treatment and the availability of numerous tools for measuring sleep quality and quantity, sleep measurements are underutilized in cancer studies. This review, written for cancer researchers interested in incorporating sleep measures into their studies, is designed to raise awareness about the importance of sleep and suggests strategies for including sleep evaluation in cancer studies. Inclusion of readily available sleep measures may ultimately improve cancer care by facilitating studies that lead to a greater understanding of how sleep and sleep disturbance influence all aspects of cancer care and the patient experience.

  16. In vitro study of soil arsenic release by human gut microbiota and its intestinal absorption by Caco-2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Naiyi; Cai, Xiaolin; Du, Huili; Zhang, Zhennan; Li, Zejiao; Chen, Xiaochen; Sun, Guoxin; Cui, Yanshan

    2017-02-01

    Arsenic (As) speciation is essential in assessing health risks from As-contaminated soil. Release of soil-bound arsenic, As transformation by human gut microbiota, and the subsequent intestinal absorption of soil As metabolites were evaluated. A colon microbial community in a dynamic human gut model and the intestinal epithelial cell line Caco-2 were cultured. Arsenic speciation analysis and absorption of different As species were undertaken. In this study, soil As release (3.7-581.2 mg kg -1 ) was observed in the colon. Arsenic in the colon digests was transformed more quickly than that in the soil solid phase. X-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy (XANES) analysis showed that 44.2-97.6% of arsenite [As(III)] generated due to arsenate [As(V)] reduction was in the soil solid phase after the colon phase. We observed a high degree of cellular absorption of soil As metabolites, exhibiting that the intestinal absorption of monomethylarsonic acid and As(III) (33.6% and 30.2% resp.) was slightly higher than that of dimethylarsinic acid and As(V) (25.1% and 21.7% resp.). Our findings demonstrate that human gut microbiota can directly release soil-bound arsenic, particularly As-bearing amorphous Fe/Al-oxides. Determining As transformation and intestinal absorption simultaneously will result in an accurate risk assessment of human health with soil As exposures. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Studies of Cancer Risk among Chernobyl liquidators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kesminiene, A.; Cardis, E.; Tenet, V.; Chekin, S.; Ivanov, V. K.; Kurtinaitis, J.; Malakhova, I.; Polyakov, S.; Stengrevics, A.; Tekkel, M.

    2004-01-01

    Two cae-control studies among Chernobyl liquidators- one of leukaemia and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), the other of thyroid cancer risk were carried out in Belarus, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Russia. These studies were coordinated by the International Agency for Research on Cancer. The specific objective of these studies was to estimate the radiation induced risk of these diseases among liquidators of the Chernobyl accident, and, in particular, to study the effect of exposure protraction and radiation type on the risk of radiation induced cancer in the low to medium (0-500 mSv) radiation dose range. The study population consisted of the approximately 15.000 Baltic countries, 66 000 Balarus and 65 000 Russian liquidators who worked in the 30 km zone in 1986-1987, and who were registered in the Chernobyl registry of these countries. The studies included cases diagnosed in 1993-1998 for all countries but Belarus, where the study period was extended until 2000. for controls were selected in each country from the national cohort for each case, mateched on age, gender and region of residence. Information on study subjects was obtained through face-to-face interview using a standardised questionnaire with questions on demographic factors, time place and conditions of work as a liquidator and potential risk and confoundinf factors for the tumours of interest. Ocerall 126 cases of leukaemia and NHL, 119 cases of thyroid cancer and 1060 controls were interviewed. Individual estimates of kerma in air and of dose to the bone marrow and related uncertainties were derived for each subject in the leukaemia and NHL study, using a method of analytical dose reconstruction developed whiting the study. Estimates of individual doses to the thyroid from external exposures, I-131 and long-lived isotopes were derived for all subjects in the thyroid case-control study. Dose-response analyses have been carried out. Resulting risk estimates will be presented and compared to risk estimates

  18. Cancer Cytokines and the Relevance of 3D Cultures for Studying Those Implicated in Human Cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddaly, Ravi; Subramaniyan, Aishwarya; Balasubramanian, Harini

    2017-09-01

    Cancers are complex conditions and involve several factors for oncogenesis and progression. Of the various factors influencing the physiology of cancers, cytokines are known to play significant roles as mediators of functions. Intricate cytokine networks have been identified in cancers and interest in cytokines associated with cancers has been gaining ground. Of late, some of these cytokines are even identified as potential targets for cancer therapy apart from a few others such as IL-6 being identified as markers for disease prognosis. Of the major contributors to cancer research, cancer cell lines occupy the top slot as the most widely used material in vitro. In vitro cell cultures have seen significant evolution by the introduction of 3-dimensional (3D) culture systems. 3D cell cultures are now widely accepted as excellent material for cancer research which surpass the traditional monolayer cultures. Cancer research has benefited from 3D cell cultures for understanding the various hallmarks of cancers. However, the potential of these culture systems are still unexploited for cancer cytokine research compared to the other aspects of cancers such as gene expression changes, drug-induced toxicity, morphology, angiogenesis, and invasion. Considering the importance of cancer cytokines, 3D cell cultures can be better utilized in understanding their roles and functions. Some of the possibilities where 3D cell cultures can contribute to cancer cytokine research arise from the distinct morphology of the tumor spheroids, the extracellular matrix (ECM), and the spontaneous occurrence of nutrient and oxygen gradients. Also, the 3D culture models enable one to co-culture different types of cells as a simulation of in vivo conditions, enhancing their utility to study cancer cytokines. We review here the cancer associated cytokines and the contributions of 3D cancer cell cultures for studying cancer cytokines. J. Cell. Biochem. 118: 2544-2558, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals

  19. Intestinal parasitic infections and the level of immunosuppression in HIV seropositive individuals with diarrhoea in Kilimanjaro, Tanzania: A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tumaini Alfred Ringo

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Opportunistic and non-opportunistic intestinal parasites play a significant role in the morbidity and mortality of HIV/AIDS-infected patients. The frequency of their occurrence strongly correlates with the patient’s level of immunity. The most common clinical manifestation of these intestinal parasites is diarrhoea. Prevalence of intestinal parasites among HIV-infected patients has been found to be as high as 95%. Objective: To determine the prevalence of intestinal parasites among HIV-infected participants presenting with diarrhoea and association with CD4 cell counts, ART and cotrimoxazole prophylaxis. Methods: A prospective cross-sectional study was conducted in four HIV clinics in Moshi district, Kilimanjaro Region, Tanzania. Stool samples were collected and analyzed from participants presenting with three or more episodes of loose stool per day or a single bloody bowel movement. The identification of parasites was done using direct microscopy and staining techniques. Demographic data, CD4 counts and stool results were recorded. Data analysis was done using STATA IC/11.1. Results: The study included 83 adult HIV positive patients. There were 36 males (43.4% and 47 females (56.6%, with a median age of 36 years (range 30-43. The baseline CD4 count was 150 cells/ul (range 72-295 cells/ul. Of our participants, 47 (56.6% had a baseline CD4 cell count < 200 cell/uL. Only 6(7.2% had CD4 counts above 500cells/uL. Of the whole group, 62(74.7% were on ARV therapy and 33(39.8% were on cotrimoxazole prophylaxis. Intestinal parasites were detected in 25 of our participants. Among these 25 participants, Ascaris lumbricoides was found in 52%, Giardia lamblia in 32% and Entamoeba histolytica in 16%. The frequency of intestinal parasites was significantly associated with CD4 cell counts <200 cells/ul (p=0.02. There was no significant difference in parasitic infections associated with ART status or cotrimoxazole use. Conclusion: The prevalence

  20. Parenteral Nutrition and Intestinal Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bielawska, Barbara; Allard, Johane P

    2017-05-06

    Severe short bowel syndrome (SBS) is a major cause of chronic (Type 3) intestinal failure (IF) where structural and functional changes contribute to malabsorption and risk of micronutrient deficiencies. Chronic IF may be reversible, depending on anatomy and intestinal adaptation, but most patients require long-term nutritional support, generally in the form of parenteral nutrition (PN). SBS management begins with dietary changes and pharmacologic therapies taking into account individual anatomy and physiology, but these are rarely sufficient to avoid PN. New hormonal therapies targeting intestinal adaptation hold promise. Surgical options for SBS including intestinal transplant are available, but have significant limitations. Home PN (HPN) is therefore the mainstay of treatment for severe SBS. HPN involves chronic administration of macronutrients, micronutrients, fluid, and electrolytes via central venous access in the patient's home. HPN requires careful clinical and biochemical monitoring. Main complications of HPN are related to venous access (infection, thrombosis) and metabolic complications including intestinal failure associated liver disease (IFALD). Although HPN significantly impacts quality of life, outcomes are generally good and survival is mostly determined by the underlying disease. As chronic intestinal failure is a rare disease, registries are a promising strategy for studying HPN patients to improve outcomes.

  1. Immediate postconditioning during reperfusion attenuates intestinal injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ke-Xuan; Li, Yun-Sheng; Huang, Wen-Qi; Chen, Shu-Qing; Wang, Zhong-Xin; Liu, Jia-Xin; Xia, Zhengyuan

    2009-05-01

    To test the hypothesis that immediate but not delayed ischemic postconditioning (IPo) during reperfusion attenuates intestinal injury, and that ischemic preconditioning (IPC) and IPo may confer synergy in intestinal protection. Prospective laboratory animal study with concurrent control. Adult Sprague-Dawley rats. Intestinal ischemia/reperfusion (II/R) injury in rats was produced by clamping superior mesenteric artery for 60 min followed by 60 min reperfusion; IPC was elicited by 10 min ischemia and 10 min reperfusion before index ischemia; IPo was performed by three cycles of 30 s reperfusion and 30 s ischemia initiated either immediately at the onset of reperfusion (IPo) or after reperfusion for 3 min (delayed-IPo). Combination of IPC and IPo was performed by combining both protocols. Intestinal ischemia/reperfusion resulted in significant intestinal injury evidenced as significant increase in Chiu's scores and wet-to-dry intestine weight ratio accompanied with increases in plasma levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-6, as well as increases in the intestinal tissue lipid peroxidation product malonediadehyde and myeloperoxidase activity as compared to control animals (all P IPo or their combination (P IPo (P > 0.05). IPC and IPo showed synergistic protection compared with either protocol alone. Ischemic postconditioning reduces intestinal injury, in part, by inhibiting oxidative injury, neutrophils filtration and proinflammatory response. The early period of reperfusion is critical to intestinal protection by IPo, and intestinal protection with IPo can be enhanced by IPC.

  2. Improved survival for rectal cancer compared to colon cancer: the four cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchwald, Pamela; Hall, Claire; Davidson, Callum; Dixon, Liane; Dobbs, Bruce; Robinson, Bridget; Frizelle, Frank

    2018-03-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common cancer worldwide. This study was undertaken to evaluate survival outcomes and changes of disease outcomes of CRC patients over the last decades. A retrospective analysis of CRC patients in Christchurch was performed in four patient cohorts at 5 yearly intervals; 1993-94, 1998-99, 2004-05 and 2009. Data on cancer location, stage, surgical and oncological treatment and survival were collected. Univariate, multivariate and Kaplan-Meier survival analysis were performed. There were 1391 patients (355, 317, 419 and 300 per cohort), 1037 colon and 354 rectal cancers, respectively. For colon cancer, right-sided cancers appeared more common in later cohorts (P = 0.01). There was a significant decrease in the number of permanent stomas for colon cancer patients (P = 0.001). There was an analogous trend for rectal cancers (P = 0.075). More CRC patients with stage IV disease were treated surgically (P = 0.001) and colon cancer stages I and II tended to have increased survival if operated by a colorectal surgeon (P = 0.06). Oncology referrals have increased remarkably (P = 0.001). Overall 56% of patients were alive at 5 years however rectal cancer patients had significantly better 5-year survival than those with colon cancer (P rectal cancer patients have a better 5-year survival than colon cancer patients. The improved survival with early stage colon cancers operated on by specialist colorectal surgeons needs further exploration. © 2016 Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.

  3. The Experience of Cancer Stigma in Taiwan: A Qualitative Study of Female Cancer Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Pei-Ling; Mayer, Deborah K; Chou, Fan-Hao; Hsiao, Kuan-Yin

    2016-04-01

    Cancer is the leading cause of death in Taiwan. Because the causes of cancer are often difficult to identify, a diagnosis of cancer is occasionally attributed to karma and the concept of stigma. These feelings lead to a life predicament, and stigma influences these perceptions. This study intended to understand how stigma is formed in the disease-related experiences of women with cancer. Ten participants were interviewed at the time of a confirmed diagnosis of advanced cancer and completed cancer treatment with regular follow-up after treatment, and all subjects underwent 2-3 interviews. The number of interviews conducted was determined by data saturation. A content analysis method was used. The stigma of cancer includes the concepts of "cancer equals death", including the feeling of death approaching and an awareness of disease severity. "Cancer equals menace to social life" suggests that social life is affected and includes other individuals' uncomfortable attitudes toward cancer (shame, sympathy, pity, suffering, and over-cautiousness) and external physical changes. "Cancer equals cancer-ridden life" includes being sensitive to the topics of death and calculating the number of remaining survival days. The process from early diagnosis to the decision to receive treatment is complicated for patients with cancer. After the diagnosis is confirmed, the stigma of diagnosis significantly affects patients. Regarding social stereotypes, educating the public to resolve individuals' negative responses to cancer and further convey social and public information to women in society is necessary. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. CYP17 genetic polymorphism, breast cancer, and breast cancer risk factors: Australian Breast Cancer Family Study

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, Jiun-Horng; Gertig, Dorota M; Chen, Xiaoqing; Dite, Gillian S; Jenkins, Mark A; Milne, Roger L; Southey, Melissa C; McCredie, Margaret RE; Giles, Graham G; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Hopper, John L; Spurdle, Amanda B

    2005-01-01

    Introduction Because CYP17 can influence the degree of exposure of breast tissues to oestrogen, the interaction between polymorphisms in this gene and hormonal risk factors is of particular interest. We attempted to replicate the findings of studies assessing such interactions with the -34T?C polymorphism. Methods Risk factor and CYP17 genotyping data were derived from a large Australian population-based case-control-family study of 1,284 breast cancer cases and 679 controls. Crude and adjust...

  5. Quasi-Prospective Study of Breast Cancer and Diet

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hebert, James R; Adams, Swann A

    2006-01-01

    .... These factors may exert powerful influences on physiologic processes leading to cancer. This case-control study aims to investigate the relationship between physical activity, diet, adult weight history, and breast cancer...

  6. Quasi-Prospective Study of Breast Cancer and Diet

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hebert, James

    2001-01-01

    This study aims to refine estimates of the effect of diet on breast cancer. Besides diet we will measure adult weight history and physical activity in women undergoing a diagnostic work-up for breast cancer...

  7. Quasi-Prospective Study of Breast Cancer and Diet

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hebert, James R; Matthews, Chuck

    2005-01-01

    .... These factors may exert powerful influences on physiologic processes leading to cancer. This case control study aims to investigate the relationship between physical activity, diet, and adult weight history and breast cancer...

  8. Improvement of lipid profile by probiotic/protective cultures: study in a non-carcinogenic small intestinal cell model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorenjak, Mario; Gradišnik, Lidija; Trapečar, Martin; Pistello, Mauro; Kozmus, Carina Pinto; Škorjanc, Dejan; Skok, Pavel; Langerholc, Tomaž; Cencič, Avrelija

    2014-01-01

    Plasma lipid levels are important risk factors for the development of atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease. Previous findings have shown that probiotic bacteria exert positive effects on hypercholesterolemia by lowering serum cholesterol and improving lipid profile that, in turn, leads to a reduced risk of coronary heart disease and atherosclerosis. Most of these studies were carried out with tumoral cell lines that have a metabolism quite different from that of normal cells and may thus respond differently to various stimuli. Here, we demonstrate the beneficial effects of some probiotics on cholesterol levels and pathways in normal small intestinal foetal epithelial tissue cells. The results show that Lactobacillus plantarum strain PCS 26 efficiently removes cholesterol from media, exhibits bile salt hydrolase activity, and up-regulates several genes involved in cholesterol metabolism. This study suggests that Lactobacillus plantarum PCS 26 might act as a liver X receptor agonist and help to improve lipid profiles in hypercholesterolemic patients or even dislipidemias in complex diseases such as the metabolic syndrome.

  9. Effects of Radiation on the Microbiota and Intestinal Inflammatory Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-15-1-0300 TITLE: Effects of Radiation on the Microbiota and Intestinal Inflammatory Disease PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR...SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Effects of Radiation on the Microbiota and Intestinal Inflammatory Disease 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-15-1-0300 5c...changes in the microbiota on intestinal susceptibility to inflammatory disease . 15. SUBJECT TERMS Radiation, microbiome, mycobiome, colitis, cancer 16

  10. US findings of bilateral primary breast cancer: Retrospective study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lou Li; Cong Xinli; Yu Guofang; Li Jichang; Ma Yuxiang

    2007-01-01

    Background: For women with breast cancer, the contralateral breast is at high risk. The bilateral cancers may be synchronous or metachronous. If the bilateral breast cancers have similar ultrasonography (US) appearances, the US findings of the first breast cancer (index cancer) might lead to early detection of the contralateral cancer. The purpose of this study was to identify the US characteristics of bilateral breast cancer and to determine whether bilateral breast cancers have similar US appearances and whether the US findings for one breast cancer might be predictive of the contralateral breast cancer. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the US manifestations of 58 patients with surgically proven bilateral primary breast cancer and compared the contralateral cancer with the index cancer by evaluation the margin, shape, inside echoes, posterior attenuation, calcification and color flow signals of 58 lesion pairs to investigate whether the bilateral breast cancers have similar US appearances. Results: Bilateral primary breast cancers were more located in upper outer quadrant, frequently spiculation, taller than wide shape, with irregular margin, heterogeneous internal echo and acoustic shadowing, containing microcalcification and abundant color flow signals. The most common US appearances were taller than wide shape (75.0%, 87/116), irregular margins (79.3%, 92/116) and heterogeneous internal echo (86.2%, 100/116). Of the total 58 lesion pairs, 18 (31.0%) pairs had similar US characteristics, whereas 40 (69.0%) pairs had different US characteristics. Conclusions: US signs of the index cancer do not indicate the most likely appearance of the second cancer in the contralateral breast. Evaluation of the contralateral cancer should be performed without regard for the US findings for the index cancer

  11. US findings of bilateral primary breast cancer: Retrospective study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lou Li [Department of Ultrasound, Shandong Medical Imaging Research Institute, Shandong University, 324 Jing 5 Road, Jinan 250021 (China)]. E-mail: luckylouli@eyou.com; Cong Xinli [Department of Ultrasound, Shandong Medical Imaging Research Institute, Shandong University, 324 Jing 5 Road, Jinan 250021 (China); Yu Guofang [Department of Ultrasound, Shandong Medical Imaging Research Institute, Shandong University, 324 Jing 5 Road, Jinan 250021 (China); Li Jichang [Department of Ultrasound, Shandong Medical Imaging Research Institute, Shandong University, 324 Jing 5 Road, Jinan 250021 (China); Ma Yuxiang [Department of Ultrasound, Shandong Medical Imaging Research Institute, Shandong University, 324 Jing 5 Road, Jinan 250021 (China)

    2007-01-15

    Background: For women with breast cancer, the contralateral breast is at high risk. The bilateral cancers may be synchronous or metachronous. If the bilateral breast cancers have similar ultrasonography (US) appearances, the US findings of the first breast cancer (index cancer) might lead to early detection of the contralateral cancer. The purpose of this study was to identify the US characteristics of bilateral breast cancer and to determine whether bilateral breast cancers have similar US appearances and whether the US findings for one breast cancer might be predictive of the contralateral breast cancer. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the US manifestations of 58 patients with surgically proven bilateral primary breast cancer and compared the contralateral cancer with the index cancer by evaluation the margin, shape, inside echoes, posterior attenuation, calcification and color flow signals of 58 lesion pairs to investigate whether the bilateral breast cancers have similar US appearances. Results: Bilateral primary breast cancers were more located in upper outer quadrant, frequently spiculation, taller than wide shape, with irregular margin, heterogeneous internal echo and acoustic shadowing, containing microcalcification and abundant color flow signals. The most common US appearances were taller than wide shape (75.0%, 87/116), irregular margins (79.3%, 92/116) and heterogeneous internal echo (86.2%, 100/116). Of the total 58 lesion pairs, 18 (31.0%) pairs had similar US characteristics, whereas 40 (69.0%) pairs had different US characteristics. Conclusions: US signs of the index cancer do not indicate the most likely appearance of the second cancer in the contralateral breast. Evaluation of the contralateral cancer should be performed without regard for the US findings for the index cancer.

  12. The effects of a multispecies probiotic on migraine and markers of intestinal permeability-results of a randomized placebo-controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Roos, N M; van Hemert, S; Rovers, J M P; Smits, M G; Witteman, B J M

    2017-12-01

    Migraine, associated with several gastrointestinal disorders, may result from increased intestinal permeability, allowing endotoxins to enter the bloodstream. We tested whether probiotics could reduce migraine through an effect on intestinal permeability and inflammation. In total, 63 patients were randomly allocated to the probiotic (n=31) or the placebo group (n=32). Participants ingested a multispecies probiotic (5x10 9 colony-forming units) or placebo daily for 12 weeks. Migraine was assessed with the Migraine Disability Assessment Scale (MIDAS), the Headache Disability Inventory (HDI) and headache diaries. At baseline and 12 weeks, intestinal permeability was measured with the urinary lactulose/mannitol test and fecal and serum zonulin; inflammation was measured from interleukin (IL) -6, IL-10, tumor necrosis factor-α and C-reactive protein in serum. The MIDAS migraine intensity score significantly decreased in both groups (P<0.001) and the HDI score significantly decreased in the probiotic group (P=0.032) and borderline in the placebo group (P=0.053). In the probiotics group, patients had a median of 6 migraine days in the first month, 4 in the second month (P=0.002) and 5 in the last month, which was not significantly different from the 5, 4, and 4 days in the placebo group. A ⩾2day reduction in migraine days was seen in 12/31 patients in the probiotics group versus 7/29 in the placebo group (ns). Probiotic use did not significantly affect medication use, intestinal permeability or inflammation compared to placebo. In this study, we could not confirm significant benefit from a multispecies probiotic compared to a placebo on the outcome parameters of migraine and intestinal integrity.

  13. Breast. cancer. Prognosis factors - preliminar study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rotstein, S.; Fonseca, N.M.

    1984-01-01

    A preliminar study of prognosis factors in 8 cases of breast cancer is made. Are used as parameters the dimension, the localization and the nuclear differentiation degree (gN) of the primary tumor, the vascular invasion and the axillary histologic status (pN) and the sinus histiocytosis phenomenon. Among the studied factors, have special importance the presence of vascular invasion and the negative sinus histiocytosis (minimal or absent sinus histiocytosis). Both phenomena are considered as an expression of potential systemic disease, independent of the clinical stage. Consequently the use of chemotherapy in the surgery complementation is preconized, to a best control of the disease. (author)

  14. Dairy consumption and ovarian cancer risk in the Netherlands Cohort Study on diet and cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mommers, M.; Schouten, L.J.; Goldbohm, R.A.; Brandt, P.A. van den

    2006-01-01

    Ovary cancer risk in relation to consumption of dairy products was investigated using a self-administered questionnaire on dietary habits and other risk factors for cancer, which was completed in 1986 by 62 573 postmenopausal women participating in the Netherlands Cohort Study. Follow-up for cancer

  15. Regulation of intestinal calcium absorption by luminal calcium content: role of intestinal alkaline phosphatase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brun, Lucas R; Brance, María L; Lombarte, Mercedes; Lupo, Maela; Di Loreto, Verónica E; Rigalli, Alfredo

    2014-07-01

    Intestinal alkaline phosphatase is a brush border enzyme that is stimulated by calcium. Inhibition of intestinal alkaline phosphatase increases intestinal calcium absorption. We hypothesized that intestinal alkaline phosphatase acts as a minute-to-minute regulatory mechanism of calcium entry. The aim of this study was to evaluate the mechanism by which intestinal luminal calcium controls intestinal calcium absorption. We performed kinetic studies with purified intestinal alkaline phosphatase and everted duodenal sacs and showed that intestinal alkaline phosphatase modifies the luminal pH as a function of enzyme concentration and calcium luminal content. A decrease in pH occurred simultaneously with a decrease in calcium absorption. The inhibition of intestinal alkaline phosphatase by l-phenylalanine caused an increase in calcium absorption. This effect was also confirmed in calcium uptake experiments with isolated duodenal cells. Changes in luminal pH arising from intestinal alkaline phosphatase activity induced by luminal calcium concentration modulate intestinal calcium absorption. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. STUDY OF GASTROINTESTINAL CANCERS IN A TERTIARY CARE HOSPITAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rema Nair Sarkar

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Cancer is one of the leading cause of death both in developed and developing countries. In India, it accounts for 0.3 million deaths per year. Cancers of lung, GIT and oral cancers dominated among men while breast, cervix, ovary and oral cavity were commonest cancer seen in women. Among the gastrointestinal cancers, cancers of the oesophagus, stomach, colon, rectum and liver cancers were commonest. The aim of the study is to evaluate the incidence of the various GIT cancers in a tertiary hospital of Coastal Andhra when compared to other studies. MATERIALS AND METHODS In this retrospective study, a total of 509 health records of patients affected by cancers were studied and relevant details noted. RESULTS A total of 509 cancer cases were reported in this period of 18 months (January 2016 - June 2017 of which 85 cases (16.3% were of Gastrointestinal (GIT cancers. The age group between 40 and 60 recorded the maximum incidence of 47 cancers (55.1%. The incidence of gastrointestinal cancers were significantly higher in the men (56 cases (65.8% than the women (29 cases (34.11%. The commonest site of GIT cancers was the colorectal region (30 cases (35.7%. The most common type of cancer seen was adenocarcinoma seen in 73 cases (85.8%. CONCLUSION Public education and awareness for the warning symptoms should be increased to prevent reduction of the life span and health caused by the gastrointestinal cancers with intense awareness drive using various means including social media undertaken to educate the public regarding the warning symptoms and screening of such group for GIT cancers.

  17. Changes in causes of acute gastroenteritis in the United Kingdom over 15 years: microbiologic findings from 2 prospective, population-based studies of infectious intestinal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, Clarence C; O'Brien, Sarah J; Tompkins, David S; Bolton, Frederick J; Berry, Lisa; Dodds, Julie; Choudhury, Dalia; Halstead, Fenella; Iturriza-Gómara, Miren; Mather, Katherine; Rait, Greta; Ridge, Alan; Rodrigues, Laura C; Wain, John; Wood, Bernard; Gray, James J

    2012-05-01

    Large-scale, prospective studies of infectious intestinal disease (IID) in developed countries are uncommon. Two studies of IID incidence and etiology have been conducted in the United Kingdom: the Infectious Intestinal Disease Study in England (IID1) in 1993-1996 and the Second Study of Infectious Intestinal Disease in the Community (IID2) in 2008-2009. We examined changes in etiology and diagnostic yield of IID cases over 15 years. Fecal samples submitted by IID cases were examined for a range of bacterial, viral, and protozoal pathogens using traditional and molecular microbiological methods. We calculated the percentage of specimens positive for each organism based on traditional methods and on traditional and molecular methods combined. We compared the distributions of organisms in the 2 studies. For pathogens investigated in both studies, 40% of fecal samples submitted by cases in IID2 were positive compared with 28% in IID1. Viruses were most frequent among community cases in IID2. Campylobacter was the most common bacterial pathogen among cases presenting to healthcare. Major differences between the 2 studies were increases in the detection of norovirus and sapovirus and a decline Salmonella. Most fecal specimens were negative for the pathogens tested in both studies, so new strategies are needed to close the diagnostic gap. Among known pathogens, effective control of norovirus, rotavirus, and Campylobacter remain high priorities. The reduction in nontyphoidal salmonellosis demonstrates the success of Europe-wide control strategies, notably an industry-led Salmonella control program in poultry in the United Kingdom.

  18. Treatment of intractable cancer by radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abe, Mitsuyuki

    1981-01-01

    Intraoperative irradiation, thermotherapy, hypoxic cell sensitizer, and neutron brachytherapy were used for locally advanced cancer and value and limitations of these therapies were discussed. Intraoperative irradiation was mainly used for cancers of the gastro-intestinal tract. In stage I gastric cancers, no difference in the five-year survival rates was found between the groups with and without intraoperative irradiation. In gastric cancers of stage II or more, intraoperative irradiation had a favourable effect. Thermotherapy was applied to superficial radio-resistant cancer by the use of a thermal system of microwave- and radio-frequency heating. This treatment induced disappearance of approximately 50% of tumor. For the treatment with hypoxic cell sensitizer, studies of phase I and II with Misonidazole were conducted; from these results, the protocol was made for phase III study of esophagus cancer, lung cancer, head and neck cancer, uterus cancer, and brain cancer. Brachytherapy using 252 Cf was also developed for locally advanced cancer. (Ueda, J.)

  19. Intestinal microbiome landscaping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shetty, Sudarshan A.; Hugenholtz, Floor; Lahti, Leo; Smidt, Hauke; Vos, de Willem M.

    2017-01-01

    High individuality, large complexity and limited understanding of the mechanisms underlying human intestinal microbiome function remain the major challenges for designing beneficial modulation strategies. Exemplified by the analysis of intestinal bacteria in a thousand Western adults, we discuss

  20. A study of in-vitro interaction of Ketotifen Fumarate with Domperidone at different gastric and intestinal pH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Aktar Sayeed

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim — The main focus of the project was to identify whether there is any interaction between Ketotifen Fumarate (antihistamine and domperidone (Antiemetic/dopaminergic antagonist present or not at simulated gastric and intestinal solutions of different pH. Methods — Using Job’s continuous-variation analysis the possible drug-drug interaction was determined at a fixed temperature (37ºC at the studied pH. From Job’s continuous-variation analysis the views of drug-drug interaction at different concentration ratio at all pH (0.4, 1.2, 2.0, 2.8, 6.8, and 7.4 except 6.0 were noted. Results — Data obtained from spectroscopic analysis showed decrease in free-drug concentration of both of the drugs analyzed when they were within the same gastric simulated solution. Conclusion — Concurrent administration of Ketotifen Fumarate and domperidone would result in the formation of a stable complex and this is likely to reduce the the rapeutic activities of both drugs.

  1. Vasoactive intestinal peptide binding sites and fibers in the brain of the pigeon Columba livia: An autoradiographic and immunohistochemical study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hof, P.R.; Dietl, M.M.; Charnay, Y.; Martin, J.L.; Bouras, C.; Palacios, J.M.; Magistretti, P.J.

    1991-01-01

    The distribution of vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) binding sites in the pigeon brain was examined by in vitro autoradiography on slide-mounted sections. A fully characterized monoiodinated form of VIP, which maintains the biological activity of the native peptide, was used throughout this study. The highest densities of binding sites were observed in the hyperstriatum dorsale, archistriatum, auditory field L of neostriatum, area corticoidea dorsolateralis and temporo-parieto-occipitalis, area parahippocampalis, tectum opticum, nucleus dorsomedialis anterior thalami, and in the periventricular area of the hypothalamus. Lower densities of specific binding occurred in the neostriatum, hyperstriatum ventrale and nucleus septi lateralis, dorsolateral area of the thalamus, and lateral and posteromedial hypothalamus. Very low to background levels of VIP binding were detected in the ectostriatum, paleostriatum primitivum, paleostriatum augmentatum, lobus parolfactorius, nucleus accumbens, most of the brainstem, and the cerebellum. The distribution of VIP-containing fibers and terminals was examined by indirect immunofluorescence using a polyclonal antibody against porcine VIP. Fibers and terminals were observed in the area corticoidea dorsolateralis, area parahippocampalis, hippocampus, hyperstriatum accessorium, hyperstriatum dorsale, archistriatum, tuberculum olfactorium, nuclei dorsolateralis and dorsomedialis of the thalamus, and throughout the hypothalamus and the median eminence. Long projecting fibers were visualized in the tractus septohippocampalis. In the brainstem VIP immunoreactive fibers and terminals were observed mainly in the substantia grisea centralis, fasciculus longitudinalis medialis, lemniscus lateralis, and in the area surrounding the nuclei of the 7th, 9th, and 10th cranial nerves

  2. A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF CAREGIVER BURDEN IN CANCER CERVIX AND CANCER BREAST ILLNESSES

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    Srinivasagopalan, Nappinnai, Solayappan

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Caregivers of individuals suffering from cancer illnesses are at risk of having subjected to mental health consequences. There is a paucity of data comparing the caregiver burden of cancer breast and cancer cervix patients. Aim: The aim of the present study is to compare the caregiver burden of cancer breast and cancer cervix patients. To study the association of caregiver burden with demographic factors like age, gender, duration of caregiving etc. Materials & Methods: This Cross sectional study is performed on the key relatives of patients of 31 cancer cervix and 31 cancer breast patients. Burden assessment schedule was used. Results: Our findings suggest burden is more in male caregivers of breast cancer patients. It is not so in caregivers of cancer cervix patients. Whenever the caregiver is closely related to the patients the burden is high in both groups. Whenever the burden scores were high the depression scores were also high. Treatment modalities as a whole correlates with burden scores in caregivers of breast cancer patients but not in cancer cervix patients. Conclusion: Caregivers with breast and cervical cancer patients are vulnerable if the caregiver is male, from low socioeconomical background, more closely related and when the patients received poor treatment modalities.

  3. Kids, Adolescents, and Young Adults Cancer Study-A Methodological Approach in Cancer Epidemiology Research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Link, N. L.; Maurer, E.; Largent, J.; Kent, E.; Sender, E.; Culver, H. A.; Morris, R. A.; Sender, E.

    2009-01-01

    Advances have been made in treatment and outcomes for pediatric cancer. However adolescents and young adults (AYAs) with cancer have not experienced similar relative improvements. We undertook a study to develop the methodology necessary for epidemiologic cancer research in these age groups. Our goal was to create the Kids, Adolescents, and Young Adults Cancer (KAYAC) project to create a resource to address research questions relevant to this population. We used a combination of clinic and population-based ascertainment to enroll 111 cases aged 0-39 for this methodology development study. The largest groups of cancer types enrolled include: breast cancer, leukemia, lymphoma, and melanoma. The overall participation rate is 69.8% and varies by age and tumor type. The study included patients, mothers, and fathers. The methods used to establish this resource are described, and the values of the resource in studies of childhood and young adult cancer are outlined.

  4. Functional Anthocyanin-Rich Sausages Diminish Colorectal Cancer in an Animal Model and Reduce Pro-Inflammatory Bacteria in the Intestinal Microbiota

    OpenAIRE

    Javier Fernández; Lorena García; Joaquín Monte; Claudio J. Villar; Felipe Lombó

    2018-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is the fourth most common neoplasia in Europe, where it accounts for 28.2 new cases per 100,000 inhabitants. In an effort to decrease the incidence of this disease, various prevention measures are being studied, one of which are anthocyanin-rich foods. Anthocyanins are potent antioxidant flavonoids mainly found in flowers and colorful fruits and vegetables. These nutraceuticals have diverse biological functions once ingested, including immunomodulatory, anti-inflammatory and...

  5. Alleviating gastro-intestinal symptoms and concerns by integrating patient-tailored complementary medicine in supportive cancer care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Arye, Eran; Aharonson, Michal Livne; Schiff, Elad; Samuels, Noah

    2015-12-01

    Chemotherapy-induced gastrointestinal (GI) toxicities often impair quality-of-life (QOL) and require reduction of the chemotherapy dose intensity. We explored the effects of a complementary integrative medicine (CIM) therapeutic process, administered in conjunction with conventional supportive care, on GI-related symptoms and concerns in patients undergoing chemotherapy. We conducted a prospective, pragmatic study among patients undergoing chemotherapy referred by their healthcare providers to a CIM-trained integrative physician (IP) for consultation, followed by CIM treatments. Symptom severity and patient concerns were assessed at baseline and at an IP follow-up visit at 6-12 weeks, using the Edmonton Symptom Assessment Scale (ESAS) and the Measure Yourself Concerns and Wellbeing (MYCAW) questionnaires. Adherence to the integrative care (AIC) program was defined as attendance of ≥4 CIM treatments, with ≤30 days between sessions. Of the 308 patients referred to the IP consultation, 275 (89.3%) expressed GI symptoms and concerns, 189 of whom attended the follow-up IP assessment. Of these, 144 (46%) were found to be adherent to the treatment plan (AIC group). Repeated measure analysis indicated a statistical interaction between baseline and follow-up scores, for ESAS (appetite, p = 0.005; drowsiness, p = 0.027; shortness of breath, p = 0.027; and sleep, p = 0.034) and for MYCAW outcomes. This when comparing the AIC to the non-AIC group responses. Reduction of GI concerns (p = 0.024) was greater among patients in the AIC group (MYCAW questionnaire), with significantly less chemotherapy-related hospitalizations found in this group (p = 0.008). The participation of a registered dietitian during CIM treatments led to greater reduction in nausea (from 4.24 to 1.85 vs. 2.73 to 1.36, respectively; p = 0.017). Integration of CIM with standard supportive care, especially in patients adhering to the CIM treatment regimen, may help reduce chemotherapy-induced GI symptoms

  6. Acute enteritis or gastroenteritis in young dogs as a predisposing factor for intestinal intussusception: a retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rallis, T S; Papazoglou, L G; Adamama-Moraitou, K K; Prassinos, N N

    2000-10-01

    Various types of intestinal intussusception were diagnosed in 29 of 220 young dogs with acute enteritis or gastroenteritis, due to canine parvovirus (85 cases) or presumably to other infectious agents, inflammation or less common hypermotility and metabolic derangements (135 cases). As the other causes of the disease were excluded, acute enteritis or gastroenteritis was considered to be the most likely predisposing factor for the intestinal intussusception. The most common type of intussusception was found to be the ileocolic. Of the 21 dogs that underwent surgical resection and anastomosis of the intestine, 18 dogs recovered completely and three died due to complications. The high survival rate was due to the effective pre-operative, surgical and post-operative therapy.

  7. Tissue distribution of aryl hydrocarbon receptor in the intestine: Implication of putative roles in tumor suppression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikuta, Togo; Kurosumi, Masafumi; Yatsuoka, Toshimasa; Nishimura, Yoji

    2016-01-01

    Intestinal homeostasis is maintained by complex interactions between intestinal microorganisms and the gut immune system. Dysregulation of gut immunity may lead to inflammatory disorders and tumorigenesis. We previously have shown the tumor suppressive effects of aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) in intestinal carcinogenesis. In the present study, we investigated AhR distribution in the mouse and human intestine by histochemical analysis. In the normal intestine, AhR was mainly localized in the stroma containing immune cells in the lamina propria and lymphoid follicles. On the other hand, in the tumor tissue from human colon cancer and that developed in Apc Min/+ mice, AhR expression was elevated. AhR immunostaining was found in both stromal and tumor cells. Although AhR was localized in the cytoplasm of tumor cells in most cases, nuclear AhR was also observed in some. AhR knockdown using siRNA resulted in significant promotion of cell growth in colon cancer cell lines. Furthermore, AhR activation by AhR ligands supplemented in culture medium suppressed cell growth. Our study results suggest that tumor suppressive roles of AhR are estimated in two distinct ways: in normal tissue, AhR is associated with tumor prevention by regulating gut immunity, whereas in tumor cells, it is involved in growth suppression. - Highlights: • In the normal intestine, AhR was mainly localized in stroma containing immune cells. • In the tumor tissue, AhR expression was found in both stromal and tumor cells. • AhR knockdown promoted cell growth in colon cancer cell lines.

  8. Tissue distribution of aryl hydrocarbon receptor in the intestine: Implication of putative roles in tumor suppression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikuta, Togo, E-mail: togo@cancer-c.pref.saitama.jp [Department of Cancer Prevention, Research Institute for Clinical Oncology, Saitama Cancer Center, 818 Komuro, Ina-machi, Kitaadachi-gun, Saitama 362-0806 (Japan); Kurosumi, Masafumi, E-mail: mkurosumi@cancer-c.pref.saitama.jp [Division of Pathology, Saitama Cancer Center, 780 Komuro, Ina-machi, Kitaadachi-gun, Saitama 362-0806 (Japan); Yatsuoka, Toshimasa, E-mail: yatsuoka-gi@umin.ac.jp [Division of Gastroenterological Surgery, Saitama Cancer Center, 780 Komuro, Ina-machi, Kitaadachi-gun, Saitama 362-0806 (Japan); Nishimura, Yoji, E-mail: yojinish@cancr-c.pref.saitama.jp [Division of Gastroenterological Surgery, Saitama Cancer Center, 780 Komuro, Ina-machi, Kitaadachi-gun, Saitama 362-0806 (Japan)

    2016-05-01

    Intestinal homeostasis is maintained by complex interactions between intestinal microorganisms and the gut immune system. Dysregulation of gut immunity may lead to inflammatory disorders and tumorigenesis. We previously have shown the tumor suppressive effects of aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) in intestinal carcinogenesis. In the present study, we investigated AhR distribution in the mouse and human intestine by histochemical analysis. In the normal intestine, AhR was mainly localized in the stroma containing immune cells in the lamina propria and lymphoid follicles. On the other hand, in the tumor tissue from human colon cancer and that developed in Apc{sup Min/+}mice, AhR expression was elevated. AhR immunostaining was found in both stromal and tumor cells. Although AhR was localized in the cytoplasm of tumor cells in most cases, nuclear AhR was also observed in some. AhR knockdown using siRNA resulted in significant promotion of cell growth in colon cancer cell lines. Furthermore, AhR activation by AhR ligands supplemented in culture medium suppressed cell growth. Our study results suggest that tumor suppressive roles of AhR are estimated in two distinct ways: in normal tissue, AhR is associated with tumor prevention by regulating gut immunity, whereas in tumor cells, it is involved in growth suppression. - Highlights: • In the normal intestine, AhR was mainly localized in stroma containing immune cells. • In the tumor tissue, AhR expression was found in both stromal and tumor cells. • AhR knockdown promoted cell growth in colon cancer cell lines.

  9. Studies on the in vitro absorption of spice principles--curcumin, capsaicin and piperine in rat intestines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suresh, D; Srinivasan, K

    2007-08-01

    A comparative evaluation of the absorbability of three structurally similar and physiologically active spice principles in an in vitro system consisting of everted rat intestinal sacs was made. When everted sacs of rat intestines were incubated with 50-1000 microg of curcumin in 10 ml incubation medium, absorption of the spice principle was maximum at 100 microg concentration. The amount of absorbed curcumin present in the serosal fluid was negligible. This and the comparatively lower recovery of the original compound suggested that curcumin to some extent undergoes a modification during absorption. For similar concentrations of added piperine, about 44-63% of piperine disappeared from the mucosal side. Absorption of piperine which was maximum at 800 microg per 10 ml was about 63%. The absolute amounts of piperine absorbed in this in vitro system exceeded the amounts of curcumin. The absorbed piperine could be traced in both the serosal fluid and in the intestinal tissue, indicating that piperine did not undergo any metabolic change during the process of absorption. 7-12% of the absorbed piperine was found in the serosal fluid. When everted sacs of rat intestines were incubated with 10-500 microg of capsaicin, a maximum of 82-88% absorption could be seen in the lower concentrations, and the amount of absorbed capsaicin did not proportionately increase at higher concentrations. A relatively higher percentage of the absorbed capsaicin could be seen in the serosal fluid as compared to curcumin or piperine. When these spice active principles were associated with mixed micelles, their in vitro intestinal absorption was relatively higher. Curcumin absorption in everted intestinal sac increased from 48.7% to 56.1% when the same was present in micelles. In the case of capsaicin and piperine, increase in absorption was 27.8-44.4% and 43.4-57.4%, respectively, when they were present in micelles as compared to its native form.

  10. Intestinal perforation secondary to metastasic lung carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. C. Álvarez Sánchez

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Secondary symptomatic gastrointestinal metastases from lung primary tumor are rare. They can cause a variety of clinical conditions such as perforation, obstruction and bleeding. Intestinal perforations of intestinal metastases have a very poor prognosis. We present a case of a patient with metastatic lung cancer who presents with intestinal perforation and pneumoperitoneum. A 67 year old male, immunosuppressed and smoker is diagnosed with acute abdomen secondary to perforation of a tumor of the terminal ileum, as well as three other similar injuries. Resection and anastomosis. The patient died two months after surgery. The final pathological diagnosis supports epidermoidide poorly differentiated lung carcinoma. It was concluded that given an intestinal perforation in a patient diagnosed with lung carcinoma, it shouldn´t be excluded the metastases origen . Surgery is a purely palliative procedure.

  11. OPERABILITY RATE OF DISTAL GASTRIC CANCER AND THE EFFECT OF GASTRIC OUTLET OBSTRUCTION IN THE OPERABILITY RATE AND POSTOPERATIVE OUTCOME- A RETROSPECTIVE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh T. R

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Stomach cancer is the fourth most common malignancy in the world. 1 Except in countries where screening for stomach cancer is prevalent, most of the distal stomach tumours are diagnosed at advanced stage. Gastric outlet obstruction is usually believed to be a sign of locally-advanced disease. Complete surgical removal of the disease (R0 is the only potentially curative treatment for resectable gastric cancer. The aim of the study is to finda The operability rate of gastric cancer in our institution and the incidence of Gastric Outlet Obstruction (GOO in patients undergoing gastrectomy for distal gastric cancer. b To compare the postoperative outcome in patients with gastric outlet obstruction and those without gastric outlet obstruction. c To see if the histology of the tumour has any role in the development of GOO. MATERIALS AND METHODS This is a retrospective study. The study includes patients who were admitted with carcinoma stomach and underwent operative or nonoperative treatment in our institution during 2013 to 2015. RESULTS Overall operability rate was 45.8%. Operable patients in the GOO group were 47%. Operability in the no outlet obstruction group were 45%. Data shows a slightly increased predilection for GOO in diffuse and mixed type of tumours (statistically not significant. Intestinal tumours had significant rate of anaemia compared to diffuse tumours (p <0.005. Overall mortality was 6.7%. Mortality is higher in the GOO group (8.8%. CONCLUSION (a. Operability rate of distal gastric cancer in our institution is 45.8%. (b. Incidence of gastric outlet obstruction in patients undergoing gastrectomy is 38.2%. (c. Presence of gastric outlet obstruction does not influence operability rate (47% vs. 45%. (d. Morbidity and mortality after distal radical gastrectomy is comparable in both groups. (e. Both intestinal and diffuse histology have equal incidence of GOO. (f. Chronic blood loss and incidence of anaemia is more in

  12. The macrophage system in the intestinal muscularis externa during inflammation: an immunohistochemical and quantitative study of osteopetrotic mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Hanne Birte; Larsen, Jytte Overgaard; Hadberg, Hanne

    2008-01-01

    Intestinal inflammation results in disturbed intestinal motility in humans as well as in animal models. This altered function of smooth muscle cells and/or the enteric nervous system may be caused by activation of macrophages in muscularis externa and a thereby following release of cytokines...... and chemokines that causes influx of mononuclear cells and neutrophilic granulocytes. We subjected osteopetrotic (op/op) mice that lack certain macrophage subtypes, e.g. macrophages in the muscularis externa and +/+ mice to LPS to induce inflammatory cell influx. The densities of F4/80(+), MHCII...

  13. Detection of coding microsatellite frameshift mutations in DNA mismatch repair-deficient mouse intestinal tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woerner, Stefan M; Tosti, Elena; Yuan, Yan P; Kloor, Matthias; Bork, Peer; Edelmann, Winfried; Gebert, Johannes

    2015-11-01

    Different DNA mismatch repair (MMR)-deficient mouse strains have been developed as models for the inherited cancer predisposing Lynch syndrome. It is completely unresolved, whether coding mononucleotide repeat (cMNR) gene mutations in these mice can contribute to intestinal tumorigenesis and whether MMR-deficient mice are a suitable molecular model of human microsatellite instability (MSI)-associated intestinal tumorigenesis. A proof-of-principle study was performed to identify mouse cMNR-harboring genes affected by insertion/deletion mutations in MSI murine intestinal tumors. Bioinformatic algorithms were developed to establish a database of mouse cMNR-harboring genes. A panel of five mouse noncoding mononucleotide markers was used for MSI classification of intestinal matched normal/tumor tissues from MMR-deficient (Mlh1(-/-) , Msh2(-/-) , Msh2(LoxP/LoxP) ) mice. cMNR frameshift mutations of candidate genes were determined by DNA fragment analysis. Murine MSI intestinal tumors but not normal tissues from MMR-deficient mice showed cMNR frameshift mutations in six candidate genes (Elavl3, Tmem107, Glis2, Sdccag1, Senp6, Rfc3). cMNRs of mouse Rfc3 and Elavl3 are conserved in type and length in their human orthologs that are known to be mutated in human MSI colorectal, endometrial and gastric cancer. We provide evidence for the utility of a mononucleotide marker panel for detection of MSI in murine tumors, the existence of cMNR instability in MSI murine tumors, the utility of mouse subspecies DNA for identification of polymorphic repeats, and repeat conservation among some orthologous human/mouse genes, two of them showing instability in human and mouse MSI intestinal tumors. MMR-deficient mice hence are a useful molecular model system for analyzing MSI intestinal carcinogenesis. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Molecular Signature of Cancer at Gene Level or Pathway Level? Case Studies of Colorectal Cancer and Prostate Cancer Microarray Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiajia Chen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available With recent advances in microarray technology, there has been a flourish in genome-scale identification of molecular signatures for cancer. However, the differentially expressed genes obtained by different laboratories are highly divergent. The present discrepancy at gene level indicates a need for a novel strategy to obtain more robust signatures for cancer. In this paper we hypothesize that (1 the expression signatures of different cancer microarray datasets are more similar at pathway level than at gene level; (2 the comparability of the cancer molecular mechanisms of different individuals is related to their genetic similarities. In support of the hypotheses, we summarized theoretical and experimental evidences, and conducted case studies on colorectal and prostate cancer microarray datasets. Based on the above assumption, we propose that reliable cancer signatures should be investigated in the context of biological pathways, within a cohort of genetically homogeneous population. It is hoped that the hypotheses can guide future research in cancer mechanism and signature discovery.

  15. Epidemiological Study of Intestinal Parasites in Referred Individuals to the Medical Centers’ Laboratories of Haji-Abad City, Hormozgan Province, Iran, 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somayeh Mehran

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background:intestinal parasitic infection is one of the most prevalent health problems in developing countries. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infection and its correlation with socio-demographic parameters in Haji-abad, 2015.MaterialsandMethods:This cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted on 635 samples. After completing questionnaires, stool samples were assessed macroscopically, and microscopically using direct slide smear with saline and lugol, formalin-ether concentration, Ziehl-Neelsen staining to track Cryptosporidium species and Trichrome staining for the samples suspected to amoeba and other indeterminate cases. PCR using specific primers was conducted for Entamoebahistolytica/E. dispar suspected samples. The results were analyzed using SPSSver.16 software.Results:Of total 635 samples, 198 cases (31.2% were infected by at least one intestinal parasite. The most common parasites in this area were: Blastocystis sp. (105, 16.5%, Endolimax nana (43, 6.8%, Entamoeba coli (32, 5.0%, Giardia lamblia (31, 4.9%, and Iodamoeba butschlii (11, 1.7%. Enterobius vermicularis (1, 0.2% was the only detected helminthic infection. Regarding socio-demographic variables, age, residence, sampling month, and job showed a significant correlation with IPIs (p-value=0.031, 0.019, 0.014, 0.012; respectively. None of nine microscopically suspected E. histolytica/E. dispar cases were confirmed by molecular investigations (PCR method and were considered as E. coli.Conclusion:In agreement with previous studies, helminthes infections show a dramatic decline compare to protozoa in this study. The relatively high incidence of intestinal protozoan infections in studies performed in Iran supports strategies for pre­venting the transmission and expansion of these parasites as a priority.

  16. Dietary calcium and phosphate in the prevention of colorectal cancer. Mechanism and nutrition implications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Govers, Maria Johanna Adriana Petronella

    1993-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (cancerof the large intestine) is the second most common cause of cancer deaths in Western countries. Epidemiological studies suggest that environmental factors, and in particular dietary habits, play an important role in the etiology of colorectal cancer. A positive association

  17. Prospective study of blood metabolites associated with colorectal cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Xiang; Xiang, Yong-Bing; Rothman, Nathaniel; Yu, Danxia; Li, Hong-Lan; Yang, Gong; Cai, Hui; Ma, Xiao; Lan, Qing; Gao, Yu-Tang; Jia, Wei; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Zheng, Wei

    2018-02-26

    Few prospective studies, and none in Asians, have systematically evaluated the relationship between blood metabolites and colorectal cancer risk. We conducted a nested case-control study to search for risk-associated metabolite biomarkers for colorectal cancer in an Asian population using blood samples collected prior to cancer diagnosis. Conditional logistic regression was performed to assess associations of metabolites with cancer risk. In this study, we included 250 incident cases with colorectal cancer and individually matched controls nested within two prospective Shanghai cohorts. We found 35 metabolites associated with risk of colorectal cancer after adjusting for multiple comparisons. Among them, 12 metabolites were glycerophospholipids including nine associated with reduced risk of colorectal cancer and three with increased risk [odds ratios per standard deviation increase of transformed metabolites: 0.31-1.98; p values: 0.002-1.25 × 10 -10 ]. The other 23 metabolites associated with colorectal cancer risk included nine lipids other than glycerophospholipid, seven aromatic compounds, five organic acids and four other organic compounds. After mutual adjustment, nine metabolites remained statistically significant for colorectal cancer. Together, these independently associated metabolites can separate cancer cases from controls with an area under the curve of 0.76 for colorectal cancer. We have identified that dysregulation of glycerophospholipids may contribute to risk of colorectal cancer. © 2018 UICC.

  18. Cancer driver-passenger distinction via sporadic human and dog cancer comparison: a proof of principle study with colorectal cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Tang, Jie; Li, Yaping; Lyon, Kenneth; Camps, Jordi; Dalton, Stephen; Ried, Thomas; Zhao, Shaying

    2013-01-01

    Herein we report a proof of principle study illustrating a novel dog-human comparison strategy that addresses a central aim of cancer research, namely cancer driver–passenger distinction. We previously demonstrated that sporadic canine colorectal cancers (CRCs) share similar molecular pathogenesis mechanisms as their human counterparts. In this study, we compared the genome-wide copy number abnormalities between 29 human- and 10 canine sporadic CRCs. This led to the identification of 73 drive...

  19. Carbohydrate catabolic flexibility in the mammalian intestinal commensal Lactobacillus ruminis revealed by fermentation studies aligned to genome annotations

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    2011-08-30

    Abstract Background Lactobacillus ruminis is a poorly characterized member of the Lactobacillus salivarius clade that is part of the intestinal microbiota of pigs, humans and other mammals. Its variable abundance in human and animals may be linked to historical changes over time and geographical differences in dietary intake of complex carbohydrates. Results In this study, we investigated the ability of nine L. ruminis strains of human and bovine origin to utilize fifty carbohydrates including simple sugars, oligosaccharides, and prebiotic polysaccharides. The growth patterns were compared with metabolic pathways predicted by annotation of a high quality draft genome sequence of ATCC 25644 (human isolate) and the complete genome of ATCC 27782