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Sample records for studying gaharu morphology

  1. Three-Dimensional Imaging Using Microcomputed Tomography For Studying Gaharu Morphology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yazid, Khair'iah; Bin Awang, Mat Rasol; Mohamed, Abdul Aziz; Bin Hj Khalid, Mohd Ashhar; Masschaele, Bert; Abdullah, Mohd. Zaid; Saleh, Junita Mohamad

    2010-01-01

    To demonstrates the potential application of the high resolution X-ray micro-CT technique in the analysis of internal structure in Gaharu wood. Gaharu or internationally, Agar wood, is known for its fragrant resinous wood. The hardware device used in this study was an X-ray micro-CT scanner at Center of Tomography (UGCT), CT facility in Ghent University, Belgium. This technique allows the 3D investigation of the internal structure of the wood in a non-destructive way. Most of the data analysis was done with the software VG Studio Max and MATLAB. Here we present some preliminary results from three-dimensional images from a piece of high grade Gaharu. Micro-CT images of the specimens were obtained at 7 μm resolution. Besides a clear distinction between pores and material, some bright white areas occur in the reconstruction images. Not only the volume visualization is helpful, morphological parameters of open-pores and dark resins are calculated from these 3D data set. The micro-CT technique is a valid support for evaluating the pores structure and resin distribution in Gaharu.

  2. Chemical profiling of gaharu oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mat Rasol Awang; Mohd Fajri Osman; Ahsanulkhaliqin Abd Wahab; Khairuddin Abdul Rahim; Shaiful Azuar Mohamad

    2006-01-01

    Gaharu oil from Aquilaria agallocha and Aquilaria malaccensis Lamk has been reported to contain different phytochemicals components (Ishihara et al., 1993). There are also differences reported by gaharu oil suppliers. The differences suggested they originate from varied of sources of gaharu wood, oleoresin maturity and extraction technology employed. In this study, gaharu oil purchased from different sources were initially analysed and later cross-examined against chemical components of oil extracted from wood sources systematically graded. The gaharu oil components obtained from this work will be presented and discussed. Initiative to profile oil provides impetus to database development and standardisation of gaharu oil. (Author)

  3. Characterisation of gaharu hydrosol: Physical, chemical and microbiological properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nur Humaira Lau Abdullah; Salmah Moosa

    2010-01-01

    Gaharu hydrosol is produced during the hydro distillation of resinous wood part of Aquilaria sp. This aromatic water is being considered as a by-product in the industry. There is interest to turn this aromatic by-product into aroma therapy products. The present study is carried out in order to understand the properties of gaharu hydrosol, physically, chemically and microbiologically. Gaharu hydrosol from two different extraction facilities for example at Kedaik Agar wood Sdn. Bhd. and Malaysian Nuclear Agency were characterised in this study. All the gaharu hydrosol samples displayed acidic nature, with pH in the range of 3.62 - 4.53. Four antioxidant assays were carried out to ascertain the antioxidant capabilities of two gaharu hydrosol samples through the total phenolic content assay, ABTS + radical scavenging activity, DPPH· radical scavenging activity and ferric reducing activity (FRAP). The results revealed that the samples exhibited lower antioxidant capabilities as compared to the positive control. For microbial population study, fungi was not present in the samples as there was no growth observed on the Plate Sabouraud Dextrose Agar (SDA) using membrane filtration technique. The antibacterial activity of the gaharu hydrosol against Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa was determined using agar dilution method and disk diffusion method. The results showed that the gaharu hydrosol did not inhibit the growth of both the bacteria. The results obtained from this study will be further evaluated for the development of new products using this aromatic gaharu by-product. (author)

  4. Development of the gaharu oil quality control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chong Saw Peng; Mohd Fajri Osman; Shyful Azizi Abdul Rahman; Khairuddin Abdul Rahim; Mat Rasol Awang

    2010-01-01

    Gaharu (Agar wood) is a secondary metabolite produces by the Aquilaria spp. and accumulates in the plant cell in oleoresin form. The essential oil known as gaharu oil can be extracted from this oleoresin gaharu via varies extraction method such as the water distillation, solvent extraction, pressurize extraction and etc. The gaharu oil extracted through different methods will give different fragrances. Besides, different source of materials will also give different in chemical profiles. In gaharu oil trading market, most of the buyers request quality assurance from the gaharu oil manufacturer to assure the gaharu oil purchased meets their standard requirement. Since there is a demand on gaharu oil quality assurance then it become a need to develop the gaharu oil quality control method in order to have a standard quality control of gaharu oil presented in a certificate of analysis and verified by laboratory. (author)

  5. Gaharu, from the metabolomic aspect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chong Saw Peng; Ahsanulkhaliqin Abdul Wahab; Mohd Fajri Osman; Shyful Azizi Abdul Rahman; Khairuddin Abdul Rahim; Mat Rasol Awang

    2006-01-01

    Agarwood, one of the timber woody plant which has the similar response as grand fir toward external invasion and is able to produce oleoresin as the secondary metabolite from plant defense system to inhibit the invader and heal the wound. Species of agarwood found in Malaysia is known as Aquilaria malaccensis, and locally known as karas or depu. A. malaccensis is valuable due to its oleoresin (gaharu). Gaharu is a product produced in the secondary metabolic pathway known as terpenoid synthesis pathway. In order to switch on this pathway, the plant defense system need to be induced and lead to the octadecanoid pathway where the linolenic acid (LA) converts to jasmonic acid (JA). Jasmonic acid is the major key to switch the plant metabolic pathway from primary metabolic pathway to secondary metabolic pathway. To prove this hypothesis, some researches on molecular study such as gene expression and protein expression are conducted to identify key components, which will lead to the manipulation of the metabolic pathway. (Author)

  6. MANAJEMEN RANTAI PASOK KAYU GAHARU DI KALIMANTAN BARAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefi Herda

    2017-07-01

    pemilik perusahaan. Metode penelitian menggunakan metode kualitatif. Hasil penelitian menyimpulkan bahwa pasokan kayu gaharu pada bulan November 2015 sampai Agustus 2016 mengalami kekurangan bahkan kekosongan pasokan. Faktor yang menghambat ketersediaan pasokan yaitu faktor alam dan vaksin atau obat yang disuntikan ke pohon gaharu. Hasil panen yang didapat dari satu pohon gaharu sebanyak 5 kg per pohon dengan asumsi sekali panen mencapai 10 pohon gaharu dengan jumlah total kayu gaharu sebanyak 50 kg.

  7. Discriminative Analysis of Different Grades of Gaharu (Aquilaria malaccensis Lamk. via 1H-NMR-Based Metabolomics Using PLS-DA and Random Forests Classification Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Nazirah Ismail

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Gaharu (agarwood, Aquilaria malaccensis Lamk. is a valuable tropical rainforest product traded internationally for its distinctive fragrance. It is not only popular as incense and in perfumery, but also favored in traditional medicine due to its sedative, carminative, cardioprotective and analgesic effects. The current study addresses the chemical differences and similarities between gaharu samples of different grades, obtained commercially, using 1H-NMR-based metabolomics. Two classification models: partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA and Random Forests were developed to classify the gaharu samples on the basis of their chemical constituents. The gaharu samples could be reclassified into a ‘high grade’ group (samples A, B and D, characterized by high contents of kusunol, jinkohol, and 10-epi-γ-eudesmol; an ‘intermediate grade’ group (samples C, F and G, dominated by fatty acid and vanillic acid; and a ‘low grade’ group (sample E and H, which had higher contents of aquilarone derivatives and phenylethyl chromones. The results showed that 1H- NMR-based metabolomics can be a potential method to grade the quality of gaharu samples on the basis of their chemical constituents.

  8. Standard Operation Procedure of Gaharu Oil Extraction Process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng, C.S.; Mohd Fajri Osman; Norella Bahari; Rusli Zakaria

    2015-01-01

    Gaharu oil extraction system developed by Nuclear Malaysia is a hydro-distillation system innovated from the tradition method and improvised with science and technology to enhance the process efficiency and safety. The main component of gaharu oil extraction system included the extraction vessel, condenser and collection decanter. Apart from the extraction unit, the gaharu oil extraction process also incorporated two major supporting systems. These systems are the liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) system and the water cooling system. The LPG system is solely used for heating the vessel, which contains a mixture of treated and grind gaharu bark and fluid, to produce steam. Meanwhile the water cooling system is used to supply the necessary cool water into the condenser unit and facilitate in the transformation of the mentioned steam into gaharu oil and distilled water. The dissipate water from this process will be channeled back into the water cooling ponds to let excess heat to be removed and allow the cool water to reuse again by the process. (author)

  9. Comparison of chemical profiles of selected gaharu oils from peninsular Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norazah, M.A.; Chang, Y.S.; Mailina, J.; Abu, S.A.; Abdul Majid, J.; Saidatul, H.S.; Norhasnida, H.; Nik Yasmin, Y.

    2008-01-01

    Gaharu (agar wood) is a fragrant wood that is usually derived from the diseased timber of the genus Aquilaria (Thymelaeceae) and often occurs as dark coloured patches or streaks in the tree. Due to its strong, unique scent and medicinal properties, gaharu oil is greatly valued as perfumery ingredient and incense. Gaharu may be classified into various grades; Grade A, B, C and D and they are often graded according to the physical properties, gaharu formation and its unique scent. The lower grades such as Grade C are often distilled to obtain gaharu oils. As part of an on-going research on the chemical profiling of some Malaysian gaharu oils and evaluation of their potential beneficial properties; gaharu oils obtained from different sources were analysed and compared by GC and GC-MS. Identification of the chemical components was based on comparison of calculated retention indices and mass spectral data with literature values. Examination of the oils showed some variations and differences in terms of GC profiles, concentration and chemical components. Majority of the essential oil profiles were complex and made up of sesquiterpenoids and their oxygenated derivatives. However, common occurrences of chemical compounds such as 3-phenyl-butanone, α-guaiene, β-agar ofuran, α-agar ofuran, agarospirol and jinkoh-eremol were detected. (author)

  10. Research to commercialization: Technology transfer gaharu oil extraction to people of Orang Asli Kampung Kedaik, Rompin, Pahang

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Fajri Osman; Shyful Azizi Abdul Rahman; Chong, Saw Peng; Muhammad Lebai Juri; Mat Rasol Awang

    2010-01-01

    Nuclear Malaysia has been involved in research related to gaharu since 2004 again. Studies conducted in the fields of agronomy, breeding, inoculation, grading, processing and development of quality agar wood products. Agar wood research involves application of nuclear technology and related technologies according to the expertise of researchers in the Malaysian Nuclear Agency in the developing industrial modernization and technology goals gaharu in Malaysia. In a study of the development process and product quality of agar wood, sandalwood oil processing technologies have been researched and developed at Nuclear Malaysia. Demand for sandalwood oil extraction technology development is very high because of sandalwood oil is very high-value products with the price can go up to RM 60,000.00 per kilogram. With the knowledge, technology innovation resulting from research and experience, the Malaysian Nuclear Agency was to transfer technology and knowledge of processing sandalwood oil to the community through a project of Development Projects in Agar wood Oil Extraction Plant Relocation Plan Aboriginal Kg Kedaik, Rompin, Pahang financial assistance from the Ministry of Science, Technology and Innovation under grant Community Innovation Fund (CIF). Technology transfer and travel through the various steps of the project which involves the preparation of papers, technology feasibility study to the community, the strength of community, sustainability research projects, effectiveness, success and benefits gained. (author)

  11. ARBUSCULAR MYCORRHIZAL FUNGI INCREASED EARLY GROWTH OF GAHARU WOOD OF Aquilaria malaccencsis and A. crasna UNDER GREENHOUSE CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maman Turjaman

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Gaharu wood stand has an important source of profits to the forest community in South and Southeast Asia tropical forest countries, but Aquilaria species have reduced in number and turn out to be endangered due to overexploitation.   Today,   the planting stocks of   Aquilaria species are not sufficient to sustain the yield of gaharu wood and promote forest conservation.  The objective of this study was to determine   the effect of   five arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM fungi: Entrophospora sp., Gigaspora decipiens, Glomus clarum, Glomus sp. ZEA, and Glomus sp. ACA, on the early growth of  Aquilaria malaccensis and A. crasna under greenhouse conditions. The seedlings of  Aquilaria spp. were inoculated with Entrophospora sp., Gi. decipiens, Glomus clarum, Glomus sp. ZEA, Glomus sp. ACA and uninoculated (control under greenhouse conditions. Then, percentage AM colonization, plant growth, survival rate and nitrogen (N and phosphorus (P content and mycorrhizal dependence (MD were measured. The percentage AM colonization of A. malaccensis and A. crasna ranged from 83 to 97% and from 63 to 78%, respectively. Colonization by five AM fungi increased plant height, diameter, and shoot and root dry weights. N and P content of  the seedlings were also increased by AM colonization. Survival rates were higher in the AM-colonized seedlings at 180 days after transplantation than those in the control seedlings. The MD of Aquilaria species was higher than 55 %. The results suggested that AM fungi can be inoculated`to Aquilaria species under nursery conditions to obtain vigorous seedlings, and the field experiment is underway to clarify the role of AM fungi under field conditions.

  12. Gaharu Leaf Extract Water Reduce MDA and 8-OHdG Levels and Increase Activities SOD and Catalase in Wistar Rats Provided Maximum Physical Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Made Oka Adi Parwata

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Oxidative stress occurs due to an imbalance of the number of free radicals by the number of endogenous antioxidant produced by the body i.e. Superoxide Dismutase (SOD, Gluthathione Peroxidase (GPx, and Catalase. The imbalance between the number of free radicals and antioxidants can be overcome with the endogenous antioxidant intake that exogenous oxidative stress can be reduced. One of exogenous antioxidants is natural Gaharu leaf water extract. Objective: This research focus on the effect of Gaharu leaf water extract in reducing MDA and 8-OHdG and increase the activity of SOD and Catalase. Methods: This study was an experimental with post only controls group design. Experiment was divided  into 5 groups of wistar rats, each consisting of 5 animals, i.e. negative control group without extract [K (-], treatment 1 treated 50 mg/kg BW/day of the extract (T1, treatment 2 treated 100 mg/kg BW/day of the extract (T2, treatment 3 treated 200 mg/ kg BW/day of the extract (T3, and positive control group [K (+] treated with vitamin Cat a dose 50 mg/kg BW/day. All groups treated for 10 weeks. Every day, before treatment, each group was given a maximum swimming activity for 1.5 hours for 10 weeks. ELISA was used to measure MDA, 8-OHdG, SOD, and Catalase activities. Result: The research results showed that treatment of extract of  leaves of Gaharu with an higher dose from 50 mg/kg BW up to 200 mg/ kg BW significantly decline (p <0.05 levels of MDA with the average ranging from 6.37±0.23, 5,56±0.27 and 4.32±0.27, 8-OHdG with a mean of 1.64±0.11, 1.26±0.46, and 1.09±0.17. On the other hand the treatment also increase SOD activity with less ranging from 12.15±1.04, 15.70±2.02, and 18.84±1.51, and Catalase ranging from 6,68±0.63, 8.20±1.14 and 9.29±0,79 in the blood of Wistar rats were given a maximum activity compared to the negative control group. This is probably higher phenol compounds (bioflavonoids quantity content of the extract

  13. Aplikasi Pemupukan Berimbang untuk Peningkatan Laju Pertumbuhan Tanaman Gaharu (Gyrinops verstegii di Kabupaten Tabanan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KETUT DHARMA SUSILA

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The research that purposed to find out the combination dosage of balanced fertilizing betweenunorganic and organic fertilizers for growth rate increasing of gaharu was conducted at West MundehVillage, West Selemadeg District and Baturiti Village Kerambitan District, Tabanan Regency from August2006 until August 2007. The factorial experiment used was randomized block design consisted of twofactors namely organic fertilizers as the first factor with four levels: 0 kg bokashi/tree; 2.5 kg bokashi/tree; 5.0 Kg bokashi/tree; 7.5 kg bokashi/tree; and unorganic fertilizer (NPK fertilizers as a secondfactor with four levels: without NPK; 0.10 kg NPK/tree; 0.20 kg NPK/tree, and 0.30 kg NPK/tree.There were 16 treatments with 4 replications. The result showed that no interaction between organicand unorganic fertilizer treatments, however, each factors influenced growth rate increasing of gaharuindividually. Both organic (bokashi and unorganic fertilizers (NPK were increasing the stem diametersand hight of plants gaharu. Treatments of 0.30 kg NPK/tree and 7.5 kg bokashi/tree indicated betterperformance significantly for raising stem diameter than the others.

  14. Biotic stress protein markers of Aquilaria sp. for gaharu species identification in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azhar Mohamad; Abdul Rahim Harun

    2012-01-01

    Gaharu trees (Aquilaria) is in danger of extinction in the wild due to illegal logging. Its resin (Gaharu) is used for the production of highly valued incense throughout Asia. In Aquilaria sp. systemic induction of defense genes in response to mechanical wounding in nature is regulated by an 18-amino-acid peptide signal protein called systemin. This protein is produced in response to the natural stress at the vicinity of the wound and is also influenced by its genetic background. As the protein can be differentiated by its locality, the protein expressed is also found to be significantly different which, in turn, can be used for identification of this plant species. In this work, A. malaccensis and A. hirta were evaluated based on the targeted genes related to systemin. Targeted gene refers to specific sequence in genomic DNA. Sequence mining from public databases is part of the crucial process in getting the specific genes. The sequences will go through alignment step to identify conserved region prior to primer design. The primers were used in Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) techniques to amplify the conserved regions. It was found that both samples can be differentiated. This would be useful for plant breeders, trader and planter in ensuring authentic planting materials. This paper will describe the use of targeted genes primers as markers in identifying the Aquilaria species. (author)

  15. Morphology study of niobium pentoxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romero, R.P.P.; Panta, P.C.; Araujo, A.O. de; Bergmann, C.P.

    2016-01-01

    Currently, Niobium pentoxide (Nb 2 O 5 ) has been studied due to physical properties and their use in obtaining electronic ceramics, optical lenses, pH sensors, special filters for TV receivers, among other applications. This study investigated the morphology of the niobium pentoxide obtained by hydrothermal synthesis from the precursor pentachloride niobium (NbCl 5 ), where the synthesis was carried out at a temperature of 150 and 200 °C for 130 min and the product obtained was calcined at temperatures 600, 800 and 1000 °C for 60 min. The following characterizations were performed for analysis of the material, among them, X-ray diffraction (XRD) for analysis of the crystal structure, thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) for detecting the existing functional groups and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) for morphology of material. As a result, different morphologies were obtained and consequently different niobium pentoxide properties studied. (author)

  16. Strengthening the morphological study of informal settlements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McCartney, S.; Krishnamurthy, S.

    Methods of articulating the morphological structure of slums can have considerable potential in better planning for site-specific design or policy responses for these areas in the contemporary city. Although urban morphology traditionally studies landscapes as stratified residues with distinct

  17. Morphological studies of some cultivated soils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slager, S.

    1966-01-01

    A study was made of those morphological and physical soil properties considered to govern root development.

    A deep and wide-branched root system was shown only to develop in a soil containing a permanent heterogeneous pore system, formed by biological activity in the profile. Therefore a

  18. Morphology study of refractory carbide powders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vavrda, J.; Blazhikova, Ya.

    1982-01-01

    Refractory carbides were investigated using JSM-U3 electron microscope of Joelco company at 27 KV accelerating voltage. Some photographs of each powder were taken with different enlargements to characterise the sample upon the whole. It was shown that morphological and especially topographic study of powders enables to learn their past history (way of fabrication and treatment). The presence of steps of compact particle fractures and cracks is accompanied by occurence of fine dispersion of carbides subjected to machining after facrication. On the contrary, the character of crystallographic surfaces and features of surface growth testify to the way of crystallization

  19. MORPHOLOGICAL VARIATIONS OF SPLEEN: A CADAVERIC STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siva Chidambaram

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The Spleen is a large lymphoid organ situated in the left hypochondrial region having an important role in immunological and hematological functions of the human body. The aim of this study was to find the morphological variations of the spleen with respect to it’s a Shape, b Number of notches on its borders and c Presence of anomalous fissure on its surface. The Study was done on 60 formalin fixed cadaveric spleen from the Department of Anatomy, Narayana Medical College, Nellore, Andhra Pradesh. Out of 60 spleens we examined, the various shapes of the spleen were noted suc h as wedge shape (73.33%, triangular (13.33%, tetrahedral (6.67% and oval shape(6.67%.The number of spleen showing notches on its superior border was 38(63.33% and in inferior border it was 6(10%. Absence of splenic notch was observed in 10(16.67% s pleens and the remaining 6 spleens (10% shows notches on its both the borders. The anomalous splenic fissure was found in 4(6.67% spleens on its diaphragmatic surface. The knowledge of variations in the morphology of spleen are essential for physician, s urgeon, radiologist and forensic surgeon to differentiate it from the splenic pathology and splenic injury. In addition to this, it is also important for anatomist during routine classroom dissection and discussion.

  20. A study of gross morphological and histological syringeal features of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study of gross morphological and histological syringeal features of true francolins (Galliformes: Francolinus, Scleroptila, Peliperdix and Dendroperdix spp.) and spurfowls ( Pternistis spp.) in a phylogenetic context.

  1. Comparative morphological and ecological studies of two Stachys ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, comparative morphological and ecological studies of Stachys balansae and S. carduchorum were investigated. Morphologically, general views of taxa and micromorphological features of the trichomes were studied. S. balansae differs from S. carduchorum in its leaves sericeouspilose on the upper surface and ...

  2. [Vestibular compensation studies]. [Vestibular Compensation and Morphological Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perachio, Adrian A. (Principal Investigator)

    1996-01-01

    The following topics are reported: neurophysiological studies on MVN neurons during vestibular compensation; effects of spinal cord lesions on VNC neurons during compensation; a closed-loop vestibular compensation model for horizontally canal-related MVN neurons; spatiotemporal convergence in VNC neurons; contributions of irregularly firing vestibular afferents to linear and angular VOR's; application to flight studies; metabolic measures in vestibular neurons; immediate early gene expression following vestibular stimulation; morphological studies on primary afferents, central vestibular pathways, vestibular efferent projection to the vestibular end organs, and three-dimensional morphometry and imaging.

  3. Structural, optical and morphological studies of undoped and Zn ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Structural, optical and morphological studies of undoped and Zn-doped CdSe QDs via aqueous route synthesis. N THIRUGNANAM D GOVINDARAJAN ... Undoped and Zn-doped CdSe quantum dots (QDs) were successfully synthesized by the chemical precipitation method. The structural, optical and morphological ...

  4. Nanostructured surfaces investigated by quantitative morphological studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perani, Martina; Carapezzi, Stefania; Mutta, Geeta Rani; Cavalcoli, Daniela

    2016-01-01

    The morphology of different surfaces has been investigated by atomic force microscopy and quantitatively analyzed in this paper. Two different tools have been employed to this scope: the analysis of the height–height correlation function and the determination of the mean grain size, which have been combined to obtain a complete characterization of the surfaces. Different materials have been analyzed: SiO_xN_y, InGaN/GaN quantum wells and Si nanowires, grown with different techniques. Notwithstanding the presence of grain-like structures on all the samples analyzed, they present very diverse surface design, underlying that this procedure can be of general use. Our results show that the quantitative analysis of nanostructured surfaces allows us to obtain interesting information, such as grain clustering, from the comparison of the lateral correlation length and the grain size. (paper)

  5. Morphological studies of polymer dispersed liquid crystal materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Jin-Woo

    2006-01-01

    In this work, we have studied the morphologies of polymer dispersed liquid crystals (PDLCs) based on E7/NOA61. Scanning electron microscope studies show that the PDLC morphology is strongly affected by the LC concentration and the cure temperature. A typical PDLC morphology with isolated LC droplets dispersed in a polymer matrix is only observed at low LC compositions and at low cure temperatures. Increasing either the LC composition or the cure temperature results in a polymer ball morphology, in which LCs exist in irregularly shaped voids in the polymer network structure. It is shown that the transition between these two morphologies can be qualitatively explained using a pseudo-binary phase diagram.

  6. Deep learning for studies of galaxy morphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuccillo, D.; Huertas-Company, M.; Decencière, E.; Velasco-Forero, S.

    2017-06-01

    Establishing accurate morphological measurements of galaxies in a reasonable amount of time for future big-data surveys such as EUCLID, the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope or the Wide Field Infrared Survey Telescope is a challenge. Because of its high level of abstraction with little human intervention, deep learning appears to be a promising approach. Deep learning is a rapidly growing discipline that models high-level patterns in data as complex multilayered networks. In this work we test the ability of deep convolutional networks to provide parametric properties of Hubble Space Telescope like galaxies (half-light radii, Sérsic indices, total flux etc..). We simulate a set of galaxies including point spread function and realistic noise from the CANDELS survey and try to recover the main galaxy parameters using deep-learning. We compare the results with the ones obtained with the commonly used profile fitting based software GALFIT. This way showing that with our method we obtain results at least equally good as the ones obtained with GALFIT but, once trained, with a factor 5 hundred time faster.

  7. Experimental and theoretical studies of bombardment induced surface morphology changes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carter, G.; Nobes, M.J.; Williams, J.S.

    1980-01-01

    In this review results of experimental and theoretical studies of solid surface morphology changes due to ion bombardment are discussed. An attempt is undertaken to classify the observed specific features of a structure, generated by ion bombardment [ru

  8. 3D Print of the Maxillary Sinus for Morphological Study

    OpenAIRE

    Araneda, Nadia; Parra, Marcelo; Valdivia Osorio, José; Olate, Sergio

    2017-01-01

    The maxillary sinus (MS) is described as a pyramid-shaped cavity of the maxilla. Knowledge of its morphology makes it possible to define normality and abnormality so that its three-dimensional analysis can be a valuable preoperative tool during surgery in this anatomical area. The aim of this study is to present a strategy of morphological analysis of the MS using 3D printing acquired through computed cone beam tomography (CBCT) images. A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted, inclu...

  9. Association between trochlear morphology and chondromalacia patella: an MRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duran, Semra; Cavusoglu, Mehtap; Kocadal, Onur; Sakman, Bulent

    This study aimed to compare trochlear morphology seen in magnetic resonance imaging between patients with chondromalacia patella and age-matched control patients without cartilage lesion. Trochlear morphology was evaluated using the lateral trochlear inclination, medial trochlear inclination, sulcus angle and trochlear angle on the axial magnetic resonance images. Consequently, an association between abnormal trochlear morphology and chondromalacia patella was identified in women. In particular, women with flattened lateral trochlea are at an increased risk of patellar cartilage structural damage. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. gross morphological study of placenta in preeclampsia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-06-12

    Jun 12, 2017 ... A cross-sectional study was carried out on preeclampsia mothers who gave birth at ... maternal and fetal surfaces (Ashfaq, Janjua, and. Channa, 2005). A term .... causing loss and fibrosis of parenchyma tissue. These changes ...

  11. Morphological studies on Bulinus sp. (Gastropoda: Planorbidae ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Several samples have been tentatively identified as B. natalensis (Küster, 1841) on the basis of observations on the shell and radula. The present study is a preliminary analysis of the characteristics of the shell and the radula of the snails from Nchout Monoun Crater Lake (Monoun Koumogoum) for adequate comparisons ...

  12. STUDI POLA SPASIAL PERSEBARAN GAHARU (Aquilaria spp. DAN KETERKAITANNYA DENGAN KONDISI HABITAT DI TAMAN NASIONAL KUTAI KALIMANTAN TIMUR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Didit Okta Pribadi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Agarwood is an important forest product due to its high economic value. However, the natural population of agarwood species has been decreasing rapidly because of over exploitation, therefore the international trade of the most important agarwood species (i.e. Aquilaria malaccensis is restricted to just a small quota. This research was conducted in an attempt to provide basic information for the conservation of Aquilaria spp. by identifying the species spatial distribution and habitat characteristics and developing a linkage model between their abundance and habitat characteristics. Data were collected through a field survey at Kutai National Park in August 2006 with Aquilaria spp. as the target species. Data on the species localities were used to determine the species densities and the value of Distance Index of Dispersion. The ordinance levels between the target species and the surrounding other species were identified using a correspondence analysis, while the linkage model between the species abundance and habitat characteristics was established using an ordinal multinomial logit model. The results showed that Aquilaria spp. had a low density (0.01/ha and were spatially distributed in a clump pattern. The abundance of Aquilaria species had a close association with soil texture, humidity and acidity, land elevation, air temperature and humidity, and light intensity. The abundance decreased with increasing the proportion of sandy clay loam content, soil humidity and acidity, land elevation, and light intensity. In contrast, the abundance increased with increasing sandy loam content, air temperature and air humidity. The existence of A. malaccensis was likely to associate with the existence of Goniothalamus sp., Macaranga sp., Vordia splendidissima, Lygopodium sp., and Stachyphrynium borneensis.

  13. A comparative study of chromosome morphology among some ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-02-15

    Feb 15, 2010 ... genetic source of wheat, some cytogenetic analysis reported (Chennaveeraiah, 1960; Badaeva et al., 1998,. 2001) and indicated that all A. crassa chromosomes can be identified by their morphology and C-banding patterns. Cytogenetical studies have been carried out on A. crassa but a comparative study ...

  14. Lung Morphological Changes in Closed Chest Injury (an experimental study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Golubev

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to study lung morphological changes in a closed chest injury model in laboratory animals. Material and methods. Experiments were carried out in 30 male albino nonbred rats weighing 350—380 g. Closed chest injury was simulated, by exposing the chest of anesthetized rats to a 300-g metal cylinder falling from a height of 30 cm. The observation periods were 1, 3, 6, and 24 hours. Results. The signs of evident perivenular edema that was uncharas-teristic to acute respiratory distress syndrome induced by other causes are an important peculiarity of lung morphological changes in this experimental model of closed chest injury. Conclusion. The experimental studies clarified the pattern of lung morphological changes in the early period after closed chest injury. Key words: closed chest injury, pulmonary edema.

  15. Morphological Study of Insoluble Organic Matter Residues from Primitive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Changela, H. G.; Stroud, R. M.; Peeters, Z.; Nittler, L. R.; Alexander, C. M. O'D.; DeGregorio, B. T.; Cody, G. D.

    2012-01-01

    Insoluble organic matter (IOM) constitutes a major proportion, 70-99%, of the total organic carbon found in primitive chondrites [1, 2]. One characteristic morphological component of IOM is nanoglobules [3, 4]. Some nanoglobules exhibit large N-15 and D enrichments relative to solar values, indicating that they likely originated in the ISM or the outskirts of the protoplanetary disk [3]. A recent study of samples from the Tagish Lake meteorite with varying levels of hydrothermal alteration suggest that nanoglobule abundance decreases with increasing hydrothermal alteration [5]. The aim of this study is to further document the morphologies of IOM from a range of primitive chondrites in order to determine any correlation of morphology with petrographic grade and chondrite class that could constrain the formation and/or alteration mechanisms.

  16. Morphological Priming by Itself: A Study of Portuguese Conjugations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verissimo, Joao; Clahsen, Harald

    2009-01-01

    Does the language processing system make use of abstract grammatical categories and representations that are not directly visible from the surface form of a linguistic expression? This study examines stem-formation processes and conjugation classes, a case of "pure" morphology that provides insight into the role of grammatical structure in…

  17. The best stain for morphological study of human seminal fluid's ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives:There is a high need for proper evaluation of the morphological features of human sperms. The importance of this lies in the field of andrology, male fertility and in vitro fertilization. The wet smears can give rough clue about the shape of the sperms, but it is neither accurate nor reproducible. This study aimed to ...

  18. Morphological study of synthesized chlorinated polyethylene by inductive plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olayo, M.G.; Cruz, G.; Carapia, L.; Fernandez, G.; Morales, J.

    2004-01-01

    In this work a morphological study on the synthesis of Chlorinated polyethylene for plasma starting from Trichloroethylene in a polymerization process and ablation simultaneous of metals, where silver atoms and copper are inserted directly during the growth of the polymer from the gas phase to the one solid is presented. (Author)

  19. Genetic diversity Study of Dioscoreas Using Morphological Traits ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Ogunji

    study. Onyilagha (1988) used polyacrylamide gel elctrophoresis on 13 cultivars of Dioscorea (5 of D.rotundata and 8 of D.cayenesis). The two taxa have some common morphological features, leading to .... g, potassium chloride = 0.725 g, ethylene ..... feasibility in broadening the genetic base for the improvement of yam.

  20. Morphological study of the plastron of the African sideneck turtle ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The morphological analysis of the plastron of the African sideneck turtle (Pelusios castaneus) was carried out using fifty adult turtles comprising twenty female and thirty male turtles picked up at different times from various river banks in Ibadan, Nigeria. The aim of the study was to provide baseline information that could be ...

  1. Morphological study of maxillary canine region based on CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Maiko; Takamori, Hitoshi; Ide, Yoshiaki; Yosue, Takashi

    2010-01-01

    The maxilla is generally known as a site where anatomical limitations make it difficult to obtain sufficient bone volume. A large amount of bone exists in the canine region between the anterior margin of the maxillary sinus and the piriform aperture margin. Although this region is crucial for implant treatments, there have not been any reports on morphological studies of the region. In this study, we investigated the morphology of the canine region based on CT, and also the morphology and position of the maxillary sinus located posterior to the canine region. The results were as follows: In the area above the anterior nasal spine, the higher the level, the smaller the mesio-distal length and the bucco-lingual width tended to become. In the area above the anterior nasal spine, the mesio-distal length and the bucco-lingual width tended to be smaller in female patients than in male patients. In the area above the anterior nasal spine, no significant differences in mesio-distal length and bucco-lingual width were observed between dentulous and edentulous jaws. The morphology of the maxillary sinus was mainly of an inverse-trapezoidal, circular, or triangular form. The position of the anterior wall of the maxillary sinus was most frequently found at the site corresponding to the second premolar. Through this study, we have reconfirmed that the canine region is vital for implant treatments in the maxilla. (author)

  2. Morphological and photometric studies of galaxies by electronography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Youll, D.P.

    1978-10-01

    Astronomical sources of low surface brightness, or sources with high luminosity gradients can be difficult to observe with photographic techniques. However, developments in electronographic techniques over recent years have made them suitable for precise observations of such objects. The use of these techniques for morphological and photometric studies of galaxies is discussed. Where appropriate, improvements in the methods for recovering information from electronographs, and analysing the data with computers are suggested. These techniques were used to study eight galaxy systems which have compact parts where the luminosity gradients are relatively high. Morphological studies of these systems are presented, together with measurements of some of their photometric parameters. The galaxy NGC 4881 was also studied so that the photometric calibration could be checked against previous studies, and so that the parameters of compact galaxies could be compared against this elliptical galaxy. (author)

  3. MORPHOLOGICAL STUDY OF THE AGE RELATED CHANGES OF THE CERVIX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monjushree Chakravarty

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Disease of the cervix is a common clinical condition in females, worldwide and especially in a developing country like India. The study was undertaken in Guwahati Medical College to see the age related changes in the morphology of the cervix. AIM The study was done to observe the age related changes in the cervix and compare the same with the different studies done by the previous workers around the world so as to help clinicians to diagnose the pathologies of this part of the female reproductive system better. MATERIALS AND METHOD The specimens were divided into three groups viz. pre-reproductive, reproductive and post-menopausal. Twenty specimens were collected of each group. The results were statistically analysed and ‘t’ test was employed to find out the significant difference between the mean value. SUMMARY A study of the 60 specimens collected were done to find the morphological parameters of each group viz. pre-reproductive, reproductive and post-menopausal and the findings of each group were compared to one another and were related to the finding of previous workers. CONCLUSION The study showed that there were certain differences in the morphology of the three groups and these differences tallied with that of the previous workers.

  4. Study of porous silicon morphologies for electron transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pang, Y.; Demroff, H.P.; Elliott, T.S.; Lee, B.; Lu, J.; Madduri, V.B.; Mazumdar, T.K.; McIntyre, P.M.; Smith, D.D.; Trost, H.J.

    1993-01-01

    Field emitter devices are being developed for the gigatron, a high-efficiency, high frequency and high power microwave source. One approach being investigated is porous silicon, where a dense matrix of nanoscopic pores are galvanically etched into a silicon surface. In the present paper pore morphologies were used to characterize these materials. Using of Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) images of both N-type and P-type porous layers, it is found that pores propagate along the crystallographic direction, perpendicular to the surface of (100) silicon. Distinct morphologies were observed systematically near the surface, in the main bulk and near the bottom of N-type (100) silicon lift-off samples. It is seen that the pores are not cylindrical but exhibit more or less approximately square cross sections. X-ray diffraction spectra and electron diffraction patterns verified that bulk porous silicon is still a single crystal. In addition, a Scanning Tunnelling Microscope (STM) and an Atomic Force Microscope (AFM) were successfully applied to image the 40 angstrom gold film structure which was coated upon a cooled porous silicon layer. By associating the morphology study with the measured emitting current density of the Oxidized Porous Silicon Field Emission Triode (OPSFET), techniques for the surface treatment of porous silicon will be optimized

  5. MORPHOLOGICAL STUDY OF THE HUMAN OVARY IN DIFFERENT AGE GROUPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ritu Saloi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Ovarian pathology can manifest in various ways, e.g. menstrual abnormalities, cystic disease, infertility, benign and malignant tumours of the ovary, etc. Ovarian cancer is one of the leading cancers in Indian women. The aim was undertaken to observe the age-related changes in the human ovary and to study if there is any difference between the right and left ovaries with respect to length, breadth, thickness and weight and compare it with the established findings of previous workers, which will help the clinicians to adopt appropriate diagnosis and treatment of the various clinical conditions associated with the ovaries. MATERIALS AND METHODS A study on human ovary was conducted in the Department of Anatomy, Gauhati Medical College, Guwahati. The morphological characteristics of 42 pairs of normal human ovaries of different age groups were studied (14 pairs in each age group. The ovaries were divided into three groups, viz. Group A or pre-reproductive, Group B or reproductive and Group C or postmenopausal. The results were statistically analysed and ‘t’ test was done to find out the significant difference of mean value. RESULTS The morphology of the ovary including the length, breadth, thickness and weight of the three groups were measured and the findings were compared with each other and also with the findings of studies done by previous workers. CONCLUSION The study showed that there were certain differences in the morphology of ovary in the three groups. The study also revealed that the weight of the right ovary was more than the left ovary in all the three age groups. The results were statistically analysed and compared with the findings of previous workers.

  6. Morphological study of the spinal canal content for subarachnoid endoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaaroor, M; Kósa, G; Peri-Eran, A; Maharil, I; Shoham, M; Goldsher, D

    2006-08-01

    This study was designed to examine the morphology of the spinal dural sac and contents, using magnetic resonance imaging in order to define the inner geometrical dimensions that confine the manoeuvre of an endoscope inserted in the lumbar region and along the thoracic and cervical spine. The morphology of the spine has been studied since the development of myelography. However, most studies have measured the diameters of the spinal cord only, not the size of the subarachnoid space. In addition, the few studies available on the subarachnoid space have focused on the cervical spine, leaving a near-complete dearth of data on the subarachnoid space dimensions along the thoracic spine. Based on MRI images of the spine from 42 patients, the dimensions of the spinal cord, dural sac, and subarachnoid space were measured at mid-vertebral and inter-vertebral disc levels. It was found that at each selected transverse level, the subarachnoid space tends to be symmetrical on the right and left sides of the cord, and measures 2.5 mm on average. However, the posterior and anterior segments, measured on the mid-sagittal plane, are generally asymmetrical and vary widely in size, ranging from 1 to 5 mm. These measurements match those found in previous studies, where these are available. The coefficient of variance for the dimensions of the subarachnoid space is as high as 42.4%, while that for the dimensions of the spinal cord is 10-15%. The findings presented here expand our knowledge of the spinal canal's morphology, and show that an endoscope designed to travel within the subarachnoid space must be smaller than 2.5 mm in diameter.

  7. Spectral and morphological study of galaxies with UV excess. VI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazaryan, M.A.; Kazaryan, E.S.; Byurakan Astrophysical Observatory)

    1985-01-01

    Results are given of a spectral and morphological study of galaxies Nos. 73, 125, and 229. The masses are determined of the gaseous components of these galaxies. It is established that galaxy No. 73 is a type Sy 2 galaxy, and in its physical properties it resembles the Sy 2 type galaxies Markaryan 744 and 1066. In some of its physical properties galaxy No. 125 is similar to galaxy No. 73, but it is evidently at a later stage of development than the latter. The results show that these galaxies differ from one another both in their physical properties and in their external structure

  8. Morphology studies on gas hydrates interacting with silica gel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beltran, J.; Servio, P. [McGill Univ., Montreal, PQ (Canada). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    2008-07-01

    Clathrate hydrates or gas hydrates are non-stoichiometric, crystalline compounds that form when small molecules come in contact with water at certain temperatures and pressures. Natural gas hydrates are found in the ocean bottom and in permafrost regions. It is thought that the amount of energy stored in natural hydrates is at least twice that of all other fossil fuels combined. In addition, trapping carbon dioxide as a hydrate in the bottom of the ocean has been suggested as an alternative means of reducing atmospheric carbon dioxide levels. Naturally occurring clathrates are found in close interaction with fine grained particles of very small mean pore diameters. Even though an increasing amount of hydrate equilibrium data for small diameter porous media has become available, the morphological behavior of hydrates subject to such conditions is yet to be explored. This paper presented a study that visually examined hydrate formation and decomposition of gas hydrates while interacting with fine grains of silica gel. The study showed still frames from high-resolution video recordings for hydrate formation and decomposition. The paper discussed the experiment including the apparatus as well as the results of hydrate formation and hydrate dissociation. This study enabled for the first time to observe clathrate morphology while hydrates interacted closely with fine grain particles with small mean pore diameters. 9 refs., 8 figs.

  9. A STUDY ON PLACENTAL MORPHOLOGY IN GESTATIONAL DIABETES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katadi Venkata Sudha Madhuri

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM refers to any degree of glucose intolerance with onset or first recognition during pregnancy. Maternal diabetes constitutes an unfavourable environment for embryonic and foetoplacental development. The histomorphological changes in the placenta are associated with increased perinatal morbidity, increased risk of diabetes in the offspring and the mother in the ensuing years of life. Present study aims to study the morphological changes in the placenta along with maternal and foetal outcomes in pregnancies complicated by GDM. MATERIALS AND METHODS A descriptive observational case-controlled study was conducted from January 2013 to November 2016 in King George Hospital, Visakhapatnam. Hundred and sixty four women diagnosed with GDM and hundred women with normal gestation were enrolled in the study. Foetal surveillance was done by Doppler ultrasound and kick count technique during the gestation. Foetal and maternal outcome was evaluated and compared to the outcome of normal gestation. Placental specimens from term gestations (38-42 weeks diagnosed with GDM and normal full-term gestations were studied to assess the morphological parameters. Statistical analysis was done using descriptive statistical measures. RESULTS In the present study, 62.19% of the GDM cases terminated as normal gestations. Recurrent UTI was the most common complication (14.02% during the antenatal period. 17.68% of the foetuses from GDM mothers presented with macrosomia, however, there were no cases of congenital anomalies or shoulder dystocia. Placental tissue from the GDM cases was larger, heavier and more cotyledonous as compared to placenta from normal subjects. The umbilical cord showed eccentric and central attachment in all the controls and most of the cases and 5.48% of the cases showed marginal attachment of the umbilical cord. CONCLUSION The study describes the various maternal, foetal and placental outcomes in pregnancies

  10. Morphological findings in dynamic swallowing studies of symptomatic patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scharitzer, Martina; Pokieser, Peter; Schober, Ewald; Schima, Wolfgang; Eisenhuber, Edith; Stadler, Alfred; Memarsadeghi, Mazda; Partik, Bernhard; Lechner, Gerhard [Department of Radiology, University of Vienna (Austria); Ludwig Boltzmann Institute for Radiologic Tumor Diagnosis, Vienna (Austria); Ekberg, Olle [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Malmoe University Hospital (Sweden)

    2002-05-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the role of videofluoroscopy in the detection of structural abnormalities of the pharynx and esophagus in patients with different symptoms of impaired deglutition. Dynamic radiographic recording of deglutition was performed in 3193 consecutive patients (1578 men, 1615 women; mean age 54 years) suffering from dysphagia, suspicion of aspiration, globus sensation, and non-cardiac chest pain. We assessed different structural lesions from the oral cavity to the esophagus and classified them into eight categories. Their frequency and association with the different clinical symptoms were evaluated. Videofluoroscopy revealed 1040 structural abnormalities in 833 patients (26%) including mass lesions from the oral cavity to hyoid/larynx (n=66), pharyngeal diverticula (n=181), pharyngeal masses (n=78), other pharyngeal narrowings (n=71), webs (n=98), masses (n=39), and other narrowings (n=73) of the upper esophageal sphincter, esophageal diverticula (n=80), esophageal webs, rings and strictures (n=194), and intrinsic and extrinsic esophageal lesions (n=160). There was a considerable variance of findings for different symptoms. In a large proportion of symptomatic patients videofluoroscopy detects morphological abnormalities along pharynx and esophagus often combined with functional disorders. This fact underlines the role of videofluoroscopy as a diagnostic test for function as well as morphology. (orig.)

  11. Morphological findings in dynamic swallowing studies of symptomatic patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scharitzer, Martina; Pokieser, Peter; Schober, Ewald; Schima, Wolfgang; Eisenhuber, Edith; Stadler, Alfred; Memarsadeghi, Mazda; Partik, Bernhard; Lechner, Gerhard; Ekberg, Olle

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the role of videofluoroscopy in the detection of structural abnormalities of the pharynx and esophagus in patients with different symptoms of impaired deglutition. Dynamic radiographic recording of deglutition was performed in 3193 consecutive patients (1578 men, 1615 women; mean age 54 years) suffering from dysphagia, suspicion of aspiration, globus sensation, and non-cardiac chest pain. We assessed different structural lesions from the oral cavity to the esophagus and classified them into eight categories. Their frequency and association with the different clinical symptoms were evaluated. Videofluoroscopy revealed 1040 structural abnormalities in 833 patients (26%) including mass lesions from the oral cavity to hyoid/larynx (n=66), pharyngeal diverticula (n=181), pharyngeal masses (n=78), other pharyngeal narrowings (n=71), webs (n=98), masses (n=39), and other narrowings (n=73) of the upper esophageal sphincter, esophageal diverticula (n=80), esophageal webs, rings and strictures (n=194), and intrinsic and extrinsic esophageal lesions (n=160). There was a considerable variance of findings for different symptoms. In a large proportion of symptomatic patients videofluoroscopy detects morphological abnormalities along pharynx and esophagus often combined with functional disorders. This fact underlines the role of videofluoroscopy as a diagnostic test for function as well as morphology. (orig.)

  12. Nuclear magnetic resonance studies of macroscopic morphology and dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrall, G.A.; Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA

    1995-09-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance techniques are traditionally used to study molecular level structure and dynamics with a noted exception in medically applied NMR imaging (MRI). In this work, new experimental methods and theory are presented relevant to the study of macroscopic morphology and dynamics using NMR field gradient techniques and solid state two-dimensional exchange NMR. The goal in this work is not to take some particular system and study it in great detail, rather it is to show the utility of a number of new and novel techniques using ideal systems primarily as a proof of principle. By taking advantage of the analogy between NMR imaging and diffraction, one may simplify the experiments necessary for characterizing the statistical properties of the sample morphology. For a sample composed of many small features, e.g. a porous medium, the NMR diffraction techniques take advantage of both the narrow spatial range and spatial isotropy of the sample's density autocorrelation function to obtain high resolution structural information in considerably less time than that required by conventional NMR imaging approaches. The time savings of the technique indicates that NMR diffraction is capable of finer spatial resolution than conventional NMR imaging techniques. Radio frequency NMR imaging with a coaxial resonator represents the first use of cylindrically symmetric field gradients in imaging. The apparatus as built has achieved resolution at the micron level for water samples, and has the potential to be very useful in the imaging of circularly symmetric systems. The study of displacement probability densities in flow through a random porous medium has revealed the presence of features related to the interconnectedness of the void volumes. The pulsed gradient techniques used have proven successful at measuring flow properties for time and length scales considerably shorter than those studied by more conventional techniques

  13. Morphological and electrochemical studies of spherical boron doped diamond electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendes de Barros, R.C. [IQ/USP, Av. Lineu Prestes, 748, Bloco 2 Superior, Cidade Universitaria, Sao Paulo/SP, 05508-900 (Brazil); Ferreira, N.G. [LAS/INPE, Av. dos Astronautas, 1758, Jardim da Granja, Sao Jose dos Campos/SP, 12245-970 (Brazil); Azevedo, A.F. [LAS/INPE, Av. dos Astronautas, 1758, Jardim da Granja, Sao Jose dos Campos/SP, 12245-970 (Brazil); Corat, E.J. [LAS/INPE, Av. dos Astronautas, 1758, Jardim da Granja, Sao Jose dos Campos/SP, 12245-970 (Brazil); Sumodjo, P.T.A. [IQ/USP, Av. Lineu Prestes, 748, Bloco 2 Superior, Cidade Universitaria, Sao Paulo/SP, 05508-900 (Brazil); Serrano, S.H.P. [IQ/USP, Av. Lineu Prestes, 748, Bloco 2 Superior, Cidade Universitaria, Sao Paulo/SP, 05508-900 (Brazil)]. E-mail: shps@iq.usp.br

    2006-08-14

    Morphological and electrochemical characteristics of boron doped diamond electrode in new geometric shape are presented. The main purpose of this study is a comparison among voltammetric behavior of planar glassy carbon electrode (GCE), planar boron doped diamond electrode (PDDE) and spherical boron doped diamond electrode (SDDE), obtained from similar experimental parameters. SDDE was obtained by the growth of boron doped film on textured molybdenum tip. This electrode does not present microelectrode characteristics. However, its voltammetric peak current, determined at low scan rates, is largest associated to the smallest {delta}E {sub p} values for ferrocyanide system when compared with PDDE or GCE. In addition, the capacitance is about 200 times smaller than that for GCE. These results show that the analytical performance of boron doped diamond electrodes can be implemented just by the change of sensor geometry, from plane to spherical shape.

  14. Dynamic potential and surface morphology study of sertraline membrane sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khater, M.M.; Issa, Y.M.; Hassib, H.B.; Mohammed, S.H.

    2014-01-01

    New rapid, sensitive and simple electrometric method was developed to determine sertraline hydrochloride (Ser-Cl) in its pure raw material and pharmaceutical formulations. Membrane sensors based on heteropolyacids as ion associating material were prepared. Silicomolybdic acid (SMA), silicotungstic acid (STA) and phosphomolybdic acid (PMA) were used. The slope and limit of detection are 50.00, 60.00 and 53.24 mV/decade and 2.51, 5.62 and 4.85 μmol L−1 for Ser-ST, Ser-PM and Ser-SM membrane sensors, respectively. Linear range is 0.01–10.00 for the three sensors. These new sensors were used for the potentiometric titration of Ser-Cl using sodium tetraphenylborate as titrant. The surface morphologies of the prepared membranes with and without the modifier (ion-associate) were studied using scanning and atomic force microscopes. PMID:26257944

  15. Biomphalaria prona (Gastropoda: Planorbidae: a morphological and biochemical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Lobato Paraense

    1992-06-01

    Full Text Available Two samples of Biomphalaria prona (Martens, 1873 from Lake Valencia (type locality and seven from other Venezuelan localities were studied morphologically (shell and reproductive system and biochemically (allozyme electrophoresis. In spite of marked differences in shell characters, all of them proved indistinguishable under the anatomic and biochemical criteria. So far B. prona has been considered an endemic species, restricted to Lake Valencia. It is now demonstrated that the extralacustrine populations refered to Biomphalaria havanensis (Pfeiffer, 1839 by several authors correspond in shell characters to an extreme variant of B. prona from the Lake and really belong to the last*mentioned species. They may be regarded as the result of a process of directional selection favoring a shell phenotype other than those making up the modal class in the Lake.

  16. Morphological Study Of Palladium Thin Films Deposited By Sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salcedo, K L; Rodriguez, C A [Grupo Plasma Laser y Aplicaciones, Ingenieria Fisica, Universidad Tecnologica de Pereira (Colombia); Perez, F A [WNANO, West Virginia University (United States); Riascos, H [Grupo Plasma Laser y Aplicaciones, Departamento de Fisica, Universidad Tecnologica de Pereira (Colombia)

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a morphological analysis of thin films of palladium (Pd) deposited on a substrate of sapphire (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) at a constant pressure of 3.5 mbar at different substrate temperatures (473 K, 523 K and 573 K). The films were morphologically characterized by means of an Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM); finding a relation between the roughness and the temperature. A morphological analysis of the samples through AFM was carried out and the roughness was measured by simulating the X-ray reflectivity curve using GenX software. A direct relation between the experimental and simulation data of the Palladium thin films was found.

  17. Morphological Study Of Palladium Thin Films Deposited By Sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salcedo, K L; Rodriguez, C A; Perez, F A; Riascos, H

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a morphological analysis of thin films of palladium (Pd) deposited on a substrate of sapphire (Al 2 O 3 ) at a constant pressure of 3.5 mbar at different substrate temperatures (473 K, 523 K and 573 K). The films were morphologically characterized by means of an Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM); finding a relation between the roughness and the temperature. A morphological analysis of the samples through AFM was carried out and the roughness was measured by simulating the X-ray reflectivity curve using GenX software. A direct relation between the experimental and simulation data of the Palladium thin films was found.

  18. An Anatomic Morphological Study of Occipital Spurs in Human Skulls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Monika; Asghar, Adil; Srivastava, Nitya Nand; Gupta, Nandkishore; Jain, Anuj; Verma, Jayant

    2018-01-01

    Occipital spurs are quite common; however, they are also the source of frequent discomfort to the patients. Their role has been implicated in causation of pain at the base of skull, which may extend to shoulder limiting the movement of the shoulder and neck. The present was carried out to find out the prevalence of occipital spur in human skull and to find out the anatomic morphological characteristics of occipital spur. A total of 30 cadaveric skulls were examined in the Department of Anatomy, Uttar Pradesh University of Medical Sciences, for the presence of occipital spur. These skulls were the part of boneset obtained as a part of undergraduate training in the department. All the measurements were taken using a digital Vernier Caliper after taking all necessary precaution to avoid any damage to these spurs. The prevalence of occipital spur in the present study was 10%. The mean width recorded in the present study was 13.40 mm (±6.7) and the mean length recorded was 13.45 mm (±1.05). Similarly, mean thickness noted was 2.43 mm (±0.43). Thus, the present study concludes that occipital spurs are the frequent source of discomfort to patients. The knowledge of this tubercle is of paramount importance to neurosurgeons, sports physicians, and radiologists for the diagnosis of such discomfort.

  19. Nanobioceramic Composites: A Study of Mechanical, Morphological, and Thermal Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sivabalan Sasthiryar

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to explore the incorporation of biomass carbon nanofillers (CNF into advanced ceramic. Biomass from bamboo, bagasse (remains of sugarcane after pressing, and oil palm ash was used as the predecessor for producing carbon black nanofillers. Furnace pyrolysis was carried out at 1000 °C and was followed by ball-mill processing to obtain carbon nanofillers in the range of 50 nm to 100 nm. CNFs were added to alumina in varying weight fractions and the resulting mixture was subjected to vacuum sintering at 1400 °C to produce nanobioceramic composites. The ceramic composites were characterized for mechanical, thermal, and morphological properties. A high-resolution Charge-coupled device (CCD camera was used to study the fracture impact and the failure mechanism. An increase in the loading percentage of CNFs in the alumna decreased the specific gravity, vickers hardness (HV, and fracture toughness values of the composite materials. Furthermore, the thermal conductivity and the thermal stability of the ceramic composite increased as compared to the pristine alumina.

  20. Morphologic study of three collagen materials for body wall repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soiderer, Emily E; Lantz, Gary C; Kazacos, Evelyn A; Hodde, Jason P; Wiegand, Ryan E

    2004-05-15

    The search for ideal prostheses for body wall repair continues. Synthetic materials such as polypropylene mesh (PPM) are associated with healing complications. A porcine-derived collagen-based material (CBM), small intestinal submucosa (SIS), has been studied for body wall repair. Renal capsule matrix (RCM) and urinary bladder submucosa (UBS) are CBMs not previously evaluated in this application. This is the first implant study using RCM. Full-thickness muscle/fascia ventral abdominal wall defects were repaired with SIS, RCM, UBS, and PPM in rats with omentum and omentectomy. A random complete block design was used to allot implant type to each of 96 rats. Healing was evaluated at 4 and 8 weeks. Adhesion tenacity and surface area were scored. Implant site dimensions were measured at implantation and necropsy. Inflammation, vascularization, and fibrosis were histopathologically scored. Data were compared by analysis of variance (P response in contrast to the organized healing of CBM implants. CBM mean scores were lower than PPM scores for adhesion tenacity, surface area, and inflammation at each follow-up time for rats with omentums (P fibrotic response to PPM was unique and more intense compared to CBMs. These CBM implants appear morphologically acceptable and warrant continued investigation.

  1. Morphological and microstructural studies on aluminizing coating of carbon steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samsu, Zaifol; Othman, Norinsan Kamil; Daud, Abd Razak; Hussein, Hishammuddin [School of Applied Physics, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2013-11-27

    Hot dip aluminizing is one of the most effective methods of surface protection for steels and is gradually gaining popularity. The morphology and microstructure of an inter-metallic layer form on the surface of low carbon steel by hot dip aluminization treatment had been studied in detail. This effect has been investigated using optical and scanning electron microscopy, and X-ray diffraction. The result shows that the reaction between the steel and the molten aluminium leads to the formation of Fe–Al inter-metallic compounds on the steel surface. X-ray diffraction and electron microscopic studies showed that a two layer coating was formed consisting of an external Al layer and a (Fe{sub 2}Al{sub 5}) inter metallic on top of the substrate after hot dip aluminizing process. The inter-metallic layer is ‘thick’ and exhibits a finger-like growth into the steel. Microhardness testing shown that the intermetallic layer has high hardness followed by steel substrate and the lowest hardness was Al layer.

  2. A morphological study on the African genus Micralestes (Characidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pier Giorgio Bianco

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The study is based on the compared morphology of most of Micralestes nominal taxa, described from whole Africa, with particular attention to the dentition, meristics counts and, in several cases, the color pattern. Type materials and more than 1.500 additional specimens were analyzed. The genus is spread in sub-sahariana areas, and the Nile. Is absent in estern Africa and the southernmost area of South Africa. About 11 species were recognized. The most spread species are: M. humilis which is found from western Africa to the head water of River Sobat (White Nile basin, and the Congo basin, and M. elongatus which range from western Africa to the Nile Basin, but absent in central and southern Africa All others species have restricted ranges: M. occidentalis in basins of western Africa; M. woosmani, M. holargyreus, M. congicus, M. neglectus. M.ambiguous and M. schelly, are all endemic of Congo Basin. M. acutidens was found only in rivers of southern Africa and I did not found any specimens in the Congo basin which can be identified as this species. In Lake Rudolf exist a populations previously identified as M. acutidens which cannot be assigned to any known species and it should be considered as a new one.

  3. Morphological studies on block copolymer modified PA 6 blends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poindl, M., E-mail: marcus.poindl@ikt.uni-stuttgart.de, E-mail: christian.bonten@ikt.uni-stuttgart.de; Bonten, C., E-mail: marcus.poindl@ikt.uni-stuttgart.de, E-mail: christian.bonten@ikt.uni-stuttgart.de [Institut für Kunststofftechnik, University of Stuttgart (Germany)

    2014-05-15

    Recent studies show that compounding polyamide 6 (PA 6) with a PA 6 polyether block copolymers made by reaction injection molding (RIM) or continuous anionic polymerization in a reactive extrusion process (REX) result in blends with high impact strength and high stiffness compared to conventional rubber blends. In this paper, different high impact PA 6 blends were prepared using a twin screw extruder. The different impact modifiers were an ethylene propylene copolymer, a PA PA 6 polyether block copolymer made by reaction injection molding and one made by reactive extrusion. To ensure good particle matrix bonding, the ethylene propylene copolymer was grafted with maleic anhydride (EPR-g-MA). Due to the molecular structure of the two block copolymers, a coupling agent was not necessary. The block copolymers are semi-crystalline and partially cross-linked in contrast to commonly used amorphous rubbers which are usually uncured. The combination of different analysis methods like atomic force microscopy (AFM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) gave a detailed view in the structure of the blends. Due to the partial cross-linking, the particles of the block copolymers in the blends are not spherical like the ones of ethylene propylene copolymer. The differences in molecular structure, miscibility and grafting of the impact modifiers result in different mechanical properties and different blend morphologies.

  4. Studies on radiation induced morphological mutants in Sesamum orientale (L)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nayar, G.G.

    1970-01-01

    The agronomic characters of four X-ray induced morphological mutants in S. orientale L. viz. WFM, SSM isolated from var. T16 (back seeded) and SSM 2 and Chlo.mut.isolated from var. T10 (brown seeded) were studied. WFM, SSM and SSM 2 showed early sprouting and increased growth while the Chlo.mut. showed delayed germination and growth. The mean leaf size, plant height and number of branches were greater in WFM and SSM as compared to T16. The mean time of flowering was early in SSM and SSM 2 while it was late in WFM and the Chol.mut. as against their respective parents; the differences were significant. In mean yield of fruits per plant, WFM and SSM were superior to T16. A large scale trial has indicated that the seed yield in the mutants WFM, SSM and SSM 2 was slightly higher than their parents. WFM, SSM and SSM 2 showed an increase in oil content, the increase in SSM and SSM 2 being 6 to 10 percent. The quality of oil as indicated by colour and peroxide value (keeping quality) was also superior in WFM and SSM. The development of three flowers per node in SSM (otherwise solitary and axillary), two from modified nectary glands on either side of the leaf, provides some information on the phylogeny of the nectary glands and would appear to be of some economic significance. (author)

  5. Structural, morphological and electroluminescence studies of Zno:Co nanophosphor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Anju; Vishwakarma, H. L.

    2016-09-01

    The nanoparticles of zinc oxide (ZnO) doped with various concentrations of cobalt (Co) were synthesized by chemical precipitation method in the presence of capping agent polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP). The effect of doping concentration on structural and morphological properties has been studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). Cell volume, bond length, texture coefficient, lattice constants and dislocation density are also studied. Here, we also compared the interplaner spacing and relative peak intensities from their standard values with different angles. Crystallite sizes have been calculated by Debye-Scherrer's formula whose values are decreasing with increase in cobalt content up to 3 %. It has been seen that the growth orientation of the prepared ZnO nanorods was (101). The XRD analysis also ensures that ZnO has a hexagonal (wurtzite) crystal structure. The electroluminescence (EL) cells were prepared by placing pure and cobalt-doped ZnO nanoparticles between ITO-coated conducting glass plate and aluminium foil. Alternating voltage of various frequencies was applied, and EL brightness at different voltages was measured and corresponding current was also recorded. The voltage dependence of electroluminescence (EL) brightness of the ZnO:Co shows exponential increase. The linear voltage-current characteristic indicates ohmic nature. The EL brightness at a particular voltage is found to increase by increasing Co doping, but for higher percentage of Co the EL brightness is reduced. It is also seen that Co does not influence the threshold voltage. The brightness is also affected by increasing the frequency of AC signal.

  6. STUDIES ON SOME MORPHOLOGICAL CHARACTERS IN BIGHEAD CARP FRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ELENA CIORNEA

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The present paper investigates some morphological characters (total length, standard bodily length, head length, maxim height and bodily circumference in representatives of bighead carp (Aristichthys nobilis occurring in their first growing summer. Biometric analyses were performed on 100 individuals, in the end the morphological characters under investigations being statistically processed. Explanation of the experimental results evidences low values of the standard error of the mean, which is indicative of a grouping of all external bodily variables under investigation close to the average value.

  7. Collagenous gastritis: a morphologic and immunohistochemical study of 40 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnason, Thomas; Brown, Ian S; Goldsmith, Jeffrey D; Anderson, William; O'Brien, Blake H; Wilson, Claire; Winter, Harland; Lauwers, Gregory Y

    2015-04-01

    Collagenous gastritis is a rare condition defined histologically by a superficial subepithelial collagen layer. This study further characterizes the morphologic spectrum of collagenous gastritis by evaluating a multi-institutional series of 40 patients (26 female and 14 male). The median age at onset was 16 years (range 3-89 years), including 24 patients (60%) under age 18. Twelve patients (30%) had associated celiac disease, collagenous sprue, or collagenous colitis. Hematoxylin and eosin slides were reviewed in biopsies from all patients and tenascin, gastrin, eotaxin, and IgG4/IgG immunohistochemical stains were applied to a subset. The distribution of subepithelial collagen favored the body/fundus in pediatric patients and the antrum in adults. There were increased surface intraepithelial lymphocytes (>25 lymphocytes/100 epithelial cells) in five patients. Three of these patients had associated celiac and/or collagenous sprue/colitis, while the remaining two had increased duodenal lymphocytosis without specific etiology. An eosinophil-rich pattern (>30 eosinophils/high power field) was seen in 21/40 (52%) patients. Seven patients' biopsies demonstrated atrophy of the gastric corpus mucosa. Tenascin immunohistochemistry highlighted the subepithelial collagen in all 21 specimens evaluated and was a more sensitive method of collagen detection in biopsies from two patients with subtle subepithelial collagen. No increased eotaxin expression was identified in 16 specimens evaluated. One of the twenty-three biopsies tested had increased IgG4-positive cells (100/high power field) with an IgG4/IgG ratio of 55%. In summary, collagenous gastritis presents three distinct histologic patterns including a lymphocytic gastritis-like pattern, an eosinophil-rich pattern, and an atrophic pattern. Eotaxin and IgG4 were not elevated enough to implicate these pathways in the pathogenesis. Tenascin immunohistochemistry can be used as a sensitive method of collagen detection.

  8. Studies on the morphology and compatibility between Schistosoma ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A description is given of the morphological variation of the shell, the radula features and the copulatory organ of Bulinus sp. (2n=36) from four populations in the western Cameroon crater lakes. To assess the role of diploid snails belonging to the Bulinus natalensis/tropicus complex in the transmission of urinary ...

  9. A study on the anatomical morphology of the minor fissure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Hyeong Gon; Kim, Hyung Jin; You, Jin Jong; Ahn, In Oak; Chung, Sung Hoon

    1993-01-01

    The minor fissure is an important anatomical landmark in the localization of the pulmonary disease. For the evaluation of the normal feature of the minor fissure, we analyzed the high-resolution computed tomography (CT) scans in 51 normal patients. The purpose of this study are to evaluate the normal appearance of the minor fissure on high-resolution CT scans and to compare it with that on the conventional CT and radiographys. We analyzed the morphologic feature of the minor fissure on the high-resolution CT scans in 51 normal patients, and compared it with that on the conventional CT scans. On the high-resolution CT scans, we particularly paid attention to the completeness and types according to Berkmen classification. And finally, we compared the types determined by the high-resolution CT scans with those by the plain radiographys. In most patients (n=47), the minor fissure was seen as a hyperattenuating line or band on the high resolution CT scans. In contrast, it was mostly seen as a lucent zone on the conventional CT scans (n=44). Of 47 patient having a hyperattenuating line or band on the high-resolution CT scans, the minor fissure was considered to be complete in 17 patients (36%), and incomplete in 30 patients (64%), who had a defeat at medial portion of the minor fissure. The most common type of the minor fissure seen on the high-resolution CT scans was type I variety (n=23), followed by tape IIa (n=8). We could not determined the type in six patients. The type determined by the high-resolution CT scans was highly well correlated with that determined by the plain radiographys (p<0.05). In conclusion, the minor fissure was seen CT studies as variable appearances and high-resolution CT scans were superior to the conventional CT scans in the evaluation of the minor fissure. The types of the minor fissure determined by the high-resolution CT scans were well correlated with those seen on the radiographys

  10. The utricular otoliths, lapilli, of teleosts: their morphology and relevance for species identification and systematics studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos A. Assis

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study describes the general morphology of the utricular otoliths, lapilli, of teleost fishes, proposes a terminology for their parts, identifies their two major morphological types, provides some examples of their use in species identification, and discusses their usefulness in studies of fish phylogeny and systematics.

  11. Morphological study of silver corrosion in highly aggressive sulfur environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Minzari, Daniel; Jellesen, Morten Stendahl; Møller, Per

    2011-01-01

    A silicone coated power module, having silver conducting lines, showed severe corrosion, after prolonged use as part of an electronic device in a pig farm environment, where sulfur containing corrosive gasses are known to exist in high amounts. Permeation of sulfur gasses and humidity through...... the silicone coating to the interface has resulted in three corrosion types namely: uniform corrosion, conductive anodic filament type of Ag2S growth, and silver migration with subsequent formation of sulfur compounds. Detailed morphological investigation of new and corroded power modules was carried out...

  12. Study of the morphology exhibited by linear segmented polyurethanes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, I.M.; Orefice, R.L.

    2009-01-01

    Five series of segmented polyurethanes with different hard segment content were prepared by the prepolymer mixing method. The nano-morphology of the obtained polyurethanes and their microphase separation were investigated by infrared spectroscopy, modulated differential scanning calorimetry and small-angle X-ray scattering. Although highly hydrogen bonded hard segments were formed, high hard segment contents promoted phase mixture and decreased the chain mobility, decreasing the hard segment domain precipitation and the soft segments crystallization. The applied techniques were able to show that the hard-segment content and the hard-segment interactions were the two controlling factors for determining the structure of segmented polyurethanes. (author)

  13. Light-emitting dendrimer film morphology: A neutron reflectivity study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vickers, S. V.; Barcena, H.; Knights, K. A.; Thomas, R. K.; Ribierre, J.-C.; Gambino, S.; Samuel, I. D. W.; Burn, P. L.; Fragneto, Giovanna

    2010-06-01

    We have used neutron reflectivity (NR) measurements to probe the physical structure of phosphorescent dendrimer films. The dendrimers consisted of fac-tris(2-phenylpyridyl)iridium(III) cores, biphenyl-based dendrons (first or second generation), and perdeuterated 2-ethylhexyloxy surface groups. We found that the shape and hydrodynamic radius of the dendrimer were both important factors in determining the packing density of the dendrimers. "Cone" shaped dendrimers were found to pack more effectively than "spherical" dendrimers even when the latter had a smaller radius. The morphology of the films determined by NR was consistent with the measured photoluminescence and charge transporting properties of the materials.

  14. The Role of Phonological versus Morphological Skills in the Development of Arabic Spelling: An Intervention Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taha, Haitham; Saiegh-Haddad, Elinor

    2016-01-01

    The current study investigated the contribution of two linguistic intervention programs, phonological and morphological to the development of word spelling among skilled and poor native Arabic readers, in three grades: second, fourth and sixth. The participants were assigned to three experimental groups: morphological intervention, phonological…

  15. Morphological study of tooth development in podoplanin-deficient mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenyo Takara

    Full Text Available Podoplanin is a mucin-type highly O-glycosylated glycoprotein identified in several somatyic cells: podocytes, alveolar epithelial cells, lymphatic endothelial cells, lymph node stromal fibroblastic reticular cells, osteocytes, odontoblasts, mesothelial cells, glia cells, and others. It has been reported that podoplanin-RhoA interaction induces cytoskeleton relaxation and cell process stretching in fibroblastic cells and osteocytes, and that podoplanin plays a critical role in type I alveolar cell differentiation. It appears that podoplanin plays a number of different roles in contributing to cell functioning and growth by signaling. However, little is known about the functions of podoplanin in the somatic cells of the adult organism because an absence of podoplanin is lethal at birth by the respiratory failure. In this report, we investigated the tooth germ development in podoplanin-knockout mice, and the dentin formation in podoplanin-conditional knockout mice having neural crest-derived cells with deficiency in podoplanin by the Wnt1 promoter and enhancer-driven Cre recombinase: Wnt1-Cre;PdpnΔ/Δmice. In the Wnt1-Cre;PdpnΔ/Δmice, the tooth and alveolar bone showed no morphological abnormalities and grow normally, indicating that podoplanin is not critical in the development of the tooth and bone.

  16. Morphological study of tooth development in podoplanin-deficient mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takara, Kenyo; Maruo, Naoki; Oka, Kyoko; Kaji, Chiaki; Hatakeyama, Yuji; Sawa, Naruhiko; Kato, Yukinari; Yamashita, Junro; Kojima, Hiroshi; Sawa, Yoshihiko

    2017-01-01

    Podoplanin is a mucin-type highly O-glycosylated glycoprotein identified in several somatyic cells: podocytes, alveolar epithelial cells, lymphatic endothelial cells, lymph node stromal fibroblastic reticular cells, osteocytes, odontoblasts, mesothelial cells, glia cells, and others. It has been reported that podoplanin-RhoA interaction induces cytoskeleton relaxation and cell process stretching in fibroblastic cells and osteocytes, and that podoplanin plays a critical role in type I alveolar cell differentiation. It appears that podoplanin plays a number of different roles in contributing to cell functioning and growth by signaling. However, little is known about the functions of podoplanin in the somatic cells of the adult organism because an absence of podoplanin is lethal at birth by the respiratory failure. In this report, we investigated the tooth germ development in podoplanin-knockout mice, and the dentin formation in podoplanin-conditional knockout mice having neural crest-derived cells with deficiency in podoplanin by the Wnt1 promoter and enhancer-driven Cre recombinase: Wnt1-Cre;PdpnΔ/Δmice. In the Wnt1-Cre;PdpnΔ/Δmice, the tooth and alveolar bone showed no morphological abnormalities and grow normally, indicating that podoplanin is not critical in the development of the tooth and bone.

  17. Artificial biomembrane morphology: a dissipative particle dynamics study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becton, Matthew; Averett, Rodney; Wang, Xianqiao

    2017-09-18

    Artificial membranes mimicking biological structures are rapidly breaking new ground in the areas of medicine and soft-matter physics. In this endeavor, we use dissipative particle dynamics simulation to investigate the morphology and behavior of lipid-based biomembranes under conditions of varied lipid density and self-interaction. Our results show that a less-than-normal initial lipid density does not create the traditional membrane; but instead results in the formation of a 'net', or at very low densities, a series of disparate 'clumps' similar to the micelles formed by lipids in nature. When the initial lipid density is high, a membrane forms, but due to the large number of lipids, the naturally formed membrane would be larger than the simulation box, leading to 'rippling' behavior as the excess repulsive force of the membrane interior overcomes the bending energy of the membrane. Once the density reaches a certain point however, 'bubbles' appear inside the membrane, reducing the rippling behavior and eventually generating a relatively flat, but thick, structure with micelles of water inside the membrane itself. Our simulations also demonstrate that the interaction parameter between individual lipids plays a significant role in the formation and behavior of lipid membrane assemblies, creating similar structures as the initial lipid density distribution. This work provides a comprehensive approach to the intricacies of lipid membranes, and offers a guideline to design biological or polymeric membranes through self-assembly processes as well as develop novel cellular manipulation and destruction techniques.

  18. The effect of morphology on spelling and reading accuracy: a study on Italian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelelli, Paola; Marinelli, Chiara Valeria; Burani, Cristina

    2014-01-01

    In opaque orthographies knowledge of morphological information helps in achieving reading and spelling accuracy. In transparent orthographies with regular print-to-sound correspondences, such as Italian, the mappings of orthography onto phonology and phonology onto orthography are in principle sufficient to read and spell most words. The present study aimed to investigate the role of morphology in the reading and spelling accuracy of Italian children as a function of school experience to determine whether morphological facilitation was present in children learning a transparent orthography. The reading and spelling performances of 15 third-grade and 15 fifth-grade typically developing children were analyzed. Children read aloud and spelled both low-frequency words and pseudowords. Low-frequency words were manipulated for the presence of morphological structure (morphemic words vs. non-derived words). Morphemic words could also vary for the frequency (high vs. low) of roots and suffixes. Pseudo-words were made up of either a real root and a real derivational suffix in a combination that does not exist in the Italian language or had no morphological constituents. Results showed that, in Italian, morphological information is a useful resource for both reading and spelling. Typically developing children benefitted from the presence of morphological structure when they read and spelled pseudowords; however, in processing low-frequency words, morphology facilitated reading but not spelling. These findings are discussed in terms of morpho-lexical access and successful cooperation between lexical and sublexical processes in reading and spelling.

  19. The effect of morphology on spelling and reading accuracy: A study on Italian children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola eAngelelli

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In opaque orthographies knowledge of morphological information helps in achieving reading and spelling accuracy. In transparent orthographies with regular print-to-sound correspondences, such as Italian, the mappings of orthography onto phonology and phonology onto orthography are in principle sufficient to read and spell most words. The present study aimed to investigate the role of morphology in the reading and spelling accuracy of Italian children as a function of school experience to determine whether morphological facilitation was present in children learning a transparent orthography. The reading and spelling performances of 15 third-grade and 15 fifth-grade typically developing children were analyzed. Children read aloud and spelled both low-frequency words and pseudowords. Low-frequency words were manipulated for the presence of morphological structure (morphemic words vs non-derived words. Morphemic words could also vary for the frequency (high vs low of roots and suffixes. Pseudo-words were made up of either a real root and a real derivational suffix in a combination that does not exist in the Italian language or had no morphological constituents. Results showed that, in Italian, morphological information is a useful resource for both reading and spelling. Typically developing children benefitted from the presence of morphological structure when they read and spelled pseudowords; however, in processing low-frequency words, morphology facilitated reading but not spelling. These findings are discussed in terms of morpho-lexical access and successful cooperation between lexical and sublexical processes in reading and spelling.

  20. Ultrasound Assessment of Umbilical Cord Morphology in the First Trimester: A Feasibility Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Narayan, Rajit; Saaid, Rahmah; Pedersen, Lars Henning

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to determine whether morphology and measurement of the umbilical cord could be accurately assessed at the time of the 11- to 13+6-week scan. Methods: We conducted a prospective study of 100 consecutive women with singleton pregnancies at 11-13+6 weeks' gestation...... be consistently studied in the first trimester. A subjective method of evaluation of the morphology may be a more reproducible technique until measurement strategies are refined and operator experience developed....

  1. Study of the morphology exhibited by linear segmented polyurethanes during shape memory cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, I.M.; Orefice, R.L.

    2009-01-01

    By using small-angle X-ray, this study aims to identify the role of the morphological structures of linear segmented thermoplastic polyurethane during shape memory cycle. A deformed specimen was placed on a heating stage mounted at the beamline; the shape recovery was measured during 20min. Furthermore, to study the influence of the temperature during recover, the specimens were subjected to different thermo-cycle. In each condition, the phase morphology and composition were investigated. Recovery process was separated into three stages. Bulk incompatibility and entropic recovery were the two controlling features for determining the final polyurethane morphology. (author)

  2. Morphological and interlayer geochemical studies on manganese nodules from the southwestern Carlsberg ridge

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Valsangkar, A.B.; Rajamanickam, G.V.; Karisiddaiah, S.M.; Siddiquie, H.N.

    Mixed facies of manganese nodules from the southwestern Carlberg Ridge have been analysed for Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Co and Zn. Seventy one analyses including the averages presented for outer layer, inner layer and near-core material. Morphological studies...

  3. Spelling and Morphology in Dyslexia: A Developmental Study Across the School Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiff, Rachel; Levie, Ronit

    2017-11-01

    The current study examined the effect of morphological knowledge on spelling development in Hebrew-speaking schoolchildren, adolescents and adults with dyslexia, compared with typically developing (TD) peers. Participants were 238 Hebrew-speaking readers of five grade levels of whom 139 were TD and 99 had developmental dyslexia (DD). Participants were tested on a function letter spelling task, a phonological awareness task and a morphological awareness task. The overall picture that emerged from the results is that performance on all measures increased with grade level, with TD participants always scoring higher than peers with DD. Moreover, the higher the morphological complexity in spelling and irregularity in noun inflection, the higher the differences between the DD and TD participants. Finally, performance on the morphological awareness task contributed to spelling morphologically more complex spelling items in the TD, but not in the DD group. From clinical and educational perspectives, these results strongly suggest that rigorous morphological instruction is necessary in teaching children and adolescents with dyslexia to identify and use morphological cues in spoken and written Hebrew. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. MORPHOLOGICAL AND ANATOMICAL STUDY ON ENDEMIC CROCUS OLIVIERI GAY SUBSP. ISTANBULENSIS MATHEW SUBSPECIES (IRIDACEAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadriye Yetişen

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, morphological and anatomical properties of Crocus olivieri Gay subsp. istanbulensis Mathew were investigated. Cross-sections of root, scape and leaf parts of the plant were examined anddemonstrated by photographs. Most of the anatomical properties are similar to the other member of Iridaceae family. Sclerenchyma groups were observed around to leaf vascular bundle. Morphological and anatomical findings compared with other two subspecies of Crocus olivieri.

  5. Placental morphology at different maternal hemoglobin levels: a histopathological study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiran, N.; Zubair, A.; Malik, T.M.

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the histopathological parameters of the placenta like weight, infarct and syncytial knots, at different maternal hemoglobin levels, in both qualitative and quantitative manner. Study design: Descriptive study Place and Duration of Study: Army Medical College, National University of Sciences and Technology in collaboration with Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Military Hospital, Rawalpindi, Pakistan, from December 2011 to November 2012. Patients and Methods: A total of 75 placentas were included, that were collected from full term mothers at the time of childbirth. Placental weight was taken without umbilical cord and gross placental infarcts were noted. Samples of placental tissue were taken and stained by haematoxylin and eosin (H and E). Microscopic study was done to evaluate placental infarcts and syncytial knots. Results: Mean placental weight at normal and low maternal hemoglobin was 581.67 ± 83.97g and 482.58 ± 104.74g respectively. Gross placental infarcts were found in all cases having low maternal hemoglobin concentration (60% cases). Syncytial knots were found in all placentas but they were considerably more at decreasing levels of maternal hemoglobin (19.79 ± 5.22). Conclusion: The present study showed decrease in placental weight, increase in placental infarcts and syncytial knot hyperplasia at low maternal hemoglobin concentration, displaying adaptive alterations. (author)

  6. Morphologic study of the maxillary molars. Part II: Internal anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pécora, J D; Woelfel, J B; Sousa Neto, M D; Issa, E P

    1992-01-01

    The internal anatomy of three hundred and seventy (370) decalcified and cleared human maxillary molars was studied. Seventy-five percent of the first molars, 58% of the second molars and 68% of the third molars studied presented three (3) root canals and 25% of the first molars, 42% of the second molars and 32% of the third molars presented four (4) root canals. The authors observed that the incidence of two root canals in the mesiobuccal root was higher in second maxillary molars than in first maxillary molars.

  7. Morphology study of polyamide 6/bentonite clay nanocomposites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paz, Rene A.; Araujo, Edcleide M.; Melo, Tomas J.A.; Leite, Amanda M.D.; Medeiros, Vanessa Nobrega; Pessan, Luiz A.; Passador, Fabio R.

    2011-01-01

    Polymer/clay nanocomposites have had much attention in recent years, especially those developed with layered silicates, due to the need for engineering materials more efficient than pure polymers for certain applications. The level of exfoliation of layered silicates in the crystalline structure of polymer matrices has been studied and it has been observed that it affects the behavior of crystalline and therefore the mechanical and physical properties. In this study, polyamide 6 nanocomposites were obtained by the melt intercalation technique, using regional bentonite clay modified with a quaternary ammonium salt in an amount of 3% by weight. XRD and TEM tests showed obtaining nanocomposites with exfoliated structures (author)

  8. Morphology and conductivity studies of a new solid polymer ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... formation of the polymer–salt complex. The samples with higher salt concentration are softer, less opaque and less smooth compared to the low salt concentration samples. DSC studies show an increase in the glass transition temperature and a decrease in the degree of crystallinity with increase in the salt concentration.

  9. Morphological study of the uncommon rectus sterni muscle in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: The present investigation has been designed to study the incidence of the rectus stern muscle in German human cadavers dissected in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, trying to find a postulation for the development of such muscle when present. Design: Gross dissection of 130 cadavers, of both sexes, was ...

  10. Morphological and molecular based diversity studies of some ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is an important food crop in many tropical countries in Africa, South America and Asia. However, yields are below the productivity of the crop. This requires breeding and selection for improved varieties. The current study therefore investigated genetic diversity among some Ghanaian ...

  11. Morphological studies on rumen development in West African Dwarf ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We studied the gross and light microscopic structures of rumen in fetal, neonatal and adult West African Dwarf (WAD) goats obtained from Nsukka and Igboeze South Local Government Areas (L.G.A) of Enugu State. After euthanasia the rumen was ligated, dissected out and the volume determined by flotation and ...

  12. Morphological Studies Of Vomeronasal Organ In The Wild Juvenile ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The vomeronasal organ (VNO) of the juvenile Red-flanked duiker (Cephalophus rufilatus) weighingbetween 0814 kg was studied by gross dissection and light mcroscopy. The organ was found to be present at the base of the nasal septum completely housed by the vomeronasal cartilage, but the various soft tissue ...

  13. Grinding, Machining Morphological Studies on C/SiC Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Chun-fang; Han, Bing

    2018-05-01

    C/SiC composite is a typical material difficult to machine. It is hard and brittle. In machining, the cutting force is large, the material removal rate is low, the edge is prone to collapse, and the tool wear is serious. In this paper, the grinding of C/Si composites material along the direction of fiber distribution is studied respectively. The surface microstructure and mechanical properties of C/SiC composites processed by ultrasonic machining were evaluated. The change of surface quality with the change of processing parameters has also been studied. By comparing the performances of conventional grinding and ultrasonic grinding, the surface roughness and functional characteristics of the material can be improved by optimizing the processing parameters.

  14. Study on the morphology of Pb-Sn eutectics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambrozio Filho, F.; Gentile, E.F.

    1976-01-01

    The influence of factors such as rate of growth of the solid phase, thermal gradient in the liquid and presence of impurities on the solidification of eutectic structures is studied. To emphasize certain aspects of the basic concept, the technique of unidirectional cooling was used in a specially constructed apparatus. Micrographs of the structure obtained with the eutectic Pb-Sn alloy are shown and a purely qualitative analysis of the factors described is given [pt

  15. Structural and morphological studies of ZnO: F films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tirado G, S.; Sanchez C, A.; Maldonado, A.

    2004-01-01

    Semiconductor thin films Zn O and F doped, using the chemical spray technique has been pre- pared, starting from pentanedionate and zinc acetate and ammonium fluorine in ethanol and methanol for a solution at 0.25%. The concentration [F]/[Zn] and the substrate temperature have been changed. From the X-rays diffraction and scanning electron microscopy techniques, the electrical, optical and chemical stability properties for the layers were studied. Size, geometry, and the grain orientation, distribution and the roughness effect in the light trapping were discussed. (Author)

  16. Gestational diabetes insipidus: a morphological study of the placenta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castiglione, F; Buccoliero, A M; Garbini, F; Gheri, C F; Moncini, D; Poggi, G; Saladino, V; Rossi Degl'Innocenti, D; Gheri, R G; Taddei, G L

    2009-12-01

    Gestational diabetes insipidus (GDI) refers to the state of excessive water intake and hypotonic polyuria. Those cases manifesting in pregnancy and referred to as GDI may persist thereafter or may be a transient latent form that resolves after delivery. Microscopic examination of affected subjects has not been previously reported. In the literature, there are various case reports and case series on diabetes insipidus in pregnancy. In this study, we present a case that had transient diabetes insipidus during pregnancy in which the placenta was examined.

  17. The preparation of native livers for morphological studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, J; Ottman, D M; Eichmann, T J

    1994-09-01

    We describe experiences with a perfusion fixation apparatus that was used for studies on approximately 500 native livers. Immediately after excision of the specimen, small samples from needle biopsy specimens are obtained for snap-freezing and the remaining portions of the specimens are fixed and embedded in paraffin. In the laboratory, the portal vein and, if possible, the hepatic artery or common hepatic duct are then cannulated and the livers are perfused for 3 days with Kaiserling's solution. An electric pump drives the perfusion apparatus and allows the formalin to cascade through stacked plastic containers, with the specimens attached to the inflow nozzles for the fixative. Eight or more livers (or other organs and specimens) can be accommodated simultaneously. Angiograms or cholangiograms can be prepared before or after fixation; we prefer the latter. The livers are then sliced with an extra-long knife, which minimizes cutting marks. Most preparations are thoroughly fixed and yield excellent specimens, not only for routine microscopic study but also for special methods such as scanning electron microscopy and trace metal analysis. The liver slices can be stored indefinitely, which allows long-range collection for routine review or research purposes. In approximately 5% of the cases, specimens cannot be perfused properly and thus are unsuitable for this type of preparation. With autopsy specimens this percentage is higher, probably because of postmortem clotting. Gravity perfusion of the livers before placement into the apparatus generally enables identification of specimens with incomplete filling of the vasculature.

  18. Morphological and electrical study of gold ultrathin films on mica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bahamondes, S.; Donoso, S. [Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencias Físicas y Matemáticas, Universidad de Chile, Av. Blanco Encalada 2008, Santiago (Chile); Henríquez, R. [Departamento de Física, Universidad Técnica Federico Santa María, Av. España 1680, Valparaíso (Chile); Flores, M., E-mail: mflorescarra@ing.uchile.cl [Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencias Físicas y Matemáticas, Universidad de Chile, Av. Blanco Encalada 2008, Santiago (Chile)

    2013-12-02

    We present a topographical study of the formation of thin films of gold on muscovite mica. The characterization of the samples was done with scanning tunneling microscopy, atomic force microscopy as well as electric measurements. We performed our study on two groups of samples: first group of samples, evaporated at room temperature for thickness ranging from 1.5 up to 97 nm; second group of samples, for two different thicknesses of 3 nm and 50 nm evaporated at different substrate temperatures, between 110 and 530 K. The gold films show a Volmer–Weber growth. The complete films are obtained from samples with a nominal thickness of 8 nm deposited. The average grain diameter is constant, with nominal thicknesses of 18.5 nm, up to 8 nm and increases with the thickness for higher deposition. The average grain diameter is similar regardless of the temperature of the substrate for samples of 3 nm thickness, but changes for samples of 50 nm thickness. The resistivity is inversely dependent on nominal thickness and the mean free path is lineally dependent on nominal thickness. - Highlights: • We have grown thin gold films onto mica at different substrate temperatures. • We identified a continuous film at nominal thickness of 8 nm. • The grain size shows a direct dependence on the nominal film thickness. • The electron mean free path, at 4 K, is linearly dependent on nominal thickness.

  19. Effect of Hydrogen and Carbamide Peroxide in Bleaching, Enamel Morphology, and Mineral Composition: In vitro Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llena, Carmen; Esteve, Irene; Forner, Leopoldo

    2017-07-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the bleaching effect, morphological changes, and variations in calcium (Ca) and phosphate (P) in the enamel with hydrogen peroxide (HP) and carbamide peroxide (CP) after the use of different application regimens. Four groups of five teeth were randomly assigned, according to the treatment protocol: HP 37.5% applied for 30 or 60 minutes (HP30, HP60), CP 16% applied for 14 or 28 hours (CP14, CP28). Changes in dental color were evaluated, according to the following formula: ΔE = [(L a -L b ) 2 +(a a -a b ) 2 + (b a -b b ) 2 ] 1/2 . Enamel morphology and Ca and P compositions were evaluated by confocal laser scanning microscope and environmental scanning electron microscopy. ΔE HP30 was significantly greater than CP14 (10.37 ± 2.65/8.56 ± 1.40), but not between HP60 and CP28. HP60 shows greater morphological changes than HP30. No morphological changes were observed in the groups treated with CP. The reduction in Ca and P was significantly greater in HP60 than in CP28 (p tooth color; HP produced morphological changes and Ca and P a gradual decrease, while CP produced no morphological changes, and the decrease in mineral component was smaller. CP 16% applied during 2 weeks could be equally effective and safer for tooth whitening than to administer two treatment sessions with HP 37.5%.

  20. The ageing kidney: biochemical and morphological study after irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franciolini, F.; Becciolini, A.; Torcini, G.; Lanini, A.

    1982-01-01

    The behaviour of some activities of the kidney was studied both in young-adult and in adult rats exposed to an 8-Gy dose of γ-rays and killed at various intervals after irradiation (both in the morning and in the evening). Brush border and lysosomal enzymes did not show marked differences among control rats of the same age even if adult animals showed levels of maltase, alkaline phosphatase and LAP activities higher than the young-adult group. Moreover, irradiation did not induce typical modifications of the same enzyme activities in young-adult and adult rats. Adult animals showed a reduction in the brush border enzyme activities at 120 hours after irradiation while, at the same interval, lysosomal activities underwent an increase both in young and in adult animals. (orig.) [de

  1. Clinical studies of renal morphological changes with aging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosokawa, Shin-ichi; Kawamura, Juichi; Tomoyoshi, Tadao; Yoshida, Osamu

    1980-01-01

    We studied the change of renal shape due to development and aging by using sup(99m)Tc-DMSA renal scintigraphy. In pediatric age group, the angle between renal longitudinal axis and the lumbar vertebrae is small but becomes larger with aging. The renal size grows with aging in the adult age group, and becomes largest. In geriatric age group it decreases with aging. The stability of renal position is marked in the adult age group, but in the pediatric and geriatric age group it seemed unstable. Renal contour is smooth in the pediatric and adult age group but unsmooth in the geriatric. sup(99m)Tc-DMSA renal image shows diffusely homogeneous renal uptake in the pediatric and adult age groups but not homogeneous in the geriatric. (author)

  2. Systematic study of influence of growth parameters on island morphology during molecular beam epitaxy growth: A Monte Carlo study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shankar Prasad Shrestha; Park, C.-Y.

    2006-05-01

    We have made a systematic study of influence of diffusion flux ratio (D/F), diffusional anisotropy (DA) and sticking anisotropy (SA) on island morphology to show the influence of each growth parameter on island morphology in presence of the other growth parameters. Our results show that the influence of D/F ratio and DA on island morphology depends on the sticking anisotropy of the adatoms. At the intermediate anisotropic case, increase in D/F ratio results in transition of the island morphology from 1d nature to 2 d nature. In anisotropic diffusion case, D/F ratio can change the growth direction of the island morphology. We also find that only sticking anisotropy is not sufficient to produce elongated islands, low D/F ratio is also essential. (author)

  3. Morphological study of the solar granulation. Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawaguchi, I.

    1980-01-01

    A time sequence of granulation images of 46 min long has allowed us to make a detailed study of the evolution of granules in an area of approximately 17 x 17 on the solar surface; It is found that the granules evolve by repeated fragmentation into smaller granules or merging with adjacent ones and that there are few granules which appear in the intergranular lanes as new granules (Table III). The statistical nature of granules is as follows: (1) A family of granules is defined as a group of granules produced from a single granule by fragmentation or merging. The lifetime is estimated for single granules and for families of granules. The lifetime shows a close correlation with the maximum size of a single granule or with that of the largest granule belonging to a family (Figures 5 and 7). (2) The smaller the size, the more probably a granule will disappear without further fragmentation or merging. The granule whose size is larger than 2 will certainly split or merge as the next evolutional step (Table IV.). (orig.)

  4. Morphological changes of the epiglottis with aging: A radiological study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin, Bong Joon; Sim, Joong Seop; Yoon, Sei Chul; Ahn, Kwan Shik; Bahk, Yong Whee

    1983-01-01

    In man the epiglottis is a thin lamella of a yellow elastic cartilage. The upper part is free and is known as leaf and lower part participates in the formation of the anterior wall of the vestibule of the larynx. The ipithelial covering extends forward onto the base of the tongue over the medial glossoepiglottic folds. The sides of epiglottis are connected with the cartilages of Wrisberg and arytenoid cartilage by the aryepiglottic fold. In view of these anatomical complexities, the function and physiology of the epiglottis have been debated since Magendi (1815), who proposed the theory that the epiglottis acts as a flap valve to prevent food entering the windpipe, and who found that he could remove the free part of the epiglottis in dog without spoilling the dog. Following the introduction of laryngoscopy (Gracia, 1815; Liston, 1840; Czermark; 1861) and modern cineradiographic equipment in 1950's, the anatomy and physiology of epiglottis has become much clearer age as it is seen on the lateral x-ray of the neck. In the present study we have made an attempt to systematically analyze aging changes of the epiglottis in the lateral x-ray of the neck in 245 healthy adults. The age ranged from 16 to 65 years old. Based on our observation the epiglottis was classified into type A, B and C according to their curvatures. Thus, type A represented those with posterior curvature, type B those with straight epiglottis and type C anterior curvature. Type C was subdivided into I, II and III according to the degree of curvature. Thus, type C-I, C-II and C-III represented mild, moderate and marked anterior curvature, respectively. Type A epiglottis was found in the second, third and fourth decades and type C-III in the older age group. Type A was least common and type C most prevalent. It seems that the epiglottis inclines anteriorly with backward curvature with age (p<0.0001)

  5. Imageability and Transparency in Morphological Awareness: A Study of How Third-Grade Children Made Lemonade from Lemon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolter, Julie A.

    2014-01-01

    Morphological awareness has been established as important to literacy success, and as such, it is critical to study factors affecting children's performance on measures of this skill. Morphological transparency, or the clarity of the sound and letter pattern relationship between base words and their associated morphological forms, has been found…

  6. The acquisition of interlanguage morphology : a study into the role of morphology in the L2 learner's mental lexicon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lowie, Wander Marius

    1998-01-01

    Introduction 1.1 Morphology and second language learning If Dutch learners of English encounter a word like undoable, they may recognise it because they have seen it before and have remembered it. They may also fail to recognise it and guess the meaning of the word on the basis of the context. A

  7. In-depth morphological study of mesiobuccal root canal systems in maxillary first molars: review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seok-Woo Chang

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available A common failure in endodontic treatment of the permanent maxillary first molars is likely to be caused by an inability to locate, clean, and obturate the second mesiobuccal (MB canals. Because of the importance of knowledge on these additional canals, there have been numerous studies which investigated the maxillary first molar MB root canal morphology using in vivo and laboratory methods. In this article, the protocols, advantages and disadvantages of various methodologies for in-depth study of maxillary first molar MB root canal morphology were discussed. Furthermore, newly identified configuration types for the establishment of new classification system were suggested based on two image reformatting techniques of micro-computed tomography, which can be useful as a further 'Gold Standard' method for in-depth morphological study of complex root canal systems.

  8. The Role of Phonological versus Morphological Skills in the Development of Arabic Spelling: An Intervention Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taha, Haitham; Saiegh-Haddad, Elinor

    2016-06-01

    The current study investigated the contribution of two linguistic intervention programs, phonological and morphological to the development of word spelling among skilled and poor native Arabic readers, in three grades: second, fourth and sixth. The participants were assigned to three experimental groups: morphological intervention, phonological intervention and a non-intervention control group. Phonological awareness, morphological awareness, and spelling abilities were tested before and after the intervention. Participants from both linguistic intervention programs and in all grades made significant progress in linguistic awareness and spelling after the intervention. The results showed that both intervention programs were successful in promoting children's spelling skills in both groups. Also, older poor readers showed a stronger response to the morphological intervention than the older skilled readers. A transfer effect was found with the phonological training contributing to the morphological skills and vice versa. The results of the current study were discussed in the light of developmental and psycholinguistic views of spelling acquisition as well as the characteristics of Arabic language and orthography.

  9. Parallel computational and experimental studies of the morphological modification of calcium carbonate by cobalt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braybrook, A. L.; Heywood, B. R.; Jackson, R. A.; Pitt, K.

    2002-08-01

    Crystal growth can be controlled by the incorporation of dopant ions into the lattice and yet the question of how such substituents affect the morphology has not been addressed. This paper describes the forms of calcite (CaCO 3) which arise when the growth assay is doped with cobalt. Distinct and specific morphological changes are observed; the calcite crystals adopt a morphology which is dominated by the {01.1} family of faces. These experimental studies paralleled the development of computational methods for the analysis of crystal habit as a function of dopant concentration. In this case, the predicted defect morphology also argued for the dominance of the (01.1) face in the growth form. The appearance of this face was related to the preferential segregation of the dopant ions to the crystal surface. This study confirms the evolution of a robust computational model for the analysis of calcite growth forms under a range of environmental conditions and presages the use of such tools for the predictive development of crystal morphologies in those applications where chemico-physical functionality is linked closely to a specific crystallographic form.

  10. A statistical/computational/experimental approach to study the microstructural morphology of damage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoefnagels, J. P. M.; Du, C.; de Geus, T. W. J.; Peerlings, R. H. J.; Geers, M. G. D.; Beese, A.M.; Zehnder, A.T.; Xia, Sh.

    2016-01-01

    The fractural behavior of multi-phase materials is not well understood. Therefore, a statistic study of micro-failures is conducted to deepen our insights on the failure mechanisms. We systematically studied the influence of the morphology of dual phase (DP) steel on the fracture behavior at the

  11. Effect of women's age on embryo morphology, cleavage rate and competence-A multicenter cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grøndahl, Marie Louise; Christiansen, Sofie Lindgren; Kesmodel, Ulrik Schiøler

    2017-01-01

    This multicenter cohort study on embryo assessment and outcome data from 11,744 IVF/ICSI cycles with 104,830 oocytes and 42,074 embryos, presents the effect of women's age on oocyte, zygote, embryo morphology and cleavage parameters, as well as cycle outcome measures corrected for confounding.......0001) with increasing age. Maternal age had no effect on cleavage parameters or on the morphology of the embryo day 2 post insemination. Interestingly, initial hCG value after single embryo transfer followed by ongoing pregnancy was increased with age in both IVF (p = 0.007) and ICSI (p = 0.001) cycles. For the first...... time, we show that a woman's age does impose a significant footprint on early embryo morphological development (3PN). In addition, the developmentally competent embryos were associated with increased initial hCG values as the age of the women increased. Further studies are needed to elucidate...

  12. Study to Evaluate the Changes in Polycystic Ovarian Morphology after Naturopathic and Yogic Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratnakumari, M Ezhil; Manavalan, N; Sathyanath, D; Ayda, Y Rosy; Reka, K

    2018-01-01

    Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is one of the commonest endocrine disorders in women, with a prevalence ranging from 2.2% to 26% in India. Patients with PCOS face challenges including irregular menstrual cycles, hirsutism, acne, acanthosis nigricans, obesity and infertility. 9.13% of South Indian adolescent girls are estimated to suffer from PCOS. The efficacy of Yoga & Naturopathy (Y&N) in the management of polycystic ovarian syndrome requires to be investigated. Aims: The aim of the present study is to observe the morphological changes in polycystic ovaries of patients following 12 weeks of Y&N intervention. The study was conducted at the Government Yoga and Naturopathy Medical College and Hospital, Chennai, India. The study was a single blinded prospective, pre-post clinical trial. Fifty PCOS patients of age between 18 and 35 years who satisfied the Rotterdam criteria were recruited for the study. According to their immediate participation in the study they were either allocated to the intervention group ( n =25) or in the wait listed control group ( n =25). The intervention group underwent Y&N therapy for 12 weeks. Change in polycystic ovarian morphology, anthropometric measurements and frequency of menstrual cycle were studied before and after the intervention. Results: Significant improvement was observed in the ovarian morphology ( P polycystic ovarian morphology. We speculate that a longer intervention might be required to regulate the frequency of menstrual cycle.

  13. 3-Rooted Maxillary First Premolars: An Ex Vivo Study of External and Internal Morphologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltes, Panagiotis; Kalaitzoglou, Maria-Elpida; Kantilieraki, Eleni; Beltes, Charalampos; Angelopoulos, Christos

    2017-08-01

    This study aimed to analyze the external and internal morphologies of 3-rooted maxillary first premolars using cone-beam computed tomographic (CBCT) imaging. Fifty-six three-rooted maxillary first premolars were imaged by CBCT imaging and classified into 4 groups on the basis of external root morphology. Internal morphologic features, including the shapes of the buccal and palatal orifices and distances of bifurcation of the buccal-palatal and mesiobuccal-distobuccal root canals from the cementoenamel junction (CEJ), were measured. The teeth were classified into 4 groups on the basis of external morphology: group A, separation of the buccal and palatal roots with bifurcation of the former into the mesiobuccal and distobuccal roots (n = 22); group B, fusion of 2 buccal roots with the palatal root being separate (n = 19); group C, complete or partial fusion of the distobuccal and palatal roots (n = 9); and group D, fusion of all 3 roots (n = 6). The buccal orifice was mainly triangular/heart shaped. The distance of bifurcation of the buccal-palatal root canals from the CEJ in group A differed significantly from those in groups B and C (P external and internal morphologies of 3-rooted maxillary first premolars vary considerably. Copyright © 2017 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Experimental and theoretical study to explain the morphology of CaMoO4 crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, F. K. F.; Oliveira, M. C.; Gracia, L.; Tranquilin, R. L.; Paskocimas, C. A.; Motta, F. V.; Longo, E.; Andrés, J.; Bomio, M. R. D.

    2018-03-01

    CaMoO4 crystals were prepared by a controlled co-precipitation method and processed in a domestic microwave-assisted hydrothermal system with two different surfactants (ethyl 4-dimethylaminobenzoate and 1,2,4,5-benzenetetracarboxylic dianhydride). The corresponding structures were characterized by X-ray diffraction and Rietveld refinement techniques, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, ultraviolet-visible absorption spectroscopy, and photoluminescence measurements. Field emission scanning electron microscopy was used to investigate the morphology of the as-synthesized aggregates. The structure, the surface stability of the (001), (112), (100), (110), (101), and (111) surfaces of CaMoO4, and their morphological transformations were investigated through systematic first-principles calculations within the density functional theory method at the B3LYP level. Analysis of the surface structures showed that the electronic properties were associated with the presence of undercoordinated [CaOx] (x = 5 and 6) and [MoOy] (y = 4 and 3) clusters. The relative surfaces energies were tuned to predict a complete map of the morphologies available through a Wulff construction approach. The results reveal that the experimental and theoretical morphologies obtained coincide when the surface energies of the (001) and (101) surfaces increase, while the surface energy of the (100) facet decreases simultaneously. The results provide a comprehensive catalog of the morphologies most likely to be present under realistic conditions, and will serve as a starting point for future studies on the surface chemistry of CaMoO4 crystals.

  15. A rapid method combining Golgi and Nissl staining to study neuronal morphology and cytoarchitecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilati, Nadia; Barker, Matthew; Panteleimonitis, Sofoklis; Donga, Revers; Hamann, Martine

    2008-06-01

    The Golgi silver impregnation technique gives detailed information on neuronal morphology of the few neurons it labels, whereas the majority remain unstained. In contrast, the Nissl staining technique allows for consistent labeling of the whole neuronal population but gives very limited information on neuronal morphology. Most studies characterizing neuronal cell types in the context of their distribution within the tissue slice tend to use the Golgi silver impregnation technique for neuronal morphology followed by deimpregnation as a prerequisite for showing that neuron's histological location by subsequent Nissl staining. Here, we describe a rapid method combining Golgi silver impregnation with cresyl violet staining that provides a useful and simple approach to combining cellular morphology with cytoarchitecture without the need for deimpregnating the tissue. Our method allowed us to identify neurons of the facial nucleus and the supratrigeminal nucleus, as well as assessing cellular distribution within layers of the dorsal cochlear nucleus. With this method, we also have been able to directly compare morphological characteristics of neuronal somata at the dorsal cochlear nucleus when labeled with cresyl violet with those obtained with the Golgi method, and we found that cresyl violet-labeled cell bodies appear smaller at high cellular densities. Our observation suggests that cresyl violet staining is inadequate to quantify differences in soma sizes.

  16. FEM simulation study on relationship of interfacial morphology and residual stress in TBCs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liqiang Chen; Shengkai Gong; Huibin Xu [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Beihang Univ., Beijing, BJ (China)

    2005-07-01

    It is generally believed that the failure of TBCs is attributed to the spallation occurred in the ceramic coat. The spallation is closed linked with sinuate morphology factors, including its amplitude and period, at the TGO/bond coat interface. In this work, dependence of the residual stress distribution on the sinuate morphology in the TBCs has been studied by means of finite element method (FEM) simulation for isothermally annealed specimens. The simulation results indicated that the maximum value of residual stress existed inside the TGO layer. It was also found that the maximum residual stress occurred at different points, near the TGO/bond coat interface at the peak of the sinuate interface, while near the TGO/ceramic coat interface at the valley, respectively. And the maximum residual stress increased with increasing the ratio of the amplitude to period in the sine morphology, which has been proved by the thermal cycle experimental results. (orig.)

  17. AFM study of the morphologic change of HDPE surface photografted with glycidyl methacrylate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huiliang; Han, Jianmei

    2009-05-01

    The UV-induced grafting of glycidyl methacrylate (GMA) onto high-density polyethylene (HDPE) and the atomic force microscopy (AFM) study of the morphologic change of the grafted surface are reported. The grafting was carried out in GMA acetone solutions with different monomer concentrations. Grafting was much faster in a solution with a higher monomer concentration. FTIR analyses proved that GMA had been successfully grafted onto HDPE. The morphologies of grafted HDPE surfaces changed with UV irradiation time. The monomer concentration had a significant effect on the morphologies of the grafted HDPE surfaces. The HDPE surface grafted in a solution with a higher monomer concentration was much rougher than that grafted in a solution with a lower monomer concentration. The growth models of the grafted granules or clusters are also proposed.

  18. Atomic force microscopic study of the effects of ethanol on yeast cell surface morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canetta, Elisabetta; Adya, Ashok K; Walker, Graeme M

    2006-02-01

    The detrimental effects of ethanol toxicity on the cell surface morphology of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (strain NCYC 1681) and Schizosaccharomyces pombe (strain DVPB 1354) were investigated using an atomic force microscope (AFM). In combination with culture viability and mean cell volume measurements AFM studies allowed us to relate the cell surface morphological changes, observed on nanometer lateral resolution, with the cellular stress physiology. Exposing yeasts to increasing stressful concentrations of ethanol led to decreased cell viabilities and mean cell volumes. Together with the roughness and bearing volume analyses of the AFM images, the results provided novel insight into the relative ethanol tolerance of S. cerevisiae and Sc. pombe.

  19. Comparative studies of jaw morphology and ontogeny in two species of asexually reproducing Dorvilleidae (Annelida)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Macnaughton, Martin Oliver; Eibye-Jacobsen, Danny; Worsaae, Katrine

    2011-01-01

    found in closely related species (Macnaughton et al. 2009). Details of dentition and numbers of maxillary plates as well as the ontogenetic growth patterns of the jaws were found to provide significant information of systematic value. Based on detailed studies of jaw ontogeny and morphology, Dorvillea...

  20. MORPHOLOGICAL AND ANATOMICAL STUDY OF SHOOTS OF JUNIPERUS COMMUNIS L. FROM CUPRESSACEAE FAMILY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. K. Serebryanaya

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We have conducted morphological and anatomical studies of Juniperus communis, revealed diagnostic indices of the stamina, stalk, and needle. The leaf is sessile, linear awe shaped, pointed. Stalk form at cross section is cylindrical. Needles are lanceolar with one whitish vertical stripe, with paracytic stomata. 

  1. A cadaveric study involving variations in external morphology of gall bladder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anjankar Vaibhav Prakash, Panshewdikar Pradnyesh N, Joshi DS, Anjankar Ashish Prakash

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Variations in the pattern of the extra hepatic biliary tract are usual and are commonly encountered during some radiological investigations or in operation theaters. Such Variations of the morphology of Gall bladder have been well documented in the literature for many years but a detail morphological study of variations of the gall bladder and its incidence is very rare. In this era of quick results, increasing use of diagnostic and interventional procedures makes it important to study variations of gall bladder morphology. Most of the interventional procedures in this modern era are done laparoscopically and there is tremendous increase in the number of laparoscopic cholecystectomies. So, sound knowledge of possible variations in morphology of gall bladder is important. Materials and Methods: This study was undertaken on 90 cadaveric liver and gall bladder specimens in terms of length, maximum transverse diameter, shape, external variations of gall bladder, Interior and length of gall bladder below the inferior border of the liver. Results: GB had length ranging between 7 and 10 cm, transverse diameter between 2 and 5 cm. The commonest shape observed in this study was pear shaped in 82.22% of cases. The length of gall bladder below the inferior border of liver varied between 0.4 and 2.5 cm. Conclusion: The growing importance of such variations, lie not only from the point of biliary disease but also with respect to the various invasive techniques in the diagnosis and treatment of gall bladder and extrahepatic bile duct disease.

  2. Dynamical In Situ Study of Morphological Changes of Bentonite in ESEM

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Navrátilová, Eva; Neděla, Vilém; Sun, H.; Mašín, D.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 23, S1 (2017), s. 2196-2197 ISSN 1431-9276 R&D Projects: GA MŠk ED0017/01/01 Institutional support: RVO:68081731 Keywords : ESEM * morphological changes * in situ study Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering OBOR OECD: Geology Impact factor: 1.891, year: 2016

  3. Studying Impact of Different Precipitating Agents on Crystal Structure, Morphology and Photocatalytic Activity of Bismuth Oxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yayuk Astuti

    2017-10-01

    How to Cite: Astuti, Y., Arnelli, Pardoyo, Fauziyah, A., Nurhayati, S., Wulansari, A.D., Andianingrum, R., Widiyandari, H., Bhaduri, G.A. (2017. Studying Impact of Different Precipitating Agents on Crystal Structure, Morphology and Photocatalytic Activity of Bismuth Oxide. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis, 12 (3: 478-484 (doi:10.9767/bcrec.12.3.1144.478-484

  4. Morphological Family Size effects in L1 and L2 processing: An electrophysiological study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, K.; Schreuder, R.; Dijkstra, A.F.J.

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined Morphological Family Size effects in first and second language processing. Items with a high or low Dutch (L1) Family Size were contrasted in four experiments involving Dutch–English bilinguals. In two experiments, reaction times (RTs) were collected in English (L2) and

  5. Bicuspid aortic valve morphology and associated cardiovascular abnormalities in fetal Turner syndrome: a pathomorphological study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Engelen, Klaartje; Bartelings, Margot M.; Gittenberger-de Groot, Adriana C.; Baars, Marieke J. H.; Postma, Alex V.; Bijlsma, Emilia K.; Mulder, Barbara J. M.; Jongbloed, Monique R. M.

    2014-01-01

    Bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) is common in Turner syndrome (TS). In adult TS, 82-95% of BAVs have fusion of the right and left coronary leaflets. Data in fetal stages are scarce. The purpose of this study was to gain insight into aortic valve morphology and associated cardiovascular abnormalities in a

  6. Morphological transformations of diblock copolymers in binary solvents: A simulation study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zheng; Yin, Yuhua; Jiang, Run; Li, Baohui

    2017-12-01

    Morphological transformations of amphiphilic AB diblock copolymers in mixtures of a common solvent (S1) and a selective solvent (S2) for the B block are studied using the simulated annealing method. We focus on the morphological transformation depending on the fraction of the selective solvent C S2, the concentration of the polymer C p , and the polymer-solvent interactions ɛ ij ( i = A, B; j = S1, S2). Morphology diagrams are constructed as functions of C p , C S2, and/or ɛ AS2. The copolymer morphological sequence from dissolved → sphere → rod → ring/cage → vesicle is obtained upon increasing C S2 at a fixed C p . This morphology sequence is consistent with previous experimental observations. It is found that the selectivity of the selective solvent affects the self-assembled microstructure significantly. In particular, when the interaction ɛ BS2 is negative, aggregates of stacked lamellae dominate the diagram. The mechanisms of aggregate transformation and the formation of stacked lamellar aggregates are discussed by analyzing variations of the average contact numbers of the A or B monomers with monomers and with molecules of the two types of solvent, as well as the mean square end-to-end distances of chains. It is found that the basic morphological sequence of spheres to rods to vesicles and the stacked lamellar aggregates result from competition between the interfacial energy and the chain conformational entropy. Analysis of the vesicle structure reveals that the vesicle size increases with increasing C p or with decreasing C S2, but remains almost unchanged with variations in ɛ AS2.

  7. Systematic studies of Australian stipoid grasses (Austrostipa based on micro-morphological and molecular characteristics

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    BETTY MAULIYA BUSTAM

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Bustam BM (2010 Systematic studies of Australian stipoid grasses (Austrostipa based on micro-morphological and molecular characteristics. Biodiversitas 11: 9-14. This research is one of many studies on stipoid grasses organized by the International Stipeae Working Group (ISWG. This research tested the subgeneric classification of Austrostipa proposed by Jacobs and Everett (1996 and tested how informative the micro morphological characters used. Data were collected from herbarium specimens of 36 species (33 species of Austrostipa, two species of Hesperostipa and one species of Anemanthele at Royal Botanic Gardens, Sydney. Twenty eight micro morphological characters were used. The data were collected from both adaxial and abaxial surfaces of leaves, and from the lemma epidermis using a scanning electron microscope (SEM. ISWG provided the molecular data. Parsimony analysis and a distance method (Unweighteic Pair Group with Arithmatic Mean: UPGMA were used to analyze mico morphological and molecular data separately. Only UPGMA analysis was used to analyze the combined data. The results support the monophyly of Austrostipa. However, there is a little support for the subgeneric classification of Austrostipa proposed by Jacobs and Everett (1996, other than for the consistent recognition of Falcatae. The characters for comparisons between genera are too homoplasious at this level and do not contain enough information for analyses at subgeneric level, a problem apparently shared with the DNA sequences.

  8. SEM and HRTEM study of porous silicon--relationship between fabrication, morphology and optical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dian, J.; Macek, A.; Niznansky, D.; Nemec, I.; Vrkoslav, V.; Chvojka, T.; Jelinek, I.

    2004-01-01

    We studied the dependence of porous silicon (PS) morphology on fabrication conditions and the link between morphology, porosity and optical properties. P-type (1 0 0) silicon wafers with resistivity of 10 Ω cm were electrochemically etched in a HF:ethanol:water mixture at various HF concentrations and current densities. Porosity and thickness of the samples were determined gravimetrically. Detailed information about evolution of porous silicon layer morphology with variation of preparation conditions was obtained by scanning electron microscope (SEM), the presence of silicon nanoparticles was confirmed by high resolution transmission electron microscopy. Decrease of the mean size of silicon nanoparticles with increasing porous silicon porosity was revealed in a monotonous blue shift of photoluminescence (PL) maximum in room temperature photoluminescence spectra of studied samples. This blue shift is consistent with quantum confinement model of photoluminescence mechanism. We observed that total porosity of porous films cannot fully explain observed photoluminescence behavior and correct interpretation of the blue shift of photoluminescence spectra requires detailed knowledge of porous silicon morphology

  9. Global study of holistic morphological effectors in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Godai; Wang, Yang; Kubo, Karen; Hirata, Eri; Ohnuki, Shinsuke; Ohya, Yoshikazu

    2018-02-20

    The size of the phenotypic effect of a gene has been thoroughly investigated in terms of fitness and specific morphological traits in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, but little is known about gross morphological abnormalities. We identified 1126 holistic morphological effectors that cause severe gross morphological abnormality when deleted, and 2241 specific morphological effectors with weak holistic effects but distinctive effects on yeast morphology. Holistic effectors fell into many gene function categories and acted as network hubs, affecting a large number of morphological traits, interacting with a large number of genes, and facilitating high protein expression. Holistic morphological abnormality was useful for estimating the importance of a gene to morphology. The contribution of gene importance to fitness and morphology could be used to efficiently classify genes into functional groups. Holistic morphological abnormality can be used as a reproducible and reliable gene feature for high-dimensional morphological phenotyping. It can be used in many functional genomic applications.

  10. A MORPHOLOGICAL STUDY OF HUMAN THYROID GLAND IN THE POPULATION OF NORTH - EASTERN REGION OF INDIA

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    Debabani

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND : Due to the high incidence of thyroid disorders in the North - Eastern population of India a study was undertaken in Guwahati Medical College to see the age related changes in the morphology of the gland in the ca davers of this region. AIM : The study was done to compare the dimensions of the thyroid gland in this population with different studies around the world to see if it can throw any light why thyroid disorders are more common in this population and help clin icians to deal better. MATERIALS AND METHOD : The specimens were divided into three groups according to their ages. Twenty (21 specimens (both male and female were taken from each age group. Statistical analysis was done by paired t - test and t was taken a s significant if the value of t was greater than 2.18. SUMMARY : A study of all together of 63 specimen were taken up to see if any morphological differences in dimension exists in various age groups viz. pediatrics , adults and elderly and co relate with fi ndings of previous workers and was statistically analyzed. CONCLUSION : The study showed that there was no morphological difference of this population with that of previous studies done in other parts of the world. Perhaps a histological study in molecular level will throw more light why this stratum of population is so vulnerable to thyroid disorders.

  11. Interactions Study of Hydrodynamic-Morphology-Vegetation for Dam-Break Flows

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    Mingliang Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study models a dam-break flow over a bed by using a depth-averaged numerical model based on finite-volume method and computes the dam-break flow and bed morphology characteristics. The generalized shallow water equations considering the sediment transport and bed change on dam-break flow are adopted in the numerical model, and the vegetation effects on the flow and morphological changes are considered. The model is verified against three cases from the laboratory and field data documented in the literature. The numerical results are consistent with the measured results, which show that the model could accurately simulate the evolution of the dam-break flows and the morphology evolution of bed within a computational domain with complex plant distribution. The results show that the riparian vegetation in the waterway narrows the channel and reduces the conveyance capacity of river. The flood flow is diverted away from the vegetation community toward two sides and forms a weak flow region behind the vegetation domain. The resistance of plants markedly reduces the flow velocity, which directly alters the fluvial processes and influences the waterway morphology.

  12. Velar morphological variants in oral submucous fibrosis: A comparative digital cephalometric study

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    Bhagyashree Mahadevappa Patil

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Soft palate (velar plays a significant role in various important functions in the head and neck region. Its diverse morphology is implicated in a variety of diseases. Knowledge about the varied morphological pattern of soft palate in oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF patients can give us a clear understanding about disease progress in the oropharyngeal region for a proper diagnosis and also help the maxillofacial surgeon in successful structural and functional corrections associated with this disorder. Aim: (1 To evaluate the morphological variations of soft palate in OSMF patients using digital lateral cephalogram. (2 To assess the morphological variations of soft palate with respect to the different clinical stages of OSMF patients. Subjects and Methods: A total number of 300 patients were included in the study (150 participants each in study and control group, evaluated clinically, and subjected for digital lateral cephalogram for evaluating velar morphological variants. Statistical Analysis: The data were statistically evaluated using SPSS 11.5 software with Student's t-test, Chi-square test, and ANOVA. Results: Among Group I, 34 participants had Stage I OSMF, 90 participants had Stage II OSMF, and 26 participants had Stage III OSMF. Type I velar was commonly seen in Stage I OSMF, Type VI velar in Stage II OSMF, and Type III velar in Stage III OSMF. There was statistically highly significant decrease in anterior-posterior (AP length and increase in width of superior-inferior (SI measurement, as compared to the Group II. Conclusion: There was diminution in AP length and increase in SI measurement as the OSMF disease progressed.

  13. Study of Some Morphological Characters of Three Trout Breed Farmed in Salmonid Exploitations from Moldova

    OpenAIRE

    Cătălin Emilian Nistor; Ionuţ Bogdan Pagu; Emanuel Magdici; Benone Pasarin

    2014-01-01

    Study of morphological characters at fish by means of biometry is a frequently utilized method and consists in determining the variability of characters in groups of individuals, by direct measurement, weighting and statistical processing of obtained data. Effectuation of body measurements and weighting is used to determine the increase in length of fish and to evaluate the general physiological condition. Brook trout, rainbow trout, and brown trout were the object of the current study by...

  14. Structural, morphological and optical studies of F doped SnO2 thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandel, Tarun; Thakur, Vikas; Dwivedi, Shailendra Kumar; Zaman, M. Burhanuz; Rajaram, Poolla

    2018-05-01

    Highly conducting and transparent FTO (flourine doped tin Oxide) thin films were grown on the glass substrates using a low cost spray pyrolysis technique. The films were characterized for their structural, morphological and optical studies using XRD, SEM and UV-Vis spectroscopy. XRD studies show that the FTO films crystallize in Tetragonal cassiterite structure. Morphological analysis using SEM show that the films are uniformly covered with spherical grains albeit high in surface roughness. The average optical transmission greater than 80% in the visible region along with the appearance of interference fringes in the transmission curves confirms the high quality of the films. Electrical studies show that the films exhibit sheet resistance below 10 Ω ϒ-1.

  15. Structural, morphological and Raman studies of pulse electrosynthesised indium antimonide thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Joginder, E-mail: joginderchauhan82@gmail.com; Chandel, Tarun; Rajaram, P. [School of Studies in Physics, Jiwaji University, Gwalior (MP), India-474011 (India)

    2015-08-28

    InSb films deposited on fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) substrates by a pulse elctrodeposition technique. The deposition was carried out at an applied potential −1.3V versus Ag/AgCl electrode. Structural, morphological and optical studies were performed on the electrodeposited InSb. X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies show that the deposited InSb films are polycrystalline in nature having the zinc blend structure. The crystallite size (D), dislocation density (δ) and strain (ε) were calculated using XRD results. The EDAX analysis shows that chemical composition of In{sup 3+} and Sb{sup 3+} ions is close to the required stoichiometry. The surface morphology of the deposited films was examined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). SEM studies reveal that the surface of the films is uniformly covered with submicron sized spherical particles. However, the crystallite size determined by the Scherrer method shows a size close to 30 nm. Surface morphology studies of the InSb films were also performed using atomic force microscopy (AFM). The average surface roughness as measured by AFM is around 40 nm. Hot probe studies show that all the electrodeposited thin films have n type conductivity and the thickness of the films is calculated using electrochemical formula.

  16. MORPHOLOGICAL AND ANATOMICAL STUDY OF GRANULES WITH SEEDS EPIDERMIS OF PLANTAGO OVATA FORSSK

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    J. V. Daironas

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of a morphological and anatomical study of granules from the epidermis of Plantago ovata seeds are presented in the article. Morphological and microscopic diagnostic signs are important for establishing the authenticity of medicinal plant material and drugs made from it.The aim is the identification of morphological and microscopic diagnostic characteristics of the seed epidermis of Plantago ovata, minimal and sufficient to establish the authenticity of the granular pieces of the plant’s epidermis.Materials and methods. The study of morphological and anatomical characteristics as well as histochemical study were conducted according to the procedures of the State Pharmacopoeia of the Russian Federation XIII edition. Microscope “Micromed-1” and digital camera MD300 Electronic Eyepiece (Jincheng were used. Photos were edited in Adobe Photoshop CS6.Results and discussion. Morphological signs of the epidermis of Plantago ovata seeds include its light yellow or pinkish-yellow color and a presence of a pigmented spot of pink or light brown color on the epidermis of the convex side of the seeds and along the seed. These signs are applicable for diagnosis and are also found in crushed raw materials. Granules are rough lumps, consisting of stuck together epidermis pieces. They are characterized by a yellowish or light brown color and the presence of a pigmented spot. The microscopic diagnostic signs include the structure of the upper and lower epidermis, the presence of cells with mucus and starch grains. The upper epidermis consists of large polygonal cells with straight thin anticlinal walls. The cells are covered with a smooth cuticle and are filled with mucus. The lower epidermis consists of elongated rectangular cells. Cells with mucus swell rapidly in the radial direction. Biometric characteristics of anatomical diagnostic signs were established.Conclusion. As the result of a morphological and anatomical study the diagnostic signs

  17. Morphological studies in the diagnosis of primary and secondary bone tumors

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    Matveeva O.V.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim: to show the possibility of morphological studies in the diagnosis of primary and secondary tumors of bones. Material and Methods. 105 (72% patients with primary bone tumors aged from 15 to 66 years and 42 (28% patients with metastatic bone lesions aged from 42 to 70 years were examined and treated for the period from 2008 till 2015. Material for morphological studies was prepared using an open biopsy tissue slices and a scraping resected tumor during surgery. Soft-tissue component is subjected to cytology. The material for histological study included changes in bone and soft tissue. Results. Giant cell tumor was verified in 45% of cases by histological examination. Multiple myeloma was diagnosed in 15% of patients. Osteogenic sarcoma was diagnosed in 14% of cases. Ewing's sarcoma was diagnosed in 3%, 2% of cases were matched by diagnosed chordoma. According to the data received, cancer metastasis of kidney and lung is mostly diagnosed in men from the group of patients with secondary bone defeat. Metastasis of cancer of the breast in women was predominated. Conclusion. The morphological (histological, cytological study plays an important role in the diagnosis of bone tumors. The coincidence of the cytological and histological diagnoses was 97%.

  18. Loading effects on rat craniomandibular morphology: a system for gravity studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ranbir; Carvalho, Thais; Gerstner, Geoffrey E.

    2005-02-01

    Gravity effects on muscle and bone are a major impediment to long-term space travel. We introduce a model for studying these effects, the craniomandibular system. Some advantages of this system include: (1) craniomandibular morphology is determined by epigenetic factors including gravity, (2) relatively light forces can significantly alter its morphology, and (3) soft diet and tooth loss produce effects that are similar to those produced in lower limbs by weightlessness. In the study, implants made either of gold (experimental group) or lightweight acrylic (controls) were attached to adult rats' mandibles. After 13 weeks, the animals' skulls and mandibles were dissected. Pair-wise comparisons indicated that the experimental animals showed significantly shortened and narrowed cranial bases, and significant changes in the posterior zygomatic arch region. These results indicate that simulated macrogravity influences bone remodeling in the adult craniomandibular system.

  19. Morphological and Radiographic Studies on the Skull of Indian Blackbuck (Antilope cervicapra)

    OpenAIRE

    Choudhary, Om Prakash; Singh, Ishwer

    2016-01-01

    The phenotypic appearance of the head of animal species depends strongly on the shape of the skull. The present study has been carried out on morphological and radiographic characteristics of skull of the Indian Blackbuck. The skull comprised of cranial and facial bones. The cranial bones included occipital, sphenoid, ethmoid, interparietal, parietal, frontal and temporal. The occipital was a single bone surrounding the foramen magnum. The sphenoid was a single bone and situated between the o...

  20. Theory and simulation studies of effective interactions, phase behavior and morphology in polymer nanocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganesan, Venkat; Jayaraman, Arthi

    2014-01-07

    Polymer nanocomposites are a class of materials that consist of a polymer matrix filled with inorganic/organic nanoscale additives that enhance the inherent macroscopic (mechanical, optical and electronic) properties of the polymer matrix. Over the past few decades such materials have received tremendous attention from experimentalists, theoreticians, and computational scientists. These studies have revealed that the macroscopic properties of polymer nanocomposites depend strongly on the (microscopic) morphology of the constituent nanoscale additives in the polymer matrix. As a consequence, intense research efforts have been directed to understand the relationships between interactions, morphology, and the phase behavior of polymer nanocomposites. Theory and simulations have proven to be useful tools in this regard due to their ability to link molecular level features of the polymer and nanoparticle additives to the resulting morphology within the composite. In this article we review recent theory and simulation studies, presenting briefly the methodological developments underlying PRISM theories, density functional theory, self-consistent field theory approaches, and atomistic and coarse-grained molecular simulations. We first discuss the studies on polymer nanocomposites with bare or un-functionalized nanoparticles as additives, followed by a review of recent work on composites containing polymer grafted or functionalized nanoparticles as additives. We conclude each section with a brief outlook on some potential future directions.

  1. A study of megakaryocyte morphology in bone marrow aspiration smears of cases of thrombocytopenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shashikala Vinayakamurthy

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Thrombocytopenia may be encountered in various hematological and nonhematological conditions and may be associated with dysplastic megakaryocytes which is a feature of myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS, even though they can be observed in non-MDS hematological conditions. Objective: To study the morphological variations of megakaryocytes on bone marrow aspiration smears in non-MDS-related thrombocytopenia in a Medical College in Bengaluru, Karnataka. Materials and Methods: It was a prospective study of 86 cases of non-MDS thrombocytopenia whose bone marrow aspirates were studied morphologically. Results: The most common cause of thrombocytopenia was acute leukemia followed by other systemic malignancies, megaloblastic anemia, and idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura. Both dysplastic and nondysplastic features were observed in the above-mentioned conditions. The most common dysplastic feature was nuclear segmentation followed by micromegakaryocytes and hypogranular forms. Among nondysplastic features, the most common were immature forms, bare nuclei, and hypolobation. Emperipolesis and cytoplasmic vacuoles were noted in a case of pyrexia of unknown origin. Conclusion: Dysplastic megakaryocytes are common in non-MDS-related thrombocytopenia and their mere presence should not lead to the diagnosis of MDS. Hence, proper diagnosis should be made on megakaryocyte morphology, patient's clinical findings, and other hematological parameters. This understanding can improve the diagnostic accuracy for wide range of hematological disorders.

  2. Malathion acute toxicity in tadpoles of Duttaphrynus melanostictus, morphological and behavioural study

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    M. David

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The present study was undertaken to evaluate the median lethal concentration (LC50, morphological deformities and changes in behavioural responses caused by commercial formulations of malathion on Duttaphrynus melanostictus tadpoles. The LC50 value was found to be 7.5 mg/l and ability of malathion to cause morphological anomalies and changes in behavioural responses in tadpoles were studied at sublethal concentrations of 0.5 mg/l (1/15th, 0.75 mg/l (1/10th and 1.5 mg/l (1/5th for a duration of 5 days. The morphological defects and changes in behavioural responses like notochord curvature and loss of fright response respectively were witnessed as an important conduct; in addition, other symptoms under both the parameters were known to be time (i.e. developmental stage and concentration dependent thereby acknowledging the direct cause of damage due to malathion. Thus, based on the present study, care must be taken when this chemical is in use at agricultural sites especially nearby aquatic ecosystems.

  3. A morphological study of molecularly imprinted polymers using the scanning electron microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paniagua Gonzalez, Gema; Fernandez Hernando, Pilar; Durand Alegria, J.S.

    2006-01-01

    Molecular imprinting is an emerging technique for producing polymers with applications in affinity-based separation, in biomimetic sensors, in catalysis, etc. This variety of uses relies upon the production of polymers with different affinities, specificities, sensitivities and loading capacities. Research into the development of molecular imprinted polymers (MIPs) with new or improved morphologies - which involves modification of the polymerisation process - is therefore underway. This paper reports a comparative study of non-covalent MIPs synthesised by 'bulk' polymerisation using digoxin as template. These were synthesised under different conditions, i.e., changing the functional monomers employed (methacrylic acid or 2-vinylpyridine), the porogens (acetonitrile or dichloromethane) used, and by altering the volume of the latter. The polymerisation process was allowed to proceed either under UV light or in a thermostat-controlled waterbath. The surface morphology (was determined by scanning electron microscopy) and the ability of the different polymers to selectively rebind the template was then evaluated

  4. Nanoscopic morphological changes in yeast cell surfaces caused by oxidative stress: an atomic force microscopic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canetta, Elisabetta; Walker, Graeme M; Adya, Ashok K

    2009-06-01

    Nanoscopic changes in the cell surface morphology of the yeasts Saccharomyces cerevisiae (strain NCYC 1681) and Schizosaccharomyces pombe (strain DVPB 1354), due to their exposure to varying concentrations of hydrogen peroxide (oxidative stress), were investigated using an atomic force microscope (AFM). Increasing hydrogen peroxide concentration led to a decrease in cell viabilities and mean cell volumes, and an increase in the surface roughness of the yeasts. In addition, AFM studies revealed that oxidative stress caused cell compression in both S. cerevisiae and Schiz. pombe cells and an increase in the number of aged yeasts. These results confirmed the importance and usefulness of AFM in investigating the morphology of stressed microbial cells at the nanoscale. The results also provided novel information on the relative oxidative stress tolerance of S. cerevisiae and Schiz. pombe.

  5. Optimization study of direct morphology observation by cold field emission SEM without gold coating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Dan; Fu, Cheng; Xue, Zhigang

    2018-06-01

    Gold coating is a general operation that is generally applied on non-conductive or low conductive materials, during which the morphology of the materials can be examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). However, fatal deficiencies in the materials can result in irreversible distortion and damage. The present study directly characterized different low conductive materials such as hydroxyapatite, modified poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) fiber, and zinc oxide nanopillar by cold field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) without a gold coating. According to the characteristics of the low conductive materials, various test conditions, such as different working signal modes, accelerating voltages, electron beam spots, and working distances, were characterized to determine the best morphological observations of each sample. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. A morphological study of the mandibular molar region using reconstructed helical computed tomographic images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuno, Hiroaki; Noguchi, Makoto; Noguchi, Akira; Yoshida, Keiko; Tachinami, Yasuharu

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the morphological variance in the mandibular molar region using reconstructed helical computed tomographic (CT) images. In addition, we discuss the necessity of CT scanning as part of the preoperative assessment process for dental implantation, by comparing the results with the findings of panoramic radiography. Sixty patients examined using CT as part of the preoperative assessment for dental implantation were analyzed. Reconstructed CT images were used to evaluate the bone quality and cross-sectional bone morphology of the mandibular molar region. The mandibular cortical index (MCI) and X-ray density ratio of this region were assessed using panoramic radiography in order to analyze the correlation between the findings of the CT images and panoramic radiography. CT images showed that there was a decrease in bone quality in cases with high MCI. Cross-sectional CT images revealed that the undercuts on the lingual side in the highly radiolucent areas in the basal portion were more frequent than those in the alveolar portion. This study showed that three-dimensional reconstructed CT images can help to detect variances in mandibular morphology that might be missed by panoramic radiography. In conclusion, it is suggested that CT should be included as an important examination tool before dental implantation. (author)

  7. Morphological studies in the buffalo as a contribution to biotechnological methodologies in the animal production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. V. Pelagalli

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The researchers in the morphological area of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine of Naples are long since carrying out investigations on the buffalo. This is due to the paucity of data in the literature of the field as well as scientific interest for many aspects of the biology of this species like the seasonality of the sexual cicle. The studies that have been done are numerous and regard many different fields as the chromosome map, spermatogenesis, histogenesis of the endocrine pancreas, blood circulation and innervation, and the structure and ultrastructure of several organs. In the present lecture, more recent and interesting results are reported regarding the blood circulation and peripheral innervation of several organs and the structure an ultrastructure of tracts of the digestive system. In particular, the following topics are presented: the evolution of the coronaric circle during the embryonic development; the hypophyseal ciculation; the morphology of sensitive corpuscles in the external genital organs and in the reticular groove. In addition, data regarding the structure, the ultrastructure of the stomach wall and the role of each mucosal layer in the stomach functions are reported. The results of these morphological studies costitute a scientific background which is essential in the field of the applicative biotechnology

  8. Forensic medical study on morphology and formative mechanism of blunt head injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LI Hong-wei

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available 【Abstract】 Objective: To study the patterns and morphologic characteristics of blunt head injury and analyse its formative mechanism in attempt to provide references for medicolegal expertise. Methods: The statistical analysis was done in terms of gender, age, as well as the nature, pattern, location, and feature of the injuries. Results: Among the 202 cases of head injury-induced death, 124 were male and 78 female with the age ranging from 1-81 years. Death caused by homicide was dominant (106, 52.5%, followed by suicide (49, 24.3% and accident (44, 21.8%. The majority of suicide-induced death were by falling from height, and traffic crash was responsible for majority of unexpected death cases. The morphology and pathogenesis of the injuries varied according to differences on the mode, magnitude, and orientation of the outside force giving rise to blunt injury as well as the character of vulnerants. Conclusion: Studies on the morphology and its forma-tive rationale of blunt head injury will offer easy access to medicolegal expertise on the mode and character of the injury. Key words: Brain; Head injuries, closed; Cranioce-rebral trauma; Forensic medicine

  9. A morphological and cytological study of Petunia hybrida exposed to UV-B radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staxén, I.; Bornmann, J.F.

    1994-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether the cytoskeleton, and in particular the microtubular system, is affected by enhanced levels of ultraviolet-B (280–320 nm, 9 kJ m −2 day −1 biologically effective UV-B radiation) radiation in epidermal cells of Petunia x hybrida Vilm, isolated from leaves of plants grown under UV-B radiation and visible light. In addition, morphological changes during development were monitored. In a previous study microtubules were depolymerized and delays in the different stages of the cell cycle were found when protoplasts of Petunia were irradiated with UV-B radiation (Staxén et al. 1993. Protoplasma 173: 70–76). Thus it was of interest to ascertain whether the cytoskeleton would be similarly affected in an intact system. Assuming an effect of UV-B radiation on the microtubular system, we wished to determine whether this could be correlated to concomitant changes in leaf morphology. Plants of Petunia hybrida were grown in greenhouse conditions in the presence or absence of UV-B radiation. During the course of the experiment, samples were taken from young, expanding leaves and from older, fully expanded leaves and prepared for localization and analysis of microtubules from the adaxial epidermal cells. Morphology rather than the cytoskeleton was affected by UV radiation, despite the fact that the epidermal cytoskeleton would most likely be affected, since it is located in the cells which form the first intercepting layer for incident radiation. Morphological changes under UV-B radiation, as compared to those under control conditions, were reflected in earlier flowering and an increase in leaf number. Cell division was thus stimulated as was also evidenced from the increased leaf area. Our results indicate that the number of stomata differentiated on a leaf area basis was not altered although the number of stomata per epidermal cell was reduced. (author)

  10. Three dimensional morphological studies of Larger Benthic Foraminifera at the population level using micro computed tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinoshita, Shunichi; Eder, Wolfgang; Woeger, Julia; Hohenegger, Johann; Briguglio, Antonino; Ferrandez-Canadell, Carles

    2015-04-01

    Symbiont-bearing larger benthic Foraminifera (LBF) are long-living marine (at least 1 year), single-celled organisms with complex calcium carbonate shells. Their morphology has been intensively studied since the middle of the nineteenth century. This led to a broad spectrum of taxonomic results, important from biostratigraphy to ecology in shallow water tropical to warm temperate marine palaeo-environments. However, it was necessary for the traditional investigation methods to cut or destruct specimens for analysing the taxonomically important inner structures. X-ray micro-computed tomography (microCT) is one of the newest techniques used in morphological studies. The greatest advantage is the non-destructive acquisition of inner structures. Furthermore, the running improve of microCT scanners' hard- and software provides high resolution and short time scans well-suited for LBF. Three-dimensional imaging techniques allow to select and extract each chamber and to measure easily its volume, surface and several form parameters used for morphometric analyses. Thus, 3-dimensional visualisation of LBF-tests is a very big step forward from traditional morphology based on 2-dimensional data. The quantification of chamber form is a great opportunity to tackle LBF structures, architectures and the bauplan geometry. The micrometric digital resolution is the only way to solve many controversies in phylogeny and evolutionary trends of LBF. For the present study we used micro-computed tomography to easily investigate the chamber number of every specimen from statistically representative part of populations to estimate population dynamics. Samples of living individuals are collected at monthly intervals from fixed locations. Specific preparation allows to scan up to 35 specimens per scan within 2 hours and to obtain the complete digital dataset for each specimen of the population. MicroCT enables thus a fast and precise count of all chambers built by the foraminifer from its

  11. Morphological, Histological and Histochemical Study of the Lingual Salivary Glands of the Little Egret, Egretta garzetta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almansour, Mansour I.; Jarrar, Bashir M.

    2007-01-01

    The present study aimed to study the morphological, histological and histochemical characterizations of the lingual salivary glands of the little egret, Egretta garzetta. The glands are composed of two posterior entities at the base of the tongue and one anterior entity on the dorsal surface of the free lingual part. These glands are made of mucoserous cells that elaborate sialomucins, sulfomucins and proteins, but they are devoid of glycogen and neutral mucosubstances. The findings of the present study were compared with those reported for other birds in correlation with their phylogeny and feeding habits. (author)

  12. Variable Production of English Past Tense Morphology: A Case Study of a Thai-Speaking Learner of English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prapobaratanakul, Chariya; Pongpairoj, Nattama

    2016-01-01

    The study investigated variable production of English past tense morphology by an L1 Thai-speaking learner of English. Due to the absence of the past tense inflectional morphology in the Thai language, production of English past tense morphemes poses a persistent problem for L1 Thai-speaking learners of English. Hypotheses have been made in…

  13. A study of the masticatory muscles morphology and function on asymmetric prognathism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondoh, Hirotoshi

    1991-01-01

    Each case was measured to analyze the cross sectional area of muscle and mandibular malposition amount using Computed Tomography (CT) photos and P-A cephalogram. At the same time, the relation of morphology and function between the cross sectional area of muscle and mandibular malposition amount was analyzed to examine the function of masseter using electromyography. To determine the relation between morphology and function of masseter in asymmetric prognathism, 23 cases were chosen for the study from among 11 male and 12 female patients who were diagnosed as asymmetric prognathism. In asymmetric prognathism, both morphology and function in the mandibular malposition side were recognized to be larger than that in the cross sectional area of muscle side, on the examination of the cross sectional area of muscle and the activity of masseter. A highly significant and positive correlation was recognized in the left and right difference between the masseteric and medial pterygoid section areas and the CT mandibular malposition amount which were examined by the CT photos. In the left and right difference between the masseteric and medial pterygoid section areas and in the left and right difference of the activity of masseter, there was also a highly positive and significant correlation. (author) 58 refs

  14. DNA barcoding and morphological studies reveal two new species of waxcap mushrooms (Hygrophoraceae in Britain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antony Ainsworth

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Rigorous diagnostics and documentation of fungal species are fundamental to their conservation. During the course of a species-level study of UK waxcap (Hygrophoraceae diversity, two previously unrecognized species were discovered. We describe Gliophorus europerplexus sp. nov. and G. reginae sp. nov., respectively orange–brown and purple–pink waxcap mushrooms, from nutrient-poor grasslands in Britain. Both share some morphological features with specimens assigned to Gliophorus (=Hygrocybe psittacinus. However, analysis of sequences of the nuclear ITS DNA barcode region from these and related taxa confirms the phylogenetic distinctness of these lineages. Furthermore, we demonstrated that the holotype of Hygrophorus perplexus, a North American species morphologically resembling G. europerplexus, is phylogenetically divergent from all our collections. It is likely that further collections of G. europerplexus will be revealed by sequencing European material currently filed under G. perplexus and its synonyms. However, two such collections in the Kew fungarium yielded sequences that clustered together but were divergent from those of G. europerplexus, G. perplexus and G. psittacinus and may represent a further novel taxon. By contrast, G. reginae is morphologically distinct and can usually be recognized in the field by its purplish viscid pileus and relatively stout, flexuose, pale stipe. It is named to commemorate the diamond jubilee of Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II in 2012 and the 60th anniversary of her coronation in 2013.

  15. Automated studies of radiation-induced changes in 3T3 cell motility and morphology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thurston, G.; Palcic, B.

    1985-01-01

    The most common endpoint in radiobiological studies is cell survival, as measured by colony forming ability. There is substantial experimental evidence that cell survival is related to the amount of radiation damage to the DNA. Radiation induces other changes in cell behaviour and morphology that may not be due to DNA damage alone. For example, low doses of radiation (<100 rads) were found to alter the ''phagokinetic tracks'' of moving 3T3 cells. They reported abnormal cell motility as demonstrated by a more random pattern of motion. 3T3 cells were also noted to show changes in morphology after exposure to x-rays. The fibroblast adhesion routine is disrupted by low doses of radiation (cell settling, microspike extension, lamellipodia flow, then cell spreading). An automated microscope system, DMIPS, is being used to automatically track 3T3 cells as they move and to correlate their movement with their morphology. An effort is being made to quantitate, for a large number of cells, the changes in 3T3 cell motility induced by radiation. The DMIPS procedure is compared to the gold dust technique

  16. Morphological study of Socorro Island Merino sheep and its crosses with hair breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, Juan Augusto; Lepe, Marissa; Macedo, Rafael; Arredondo, Victalina; Cortez, Carlos Eliseo; García, Luis Jorge; Prado, Omar

    2017-01-01

    A study was conducted with the objective to characterize the morphology of Socorro Island Merino sheep. A total of 67 sheep, 62 females, 26 purebred and 36 crossbred with hair breeds, and five males were scored for 10 body measurements in addition to live weight, and four racial and seven functional indices were calculated. The influence of sex and crossbreeding on the body measurements and indices was analyzed by one-way analysis of variance, and morphological harmony was determined using Spearman correlation. With exception of rump length, body measurements and live weight were significantly greater in males than in females. Sexual dimorphism was 1.21, with males being 78 % heavier than females. Socorro Island Merino sheep were dolichocephalous, elipometric, with a convex curve rump, and with a high and low morphological harmony for females and males, respectively. They had undefined zootechnical aptitude tended toward dairy phenotype as long as crossbreeding with hair breeds did not affect their functional or productive aptitude. It can be concluded that Socorro Island Merino sheep is a new biotype of the Merino breed, which is necessary to preserve and evaluate as a source of genetic characteristics such as adaptation to harsh environmental conditions.

  17. Radiosensitivity study and radiation effects on morphology characterization of grey oyster mushroom Pleurotus sajor-caju

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rashid, Rosnani Abdul; Awang, Mat Rasol; Mohamad, Azhar; Mutaat, Hassan Hamdani; Maskom, Mohd Meswan [Bioprocess Group, Agrotechnology and Biosciences Division, Malaysian Nuclear Agency, Bangi 43600, Selangor (Malaysia); Daud, Fauzi; Senafi, Sahidan [School of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Bangi 43600, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2014-09-03

    Radiosensitive dosage and morphology characterization of irradiated grey oyster mushroom Pleurotus sajor-caju by gamma rays was investigated due to effects of irradiation. In order to establish the effect, mycelium of P. sajor-caju was irradiated by gamma rays at dose 0.1 to 8.0 kGy with dose rate 0.227 Gy sec{sup −1}. The irradiation of mycelia was carried out at the radiation facility in Malaysian Nuclear Agency. The radiosensitivity study was performed by evaluating the percentage of survival irradiated mycelia. The lethal dose of the mycelium P. sajor-caju was determined at 4.0 kGy and LD{sub 50} to be equal at 2.2 kGy. The radiation effects on morphology were evaluated based on growth rate of irradiated mycelia, mycelia types, colonization period on substrate, morphology of fruit bodies and yields. The results shown growth rate of irradiated mycelium was slightly lower than the control and decreased as the dose increased. Irradiation was found can induced the primordia formation on PDA and the BE of irradiated seed is higher than to control. The irradiation is proven to be useful for generating new varieties of mushroom with commercial value to the industry.

  18. Effect of Modified Natural Rubber on PVC-ENR Electrospun Membrane: Thermal and Morphological Studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahathir Mohamed; Dahlan Mohd; Ratnam, C.T.; Pairu Ibrahim

    2016-01-01

    Electrospun fibers membrane (EFM) based on modified epoxidized natural rubber (ENR) and polyvinyl chloride (PVC) was successfully prepared by electro spinning technique. Epoxidized natural rubber was firstly prepared in solution by using 5 L flask and exposed to high intensity UV lamp for degradation. The PVC/ ENR mixture solution concentration were about 16 wt% and blended for 5 hours for homogeneity. The PVC/ ENR mixture were electro spun to form fibers membrane. The sample of electro spun fibers membrane were cured by electron beam. The resulting membranes were characterized for thermal and morphological studies. Thermal decomposition behavior of EFM was analyzed by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). Thermo gram from TGA showed two stages of degradation for all formulation (90:10, 80:20, 70:30 PVC/ ENR) from 240 to 265 degree Celsius and 400 to 410 degree Celsius, respectively. From the DSC thermo gram of PVC/ ENR electro spun fibers showed that the addition of ENR resulted in the shifting of glass transition temperature (Tg) towards lower temperatures. The morphology of electro spun fibers was examined using scanning electron microscopy and it showed a variety of fiber morphologies. (author)

  19. Study of the Effect of Nanoparticles and Surface Morphology on Reverse Osmosis and Nanofiltration Membrane Productivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven J. Duranceau

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the significance of reverse osmosis (RO and nanofiltration (NF surface morphology on membrane performance, productivity experiments were conducted using flat-sheet membranes and three different nanoparticles, which included SiO2, TiO2 and CeO2. In this study, the productivity rate was markedly influenced by membrane surface morphology. Atomic force microscopy (AFM analysis of membrane surfaces revealed that the higher productivity decline rates associated with polyamide RO membranes as compared to that of a cellulose acetate NF membrane was due to the inherent ridge-and-valley morphology of the active layer. The unique polyamide active layer morphology was directly related to the surface roughness, and was found to contribute to particle accumulation in the valleys causing a higher flux decline than in smoother membranes. Extended RO productivity experiments using laboratory grade water and diluted pretreated seawater were conducted to compare the effect that different nanoparticles had on membrane active layers. Membrane flux decline was not affected by particle type when the feed water was laboratory grade water. On the other hand, membrane productivity was affected by particle type when pretreated diluted seawater served as feed water. It was found that CeO2 addition resulted in the least observable flux decline, followed by SiO2 and TiO2. A productivity simulation was conducted by fitting the monitored flux data into a cake growth rate model, where the model was modified using a finite difference method to incorporate surface thickness variation into the analysis. The ratio of cake growth term (k1 and particle back diffusion term (k2 was compared in between different RO and NF membranes. Results indicated that k2 was less significant for surfaces that exhibited a higher roughness. It was concluded that the valley areas of thin-film membrane surfaces have the ability to capture particles, limiting particle back diffusion.

  20. Morphological, hydrological, biogeochemical and ecological changes and challenges in river restoration - the Thur River case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schirmer, M.; Luster, J.; Linde, N.; Perona, P.; Mitchell, E. A. D.; Barry, D. A.; Hollender, J.; Cirpka, O. A.; Schneider, P.; Vogt, T.; Radny, D.; Durisch-Kaiser, E.

    2014-06-01

    River restoration can enhance river dynamics, environmental heterogeneity and biodiversity, but the underlying processes governing the dynamic changes need to be understood to ensure that restoration projects meet their goals, and adverse effects are prevented. In particular, we need to comprehend how hydromorphological variability quantitatively relates to ecosystem functioning and services, biodiversity as well as ground- and surface water quality in restored river corridors. This involves (i) physical processes and structural properties, determining erosion and sedimentation, as well as solute and heat transport behavior in surface water and within the subsurface; (ii) biogeochemical processes and characteristics, including the turnover of nutrients and natural water constituents; and (iii) ecological processes and indicators related to biodiversity and ecological functioning. All these aspects are interlinked, requiring an interdisciplinary investigation approach. Here, we present an overview of the recently completed RECORD (REstored CORridor Dynamics) project in which we combined physical, chemical, and biological observations with modeling at a restored river corridor of the perialpine Thur River in Switzerland. Our results show that river restoration, beyond inducing morphologic changes that reshape the river bed and banks, triggered complex spatial patterns of bank infiltration, and affected habitat type, biotic communities and biogeochemical processes. We adopted an interdisciplinary approach of monitoring the continuing changes due to restoration measures to address the following questions: How stable is the morphological variability established by restoration? Does morphological variability guarantee an improvement in biodiversity? How does morphological variability affect biogeochemical transformations in the river corridor? What are some potential adverse effects of river restoration? How is river restoration influenced by catchment-scale hydraulics

  1. THE MORPHOLOGY OF THE EJECTA IN SUPERNOVA 1987A: A STUDY OVER TIME AND WAVELENGTH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsson, Josefin [KTH, Department of Physics, and the Oskar Klein Centre, AlbaNova, SE-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden); Fransson, Claes; Lundqvist, Peter; Sollerman, Jesper [Department of Astronomy and the Oskar Klein Centre, Stockholm University, AlbaNova, SE-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden); Kjaer, Karina; Leibundgut, Bruno; Spyromilio, Jason [ESO, Karl-Schwarzschild-Strasse 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Jerkstrand, Anders [Astrophysics Research Centre, School of Maths and Physics, Queens University Belfast, Belfast BT7 1NN (United Kingdom); Kirshner, Robert P. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, MS-78, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Mattila, Seppo [Finnish Centre for Astronomy with ESO (FINCA), University of Turku, Vaeisaelaentie 20, FI-21500 Piikkioe (Finland); McCray, Richard [JILA, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309-0440 (United States); Wheeler, J. Craig [Department of Astronomy, University of Texas, Austin, TX 78712-0259 (United States)

    2013-05-01

    We present a study of the morphology of the ejecta in Supernova 1987A based on images and spectra from the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) as well as integral field spectroscopy from VLT/SINFONI. The HST observations were obtained between 1994 and 2011 and primarily probe the outer H-rich zones of the ejecta. The SINFONI observations were obtained in 2005 and 2011 and instead probe the [Si I]+[Fe II] emission from the inner regions. We find a strong temporal evolution of the morphology in the HST images, from a roughly elliptical shape before {approx}5000 days, to a more irregular, edge-brightened morphology with a ''hole'' in the middle thereafter. This transition is a natural consequence of the change in the dominant energy source powering the ejecta, from radioactive decay before {approx}5000 days to X-ray input from the circumstellar interaction thereafter. The [Si I]+[Fe II] images display a more uniform morphology, which may be due to a remaining significant contribution from radioactivity in the inner ejecta and the higher abundance of these elements in the core. Both the H{alpha} and the [Si I]+[Fe II] line profiles show that the ejecta are distributed fairly close to the plane of the inner circumstellar ring, which is assumed to define the rotational axis of the progenitor star. The H{alpha} emission extends to higher velocities than [Si I]+[Fe II], as expected from theoretical models. There is no clear symmetry axis for all the emission. Instead, we find that the emission is concentrated to clumps and that the emission is distributed somewhat closer to the ring in the north than in the south. This north-south asymmetry may be partially explained by dust absorption. We compare our results with explosion models and find some qualitative agreement, but note that the observations show a higher degree of large-scale asymmetry.

  2. Premature birth--Studies on orthodontic treatment need, craniofacial morphology and function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulsson, Liselotte

    2009-01-01

    A series of studies have been initiated implying a unique opportunity to evaluate and compare malocclusion traits, orthodontic treatment need, craniofacial morphology, mandibular function, signs and symptoms of temporomandibular disorders (TMD) and headache between extremely preterm (EPT; born before the 29th week of gestation) and very preterm (VPT; born between 29 and 32 weeks of gestation) and full-term born children. THIS THESIS WAS BASED ON FOUR STUDIES: Paper I. A systematic literature review was undertaken to answer the following questions: Does prematurity result in alterations of palatal morphology, dental occlusion, tooth-crown dimensions, tooth maturation and eruption? What role does neonatal oral intubation play in the appearance of the alterations? Are the alterations in morphology permanent or transient? The literature search spanned from January 1966 to November 2002 and was later extended to September 2008. Furthermore, a quality analysis of the methodological soundness of the studies in the review was performed. Paper II-IV. The aims were to compare EPT and VPT 8- to 10-year-old children with matched full-term controls considering: Prevalence of malocclusion traits and orthodontic treatment need (Paper II). Craniofacial morphology (Paper III). Mandibular function, signs and symptoms of TMD and headache (Paper IV). KEY FINDINGS IN PAPER I AND THE SUPPLEMENTARY SEARCH: Moderate scientific evidence existed for more malocclusion traits among premature children. Limited evidence was found for no delay in dental eruption, if corrected age was considered for the premature children. Insufficientwas considered for the premature children. Insufficient evidence was found for altered tooth-crown dimensions and permanent alteration of palatal morphology among prematurely children. Thus, further well-designed controlled studies which should also consider orthodontic treatment need, craniofacial morphology, TMD and headache are needed. KEY FINDINGS IN PAPER II

  3. Growth, morphology, spectral and thermal studies of gel grown diclofenac acid crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandran, E.; Ramukutty, S.

    2014-03-01

    The crystal growth of diclofenac acid in silica gel is the first to be reported in literature. The growth parameters were varied to optimize the suitable growth condition. Single crystal X-ray diffraction method was used for the conformation of the crystal structure. Morphology studies showed that the growth is prominent along the b-axis and the prominent face is {002}. Fourier transform infrared spectral study was performed to identify the functional groups present in the crystal. Thermal stability and decomposition of the material were analyzed using thermo calorimetry in the temperature range 30-500 °C.

  4. Study of the human encephalon morphology by computerized axial tomography in neurological diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loynaz Fernandez, Clara Silvia; Milan Companioni, Daile; Gomez Padron, Ivo; Alvarez Leon, Oladys; Espinosa Quiros, Desiderio

    2001-01-01

    Since the middle of the last century, the study of the human encephalon morphology has been of great interest for the researchers. With the introduction of the computerized axial tomography in 1974, it was possible to expand the knowledge about this area and at the same time provide information on the structural lesions that are pathologies of great psychosocial repercussion like epilepsy and Parkinsonism. This paper used 90 tomographic studies on people aged 20-80 years. A series of linear measurements were made and statistically processed. The results showed variations in linear measurements among control, epileptic and Parkinsonian subjects

  5. Morphological modelling of the response to a shipwreck - A case study at Cape Town

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Sten Esbjørn; Fredsoe, Jørgen; Deigaard, Rolf

    2012-01-01

    A simulation of the morphological development and degrade of a salient behind a shipwreck located north of Cape Town, South Africa is presented. The morphological model is based on a hybrid morphological model concept which combines a 2D coastal model for calculating sediment transport with a sim......A simulation of the morphological development and degrade of a salient behind a shipwreck located north of Cape Town, South Africa is presented. The morphological model is based on a hybrid morphological model concept which combines a 2D coastal model for calculating sediment transport...

  6. New approaches to obtaining scientific innovation in morphological studies of bladder transitional epithelium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O Popadynets

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To demonstrate the capabilities of cluster analysis in receiving scientific innovation results in morphological studies of cells of the bladder urothelium. Materials and methods.10 Wistar rats were used. Histological sections were stained with hematoxylin and eosin; electron microscope studies were  conducted; morphometry was performed in ImageJ and statistics – in studio-R using nonparametric methods and multivariate statistics. Results. A brief description of the main stages of cluster analysis shows way to determine the most important features of uroteliocytes and to reveal their heterogeneity, algorithms of Euclidean metrics and methods of clustering were described, the features of the application of the analysis in morphological studies were presented, an example of using these methods in searching for new results was presented, the models of morphological substantiation of clustering results were showed.  Conclusion: 1 cluster analysis provides a scientific novelty in studies of transitional epithelium of the bladder; 2 it is used in case of heterogeneity of cellular composition of urothelium that is detected with a help of coefficient of variation; 3 the most significant features of uroteliocytes are their cell area and their nuclei area; 4 new results on the number of clusters were obtained by method of Ward, and new data on their indicators – by k-means; 5 Euclidean metric is the best to use; 6 to assess the adequacy of the results pairwise comparisons between multiple clusters were carried out according to their indicators; 7 results are presented in dimentional projection and they characterize cellular composition of the urothelium as structural system and detect systemic effects.

  7. A study of the morphological aspects of the indium electrorefining process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PERICA PAUNOVIC

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available The cathodic deposition of In was performed under conditions suitable for electrorefining purposes. The main goal of the study was: i to determine the possibilities for In ultrapurification through multiple electrorefining with controlled parameters and ii to study the regularities of the morphology of the In deposit as influenced by the electrodeposition conditions. Without application of special high purity techniques, it was possible to obtain an In purity level of 99.997 %, by repeating the refining procedure in a set of modular electrolysis cells with forced electrolyte circulation and applying modified current regimes. Irregular (non planparallel migration of indium from the anode to the cathode and vice versa, as well as dendrite formation at the edges of the electrode prevented further repetition necessary for the achievment of higher purification levels. This provoked the need to study the morphology of the In-deposits. The phenomena and some regularities of In nucleation and grain growth, as influenced by the applied overpotential and quantity of current passed through the cell, were studied. Electrodeposition was performed onto a stationary Pt-electrode from a mixed sulfate–chloride solution. SEM with magnification up to 1000 × was used to identify the morphology of the deposits. Granular grains were dominant at overpotentials of 85 and 110 mV, while at 160 and 185 mV, needle-like and nonbranched dendrites were visible. The deposit became less compact as its thickness advanced. The apparent thickness of the In layer increased from 20–25 to 320–380 mm when the amount of charge was increased from 1 to 10 mA h cm-2.

  8. Study of surfaces and morphologies of proteic sol–gel derived barium aluminate nanopowders: An experimental and computational study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rezende, M.V. dos S.; Arrouvel, C.; Parker, S.C.; Rey, J.F.Q.; Valerio, M.E.G.

    2012-01-01

    BaAl 2 O 4 nanoparticles samples were prepared by sol–gel proteic route. The preparation of the precursor mixture and the formation of the ceramic product were monitored using TG/DTA, X-ray diffraction (XRD), electron microscopy (SEM, TEM). The results show that sol–gel proteic route is a reliable method for the synthesis of pure BaAl 2 O 4 powders and that irregular hexagonal facetted nanoparticles are observed. Atomistic modeling was used to calculate the structures and energies of 24 (hkl) surfaces and to evaluate morphologies of BaAl 2 O 4 at the thermodynamic and pseudo-kinetic equilibrium. The calculations show that the two most stable surfaces are the (001) and (011) with a surface energy of 1.33 J m −2 and 1.36 J m −2 respectively and that the predicted morphologies are in accord with experiment. -- Highlights: ► Experimental and atomistic simulation techniques to study surfaces and morphologies of pure hexagonal BaAl 2 O 4 phase. ► The irregular hexagonal facetted nanoparticles are observed. ► The kinetic morphology is elongated with a hexagonal termination. ► The most stable surfaces are the (001) and (011) with a surface energy of 1.33 J m −2 .

  9. Relationship between the morphological variation of sella turcica with age and gender: A digital radiographic study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talkad Subbaiah Mahesh Kumar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Sella turcica is a saddle-shaped concavity located in the middle cranial fossa of the skull. The exact dimensions of sella turcica are an important consideration in the diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment of diseases related to the pituitary gland and brain. The sella turcica size and morphology is different from person to person. Thus, obtaining any data in this regard will be a great help in detecting abnormalities within this anatomic area. Aim: The objective of this study was to find out the correlation between the morphological variations of sella turcica with age and gender. Materials and Methods: Study sample consisted of 311 cephalograms of patients with age ranging 6–40 years. The contour of the sella turcica was traced and the linear measurements – length, depth, and diameter of sella turcica – were measured according to Silverman. Results: Morphology of sella turcica appeared to be normal shape in 27.3% of the study population followed by combination (26.7%, irregular (15.8%, pyramidal (10.6%, bridge (10%, oblique anterior wall (5.5%, and double contour (4.2%. Gender-wise comparison of the linear measurement was not statistically significant. Among the linear measurement, the parameter depth and diameter were statistically significant (P < 0.001 when correlated with age. On comparison of shape of sella turcica with linear measurements, the parameter length was statistically significant (P < 0.001. Conclusion: There is no significant relationship between the linear measurements and gender. There exists a significant relationship between the mean depth and mean diameter with age. That is, as age increases, the depth and diameter increase. There is a significant relationship between the length and the different shapes of sella turcica.

  10. A Genome-Wide Association Study Identifies Five Loci Influencing Facial Morphology in Europeans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fan; van der Lijn, Fedde; Schurmann, Claudia; Zhu, Gu; Chakravarty, M. Mallar; Hysi, Pirro G.; Wollstein, Andreas; Lao, Oscar; de Bruijne, Marleen; Ikram, M. Arfan; van der Lugt, Aad; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Uitterlinden, André G.; Hofman, Albert; Niessen, Wiro J.; Homuth, Georg; de Zubicaray, Greig; McMahon, Katie L.; Thompson, Paul M.; Daboul, Amro; Puls, Ralf; Hegenscheid, Katrin; Bevan, Liisa; Pausova, Zdenka; Medland, Sarah E.; Montgomery, Grant W.; Wright, Margaret J.; Wicking, Carol; Boehringer, Stefan; Spector, Timothy D.; Paus, Tomáš; Martin, Nicholas G.; Biffar, Reiner; Kayser, Manfred

    2012-01-01

    Inter-individual variation in facial shape is one of the most noticeable phenotypes in humans, and it is clearly under genetic regulation; however, almost nothing is known about the genetic basis of normal human facial morphology. We therefore conducted a genome-wide association study for facial shape phenotypes in multiple discovery and replication cohorts, considering almost ten thousand individuals of European descent from several countries. Phenotyping of facial shape features was based on landmark data obtained from three-dimensional head magnetic resonance images (MRIs) and two-dimensional portrait images. We identified five independent genetic loci associated with different facial phenotypes, suggesting the involvement of five candidate genes—PRDM16, PAX3, TP63, C5orf50, and COL17A1—in the determination of the human face. Three of them have been implicated previously in vertebrate craniofacial development and disease, and the remaining two genes potentially represent novel players in the molecular networks governing facial development. Our finding at PAX3 influencing the position of the nasion replicates a recent GWAS of facial features. In addition to the reported GWA findings, we established links between common DNA variants previously associated with NSCL/P at 2p21, 8q24, 13q31, and 17q22 and normal facial-shape variations based on a candidate gene approach. Overall our study implies that DNA variants in genes essential for craniofacial development contribute with relatively small effect size to the spectrum of normal variation in human facial morphology. This observation has important consequences for future studies aiming to identify more genes involved in the human facial morphology, as well as for potential applications of DNA prediction of facial shape such as in future forensic applications. PMID:23028347

  11. A genome-wide association study identifies five loci influencing facial morphology in Europeans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan Liu

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Inter-individual variation in facial shape is one of the most noticeable phenotypes in humans, and it is clearly under genetic regulation; however, almost nothing is known about the genetic basis of normal human facial morphology. We therefore conducted a genome-wide association study for facial shape phenotypes in multiple discovery and replication cohorts, considering almost ten thousand individuals of European descent from several countries. Phenotyping of facial shape features was based on landmark data obtained from three-dimensional head magnetic resonance images (MRIs and two-dimensional portrait images. We identified five independent genetic loci associated with different facial phenotypes, suggesting the involvement of five candidate genes--PRDM16, PAX3, TP63, C5orf50, and COL17A1--in the determination of the human face. Three of them have been implicated previously in vertebrate craniofacial development and disease, and the remaining two genes potentially represent novel players in the molecular networks governing facial development. Our finding at PAX3 influencing the position of the nasion replicates a recent GWAS of facial features. In addition to the reported GWA findings, we established links between common DNA variants previously associated with NSCL/P at 2p21, 8q24, 13q31, and 17q22 and normal facial-shape variations based on a candidate gene approach. Overall our study implies that DNA variants in genes essential for craniofacial development contribute with relatively small effect size to the spectrum of normal variation in human facial morphology. This observation has important consequences for future studies aiming to identify more genes involved in the human facial morphology, as well as for potential applications of DNA prediction of facial shape such as in future forensic applications.

  12. MORPHOLOGICAL AND ANATOMICAL STUDY OF THE GRASS OF VERONICA SPICATA L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Kovalyova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of morphological and anatomical studies of Veronica spicata L. Macro- and microscopic features of the grass of Veronica spicata were described. We have determined the principal diagnostic features of leaves and stems of the plant’s active parts. We have found two types of trichomes in active parts of Veronica spicata L.: simple pluricellular fuzz and cephalated glandular fuzz with monocellular pedicle and monocellular or bicellular sphere-like capitulum, anomcytic stomatal apparatus.

  13. Effect of anti-GM2 antibodies on rat sciatic nerve: electrophysiological and morphological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, Nicolau; Sabaté, M Mar; Garcia, Neus; Santafe, Manel M; Lanuza, M Angel; Tomàs, Marta; Tomàs, Josep

    2009-03-31

    We found that a monoclonal human IgM anti-GM2 was fixed in rat sciatic axons and Schwann cells and was able to activate human complement. The passive transfer of IgM and complement in sciatic nerves can induce an acute alteration in nerve conduction. When the transfer of IgM plus complement was repeated for 10 days, the compound action motor potential amplitude was very low and the morphological study showed axons and myelin damage. Without human complement, IgM can only slightly disorganize the myelin by separating some layers, probably by interfering with the functional role of gangliosides in the myelin package.

  14. Root canal morphology and variations of mandibular premolars by clearing technique: an in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parekh, Vaishali; Shah, Nimisha; Joshi, Hardik

    2011-07-01

    The aim of this study was to compare internal anatomy between first and second mandibular premolars and to study different percentage variations of root canal morphology of mandibular premolars in Gujarat population based on Vertucci's classification by clearing technique. A total of 80 extracted intact permanent mandibular premolars (40 each mandibular first premolar and mandibular second premolar) with fully formed apices were collected. Access cavity was prepared with endo access kit, all samples were placed in 2.5% sodium hypochlorite for 48 hours, after that all samples were washed in running water for 2 hours. After washing, all samples were transferred to 5% nitric acid, for decalcification, for 72 hours, with the acid being changed every 24 hours and stirred once every 8 hours. All samples were washed in running water and dehydrated using ascending grades (70%, 80%, 90% and 100%) of isopropyl alcohol for 2 days. Finally, they were rendered transparent by immersion in methyl salicylate for 15 minutes and then India ink dye was injected into the access cavity. The anatomy of the root canal was observed and classified based on the Vertucci's classification. Parametric Z-test was used to compare the variation between mandibular first and second premolars. In mandibular first premolar, type 1 was found in 20%, type 2 was 5%, type 3 was 5%, type 4 was 25%, type 5 was 12.5% and type 6 was 2.5% of total samples. Whereas, in mandibular second premolar, type 1 was found in 80% out of all samples, type 4 was 2.5%, type 5 was 17.5%. Type 2, type 3, type 6, type 7 and type 8 were not found in this study. Mandibular first premolar showed higher variation (75%) compared to mandibular second premolar (37.5%). The knowledge of variations in the root canal morphology of the mandibular premolars can enhance the level of endodontic treatment of mandibular premolars. Root canal morphology, Vertucci's classification, Clearing technique. How to cite this article: Parekh V, Shah N

  15. Morphological study of electrodeposited copper under the influence of ultrasound and low temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mallik, A.; Ray, B.C.

    2009-01-01

    The effects of temperature and cavitation on the electrochemistry principle were experimented here by adding the impact of sonication to synthesize ultrafine grained deposits at low temperatures. The X-ray diffraction analysis and microscopic studies confirmed the nanorange deposit. Scanning electron microscopy images have also confirmed the powdery and highly scattered deposits in silent conditions. Ultrasound was found to have a significant effect on the deposit morphology. The deposit obtained was compact, uniform and adherent. Energy dispersive spectroscopy result of the deposits revealed an oxidized silent deposit along with some adsorbed sulfur onto the electrode surface. In contrary the in situ cleaning associated with sonication has resulted in cleaner deposits.

  16. Fluorine-doped NiO nanostructures: Structural, morphological and spectroscopic studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Kulwinder; Kumar, Manjeet; Singh, Dilpreet; Singh, Manjinder; Singh, Paviter; Singh, Bikramjeet; Kaur, Gurpreet; Bala, Rajni; Thakur, Anup; Kumar, Akshay

    2018-05-01

    Nanostructured NiO has been prepared by co-precipitation method. In this study, the effect of fluorine doping (1, 3 and 5 wt. %) on the structural, morphological as well as optical properties of NiO nanostructures has been studied. X-ray diffraction (XRD) has employed for studying the structural properties. Cubic crystal structure of NiO was confirmed by the XRD analysis. Crystallite size increased with increase in doping concentration. Nelson-Riley factor (NRF) analysis indicated the presence of defect states in the synthesized samples. Field emission scanning electron microscopy showed the spherical morphology of the synthesized samples and also revealed that the particle size varied with dopant content. The optical properties were studied using UV-Visible Spectroscopy. The results indicated that the band gap energy of the synthesized nanostructures decreased with increase in doping concentration upto 3% but increased as the doping concentration was further raised to 5%. This can be ascribed to the defect states variations in the synthesized samples. The results suggested that the synthesized nanostructures are promising candidate for optoelectronic as well as gas sensing applications.

  17. Computational Nonlinear Morphology with Emphasis on Semitic Languages. Studies in Natural Language Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiraz, George Anton

    This book presents a tractable computational model that can cope with complex morphological operations, especially in Semitic languages, and less complex morphological systems present in Western languages. It outlines a new generalized regular rewrite rule system that uses multiple finite-state automata to cater to root-and-pattern morphology,…

  18. Synthetical bone-like and biological hydroxyapatites: a comparative study of crystal structure and morphology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Markovic, Smilja; Veselinovic, Ljiljana; Lukic, Miodrag J; Ignjatovic, Nenad; Uskokovic, Dragan [Institute of Technical Sciences of the Serbian Academy of Sciences and Arts, Knez Mihailova 35/IV, 11001 Belgrade (Serbia); Karanovic, Ljiljana [Laboratory for Crystallography, Faculty of Mining and Geology, University of Belgrade, Dusina 7, 11000 Belgrade (Serbia); Bracko, Ines, E-mail: dragan.uskokovic@itn.sanu.ac.rs [Jozef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2011-08-15

    Phase composition, crystal structure and morphology of biological hydroxyapatite (BHAp) extracted from human mandible bone, and carbonated hydroxyapatite (CHAp), synthesized by the chemical precipitation method, were studied by x-ray powder diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and Raman (R) spectroscopy techniques, combined with transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Structural and microstructural parameters were determined through Rietveld refinement of recorded XRD data, performed using the FullProf computing program, and TEM. Microstructural analysis shows anisotropic extension along the [0 0 l] crystallographic direction (i.e. elongated crystallites shape) of both investigated samples. The average crystallite sizes of 10 and 8 nm were estimated for BHAp and CHAp, respectively. The FTIR and R spectroscopy studies show that carbonate ions substitute both phosphate and hydroxyl ions in the crystal structure of BHAp as well as in CHAp, indicating that both of them are mixed AB-type of CHAp. The thermal behaviour and carbonate content were analysed using thermogravimetric and differential thermal analysis. The carbonate content of about 1 wt.% and phase transition, at near 790 {sup 0}C, from HAp to {beta}-tricalcium phosphate were determined in both samples. The quality of synthesized CHAp powder, particularly, the particle size distribution and uniformity of morphology, was analysed by a particle size analyser based on laser diffraction and field emission scanning electron microscopy, respectively. These data were used to discuss similarity between natural and synthetic CHAp. Good correlation between the unit cell parameters, average crystallite size, morphology, carbonate content and crystallographic positions of carbonate ions in natural and synthetic HAp samples was found.

  19. A Quantitative Golgi Study of Dendritic Morphology in the Mice Striatal Medium Spiny Neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Hladnik

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study we have provided a detailed quantitative morphological analysis of medium spiny neurons (MSNs in the mice dorsal striatum and determined the consistency of values among three groups of animals obtained in different set of experiments. Dendritic trees of 162 Golgi Cox (FD Rapid GolgiStain Kit impregnated MSNs from 15 adult C57BL/6 mice were 3-dimensionally reconstructed using Neurolucida software, and parameters of dendritic morphology have been compared among experimental groups. The parameters of length and branching pattern did not show statistically significant difference and were highly consistent among groups. The average neuronal soma surface was between 160 μm2 and 180 μm2, and the cells had 5–6 primary dendrites with close to 40 segments per neuron. Sholl analysis confirmed regular pattern of dendritic branching. The total length of dendrites was around 2100 μm with the average length of individual branching (intermediate segment around 22 μm and for the terminal segment around 100 μm. Even though each experimental group underwent the same strictly defined protocol in tissue preparation and Golgi staining, we found inconsistency in dendritic volume and soma surface. These changes could be methodologically influenced during the Golgi procedure, although without affecting the dendritic length and tree complexity. Since the neuronal activity affects the dendritic thickness, it could not be excluded that observed volume inconsistency was related with functional states of neurons prior to animal sacrifice. Comprehensive analyses of tree complexity and dendritic length provided here could serve as an additional tool for understanding morphological variability in the most numerous neuronal population of the striatum. As reference values they could provide basic ground for comparisons with the results obtained in studies that use various models of genetically modified mice in explaining different pathological conditions that

  20. Synthetical bone-like and biological hydroxyapatites: a comparative study of crystal structure and morphology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markovic, Smilja; Veselinovic, Ljiljana; Lukic, Miodrag J; Ignjatovic, Nenad; Uskokovic, Dragan; Karanovic, Ljiljana; Bracko, Ines

    2011-01-01

    Phase composition, crystal structure and morphology of biological hydroxyapatite (BHAp) extracted from human mandible bone, and carbonated hydroxyapatite (CHAp), synthesized by the chemical precipitation method, were studied by x-ray powder diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and Raman (R) spectroscopy techniques, combined with transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Structural and microstructural parameters were determined through Rietveld refinement of recorded XRD data, performed using the FullProf computing program, and TEM. Microstructural analysis shows anisotropic extension along the [0 0 l] crystallographic direction (i.e. elongated crystallites shape) of both investigated samples. The average crystallite sizes of 10 and 8 nm were estimated for BHAp and CHAp, respectively. The FTIR and R spectroscopy studies show that carbonate ions substitute both phosphate and hydroxyl ions in the crystal structure of BHAp as well as in CHAp, indicating that both of them are mixed AB-type of CHAp. The thermal behaviour and carbonate content were analysed using thermogravimetric and differential thermal analysis. The carbonate content of about 1 wt.% and phase transition, at near 790 0 C, from HAp to β-tricalcium phosphate were determined in both samples. The quality of synthesized CHAp powder, particularly, the particle size distribution and uniformity of morphology, was analysed by a particle size analyser based on laser diffraction and field emission scanning electron microscopy, respectively. These data were used to discuss similarity between natural and synthetic CHAp. Good correlation between the unit cell parameters, average crystallite size, morphology, carbonate content and crystallographic positions of carbonate ions in natural and synthetic HAp samples was found.

  1. A study of root canal morphology of human primary incisors and molars using cone beam computerized tomography: An in vitro study

    OpenAIRE

    Vivek Gaurav; Nikhil Srivastava; Vivek Rana; Vivek Kumar Adlakha

    2013-01-01

    Background: Variations in morphology of root canals in primary teeth usually leads to complications during and after endodontic therapy. To improve the success in endodontics, a thorough knowledge of the root canal morphology is essential. Aim: The aim of this study was to assess the variation in number and morphology of the root canals of primary incisors and molars and to study the applicability of cone beam computerized tomography (CBCT) in assessing the same. Settings and Design: A total ...

  2. Nanocrystalline SnO2 thin films: Structural, morphological, electrical transport and optical studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakhare, R.D.; Khuspe, G.D.; Navale, S.T.; Mulik, R.N.; Chougule, M.A.; Pawar, R.C.; Lee, C.S.; Sen, Shashwati; Patil, V.B.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Novel chemical route of synthesis of SnO 2 films. ► Physical properties SnO 2 are influenced by process temperature. ► The room temperature electrical conductivity of SnO 2 is of 10 −7 –10 −5 (Ω cm) −1 . ► SnO 2 exhibit high absorption coefficient (10 4 cm −1 ). -- Abstract: Sol–gel spin coating method has been successfully employed for preparation of nanocrystalline tin oxide (SnO 2 ) thin films. The effect of processing temperature on the structure, morphology, electrical conductivity, thermoelectric power and band gap was studied using X-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, selected area electron diffraction pattern, atomic force microscopy, two probe technique and UV–visible spectroscopy. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis showed that SnO 2 films are crystallized in the tetragonal phase and present a random orientation. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) analysis revealed that surface morphology of the tin oxide film consists nanocrystalline grains with uniform coverage of the substrate surface. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) of SnO 2 film showed nanocrystals having diameter ranging from 5 to 10 nm. Selected area electron diffraction (SAED) pattern confirms tetragonal phase evolution of SnO 2 . Atomic force microscopy (AFM) analysis showed surface morphology of SnO 2 film is smooth. The dc electrical conductivity showed the semiconducting nature with room temperature electrical conductivity increased from 10 −7 to 10 −5 (Ω cm) −1 as processing temperature increased from 400 to 700 °C. Thermo power measurement confirms n-type conduction. The band gap energy of SnO 2 film decreased from 3.88 to 3.60 eV as processing temperature increased from 400 to 700 °C

  3. A Morphology Study of Nanofiller Networks in Polymer Nanocomposites: Improving Their Electrical Conductivity through Better Doping Strategies

    KAUST Repository

    Mora Cordova, Angel

    2018-01-01

    to systematically analyze conductive networks and show how particles are arranged. A definition of loading efficiency is provided based on the results obtained from this morphology analysis. This study provides useful guidelines for designing these types

  4. Morphology study of nanofibers produced by extraction from polymer blend fibers using image processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dehghan, Neda; Tavanaie, Mohammad Ali; Payvandy, Pedram

    2015-01-01

    The morphology of nanofibers extracted from the industrial-scale produced polypropylene/polybutylene terephthalate (PP/PBT) blend fibers was studied. To study the morphology and diameter measurements of the nanofibers, image processing method was used, and the results were compared with the results of a conventional visual method. Comparing these two methods indicated the good performance of image processing methods for the measuring of nanofiber diameter. Among the various applied image processing methods, the fuzzy c-means (FCM) method was determined as the best for image thresholding. Additionally, the distance transform method was determined as the best way for measuring nanofiber diameter. According to high regression coefficient (R=0.98) resulting between the draw ratio and nanofibers diameter, the high effectiveness of draw ratio to nanofiber diameter is concluded. The spherical (drop) shapes of the PBT dispersed phase particles were eventually deformed into very thin fibrils during the drawing process. The results of measuring the nanofiber diameters showed that the diameter means of nanofibers varied from 420 nm to 175 nm with the highest draw ratio. Good uniformity for diameter of nanofibers was observed, which had not been observed in previous works.

  5. Chromosomal and morphological studies of diploid and polyploid cytotypes of Stevia rebaudiana (Bertoni Bertoni (Eupatorieae, Asteraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa M. de Oliveira

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we examined the chromosome number and some morphological features of strains of Stevia rebaudiana. The chromosomes were analyzed during mitosis and diakinesis, and the tetrad normality and pollen viability were also assessed. In addition, stomata and pollen were measured and some plant features were studied morphometrically. All of the strains had 2n = 22, except for two, which had 2n = 33 and 2n = 44. Pairing at diakinesis was n = 11II for all of the diploid strains, whereas the triploid and tetraploid strains had n = 11III and n = 11IV, respectively. Triploid and tetraploid plants had a lower tetrad normality rate than the diploids. All of the strains had inviable pollen. Thus, the higher the ploidy number, the greater the size of the pollen and the stomata, and the lower their number per unit area. The triploid strain produced the shortest plants and the lowest number of inflorescences, whereas the tetraploid strain had the largest leaves. Analysis of variance revealed highly significant differences among the strains, with a positive correlation between the level of ploidy and all of the morphological features examined.

  6. Effect of two bleaching agents on enamel morphology: a SEM study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghavam M.

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Statement of Problem: Bleaching materials are able to change the surface morphology as well as mineral and organic content of tooth structure. Considering that bleaching is done for aesthetic purpose, awareness of the possible effect of these materials on hard tissue is important, because it may affect the restorative treatments. Purpose: The aim of this study was comparing the effect of two bleaching materials, Kimia and Ultradent both containing 35% H2O2, on tooth enamel by SEM. Materials and Methods: Five intact central incisors were cut into three sections vertically and each part was randomly divided into three groups. Group 1 (control, without any bleaching. Group 2, bleached with Kimia 35% H2O2. Group 3, bleached with Ultradent 35% H2O2. Each tooth served as its own control. Then the samples were observed by SEM with 250 and 500 magnifications. Results: In the control group some scratches and small white grains were observed which seems to be the result of mastication trauma and pumice powder. In the other groups, morphologic changes like increased surface roughness, deepening of cracks, rod exposure and presence of new cracks were observed. The two experimental materials did not differ in these regards. Conclusion: It seems that both studied materials have limited destructive effects on tooth enamel which seems to be of no clinical importance.

  7. Studies on the Optical Properties and Surface Morphology of Cobalt Phthalocyanine Thin Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benny Joseph

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Thin films of Cobalt Phthalocyanine (CoPc are fabricated at a base pressure of 10-5 m.bar using Hind-Hivac thermal evaporation plant. The films are deposited on to glass substrates at various temperatures 318, 363, 408 and 458K. The optical absorption spectra of these thin films are measured. The present studies reveal that the optical band gap energies of CoPc thin films are almost same on substrate temperature variation. The structure and surface morphology of the films deposited on glass substrates of temperatures 303, 363 and 458K are studied using X-ray diffractograms and Scanning Electron Micrographs (SEM, which show that there is a change in the crystallinity and surface morphology due to change in the substrate temperatures. Full width at half maximum (FWHM intensity of the diffraction peaks is also found reduced with increasing substrate temperatures. Scanning electron micrographs show that these crystals are needle like, which are interconnected at high substrate temperatures. The optical band gap energy is almost same on substrate temperature variation. Trap energy levels are also observed for these films.

  8. Epidemiological and morphological studies of double-chambered right ventricle in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukushima, Ryuji; Tanaka, Ryou; Suzuki, Shuji; Hamabe, Rina; Machida, Noboru; Nakao, Shu; Saida, Yuto; Takashima, Kazuaki; Matsumoto, Hirotaka; Koyama, Hidekazu; Hirose, Hisashi; Yamane, Yoshihisa

    2011-10-01

    The double-chambered right ventricle (DCRV) is a rare congenital cardiac disease in dogs, and its detailed epidemiological and morphological features are not clearly understood. By investigating the profile, clinical signs, and characteristics of examination findings of eleven dogs with DCRV by means of a retrospective study, we attempted to clarify the epidemiology and morphology of the condition. The study group consisted of nine males and two females. Breeds included Pug (n=3), Miniature Dachshund (n=1), French Bull-dog (n=1), Shiba (n=1), and Retrievers (n=5). The attachment site of the anomalous muscular bundle was continuous with the cardiac apex in nine dogs, and it was attached to the right ventricle free wall in the other two dogs. In dogs with DCRV, at least one of the following conditions was present concurrently: congenital or acquired tricuspid valve regurgitation (TR), ventricular septal defect, and atrial septal defect. Also, the pressure difference between the two chambers increased over time, and progressive right-sided heart failure was observed. In summary, DCRV occurs in small breeds of dog as well as in large breeds of dog and it may be more prevalent in males. The existence of two types of DCRV in dogs was established. Dog with DCRVs will have a high incidence of concurrent cardiac abnormalities. Concurrent TR may be either congenital or acquired. DCRV is a congenital disorder, but the clinical condition progresses as the dog develops.

  9. Morphology study of nanofibers produced by extraction from polymer blend fibers using image processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dehghan, Neda; Tavanaie, Mohammad Ali; Payvandy, Pedram [University of Yazd, Yazd (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-09-15

    The morphology of nanofibers extracted from the industrial-scale produced polypropylene/polybutylene terephthalate (PP/PBT) blend fibers was studied. To study the morphology and diameter measurements of the nanofibers, image processing method was used, and the results were compared with the results of a conventional visual method. Comparing these two methods indicated the good performance of image processing methods for the measuring of nanofiber diameter. Among the various applied image processing methods, the fuzzy c-means (FCM) method was determined as the best for image thresholding. Additionally, the distance transform method was determined as the best way for measuring nanofiber diameter. According to high regression coefficient (R=0.98) resulting between the draw ratio and nanofibers diameter, the high effectiveness of draw ratio to nanofiber diameter is concluded. The spherical (drop) shapes of the PBT dispersed phase particles were eventually deformed into very thin fibrils during the drawing process. The results of measuring the nanofiber diameters showed that the diameter means of nanofibers varied from 420 nm to 175 nm with the highest draw ratio. Good uniformity for diameter of nanofibers was observed, which had not been observed in previous works.

  10. A Study on the Effect of Electrodeposition Parameters on the Morphology of Porous Nickel Electrodeposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengupta, Srijan; Patra, Arghya; Jena, Sambedan; Das, Karabi; Das, Siddhartha

    2018-03-01

    In this study, the electrodeposition of nickel foam by dynamic hydrogen bubble-template method is optimized, and the effects of key deposition parameters (applied voltage and deposition time) and bath composition (concentration of Ni2+, pH of the bath, and roles of Cl- and SO4 2- ions) on pore size, distribution, and morphology and crystal structure are studied. Nickel deposit from 0.1 M NiCl2 bath concentration is able to produce the honeycomb-like structure with regular-sized holes. Honeycomb-like structure with cauliflower morphology is deposited at higher applied voltages of 7, 8, and 9 V; and a critical time (>3 minutes) is required for the development of the foamy structure. Compressive residual stresses are developed in the porous electrodeposits after 30 seconds of deposition time (-189.0 MPa), and the nature of the residual stress remains compressive upto 10 minutes of deposition time (-1098.6 MPa). Effect of pH is more pronounced in a chloride bath compared with a sulfate bath. The increasing nature of pore size in nickel electrodeposits plated from a chloride bath (varying from 21 to 48 μm), and the constant pore size (in the range of 22 to 24 μm) in deposits plated from a sulfate bath, can be ascribed to the striking difference in the magnitude of the corresponding current-time profiles.

  11. Studies of corrosion morphologies by use of experiments and computer models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnsen, Terje

    1997-12-31

    CO{sub 2} corrosion of carbon steel is frequently encountered in the oil industry. This thesis studies the morphology of corroded metals and the dynamical evolution of corrosion attacks, especially pits and general corroded fronts, experimentally and by computerized simulation. Two experimental systems of carbon steel in CO{sub 2} bearing waters and aluminium in chloride containing electrolytes were used. Fractal geometry was used in analysing the corrosion patterns and found to be a fruitful technique. The position of the corroding fronts was obtained by destructive methods as well as non-destructive ones. To study fragile corrosion product layers or the corrosion process in situ, a grazing angle lighting technique was developed and found superior to other techniques. A computer model was developed that uses Monte Carlo technique to simulate the generation of localized pits and more general corroded front morphologies. A three-dimensional model and two versions of a two-dimensional model were developed. The three-dimensional model was used to provide incremental data of corroded volume and depth as a function of the simulation time. 185 refs., 97 figs., 16 tabs.

  12. A comparative study of different bleaching agents on the morphology of human enamel: an in vitro SEM study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uthappa, Roshan; Suprith, M L; Bhandary, Shreetha; Dash, Sumit

    2012-11-01

    The purpose of the study was to compare two different commercial bleaching agents, Opalescence with Colgate Platinum, and 30% phosphoric acid used as aggressive agent on the morphology of human enamel. Ten freshly extracted, noncarious, human maxillary central incisors extracted for periodontal reasons were used in this study. The labial surface of the disinfected teeth were polished using a polishing paste with the help of rubber cup and a slow speed handpiece. Each tooth was sectioned at cement-enamel junction and the crown was separated into four specimens, all taken from labial surface. Group 1 was treated with Colgate Platinum for 7 hours, group 2 with Opalescence for 7 hours, group 3 was treated with 30% phosphoric acid for 30 seconds and group 4 was untreated and used as control. After the treatment period, the specimens were washed with normal saline and stored in sterile bottle and sealed. Photomicrographs obtained from the scanning electron microscopy (SEM) after surface treatments were examined for no alteration, slight alteration, moderate alteration and severe alterations. The specimens treated with commercial bleaching agents revealed no enamel surface morphologic alterations compared to control group. The specimen treated with phosphoric acid showed severe alterations. Ten percent carbamide peroxide evaluated in this study does not etch tooth enamel or alter enamel surface morphology as do conventional etching techniques. Carbamine peroxide is a safe and effective tooth whitening agent even when used for extended period of time. The enamel surface remains smooth which reduces caries due to plaque collection.

  13. Comparative Study of Mandibular Morphology in Patients with Hypodivergent and Hyperdivergent Growth Patterns: A Cephalometric Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roopa Sidde Gowda

    2013-01-01

    Materials and methods: As sample of 60 subjects in the age group of 12 to 18 years were selected, out of them 20 subjects were average growing patients, 20 subjects were hypodivergent patterns and 20 subjects were hyperdivergent patterns. Bjork′s signs of mandibular rotation were used to differentiate between them. Mandibular morphological differences were exhibited by the hypodivergent and hyperdivergent groups. Results and conclusion: According to the results, condylar head is inclined more backwardly in hyperdivergent patterns and more forwardly in hypodivergent pattern. Inferior border of mandible has a notched appearance in hyperdivergent and is almost flat in hypodivergent patterns. Anterior lower facial height is increased in hyperdivergent and decreased in hypodivergent patterns. Interincisal and intermolar angles are more mesially inclined in hyperdivergent than hypodivergent patterns. Symphysis is more forwardly inclined in case of hypodivergent and backwardly inclined in hyperdivergent patterns.

  14. Study of the morphology of corrosion features of natural graphite oxidised by dry and humid air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Senevat, Jean

    1965-12-01

    The author reports a study which aimed at highlighting the morphology differences between corrosion features which affect flakes of natural graphite oxidised by dry air and by humid air. The study is based on observations made by optical and transmission electronic microscopy, this last one being performed on replicates. As the so-called 'Hennig' replicates did not result in a sufficient resolution of corrosion feature details, another method has been developed. Three classes of samples (in relationship with the rate of impurities present in samples) have been studied. Flakes have thus been sorted and each flake has then been oxidised at different wear rates. This highlights the influence of damages created by impurities in the lattice [fr

  15. Early effects of trimethyltin on the dentate gyrus basket cells: a morphological study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, L.W.; Dyer, R.S.

    1985-01-01

    Electrophysiological evidence for reduction of recurrent inhibition in the dentate gyrus in animals exposed to trimethyltin (TMT) suggested alterations in the inhibitory neurons (basket cells) by TMT. The present study was designed to investigate the morphology of basket cells after TMT exposure. Long-Evans hooded rats were injected with TMT chloride in a dose of 6.0 mg/kg body weight (b.w.). Tissue samples from the dentate gyri were examined by both light and electron microscopy at 24 and 72 h after TMT exposure. Except for isolated basket cell damage at 72 h, no remarkable pathological changes were observed with light microscopy. Consistent with previous data, electron microscopy revealed that the basket cells of the dentate gyrus are large neurons situated just below the granule cell layer with characteristic large, infolded nuclei and intranuclear filamentous rods. Increased cytoplasmic density and degenerative changes of the Golgi complex were evident in the basket cells as early as 24 h after TMT exposure. By 72 h, neuronal vacuolation, accumulation of lysosomes, and occasional neuronal necrosis were observed. No significant pathological changes were found among the granule cells at this time. This report provides the first morphological evidence for early damage to the basket cells by TMT, which may account for the reduction of recurrent inhibition and hyperexcitability among the granule cells reported previously.

  16. Gum ghatti based novel electrically conductive biomaterials: A study of conductivity and surface morphology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kalia

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Gum ghatti-cl-poly(acrylamide-aniline interpenetrating network (IPN was synthesized by a two-step aqueous polymerization method, in which aniline monomer was absorbed into the network of gum ghatti-cl-poly(acrylamide and followed by a polymerization reaction between aniline monomers. Initially, semi-IPN based on acrylamide and gum ghatti was prepared by free-radical copolymerization in aqueous media with optimized process parameters, using N,N'-methylenebis-acrylamide, as cross-linker and ammonium persulfate, as an initiator system. Optimum reaction conditions affording maximum percentage swelling were: solvent [mL] =12, Acrylamide (AAm [mol•L–1] = 1.971, Ammonium peroxydisulfate (APS [mol•L–1] = 0.131•10–1, N,N'-methylene-bis-acrylamide (MBA [mol•L–1] = 0.162•10–1, reaction time [min] = 210, temperature [°C] = 100 and pH = 7.0. The resulting IPN was doped with different protonic acids. The effect of the doping has been investigated on the conductivity and surface morphology of the IPN hydrogel. The maximum conductivity was observed with 1.5N HClO4 concentration. The morphological, structural and electrical properties of the candidate polymers were studied using scanning electron micrscopy (SEM, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy FTIR and two-probe method, respectively.

  17. Calcium incorporation in graphene oxide particles: A morphological, chemical, electrical, and thermal study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro, Kelly L.S. [Instituto Nacional de Metrologia, Qualidade e Tecnologia, Av. Nossa Sra. das Graças, 50, 25250-020 Duque de Caxias (Brazil); Instituto de Química, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Av. Athos da Silveira Ramos, 149, 21941-909 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Curti, Raphael V.; Araujo, Joyce R.; Landi, Sandra M.; Ferreira, Erlon H.M.; Neves, Rodrigo S.; Kuznetsov, Alexei; Sena, Lidia A. [Instituto Nacional de Metrologia, Qualidade e Tecnologia, Av. Nossa Sra. das Graças, 50, 25250-020 Duque de Caxias (Brazil); Archanjo, Braulio S., E-mail: bsarchanjo@inmetro.gov.br [Instituto Nacional de Metrologia, Qualidade e Tecnologia, Av. Nossa Sra. das Graças, 50, 25250-020 Duque de Caxias (Brazil); Achete, Carlos A. [Instituto Nacional de Metrologia, Qualidade e Tecnologia, Av. Nossa Sra. das Graças, 50, 25250-020 Duque de Caxias (Brazil); Departamento de Engenharia Metalúrgica e de Materiais, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, 21941-972 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    2016-07-01

    Surface chemical modification and functionalization are common strategies used to provide new properties or functionalities to a material or to enhance existing ones. In this work, graphene oxide prepared using Hummers' method has been chemically modified with calcium ions by immersion in a calcium carbonate solution. Transmission electron microscopy analyses showed that graphene oxide (GO) and calcium incorporated graphene oxide have a morphology similar to an ultra-thin membrane composed of overlapping sheets. X-ray diffraction and Fourier-infrared spectroscopy show that calcium carbonate residue was completely removed by hydrochloric acid washes. Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy mapping showed spatially homogeneous calcium in Ca-incorporated graphene oxide sample after HCl washing. This Ca is mainly ionic according to X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and its incorporation promoted a small reduction in the graphene oxide structure, corroborated also by four-point probe measurements. A thermal study shows a remarkable increase in the GO stability with the presence of Ca{sup 2+} ions. - Highlights: • Graphene oxide has been chemically modified with Ca ions by immersion in a CaCO{sub 3} solution. • GO–Ca has morphology similar to an ultra-thin membrane composed of overlapping sheets. • CaCO{sub 3} residue was completely removed by acid washes, leaving only ionic calcium. • EDS maps show that Ca incorporation is spatially homogeneous in GO structure. • Thermal analyses show a remarkable increase in GO stability after Ca incorporation.

  18. Calcium incorporation in graphene oxide particles: A morphological, chemical, electrical, and thermal study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro, Kelly L.S.; Curti, Raphael V.; Araujo, Joyce R.; Landi, Sandra M.; Ferreira, Erlon H.M.; Neves, Rodrigo S.; Kuznetsov, Alexei; Sena, Lidia A.; Archanjo, Braulio S.; Achete, Carlos A.

    2016-01-01

    Surface chemical modification and functionalization are common strategies used to provide new properties or functionalities to a material or to enhance existing ones. In this work, graphene oxide prepared using Hummers' method has been chemically modified with calcium ions by immersion in a calcium carbonate solution. Transmission electron microscopy analyses showed that graphene oxide (GO) and calcium incorporated graphene oxide have a morphology similar to an ultra-thin membrane composed of overlapping sheets. X-ray diffraction and Fourier-infrared spectroscopy show that calcium carbonate residue was completely removed by hydrochloric acid washes. Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy mapping showed spatially homogeneous calcium in Ca-incorporated graphene oxide sample after HCl washing. This Ca is mainly ionic according to X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and its incorporation promoted a small reduction in the graphene oxide structure, corroborated also by four-point probe measurements. A thermal study shows a remarkable increase in the GO stability with the presence of Ca"2"+ ions. - Highlights: • Graphene oxide has been chemically modified with Ca ions by immersion in a CaCO_3 solution. • GO–Ca has morphology similar to an ultra-thin membrane composed of overlapping sheets. • CaCO_3 residue was completely removed by acid washes, leaving only ionic calcium. • EDS maps show that Ca incorporation is spatially homogeneous in GO structure. • Thermal analyses show a remarkable increase in GO stability after Ca incorporation.

  19. Study Of Genetic Diversity Between Grasspea Landraces Using Morphological And Molecular Marker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedehi, Abbasali Vahabi; Lotfi, Asefeh; Solooki, Mahmood

    2008-01-01

    Grass pea is a beneficial crop to Iran since it has some major advantageous such as high grain and forage quality, high drought tolerance and medium level of salinity tolerance and a good native germplasm variation which accessible for breeding programs. This study was carried out to evaluate morphological traits of the grass pea landraces using a randomized complete block design with 3 replications at Research Farm of Isfahan University of Technology. To evaluate genetic diversity of 14 grass pea landraces from various locations in Iran were investigated using 32 RAPD & ISJ primers at Biocenter of University of Zabol. Analysis of variance indicated a highly significant differences among 14 grass pea landrace for the morphological traits. Average of polymorphism percentage of RAPD primer was 73.9%. Among used primer, 12 random primers showed polymorphism and a total of 56 different bands were observed in the genotypes. Jafar-abad and Sar-chahan genotypes with similarity coefficient of 66% and Khoram-abad 2 and Khoram-abad 7 genotypes with similarity coefficient of 3% were the most related and the most distinct genotypes, respectively. Fourteen primers out of 17 semi random primers produced 70 polymorphic bands which included 56% of the total 126 produced bands. Genetic relatedness among population was investigated using Jacard coefficient and unweighted pair group mean analysis (UPGMA) algorithm. The result of this research verified possibility of use of RAPD & ISJ markers for estimation of genetic diversity, management of genetic resources and determination of repetitive accessions in grass pea.

  20. [Study on morphology, quality and germination characteristics of Acanthopanax trifoliatus seeds under different habitats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Juan

    2014-05-01

    To preliminary explore the difference of the morphological, quality and germinal characteristics of Acanthopanax trifoliatus seeds under different habitats. Collect the wild seeds from different habitats in West Mountain, and then observe their external appearances and internal structure, and test the thousand seeds weight,water content and seed vigor. What's more, the influence to germination rates of the seeds from different temperatures and light intensities in artificial bioclimatic chamber was studied. Orthogonal test in experimental plots was carried out to screen the different sowing dates, matrix types and soil depths which may influence germination rate. The external appearances and quality characteristics of wild seeds from three habitats were different. Seeds could germinate in the both light and dark, the germination rate of the habitat II was as high as 70.5% at the optimum temperature 20 degrees C in artificial bioclimatic chamber. The optimal combination A1, B1, C1 was screened out through orthogonal test, namely, the germination rate would be the highest when the seeds sowed in autumn covering with 2 cm depth of matrix type which component of the ratio of soil, sand and organic fertilizer was 6: 3: 1. There was significant difference in the morphology and germination rate of the three habitats seeds. The habitat II seeds were the optimal choice when culture seedling. The influences of different temperatures on germination rate were different, and the dried seeds should sow in current autumn, better than the next spring.

  1. Environment Quality: Impact From Traffic, Power Plant and Land Morphology, a Case Study of Prishtina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajcinovci, Bujar

    2017-05-01

    Environmental air pollution is a global health concern, a complex phenomenon which is directly reflected on public health, economic and human development. Environmental air pollution has been drastically multiplied, followed by the beginning of the new Millennia in Prishtina, the capital city of the Kosovo. The new millennium began as a crucial activity for the city of Prishtina in terms of demographic, human geography, social and economic phenomena. The presented study aims to determine prevalent traffic and land morphology composition attributes, which have influenced and continue to have environmental impact in the city of Prishtina. According to the conceptual findings from the empirical observations, the heavy city traffic and the land morphology structure, determine the urban air pollution level. Prishtina is generally polluted due to its geomorphic position in relation to the power plants Kosovo A, and Kosova B. The impact of the above cited factors, is even bigger when the dominant winds prevail through valley, which encompasses the city. The findings from this paper propose the necessity of careful driven urban solutions.

  2. Environment Quality: Impact From Traffic, Power Plant and Land Morphology, a Case Study of Prishtina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bajcinovci Bujar

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Environmental air pollution is a global health concern, a complex phenomenon which is directly reflected on public health, economic and human development. Environmental air pollution has been drastically multiplied, followed by the beginning of the new Millennia in Prishtina, the capital city of the Kosovo. The new millennium began as a crucial activity for the city of Prishtina in terms of demographic, human geography, social and economic phenomena. The presented study aims to determine prevalent traffic and land morphology composition attributes, which have influenced and continue to have environmental impact in the city of Prishtina. According to the conceptual findings from the empirical observations, the heavy city traffic and the land morphology structure, determine the urban air pollution level. Prishtina is generally polluted due to its geomorphic position in relation to the power plants Kosovo A, and Kosova B. The impact of the above cited factors, is even bigger when the dominant winds prevail through valley, which encompasses the city. The findings from this paper propose the necessity of careful driven urban solutions.

  3. Clinical and Morphological Studies on Spontaneous Cases of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Infections in Birds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Dinev1, S Denev2* and G Beev2

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Clinical, pathoanatomical, histological, and bacteriological studies were performed on broiler chickens, growing broiler parents, and growing egg layers, in three different poultry farms, after an outbreak of Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections. The method of contamination of the birds was established. Several local and systemic clinico-morphological forms of spontaneous P. aeruginosa infections in various categories of stock birds were described: cases of P. aeruginosa infection resulting from injection of contaminated vaccines; case of P. aeruginosa infections through contaminated aerosol vaccine and cases of pododermatitis, periarthritis and arthritis in broiler chickens associated with P. aeruginosa infection. In different cases mortality range between 0.5 and 50%. The results showed that apart from embryonic mortality in hatcheries, and septicemic infections in newly hatched chickens, the pathogenicity of P. aeruginosa was associated with localized and systemic lesions in this category, as well as in young and growing birds. On one hand, these results have a theoretical significance, contributing for the confirmation and expansion of the wide array of clinico-morphological forms of P. aeruginosa infections in birds. On the other hand, the knowledge on these forms has a purely practical significance in the diagnostics of P. aeruginosa infections by poultry pathologists and veterinary practitioners.

  4. THE CORACOIDS IN FUNCTIONAL AND MORPHOLOGICAL STUDIES OF PENGUINS (AVES, SPHENISCIDAE OF THE EOCENE OF ANTARCTICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CAROLINA ACOSTA HOSPITALECHE

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The partial articulated skeleton MLP 77-V-10-1 comes from the upper levels of La Meseta Formation (Seymour Island, Antarctica at the southwestern slope of the plateau. These remains were found in the Submeseta Allomember, within the Anthropornis nordenskjoeldi Biozone, dated at 34.2 Ma using strontium isotope ratios from shells. MLP 77-V-10-1 is a giant penguin, probably the largest ever described, whose coracoids are strikingly wide at the distal surface. The present contribution is a study of this new fossil penguin, with particular emphasis on the coracoids. The osteography and associated muscles are described. Functional connotations of coracoid morphology are thoroughly discussed and its implications on the mechanics of diving are explored. We concluded that the coracoid morphology suggests a change in diving strategy from the earliest penguins until the living representatives. In the oldest penguins, the improvement of diving capacity would have been linked to the development of stronger bone and probably muscular structures enabling endurance of greater forces operating in a denser medium. In contrast, the Neogene penguins would have optimized the force action of the flight apparatus by developing more precise movements, adjusting the angle of attack of each of the effective forces. 

  5. Stereomicroscopic study of the human tooth caries: clinical and morphological correlations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oancea, Roxana; Vasile, Liliana; Marchese, Cristian; Sava-Rosianu, Ruxandra

    2012-06-01

    Objectives: Stereomicroscopy allows a three-dimensional study of the images and of laterality at superior quality in comparison with other methods. Those advantages are given by the large examination fields and the wide work distances. The adding of the clinical and morphological data at the results gathered with stereomicroscopy and the stereo micrometry is useful in order to appreciate the deepness and the widening of the carious process, and the necessity to reconsider the therapeutically strategy. Materials and methods: During 2009-2011 the study material was represented by 10 surgically removed impacted third molars, and by 20 premolars extracted for orthodontic purposes, with closed and macroscopically apparently integer surfaces. 13 premolars with different degrees of carious affectation and periodontal lesions, which were surgically extracted without trauma, were also selected. The in situ measurements at the occlusal site were realized through the utilization of a fluorescent laser device - DIAGNOdent. The basic principles in stereomicroscopy stood at the base of the obliquely and circularly coaxial illumination techniques, one with optical alignment adjustment of the optical microscope and mechanical adjustment for the optimal illumination and micrometry. The Olympus Microscope SZ ×7 and an Olympus camera with 2,5 × digital zoom and a 3× optical zoom has been used to study the samples in stereomicroscopy and through polarized light it. Results: The DiagnoDent measured the following data: out of 43 apparently healthy teeth, 18 presented values between 2 and 13 (D1), 13 showed values between 14 and 24 (D2), 12 measured values over 24 (D3). After the histological examination in stereomicroscopy and in the polarized light: 25 teeth were healthy, 10 presented caries extended in dental enamel and 8 presented dentinal caries. Stereomicroscopy has allowed the morphological study, the color absorption, the appreciation of the lesions' deepness and substance

  6. Morphology study of thoracic transverse processes and its significance in pedicle-rib unit screw fixation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Xin-gang; Cai, Jin-fang; Sun, Jian-min; Jiang, Zhen-song

    2015-03-01

    Thoracic transverse process is an important anatomic structure of the spine. Several anatomic studies have investigated the adjacent structures of the thoracic transverse process. But there is still a blank on the morphology of the thoracic transverse processes. The purpose of the cadaveric study is to investigate the morphology of thoracic transverse processes and to provide morphology basis for the pedicle-rib unit (extrapedicular) screw fixation method. Forty-five adult dehydrated skeletons (T1-T10) were included in this study. The length, width, thickness, and the tilt angle (upward and backward) of the thoracic transverse process were measured. The data were then analyzed statistically. On the basis of the morphometric study, 5 fresh cadavers were used to place screws from transverse processes to the vertebral body in the thoracic spine, and then observed by the naked eye and on computed tomography scans. The lengths of thoracic transverse processes were between 16.63±1.59 and 18.10±1.95 mm; the longest was at T7, and the shortest was at T10. The widths of thoracic transverse processes were between 11.68±0.80 and 12.87±1.48 mm; the widest was at T3, and the narrowest was at T7. The thicknesses of thoracic transverse processes were between 7.86±1.24 and 10.78±1.35 mm; the thickest was at T1, and the thinnest was at T7. The upward tilt angles of thoracic transverse processes were between 24.9±3.1 and 3.0±1.56 degrees; the maximal upward tilt angle was at T1, and the minimal upward tilt angle was at T7. The upward tilt angles of T1 and T2 were obviously different from the other thoracic transverse processes (Ptransverse processes gradually increased from 24.5±2.91 degrees at T1 to 64.5±5.12 degrees at T10. The backward tilt angles were significantly different between each other, except between T5 and T6. In the validation study, screws were all placed successfully from transverse processes to the vertebrae of thoracic spine. The length, width, and

  7. Morphological awareness intervention with kindergartners and first and second grade students from low SES homes: a small efficacy study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apel, Kenn; Diehm, Emily

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the efficacy of a morphological awareness intervention on the morphological awareness and reading skills of students from low-socioeconomic-status homes; we also examined whether the intervention was similarly effective for intervention students who differed in their initial morphological awareness abilities. The 8-week intervention was designed to increase awareness of affixes and the relations between base words and their inflected and derived forms for kindergarteners (n = 27) and first- (n = 22) and second-grade (n = 26) students. Students randomly assigned to the small group intervention were provided instruction four times a week, 25 min a day, whereas students assigned to the control group received "business as usual." Kindergarten and first- and second-grade students receiving the intervention showed statistically significant gains in morphological awareness with large effect sizes on most measures. Students in all three grades who received the intervention demonstrated nonsignificant gains in literacy abilities with null to small effect sizes. Further, students with low morphological awareness abilities at the onset of the study demonstrated similar gains from the intervention as their peers with typical morphological awareness abilities. Our results suggest that explicit morphological awareness instruction may produce gains of practical importance to young elementary students at risk for future literacy difficulties.

  8. Effects of parsley (Petroselinum crispum) on the liver of diabetic rats: a morphological and biochemical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolkent, S; Yanardag, R; Ozsoy-Sacan, O; Karabulut-Bulan, O

    2004-12-01

    Parsley is used by diabetics in Turkey to reduce blood glucose. The present study aims to investigate both the morphological and biochemical effects of parsley on liver tissue. Rat hepatocytes were examined by light and electron microscopy. Degenerative changes were observed in the hepatocytes of diabetic rats. These degenerative changes were significantly reduced or absent in the hepatocytes of diabetic rats treated with parsley. Blood glucose levels, alanine transaminase and alkaline phosphatase were observed to be raised in diabetic rats. Diabetic rats treated with parsley demonstrated significantly lower levels of blood glucose, alanine transaminase and alkaline phosphatase. The present study suggests that parsley demonstrates a significant hepatoprotective effect in diabetic rats. 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Study of the Mechanical and Morphology Properties of Recycled HDPE Composite Using Rice Husk Filler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Ying Tong

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available WPCs are being used in a large number of applications in the automotive, construction, electronic, and aerospace industries. There are an increasing number of research studies and developments in WPC technology involving rice husk as fillers. This study investigated the effects of different compositions of rice husk (RH filler on the mechanical and morphological properties of recycled HDPE (rHDPE composite. The composites were prepared with five different loading contents of RH fibers (0, 10, 20, 30, and 40 wt% using the twin screw extrusion method. Maleic acid polyethylene (MAPE was added as a coupling agent. Results showed that tensile and flexural properties improved with increasing RH loading. However, the impact strength of the composites decreased as the RH loading increased. SEM micrographs revealed good interfacial bonding between the fiber and polymer matrix.

  10. Assessment of effect of age, gender, and dentoalveolar changes on mandibular morphology: A digital panoramic study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V Sairam

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: With progressive development in the growth and function of the jaws, changes are observed in size as well as shape of the mandible, which vary on the basis of age, gender, and dental status. The objective of this study was to evaluate and assess the morphological changes of the mandible, with varying age, gender, and dental status, using panoramic radiographs. Materials and Methods: A retrospective study was conducted using digital panoramic radiographs taken by Kodak 8000c digital panoramic and cephalometric system on 150 patients, comprising fifty edentulous individuals (above 50 years of age, fifty old dentate individuals (above 50 years of age, and fifty young dentate individuals (below 25 years of age. All the mandibular measurements (gonial angle, ramus length, condylar length (CL, ramus notch depth, and cortical bone thickness were carried out using RadiAnt DICOM VIEWER 2.2.9 (32-bit software. The measurements were then subjected to paired t-test, Tukey's multiple post hoc procedures, and multiple linear regression analysis. Results: Descriptive statistics for all the parameters on the right and left sides of the mandible in both males and females were analyzed. A statistical significance of P < 0.05 was observed for all the variables except one variable (CL. Conclusion: In the present study, all the variables showed increased measurements in males except gonial angle, which was found to be wider in females, indicating that women tend to get affected by varying dental statuses than men. Hence, the parameters used in this study may act as good indicators for the assessment of the effect of age, gender, and dental status on mandibular morphology.

  11. Normal morphology of sacroiliac joints in children: magnetic resonance studies related to age and sex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bollow, M.; Paris, S.; Mutze, S.; Hamm, B.; Braun, J.; Kannenberg, J.; Biedermann, T.; Schauer-Petrowskaja, C.

    1997-01-01

    Objective. To determine in a prospective study the normal MRI morphology of the sacroiliac joints (SIJs) in relation to age and sex during adolescence. Design and patients. A total of 98 children (63 boys, mean age 12.7±2.8 years; 35 girls, mean age 13.7±2.3 years), ranging in age from 8 to 17 years, with juvenile chronic arthritis (JCA) but without signs of sacroiliitis fulfilled the study prerequisites (no back pain and no pathologic changes of the SIJs on physical examination before MRI in a 1.5-year follow-up). An additional eight HLA-B27-negative boys and eight HLA-B27-negative girls without arthritis served as controls. The MRI protocol comprised a T1-weighted SE sequence, an opposed-phase T2*-weighted GE sequence, and a dynamic contrast-enhanced study in single-section technique. Results. Noncontrast MRI permitted differentiation of ''open'' from ossified segmental and lateral apophyses of the sacral wings, with a significant difference in age (P <0.05) between children with open and ossified apophyses. Ossification of the apophyses of the sacral wings was seen significantly earlier (P <0.05) in girls than in boys. Girls also had a significantly higher incidence of transitional lumbosacral vertebrae, pelvic asymmetries, and accessory joints. In the contrast-enhanced opposed-phase MRI study, normal cartilage of the SIJs showed no contrast enhancement whereas the joint capsule showed a moderate enhancement. Conclusion. There are significant age- and sex-related differences in the normal MRI morphology of juvenile SIJs. Our findings might serve as a standard of comparison for the evaluation of pathologic changes - in particular for the early identification of juvenile sacroiliitis. (orig.)

  12. Morphological study of biomass during the start-up period of a fixed-bed anaerobic reactor treating domestic sewage

    OpenAIRE

    Lima,Cláudio Antonio Andrade; Ribeiro,Rogers; Foresti,Eugenio; Zaiat,Marcelo

    2005-01-01

    This work focused on a morphological study of the microorganisms attached to polyurethane foam matrices in a horizontal-flow anaerobic immobilized biomass (HAIB) reactor treating domestic sewage. The experiments consisted of monitoring the biomass colonization process of foam matrices in terms of the amount of retained biomass and the morphological characteristics of the cells attached to the support during the start-up period. Non-fluorescent rods and cocci were found to predominate in the p...

  13. Study on effect of process parameters and mixing on morphology of ammonium diuranate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subhankar Manna; Chandrabhanu Basak; Thakkar, U.R.; Shital Thakur; Roy, S.B.; Joshi, J.B.; Institute of Chemical Technology, Matunga, Mumbai

    2016-01-01

    Ammonium diuranate (ADU) is an important intermediate for the production of uranium base fuel. Controlling morphology of crystalline ADU powders is very important as it is retained by its subsequent products. Because of the high level of supersaturation, the involved mechanisms of precipitation like primary nucleation, crystal growth, aggregation and breakage occur simultaneously and they control the morphology. Effects of concentration of uranyl nitrate solution, temperature and the mixing intensity have been investigated on the morphology, crystal structure and the other physical properties of ADU. Effect of temperature is found to be more dominant for controlling morphology. (author)

  14. Cathaemasia hians infection in Black stork in Slovakia: morphological and histopathological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Königová A.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Cathaemasia hians is an obligate trematode parasite of Black storks that are on the List of protected birds in Europe. In the present study, adult trematodes were isolated from the Black stork post mortem and morphological study revealed C. hians species. In total, 10 worms were found in the oesophagus and the ventriculus of the bird. Histopathological examination of the tissue samples of oesophagus, proventriculus and ventriculus was performed on paraffin sections using a set of staining procedures. The sporadic lesions were seen in the tela submucosa of oesophagus containing connective tissue mast cells, eosinophils and heterophils and some foci were surrounded by the fibrous tissue. In addition, a few inflammatory nodules had larval-like material inside, probably being of the same species. There were no visible morphological alterations in the epithelial layer of lamina propria mucosae of proventriculus, rich in goblet cells as well as in the tela submucosa. Majority of trematodes were localized in the ventriculus, where the lamina propria mucosae was damaged or disrupted sporadically. In these sites, in the tela submucosa, a various food-originated inorganic/organic material and eggs of C. hians were deposited, stimulating a weak inflammatory response. Nodules containing larvae were not observed in any of ventriculus tissue layers. This study demonstrated, for the first time, infection with adults of C. hians trematode in the Black stork nesting in Slovakia. The presence of larvae and eggs in the tissues of the upper gastrointestinal tract of bird was associated with mild inflammatory response but feeding behaviour of adult worms in the ventriculus probably contributed to the enhanced susceptibility of the lamina propria mucosae to mechanical damage by inorganic material. Although larval stages have not yet been documented in the intermediate hosts in Slovakia, our report indicates that the life cycle of C. hians might occur in Central

  15. In vitro studies reveal antiurolithic effect of Terminalia arjuna using quantitative morphological information from computerized microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Mittal

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Purpose: For most cases, urolithiasis is a condition where excessive oxalate is present in the urine. Many reports have documented free radical generation followed by hyperoxaluria as a consequence of which calcium oxalate (CaOx deposition occurs in the kidney tissue. The present study is aimed to exam the antilithiatic potency of the aqueous extract (AE of Terminalia arjuna (T. arjuna. Materials and Methods: The antilithiatic activity of Terminalia arjuna was investigated in vitro nucleation, aggregation and growth of the CaOx crystals as well as the morphology of CaOx crystals using the inbuilt software ‘Image-Pro Plus 7.0’ of Olympus upright microscope (BX53. Antioxidant activity of AE of Terminalia arjuna bark was also determined in vitro. Results: Terminalia arjuna extract exhibited a concentration dependent inhibition of nucleation and aggregation of CaOx crystals. The AE of Terminalia arjuna bark also inhibited the growth of CaOx crystals. At the same time, the AE also modified the morphology of CaOx crystals from hexagonal to spherical shape with increasing concentrations of AE and reduced the dimensions such as area, perimeter, length and width of CaOx crystals in a dose dependent manner. Also, the Terminalia arjuna AE scavenged the DPPH (2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radicals with an IC50 at 13.1µg/mL. Conclusions: The study suggests that Terminalia arjuna bark has the potential to scavenge DPPH radicals and inhibit CaOx crystallization in vitro. In the light of these studies, Terminalia arjuna can be regarded as a promising candidate from natural plant sources of antilithiatic and antioxidant activity with high value.

  16. A Socio-Medical Study Of Morphological Changes In Endocervix With The Use Of Oral Contraceptives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S C Saxena

    1995-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted among the oral contraceptive users to see any impact of their socialfactors on the morphological changes in the en- docervix. These changes were seen more prominantly in the advancing age, low socio-economic group multiparous and having their marital life more than 5 years period. The oral contraceptives were taken by 53.33 percent ofwomen for 7-18 months duration. The prevalence and severity of the mor­phological change increased significantly with the increase in duration 'of use of contraceptives. However no relationship was observed with the religion and nativity of the users as well as the types of oral contraceptives used.

  17. ELECTROPHORETIC DEPOSITION OF TIO2-MULTI-WALLED CARBON NANOTUBE COMPOSITE COATINGS: MORPHOLOGICAL STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. MAHMOUDI JOZEE

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A homogenous TiO2 / multi-walled carbon nanotubes(MWCNTs composite film were prepared by electrophoretic co-deposition from organic suspension on a stainless steel substrate.  In this study, MWCNTs was incorporated to the coating because of their long structure and their capability to be functionalized by different inorganic groups on the surface. FTIR spectroscopy showed the existence of carboxylic groups on the modified carbon nanotubes surface. The effect of applied electrical fields, deposition time and concentration of nanoparticulates on coatings morphology were investigated by scanning electron microscopy. It was found that combination of MWCNTs within TiO2 matrix eliminating micro cracks presented on TiO2 coating. Also, by increasing the deposition voltages, micro cracks were increased. SEM observation of the coatings revealed that TiO2/multi-walled carbon nanotubes coatings produced from optimized electric field was uniform and had good adhesive to the substrate.

  18. Mammosomatotroph adenoma of the pituitary associated with gigantism and hyperprolactinemia. A morphological study including immunoelectron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felix, I A; Horvath, E; Kovacs, K; Smyth, H S; Killinger, D W; Vale, J

    1986-01-01

    A 29-year old giantess with growth hormone excess and hyperprolactinemia underwent transsphenoidal surgery to remove her pituitary tumor. Electron microscopy revealed a mammosomatotroph adenoma composed of one cell type. Immunoelectron microscopy, using the immunogold technique, demonstrated predominantly growth hormone or prolactin or a varying mixture of both growth hormone and prolactin in the adenoma cells. The presence of growth hormone and prolactin was found not only in the cytoplasm of the same adenoma cells but also in the same secretory granules. In the nontumorous adenohypophysis, somatotrophs and lactotrophs showed ultrastructural signs of hyperactivity. This finding is in contrast with the presence of suppressed somatotrophs and lactotrophs seen in nontumorous portions of adult pituitaries harboring growth hormone or prolactin-secreting adenomas. Our morphological study reinforces the view that growth hormone-producing pituitary tumors, originating in childhood, are different from those of the adult gland.

  19. 3D study of intermetallics and their effect on the corrosion morphology of rheocast aluminium alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mingo, B.; Arrabal, R.; Pardo, A.; Matykina, E.; Skeldon, P.

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, the effect of heat treatment T6.1 on the microstructure and corrosion behaviour of rheocast aluminium alloy A356 is investigated on the basis of 2D/3D characterization techniques and electrochemical and SKPFM measurements. Heat treatment strengthens the α-Al matrix, modifies the intermetallic particles and spheroidizes eutectic Si. These changes do not modify significantly the corrosion behaviour of the alloy. 3D SEM-Tomography clearly shows that the corrosion advances in the shape of narrow paths between closely spaced intermetallics without a major influence of eutectic Si. - Highlights: • T6.1 spheroidizes Si, strengthens the matrix and modifies the intermetallics. • Electrochemical behaviour of untreated and heat-treated alloys is similar. • 3D SEM-Tomography provides additional information on the corrosion morphology. • Corrosion advances as paths between intermetallics with little influence of Si.

  20. Morphological and ultrastructural studies on Ulva flexuosa subsp. pilifera (Chlorophyta from Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beata Messyasz

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Ulva flexuosa subsp. pilifera (Kütz. M. J. Wynne 2005 (= Enteromorpha pilifera Kützing 1845 was previously found in Argentina, the Czech Republic, Germany, Hungary, Romania, Slovakia and Sweden, recently also in Poland. The genus Ulva was first time described as Enteromorpha. Interestingly, Enteromorpha is used nowadays as a synonym for Ulva, a development which is based on molecular data. The morphologies of both young and mature specimens were studied, and most life cycle stages could be observed. Further, the formation of calcium carbonate crystals on the surface of Ulva thalli seems to influence the arrangement of the cells. A detailed ultrastructural (TEM analysis of cell walls is presented. The TEM reveals in great details highly complex, irregular structures with stratification lines.

  1. Mechanical and morphological study of linear low density polyethylene (LLDPE)/cyperus odoratus (CY) biocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faris, N. A.; Noriman, N. Z.; Haron, Adli; Sam, S. T.; Hamzah, R.; Shayfull, Z.; Ghazali, M. F.

    2017-09-01

    The potential of Cyperus Odoratus (CY) as a filler was studied. The CY, in a powder form, was mixed with Linear Low Density Polyethylene (LLDPE), prior to being fed into a twin screw extruder and subsequently into an injection moulding machine to produce LLDPY/CY biocomposites. The Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) was utilized and tensile tests were performed on the test specimens to characterize the structure and properties of the composites. The integration of CY powder and LLDPE resulted in an increment of the modulus of elasticity, but a reduction in tensile strength and elongation at break. The morphology characterization of these composites, determined through the SEM, showed poor interfacial adhesion between the filler and the thermoplastic LLDPE matrix.

  2. Occasional head of flexor pollicis longus muscle: a study of its morphology and clinical significance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hemmady M

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available A cadaveric dissection study of 54 upper extremities to determine the incidence of occurrence, morphology and relations of the occasional head of the flexor pollicis longus muscle is presented. The occasional head of the flexor pollicis longus muscle was found to be present more frequently (66.66% than absent. It mainly arose from the medical epicondyle of the humerus (55.55% and the medial border of the coronoid process of the ulna (16.66%. It was found to be in close association with the median nerve (anteriorly and the anterior interosseous nerve (posteriorly. The clinical implications of these findings are discussed viz. entrapment neuropathies of the median and anterior interosseous nerves, cicatricial contraction of the occasional head leading to flexion deformity of the thumb and the likely necessity to lengthen/release the occasional head in spastic paralysis of the flexor pollicis longus muscle.

  3. Environmental TEM study of the dynamic nanoscaled morphology of NiO/YSZ during reduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Søren Bredmose; Agersted, Karsten; Hansen, Karin Vels

    2015-01-01

    The reduction of a metal oxide is often a critical preparation step for activating catalytic behaviour. This study addresses the reduction process of NiO in pure form and in a composite of NiO/yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) in hydrogen relevant for solid oxide electrochemical cells by comparing...... results from environmental transmission electron microscopy (ETEM) with thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The temperature dependent reduction profiles obtained from TGA confirm an inhibitive effect from YSZ on the NiO reduction. The ETEM images show the growth of Ni in decaying NiO and reveal...... the nanoscale morphological changes such as pore formation in NiO above 280°C and densification and collapse of the pore structures above 400°C. The accelerated Ni front in NiO illustrates the auto catalysis of the reaction. A rapid temperature ramping from room temperature to 780°C in hydrogen in 1 second...

  4. Post Deposition Annealing Effects on Optical, Electrical and Morphological Studies of ZnTTBPc Thin Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. R. Rejitha

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Phthalocyanines (Pcs act as efficient absorbants of photons in the visible region, specifically between 600 and 700 nm. It will produce an excited triplet state. In this paper we report the annealing effects of optical, electrical and surface morphological properties of thermal evaporated Zinc-tetra-tert-butyl-29H, 31H phthalocyanine (ZnTTBPc thin films. The optical transmittance measurements were done in the visible region (400-800 nm and, films were found to be absorbing in nature. From spectral data the absorption coefficient α, dielectric constant ε and the extinction coefficient k were evaluated and, results discussed. Also the optical band gap of the material was estimated. The activation energies were measured. Scanning electron microscopic studies was carried out to determine surface uniformity of films.

  5. Study on the effect of surfactants on morphologies of trigonal selenium in microfluidic reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bian, Tian-bin [Institute of Microanalytical Systems, Department of Chemistry, Zhejiang University, Zheda Lu 38, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Yin, Xue-feng, E-mail: yinxf@zju.edu.cn [Institute of Microanalytical Systems, Department of Chemistry, Zhejiang University, Zheda Lu 38, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Fan, Jie [Institute of Catalysis, Department of Chemistry, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Liu, Jin-hua [College of Material Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Hangzhou Normal University, Hangzhou 310036 (China)

    2010-02-15

    The influence of the surfactants on the morphologies of trigonal selenium (t-Se) submicrostructures was studied in a two-step microfluidic system, which is composed of a glass microchip for preparing spherical amorphous selenium (a-Se) colloids coupled with a poly(methyl methacrylate) microchip for transferring a-Se into its t-Se seeds under sonication. The selenious acid containing surfactants and hydrazine solutions were delivered through the two-inlets of the glass microfluidic chip. Submicro-rods, -wires as well as -tubes of t-Se were obtained by simply varying the coexisted surfactants. The as-synthesized products were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectrum, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and selected-area electron diffraction (SAED).

  6. Voice classification and vocal tract of singers: a study of x-ray images and morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roers, Friederike; Mürbe, Dirk; Sundberg, Johan

    2009-01-01

    This investigation compares vocal tract dimensions and the classification of singer voices by examining an x-ray material assembled between 1959 and 1991 of students admitted to the solo singing education at the University of Music, Dresden, Germany. A total of 132 images were available to analysis. Different classifications' values of the lengths of the total vocal tract, the pharynx, and mouth cavities as well as of the relative position of the larynx, the height of the palatal arch, and the estimated vocal fold length were analyzed statistically, and some significant differences were found. The length of the pharynx cavity seemed particularly influential on the total vocal tract length, which varied systematically with classification. Also studied were the relationships between voice classification and the body height and weight and the body mass index. The data support the hypothesis that there are consistent morphological vocal tract differences between singers of different voice classifications.

  7. Morphological study of electrophoretically deposited TiO2 film for DSSC application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Alkesh B.; Patel, K. D.; Soni, S. S.; Sonigara, K. K.

    2018-05-01

    In the immerging field of eco-friendly and low cost photovoltaic devices, dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC) [1] has been investigated as promising alternative to the conventional silicon-based solar cells. In the DSSC device, photoanode is crucial component that take charge of holding sensitizer on it and inject the electrons from the sensitizer to current collector. Nanoporous TiO2 is the most relevant candidate for the preparation of photoanode in DSSCs. Surface properties, morphology, porosity and thickness of TiO2 film as well as preparation technique determine the performance of device. In the present work we have report the study of an effect of nanoporous anatase titanium dioxide (TiO2) film thickness on DSSC performance. Photoanode TiO2 (P25) film was deposited on conducting substrate by electrophoresis technique (EPD) and film thickness was controlled during deposition by applying different current density for a constant time interval. Thickness and surface morphology of prepared films was studied by SEM and transmittance analysis. The same set of photoanode was utilized in DSSC devices using metal free organic dye sensitizer to evaluate the photovoltaic performance. Devices were characterized through Current-Voltage (I-V) characteristic, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and open circuit voltage decay curves. Dependency of device performance corresponding to TiO2 film thickness is investigated through the lifetime kinetics of electron charge transfer mechanism trough impedance fitting. It is concluded that appropriate thickness along with uniformity and porosity are required to align the dye molecules to respond efficiently the incident light photons.

  8. Bortezomib-induced painful peripheral neuropathy: an electrophysiological, behavioral, morphological and mechanistic study in the mouse.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina A Carozzi

    Full Text Available Bortezomib is the first proteasome inhibitor with significant antineoplastic activity for the treatment of relapsed/refractory multiple myeloma as well as other hematological and solid neoplasms. Peripheral neurological complications manifesting with paresthesias, burning sensations, dysesthesias, numbness, sensory loss, reduced proprioception and vibratory sensitivity are among the major limiting side effects associated with bortezomib therapy. Although bortezomib-induced painful peripheral neuropathy is clinically easy to diagnose and reliable models are available, its pathophysiology remains partly unclear. In this study we used well-characterized immune-competent and immune-compromised mouse models of bortezomib-induced painful peripheral neuropathy. To characterize the drug-induced pathological changes in the peripheral nervous system, we examined the involvement of spinal cord neuronal function in the development of neuropathic pain and investigated the relevance of the immune response in painful peripheral neuropathy induced by bortezomib. We found that bortezomib treatment induced morphological changes in the spinal cord, dorsal roots, dorsal root ganglia (DRG and peripheral nerves. Neurophysiological abnormalities and specific functional alterations in Aδ and C fibers were also observed in peripheral nerve fibers. Mice developed mechanical allodynia and functional abnormalities of wide dynamic range neurons in the dorsal horn of spinal cord. Bortezomib induced increased expression of the neuronal stress marker activating transcription factor-3 in most DRG. Moreover, the immunodeficient animals treated with bortezomib developed a painful peripheral neuropathy with the same features observed in the immunocompetent mice. In conclusion, this study extends the knowledge of the sites of damage induced in the nervous system by bortezomib administration. Moreover, a selective functional vulnerability of peripheral nerve fiber subpopulations

  9. Surface morphology study of some Cu–Ni reference alloys using laser induced breakdown spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheta, S.A. [National Institute of Laser Enhanced Science (NILES), Cairo University, 12613, Giza (Egypt); Di Carlo, G.; Ingo, G.M. [Istituto per lo Studio dei Materiali Nanostrutturati (ISMN-CNR), Area della Ricerca Roma 1 Montelibretti, 00016, Monterotondo Scalo, Rome (Italy); Harith, M.A., E-mail: mharithm@niles.edu.eg [National Institute of Laser Enhanced Science (NILES), Cairo University, 12613, Giza (Egypt)

    2016-04-15

    In the present work a detailed study of the surface morphology of purposely-prepared Cu–Ni reference alloys has been performed. These alloys have been prepared via tailored casting methods in order to have samples with same chemical composition and different local chemical enrichments of both metals. A micro-LIBS system for surface spatial scanning was set up based on a second harmonic Nd:YAG laser at 532 nm and using a focusing lens of focal length 7 cm to disclose the local chemical composition variation. Surface morphological scanning was performed for some of the binary Cu–Ni reference alloys to differentiate between chemically homogeneous and heterogeneous alloys. LIBS results were compared with the information of the Scanning Electron Microscope coupled with Energy Dispersive X-ray (SEMEDS) investigation carried out to provide surface local large-area chemical analysis via EDS technique. It has been proved that LIBS is a simple, sensitive and direct technique in the determination of homogeneity or heterogeneity of the sample's surface. The LIBS results have been shown to be more sensitive and accurate in the heterogeneity determination than other used conventional analytical techniques. - Highlights: • Surface LIBS scanning was performed for Cu–Ni reference alloy samples. • LIBS system was based on a 2nd harmonic Nd:YAG laser and a focusing lens (f = 7 cm). • LIBS results were compared with SEM imaging and EDS chemical analysis. • Surface homogeneity and heterogeneity have been differentiated successfully. • LIBS is a sensitive analytical tool in surface metallurgical study.

  10. Morphological Effects in Children Word Reading: A Priming Study in Fourth Graders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casalis, Severine; Dusautoir, Marion; Cole, Pascale; Ducrot, Stephanie

    2009-01-01

    A growing corpus of evidence suggests that morphology could play a role in reading acquisition, and that young readers could be sensitive to the morphemic structure of written words. In the present experiment, we examined whether and when morphological information is activated in word recognition. French fourth graders made visual lexical…

  11. Spatial confinement effects on spectroscopic and morphological studies of nanosecond laser-ablated Zirconium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayat, Asma; Bashir, Shazia; Rafique, Muhammad Shahid; Ahmad, Riaz; Akram, Mahreen; Mahmood, Khaliq; Zaheer, Ali

    2017-12-01

    Spatial confinement effects on plasma parameters and surface morphology of laser ablated Zr (Zirconium) are studied by introducing a metallic blocker. Nd:YAG laser at various fluencies ranging from 8 J cm-2 to 32 J cm-2 was employed as an irradiation source. All measurements were performed in the presence of Ar under different pressures. Confinement effects offered by metallic blocker are investigated by placing the blocker at different distances of 6 mm, 8 mm and 10 mm from the target surface. It is revealed from LIBS analysis that both plasma parameters i.e. excitation temperature and electron number density increase with increasing laser fluence due to enhancement in energy deposition. It is also observed that spatial confinement offered by metallic blocker is responsible for the enhancement of both electron temperature and electron number density of Zr plasma. This is true for all laser fluences and pressures of Ar. Maximum values of electron temperature and electron number density without blocker are 12,600 K and 14 × 1017 cm-3 respectively whereas, these values are enhanced to 15,000 K and 21 × 1017 cm-3 in the presence of blocker. The physical mechanisms responsible for the enhancement of Zr plasma parameters are plasma compression, confinement and pronounced collisional excitations due to reflection of shock waves. Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) analysis was performed to explore the surface morphology of laser ablated Zr. It reveals the formation of cones, cavities and ripples. These features become more distinct and well defined in the presence of blocker due to plasma confinement. The optimum combination of blocker distance, fluence and Ar pressure can identify the suitable conditions for defining the role of plasma parameters for surface structuring.

  12. Outcome of medial hamstring lengthening in children with spastic paresis: A biomechanical and morphological observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haberfehlner, Helga; Jaspers, Richard T; Rutz, Erich; Harlaar, Jaap; van der Sluijs, Johannes A; Witbreuk, Melinda M; van Hutten, Kim; Romkes, Jacqueline; Freslier, Marie; Brunner, Reinald; Becher, Jules G; Maas, Huub; Buizer, Annemieke I

    2018-01-01

    To improve gait in children with spastic paresis due to cerebral palsy or hereditary spastic paresis, the semitendinosus muscle is frequently lengthened amongst other medial hamstring muscles by orthopaedic surgery. Side effects on gait due to weakening of the hamstring muscles and overcorrections have been reported. How these side effects relate to semitendinosus morphology is unknown. This study assessed the effects of bilateral medial hamstring lengthening as part of single-event multilevel surgery (SEMLS) on (1) knee joint mechanics (2) semitendinosus muscle morphology and (3) gait kinematics. All variables were assessed for the right side only. Six children with spastic paresis selected for surgery to counteract limited knee range of motion were measured before and about a year after surgery. After surgery, in most subjects popliteal angle decreased and knee moment-angle curves were shifted towards a more extended knee joint, semitendinosus muscle belly length was approximately 30% decreased, while at all assessed knee angles tendon length was increased by about 80%. In the majority of children muscle volume of the semitendinosus muscle decreased substantially suggesting a reduction of physiological cross-sectional area. Gait kinematics showed more knee extension during stance (mean change ± standard deviation: 34±13°), but also increased pelvic anterior tilt (mean change ± standard deviation: 23±5°). In most subjects, surgical lengthening of semitendinosus tendon contributed to more extended knee joint angle during static measurements as well as during gait, whereas extensibility of semitendinosus muscle belly was decreased. Post-surgical treatment to maintain muscle belly length and physiological cross-sectional area may improve treatment outcome of medial hamstring lengthening.

  13. Root canal morphology of mandibular first premolar in a Gujarati population - An in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atul Jain

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Knowledge about root canal morphology and its frequent variations can exert considerable influence on the success of endodontic treatment. The aim of this study was to survey the root canal morphology of mandibular first premolar teeth in a Gujarati population by decalcification and clearing technique. Methods : One hundred thirty eight extracted mandibular first premolar teeth were collected from a Gujarati population. After decalcifying and clearing, the teeth were examined for tooth length, number of cusps and roots, number and shape of canal orifices and canal types. Results: The average length of mandibular first premolar teeth was 21.2 mm. All the teeth had 2 cusps. One hundred thirty four teeth (97.1% had one root, and just 4 teeth (2.89% had two roots. Mesial invagination of root was found in 21 teeth (15.21%. One canal orifice was found in 122 teeth (88.4% and two canal orifices in 16 teeth (11.59%. Shape of orifices was found to be round in 46 teeth (33.33%, oval in 72 teeth (52.17% and flattened ribbion in 20 teeth (14.49%. According to Vertucci′s classification, Type I canal system was found in 93 teeth (67.39%, Types II,III,IV,V,and VI in 11 teeth (7.97%, 5 teeth (3.62%, 4 teeth (2.89%, 24 teeth (17.39%, and 1 tooth (0.72% respectively. Conclusion: Mandibular first premolar teeth were mostly found to have one root and Type I canal system.

  14. Insights on the Study of Nafion Nanoscale Morphology by Transmission Electron Microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey Yakovlev

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Nafion is one of the most common materials used for polyelectrolyte membranes and is the standard to which novel materials are compared. In spite of great interest in Nafion’s nanostructure, it is still a subject of controversy. While multiple research efforts have addressed Nafion’s morphology with Transmission Electron Microscopy, the results of these efforts have often been inconsistent and cannot satisfactorily describe the membrane structure. One of the reasons for differences in the reported results is the lack of sufficient control over the damage caused by electron beam irradiation. In this work, we describe some aspects of damage in the material that have a strong influence on the results. We show that irradiation causes mass loss and phase separation in the material and that the morphologies that have been observed are, in many cases, artifacts caused by damage. We study the effect of the sample temperature on damage and show that, while working at low temperature does not prevent damage and mass loss, it slows formation of damage-induced artifacts to the point where informative low-dose images of almost undamaged material may be collected. We find that charging of the sample has a substantial effect on the damage, and the importance of charge neutralization under irradiation is also seen by the large reduction of beam induced movement with the use of an objective aperture or a conductive support film. To help interpret the low-dose images, we can apply slightly higher exposures to etch away the hydrophobic phase with the electron beam and reveal the network formed by the hydrophilic phase. Energy loss spectroscopy shows evidence that fluorine removal governs the beam damage process.

  15. Neuronal gain modulability is determined by dendritic morphology: A computational optogenetic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarvis, Sarah; Nikolic, Konstantin; Schultz, Simon R

    2018-03-01

    The mechanisms by which the gain of the neuronal input-output function may be modulated have been the subject of much investigation. However, little is known of the role of dendrites in neuronal gain control. New optogenetic experimental paradigms based on spatial profiles or patterns of light stimulation offer the prospect of elucidating many aspects of single cell function, including the role of dendrites in gain control. We thus developed a model to investigate how competing excitatory and inhibitory input within the dendritic arbor alters neuronal gain, incorporating kinetic models of opsins into our modeling to ensure it is experimentally testable. To investigate how different topologies of the neuronal dendritic tree affect the neuron's input-output characteristics we generate branching geometries which replicate morphological features of most common neurons, but keep the number of branches and overall area of dendrites approximately constant. We found a relationship between a neuron's gain modulability and its dendritic morphology, with neurons with bipolar dendrites with a moderate degree of branching being most receptive to control of the gain of their input-output relationship. The theory was then tested and confirmed on two examples of realistic neurons: 1) layer V pyramidal cells-confirming their role in neural circuits as a regulator of the gain in the circuit in addition to acting as the primary excitatory neurons, and 2) stellate cells. In addition to providing testable predictions and a novel application of dual-opsins, our model suggests that innervation of all dendritic subdomains is required for full gain modulation, revealing the importance of dendritic targeting in the generation of neuronal gain control and the functions that it subserves. Finally, our study also demonstrates that neurophysiological investigations which use direct current injection into the soma and bypass the dendrites may miss some important neuronal functions, such as gain

  16. Study of characteristic of tsunami base on the coastal morphology in north Donggala, Central Sulawesi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmadaningsi, W. S. N.; Assegaf, A. H.; Setyonegoro, W.; Paharuddin

    2018-03-01

    The northern arm of Sulawesi potentials to generate earthquake and Tsunami due to the existence of subduction zone in sulawesi sea. It makes the North Donggala as an area with active seismicity. One of the earthquake and Tsunami events occurred is the earthquake and tsunami of Toli-Toli 1996 (M 7.9) causing 9 people are killed and severe damage in Tonggolobibi, Siboang, and Balukang. This earthquake induced tsunami runup of 3.4 m and inundated as far as 400 meters. The aims of this study is to predict runup and inundation area using numerical model and to find out the characteristics of Tsunami wave on straight, bay and cape shape coastal morphology and slopes of coastal. The data in this research consist of are the Etopo2 bathymetry data in data obtained from NOAA (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration), Toli-toli’s main earthquakes focal mechanism data 1st January1996 from GCMT (Global Centroid Moment Tensor), the data gained from the SRTM (Shuttle Radar Topography Mission) data 30 m and land cover data in 1996 from Ministry of environment and forestry . Single fault model is used to predict the high of tsunami run-up and to inundation area along Donggala coastal area. Its reviewed by morphology of coastal area that higher run up shows occurs at coastline type like bay have higher run up compare to area with cape and straight coastline. The result shows that the slopes have negative or contras correlation with Tsunami runup and its inundation area.

  17. A morphological and morphometric study of jugular foramen in dry skulls with its clinical implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandni Gupta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Jugular foramen of human skull is one of the most interesting foramina. It is a complex bony canal, numerous vital structures, including nerves and vessels are transmitted through it. Most of the intracranial and extra cranial lesions of posterior cranial fossa might affect the structures in jugular foramen in addition to intrinsic abnormalities. As the neurosurgeons have become courageous in approaching this area, so there is a need to become familiar with this area. Hence, the present study was done to examine the anatomy of jugular foramen, including its morphological features and dimensions. Materials and Methods: The study was carried out on 50 dried skulls. 100 jugular foramina were studied on both right and left side of skulls. The length, width of jugular foramen and width and depth of jugular fossa were measured using vernier calipers. Presence of dome, complete and incomplete septation was also looked for. Results: The mean right and left anteroposterior diameter, latero-medial diameter, area, jugular fossa width, depth in our study was 11.22, 16.52, 187.34, 6.83, 11.58 mm and 9.52, 16.02, 153.2, 5.69, 11.13 mm. Dome was present in jugular foramen in 74% on the right side and 58% on the left side. Complete septation in jugular foramen is seen in 44% on the right side and 42% on the left side. Conclusion: This study will help the neurosurgeons while doing surgery in this region.

  18. Morphological, Micoscopical Studies and Elemental analysis of Polygonum Chinese L. and Rhoeo discolor Hance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moe Moe Lwin

    2008-03-01

    In the present study, two selected medicinal plants, namely Polygonum chinense L. (Mahaga-Kyansit) and Rhoeo discolor Hance. (Mi-gwin-gamon) are collected from Dawei District. In this paper, the outstanding features of selected plants, microscopical characters and elemental analysis of these leaves are also presented.In morphological studies of Mahaga-kyansit, herbs, swollen at nodes, black-coloured patches present at central portion of leaf blade, ochreate stipules. The inflorescences are terminally corymbose. The ovary trigonous-ovoid, stigma trifixed. In microscopical studies, stomata anomocytic. The cuticle is striation on both surface. In transverse section of midrib, the vascular bundles are collateral, about 8-10 numbers in basal, one was larger than the other bundles, 2numbers in middle regions and 1 bundle in apical regions. Calcium oxalate crystals (Rosette) are present in the parenchymatous cells. In the present study, the Migwin-gamon are rosette-forming succulent herbs. The leaves are crowded, upright, the upper surface green, the lower surface rich reddish-purple. The inflorescences are axillary, boat-shaped. Flowers involucres bracts. The androecium are stamens 6, often clothed wIth moniliform hairs, anthers often with and expanded or variously modified connective. The gynaecium are carpel 3,, trilocular, stigma capitate. In the microscopical studies, the leaves are isobilateral leaf. The stomata are tetracytic type. Lower epidermis cells larger than the upper one and stoma in the lower epidermis. Crystal of tetragonal system form (Prism) present in the mesophyll cells.

  19. Thermal, crystallinity and morphological studies of the filled RBD palm kernel oil polyurethane foam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khairiah Badri; Sahrim Ahmad; Sarani Zakaria

    2000-01-01

    The synthesis of RBD palm kernel oil (PKO) polyurethane polyol and the polyurethane foam has well been documented. However, less study has been put in discovering the thermal properties and crystallinity of the foam. It is also an initiative to investigate the effect of oil palm empty fruit bunch (EFB) and sorbitol as fillers in the polyurethane (PU) foam to these properties. Thermogravimetric (TGA) investigation of the PKO PU foam was performed to study their decompositions. The semi-crystalline nature of EFB-filled PU was confirmed by x-ray diffratogram and DSC thermogram of glass transition temperature, T g . The x-ray diffraction (XRD) study of the unfilled PU showed a broad amorphous halo, indicative of absence of crystallinity in the polymer, which has been explained as due to strong hydrogen bonding in the hard phase. Overall crystallinity decreases with an increase in the polyester content in agreement with the XRD results. The crystallinity however, increases with the inclusion of EFB in the polyurethane system. This study was followed by the observation of the surface morphologies of the PKO PU foam with and without fillers. The scanning electron micrographs verified the finding on the improved k-factor values. (Author)

  20. Soil evolution in spruce forest ecosystems: role and influence of humus studied by morphological approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chersich S

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to understand the role and the mutual influences of humus and soil in alpine spruce forest ecosystems we studied and classified 7 soil - humic profiles on the 4 main forestry dynamics: open canopy, regeneration, young stand, tree stage. We studied the role of humification process in the pedologic process involving soils and vegetations studing humic and soil horizons. Study sites are located at an altitude of 1740 m a.s.l near Pellizzano (TN, and facing to the North. The parent soil material is predominantly composed of morenic sediments, probably from Cevedale glacier lying on a substrate of tonalite from Presanella (Adamello Tertiary pluton. The soil temperature regime is frigid, while the moisture regime is udic. The characteristics observed in field were correlated with classical chemical and physical soil analyses (MIPAF 2000. In order to discriminate the dominant soil forming process, the soils were described and classified in each site according to the World Reference Base (FAO-ISRIC-ISSS 1998. Humus was described and classified using the morphological-genetic approach (Jabiol et al. 1995. The main humus forms are acid and they are for the greater part Dysmoder on PODZOLS. The main pedogenetic processes is the podzolization, locally there are also hydromorphic processes. We associate a definite humus form with a pedological process at a particular step of the forest evolution. We concluded thath the soil study for a correct pedological interpretation must take count of the characteristics of the humic epipedon.

  1. Preliminary cephalometric study of the relationship between facial morphology and sex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alhassan Kadri

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Morphology of the face depends on many factors, such as sex, ethnicity, race, climate, nutrition, genetic constitution and socio-economic status. In the developed countries, there is well established database on facial anthropometry and for the purpose of identification. In Ghana however, there is very little documented information on cephalometric indices for biometric and forensic purposes. This study therefore, aimed at establishing baseline data to assess the relationship between sex using upper, lower and total cephalometric indices. One hundred participants made up of sixty males and forty females from KNUST were recruited for the study. Linear facial anthropometry were taken using calibrated Shahe digital calipers whiles participants sat with head in natural position. The facial anthropometric measurements were generally higher in males than in females. Upper facial height, facial width, nasal width, biocular diameter, lower facial height, lip length and total facial height were statistically significant and (p < 0.05. The present study shows the existence of statistically significant sexual dimorphism in the study population using cephalo-facial dimensions. Keywords: Cephalometry, Facial height, Facial width, Nasal width, Biocular diameter, Sexually dimorphic

  2. Studies on Morphological and Phylogenetic Relationship of Salak Pondoh Varieties (Salacca zalacca (Gaert. Voss. at Sleman Highlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NUR HIDAYAH

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of the study were to know the morphological variation of salak-plants (Salacca zalacca (Gaert. Voss. and their relationship. The study was conducted in May to April 2000, at Turi and Pakem of Sleman district, Yogyakarta. Samples were randomly taken, 5 plants of each variety were studied their morphological characters such as stem, leaf, flower and fruit. The data collected were then analyzed descriptive comparatively and their relationships were then determined. The result of the study indicate that there were at least 8 varieties of salak at Sleman district, green-, black-, yellow-, manggala-, red-yellow-, golden-, red-, and red-black pondoh. Morphological differences among varieties were markedly different. The closest relationship was found between variety of red-black- and black pondoh, while the farthest relationship among the varieties was manggala pondoh.

  3. Morphological study of the pineal gland of (crab eater raccoon Procyon cancrivorus (Cuvier, 1798

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro de Oliveira Marques

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The Procyon cancrivorus is a wild carnivore that is widely distributed and relatively common, but it remains little studied, and few works report on the biology of this species. The aim of this work was to characterize morphologically the pineal gland of Procyon cancrivorus through macro, microscopic and radiographic studies, and to compare them with those from other animals. In this work, four adult animals of both sexes were used, originating from the Scientific Herd of CECRIMPAS IBAMA (Process nº 02027.003731/04-76. Macroscopically, the pineal gland of Procyon cancrivorus was located between the occipital lobes of the cerebral hemispheres, cranially to the vermis cerebelar. It was positioned rostrally to the rostral colliculus and caudally to the habenular comissure. Microscopically, the gland was covered externally by a capsule deriving from the meningeal pia mater. The presence of three types of cells was noted in the glandular parenchyma: pinealocytes, glial cells and mast cells. No calcareous concretions in the pineal gland were found in the radiographic and microscopic studies.

  4. Morphology of the human internal vertebral venous plexus : A cadaver study after latex injection in the 21-25-week fetus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groen, RJM; Grobbelaar, M; Muller, GIF; van Solinge, G; Verhoof, O; du Toit, DF; Hoogland, P.V.J.M.

    The morphology of the anterior and posterior internal vertebral venous plexus (IVVP) in human fetuses between 21-25 weeks of gestational age is described. The results are compared to the findings of a previous morphological study of the IVVP in the aged. The morphological pattern of the anterior

  5. A Study on Organic-Metal Halide Perovskite Film Morphology, Interfacial Layers, Tandem Applications, and Encapsulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Dallas A.

    Organic-metal halide perovskites have brought about a new wave of research in the photovoltaic community due to their ideally suited optical and electronic parameters. In less than a decade, perovskite solar cell performance has skyrocketed to unprecedented efficiencies with numerous reported methodologies. Perovskites face many challenges with high-quality film morphology, interfacial layers, and long-term stability. In this work, these active areas are explored through a combination of studies. First, the importance of perovskite film precursor ratios is explored with an in-depth study of carrier lifetime and solvent-grain effects. It was found that excess lead iodide precursor greatly improves the film morphology by reducing pinholes in the solar absorber. Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) solvent was found to mend grains, as well as improve carrier lifetime and device performance, possibly by passivation of grain boundary traps. Second, applications of perovskite with tandem cells is investigated, with an emphasis for silicon devices. Perovskites can easily be integrated with silicon, which already has strong market presence. Additionally, both materials' bandgaps are ideally suited for maximum tandem efficiency. The silicon/perovskite tandem device structure necessitated the optimization of inverted (p-i-n) structure devices. PEDOT:PSS, copper oxide, and nickel oxide p-type layers were explored through a combination of photoluminescent, chemical reactivity, and solar simulation results. Results were hindered due to resistive ITO and rough silicon substrates, but tandem devices displayed Voc indicative of proper monolithic performance. Third, replacement of titanium dioxide n-type layer with iron oxide (Fe 2O3, common rust) was studied. Iron oxide experiences less ultraviolet instability than that of titanium dioxide under solar illumination. It was found that current density slightly decreased due to parasitic absorption from the rust, but that open circuit voltage

  6. A STUDY OF MORPHOLOGICAL TYPES OF ANAEMIA IN A TERTIARY CARE HOSPITAL - A TWO-YEAR STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiran Kumar Epari

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND In this tertiary care hospital, one of the common condition of all the patients attending the hospital is Anaemia, which is a decrease in haemoglobin content or decrease in haematocrit below the lower limit of the 95% reference range for the individual’s age and sex. The patient presents with varied symptoms of different grades, depending on the severity of anaemia, in different clinical settings. Common presenting symptoms of anaemia are generalised weakness, malaise, loss of appetite and muscular pains. METHODS All the patient samples received at the central laboratory for haemogram, complete blood counts and peripheral smear examination over the period of two years between June 2014 to May 2016 were included in the study. Anaemia cases were diagnosed depending on the criteria of the definition of anaemia, and morphological typing of anaemia was done based on the peripheral smear examination of all the cases with decreased haemoglobin level. Standard cell counter was used to estimate the Hb and other red cell indices, and corroborated with peripheral blood smear examination by standard Romanowsky stains. RESULTS A total of 810 cases of anaemia were diagnosed over the period of two years, of which morphological typing yielded 685 cases of Microcytic and hypochromic anaemia, 15 cases of Dimorphic anaemia, 22 cases of Macrocytic anaemia and 88 cases of Normocytic and normochromic anaemia. CONCLUSION Anaemia is one of the most common problems of patients attending this tertiary care hospital, and detection and morphological typing of anaemia is very helping in guiding the clinicians in diagnosis and further management of anaemias for better patient care.

  7. Thermal Analysis, Structural Studies and Morphology of Spider Silk-like Block Copolymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wenwen

    Spider silk is a remarkable natural block copolymer, which offers a unique combination of low density, excellent mechanical properties, and thermal stability over a wide range of temperature, along with biocompatibility and biodegrability. The dragline silk of Nephila clavipes, is one of the most well understood and the best characterized spider silk, in which alanine-rich hydrophobic blocks and glycine-rich hydrophilic blocks are linked together generating a functional block copolymer with potential uses in biomedical applications such as guided tissue repair and drug delivery. To provide further insight into the relationships among peptide amino acid sequence, block length, and physical properties, in this thesis, we studied synthetic proteins inspired by the genetic sequences found in spider dragline silks, and used these bioengineered spider silk block copolymers to study thermal, structural and morphological features. To obtain a fuller understanding of the thermal dynamic properties of these novel materials, we use a model to calculate the heat capacity of spider silk block copolymer in the solid or liquid state, below or above the glass transition temperature, respectively. We characterize the thermal phase transitions by temperature modulated differential scanning calorimetry (TMDSC) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). We also determined the crystallinity by TMDSC and compared the result with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and wide angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD). To understand the protein-water interactions with respect to the protein amino acid sequence, we also modeled the specific reversing heat capacity of the protein-water system, Cp(T), based on the vibrational, rotational and translational motions of protein amino acid residues and water molecules. Advanced thermal analysis methods using TMDSC and TGA show two glass transitions were observed in all samples during heating. The low temperature glass transition, Tg(1), is related to

  8. Morphological characteristics of bioaerosols from contrasting locations in southern tropical India - A case study

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Valsan, A.E.; Priyamvada, H.; Ravikrishna, R.; Despres, V.R.; Biju, C.V.; Sahu, L.K.; Kumar, Ashwini; Verma, R.S.; Philip, L.; Gunthe, S.S.

    environments However, the diversity observed in morphological characteristics of bioaerosols at these two contrasting locations is limited and restricted to these two sites and season of the year, and should therefore not be generalized over a large spatio...

  9. Tautomerism and isomerism in some antitrichinellosis active benzimidazoles: Morphological study in polarized light, quantum chemical computations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anichina, Kameliya; Mavrova, Anelia; Yancheva, Denitsa; Tsenov, Jordan; Dimitrov, Rasho

    2017-12-01

    The morphology of the crystal structure of some antitrichinellosis active benzimidazole derivatives including (1H-benzimidazol-2-ylthio)acetic acids, [1,3]thiazolo[3,2-a]benzimidazol-3(2H)-ones, 1H-benzimidazol-2-ylthioacetylpiperazines and starting 2-mercapto benzimidazoles, was studied by the use of Polarized Light Microscopy (PLM). Characterization of the crystal phase was complimented by Differential scanning calorimetry analysis (DSC) and spectroscopic data. DFT computations were performed in order to investigate the prototropic tautomerism and the geometry of the molecule of the synthesized compounds. One distinct type of crystal structure for each one of 5 or 6-methyl-(1H-benzimidazol-2-ylthio)acetic acid 6 was observed by PLM - dendritic and needle-shaped formations. Compound 14, containing a methyl substituent in the benzimidazole ring crystallized also into two phases; while for the unsubstituted compound 13 a separation of phases does not take place. The influence of the both solvents - chloroform and ethanol on the phase separation and the formation of the crystalline structure of compound 14 was investigated. The morphological study showed that the cyclization of 6 in the presence of acetic anhydride in pyridine medium led to a mixture of 6-methyl-[1,3]tiazolo[3,2-a]benzimidazol-3(2H)-one (10a) and 7-methyl-[1,3]thiazolo[3,2-a]-benzimidazole-3(2H)-one (10b), which crystallized in the form of fibrils and spherulites respectively. It was found that a difference in the crystal structures of substituted and unsubstituted benzimidazol-2-thiones, respectively benzimidazol-2-thiol derivatives exists, which may be due not only to the thiol-thione tautomerism but to the prototropic properties of the hydrogen atom in first position of the ring. The calculation results indicated that the thione form is more stable than the thiol tautomer by 51-55 kJ mol-1. But at the same time ΔG for the two thiol tautomers is below 0.5 kJ mol-1. In solid phase the 5

  10. Study of morphological variation of northern Neotropical Ariidae reveals conservatism despite macrohabitat transitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stange, Madlen; Aguirre-Fernández, Gabriel; Salzburger, Walter; Sánchez-Villagra, Marcelo R

    2018-03-27

    Morphological convergence triggered by trophic adaptations is a common pattern in adaptive radiations. The study of shape variation in an evolutionary context is usually restricted to well-studied fish models. We take advantage of the recently revised systematics of New World Ariidae and investigate skull shape evolution in six genera of northern Neotropical Ariidae. They constitute a lineage that diversified in the marine habitat but repeatedly adapted to freshwater habitats. 3D geometric morphometrics was applied for the first time in catfish skulls and phylogenetically informed statistical analyses were performed to test for the impact of habitat on skull diversification after habitat transition in this lineage. We found that skull shape is conserved throughout phylogeny. A morphospace analysis revealed that freshwater and marine species occupy extreme ends of the first principal component axis and that they exhibit similar Procrustes variances. Yet freshwater species occupy the smallest shape space compared to marine and brackish species (based on partial disparity), and marine and freshwater species have the largest Procrustes distance to each other. We observed a single case of shape convergence as derived from 'C-metrics', which cannot be explained by the occupation of the same habitat. Although Ariidae occupy such a broad spectrum of different habitats from sea to freshwater, the morphospace analysis and analyses of shape and co-variation with habitat in a phylogenetic context shows that conservatism dominates skull shape evolution among ariid genera.

  11. Thermoluminescent properties of nanocrystalline ZnTe thin films: Structural and morphological studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajpal, Shashikant; Kumar, S. R.

    2018-04-01

    Zinc Telluride (ZnTe) is a binary II-VI direct band gap semiconducting material with cubic structure and having potential applications in different opto-electronic devices. Here we investigated the effects of annealing on the thermoluminescence (TL) of ZnTe thin films. A nanocrystalline ZnTe thin film was successfully electrodeposited on nickel substrate and the effect of annealing on structural, morphological, and optical properties were studied. The TL emission spectrum of as deposited sample is weakly emissive in UV region at ∼328 nm. The variation in the annealing temperature results into sharp increase in emission intensity at ∼328 nm along with appearance of a new peak at ∼437 nm in visible region. Thus, the deposited nanocrystalline ZnTe thin films exhibited excellent thermoluminescent properties upon annealing. Furthermore, the influence of annealing (annealed at 400 °C) on the solid state of ZnTe were also studied by XRD, SEM, EDS, AFM. It is observed that ZnTe thin film annealed at 400 °C after deposition provide a smooth and flat texture suited for optoelectronic applications.

  12. Study of Some Morphological Characters of Three Trout Breed Farmed in Salmonid Exploitations from Moldova

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cătălin Emilian Nistor

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Study of morphological characters at fish by means of biometry is a frequently utilized method and consists in determining the variability of characters in groups of individuals, by direct measurement, weighting and statistical processing of obtained data. Effectuation of body measurements and weighting is used to determine the increase in length of fish and to evaluate the general physiological condition. Brook trout, rainbow trout, and brown trout were the object of the current study by analyzing of 50 individuals, 10 individuals in each batch (F1, F2, C1 C2 and I1, from two trout farms from Moldova. After processing the obtained data were calculated the most representative indexes and maintenance coefficients. The obtained values were between 3.49 at batch F1 and 3.94 at batch I1 for profile index; 1.5 at batch I1 and 1.75 at batch F1 for Fulton coefficient; 1.47 at batch F2 and 1.6 at batch I1 for Kiselev index; 41.36 for batch F1 and 47.94 at batch C2 for thickness index; 19.94 C1 batch and 22.08 at F1 batch for fleshy index I, and 19.05 C2 batch and 21.2 at I1 batch for fleshy index II. Having in view the obtained results we can conclude that the analyzed fishes had a good state of maintenance.

  13. Comparative studies of the structure, morphology and electrical conductivity of polyaniline weakly doped with chlorocarboxylic acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gmati, Fethi; Fattoum, Arbi; Bohli, Nadra; Dhaoui, Wadia; Mohamed, Abdellatif Belhadj

    2007-01-01

    We report the results of studies on two series of polyaniline (PANI), doped with dichloroacetic (DCA) and trichloroacetic (TCA) acids, respectively, at various doping rates and obtained by the in situ polymerization method. Samples were characterized by x-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and conductivity measurements. The direct current (dc) and alternating current (ac) electrical conductivities of PANI salts have been investigated in the temperature range 100-310 K and frequency range 7-10 6 Hz. The results of this study indicate better chain ordering and higher conductivity for PANI doped with TCA. The dc conductivity of all samples is suitably fitted to Mott's three-dimensional variable-range hopping (VRH) model. Different Mott parameters such as characteristic temperature T 0 , density of states at the Fermi level (N(E F )), average hopping energy (W) and the average hopping distance (R) have been evaluated. The dependence of such values on the dopant acid used is discussed. At high frequencies, the ac conductivity follows the power law σ ac (ω,T) A(T)ω s(T,ω) , which is characteristic for charge transport in disordered materials by hopping or tunnelling processes. The observed increase in the frequency exponent s with temperature suggests that the small-polaron tunnelling model best describes the dominant ac conduction mechanism. A direct correlation between conductivity, structure and morphology was obtained in our systems

  14. Effects of an extreme flood on river morphology (case study: Karoon River, Iran)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousefi, Saleh; Mirzaee, Somayeh; Keesstra, Saskia; Surian, Nicola; Pourghasemi, Hamid Reza; Zakizadeh, Hamid Reza; Tabibian, Sahar

    2018-03-01

    An extreme flood occurred on 14 April 2016 in the Karoon River, Iran. The occurred flood discharge was the highest discharge recorded over the last 60 years in the Karoon River. Using the OLI Landsat images taken on 8 April 2016 (before the flood) and 24 April 2016 (after the flood) the geomorphic effects were detected in different land cover types within the 155-km-long study reach. The results show that the flood significantly affected the channel width and the main effect was high mobilization of channel sediments and severe bank erosion in the meandering reaches. According to field surveys, the flood occupied the channel corridor and even the floodplain parts. However, the channel pattern was not significantly altered, although the results show that the average channel width increased from 192 to 256 m. Statistical results indicate a significant change for active channel width and sinuosity index at 99% confidence level for both indexes. The flood-induced morphological changes varied significantly for different land cover types along the Karoon River. Specifically, the channel has widened less in residential areas than in other land cover types because of the occurrence of bank protection structures. However, the value of bank retreat in residential and protected sides of the Karoon River is more than what we expected during the study of extreme flood.

  15. Study of pulp chamber morphology of primary mandibular molars using spiral computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvakumar, Haridoss; Kavitha, Swaminathan; Vijayakumar, Rajendran; Eapen, Thomas; Bharathan, Rajendran

    2014-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the pulp chamber morphology in primary mandibular molars using spiral computed tomography (SCT). Sixty extracted primary mandibular molars were scanned using SCT for the (i) distance between the central fissure to furcation, (ii) distance between the central fissure to the floor of the pulp chamber, (iii) height of the pulp chamber (roof-floor), (iv) distance between the floor of the pulp chamber to the furcation. The mean and standard deviation was analyzed using statistical package for the social sciences (SPSS) program. The results of this study show that the average mean distance from the central fissure to the floor of the pulp chamber is 5.07 mm in first mandibular primary molar and 5.54 mm in second mandibular primary molar. It can be concluded that the greatest depth to which a bur can go during access opening without perforating the furcation in first primary mandibular molar is 5.07 mm and 5.54 mm in second primary mandibular molar.

  16. The morphological and anatomical studies on endemic crocus biflorus miller subsp. Pulchricolor (herbert) mathew (iridaceae) in turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akyol, Y.

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the morphological and anatomical characteristics of Crocus biflorus subsp. pulchricolor (Iridaceae)were investigated. The subsp. pulchricolor has, 4 leaves, 1 mm broad, bracts drying brownish. these properties are characteristics of these plants. In anatomical studies, cross-sections of the root, stem and leaves were examined. These parts photographed and compared with the other crocus and Iridaceae family species. (author)

  17. A radiographic study on the morphology of the maxillary sinus in adolescents and adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ko, Kang Joon; Lee, Sang Rae

    1984-01-01

    The purpose of this study was radiographic analysis of the morphology of maxillary sinus in adolescents and adults. In order to analyze the morphology of maxillary sinus in view point of anteroposterior width of medial wall, vertical distance between antral floor and nasal floor level, anterior extension, distance between antral floor and maxillary 1st molar apex, and types of lower border of maxillary sinus, specialized maxillary projection and periapical view with paralleling technique was taken. The author examined orthopantomograms and intraoral standard views taken from 400 adolescents and adults ranged 15-65 years-old. The obtained results were as follows: 1. The antero-posterior width of medial wall of maxillary sinus was 32.80 mm in 15-19 year-old group, 33.86 mm in 20-24 year-old group, 34.09 mm in 25-29 year-old group, and 33.67 mm in 30-65 year-old group, and left maxillary sinus was somewhat smaller than the right. 2. The vertical distance between antral floor and nasal floor level was 8.49 mm in 15-19 year-old group, 9.05 mm i n 20-24 year-old group, 8.95 mm in 25-29 year-old group, and 8.32 mm in 30-65 year-old group. 3. The order of anterior extension of maxillary sinus were distal half of canine, mesial half of canine, mesial half of 1st premolar, and distal half of 1st premolar. 4. The distance between antral floor and maxillary 1st molar were 4.36 mm in 15-19 year-old group, 4.77 mm in 20-24 yea r-old group, 3.58 mm in 25-29 year-old group, and 2.33 mm in 30-65 year-old group. 5. The order of the types of lower border of maxillary sinus were entire downward type, close type, partially downward type, waving type, separating type, and indistinct. In the types of antral floor, there was a tendency to increase the separating type with age.

  18. Contributions to the Study of the Esophagus and Stomach Morphology in Guinea Pig

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Berghes

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the study is to illuminate some data on gastric esophageal junction morphology in Guinea Pig brings explanations on mice unable to vomit. There are few literature data on the conformation and structure of the laboratory mouse esophagus and stomach. They try to explain why the mouse can not vomit. Deviating slightly to the left only in the cervical region the esophagus runs mainly in the cervical region the esophagus runs mainly mid sagittally along the dorsal aspect of the trachea. Its length is about 30 mm (3, 4. Through out its length the diameter is about 2 mm. Through out its length the diameter is about 2 mm. The epithelium of the esophagus is moderately to extensively cornfield. The submucosa is free of gland. Both layers of the muscular coat are made buddle of skeletal muscle. The esophagus enters the middle of the lesser curvature. The esophageal sphincter is a circular muscle that surrounds the base of the esophagus. At its lower edge, it has muscle fibers that insert into the limiting ridge. So when the sphincter contracts, it not only constricts the walls of the esophagus, it also pulls the sides of the limiting ridge's "U" together, thus hiding and tightly closing the esophageal opening. Muscle layer is formed on the entire length of skeletal muscle fiber.

  19. Morphological studies in a model for dengue-2 virus infection in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ortrud Monika Barth

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the main difficulties in studying dengue virus infection in humans and in developing a vaccine is the absence of a suitable animal model which develops the full spectrum of dengue fever, dengue haemorrhagic fever, and dengue shock syndrome. It is our proposal to present morphological aspects of an animal model which shows many similarities with the dengue infection in humans. BALB/c mice were intraperitoneally infected with non-neuroadapted dengue virus serotype 2 (DENV-2. Histopathological and morphometrical analyses of liver tissue revealed focal alterations along the infection, reaching wide-ranging portal and centrolobular veins congestion and sinusoidal cell death. Additional ultrastructural observations demonstrated multifocal endothelial injury, platelet recruitment, and alterated hepatocytes. Dengue virus antigen was detected in hepatocytes and in the capillar endothelium of the central lobular vein area. Liver function tests showed high levels of aspartate transaminase and alanine transaminase enzyme activity. Lung tissue showed interstitial pneumonia and mononuclear cells, interseptal oedema, hyperplasia, and hypertrophy of the bronchiolar epithelial cells. DENV-2 led to a transient inflammatory process, but caused focal alterations of the blood-exchange barrier. Viremia was observed from 2nd to 11th day p.i. by isolation of DENV-2 in C6/36 mosquito cell line inoculated with the supernatant of macerated liver, lung, kidney, and cerebellum tissues of the infected mice.

  20. Ecological, morphological, and histological studies on Blaps polycresta (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) as biomonitors of cadmium soil pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osman, Wafaa; El-Samad, Lamia M; Mokhamer, El-Hassan; El-Touhamy, Aya; Shonouda, Mourad

    2015-09-01

    Soil pollution in Egypt became far more serious than before due to either the heavy usage of different toxic pesticides or aerosol deposition of industrial pollutants. The present mentioned ground beetle, Blaps polycresta Tschinkel 1975 (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae), showed ecological, morphological, and histological alterations in adult insects as biomonitors. Two cultivated sites (reference and polluted) were chosen for sampling the insects. The results indicated a significant increase in soil cadmium concentration of the polluted site leading to sex-specific difference in cadmium accumulation in gonads and alimentary canal of insects that being higher in males than females. The cadmium pollution leads significantly to a decrease in population density, a reduction in body weight, an increase in mortality rate, and an increase in sex ratio of the insects. The results also revealed a striking decrease in body length of the polluted insects with a marked increase in the percentage of deformed gonads and alimentary canal of both sexes. Some histopathological alterations were also recorded in testis, ovary, and midgut of the polluted insects. Our results confirmed that beetles are a good bioindicator for soil pollution, and the different studied parameters could be easily employed as sensitive monitors for cadmium soil pollution.

  1. A pilot study of the marginal adaptation and surface morphology of glass-cermet cements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, C H; King, N M; Lee, A M; Yiu, C K; Wei, S H

    1996-07-01

    This study investigated changes in the marginal adaptation and surface morphology of Ketac-Silver and Chelon-Silver glass-current cements over time. Dispersalloy amalgam was used as a control. Contralateral pairs of carious primary molars were restored with the test materials and amalgam. Clinical evaluations were scheduled at 12, 18, and 24 months after placement. Gold-plated replicas of the restorations were observed with scanning electron microscopy. Fractures and cracks in the surface of the Dispersalloy and Chelon-Silver increased the surface roughness; however, the damage was superficial and self-limiting in the Dispersalloy restorations, while in Chelon-Silver the fractures caused the material to break down in layers. A substantial quantity of pores, usually smaller than 50 microns in diameter, were observed throughout the surface of the Chelon-Silver restorations. The pores in the surface of Ketac-Silver were fewer and smaller. The incidence of cavomarginal breakdown increased with time. Chelon-Silver restorations had a higher rate of cavomarginal breakdown than did Ketac-Silver and Dispersalloy restorations up to 18 months. However, there was no statistically significant difference in the marginal adaptation of the three groups at 24 months.

  2. Manganese oxide phases and morphologies: A study on calcination temperature and atmospheric dependence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Augustin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Manganese oxides are one of the most important groups of materials in energy storage science. In order to fully leverage their application potential, precise control of their properties such as particle size, surface area and Mnx+ oxidation state is required. Here, Mn3O4 and Mn5O8 nanoparticles as well as mesoporous α-Mn2O3 particles were synthesized by calcination of Mn(II glycolate nanoparticles obtained through an economical route based on a polyol synthesis. The preparation of the different manganese oxides via one route facilitates assigning actual structure–property relationships. The oxidation process related to the different MnOx species was observed by in situ X-ray diffraction (XRD measurements showing time- and temperature-dependent phase transformations occurring during oxidation of the Mn(II glycolate precursor to α-Mn2O3 via Mn3O4 and Mn5O8 in O2 atmosphere. Detailed structural and morphological investigations using transmission electron microscopy (TEM and powder XRD revealed the dependence of the lattice constants and particle sizes of the MnOx species on the calcination temperature and the presence of an oxidizing or neutral atmosphere. Furthermore, to demonstrate the application potential of the synthesized MnOx species, we studied their catalytic activity for the oxygen reduction reaction in aprotic media. Linear sweep voltammetry revealed the best performance for the mesoporous α-Mn2O3 species.

  3. Morphological study of the testes of the dove Columba livia (Gmelin (Columbidae, Columbiformes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Maria das Graças Maruch

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Known as "domestic dove", the Columba livia (Gmelin, 1789 is a columbidae species widely distributed in Brazil, whose reproductive biology has been studied by many researchers. The testes of 12 Columba livia males were collected and prepared for histologic examination under an optical microscope, the results of which were analysed and photographed. The tunica albuginea that covers the testes consists of a thick, not very cellular layer of dense connective tissue. Groups of interstitial cells with typical morphological appearance and surrounded by loose, well vascularized connective tissue are observable within the organ, between the seminiferous tubules. The seminiferous tubules are thick, intensely wound and, when seen in cross section, show Sertoli cells and spermatogenic lineage cells in different stages of development. These include spermatogonia (type A, clear; type A, dark; and type B, spermatocytes I and II, spermatids, and a large number of spermatozoons. Similarities are found between the histological findings described and those reported for the testes of Columbina talpacoti (Temminck, 1811.

  4. Study on the morphology and agroecology of creat (Andrographis panculata ness. in various habitat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BAMBANG PUJIASMANTO

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Raw material supply which still depends on nature has caused genetic erotion of medicinal plants. The objectives of the research were to study creat (Andrographis paniculata Ness. morphology; and agroecology in many habitat for cultivated be medical substance. The research were conducted at three different locations, ie. at lowland ( 700 m asl.. The result showed that creat growth on 180 m – 861 m above sea level with environmental conditions : temperature 20.320C – 26.930C, relative humidity 78% - 87%, perticipation 2053.2 mm/ year – 3555.6 mm/ year. The creat can growth on soil mineral that contains N medium, P low, K medium, Mg low, Ca verylow until low ,C organic low until medium, and pH less acid until acid. The heihgt plant of creat in middleland is the highest of in lowland and upland, that also leaf of creat. The flower, fruit, and root of creat as good as in the habitat various. The highest andrographolid contain in middleland (2.27%, whereas in lowland (1.37% and upland (0.89%.

  5. Morphological study on the olfactory systems of the snapping turtle, Chelydra serpentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamuta, Nobuaki; Nakamuta, Shoko; Kato, Hideaki; Yamamoto, Yoshio

    2016-06-01

    In this study, the olfactory system of a semi-aquatic turtle, the snapping turtle, has been morphologically investigated by electron microscopy, immunohistochemistry, and lectin histochemistry. The nasal cavity of snapping turtle was divided into the upper and lower chambers, lined by the sensory epithelium containing ciliated and non-ciliated olfactory receptor neurons, respectively. Each neuron expressed both Gαolf, the α-subunit of G-proteins coupling to the odorant receptors, and Gαo, the α-subunit of G-proteins coupling to the type 2 vomeronasal receptors. The axons originating from the upper chamber epithelium projected to the ventral part of the olfactory bulb, while those from the lower chamber epithelium to the dorsal part of the olfactory bulb. Despite the identical expression of G-protein α-subunits in the olfactory receptor neurons, these two projections were clearly distinguished from each other by the differential expression of glycoconjugates. In conclusion, these data indicate the presence of two types of olfactory systems in the snapping turtle. Topographic arrangement of the upper and lower chambers and lack of the associated glands in the lower chamber epithelium suggest their possible involvement in the detection of odorants: upper chamber epithelium in the air and the lower chamber epithelium in the water. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Effect of ionizing radiation on the primate pancreas: an endocrine and morphologic study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du Toit, D.F.; Heydenrych, J.J.; Smit, B.

    1987-01-01

    In this study we evaluated the endocrine, biochemical, and haematological derangements as well as pancreatic and histological changes of the bonemarrow in the primate following external fractionated subtotal marrow irradiation without bonemarrow reconstitution. The irradiation was administered in preparation for pancreatic transplantation. Two groups of animals (ten in each group) received 800 rad (8 Gy) and 1000 rad (10 Gy) respectively over 4 to 5 weeks. A maximum of 200 rads (2 Gy) were administered weekly as photons from a 6 MV linear accelerator. During irradiation the animals remained normoglycaemic in the presence of transiently elevated liver enzymes and serum amylase values, which returned to normal on completion of the irradiation. Insulin release was significantly reduced in both groups during irradiation and was associated with minimally decreased K-values in the presence of mild glucose intolerance. Pancreatic light morphologic changes included structural changes of both exocrine and endocrine elements and included necrosis of the islet cells and acinar tissue. Islet histology demonstrated striking cytocavitary network changes of alpha and beta cells, including degranulation, vacuolization, mitochondrial destruction, and an increase in lysosomes. A hypoplastic bonemarrow ranging from moderate to severe was observed in all irradiated recipients. Near total fractionated body irradiation in the primate is therefore associated with elevated liver enzymes, pancytopenia, transient hyperamylasaemia, hypoinsulinaemia, a varying degree of pancreatitis, and bonemarrow hypoplasia

  7. A comparative study of craniofacial morphology of cleft lip children with or without palate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Su Beom; Kim, Young Ju; Koh, Kwang Joon [Dept. of Oral Radiology, College of Dentistry, Chonbuk National University, Chonju (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-08-15

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether any difference existed in craniofacial morphology between cleft children and normal subjects. Thirty three measurements of the various regions of cranium and face were obtained from lateral cephalometric radiograms in 40 cleft children (27 males, 13 females) and 40 normal subjects (23 males, 17 females) in our dental hospital from Jan. 1988 to Dec. 1995. The measurements were compared with those in control subjects who had no history of craniofacial abnormalities.. The obtained results were as follows; l. In the cranium, the cleft children had significantly shorter posterior cranial base length (S-Ba) and total antero-posterior cranial base length (N-Ba) (P<0.05). 2. In the upper face, the cleft children had significantly shorter upper anterior facial height (N-ANS) and upper posterior facial height (Ptm'-SNL) (P<0.05). 3. In the lower face, the cleft children had significantly shorter antero-posterior mandibular length (Pog-Ar) and antero-posterior mandibular body length (Pog-Go) (P<0.05). 4. In the facial profile, the cleft children had significantly shorter total facial height (N-Me) and posterior facial height (S-Go) (P<0.05).

  8. Live-cell imaging study of mitochondrial morphology in mammalian cells exposed to X-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noguchi, M.; Yokoya, A.; Narita, A.; Fujii, K.; Kanari, Y.

    2015-01-01

    Morphological changes in mitochondria induced by X-irradiation in normal murine mammary gland cells were studied with a live-cell microscopic imaging technique. Mitochondria were visualised by staining with a specific fluorescent probe in the cells, which express fluorescent ubiquitination-based cell-cycle indicator 2 (Fucci2) probes to visualise cell cycle. In unirradiated cells, the number of cells with fragmented mitochondria was about 20 % of the total cells through observation period (96 h). In irradiated cells, the population with fragmented mitochondria significantly increased depending on the absorbed dose. Particularly, for 8 Gy irradiation, the accumulation of fragmentation persists even in the cells whose cell cycle came to a stand (80 % in G1 (G0-like) phase). The fraction reached to a maximum at 96 h after irradiation. The kinetics of the fraction with fragmented mitochondria was similar to that for cells in S/G2/M phase (20 %) through the observation period (120 h). The evidences show that, in irradiated cells, some signals are continually released from a nucleus or cytoplasm even in the G0-like cells to operate some sort of protein machineries involved in mitochondrial fission. It is inferred that this delayed mitochondrial fragmentation is strongly related to their dysfunction, and hence might modulate radiobiological effects such as mutation or cell death. (authors)

  9. Taurine Rescues Cisplatin-Induced Muscle Atrophy In Vitro: A Morphological Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Stacchiotti

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cisplatin (CisPt is a widely used chemotherapeutic drug whose side effects include muscle weakness and cachexia. Here we analysed CisPt-induced atrophy in C2C12 myotubes by a multidisciplinary morphological approach, focusing on the onset and progression of autophagy, a protective cellular process that, when excessively activated, may trigger protein hypercatabolism and atrophy in skeletal muscle. To visualize autophagy we used confocal and transmission electron microscopy at different times of treatment and doses of CisPt. Moreover we evaluated the effects of taurine, a cytoprotective beta-amino acid able to counteract oxidative stress, apoptosis, and endoplasmic reticulum stress in different tissues and organs. Our microscopic results indicate that autophagy occurs very early in 50 μM CisPt challenged myotubes (4 h–8 h before overt atrophy but it persists even at 24 h, when several autophagic vesicles, damaged mitochondria, and sarcoplasmic blebbings engulf the sarcoplasm. Differently, 25 mM taurine pretreatment rescues the majority of myotubes size upon 50 μM CisPt at 24 h. Taurine appears to counteract atrophy by restoring regular microtubular apparatus and mitochondria and reducing the overload and the localization of autophagolysosomes. Such a promising taurine action in preventing atrophy needs further molecular and biochemical studies to best define its impact on muscle homeostasis and the maintenance of an adequate skeletal mass in vivo.

  10. Novel polyester/SiO2 nanocomposite membranes: Synthesis, properties and morphological studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadizadegan, Hashem; Esmaielzadeh, Sheida

    2018-06-01

    In this paper, a new type of soluble polyester/silica (PE/SiO2) hybrid was prepared by the ultrasonic irradiation process. The coupling agent γ-glycidyloxypropyltrimethoxysilane (GOTMS) was chosen to enhance the compatibility between the polyester (PE) and silica (SiO2). Furthermore, the effects of the coupling agent on the morphologies and properties of the PE/SiO2 hybrids were investigated using UV-vis and FT-IR spectroscopies and FE-SEM. The densities and solubilities of the PE/SiO2 hybrids were also measured. The results show that the size of the silica particle was markedly reduced by the introduction of the coupling agent, which made the PE/SiO2 hybrid films become transparent. Furthermore, thermal stability, residual solvent in the membrane film and structural ruination of membranes were analyzed by thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA). The effects of SiO2 nanoparticles on the glass transition temperature (Tg) of the prepared nanocomposites were studied by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Moreover, their mechanical properties were also characterized. It can be observed that the Young's moduli (E) of the hybrid films increase linearly with the silica content. The results obtained from gas permeation experiments with a constant pressure setup showed that adding SiO2 nanoparticles to the polymeric membrane structure increased the permeability of the membranes.

  11. Structural and morphological study of Fe-doped Bi-based superconductor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Yadunath; Kumar, Rohitash

    2018-05-01

    In the present work, we report the study of iron-doped Bi-based superconductor sample with stoichiometric composition of Bi2Sr2Can-1(Cu1-x Fex)3O2n+4 where n=3 and x = 0.7. This sample was prepared by grinding the precursor oxides in the Ball mill for 6 hours continuous at the rate of 400 rpm for a proper mixing and to obtain the required grain size. Then the solid-state reaction method was used to prepare the sample. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) in combination with energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence analysis (EDX) were performed for determination of the crystal structure, surface morphology and trace the material elements of samples, respectively. The surface microscopy data were collected over a selected area of the surface of the material and a two-dimensional image generated that displays spatial variations in properties including chemical characterization and orientation of materials.

  12. Anatomical, morphological and palynological studies of some onosma l. (boraginaceae) taxa endemic to anatolia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teke, H.I.; Binzet, R.

    2017-01-01

    In this study, the morphological, anatomical and palynological characters of Onosma discedens Hausskn. ex. Bornm., O. nana DC. and O. sorgerae var. subglabriflora Teppner were investigated. All the examined species are endemic to Anatolia, Turkey. The root cortex of examined species is multilayered. The raphide crystals are observed in epidermal cells and basal hair cells on both side of epidermis in O. sorgerae var. subglabriflora. Leaves are isobilateral (=equifacial) in O. nana and O. sorgerae var. subglabriflora, whereas leaves are dorsiventral(=bifacial) in O. discedens. Stomatas are observed on both surfaces (=amfistomatic) in all examined species. Stomata index is 9.25 of upper epidermis and 10.71 of lower epidermis in O. discedens, 9.61 of upper epidermis and 10 of lower epidermis in O. nana and 9.67 of upper epidermis and 13.63 of lower epidermis in O. sorgerae var. subglabriflora. The pollen grains are heteropolar, trisyncolporatae and sphaeroidal shape. In O. discedens, sphaeroidal (P/E: 1.13 W) and subprolate in Acetolysis and in O. nana, subprolate in shape and in O. sorgerae var. subglabriflora. Amb is three angular in all examined Onosma species. Sculpture is scabrate-rugulate in all species. Nutlet ornamentation is rugose. (author)

  13. A comparative study of craniofacial morphology of cleft lip children with or without palate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Su Beom; Kim, Young Ju; Koh, Kwang Joon

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether any difference existed in craniofacial morphology between cleft children and normal subjects. Thirty three measurements of the various regions of cranium and face were obtained from lateral cephalometric radiograms in 40 cleft children (27 males, 13 females) and 40 normal subjects (23 males, 17 females) in our dental hospital from Jan. 1988 to Dec. 1995. The measurements were compared with those in control subjects who had no history of craniofacial abnormalities.. The obtained results were as follows; l. In the cranium, the cleft children had significantly shorter posterior cranial base length (S-Ba) and total antero-posterior cranial base length (N-Ba) (P<0.05). 2. In the upper face, the cleft children had significantly shorter upper anterior facial height (N-ANS) and upper posterior facial height (Ptm'-SNL) (P<0.05). 3. In the lower face, the cleft children had significantly shorter antero-posterior mandibular length (Pog-Ar) and antero-posterior mandibular body length (Pog-Go) (P<0.05). 4. In the facial profile, the cleft children had significantly shorter total facial height (N-Me) and posterior facial height (S-Go) (P<0.05).

  14. Study of the surface chemistry and morphology of single walled carbon nanotube-magnetite composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marquez-Linares, F.; Uwakweh, O.N.C.; Lopez, N.; Chavez, E.; Polanco, R.; Morant, C.; Sanz, J.M.; Elizalde, E.; Neira, C.; Nieto, S.; Roque-Malherbe, R.

    2011-01-01

    The study of the morphologies of the single walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT), magnetite nanoparticles (MNP), and the composite based on them was carried with combined X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy (RS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). These techniques together with thermogravimetric analyses (TGA) and diffuse reflectance infrared transform spectroscopy (DRIFTS) confirmed the production of pure single phases, and that the composite material consisted of MNP attached to the outer surface of the SWCNT. The Moessbauer spectroscopy (MS) research showed the presence of a large quantity of Lewis acid sites in the highly dispersed magnetite particles supported on the SWCNT outer surface. The DRIFTS carbon dioxide adsorption study of the composites revealed significant adsorption of carbon dioxide, fundamentally in the Lewis acid sites. Then, the Lewis acid sites were observed to be catalytically active. Further, the electron exchange between the Lewis acid sites and the basic or amphoteric adsorbed molecules could influence the magnetic properties of the magnetite. Consequently, together with this first ever use of MS in the study of Lewis acid sites, this investigation revealed the potential of the composites for catalytic and sensors applications. -- Graphical abstract: A large amount of Lewis acid sites were found in the highly dispersed magnetite which is supported on the SWCNT outer surface. Display Omitted Research highlights: → The obtained materials were completely characterized with XRD, Raman and SEM-TEM. → DRIFT, TGA and adsorption of the composites allowed understand the material formation. → This is the first report of a study of Lewis sites by Moessbauer spectroscopy.

  15. The role of semantic and phonological factors in word recognition: an ERP cross-modal priming study of derivational morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kielar, Aneta; Joanisse, Marc F

    2011-01-01

    Theories of morphological processing differ on the issue of how lexical and grammatical information are stored and accessed. A key point of contention is whether complex forms are decomposed during recognition (e.g., establish+ment), compared to forms that cannot be analyzed into constituent morphemes (e.g., apartment). In the present study, we examined these issues with respect to English derivational morphology by measuring ERP responses during a cross-modal priming lexical decision task. ERP priming effects for semantically and phonologically transparent derived words (government-govern) were compared to those of semantically opaque derived words (apartment-apart) as well as "quasi-regular" items that represent intermediate cases of morphological transparency (dresser-dress). Additional conditions independently manipulated semantic and phonological relatedness in non-derived words (semantics: couch-sofa; phonology: panel-pan). The degree of N400 ERP priming to morphological forms varied depending on the amount of semantic and phonological overlap between word types, rather than respecting a bivariate distinction between derived and opaque forms. Moreover, these effects could not be accounted for by semantic or phonological relatedness alone. The findings support the theory that morphological relatedness is graded rather than absolute, and depend on the joint contribution of form and meaning overlap. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Morphological correlates to cognitive dysfunction in schizophrenia as studied with Bayesian regression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawyer Glenn

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Relationships between cognitive deficits and brain morphological changes observed in schizophrenia are alternately explained by less gray matter in the brain cerebral cortex, by alterations in neural circuitry involving the basal ganglia, and by alteration in cerebellar structures and related neural circuitry. This work explored a model encompassing all of these possibilities to identify the strongest morphological relationships to cognitive skill in schizophrenia. Methods Seventy-one patients with schizophrenia and sixty-five healthy control subjects were characterized by neuropsychological tests covering six functional domains. Measures of sixteen brain morphological structures were taken using semi-automatic and fully manual tracing of MRI images, with the full set of measures completed on thirty of the patients and twenty controls. Group differences were calculated. A Bayesian decision-theoretic method identified those morphological features, which best explained neuropsychological test scores in the context of a multivariate response linear model with interactions. Results Patients performed significantly worse on all neuropsychological tests except some regarding executive function. The most prominent morphological observations were enlarged ventricles, reduced posterior superior vermis gray matter volumes, and increased putamen gray matter volumes in the patients. The Bayesian method associated putamen volumes with verbal learning, vigilance, and (to a lesser extent executive function, while caudate volumes were associated with working memory. Vermis regions were associated with vigilance, executive function, and, less strongly, visuo-motor speed. Ventricular volume was strongly associated with visuo-motor speed, vocabulary, and executive function. Those neuropsychological tests, which were strongly associated to ventricular volume, showed only weak association to diagnosis, possibly because ventricular volume was

  17. Chemical properties and morphology of Marine Aerosol in the Mediterranean atmosphere: a mesocosm study

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Anna, Barbara; Sellegri, Karine; Charrière, Bruno; Sempéré, Richard; Mas, Sébastien; Marchand, Nicolas; George, Christian; Même, Aurèlie; R'mili, Badr; Delmont, Anne; Schwier, Allison; Rose, Clémence; Colomb, Aurèlie; Pey, Jorge; Langley Dewitt, Helen

    2014-05-01

    The Mediterranean Sea is a special marine environment characterized by low biological activity and high anthropogenic pressure. It is often difficult to discriminate the contribution of Primary Sea Salt Aerosol formed at the sea surface from background level of the aerosol. An alternative tool to study the sea-air exchanges in a controlled environment is provided by the mesocosms, which represent an important link between field studies and laboratory experiments. The sea-air transfer of particles and gases was investigated in relation to water chemical composition and biological activity during a mesocosm experiment within the SAM project (Sources of marine Aerosol in the Mediterranean) at the Oceanographic and Marine Station STARESO in Western Corsica (May 2013). Three 2 m mesocosms were filled with screened (sensors and received different treatments: one was left unchanged as control and two were enriched by addition of nitrates and phosphates respecting Redfield ratio (N:P = 16). The evolution of the three systems was followed for 20 days. The set of sensors in each mesocosm was allowed to monitor, at high frequency (every 10 min), the water temperature, conductivity, pH, incident light, fluorescence of chlorophyll a and dissolved oxygen concentration. The mesocosm seawaters were daily sampled for chemical (colored dissolved organic matter, particulate matter and related polar compounds, transparent polysaccharides and nutrients concentration) and biological (chlorophyll a, virus, phytoplankton and zooplankton) analyses. Both dissolved and gaseous VOCs were also analyzed. In addition, few liters of seawater from each mesocosm were daily and immediately collected and transferred to a bubble-bursting apparatus to simulate nascent sea spray aerosol. On-line chemical analysis of the sub-micrometer fraction was performed by a TOF-AMS (Aerodyne). Off-line analysis included TEM-EDX for morphology and size distribution studies and a hybrid quadrupole-orbitrap mass

  18. Morphological Characteristics of Au Films Deposited on Ti: A Combined SEM-AFM Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Ruffino

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Deposited Au films and coatings are, nowadays, routinely used as active or passive elements in several innovative electronic, optoelectronic, sensing, and energy devices. In these devices, the physical properties of the Au films are strongly determined by the films nanoscale structure. In addition, in these devices, often, a layer of Ti is employed to promote adhesion and, so, influencing the nanoscale structure of the deposited Au film. In this work, we present experimental analysis on the nanoscale cross-section and surface morphology of Au films deposited on Ti. In particular, we sputter-deposited thick (>100 nm thickness Au films on Ti foils and we used Scanning Electron Microscopy to analyze the films cross-sectional and surface morphology as a function of the Au film thickness and deposition angle. In addition, we analyzed the Au films surface morphology by Atomic Force Microscopy which allowed quantifying the films surface roughness versus the film thickness and deposition angle. The results establish a relation between the Au films cross-sectional and surface morphologies and surface roughness to the film thickness and deposition angle. These results allow setting a general working framework to obtain Au films on Ti with specific morphological and topographic properties for desired applications in which the Ti adhesion layer is needed for Au.

  19. Systematic study on the influence of the morphology of α-MoO3 in the selective oxidation of propylene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schuh, Kirsten; Kleist, Wolfgang; Høj, Martin

    2015-01-01

    A variety of morphologically different α-MoO3 samples were prepared by hydrothermal synthesis and applied in the selective oxidation of propylene. Their catalytic performance was compared to α-MoO3 prepared by flame spray pyrolysis (FSP) and a classical synthesis route. Hydrothermal synthesis from...... with nitric acid at 180°C. Particularly, if nitric acid was used during synthesis, the rod-like morphology of the samples could be stabilized during calcination at 550°C and the following catalytic activity tests, which was beneficial for the catalytic performance in propylene oxidation. Characterization...... studies using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Raman spectroscopy showed that those samples, which retained their rod-like morphology during the activity tests, yielded the highest propylene conversion....

  20. Morphological and allozyme studies of small terrestrial snails (Opeas sp., Subulina sp. and Huttonella bicolor) collected from Peninsular Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choh, M S; Yap, C K; Tan, S G; Jambari, H A

    2006-01-01

    Shell morphological characters and allozyme electrophoresis were used to study the relationships among six geographical populations of land snails collected from Peninsular Malaysia. Allozyme electrophoresis was used to study the genetic variations to complement the morphological features studied that included shell lengths, numbers of whorls and shell colour. Ten loci coding for six enzymes (MDH, LAP, ALP, PGM, G6PDH and EST) could be reliably scored in samples from the six populations studied. The dendrogram showed two major clusters with one cluster comprising Subulinidae populations from Perak, Selangor, Johor, Terengganu and Pahang while the other cluster included only the Streptaxidae Huttonella bicolor (red) population. The Subulinidae populations were grouped into two subclusters: one subcluster included the Subulina sp. populations from Perak, Selangor an Johor while the other subcluster included the Opeas sp. populations from Terengganu and Pahang. Morphological features can identify the different families and therefore they can complement the allozyme genetic studies on the land snail populations. Like other reports in the literature, our results also underline the importance of a genetic approach in conjunction with a morphological approach, for discriminating land snail species. The present results suggest that small land snails, which were similar in colour but different in sizes, were not of the same family/genus.

  1. Morphological changes of carotid bodies in acute respiratory distress syndrome: a morphometric study in humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinhaes E.N.G.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Carotid bodies are chemoreceptors sensitive to a fall of partial oxygen pressure in blood (hypoxia. The morphological alterations of these organs in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD and in people living at high altitude are well known. However, it is not known whether the histological profile of human carotid bodies is changed in acute clinical conditions such as acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS. The objective of the present study was to perform a quantitative analysis of the histology of carotid bodies collected from patients who died of ARDS. A morphometric study of carotid bodies collected during routine autopsies was carried out on three groups: patients that died of non-respiratory diseases (controls, N = 8, patients that presented COPD and died of its complications or associated diseases (N = 7, and patients that died of ARDS (N = 7. Morphometric measurements of the volume fraction of clusters of chief cells were performed in five fields on each slide at 40X magnification. The numerical proportion of the four main histological cell types (light, dark, progenitor and sustentacular cells was determined analyzing 10 fields on each slide at 400X magnification. The proportion of dark cells was 0.22 in ARDS patients, 0.12 in controls (P<0.001, and 0.08 in the COPD group. The proportion of light cells was 0.33 (ARDS, 0.44 (controls (P<0.001, and 0.36 (COPD. These findings suggest that chronic and acute hypoxia have different effects on the histology of glomic tissue.

  2. Apathy is related to cortex morphology in CADASIL. A sulcal-based morphometry study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jouvent, E; Reyes, S; Mangin, J-F; Roca, P; Perrot, M; Thyreau, B; Hervé, D; Dichgans, M; Chabriat, H

    2011-04-26

    Apathy is a debilitating symptom in cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL), the pathophysiology of which remains poorly understood. The aim of this study was to evaluate the neuroanatomic correlates of apathy, using new MRI postprocessing methods based on the identification of cortical sulci, in a large cohort of patients with CADASIL. A total of 132 patients with genetically confirmed diagnosis were included in this prospective cohort study. Global cognitive performances were assessed by the Mattis Dementia Rating Scale (MDRS) and disability by the modified Rankin score (mRS). Apathy was defined according to standard criteria. Depth, width, and cortical thickness of 10 large sulci of the frontal lobe in each hemisphere were measured. Logistic regression modeling was used to evaluate the links between apathy and cortical thickness, depth, or width of the different sulci. All models were adjusted for age, gender, level of education, MDRS, mRS, depression, and global brain volume. Complete MRI datasets of high quality were available in 119 patients. Depth of the posterior cingulate sulcus exhibited the strongest association with apathy in fully adjusted models (right: p value = 0.0006; left: p value = 0.004). Depth and width of cortical sulci in mediofrontal and orbitofrontal areas were independently associated with apathy. By contrast, cortical thickness was not. Cortical morphology in mediofrontal and orbitofrontal areas, by contrast to cortical thickness, is strongly and independently associated with apathy. These results suggest that apathy is related to a reduction of cortical surface rather than of cortical thickness secondary to lesion accumulation in CADASIL.

  3. Functional and morphological studies of photodamaged skin on the hands of middle-aged Japanese golfers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi-Numagami, K; Suetake, T; Yanai, M; Takahashi, M; Tanaka, M; Tagami, H

    2000-06-01

    The skin of golfers' hands provides a suitable model to study the effect of chronic sun exposure, because one of their hands is exposed to the outer environment, especially sunlight, while the other one is always protected by a glove during play. Our purpose was to find out the influence of photodamage on the properties of the skin surface of middle-aged Japanese by using non-invasive methods. We measured hydration state, and water barrier function of the stratum corneum (SC) and the color of the skin of the dorsum of the hands. In a separate study, we evaluated the skin surface contour by using replicas taken from the skin in a slightly stretched or relaxed position. We found a significant decrease in hydration of the skin surface of the exposed skin as compared to that of the protected skin, whereas no such difference was found with transepidermal water loss, a parameter for water barrier function of the SC. Luminance of skin color was also reduced in the sun-exposed skin. Replica analysis revealed that large wrinkles developing in a relaxed position were more prominent on the exposed than on the protected skin, while fine furrows noted in a slightly stretched position were shallower on the former than the latter. The data obtained indicate that the chronically exposed skin of golfers' hands shows morphological and functional changes resulting from long time exposure to the outer environment especially sunlight. Furthermore, bioengineering non-invasive methods are found to be useful to detect early photodamage of the skin in a more quantitative fashion which is rather difficult to demonstrate clinically.

  4. Immunohistochemical characterisation of the hepatic stem cell niche in feline hepatic lipidosis: a preliminary morphological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valtolina, Chiara; Robben, Joris H; Favier, Robert P; Rothuizen, Jan; Grinwis, Guy Cm; Schotanus, Baukje A; Penning, Louis C

    2018-05-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to describe the cellular and stromal components of the hepatic progenitor cell niche in feline hepatic lipidosis (FHL). Methods Immunohistochemical staining for the progenitor/bile duct marker (K19), activated Kupffer cells (MAC387), myofibroblasts (alpha-smooth muscle actin [α-SMA]) and the extracellular matrix component laminin were used on seven liver biopsies of cats with FHL and three healthy cats. Double immunofluorescence stainings were performed to investigate co-localisation of different cell types in the hepatic progenitor cell (HPC) niche. Results HPCs, Kupffer cells, myofibroblasts and laminin deposition were observed in the liver samples of FHL, although with variability in the expression and positivity of the different immunostainings between different samples. When compared with the unaffected cats where K19 positivity and minimal α-SMA and laminin positivity were seen mainly in the portal area, in the majority of FHL samples K19 and α-SMA-positive cells and laminin positivity were seen also in the periportal and parenchymatous area. MAC387-positive cells were present throughout the parenchyma. Conclusions and relevance This is a preliminary morphological study to describe the activation and co-localisation of components of the HPC niche in FHL. Although the HPC niche in FHL resembles that described in hepatopathies in dogs and in feline lymphocytic cholangitis, the expression of K19, α-SMA, MAC387 and lamin is more variable in FHL, and a common pattern of activation could not be established. Nevertheless, when HPCs were activated, a spatial association between HPCs and their niche could be demonstrated.

  5. Morphological study of the axial view of the cervical spinal cord by MR images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Masahiro; Shimamura, Tadashi

    1994-01-01

    To investigate the morphological changes in the cervical spinal cord in patients with cervical myelopathy, we examined the axial anatomy of the cervical spinal cord and the spinal canal using MRI and CT scans. This study involved 35 patients (mean age=56.8) with cervical myelopathy and 118 adult normal volunteers (mean age=48.1) as controls. The transverse area of the spinal cord was measured on MR images (T 1 images), while the transverse area of the spinal canal was measured on CT. In normal subjects, the transverse area, the sagittal diameter, and the coronal diameter of the spinal cord showed a significant positive correlation with body height, and a significant negative correlation with age. No significant difference was identified between males and females. The transverse area, the sagittal diameter, the coronal diameter, and the ratio of the sagittal/coronal diameter of the spinal cord and the spinal canal showed significant positive correlations among each other in normal subjects, but no significant correlation was noted in the patients with cervical myelopathy. These was no significant difference between the normal subjects and the patients in the transverse area or in the ratio of the sagittal/coronal diameter of the spinal cord at the levels without cord compression. However, the transverse area of the spinal canal in the patients with myelopathy was significantly smaller than that of normal subjects. In conclusion, a poor or no correlation between the size of the spinal cord and the spinal canal is a frequent finding in patients with myelopathy. Furthermore, this study suggests that patients with myelopathy present a narrow spinal canal more frequently than do normal subjects. (author)

  6. Patterns of ovarian morphology in polycystic ovary syndrome: a study utilising magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barber, Thomas M.; Smith, Rachel; Marland, Anne; Wass, John A.H.; Alvey, Christopher; Greenslade, Tessa; Gooding, Mark; Barber, Debbie; Child, Tim; McCarthy, Mark I.; Franks, Stephen; Golding, Stephen J.

    2010-01-01

    To evaluate and compare MRI-based ovarian morphology in groups of women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and controls. All PCOS cases (n = 44) had oligo-amenorrhoea and hyperandrogenism irrespective of ovarian morphology, and fulfilled NIH/Rotterdam diagnostic criteria for PCOS. All control women (n = 40) had normal menses and normoandrogenaemia. All subjects were of white British/Irish origin and pre-menopausal. Group comparisons were based on independent-sample t tests. Polycystic ovarian morphology was defined by at least 12 follicles 2-9 mm in diameter and/or an ovarian volume greater than 10 cm 3 . Ovarian morphology differed significantly in PCOS cases and controls (follicle number geometric mean [SD range] 18.6 [9.9, 35.0] vs 6.6 [3.1, 14.2], unadjusted P = 1.3 x 10 -16 ; calculated ovarian volume 8.8 cm 3 [5.0, 15.5] vs 5.1 cm 3 [2.5, 10.3], unadjusted P = 3.0 x 10 -7 ; peripheral follicle location in 55% vs 18% of ovaries, P = 7.9 x 10 -6 ; visible central ovarian stroma in 61% vs 24% of ovaries, P = 2.3 x 10 -5 ). Follicle number and calculated ovarian volume were not concordant with clinical/biochemical assignment of PCOS/control status in 36 (23%) and 52 (34%) of ovaries, respectively. Ovarian morphology overlaps in PCOS cases and controls, emphasising the importance of considering clinical/biochemical presentation together with imaging ovarian morphology in the diagnosis of PCOS. (orig.)

  7. Patterns of ovarian morphology in polycystic ovary syndrome: a study utilising magnetic resonance imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barber, Thomas M.; Smith, Rachel; Marland, Anne; Wass, John A.H. [Churchill Hospital, Department of Endocrinology, Oxford Centre for Diabetes, Endocrinology and Metabolism, Oxford (United Kingdom); Alvey, Christopher [John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford MRI Centre, Oxford (United Kingdom); Greenslade, Tessa [John Radcliffe Hospital, Department of Medicine, Oxford (United Kingdom); Gooding, Mark [University of Oxford, Department of Engineering, Oxford (United Kingdom); Barber, Debbie; Child, Tim [John Radcliffe Hospital, Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Oxford (United Kingdom); McCarthy, Mark I. [Churchill Hospital, Oxford Centre for Diabetes, Endocrinology and Metabolism, Oxford (United Kingdom); Franks, Stephen [Imperial College (Hammersmith Campus), Institute of Reproductive and Developmental Biology, London (United Kingdom); Golding, Stephen J. [John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford MRI Centre, Oxford (United Kingdom); University of Oxford, Department of Engineering, Oxford (United Kingdom)

    2010-05-15

    To evaluate and compare MRI-based ovarian morphology in groups of women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and controls. All PCOS cases (n = 44) had oligo-amenorrhoea and hyperandrogenism irrespective of ovarian morphology, and fulfilled NIH/Rotterdam diagnostic criteria for PCOS. All control women (n = 40) had normal menses and normoandrogenaemia. All subjects were of white British/Irish origin and pre-menopausal. Group comparisons were based on independent-sample t tests. Polycystic ovarian morphology was defined by at least 12 follicles 2-9 mm in diameter and/or an ovarian volume greater than 10 cm{sup 3}. Ovarian morphology differed significantly in PCOS cases and controls (follicle number geometric mean [SD range] 18.6 [9.9, 35.0] vs 6.6 [3.1, 14.2], unadjusted P = 1.3 x 10{sup -16}; calculated ovarian volume 8.8 cm{sup 3} [5.0, 15.5] vs 5.1 cm{sup 3} [2.5, 10.3], unadjusted P = 3.0 x 10{sup -7}; peripheral follicle location in 55% vs 18% of ovaries, P = 7.9 x 10{sup -6}; visible central ovarian stroma in 61% vs 24% of ovaries, P = 2.3 x 10{sup -5}). Follicle number and calculated ovarian volume were not concordant with clinical/biochemical assignment of PCOS/control status in 36 (23%) and 52 (34%) of ovaries, respectively. Ovarian morphology overlaps in PCOS cases and controls, emphasising the importance of considering clinical/biochemical presentation together with imaging ovarian morphology in the diagnosis of PCOS. (orig.)

  8. Particle size modeling and morphology study of chitosan/gelatin/nanohydroxyapatite nanocomposite microspheres for bone tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagheri-Khoulenjani, Shadab; Mirzadeh, Hamid; Etrati-Khosroshahi, Mohammad; Shokrgozar, Mohammad Ali

    2013-06-01

    In this study, nanocomposite microspheres based on chitosan/gelatin/nanohydroxyapatite were fabricated, and effects of the nanohydroxyapatite/biopolymer (chitosan/gelatin) weight ratio (nHA/P), stirring rate, chitosan concentration and biopolymer concentration on the particle size, and morphology of nanocomposite microspheres were investigated. Particle size of microspheres was modeled by design of experiments using the surface response method. Particle size, morphology of microspheres, and distribution of nanoparticles within the composite microspheres were evaluated using an optical microscope, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), respectively. X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy were applied to study the physical and chemical characteristics of microspheres. Results showed that by modulating the nHA/P ratio, chitosan concentration, polymer concentration, and stirring rate, it is possible to fabricate microspheres in wide rages of particle size (5-150 μm). Analysis of variance confirmed that the modified quadratic model can be used to predict the particle size of nanocomposite microspheres within the design space. SEM studies showed that microspheres with different compositions had totally different morphologies from dense morphologies to porous ones. TEM images demonstrated that nanoparticles were distributed uniformly within the polymeric matrix. MTT assay and cell culture studies showed that microspheres with different compositions possessed good biocompatibility. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A, 2013. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Bilingualism and Morphological Awareness: A Study with Children from General Education and Spanish-English Dual Language Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Li-Jen; Ramirez, Gloria; de Marin, Sharon; Kim, Tae-Jin; Unal-Gezer, Melike

    2017-01-01

    Existing research on the impact of bilingualism on metalinguistic development has concentrated on the development of phonological awareness. The present study extended the scope of existing research by focusing on morphological awareness, an aspect of metalinguistic awareness that becomes increasingly important beyond the initial phase of literacy…

  10. A Comparative Study of Melanin Content and Skin Morphology for Three Commonly Used Laboratory Swine (Sus scrofa domestica)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-01

    Air Force Research Laboratory 711th Human Performance Wing Human Effectiveness Directorate Bioeffects Division Optical Radiation Bioeffects...Branch AFRL-RH-FS-TR-2013-0004 A Comparative Study of Melanin Content and Skin Morphology for Three Commonly Used Laboratory Swine (Sus scrofa...Jindra Human Effectiveness Directorate Directed Energy Bioeffects Division Optical Radiation Branch Robert W. Kornegay Rick Figueroa Human

  11. Morphological study of synthesized chlorinated polyethylene by inductive plasma; Estudio morfologico de polietileno clorado sintetizado por plasmas inductivos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olayo, M.G.; Cruz, G.; Carapia, L.; Fernandez, G. [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Morales, J. [UAM-I, A.P. 55-534, Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2004-07-01

    In this work a morphological study on the synthesis of Chlorinated polyethylene for plasma starting from Trichloroethylene in a polymerization process and ablation simultaneous of metals, where silver atoms and copper are inserted directly during the growth of the polymer from the gas phase to the one solid is presented. (Author)

  12. A combined phytohemagglutinin and a-ketoglutarate pharmacology study of gut morphology and growth in older adult rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Filip, R.; Harrison, Adrian Paul; Pierzynowski, S.G.

    2008-01-01

    This study has evaluated the effect of phytohaemagglutinin (PHA) in combination with alpha-ketoglutaric acid (AKG), on GI-tract morphology and N balance in adult rats. Rats, aged approx. 15 months, were assigned to one of four experimental groups, (1) Control group, (2) AKG group, (3) AKG+PHA 100...

  13. Correlating yeast cell stress physiology to changes in the cell surface morphology: atomic force microscopic studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canetta, Elisabetta; Walker, Graeme M; Adya, Ashok K

    2006-07-06

    Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) has emerged as a powerful biophysical tool in biotechnology and medicine to investigate the morphological, physical, and mechanical properties of yeasts and other biological systems. However, properties such as, yeasts' response to environmental stresses, metabolic activities of pathogenic yeasts, cell-cell/cell-substrate adhesion, and cell-flocculation have rarely been investigated so far by using biophysical tools. Our recent results obtained by AFM on one strain each of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Schizosaccharomyces pombe show a clear correlation between the physiology of environmentally stressed yeasts and the changes in their surface morphology. The future directions of the AFM related techniques in relation to yeasts are also discussed.

  14. Numerical study on morphology and solidification characteristics of successive droplet depositions on a substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adaikalanathan, Vimalan

    accounting for the latent heat. It is coupled with the flow solver through an Enthalpy-Porosity technique. A modified boundary condition which incorporates the contact resistance has also been implemented. The case of multiple eutectic solder droplet depositions has been simulated to study the various aspects of splat morphology and solidification characteristics. Effects of impact conditions on single as well as successive droplet depositions have been examined. The role of convection terms in the energy equation has been emphasized and quantitatively analysed. The effect of impact velocity is manifested as surface curvature of the pre-solidified splat and in turn, affects morphology of the subsequent droplets. Initial droplet temperature influences the solidification time of both single and multiple droplets. Under certain conditions, remelting of pre-solidified splat has been observed and its causes have been discussed. Contact resistance has been reported in the literature and has been found to have a strong influence not only on the heat transfer but also the spreading behaviour. Frequency of successive impingements is also an important factor affecting the metallurgical bonding properties.

  15. Morphology of Sigmoid Colon in South Indian Population: A Cadaveric Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael, Stelin Agnes; Rabi, Suganthy

    2015-08-01

    Sigmoid volvulus is a common etiological factor in acute large bowel obstruction. The increased length of sigmoid colon is attributed as one of the causes of sigmoid volvulus. The aim of this study was to find the morphology of sigmoid colon in South Indian population using cadavers. The present study was performed with 31 cadavers used for teaching purpose. The sigmoid colon was classified into classical, long-narrow and long- broad types by their disposition in the abdominal cavity. The sigmoid loop's relation to pelvic brim was also observed and grouped as pelvic and suprapelvic in position. The length of sigmoid colon along the mesenteric and antimesenteric border, height and width of sigmoid mesocolon in relation to the pelvic brim and the root of mesentery were measured in the study. The study showed that the majority of the sigmoid colons fell into the classical type (47.6%). The sigmoid colon in pelvic position was significantly more prevalent. The mean length of sigmoid colon was 15.2 ± 4.4cm and 19.2 ± 6cm considering the pelvic brim and root of mesentery as reference points of measurement respectively. The mean length along antimesenteric border was 22.3 ± 7.9cm and 25 ± 8.7cm along the same reference points. The mean length of mesocolon height was 6.5 ± 3cm with reference to pelvic brim and 7.3 ± 3cm with reference to root of Sigmoid mesocolon respectively. The mean width of mesocolon was 7.4 ± 3cm (pelvic brim) and 8 ± 2cm (root of Sigmoid mesocolon) There was a positive correlation of sigmoid colon length with the height of the mesocolon. The gender analysis showed that males had statistically significant longer sigmoid colon and mesocolon. This study documents that the South Indian population has a more classical type of sigmoid colon and that the anatomical dimensions of sigmoid colon and its mesocolon is significantly longer in males.

  16. The function and morphology of Meibomian glands in patients with thyroid eye disease: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chia-Yu; Ho, Ren-Wen; Fang, Po-Chiung; Yu, Hun-Ju; Chien, Chun-Chih; Hsiao, Chang-Chun; Kuo, Ming-Tse

    2018-04-12

    To investigate function and morphology of the meibomian gland (MG) in patients with thyroid eye disease (TED). In this prospective case series study, patients with unilateral or bilateral TED were consecutively enrolled. The diagnosis of TED was based on the typical orbital findings and/or radiographic evidence. The disease activity of TED was classified according to the clinical activity score (CAS). Degrees of lagophthalmos and exophthalmos, blinking rates, and results of the Schirmer test 1 were also recorded. All patients completed the SPEED questionnaire and underwent MG assessment, including lipid layer thickness (LLT), MG dropout (MGd), and MG expression. In total 31 eyes from 17 patients with unilateral or bilateral TED were included. Patients were divided into inactive TED (CAS 0-1; 20 eyes from 11 patients) and active TED (CAS 2-3, 11 eyes from 6 patients) groups. MGd was significantly more severe in the active TED than the inactive TED group [Median (Inter-quartile region): 3.0 (2.0-3.0) vs. 2.0 (1.0-2.0) degree, P = 0.04]. However, patients with active TED had thicker LLT than those with inactive TED (90.0 [80.0-100.0] vs. 65.0 [47.8-82.5] nm, P = 0.02), and LLT was positively correlated with lagophthalmos (r = 0.37, P = 0.04). Patients with active TED had more severe MGd, but thicker LLT. Active TED may cause periglandular inflammation of MGs, leading to MGd, but compensatory secretion from residual MGs and lagophthalmos-induced forceful blinking might temporarily release more lipids over the tear film.

  17. Phase identification and morphology study of hematite (Fe2O3) with sintering time varitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazirin, Cepi; Puspitasari, Poppy; Sasongko, Muhammad Ilman Nur; Tsamroh, Dewi Izzatus; Risdanareni, Puput

    2017-09-01

    Iron oxide has been the interest of many studies due to its applications in various scientific and industrial fields including in environment, corrosion, soil science, and exhaust emissions. Iron oxide (Fe2O3) has potential applications in catalytic reactions in electronic devices such as semiconductors, paint formulations, and lithium rechargeable batteries. Fe2O3 can be synthesized through the process of stirring, decomposition of organic iron, sol-gel, combustion, and evaporating solvents. Most of the methods used involve several steps and take a long time. The aim of this research was to investigate the phase and morphology characterization of iron oxide (Fe2O3) powder with solvent ethylene glycol after being sintered for 1 hour, 2 hours and 3 hours. The characterization tools utilized were XRD, SEM-EDX, and FTIR. The results of XRD analysis showed that the Fe2O3 sintered for 1 hour had the smallest crystallite size with a diameter of 21.05 nm. In the XRD test, the beam of X-ray was shot directly at the grain being tested. The results of SEM analysis showed thatthe Fe2O3 sintered for 1 hour produced the best result due to its crystallite size of 12.36 nm and hada shape of homogeneous nanosphere; the duration of sintering indeed had a great influence on the grain size of iron oxide (Fe2O3). In addition, the results of the elemental composition analysis indicate that the longer the sintering process, the higher the concentration of O but the lower the Fe.

  18. A study on reproducibility of three-dimensional measurement for an evaluation of craniofacial morphology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagai, Yoshihiro; Nishiyama, Hideyoshi; Nihara, Jun; Tanaka, Ray; Yamaki, Masaki; Hayashi, Takafumi; Saito, Isao

    2013-01-01

    Materials including facial and oral pictures, frontal and lateral cephalograms, dental casts and CT are essential for orthodontic diagnosis with orthognathic surgery. Although a three-dimensional analysis has been prevalent in diagnosing patients with dentofacial deformity, little information is available as to the definition and reproducibility of the measurement points when conducting a three-dimensional analysis using CT. This study was therefore designed to evaluate reproducibility of three-dimensional landmarks defined on the multiplaner reconstruction (MPR) images. Seven presurgical CT data obtained from seven orthognathic patients (4 females and 3 males) were selected. Two orthodontists independently repeated the identification of 44 landmarks defined twice on the MPR image with the reference plane of the Frankfurt horizontal plane (FH plane) using DICOM viewer Exavision Lite (Ziosoft, Tokyo). The significance of intra-examiner and inter-examiner errors was assessed using ANOVA, and reproducibility of landmarks was evaluated by the standard deviation (SD) value of measurement error. While no significant differences were found in intra-examiner measurement values, a significant difference was identified in inter-examiner measurement values at 39 coordinates among 132 coordinates; 10, 15, and 14 coordinates were found in X-, Y- and Z-coordinates, respectively. Reproducibility of ramus posterior point (Ar), Gonion (Go) and greater palatine foramen were particularly poor. However, reproducibility of landmarks adopted was considered enough for the analysis of maxillofacial morphology since the SDs of those landmarks were small as compared to voxel size. In case the FH plane is set as the reference plane, much more reproducible measurement landmarks may be selected without an influence of changes in head posture. (author)

  19. Study of morphology, chemical, and amino acid composition of red deer meat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuskhanova, Eleonora; Assenova, Bahytkul; Rebezov, Maksim; Amirkhanov, Kumarbek; Yessimbekov, Zhanibek; Smolnikova, Farida; Nurgazezova, Almagul; Nurymkhan, Gulnur; Stuart, Marilyne

    2017-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate red deer (maral) meat quality based on chemical composition, pH, water-binding capacity (WBC), and amino acid content. Materials and Methods: Maral meat surface morphology measurements were obtained by scanning electron microscopy. Active acidity (pH) was determined by potentiometry. Samples were analyzed for WBC by exudation of moisture to a filter paper by the application of pressure. Chemical composition (moisture, protein, fat, and ash fractions) was obtained by drying at 150°C and by extraction, using ethylic ether, and ashing at 500-600°C. The amino acid composition was obtained by liquid chromatography. Results: Maral meat, with a pH of 5.85 and an average moisture content of 76.82%, was found to be low in fat (2.26%). Its protein content was 18.71% while its ash content was 2.21%. The amino acid composition showed that lysine (9.85 g/100 g), threonine (5.38 g/100 g), and valine (5.84 g/100 g) predominated in maral meat, while phenylalanine (4.08 g/100 g), methionine (3.29 g/100 g), and tryptophan (0.94 g/100 g) were relatively low in maral meat compared to other meats. The average WBC was found to be 65.82% and WBC was found to inversely correlate with moisture content. Conclusion: Low-fat content, high mineral content, and balanced amino-acid composition qualify maral meat as a worthy dietary and functional food. PMID:28717313

  20. Study of structure and surface morphology of two-layer contact Ti/Al metallization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirill D. Vanyukhin

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Ti/Al/Ni/Au metallization widely used in the technology of GaN base devices have a very important imperfection i.e. rough surface. There are different opinions about the causes of this imperfection: balling-up of molten aluminum or the appearance of intermetallic melt phases in the Au–Al system. To check the effect of the former cause, we have studied the formation of rough surface after annealing of Ti/Al metallization which is used as a basis of many metallization systems for GaN. The substrates were made from silicon wafers covered with Si3N4 films (0.15 μm. On these substrates we deposited the Ti(12 nm/Al(135 nm metallization system. After the deposition the substrates were annealed in nitrogen for 30 s at 850 °С. The as-annealed specimens were tested for metallization sheet resistivity, appearance and surface morphology. We have shown that during annealing of the Ti/Al metallization system, mutual diffusion of the metals and their active interaction with the formation of intermetallic phases occur. This makes the metallization system more resistant to subsequent annealing, oxidation and chemical etching. After annealing the surface of the Ti/Al metallization system becomes gently matted. However, large hemispherical convex areas (as in the Ti/Al/Ni/Au metallization system do not form. Thus, the hypothesis on the balling-up of molten aluminum on the surface of the Ti/Al metallization system has not been confirmed.

  1. Study of morphology, chemical, and amino acid composition of red deer meat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleonora Okuskhanova

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate red deer (maral meat quality based on chemical composition, pH, water-binding capacity (WBC, and amino acid content. Materials and Methods: Maral meat surface morphology measurements were obtained by scanning electron microscopy. Active acidity (pH was determined by potentiometry. Samples were analyzed for WBC by exudation of moisture to a filter paper by the application of pressure. Chemical composition (moisture, protein, fat, and ash fractions was obtained by drying at 150°C and by extraction, using ethylic ether, and ashing at 500-600°C. The amino acid composition was obtained by liquid chromatography. Results: Maral meat, with a pH of 5.85 and an average moisture content of 76.82%, was found to be low in fat (2.26%. Its protein content was 18.71% while its ash content was 2.21%. The amino acid composition showed that lysine (9.85 g/100 g, threonine (5.38 g/100 g, and valine (5.84 g/100 g predominated in maral meat, while phenylalanine (4.08 g/100 g, methionine (3.29 g/100 g, and tryptophan (0.94 g/100 g were relatively low in maral meat compared to other meats. The average WBC was found to be 65.82% and WBC was found to inversely correlate with moisture content. Conclusion: Low-fat content, high mineral content, and balanced amino-acid composition qualify maral meat as a worthy dietary and functional food.

  2. Changes in lung morphology and cell number in radiation pneumonitis and fibrosis: a quantitative ultrastructural study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vergara, J.A.; Raymond, U.; Thet, L.A.

    1987-01-01

    We used stereologic-morphometric techniques to obtain a detailed quantitative picture of the changes in lung ultrastructure of rats at 12 and 26 weeks after unilateral thoracic irradiation with 3000 cGy. At 12 weeks post-radiation, the total number type 1 epithelial cells, type 2 epithelial cells and capillary endothelial cells were decreased 50-70%, total type 1 epithelial and capillary surface areas were decreased 55-60%, and the total volume of intracapillary blood was decreased 75%. The interstitial cells and matrix together accounted for more than 9% of the peripheral lung tissue volume including air, compared to 3% in controls. The numerical density of interstitial cells was increased to 3-fold the control value. The numerical density of interstitial cells was increased to 3-fold the control value. Although fibroblasts still comprised the largest interstitial cell subgroup, the numerical density of mast cells was increased over 150-fold and other inflammatory and immune cells were increased to a lesser extent. At 26 weeks post-radiation, the number, volume, and surface area of the type 1 epithelium and capillary endothelium had further decreased to only 5-10% of control values. The total number of type 2 epithelial cells was reduced by 75% but the volume density was actually increased because of a 4-fold increase in the mean cell volume. The interstitial cells and matrix now comprised over 77% of total peripheral lung tissue volume including air as compared to 6% in controls. Mast cells and plasma cells comprised 11% and 19% of all interstitial cells respectively and the densities of these cells were 540 and 180-fold the control value respectively. The relation of these morphometric findings to the results of previous morphologic studies is discussed

  3. Study of aerosol behavior on the basis of morphological characteristics during festival events in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Anubha; Upadhyay, Vinay K.; Sachdeva, Kamna

    2011-07-01

    Two important festival events were selected to assess their impacts on atmospheric chemistry by understanding settling velocity and emission time of aerosols. Using high volume sampler, aerosols were collected in a sequential manner to understand settling velocity and emission time of aerosols on a particular day. Composition and total suspended particulate load of the aerosols collected during the festivals were used as markers for strengthening the assessment. Terminal settling velocity of the aerosols were calculated using morphological and elemental compositional data, obtained from scanning electron microcopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) study. Aerosol load, black carbon, aromatic carbon and terminal velocity calculations were correlated to obtain conclusion that aerosols collected on the festival day might have been emitted prior to the festival. Settling time of aerosols collected on 17th and 19th October'09 during Diwali were found to be 36.5 (1.5 days) and 12.8 h, respectively. Carbon concentration estimated using EDX was found to be almost double in the sample collected after 2 days of the festival event. This strengthens our inference of time calculation where carbon with high concentration of load must have settled approximately after two days of the event. Settling time of aerosols collected on Holi morning and afternoon was found to be 1.7 and 24.8 h, respectively. Further, because of the small distance of 5.4 km between the meteorological station and sampling site, observed TSP values were compared with theoretical load values, calculated by using visibility values taken from the meteorological data. And it was found that both experimental and calculated values are close to each other about 50% of the times, which proves the assumption that experimental and meteorological data are comparable.

  4. The placental barrier in allogenic immune conflict in spontaneous early abortions: immunohistochemical and morphological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurevich, Pavel; Elhayany, Asher; Milovanov, Andrey P; Halperin, Reuvit; Kaganovsky, Ella; Zusman, Itzhak; Ben-Hur, Herzel

    2007-11-01

    Morphologic changes in the placental barrier in spontaneous early abortions under the maternal-embryonic immune conflict, and the role of maternal immunoglobulins (Igs) in these changes. We examined chorionic villi and other tissues obtained from 54 aborts between weeks 3.5 and 8 of pregnancy. Material was divided into two groups. Group 1 (control) contained 15 medically recommended and spontaneous early aborts with no signs of inflammations or pathologic immune processes. Group 2 contained 39 spontaneous early aborts with acute chorionic villitis. Immunohistochemical and morphometric methods were used to study the Igs, different types of immunocompetent cells, and apoptosis-related components of the placental barrier. Acute villitis was found to be characterized by the destruction of all components of the chorionic villi, thrombovasculitis with apoptosis of the endothelium of capillaries and erythroblasts, mucous swelling of the basal membrane, and coagulation of the blood proteins. Due to destruction of the capillaries, the number of avasculate villi increased, and the average number of capillaries per villus decreased. The extremely high number of phagolysosomes with IgG and IgA in the villous monocytes in the group 2 indicates an increase in the phagocytic activity of monocytes against maternal Igs and may reflect the presence of mother-embryo immune conflict. Apoptosis of monocytes and a high number of promonocytes were seen accompanied by a high concentration of p53 protein. A large disturbance in the trophoblast occurred with disappearance of bcl-2 and the appearance of Fas ligand. Massive destruction of maternal Igs in embryonic monocytes and acute villitis in the placental barrier are manifested during the mother-embryo immune conflict, and this may be one of the reasons of spontaneous early abortions.

  5. Surface structural, morphological, and catalytic studies of homogeneously dispersed anisotropic Ag nanostructures within mesoporous silica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sareen, Shweta [Thapar University, School of Chemistry and Biochemistry (India); Mutreja, Vishal [Maharishi Markandeshwar University, Department of Chemistry (India); Pal, Bonamali; Singh, Satnam, E-mail: ssingh@thapar.edu [Thapar University, School of Chemistry and Biochemistry (India)

    2016-11-15

    Highly dispersed anisotropic Ag nanostructures were synthesized within the channels of 3-aminopropyltrimethoxysilane (APTMS)-modified mesoporous SBA-15 for catalyzing the reduction of p-dinitrobenzene, p-nitrophenol, and p-nitroacetophenone, respectively. A green templating process without involving any reducing agent, by varying the amount (1–10 wt.%) of Ag loading followed by calcination at 350 °C under H{sub 2} led to change in the morphology of Ag nanoparticles from nanospheres (~7–8 nm) to nanorods (aspect ratio ~12–30 nm) without any deformation in mesoporous sieves. In comparison to white bare SBA-15, gray-colored samples were formed with Ag impregnation exhibiting absorption bands at 484 and 840 nm indicating the formation of anisotropic Ag nanostructures within mesoporous matrix. TEM and FE-SEM micrographs confirmed the presence of evenly dispersed Ag nanostructures within as well as on the surface of mesoporous matrix. AFM studies indicated a small decrease in the average roughness of SBA-15 from 20.59 to 19.21 nm for 4 wt.% Ag/m-SBA-15, illustrating the encapsulation of majority of Ag nanoparticles in the siliceous matrix and presence of small amount of Ag nanoparticles on the mesoporous support. Moreover, due to plugging of mesopores with Ag, a significant decrease in surface area from 680 m{sup 2}/g of SBA-15 to 385 m{sup 2}/g was observed. The Ag-impregnated SBA-15 catalyst displayed superior catalytic activity than did bare SBA-15 with 4 wt.% Ag-loaded catalyst exhibiting optimum activity for selective reduction of p-nitrophenol to p-aminophenol (100 %), p-nitroacetophenone to p-aminoacetophenone (100 %), and p-dinitrobenzene to p-nitroaniline (87 %), with a small amount of p-phenylenediamine formation.

  6. Study on the submicron and micron morphology and the properties of poor bituminous coal burnout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pei-Fang Fu; Huai-Chun Zhou; Qing-Yan Fang; Hai Yao; Jianrong Qiu; Minghou Xu [Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan (China). State Key Laboratory of Coal Combustion

    2007-05-15

    Carbon burnout and its reaction mechanism have been widely focused on in the past decades. The properties of burnout, submicron and micron morphology and the reaction mechanism of poor bituminous coal/char (PBC) in a W-shaped power plant boiler was studied and was compared with those in DTF and in TGA, which showed that the degree of PBC burnout in TGA at 1450{sup o}C was greater than or approximately equal to that in a W-shaped boiler, and that the complexity of the reactions among residual char, oxygen and SiO{sub 2} did not seem to result in mass loss in TGA, although the weight percentage of the residual char in ash decreased from 33% ad (air dry basis) at 900{sup o}C to 9% and at 1450{sup o}C. According to the distribution of pores and the properties of the char burnout, the char can be simply categorized into three classes: char burnout easy, char burnout difficult and char burnout very difficult. The differences of the reaction mechanism must be considered while predicting the burning rate and degree of char burnout in a full-scale boiler by making use of experimental results from TGA and DTF. A different char particle contains markedly different amount of carbons, but for a special char particle, the ratio of carbon to ash is generally constant, and an ash shell does not exist on the char surface. The fusion mineral matter composing of C-O-Si-Al is amorphous, not in the form of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and SiO{sub 2} above 1450{sup o}C.

  7. Morphology and kinematics of filaments in Serpens and Perseus molecular clouds: a high resolution study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhabal, Arnab; Mundy, Lee; Rizzo, Maxime; Storm, Shaye; Teuben, Peter; CLASSy Collaboration

    2018-01-01

    Filamentary structures are prevalent in molecular clouds over a wide range of scales, and are often associated with active star formation. The study of filament morphology and kinematics provide insights into the physical processes leading to core formation in clustered environments. As part of the CARMA Large Area Star Formation Survey (CLASSy) follow-up, we observed five Herschel filaments in the Serpens Main, Serpens South and NGC1333 molecular clouds using the J=1-0 transitions of dense gas tracers H13CO+, HNC and H13CN. Of these, H13CO+ and H13CN are optically thin and serve as a test of the kinematics previously seen by the CLASSy in N2H+. The observations have an angular resolution of 7'' and a spectral resolution of 0.16 km/s. Although the large scale structure compares well with the CARMA N2H+ (J=1-0) maps and Herschel dust continuum maps, we resolve finer structure within the filaments identified by Herschel. Most regions are found to have multiple structures and filaments partially overlapping in the line-of-sight. In two regions overlapping structures have velocity differences as high as 1.4 km/s. We identify 8 individual filaments with typical widths of 0.03-0.06 pc in these tracers, which is significantly less than widths observed in the Herschel dust column density maps. At least 50% of the filaments have distinct velocity gradients perpendicular to their major axis with average values in the range 4-10 km s-1 pc-1. These findings are in support of the theoretical models of filament formation by 2-D inflow in the shock layer created by colliding turbulent cells. We also find evidence of velocity gradients along the length of two filaments; the gradients suggest that these filaments are inflowing towards the cloud core.

  8. Bacillus subtilis Biofilm Development – A Computerized Study of Morphology and Kinetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Gingichashvili

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Biofilm is commonly defined as accumulation of microbes, embedded in a self-secreted extra-cellular matrix, on solid surfaces or liquid interfaces. In this study, we analyze several aspects of Bacillus subtilis biofilm formation using tools from the field of image processing. Specifically, we characterize the growth kinetics and morphological features of B. subtilis colony type biofilm formation and compare these in colonies grown on two different types of solid media. Additionally, we propose a model for assessing B. subtilis biofilm complexity across different growth conditions. GFP-labeled B. subtilis cells were cultured on agar surfaces over a 4-day period during which microscopic images of developing colonies were taken at equal time intervals. The images were used to perform a computerized analysis of few aspects of biofilm development, based on features that characterize the different phenotypes of B. subtilis colonies. Specifically, the analysis focused on the segmented structure of the colonies, consisting of two different regions of sub-populations that comprise the biofilm – a central “core” region and an “expanding” region surrounding it. Our results demonstrate that complex biofilm of B. subtillis grown on biofilm-promoting medium [standard lysogeny broth (LB supplemented with manganese and glycerol] is characterized by rapidly developing three-dimensional complex structure observed at its core compared to biofilm grown on standard LB. As the biofilm develops, the core size remains largely unchanged during development and colony expansion is mostly attributed to the expansion in area of outer cell sub-populations. Moreover, when comparing the bacterial growth on biofilm-promoting agar to that of colonies grown on LB, we found a significant decrease in the GFP production of colonies that formed a more complex biofilm. This suggests that complex biofilm formation has a diminishing effect on cell populations at the biofilm

  9. Morphological evaluation of maxillary second molars with fused roots: a micro-CT study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordinola-Zapata, R; Martins, J N R; Bramante, C M; Villas-Boas, M H; Duarte, M H; Versiani, M A

    2017-12-01

    To evaluate the internal and external morphologies of fused-rooted maxillary second molars by means of micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) analysis. A total of 100 fused-rooted maxillary second molars from a Brazilian subpopulation were divided into six groups according to the root morphology. The samples were scanned at a resolution of 19.6 μm and evaluated with regard to the external morphology of the roots, the root canal configuration, the percentage frequency of C-shaped canals and isthmuses, as well as the morphology of the root canal system at 1, 2 and 3 mm from the anatomical apex of the fused roots. The most prevalent root canal fusions were type 1, mesiobuccal root fused with distobuccal root (32%), followed by type 3, DB root fused with P root (27%), and type 4, MB root fused with DB root, and P root fused with MB or DB roots (21%). The prevalence of C-shaped root canal systems were 22%. Depending on the type of root fusion, the percentage frequency of isthmuses in the apical level varied from 9.3% to 42.8%, whilst the presence of apical deltas ranged from 18.5% to 57.1% of teeth. The root canal system of maxillary second molars with fused roots may have a high incidence of merging canals, isthmuses, apical deltas and C-shaped configurations. © 2017 International Endodontic Journal. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. The Size and Morphological Study of Spherical Polyelectrolyte Complex Beads Using Environmental Scanning Electron Microscopy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Neděla, Vilém; Bučko, M.; Tihlaříková, Eva; Krajčovič, T.; Gemeiner, P.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 21, S3 (2015), s. 1697-1698 ISSN 1431-9276 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-22777S Institutional support: RVO:68081731 Keywords : PEC * ESEM * polymers * morphology Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering Impact factor: 1.730, year: 2015

  11. Two species within Dedroctonus frontalis (Coleoptera: Curculionidae): evidence from morphological, karyological, molecular, and crossing studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francisco Armendariz-Toledano; Alicia Nino; Brian Sullivan; Jorge Macias-Samano; Javier Victor; Stephen R. Clarke; Gerardo Zuniga

    2014-01-01

    Dendroctonus frontalis Zimmermann is considered one of the most important economic and ecological forest pests in the United States, Mexico, and Central America. Recently, two apparent morphological variants of this species were discovered occurring syntopically in Central America and southern Mexico. Morphotype A beetles lack a series of Þne parallel ridges on the...

  12. External morphology of the cycliophoran dwarf male: a comparative study of Symbion pandora and S. americanus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neves, Ricardo C.; Cunha, Marina R.; Funch, Peter

    2010-01-01

    the phylum was first described, the dwarf male has a remarkably complex bodyplan albeit its very small size (approx. 30–40 lm in length). Aiming to increase the knowledge on the gross morphology of the cycliophoran dwarf male, specimens from S. pandora and S. americanus were analyzed by scanning electron...... with the data currently available on other metazoan dwarf males....

  13. Morphology of a coral bank, western continental shelf of India: A multibeam study

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, P.S.; Kodagali, V.N.; Ramprasad, T.; Nair, R.R.

    Morphology of a living coral bank (Gaveshani Bank) is described using multibeam swath bathymetric survey system Hydrosweep. The bank has a height of 42 m, length of 2 km and a maximum width of 1.66 km, with steep flanks and flat top. It has a north...

  14. Study of Morphological Changes of The Lime Putties During Maturing by SEM/ESEM

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Navrátilová, Eva; Neděla, Vilém

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 23, S1 (2017), s. 2186-2187 ISSN 1431-9276 R&D Projects: GA MŠk ED0017/01/01 Institutional support: RVO:68081731 Keywords : SEM * ESEM * morphological changes * lime putties Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering OBOR OECD: Civil engineering Impact factor: 1.891, year: 2016

  15. Prediction of selectivity from morphological conditions: Methodology and a case study on cod (Gadus morhua)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herrmann, Bent; Krag, Ludvig Ahm; Frandsen, Rikke

    2009-01-01

    The FISHSELECT methodology. tools, and software were developed and used to measure the morphological parameters that determine the ability of cod to penetrate different mesh types, sizes, and openings. The shape of one cross-section at the cod's head was found to explain 97.6% of the mesh...

  16. BROCAS APHASIA - A SYNTACTIC AND/OR A MORPHOLOGICAL DISORDER - A CASE-STUDY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    BASTIAANSE, R

    The patient described here suffers from Broca's aphasia without a comprehension disorder. She is unique, since she has two speech styles available and she shifts between them spontaneously. One style is characterized by a mild syntactic disorder and the other by a quite severe morphological and

  17. Comparative study on gill morphology of gastropods from Moreton Bay, Queensland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eertman, R.H.M.

    1996-01-01

    This paper reports the gill morphology of seven common gastropods from Moreton Bay, southeastern Queensland, to test the level of difference in gill structure between major taxa. The investigated species include representatives of the clades Patellogastropoda, Neritimorpha and Vetigastropda as well

  18. Study of fracture and stress-induced morphological instabilities in polymeric materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabouri-Ghomi, Mohsen

    We study the phenomena of fracture in polymers at the molecular and continuum level. At a molecular level, we study the failure of polymer/polymer interfaces. Our main focus is on a specific mode of failure known as chain pull-out fracture, which is common to weak adhesive junctions, and polymer blends and mixtures. In the case of the interface between incompatible polymers, reinforcement is achieved by adding a block copolymer to the interface. We introduce a microscopic model based on Brownian dynamics to investigate the effect of the polymerization index N, of the block connector chain, on fracture toughness of such reinforced polymeric junctions. We consider the mushroom regime, where connector chains are grafted with low surface density, for the case of large pulling velocity. We find that for short chains the interface fracture toughness depends linearly on the polymerization index N of the connector chains, while for longer chains the dependence becomes N 3/2. We propose a scaling argument, based on the geometry of the initial configuration, that accounts for both short and long chains and the crossover between them. At the continuum level, we study the pattern selection mechanism of finger-like crack growth phenomena in gradient driven growth problems in general, and the structure of stress-induced morphological instabilities in crazing of polymer glasses in particular. We simulate solidification in a narrow channel through the use of a phase-field model with an adaptive grid. By tuning a dimensionless parameter, the Peclet number, we show a continuous crossover from a free dendrite at high Peclet numbers to anisotropic viscous fingering at low Peclet numbers. At low Peclet numbers we find good agreement between our results, theoretical predictions, and experiment, providing the first quantitative test of solvability theory for anisotropic viscous fingers. For high undercoolings, we find new phenomena, a solid forger which satisfies stability and

  19. A comparative study of the skeletal morphology of the temporo-mandibular joint of children and adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, F; Liu, Y; Hu, K; Zhao, Y; Kong, L; Zhou, S

    2008-01-01

    The skeletal morphology of the temporo-mandibular joint (TMJ) is constantly remodeled. A comparative study was undertaken to determine and characterize the differences in the skeletal morphology of TMJ of children and adults. The study was conducted on 30 children cadavers and 30 adult volunteers. Parameters that could reflect TMJ skeletal morphology were measured with a new technology combining helical computed tomography (CT) scan with multi-planar reformation (MPR) imaging. Significant differences between children cadavers and adults were found in the following parameters (P<0.05): Condylar axis inclination, smallest area of condylar neck/largest area of condylar process, inclination of anterior slope in inner, middle, and outer one-third of condyle, anteroposterior/mediolateral dimension of condyle, length of anterior slope/posterior slope in inner and middle one-third of condyle, anteroposterior dimension of condyle/glenoid fossa, mediolateral dimension of condyle/glenoid fossa, inclination of anterior slope of glenoid fossa, depth of glenoid fossa, and anteroposterior/mediolateral dimension of glenoid fossa. There are significant differences of TMJ skeletal morphology between children and adults.

  20. A comparative study of the skeletal morphology of the temporo-mandibular joint of children and adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng F

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The skeletal morphology of the temporo-mandibular joint (TMJ is constantly remodeled. Aims and Objectives: A comparative study was undertaken to determine and characterize the differences in the skeletal morphology of TMJ of children and adults. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted on 30 children cadavers and 30 adult volunteers. Parameters that could reflect TMJ skeletal morphology were measured with a new technology combining helical computed tomography (CT scan with multi-planar reformation (MPR imaging. Results: Significant differences between children cadavers and adults were found in the following parameters ( P < 0.05: Condylar axis inclination, smallest area of condylar neck/largest area of condylar process, inclination of anterior slope in inner, middle, and outer one-third of condyle, anteroposterior/mediolateral dimension of condyle, length of anterior slope/posterior slope in inner and middle one-third of condyle, anteroposterior dimension of condyle/glenoid fossa, mediolateral dimension of condyle/glenoid fossa, inclination of anterior slope of glenoid fossa, depth of glenoid fossa, and anteroposterior/mediolateral dimension of glenoid fossa. Conclusion: There are significant differences of TMJ skeletal morphology between children and adults.

  1. A Three-Year Longitudinal Study of Reading and Spelling Difficulty in Chinese Developmental Dyslexia: The Matter of Morphological Awareness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Xiuhong; McBride, Catherine; Lo, Jason Chor Ming; Shu, Hua

    2017-11-01

    In the present study, we used a three-time point longitudinal design to investigate the associations of morphological awareness to word reading and spelling in a small group of those with and without dyslexia taken from a larger sample of 164 Hong Kong Chinese children who remained in a longitudinal study across ages 6, 7 and 8. Among those 164 children, 15 had been diagnosed as having dyslexia by professional psychologists, and 15 other children manifested average reading ability and had been randomly selected from the sample for comparison. All children were administered a battery of tasks including Chinese character recognition, word dictation, morphological awareness, phonological awareness and rapid automatized naming. Multivariate analysis of variance and predictive discriminate analysis were performed to examine whether the dyslexic children showed differences in the cognitive-linguistic tasks in comparison with controls. Results suggested that the dyslexic groups had poorer performance in morphological awareness and RAN across all 3 years. However, phonological awareness was not stable in distinguishing the groups. Findings suggest that morphological awareness is a relatively strong correlate of spelling difficulties in Chinese, but phonological awareness is not. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Quantitative Evaluation of Medial Temporal Lobe Morphology in Children with Febrile Status Epilepticus: Results of the FEBSTAT Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClelland, A C; Gomes, W A; Shinnar, S; Hesdorffer, D C; Bagiella, E; Lewis, D V; Bello, J A; Chan, S; MacFall, J; Chen, M; Pellock, J M; Nordli, D R; Frank, L M; Moshé, S L; Shinnar, R C; Sun, S

    2016-12-01

    The pathogenesis of febrile status epilepticus is poorly understood, but prior studies have suggested an association with temporal lobe abnormalities, including hippocampal malrotation. We used a quantitative morphometric method to assess the association between temporal lobe morphology and febrile status epilepticus. Brain MR imaging was performed in children presenting with febrile status epilepticus and control subjects as part of the Consequences of Prolonged Febrile Seizures in Childhood study. Medial temporal lobe morphologic parameters were measured manually, including the distance of the hippocampus from the midline, hippocampal height:width ratio, hippocampal angle, collateral sulcus angle, and width of the temporal horn. Temporal lobe morphologic parameters were correlated with the presence of visual hippocampal malrotation; the strongest association was with left temporal horn width (P status epilepticus, encompassing both the right and left sides. This association was statistically strongest in the right temporal lobe, whereas hippocampal malrotation was almost exclusively left-sided in this cohort. The association between temporal lobe measurements and febrile status epilepticus persisted when the analysis was restricted to cases with visually normal imaging findings without hippocampal malrotation or other visually apparent abnormalities. Several component morphologic features of hippocampal malrotation are independently associated with febrile status epilepticus, even when complete hippocampal malrotation is absent. Unexpectedly, this association predominantly involves the right temporal lobe. These findings suggest that a spectrum of bilateral temporal lobe anomalies are associated with febrile status epilepticus in children. Hippocampal malrotation may represent a visually apparent subset of this spectrum. © 2016 by American Journal of Neuroradiology.

  3. International anthropometric study of facial morphology in various ethnic groups/races.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farkas, Leslie G; Katic, Marko J; Forrest, Christopher R; Alt, Kurt W; Bagic, Ivana; Baltadjiev, Georgi; Cunha, Eugenia; Cvicelová, Marta; Davies, Scott; Erasmus, Ilse; Gillett-Netting, Rhonda; Hajnis, Karel; Kemkes-Grottenthaler, Arianne; Khomyakova, Irena; Kumi, Ashizava; Kgamphe, J Stranger; Kayo-daigo, Nakamura; Le, Thuy; Malinowski, Andrzej; Negasheva, Marina; Manolis, Sotiris; Ogetürk, Murat; Parvizrad, Ramin; Rösing, Friedrich; Sahu, Paresh; Sforza, Chiarella; Sivkov, Stefan; Sultanova, Nigar; Tomazo-Ravnik, Tatjana; Tóth, Gábor; Uzun, Ahmet; Yahia, Eman

    2005-07-01

    When anthropometric methods were introduced into clinical practice to quantify changes in the craniofacial framework, features distinguishing various races/ethnic groups were discovered. To treat congenital or post-traumatic facial disfigurements in members of these groups successfully, surgeons require access to craniofacial databases based on accurate anthropometric measurements. Normative data of facial measurements are indispensable to precise determination of the degree of deviations from the normal. The set of anthropometric measurements of the face in the population studied was gathered by an international team of scientists. Investigators in the country of the given ethnic group, experienced and/or specially trained in anthropometric methods, carried out the measurements. The normal range in each resultant database was then established, providing valuable information about major facial characteristics. Comparison of the ethnic groups' databases with the established norms of the North America whites (NAW) offered the most suitable way to select a method for successful treatment. The study group consisted of 1470 healthy subjects (18 to 30 years), 750 males and 720 females. The largest group (780 subjects, 53.1%) came from Europe, all of them Caucasians. Three were drawn from the Middle-East (180 subjects, 12.2%), five from Asia (300 subjects, 20.4%) and four from peoples of African origin (210 subjects, 14.3%). Their morphological characteristics were determined by 14 anthropometric measurements, 10 of them used already by classic facial artists, Leonardo da Vinci and Albrecht Dürer, complemented by four measurements from the nasal, labio-oral and ear regions. In the regions with single measurements, identical values to NAW in forehead height, mouth width, and ear height were found in 99.7% in both sexes, while in those with multiple measurements, vertical measurements revealed a higher frequency of identical values than horizontal ones. The orbital regions

  4. Xylitol improves pancreatic islets morphology to ameliorate type 2 diabetes in rats: a dose response study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Md Atiar; Islam, Md Shahdiul

    2014-07-01

    Xylitol has been reported as a potential antidiabetic sweetener in a number of recent studies; however, the most effective dietary dose and organ-specific effects are still unclear. Six-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into 5 groups: normal control (NC), diabetic control (DBC), diabetic xylitol 2.5% (DXL2.5), diabetic xylitol 5.0% (DXL5), and diabetic xylitol 10.0% (DXL10). Diabetes was induced only in the animals in DBC and DXL groups and considered diabetic when their nonfasting blood glucose level was >300 mg/dL. The DXL groups were fed with 2.5%, 5.0%, and 10% xylitol solution, whereas the NC and DBC groups were supplied with normal drinking water. After 4-wk intervention, body weight, food and fluid intake, blood glucose, serum fructosamine, liver glycogen, serum alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase, lactate dehydrogenase, creatine kinase, uric acid, creatinine, and most serum lipids were significantly decreased, and serum insulin concentration, glucose tolerance ability, and pancreatic islets morphology were significantly improved in the DXL10 group compared to the DBC group. The data of this study suggest that 10% xylitol has the better antidiabetic effects compared to 2.5% and 5.0% and it can be used as an excellent antidiabetic sweetener and food supplement in antidiabetic foods. Xylitol is widely used as a potential anticariogenic and sweetening agent in a number of oral care and food products when many of its health benefits are still unknown. Due to its similar sweetening power but lower calorific value (2.5 compared with 4 kcal) and lower glycemic index (13 compared with 65) compared to sucrose, recently it has been widely used as a sugar substitute particularly by overweight, obese, and diabetic patients in order to reduce their calorie intake from sucrose. However, the potential antidiabetic effects of xylitol have been discovered recently. The results of this study confirmed the effective dietary dose of xylitol for

  5. A study on morphology control and optical properties of ZnO nanorods synthesized by microwave heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsai, M.K.; Huang, C.C.; Lee, Y.C.; Yang, C.S.; Yu, H.C.; Lee, J.W.; Hu, S.Y.; Chen, C.H.

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we present morphology control investigations on zinc oxide (ZnO) nanorods synthesized by microwave heating of a mixture of zinc nitrate hexahydrate and hexamethylenetetramine (HMTA) precursors in deionized water (DI water). To study the morphology and structural variations of the obtained ZnO nanorods in different molar ratio of zinc nitrate hexahydrate to HMTA, X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images, Raman scattering, and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy were measured. XRD and SEM images are utilized to examine the crystalline quality as well as the morphological properties of the ZnO nanorods. It is found that morphology control can be achieved by simply adjusting the reactant concentrations and the molar ratio of zinc nitrate hexahydrate to HMTA. Raman scattering and PL spectroscopy measurements were demonstrated to study the size- and shape-dependent optical response of the ZnO nanorods. The Raman scattering result shows that the intensity of LO mode at around 576 cm -1 decreases with the increase in the molar ratio of zinc nitrate hexahydrate to HMTA, indicating the reduction of defect concentrations in the synthesized ZnO nanorods. Room temperature PL spectrum of the synthesized ZnO nanorods reveals an ultraviolet (UV) emission peak and a broad visible emission. An enhancement of UV emission appears in the PL spectra as the molar ratio of zinc nitrate hexahydrate to HMTA increases, indicating that the defect concentration of the synthesized ZnO nanorods can be reduced by increasing the molar ratio. - Highlights: → Morphology of ZnO nanorods can be controlled via microwave-heating synthesis. → Molar ratio of Zn(NO 3 ) 2 .6H 2 O to C 6 H 12 N 4 affects the aspect ratio of ZnO nanorod. → ZnO nanorod showing higher aspect ratio can exhibit better optical properties.

  6. Macular function and morphologic features in juvenile stargardt disease: longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Testa, Francesco; Melillo, Paolo; Di Iorio, Valentina; Orrico, Ada; Attanasio, Marcella; Rossi, Settimio; Simonelli, Francesca

    2014-12-01

    To evaluate disease progression in a cohort of patients with a clinical and genetic diagnosis of Stargardt disease. Longitudinal cohort study. A total of 56 selected patients with a clinical and molecular diagnosis of Stargardt disease, an early age of onset, and a median follow-up length of 2 years. Patients underwent routine examination, including full-field electroretinography, microperimetry, and optical coherence tomography. Best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), mean retinal sensitivity, fixation stability, preferred retinal locus, inner segment/outer segment (IS/OS) junction loss, and atrophic lesion area. A total of 56 patients with a mean age at disease onset of 15.3 years (range, 3-28 years), a mean disease duration of 12.1 years, and a mean age at baseline of 27.4 years were analyzed. The median BCVA was 20/200 in both eyes. Optical coherence tomography parameters (IS/OS alteration and retinal pigment epithelium lesion area) were obtained in only 49 patients because the signal quality was poor in the remaining 7 patients. Optical coherence tomography revealed a mean retinal pigment epithelium lesion area of 2.6 mm(2), preserved foveal IS/OS in 4.1% of patients, loss of foveal IS/OS in 59.2% of patients, and extensive loss of macular IS/OS in 36.7% of patients. Microperimetric findings showed a reduced macular sensitivity (mean, 10 decibels [dB]) and an unstable fixation in half of the patient cohort. The longitudinal analysis showed a significant progressive reduction of BCVA and macular sensitivity (at an estimated rate of 0.04 decimals and 1.19 dB/year, respectively) associated with a significant enlargement of retinal pigment epithelium lesion area (0.282 mm(2)/year). No significant changes in ophthalmoscopic findings and electroretinographic responses were detected. This study highlights the importance of microperimetry and optical coherence tomography in monitoring patients with Stargardt disease. Quantifying the decline of visual functionality and

  7. Macular function and morphological features in juvenile Stargardt disease: Longitudinal study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Testa, Francesco; Melillo, Paolo; Iorio, Valentina Di; Orrico, Ada; Attanasio, Marcella; Rossi, Settimio; Simonelli, Francesca

    2014-01-01

    Purpose to evaluate disease progression in a cohort of patients with clinical and genetic diagnosis of Stargardt disease. Design longitudinal cohort study. Subjects 56 selected patients with a clinical and molecular diagnosis of Stargardt disease, an early age of onset and a median follow-up length of two years. Methods patients underwent routine examination including full-field electroretinography, microperimetry and optical coherence tomography. Main Outcome Measures best corrected visual acuity, mean retinal sensitivity, fixation stability, preferred retinal locus, inner-outer segment (IS/OS) junction loss, atrophic lesion area. Results 56 patients with a mean age of disease onset of 15.3 years (range: 3 - 28 years), a mean disease length of 12.1 years and a mean age at baseline of 27.4 years were analyzed. The median best corrected visual acuity was 20/200 in both eyes. Optical coherence tomography parameters (IS/OS alteration and retinal pigment epithelium lesion area) were obtained in 49 patients because signal quality was poor in the remaining 7 patients. Optical coherence tomography revealed a mean retinal pigment epithelium lesion area of 2.6 mm2, preserved foveal IS/OS in 4.1% of patients, loss of foveal IS/OS in 59.2%, and extensive loss of macular IS/OS in 36.7%. Microperimetric findings showed a reduced macular sensitivity (mean 10 dB) and an unstable fixation in half of the patient cohort. The longitudinal analysis showed a significant progressive reduction of best corrected visual acuity and macular sensitivity (at an estimated rate of 0.04 decimals and 1.19 dB per year, respectively) associated with a significant enlargement of retinal pigment epithelium lesion area (0.282 mm2 per year). No significant changes in ophthalmoscopic findings and electroretinographic responses were detected. Conclusions this study highlights the importance of microperimetry and optical coherence tomography in monitoring Stargardt patients. In fact, quantifying the

  8. Studying some Aspects of Biology and Morphology of Root Tubers and Seeds of Ranunculus ficaria L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sohrabi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Ranunculus ficariais L. (Fig buttercup or Lesser Celandine is an herbaceous perennial belongs to Ranunculaceae (buttercup family that behaves as a ground cover. It is a spring ephemeral that grows from a cluster of tuberous roots in late winter or early spring. It has glossy, dark green (sometimes slightly mottled, fleshy leaves on long petioles, and cordate to oblong-cordate in shape. The margins can be entire or wavy (1, 28. Flowers 15-60 mm in diameter, solitary at the end of each stem branch. Flowers have 3 sepals (rarely more, 3 petals, bright, pale to golden yellow, very rarely orange, shining on inside, receptacle concave, with short, pale simple glandular hairs. Achenes either abortive or maturing in a globular cluster, when mature 2•5-5•0 x 1•7-3•5 mm, more or less globular or obovoid, usually with few to numerous very short simple glandular hairs. This invasive weed spreads primarily by vegetative means through abundant tubers and bulblets, each of which can grow into a new plant once separated from the parent plant. The prolific tubers may be unearthed and scattered by the digging activities of some animals, including well-meaning human weed pullers, and spread to new sites during flood events (28. This weed has two subspecies, R. ficaria Subsp. ficaria and R. ficaria Subsp. bulbilifer that the second is probably the only subspecies of mountainous regions in many areas. It is an abundant weed of lawns and gardens, where it spreads rapidly and is very difficult to eradicate. According to our observations probably R. ficaria spread by tubers from mountains to fields that near to mountains in Lorestan province of Iran. The Aim of this study was assessment of this weed to improve its management practices in the wheat fields. Materials and Methods: In order to study the some aspects of biology and morphology of tubers root and seeds of R. ficaria , two experiments were conducted at Laboratory of Gorgan University in

  9. Study of the Morphological, Structural and Photoelectrochemical Properties of TiO{sub 2} Nanorods grown by Hydrothermal Method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Hayoung; Ryu, Hyukhyun [Inje University, Gimhae (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Won-Jae [Dong-Eui University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-01-15

    We investigated the effects of growth duration on the morphological, structural, and photoelectrochemical properties of TiO{sub 2} nanorods grown on a TiO{sub 2}-buffered fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) substrate using the hydrothermal method. From the study, we found that the photoelectrochemical properties were mainly dependent on the nanorod length and (002) XRD peak intensity, which indicates vertical growth of the TiO{sub 2}. The morphological and structural properties of the TiO{sub 2} nanorods largely affect their photoelectrochemical properties. The photocurrent density was increased when the growth duration was increased from 1 hour to 4 hours, and then changed little above 4 hours. Consequently, the highest photocurrent density, 0.897 mA/cm{sup 2} (at 1.0 V vs. SCE), was obtained from the 8 hour-sample which had good morphological and structural properties. We used field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) for analysis of the morphological properties, x-ray diffraction (XRD) for structural properties, and three-electrode potentiostat for photoelectrochemical properties.

  10. JUNK FOOD ASSOCIATION WITH THE MORPHOLOGICAL CHANGES OF GASTRITIS-A CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDY AMONG RURAL CHILDREN OF MELMARUVATHUR

    OpenAIRE

    Sumathi S; Padma K

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIM Junk food consumption is common among children that have much adverse effect on the growth of the children and health. This study is aimed to assess the correlation of frequency of junk food intake with the morphological changes of gastric antral biopsies in dyspeptic children. MATERIALS AND METHODS This cross-sectional observational study was carried out in Melmaruvathur Medical College Hospital, Melmaruvathur, during the year 2014-2015. The participants ...

  11. A new application of stannic pyrophosphate in nuclear medicine: scintigraphy of choroid plexus, morphological and quantitative study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tovar, G. de; Akerman, M.; Panneciere, C.; Perez, R.

    1975-01-01

    It was shown that the concentration of pertechnetate (Tc 99m) in the choroid plexus can be increased by previous injection of stannic pyrophosphate. This phenomenon affords an excellent morphological study of these structures, which trace most of the cerebral ventricles. An isotopic ventricle scintigraph is thus obtained by simple intraveinous injection. Furthermore a dynamic study supplies information on the functional activity of choroid plexus, of special interest in research on the pathology of the cerebrospinal fluid [fr

  12. Study of the UV-sensitivity of the morphological Salmonella typhimurium mutant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakanyan, V A; Dombrovskii, A M; Belokrysenko, S S; Levashev, V S [Vtoroj Moskovskij Gosudarstvennyj Meditsinskij Inst. (USSR)

    1975-05-01

    As regards sensitivity to ultraviolet radiation, the morphological mutant S. typhimurium LT2 WT ED 143 is similar to the ion-mutants E. coli K12. Data are presented on the sensitivity of the mutant and initial strains to ultraviolet radiation at various phases of growth, on the capacity for restoring the bacteriophages P22 and Felix O after irradiation and on the influence of various treatments after ultraviolet irradiation (incubation in minimum media and at 42/sup 0/ C) on the irradiated strains. The results of densitometry of the membrane proteins of the initial and mutant strains point to a connection between unusual morphology, the disruption of division and the enhanced sensitivity to ultraviolet radiation on one hand and the state of the membrane components of the bacterial cell on the other.

  13. Morphology, optical and ionic conductivity studies of electron beam irradiated polymer electrolyte film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devendrappa, H.; Yesappa, L.; Niranjana, M.; Ashokkumar, S. P.; Vijeth, H.; Ganesh, S.

    2018-04-01

    The effects of electron beam (EB) irradiation on morphology, optical properties and ionic conductivity of (PVdF-co-HFP: LiClO4=90:10, PHL10) electrolyte films. The FESEM image reveal increasing porous morphology with increasing EB dose confirms the polymer degradation as result more amorphousity. The optical absorbance was found to be increase with red shift in UV region and direct optical band gaps was found decreased upon EB dose from 3.70 eV to 2.65 eV. The ionic conductivity increases slowly in lower frequency, whereas rapidly increases at the high frequency and found about 8.28×10-4 S/cm at 120 kGy dose. The obtained results suggest that the physical properties of polymer electrolytes can be changed using EB irradiation as requirement.

  14. The effect of organoclay type on morphology and mechanical properties of polypropylene films: comparative study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gama, D.B.; Calado, J.F.; Duarte, I.S.; Silva, S.M.L.; Andrade, D.L.A.C.S.

    2012-01-01

    This paper aims to compare the effect of the type of organoclay on morphological and mechanical properties of polypropylene films. Thus, were employed two organobentonite synthesized by NanoPol/UFCG (APOC and APOCF) and a organo montmorillonite Cloisite 20A (C20A) from Southern Clay Products (Texas/USA). The PP films and the PP/organoclay hybrids were prepared in a ChillRoll extruder - 16 AX Plastics and characterized by X-ray diffraction and mechanical properties. The results indicate that the incorporation of organobentonite (APOC and APOCF) and organo montmorillonite (C20A) resulted in the formation of PP nanocomposites with predominantly intercalated morphologies. Also indicate that the mechanical behavior of the films obtained with the three clays (APOC APOCF and C20A) was similar suggesting that the organobentonite, modified with national technology, raw material of low cost when compared to commercial organo montmorillonite, can be a viable alternative in the preparation of PP films. (author)

  15. Medial tibial plateau morphology and stress fracture location: A magnetic resonance imaging study

    OpenAIRE

    Yukata, Kiminori; Yamanaka, Issei; Ueda, Yuzuru; Nakai, Sho; Ogasa, Hiroyoshi; Oishi, Yosuke; Hamawaki, Jun-ichi

    2017-01-01

    AIM To determine the location of medial tibial plateau stress fractures and its relationship with tibial plateau morphology using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). METHODS A retrospective review of patients with a diagnosis of stress fracture of the medial tibial plateau was performed for a 5-year period. Fourteen patients [three female and 11 male, with an average age of 36.4 years (range, 15-50 years)], who underwent knee MRI, were included. The appearance of the tibial plateau stress fract...

  16. A morphological study of bronchi and lung tissues in long-term survived dogs

    OpenAIRE

    松本, 伸

    1984-01-01

    Morphological changes of the bronchus and lung tissue of ten adult dogs were examined at various intervals after sleeve resection of the left upper lobe was performed in combination with bronchoplasty and pulmonary artery angioplasty. Postoperative changes in the bronchus and pulmonary artery were investigated by bronchoscopy and pulmonary angiography 8 months to 14 months after the operation. The dogs were sacrificed 9 months to 32 months after the operation, and the bronchus and lung tissue...

  17. Integrating Phylogenetics and Morphology to Study Diversification and Species Limits in Madagascar’s Tenrecs (Tenrecidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Everson,Kathryn; Olson,Link

    2018-01-01

    Madagascar is one of the world’s hottest biodiversity hotspots and a natural laboratory for evolutionary research. Tenrecs (Tenrecidae; 32 currently recognized species) – small placental mammals endemic to Madagascar – colonized the island >35 million years ago and have evolved a stunning range of behaviors and morphologies, including heterothermic species; species with hedgehog-like spines; and fossorial, aquatic, and scansorial ecotypes. In 2016, we produced the first taxonomically complete...

  18. Integrating Phylogenetics and Morphology to Study Diversification and Species Limits in Madagascar's Tenrecs (Tenrecidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Everson, Kathryn; Olson, Link

    2018-01-01

    Madagascar is one of the world's hottest biodiversity hotspots and a natural laboratory for evolutionary research. Tenrecs (Tenrecidae; 32 currently recognized species) – small placental mammals endemic to Madagascar – colonized the island >35 million years ago and have evolved a stunning range of behaviors and morphologies, including heterothermic species; species with hedgehog-like spines; and fossorial, aquatic, and scansorial ecotypes. In 2016, we produced the first taxonomically complete...

  19. Composition, XRD and morphology study of laser prepared LiNbO.sub.3./sub. films

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jelínek, Miroslav; Havránek, Vladimír; Remsa, Jan; Kocourek, Tomáš; Vincze, A.; Bruncko, J.; Studnička, Václav; Rubešová, K.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 110, č. 4 (2013), s. 883-888 ISSN 0947-8396 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP106/10/1477; GA MŠk(CZ) MEB0810156 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 ; RVO:61389005 Keywords : LiNbO 3 * thin films * PLD * composition * morphology Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.694, year: 2013

  20. The choroid plexus in normal full-term neonate : a study of morphological variety on sonography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Young Seok; Kim, Ji Hye

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the sonographic features of normal choroid plexus, thus helping avoid misinterpretations such as intraventricular hemorrhage or abnormality. Posterior coronal, parasagittal, and oblique sagittal scans of 400 choroid plexus in normal full-term neonates(100 girls, 100 boys) were reviewed with special attention to coronal configuration, glomus patterns, and the shape of anterior ends. Sonographic features were classified as follows ; tubular(type 1), posterior clubbing(type 2), mid-bulging(type 3), or double choroidal pattern(type 4), as seen on posterior coronal scans; crescent(type 1), superior notching(type 2), dorsal bulging(type 3), or inferior notching(type 4), as seen on parasagittal scans; and anterior tapering(type 1) and clubbing shape (type 2) on oblique parasagittal scans. Maximal diameters of the choroid plexus on posterior coronal scan and the glomus on parasagittal scan were measured. All sonographic measurements of normal choroid plexus were statistically analysed according to gender and side. Four hundred normal choroid plexus were classified as 293 cases(73%) of tubular pattern(type 1), 50 cases(13%) of posterior bulging(type 2), 44 cases (11%) of mid-bulging(type 3) and 13 cases(3%) of double choroidal pattern (type 4) as seen on posterior coronal scans ; 263 cases(66%) of crescent shape(type 1), 70 cases(17%) of superior notching (type 2), 38 cases(9%) of dorsal bulging(type 3), and 29 cases(7%) of inferior notching(type 4), as seen on parasagittal scans; and 233 cases(58%) of anterior tapering(type 1) and 167 cases(42%) of anterior clubbing (type 2), as seen on oblique parasagittal scans. Maximal diameters of the choroid plexus on posterior coronal scan were 7.17±0.12 mm (95% confidence interval [CI]) on the right side and 7.13±0.19 mm (95% CI) on the left side, and 8.13±0.24(95% CI) mm on the right and 8.57±0.29 mm on the left side glomus on parasagittal scan. There were no significant statistical

  1. The choroid plexus in normal full-term neonate : a study of morphological variety on sonography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Young Seok [Dankook Univ. Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Ji Hye [Chunganggil Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the sonographic features of normal choroid plexus, thus helping avoid misinterpretations such as intraventricular hemorrhage or abnormality. Posterior coronal, parasagittal, and oblique sagittal scans of 400 choroid plexus in normal full-term neonates(100 girls, 100 boys) were reviewed with special attention to coronal configuration, glomus patterns, and the shape of anterior ends. Sonographic features were classified as follows ; tubular(type 1), posterior clubbing(type 2), mid-bulging(type 3), or double choroidal pattern(type 4), as seen on posterior coronal scans; crescent(type 1), superior notching(type 2), dorsal bulging(type 3), or inferior notching(type 4), as seen on parasagittal scans; and anterior tapering(type 1) and clubbing shape (type 2) on oblique parasagittal scans. Maximal diameters of the choroid plexus on posterior coronal scan and the glomus on parasagittal scan were measured. All sonographic measurements of normal choroid plexus were statistically analysed according to gender and side. Four hundred normal choroid plexus were classified as 293 cases(73%) of tubular pattern(type 1), 50 cases(13%) of posterior bulging(type 2), 44 cases (11%) of mid-bulging(type 3) and 13 cases(3%) of double choroidal pattern (type 4) as seen on posterior coronal scans ; 263 cases(66%) of crescent shape(type 1), 70 cases(17%) of superior notching (type 2), 38 cases(9%) of dorsal bulging(type 3), and 29 cases(7%) of inferior notching(type 4), as seen on parasagittal scans; and 233 cases(58%) of anterior tapering(type 1) and 167 cases(42%) of anterior clubbing (type 2), as seen on oblique parasagittal scans. Maximal diameters of the choroid plexus on posterior coronal scan were 7.17{+-}0.12 mm (95% confidence interval [CI]) on the right side and 7.13{+-}0.19 mm (95% CI) on the left side, and 8.13{+-}0.24(95% CI) mm on the right and 8.57{+-}0.29 mm on the left side glomus on parasagittal scan. There were no significant

  2. Morphological study on coronary ostial and clinicoangiographic analysis of isolated coronary ostial stenosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanoh, Tatsuji

    2007-01-01

    A morphological study of coronary ostia was performed in 70 autopsied human hearts, with particular attention being focused on the funnel-shaped structure, aging changes, and relation to atherosclerosis. The following results were obtained: The ostium is particularly well-defined and forms a funnel-shaped structure. The structure is predominantly a double circular shape on the right and comet-shaped on the left. The funnel-shaped structure of coronary ostia is characterized by a longitudinal smooth muscle arrangement in the inner layer and circular one in the outer layer. Including overhang formation, coronary sclerosis of the ostium appears mainly on the upper margin of the funnel-shaped structure of the right ostium and at the upper right margin of the left. In ischemic heart disease, along with changes in coronary arteries themselves, changes in the ostia of these arteries should be paid close attention. Ostial stenosis of the coronary artery in the absence of distal vessel obstructions, isolated ostial stenosis, is a rare form of coronary artery disease. In a previous review of the international literature, the incidence of coronary ostial stenosis varied between 0.13% and 2.7%. Among 7,500 patients undergoing selective coronary cineangiography at Juntendo University Hospital and Juntendo Urayasu Hospital from 1975 to 1990, five women (0.07%) were diagnosed as having ''isolated coronary ostial stenosis'', of which the cause is unknown. Atherosclerosis, particularly early premature atherome, congenital coronary anomaly, fibro-muscular dysplasia, Takayasu's aortitis, humoral factors, spasm, and iatrogenic events have been considered as its causes. In contrast to usual atherosclerotic coronary artery disease, patients with isolated coronary ostial stenosis of unknown etiology were characterized as being middle-aged, premenopausal, slender females having few coronary risk factors, experiencing severe angina pector is with marked ischemic electrocardiogram changes

  3. Studies on leaf mutants of Pea. (Part) I. Morphology, performance and somatic chromosomes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaul, M.L.H.; Anjali, A.

    1988-01-01

    Three recessive non-allelic mutant genes alter foliar morphology of pea when present singly and in combination. Gene acacia replaces tendrils by a terminal leaflet, afila replaces leaflets by tendrils and cochleata replaces stipules by spoon shaped appendages. In combination, these genes drastically alter leaf morphology; plants can be identified only after flowering. The mutant genes influence shoot height, floral organ number, maturity period, grain yield and seed protein production; inter- and intra-genotypic variability in certain metric traits is significant. Influence of cochleata gene over floral form and function is considerable. In terms of seed yield and protein content, breeding value of all the mutants except of acacia is low because these mutant genes represent foreign untuned genes in pea genome. Segregation deficit is maximum in triple gene mutant with highly impaired fertility and low seed production. Somatic chromosome number in all the mutants and recombinants is 14; in morphology the chromosomes do not differ from the initial line, Bonneville. (author). 9 refs., 4 tabs

  4. Correlativity study on MRI morphologic features, pathology, and molecular biology of breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Rong; Gong Shuigen; Zhang Weiguo; Chen Jinhua; He Shuangwu; Liu Baohua; Li Zengpeng

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the correlation among MRI morphologic features, pathology, and molecular biology of breast cancer. Methods: MR scanning was performed in 78 patients with breast cancer before operation and MRI morphologic features of breast cancer were analyzed. The mastectomy specimens of the breast neoplasm were stained with immunohistochemistry, and the expression of estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), C-erbB-2, p53, and the distribution of microvessel density (MVD) was measured. The pathologic results were compared with MRI features. Results: Among the 80 breast cancers, ER positive expression was positively correlated with the spiculate margin of breast cancer (P 0.05). Among the 41 breast cancers with dynamic MR scans, there was positive correlation between the spatial distribution of contrast agent and MVD (P<0.01). Conclusion: There exists some correlation among MRI morphologic features, pathology, and molecular biology factors in breast cancer to certain extent. The biologic behavior and prognosis of the breast cancer can be assessed according to MRI features

  5. Substrate dependent morphologies of self-assembled nanocrystalline manganite films: An atomic force microscopy study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kale, S.N.; Mona, J.; Ganesan, V.; Choudhary, R.J.; Phase, D.M.

    2009-06-01

    Thin films of La 0 .7Sr 0 .3MnO 3 (LSMO) have been deposited on different substrates: Si (001), Al 2 O 3 (AlO) (0001) and LaAlO 3 (LAO) (001), using a pulsed laser deposition system. 100 nm films have been deposited at substrate temperature of 700 deg C and oxygen partial pressure of 400 mTorr. X-Ray diffraction analysis shows a polycrystalline growth of both layers on Si and Al 2 O 3 substrates, while a c-axis oriented growth on LAO substrate. Atomic force microscopy images exhibit interesting island-like morphology of grain size ∼ 250 nm on Si substrate. Similar morphology with much smaller (∼ 150 nm), closely packed islands are seen to grow on AlO substrate. Films on LAO show comparatively a smooth morphology with the grains size less than 100 nm, decorated by characteristic depressions at the grain boundaries. The formation of self-assembled nanostructures can be understood on the basis of film-substrate lattice misfit, strains in the systems and eventual growth of the films to attain energy minimization (author)

  6. Alveolar Soft Part Sarcoma of the Female Genital Tract: A Morphologic, Immunohistochemical, and Molecular Cytogenetic Study of 10 Cases With Emphasis on its Distinction From Morphologic Mimics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoolmeester, J Kenneth; Carlson, Joseph; Keeney, Gary L; Fritchie, Karen J; Oliva, Esther; Young, Robert H; Nucci, Marisa R

    2017-05-01

    Alveolar soft part sarcoma (ASPS) is a morphologically distinctive neoplasm of unknown differentiation that bears a characteristic gene fusion involving ASPSCR1 and TFE3. ASPS can occur in the female genital tract, but is rare. Eleven cases with an initial diagnosis of ASPS at female genital tract sites were evaluated for their morphologic features and immunoprofile using a panel of antibodies (TFE3, HMB45, melan-A, smooth muscle actin, desmin, and h-Caldesmon). In addition, the presence of TFE3 rearrangement and subsequent ASPSCR1-TFE3 fusion were determined by fluorescence in situ hybridization. Ten tumors retained their classification as ASPS based on their morphologic appearance, immunohistochemical profile, and demonstration of ASPSCR1-TFE3 fusion. The remaining case was reclassified as conventional-type PEComa due to its pattern of HMB45, melan-A, and desmin positivity as well as absence of TFE3 rearrangement. Sites of the 10 ASPS were uterine corpus (3), cervix (2), uterus not further specified (2), vagina (2), and vulva (1). The age of the patients ranged from 15 to 68 years (mean 34 y, median 32 y). The tumors demonstrated a spectrum of morphologic features, but all had a consistent immunophenotype of strong TFE3 nuclear expression and lack of muscle (smooth muscle actin, desmin, h-Caldesmon) and melanocytic (melan-A, HMB45) markers, except focal positivity for HMB45 in 1. Follow-up was available for 4 patients ranging from 1 to 35 months (mean 15 mo, median 25 mo) and they were alive and had no evidence of recurrence or metastasis at last follow-up. Distinguishing ASPS from its morphologic mimics, particularly PEComa, is important due to increasingly efficacious targeted agents such as MET-selective and VEGF signaling inhibitors in the former and mTOR inhibition therapy in the latter.

  7. Comparative SEM and LM foliar epidermal and palyno-morphological studies of Amaranthaceae and its taxonomic implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Amara Noor; Zafar, Muhammad; Ahmad, Mushtaq; Khan, Raees; Yaseen, Ghulam; Khan, Muhammad Saleem; Nazir, Abdul; Khan, Amir Muhammad; Shaheen, Shabnum

    2018-05-01

    Palynological features as well as comparative foliar epidermal using light and scanning electron microscope (SEM) of 17 species (10genera) of Amaranthaceae have been studied for its taxonomic significance. Different foliar and palynological micro-morphological characters were examined to explain their value in resolving the difficulty in identification. All species were amphistomatic but stomata on abaxial surface were more abundant. Taxonomically significant epidermal character including stomata type, trichomes (unicellular, multicellular, and capitate) and epidermal cells shapes (polygonal and irregular) were also observed. Pollens of this family are Polypantoporate, pores large, spheroidal, mesoporous region is sparsely to scabrate, densely psilate, and spinulose. All these characters can be active at species level for identification purpose. This study indicates that at different taxonomic levels, LM and SEM pollen and epidermal morphology is explanatory and significant to identify species and genera. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Morphological Study on Room-Temperature-Cured PMMA-Grafted Natural Rubber-Toughened Epoxy/Layered Silicate Nanocomposite

    OpenAIRE

    Yuhana, N. Y.; Ahmad, S.; Kamal, M. R.; Jana, S. C.; Bahri, A. R. Shamsul

    2012-01-01

    A morphological study was conducted on ternary systems containing epoxy, PMMA-grafted natural rubber, and organic chemically modified montmorillonite (Cloisite 30B). Optical microscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray (EDX), and wide-angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD) analysis were used. The following four materials were prepared at room temperature: cured unmodified epoxy, cured toughened epoxy, cured unmodified epoxy/Cloisite 3...

  9. The impact of watershed management on coastal morphology: A case study using an integrated approach and numerical modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samaras, Achilleas G.; Koutitas, Christopher G.

    2014-04-01

    Coastal morphology evolves as the combined result of both natural- and human- induced factors that cover a wide range of spatial and temporal scales of effect. Areas in the vicinity of natural stream mouths are of special interest, as the direct connection with the upstream watershed extends the search for drivers of morphological evolution from the coastal area to the inland as well. Although the impact of changes in watersheds on the coastal sediment budget is well established, references that study concurrently the two fields and the quantification of their connection are scarce. In the present work, the impact of land-use changes in a watershed on coastal erosion is studied for a selected site in North Greece. Applications are based on an integrated approach to quantify the impact of watershed management on coastal morphology through numerical modeling. The watershed model SWAT and a shoreline evolution model developed by the authors (PELNCON-M) are used, evaluating with the latter the performance of the three longshore sediment transport rate formulae included in the model formulation. Results document the impact of crop abandonment on coastal erosion (agricultural land decrease from 23.3% to 5.1% is accompanied by the retreat of ~ 35 m in the vicinity of the stream mouth) and show the effect of sediment transport formula selection on the evolution of coastal morphology. Analysis denotes the relative importance of the parameters involved in the dynamics of watershed-coast systems, and - through the detailed description of a case study - is deemed to provide useful insights for researchers and policy-makers involved in their study.

  10. Study of the effect of nano surface morphology on the stain-resistant property of ceramic tiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan, S P; Hung, J K; Liu, Y T

    2014-01-01

    In this study, six types of commercially available ceramic tiles, including nano-structured ceramic tiles and regular ceramic tiles, were selected to investigate the effect of surface morphology on their stain-resistant property. The stain-resistant efficiencies of various ceramic tiles with nano-size surface were measured in order to determine the appropriate method for testing ceramic tiles with nano-structure surface

  11. Pollen morphology and study of the visitors (Hymenoptera, Apidae) of Solanum stramoniifolium Jacq. (Solanaceae) in Central Amazon

    OpenAIRE

    Silva,Alexandre Coletto da; Kinupp,Valdely Ferreira; Absy,Maria Lucia; Kerr,Warwick Estevam

    2004-01-01

    The Solanaceae family has a wide distribution, mainly in the tropical and subtropical areas of South America. Solanum L. is one of the most important genera of the family with approximately 1,200 species. The objective of this work was to study the floral biology, pollen morphology as well as to investigate the bee visitors of S. stramoniifolium. Preliminary data indicate the presence of one species of stinging bee and four species of stingless bees as visitors to S. stramoniifolium. The poll...

  12. Morphological demosaicking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quan, Shuxue

    2009-02-01

    Bayer patterns, in which a single value of red, green or blue is available for each pixel, are widely used in digital color cameras. The reconstruction of the full color image is often referred to as demosaicking. This paper introduced a new approach - morphological demosaicking. The approach is based on strong edge directionality selection and interpolation, followed by morphological operations to refine edge directionality selection and reduce color aliasing. Finally performance evaluation and examples of color artifacts reduction are shown.

  13. Nonsphericity Index and Size Ratio Identify Morphologic Differences between Growing and Stable Aneurysms in a Longitudinal Study of 93 Cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, A; Xu, M; Yokota, H; Scalzo, F; Morimoto, E; Salamon, N

    2018-01-25

    Recent studies have strongly associated intracranial aneurysm growth with increased risk of rupture. Identifying aneurysms that are likely to grow would be beneficial to plan more effective monitoring and intervention strategies. Our hypothesis is that for unruptured intracranial aneurysms of similar size, morphologic characteristics differ between aneurysms that continue to grow and those that do not. From aneurysms in our medical center with follow-up imaging dates in 2015, ninety-three intracranial aneurysms (23 growing, 70 stable) were selected. All CTA images for the aneurysm diagnosis and follow-up were collected, a total of 348 3D imaging studies. Aneurysm 3D geometry for each imaging study was reconstructed, and morphologic characteristics, including volume, surface area, nonsphericity index, aspect ratio, and size ratio were calculated. Morphologic characteristics were found to differ between growing and stable groups. For aneurysms of 7 mm, volume ( P differ between those that are growing and those that are stable. The nonsphericity index, in particular, was found to be higher among growing aneurysms. The size ratio was found to be the second most significant parameter associated with growth. © 2018 by American Journal of Neuroradiology.

  14. Correlation of morphological variants of the soft palate and Need's ratio in normal individuals: A digital cephalometric study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verma, Pradhuman; Verma, Kanika Gupta; Sachdeva, Suresh K; Juneja, Suruchi; Kumaraswam; Kikkeri Lakshminarayana; Basavaraju, Suman

    2014-01-01

    The present study was aimed to investigate the variation of soft palate morphology in different age and gender groups. The correlations of radiographic velar length (VL), velar width (VW), pharyngeal depth (PD), and Need's ratio with soft palate variants were also studied in the North Indian subpopulation. The study sample consisted of 300 subjects aged between 15 and 45 (mean: 31.32) years. The velar morphology on lateral cephalograms was examined and grouped into six types. The results obtained were subjected to a statistical analysis to find the correlation between variants of the soft palate with gender and different age groups. The most frequent type of soft palate was leaf shaped (48.7%), and the least common was crook shaped (3.0%) among both the genders and various age groups, showing a significant correlation. The mean VL, VW, and PD values were significantly higher in males and significantly correlated with the types of soft palate. A significant correlation was observed between the mean VL, VW, PD, and Need's ratio with various age groups, showing an inconsistent pattern with an increase in age. The types of soft palate, gender, and Need's ratio were also significantly correlated, with an overall higher mean value of the Need's ratio among female subjects and the S-shaped soft palate. The knowledge of a varied spectrum of velar morphology and the variants of the soft palate help in a better understanding of the velopharyngeal closure and craniofacial anomalies.

  15. A comparative study of frontal bone morphology among Pleistocene hominin fossil groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athreya, Sheela

    2009-12-01

    Features of the frontal bone that are conventionally used to distinguish among fossil hominin groups were quantitatively examined. Fifty-five fossil crania dating from the early to the late Pleistocene were analyzed. Using a modified pantograph, outlines of the frontal bone were collected along the midsagittal and two parasagittal planes. The profile from nasion to bregma, as well as two profiles above the medial and lateral sections of the orbit, respectively, extending from the orbital margin to the coronal suture were traced. The outlines were measured using Elliptical Fourier Function Analysis (EFFA), which enabled a quantification of aspects of the frontal bone that have historically been described primarily in nonmetric or linear terms. Four measurements were obtained: 1) overall morphology as expressed in the Fourier harmonic amplitudes; 2) maximum projection of the supraorbital torus at three points along the browridge (glabella and the medial and lateral aspects of the torus above the orbit); 3) maximum distance of the frontal squama from the frontal chord, capturing forehead curvature; and 4) nasion-bregma chord length. The results indicate that the midsagittal profile is significantly different among all Pleistocene groups in analyses that include both size and shape, as well as size-adjusted data. Homo erectus is significantly different from the late Pleistocene groups (Neandertals and early modern H. sapiens) in glabellar projection. Anatomically modern humans are significantly different from all other groups in both raw and size-standardized analyses of all three outlines that captured overall morphology, as well as forehead curvature and lateral supraorbital torus prominence, and middle Pleistocene Homo are significantly different in both medial and lateral overall parasagittal form. However, for the majority of analyses there were no significant differences among the Pleistocene archaic groups in supraorbital torus projection, frontal squama

  16. Correlation Study of PVDF Membrane Morphology with Protein Adsorption: Quantitative Analysis by FTIR/ATR Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ideris, N.; Ahmad, A. L.; Ooi, B. S.; Low, S. C.

    2018-05-01

    Microporous PVDF membranes were used as protein capture matrices in immunoassays. Because the most common labels in immunoassays were detected based on the colour change, an understanding of how protein concentration varies on different PVDF surfaces was needed. Herein, the correlation between the membrane pore size and protein adsorption was systematically investigated. Five different PVDF membrane morphologies were prepared and FTIR/ATR was employed to accurately quantify the surface protein concentration on membranes with small pore sizes. SigmaPlot® was used to find a suitable curve fit for protein adsorption and membrane pore size, with a high correlation coefficient, R2, of 0.9971.

  17. Structural, morphological and Raman studies on hybridized PVDF/BaTiO3 nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajamanickam, N.; Jayakumar, K.; Ramachandran, K.

    2017-05-01

    Hybridized nanocomposites of polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) and nano - barium titanate (BaTiO3) were prepared using the solution casting method for different concentrations of nano-BaTiO3 and were characterized by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. The flower like structure for morphology was observed in SEM. Raman analysis showed that the modified BaTiO3 particles, due to higher specific surfaces, induce, predominantly, the crystallization of the electrically active β-phase of PVDF, while the initial micron size particles induce the formation of the most common but non-polar α-crystal form.

  18. Palatal shelf epithelium: a morphologic and histochemical study in X-irradiated and normal mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gartner, L.P.; Hiatt, J.L.; Provenza, D.V.

    1978-01-01

    The palatal shelf epithelium of normal and irradiated mice was examined morphologically and histochemically, utilizing the periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) technique for the demonstration of the basement membrane and the Nitro BT method for succinate dehydrogenase activity in order to demonstrate the metabolic competence of its cells. The 'programmed cell death theory' was not supported by the present investigation, since the cells of the medial ridge epithelium retained their structural and metabolic integrity even subsequent to the formation of cell nests. Additionally, the medial ridge epithelium of mice with radiation-induced cleft palates demonstrated normal structural and metabolic integrity long past the prospective time of fusion. (author)

  19. Study of morphological changes in scattering and optically anisotropic medium through correlation images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Neha; Shukla, Prashant; Singh, Jai

    2018-05-01

    Correlation images are very useful in determining the morphological changes. We have investigated the correlation image analysis on depolarization and retardance matrices of polystyrene and gelatine samples respectively. We observed that that correlation images have a potential to show a significant variation with change in the concentration of samples (polystyrene and gelatine). For polystyrene microspheres the correlation value decreases with increasing scattering coefficient. In gelatine samples the correlation also decreases with sample concentration. This variation in correlation for retardance shows the change in a birefringence property of gelatine solution.

  20. Attachment, Proliferation, and Morphological Properties of Human Dermal Fibroblasts on Ovine Tendon Collagen Scaffolds: A Comparative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busra, Fauzi Mh; Lokanathan, Yogeswaran; Nadzir, Masrina Mohd; Saim, Aminuddin; Idrus, Ruszymah Bt Hj; Chowdhury, Shiplu Roy

    2017-03-01

    Collagen type I is widely used as a biomaterial for tissue-engineered substitutes. This study aimed to fabricate different three-dimensional (3D) scaffolds using ovine tendon collagen type I (OTC-I), and compare the attachment, proliferation and morphological features of human dermal fibroblasts (HDF) on the scaffolds. This study was conducted between the years 2014 to 2016 at the Tissue Engineering Centre, UKM Medical Centre. OTC-I was extracted from ovine tendon, and fabricated into 3D scaffolds in the form of sponge, hydrogel and film. A polystyrene surface coated with OTC-I was used as the 2D culture condition. Genipin was used to crosslink the OTC-I. A non-coated polystyrene surface was used as a control. The mechanical strength of OTC-I scaffolds was evaluated. Attachment, proliferation and morphological features of HDF were assessed and compared between conditions. The mechanical strength of OTC-I sponge was significantly higher than that of the other scaffolds. OTC-I scaffolds and the coated surface significantly enhanced HDF attachment and proliferation compared to the control, but no differences were observed between the scaffolds and coated surface. In contrast, the morphological features of HDF including spreading, filopodia, lamellipodia and actin cytoskeletal formation differed between conditions. OTC-I can be moulded into various scaffolds that are biocompatible and thus could be suitable as scaffolds for developing tissue substitutes for clinical applications and in vitro tissue models. However, further study is required to determine the effect of morphological properties on the functional and molecular properties of HDF.

  1. In-Vitro Comparative Study of In-office and Home Bleaching Agents on Surface Micro-morphology of Enamel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatima, Nazish

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of home-use bleaching agent containing 16% Carbamide Peroxide (CP) and in-office bleaching agent with 38% Hydrogen Peroxide (HP) on surface micro-morphology of enamel. An experimental study. The discs were prepared at Material Engineering Department of NED University of Engineering and Technology, Karachi, and surface morphology was analyzed at Centralized Science Laboratory of Karachi University, Pakistan. Duration of study was one year from January to December 2012. Forty five sound human third molar crowns, extracted for periodontal reason, were included in the study. Longitudinal sections were made using diamond disks (0.2 mm) under water lubrication to obtain enamel slabs measuring (3 mm x 3 mm). The slabs were embedded in polystyrene resin by using 2.0 cm diameter PVC molds, leaving the outer enamel surface uncovered by the resin. Ninety dental enamel slabs were prepared. The slabs were then randomly divided into 3 groups. Each group contained thirty specimens (n=30). Group 1 was kept in artificial saliva at 37°C in incubator (Memart, Germany) during whole experiment. Group 2 was treated with power whitening gel (White Smile 2011, Germany). Group 3 was treated with tooth whitening pen (White Smile 2011, Germany). The most central region or the region that was most representative of the entire surface area was used. The SEM (Jeol-Japan-JSM6380A, JAPAN) micrographs were examined to determine the type of surface presented. The enamel changes were classified as no or mild alteration, moderate alteration and severe altered surface. Regarding micro-morphology, the enamel surface of control groups showed smooth surface in general with some scattered clear scratches due to the polishing procedure. The specimens bleached in group 2 and group 3, represented areas of mild erosion. Bleaching with 38% Hydrogen Peroxide (HP) and 16% Carbamide Peroxide (CP) resulted in mild changes in surface micro-morphology of enamel.

  2. A Comprehensive study of the Effects of Chain Morphology on the Transport Properties of Amorphous Polymer Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendels, Dan; Tessler, Nir

    2016-07-01

    Organic semiconductors constitute one of the main components underlying present-day paradigm shifting optoelectronic applications. Among them, polymer based semiconductors are deemed particularly favorable due to their natural compatibility with low-cost device fabrication techniques. In light of recent advances in the syntheses of these classes of materials, yielding systems exhibiting charge mobilities comparable with those found in organic crystals, a comprehensive study of their charge transport properties is presented. Among a plethora of effects arising from these systems morphological and non morphological attributes, it is shown that a favorable presence of several of these attributes, including that of rapid on-chain carrier propagation and the presence of elongated conjugation segments, can lead to an enhancement of the system’s mobility by more than 5 orders of magnitude with respect to ‘standard’ amorphous organic semiconductors. New insight for the formulation of new engineering strategies for next generation polymer based semiconductors is thus gathered.

  3. Screen-printed carbon electrode modified on its surface with amorphous carbon nitride thin film: Electrochemical and morphological study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghamouss, F. [Universite de Nantes, UMR 6006-CNRS, FR-2465-CNRS, Laboratoire d' Analyse isotopique et Electrochimique de Metabolismes (LAIEM) (France); Tessier, P.-Y. [Universite de Nantes, UMR CNRS 6502, Institut des Materiaux Jean Rouxel - IMN Faculte des Sciences and des Techniques de Nantes, 2 rue de la Houssiniere, 44322 Nantes Cedex 3 (France); Djouadi, A. [Universite de Nantes, UMR CNRS 6502, Institut des Materiaux Jean Rouxel - IMN Faculte des Sciences and des Techniques de Nantes, 2 rue de la Houssiniere, 44322 Nantes Cedex 3 (France); Besland, M.-P. [Universite de Nantes, UMR CNRS 6502, Institut des Materiaux Jean Rouxel - IMN Faculte des Sciences and des Techniques de Nantes, 2 rue de la Houssiniere, 44322 Nantes Cedex 3 (France); Boujtita, M. [Universite de Nantes, UMR 6006-CNRS, FR-2465-CNRS, Laboratoire d' Analyse isotopique et Electrochimique de Metabolismes (LAIEM) (France)]. E-mail: mohammed.boujtita@univ-nantes.fr

    2007-04-20

    The surface of a screen-printed carbon electrode (SPCE) was modified by using amorphous carbon nitride (a-CN {sub x}) thin film deposited by reactive magnetron sputtering. Scanning electron microscopy and photoelectron spectroscopy measurements were used to characterise respectively the morphology and the chemical structure of the a-CN {sub x} modified electrodes. The incorporation of nitrogen in the amorphous carbon network was demonstrated by X ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The a-CN {sub x} layers were deposited on both carbon screen-printed electrode (SPCE) and silicon (Si) substrates. A comparative study showed that the nature of substrate, i.e. SPCE and Si, has a significant effect on both the surface morphology of deposited a-CN {sub x} film and their electrochemical properties. The improvement of the electrochemical reactivity of SPCE after a-CN {sub x} film deposition was highlighted both by comparing the shapes of voltammograms and calculating the apparent heterogeneous electron transfer rate constant.

  4. Three-dimensional printing model improves morphological understanding in acetabular fracture learning: A multicenter, randomized, controlled study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenfei Huang

    Full Text Available Conventional education results in unsatisfactory morphological understanding of acetabular fractures due to lack of three-dimensional (3D details and tactile feedback of real fractures. Virtual reality (VR and 3D printing (3DP techniques are widely applied in teaching. The purpose of this study was to identify the effect of physical model (PM, VR and 3DP models in education of morphological understanding of acetabular fractures. 141 students were invited to participate in this study. Participants were equally and randomly assigned to the PM, VR and 3DP learning groups. Three-level objective tests were conducted to evaluate learning, including identifying anatomical landmarks, describing fracture lines, identifying classification, and inferring fracture mechanism. Four subjective questions were asked to evaluate the usability and value of instructional materials. Generally, the 3DP group showed a clear advantage over the PM and VR groups in objective tests, while there was no significant difference between the PM and VR groups. 3DP was considered to be the most valuable learning tool for understanding acetabular fractures. The findings demonstrate that 3DP modelling of real fractures is an effective learning instrument that can be used to understand the morphology of acetabular fractures and promote subjective interest.

  5. Structural, morphological and dielectric studies of zirconium substituted CoFe2O4 nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Anand

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the influence of zirconium substitution in cubic spinel nanocrystalline CoFe2O4 on the structural, morphological and dielectric properties are reported. Zirconium substituted cobalt ferrite Co1-xZrxFe2O4 (x = 0.7 nanoparticles were synthesized by sol-gel route. The structural and morphological investigations using powder X-ray diffraction and high resolution scanning electron microscope (HRSEM analysis are reported. Scherrer plot, Williamson–Hall analysis and Size-strain plot method were used to calculate the crystallite size and lattice strain of the samples. High purity chemical composition of the sample was confirmed by energy dispersive X-ray analysis. The atoms vibration modes of as synthesized nanoparticles were recorded using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR spectrometer in the range of 4000–400 cm-1. The temperature-dependent dielectric properties of zirconium substituted cobalt ferrite nanoparticles were also carried out. Relative dielectric permittivity, loss tangent and AC conductivity were measured in the frequency range 50 Hz to 5 MHz at temperatures between 323 K and 473 K. The dielectric constant and dielectric loss values of the sample decreased with increasing in the frequency of the applied signal.

  6. Root canal morphology of primary molars: a micro-computed tomography study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fumes, A C; Sousa-Neto, M D; Leoni, G B; Versiani, M A; da Silva, L A B; da Silva, R A B; Consolaro, A

    2014-10-01

    This was to investigate the root canal morphology of primary molar teeth using micro-computed tomography. Primary maxillary (n = 20) and mandibular (n = 20) molars were scanned at a resolution of 16.7 μm and analysed regarding the number, location, volume, area, structured model index (SMI), area, roundness, diameters, and length of canals, as well as the thickness of dentine in the apical third. Data were statistically compared by using paired-sample t test, independent sample t test, and one-way analysis of variance with significance level set as 5%. Overall, no statistical differences were found between the canals with respect to length, SMI, dentine thickness, area, roundness, and diameter (p > 0.05). A double canal system was observed in the mesial and mesio-buccal roots of the mandibular and maxillary molars, respectively. The thickness in the internal aspect of the roots was lower than in the external aspect. Cross-sectional evaluation of the roots in the apical third showed flat-shaped canals in the mandibular molars and ribbon- and oval-shaped canals in the maxillary molars. External and internal anatomy of the primary first molars closely resemble the primary second molars. The reported data may help clinicians to obtain a thorough understanding of the morphological variations of root canals in primary molars to overcome problems related to shaping and cleaning procedures, allowing appropriate management strategies for root canal treatment.

  7. Morphology study on the depleted uranium as hydriding/dehydriding cycles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Dong-you, E-mail: dongyou@nfri.re.kr [National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Yun, Sei-Hun; Kang, Hyun-Goo; Chang, Min Ho; Oh, Yun Hee [National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Kweon Ho; Woo, Yoon Myung [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-11-01

    Depleted Uranium (DU) is one of the strongest candidates as a getter material of hydrogen isotopes in the nuclear fusion reactor. In this work, small DU lump specimen with 99.8% purity was prepared for observation of morphology variation as hydriding/dehydriding cycles. Hydriding/dehydriding of DU was carried out more than 10 cycles for powder preparation. The pulverized DU specimen was safely handled in the glove box under Argon gas condition to minimize contact with oxygen and humidity. The morphology change according to hydriding/dehydriding cycles was observed by visual cell reactor, optical microscope and scanning electron microscope. The first hydriding of the small DU sample has progressed slowly with surface enlargement and volume expansion as time passes. After third hydriding/dehydriding cycles, most of DU was pulverized. The powder fineness of DU developed as hydriding/dehydriding cycle progresses. But the agglomerates of fine DU particles were observed. It was confirmed that the DU particles exist as porous agglomerates. And the particle agglomerate shows poor fluidity and even has the cohesive force.

  8. Femoral morphology and femoropelvic musculoskeletal anatomy of humans and great apes: a comparative virtopsy study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morimoto, Naoki; Ponce de León, Marcia S; Nishimura, Takeshi; Zollikofer, Christoph P E

    2011-09-01

    The proximal femoral morphology of fossil hominins is routinely interpreted in terms of muscular topography and associated locomotor modes. However, the detailed correspondence between hard and soft tissue structures in the proximal femoral region of extant great apes is relatively unknown, because dissection protocols typically do not comprise in-depth osteological descriptions. Here, we use computed tomography and virtopsy (virtual dissection) for non-invasive examination of the femoropelvic musculoskeletal anatomy in Pan troglodytes, P. paniscus, Gorilla gorilla, Pongo pygmaeus, and Homo sapiens. Specifically, we analyze the topographic relationship between muscle attachment sites and surface structures of the proximal femoral shaft such as the lateral spiral pilaster. Our results show that the origin of the vastus lateralis muscle is anterior to the insertion of gluteus maximus in all examined great ape specimens and humans. In gorillas and orangutans, the insertion of gluteus maximus is on the inferior (anterolateral) side of the lateral spiral pilaster. In chimpanzees, however, the maximus insertion is on its superior (posteromedial) side, similar to the situation in modern humans. These findings support the hypothesis that chimpanzees and humans exhibit a shared-derived musculoskeletal topography of the proximal femoral region, irrespective of their different locomotor modes, whereas gorillas and orangutans represent the primitive condition. Caution is thus warranted when inferring locomotor behavior from the surface topography of the proximal femur of fossil hominins, as the morphology of this region may contain a strong phyletic signal that tends to blur locomotor adaptation. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  9. Extrinsic morphology of graphene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Teng

    2011-01-01

    Graphene is intrinsically non-flat and corrugates randomly. Since the corrugating physics of atomically thin graphene is strongly tied to its electronics properties, randomly corrugating morphology of graphene poses a significant challenge to its application in nanoelectronic devices for which precise (digital) control is the key. Recent studies revealed that the morphology of substrate-supported graphene is regulated by the graphene–substrate interaction, thus is distinct from the random intrinsic morphology of freestanding graphene. The regulated extrinsic morphology of graphene sheds light on new pathways to fine tune the properties of graphene. To guide further research to explore these fertile opportunities, this paper reviews recent progress on modeling and experimental studies of the extrinsic morphology of graphene under a wide range of external regulation, including two-dimensional and one-dimensional substrate surface features and one-dimensional and zero-dimensional nanoscale scaffolds (e.g. nanowires and nanoparticles)

  10. Intra- and interobserver analysis in the morphological assessment of early stage embryos during an IVF procedure: a multicentre study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devroe Johanna

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Quality control programs are necessary to maintain good clinical practice. Embryo grading has been described as one of the external quality assurance schemes. Although the evaluation of embryos is based on the assessment of morphological characteristics, considerable intra- and inter-observer variability has been described. In this multicentre study, the variability in the embryo evaluation has been evaluated using morphological characteristics on day 1, day 2 and day 3 of embryo development. Methods Five embryologists of four different IVF centers participated in this study. Multilevel images of embryos were presented on a website at different time points to evaluate intra-and inter-observer agreement in the assessment of embryo morphology. The embryos were evaluated on day 1, day 2 and day 3 of their development and each embryologist had to decide if the embryo had to be transferred, cryopreserved or discarded. Results Both intra-observer agreement and inter-observer agreement were good to excellent for the position of the pronuclei on day 1, the number of blastomeres on day 2 and day 3 and the clinical decision (transfer, cryopreservation, discard. For all other characteristics (size of pronuclei, presence of cytoplasomic halo, degree of fragmentation and size of blastomeres the intra- and inter-observer agreement was moderate to very poor. Conclusions Mono- or multicentre quality control on embryo scoring by morphological assessment can easily be performed through the design of a simple website. In the future the website design can be adapted to generate statistical feedback upon scoring and can even include a training module.

  11. Auroral morphology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deehr, C.S.; Romick, G.J.; Sivjee, G.G.

    1981-01-01

    The aurora is a radiant manifestation of solar particle emissions and their control by intervening electromagnetic fields. The analogy with a television system was first made, we believe, by Elvey, (1958). The latest concepts of solar-terrestrial control are included in description by Akasofu (1979) showing the phosphor screen as the upper atmosphere with an auroral image produced by particles from a source on the sun, modulated by electric and magnetic fields with the magnetohydrodynamic (MDH) generator formed by electrons and protons from the solar wind across the geomagnetic tail as the power supply. Thus, the size and shape of the aurora must reflect all the forces acting in the auroral particles on their way from the sun to the earth. Auroral morphology, therefore, is the study of the occurence of aurora in space and time for the purpose of describing the origin of solar particels and the forces acting upon them between the time of their production on the sun and their loss in the atmosphere. The advantage of using the aurora as a television monitor of this process over any conceivable system of in situ measurements is obvious when one considers the large number of space vehicles which would be necessary to record the information concentrated in the auroral oval which differs in scale with the magnetosphere by perhaps 10 6 . (orig.)

  12. Influence of needle-like morphology on the bioactivity of nanocrystalline wollastonite – an in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lakshmi R

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available R Lakshmi, S Sasikumar Materials Chemistry Division, School of Advanced Sciences, VIT University, Vellore, Tamil Nadu, India Abstract: In the past 2 decades, wollastonite has been studied thoroughly for its application as a bone implant material due to its biocompatibility, high mechanical strength, and excellent bioactivity when compared to calcium phosphates bioceramics. Wollastonite was prepared through the low-temperature sol-gel combustion method using urea as the fuel, nitrate ions and nitric acid as the oxidizer. Calcium nitrate and tetraethyl orthosilicate were taken as the source of calcium and silica. The synthesized wollastonite were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy for the identification of characteristic functional group and powder X-ray diffraction for the phase identification. Employing urea as a fuel resulted in needle-like morphology of the particles, which was confirmed by scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. It was observed that the needle-like morphology enhances the mechanical properties such as elasticity and compressive strength and also increases the surface area of the material, which could help in a rapid deposition of hydroxyapatite layer. These properties of wollastonite warrant its application as a new artificial bone material in the field of hard tissue engineering. Keywords: sol-gel combustion synthesis, bioceramics, hydroxyapatite, compressive strength, morphology

  13. The BNCT resistant fraction of cancer cells. An in vitro morphologic and cytofluorimetric study on a rat coloncarcinoma cell line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrari, C.; Clerici, A.M.; Mazzini, G.

    2006-01-01

    Given the high efficacy of the BNCT treatment, recurrences reasonably depends on the failure of a cell fraction to uptake and retain adequate levels of boronated compounds. Aim of this study is to identify, quantify and characterize the resistant cell fraction relative to the delivered boron concentration. Experiments were performed on the DHD/K12/TRb line by means of cytofluorimetric DNA analysis, plating efficiency and morphologic observations. Cells were incubated with p-boronophenylalanine (BPA) concentrations ranging from 10 to 40 ppm for 18 h. Following neutron exposure, cells were reseeded for subsequent morphologic observations, counting and DNA analysis. Samples of irradiated cells not BPA enriched and non-irradiated cells with and without boron were compared with them. After 24 hs there were no differences among the four conditions, in terms of number of recovered cells, morphology and cell cycle distribution. Starting from 48 hs and up to 7 days BPA irradiated cells showed growth in dimensions, important cell number reduction and multiclonal DNA profile worsening with time. After 9 days normally sized cell clones appeared confirming the presence of a resistant cell fraction able to restore the original cell population after 21 days. The incidence of surviving cells turned out to be in the range 0,026-0,05%. (author)

  14. Cone-beam computed tomography study of root and canal morphology of mandibular premolars in a western Chinese population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Xuan; Guo, Bin; Li, Ke-Zeng; Zhang, Ru; Tian, Yuan-Yuan; Wang, Hu; DDS, Tao Hu

    2012-01-01

    Traditional radiography is limited in its ability to give reliable information on the number and morphology of root canals. The application of cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) provides a non-invasive three-dimensional confirmatory diagnosis as a complement to conventional radiography. The aim of this study was to evaluate the root and canal morphology of mandibular premolars in a western Chinese population using CBCT scanning. The sample included 149 CBCT images comprising 178 mandibular first premolars and 178 second premolars. The tooth position, number of roots and canals, and canal configuration according to Vertucci’s classification were recorded. The results showed that 98% of mandibular first premolars had one root and 2% had two roots; 87.1% had one canal, 11.2% had two canals and 0.6% had three canals. The prevalence of C-shaped canals was 1.1%. All mandibular second premolars had one root; 97.2% had one canal and 2.2% had two canals. The prevalence of C-shaped canals was 0.6%. The prevalence of multiple canals in mandibular first premolars was mainly of Type V, and mandibular second premolars had a low rate of canal variation in this western Chinese population. Root canal bifurcation occurred at the middle or apical third in most bicanal mandibular premolars. CBCT scanning can be used in the management of mandibular premolars with complex canal morphology

  15. Surface morphology study on chromium oxide growth on Cr films by Nd-YAG laser oxidation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong Qizhi; Hu Jiandong; Guo Zuoxing; Lian Jianshe; Chen Jiwei; Chen Bo

    2002-01-01

    Grain sized (60-100 nm) Cr 2 O 3 thin films were prepared on Cr thin film surfaces by Nd-YAG laser photothermal oxidation process. Surface morphology study showed crack-free short plateau-like oxide films formed. Increase of dislocation density after pulsed laser irradiation was found. Thin film external surfaces, grain boundaries and dislocations are main paths of laser surface oxidation. Pinning and sealing of grain boundary was the reason that deeper oxidation did not produce. Grain growth and agglomeration of Cr sub-layer yielded tensile stress on the surface Cr 2 O 3 thin film. It was the reason that short plateau-like surface morphology formed and cracks appeared sometimes. In oxygen annealing at 700 deg. C, grain boundaries were considered not to be pinned at the surface, mixture diffusion was main mechanism in growth of oxide. Compression stress development in whole film led to extrusion of grains that was the reason that multiple appearances such as pyramid-like and nutshell-like morphology formed

  16. Morphologic study of the effect of iron on pseudocyst formation in Trichomonas vaginalis and its interaction with human epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias-Lopes, Geovane; Saboia-Vahia, Leonardo; Margotti, Eliane Trindade; Fernandes, Nilma de Souza; Castro, Cássia Luana de Faria; Oliveira, Francisco Odencio; Peixoto, Juliana Figueiredo; Britto, Constança; Silva, Fernando Costa E; Cuervo, Patricia; Jesus, José Batista de

    2017-10-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis is the aetiological agent of human trichomoniasis, which is one of the most prevalent sexually transmitted diseases in humans. Iron is an important element for the survival of this parasite and the colonisation of the host urogenital tract. In this study, we investigated the effects of iron on parasite proliferation in the dynamics of pseudocyst formation and morphologically characterised iron depletion-induced pseudocysts. We performed structural and ultrastructural analyses using light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. It was observed that iron depletion (i) interrupts the proliferation of T. vaginalis, (ii) induces morphological changes in typical multiplicative trophozoites to spherical non-proliferative, non-motile pseudocysts, and (iii) induces the arrest of cell division at different stages of the cell cycle; (iv) iron is the fundamental element for the maintenance of typical trophozoite morphology; (v) pseudocysts induced by iron depletion are viable and reversible forms; and, finally, (vi) we demonstrated that pseudocysts induced by iron depletion are able to interact with human epithelial cells maintaining their spherical forms. Together, these data suggest that pseudocysts could be induced as a response to iron nutritional stress and could have a potential role in the transmission and infection of T. vaginalis.

  17. Electrochemical and in situ TM-AFM studies of the polymerization conditions on poly(o-methoxyaniline) film morphology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szklarczyk, Marek; Wierzbinski, Emil; Bienkowski, Krzysztof; Strawski, Marcin

    2005-01-01

    The in situ atomic force microscopy and the electrochemical studies on electropolymerization of the o-methoxyaniline in the 0.0-0.8 V versus NHE range of the electrode potential are described. It is proved that in the 0.0-0.3 V versus NHE a redox process takes place, resulting in the formation of poly(o-methoxyaniline) in its reduced form, leucoemeraldine. The different morphologies are exhibited by poly(o-methoxyaniline) under different polymerization conditions. The microscopic results show that with the increase of the monomer concentration in the bulk of electrolyte solution the globular morphology, related to the coil like molecular structure, is replaced by the fibrilar one, related to the opened-up, more conductive extended coil structure. It is shown that oxidation of a leucoemeraldine state of polymer to its emeraldine state results in the change of the morphology from the chain like structure to the massive fibrilar like structure. The reduction of oxidized polymer results in its irreversible fragmentation

  18. Exploring of Agro Waste (Pineapple Leaf, Corn Stalk, and Napier Grass by Chemical Composition and Morphological Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angzzas Sari Mohd Kassim

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Malaysia is a country that is a rich source of agricultural waste material. Three different crops were studied here, including pineapple (Ananas comosus leaf, corn (Zea mays stalk, and Napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum. These crops are characterized as agricultural waste materials in Malaysia and have a high potential to be used as alternative fibers for the paper making industry. The objective of this work was to analyze the chemical composition of pineapple leaf, corn stalk, and Napier grass and to investigate the fiber morphology of these crops. The chemical components analyzed include the following: cellulose (Kurshner-Hoffner method, holocellulose (chlorination method, hemicellulose (chlorination method, ash content (TAPPI method T211-om-93, lignin content (TAPPI method T222-om-98, and soluble sodium hydroxide (TAPPI method T203-om-98. All handsheets morphologies were observed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM. Results indicated each crop has the potential for use as a fiber in paper making. SEM images indicated a condensed composition of the fiber structure. The observed chemical composition and morphology of these three crops indicate their suitability for use as fiber sources for the paper industry.

  19. Genetic Diversity and Taxonomic Studies of Allium Akaka and A. Elburzense Native to Iran Using Morphological Characters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jafari Sajad

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Two Allium species (A. akaka S.G. Gmelin and A. elburzense W. native to Iran are used locally as the fresh vegetables and in medical therapy. They are not cultivated, but are collected from the wild, thus, will soon be threatened with extinction. In this study, the diversity of 15 wild accessions (4 accessions of A. elburzense endemic of Iran and 11 accessions of A. akaka collected from the north-western part of Iran were evaluated with the use of 16 qualitative and 16 quantitative characteristics. The morphological characters with high heritability included leaf length, flower number in umbel, inflorescence diameter, leaf dry weight, bulb fresh weight, weight of 100 seeds, seed length and seed length/width. Results of the principal component analysis indicated that 92.52% of the observed variability was explained by the first six components. The first two components explained about 64.74% of the total observed variability. The first and third hierarchical cluster analysis included all accessions of A. akaka. The accessions of A. elburzense, except one, were placed in a separate cluster. These morphological descriptors can successfully apply for evaluating morphological diversity of Allium wild accessions and can help in horticultural usage.

  20. Morphological correlates of the grooming claw in distal phalanges of platyrrhines and other primates: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maiolino, Stephanie; Boyer, Doug M; Rosenberger, Alfred

    2011-12-01

    Grooming claws are present on the second pedal digits of strepsirhines and on the second and third pedal digits of tarsiers. However, their presence in New World monkeys is often overlooked. As such, the absence of a grooming claw is generally considered an anthropoid synapomorphy. This study utilizes a quantitative multivariate analysis to define grooming claw morphology and document its presence in platyrrhine monkeys. Our results show that owl monkeys possess grooming claws similar to those of strepsirhines, while titi monkeys possess grooming claw-like morphology. Therefore, we conclude that anthropoids are not clearly united by the absence of a grooming claw. Furthermore, due to their presence in three major primate clades, we infer that it is likely that a grooming claw was present on the second pedal digit of the ancestor of living primates. Therefore, we advise the reassessment of fossil adapids in light of the anatomical correlates described here. This should increase resolution on the homology and polarity of grooming claw morphology, and, therefore, will help provide a sharper picture of primate evolution. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Conductivity and phase morphology of carbon black-filled immiscible polymer blends under creep: an experimental and theoretical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Yamin; Liu, Xianhu; Hao, Xiaoqiong; Schubert, Dirk W

    2016-11-30

    Blends of carbon black (CB)-filled co-continuous immiscible polystyrene/poly(methyl-methacrylate) (PS/PMMA) with a PS/PMMA ratio of 50/50 and CB selectively located in the PS phase have been prepared by melt blending. The simultaneous evolution of conductivity and phase morphology of blend composites was investigated under shear and in the quiescent state at 200 °C. It was found that shear deformation had a significant influence on the conductivity of the unfilled PS/PMMA blend and its composites, which was attributed to the change of phase morphology during shear. After the shear stress of 10 kPa, the conductivity of PS/PMMA blends filled with 2 vol% of CB decreased by about two orders of magnitude and the phase morphology transformed from a fine co-continuous structure into a highly elongated lamellar structure. The deformation of phase morphology and the decrease of conductivity were weakened upon decreasing the shear stress or increasing the CB concentration. During subsequent recovery, pronounced phase structure coarsening was observed in the mixture and the conductivity increased as well. A simple model describing the behavior of conductivity under shear deformation was derived and utilized for the description of the experimental data. For the first time, the Burgers model was used to describe the conductivity, and the viscoelastic and viscoplastic parameters were deduced by fitting the conductivity under shear. The results obtained in this study provide a deeper insight into the evolution of phase structure in the conductive polymer blend composite induced by shear deformation.

  2. Computational approach to the study of morphological properties of polymer/fullerene blends in photovoltaics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaitho, Francis M.; Mola, Genene T.; Pellicane, Giuseppe

    2018-02-01

    Organic solar cells have the ability to transform solar energy efficiently and have a promising energy balance. Producing these cells is economical and makes use of methods of printing using inks built on solvents that are well-matched with a variety of cheap materials like flexible plastic or paper. The primary materials used to manufacture organic solar cells include carbon-based semiconductors, which are good light absorbers and efficient charge generators. In this article, we review previous research of interest based on morphology of polymer blends used in bulk heterojunction (BHJ) solar cells and introduce their basic principles. We further review computational models used in the analysis of surface behavior of polymer blends in BHJ as well as the trends in the field of polymer surface science as applied to BHJ photovoltaics. We also give in brief, the opportunities and challenges in the area of polymer blends on BHJ organic solar cells.

  3. Surface morphological study of the transformation strain of martensites and bainites in copper alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marukawa, K.; Kumagai, I.; Takezawa, K.

    2000-01-01

    Transformation strain associated with martensites and bainites has been determined by surface relief measurements with an atomic force microscope. To this end, morphological data of transformation products have been combined with data on their crystallographic orientations, which have been determined by the electron back-scatter diffraction technique. The results have shown that the transformation strain of bainites has a comparable value to that of martensites in the same alloy. The orientation relationship between the transformation products and the parent crystal has also been determined. The relationship for bainites as well as martensites was consistent with the prediction of the phenomenological theory for the transformation. It was concluded that the transformation mechanism of bainites involves lattice shearing in a manner similar to that of the martensitic transformation. (orig.)

  4. Solvent polarity and nanoscale morphology in bulk heterojunction organic solar cells: A case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, Ajith [Centre for Nano-Bio-Polymer Science and Technology, Department of Physics, St. Thomas College, Pala, Kerala 686574 (India); Research and Development Centre, Bharathiar University, Coimbatore, Tamilnadu 641046 (India); Elsa Tom, Anju; Ison, V. V., E-mail: isonvv@yahoo.in, E-mail: praveen@materials.iisc.ernet.in [Centre for Nano-Bio-Polymer Science and Technology, Department of Physics, St. Thomas College, Pala, Kerala 686574 (India); Rao, Arun D.; Varman, K. Arul; Ranjith, K.; Ramamurthy, Praveen C., E-mail: isonvv@yahoo.in, E-mail: praveen@materials.iisc.ernet.in [Department of Materials Engineering, Indian Institute of Science Bangalore, Karnataka 560012 (India); Vinayakan, R. [Department of Chemistry, SVR NSS College Vazhoor, Kerala 686505 (India)

    2014-03-14

    Organic bulk heterojunction solar cells were fabricated under identical experimental conditions, except by varying the solvent polarity used for spin coating the active layer components and their performance was evaluated systematically. Results showed that presence of nitrobenzene-chlorobenzene composition governs the morphology of active layer formed, which is due to the tuning of solvent polarity as well as the resulting solubility of the P3HT:PCBM blend. Trace amount of nitrobenzene favoured the formation of better organised P3HT domains, as evident from conductive AFM, tapping mode AFM and surface, and cross-sectional SEM analysis. The higher interfacial surface area thus generated produced cells with high efficiency. But, an increase in the nitrobenzene composition leads to a decrease in cell performance, which is due to the formation of an active layer with larger size polymer domain networks with poor charge separation possibility.

  5. Impact of groyne fields on the littoral drift: A hybrid morphological modelling study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, S. E.; Drønen, N.; Deigaard, R.

    2016-01-01

    of this mechanism is presented including effects of scales, e.g. the effect of the relative length of the groynes (compared to the width of the surf zone).The model results indicate a strong dependency of the reduction in littoral drift on the initial geometric bypass ratio (Qgeo*), which is defined from the groyne......This paper concerns numerical modelling of the impact on the littoral drift and the shoreline from groynes forming a field of equidistant and identical groynes. The most important effect of a groyne on the shoreline morphology is that the littoral drift is blocked completely or partially. A local...... reduction in the littoral drift around the groyne introduces alongshore gradients in the alongshore sediment transport and sedimentation and erosion around the groyne which will cause re-orientation of the bed contours towards the prevailing wave direction until an equilibrium is reached. A discussion...

  6. The surface morphology of retinal breaks and lattice retinal degeneration. A scanning electron microscopic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, M R; Streeten, B W

    1986-02-01

    In 14 of 110 eye bank eyes, lesions characteristic of peripheral retinal surface pathology were examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). These included operculated and flap tears, trophic round holes, lattice degeneration with holes, and paravascular retinal "pitting" degeneration. By SEM, the edges of the retinal breaks were covered by smooth cellular membranes, merging peripherally with a meshwork of vitreous fibrils. The membrane cells had poorly defined borders, a pitted surface, and variable numbers of microvilli consistent with glia. Lattice surfaces and foci of paravascular retinal degeneration were covered by similar membrane, but showed characteristic differences. It appears that breaks in the internal limiting membrane always stimulate proliferation of preretinal glial membranes. Similar cellular morphology of the membranes associated with breaks is consistent with a common cell of origin. Limited proliferation of these membranes suggests that surface gliosis is normally inhibited when the cells contact either intact basement membrane or vitreous.

  7. Preliminary morphological and X-ray diffraction studies of the crystals of the DNA cetyltrimethylammonium salt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osica, V D; Pyatigorskaya, T L; Polyvtsev, O F; Dembo, A T; Kliya, M O; Vasilchenko, V N; Verkin, B I; Sukharevskya, B Y

    1977-04-01

    Double-stranded DNA molecules (molecular weight 2.5 X 10(5) - 5 X 10(5) daltons) have been crystallized from water-salt solutions as cetyltrimethylammonium salts (CTA-DNA). Variation of crystallization conditions results in a production of different types of CTA-DNA crystals: spherulits, dendrites, needle-shaped and faceted rhombic crystals, the latter beeing up to 0.3 mm on a side. X-ray diffraction data indicate that DNA molecules in the crystals form a hexagonal lattice which parameters vary slightly with the morphological type of the crystal. Comparison of the melting curves of the DNA preparation before and after crystallization suggests that DNA molecules are partially fractionated in the course of crystallization. Crystals of the CTA-DNA-proflavine complex have also been obtained.

  8. Surface morphology of the endolymphatic duct in the rat. A scanning electron microscopy study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qvortrup, K; Rostgaard, Jørgen; Bretlau, P

    1995-01-01

    microscopy was attained by coating of the specimens with osmium tetroxide and thiocarbohydrazide followed by a continuous dehydration procedure. This technique permitted, for the first time, an investigation of the surface morphology of the epithelial cells in the endolymphatic duct. Three types of cells......Following intracardiac vascular perfusion fixation of 8 rats with glutaraldehyde in a buffered and oxygenated blood substitute, the vestibular aqueduct and endolymphatic duct were opened by microsurgery of the resulting 16 temporal bones. Optimum preservation of the epithelium for scanning electron...... were identified with the scanning electron microscope. A polygonal and oblong epithelial cell was observed in the largest number throughout the duct, and in the juxtasaccular half of the duct, two additional types of epithelial cells were observed. The scanning electron microscopic observations...

  9. Cu-based metal-organic framework thin films: A morphological and photovoltaic study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khajavian, Ruhollah; Ghani, Kamal

    2018-06-01

    This work explores the layer-by-layer (LbL) fabrication of [Cu2(bdc)2(bpy)]n thin films by using pyridine and acetic acid as capping agents onto mesoporous titania surface. While in the presence of acetic acid highly-ordered crystals with nanoplate morphology are formed, modulation with pyridine gives rise to formation of leaf-like crystals. In addition, processing sequence also matters when modulator is added. According to our results, modulators should be added to metal solution rather than linker/pillar during LbL assembly. These films were subsequently shown to generate photocurrent in a sandwich-type Grätzel solar cell device in response to simulated 1 sun illumination. The results also demonstrated that the device consisted of well-aligned nanoplates exhibits higher power conversion efficiency than the similar cell with disordered leaf-like crystals after iodine loading.

  10. Solvent polarity and nanoscale morphology in bulk heterojunction organic solar cells: A case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, Ajith; Elsa Tom, Anju; Ison, V. V.; Rao, Arun D.; Varman, K. Arul; Ranjith, K.; Ramamurthy, Praveen C.; Vinayakan, R.

    2014-01-01

    Organic bulk heterojunction solar cells were fabricated under identical experimental conditions, except by varying the solvent polarity used for spin coating the active layer components and their performance was evaluated systematically. Results showed that presence of nitrobenzene-chlorobenzene composition governs the morphology of active layer formed, which is due to the tuning of solvent polarity as well as the resulting solubility of the P3HT:PCBM blend. Trace amount of nitrobenzene favoured the formation of better organised P3HT domains, as evident from conductive AFM, tapping mode AFM and surface, and cross-sectional SEM analysis. The higher interfacial surface area thus generated produced cells with high efficiency. But, an increase in the nitrobenzene composition leads to a decrease in cell performance, which is due to the formation of an active layer with larger size polymer domain networks with poor charge separation possibility

  11. Morphology and conductivity study of solid electrolyte Li{sub 3}PO{sub 4}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prayogi, Lugas Dwi, E-mail: ldprayodi@gmail.com; Faisal, Muhamad [Engineering Physics, Sepuluh Nopember Institute of Technology ITS Campus, Sukolilo, Surabaya 6011 (Indonesia); Kartini, Evvy, E-mail: kartini@batan.go.id; Honggowiranto, Wagiyo; Supardi [Center for Science and Technology of Advanced Materials, National Nuclear Energy Agency Kawasan Puspiptek Serpong, Tangerang Selatan15314, Banten (Indonesia)

    2016-02-08

    The comparison between two different methods of synthesize of solid electrolyte Li{sub 3}PO{sub 4} as precursor material for developing lithium ion battery, has been performed. The first method is to synthesize Li{sub 3}PO{sub 4} prepared by wet chemical reaction from LiOH and H{sub 3}PO{sub 4} which provide facile, abundant available resource, low cost, and low toxicity. The second method is solid state reaction prepared by Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3} and NH{sub 4}H{sub 2}PO{sub 4.} In addition, the possible morphology identification of comparison between two different methods will also be discussed. The composition, morphology, and additional identification phase and another compound of Li{sub 3}PO{sub 4} powder products from two different reaction are characterized by SEM, EDS, and EIS. The Li{sub 3}PO{sub 4} powder produced from wet reaction and solid state reaction have an average diameter of 0.834 – 7.81 µm and 2.15 – 17.3 µm, respectively. The density of Li{sub 3}PO{sub 4} prepared by wet chemical reaction is 2.238 gr/cm{sup 3}, little bit lower than the sample prepared by solid state reaction which density is 2.3560 gr/cm{sup 3}. The EIS measurement result shows that the conductivity of Li{sub 3}PO{sub 4} is 1.7 x 10{sup −9} S.cm{sup −1} for wet chemical reaction and 1.8 x 10{sup −10} S.cm{sup −1} for solid state reaction. The conductivity of Li{sub 3}PO{sub 4} is not quite different between those two samples even though they were prepared by different method of synthesize.

  12. What tools do we have to study the morphological effects of hydroelectric plants in developing countries? The Chilean case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcayaga, Hernan; Caamaño, Diego; Palma, Sebastian; Contreras, Karla

    2017-04-01

    Countries growing rates are directly related to energy production. Therefore, developed and developing nations are focused on hydropower and dam construction; on the contrary dam removal practices are significantly different among nations, demonstrating the former group a lesser interest on removing structures. Chiles hydropower generation corresponds to 50% of the current grid, having a potential capacity to double the current situation. Thus: ¿What tools can we apply to assess the potential impacts on our rivers? The goal of this project is to study two different reaches located in two separates streams in Central Chile. The Aconcagua River represents a mountain stream (i.e. steep, narrow, and confined) subject to the operation of a hydroelectric system composed by five diversion hydropower plants built during the 90`s. The Rapel River reach corresponds to the last 10km upstream to the outlet; it is a mild and wide stream that includes the gravel-sand transition. The Rapel dam operates about 25km upstream this second reach that is characterized by an 112m wall built in 1968. The Aconcagua hydropower system was characterized within a GIS environment and a morphological response conceptual model applied. The model uses two indexes to evaluate changes in i) channel forming discharge and ii) sediment supply. The provided response shows the trends and magnitudes of the changes, based in eighth possible directions for ten morphological responsible variables. The Rapel river system was evaluated differently and sampling of sediments characteristics (D50 and armour index), discharge index for both before and after the dam operation, Morphological Quality Index (IQM) and an analysis of aerial photography time series were performed. Results showed that the hydrology indicator impacts for the Aconcagua system were more severe than the impacts on sediments transport (typically the case for diversion type hydropower). A fine armour layer was found within the Rapel river site

  13. Influence of lysozyme on the precipitation of calcium carbonate: a kinetic and morphologic study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez-Lopez, Concepcion; Rodriguez-Navarro, Alejandro; Dominguez-Vera, Jose M.; Garcia-Ruiz, Juan M.

    2003-05-01

    Several mechanisms have been proposed to explain the interactions between proteins and mineral surfaces, among them a combination of electrostatic, stereochemical interactions and molecular recognition between the protein and the crystal surface. To identify the mechanisms of interaction in the lysozyme-calcium carbonate model system, the effect of this protein on the precipitation kinetics and morphology of calcite crystals was examined. The solution chemistry and morphology of the solid were monitored over time in a set of time-series free-drift experiments in which CaCO 3 was precipitated from solution in a closed system at 25°C and 1 atm total pressure, in the presence and absence of lysozyme. The precipitation of calcite was preceded by the precipitation of a metastable phase that later dissolved and gave rise to calcite as the sole phase. With increasing lysozyme concentration, the nucleation of both the metastable phase and calcite occurred at lower Ω calcite, indicating that lysozyme favored the nucleation of both phases. Calcite growth rate was not affected by the presence of lysozyme, at least at protein concentrations ranging from 0 mg/mL to 10 mg/mL. Lysozyme modified the habit of calcite crystals. The degree of habit modification changed with protein concentration. At lower concentrations of lysozyme, the typical rhombohedral habit of calcite crystals was modified by the expression of {110} faces, which resulted from the preferential adsorption of protein on these faces. With increasing lysozyme concentration, the growth of {110}, {100}, and finally {001} faces was sequentially inhibited. This adsorption sequence may be explained by an electrostatic interaction between lysozyme and calcite, in which the inhibition of the growth of {110}, {100}, and {001} faces could be explained by a combined effect of the density of carbonate groups in the calcite face and the specific orientation (perpendicular) of these carbonate groups with respect to the calcite

  14. [Effects of herb cake-separated moxibustion on spleen in immunosuppressive rabbits:a morphology study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Yuefeng; Wu, Aihua; Wang, Jun; Shan, Zengtian

    2016-10-12

    To observe the influence of different methods of moxibustion on spleen morphology in cyclophosphamide-induced immunosuppressive rabbits. A total of 50 rabbits were randomly assigned into a blank group, a model group, a herbal cake-separated moxibustion group, a moxibustion group and a sham cake-separated moxibustion group, 10 rabbits in each group. Except the blank group, the rabbits in each group were treated with intraperitoneal injection of cyclophosphamide (60 mg/kg), once a day, for 7 consecutive days to establish immunosuppressive model. After the model establishment, the rabbits in the herbal cake-separated moxibustion group were treated with herbal cake-separated moxibustion at "Shenque" (CV 8), "Guanyuan" (CV 4), "Zusanli" (ST 36), "Pishu" (BL 20) and "Shenshu" (BL 23); the moxa cone was placed on the herbal cake which was made of Liuwei Dihuang decoction, three cones for each acupoint. The rabbits in the moxibustion group were treated with moxa stick moxibustion which contained equal moxa of three moxa cones. The rabbits in the sham cake-separated moxibustion group were treated with cake which was made of flour. The acupoint selection in the above three groups was identical, and the intervention was given once every other day for totally 10 times. The rabbits in the blank group and model group were immobilized for identical time without any intervention. After treatment, the rabbits were sacrificed to collect the spleen. With routine HE staining, the morphology changes of spleen were observed under microscope. In addition, the white pulp, splenic corpuscle and the counts of lymphatic cells of lymphatic sheath around the arteries were observed. Compared with the blank group, the average size of white pulp and the radius of splenic corpuscle were reduced (both P 0.05). Compared with the model group, the averagesize of white pulp and the radius of splenic corpuscle were significantly increased in the herbal cake-separated moxibustion group and moxibustion

  15. In-Vitro Comparative Study of In-office and Home Bleaching Agents on Surface Micro-morphology of Enamel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fatima, N.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effect of home-use bleaching agent containing 16 percent Carbamide Peroxide (CP) and in-office bleaching agent with 38 percentage Hydrogen Peroxide (HP) on surface micro-morphology of enamel. Study Design: An experimental study. Place and Duration of Study: The discs were prepared at Material Engineering Department of NED University of Engineering and Technology, Karachi, and surface morphology was analyzed at Centralized Science Laboratory of Karachi University, Pakistan. Duration of study was one year from January to December 2012. Methodology: Forty five sound human third molar crowns, extracted for periodontal reason, were included in the study. Longitudinal sections were made using diamond disks (0.2 mm) under water lubrication to obtain enamel slabs measuring (3 mm x 3 mm). The slabs were embedded in polystyrene resin by using 2.0 cm diameter PVC molds, leaving the outer enamel surface uncovered by the resin. Ninety dental enamel slabs were prepared. The slabs were then randomly divided into 3 groups. Each group contained thirty specimens (n=30). Group 1 was kept in artificial saliva at 37 degree C in incubator (Memart, Germany) during whole experiment. Group 2 was treated with power whitening gel (White Smile 2011, Germany). Group 3 was treated with tooth whitening pen (White Smile 2011, Germany). The most central region or the region that was most representative of the entire surface area was used. The SEM (Jeol-Japan-JSM6380A, JAPAN) micrographs were examined to determine the type of surface presented. The enamel changes were classified as no or mild alteration, moderate alteration and severe altered surface. Results: Regarding micro-morphology, the enamel surface of control groups showed smooth surface in general with some scattered clear scratches due to the polishing procedure. The specimens bleached in group 2 and group 3, represented areas of mild erosion. Conclusion: Bleaching with 38 percentage Hydrogen Peroxide (HP) and

  16. A study of root canal morphology of human primary incisors and molars using cone beam computerized tomography: an in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaurav, Vivek; Srivastava, Nikhil; Rana, Vivek; Adlakha, Vivek Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Variations in morphology of root canals in primary teeth usually leads to complications during and after endodontic therapy. To improve the success in endodontics, a thorough knowledge of the root canal morphology is essential. The aim of this study was to assess the variation in number and morphology of the root canals of primary incisors and molars and to study the applicability of cone beam computerized tomography (CBCT) in assessing the same. A total of 60 primary molars and incisors with full root length were collected and various parameters such as the number of roots, number of canals, diameter of root canal at cementoenamel junction and middle-third, length and angulations of roots of primary molars and incisors were studied using CBCT. The observations were put to descriptive statistics to find out the frequency, mean, standard deviation and range for all four subgroups. Further, unpaired t-test was used to compare these parameters between subgroups and analysis of variance test was implemented to evaluate the parameters within the subgroups. The CBCT showed the presence of bifurcation of root canal at middle third in 13% of mandibular incisors while 20% of mandibular molars had two canals in distal root. The diameter of distobuccal root canal of maxillary molars and mesiolingual canal of mandibular molars was found to be minimum. CBCT is a relatively new and effective technology, which provides an auxiliary imaging modality to supplement conventional radiography for assessing the variation in root canal morphology of primary teeth.

  17. JUNK FOOD ASSOCIATION WITH THE MORPHOLOGICAL CHANGES OF GASTRITIS-A CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDY AMONG RURAL CHILDREN OF MELMARUVATHUR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumathi S

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND AIM Junk food consumption is common among children that have much adverse effect on the growth of the children and health. This study is aimed to assess the correlation of frequency of junk food intake with the morphological changes of gastric antral biopsies in dyspeptic children. MATERIALS AND METHODS This cross-sectional observational study was carried out in Melmaruvathur Medical College Hospital, Melmaruvathur, during the year 2014-2015. The participants were dyspeptic children between 10-15 years of age. They were interviewed using various junk food frequency questionnaires and antral biopsy was taken for histopathological assessment. The morphological changes of gastric antral biopsies were recorded and their association with junk food was analysed. RESULTS Out of 37 children studied, the predominant age group affected were between 5-10 years (56.8% with female predominance (67%. Among the frequency, daily usage of junk food constitutes 57% of cases and the remaining 43% were taking intermittently. Biscuits, chocolates, packed chips were regularly used by daily user and bottled drinks, ice cream were used intermittently. Morphological assessment of gastritis showed significant association of junk food intake with increased intensity of mononuclear cell infiltration with a P value of 0.05, presence of Helicobacter pylori with a P value of 0.02 and presence of regenerative atypical changes with a P value of 0.006. CONCLUSION There is a significant association between the junk food intake and the severity of gastritis. The intensity of inflammatory changes, regenerative atypical glands and Helicobacter pylori presence and load were more among those having the habit of daily junk food intake than those taking intermittently.

  18. A Multi-Year Study on Rice Morphological Parameter Estimation with X-Band Polsar Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onur Yuzugullu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Rice fields have been monitored with spaceborne Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR systems for decades. SAR is an essential source of data and allows for the estimation of plant properties such as canopy height, leaf area index, phenological phase, and yield. However, the information on detailed plant morphology in meter-scale resolution is necessary for the development of better management practices. This letter presents the results of the procedure that estimates the stalk height, leaf length and leaf width of rice fields from a copolar X-band TerraSAR-X time series data based on a priori phenological phase. The methodology includes a computationally efficient stochastic inversion algorithm of a metamodel that mimics a radiative transfer theory-driven electromagnetic scattering (EM model. The EM model and its metamodel are employed to simulate the backscattering intensities from flooded rice fields based on their simplified physical structures. The results of the inversion procedure are found to be accurate for cultivation seasons from 2013 to 2015 with root mean square errors less than 13.5 cm for stalk height, 7 cm for leaf length, and 4 mm for leaf width parameters. The results of this research provided new perspectives on the use of EM models and computationally efficient metamodels for agriculture management practices.

  19. Morphology of the bipolar planetary nebula NGC 2346 from emission line profile studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anandarao, B G; Banerjee, D P.K.; Desai, J N; Jain, S K; Mallik, D C.V.

    1988-11-01

    High resolution observations of H..cap alpha.. 6563 A, (O III) 5007 A and (N II) 6583 A emission lines in the bipolar planetary nebula NGC 2346 are presented. Expansion velocities (V/sub exp/) of 8 +- 1 km s/sup -1/ in the :O III: line and 11 +- 1 km s/sup -1/ in the :N II: line are observed in the central region. An expansion velocity of 7.5 +- 1.0 km s/sup -1/ in the (O III) line is observed in a position 10 arcsec away from the centre, in the NE lobe of the nebula. From the widths of the H..cap alpha.. and (N II) lines, an ion temperature of T=10 650 +- 2950 K and a turbulent velocity V/sub T/ = 16 +- 2 km s/sup -1/ are derived. Using the detailed radial velocity mapping done by a previous author, a morphological model for the nebula is presented.

  20. Medial tibial plateau morphology and stress fracture location: A magnetic resonance imaging study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yukata, Kiminori; Yamanaka, Issei; Ueda, Yuzuru; Nakai, Sho; Ogasa, Hiroyoshi; Oishi, Yosuke; Hamawaki, Jun-Ichi

    2017-06-18

    To determine the location of medial tibial plateau stress fractures and its relationship with tibial plateau morphology using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). A retrospective review of patients with a diagnosis of stress fracture of the medial tibial plateau was performed for a 5-year period. Fourteen patients [three female and 11 male, with an average age of 36.4 years (range, 15-50 years)], who underwent knee MRI, were included. The appearance of the tibial plateau stress fracture and the geometry of the tibial plateau were reviewed and measured on MRI. Thirteen of 14 stress fractures were linear, and one of them stellated on MRI images. The location of fractures was classified into three types. Three fractures were located anteromedially (AM type), six posteromedially (PM type), and five posteriorly (P type) at the medial tibial plateau. In addition, tibial posterior slope at the medial tibial plateau tended to be larger when the fracture was located more posteriorly on MRI. We found that MRI showed three different localizations of medial tibial plateau stress fractures, which were associated with tibial posterior slope at the medial tibial plateau.

  1. An experimental study of the effect of surface morphology on squeal occurrence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asano Mayu

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Squealing is a major matter of concern for environmental issues and the raised expectations for superior performances in braking systems. Squealing, as well as other types of noise nuisances, contributes to noise pollution and leads to additional expenses for phonic isolation. Brake squeal noise, which is defined as noise at frequency higher than 1000 Hz, occurs if the system has very high amplitude of mechanical vibration with sound pressure level above 80 dB. It involves instable vibrations, which are quite well understood as a result of mode couplings between the rubbing parts. These mode couplings are allowed by modal frequency shifts induced by the changes of sliding contact conditions. Nonetheless, the origin of squeal occurrence remains misunderstood as many parameters have to be taken into account, making it virtually impossible to predict when a squeal noise will appear or disappear. The strong coupling between structure and material, the continual change of the materials surfaces (chemistry and morphology, the influence of external parameters (temperature, pressure, hygrometry all play a role in squealing. As a consequence, research on squealing is empirical by nature. Following this, one of the main goals in braking sciences is to determine the set of conditions on the parameters that provoke the start or the end of a squealing noise.

  2. Structure and surface morphology studies of cerium oxide system using XRD and SEM analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad Jais Alimin; Farid Nasir Ani; Wan Azelee Wan Abu Bakar

    2000-01-01

    Conventional Precious Group Materials (PGM) catalyst systems have been using CeO 2 as an Oxygen Storage Capacity component in the catalyst washcoat. Due to the limitations of the PGM catalyst, researches are now focusing on improving or replacing this conventional system. In a previous work, the potential of a copper-ceria (Cu-Ce) oxide as a catalyst system has been identified. In this paper, the morphology and characterisation of Cu-Ce oxides analysed using XRD and SEM will be described. The Cu-Ce samples were prepared at a fixed ratio under temperatures of 400 o C and 800 o C. XRD diffractograms showed CeO 2 is in a cubic phase at 400 o C and 800 o C. At 800 o C, the CuO particle is visible, presumably has incorporated with the lattice structure of ceria, indicating an absent of solid state condition between copper and ceria. Analysis by SEM revealed significant increase in particle sizes with increasing calcination temperatures. (Author)

  3. A Review on the Green Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles and Their Morphologies Studied via TEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Protima Rauwel

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Silver has been recognized as a nontoxic, safe inorganic antibacterial/antifungal agent used for centuries. Silver demonstrates a very high potential in a wide range of biological applications, more particularly in the form of nanoparticles. Environmentally friendly synthesis methods are becoming more and more popular in chemistry and chemical technologies and the need for ecological methods of synthesis is increasing; the aim is to reduce polluting reaction by-products. Another important advantage of green synthesis methods lies in its cost-effectiveness and in the abundance of raw materials. During the last five years, many efforts were put into developing new greener and cheaper methods for the synthesis of nanoparticles. The cost decrease and less harmful synthesis methods have been the motivation in comparison to other synthesis techniques where harmful reductive organic species produce hazardous by-products. This environment-friendly aspect has now become a major social issue and is instrumental in combatting environmental pollution through reduction or elimination of hazardous materials. This review describes a brief overview of the research on green synthesis of silver metal nanoparticles and the influence of the method on their size and morphology.

  4. New trends in the study of podoplanin as a cell morphological regulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshihiko Sawa

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Podoplanin is a mucin-type glycoprotein firstly identified in podocytes, which is homologous to the type I alveolar cell specific T1α-2 antigen and to the oncofetal antigen M2A recognized by the D2-40 antibody. Podoplanin possesses a platelet aggregation-stimulating domain causes the platelet aggregation on cancer cells by the binding activity to CLEC-2. Podoplanin also contributes to the formation of membrane-actin structures. The increased podoplanin expression is found in squamous cell carcinomas at the invasive edge. It has been reported that the podoplanin induces an actin cytoskeleton rearrangement dependent on the RhoA GTPase activation to phosphorylate ezrin and facilitates an epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT which induces the single cell migration of cancer cells. However, the podoplanin-expressing cancer cells often express E-cadherin and migrate in a collective manner, suggesting that there are podoplanin-induced alternative pathways for the actin cytoskeleton rearrangement independent of the RhoA activation and EMT. The strong expression of podoplanin is present in salivary gland myoepithelial cells, and in enamel epithelia and odontoblasts of the tooth germ for a bell stage. Podoplanin may act as a cell morphological regulator in normal and cancer cells.

  5. Study of the Formation Mechanism of A-Segregation Based on Microstructural Morphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhao; Bao, Yuchong; Liu, Lin; Pian, Song; Li, Ri

    2018-04-01

    A model that combines a cellular automaton (CA) and lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) is presented. The mechanism of A-segregation in an Fe-0.34 wt pct C alloy ingot is analyzed on the basis of microstructural morphology calculations. The CA is used to capture the solid/liquid interface, while the LBM is used to calculate the transport phenomena. (1) The solidification of global columnar dendrites was simulated, and two obvious A-segregation bands appeared in the middle-radius region between the ingot wall surface and the centerline. In addition, the angle of deflection to the centerline increased with the increasing heat dissipation rate of the wall surface. When natural convection was ignored, the A-segregation disappeared, and only positive segregation was present in the center and bottom corner of the ingot. (2) Mixed columnar-equiaxed solidification was simulated. Many A-segregation bands appeared in the ingot. (3) Global equiaxed solidification was simulated, and no A-segregation bands were found. The results show that the upward movement of the high-concentration melt is the key to the formation of A-segregation bands, and remelting and the emergence of equiaxed grains are not necessary conditions to develop these bands. However, the appearance of equiaxed grains accelerates the formation of vortexes; thus, many A-segregation bands appear during columnar-equiaxed solidification.

  6. Morphological and optical studies of zinc oxide doped MgO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Othman, Zayani Jaafar, E-mail: jaafar.zayani@yahoo.fr; Matoussi, Adel

    2016-06-25

    This paper reports morphological and optical characterizations of sintered (ZnO){sub 1−x}(MgO){sub x} composite materials. The effects of MgO doping content on these pellets properties have been analyzed. The SEM observations have shown rougher surfaces of the samples covered by grains having prismatic shapes and different sizes. From reflectance and absorption measurements, we have determined the band gap energy which tends to augment from 3.287 to 3.827 eV as the doping content increases. This widening of the optical band gap is explained by the Burstein-Moss effect which causes a significant increase of electron concentration (2.89 10{sup 18}−5.1910{sup 20} cm{sup −3}). In addition, the absorption coefficient, Urbach energy, optical constants (refractive index, extinction coefficient, dielectric constant) and dispersion parameters, such as E{sub 0} (single-oscillator energy), E{sub d} (dispersive energy) were determined of the (ZnO){sub 1−x}(MgO){sub x} composites and analyzed. - Highlights: • (ZnO){sub 1−x}(MgO){sub x} composites were synthesized by solid state sintering method. • MgO doping increased the band gap energy. • SEM observations have shown a decrease of grain sizes when the MgO doping increases. • Optical constants and dispersion parameters were determined and analyzed.

  7. Thermal aging and accelerated weathering of HMSPP: structural and morphological studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliani, Washington L.; Komatsu, Luiz G.H.; Parra, Duclerc F.

    2015-01-01

    This work focuses of the influence of weathering factors - UV radiation, humidity, and temperature on the structure and morphology polypropylene with high melt strength (HMSPP), also called polypropylene modified by irradiation. The HMSPP was prepared from iPP (isotactic polypropylene) in presence of acetylene at 110 kPa pressure and irradiated with γ of "6"0Co at doses of 5, 12.5 and 20 kGy. It has been observed that HMSPP deteriorates the weathering resistance, the thermal behavior and the long-term stability of HMSPP, beyond substantial color changes. The samples aged were characterized by infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), optical microscopy (OM) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The optical microscopy images on the surface show that thermal aging and artificial weathering proceed by different mechanisms. The effects of elevated temperature aging were evaluated in HMSPPs exposed surface according to the order: HMSPP 20 >12.5 > kGy >iPP, showing intense crack formation in surface exposed due to thermo oxidative degradation. (author)

  8. Synthetic Brassica napus L.: Development and Studies on Morphological Characters, Yield Attributes, and Yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Malek

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Brassica napus was synthesized by hybridization between its diploid progenitor species B. rapa and B. oleracea followed by chromosome doubling. Cross with B. rapa as a female parent was only successful. Among three colchicine treatments (0.10, 0.15, and 0.20%, 0.15% gave the highest success (86% of chromosome doubling in the hybrids (AC; 2=19. Synthetic B. napus (AACC, 2=38 was identified with bigger petals, fertile pollens and seed setting. Synthetic B. napus had increased growth over parents and exhibited wider ranges with higher coefficients of variations than parents for morphological and yield contributing characters, and yield per plant. Siliqua length as well as beak length in synthetic B. napus was longer than those of the parents. Number of seeds per siliqua, 1000-seed weight and seed yield per plant in synthetic B. napus were higher than those of the parents. Although flowering time in synthetic B. napus was earlier than both parents, however the days to maturity was little higher over early maturing B. rapa parent. The synthesized B. napus has great potential to produce higher seed yield. Further screening and evaluation is needed for selection of desirable genotypes having improved yield contributing characters and higher seed yield.

  9. Study of microcracks morphology produced by Vickers indentation on AISI 1045 borided steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campos, I.; Ramirez, G.; VillaVelazquez, C.; Figueroa, U.; Rodriguez, G.

    2008-01-01

    In this work, we analyzed the roughness morphology of indentation microcracks produced by the Vickers microindentation in the iron boride Fe 2 B. Using the paste boriding process, the boride layers were formed at the surface of AISI 1045 steels. The diffusion processes were carried out with 5 mm of boron paste thickness over the substrate surface at three different temperatures (1193, 1223 and 1273 K) with two different time exposures. The indentations in each Fe 2 B layer were made using a constant load of 200 g at four different distances from the surface. The fracture behavior of the Fe 2 B borided phase is found to be brittle in nature. The profiles of microcracks formed at the corners of the indentations were obtained using the scanning electronic microscopy and were analyzed within the framework of fractal geometry. We found that all indentation microcracks display a self-affine invariance characterized by the same roughness (Hurst) exponent H = 0.8 ± 0.1. The effect of the self-affine roughness of indentation microcracks on the measured fracture toughness is discussed within the framework of the mechanics of self-affine cracks. It is pointed out that the arrest of indentation microcracks is controlled by the fractal fracture toughness, which for the Fe 2 B borided phase is found to be K fc = 0.42 ± 0.02 MPa m 0.75 at all distances from the surface

  10. Contribution to the structural study of austeno-ferritic steels. Morphological and analytical definition of the ferritic phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bathily, Alassane.

    1977-07-01

    Conditions of fast and selective austenite dissolution were defined by means of current-voltage curves using AISI 316-type materials (welding beads). The ferritic phase was isolated and identified with X-rays. The percentages of ferrite were compared gravimetrically with those obtained by traditional methods. The ferrite isolated was chemically analysed by atomic absorption, the only doubtful value being carbon. It is shown by this method that a morphological study of the solidification of the ferritic lattice is possible, even for percentages around 1% [fr

  11. Study of the morphology exhibited by exfoliated polyurethane/montmorillonite nano composites during in situ recovery tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, Iaci M., E-mail: iaci@ctex.eb.br [Divisao Belica do Centro Tecnologico do Exercito. CTEx, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Orefice, Rodrigo L. [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais Departamento de Metalurgia e Materiais. UFMG, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    By using small-angle X-ray scattering, this study aims to examine the SM behavior of montmorillonite polyurethane nano composites. To investigate the phase morphology, a deformed specimen was placed on a heating stage mounted at the Synchrotron beamline; the shape recovery was measured during 15 min. As temperature increases, the crystalline fraction rapidly decreases. The degree of clay delamination within the matrix increases, disturbing the formation of hard and soft segments. Deformation induces changes in the phase proportion, increasing the disperse phase contribution. During in situ tests, the ratio between matrix and disperse phase reaches an equilibrium controlled by the temperature. (author)

  12. Study Of Morphological Changes Of Uterine Horn Of Surri Mouse Depended To Morphine Before Puberty And DuringPuberty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shadkhast M

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available : Morphine is the most important alkaloid of opium family which is found as much as ten percent in opium, and is in two types the sulfate morphine and the hydrochloride morphine."nMaterials and Methods: In this study morphological changes of uterus of surri mice due to oral consumption of sulfate morphine were studied. It was shown that, female surri mice following gradually increasing of morphine to water (0.1 and 0.01 mg/ml were depended to morphine. Female surri mice were classified in two age groups before puberty and depended to morphine during puberty. Each age group took morphine for 21 days. After finishing the period, the mice anesthetizing were weighted, then were anesthetizing and uterus was studied the length, width and apparent features."nResults&ConcIusion: In this study it was distinguished that length and width of uterine horn, between experimental and control groups, were significant (P< 0.01. Morphological changes such as anemia, the thinness and fragitidily walls of uterus and filiformity of uterine horns were observed."n"n"n"n"n"n 

  13. Comparative morphological studies of the neurocranium and the gills of two species of blennies living in different habitats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrito, Venera; Mauceri, Angela; Minniti, Franco; Isaja, Manuela; Maisano, Maria; Tigano, Concetta

    2007-01-01

    Two species of Blennies--Salaria fluviatilis, which lives in freshwaters, and Salaria pavo, which lives in the sea--are considered to be phylogenetically related. Due to the interesting feature of one species having a freshwater and one having a marine habitat, and because of the paucity of studies on the intraspecific and interspecific variability of skeletal characters, in the study reported here, several populations of S. fluviatilis and S. pavo were compared. The intraspecific and interspecific morphology of the cranial characteristics, as well as the branchial epithelium, was studied in relationship to the adaptation of the two species to different environments. Osteological results confirmed the intraspecific variability already found in S. fluviatilis and showed a notable interspecific differentiation between S. pavo and S. fluviatilis. Histological studies indicate that the two species have morphological differences, which are the result of the diversity of the environments in which they live. The results from the two approaches, taken together, are in agreement with the hypothesis of the origin of these two species being from a common marine ancestor.

  14. Structural, Optical, Morphological and Microbial Studies on SnO₂ Nanoparticles Prepared by Co-Precipitation Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arularasu, M V; Anbarasu, M; Poovaragan, S; Sundaram, R; Kanimozhi, K; Magdalane, C Maria; Kaviyarasu, K; Thema, F T; Letsholathebe, D; Mola, Genene T; Maaza, M

    2018-05-01

    Nanoparticles of tin oxide (SnO2) powders were prepared by co-precipitation method at 500 °C, 700 °C and 900 °C temperature. The sintered SnO2 nanoparticles, structural, optical, magnetic, morphological properties and microbial activity have been studied. XRD studies reveals that sintered powder which exhibits tetragonal crystal structure and both crystallinity as well as crystal size increase with increase in temperature. The morphological studies reveal randomly arranged grains with compact nature grain size increases with sintering temperature. The compositional analyses of SnO2 nanoparticles have been studied using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis. The optical band gap values of SnO2 nanoparticles were calculated to be about 4.3 eV in the temperature 500 °C, comparing with that of the bulk SnO2 3.78 eV, by optical absorption measurement. Room temperature M-H curve for pure SnO2 nanoparticles exhibits ferromagnetic behaviour. The tin oxide nanoparticles are acted as potential candidate material for bacterial and fungal activity.

  15. The Effect of Scala Tympani Morphology on Basilar Membrane Contact With a Straight Electrode Array: A Human Temporal Bone Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verberne, Juul; Risi, Frank; Campbell, Luke; Chambers, Scott; O'Leary, Stephen

    2017-01-01

    Scala tympani morphology influences the insertion dynamics and intra-scalar position of straight electrode arrays. Hearing preservation is the goal of cochlear implantation with current thin straight electrode arrays. These hug the lateral wall, facilitating full, atraumatic insertions. However, most studies still report some postoperative hearing loss. This study explores the influence of scala tympani morphology on array position relative to the basilar membrane and its possible contribution to postoperative hearing loss. Twenty-six fresh-frozen human temporal bones implanted with a straight electrode array were three-dimensionally reconstructed from micro-photographic histological sections. Insertion depth and the proximity between the array and basilar membrane were recorded. Lateral wall shape was quantified as a curvature ratio. Insertion depths ranged from 233 to 470 degrees. The mean first point of contact between the array and basilar membrane was 185 degrees; arrays tended to remain in contact with the membrane after first contacting it. Eighty-nine and 93% of arrays that reached the upper basal (>240-360 degrees) and second (>360-720 degrees) turns respectively contacted the basilar membrane in these regions. Scalar wall curvature ratio decreased significantly (the wall became steeper) from the basal to second turns. This shift correlated with a reduced distance between the array and basilar membrane. Scala tympani morphology influences the insertion dynamics and intra-scalar position of a straight electrode array. In addition to gross trauma of cochlear structures, contact between the array and basilar membrane and how this impacts membrane function should be considered in hearing preservation cases.

  16. Cryptic or pseudocryptic: can morphological methods inform copepod taxonomy? An analysis of publications and a case study of the Eurytemora affinis species complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lajus, Dmitry; Sukhikh, Natalia; Alekseev, Victor

    2015-01-01

    Interest in cryptic species has increased significantly with current progress in genetic methods. The large number of cryptic species suggests that the resolution of traditional morphological techniques may be insufficient for taxonomical research. However, some species now considered to be cryptic may, in fact, be designated pseudocryptic after close morphological examination. Thus the “cryptic or pseudocryptic” dilemma speaks to the resolution of morphological analysis and its utility for identifying species. We address this dilemma first by systematically reviewing data published from 1980 to 2013 on cryptic species of Copepoda and then by performing an in-depth morphological study of the former Eurytemora affinis complex of cryptic species. Analyzing the published data showed that, in 5 of 24 revisions eligible for systematic review, cryptic species assignment was based solely on the genetic variation of forms without detailed morphological analysis to confirm the assignment. Therefore, some newly described cryptic species might be designated pseudocryptic under more detailed morphological analysis as happened with Eurytemora affinis complex. Recent genetic analyses of the complex found high levels of heterogeneity without morphological differences; it is argued to be cryptic. However, next detailed morphological analyses allowed to describe a number of valid species. Our study, using deep statistical analyses usually not applied for new species describing, of this species complex confirmed considerable differences between former cryptic species. In particular, fluctuating asymmetry (FA), the random variation of left and right structures, was significantly different between forms and provided independent information about their status. Our work showed that multivariate statistical approaches, such as principal component analysis, can be powerful techniques for the morphological discrimination of cryptic taxons. Despite increasing cryptic species

  17. The value of midbrain morphology in predicting prognosis in chronic disorders of consciousness: A preliminary ultrasound study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chillura, Antonino; Naro, Antonino; Micchia, Katia; Bramanti, Alessia; Bramanti, Placido; Calabrò, Rocco Salvatore

    2017-09-15

    Transcranial sonography (TCS) of the brainstem is currently used to support the clinical diagnosis of movement disorders. The aim of the study was to assess the usefulness of midbrain TCS in assessing outcome in patients with Chronic Disorders of Consciousness (DOC). Eleven patients with Minimally Conscious State (MCS) and Unresponsive Wakefulness Syndrome (UWS) were included in the study. We measured the area and echogenicity of the midbrain by encoding and digitally analyzing the corresponding images from the orbitomeatal plane, the morphology of brain parenchyma from the thalamic and cella media plane, and the intracranial circulation. All the patients showed an increase of pulsatility index and numerous morphological alterations on all the scan planes. In particular, we found a loss of the characteristic butterfly-shape of the midbrain, which appeared hypoechoic in the UWS but not in the MCS patients. After six months, the patients were clinically assessed by using Glasgow Outcome Scale Extended (GOSE). We found that a higher increase in GOSE scoring at follow-up was correlated with larger area and higher echogenicity of the midbrain at baseline. The present study suggests that TCS data of the midbrain may support clinical assessment of patients with chronic DOC to estimate their outcome. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Structural and surface morphological studies of long chain fatty acid thin films deposited by Langmuir-Blodgett technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Das, Nayan Mani, E-mail: nayanmanidas3@gmail.com [Department of Applied Physics, Indian School of Mines, Dhanbad 826004 (India); Roy, Dhrubojyoti [Department of Applied Physics, Indian School of Mines, Dhanbad 826004 (India); Gupta, Mukul [UGC-DAE Consortium for Scientific Research, University Campus, Khandwa Road, Indore 452017 (India); Gupta, P.S. [Department of Applied Physics, Indian School of Mines, Dhanbad 826004 (India)

    2012-12-15

    In the present work we aim to study the structural and surface morphological characteristics of divalent cation (cadmium ion, Cd{sup 2+}) induced thin mono- to multilayer films of fatty acids such as arachidic acid and stearic acid prepared by the Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) technique. These ultra thin films of various numbers of layers were studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray reflectivity (XRR) and Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). In this specific Y-type deposition, it was found that as the individual layer thickness increases, the corresponding layer by layer interfacial electron density of the thin films decreases. Since the fatty acid chain tries to maintain its minimum value of cross-sectional area, tilting occurs with respect to its nearest neighbor. The tilt angle calculated for 9 layers of cadmium arachidate (CdA{sub 2}) and cadmium stearate (CdSt{sub 2}) are 18 Degree-Sign and 19.5 Degree-Sign , respectively. An asymmetric air gap of thickness {approx}3 A was also seen between the tail parts of 2 molecular chains. The RMS roughness and average height factors calculated through AFM studies show non-uniform surface morphology of both CdA{sub 2} and CdSt{sub 2}, although the calculated topographic variations were found to have more irregularity in case of CdSt{sub 2} than in case of CdA{sub 2}.

  19. Uptake of silica covered Quantum Dots into living cells: Long term vitality and morphology study on hyaluronic acid biomaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Amico, Michele; Fiorica, Calogero; Palumbo, Fabio Salvatore; Militello, Valeria; Leone, Maurizio; Dubertret, Benoit; Pitarresi, Giovanna; Giammona, Gaetano

    2016-01-01

    Quantum Dots (QDs) are promising very bright and stable fluorescent probes for optical studies in the biological field but water solubility and possible metal bio-contamination need to be addressed. In this work, a simple silica-QD hybrid system is prepared and the uptake in bovine chondrocytes living cells without any functionalization of the external protective silica shield is demonstrated. Moreover, long term treated cells vitality (up to 14 days) and the transfer of silica-QDs to the next cell generations are here reported. Confocal fluorescence microscopy was also used to determine the morphology of the so labelled cells and the relative silica-QDs distribution. Finally, we employ silica-QD stained chondrocytes to characterize, as proof of concept, hydrogels obtained from an amphiphilic derivative of hyaluronic acid (HA-EDA-C _1_8) functionalized with different amounts of the RGD peptide. - Highlights: • Non functionalized silica-quantum dots fluorescent nanoparticles uptake is observed. • Morphology studies of such cells could be done by confocal fluorescence microscopy. • Labelled chondrocytes are viable until at least 14 days. • RGD functionalized Hyaluronic Acid hydrogels are studied as cell scaffolds. • Chondrocyte are promptly attached on RGD-functionalized hydrogels.

  20. Uptake of silica covered Quantum Dots into living cells: Long term vitality and morphology study on hyaluronic acid biomaterials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Amico, Michele [Dip. Biomedico di Medicina Interna e Specialistica, Universitá degli Studi di Palermo, Piazza delle Cliniche, 2, 90127 Palermo (Italy); Dip. di Fisica e Chimica, Universitá degli Studi di Palermo, Viale delle Scienze, Ed. 18, 90128 Palermo (Italy); Fiorica, Calogero, E-mail: calogero.fiorica@unipa.it [Dip. di Scienze e Tecnologie Molecolari e Biomolecolari, Sezione di Chimica e Tecnologie Farmaceutiche, Universitá degli Studi di Palermo, Via Archirafi, 28, 90136 Palermo (Italy); Palumbo, Fabio Salvatore [Dip. di Scienze e Tecnologie Molecolari e Biomolecolari, Sezione di Chimica e Tecnologie Farmaceutiche, Universitá degli Studi di Palermo, Via Archirafi, 28, 90136 Palermo (Italy); Militello, Valeria; Leone, Maurizio [Dip. di Fisica e Chimica, Universitá degli Studi di Palermo, Viale delle Scienze, Ed. 18, 90128 Palermo (Italy); Dubertret, Benoit [Laboratoire de Physique et d’Etude des Matèriaux, ESPCI-ParisTech, PSL Research University, Sorbonne Universitè UPMC Univ. Paris 06, CNRS, 10 rue Vauquelin, 75005 Paris (France); Pitarresi, Giovanna; Giammona, Gaetano [Dip. di Scienze e Tecnologie Molecolari e Biomolecolari, Sezione di Chimica e Tecnologie Farmaceutiche, Universitá degli Studi di Palermo, Via Archirafi, 28, 90136 Palermo (Italy)

    2016-10-01

    Quantum Dots (QDs) are promising very bright and stable fluorescent probes for optical studies in the biological field but water solubility and possible metal bio-contamination need to be addressed. In this work, a simple silica-QD hybrid system is prepared and the uptake in bovine chondrocytes living cells without any functionalization of the external protective silica shield is demonstrated. Moreover, long term treated cells vitality (up to 14 days) and the transfer of silica-QDs to the next cell generations are here reported. Confocal fluorescence microscopy was also used to determine the morphology of the so labelled cells and the relative silica-QDs distribution. Finally, we employ silica-QD stained chondrocytes to characterize, as proof of concept, hydrogels obtained from an amphiphilic derivative of hyaluronic acid (HA-EDA-C {sub 18}) functionalized with different amounts of the RGD peptide. - Highlights: • Non functionalized silica-quantum dots fluorescent nanoparticles uptake is observed. • Morphology studies of such cells could be done by confocal fluorescence microscopy. • Labelled chondrocytes are viable until at least 14 days. • RGD functionalized Hyaluronic Acid hydrogels are studied as cell scaffolds. • Chondrocyte are promptly attached on RGD-functionalized hydrogels.

  1. Arsenic distribution and valence state variation studied by fast hierarchical length-scale morphological, compositional, and speciation imaging at the Nanoscopium, Synchrotron Soleil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somogyi, Andrea; Medjoubi, Kadda; Sancho-Tomas, Maria; Visscher, P. T.; Baranton, Gil; Philippot, Pascal

    2017-09-01

    The understanding of real complex geological, environmental and geo-biological processes depends increasingly on in-depth non-invasive study of chemical composition and morphology. In this paper we used scanning hard X-ray nanoprobe techniques in order to study the elemental composition, morphology and As speciation in complex highly heterogeneous geological samples. Multivariate statistical analytical techniques, such as principal component analysis and clustering were used for data interpretation. These measurements revealed the quantitative and valance state inhomogeneity of As and its relation to the total compositional and morphological variation of the sample at sub-μm scales.

  2. Integrative Taxonomic Study of the Purse Crab Genus Persephona Leach, 1817 (Brachyura: Leucosiidae): Combining Morphology and Molecular Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magalhães, Tatiana; Robles, Rafael; Felder, Darryl L.

    2016-01-01

    Marine crabs of the genus Persephona Leach, 1817 are restricted to American waters of the western Atlantic and eastern Pacific Oceans. Subfamilial assignment of this taxon has varied between authors and its species composition remain in question. We conducted a comparative study based on morphology and molecular phylogenetics for all ten recognized species of Persephona, along with Iliacantha hancocki. We tested whether Persephona finneganae, P. lichtensteinii, and P. crinita represent a single species as suggested by some authors; whether specimens identified as P. punctata, P. mediterranea, and P. aquilonaris warrant treatment as separate species; and whether I. hancocki should be regarded as a junior synonym of P. subovata. Diagnostic morphological characters (of the carapace, chelipeds, and third maxillipeds) were used along with gonopod (male first pleopod 1) features and live coloration. The 16S rRNA and the Cytochrome Oxidase I (COI) (DNA barcoding) mitochondrial genes were used as molecular markers. Both morphological and molecular analyses revealed that putative specimens of P. crinita from Brazil and those assigned to P. finneganae were no different from specimens presently assignable to P. lichtensteinii. P. finneganae is regarded as a junior synonym of P. lichtensteinii, and we apply P. crinita only to specimens we examined from the Gulf of Mexico. Specimens from Brazil previously reported as P. crinita are herewith concluded to represent P. lichtensteinii. Additionally, P. townsendi is a junior synonym of P. orbicularis, Iliacantha hancocki is concluded to be a junior synonym of P. subovata, while P. aquilonaris and P. mediterranea are found to represent separate species. On the basis of our revisions, eight species of Persephona are considered valid, and the reported distribution for P. crinita is restricted. PMID:27099956

  3. [Morphological and electrophysiological changes of the heart atria in necropsy patients with atrial fibrillation - a pilot study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matějková, Adéla; Steiner, Ivo

    2014-01-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF), the most common supraventricular tachycardia, has a morphological base, so called remodelation of atrial myocardium, with its abnormal conduction pattern as a consequence. The remodelation regards electrical, contractile, and structural properties. In this pilot study we attempted to find relations between the myocardial morphological (scarring, amyloidosis, left atrial enlargement) and electrophysiological (ECG characteristics of the P-wave) changes in patients with AF. We examined 40 hearts of necropsy patients - 20 with a history of AF and 20 with no history of AF. Grossly, the heart weight and the size of the left atrium (LA) were evaluated. Histologically, 7 standard sites from the atria were examined. In each specimen, the degree of myocardial scarring and of deposition of isolated atrial amyloid (IAA) were assessed. We failed to show any significant difference in the P-wave pattern between patients with and without AF. Morphologically, however, there were several differences - the patients with AF had significantly heavier hearts, larger left atria, more severely scarred myocardium of the LA and the atrial septum, and more severe deposition of IAA in both atria in comparison to the control group of patients with sinus rhythm. The left atrial distribution of both fibrosis and amyloidosis was irregular. In patients with AF the former was most pronounced in the LA ceiling while the latter in the LA anterior wall. The entire series showed more marked amyloidosis in the left than in the right atrium. An interesting finding was the universal absence of IAA in the sinoatrial node. The knowledge of distribution of atrial myocardial structural changes could be utilized by pathologists in taking specimens for histology and also by cardiologists in targeting the radiofrequency ablation therapy.

  4. Cortical changes in cerebral small vessel diseases: a 3D MRI study of cortical morphology in CADASIL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jouvent, E.; Bousser, M.G.; Chabriat, H.; Jouvent, E.; Bousser, M.G.; Chabriat, H.; Porcher, R.; Viswanathan, A.; Viswanathan, A.; Viswanathan, A.; O'Sullivan, M.; Dichgans, M.; Guichard, J.P.

    2008-01-01

    Brain atrophy represents a key marker of disease progression in cerebrovascular disorders. The 3D changes of cortex morphology occurring during the course of small vessel diseases of the brain (SVDB) remain poorly understood. The objective of this study was to assess the changes affecting depth and surface area of cortical sulci and their clinical and radiological correlates in a cohort of patients with cerebral autosomal dominant arteriolopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL), a genetic SVDB. Data were obtained from a series of 69 CADASIL patients. Validated methods were used to determine depth and surface area of four cortical sulci. The ratio of brain to intracranial cavity volumes (brain parenchymal fraction-BPF), volume of lacunar lesions (LL) and of white matter hyper-intensities, number of cerebral micro-haemorrhages, and mean apparent diffusion coefficient were also measured. Association between depth and surface area of the cortical sulci and BPF, clinical status and subcortical MRI lesions were tested. Depth and surface area of cortical sulci obtained in 54 patients were strongly correlated with both cognitive score and disability scales. Depth was related to the extent of subcortical lesions, surface area was related only to age. In additional analyses, the depth of the cingular sulcus was independently associated with the volume of LL (P 0.001), and that of the superior frontal sulcus with the mean apparent diffusion coefficient (P 0.003). In CADASIL, important morphological changes of cortical sulci occur in association with clinical worsening,extension of subcortical tissue damage and progression of global cerebral atrophy. These results suggest that the examination of cortical morphology may be of high clinical relevance in SVDB. (authors)

  5. The Developmental Course of Sleep Disturbances Across Childhood Relates to Brain Morphology at Age 7: The Generation R Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocevska, Desana; Muetzel, Ryan L; Luik, Annemarie I; Luijk, Maartje P C M; Jaddoe, Vincent W; Verhulst, Frank C; White, Tonya; Tiemeier, Henning

    2017-01-01

    Little is known about the impact of sleep disturbances on the structural properties of the developing brain. This study explored associations between childhood sleep disturbances and brain morphology at 7 years. Mothers from the Generation R cohort reported sleep disturbances in 720 children at ages 2 months, 1.5, 2, 3, and 6 years. T1-weighted Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) images were used to assess brain structure at 7 years. Associations of sleep disturbances at each age and of sleep disturbance trajectories with brain volumes (total brain volume, cortical and subcortical grey matter, white matter) were tested with linear regressions. To assess regional differences, sleep disturbance trajectories were tested as determinants for cortical thickness in whole-brain analyses. Sleep disturbances followed a declining trend from toddlerhood onwards. Infant sleep was not associated with brain morphology at age 7. Per SD sleep disturbances (one frequent symptom or two less frequent symptoms) at 2 and 3 years of age, children had -6.3 (-11.7 to -0.8) cm3 and -6.4 (-11.7 to -1.7) cm3 smaller grey matter volumes, respectively. Sleep disturbances at age 6 years were associated with global brain morphology (grey matter: -7.3 (-12.1 to -2.6), p value = .01). Consistently, trajectory analyses showed that more adverse developmental course of childhood sleep disturbances are associated with smaller grey matter volumes and thinner dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Sleep disturbances from age 2 years onwards are associated with smaller grey matter volumes. Thinner prefrontal cortex in children with adverse sleep disturbance trajectories may reflect effects of sleep disturbances on brain maturation. © Sleep Research Society 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Sleep Research Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Integrative Taxonomic Study of the Purse Crab Genus Persephona Leach, 1817 (Brachyura: Leucosiidae: Combining Morphology and Molecular Data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Magalhães

    Full Text Available Marine crabs of the genus Persephona Leach, 1817 are restricted to American waters of the western Atlantic and eastern Pacific Oceans. Subfamilial assignment of this taxon has varied between authors and its species composition remain in question. We conducted a comparative study based on morphology and molecular phylogenetics for all ten recognized species of Persephona, along with Iliacantha hancocki. We tested whether Persephona finneganae, P. lichtensteinii, and P. crinita represent a single species as suggested by some authors; whether specimens identified as P. punctata, P. mediterranea, and P. aquilonaris warrant treatment as separate species; and whether I. hancocki should be regarded as a junior synonym of P. subovata. Diagnostic morphological characters (of the carapace, chelipeds, and third maxillipeds were used along with gonopod (male first pleopod 1 features and live coloration. The 16S rRNA and the Cytochrome Oxidase I (COI (DNA barcoding mitochondrial genes were used as molecular markers. Both morphological and molecular analyses revealed that putative specimens of P. crinita from Brazil and those assigned to P. finneganae were no different from specimens presently assignable to P. lichtensteinii. P. finneganae is regarded as a junior synonym of P. lichtensteinii, and we apply P. crinita only to specimens we examined from the Gulf of Mexico. Specimens from Brazil previously reported as P. crinita are herewith concluded to represent P. lichtensteinii. Additionally, P. townsendi is a junior synonym of P. orbicularis, Iliacantha hancocki is concluded to be a junior synonym of P. subovata, while P. aquilonaris and P. mediterranea are found to represent separate species. On the basis of our revisions, eight species of Persephona are considered valid, and the reported distribution for P. crinita is restricted.

  7. Ultrasonic study of ovarian morphology in patients with hypergonadotropic amenorrhea relationship with serum FSH, LH, E2 levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Jinping; Xiang Hong; Zhou Chunmin

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To study the morphologic changes of ovary with transvaginal ultrasonography in patients with hypergonadotropic amenorrhea as well as the relationship between the type of ovary and serum FSH, LH, E 2 levels. Methods: Transvaginal ultrasonic examination of ovary was performed in 38 patients with hypergonadotropic amenorrhea and 36 controls, serum levels of FSH, LH, E 2 were simultaneously determined with RIA. Results: Morphologically, all the 38 pairs of ovaries in the patients were significantly smaller than those in the controls (as represented by the transverse diameter and antero-posterior diameter, P 2 levels in these two type of patients were not much different, but the mean ovarian size in the small follicular type was significantly larger than that in the non-follicular type (P<0.01). Conclusion: Transvaginal ultrasonography is very helpful for the differential diagnosis of the type of ovary in patients with hypergonadotropic amenorrhea, providing guidelines for therapy. The accuracy is even superior to that by laparoscopic biopsy. In this study, the serum FSH level is not diagnostic. (authors)

  8. MesoDyn simulation study on the phase morphologies of Miktoarm PEO-b-PMMA copolymer doped by nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Dan; Li, Jian-Quan; Feng, Sheng-Yu

    2013-03-01

    The compatibility of six groups of 12 miktoarm poly(ethylene oxide)-block-poly(methyl methacrylate) (PEO-b-PMMA) copolymers is studied at 270, 298 and 400 K via mesoscopic modeling. The values of the order parameters depend on both the architectures of the block copolymers and the simulation temperature, while the tendency to change of the order parameters at low temperature, such as 270 and 298 K, is nearly the same. However, the values of order parameters of the copolymer in the same group are the same at high temperature, i.e. 400 K. Obviously, temperature has a more obvious effect on long and PEO-rich chains. A study of plain copolymers doped with nanoparticles shows that the microscopic phase is influenced by not only the properties of the nanoparticles, such as the size, number and density, but also the composition and architecture of copolymers. Increasing the size and the number of the nanoparticles used as a dopant plays the most significant role on determining the phase morphologies of the copolymers at lower and higher temperature, respectively. In paricular, the 23141 and 23241-type copolymers, which are both of PEO-rich composition, presents microscopic phase separation as perforated lamallae phase morphologies at 400 K, alternated with PEO and PMMA components.

  9. Post-Traumatic Caspase-3 Expression in the Adjacent Areas of Growth Plate Injury Site: A Morphological Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin Pichler

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The epiphyseal plate is a hyaline cartilage plate that sits between the diaphysis and the epiphysis. The objective of this study was to determine the impact of an injury in the growth plate chondrocytes through the study of histological morphology, immunohistochemistry, histomorphometry and Western Blot analyses of the caspase-3 and cleaved PARP-1, and levels of the inflammatory cytokines, Interleukin-6 (IL-6 and Tumor Necrosis Factor alpha (TNF-α, in order to acquire more information about post-injury reactions of physeal cell turnover. In our results, morphological analysis showed that in experimental bones, neo-formed bone trabeculae—resulting from bone formation repair—invaded the growth plate and reached the metaphyseal bone tissue (bone bridge, and this could result in some growth arrest. We demonstrated, by ELISA, increased expression levels of the inflammatory cytokines IL-6 and TNF-α. Immunohistochemistry, histomorphometry and Western Blot analyses of the caspase-3 and cleaved PARP-1 showed that the physeal apoptosis rate of the experimental bones was significantly higher than that of the control ones. In conclusion, we could assume that the inflammation process causes stress to chondrocytes that will die as a biological defense mechanism, and will also increase the survival of new chondrocytes for maintaining cell homeostasis. Nevertheless, the exact stimulus leading to the increased apoptosis rate, observed after injury, needs additional research to understand the possible contribution of chondrocyte apoptosis to growth disturbance.

  10. Morphology characterization and biocompatibility study of PLLA (Poly-L-Llactid-Acid) coating chitosan as stent for coronary heart disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widiyanti, Prihartini; Paramadini, Adanti W.; Jabbar, Hajria; Fatimah, Inas; Nisak, Fadila N. K.; Puspitasari, Rahma A.

    2016-03-01

    Cardiovascular disease is a global disease with high urgency. In the severe case of coronary heart disease while a blockage in the coronary arteries reach 75% or more, the patient required stent implantation. Stents are made of metal which has many limitations that can lead to blood clots and stent incompatibility toward the size of the blood vessels. There is a metal stent replacement solution that made from polymer material which is biocompatible. PLLA also has biocompatibility and good mechanical strength. PLLA stent will be coated with chitosan as a candidate for drug-coated stents which is able to work as a drug carrier. The aim of this study is to know the morphology information and biocompability status of PLLA coating chitosan as candidate of heart stent. Morphological results using SEM showed a smooth surface structure which reinforced clinical standard of stent material. Results of cytotoxicity test by MTT Assay method showed that the result of four samples in this experiment living cells is reached 90% which is non toxic and safe to use in the human body. %). The conclusion of this study is PLLA is polymer has potency to be used as stent material.

  11. Study on surface morphology and physicochemical properties of raw and activated South African coal and coal fly ash

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, S. B.; Langwenya, S. P.; Mamba, B. B.; Balakrishnan, M.

    South African coal and coal fly ash were selected as the raw materials to be used for study of their morphology and physicochemical properties and their respective activated carbons for adsorption applications. Coal and fly ash were individually steam activated at a temperature range of 550-1000 °C for 1 h in a muffle furnace using cylindrical stainless steel containers. Scanning electron micrographs revealed a change in surface morphology with more mineral matter available on the surface of the coal particles due to increased devolatilization. However, in the case of fly ash, the macerals coalesced to form agglomerates and the presence of unburnt carbon constituted pores of diameter between 50 and 100 nm. The BET surface area of coal improved significantly from 5.31 to 52.12 m 2/g whereas in case of fly ash the surface area of the raw sample which was originally 0.59 m 2/g and upon activation increased only up to 2.04 m 2/g. The chemical composition of the fly ash confirmed that silica was the major component which was approximately 60% by weight fraction. The impact of this study was to highlight the importance of using raw materials such as coal and a waste product, in the form of coal ash, in order to produce affordable activated carbon that can be used in drinking water treatment. This would therefore ensure that the quality of water supplied to communities for drinking is not contaminated especially by toxic organic compounds.

  12. Morphological description and DNA barcoding study of sand rice (Agriophyllum squarrosum, Chenopodiaceae) collected in Kazakhstan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genievskaya, Yuliya; Abugalieva, Saule; Zhubanysheva, Aibatsha; Turuspekov, Yerlan

    2017-11-14

    Sand rice (Agriophyllum squarrosum (L.) Moq.) is an annual shrub-like plant adapted to the mobile sand dunes in desert and semi-desert regions of Asia. It has a balanced nutrient composition with relatively high concentration of lipids and proteins, which results in its nutrition being similar to legumes. Sand rice's proteins contain the full range of essential amino acids. However, calories content is more similar to wheat. These features together with desert stress resistance make sand rice a potential food crop resilient to ongoing climate change. It is also an important fodder crop (on young stages of growth) for cattle in arid regions of Kazakhstan. In our work, sand rice samples were collected from two distant regions of Kazakhstan as a part of the nation-wide project to determine genetic variation of the native flora. Samples were collected in western and southeastern parts of Kazakhstan separated by distances of up to 1300 km. Sequences of the nuclear ribosomal DNA ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region and the chloroplast matK gene confirmed the identity of species defined by morphological traits. Comparison with GenBank sequences revealed polymorphic sequence positions among Kazakh populations and GenBank references, and suggested a distinction among local populations of sand rice. The phylogenetic analysis of nucleotide sequences showed a clear partition of A. squarrosum (L.) Moq. from Agriophyllum minus Fisch. & C.A. Mey, which grows in the same sand dunes environment. DNA barcoding analyses of ITS and matK sequences showed a segregation of A. squarrosum from A. minus into separate clades in Maximum-Likelhood dendrograms. ITS analysis can be successfully used to characterize A. squarrosum populations growing quite distant from each other. The data obtained in this work provide the basis for further investigations on A. squarrosum population structure and may play a role in the screening of sand rice plants growing in desert and semi-desert environments of Central Asia

  13. [Magnetic resonance imaging study of effects of accommodation on human lens morphological characters].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Sui-lian; Zhang, Ai; Shi, Jian-jing; Zhou, Yun-xin

    2013-11-05

    To evaluate the effects of accommodation on lens morphological characters. From January 2011 to June 2011, magnetic resonance images of eyes were acquired from 30 subjects aged 20 to 24 years during accommodation and at rest. The optimal images were analyzed by Autocad 2010 to obtain the total lens cross-sectional area (CSA) and CSA of anterior and posterior portions of lens, anterior chamber depth, lens thickness, lens diameter, vitreous chamber depth and axial length during accommodation and at rest. Paired-t test was performed. The anterior curvature radius (mm), posterior curvature radius (mm), CSA of anterior portion (mm(2)), CSA of posterior portion (mm(2)), total lens CSA (mm(2)) was (8.7 ± 0.8), (6.2 ± 0.5), (7.5 ± 2.1), (12.0 ± 2.6), (20 ± 4) during relaxed accommodation; anterior curvature radius (mm), posterior curvature radius (mm), CSA of anterior portion (mm(2)), CSA of posterior portion (mm(2)), total lens CSA (mm(2)) was (7.1 ± 1.3), (5.6 ± 0.5), (14.7 ± 2.9), (12.2 ± 2.1) and (27 ± 4) during accommodation. The total lens CSA (t = -11.556, P 0.05) under a statistically independent accommodative state. There was significant difference in the anterior chamber depth (t = 4.366, P 0.05) and axial length (t = 0.418, P > 0.05) under accommodative states. During accommodation, the anterior chamber depth decreases, lens thickness increases and diameter of lens decreases while anterior portions and total lens CSA increase. There are insignificant changes in posterior portions of lens CSA, vitreous chamber depth and axial length. The accommodative changes in CSA indicate that the anterior portion of lens may be related with the properties of anterior capsule and lens material, the position of zonular attachments and the location of fetal nucleus. Helmholtz theory is supported.

  14. Comparative study of autecological, morphological, anatomical and karyological characteristics of Acanthophyllum ejtehadii Mahmoudi & Vaezi (Caryophyllaceae: a rare endemic in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Maleki Sadabadi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Characterizing traits of a species in its habitat is substantial for planning a practical conservation program. Acanthophyllum ejtehadii Mahmoudi & Vaezi (Caryophyllaceae is a recently established endemic species for flora of Iran and has a narrow non-conserved natural habitat in Radkan region of Chenaran, Razavi Khorasan Province. The soil and climate of Radkan was studied and the ecological, morphological, anatomical, and karyological aspects of A. ejtehadii were investigated to obtain a comprehensive knowledge about this species and its natural growth conditions. Field observations were performed during the growing seasons in 2014‒2015 and 29 vegetation samples were collected as data. Results showed that this plant grows in mound-like sites on clay-loam soils at mean elevation 1279 m.a.s.l. in arid climate. Acanthophyllum ejtehadii is a thorn-cushion form chamaephyte plant. This Plant grow gradually in early-January, the flower unfolds in early-June and the matured seeds are produced in mid-July. A. ejtehadii is a diploid (2n=2x =30 species and has homogenous karyotype. Having unique morphological and anatomical adaptations such as expanded surface roots, reduced leaf area and thickened cuticle, this plant grows successfully in harsh environments. These mechanisms are specific to this specific kind of Acanthophyllum species. The Speciation time of this plant was estimated not more than 200 thousand years ago and if Radkan is preserved from anthropogenic disturbance, this species could expand its distribution area.

  15. Effects of extreme habitat conditions on otolith morphology: a case study on extremophile live bearing fishes (Poecilia mexicana, P. sulphuraria).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz-Mirbach, Tanja; Riesch, Rüdiger; García de León, Francisco J; Plath, Martin

    2011-12-01

    Our study was designed to evaluate if, and to what extent, restrictive environmental conditions affect otolith morphology. As a model, we chose two extremophile livebearing fishes: (i) Poecilia mexicana, a widespread species in various Mexican freshwater habitats, with locally adapted populations thriving in habitats characterized by the presence of one (or both) of the natural stressors hydrogen sulphide and darkness, and (ii) the closely related Poecilia sulphuraria living in a highly sulphidic habitat (Baños del Azufre). All three otolith types (lapilli, sagittae, and asterisci) of P. mexicana showed a decrease in size ranging from the non-sulphidic cave habitat (Cueva Luna Azufre), to non-sulphidic surface habitats, to the sulphidic cave (Cueva del Azufre), to sulphidic surface habitats (El Azufre), to P. sulphuraria. Although we found a distinct differentiation between ecotypes with respect to their otolith morphology, no clear-cut pattern of trait evolution along the two ecological gradients was discernible. Otoliths from extremophiles captured in the wild revealed only slight similarities to aberrant otoliths found in captive-bred fish. We therefore hypothesize that extremophile fishes have developed coping mechanisms enabling them to avoid aberrant otolith growth - an otherwise common phenomenon in fishes reared under stressful conditions. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  16. Renaissance of morphological studies: the examination of functional structures in living animal organs using the in vivo cryotechnique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohno, Shinichi; Saitoh, Yurika; Ohno, Nobuhiko; Terada, Nobuo

    2017-01-01

    Medical and biological scientists wish to understand the in vivo structures of the cells and tissues that make up living animal organs, as well as the locations of their molecular components. Recently, the live imaging of animal cells and tissues with fluorescence-labeled proteins produced via gene manipulation has become increasingly common. Therefore, it is important to ensure that findings derived from histological or immunohistochemical tissue sections of living animal organs are compatible with those obtained from live images of the same organs, which can be assessed using recently developed digital imaging techniques. Over the past two decades, we have performed immunohistochemical and morphological studies of the cells and tissues in living animal organs using a novel in vivo cryotechnique. The use of a specially designed liquid cryogen system with or without a cryoknife during this cryotechnique solved the technical problems that inevitably arise during the conventional preparation methods employed prior to light or electron microscopic examinations. Our in vivo cryotechnique has been found to be extremely useful for arresting transient physiological processes in cells and tissues and for maintaining their functional components-such as rapidly changing signaling molecules, membrane channels, or receptors-in situ. The purpose of the present review is to describe the basic mechanism underlying cryotechniques and the significance of our in vivo cryotechnique. In addition, it describes various morphological or immunohistochemical findings, observations made using quantum dots, and a Raman cryomicroscopy-based method for assessing oxygen saturation in the erythrocytes flowing through intestinal tissues.

  17. An XMM-Newton Study of the Mixed-morphology Supernova Remnant G346.6-0.2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Auchettl, Katie; Lopez, Laura [Center for Cosmology and AstroParticle Physics (CCAPP), The Ohio State University, 191 W. Woodruff Ave., Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Ng, C-Y.; Wong, B. T. T. [Department of Physics, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam Road, Hong Kong (China); Slane, Patrick, E-mail: auchettl.1@osu.edu, E-mail: ncy@bohr.physics.hku.hk [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden St., Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2017-10-01

    We present an X-ray imaging and spectroscopic study of the molecular cloud interacting mixed-morphology supernova remnant G346.6–0.2 using XMM-Newton . The X-ray spectrum of the remnant is well described by a recombining plasma that most likely arises from adiabatic cooling and has subsolar abundances of Mg, Si, and S. Our fits also suggest the presence of either an additional power-law component with a photon index of ∼2 or an additional thermal component with a temperature of ∼2.0 keV. We investigate the possible origin of this component and suggest that it could arise from either the Galactic ridge X-ray emission, an unidentified pulsar wind nebula, or X-ray synchrotron emission from high-energy particles accelerated at the shock. However, deeper, high-resolution observations of this object are needed to shed light on the presence and origin of this feature. Based on its morphology, its Galactic latitude, the density of the surrounding environment, and its association with a dense molecular cloud, G346.6–0.2 most likely arises from a massive progenitor that underwent core collapse.

  18. Morphological Study of Chitosan/Poly (Vinyl Alcohol Nanofibers Prepared by Electrospinning, Collected on Reticulated Vitreous Carbon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Isela Sanchez-Alvarado

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available In this work, chitosan (CS/poly (vinyl alcohol (PVA nanofibers were prepared by using the electrospinning method. Different CS concentrations (0.5, 1, 2, and 3 wt %, maintaining the PVA concentration at 8 wt %, were tested. Likewise, the studied electrospinning experimental parameters were: syringe/collector distance, solution flow and voltage. Subsequently, the electrospun fibers were collected on a reticulated vitreous carbon (RVC support for 0.25, 0.5, 1, 1.5, and 2 h. The morphology and diameter of the CS/PVA nanofibers were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM, finding diameters in the order of 132 and 212 nm; the best results (uniform fibers were obtained from the solution with 2 wt % of chitosan and a voltage, distance, and flow rate of 16 kV, 20 cm, and 0.13 mL/h, respectively. Afterwards, a treatment with an ethanolic NaOH solution was performed, observing a change in the fiber morphology and a diameter decrease (117 ± 9 nm.

  19. Luminescent and morphological study of Sr2CeO4 blue phosphor prepared from oxalate precursors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrari, Jefferson L.; Pires, Ana M.; Serra, Osvaldo A.; Davolos, Marian R.

    2011-01-01

    Luminescent and morphological studies of Sr 2 CeO 4 blue phosphor prepared from cerium-doped strontium oxalate precursor are reported. Powder samples were prepared from 5 and 25 mol% Ce 3+ -doped strontium oxalate as well as from a mechanical mixture of strontium oxalate and cerium oxalate at a 4:1 ratio, respectively. All the samples were characterized by XRD, IR, PLS, and SEM. The luminescent and structural properties of the Sr 2 CeO 4 material are little affected by the SrCO 3 remaining from precursors. The Sr 2 CeO 4 material consists in one-dimensional chains of edge-sharing CeO 6 octahedra that are linked together by Sr 2+ ions. The carbonate ion might be associated with oxygen ions of the linear chain, and also with the oxygen atoms located in the equatorial position, which consequently affects the charge transfer bands between O 2- and Ce 4+ . As observed by SEM, the morphological changes are related to each kind of precursor and thermal treatment, along with irregular powder particles within the size range 0.5-2 μm.

  20. The impact of gypsum mine water: A case study on morphology and DNA integrity in the freshwater invertebrate, Gammarus balcanicus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ternjej, Ivančica; Mihaljević, Zlatko; Ivković, Marija; Previšić, Ana; Stanković, Igor; Maldini, Krešimir; Želježić, Davor; Kopjar, Nevenka

    2014-01-01

    The aim of our study was to investigate how exposure to heavy metal-rich waters from gypsum mining affects the morphology and levels of primary DNA damage in Gammarus balcanicus. Chemical analysis revealed increased concentrations of metals in water and sediment collected at a site impacted by gypsum mine wastewaters. The specimens also showed elevated total tissue metal levels when compared with the organisms collected at the reference site. The most prominent increase was observed for strontium, followed by iron, nickel, vanadium, aluminium, and manganese. The major pathway of entry for these toxic substances was through the degraded exoskeleton as a consequence of excessive strontium input (unbalanced calcium/strontium ratio) and altered permeability. Disturbed exoskeleton integrity was observed only in individuals collected downstream of the gypsum mine, which was confirmed by electron microscopy. Levels of primary DNA damage were evaluated using the alkaline comet assay in the haemolymph of the specimens. - Highlights: • Our findings suggest toxic potential of gypsum mine wastewaters. • The Gammarus specimens showed elevated total tissue metal levels. • Strontium uptake disturbed exoskeleton integrity. • Corrupted cuticle altered permeability to other toxic substances. • Combined effects of all contaminants caused genotoxicity. - Gypsum mine wastewaters have genotoxic potential and affect the gammarid exoskeleton morphology and biochemistry associated with a high strontium uptake

  1. Cadaveric and three-dimensional computed tomography study of the morphology of the scapula with reference to reversed shoulder prosthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrens, Carlos; Corrales, Monica; Gonzalez, Gemma; Solano, Alberto; Cáceres, Enrique

    2008-10-10

    The purpose of this study is to analyze the morphology of the scapula with reference to the glenoid component implantation in reversed shoulder prosthesis, in order to improve primary fixation of the component. Seventy-three 3-dimensional computed tomography of the scapula and 108 scapular dry specimens were analyzed to determine the anterior and posterior length of the glenoid neck, the angle between the glenoid surface and the upper posterior column of the scapula and the angle between the major craneo-caudal glenoid axis and the base of the coracoid process and the upper posterior column. The anterior and posterior length of glenoid neck was classified into two groups named "short-neck" and "long-neck" with significant differences between them. The angle between the glenoid surface and the upper posterior column of the scapula was also classified into two different types: type I (mean 50 degrees-52 degrees ) and type II (mean 62.50 degrees-64 degrees ), with significant differences between them (p craneo-caudal glenoid axis and the base of the coracoid process averaged 18,25 degrees while the angle with the upper posterior column of the scapula averaged 8 degrees . Scapular morphological variability advices for individual adjustments of glenoid component implantation in reversed total shoulder prosthesis. Three-dimensional computed tomography of the scapula constitutes an important tool when planning reversed prostheses implantation.

  2. Self-assembled 3D zinc borate florets via surfactant assisted synthesis under moderate pressures: Process temperature dependent morphology study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahajan, Dhiraj S.; Deshpande, Tushar; Bari, Mahendra L.; Patil, Ujwal D.; Narkhede, Jitendra S.

    2018-04-01

    In the present study, we prepared zinc borates using aqueous phase synthesis under moderate pressures (MP) (ethanol as a co-solvent in the presence of a quaternary ammonium surfactant-Cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB). 3D morphologies of self-assembled zinc borate (Zn(H2O)B2O4 · 0.12 H2O, Zn3B6O12 · 3.5H2O, ZnB2O4) resembling flower-like structures were obtained by varying temperature under moderate pressure conditions. Synthesized zinc borates’ florets were morphologically characterized by Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy. The x-ray diffractions of borate species reveal rhombohydra, monoclinic and cubic phases of zinc borate crystals as a function of process temperature. Additionally, thermal analysis confirms excellent dehydration/degradation behavior for the zinc borate crystals synthesized at moderate pressures and elevated temperatures and could be utilized as potential flame retardant fillers in the polymer matrices.

  3. Studies on the formation of hierarchical zeolite T aggregates with well-defined morphology in different template systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Xiaoyan; Chu, Naibo; Lu, Xuewei; Li, Zhongfang; Guo, Hong

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, the disk-like and pumpkin-like hierarchical zeolite T aggregates consisted of primary nano-grains have been hydrothermally synthesized with and without the aid of the second template. The first template is used with tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAOH) and the second template is used with triethanolamine (TEA) or polyving akohol (PVA). A combination of characterization techniques, including XRD, SEM, TEM and N2 adsorption-desorption to examine the crystal crystallinity, morphology and surface properties of hierarchical zeolite T aggregates. In the single-template preparation process, the two-step varying-temperature treatment has been used to improve the meso-porosity of zeolite T aggregates. In the double-template preparation process, the amounts of PVA or TEA on the crystallinity, morphology and meso-porosity of zeolite T aggregates have been studied. It has been proved that the interstitial voids between the primary grains of aggregates are the origin of additional mesopores of samples. The micro- and meso-porosities of samples prepared with and without the second template have been contrasted in detail at last. In particular, the sample synthesized with the addition of PVA presents a hierarchical pore structure with the highest Sext value of 122 m2/g and Vmeso value of 0.255 cm3/g.

  4. Cadaveric and three-dimensional computed tomography study of the morphology of the scapula with reference to reversed shoulder prosthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solano Alberto

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Purpose The purpose of this study is to analyze the morphology of the scapula with reference to the glenoid component implantation in reversed shoulder prosthesis, in order to improve primary fixation of the component. Methods Seventy-three 3-dimensional computed tomography of the scapula and 108 scapular dry specimens were analyzed to determine the anterior and posterior length of the glenoid neck, the angle between the glenoid surface and the upper posterior column of the scapula and the angle between the major craneo-caudal glenoid axis and the base of the coracoid process and the upper posterior column. Results The anterior and posterior length of glenoid neck was classified into two groups named "short-neck" and "long-neck" with significant differences between them. The angle between the glenoid surface and the upper posterior column of the scapula was also classified into two different types: type I (mean 50°–52° and type II (mean 62,50°–64°, with significant differences between them (p Conclusion Scapular morphological variability advices for individual adjustments of glenoid component implantation in reversed total shoulder prosthesis. Three-dimensional computed tomography of the scapula constitutes an important tool when planning reversed prostheses implantation.

  5. Studies on the comparison of pollen morphology and viability of four naturally distributed and commercial varieties of anemone coronaria L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Candan, F.

    2015-01-01

    The present study presents a comparison of the pollen morphology and viability of naturally distributed four varieties of Anemone coronaria L. These are A. coronaria var. coccinea (Jord.) Burn, A. coronaria var. rosea (Hanry) Batt, A. coronaria var. cyanea, A. coronaria var. alba Goaty and Pens) and its commercial cultivars. The four varieties were collected from areas near the road side along the Kirkagac-Soma highway in the State of Manisa. The commercial cultivars were obtained from the commercial flower growers in the Urla region of zmir. Pollen viability levels decreased in all commercial cultivars of A. coronaria. The highest reduction in pollen viability was recorded in A. coronaria pink cultivars of de Caen group. The general pollen type is prolate spheroidal in all pure forms, but there are some pollen morphological features which were not observed in the natural ones, although encountered in all commercial cultivars. On the other hand, various non-viable pollen types like wrinkled pollens, with abnormally shaped pollens or pollinia were found in the commercial cultivars. It was concluded that pesticides used to produce more flowers with rapid growth are the major cause for his reduction. Another reason could be the use of tetraploid F1 hybrids of A. coronaria cultivars of de Caen group as commercial samples. (author)

  6. A study of some fundamental physicochemical variables on the morphology of mesoporous silica nanoparticles MCM-41 type

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltrán-Osuna, Ángela A.; Gómez Ribelles, José L.; Perilla, Jairo E.

    2017-12-01

    All variables affecting the morphology of mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSN) should be carefully analyzed in order to truly tailored design their mesoporous structure according to their final use. Although complete control on MCM-41 synthesis has been already claimed, reproducibility and repeatability of results remain a big issue due to the lack of information reported in literature. Stirring rate, reaction volume, and system configuration (i.e., opened or closed reactor) are three variables that are usually omitted, making the comparison of product characteristics difficult. Specifically, the rate of solvent evaporation is seldom disclosed, and its influence has not been previously analyzed. These variables were systematically studied in this work, and they were proven to have a fundamental impact on final particle morphology. Hence, a high degree of circularity ( C = 0.97) and monodispersed particle size distributions were only achieved when a stirring speed of 500 rpm and a reaction scale of 500 mL were used in a partially opened system, for a 2 h reaction at 80 °C. Well-shaped spherical mesoporous silica nanoparticles with a diameter of 95 nm, a pore size of 2.8 nm, and a total surface area of 954 m2 g-1 were obtained. Final characteristics made this product suitable to be used in biomedicine and nanopharmaceutics, especially for the design of drug delivery systems.

  7. Study on the applicability of structural and morphological parameters of selected uranium compounds for nuclear forensic purposes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ho Mer Lin, Doris

    2015-03-13

    Nuclear forensic science or nuclear forensics, is a relatively young discipline which evolved due to the need of analysing interdicted nuclear or radioactive material, necessary for determining its origin. Fundamentally, nuclear forensic science makes use of measurable material properties, referred to as ''signatures'', which provide hints on the history of the material. As part of the advancement in this multi-faceted field, new signatures are constantly sought after and as well as analytical techniques to efficiently and accurately determine the signatures. The work carried out in this study is part of this fulfilment to investigate new structural and morphological parameters as possible new nuclear forensic signatures for selected uranium compounds. The scientific goals have been oriented into three parts for investigations in this study. Firstly, five different compositions of uranium ore concentrates (UOCs) were prepared in the laboratory under well-defined conditions. These materials were subsequently characterized by several techniques such as X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetry/differential thermal analysis, Infrared and Raman spectroscopy, mass spectrometry, scanning electron microscopy etc. Such materials were pivotal for comparison with the industrial samples. Secondly, several uranium compounds, mainly UOCs were measured using Raman spectroscopy. At least three different Raman spectrometers were used and a comparison made in their performance and suitability for nuclear forensics. Raman spectra of industrial uranium materials were interpreted with regard to compound identification and to determination of (anionic) impurities. Anionic impurities that were present were identified and they could provide clues to the processing history of the samples. Statistical techniques such as principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least square-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) were applied to several Raman spectra. The analysis showed that

  8. Study on the applicability of structural and morphological parameters of selected uranium compounds for nuclear forensic purposes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ho Mer Lin, Doris

    2015-01-01

    Nuclear forensic science or nuclear forensics, is a relatively young discipline which evolved due to the need of analysing interdicted nuclear or radioactive material, necessary for determining its origin. Fundamentally, nuclear forensic science makes use of measurable material properties, referred to as ''signatures'', which provide hints on the history of the material. As part of the advancement in this multi-faceted field, new signatures are constantly sought after and as well as analytical techniques to efficiently and accurately determine the signatures. The work carried out in this study is part of this fulfilment to investigate new structural and morphological parameters as possible new nuclear forensic signatures for selected uranium compounds. The scientific goals have been oriented into three parts for investigations in this study. Firstly, five different compositions of uranium ore concentrates (UOCs) were prepared in the laboratory under well-defined conditions. These materials were subsequently characterized by several techniques such as X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetry/differential thermal analysis, Infrared and Raman spectroscopy, mass spectrometry, scanning electron microscopy etc. Such materials were pivotal for comparison with the industrial samples. Secondly, several uranium compounds, mainly UOCs were measured using Raman spectroscopy. At least three different Raman spectrometers were used and a comparison made in their performance and suitability for nuclear forensics. Raman spectra of industrial uranium materials were interpreted with regard to compound identification and to determination of (anionic) impurities. Anionic impurities that were present were identified and they could provide clues to the processing history of the samples. Statistical techniques such as principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least square-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) were applied to several Raman spectra. The analysis showed that

  9. The morphological and morphometric study of tissues of dentoalveolar system in children with impaired course of the antenatal period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drogomiretskaya M.S.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Anomalies and deformation of dental system in children and adolescents contribute not only to the deterioration of dental health, bat quite often this is the cause of a wide range of somatic pathology. The aim of our study was to determine risk factors of dental system myofunctional disorders in children with impaired course of the antenatal period using morphological and morphometric studies. The changes that have been defined in the organs examined were dystrophic and dyscirculatory and differed in degrees of severity in all parts of the oral cavity. Dystrophic changes were detected in the gums and tongue epithelium. Dyscirculatory disorders were characterized by formation of submucosal edema, development of the vascular bed hyperemia and presence of hemorrhage under the basement membrane of the epithelium and salivary gland stroma. Pronounced changes were recorded in the nerve cells of the oral cavity.

  10. Morphology and structural studies of WO_3 films deposited on SrTiO_3 by pulsed laser deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalhori, Hossein; Porter, Stephen B.; Esmaeily, Amir Sajjad; Coey, Michael; Ranjbar, Mehdi; Salamati, Hadi

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Highly oriented WO_3 stoichiometric films were determined using pulsed laser deposition method. • Effective parameters on thin films including temperature, oxygen partial pressure and laser energy fluency was studied. • A phase transition was observed in WO_3 films at 700 °C from monoclinic to tetragonal. - Abstract: WO_3 films have been grown by pulsed laser deposition on SrTiO_3 (001) substrates. The effects of substrate temperature, oxygen partial pressure and energy fluence of the laser beam on the physical properties of the films were studied. Reflection high-energy electron diffraction (RHEED) patterns during and after growth were used to determine the surface structure and morphology. The chemical composition and crystalline phases were obtained by XPS and XRD respectively. AFM results showed that the roughness and skewness of the films depend on the substrate temperature during deposition. Optimal conditions were determined for the growth of the highly oriented films.

  11. A study of root canal morphology of human primary incisors and molars using cone beam computerized tomography: An in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivek Gaurav

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Variations in morphology of root canals in primary teeth usually leads to complications during and after endodontic therapy. To improve the success in endodontics, a thorough knowledge of the root canal morphology is essential. Aim: The aim of this study was to assess the variation in number and morphology of the root canals of primary incisors and molars and to study the applicability of cone beam computerized tomography (CBCT in assessing the same. Settings and Design: A total of 60 primary molars and incisors with full root length were collected and various parameters such as the number of roots, number of canals, diameter of root canal at cementoenamel junction and middle-third, length and angulations of roots of primary molars and incisors were studied using CBCT. Statistical analysis used: The observations were put to descriptive statistics to find out the frequency, mean, standard deviation and range for all four subgroups. Further, unpaired t-test was used to compare these parameters between subgroups and analysis of variance test was implemented to evaluate the parameters within the subgroups. Results and Conclusion: The CBCT showed the presence of bifurcation of root canal at middle third in 13% of mandibular incisors while 20% of mandibular molars had two canals in distal root. The diameter of distobuccal root canal of maxillary molars and mesiolingual canal of mandibular molars was found to be minimum. CBCT is a relatively new and effective technology, which provides an auxiliary imaging modality to supplement conventional radiography for assessing the variation in root canal morphology of primary teeth.

  12. Worldwide, multicenter study of peristomal geometry and morphology in laryngectomees and its clinical effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Kalkeren, Tjouwke A.; van der Houwen, Eduard B.; Duits, Mari Anne E.; Hilgers, Frans J.; Hebe, Ana; Mostafa, Badr E.; Lawson, George; Martinez, Zuriñe; Woisard, Virginie; Marioni, Gino; Ruske, Dean; Schultz, Philippe; Post, Wendy J.; Verkerke, Bart J.; van der Laan, Bernard F. A. M.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to improve attachment of automatic tracheostoma valves, the knowledge on tracheostoma geometry, and its clinical influences preferred. This article investigates whether the number of removed trachea rings, incision of the sternocleidomastoid muscles, neck dissection,

  13. Worldwide, multicenter study of peristomal geometry and morphology in laryngectomees and its clinical effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Kalkeren, Tjouwke A.; van der Houwen, Eduard B.; Duits, Mari Anne E.; Hilgers, Frans J.; Hebe, Ana; Mostafa, Badr E.; Lawson, George; Martinez, Zurine; Woisard, Virginie; Marioni, Gino; Ruske, Dean; Schultz, Philippe; Post, Wendy J.; Verkerke, Gijsbertus J.; van der Laan, Bernard F. A. M.

    2011-01-01

    Background. The purpose of this study was to improve attachment of automatic tracheostoma valves, the knowledge on tracheostoma geometry, and its clinical influences preferred. This article investigates whether the number of removed trachea rings, incision of the sternocleidomastoid muscles, neck

  14. Study of MEH–PPV/PCBM active layer morphology and its ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    treated with oxygen and nitrogen plasma. This treatment ... Therefore, study of hybrid polymer solar cells is becoming .... figure 1. Average contact angles were calculated from mea- .... This treatment was used to produce an ITO anode for a.

  15. Brain morphology of childhood aggressive behavior: A multi-informant study in school-age children

    OpenAIRE

    Thijssen, Sandra; Ringoot, Ank P.; Wildeboer, Andrea; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J.; El Marroun, Hanan; Hofman, Albert; Jaddoe, Vincent W. V.; Verhulst, Frank C.; Tiemeier, Henning; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H.; White, Tonya

    2015-01-01

    Objective Few studies have focused on the neuroanatomy of aggressive behavior in children younger than 10 years. Here, we explored the neuroanatomical correlates of aggression in a population-based sample of 6- to 9-year-old children using a multiple-informant approach. Methods Magnetic resonance (MR) scans were acquired from 566 children from the Generation R study who participated in the Berkeley Puppet Interview and whose parents had completed the Child Behavior Checklist. Linear regressio...

  16. Morphological changes in the cervical muscles of women with chronic whiplash can be modified with exercise-A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'leary, Shaun; Jull, Gwendolen; Van Wyk, Luke; Pedler, Ashley; Elliott, James

    2015-11-01

    In this preliminary study we determined whether MRI markers of cervical muscle degeneration [elevated muscle fatty infiltration (MFI), cross-sectional area (CSA), and reduced relative muscle CSA (rmCSA)] could be modified with exercise in patients with chronic whiplash. Five women with chronic whiplash undertook 10 weeks of neck exercise. MRI measures of the cervical multifidus (posterior) and longus capitus/colli (anterior) muscles, neck muscle strength, and self-reported neck disability were recorded at baseline and at completion of the exercise program. Overall significant increases in CSA and rmCSA were observed for both muscles, but significant reductions in MFI were only evident in the cervical multifidus muscle. These changes coincided with increased muscle strength and reduced neck disability. MRI markers of muscle morphology in individuals with chronic whiplash appear to be modifiable with exercise. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. STUDIES ON THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN SOME MORPHOLOGICAL CHARACTERS AND JUMPING PARAMETERS OVER A VERTICAL FENCE IN SPORT HORSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FLAVIA BOCHIŞ

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Looking for the form-function principle, the present study proposed to analyze the morphological traits of the equine athletes and the jumping over obstacles parameters. The intension was to focuses some guide lines in selecting the future potential champion. Indeed, this is only a basic item, not a guarantee, in a future career, where a lot of aspects take part. Even that, if a horse had a good rider and an excellent trainer, if it is not described by some basic biometrical and biomechanical reports (Duel, 1987, Lewczuk, 2002, it is impossible to reach very good results. In most of cases, when horses refused some exercising elements, we think about temperament, but in the same time, the aspect could be generated by a pain, or effectively by them incapacity due to an equilibrium fault (Lagarde, 2005.

  18. The study of morphological changes of periodontal tissue by using different groups of endosealers in conditions of experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makedonova Yu.A.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of the nature and duration of the violations of adaptive-compensatory reactions of the periodontium depending on the physico-chemical properties of endosealers is an important part of endodontic treatment. The aim is to reveal the conditions of the experiment peculiarities of morphological changes of periodontal tissue in direct contact with the main filling material for root canal. Material and methods. The traditional method of obturation by modern endosealers was used to seal the root canal of teeth of experimental animal. Results of the study demonstrated the bio-compatibility of new experimental material Real Seal. Conclusion. The data obtained justify a differentiated approach to the choice of the root filling material for teeth with a healthy periodontosis.

  19. Study on morphology of high-aspect-ratio grooves fabricated by using femtosecond laser irradiation and wet etching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Tao; Pan, An; Li, Cunxia; Si, Jinhai; Hou, Xun

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • We studied morphologies of silicon grooves fabricated by laser irradiation and wet etching. • We found nano-ripple structures formed on the groove sidewall. • Formations of nano-ripples were due to the formation of standing wave and nanoplanes. • Remaining debris on the groove bottom was removed by KOH etching. - Abstract: Morphologies of high-aspect-ratio silicon grooves fabricated by using femtosecond laser irradiation and selective chemical etching of hydrofluoric acid (HF) were studied. Oxygen was deeply doped into silicon under femtosecond laser irradiation in air, and then the oxygen-doped regions were removed by HF etching to form high-aspect-ratio grooves. After HF etching, periodic nano-ripples which were induced in silicon by femtosecond laser were observed on the groove sidewalls. The ripple orientation was perpendicular or parallel to the laser propagation direction (z direction), which depended on the relative direction between the laser polarization direction and the scanning direction. The formation of nano-ripples with orientations perpendicular to z direction could be attributed to the standing wave generated by the interference of the incident light and the reflected light in z direction. The formation of nano-ripples with orientations parallel to z direction could be attributed to the formation of self-organized periodic nanoplanes (bulk nanogratings) induced by femtosecond laser inside silicon. Materials in the tail portion of laser-induced oxygen doping (LIOD) regions were difficult to be etched by HF solution due to low oxygen concentration. The specimen was etched further in KOH solution to remove remaining materials in LIOD regions and all-silicon grooves were fabricated

  20. An iterative and integrative approach to modeling the morphological alterations in backwater condition: A case study of Darby Creek, PA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseiny, S. M. H.; Smith, V.

    2017-12-01

    Darby Creek is an urbanized highly flood-prone watershed in Metro-Philadelphia, PA. The floodplain and the main channel are composed of alluvial sediment and are subject to frequent geomorphological changes. The lower part of the channel is within the coastal zone, subjugating the flow to a backwater condition. This study applies a multi-disciplinary approach to modeling the morphological alteration of the creek and floodplain in presence of the backwater using an iteration and integration of combined models. To do this, FaSTMECH (a two-dimensional quasi unsteady flow solver) in International River Interface Cooperative software (iRIC) is coupled with a 1-dimensional backwater model to calculate hydraulic characteristics of the flow over a digital elevation model of the channel and floodplain. One USGS gage at the upstream and two NOAA gages at the downstream are used for model validation. The output of the model is afterward used to calculate sediment transport and morphological changes over the domain through time using an iterative process. The updated elevation data is incorporated in the hydraulic model again to calculate the velocity field. The calculations continue reciprocally over discrete discharges of the hydrograph until the flood attenuates and the next flood event occurs. The results from this study demonstrate how to incorporate bathymetry and flow data to model floodplain evolution in the backwater through time, and provide a means to better understanding the dynamics of the floodplain. This work is not only applicable to river management, but also provides insight to the geoscience community concerning the development of landscapes in the backwater.

  1. Nose profile morphology and accuracy study of nose profile estimation method in Scottish subadult and Indonesian adult populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarilita, Erli; Rynn, Christopher; Mossey, Peter A; Black, Sue; Oscandar, Fahmi

    2018-05-01

    This study investigated nose profile morphology and its relationship to the skull in Scottish subadult and Indonesian adult populations, with the aim of improving the accuracy of forensic craniofacial reconstruction. Samples of 86 lateral head cephalograms from Dundee Dental School (mean age, 11.8 years) and 335 lateral head cephalograms from the Universitas Padjadjaran Dental Hospital, Bandung, Indonesia (mean age 24.2 years), were measured. The method of nose profile estimation based on skull morphology previously proposed by Rynn and colleagues in 2010 (FSMP 6:20-34) was tested in this study. Following this method, three nasal aperture-related craniometrics and six nose profile dimensions were measured from the cephalograms. To assess the accuracy of the method, six nose profile dimensions were estimated from the three craniometric parameters using the published method and then compared to the actual nose profile dimensions.In the Scottish subadult population, no sexual dimorphism was evident in the measured dimensions. In contrast, sexual dimorphism of the Indonesian adult population was evident in all craniometric and nose profile dimensions; notably, males exhibited statistically significant larger values than females. The published method by Rynn and colleagues (FSMP 6:20-34, 2010) performed better in the Scottish subadult population (mean difference of maximum, 2.35 mm) compared to the Indonesian adult population (mean difference of maximum, 5.42 mm in males and 4.89 mm in females).In addition, regression formulae were derived to estimate nose profile dimensions based on the craniometric measurements for the Indonesian adult population. The published method is not sufficiently accurate for use on the Indonesian population, so the derived method should be used. The accuracy of the published method by Rynn and colleagues (FSMP 6:20-34, 2010) was sufficiently reliable to be applied in Scottish subadult population.

  2. The Study of Morphological Traits and Identification of Self-incompatibility Alleles in Almond Cultivars and Genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mousa Rasouli

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The evaluation of an almond collection using morphological variables and identification of self-incompatibility genotype  is useful for selecting pollinizers and for the design of crossing in almond breeding programs. In this study, important morphological traits and self-incompatibilities in 71 almond cultivars and genotypes were studied. Simple and multiplex specific PCR analyses were used in order to identify self-incompatibility alleles. Based on the results, cultivars and genotypes including ‘Dir Ras–e-Savojbolagh’, ‘D-124’, ‘D-99’, ‘Shahrood 12’, ‘Tuono’, ‘Nonpareil’, ‘Price’, ‘Mirpanj-e-Tehran’, ‘Pakotahe-e- Taleghan’, ‘V-13-34’, ‘V-16-8, ‘V-11-10’, ‘Zarghan 10’, ‘Uromiyeh 68’, ‘Barg dorosht-e-Hamedan’ and ‘Yazd 60’ were late flowering and had the highest quality of nut and kernel characters. The result of the PCR method using combined primers AS1II and AmyC5R showed amplification of ten self-incompatibility alleles (S1, S2, S3, S5, S6, S7, S8, S10, S12,and S unknown allele and three Sfalleles. Moreover, S1 had the highest frequencies in comparison with other known S-alleles. Also, unknown alleles with different sizes were detected and 58 new bands were found in some cultivars.

  3. Differences in pelvic floor morphology between continent, stress urinary incontinent, and mixed urinary incontinent elderly women: An MRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pontbriand-Drolet, Stéphanie; Tang, An; Madill, Stephanie J; Tannenbaum, Cara; Lemieux, Marie-Claude; Corcos, Jacques; Dumoulin, Chantale

    2016-04-01

    To compare magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the pelvic floor musculature (PFM), bladder neck and urethral sphincter morphology under three conditions (rest, PFM maximal voluntary contraction (MVC), and straining) in older women with symptoms of stress (SUI) or mixed urinary incontinence (MUI) or without incontinence. This 2008-2012 exploratory observational cohort study was conducted with community-dwelling women aged 60 and over. Sixty six women (22 per group), mean age of 67.7 ± 5.2 years, participated in the study. A 3 T MRI examination was conducted under three conditions: rest, PFM MVC, and straining. ANOVA or Kruskal-Wallis tests (data not normally distributed) were conducted, with Bonferroni correction, to compare anatomical measurements between groups. Women with MUI symptoms had a lower PFM resting position (M-Line P = 0.010 and PC/H-line angle P = 0.026) and lower pelvic organ support (urethrovesical junction height P = 0.013) than both continent and SUI women. Women with SUI symptoms were more likely to exhibit bladder neck funneling and a larger posterior urethrovesical angle at rest than both continent and MUI women (P = 0.026 and P = 0.008, respectively). There were no significant differences between groups on PFM MVC or straining. Women with SUI and MUI symptoms present different morphological defects at rest. These observations emphasize the need to tailor UI interventions to specific pelvic floor defects and UI type in older women. Older women with UI demonstrate different problems with their pelvic organ support structures depending on the type of UI. These new findings should be taken into consideration for future research into developing new treatment strategies for UI in older women. Neurourol. Urodynam. 35:515-521, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Genome-Wide Association Study for Traits Related to Plant and Grain Morphology, and Root Architecture in Temperate Rice Accessions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biscarini, Filippo; Cozzi, Paolo; Casella, Laura; Riccardi, Paolo; Vattari, Alessandra; Orasen, Gabriele; Perrini, Rosaria; Tacconi, Gianni; Tondelli, Alessandro; Biselli, Chiara; Cattivelli, Luigi; Spindel, Jennifer; McCouch, Susan; Abbruscato, Pamela; Valé, Giampiero; Piffanelli, Pietro; Greco, Raffaella

    2016-01-01

    In this study we carried out a genome-wide association analysis for plant and grain morphology and root architecture in a unique panel of temperate rice accessions adapted to European pedo-climatic conditions. This is the first study to assess the association of selected phenotypic traits to specific genomic regions in the narrow genetic pool of temperate japonica. A set of 391 rice accessions were GBS-genotyped yielding-after data editing-57000 polymorphic and informative SNPS, among which 54% were in genic regions. In total, 42 significant genotype-phenotype associations were detected: 21 for plant morphology traits, 11 for grain quality traits, 10 for root architecture traits. The FDR of detected associations ranged from 3 · 10-7 to 0.92 (median: 0.25). In most cases, the significant detected associations co-localised with QTLs and candidate genes controlling the phenotypic variation of single or multiple traits. The most significant associations were those for flag leaf width on chromosome 4 (FDR = 3 · 10-7) and for plant height on chromosome 6 (FDR = 0.011). We demonstrate the effectiveness and resolution of the developed platform for high-throughput phenotyping, genotyping and GWAS in detecting major QTLs for relevant traits in rice. We identified strong associations that may be used for selection in temperate irrigated rice breeding: e.g. associations for flag leaf width, plant height, root volume and length, grain length, grain width and their ratio. Our findings pave the way to successfully exploit the narrow genetic pool of European temperate rice and to pinpoint the most relevant genetic components contributing to the adaptability and high yield of this germplasm. The generated data could be of direct use in genomic-assisted breeding strategies.

  5. Genome-Wide Association Study for Traits Related to Plant and Grain Morphology, and Root Architecture in Temperate Rice Accessions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filippo Biscarini

    Full Text Available In this study we carried out a genome-wide association analysis for plant and grain morphology and root architecture in a unique panel of temperate rice accessions adapted to European pedo-climatic conditions. This is the first study to assess the association of selected phenotypic traits to specific genomic regions in the narrow genetic pool of temperate japonica. A set of 391 rice accessions were GBS-genotyped yielding-after data editing-57000 polymorphic and informative SNPS, among which 54% were in genic regions.In total, 42 significant genotype-phenotype associations were detected: 21 for plant morphology traits, 11 for grain quality traits, 10 for root architecture traits. The FDR of detected associations ranged from 3 · 10-7 to 0.92 (median: 0.25. In most cases, the significant detected associations co-localised with QTLs and candidate genes controlling the phenotypic variation of single or multiple traits. The most significant associations were those for flag leaf width on chromosome 4 (FDR = 3 · 10-7 and for plant height on chromosome 6 (FDR = 0.011.We demonstrate the effectiveness and resolution of the developed platform for high-throughput phenotyping, genotyping and GWAS in detecting major QTLs for relevant traits in rice. We identified strong associations that may be used for selection in temperate irrigated rice breeding: e.g. associations for flag leaf width, plant height, root volume and length, grain length, grain width and their ratio. Our findings pave the way to successfully exploit the narrow genetic pool of European temperate rice and to pinpoint the most relevant genetic components contributing to the adaptability and high yield of this germplasm. The generated data could be of direct use in genomic-assisted breeding strategies.

  6. Developmental Toxicity Studies with Pregabalin in Rats: Significance of Alterations in Skull Bone Morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morse, Dennis C; Henck, Judith W; Bailey, Steven A

    2016-04-01

    Pregabalin was administered to pregnant Wistar rats during organogenesis to evaluate potential developmental toxicity. In an embryo-fetal development study, compared with controls, fetuses from pregabalin-treated rats exhibited increased incidence of jugal fused to maxilla (pregabalin 1250 and 2500 mg/kg) and fusion of the nasal sutures (pregabalin 2500 mg/kg). The alterations in skull development occurred in the presence of maternal toxicity (reduced body weight gain) and developmental toxicity (reduced fetal body weight and increased skeletal variations), and were initially classified as malformations. Subsequent investigative studies in pregnant rats treated with pregabalin during organogenesis confirmed the advanced jugal fused to maxilla, and fusion of the nasal sutures at cesarean section (gestation day/postmating day [PMD] 21) in pregabalin-treated groups. In a study designed to evaluate progression of skull development, advanced jugal fused to maxilla and fusion of the nasal sutures was observed on PMD 20-25 and PMD 21-23, respectively (birth occurs approximately on PMD 22). On postnatal day (PND) 21, complete jugal fused to maxilla was observed in the majority of control and 2500 mg/kg offspring. No treatment-related differences in the incidence of skull bone fusions occurred on PND 21, indicating no permanent adverse outcome. Based on the results of the investigative studies, and a review of historical data and scientific literature, the advanced skull bone fusions were reclassified as anatomic variations. Pregabalin was not teratogenic in rats under the conditions of these studies. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. A pilot study exploring the association of morphological changes with 5-HTTLPR polymorphism in OCD patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honda, Shinichi; Nakao, Tomohiro; Mitsuyasu, Hiroshi; Okada, Kayo; Gotoh, Leo; Tomita, Mayumi; Sanematsu, Hirokuni; Murayama, Keitaro; Ikari, Keisuke; Kuwano, Masumi; Yoshiura, Takashi; Kawasaki, Hiroaki; Kanba, Shigenobu

    2017-01-01

    Clinical and pharmacological studies of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) have suggested that the serotonergic systems are involved in the pathogenesis, while structural imaging studies have found some neuroanatomical abnormalities in OCD patients. In the etiopathogenesis of OCD, few studies have performed concurrent assessment of genetic and neuroanatomical variables. We carried out a two-way ANOVA between a variable number of tandem repeat polymorphisms (5-HTTLPR) in the serotonin transporter gene and gray matter (GM) volumes in 40 OCD patients and 40 healthy controls (HCs). We found that relative to the HCs, the OCD patients showed significant decreased GM volume in the right hippocampus, and increased GM volume in the left precentral gyrus. 5-HTTLPR polymorphism in OCD patients had a statistical tendency of stronger effects on the right frontal pole than those in HCs. Our results showed that the neuroanatomical changes of specific GM regions could be endophenotypes of 5-HTTLPR polymorphism in OCD.

  8. Pit morphology studies of iron and steel in alkaline chloride environment using EMPA technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benjamin, S.E.; Sykes, J.M.

    1993-01-01

    A comparative study of iron and steel in stimulated alkaline chloride solutions showed that Swedish iron has better reproducibility in terms of pitting potentials as compared to ordinary hot rolled mild steel. This study was undertaken to reason this pitting behavior on the basis of number and the nature of inclusions present in both the metals. Electron probe microanalysis technique (EPMA) was utilised to contemplate the origin of pits, the solution chemistry of the pits and finally the nature of the rust product. (author)

  9. Morphological and histological studies on freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii (de man) irradiated with {sup 60}Co gamma radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stalin, A.; Broos, K.V. [P.G. and Research Department of Zoology, Jamal Mohamed College (Autonomous), Tiruchirappalli 620020, Tamil Nadu (India); Sadiq Bukhari, A., E-mail: abjmc@yahoo.in [P.G. and Research Department of Zoology, Jamal Mohamed College (Autonomous), Tiruchirappalli 620020, Tamil Nadu (India); Syed Mohamed, H.E. [P.G. and Research Department of Zoology, Jamal Mohamed College (Autonomous), Tiruchirappalli 620020, Tamil Nadu (India); Singhal, R.K. [Analytical Spectroscopy Section, Analytical Chemistry Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Center, Trombay, Mumbai 4000085 (India); Venu-Babu, P. [Nuclear Agriculture and Biotechnology Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Center, Trombay, Mumbai 4000085 (India)

    2013-11-15

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •Analyzing the impact of {sup 60}Co gamma radiation (low doses) in M. rosenbergii. •LD{sub 50} identified in 30 Gy; Irradiated exhibits morphological changes than control. •Significantly decreased HSI and histological changes in irradiated groups. •Aberration severities increased as increased of dose level. •Biomonitoring tool in determining low dose radiation pollution in aquatic ecosystem. -- Abstract: This study was framed to investigate the {sup 60}Co gamma radiation induced morphological and histological variations in freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii. The LD{sub 50} value of {sup 60}Co gamma irradiated M. rosenbergii observed (by probit analysis) at 30 Gy. Prawns were irradiated to four different dose levels (3 mGy, 30 mGy, 300 mGy and 3000 mGy) using Theratron Phoenix TeleCobalt Unit [P-33] and one control group (without irradiation) maintained separately. Irradiated groups exhibited several morphological variations such as discoloration; damaged rostrum; opaque coloration in cephalothorax; black bands and dot formation in abdomen; deformed uropods and telson in tail regions when compared with control group. The Hepato Somatic Index reflected the severity of radiation on hepatopancreas. Histological variations in gills, hepatopancreas and muscles of irradiated groups were observed. In gills, structural changes such as swollen and fused lamellae, abnormal gill tips, hyperplasic, necrotic and clavate-globate lamellae were observed in gamma irradiated prawns. Accumulation of hemocytes in hemocoelic space, interstitial sinuses filled with abnormal infiltrated hemocytes, the tubular epithelium with ruptured basal laminae, abnormal and coagulated lumen, necrotic tubules, thickened basal laminae, tissue debris, necrotic hepatocytes were observed in irradiated prawn hepatopancreas. In muscle, shrinkage of muscular fiber and necrotic musculature were observed in irradiated prawns. These structural alterations of

  10. Morphology and thermal degradation study of poly(lactic acid)/synthetic mica composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, D.H.S.; Dias, M.L.

    2010-01-01

    Poly(lactic acid) (PLA)/synthetic mica composites has been little studied in the literature. In this work, an organophilic synthetic mica was used to prepare PLA nanocomposites. The composites were obtained at an internal mixer containing 3, 5, 7 and 10 wt% of mica. The materials were analyzed by x-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric analysis and gel permeation chromatography. (author)

  11. Morphology and tectonics of Mahanadi Basin, northeastern continental margin of India from geophysical studies

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Subrahmanyam, V.; Subrahmanyam, A.S.; Murty, G.P.S.; Murthy, K.S.R.

    the breakup of India from Antarctica. The model studies suggest that the northern part of the 85 degrees E Ridge abuts the coast at Chilika Lake. The shape of 2000 m isobath over the northeastern continental margin of India closely resembles to that of 2000 m...

  12. Experimental study of the chip morphology in turning hardened AISI D2 steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mhamdi, Mohamed Baccar; Bayraktar, Emin [Supmeca, Paris (France); Salem, Sahbi Ben; Boujelbene, Mohamed [National Engineering School of Tunis, Tunis (Turkey)

    2013-11-15

    The study of local mechanisms of material removal is essential in all problems of shaping by machining. Indeed, the mastery of surfaces generated by cutting requires an understanding of cutting mechanisms. The turning of steels with high mechanical properties using the cutting tool, often called 'hard turning,' is a new technique for the mechanical industry, and hence the need to understand the cutting mechanisms. The steel type EN X160CrMoV12 treated to 62 HRC (cold work tool steel: AISI D2 with a martensite matrix and distribution of primary and secondary carbides) is the subject of this study. Hard turning tests were carried out for this steel at different cutting conditions, with the aim to understand the mechanism of chip formation in order to be able to obtain the optimal cutting conditions. The chips obtained were examined under a microscope. The observation showed that the chip formation is influenced by cutting conditions. The chips contained a white layer, and this layer was examined under scanning electronic microscope (SEM) to study its variation depending on cutting parameters. The study shown, that cutting forces decrease with the increase of cutting speed. However, ANOVA method was used to establish the effect of the cutting conditions on experimental obtained results. Analysis of plastic deformation of the chip and the shear angle was made according to cutting conditions. Finally, a microhardness test was carried out to relate the mechanical properties and the microstructures of white layers.

  13. Brain Potentials for Derivational Morphology: An ERP Study of Deadjectival Nominalizations in Spanish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havas, Viktoria; Rodriguez-Fornells, Antoni; Clahsen, Harald

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates brain potentials to derived word forms in Spanish. Two experiments were performed on derived nominals that differ in terms of their productivity and semantic properties but are otherwise similar, an acceptability judgment task and a reading experiment using event-related brain potentials (ERPs) in which correctly and…

  14. Brain morphology of childhood aggressive behavior: A multi-informant study in school-age children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Thijssen (Sandra); A.P. Ringoot (Ank); A. Wildeboer (Andrea); M.J. Bakermans-Kranenburg (Marian); H. El Marroun (Hanan); A. Hofman (Albert); V.W.V. Jaddoe (Vincent); F.C. Verhulst (Frank); H.W. Tiemeier (Henning); M.H. van IJzendoorn (Rien); T.J.H. White (Tonya)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractObjective: Few studies have focused on the neuroanatomy of aggressive behavior in children younger than 10 years. Here, we explored the neuroanatomical correlates of aggression in a population-based sample of 6- to 9-year-old children using a multiple-informant approach. Methods:

  15. From morphological nightmare to molecular conundrum : phylogenetic evolutionary and taxonomic studies on Guatteria (Annonaceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erkens, R.H.J.

    2007-01-01

    The Neotropics (Mexico to South Brazil) contains c. 30% of the world's plant diversity, but the origin of this diversity remains unclear. Several recent studies have suggested that a substantial portion of this diversity has resulted from the dispersal of taxa into that region. However, more data

  16. Nanostructure Control: Nucleation and Diffusion Studies for Predictable Ultra Thin Film Morphologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hershberger, Matthew Thomas

    This thesis covers PhD research on two systems with unique and interesting physics. The first system is lead (Pb) deposited on the silicon (111) surface with the 7x7 reconstruction. Pb and Si are mutually bulk insolubility resulting in this system being an ideal case for studying metal and semiconductor interactions. Initial Pb deposition causes an amorphous wetting layer to form across to surface. Continued deposition results in Pb(111) island growth. Classic literature has classified this system as the Stranski-Krastanov growth mode although the system is not near equilibrium conditions. Our research shows a growth mode distinctly different than classical expectations and begins a discussion of reclassifying diffusion and nucleation for systems far away from the well-studied equilibrium cases. The second system studied investigates the interactions of the Rare Earth metal Dysprosium (Dy) with a carbon based 2D lattice called graphene. Graphene is a 2D material composed of carbon atoms arranged in hexagons, similar to a honeycomb with carbon atoms at each corner. The graphene we used is grown epitaxially from a substrate of silicon carbide. This creates a multilayered playground to study how metals interact both on the surface of graphene and intercalated in between graphene layers. Many types of atoms have been studied in graphene systems, but the rare earths and in particular Dy have not been well investigated. This thesis contributes to the knowledge base of graphene on SiC structure and metal-graphene interactions. These systems have been investigated in ultra-high vacuum (UHV) environments with base pressures around 5.0x10-11 torr. The Pb/Si(111)-7x7 system was investigated with scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and the Graphene/SiC system was investigated with both STM and Spot Profile Analyzing Low Energy Electron Diffraction (SPA-LEED).

  17. A comparative study of molecular and morphological methods of describing relationships between perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) varieties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roldán-Ruiz, I.; Eeuwijk, van F.A.; Gilliland, T.J.; Dubreuil, P.; Dillmann, C.; Lallemand, J.; Loose, De M.; Baril, C.P.

    2001-01-01

    A sample set of registered perennial ryegrass varieties was used to compare how morphological characterisation and AFLP® (AFLP® is a registered trademark of Keygene N.V.) and STS molecular markers described variety relationships. All the varieties were confirmed as morphologically distinct, and both

  18. The Developmental Relationship between Bilingual Morphological Awareness and Reading for Chinese EFL Adult Learners: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Jin; Jiang, Xiaoming

    2017-01-01

    The present research aimed to explore the developmental relationship between bilingual morphological awareness and reading for Chinese natives learning English as a foreign language (EFL learners). Pre- and post-tests were conducted with in an interval of 9 months. Morphological and reading measures in Chinese and English were administered to 139…

  19. Ankyloglossia as a risk factor for maxillary hypoplasia and soft palate elongation: A functional - morphological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, A J; Zaghi, S; Ha, S; Law, C S; Guilleminault, C; Liu, S Y

    2017-11-01

    To characterize associations between restricted tongue mobility and maxillofacial development. Cross-sectional cohort study of 302 consecutive subjects from an orthodontic practice. Tongue mobility (measured with tongue range of motion ratio [TRMR] and Kotlow free tongue measurement) was correlated with measurements of the maxillofacial skeleton obtained from dental casts and cephalometric radiographs. Tongue range of motion ratio and Kotlow measures of restricted tongue mobility were associated with (i) ratio of maxillary intercanine width to canine arch length, (ii) ratio of maxillary intermolar width to canine arch length and (iii) soft palate length. Restricted tongue mobility was not associated with hyoid bone position or Angle's skeletal classification. Restricted tongue mobility was associated with narrowing of the maxillary arch and elongation of the soft palate in this study. These findings suggest that variations in tongue mobility may affect maxillofacial development. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Nanostructure control: Nucleation and diffusion studies for predictable ultra thin film morphologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hershberger, Matthew [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2017-05-06

    This thesis covers PhD research on two systems with unique and interesting physics. The first system is lead (Pb) deposited on the silicon (111) surface with the 7x7 reconstruction. Pb and Si are mutually bulk insoluble resulting in this system being an ideal case for studying metal and semiconductor interactions. Initial Pb deposition causes an amorphous wetting layer to form across to surface. Continued deposition results in Pb(111) island growth. Classic literature has classified this system as the Stranski-Krastanov growth mode although the system is not near equilibrium conditions. Our research shows a growth mode distinctly different than classical expectations and begins a discussion of reclassifying diffusion and nucleation for systems far away from the well-studied equilibrium cases.

  1. Lysosome lipid storage disorder in NCTR-BALB/c mice. II. Morphologic and cytochemical studies.

    OpenAIRE

    Shio, H.; Fowler, S.; Bhuvaneswaran, C.; Morris, M. D.

    1982-01-01

    Electron-microscopic and cytochemical studies were carried out on tissues of NCTR-BALB/c mice. These mice are affected with a neurovisceral genetic disorder involving excessive tissue accumulation of lipid. Distinctive polymorphic intracellular inclusions, bounded by a membrane and containing lamellated bodies, were found in many cells of liver, spleen, lung, kidney, intestine, lymph nodes, and brain. The inclusions transformed reticuloendothelial cells into massive foam cells. Acid phosphata...

  2. Morphological studies at subchondral bone structures in human early arthrosis. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    Quantitative histomorphometric studies using an image analysis system were performed simultaneously on hyaline cartilage, calcified cartilage and subchondral cancellous bone of human tibial heads for detailed information about the pathogenesis of arthrosis. Joint structures need to be fully detected in three dimensions since measurement values are more affected by topographical aspects than by either age, or sex, or arthrosin stage. Mechanical factors were found to affect essentially the initiation and progression of arthrosis. Results are demonstrated in detail. (orig.) [de

  3. Environment Quality: Impact From Traffic, Power Plant and Land Morphology, a Case Study of Prishtina

    OpenAIRE

    Bajcinovci Bujar

    2017-01-01

    Environmental air pollution is a global health concern, a complex phenomenon which is directly reflected on public health, economic and human development. Environmental air pollution has been drastically multiplied, followed by the beginning of the new Millennia in Prishtina, the capital city of the Kosovo. The new millennium began as a crucial activity for the city of Prishtina in terms of demographic, human geography, social and economic phenomena. The presented study aims to determine prev...

  4. Brain morphology of childhood aggressive behavior: A multi-informant study in school-age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thijssen, Sandra; Ringoot, Ank P; Wildeboer, Andrea; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J; El Marroun, Hanan; Hofman, Albert; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Verhulst, Frank C; Tiemeier, Henning; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H; White, Tonya

    2015-09-01

    Few studies have focused on the neuroanatomy of aggressive behavior in children younger than 10 years. Here, we explored the neuroanatomical correlates of aggression in a population-based sample of 6- to 9-year-old children using a multiple-informant approach. Magnetic resonance (MR) scans were acquired from 566 children from the Generation R study who participated in the Berkeley Puppet Interview and whose parents had completed the Child Behavior Checklist. Linear regression analyses were used to examine associations between aggression and amygdala and hippocampal volume. We performed surface-based analyses to study the association between aggression and cortical thickness, surface area, and gyrification. Aggressive behavior was associated with smaller amygdala (p left precentral cortex (p right inferior parietal, supramarginal, and postcentral cortex (p Gender moderated the association between aggression and cortical thickness in the right medial posterior cortex (p = .001) and the right prefrontal cortex (p right precentral, postcentral, frontal, and parietal cortex (p = .01). Moreover, aggression was associated with decreased gyrification in the right occipital and parietal cortex (p = .02). We found novel evidence that childhood aggressive behavior is related to decreased amygdala volume, decreased sensorimotor cortical thickness, and decreased global right hemisphere gyrification. Aggression is related to cortical thickness in regions associated with the default mode network, with negative associations in boys and positive associations in girls.

  5. A study of morphological patterns of lip prints in relation to gender of North Indian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Shalini; Gupta, Khushboo; Gupta, Op

    2011-01-01

    Establishing a person's identity is a very important process in civil and criminal cases. Dental, fingerprint and DNA comparisons are probably the most common techniques allowing fast and secure identification processes. However, in certain circumstances related to the scene of the crime or due to lack of experienced personnel, these techniques might be unavailable; so there is still an increasing need for reliable alternative methods of establishing identity. The objective of the study was to check for any peculiar lip patterns in relation to the sex of the individual and determine the most common lip patterns in the given population. This study was conducted on 150 subjects, which included 75 males and 75 females, in the age group of 18-30 years. After applying lipstick evenly, the lip print of each subject was obtained on a simple bond paper by a researcher, and later the lip print was then analyzed and interpreted. The intersected type was most commonly seen in females and branched in males. Reticular pattern was the least common type in both males and females. This study shows that the lip prints are unique to an individual and behold the potential for recognition of the sex of an individual.

  6. In situ morphology studies of the mechanism for solution additive effects on the formation of bulk heterojunction films

    KAUST Repository

    Richter, Lee J.

    2014-09-29

    The most successful active film morphology in organic photovoltaics is the bulk heterojunction (BHJ). The performance of a BHJ arises from a complex interplay of the spatial organization of the segregated donor and acceptor phases and the local order/quality of the respective phases. These critical morphological features develop dynamically during film formation, and it has become common practice to control them by the introduction of processing additives. Here, in situ grazing incidence X-ray diffraction (GIXD) and grazing incidence small angle X-ray scattering (GISAXS) studies of the development of order in BHJ films formed from the donor polymer poly(3-hexylthiophene) and acceptor phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester under the influence of two common additives, 1,8-octanedithiol and 1-chloronaphthalene, are reported. By comparing optical aggregation to crystallization and using GISAXS to determine the number and nature of phases present during drying, two common mechanisms by which the additives increase P3HT crystallinity are identified. Additives accelerate the appearance of pre-crystalline nuclei by controlling solvent quality and allow for extended crystal growth by delaying the onset of PCBM-induced vitrification. The glass transition effects vary system-to-system and may be correlated to the number and composition of phases present during drying. Synchrotron X-ray scattering measurements of nanoscale structure evolution during the drying of polymer-fullerene photovoltaic films are described. Changes in the number and nature of phases, as well as the order within them, reveals the mechanisms by which formulation additives promote structural characteristics leading to higher power conversion efficiencies.

  7. Morphological characteristics of the posterior malleolar fragment according to ankle fracture patterns: a computed tomography-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Young; Chun, Dong-Il; Won, Sung Hun; Park, Suyeon; Lee, Sanghyeon; Cho, Jaeho

    2018-02-13

    The posterior malleolar fragment (PMF) of an ankle fracture can have various shapes depending on the injury mechanism. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the morphological characteristics of the PMF according to the ankle fracture pattern described in the Lauge-Hansen classification by using computed tomography (CT) images. We retrospectively analyzed CT data of 107 patients (107 ankles) who underwent surgery for trimalleolar fracture from January 2012 to December 2014. The patients were divided into two groups: 76 ankles in the supination-external rotation (SER) stage IV group and 31 ankles in the pronation-external rotation (PER) stage IV group. The PMF type of the two groups was assessed using the Haraguchi and Jan Bartonicek classification. The cross angle (α), fragment length ratio (FLR), fragment area ratio (FAR), sagittal angle (θ), and fragment height (FH) were measured to assess the morphological characteristics of the PMF. The PMF in the SER group mainly had a posterolateral shape, whereas that in the PER group mainly had a posteromedial two-part shape or a large posterolateral triangular shape (P = 0.02). The average cross angle was not significantly different between the two groups (SER group = 19.4°, PER group = 17.6°). The mean FLR and FH were significantly larger in the PER group than in the SER group (P = 0.024, P = 0.006). The mean fragment sagittal angle in the PER group was significantly smaller than that in the SER group (P = 0.017). With regard to the articular involvement, volume, and vertical nature, the SER-type fracture tends to have a smaller fragment due to the rotational force, whereas the PER-type fracture tends to have a larger fragment due to the combination of rotational and axial forces.

  8. Morphological and histological studies on freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii (de man) irradiated with (60)Co gamma radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stalin, A; Broos, K V; Sadiq Bukhari, A; Syed Mohamed, H E; Singhal, R K; Venu-Babu, P

    2013-11-15

    This study was framed to investigate the (60)Co gamma radiation induced morphological and histological variations in freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii. The LD50 value of (60)Co gamma irradiated M. rosenbergii observed (by probit analysis) at 30 Gy. Prawns were irradiated to four different dose levels (3 mGy, 30 mGy, 300 mGy and 3,000 mGy) using Theratron Phoenix TeleCobalt Unit [P-33] and one control group (without irradiation) maintained separately. Irradiated groups exhibited several morphological variations such as discoloration; damaged rostrum; opaque coloration in cephalothorax; black bands and dot formation in abdomen; deformed uropods and telson in tail regions when compared with control group. The Hepato Somatic Index reflected the severity of radiation on hepatopancreas. Histological variations in gills, hepatopancreas and muscles of irradiated groups were observed. In gills, structural changes such as swollen and fused lamellae, abnormal gill tips, hyperplasic, necrotic and clavate-globate lamellae were observed in gamma irradiated prawns. Accumulation of hemocytes in hemocoelic space, interstitial sinuses filled with abnormal infiltrated hemocytes, the tubular epithelium with ruptured basal laminae, abnormal and coagulated lumen, necrotic tubules, thickened basal laminae, tissue debris, necrotic hepatocytes were observed in irradiated prawn hepatopancreas. In muscle, shrinkage of muscular fiber and necrotic musculature were observed in irradiated prawns. These structural alterations of the organs it is felt could affect the vital physiological functions such as respiration, osmotic and ionic regulation in gills and muscles; absorption, storage and secretion of the hepatopancreas which in turn could adversely affect the growth and survival of freshwater prawn M. rosenbergii. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. AFM study of the effects of laser surface remelting on the morphology of Al-Fe aerospace alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pariona, Moises Meza, E-mail: mmpariona@uepg.br [Graduate Program in Engineering and Materials Science, State University of Ponta Grossa (UEPG), Ponta Grossa 84010-919, PR (Brazil); Teleginski, Viviane; Santos, Kelly dos; Leandro Ribeiro dos Santos, Everton; Aparecida de Oliveira Camargo de Lima, Angela [Graduate Program in Engineering and Materials Science, State University of Ponta Grossa (UEPG), Ponta Grossa 84010-919, PR (Brazil); Riva, Rudimar [Department of Aerospace Science and Technology, Institute for Advanced Studies (IEAv), Sao Jose dos Campos 12227-000, SP (Brazil)

    2012-12-15

    Laser beam welding has recently been incorporated into the fabrication process of aircraft and automobile structures. Surface roughness is an important parameter of product quality that strongly affects the performance of mechanical parts, as well as production costs. This parameter influences the mechanical properties such as fatigue behavior, corrosion resistance, creep life, etc., and other functional characteristics such as friction, wear, light reflection, heat transmission, lubrification, electrical conductivity, etc. The effects of laser surface remelting (LSR) on the morphology of Al-Fe aerospace alloys were examined before and after surface treatments, using optical microscopy (OM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), low-angle X-ray diffraction (LA-XRD), atomic force microscopy (AFM), microhardness measurements (Vickers hardness), and cyclic voltammetry. This analysis was performed on both laser-treated and untreated sanded surfaces, revealing significant differences. The LA-XRD analysis revealed the presence of alumina, simple metals and metastable intermetallic phases, which considerably improved the microhardness of laser-remelted surfaces. The morphology produced by laser surface remelting enhanced the microstructure of the Al-Fe alloys by reducing their roughness and increasing their hardness. The treated surfaces showed passivity and stability characteristics in the electrolytic medium employed in this study. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The samples laser-treated and untreated showed significant differences. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The La-XRD revealed the presence of alumina in Al-1.5 wt.% Fe. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The laser-treated reducing the roughness and increasing the hardness. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The laser-treated surfaces showed characteristic passive in the electrolytic medium. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The laser-treated is a promising technique for applications technological.

  10. In situ morphology studies of the mechanism for solution additive effects on the formation of bulk heterojunction films

    KAUST Repository

    Richter, Lee J.; DeLongchamp., Dean M.; Bokel, Felicia A.; Engmann, Sebastian; Chou, Kang Wei; Amassian, Aram; Schaible, Eric G.; Hexemer, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    The most successful active film morphology in organic photovoltaics is the bulk heterojunction (BHJ). The performance of a BHJ arises from a complex interplay of the spatial organization of the segregated donor and acceptor phases and the local order/quality of the respective phases. These critical morphological features develop dynamically during film formation, and it has become common practice to control them by the introduction of processing additives. Here, in situ grazing incidence X-ray diffraction (GIXD) and grazing incidence small angle X-ray scattering (GISAXS) studies of the development of order in BHJ films formed from the donor polymer poly(3-hexylthiophene) and acceptor phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester under the influence of two common additives, 1,8-octanedithiol and 1-chloronaphthalene, are reported. By comparing optical aggregation to crystallization and using GISAXS to determine the number and nature of phases present during drying, two common mechanisms by which the additives increase P3HT crystallinity are identified. Additives accelerate the appearance of pre-crystalline nuclei by controlling solvent quality and allow for extended crystal growth by delaying the onset of PCBM-induced vitrification. The glass transition effects vary system-to-system and may be correlated to the number and composition of phases present during drying. Synchrotron X-ray scattering measurements of nanoscale structure evolution during the drying of polymer-fullerene photovoltaic films are described. Changes in the number and nature of phases, as well as the order within them, reveals the mechanisms by which formulation additives promote structural characteristics leading to higher power conversion efficiencies.

  11. Three-dimensional kinematics of the equine metacarpophalangeal joint using x-ray reconstruction of moving morphology - a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childs, Bronwen A; Pugliese, Brenna R; Carballo, Cristina T; Miranda, Daniel L; Brainerd, Elizabeth L; Kirker-Head, Carl A

    2017-07-20

    X-ray reconstruction of moving morphology (XROMM) uses biplanar videoradiography and computed tomography (CT) scanning to capture three-dimensional (3D) bone motion. In XROMM, morphologically accurate 3D bone models derived from CT are animated with motion from videoradiography, yielding a highly accurate and precise reconstruction of skeletal kinematics. We employ this motion analysis technique to characterize metacarpophalangeal joint (MCPJ) motion in the absence and presence of protective legwear in a healthy pony. Our in vivo marker tracking precision was 0.09 mm for walk and trot, and 0.10 mm during jump down exercises. We report MCPJ maximum extension (walk: -27.70 ± 2.78° [standard deviation]; trot: -33.84 ± 4.94°), abduction/adduction (walk: 0.04 ± 0.24°; trot: -0.23 ± 0.35°) and external/internal rotations (walk: 0.30 ± 0.32°; trot: -0.49 ± 1.05°) indicating that the MCPJ in this pony is a stable hinge joint with negligible extra-sagittal rotations. No substantial change in MCPJ maximum extension angles or vertical ground reaction forces (GRFv) were observed upon application of legwear during jump down exercise. Neoprene boot application yielded -65.20 ± 2.06° extension (GRFv = 11.97 ± 0.67 N/kg) and fleece polo wrap application yielded -64.23 ± 1.68° extension (GRFv = 11.36 ± 1.66 N/kg), when compared to naked control (-66.11 ± 0.96°; GRFv = 12.02 ± 0.53 N/kg). Collectively, this proof of concept study illustrates the benefits and practical limitations of using XROMM to document equine MCPJ kinematics in the presence and absence of legwear.

  12. Electron precipitation morphology and plasma sheet dynamics: ground and magnetotail studies of the magnetospheric substorm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pytte, T.

    1976-12-01

    The main results of some recent studies of the magnetospheric substorm are summarised and discussed in view of the fundamental role of magnetospheric convection. The substorm growth phase is described in terms of a temporary imbalance between the rates of magnetic field-line merging on the dayside, and reconnection on the nightside, of the magnetosphere following a southward turning of the interplanetary magnetic field. Some new understanding of the possible causal relationship between growth-phase and expansion-phase phenomena is provided through studies of multiple-onset substorms, during which substorm expansions are observed to occur at intervals of 10-15 min. Detailed observations have revealed new features of the radial and azimuthal dynamics of these substorms that are not consistent with recent models proposed by Akasofu and by Rostoker and his co-workers. It is shown that the behaviour of the near-earth plasma sheet early in a substorm cannot be inferred from measurements at larger distances (e.g., in the Vela satellite orbits), and that the triggering of a substorm expansion may well be directly related to pre-substorm thinning of the near-earth plasma sheet, even though the most significant thinning in the tailward region may occur at the onset, and therefore appears to be an effect rather than a cause of triggering. Initial results from studies of a new type of magnetospheric activity, characterised by strong auroral-zone bay activity but no other indications of substorm expansions, are shown to be consistent with current models of the growth and expansion phases of substorms and of substorm triggering. (JIW)

  13. The effect of alpha-ketoglutarate on a piscine skin model: a molecular and morphological study

    OpenAIRE

    Costa, Rita

    2009-01-01

    Dissertação mest., Ciências Biomédicas, Universidade do Algarve, 2009 Alpha-ketoglutarate (AKG) is a key intermediate in the tricarboxylic acid cycle with important functions in glutamate and glutamine metabolism. Its effect after oral administration was studied in adult sea bream Sparus aurata skin and scales in order to evaluate the effect on collagen synthesis. Scales were removed from one side of the body and allowed to regenerate for 14 days; the control group received unt...

  14. Beta-secretase-cleaved amyloid precursor protein in Alzheimer brain: a morphologic study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sennvik, Kristina; Bogdanovic, N; Volkmann, Inga

    2004-01-01

    beta-amyloid (Abeta) is the main constituent of senile plaques seen in Alzheimer's disease. Abeta is derived from the amyloid precursor protein (APP) via proteolytic cleavage by proteases beta- and gamma-secretase. In this study, we examined content and localization of beta-secretase-cleaved APP...... the beta-sAPP immunostaining to be stronger and more extensive in gray matter in Alzheimer disease (AD) cases than controls. The axonal beta-sAPP staining was patchy and unevenly distributed for the AD cases, indicating impaired axonal transport. beta-sAPP was also found surrounding senile plaques...

  15. Ocular toxicity of beta-blockers and benzalkonium chloride in pigmented rabbits: electrophysiological and morphological studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, A; Hori, S; Takase, M

    1985-01-01

    Subconjunctival injection of 0.2 ml of the following solutions was carried out once a day for two weeks in the albino and pigmented rabbit: commercial 0.5% timolol or 1% befunolol ophthalmic solutions, both containing benzalkonium chloride, and also these drug solutions containing no preservative, ophthalmic base solutions containing benzalkonium chloride, physiological saline solution or phosphate buffer solution. One week after daily injections of the commercial drug solutions or base solutions with benzalkonium chloride, the electroretinogram (ERG) showed a marked reduction in the a- and b-wave amplitudes in the pigmented rabbit, but the ERG changes were slight in the albino rabbit. After two weeks of injections, histological studies of the pigmented rabbit eyes revealed retinal detachment, visual cell loss and atrophy of the retinal pigment epithelium and choroid; the changes in the albino rabbit eyes were minimal. Injections of the beta-blockers containing no benzalkonium resulted in no significant changes in the ERG or in the tissue structures of all rabbits. Injections of only physiological saline or phosphate buffer had no deleterious effects. Therefore, the ocular toxicity of the beta-blockers was thought to be minor and the toxic effects seen in this study were thought to be due to benzalkonium chloride, which possibly accumulates in the ocular pigments.