WorldWideScience

Sample records for study investigating risk

  1. High-risk populations identified in Childhood Cancer Survivor Study investigations: implications for risk-based surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Melissa M; Mulrooney, Daniel A; Bowers, Daniel C; Sklar, Charles A; Green, Daniel M; Donaldson, Sarah S; Oeffinger, Kevin C; Neglia, Joseph P; Meadows, Anna T; Robison, Leslie L

    2009-05-10

    Childhood cancer survivors often experience complications related to cancer and its treatment that may adversely affect quality of life and increase the risk of premature death. The purpose of this manuscript is to review how data derived from Childhood Cancer Survivor Study (CCSS) investigations have facilitated identification of childhood cancer survivor populations at high risk for specific organ toxicity and secondary carcinogenesis and how this has informed clinical screening practices. Articles previously published that used the resource of the CCSS to identify risk factors for specific organ toxicity and subsequent cancers were reviewed and results summarized. CCSS investigations have characterized specific groups to be at highest risk of morbidity related to endocrine and reproductive dysfunction, pulmonary toxicity, cerebrovascular injury, neurologic and neurosensory sequelae, and subsequent neoplasms. Factors influencing risk for specific outcomes related to the individual survivor (eg, sex, race/ethnicity, age at diagnosis, attained age), sociodemographic status (eg, education, household income, health insurance) and cancer history (eg, diagnosis, treatment, time from diagnosis) have been consistently identified. These CCSS investigations that clarify risk for treatment complications related to specific treatment modalities, cumulative dose exposures, and sociodemographic factors identify profiles of survivors at high risk for cancer-related morbidity who deserve heightened surveillance to optimize outcomes after treatment for childhood cancer.

  2. An investigation of breast cancer risk factors in Cyprus: a case control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadjisavvas Andreas

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Breast cancer is the most common form of malignancy affecting women worldwide. It is also the leading cancer in females in Cyprus, with approximately 400 new cases diagnosed annually. It is well recognized that genetic variation as well as environmental factors modulate breast cancer risk. The main aim of this study was to assess the strength of associations between recognized risk factors and breast cancer among Cypriot women. This is the first epidemiological investigation on risk factors of breast cancer among the Cypriot female population. Methods We carried out a case-control study, involving 1,109 breast cancer patients and a group of 1,177 controls who were recruited while participating in the National screening programme for breast cancer. Information on demographic characteristics and potential risk factors were collected from both groups during a standardized interview. Logistic regression analysis was used to assess the strength of the association between each risk factor and breast cancer risk, before and after adjusting for the possible confounding effect of other factors. Results In multivariable models, family history of breast cancer (OR 1.64, 95% CI 1.23, 2.19 was the strongest predictor of breast cancer risk in the Cypriot population. Late menarche (OR 0.64, 95% CI 0.45, 0.92 among women reaching menarche after the age of 15 vs. before the age of 12 and breastfeeding (OR 0.74, 95% CI 0.59, 0.92 exhibited a strong protective effect. In the case of breastfeeding, the observed effect appeared stronger than the effect of pregnancy alone. Surprisingly, we also observed an inverse association between hormone replacement therapy (HRT although this may be a product of the retrospective nature of this study. Conclusion Overall the findings of our study corroborate with the results of previous investigations on descriptive epidemiology of risk factors for breast cancer. This investigation provides important background

  3. Fire Risk Scoping Study: Investigation of nuclear power plant fire risk, including previously unaddressed issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambright, J.A.; Nowlen, S.P.; Nicolette, V.F.; Bohn, M.P.

    1989-01-01

    An investigation of nuclear power plant fire risk issues raised as a result of the USNRC sponsored Fire Protection Research Program at Sandia National Laboratories has been performed. The specific objectives of this study were (1) to review and requantify fire risk scenarios from four fire probabilistic risk assessments (PRAs) in light of updated data bases made available as a result of USNRC sponsored Fire Protection Research Program and updated computer fire modeling capabilities, (2) to identify potentially significant fire risk issues that have not been previously addressed in a fire risk context and to quantify the potential impact of those identified fire risk issues where possible, and (3) to review current fire regulations and plant implementation practices for relevance to the identified unaddressed fire risk issues. In performance of the fire risk scenario requantifications several important insights were gained. It was found that utilization of a more extensive operational experience base resulted in both fire occurrence frequencies and fire duration times (i.e., time required for fire suppression) increasing significantly over those assumed in the original works. Additionally, some thermal damage threshold limits assumed in the original works were identified as being nonconservative based on more recent experimental data. Finally, application of the COMPBRN III fire growth model resulted in calculation of considerably longer fire damage times than those calculated in the original works using COMPBRN I. 14 refs., 2 figs., 16 tabs

  4. Cardiovascular investigations of airline pilots with excessive cardiovascular risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirawan, I Made Ady; Aldington, Sarah; Griffiths, Robin F; Ellis, Chris J; Larsen, Peter D

    2013-06-01

    This study examined the prevalence of airline pilots who have an excessive cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk score according to the New Zealand Guideline Group (NZGG) Framingham-based Risk Chart and describes their cardiovascular risk assessment and investigations. A cross-sectional study was performed among 856 pilots employed in an Oceania based airline. Pilots with elevated CVD risk that had been previously evaluated at various times over the previous 19 yr were reviewed retrospectively from the airline's medical records, and the subsequent cardiovascular investigations were then described. There were 30 (3.5%) pilots who were found to have 5-yr CVD risk score of 10-15% or higher. Of the 29 pilots who had complete cardiac investigations data, 26 pilots underwent exercise electrocardiography (ECG), 2 pilots progressed directly to coronary angiograms and 1 pilot with abnormal echocardiogram was not examined further. Of the 26 pilots, 7 had positive or borderline exercise tests, all of whom subsequently had angiograms. One patient with a negative exercise test also had a coronary angiogram. Of the 9 patients who had coronary angiograms as a consequence of screening, 5 had significant disease that required treatment and 4 had either trivial disease or normal coronary arteries. The current approach to investigate excessive cardiovascular risk in pilots relies heavily on exercise electrocardiograms as a diagnostic test, and may not be optimal either to detect disease or to protect pilots from unnecessary invasive procedures. A more comprehensive and accurate cardiac investigation algorithm to assess excessive CVD risk in pilots is required.

  5. Risk investigation for safety assessment of nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heuser, F.W.; Hoertner, H.; Kersting, E.

    1987-01-01

    The most important results of the technical system investigations for Phase B of the German Risk Study and the insight gained from them are discussed in connection with the risk analyses in judging the safety-related design. The results of the German Precursor Study for the Biblis A and B plants are given. There is also a comparison of the German with more recent American risk analyses. (DG) [de

  6. Infant siblings and the investigation of autism risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Newschaffer Craig J

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Infant sibling studies have been at the vanguard of autism spectrum disorders (ASD research over the past decade, providing important new knowledge about the earliest emerging signs of ASD and expanding our understanding of the developmental course of this complex disorder. Studies focused on siblings of children with ASD also have unrealized potential for contributing to ASD etiologic research. Moving targeted time of enrollment back from infancy toward conception creates tremendous opportunities for optimally studying risk factors and risk biomarkers during the pre-, peri- and neonatal periods. By doing so, a traditional sibling study, which already incorporates close developmental follow-up of at-risk infants through the third year of life, is essentially reconfigured as an enriched-risk pregnancy cohort study. This review considers the enriched-risk pregnancy cohort approach of studying infant siblings in the context of current thinking on ASD etiologic mechanisms. It then discusses the key features of this approach and provides a description of the design and implementation strategy of one major ASD enriched-risk pregnancy cohort study: the Early Autism Risk Longitudinal Investigation (EARLI.

  7. Main nutrient patterns and colorectal cancer risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moskal, Aurélie; Freisling, Heinz; Byrnes, Graham; Assi, Nada; Fahey, Michael T.; Jenab, Mazda; Ferrari, Pietro; Tjønneland, Anne; Petersen, Kristina EN; Dahm, Christina C.; Hansen, Camilla Plambeck; Affret, Aurélie; Boutron-Ruault, Marie Christine; Cadeau, Claire; Kühn, Tilman; Katzke, Verena; Iqbal, Khalid; Boeing, Heiner; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Bamia, Christina; Naska, Androniki; Masala, Giovanna; de Magistris, Maria Santucci; Sieri, Sabina; Tumino, Rosario; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Peeters, Petra H.; Bueno-de-Mesquita, Bas H.; Engeset, Dagrun; Licaj, Idlir; Skeie, Guri; Ardanaz, Eva; Buckland, Genevieve; Castaño, José M Huerta; Quirós, José R.; Amiano, Pilar; Molina-Portillo, Elena; Winkvist, Anna; Myte, Robin; Ericson, Ulrika; Sonestedt, Emily; Perez-Cornago, Aurora; Wareham, Nick; Khaw, Kay Tee; Huybrechts, Inge; Tsilidis, Konstantinos K.; Ward, Heather; Gunter, Marc J.; Slimani, Nadia

    2016-01-01

    Background:Much of the current literature on diet–colorectal cancer (CRC) associations focused on studies of single foods/nutrients, whereas less is known about nutrient patterns. We investigated the association between major nutrient patterns and CRC risk in participants of the European Prospective

  8. Coffee consumption and risk of chronic disease in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-Germany study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floegel, Anna; Pischon, Tobias; Bergmann, Manuela M; Teucher, Birgit; Kaaks, Rudolf; Boeing, Heiner

    2012-04-01

    Early studies suggested that coffee consumption may increase the risk of chronic disease. We investigated prospectively the association between coffee consumption and the risk of chronic diseases, including type 2 diabetes (T2D), myocardial infarction (MI), stroke, and cancer. We used data from 42,659 participants in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-Germany study. Coffee consumption was assessed by self-administered food-frequency questionnaire at baseline, and data on medically verified incident chronic diseases were collected by active and passive follow-up procedures. HRs and 95% CIs were calculated with multivariate Cox regression models and compared by competing risk analysis. During 8.9 y of follow-up, we observed 1432 cases of T2D, 394 of MI, 310 of stroke, and 1801 of cancer as first qualifying events. Caffeinated (HR: 0.94; 95% CI: 0.84, 1.05) or decaffeinated (HR: 1.05; 95% CI: 0.84, 1.31) coffee consumption (≥4 cups/d compared with disease. A lower risk of T2D was associated with caffeinated (HR: 0.77; 95% CI: 0.63, 0.94; P-trend 0.009) and decaffeinated (HR: 0.70; 95% CI: 0.46, 1.06; P-trend: 0.043) coffee consumption (≥4 cups/d compared with disease and cancer risk were not. The competing risk analysis showed no significant differences between the risk associations of individual diseases. Our findings suggest that coffee consumption does not increase the risk of chronic disease, but it may be linked to a lower risk of T2D.

  9. Investigation corporate governance characteristics on risk taking: A case study of private banks listed in Tehran Stock Exchange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Khodaei Valahzaghard

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available During the past few years, there have been tremendous works on detecting the relationship between banks performance and the number of seats on board of directors. Board of directors of banks is responsible for shareholders ownership’s interest. In this study, governance and ownership characteristics affecting risk appetite on some private banks listed in Tehran Stock Exchange is studied. The study investigates 12 private banks for a period 2005-2011 based on the implementation of some regression analysis using panel data. The results indicate that the effect of five major shareholders on risk-taking is positive and significant. The effect of institutional ownership on risk-taking is negative and significant. Effects of other variables, including the percentage of ownership concentration, return on assets and the logarithm of cash from operations (CFO on risk-taking of the private banks are not significant. The effects of board size, reliance on debt and log of assets on risk-taking are significantly negative among private banks in Iran. These results indicate that shareholders that are institutional investors play a key role in monitoring managers.

  10. Importance of core/concrete interactions for German risk investigations and experimental verification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rohde, J.; Hicken, E.F.; Friederichs, H.G.; Schroedl, E.

    1987-01-01

    The relevance of Molten Core Concrete Interactions (MCCI) for risk oriented investigations of German LWR-plants is evaluated. The problems of MCCI have been intensely investigated since the mid seventies in connection with the German Risk Study, Phase A and B on PWR plants of German design. Many examinations of both theoretical and experimental nature have led to the development of computer codes like WECHSL. The basis for verification is the internationally well accepted BETA experiment. Code WECHSL and the knowledge gained from the BETA experiment have been applied for the final investigations in German Risk Study, Phase B. Knowledge gained will be illustrated and its importance MCCI for German LWR-concepts will be shown

  11. Main nutrient patterns and colorectal cancer risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moskal, Aurélie; Freisling, Heinz; Byrnes, Graham; Assi, Nada; Fahey, Michael T; Jenab, Mazda; Ferrari, Pietro; Tjønneland, Anne; Petersen, Kristina En; Dahm, Christina C; Hansen, Camilla Plambeck; Affret, Aurélie; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Cadeau, Claire; Kühn, Tilman; Katzke, Verena; Iqbal, Khalid; Boeing, Heiner; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Bamia, Christina; Naska, Androniki; Masala, Giovanna; de Magistris, Maria Santucci; Sieri, Sabina; Tumino, Rosario; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Peeters, Petra H; Bueno-de-Mesquita, Bas H; Engeset, Dagrun; Licaj, Idlir; Skeie, Guri; Ardanaz, Eva; Buckland, Genevieve; Castaño, José M Huerta; Quirós, José R; Amiano, Pilar; Molina-Portillo, Elena; Winkvist, Anna; Myte, Robin; Ericson, Ulrika; Sonestedt, Emily; Perez-Cornago, Aurora; Wareham, Nick; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Huybrechts, Inge; Tsilidis, Konstantinos K; Ward, Heather; Gunter, Marc J; Slimani, Nadia

    2016-11-22

    Much of the current literature on diet-colorectal cancer (CRC) associations focused on studies of single foods/nutrients, whereas less is known about nutrient patterns. We investigated the association between major nutrient patterns and CRC risk in participants of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study. Among 477 312 participants, intakes of 23 nutrients were estimated from validated dietary questionnaires. Using results from a previous principal component (PC) analysis, four major nutrient patterns were identified. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were computed for the association of each of the four patterns and CRC incidence using multivariate Cox proportional hazards models with adjustment for established CRC risk factors. During an average of 11 years of follow-up, 4517 incident cases of CRC were documented. A nutrient pattern characterised by high intakes of vitamins and minerals was inversely associated with CRC (HR per 1 s.d.=0.94, 95% CI: 0.92-0.98) as was a pattern characterised by total protein, riboflavin, phosphorus and calcium (HR (1 s.d.)=0.96, 95% CI: 0.93-0.99). The remaining two patterns were not significantly associated with CRC risk. Analysing nutrient patterns may improve our understanding of how groups of nutrients relate to CRC.

  12. Ecological risk assessment guidance for preparation of remedial investigation/feasibility study work plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pentecost, E.D.; Vinikour, W.S.

    1993-08-01

    This guidance document (1) provides instructions on preparing the components of an ecological work plan to complement the overall site remedial assessment investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) work plan and (2) directs the user on how to implement ecological tasks identified in the plan. Under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA), as amended by the Superfired Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986 (SARA), an RI/FS work plan win have to be developed as part of the site-remediation scoping the process. Specific guidance on the RI/FS process and the preparation of work plans has been developed by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA 1988a). This document provides guidance to US Department of Energy (DOE) staff and contractor personnel for incorporation of ecological information into environmental remediation planning and decision making at CERCLA sites. An overview analysis of early ecological risk assessment methods (i.e., in the 1980s) at Superfund sites was conducted by the EPA (1989a). That review provided a perspective of attention given to ecological issues in some of the first RI/FS studies. By itself, that reference is of somewhat limited value; it does, however, establish a basis for comparison of past practices in ecological risk with current, more refined methods

  13. German risk study, phase (DRS-B)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Werner, W.

    1992-01-01

    The first risk investigations were primarily intended to estimate the risk of accidents in nuclear power plants and to compare it with other natural risk and civilization risks. The American reactor safety study WASH 1400 and the German risk study phase A (DRS-A) gave a detailed analyses of the offsite consequences of accidents, especially the magnitude and frequency of health damage for the population. Risk investigations today are primarily used to examine the design of safety systems and to further develop the entire safety concept. Safety investigations have shown that nuclear power plants still possess safety reserves if safety systems do not operate as planned. These safety reserves can be exploited in the sense of a further development of safety by plant internal emergency measures. One purpose of risk analyses is to identify such measures and to evaluate their feasibility and effectiveness. The most important goals of the investigations in DRS-B were: Identification of vulnerabilities and possible safety improvements; determination of safety reserves during accident sequences exceeding the design limits; evaluation of plant internal emergency measures. Thus, goals in phase B compared with phase A have changed from investigations of the magnitude of damage to detailed analysis of the plant systems response under accident conditions. The magnitude of possible fission product releases is also determined in phase B. However, no new accident consequence calculations are performed. Figs and tabs

  14. Investigating risk and protective factors to mainstream safety and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    studies investigate manifest risk and protective factors within South African universities. ... More importantly, many of these students and staff personally .... more than half of the students could not operate the fire equipment, rendering the fire ...

  15. Estimation of enhanced cancer risk with 18FDG PET/CT investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaushik, Aruna; Mishra, Anil K.; Sharma, Rajnish; Mondal, Anupam; Dwarakanath, B.S.

    2014-01-01

    18 F-Fluorodeoxyglucose ( 18 FDG) Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography (PET/CT) investigation involves internal administration of 18 FDG and use of CT X-rays for the purpose of obtaining functional and anatomical information of a patient. However, the radiation exposure from undergoing PET/CT investigation may enhance the risk of cancer incidence as per the Linear-No-Threshold (LNT) model. The objective of the present study was to quantify the risk of cancer incidence associated with radiation exposure from 18 FDG PET/CT investigations. The organ doses from internally administered 18 FDG were estimated using OLINDA/EXM Code by performing dynamic PET scans in different regions of the body in a total of forty-nine patients. Organ doses from the CT component were calculated using the software CT-Expo. The associated cancer risk was calculated in terms of life time risk of cancer incidence resulting from a specified dose of ionizing radiation and was expressed in terms of Lifetime Attributable Risk (LAR). LAR values and the organ doses estimated for males and females were used to estimate the lifetime risk of cancer incidence from whole body 18 FDG PET/CT scan. Since from 18 FDG whole body PET/CT investigations, various tissues of the body receive substantially different doses, the site specific risk of cancer incidence was estimated and summed to obtain the total risk. This was compared with the baseline lifetime risk of cancer incidence in Indian population. LAR of cancer incidence was observed to be relatively higher in females as compared to males. The risk estimates ranged from 0.36% to 0.49% for a 20 year old male and 0.58% to 0.79% for a 20 year old female and were observed to be higher in younger ages and decreased with age. 18 FDG whole body PET/CT investigation was observed to be associated with non-negligible radiation risk as compared to the risks associated with other diagnostic modalities. (author)

  16. Incidence and risk factors for surgically acquired pressure ulcers: a prospective cohort study investigators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Joan; Lister, Carolyn; Corry, Jean; Holland, Michelle; Coleman, Kerrie; Marquart, Louise

    2015-01-01

    To assess the incidence of hospital-acquired, surgery-related pressure injury (ulcers) and identify risk factors for these injuries. We used a prospective cohort study to investigate the research question. The study was conducted at a major metropolitan hospital in Brisbane, Australia. Five hundred thirty-four adult patients booked for any surgical procedure expected to last more than 30 minutes were eligible for inclusion. Patients who provided informed consent for study participation were assessed for pressure ulcers, using the European Pressure Ulcer Advisory Panel and National Pressure Ulcer Advisory Panel Guidelines, before entering the operating room and again in the post-anesthetic care unit (PACU). Research nurses and all PACU nurses were trained in skin assessment and in pressure ulcer staging. Patients were not assessed again after their discharge from the PACU. Seven patients (1.3%) had existing pressure injuries (ulcers) and a further 6 (1.3%) developed a surgery-related pressure ulcer. Risk factors associated with surgery-related pressure injuries were similar to non-surgically related risks and included older age, skin condition, and being admitted from a location other than one's own home. Length of surgery was not associated with pressure ulcer development in this cohort. Perioperative nurses play an important role in identifying existing or new pressure injuries. However, many of these nurses are unfamiliar with pressure ulcer classification, so education in this area is essential. Although the incidence of surgically acquired pressure ulcers was low in this cohort, careful skin inspection before and after surgery provides an opportunity for early treatment and may prevent existing lesions progressing to higher stages.

  17. When "Safe" Means "Dangerous": A Corpus Investigation of Risk Communication in the Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Chris; Rundblad, Gabriella

    2017-01-01

    The mass media has an important role in informing the general public about emerging health risks. Content-based studies of risk communication in the media have revealed a tendency to exaggerate risks or simplify science, but linguistic studies in this area are still scarce. This paper outlines a corpus based investigation of media reporting on the…

  18. Economic Valuation of Contamination Risks and its Effect on Site Investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Back, Paer-Erik; Rosen, Lars

    2006-01-01

    Risk management is an important part of contaminated land projects and different types of risks must be considered both during investigation and remediation phases, e.g. human health risks, ecological risks, risks for workers during remediation, and project risks. The latter can be risks associated with e.g. time delays due to technical or juridical problems, or failure of remediation techniques. To provide cost-efficient management of remediation projects, there is an incentive for economic valuation of the risk reduction provided by further investigation or remedial actions. The purpose of this paper is (1) to describe problems and possibilities with economic valuation of risk reductions, and (2) to illustrate how different valuation perspectives affect the extent of investigations. A decision analysis model is presented for integrating the valuation of health, ecological, and project risks

  19. Economic Valuation of Contamination Risks and its Effect on Site Investigations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Back, Paer-Erik; Rosen, Lars [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden). Dept. of Civil Engineering

    2006-09-15

    Risk management is an important part of contaminated land projects and different types of risks must be considered both during investigation and remediation phases, e.g. human health risks, ecological risks, risks for workers during remediation, and project risks. The latter can be risks associated with e.g. time delays due to technical or juridical problems, or failure of remediation techniques. To provide cost-efficient management of remediation projects, there is an incentive for economic valuation of the risk reduction provided by further investigation or remedial actions. The purpose of this paper is (1) to describe problems and possibilities with economic valuation of risk reductions, and (2) to illustrate how different valuation perspectives affect the extent of investigations. A decision analysis model is presented for integrating the valuation of health, ecological, and project risks.

  20. German risk study of PWR's

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kafka, P.

    1983-01-01

    In this paper, first the status of German Risk Study is presented briefly. Specific reference is made to the investigations in Phase B of the study and related programs. Significant elements involved in the risk assessment for NPPs, mainly in the field of system and structural reliability analyses are mentioned. In particular, important outcomes and limiting facts in the process of a Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) to evaluate the safety standard and above all the influence of individual components or subsystems on core melt frequency are discussed. (orig.)

  1. Risk management study for the retired Hanford Site facilities: Risk management executive summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coles, G.A.; Shultz, M.V.; Taylor, W.E.

    1994-02-01

    This document provides a cost-comparison evaluation for implementing certain risk-reduction measures and their effect on the overall risk of the 100 and 200 Area retired, surplus facilities. The evaluation is based on conditions that existed at the time the risk evaluation team performed facility investigations, and does not acknowledge risk-reduction measures that occurred soon after risk identification. This evaluation is one part of an overall risk management study for these facilities. The retired facilities investigated for this evaluation are located in the 100 and 200 Areas of the 1450-km 2 Hanford Site. The Hanford Site is a semiarid tract of land in southeastern Washington State. The nearest population center is Richland, Washington, (population 32,000) 30 km southeast of the 200 Area. This document is the first in a four volume series that comprise the risk management study for the retired, surplus facilities. Volume 2 is the risk evaluation work procedure; volume 3 provides the results for the risk evaluation; and volume 4 is the risk-reduction cost comparison

  2. What is the purpose of risk studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birkhofer, A.

    1986-01-01

    Over the past few years, more or less comprehensive risk analyses have been carried out for numerous nuclear power plants, especially in the USA. The first risk studies conducted, especially the Rasmussen Study and the 'German Risk Study,' investigated sequences of accidents up to their environmental impacts. Risk studies today are focused mostly on assessments of technical safety, which is why they are extended only as far as the determination of core meltdown frequencies or radionuclide releases. Studies of this type are also called probabilistic safety analyses. (orig.) [de

  3. An Investigation into the Decision Makers's Risk Attitude Index ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An Investigation into the Decision Makers's Risk Attitude Index Ranking Technique for Fuzzy Critical Path Analysis. ... Nigerian Journal of Technology ... for a benchmark problem, the decision maker's risk attitude index ranking method produces unrealistic results when the decision maker's attitude towards risk was neutral.

  4. Developing a synthetic national population to investigate the impact of different cardiovascular disease risk management strategies: A derivation and validation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Josh; Wells, Susan; Marshall, Roger; Exeter, Daniel; Jackson, Rod

    2017-01-01

    Many national cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factor management guidelines now recommend that drug treatment decisions should be informed primarily by patients' multi-variable predicted risk of CVD, rather than on the basis of single risk factor thresholds. To investigate the potential impact of treatment guidelines based on CVD risk thresholds at a national level requires individual level data representing the multi-variable CVD risk factor profiles for a country's total adult population. As these data are seldom, if ever, available, we aimed to create a synthetic population, representing the joint CVD risk factor distributions of the adult New Zealand population. A synthetic population of 2,451,278 individuals, representing the actual age, gender, ethnicity and social deprivation composition of people aged 30-84 years who completed the 2013 New Zealand census was generated using Monte Carlo sampling. Each 'synthetic' person was then probabilistically assigned values of the remaining cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors required for predicting their CVD risk, based on data from the national census national hospitalisation and drug dispensing databases and a large regional cohort study, using Monte Carlo sampling and multiple imputation. Where possible, the synthetic population CVD risk distributions for each non-demographic risk factor were validated against independent New Zealand data sources. We were able to develop a synthetic national population with realistic multi-variable CVD risk characteristics. The construction of this population is the first step in the development of a micro-simulation model intended to investigate the likely impact of a range of national CVD risk management strategies that will inform CVD risk management guideline updates in New Zealand and elsewhere.

  5. CRRIS: a computerized radiological risk-investigation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baes, C.F. III; Miller, C.W.

    1981-01-01

    The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is responsible for regulating radioactive airborne effluents in the US. A comprehensive, integrated Computerized Radiological Risk Investigation System (CRRIS) is being developed to support EPA's radiation standards development. This modular system consists primarily of five computer codes and their supporting data bases for estimating environmental transport and radiation doses and risks. Health effects are estimated on the basis of a life-table methodology developed by EPA. CRRIS is designed to provide EPA with a reasonable and flexible way of assessing the risk to man associated with radionuclide releases to the atmosphere

  6. Investigating the effect of corporate governance on risk of private banks and insurance firms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Taghavi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an empirical investigation to study the effects of corporate governance on risk taking of private insurance firms and banks in Iran. The proposed study of this paper considers the financial information of 13 banks and 19 private insurance firms over the period 2006-2011 in Iran. The study investigates the effects of five variables including size, CEO duality task, composition of the board of directors, ownership concentration and having an internal auditing system on risk taking of private banks and insurance firms in Iran. Using some panel data and regression analysis, the study confirms the positive effect of the ownership concentration as well as negative impact of non-bound board members on risk taking.

  7. Lack of controlled studies investigating the risk of postpartum haemorrhage in cesarean delivery after prior use of oxytocin: a scoping review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bischoff, Karin; Nothacker, Monika; Lehane, Cornelius; Lang, Britta; Meerpohl, Joerg; Schmucker, Christine

    2017-11-29

    Postpartum haemorrhage (PPH) is a major cause of maternal mortality and morbidity worldwide. Experimental and clinical studies indicate that prolonged oxytocin exposure in the first or second stage of labour may be associated with impaired uterine contractility and an increased risk of atonic PPH. Therefore, particularly labouring women requiring cesarean delivery constitute a subset of patients that may exhibit an unpredictable response to oxytocin. We mapped the evidence for comparative studies investigating the hypothesis whether the risk for PPH is increased in women requiring cesarean section after induction or augmentation of labour. We performed a systematic literature search for clinical trials in Medline, Embase, Web of Science, and the Cochrane Library (May 2016). Additionally we searched for ongoing or unpublished trials in clinicaltrials.gov and the WHO registry platform. We identified a total of 36 controlled trials investigating the exogenous use of oxytocin in cesarean section. Data were extracted for study key characteristics and the current literature literature was described narratively. Our evidence map shows that the majority of studies investigating the outcome PPH focused on prophylactic oxytocin use compared to other uterotonic agents in the third stage of labour. Only 2 dose-response studies investigated the required oxytocin dose to prevent uterine atony after cesarean delivery for labour arrest. These studies support the hypotheses that labouring women exposed to exogenous oxytocin require a higher oxytocin dose after delivery than non-labouring women to prevent uterine atony after cesarean section. However, the study findings are flawed by limitations of the study design as well as the outcome selection. No clinical trial was identified that directly compared exogenous oxytocin versus no oxytocin application before intrapartum cesarean delivery. Despite some evidence from dose-response studies that the use of oxytocin may increase the

  8. Dietary flavonoid and lignan intake and gastric adenocarcinoma risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study123

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zamora-Ros, Raul; Agudo, Antonio; Luján-Barroso, Leila

    2012-01-01

    Background: Several experimental studies have suggested potential anticarcinogenic effects of flavonoids, although epidemiologic evidence for the impact of dietary flavonoids on risk of gastric cancer (GC) is limited.Objective: We investigated the association between intake of dietary flavonoids...... and lignans and incident GC.Design: The study followed 477,312 subjects (29.8% men) aged 35–70 y from 10 European countries who participated in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study. Validated dietary questionnaires and lifestyle information were collected at baseline...

  9. Investigation of the influence of modified parameters in the atmospheric dispersion model on the results of the German Risk Study (DRS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vogt, S.; Wittek, P.

    1982-04-01

    A substantial criterion in preparing Phase A of the German Risk Study was its comparability with the U. S. Reactor Safety Study. Therefore, a number of basic assumptions and methodological principles were to be identical with those adopted in the American study. For Phase B of the German Risk Study improvements of the method will be used to a greater extent and recent results of research work taken into account. A first step in this direction will consists in investigating the influence exerted by modified parameters in the dispersion submodel. The other parameters, besides dry and wet deposition, are the height of the mixing layer, the dispersion parameters and the wind direction. Furthermore, the degree will be studied at which the selection of weather sequences have an influence on the collective risks. All results indicated will be related to the results obtained in Phase A. (orig.) [de

  10. Study on risk factors of PWR accidents beyond design basis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, Seung Hoon; Nah, W. J.; Bang, Y. S.; Oh, D. Y.; Oh, S. H.

    2005-01-01

    Development of the regulatory guidelines for Beyond Design Basis Accidents (BDBA) with high risk requires a detailed investigation of major factors contributing to the event risk. In this study, each event was classified by the level of risk, based on the probabilistic safety assessment results, so that BDBA with high risk could be selected, with consideration of foreign and domestic regulations, and operating experiences. The regulatory requirements and technical backgrounds for the selected accidents were investigated, and effective regulatory approaches for risk reduction of the accidents. The following conclusions were drawn from this study: - Selected high risk BDBA is station blackout, anticipated without scram, total loss of feedwater. - Major contributors to the risk of selected events were investigated, and appropriate assessment of them was recommended for development of the regulatory guidelines

  11. Investigation of zoonotic infections in risk groups in Ordu University ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Investigation of zoonotic infections in risk groups in Ordu University Hospital, Turkey. ... Aims: Zoonotic diseases, which are a major public health problem in our city, have a negative impact on public health and also cause economic losses due to yield losses of animals and deaths. This study was carried out to determine ...

  12. Endogenous versus exogenous exposure to N-nitroso compounds and gastric cancer risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC-EURGAST) study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jakszyn, Paula; Bingham, Sheila A; Pera, Guillem; Agudo, Antonio; Luben, Robert; Welch, Ailsa; Boeing, Heiner; Giudice, Giuseppe del; Palli, Domenico; Saieva, Calogero; Krogh, Vittorio; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Tumino, Rosario; Panico, Salvatore; Berglund, Göran; Simán, Henrik; Hallmans, Göran; Sanchez, María José; Larrañaga, Nerea; Barricarte, Aurelio; Chirlaque, María-Dolores; Quirós, José Ramón; Key, Timothy J; Allen, Naomi E; Lund, Eiliv; Carneiro, Fátima; Linseisen, Jakob; Nagel, Gabriele; Overvad, Kim; Tjønneland, Anne; Olsen, Anja; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas; Ocké, Marga C; Peeters, Petra H M; Numans, Mattijs E; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Fenger, Claus; Stenling, Roger; Ferrari, Pietro; Jenab, Mazda; Norat, Teresa; Riboli, Elio; González, Carlos Alberto

    2006-01-01

    The risk of gastric cancer (GC) associated with dietary intake of nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) and endogenous formation of nitroso compounds (NOCs) was investigated in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). The study included 521,457 individuals and 314 incident

  13. Endogenous versus exogenous exposure to N-Nitroso compounds and gastric cancer risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC-EURGAST) study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jakszyn, P.; Bingham, S.; Pera, G.; Agudo, A.; Luben, R.; Welch, A.; Boeing, H.; Giudice, G. del; Palli, D.; Saieva, C.; Krogh, V.; Sacerdote, C.; Tumino, R.; Panico, S.; Berglund, G.; Simán, H.; Hallmans, G.; Sanchez, M.J.; Larrañaga, N.; Barricarte, A.; Chirlaque, M.D.; Quirós, J.R.; Key, T.J.; Allen, N.; Lund, E.; Carneiro, F.; Linseisen, J.; Nagel, G.; Overvad, K.; Tjønneland, A.; Olsen, A.; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H.B.; Ocké, M.O.; Peeters, P.H.M.; Numans, M.E.; Clavel-Chapelon, F.; Trichopoulou, A.; Fenger, C.; Stenling, R.; Ferrari, P.; Jenab, M.; Norat, T.; Riboli, E.; Gonzalez, C.A.

    The risk of gastric cancer (GC) associated with dietary intake of Nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) and endogenous formation of Nitroso compounds (NOCs) was investigated in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). The study included 521,457 individuals and 314 incident

  14. Basic aspects and results of the German risk study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bayer, A.; Heuser, F.W.

    1981-01-01

    This article presents an overview of the investigations and results of the German Risk Study (Phase A). Similar to its American counterpart [Reactor Safety Study (WASH-1400)], the German Risk Study assesses the societal risks associated with potential accidents in nuclear power plants sited in the Federal Republic of Germany. The technical part of the analysis was performed for a representative pressurized-water-reactor nuclear power plant of the 1300-MW(e) class. For the risk assessment, 19 sites were considered, with a total of 25 reactor units presently in operation, under construction, or undergoing the licensing procedure. In the spring of 1981 a translation of the main report [German Risk Study-Main Report (EPRI-NP-1804-SR)], including the investigations and results of Phase A, was published by the Electric Power Research Institute

  15. Remedial investigation/feasibility study of the Clinch River/Poplar Creek Operable Unit. Volume 3. Risk assessment information. Appendixes E, F

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    This report presents the findings of an investigation into contamination of the Clinch River and Poplar Creek near the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) in eastern Tennessee. For more than 50 years, various hazardous and radioactive substances have been released to the environment as a result of operations and waste management activities at the ORR. In 1989, the ORR was placed on the National Priorities List (NPL), established and maintained under the federal Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA). Under CERCLA, NPL sites must be investigated to determine the nature and extent of contamination at the site, assess the risk to human health and the environment posed by the site, and, if necessary, identify feasible remedial alternatives that could be used to clean the site and reduce risk. To facilitate the overall environmental restoration effort at the ORR, CERCLA activities are being implemented individually as distinct operable units (OUs). This document is Volume 3 of the combined Remedial Investigation and Feasibility Study Report for the Clinch River/Poplar Creek OU.

  16. Investigating the feasibility of municipal risk pooling as an ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Investigating the feasibility of municipal risk pooling as an adaptation finance measure. Climate change-related insurance products have been commonly used to manage the risks from climate hazards over the last few years. However, traditional insurance has not been effective for low-frequency, high-severity events.

  17. Protein supplements and adolescent athletes: A pilot study investigating the risk knowledge, motivations and prevalence of use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehouse, Gavin; Lawlis, Tanya

    2017-11-01

    Protein-based sports supplements are among the more common types of nutrition supplements consumed by athletes; however, there is currently limited data investigating the knowledge, motivations and occurrence of use among the adolescent population (13-18 years). This pilot study looks to obtain initial data regarding the use of protein supplements in this population. This study investigates the understanding and occurrence of protein supplement use in 87 adolescent athletes based in an Australian capital city who compete in a variety of sports. Sources of information, regularity of use, purchasing habits, associated risk knowledge and supplement beliefs were examined using a self-reported, written questionnaire. A total of 60% (n = 52) of athletes reported using protein supplements, with a positive relationship between age and use (P supplement consumption, with the most common risk reported as 'I don't know' (22%). Coaches were found to initiate protein supplement use more than other figures in the athlete's life (50%) and were the primary source of information regarding supplements (58%). It was found that 19% of adolescent athletes obtained information about protein supplements from the Internet, and 17% of all consumers purchase their supplements online. The evident lack of knowledge regarding protein supplements demonstrates a necessity for further education of athletes, coaches and families regarding the responsible purchasing and use of protein supplements in the current landscape of sports nutrition. Future research should further explore the role of the Internet in protein supplement purchase and education. © 2017 Dietitians Association of Australia.

  18. Remedial investigation/feasibility study of the Clinch River/Poplar Creek operable unit. Volume 3: Appendixes E and F -- Risk assessment information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-06-01

    This report presents the findings of an investigation into contamination of the Clinch River and Poplar Creek near the US Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) in eastern Tennessee. For more than 50 years, various hazardous and radioactive substances have been released to the environment as a result of operations and waste management activities at the ORR. In 1989, the ORR was placed on the National Priorities List (NPL), established and maintained under the federal Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA). Under CERCLA, NPL sites must be investigated to determine the nature and extent of contamination at the site, assess the risk to human health and the environment posed by the site, and, if necessary, identify feasible remedial alternatives that could be used to clean the site and reduce risk. To facilitate the overall environmental restoration effort at the ORR, CERCLA activities are being implemented individually as distinct operable units (OUs). This document is the combined Remedial Investigation and Feasibility Study Report for the Clinch River/Poplar Creek OU.

  19. Personality, risk aversion and speeding: an empirical investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greaves, Stephen P; Ellison, Adrian B

    2011-09-01

    Evidence suggests that in addition to demographics, there are strong relationships between facets of drivers' personality (e.g., aggression, thrill-seeking, altruism), aversion to risk and driving behaviour, particularly speeding. However, evidence is muted by the reliance on self-reported driving behaviour, which is thought to not accurately reflect actual driving behaviour. This paper reports on a study of 133 drivers in Sydney, who were asked to complete a short survey to develop their personality and risk aversion profiles and self-reported speeding behaviour. A Global Positioning System (GPS) device was then installed in their vehicle for several weeks as part of a major investigation of driving behaviour from which empirical measures of speeding are derived. Among the most pertinent findings are: (1) the tendency for drivers to both under and over-estimate their propensity to speed, (2) significant heterogeneity in speeding with a small, but notable number of drivers exceeding the limit for more than 20 percent of the distance driven, (3) weak relationships between the personality/risk-aversion measures and actual speeding, and (4) the suggestion that different personality traits appear to influence behaviour in different situations both from self-reported and actual speeding behaviour. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Radiation Dose Risk and Diagnostic Benefit in Imaging Investigations

    OpenAIRE

    Dobrescu, Lidia; Rădulescu, Gheorghe-Cristian

    2015-01-01

    The paper presents many facets of medical imaging investigations radiological risks. The total volume of prescribed medical investigations proves a serious lack in monitoring and tracking of the cumulative radiation doses in many health services. Modern radiological investigations equipment is continuously reducing the total dose of radiation due to improved technologies, so a decrease in per caput dose can be noticed, but the increasing number of investigations has determined a net increase ...

  1. An Investigation into Risks Awareness and E-Safety Needs of Children on the Internet: A Study of Devon, UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annansingh, Fenio; Veli, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to investigate children interaction in cyberspace and their use of Web 2.0 technologies. It sought their perception of internet risks as well as their knowledge and experience with electronic safety (e-safety) measures. It also considered parents', teachers' and other stakeholders' perception of internet risks, e-safety…

  2. Models and mosaics: investigating cross-cultural differences in risk perception and risk preference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, E U; Hsee, C K

    1999-12-01

    In this article, we describe a multistudy project designed to explain observed cross-national differences in risk taking between respondents from the People's Republic of China and the United States. Using this example, we develop the following recommendations for cross-cultural investigations. First, like all psychological research, cross-cultural studies should be model based. Investigators should commit themselves to a model of the behavior under study that explicitly specifies possible causal constructs or variables hypothesized to influence the behavior, as well as the relationship between those variables, and allows for individual, group, or cultural differences in the value of these variables or in the relationship between them. This moves the focus from a simple demonstration of cross-national differences toward a prediction of the behavior, including its cross-national variation. Ideally, the causal construct hypothesized and shown to differ between cultures should be demonstrated to serve as a moderator or a mediator between culture and observed behavioral differences. Second, investigators should look for converging evidence for hypothesized cultural effects on behavior by looking at multiple dependent variables and using multiple methodological approaches. Thus, the data collection that will allow for the establishment of conclusive causal connections between a cultural variable and some target behavior can be compared with the creation of a mosaic.

  3. Healthy lifestyle and risk of breast cancer among postmenopausal women in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie, Fiona; Ferrari, Pietro; Freisling, Heinz; Chajès, Veronique; Rinaldi, Sabina; de Batlle, Jordi; Dahm, Christina C; Overvad, Kim; Baglietto, Laura; Dartois, Laureen; Dossus, Laure; Lagiou, Pagona; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Krogh, Vittorio; Panico, Salvatore; Tumino, Rosario; Rosso, Stefano; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H B As; May, Anne; Peeters, Petra H; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Buckland, Genevieve; Sanchez, Maria-Jose; Navarro, Carmen; Ardanaz, Eva; Andersson, Anne; Sund, Malin; Ericson, Ulrika; Wirfält, Elisabet; Key, Tim J; Travis, Ruth C; Gunter, Marc; Riboli, Elio; Vergnaud, Anne-Claire; Romieu, Isabelle

    2015-06-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer among women and prevention strategies are needed to reduce incidence worldwide. A healthy lifestyle index score (HLIS) was generated to investigate the joint effect of modifiable lifestyle factors on postmenopausal breast cancer risk. The study included 242,918 postmenopausal women from the multinational European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort, with detailed information on diet and lifestyle assessed at baseline. The HLIS was constructed from five factors (diet, physical activity, smoking, alcohol consumption and anthropometry) by assigning scores of 0-4 to categories of each component, for which higher values indicate healthier behaviours. Hazard ratios (HR) were estimated by Cox proportional regression models. During 10.9 years of median follow-up, 7,756 incident breast cancer cases were identified. There was a 3% lower risk of breast cancer per point increase of the HLIS. Breast cancer risk was inversely associated with a high HLIS when fourth versus second (reference) categories were compared [adjusted HR = 0.74; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.66-0.83]. The fourth versus the second category of the HLIS was associated with a lower risk for hormone receptor double positive (adjusted HR = 0.81, 95% CI: 0.67-0.98) and hormone receptor double negative breast cancer (adjusted HR = 0.60, 95% CI: 0.40-0.90). Findings suggest having a high score on an index of combined healthy behaviours reduces the risk of developing breast cancer among postmenopausal women. Programmes which engage women in long term health behaviours should be supported. © 2014 UICC.

  4. Racing risk, gendering responsibility: a qualitative study of how ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Individuals' perceptions of risk have implications for whether and how they engage with protective strategies. This study investigated how sexual risk, specifically HIV and pregnancy and responsibility for these risks were constructed in discussions across five groups of youth in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. The qualitative ...

  5. German risk study on nuclear power stations. Phase B

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-11-01

    The German Risk Study on Nuclear Power Stations is concerned with investigations of accidents in nuclear facilities and their associated risks. These investigations are undertaken on behalf of the federal Minister of Research and Technology. They have been broken down into two phases (Phase A and Phase B). The results of Phase A were published in 1979 (GRS 79). This report contains a summary of the investigations relating to Phase B. After an introduction setting out the basic principles and aim of the study, a general review will be given of the most important results. The course of the investigations and the results have already been published in a Technical Report (GRS 89). (author)

  6. Plasma carotenoids, vitamin C, retinol and tocopherols levels and pancreatic cancer risk within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition: a nested case-control study: plasma micronutrients and pancreatic cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeurnink, Suzanne M; Ros, Martine M; Leenders, Max; van Duijnhoven, Franzel J B; Siersema, Peter D; Jansen, Eugene H J M; van Gils, Carla H; Bakker, Marije F; Overvad, Kim; Roswall, Nina; Tjønneland, Anne; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Racine, Antoine; Cadeau, Claire; Grote, Verena; Kaaks, Rudolf; Aleksandrova, Krasimira; Boeing, Heiner; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Benetou, Vasiliki; Valanou, Elisavet; Palli, Domenico; Krogh, Vittorio; Vineis, Paolo; Tumino, Rosario; Mattiello, Amalia; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Skeie, Guri; Castaño, José María Huerta; Duell, Eric J; Barricarte, Aurelio; Molina-Montes, Esther; Argüelles, Marcial; Dorronsoro, Mire; Johansen, Dorthe; Lindkvist, Björn; Sund, Malin; Crowe, Francesca L; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Jenab, Mazda; Fedirko, Veronika; Riboli, E; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H B

    2015-03-15

    Evidence of a protective effect of several antioxidants and other nutrients on pancreatic cancer risk is inconsistent. The aim of this study was to investigate the association for prediagnostic plasma levels of carotenoids, vitamin C, retinol and tocopherols with risk of pancreatic cancer in a case-control study nested within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). 446 incident exocrine pancreatic cancer cases were matched to 446 controls by age at blood collection, study center, sex, date and time of blood collection, fasting status and hormone use. Plasma carotenoids (α- and β-carotene, lycopene, β-cryptoxanthin, canthaxanthin, zeaxanthin and lutein), α- and γ-tocopherol and retinol were measured by reverse phase high-performance liquid chromatography and plasma vitamin C by a colorimetric assay. Incidence rate ratios (IRRs) with 95% confidence intervals (95%CIs) for pancreatic cancer risk were estimated using a conditional logistic regression analysis, adjusted for smoking status, smoking duration and intensity, waist circumference, cotinine levels and diabetes status. Inverse associations with pancreatic cancer risk were found for plasma β-carotene (IRR highest vs. lowest quartile 0.52, 95%CI 0.31-0.88, p for trend = 0.02), zeaxanthin (IRR highest vs. lowest quartile 0.53, 95%CI 0.30-0.94, p for trend = 0.06) and α-tocopherol (IRR highest vs. lowest quartile 0.62, 95%CI 0.39-0.99, p for trend = 0.08. For α- and β-carotene, lutein, sum of carotenoids and γ-tocopherol, heterogeneity between geographical regions was observed. In conclusion, our results show that higher plasma concentrations of β-carotene, zeaxanthin and α-tocopherol may be inversely associated with risk of pancreatic cancer, but further studies are warranted. © 2014 UICC.

  7. Investigating maternal risk factors as potential targets of intervention to reduce socioeconomic inequality in small for gestational age: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayward, Irene; Malcoe, Lorraine Halinka; Cleathero, Lesley A; Janssen, Patricia A; Lanphear, Bruce P; Hayes, Michael V; Mattman, Andre; Pampalon, Robert; Venners, Scott A

    2012-06-13

    The major aim of this study was to investigate whether maternal risk factors associated with socioeconomic status and small for gestational age (SGA) might be viable targets of interventions to reduce differential risk of SGA by socioeconomic status (socioeconomic SGA inequality) in the metropolitan area of Vancouver, Canada. This study included 59,039 live, singleton births in the Vancouver Census Metropolitan Area (Vancouver) from January 1, 2006 to September 17, 2009. To identify an indicator of socioeconomic SGA inequality, we used hierarchical logistic regression to model SGA by area-level variables from the Canadian census. We then modelled SGA by area-level average income plus established maternal risk factors for SGA and calculated population attributable SGA risk percentages (PAR%) for each variable. Associations of maternal risk factors for SGA with average income were investigated to identify those that might contribute to SGA inequality. Finally, we estimated crude reductions in the percentage and absolute differences in SGA risks between highest and lowest average income quintiles that would result if interventions on maternal risk factors successfully equalized them across income levels or eliminated them altogether. Average income produced the most linear and statistically significant indicator of socioeconomic SGA inequality with 8.9% prevalence of SGA in the lowest income quintile compared to 5.6% in the highest. The adjusted PAR% of SGA for variables were: bottom four quintiles of height (51%), first birth (32%), bottom four quintiles of average income (14%), oligohydramnios (7%), underweight or hypertension, (6% each), smoking (3%) and placental disorder (1%). Shorter height, underweight and smoking during pregnancy had higher prevalence in lower income groups. Crude models assuming equalization of risk factors across income levels or elimination altogether indicated little potential change in relative socioeconomic SGA inequality and reduction

  8. A national epidemiological study investigating risk factors for police interrogation and false confession among juveniles and young persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudjonsson, Gisli H; Sigurdsson, Jon Fridrik; Sigfusdottir, Inga Dora; Asgeirsdottir, Bryndis Bjork; González, Rafael A; Young, Susan

    2016-03-01

    The principal aims of this study are to identify risk factors associated with police arrest and false confessions and to investigate whether the severity of the ADHD condition/symptoms increases the risk. 22,226 young persons in Iceland anonymously completed self-report questionnaires screening for conduct disorder and ADHD. In addition, they stated whether they had a diagnosis of ADHD and had received ADHD medication, and their history of offending, police interrogation and false confession. Participants were stratified into two age groups, 14-16 and 17-24 years. The older group was significantly more likely to have been interrogated by the police but the younger group were much more vulnerable to false confession during interrogation. Males were more likely to be at risk for both than females. The severity of the ADHD condition increased the risk of both interrogation and false confession. Negative binomial regressions showed that age, gender, conduct disorder, offending, and ADHD symptoms were all significant predictors of both interrogations and number of false confessions. Conduct disorder was the single best predictor of police interrogation, but the findings were more mixed regarding false confessions. Young people presenting with a combination of severe ADHD and comorbid conduct disorder had the worst outcome for both interrogation and false confessions. The findings endorse the need for support of persons with ADHD to be put in place to ensure fair due process and to prevent miscarriages of justice.

  9. [Dynamic investigation of nutritional risk in patients with malignant tumor during hospitalization].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, M W; Wei, J M; Chen, W; Yang, X; Cui, H Y; Zhu, S N; Zhang, P P; Xiong, J; Zheng, D F; Song, H J; Liang, X Y; Zhang, L; Xu, W Y; Wang, H B; Su, G Q; Feng, L J; Chen, T; Wu, Y D; Li, H; Sun, J Q; Shi, Y; Tong, B D; Zhou, S M; Wang, X Y; Huang, Y H; Zhang, B M; Xu, J; Zhang, H Y; Chang, G L; Jia, Z Y; Chen, S F; Hu, J; Zhang, X W; Wang, H; Li, Z D; Gao, Y Y; Gui, B

    2018-04-10

    Objective: To prospectively investigate the changes in nutritional status of patients with malignant tumors during hospitalization by using nutritional risk screening (NRS2002), and to analyze the correlation between the nutritional status and clinical outcomes . Methods: This was a prospective and parallel research done by multi-center collaboration from 34 hospitals in China from June to September 2014.Hospitalized patients with malignant tumors inthese departments (Department of Gastroenterology, respiratory medicine, oncology, general surgery, thoracic surgery and geriatrics)were investigated. Only the patients with age≥ 18 years and hospitalization time between 7-30 days were included. During hospitalization, the physical indexes of human bodywere measured, and the NRS 2002 scores, and monitored the nutritional support at the time points of admission and 24 hours before discharge were recorded.And whether there was a nutritional risk in hospitalized patients and its association with clinical outcomes were investigated. Results: A total of 2 402 patients with malignancies were enrolled in this study. Seventy fourpatients who did not complete NRS2002 were eliminated, and 2 328 patients were included. The number of the main diseases was the top five, including 587 cases of colorectal cancer, 567 cases of lung cancer, 564 cases of gastric cancer, 146 cases of esophageal cancer, and 119 cases of liver tumor. At the time of discharge, compared with admission, the BMI, body weight, grip and calf circumferences of patients with malignant tumor were significantly decreased ( P nutritional risk screening, the rate of malnutrition at admission was 11.1% (BMI =18.5, 258/2 328) and the rate of malnutrition at discharge was 10.9% (BMI =18.5, 254/2 328), there were no significant differences (χ(2)=0.019 7, P =0.888). There were 1 204 patients with nutritional risk at admission (51.7%, NRS2002 score≥3)and 1 352 patients with nutritional risk at discharge (58.1%, NRS2002

  10. Indoor air quality investigation and health risk assessment at correctional institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ofungwu, Joseph

    2005-04-01

    A comprehensive indoor air-quality (IAQ) investigation was conducted at a state correctional facility in New Jersey, USA with a lengthy history of IAQ problems. The IAQ investigation comprised preliminary indoor air screening using direct readout instrumentation, indoor air/surface wipe sampling and laboratory analysis, as well as a heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning system evaluation, and a building envelope survey. In addition to air sampling, a human health risk assessment was performed to evaluate the potential for exposure to site-related air contaminants with respect to the inmate and worker populations. The risk assessment results for the prison facility indicated the potential for significant health risks for the inmate population, possibly reflecting the effects of their confinement and extended exposure to indoor air contaminants, as compared to the prison guard and worker population. Based on the results of the risk assessment, several mitigation measures are recommended to minimize prison population health risks and improve indoor air quality at prison facilities.

  11. Main results of the German risk study - phase B

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heuser, F.W.

    1987-01-01

    To start the author introduces briefly some comments on main tasks and objectives of risk analysises which at least after the Chernobyl accident should be emphasized more explicitly. Following on some main results of the system - and accident event tree analysis of the German Risk Study, Phase B, are summarized. The second part of this paper deals with the analysis of core melt accidents performed in context of the study. Hetero investigations on the hydrogen problem and investigations on containment venting after a core melt accident will be discussed in more detail

  12. Coffee, tea and melanoma risk: findings from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caini, Saverio; Masala, Giovanna; Saieva, Calogero; Kvaskoff, Marina; Savoye, Isabelle; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Hemmingsson, Oskar; Hammer Bech, Bodil; Overvad, Kim; Tjønneland, Anne; Petersen, Kristina E N; Mancini, Francesca Romana; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Cervenka, Iris; Kaaks, Rudolf; Kühn, Tilman; Boeing, Heiner; Floegel, Anna; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Valanou, Elisavet; Kritikou, Maria; Tagliabue, Giovanna; Panico, Salvatore; Tumino, Rosario; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H B As; Peeters, Petra H; Veierød, Marit B; Ghiasvand, Reza; Lukic, Marko; Quirós, José Ramón; Chirlaque, Maria-Dolores; Ardanaz, Eva; Salamanca Fernández, Elena; Larrañaga, Nerea; Zamora-Ros, Raul; Maria Nilsson, Lena; Ljuslinder, Ingrid; Jirström, Karin; Sonestedt, Emily; Key, Timothy J; Wareham, Nick; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Gunter, Marc; Huybrechts, Inge; Murphy, Neil; Tsilidis, Konstantinos K; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Palli, Domenico

    2017-05-15

    In vitro and animal studies suggest that bioactive constituents of coffee and tea may have anticarcinogenic effects against cutaneous melanoma; however, epidemiological evidence is limited to date. We examined the relationships between coffee (total, caffeinated or decaffeinated) and tea consumption and risk of melanoma in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). EPIC is a multicentre prospective study that enrolled over 500,000 participants aged 25-70 years from ten European countries in 1992-2000. Information on coffee and tea drinking was collected at baseline using validated country-specific dietary questionnaires. We used adjusted Cox proportional hazards regression models to calculate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) for the associations between coffee and tea consumption and melanoma risk. Overall, 2,712 melanoma cases were identified during a median follow-up of 14.9 years among 476,160 study participants. Consumption of caffeinated coffee was inversely associated with melanoma risk among men (HR for highest quartile of consumption vs. non-consumers 0.31, 95% CI 0.14-0.69) but not among women (HR 0.96, 95% CI 0.62-1.47). There were no statistically significant associations between consumption of decaffeinated coffee or tea and the risk of melanoma among both men and women. The consumption of caffeinated coffee was inversely associated with melanoma risk among men in this large cohort study. Further investigations are warranted to confirm our findings and clarify the possible role of caffeine and other coffee compounds in reducing the risk of melanoma. © 2017 UICC.

  13. Dietary flavonoid and lignan intake and breast cancer risk according to menopause and hormone receptor status in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zamora-Ros, Raul; Ferrari, Pietro; González, Carlos A.

    2013-01-01

    Evidence on the association between dietary flavonoids and lignans and breast cancer (BC) risk is inconclusive, with the possible exception of isoflavones in Asian countries. Therefore, we investigated prospectively dietary total and subclasses of flavonoid and lignan intake and BC risk according...... to menopause and hormonal receptor status in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort. The study included 334,850 women, mostly aged between 35 and 70 years from ten European countries. At baseline, country-specific validated dietary questionnaires were used. A flavonoid...

  14. An Empirical Investigation of Risk-Return Relations in Chinese Equity Markets: Evidence from Aggregate and Sectoral Data

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas C. Chiang; Yuanqing Zhang

    2018-01-01

    This paper investigates the risk-return relations in Chinese equity markets. Based on a TARCH-M model, evidence shows that stock returns are positively correlated with predictable volatility, supporting the risk-return relation in both aggregate and sectoral markets. Evidence finds a positive relation between stock return and intertemporal downside risk, while controlling for sentiment and liquidity. This study suggests that the U.S. stress risk or the world downside risk should be priced int...

  15. Investigation of risk management auditing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao Lu

    2012-01-01

    2004, COSO published 'Enterprise Risk Management Framework', 2009, SASAC issued the 'central enterprise-wide risk management guidelines' to promote risk management within the formal state-owned enterprises in medium and large. Nuclear Group, which risk management in all branches to carry out the project homeopathic, and A Ⅱ will carry out risk management program as the first unit has accumulated more experience. This article from the perspective of internal control, based on the company's risk management practices carried out to try for the nuclear power enterprise risk management audit to describe and propose new ideas. Which expounds the significance of risk management, audit, risk management audit of the ways and means, for practical application of risk management audit of a representative summary of the issues and the ways and means to solve the problem of forward-looking recommendations. (authors)

  16. Hybrid Risk Management Methodology: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacky Siu-Lun Ting

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Risk management is a decision-making process involving considerations of political, social, economic and engineering factors with relevant risk assessments relating to a potential hazard. In the last decade, a number of risk management tools are introduced and employed to manage and minimize the uncertainty and threats realization to the organizations. However, the focus of these methodologies are different; in which companies need to adopt various risk management principles to visualize a full picture of the organizational risk level. Regarding to this, this paper presents a new approach of risk management that integrates Hierarchical Holographic Modeling (HHM, Enterprise Risk Management (ERM and Business Recovery Planning (BCP for identifying and assessing risks as well as managing the consequences of realized residual risks. To illustrate the procedures of the proposed methodology, a logistic company ABC Limited is chosen to serve as a case study Through applying HHM and ERM to investigate and assess the risk, ABC Limited can be better evaluated the potential risks and then took the responsive actions (e.g. BCP to handle the risks and crisis in near future.

  17. Investigating the Impact of Financial Aid on Student Dropout Risks: Racial and Ethnic Differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Rong; DesJardins, Stephen L.

    2010-01-01

    This study focuses on the differences in college student dropout behavior among racial/ethnic groups. We employ event history methods and data from the Beginning Postsecondary Students (BPS) and National Postsecondary Student Aid Study (NPSAS) surveys to investigate how financial aid may differentially influence dropout risks among these student…

  18. A prospective investigation of predictive and modifiable risk factors for breast cancer in unaffected BRCA1 and BRCA2 gene carriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guinan, Emer M; Hussey, Juliette; McGarrigle, Sarah A; Healy, Laura A; O’Sullivan, Jacintha N; Bennett, Kathleen; Connolly, Elizabeth M

    2013-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common female cancer worldwide. The lifetime risk of a woman being diagnosed with breast cancer is approximately 12.5%. For women who carry the deleterious mutation in either of the BRCA genes, BRCA1 or BRCA2, the risk of developing breast or ovarian cancer is significantly increased. In recent years there has been increased penetrance of BRCA1 and BRCA2 associated breast cancer, prompting investigation into the role of modifiable risk factors in this group. Previous investigations into this topic have relied on participants recalling lifetime weight changes and subjective methods of recording physical activity. The influence of obesity-related biomarkers, which may explain the link between obesity, physical activity and breast cancer risk, has not been investigated prospectively in this group. This paper describes the design of a prospective cohort study investigating the role of predictive and modifiable risk factors for breast cancer in unaffected BRCA1 and BRCA2 gene mutation carriers. Participants will be recruited from breast cancer family risk clinics and genetics clinics. Lifestyle risk factors that will be investigated will include body composition, metabolic syndrome and its components, physical activity and dietary intake. PBMC telomere length will be measured as a potential predictor of breast cancer occurrence. Measurements will be completed on entry to the study and repeated at two years and five years. Participants will also be followed annually by questionnaire to track changes in risk factor status and to record cancer occurrence. Data will be analysed using multiple regression models. The study has an accrual target of 352 participants. The results from this study will provide valuable information regarding the role of modifiable lifestyle risk factors for breast cancer in women with a deleterious mutation in the BRCA gene. Additionally, the study will attempt to identify potential blood biomarkers which may be predictive

  19. Investigation of Factors Contributing to Diabetes Risk in American Indian/Alaska Native Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam-Zwart, Kayleen; Cawston, Alvina

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between family history, sedentary behaviors, and childhood risk for type 2 diabetes. Participants were 480 students attending schools on or near an American Indian reservation. Data were collected through survey and BMI measurement. Children who frequently watched television or played video games did not…

  20. Risk factors associated with lipomyelomeningocele: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esmaeili, Arash; Hanaei, Sara; Fadakar, Kaveh; Dadkhah, Sahar; Arjipour, Mahdi; Habibi, Zohreh; Nejat, Farideh; El Khashab, Mostafa

    2013-01-01

    In general, it seems that both genetic and environmental factors play important roles in the induction of neural tube defects. Lipomyelomeningocele (LipoMMC) is a rather common type of closed neural tube defect, but only limited studies have investigated the potential risk factors of this anomaly. Therefore, the purpose of this case-control study was to investigate the risk factors involved in LipoMMC formation. Various risk factors were evaluated in 35 children between 1 month and 10 years of age with LipoMMC in a hospital-based case-control study. The 2 control arms consisted of 35 children with myelomeningocele (MMC group) and 35 children with congenital anomalies other than central nervous system problems (control group). All groups were matched for age and visited the same hospital. A structured questionnaire was used for the collection of all data, including the mothers' weight and height during pregnancy, education, reproductive history, previous abortions, and socioeconomic status, as well as the parents' consanguinity and family history of the same anomalies. Univariate analysis of the children with LipoMMC compared to the control group showed that the use of periconceptional folic acid supplementation was significantly lower in the MMC and LipoMMC groups compared to the control group. In addition, comparison of the MMC and control groups revealed statistically significant differences regarding the use of folic acid and maternal obesity. In multivariate analysis, use of folic acid in the periconceptional period and during the first trimester was an independent risk factor for LipoMMC and MMC. Furthermore, maternal obesity was a significantly positive risk factor for MMC. The probable risk factors for LipoMMC were investigated in this case-control study. Consumption of folic acid in the periconceptional period and during the first trimester is an independent protective factor against LipoMMC. It seems that larger studies are needed to examine other possible

  1. Snus and risk of gastroesophageal reflux. A population-based case-control study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lie, Tina Malene; Bomme, Maria; Hveem, Kristian

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Tobacco smoking is a risk factor for gastroesophageal reflux, but whether other tobacco products increase the risk is unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate if snus increases the risk of gastroesophageal reflux symptoms (GERS). MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study was based...

  2. An Empirical Investigation of Risk-Return Relations in Chinese Equity Markets: Evidence from Aggregate and Sectoral Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas C. Chiang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the risk-return relations in Chinese equity markets. Based on a TARCH-M model, evidence shows that stock returns are positively correlated with predictable volatility, supporting the risk-return relation in both aggregate and sectoral markets. Evidence finds a positive relation between stock return and intertemporal downside risk, while controlling for sentiment and liquidity. This study suggests that the U.S. stress risk or the world downside risk should be priced into the Chinese stocks. The paper concludes that the risk-return tradeoff is present in the GARCH-in-mean, local downside risk-return, and global risk-return relations.

  3. Motives for Risk-Taking in Adolescence: A Cross-Cultural Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kloep, M.; Guney, N.; Cok, F.; Simsek, O. F.

    2009-01-01

    Most research on adolescent risk-taking has been conducted in Western societies, but it is as yet unknown whether motives to engage in risk behaviours show cultural variety. This study sets out to investigate differences in perceived motives to engage in perceived risks in Turkish and Welsh samples of young people (N = 922) between 14 and 20 years…

  4. Beyond Hurt Feelings: Investigating Why Some Victims of Bullying Are at Greater Risk for Suicidal Ideation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonanno, Rina A.; Hymel, Shelley

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated why some adolescents who are victimized through peer bullying are more negatively impacted than others. Drawing from research on peer victimization and suicidology, two theoretically derived models were investigated, one examining social hopelessness as a risk factor, the other examining social support as a protective…

  5. Investigations regarding the lowering of specific intellectual property risks identified in the production process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pakocs Ramona

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this research is to decrease the emergence of specific intellectual property risks within the production process as well as increasing risk management performance of IP by preventing them. In order to achieve this, previous studies regarding the main specific intellectual property risks from industrial companies were analyzed together with their managerial methods as well as the possibility of reducing their emergence. As a result of the research conducted were identified five types of intellectual property risks that have a high potential of emergence in the production process, namely: the risk of production of goods in violation of IP rights; the know-how, production knowledge and trade secret disclosure risk; the technological risk of unprotected utility models; the technological risk of unprotected integrated circuits topographies and finally the risk of product counterfeit. In order to achieve the main purpose of our investigation, we have proposed new formulas for estimating the specific intellectual property risks identified in the production process. Their purpose was to minimalize the risk’s negative effects on industrial companies and to increase the managerial performance from the intellectual property domain through a new type of management appropriately named: intellectual property management. The research is finalized with a case study regarding the lapse of rights of a patented invention. Based on a case analysis, it was proved that the exploitation of an invention without a contract represents a counterfeit.

  6. A study investigating the travel habits and preferences of older Australian adults with a falls risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCluskey, Annie; Thurtell, Andrew; Clemson, Lindy; Kendig, Hal

    2011-12-01

      To investigate the travel habits and preferences of city-dwelling older Australians with a falls risk, and factors influencing outings.   A retrospective cross-sectional survey was conducted with 96 community-dwelling adults with a falls risk.   The mean age of participants was 78.2 years (SD 5.33). The majority were women (77%). Most (75%) went on five or more outings per week (mean 6.9 outings). Men drove more than women (41% vs 31%). Shopping was the most common reason for outings. Walking was the most frequent mode of travel, and buses were both the easiest and most difficult. Factors that enabled bus travel included bus stop location, good services and cheap fares. Primary reasons for restricting outings were poor health, transport barriers, neighbourhood safety and personal motivation.   These older adults went out nearly every day. Findings can be used to improve transport services for older people. © 2010 The Authors. Australasian Journal on Ageing © 2010 ACOTA.

  7. Investigation of zoonotic infections in risk groups in Ordu University ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-02-15

    Feb 15, 2016 ... 2017 Nigerian Journal of Clinical Practice | Published by Wolters Kluwer - Medknow. Abstract. Aims:Zoonotic ... Investigation of zoonotic infections in risk groups in ..... of Cystic Echinococcosis in Veterinary Surgeons. Turkish ...

  8. The CoLaus study: a population-based study to investigate the epidemiology and genetic determinants of cardiovascular risk factors and metabolic syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stirnadel Heide A

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cardiovascular diseases and their associated risk factors remain the main cause of mortality in western societies. In order to assess the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors (CVRFs in the Caucasian population of Lausanne, Switzerland, we conducted a population-based study (Colaus Study. A secondary aim of the CoLaus study will be to determine new genetic determinants associated with CVRFs. Methods Single-center, cross-sectional study including a random sample of 6,188 extensively phenotyped Caucasian subjects (3,251 women and 2,937 men aged 35 to 75 years living in Lausanne, and genotyped using the 500 K Affymetrix chip technology. Results Obesity (body mass index ≥ 30 kg/m2, smoking, hypertension (blood pressure ≥ 140/90 mmHg and/or treatment, dyslipidemia (high LDL-cholesterol and/or low HDL-cholesterol and/or high triglyceride levels and diabetes (fasting plasma glucose ≥ 7 mmol/l and/or treatment were present in 947 (15.7%, 1673 (27.0%, 2268 (36.7%, 2113 (34.2% and 407 (6.6% of the participants, respectively, and the prevalence was higher in men than in women. In both genders, the prevalence of obesity, hypertension and diabetes increased with age. Conclusion The prevalence of major CVRFs is high in the Lausanne population in particular in men. We anticipate that given its size, the depth of the phenotypic analysis and the availability of dense genome-wide genetic data, the CoLaus Study will be a unique resource to investigate not only the epidemiology of isolated, or aggregated CVRFs like the metabolic syndrome, but can also serve as a discovery set, as well as replication set, to identify novel genes associated with these conditions.

  9. Inflammatory potential of the diet and risk of gastric cancer in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agudo, Antonio; Cayssials, Valerie; Bonet, Catalina

    2018-01-01

    Background: Chronic inflammation plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of the 2 major types of gastric cancer. Several foods, nutrients, and nonnutrient food components seem to be involved in the regulation of chronic inflammation. Objective: We assessed the association between the inflammatory...... potential of the diet and the risk of gastric carcinoma, overall and for the 2 major subsites: cardia cancers and noncardia cancers. Design: A total of 476,160 subjects (30% men, 70% women) from the European Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study were followed for 14 y, during which 913...... with the use of 28 dietary components and their corresponding inflammatory scores. The association between the ISD and gastric cancer risk was estimated by HRs and 95% CIs calculated by multivariate Cox regression models adjusted for confounders. Results: The inflammatory potential of the diet was associated...

  10. Investigation of established genetic risk variants for glioma in prediagnostic samples from a population-based nested case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wibom, Carl; Späth, Florentin; Dahlin, Anna M; Langseth, Hilde; Hovig, Eivind; Rajaraman, Preetha; Johannesen, Tom Børge; Andersson, Ulrika; Melin, Beatrice

    2015-05-01

    Although glioma etiology is poorly understood in general, growing evidence indicates a genetic component. Four large genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have linked common genetic variants with an increased glioma risk. However, to date, these studies are based largely on a case-control design, where cases have been recruited at the time of or after diagnosis. They may therefore suffer from a degree of survival bias, introduced when rapidly fatal cases are not included. To confirm glioma risk variants in a prospective setting, we have analyzed 11 previously identified risk variants in a set of prediagnostic serum samples with 598 cases and 595 matched controls. Serum samples were acquired from The Janus Serum Bank, a Norwegian population-based biobank reserved for cancer research. We confirmed the association with glioma risk for variants within five genomic regions: 8q24.21 (CCDC26), 9p21.3 (CDKN2B-AS1), 11q23.3 (PHLDB1), 17p13.1 (TP53), and 20q13.33 (RTEL1). However, previously identified risk variants within the 7p11.2 (EGFR) region were not confirmed by this study. Our results indicate that the risk variants that were confirmed by this study are truly associated with glioma risk and may, consequently, affect gliomagenesis. Though the lack of positive confirmation of EGFR risk variants may be attributable to relatively limited statistical power, it nevertheless raises the question whether they truly are risk variants or markers for glioma prognosis. Our findings indicate the need for further studies to clarify the role of glioma risk loci with respect to prolonged survival versus etiology. ©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.

  11. Risk management study for the Hanford Site facilities: Risk reduction cost comparison for the retired Hanford Site facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coles, G.A.; Egge, R.G.; Senger, E.; Shultz, M.W.; Taylor, W.E.

    1994-02-01

    This document provides a cost-comparison evaluation for implementing certain risk-reduction measures and their effect on the overall risk of the 100 and 200 Area retired, surplus facilities. The evaluation is based on conditions that existed at the time the risk evaluation team performed facility investigations, and does not acknowledge risk-reduction measures that occurred soon after risk identification. This evaluation is one part of an overall risk management study for these facilities. The retired facilities investigated for this evaluation are located in the 100 and 200 Areas of the 1450-km 2 Hanford Site. The Hanford Site is a semiarid tract of land in southeastern Washington State. The nearest population center is Richland, Washington, (population 32,000) 30 km southeast of the 200 Area. This cost-comparison evaluation (1) determines relative costs for reducing risk to acceptable levels; (2) compares the cost of reducing risk using different risk-reduction options; and (3) compares the cost of reducing risks at different facilities. The result is an identification of the cost effective risk-reduction measures. Supporting information required to develop costs of the various risk-reduction options also is included

  12. Racing risk, gendering responsibility: a qualitative study of how South African students talk about sexual risk and responsibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Riet, Mary; Nicholson, Tamaryn Jane

    2014-01-01

    Individuals' perceptions of risk have implications for whether and how they engage with protective strategies. This study investigated how sexual risk, specifically HIV and pregnancy and responsibility for these risks were constructed in discussions across five groups of youth in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. The qualitative study used focus groups and interviews with a sample of 28 tertiary level students and 7 peri-urban youth. The constructions of risk intersected with raced and gendered narratives around sexual risk and responsibility. These constructions were used by the participants to assign and displace responsibility for the risks of HIV and pregnancy, rendering some groups immune to these risks. This constitutes a form of stigmatisation and also has implications for participants' prevention practices.

  13. Investigating Married Adults' Communal Coping with Genetic Health Risk and Perceived Discrimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Rachel A.; Sillars, Alan; Chesnut, Ryan P.; Zhu, Xun

    2017-01-01

    Increased genetic testing in personalized medicine presents unique challenges for couples, including managing disease risk and potential discrimination as a couple. This study investigated couples' conflicts and support gaps as they coped with perceived genetic discrimination. We also explored the degree to which communal coping was beneficial in reducing support gaps, and ultimately stress. Dyadic analysis of married adults (N = 266, 133 couples), in which one person had the genetic risk for serious illness, showed that perceived discrimination predicted more frequent conflicts about AATD-related treatment, privacy boundaries, and finances, which, in turn, predicted wider gaps in emotion and esteem support, and greater stress for both spouses. Communal coping predicted lower support gaps for both partners and marginally lower stress. PMID:29731540

  14. Investigating Married Adults' Communal Coping with Genetic Health Risk and Perceived Discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Rachel A; Sillars, Alan; Chesnut, Ryan P; Zhu, Xun

    2018-01-01

    Increased genetic testing in personalized medicine presents unique challenges for couples, including managing disease risk and potential discrimination as a couple. This study investigated couples' conflicts and support gaps as they coped with perceived genetic discrimination. We also explored the degree to which communal coping was beneficial in reducing support gaps, and ultimately stress. Dyadic analysis of married adults ( N = 266, 133 couples), in which one person had the genetic risk for serious illness, showed that perceived discrimination predicted more frequent conflicts about AATD-related treatment, privacy boundaries, and finances, which, in turn, predicted wider gaps in emotion and esteem support, and greater stress for both spouses. Communal coping predicted lower support gaps for both partners and marginally lower stress.

  15. RCRA Facility Investigation/Remedial Investigation Report with Baseline Risk Assessment for the Fire Department Hose Training Facility (904-113G)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmer, E. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States)

    1997-04-01

    This report documents the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Facility Investigation/Remedial Investigation/Baseline Risk Assessment (RFI/RI/BRA) for the Fire Department Hose Training Facility (FDTF) (904-113G).

  16. Positive and Negative Experiences of Social Support and Risk of Dementia in Later Life: An Investigation Using the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khondoker, Mizanur; Rafnsson, Snorri Bjorn; Morris, Stephen; Orrell, Martin; Steptoe, Andrew

    2017-01-01

    Having a network of close relationships may reduce the risk of developing dementia. However, social exchange theory suggests that social interaction entails both rewards and costs. The effects of quality of close social relationships in later life on the risk of developing dementia are not well understood. To investigate the effects of positive and negative experiences of social support within key relationships (spouse or partner, children, other immediate family, and friends) on the risk of developing dementia in later life. We analyzed 10-year follow up data (2003/4 to 2012/13) in a cohort of 10,055 dementia free (at baseline) core participants aged 50 years and over from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ELSA). Incidence of dementia was identified from participant or informant reported physician diagnosed dementia or overall score of informant-completed IQCODE questionnaire. Effects of positive and negative experiences of social support measured at baseline on risk of developing dementia were investigated using proportional hazards regression accommodating interval censoring of time-to-dementia. There were 340 (3.4%) incident dementia cases during the follow-up. Positive social support from children significantly reduced the risk of dementia (hazard ratio, HR = 0.83, p = 0.042, 95% CI: 0.69 to 0.99). Negative support from other immediate family (HR = 1.26, p = 0.011, CI: 1.05 to 1.50); combined negative scores from spouse and children (HR = 1.23, p = 0.046, CI: 1.004 to 1.51); spouse, children, and other family (HR = 1.27, p = 0.021, CI = 1.04 to 1.56); other family & friends (HR = 1.25, p = 0.033, CI: 1.02 to 1.55); and the overall negative scores (HR = 1.31, p = 0.019, CI: 1.05 to 1.64) all were significantly associated with increased risk of dementia. Positive social support from children is associated with reduced risk of developing dementia whereas experiences of negative social support from

  17. From the risk culture to the local cultures of risk. An ethnographic investigation of living with a constant flood risk in the South East of France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Durand Séverine

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In France, flooding is the leading cause of mortality due to natural disasters and cause very significant economic damage. The question of risk forgetting has been identified as one of the key issues to reduce these negative consequences of flooding. There is need to study this oversight of risk on a long term basis, long after the event takes place and when routines are re-established. This is the challenge faced by the ethnographic dissertation summarized in this article: understanding the mechanisms of risk forgetting by investigating how the issue of flooding occurs in everyday life. The dissertation questions what circulates about flooding between inhabitants and how they organize their practices in relation to the risk. The field of study is a french suburban city which was built on wetlands and remains vulnerable to flash floods. This case study provides insight into the collective mechanisms from invisible danger implementation. The increased visibility of the protection made by local policies and the comforting effect of normative sharing provided a normalization of the trust in the protection. Through the interactions, statements are continually developed in the interests of their acceptability: statements of relativism circulate more than the ones that open on the horizon of danger. Moreover, the current development of a logic of safety for social risks reduction contradicts the prevention of flooding. Above all, neither the links between inhabitants nor the links with their living environment provide a sufficient collective development base for a risk culture deployment.

  18. From the risk culture to the local cultures of risk. An ethnographic investigation of living with a constant flood risk in the South East of France.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Durand Séverine

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In France, flooding is the leading cause of mortality due to natural disasters and cause very significant economic damage. The question of risk forgetting has been identified as one of the key issues to reduce these negative consequences of flooding. There is need to study this oversight of risk on a long term basis, long after the event takes place and when routines are re-established. This is the challenge faced by the ethnographic dissertation summarized in this article: understanding the mechanisms of risk forgetting by investigating how the issue of flooding occurs in everyday life. The dissertation questions what circulates about flooding between inhabitants and how they organize their practices in relation to the risk. The field of study is a french suburban city which was built on wetlands and remains vulnerable to flash floods. This case study provides insight into the collective mechanisms from invisible danger implementation. The increased visibility of the protection made by local policies and the comforting effect of normative sharing provided a normalization of the trust in the protection. Through the interactions, statements are continually developed in the interests of their acceptability: statements of relativism circulate more than the ones that open on the horizon of danger. Moreover, the current development of a logic of safety for social risks reduction contradicts the prevention of flooding. Above all, neither the links between inhabitants nor the links with their living environment provide a sufficient collective development base for a risk culture deployment.

  19. Investigating Gender Differences under Time Pressure in Financial Risk Taking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Zhixin; Page, Lionel; Hardy, Ben

    2017-01-01

    There is a significant gender imbalance on financial trading floors. This motivated us to investigate gender differences in financial risk taking under pressure. We used a well-established approach from behavior economics to analyze a series of risky monetary choices by male and female participants with and without time pressure. We also used second to fourth digit ratio (2D:4D) and face width-to-height ratio (fWHR) as correlates of pre-natal exposure to testosterone. We constructed a structural model and estimated the participants' risk attitudes and probability perceptions via maximum likelihood estimation under both expected utility (EU) and rank-dependent utility (RDU) models. In line with existing research, we found that male participants are less risk averse and that the gender gap in risk attitudes increases under moderate time pressure. We found that female participants with lower 2D:4D ratios and higher fWHR are less risk averse in RDU estimates. Males with lower 2D:4D ratios were less risk averse in EU estimations, but more risk averse using RDU estimates. We also observe that men whose ratios indicate a greater prenatal exposure to testosterone exhibit a greater optimism and overestimation of small probabilities of success.

  20. Investigation on Cardiovascular Risk Prediction Using Physiological Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan-Hua Lin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular disease (CVD is the leading cause of death worldwide. Early prediction of CVD is urgently important for timely prevention and treatment. Incorporation or modification of new risk factors that have an additional independent prognostic value of existing prediction models is widely used for improving the performance of the prediction models. This paper is to investigate the physiological parameters that are used as risk factors for the prediction of cardiovascular events, as well as summarizing the current status on the medical devices for physiological tests and discuss the potential implications for promoting CVD prevention and treatment in the future. The results show that measures extracted from blood pressure, electrocardiogram, arterial stiffness, ankle-brachial blood pressure index (ABI, and blood glucose carry valuable information for the prediction of both long-term and near-term cardiovascular risk. However, the predictive values should be further validated by more comprehensive measures. Meanwhile, advancing unobtrusive technologies and wireless communication technologies allow on-site detection of the physiological information remotely in an out-of-hospital setting in real-time. In addition with computer modeling technologies and information fusion. It may allow for personalized, quantitative, and real-time assessment of sudden CVD events.

  1. Consumption of fruits, vegetables and fruit juices and differentiated thyroid carcinoma risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamora-Ros, Raul; Béraud, Virginie; Franceschi, Silvia; Cayssials, Valerie; Tsilidis, Konstantinos K; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Overvad, Kim; Tjønneland, Anne; Eriksen, Anne K; Bonnet, Fabrice; Affret, Aurélie; Katzke, Verena; Kühn, Tilman; Boeing, Heiner; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Valanou, Elisavet; Karakatsani, Anna; Masala, Giovanna; Grioni, Sara; Santucci de Magistris, Maria; Tumino, Rosario; Ricceri, Fulvio; Skeie, Guri; Parr, Christine L; Merino, Susana; Salamanca-Fernández, Elena; Chirlaque, Maria-Dolores; Ardanaz, Eva; Amiano, Pilar; Almquist, Martin; Drake, Isabel; Hennings, Joakim; Sandström, Maria; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H B As; Peeters, Petra H; Khaw, Kay-Thee; Wareham, Nicholas J; Schmidt, Julie A; Perez-Cornago, Aurora; Aune, Dagfinn; Riboli, Elio; Slimani, Nadia; Scalbert, Augustin; Romieu, Isabelle; Agudo, Antonio; Rinaldi, Sabina

    2018-02-01

    Fruit and vegetable (F&V) intake is considered as probably protective against overall cancer risk, but results in previous studies are not consistent for thyroid cancer (TC). The purpose of this study is to examine the association between the consumption of fruits, vegetables, fruit juices and differentiated thyroid cancer risk within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study. The EPIC study is a cohort including over half a million participants, recruited between 1991 and 2000. During a mean follow-up of 14 years, 748 incident first primary differentiated TC cases were identified. F&V and fruit juice intakes were assessed through validated country-specific dietary questionnaires. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using Cox regression models adjusted for potential confounding factors. Comparing the highest versus lowest quartile of intake, differentiated TC risk was not associated with intakes of total F&V (HR: 0.89; 95% CI: 0.68-1.15; p-trend = 0.44), vegetables (HR: 0.89; 95% CI: 0.69-1.14; p-trend = 0.56), or fruit (HR: 1.00; 95% CI: 0.79-1.26; p-trend = 0.64). No significant association was observed with any individual type of vegetable or fruit. However, there was a positive borderline trend with fruit juice intake (HR: 1.23; 95% CI: 0.98-1.53; p-trend = 0.06). This study did not find any significant association between F&V intakes and differentiated TC risk; however a positive trend with fruit juice intake was observed, possibly related to its high sugar content. © 2017 UICC.

  2. Risk Factors as Major Determinants of Resilience: A Replication Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eshel, Yohanan; Kimhi, Shaul; Lahad, Mooli; Leykin, Dmitry; Goroshit, Marina

    2018-03-16

    The present study was conducted in the context of current concerns about replication in psychological research. It claims that risk factors should be regarded as an integral part of the definition of individual resilience, which should be defined in terms of the balance between individual strength or protective factors, and individual vulnerability or risk factors (IND-SVR). Five independent samples, including 3457 Israeli participants, were employed to determine the effects of resilience promoting and resilience suppressing variables on the IND-SVR index of resilience, and on its two components: recovery from adversity, and distress symptoms. Five path analyses were employed for determining the role of distress symptoms as a measure of psychological resilience, as compared to other indices of this resilience. Results indicated the major role of risk factors (distress symptoms) as an integral component of resilience. This role was generally replicated in the five investigated samples. Risk factors are legitimate, valid, and useful parts of the definition of psychological resilience. Resilience research has shifted away from studying individual risk factors to investigating the process through which individuals overcome the hardships they experience. The present data seem to suggest that this shift should be reexamined.

  3. Modelling and propagation of uncertainties in the German Risk Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofer, E.; Krzykacz, B.

    1982-01-01

    Risk assessments are generally subject to uncertainty considerations. This is because of the various estimates that are involved. The paper points out those estimates in the so-called phase A of the German Risk Study, for which uncertainties were quantified. It explains the probabilistic models applied in the assessment to their impact on the findings of the study. Finally the resulting subjective confidence intervals of the study results are presented and their sensitivity to these probabilistic models is investigated

  4. Fibromyalgia and Risk of Dementia-A Nationwide, Population-Based, Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzeng, Nian-Sheng; Chung, Chi-Hsiang; Liu, Feng-Cheng; Chiu, Yu-Hsiang; Chang, Hsin-An; Yeh, Chin-Bin; Huang, San-Yuan; Lu, Ru-Band; Yeh, Hui-Wen; Kao, Yu-Chen; Chiang, Wei-Shan; Tsao, Chang-Hui; Wu, Yung-Fu; Chou, Yu-Ching; Lin, Fu-Huang; Chien, Wu-Chien

    2018-02-01

    Fibromyalgia is a syndrome of chronic pain and other symptoms and is associated with patient discomfort and other diseases. This nationwide matched-cohort population-based study aimed to investigate the association between fibromyalgia and the risk of developing dementia, and to clarify the association between fibromyalgia and dementia. A total of 41,612 patients of age ≥50 years with newly diagnosed fibromyalgia between January 1, and December 31, 2000 were selected from the National Health Insurance Research Database of Taiwan, along with 124,836 controls matched for sex and age. After adjusting for any confounding factors, Fine and Gray competing risk analysis was used to compare the risk of developing dementia during the 10 years of follow-up. Of the study subjects, 1,704 from 41,612 fibromyalgia patients (21.23 per 1,000 person-years) developed dementia when compared to 4,419 from 124,836 controls (18.94 per 1,000 person-years). Fine and Gray competing risk analysis revealed that the study subjects were more likely to develop dementia (hazard ratio: 2.29, 95% CI: 2.16-2.42; P dementia in this study. The study subjects with fibromyalgia had a 2.77-fold risk of dementia in comparison to the control group. Therefore, further studies are needed to elucidate the underlying mechanisms of the association between fibromyalgia and the risk of dementia. Copyright © 2018 Southern Society for Clinical Investigation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Risk factors for cataract: A case control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ughade Suresh

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed as a hospital-based, group-matched, case-control investigation into the risk factors associated with age-related cataract in central India. The study included 262 cases of age-related cataract and an equal number of controls. A total of 21 risk factors were evaluated: namely, low socioeconomic status (SES, illiteracy, marital status, history of diarrhoea, history of diabetes, glaucoma, use of cholinesterase inhibitors, steroids, spironolactone, nifedipine, analgesics, myopia early in life, renal failure, heavy smoking, heavy alcohol consumption, hypertension, low body mass index (BMI, use of cheaper cooking fuel, working in direct sunlight, family history of cataract, and occupational exposure. In univariate analysis, except marital status, low BMI, renal failure, use of steroids, spironolactone, analgesics, and occupational exposure, all 14 other risk factors were found significantly associated with age-related cataract. Unconditional multiple logistic regression analysis confirmed the significance of low SES, illiteracy, history of diarrhoea, diabetes, glaucoma, myopia, smoking, hypertension and cheap cooking fuel. The etiological role of these risk factors in the outcome of cataract is confirmed by the estimates of attributable risk proportion. The estimates of population attributable risk proportion for these factors highlight the impact of elimination of these risk factors on the reduction of cataract in this population.

  6. Investigation of UK Farmer Go/No-Go Decisions in Response to Tractor-Based Risk Scenarios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irwin, Amy; Poots, Jill

    2018-01-01

    Tractors are a source of injury and fatality in agriculture. Despite this farmers continue to engage in risk-taking behaviors, including operating tractors without appropriate equipment. In order to change behaviors and attitudes toward safety, it is important to understand how farmers approach different types of risk relevant to tractor use. The current study used a qualitative approach to investigate farmer perception of four types of tractor-based risk related to self, equipment, lack of safety features, and environment. A sample of 148 farmers from the United Kingdom and Ireland was recruited from farming forums to take part in an online scenario-based qualitative study. Participants were presented with 12 tractor-based scenarios, three from each category of risk, and asked to indicate if they would proceed to use the tractor (go) or not (no-go), then report their reasoning. Thematic analysis was used to identify data patterns. Farmers appeared to assess the consequences of risk in broader terms than the risk of injury to themselves; they also evaluated risk in terms of potential costs (e.g., repair bill) and losses (e.g., delay). Analysis indicated that financial risk was considered with more caution than personal risk in many cases. Farmers also considered usability, such as the functionality of tractor seat belts, indicating the importance of ensuring all safety equipment is fit for purpose. The management of agricultural risk should consider farmer priorities (such as financial costs) in order to develop effective messaging that focuses on those priorities, with the aim of reducing risk-taking behaviors.

  7. Investigating the connections between health lean management and clinical risk management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crema, Maria; Verbano, Chiara

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate connections and overlaps between health lean management (HLM) and clinical risk management (CRM) understanding whether and how these two approaches can be combined together to pursue efficiency and patient safety improvements simultaneously. A systematic literature review has been carried out. Searching in academic databases, papers that focus not only on HLM, but also on clinical errors and risk reduction, were included. The general characteristics of the selected papers were analysed and a content analysis was conducted. In most of the papers, pursing objectives of HLM and CRM and adopting tools and practices of both approaches, results of quality and, particularly, of safety improvements were obtained. A two-way arrow between HLM and CRM emerged but so far, none of the studies has been focused on the relationship between HLM and CRM. Results highlight an emerging research stream, with many useful theoretical and practical implications and opportunities for further research.

  8. Mendelian Randomization Study of Body Mass Index and Colorectal Cancer Risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thrift, Aaron P.; Gong, Jian; Peters, Ulrike

    2015-01-01

    Background: High body mass index (BMI) is consistently linked to increased risk of colorectal cancer for men, whereas the association is less clear for women. As risk estimates from observational studies may be biased and/or confounded, we conducted a Mendelian randomization study to estimate...... the causal association between BMI and colorectal cancer. Methods: We used data from 10,226 colorectal cancer cases and 10,286 controls of European ancestry. The Mendelian randomization analysis used a weighted genetic risk score, derived from 77 genome-wide association study–identified variants associated......, rather than overall obesity, is a more important risk factor for men requires further investigation. Impact: Overall, conventional epidemiologic and Mendelian randomization studies suggest a strong association between obesity and the risk of colorectal cancer....

  9. Effective Project Risk management in Micro Companies : Case study for Persona Optima Iceland ehf.

    OpenAIRE

    Bražinskaitė, Justina

    2011-01-01

    This study is meant to be a guide for micro companies regarding effective project risk management. The main purpose of this thesis is to introduce project risk management and build a user-friendly managerial model toward effective project risk management in micro companies. The research is based on a case company Persona Optima Iceland ehf. analysis. The study investigates risk management, uncertainties and risks in projects, project risk management, its models and particularities in orde...

  10. Risk management study for the Hanford Site facilities: Risk reduction cost comparison for the retired Hanford Site facilities. Volume 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coles, G.A.; Egge, R.G.; Senger, E.; Shultz, M.W.; Taylor, W.E.

    1994-02-01

    This document provides a cost-comparison evaluation for implementing certain risk-reduction measures and their effect on the overall risk of the 100 and 200 Area retired, surplus facilities. The evaluation is based on conditions that existed at the time the risk evaluation team performed facility investigations, and does not acknowledge risk-reduction measures that occurred soon after risk identification. This evaluation is one part of an overall risk management study for these facilities. The retired facilities investigated for this evaluation are located in the 100 and 200 Areas of the 1450-km{sup 2} Hanford Site. The Hanford Site is a semiarid tract of land in southeastern Washington State. The nearest population center is Richland, Washington, (population 32,000) 30 km southeast of the 200 Area. This cost-comparison evaluation (1) determines relative costs for reducing risk to acceptable levels; (2) compares the cost of reducing risk using different risk-reduction options; and (3) compares the cost of reducing risks at different facilities. The result is an identification of the cost effective risk-reduction measures. Supporting information required to develop costs of the various risk-reduction options also is included.

  11. Helicobacter pylori infection, chronic corpus atrophic gastritis and pancreatic cancer risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort: A nested case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jiaqi; Zagai, Ulrika; Hallmans, Göran; Nyrén, Olof; Engstrand, Lars; Stolzenberg-Solomon, Rachael; Duell, Eric J; Overvad, Kim; Katzke, Verena A; Kaaks, Rudolf; Jenab, Mazda; Park, Jin Young; Murillo, Raul; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Lagiou, Pagona; Bamia, Christina; Bradbury, Kathryn E; Riboli, Elio; Aune, Dagfinn; Tsilidis, Konstantinos K; Capellá, Gabriel; Agudo, Antonio; Krogh, Vittorio; Palli, Domenico; Panico, Salvatore; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Tjønneland, Anne; Olsen, Anja; Martínez, Begoña; Redondo-Sanchez, Daniel; Chirlaque, Maria-Dolores; Hm Peeters, Petra; Regnér, Sara; Lindkvist, Björn; Naccarati, Alessio; Ardanaz, Eva; Larrañaga, Nerea; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Rebours, Vinciane; Barré, Amélie; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H B As; Ye, Weimin

    2017-04-15

    The association between H. pylori infection and pancreatic cancer risk remains controversial. We conducted a nested case-control study with 448 pancreatic cancer cases and their individually matched control subjects, based on the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort, to determine whether there was an altered pancreatic cancer risk associated with H. pylori infection and chronic corpus atrophic gastritis. Conditional logistic regression models were applied to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs), adjusted for matching factors and other potential confounders. Our results showed that pancreatic cancer risk was neither associated with H. pylori seropositivity (OR = 0.96; 95% CI: 0.70, 1.31) nor CagA seropositivity (OR = 1.07; 95% CI: 0.77, 1.48). We also did not find any excess risk among individuals seropositive for H. pylori but seronegative for CagA, compared with the group seronegative for both antibodies (OR = 0.94; 95% CI: 0.63, 1.38). However, we found that chronic corpus atrophic gastritis was non-significantly associated with an increased pancreatic cancer risk (OR = 1.35; 95% CI: 0.77, 2.37), and although based on small numbers, the excess risk was particularly marked among individuals seronegative for both H. pylori and CagA (OR = 5.66; 95% CI: 1.59, 20.19, p value for interaction cancer risk in western European populations. However, the suggested association between chronic corpus atrophic gastritis and pancreatic cancer risk warrants independent verification in future studies, and, if confirmed, further studies on the underlying mechanisms. © 2016 UICC.

  12. Investigation of Breast Cancer Risk Factors in northern states of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Breast cancer is the most common type of cancers and leading cause of death among women worldwide. In Sudan breast cancer is the most common type of cancer and its incidence has been rising for the past two decades. Objective: To investigate whether the breast risk factors of northern states (Northern ...

  13. Risk indices in comparative risk assessment studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hubert, P.

    1984-01-01

    More than a decade ago the development of comparative risk assessment studies aroused overwhelming interest. There was no doubt that data on the health and safety aspects of energy systems would greatly benefit, or even end, the debate on nuclear energy. Although such attempts are still strongly supported, the rose-coloured expectations of the early days have faded. The high uncertainties, and the contradictory aspect, of the first results might explain this evolution. The loose connection between the range of computed risk indices and the questions on which the debate was focused is another reason for this decline in interest. Important research work is being carried out aiming at reducing the different kinds of uncertainties. Rather than the uncertainties, the paper considers the meaning of available risk indices and proposes more significant indices with respect to the goals of risk assessment. First, the indices which are of frequent use in comparative studies are listed. The stress is put on a French comparative study from which most examples are drawn. Secondly, the increase in magnitude of the indices and the decrease in the attributability of the risk to a given system is shown to be a consequence of the trend towards more comprehensive analyses. Thirdly, the ambiguity of such indices as the collective occupational risk is underlined, and a possible solution is suggested. Whenever risk assessments are related to pragmatic decision making problems it is possible to find satisfactory risk indices. The development of cost-effectiveness analyses and the proposals for quantitative safety goals clearly demonstrate this point. In the field of comparison of social impacts some proposals are made, but there remain some gaps still to be filled. (author)

  14. Risk factors for oligodendroglial tumors: a pooled international study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McCarthy, Bridget J; Rankin, Kristin M; Aldape, Ken

    2011-01-01

    Oligodendroglial tumors are rare subtypes of brain tumors and are often combined with other glial tumors in epidemiological analyses. However, different demographic associations and clinical characteristics suggest potentially different risk factors. The purpose of this study was to investigate p...

  15. An Investigation of the Impact of Corporate Governance Mechanisms on Level of Corporate Risk Disclosure: Evidence from Kuwait

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bader Al-Shammari

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the association between corporate governance mechanisms and corporate risk disclosure (CRD in the annual reports for a sample of 109 Kuwaiti listed non-financial companies in 2012. The study used a manual content analysis to measure risk disclosure by counting the number of risk-related sentences in annual reports. A multiple regression analysis was used to test the impact of board size, non-executive directors, percentage of family members on board, role duality, and audit committee on CRD. The quantity of risk disclosures in the Kuwaiti companies' annual reports was very limited. The results showed that the larger board size has a positive impact on CRD. However, the findings also indicated the existence of role duality lead to lower risk disclosure. Other corporate governance mechanisms did not explain variation in CRD.

  16. Investigation of factors determining risk-taking strategies in Pension fund investment of Defined Benefit schemes in the UK corporate pension system

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, Chunan

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates various incentives determining risk taking strategies of the corporate pension fund investment from the perspective of sponsors. In the United Kingdom, occupational pension plans especially defined benefit (DB) pension schemes play important roles in the financial market. Comparing with the conventional framework managing pension risk as a contained part of the whole firm risk, recent studies start to focus on pension risk especially investment risk as an individual to...

  17. Risk Management and Disaster Recovery in Public Libraries in South Australia: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velasquez, Diane L.; Evans, Nina; Kaeding, Joanne

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: This paper reports the findings of a study of risk management in public libraries. The focus of the research was to determine whether the libraries had a risk management and disaster plan for major disasters. Method: A qualitative study was done to investigate risk management and disaster recovery in public libraries in South…

  18. Investigating analgesic and psychological factors associated with risk of postpartum depression development: a case–control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suhitharan T

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Thangavelautham Suhitharan,1 Thi Phuong Tu Pham,2 Helen Chen,2,3 Pryseley Nkouibert Assam,4 Rehena Sultana,2 Nian-Lin Reena Han,5 Ene-Choo Tan,6,7 Ban Leong Sng1,2 1Department of Women’s Anaesthesia, KK Women’s and Children’s Hospital, 2Duke-NUS Medical School, 3Women’s Service, Department of Psychological Medicine, KK Women’s and Children’s Hospital, 4Singapore Clinical Research Institute, 5Division of Clinical Support Services, 6Research Laboratory, KK Women’s and Children’s Hospital, 7SingHealth Paediatrics Academic Clinical Programme, Duke-NUS Medical School, Singapore Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate the role of peripartum analgesic and psychological factors that may be related to postpartum depression (PPD.Methods: This case–control study was conducted in pregnant females who delivered at KK Women’s and Children’s Hospital from November 2010 to October 2013 and had postpartum psychological assessment. Demographic, medical, and postpartum psychological status assessments, intrapartum data including method of induction of labor, mode of labor analgesia, duration of first and second stages of labor, mode of delivery, and pain intensity on hospital admission and after delivery were collected. PPD was assessed using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale and clinical assessment by the psychiatrist.Results: There were 62 cases of PPD and 417 controls after childbirth within 4–8 weeks. The odds of PPD was significantly lower (33 of 329 [10.0%] in females who received epidural analgesia for labor compared with those who chose nonepidural analgesia (29 of 150 [19.3%] ([odds ratio] 0.47 (0.27–0.8, P=0.0078. The multivariate analysis showed that absence of labor epidural analgesia, increasing age, family history of depression, history of depression, and previous history of PPD were independent risk factors for development of PPD.Conclusion: The absence of labor epidural analgesia remained as an independent

  19. The Risk-Stratified Osteoporosis Strategy Evaluation study (ROSE)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rubin, Katrine Hass; Holmberg, Teresa; Rothmann, Mette Juel

    2015-01-01

    The risk-stratified osteoporosis strategy evaluation study (ROSE) is a randomized prospective population-based study investigating the effectiveness of a two-step screening program for osteoporosis in women. This paper reports the study design and baseline characteristics of the study population....... 35,000 women aged 65-80 years were selected at random from the population in the Region of Southern Denmark and-before inclusion-randomized to either a screening group or a control group. As first step, a self-administered questionnaire regarding risk factors for osteoporosis based on FRAX......(®) was issued to both groups. As second step, subjects in the screening group with a 10-year probability of major osteoporotic fractures ≥15 % were offered a DXA scan. Patients diagnosed with osteoporosis from the DXA scan were advised to see their GP and discuss pharmaceutical treatment according to Danish...

  20. Anthropometry in relation to prostate cancer risk in the Netherlands : cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuurman, A.G.; Goldbohm, R.A.; Dorant, E.; Brandt, P.A. van den

    2000-01-01

    In the Netherlands Cohort Study, the authors investigated whether anthropometry is associated with prostate cancer risk. At baseline in 1986, 58,279 men aged 55-69 years completed a self- administered questionnaire on diet, anthropometry, and other risk factors for cancer. After 6.3 years of

  1. Study the rate of fertility and risk factors of schizophrenia in Najaf, Iraq

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study is designed to investigate the main risk factors, which increased the incidence of schizophrenia and the rate of fertility in patients measuring sex hormones (testosterone and estrogen) and prolactin hormone. The aim of study was to evaluate the fertility rate and risk factors of schizophrenia. Blood samples were ...

  2. Coffee Consumption and Risk of Gastric Cancer: A Large Updated Meta-Analysis of Prospective Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feiyue Xie

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The potential role of coffee consumption in the development of various types of cancer has been extensively investigated in epidemiologic studies. How coffee consumption may modulate risk of gastric cancer, however, remains a subject open for investigation. To better quantify this relation, we quantitatively summarized evidence from prospective studies. Eligible studies were identified on PubMed and Embase databases. The summary risk estimates were obtained using the random-effects model. Subgroup, sensitivity and dose-response analyses were conducted. The present meta-analysis included 12 prospective cohort studies. A pooled analysis of these studies suggested that coffee consumption (highest vs. lowest consumption was not associated with risk of gastric cancer (RR = 1.12, 95% CI = 0.93–1.36. In the subgroup analysis, significant increased risk was detected in the U.S. studies (RR = 1.36, 95% CI = 1.06–1.74 and in the studies with <10 years of follow-up (RR = 1.24, 95% CI = 1.00–1.54, and the greatest increase in risk was observed in those studies without adjustment for smoking (RR = 1.48, 95% CI = 1.13–1.93. There was some evidence of publication bias (P for Egger’s test = 0.03. Cumulative evidence from prospective studies suggests that coffee consumption is not associated with risk of gastric cancer. The observed positive results may be confounded by smoking and need further investigation.

  3. Variety in vegetable and fruit consumption and risk of bladder cancer in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Büchner, F.L.; Bueno de Mesquita, H.B.; Ros, M.M.; Kampman, E.; Duijnhoven, van F.J.B.

    2011-01-01

    Recent research does not show an association between fruit and vegetable consumption and bladder cancer risk. None of these studies investigated variety in fruit and vegetable consumption, which may capture different aspects of consumption. We investigated whether a varied consumption of vegetables

  4. Large prospective investigation of meat intake, related mutagens, and risk of renal cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, Carrie R; Cross, Amanda J; Graubard, Barry I; Park, Yikyung; Ward, Mary H; Rothman, Nathaniel; Hollenbeck, Albert R; Chow, Wong-Ho; Sinha, Rashmi

    2012-01-01

    The evidence for meat intake and renal cell carcinoma (RCC) risk is inconsistent. Mutagens related to meat cooking and processing, and variation by RCC subtype may be important to consider. In a large US cohort, we prospectively investigated intake of meat and meat-related compounds in relation to risk of RCC, as well as clear cell and papillary RCC histologic subtypes. Study participants (492,186) completed a detailed dietary assessment linked to a database of heme iron, heterocyclic amines (HCA), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), nitrate, and nitrite concentrations in cooked and processed meats. Over 9 (mean) y of follow-up, we identified 1814 cases of RCC (498 clear cell and 115 papillary adenocarcinomas). HRs and 95% CIs were estimated within quintiles by using multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression. Red meat intake [62.7 g (quintile 5) compared with 9.8 g (quintile 1) per 1000 kcal (median)] was associated with a tendency toward an increased risk of RCC [HR: 1.19; 95% CI: 1.01, 1.40; P-trend = 0.06] and a 2-fold increased risk of papillary RCC [P-trend = 0.002]. Intakes of benzo(a)pyrene (BaP), a marker of PAHs, and 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenyl-imidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP), an HCA, were associated with a significant 20-30% elevated risk of RCC and a 2-fold increased risk of papillary RCC. No associations were observed for the clear cell subtype. Red meat intake may increase the risk of RCC through mechanisms related to the cooking compounds BaP and PhIP. Our findings for RCC appeared to be driven by strong associations with the rarer papillary histologic variant. This study is registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00340015.

  5. Postoperative infection risk after splenectomy: A prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barmparas, Galinos; Lamb, Alexander W; Lee, Debora; Nguyen, Brandon; Eng, Jamie; Bloom, Matthew B; Ley, Eric J

    2015-05-01

    Splenectomy is associated with a life-long risk for overwhelming infections. The risk for early post-operative infectious complications following traumatic and elective splenectomy is, however, understudied. This investigation aimed to determine if splenectomy increases the risk for post-operative infections. This was a retrospective review of prospectively collected data on patients admitted to the surgical intensive care unit (SICU) between 1/2011 and 7/2013 investigating the risk for infectious complications in patients undergoing a splenectomy compared with those undergoing any other abdominal surgery. During the 30-month study period, a total of 1884 patients were admitted to the SICU. Of those, 33 (2%) had a splenectomy and 493 (26%) had an abdominal surgery. The two groups were well balanced for age, APACHE IV score >20, and past medical history, including diabetes mellitus, cardiac history, renal failure or immunosuppression. Patients undergoing splenectomy were more likely to have sustained a traumatic injury (30% vs. 7%, p splenectomy was associated with increased risk for infectious complications (49% vs. 29%, Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR) [95% CI]: 2.7 [1.3, 5.6], p = 0.01), including intra-abdominal abscess (9% vs. 3%, AOR [95% CI]: 4.3 [1.1, 16.2], p = 0.03). On a subgroup analysis, there were no differences between traumatic and elective splenectomy with regards to overall infectious complications (50% vs. 46%, p = 0.84), although, abdominal abscess developed only in those who had an elective splenectomy (0% vs. 12%, p = 0.55). Splenectomy increases the risk for post-operative infectious complications. Further studies identifying strategies to decrease the associated morbidity are necessary. Copyright © 2015 IJS Publishing Group Limited. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Main results of the german risk study, phase B

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heuser, F.W.

    1988-01-01

    Work on the German Risk Study is under contract of the Federal Ministry of Research and Technology. The reference plant for the analysis is the Biblis nuclear power plant, Unit B, a KWU pressurized water reactor of the 1300 MWel class. The plant is in operation since 1976. First results on Phase A of the study have been published in 1979. Investigations on Phase B have been foreseen to endeepen the analysis. The principal purpose of these investigations is to improve and to optimize the plant's safety features on a more realistic basis. Main objectives of Phase B are: - Completeness of accident event tree analysis taking into account further accident initiating events. - Identification and analyses of accident management measures which are adequate to minimize accidental risk. - improvement of the analysis on an as far as possible realistic basis, thereby taking into account recent results of safety research. The paper deals with the most important results of the plant analyses (level 1 and level 2) which have been performed within the scope of Phases B of the study

  7. Regulatory cost-risk study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-04-01

    This study is intended to provide some quantitative perspective by selecting certain examples of criteria for which estimates of risks and costs can be obtained, and the balance of the various risks, (i.e., internal versus external risks), can be put into perspective. 35 refs., 39 tabs

  8. Macronutrient intake and risk of urothelial cell carcinoma in the European prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Allen, N.E.; Appleby, P.N.; Key, T.J.; Bueno-De-Mesquita, H.B.; Ros, M.M.; Kiemeney, L.A.L.M.; Tjonneland, A.; Roswall, N.; Overvad, K.; Weikert, S.; Boeing, H.; Chang-Claude, J.; Teucher, B.; Panico, S.; Sacerdote, C.; Tumino, R.; Palli, D.; Sieri, S.; Peeters, P.; Quiros, J.R.; Jakszyn, P.; Molina-Montes, E.; Chirlaque, M.D.; Ardanaz, E.; Dorronsoro, M.; Khaw, K.T.; Wareham, N.; Ljungberg, B; Hallmans, G.; Ehrnstrom, R.; Ericson, U.; Gram, I.T.; Parr, C.L.; Trichopoulou, A.; Karapetyan, T.; Dilis, V.; Clavel-Chapelon, F.; Boutron-Ruault, M.C.; Fagherrazzi, G.; Romieu, I.; Gunter, M.J.; Riboli, E.

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested that dietary factors may be important in the development of bladder cancer. We examined macronutrient intake in relation to risk of urothelial cell carcinoma among 469,339 men and women in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition. Associations

  9. Lifetime and baseline alcohol intakes and risk of pancreatic cancer in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naudin, Sabine; Li, Kuanrong; Jaouen, Tristan

    2018-01-01

    Recent evidence suggested a weak relationship between alcohol consumption and pancreatic cancer (PC) risk. In this study, the association between lifetime and baseline alcohol intakes and the risk of PC was evaluated, including the type of alcoholic beverages and potential interaction with smoking...... alcohol intakes were positively associated with PC risk, with more apparent risk estimates for beer and spirits/liquors than wine intake. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved....

  10. A longitudinal study investigating neural processing of speech envelope modulation rates in children with (a family risk for) dyslexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vos, Astrid; Vanvooren, Sophie; Vanderauwera, Jolijn; Ghesquière, Pol; Wouters, Jan

    2017-08-01

    Recent evidence suggests that a fundamental deficit in the synchronization of neural oscillations to temporal information in speech may underlie phonological processing problems in dyslexia. Since previous studies were performed cross-sectionally in school-aged children or adults, developmental aspects of neural auditory processing in relation to reading acquisition and dyslexia remain to be investigated. The present longitudinal study followed 68 children during development from pre-reader (5 years old) to beginning reader (7 years old) and more advanced reader (9 years old). Thirty-six children had a family risk for dyslexia and 14 children eventually developed dyslexia. EEG recordings of auditory steady-state responses to 4 and 20 Hz modulations, corresponding to syllable and phoneme rates, were collected at each point in time. Our results demonstrate an increase in neural synchronization to phoneme-rate modulations around the onset of reading acquisition. This effect was negatively correlated with later reading and phonological skills, indicating that children who exhibit the largest increase in neural synchronization to phoneme rates, develop the poorest reading and phonological skills. Accordingly, neural synchronization to phoneme-rate modulations was found to be significantly higher in beginning and more advanced readers with dyslexia. We found no developmental effects regarding neural synchronization to syllable rates, nor any effects of a family risk for dyslexia. Altogether, our findings suggest that the onset of reading instruction coincides with an increase in neural responsiveness to phoneme-rate modulations, and that the extent of this increase is related to (the outcome of) reading development. Hereby, dyslexic children persistently demonstrate atypically high neural synchronization to phoneme rates from the beginning of reading acquisition onwards. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Traffic risk behavior and perceptions of Thai motorcyclists: A case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prathurng Hongsranagon

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate Thai motorcyclists' traffic risk behavior and their perceptions of it, information of value in the design and implementation of public health policies and campaigns for the reduction of road injuries. Data was collected by a self-administered questionnaire completed by 399 motorcyclists in Muang Krabi district, Krabi province, Thailand. The questionnaire focused on the respondents' perceptions of general traffic risks and the specific risks at 3 identified hazardous sites. The results of the survey indicated that the correct fastening of helmet straps had a relationship with responsible traffic risk perceptions.

  12. Investigating approaches to improving appropriate antibiotic use among higher risk ethnic groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alden, Dana L; Tice, Alan D; Berthiaume, John T

    2010-11-01

    A field study with follow up investigations sought to: 1. determine whether cold packs (over-the-counter symptomtic treatments), coupled with in-office education, improve antibiotic-related knowledge, attitudes and behaviors more than in-office education alone in patient populations with high percentages of Asian Americans and Hawaiian/Pacific Islanders; 2. identify possible reasons for intervention outcomes as described by physicians who participated in the field study; and 3. explore potential future directions based on a large sample survey of physicians in the field study's highly ethnic county. The intervention resulted in a pre- to post-consultation decrease in perceived need for and an increase in knowledge about antibiotic risks but had no impact on frequency of reported receipt of an antibiotic prescription. Unexpectedly, in-office education alone was more effective in increasing knowledge than in-office education plus the cold pack. In-depth interviews of field study physicians and a large scale physician survey suggest that cold pack interventions targeting patient populations with high percentages of Asian Americans and Hawaiian/Pacific Islanders may be more likely to succeed if accompanied by mass public education regarding risks and physician training regarding effective ways to talk to patients. Use of in-office education with cold packs alone may not achieve desired results. Hawaii Medical Journal Copyright 2010.

  13. Regulatory cost-risk study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-04-01

    This study is intended to provide some quantitative perspective by selecting certain examples of criteria for which estimates of risks and costs can be obtained, and the balance of the various risks, (i.e., internal versus external risks), can be put into perspective. 35 refs., 39 tabs. (JDB)

  14. Improving cluster-based methods for investigating potential for insect pest species establishment: region-specific risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J. Watts

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Existing cluster-based methods for investigating insect species assemblages or profiles of a region to indicate the risk of new insect pest invasion have a major limitation in that they assign the same species risk factors to each region in a cluster. Clearly regions assigned to the same cluster have different degrees of similarity with respect to their species profile or assemblage. This study addresses this concern by applying weighting factors to the cluster elements used to calculate regional risk factors, thereby producing region-specific risk factors. Using a database of the global distribution of crop insect pest species, we found that we were able to produce highly differentiated region-specific risk factors for insect pests. We did this by weighting cluster elements by their Euclidean distance from the target region. Using this approach meant that risk weightings were derived that were more realistic, as they were specific to the pest profile or species assemblage of each region. This weighting method provides an improved tool for estimating the potential invasion risk posed by exotic species given that they have an opportunity to establish in a target region.

  15. Main results of the German nuclear power plant risk study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danzmann, H.J.

    1981-01-01

    The subject is discussed under the headings: introduction; purpose and task of the German risk study; approach; results of investigations (analyses of engineered plant features; determination of accident consequences); emergency response model; protective actions and countermeasures; evaluation. (U.K.)

  16. The association between Mediterranean Diet Score and glucokinase regulatory protein gene variation on the markers of cardiometabolic risk: an analysis in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer (EPIC)-Norfolk study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotos-Prieto, Mercedes; Luben, Robert; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nicholas J; Forouhi, Nita G

    2014-07-14

    Consumption of a Mediterranean diet (MD) and genetic variation in the glucokinase regulatory protein (GCKR) gene have been reported to be associated with TAG and glucose metabolism. It is uncertain whether there is any interaction between these factors. Therefore, the aims of the present study were to test the association of adherence to a MD and rs780094 (G>A) SNP in the GCKR gene with the markers of cardiometabolic risk, and to investigate the interaction between genetic variation and MD adherence. We studied 20 986 individuals from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer (EPIC)-Norfolk study. The relative Mediterranean Diet Score (rMED: range 0-18) was used to assess MD adherence. Linear regression was used to estimate the association between the rMED, genotype and cardiometabolic continuous traits, adjusting for potential confounders. In adjusted analyses, we observed independent associations of MD adherence and genotype with cardiometabolic risk, with the highest risk group (AA genotype; lowest rMED) having higher concentrations of TAG, total cholesterol and apoB (12·5, 2·3 and 3·1%, respectively) v. those at the lowest risk (GG genotype; highest rMED). However, the associations of MD adherence with metabolic markers did not differ by genotype, with no significant gene-diet interactions for lipids or for glycated Hb. In conclusion, we found independent associations of the rMED and of the GCKR genotype with cardiometabolic profile, but found no evidence of interaction between them.

  17. German risk study, phase B: Results of the event tree and fault tree analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoertner, H.

    1987-01-01

    This paper deals with the most important results of the level 1 analysis performed in Phase B of the German Risk Study and with the insights it provided. The question is raised, to what extent the results of risk analyses can be verified against available operating experience. In this respect the results of the German Risk Study will be compared with the estimates of the German Precursor Study. Finally, the results of the German investigations are briefly compared with the results of recent U.S. risk analyses. (orig.)

  18. Injury rates and injury risk factors among federal bureau of investigation new agent trainees

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background A one-year prospective examination of injury rates and injury risk factors was conducted in Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) new agent training. Methods Injury incidents were obtained from medical records and injury compensation forms. Potential injury risk factors were acquired from a lifestyle questionnaire and existing data at the FBI Academy. Results A total of 426 men and 105 women participated in the project. Thirty-five percent of men and 42% of women experienced one or more injuries during training. The injury incidence rate was 2.5 and 3.2 injuries/1,000 person-days for men and women, respectively (risk ratio (women/men) = 1.3, 95% confidence interval = 0.9-1.7). The activities most commonly associated with injuries (% of total) were defensive tactics training (58%), physical fitness training (20%), physical fitness testing (5%), and firearms training (3%). Among the men, higher injury risk was associated with older age, slower 300-meter sprint time, slower 1.5-mile run time, lower total points on the physical fitness test (PFT), lower self-rated physical activity, lower frequency of aerobic exercise, a prior upper or lower limb injury, and prior foot or knee pain that limited activity. Among the women higher injury risk was associated with slower 300-meter sprint time, slower 1.5-mile run time, lower total points on the PFT, and prior back pain that limited activity. Conclusion The results of this investigation supported those of a previous retrospective investigation emphasizing that lower fitness and self-reported pain limiting activity were associated with higher injury risk among FBI new agents. PMID:22166096

  19. A social work study high-risk behavior among teenagers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Iravani

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Teenagers are believed the people who are supposed to build the world's future. High-risk behaviors such as addiction to drugs, smoking cigarettes, sex, etc. could significantly hurts teenagers and there must be some supporting programs to reduce these issues as much as possible. This paper performs an empirical investigation to study the different factors influencing high- risk behavior among teenagers who live in a city of Esfahan, Iran. The proposed study designs a questionnaire and distribute between two groups of female and male teenagers. The results indicate that while there is a meaningful relationship between high-risk behaviors and average high school marks among male students there is no meaningful relationship between high-risk behaviors and high school grades among female students. The results also indicate that there is a meaningful difference between gender and high-risk behavior. The season of birth for female and male students is another important factor for having high-risk behaviors. While the order of birth plays an important role among male students, the order of birth is not an important factor among female teenagers. Finally, the results indicate that teenagers' parental financial affordability plays a vital role on both female and male teenagers.

  20. Alcohol consumption and later risk of hospitalization with psychiatric disorders: prospective cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flensborg-Madsen, Trine; Becker, Ulrik; Grønbæk, Morten

    2011-01-01

    hospital with a psychiatric disorder. The prospective cohort study, the Copenhagen City Heart Study (n=18,146), was used, containing three updated sets of alcohol intake and lifestyle covariates and up to 26 years follow-up. Alcohol intake was measured by self-report while psychiatric disorders were......The potential effects of alcohol intake upon the risk of psychiatric disorders have not often been investigated. The purpose of this study was to investigate, in a population sample, the association between self-reported amount of alcohol intake and the later risk of being registered in a Danish.......31-3.04) compared to women drinking below the sensible drinking limits. For men, the risk functions were slightly U-shaped; thus, a weekly low or moderate alcohol intake seemed to have a protective effect towards developing psychiatric disorders. The findings suggest sex differences in the association between...

  1. Smoking is associated with an increased risk of dementia: a meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies with investigation of potential effect modifiers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guochao Zhong

    Full Text Available Previous studies showed inconsistent results on the association of smoking with all-cause dementia and vascular dementia (VaD, and are limited by inclusion of a small number of studies and unexplained heterogeneity. Our review aimed to assess the risk of all-cause dementia, Alzheimer's disease (AD and VaD associated with smoking, and to identify potential effect modifiers.The PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library and Psychinfo databases were searched to identify studies that provided risk estimates on smoking and incidence of dementia. A random-effects model was used to yield pooled results. Thirty-seven studies were included. Compared with never smokers, current smokers showed an increased risk of all-cause dementia (risk ratio (RR 1.30, 95% confidence interval (CI 1.18-1.45, AD (RR 1.40, 95% CI 1.13-1.73 and VaD (RR 1.38, 95% CI 1.15-1.66. For all-cause dementia, the risk increased by 34% for every 20 cigarettes per day (RR 1.34, 95% CI 1.25-1.43. Former smokers did not show an increased risk of all-cause dementia (RR 1.01, 95% CI 0.96-1.06, AD (RR 1.04, 95% CI 0.96-1.13 and VaD (RR 0.97, 95% CI 0.83-1.13. Subgroup analyses indicated that (1 the significantly increased risk of AD from current smoking was seen only in apolipoprotein E ε4 noncarriers; (2 current smokers aged 65 to 75 years at baseline showed increased risk of all-cause dementia and AD compared to those aged over 75 or under 65 years; and (3 sex, race, study location and diagnostic criteria difference in risk of dementia was not found.Smokers show an increased risk of dementia, and smoking cessation decreases the risk to that of never smokers. The increased risk of AD from smoking is more pronounced in apolipoprotein E ε4 noncarriers. Survival bias and competing risk reduce the risk of dementia from smoking at extreme age.

  2. Genetic risk of rhegmatogenous retinal detachment a familial aggregation study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.L. Go (Sioe Lie); C. Hoyng (Carel); C.C.W. Klaver (Caroline)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractObjective: To investigate the magnitude of the genetic risk of nonsyndromic rhegmatogenous retinal detachments (RRDs) in a familial aggregation study. Design: Two hundred three consecutive patients with RRD and 461 controls without RRD were ascertained at the Department of Ophthalmology

  3. Social ties and risk for cancer - a prospective cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergelt, Corinna; Prescott, Eva; Grønbaek, Morten

    2009-01-01

    consisted of 8 548 Danes who had been examined in 1991-1994 within the Copenhagen City Heart Study. The median length of follow-up was 9.3 years (range, 0-11.2 years). Social ties were measured from answers to a questionnaire on social networks. Regression analyses for cancers at the most frequent sites......BACKGROUND: Poor social support and small social networks have been associated with increased risks for conditions such as coronary heart disease as well as with overall mortality. We investigated the association between social ties and risk for cancer. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study sample...... (breast, lung, prostate and colon and rectum) were conducted with the Cox proportional hazards model, with adjustment for a number of well-known risk factors for cancer. RESULTS: While we found no significant association between social ties and risk for cancer in men, women with high social network scores...

  4. Social ties and risk for cancer - a prospective cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergelt, C.; Prescott, E.; Gronbaek, M.

    2009-01-01

    consisted of 8 548 Danes who had been examined in 1991-1994 within the Copenhagen City Heart Study. The median length of follow-up was 9.3 years (range, 0-11.2 years). Social ties were measured from answers to a questionnaire on social networks. Regression analyses for cancers at the most frequent sites......Background. Poor social support and small social networks have been associated with increased risks for conditions such as coronary heart disease as well as with overall mortality. We investigated the association between social ties and risk for cancer. Material and methods. The study sample...... (breast, lung, prostate and colon and rectum) were conducted with the Cox proportional hazards model, with adjustment for a number of well-known risk factors for cancer. Results. While we found no significant association between social ties and risk for cancer in men, women with high social network scores...

  5. How much does HDL cholesterol add to risk estimation? A report from the SCORE Investigators.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cooney, Marie Therese

    2009-06-01

    Systematic COronary Risk Evaluation (SCORE), the risk estimation system recommended by the European guidelines on cardiovascular disease prevention, estimates 10-year risk of cardiovascular disease mortality based on age, sex, country of origin, systolic blood pressure, smoking status and either total cholesterol (TC) or TC\\/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) ratio. As, counterintuitively, these two systems perform very similarly, we have investigated whether incorporating HDL-C and TC as separate variables improves risk estimation.

  6. A study on relationship between tail risk on earning management in Iranian banking industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Khodaei Valahzaghard

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Risk management plays an important role in banking industry and there are literally many investigations to reduce any risk components in this industry. In this paper, we present a study on relationship between tail risk on earning management in Iranian banking industry. In this survey, we use two series of data. The first set is associated with yearly information of 19 different banks over the period 2005-2011 and it contains 114 observations. The second set of data includes weekly historical data of eight banks over the same period 2005-2011. In this survey, there are four objectives to be investigated. The first hypothesis considers the effects of seven independent variables on loan loss allowance as a fraction of total loans. The second model is associated with the effects of two independent variables on realized gains and losses on securities. The third objective is to study the effects of different independent variables with various interruptions on return of banking sectors. Finally, the last model investigates the effects of revenue management on tail risk. The result of this survey indicates that there is no relationship between tail risk and earning management.

  7. Suicide risk in schizophrenia – a follow-up study after 20 years ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective. This study re-evaluated, after a period of 20 years, a cohort of patients with schizophrenia who had been considered to be at high risk for suicide. The outcome and social factors associated with their suicide risk were investigated over the two decades. Method. Subjects were contacted and interviewed face to face ...

  8. Night Shift Work and Risk of Depression: Meta-analysis of Observational Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Aeyoung; Myung, Seung Kwon; Cho, Jung Jin; Jung, Yu Jin; Yoon, Jong Lull; Kim, Mee Young

    2017-07-01

    This study aimed to assess whether night shift work is associated with the risk of depression by using a meta-analysis of observational studies. We searched PubMed and EMBASE in August, 2016 to locate eligible studies and investigated the association between night shift work and the risk of depression, reporting outcome measures with adjusted odds ratios (ORs) or relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). In the meta-analysis of a total of 11 observational studies with 9 cross-sectional study, 1 longitudinal study, and 1 cohort study, night shift work was significantly associated with an increased risk of depression (OR/RR, 1.43; 95% CI, 1.24-1.64; I² = 78.0%). Also, subgroup meta-analyses by gender, night shift work duration, type of occupation, continent, and type of publication showed that night shift work was consistently associated with the increased risk of depression. The current meta-analysis suggests that night shift work is associated with the increased risk of depression. However, further large prospective cohort studies are needed to confirm this association. © 2017 The Korean Academy of Medical Sciences.

  9. Genetic risk of rhegmatogenous retinal detachment: a familial aggregation study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Go, S.L.; Hoyng, C.B.; Klaver, C.C.W.

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the magnitude of the genetic risk of nonsyndromic rhegmatogenous retinal detachments (RRDs) in a familial aggregation study. DESIGN: Two hundred three consecutive patients with RRD and 461 controls without RRD were ascertained at the Department of Ophthalmology of the

  10. Fear, Anger, and Risk Preference Reversals: An Experimental Study on a Chinese Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    She, Shengxiang; Eimontaite, Iveta; Zhang, Dangli; Sun, Yan

    2017-01-01

    Fear and anger are basic emotions of the same valence which differ in terms of their certainty and control dimensions according to the Appraisal Tendency Framework, a theory addressing the relationship between specific emotions, and judgments and choices. Past research based on the Appraisal Theory revealed contradictory results for risky choice decision-making. However, these conclusions were drawn from Western samples (e.g., North American). Considering potential cultural differences, the present study aims to investigate whether the Appraisal Tendency hypothesis yields the same results in a Chinese sample. Our first study explores how dispositional fear and anger influence risk preferences through a classic virtual "Asia Disease Problem" task and the second study investigates how induced fear and anger influence risk preferences through an incentive-compatible task. Consistent with previous research, our results reveal that induced fear and anger have differential effects on risky decisions: angry participants prefer the risk-seeking option, whereas fearful participants prefer a risk-averse option. However, we find no associations between dispositional fear (or anger) and risky decisions.

  11. Fear, Anger, and Risk Preference Reversals: An Experimental Study on a Chinese Sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengxiang She

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Fear and anger are basic emotions of the same valence which differ in terms of their certainty and control dimensions according to the Appraisal Tendency Framework, a theory addressing the relationship between specific emotions, and judgments and choices. Past research based on the Appraisal Theory revealed contradictory results for risky choice decision-making. However, these conclusions were drawn from Western samples (e.g., North American. Considering potential cultural differences, the present study aims to investigate whether the Appraisal Tendency hypothesis yields the same results in a Chinese sample. Our first study explores how dispositional fear and anger influence risk preferences through a classic virtual “Asia Disease Problem” task and the second study investigates how induced fear and anger influence risk preferences through an incentive-compatible task. Consistent with previous research, our results reveal that induced fear and anger have differential effects on risky decisions: angry participants prefer the risk-seeking option, whereas fearful participants prefer a risk-averse option. However, we find no associations between dispositional fear (or anger and risky decisions.

  12. Quantifying the benefits of achieving or maintaining long-term low risk profile for cardiovascular disease : The doetinchem cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hulsegge, Gerben; Smit, Henriëtte A.; Van Der Schouw, Yvonne T.; Daviglus, Martha L.; Verschuren, W. M Monique

    2015-01-01

    Background: Studies investigating the relation between risk profiles and cardiovascular disease have measured risk at baseline only. We investigated maintenance and changes of risk profiles over time and their potential impact on incident cardiovascular disease. Design: Population-based cohort

  13. Quantifying the benefits of achieving or maintaining long-term low risk profile for cardiovascular disease: The Doetinchem Cohort Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hulsegge, G.; Smit, H.A.; van der Schouw, Y.T.; Daviglus, M.L.; Verschuren, W.M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Studies investigating the relation between risk profiles and cardiovascular disease have measured risk at baseline only. We investigated maintenance and changes of risk profiles over time and their potential impact on incident cardiovascular disease. Design: Population-based cohort

  14. Natural hazard risk perception of Italian population: case studies along national territory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gravina, Teresita; Tupputi Schinosa, Francesca De Luca; Zuddas, Isabella; Preto, Mattia; Marengo, Angelo; Esposito, Alessandro; Figliozzi, Emanuele; Rapinatore, Matteo

    2015-04-01

    Risk perception is judgment that people make about the characteristics and severity of risks, in last few years risk perception studies focused on provide cognitive elements to communication experts responsible in order to design citizenship information and awareness appropriate strategies. Several authors in order to determine natural hazards risk (Seismic, landslides, cyclones, flood, Volcanic) perception used questionnaires as tool for providing reliable quantitative data and permitting comparison the results with those of similar surveys. In Italy, risk perception studies based on surveys, were also carried out in order to investigate on national importance Natural risk, in particular on Somma-Vesuvio and Phlegrean Fields volcanic Risks, but lacked risk perception studies on local situation distributed on whole national territory. National importance natural hazard were frequently reported by national mass media and there were debate about emergencies civil protection plans, otherwise could be difficult to obtain information on bonded and regional nature natural hazard which were diffuses along National territory. In fact, Italian peninsula was a younger geological area subjected to endogenous phenomena (volcanoes, earthquake) and exogenous phenomena which determine land evolution and natural hazard (landslide, coastal erosion, hydrogeological instability, sinkhole) for population. For this reason we decided to investigate on natural risks perception in different Italian place were natural hazard were taken place but not reported from mass media, as were only local relevant or historical event. We carried out surveys in different Italian place interested by different types of natural Hazard (landslide, coastal erosion, hydrogeological instability, sinkhole, volcanic phenomena and earthquake) and compared results, in order to understand population perception level, awareness and civil protection exercises preparation. Our findings support that risks

  15. Heterogeneity in risk of prostate cancer: A Swedish population-based cohort study of competing risks and type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Häggström, Christel; Van Hemelrijck, Mieke; Garmo, Hans; Robinson, David; Stattin, Pär; Rowley, Mark; Coolen, Anthony C C; Holmberg, Lars

    2018-05-09

    Most previous studies of prostate cancer have not taken into account that men in the studied populations are also at risk of competing event, and that these men may have different susceptibility to prostate cancer risk. The aim of this study was to investigate heterogeneity in risk of prostate cancer, using a recently developed latent class regression method for competing risks. We further aimed to elucidate the association between type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and prostate cancer risk, and to compare the results with conventional methods for survival analysis. We analysed the risk of prostate cancer in 126,482 men from the comparison cohort of the Prostate Cancer Data base Sweden (PCBaSe) 3.0. During a mean follow-up of 6 years 6,036 men were diagnosed with prostate cancer and 22,393 men died. We detected heterogeneity in risk of prostate cancer with two distinct latent classes in the study population. The smaller class included 9% of the study population in which men had a higher risk of prostate cancer and the risk was stronger associated with class membership than any of the covariates included in the study. Moreover, we found no association between T2DM and risk of prostate cancer after removal of the effect of informative censoring due to competing risks. The recently developed latent class for competing risks method could be used to provide new insights in precision medicine with the target to classify individuals regarding different susceptibility to a particular disease, reaction to a risk factor or response to treatment. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. © 2018 UICC.

  16. Sudbury soils study : summary of volume 3 : ecological risk assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-03-15

    The Sudbury soils study was comprised of 3 volumes: (1) a background, study organization and 2001 soils survey; (2) a human health risk assessment; and (3) an ecological risk assessment (ERA). This document provided details of the ERA, which was conducted to characterize the current and future risks of chemicals of concern (COC) to terrestrial and ecosystem components from Sudbury smelter particulate emissions. The extent to which COC are preventing the recovery of regionally representative terrestrial plant communities was investigated. Risks to terrestrial wildlife populations and endangered species and communities were evaluated. Samples of soil, water, sediment, plants, terrestrial invertebrates, and fish tissue were collected. Data were then analyzed by scientists and independent consultants in order to assess the impacts of arsenic, cadmium, cobalt, copper, lead, nickel and selenium. Results of the study indicated that terrestrial plant communities in the region continue to be impacted by COC in the soil, as well as by soil erosion, low nutrient levels, and a lack of soil organic matter. Direct impacts on wildlife populations were also observed. 5 refs., 7 tabs., 21 figs.

  17. Investigation of the Effect of Control Measures on Reduction of Risk Events in an Edible Oil Factory in Tehran, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malihe Kolahdouzi

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background & Aims of the Study: Identification of hazards is one of the first goals of risk analysis. Failure mode and effect analysis method (FMEA is universally defined as efficient procedures for finding potential failures aimed to remove or decrease the risk which is related to them. This study aimed to investigate the effect of control measures on reduction of risk events in an edible oil factory in Tehran. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in an edible oil factory in Tehran, Iran. For this, a four-member team of safety engineer experts was formed. Some factory units were selected randomly. After that, in all units, probability, severity and detection probability of hazards in all processes and tasks were assessed based on FMEA method. Regarding to the RPN, some control measures were taken to reduce the risk of events. After 9 months, risk assessment was repeated; primary and secondary RPNs were compared with each other to investigate the effect of interventions. Results: The results showed that highest and lowest probability of hazard were related to installation and can production unit, respectively. The highest and lowest severity of hazard were related to tool and can production unit, respectively. There was a significant difference between the probability of hazard in can-making and filling units, before and after the interventions. There was a significant difference between the severity of hazard in can-making, filling and neutralization units, before and after the interventions. As well, total probability, severity and RPN had a significant difference in all parts of the factory before and after the interventions. Conclusions: According to the results of this study and the overall risk reduction caused by interventional measures, it can be concluded that, FMEA is a successful method for identifying hazards and risk control measures.

  18. Dam risk reduction study for a number of large tailings dams in Ontario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verma, N. [AMEC Earth and Environmental Ltd., Mississauga, ON (Canada); Small, A. [AMEC Earth and Environmental Ltd., Fredericton, NB (Canada); Martin, T. [AMEC Earth and Environmental, Burnaby, BC (Canada); Cacciotti, D. [AMEC Earth and Environmental Ltd., Sudbury, ON (Canada); Ross, T. [Vale Inco Ltd., Sudbury, ON (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    This paper discussed a risk reduction study conducted for 10 large tailings dams located at a central tailings facility in Ontario. Located near large industrial and urban developments, the tailings dams were built using an upstream method of construction that did not involve beach compaction or the provision of under-drainage. The study provided a historical background for the dam and presented results from investigations and instrumentation data. The methods used to develop the dam configurations were discussed, and remedial measures and risk assessment measures used on the dams were reviewed. The aim of the study was to address key sources of risk, which include the presence of high pore pressures and hydraulic gradients; the potential for liquefaction; slope instability; and the potential for overtopping. A borehole investigation was conducted and piezocone probes were used to obtain continuous data and determine soil and groundwater conditions. The study identified that the lower portion of the dam slopes were of concern. Erosion gullies could lead to larger scale failures, and elevated pore pressures could lead to the risk of seepage breakouts. It was concluded that remedial measures are now being conducted to ensure slope stability. 6 refs., 1 tab., 6 figs.

  19. Suicide risk in relation to level of urbanicity - a population-based linkage study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qin, Ping

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The extent to which the high suicide rate in urban areas is influenced by exposures to risk factors for suicide other than urbanicity remains unknown. This population-based study aims to investigate suicide risk in relation to the level of urbanicity in the context of other factors...

  20. [Risk factors for Parkinson disease: an epidemiologic study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Duarte; Garrett, Carolina

    2010-01-01

    The etiology of Parkinson's disease (PD) remains in a certain part unknown. Both genetic susceptibility and environmental factors are sometimes considered to be putative contributors to its origin. Recent epidemiologic studies have focused on the possible role of environmental risk factors present during adult life or aging, once pure genetic forms of PD are rare. The purpose of this study was to investigate possible environmental and familial risk factors for PD. We performed a hospital based case-control study using 88 PD patients with neurologist confirmed diagnostic, and 176 sex, age, and residence similar controls. Several possible risk factors were evaluated related to life style, past history, family history, occupational history and other exposures to potential neurotoxin agents. Statistical differences, using a 95% confidence interval, were observed in positive family history of PD (p = 0,002), occupation category (p = 0,001), rural living (p = 0,037), living/working near a industry (p = 0,017), exposure to pesticides, herbicides and in-secticides (p coffee consumption (p = 0,036) and tea consumption (p = 0,001). Sex and age adjusted logistic regression showed as potential risk factors, a positive family history of PD (odds ratio [OR] = 9,996; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2,19-45,597), blue collar occupations (OR = 3,967; 95% CI = 1,670-9,426), exposure to pesticides, herbicides and insecticides (OR = 2,619 ; 95% CI = 1,170-5,862). An inverse relationship was found between tea consumption and the risk of PD (OR = 0,356; 95% CI = 0,174-0,727). The results of the study show that both familial and environmental factors may contribute to the development of PD. Like other studies suggest, PD is of unknown, but presumably multifactorial etiology.

  1. Risk Communication in EPA's Controlled Inhalation Exposure Studies and in Support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resnik, David

    2017-01-01

    On March 28, 2017, the National Academy of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine (NASEM) released a much-anticipated report on the Environmental Protection Agency's controlled human inhalation exposure studies. This essay reviews the ethical controversies that led to the genesis of the report, summarizes its key findings, and comments on its approach to informing human subjects about the risks of inhalation exposure studies. NASEM's report makes a valuable contribution to our understanding of the scientific and ethical issues involved in conducting human inhalation exposure studies. Its definition of "reasonably foreseeable risks" provides useful guidance to investigators, research participants, and institutional review board members.

  2. Improving risk assessment in schizophrenia: epidemiological investigation of criminal history factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witt, Katrina; Lichtenstein, Paul; Fazel, Seena

    2015-05-01

    Violence risk assessment in schizophrenia relies heavily on criminal history factors. To investigate which criminal history factors are most strongly associated with violent crime in schizophrenia. A total of 13 806 individuals (8891 men and 4915 women) with two or more hospital admissions for schizophrenia were followed up for violent convictions. Multivariate hazard ratios for 15 criminal history factors included in different risk assessment tools were calculated. The incremental predictive validity of these factors was estimated using tests of discrimination, calibration and reclassification. Over a mean follow-up of 12.0 years, 17.3% of men (n = 1535) and 5.7% of women (n = 281) were convicted of a violent offence. Criminal history factors most strongly associated with subsequent violence for both men and women were a previous conviction for a violent offence; for assault, illegal threats and/or intimidation; and imprisonment. However, only a previous conviction for a violent offence was associated with incremental predictive validity in both genders following adjustment for young age and comorbid substance use disorder. Clinical and actuarial approaches to assess violence risk can be improved if included risk factors are tested using multiple measures of performance. © The Royal College of Psychiatrists 2015.

  3. Risk communication. Risk studies in social science; Risk communication. Risk kenkyu eno shakai kagakuteki approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asami, M. [Keio Univ., Tokyo (Japan)

    1995-11-05

    It is recently, that is, in and after the 1980s that socio-scientific approaches began to be made to studies on `risk`. It started to be made clear that the progress of the scientific technology does not necessarily bring about good news to man, and obvious estrangement has begun to appear between scientific evaluation and social evaluation of risk. The subject of risk communication (RC) study is to tackle a proposition whether the estrangement will continue to exist as estrangement or the estrangement can be made smaller by any means. This paper explains the recent trend of the study. For example, as for how each individual thinks about risk, that is, the risk perception, a new framework is trially being constructed by introduction of the quantitative method using psychometrics. A duty of RC is to serve to bridge the gap between scientific technology and society which are controlled by values which are incompatible with each other. Therefore, RC will be more and more important. 15 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  4. Remedidal investigation and feasibility study report for the Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roeck, F.V.

    1994-06-01

    The purpose of the remedial investigation (RI) is to collect data necessary to adequately characterize the site for the purpose of developing and evaluating effective remedial alternatives. To characterize the site, the lead agency shall, as appropriate, conduct field investigations, including treatability studies, and conduct a baseline risk assessment. The RI provides information to assess the risks to human health and the environment and to support the development, evaluation, and selection of appropriate response alternatives. The primary objective of the feasibility study (FS) is to ensure that appropriate remedial alternatives are developed and evaluated such that relevant information concerning the remedial action options can be presented to a decision-maker and an appropriate remedy selected. The lead agency may develop a feasibility study to address a specific site problem or the entire site. The development and evaluation of alternatives shall reflect the scope and complexity of the remedial action under consideration and the site problems being addressed. Development of alternatives shall be fully integrated with the site characterization activities of the remedial investigation described in paragraph (d) of this section. The lead agency shall include an alternatives screening step, when needed, to select a reasonable number of alternatives for detailed analysis.

  5. Remedidal investigation and feasibility study report for the Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roeck, F.V.

    1994-06-01

    The purpose of the remedial investigation (RI) is to collect data necessary to adequately characterize the site for the purpose of developing and evaluating effective remedial alternatives. To characterize the site, the lead agency shall, as appropriate, conduct field investigations, including treatability studies, and conduct a baseline risk assessment. The RI provides information to assess the risks to human health and the environment and to support the development, evaluation, and selection of appropriate response alternatives. The primary objective of the feasibility study (FS) is to ensure that appropriate remedial alternatives are developed and evaluated such that relevant information concerning the remedial action options can be presented to a decision-maker and an appropriate remedy selected. The lead agency may develop a feasibility study to address a specific site problem or the entire site. The development and evaluation of alternatives shall reflect the scope and complexity of the remedial action under consideration and the site problems being addressed. Development of alternatives shall be fully integrated with the site characterization activities of the remedial investigation described in paragraph (d) of this section. The lead agency shall include an alternatives screening step, when needed, to select a reasonable number of alternatives for detailed analysis

  6. Incorporating ecological risk assessment into remedial investigation/feasibility study work plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-06-01

    This guidance document (1) provides instructions on preparing the components of an ecological work plan to complement the overall site remedial investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) work plan and (2) directs the user on how to implement ecological tasks identified in the plan. Under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA), as amended by the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986 (SARA), and RI/FS work plan will have to be developed as part of the site-remediation scoping process. Specific guidance on the RI/FS process and the preparation of work plans has been developed by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA 1988a). This document provides guidance to US Department of Energy (DOE) staff and contractor personnel for incorporation of ecological information into environmental remediation planning and decision making at CERCLA sites

  7. Incorporating ecological risk assessment into remedial investigation/feasibility study work plans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-06-01

    This guidance document (1) provides instructions on preparing the components of an ecological work plan to complement the overall site remedial investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) work plan and (2) directs the user on how to implement ecological tasks identified in the plan. Under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA), as amended by the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986 (SARA), and RI/FS work plan will have to be developed as part of the site-remediation scoping process. Specific guidance on the RI/FS process and the preparation of work plans has been developed by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA 1988a). This document provides guidance to US Department of Energy (DOE) staff and contractor personnel for incorporation of ecological information into environmental remediation planning and decision making at CERCLA sites.

  8. Prediction of Adulthood Obesity Using Genetic and Childhood Clinical Risk Factors in the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyednasrollah, Fatemeh; Mäkelä, Johanna; Pitkänen, Niina; Juonala, Markus; Hutri-Kähönen, Nina; Lehtimäki, Terho; Viikari, Jorma; Kelly, Tanika; Li, Changwei; Bazzano, Lydia; Elo, Laura L; Raitakari, Olli T

    2017-06-01

    Obesity is a known risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Early prediction of obesity is essential for prevention. The aim of this study is to assess the use of childhood clinical factors and the genetic risk factors in predicting adulthood obesity using machine learning methods. A total of 2262 participants from the Cardiovascular Risk in YFS (Young Finns Study) were followed up from childhood (age 3-18 years) to adulthood for 31 years. The data were divided into training (n=1625) and validation (n=637) set. The effect of known genetic risk factors (97 single-nucleotide polymorphisms) was investigated as a weighted genetic risk score of all 97 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (WGRS97) or a subset of 19 most significant single-nucleotide polymorphisms (WGRS19) using boosting machine learning technique. WGRS97 and WGRS19 were validated using external data (n=369) from BHS (Bogalusa Heart Study). WGRS19 improved the accuracy of predicting adulthood obesity in training (area under the curve [AUC=0.787 versus AUC=0.744, P obesity. Predictive accuracy is highest among young children (3-6 years), whereas among older children (9-18 years) the risk can be identified using childhood clinical factors. The model is helpful in screening children with high risk of developing obesity. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  9. Major dietary patterns and cardiovascular risk factors from childhood to adulthood. The Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikkilä, Vera; Räsänen, Leena; Raitakari, Olli T; Marniemi, Jukka; Pietinen, Pirjo; Rönnemaa, Tapani; Viikari, Jorma

    2007-07-01

    Studies on the impact of single nutrients on the risk of CVD have often given inconclusive results. Recent research on dietary patterns has offered promising information on the effects of diet as a whole on the risk of CVD. The Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study is an ongoing, prospective cohort study with a 21-year follow-up to date. The subjects were children and adolescents at baseline (3-18 years, n 1768) and adults at the latest follow-up study (24-39 years, n 1037). We investigated the associations between two major dietary patterns and several risk factors for CVD. In longitudinal analyses with repeated measurements, using multivariate mixed linear regression models, the traditional dietary pattern (characterised by high consumption of rye, potatoes, butter, sausages, milk and coffee) was independently associated with total and LDL cholesterol concentrations, apolipoprotein B and C-reactive protein concentrations among both genders, and also with systolic blood pressure and insulin levels among women and concentrations of homocysteine among men (P health-conscious food choices (such as high consumption of vegetables, legumes and nuts, tea, rye, cheese and other dairy products, and alcoholic beverages) was inversely, but less strongly associated with cardiovascular risk factors. Our results support earlier findings that dietary patterns have a role in the development of CVD.

  10. Depression and blood pressure in high-risk children and adolescents: an investigation using two longitudinal cohorts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammerton, Gemma; Harold, Gordon; Thapar, Anita; Thapar, Ajay

    2013-01-01

    Objective To examine the relationship between blood pressure and depressive disorder in children and adolescents at high risk for depression. Design Multisample longitudinal design including a prospective longitudinal three-wave high-risk study of offspring of parents with recurrent depression and an on-going birth cohort for replication. Setting Community-based studies. Participants High-risk sample includes 281 families where children were aged 9–17 years at baseline and 10–19 years at the final data point. Replication cohort includes 4830 families where children were aged 11–14 years at baseline and 14–17 years at follow-up and a high-risk subsample of 612 offspring with mothers that had reported recurrent depression. Main outcome measures The new-onset of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorder, fourth edition defined depressive disorder in the offspring using established research diagnostic assessments—the Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Assessment in the high-risk sample and the Development and Wellbeing Assessment in the replication sample. Results Blood pressure was standardised for age and gender to create SD scores and child's weight was statistically controlled in all analyses. In the high-risk sample, lower systolic blood pressure at wave 1 significantly predicted new-onset depressive disorder in children (OR=0.65, 95% CI 0.44 to 0.96; p=0.029) but diastolic blood pressure did not. Depressive disorder at wave 1 did not predict systolic blood pressure at wave 3. A significant association between lower systolic blood pressure and future depression was also found in the replication cohort in the second subset of high-risk children whose mothers had experienced recurrent depression in the past. Conclusions Lower systolic blood pressure predicts new-onset depressive disorder in the offspring of parents with depression. Further studies are needed to investigate how this association arises. PMID:24071459

  11. Lifetime and baseline alcohol intakes and risk of pancreatic cancer in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Naudin, Sabine; Li, Kuanrong; Jaouen, Tristan; Assi, Nada; Kyrø, Cecilie; Tjønneland, Anne; Overvad, Kim; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Rebours, Vinciane; Védié, Anne-Laure; Boeing, Heiner; Kaaks, Rudolf; Katzke, Verena; Bamia, Christina; Naska, Androniki; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Berrino, Franco; Tagliabue, Giovanna; Palli, Domenico; Panico, Salvatore; Tumino, Rosario; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Peeters, Petra H; Bueno-de-Mesquita, Bas; Weiderpass Vainio, Elisabete; Gram, Inger Torhild; Skeie, Guri; Chirlaque, Maria-Dolores; Rodríguez-Barranco, Miguel; Barricarte, Aurelio; Quirós, Jose Ramón; Dorronsoro, Miren; Johansson, Ingegerd; Sund, Malin; Sternby, Hanna; Bradbury, Kathryn E; Wareham, Nick; Riboli, Elio; Gunter, Marc; Brennan, Paul; Duell, Eric J; Ferrari, Pietro

    2018-01-01

    Recent evidence suggested a weak relationship between alcohol consumption and pancreatic cancer (PC) risk. In this study, the association between lifetime and baseline alcohol intakes and the risk of PC was evaluated, including the type of alcoholic beverages and potential interaction with smoking.

  12. Remedial investigation report for J-Field, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. Volume 3: Ecological risk assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hlohowskyj, I.; Hayse, J.; Kuperman, R.; Van Lonkhuyzen, R.

    2000-02-25

    The Environmental Management Division of the U.S. Army Aberdeen Proving Ground (APG), Maryland, is conducting a remedial investigation (RI) and feasibility study (FS) of the J-Field area at APG, pursuant to the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), as amended. As part of that activity, Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) conducted an ecological risk assessment (ERA) of the J-Field site. This report presents the results of that assessment.

  13. Remedial investigation report for J-Field, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. Volume 3: Ecological risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hlohowskyj, I.; Hayse, J.; Kuperman, R.; Van Lonkhuyzen, R.

    2000-01-01

    The Environmental Management Division of the U.S. Army Aberdeen Proving Ground (APG), Maryland, is conducting a remedial investigation (RI) and feasibility study (FS) of the J-Field area at APG, pursuant to the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), as amended. As part of that activity, Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) conducted an ecological risk assessment (ERA) of the J-Field site. This report presents the results of that assessment

  14. Suicide risk in relation to level of urbanicity - a population-based linkage study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qin, Ping

    2005-01-01

    from various Danish longitudinal registers. Data were analysed with conditional logistic regression. RESULTS: This study confirms that people living in more urbanized areas are at a higher risk of suicide than their counterparts in less urbanized areas. However, this excess risk is largely eliminated...... when adjusted for personal marital, income, and ethnic differences; it is even reversed when further adjusted for psychiatric status. Moreover, the impact of urbanicity on suicide risk differs significantly by sex and across age. Urban living reduces suicide risk significantly among men, especially......BACKGROUND: The extent to which the high suicide rate in urban areas is influenced by exposures to risk factors for suicide other than urbanicity remains unknown. This population-based study aims to investigate suicide risk in relation to the level of urbanicity in the context of other factors...

  15. Infective Endocarditis and Cancer Risk: A Population-Based Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Li-Min; Wu, Jung-Nan; Lin, Cheng-Li; Day, Jen-Der; Liang, Ji-An; Liou, Li-Ren; Kao, Chia-Hung

    2016-03-01

    This study investigated the possible relationship between endocarditis and overall and individual cancer risk among study participants in Taiwan.We used data from the National Health Insurance program of Taiwan to conduct a population-based, observational, and retrospective cohort study. The case group consisted of 14,534 patients who were diagnosed with endocarditis between January 1, 2000 and December 31, 2010. For the control group, 4 patients without endocarditis were frequency matched to each endocarditis patient according to age, sex, and index year. Competing risks regression analysis was conducted to determine the effect of endocarditis on cancer risk.A large difference was noted in Charlson comorbidity index between endocarditis and nonendocarditis patients. In patients with endocarditis, the risk for developing overall cancer was significant and 119% higher than in patients without endocarditis (adjusted subhazard ratio = 2.19, 95% confidence interval = 1.98-2.42). Regarding individual cancers, in addition to head and neck, uterus, female breast and hematological malignancies, the risks of developing colorectal cancer, and some digestive tract cancers were significantly higher. Additional analyses determined that the association of cancer with endocarditis is stronger within the 1st 5 years after endocarditis diagnosis.This population-based cohort study found that patients with endocarditis are at a higher risk for colorectal cancer and other cancers in Taiwan. The risk was even higher within the 1st 5 years after endocarditis diagnosis. It suggested that endocarditis is an early marker of colorectal cancer and other cancers. The underlying mechanisms must still be explored and may account for a shared risk factor of infection in both endocarditis and malignancy.

  16. Investigation of PPCPs in wastewater treatment plants in Greece: occurrence, removal and environmental risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosma, Christina I; Lambropoulou, Dimitra A; Albanis, Triantafyllos A

    2014-01-01

    In the present work, an extensive study on the presence of eighteen pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) in eight wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) of Greece has been conducted. The study covered four sampling periods over 1-year, where samples (influents; effluents) from eight WWTPs of various cities in Greece were taken. All WWTPs investigated are equipped with conventional activated sludge treatment. A common pre-concentration step based on SPE was applied, followed by LC-UV/Vis-ESI-MS. Further confirmation of positive findings was accomplished by using LC coupled to a high resolution Orbitrap mass spectrometer. The results showed the occurrence of all target compounds in the wastewater samples with concentrations up to 96.65 μg/L. Paracetamol, caffeine, trimethoprim, sulfamethoxazole, carbamazepine, diclofenac and salicylic acid were the dominant compounds, while tolfenamic acid, fenofibrate and simvastatin were the less frequently detected compounds with concentrations in effluents below the LOQ. The removal efficiencies showed that many WWTPs were unable to effectively remove most of the PPCPs investigated. Finally, the study provides an assessment of the environmental risk posed by their presence in wastewaters by means of the risk quotient (RQ). RQs were more than unity for various compounds in the effluents expressing possible threat for the aquatic environment. Triclosan was found to be the most critical compound in terms of contribution and environmental risk, concluding that it should be seriously considered as a candidate for regulatory monitoring and prioritization on a European scale on the basis of realistic PNECs. The results of the extensive monitoring study contributed to a better insight on PPCPs in Greece and their presence in influent and effluent wastewaters. Furthermore, the unequivocal identification of two transformation products of trimethoprim in real wastewaters by using the advantages of the LTQ Orbitrap capabilities

  17. Investigating the possible causal role of coffee consumption with prostate cancer risk and progression using Mendelian randomization analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taylor, Amy E; Martin, Richard M; Geybels, Milan S

    2017-01-01

    Coffee consumption has been shown in some studies to be associated with lower risk of prostate cancer. However, it is unclear if this association is causal or due to confounding or reverse causality. We conducted a Mendelian randomisation analysis to investigate the causal effects of coffee...... consumption on prostate cancer risk and progression. We used two genetic variants robustly associated with caffeine intake (rs4410790 and rs2472297) as proxies for coffee consumption in a sample of 46,687 men of European ancestry from 25 studies in the PRACTICAL consortium. Associations between genetic...... variants and prostate cancer case status, stage and grade were assessed by logistic regression and with all-cause and prostate cancer-specific mortality using Cox proportional hazards regression. There was no clear evidence that a genetic risk score combining rs4410790 and rs2472297 was associated...

  18. Dairy Supply Chain Risk Management in Bangladesh: Field studies of Factors and Variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tasnuba Nasir

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Supply chain risk management (SCRM has gained wide attention among the academia and the business community in the present competitive business world. This paper aims to investigate the main risk factors associated with the dairy industry along with focuses on possible mitigation strategy to mitigate those risks. Qualitative field study has been undertaken in this research. The results of the interviews identify the different risk issues along with the possible mitigation strategies, embedded at storage, processing and distribution level in dairy industry of Bangladesh. The practical implication will contribute significantly to the dairy sector in terms of mitigating risks.

  19. Reanalysis of Epidemiological Investigation of Cancer Risk among People Residing near Nuclear Power Plants in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jeong-Min; Kim, Myoung-Hee; Ju, Young-Su; Hwang, Seung-Sik; Ha, Mina; Kim, Bong-Kyu; Zoh, Kyung Ehi; Paek, Domyung

    2018-03-09

    Background : A 20-year follow-up study on cancer incidence among people living near nuclear power plants in South Korea ended in 2011 with a finding of significantly, but inconsistently, elevated thyroid cancer risk for females. Reanalysis of the original study was carried out to examine the dose-response relationship further, and to investigate any evidence of detection bias. Methods : In addition to replicating the original Cox proportional hazards models, nested case-control analysis was carried out for all subjects and for four different birth cohorts to examine the effects of excluding participants with pre-existing cancer history at enrollment. The potential for detection bias was investigated using the records of medical utilization and voluntary health checks of comparison groups. Results : The overall risk profile of the total sample was similar to that of the original study. However, in the stratified analysis of four birth cohorts, the cancer risk among people living near nuclear power plants became higher in younger birth cohorts. This was especially true for thyroid cancers of females (hazard ratio (HR) 3.38) and males (HR 1.74), female breast cancers (HR 2.24), and radiation-related cancers (HR 1.59 for males, HR 1.77 for females), but not for radiation-insensitive cancers (HR 0.59 for males, HR 0.98 for females). Based on medical records and health check reports, we found no differences between comparison groups that could have led to detection bias. Conclusions : The overall results suggest elevated risk of radiation-related cancers among residents living near nuclear power plants, controlling for the selective survival effect. This is further supported by the lack of evidence of detection bias and by records of environmental exposure from radiation waste discharge.

  20. Reanalysis of Epidemiological Investigation of Cancer Risk among People Residing near Nuclear Power Plants in South Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeong-Min Kim

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: A 20-year follow-up study on cancer incidence among people living near nuclear power plants in South Korea ended in 2011 with a finding of significantly, but inconsistently, elevated thyroid cancer risk for females. Reanalysis of the original study was carried out to examine the dose–response relationship further, and to investigate any evidence of detection bias. Methods: In addition to replicating the original Cox proportional hazards models, nested case-control analysis was carried out for all subjects and for four different birth cohorts to examine the effects of excluding participants with pre-existing cancer history at enrollment. The potential for detection bias was investigated using the records of medical utilization and voluntary health checks of comparison groups. Results: The overall risk profile of the total sample was similar to that of the original study. However, in the stratified analysis of four birth cohorts, the cancer risk among people living near nuclear power plants became higher in younger birth cohorts. This was especially true for thyroid cancers of females (hazard ratio (HR 3.38 and males (HR 1.74, female breast cancers (HR 2.24, and radiation-related cancers (HR 1.59 for males, HR 1.77 for females, but not for radiation-insensitive cancers (HR 0.59 for males, HR 0.98 for females. Based on medical records and health check reports, we found no differences between comparison groups that could have led to detection bias. Conclusions: The overall results suggest elevated risk of radiation-related cancers among residents living near nuclear power plants, controlling for the selective survival effect. This is further supported by the lack of evidence of detection bias and by records of environmental exposure from radiation waste discharge.

  1. A forensic perspective of the AFL investigation into peptides: an antidoping investigation case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harcourt, Peter Rex; Marclay, Francois; Clothier, Brett

    2014-05-01

    The World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) is introducing enhancements to doping investigations in its 2015 Code, which include improved sharing of information between antidoping organisations (including sporting bodies) and enhanced accountability of athlete support staff. These additions will improve the control of links between sports doping and organised crime. In February 2013 the Australian Crime Commission released a report that linked several professional sporting codes, professional athletes with links to organised crime, performance enhancing drugs and illicit substances. Following this report the Australian Football League (AFL) partnered the Australian national antidoping organisation to investigate peptide use in Australian football. This review compared the model proposed by Marclay, a hypothetical model for anti-doping investigations that proposed a forensic intelligence and analysis approach, to use the forensic capabilities of the AFL investigation to test the model's relevance to an actual case. The investigation uncovered the use of peptides used to enhance athlete performance. The AFL investigation found a high risk of doping where athlete support staff existed in teams with weak corporate governance controls. A further finding included the need for the investigation to provide a timely response in professional team sports that were sensitive to the competition timing. In the case of the AFL the team was sanctioned prior to the finals as an interim outcome for allowing the risk of use of performance-enhancing substances. Doping violation charges are still being considered. Antidoping strategies should include the investigation of corporate officers in team doping circumstances, the mandatory recording of all athlete substance use during competition and training phases, the wider sharing of forensic intelligence with non-sporting bodies particularly law enforcement and collaboration between antidoping and sporting organisations in doping investigations

  2. Risk for the patient in radionuclide investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baltrukiewicz, Z.

    1993-01-01

    The rule of ''justification'' in the radiological protection system needs an analysis of advantages and disadvantages of the use of radiopharmaceuticals in diagnosis. Coefficients of stochastic risk, absorbed doses in organs and effective doses received by patients in the course of diagnostic examinations are presented. Uncertainly about assessment of radiation risk using risk coefficients is also discussed. 2 tabs

  3. Kidney Measures with Diabetes and Hypertension on Cardiovascular Disease : The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alexander, Nadine; Matsushita, Kunihiro; Sang, Yingying; Ballew, Shoshana; Mahmoodi, Bakhtawar K.; Astor, Brad C.; Coresh, Josef

    2015-01-01

    Background: Whether the association of chronic kidney disease (CKD) with cardiovascular risk differs based on diabetes mellitus (DM) and hypertension (HTN) status remains unanswered. Methods: We investigated 11,050 participants from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study (fourth examination

  4. Concern as motivation for protection: an investigation of mothers' concern about daughters' breast cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuberger, Lindsay; Silk, Kami J; Yun, Doshik; Bowman, Nicholas David; Anderson, Jennifer

    2011-11-01

    The present study surveyed mothers with daughters (N = 386) to investigate how mothers' concern about their daughters' breast cancer risk influenced intentions to engage in preventive behaviors. Using protection motivation theory as a framework, self-efficacy, response efficacy, and level of concern were posited to influence protective behavioral intention in distinct ways. Results from regression analyses indicate that self-efficacy, response efficacy, and mothers' concern are significant predictors of intentions to engage in preventive behaviors with daughters. In addition, a content analysis of mothers' open-ended reasons for their concern about their daughters' breast cancer risk yield a list of specific concerns and trends that vary by concern level and individual comment valence. The authors discuss implications for incorporating mothers' concerns into breast cancer prevention messages as a novel strategy for campaign designers.

  5. Concern as Motivation for Protection: An Investigation of Mothers’ Concern About Daughters’ Breast Cancer Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    NEUBERGER, LINDSAY; SILK, KAMI J.; YUN, DOSHIK; BOWMAN, NICHOLAS DAVID; ANDERSON, JENNIFER

    2012-01-01

    The current study surveyed mothers with daughters (N=386) to investigate how mothers’ concern about their daughters’ breast cancer risk influenced intentions to engage in preventive behaviors. Using Protection Motivation Theory as a framework, self-efficacy, response efficacy and level of concern were posited to influence protective behavioral intention in distinct ways. Results from regression analyses indicate that self-efficacy, response efficacy, and mothers’ concern are significant predictors of intentions to engage in preventive behaviors with daughters. Additionally, a content analysis of mothers’ open-ended reasons for their concern about their daughters’ breast cancer risk yield a list of specific concerns as well as trends that vary by concern level and individual comment valence. Implications for incorporating mothers’ concerns into breast cancer prevention messages are discussed as a novel strategy for campaign designers. PMID:22070448

  6. Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study (RI/FS) process, elements and techniques guidance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-12-01

    This manual provides detailed guidance on Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Studies (RI/FSs) conducted pursuant to the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) at Department of Energy (DOE) facilities. The purpose of the RI/FS, to assess the risk posed by a hazardous waste site and to determine the best way to reduce that risk, and its structure (site characterization, risk assessment, screening and detailed analysis of alternatives, etc.) is defined in the National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP) and further explained in the Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPA`s) Guidance for Conducting Remedial Investigations and Feasibility Studies Under CERCLA (Interim Final) 540/G-89/004, OSWER Directive 9355.3-01, October 1988. Though issued in 1988, the EPA guidance remains an excellent source of information on the conduct and structure of an RI/FS. This document makes use of supplemental RI/FS-related guidance that EPA has developed since its initial document was issued in 1988, incorporates practical lessons learned in more than 12 years of experience in CERCLA hazardous site remediation, and drawing on those lessons, introduces the Streamlined Approach For Environmental Restoration (SAFER), developed by DOE as a way to proceed quickly and efficiently through the RI/FS process at DOE facilities. Thus as its title implies, this guidance is intended to describe in detail the process and component elements of an RI/FS, as well as techniques to manage the RI/FS effectively.

  7. Collision risk investigation for an operational spacecraft caused by space debris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Binbin; Wang, Zhaokui; Zhang, Yulin

    2017-04-01

    The collision probability between an operational spacecraft and a population of space debris is investigated. By dividing the 3-dimensional operational space of the spacecraft into several space volume cells (SVC) and proposing a boundary selection method to calculate the collision probability in each SVC, the distribution of the collision risk, as functions of the time, the orbital height, the declination, the impact elevation, the collision velocity, etc., can be obtained. Thus, the collision risk could be carefully evaluated over a time span for the general orbital configurations of the spacecraft and the space debris. As an application, the collision risk for the Tiangong-2 space laboratory caused by the cataloged space debris is discussed and evaluated. Results show that most of the collision threat comes from the front left and front right in Tiangong-2's local, quasi-horizontal plane. And the collision probability will also accumulate when Tiangong-2 moves to the largest declinations (about {±} 42°). As a result, the manned space activities should be avoided at those declinations.

  8. Light at the end of the tunnel. Chances for the investigation of nonlinear dose-risk relationships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harder, D.

    2008-01-01

    The present contribution aims at illustrating the chances to gain a new comprehension of dose-risk relationships by investigating radiation actions in the promotion and progression phases of carcinogenesis. The mechanisms of the accumulation of somatic mutations and of the immunosurveillance of neoplastic cell clones are clearly consistent with nonlinear dose-risk relationships. Furthermore, a reminder is given of the possibility, existing in the neighbourhood of Chernobyl, of investigating the evolutionary adaption of organisms to chronic low-level radiation exposure. (orig.)

  9. Investigation into promotion/disincentive factors and proposal of support policy in implementation of risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagasaka, Akihiko; Tomizawa, Norio

    2012-01-01

    The implementation of risk assessment (RA) has been mandated effort in business place of the type of industry that must elect a safe hygiene manager by the enforcement of the revised Occupational Safety and Health Act of April, 2006. However, it is guessed that some problems are still left unfinished in many business places to promote RA effectively. In this study, at first the authors investigated promotion factors and disincentive factors when implementing RA by literature survey. As the result, factors to show as follows were classified in some categories such as participation of the top, the organization which promotes RA, the use of the existing safety activity, matching of RA technique and work, etc. unlike conventional safety activity to learn from a disaster, infiltrating significance of RA to prevent a risk enough, letting a worker engaged in work participate in RA. Next, the authors performed the visit investigation for 8 business places and extracted a new promotion factors to show as follows. incorporating RA in usual duties, utilizing results of RA effectively. In reference to above promotion factors, the authors examined a policy to implement RA smoothly. (author)

  10. A study on effective factors influencing on equity risk in banking industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Khodaei Valahzaghard

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Measuring the effects of various factors influencing on risk of return in banking system plays essential role on making managerial decisions. This paper investigates the effects of seven factors including equities, leverage, dividend, size, growth domestic products, bank concentration and market return on risk of return in selected banks listed on Tehran Stock Exchange. The study selects the necessary data through financial statements announced on exchange as well as macro-economic figures reported by central bank of Iran to examine the hypotheses of the survey. Using some regression technique, the study has determined that only bank size and growth domestic product influence significantly on risk of return on Tehran Stock Exchange.

  11. A Non-Structural Investigation of VIX Risk Neutral Density

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barletta, Andrea; Santucci de Magistris, Paolo; Violante, Francesco

    We propose a non-structural pricing method to derive the risk-neutral density (RND) implied by options on the CBOE Volatility Index (VIX). The methodology is based on orthogonal polynomial expansions around a kernel density and yields the RND of the underlying asset without the need for a paramet......We propose a non-structural pricing method to derive the risk-neutral density (RND) implied by options on the CBOE Volatility Index (VIX). The methodology is based on orthogonal polynomial expansions around a kernel density and yields the RND of the underlying asset without the need...... for a parametric specification. The classic family of Laguerre expansions is extended to include the GIG and the generalized Weibull kernels, thus relaxing the conditions required on the tail decay rate of the RND to ensure convergence. We show that the proposed methodology yields an accurate approximation...... of the RND in a large variety of cases, also when the no-arbitrage and efficient option prices are contaminated by measurement errors. Our empirical investigation, based on a panel of traded VIX options, reveals some stylized facts on the RND of VIX. We find that a common stochastic factor drives the dynamic...

  12. Body iron status and gastric cancer risk in the EURGAST study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fonseca-Nunes, Ana; Agudo, Antonio; Aranda, Núria; Arija, Victoria; Cross, Amanda J.; Molina, Esther; Sanchez, Maria Jose; Bueno-De-Mesquita, H. B.; Siersema, Peter; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Krogh, Vittorio; Mattiello, Amalia; Tumino, Rosario; Saieva, Calogero; Naccarati, Alessio; Ohlsson, Bodil; Sjöberg, Klas; Boutron-Ruault, Marie Christine; Cadeau, Claire; Fagherazzi, Guy; Boeing, Heiner; Steffen, Annika; Kühn, Tilman; Katzke, Verena; Tjønneland, Anne; Olsen, Anja; Khaw, Kay Tee; Wareham, Nick; Key, Tim; Lu, Yunxia; Riboli, Elio; Peeters, Petra H.; Gavrila, Diana; Dorronsoro, Miren; Quirõs, José Ramõn; Barricarte, Aurelio; Jenab, Mazda; Zamora-Ros, Raúl; Freisling, Heinz; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Lagiou, Pagona; Bamia, Christina; Jakszyn, Paula

    2015-01-01

    Although it appears biologically plausible for iron to be associated with gastric carcinogenesis, the evidence is insufficient to lead to any conclusions. To further investigate the relationship between body iron status and gastric cancer risk, we conducted a nested case-control study in the

  13. Coffee Consumption and Lung Cancer Risk: The Japan Public Health Center-Based Prospective Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narita, Saki; Saito, Eiko; Sawada, Norie; Shimazu, Taichi; Yamaji, Taiki; Iwasaki, Motoki; Sasazuki, Shizuka; Noda, Mitsuhiko; Inoue, Manami; Tsugane, Shoichiro

    2018-04-05

    Many epidemiological studies have indicated a positive association between coffee intake and lung cancer risk, but such findings were suggested to be confounded by smoking. Furthermore, only a few of these studies have been conducted in Asia. Here, we investigated the association between coffee intake and lung cancer risk in one of the largest prospective cohort studies in Japan. We investigated the association of coffee drinking and subsequent incidence of lung cancer among 41,727 men and 45,352 women in the Japan Public Health Center-based Prospective Study using Cox proportional hazards regression, with adjustment for potential confounders and by strata of smoking status. Coffee and other dietary intakes were assessed once at baseline with a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). During 1,481,887 person-years of follow-up between 1990 and 2011, a total of 1,668 lung cancer cases were identified. In a multivariate regression model, coffee consumption was not associated with risk of lung cancer (HR 1.16; 95% CI, 0.82-1.63; P trend = 0.285 for men and HR 1.49; 95% CI, 0.79-2.83; P trend = 0.942 for women). However, there was a significant increase in the risk for small cell carcinoma (HR 3.52; 95% CI, 1.49-8.28; P trend coffee is not associated with an increased risk of lung cancer incidence, despite observing a significant increase in the risk for small cell carcinoma.

  14. Serum magnesium and the risk of prediabetes: a population-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kieboom, Brenda C T; Ligthart, Symen; Dehghan, Abbas; Kurstjens, Steef; de Baaij, Jeroen H F; Franco, Oscar H; Hofman, Albert; Zietse, Robert; Stricker, Bruno H; Hoorn, Ewout J

    2017-05-01

    Previous studies have found an association between serum magnesium and incident diabetes; however, this association may be due to reverse causation, whereby diabetes may induce urinary magnesium loss. In contrast, in prediabetes (defined as impaired fasting glucose), serum glucose levels are below the threshold for urinary magnesium wasting and, hence, unlikely to influence serum magnesium levels. Thus, to study the directionality of the association between serum magnesium levels and diabetes, we investigated its association with prediabetes. We also investigated whether magnesium-regulating genes influence diabetes risk through serum magnesium levels. Additionally, we quantified the effect of insulin resistance in the association between serum magnesium levels and diabetes risk. Within the population-based Rotterdam Study, we used Cox models, adjusted for age, sex, lifestyle factors, comorbidities, kidney function, serum levels of electrolytes and diuretic use, to study the association between serum magnesium and prediabetes/diabetes. In addition, we performed two mediation analyses: (1) to study if common genetic variation in eight magnesium-regulating genes influence diabetes risk through serum magnesium levels; and (2) to quantify the proportion of the effect of serum magnesium levels on diabetes that is mediated through insulin resistance (quantified by HOMA-IR). A total of 8555 participants (mean age, 64.7 years; median follow-up, 5.7 years) with normal glucose levels (mean ± SD: 5.46 ± 0.58 mmol/l) at baseline were included. A 0.1 mmol/l decrease in serum magnesium level was associated with an increase in diabetes risk (HR 1.18 [95% CI 1.04, 1.33]), confirming findings from previous studies. Of interest, a similar association was found between serum magnesium levels and prediabetes risk (HR 1.12 [95% CI 1.01, 1.25]). Genetic variation in CLDN19, CNNM2, FXYD2, SLC41A2, and TRPM6 significantly influenced diabetes risk (p prediabetes 13.4% was

  15. Preliminary Investigation of Risk Factors Causing Dyskinesias in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To determine the risk factors involved in the onset of dyskinesias in patients suffering from Parkinson's disease in South Africa. Methods: A questionnaire survey and medical record review were conducted. A total of 43 patients with Parkinson's disease in two metropolitan areas were included in the study. Results: ...

  16. Investigating the reliability and validity of the waterlow risk assessment scale: a literature review.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Walsh, Breda

    2012-02-01

    The aim of this review was to examine health literature on the reliability and validity of the Waterlow pressure sore assessment scale. A systematic review of published studies relating to the topic was conducted and literature was examined for its relevancy to the topic under investigation. Findings suggest that despite the availability of over 40 assessment tools, the Waterlow assessment scale is the most frequently used by health care staff. Research suggests that the Waterlow Scale is an unreliable method of assessing individuals at risk of pressure sore development with all studies indicating a poor interrater reliability status. Its validity has also been criticized because of its high-sensitivity but low-specificity levels.

  17. Investigating the reliability and validity of the waterlow risk assessment scale: a literature review.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Walsh, Breda

    2011-05-01

    The aim of this review was to examine health literature on the reliability and validity of the Waterlow pressure sore assessment scale. A systematic review of published studies relating to the topic was conducted and literature was examined for its relevancy to the topic under investigation. Findings suggest that despite the availability of over 40 assessment tools, the Waterlow assessment scale is the most frequently used by health care staff. Research suggests that the Waterlow Scale is an unreliable method of assessing individuals at risk of pressure sore development with all studies indicating a poor interrater reliability status. Its validity has also been criticized because of its high-sensitivity but low-specificity levels.

  18. Menopausal hormone therapy and breast cancer risk : impact of different treatments. The European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakken, Kjersti; Fournier, Agnes; Lund, Eiliv; Waaseth, Marit; Dumeaux, Vanessa; Clavel-Chapelon, Francoise; Fabre, Alban; Hemon, Bertrand; Rinaldi, Sabina; Chajes, Veronique; Slimani, Nadia; Allen, Naomi E.; Reeves, Gillian K.; Bingham, Sheila; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Olsen, Anja; Tjonneland, Anne; Rodriguez, Laudina; Sanchez, Maria-Jose; Amiano Etxezarreta, Pilar; Ardanaz, Eva; Tormo, Maria-Jose; Peeters, Petra H.; van Gils, Carla H.; Steffen, Annika; Schulz, Mandy; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Kaaks, Rudolf; Tumino, Rosario; Gallo, Valentina; Norat, Teresa; Riboli, Elio; Panico, Salvatore; Masala, Giovanna; Gonzalez, Carlos A.; Berrino, Franco

    2011-01-01

    Menopausal hormone therapy (MHT) is characterized by use of different constituents, regimens and routes of administration. We investigated the association between the use of different types of MHT and breast cancer risk in the EPIC cohort study. The analysis is based on data from 133,744

  19. Splenectomy is associated with a higher risk for venous thromboembolism: A prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Debora H; Barmparas, Galinos; Fierro, Nicole; Sun, Beatrice J; Ashrafian, Sogol; Li, Tong; Ley, Eric J

    2015-12-01

    Thrombocytosis following splenectomy is a common occurrence. Whether this thrombocytosis leads to a higher risk for venous thromboembolism (VTE) remains unclear. This investigation aimed to determine if splenectomy increases the risk for VTE. This was a prospective study conducted in the SICU between 1/2011 and 11/2013 investigating the VTE risk in patients undergoing a splenectomy compared with those undergoing any other abdominal procedure. In total 2503 patients were admitted to the SICU: 37 (2%) after a splenectomy and 638 (26%) after any other abdominal surgery. Splenectomy patients had a higher incidence of VTE compared to patients undergoing any other abdominal procedure (29.7% vs. 12.1%, p splenectomy was associated with a higher adjusted risk for VTE compared to the no-splenectomy group (AOR [95% CI]: 2.6 [1.2, 5.9], p = 0.02). Reactive thrombocytosis did not predict the development of VTE. Splenectomy increases the risk for VTE, however reactive thrombocytosis is not associated with this higher incidence. Further investigations are required to characterize the pathophysiologic mechanisms of VTE development following splenectomy. Copyright © 2015 IJS Publishing Group Limited. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Risk management study for the retired Hanford Site facilities: Qualitative risk evaluation for the retired Hanford Site facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coles, G.A.; Shultz, M.V.; Taylor, W.E.

    1993-09-01

    This document provides a risk evaluation of the 100 and 200 Area retired, surplus facilities on the Hanford Site. Also included are the related data that were compiled by the risk evaluation team during investigations performed on the facilities. Results are the product of a major effort performed in fiscal year 1993 to produce qualitative information that characterizes certain risks associated with these facilities. The retired facilities investigated for this evaluation are located in the 100 and 200 Areas of the 1,450-km 2 (570-mi 2 ) Hanford Site. The Hanford Site is a semiarid tract of land in southeastern Washington State. The nearest population center is Richland, Washington, (population 32,000) 30-km (20 mi) southeast of the 200 Area. During walkdown investigations of these facilities, data on real and potential hazards that threatened human health or safety or created potential environmental release issues were identified by the risk evaluation team. Using these findings, the team categorized the identified hazards by facility and evaluated the risk associated with each hazard. The factors contributing to each risk, and the consequence and likelihood of harm associated with each hazard also are included in this evaluation

  1. Integrated source-risk model for radon: A definition study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laheij, G.M.H.; Aldenkamp, F.J.; Stoop, P.

    1993-10-01

    The purpose of a source-risk model is to support policy making on radon mitigation by comparing effects of various policy options and to enable optimization of counter measures applied to different parts of the source-risk chain. There are several advantages developing and using a source-risk model: risk calculations are standardized; the effects of measures applied to different parts of the source-risk chain can be better compared because interactions are included; and sensitivity analyses can be used to determine the most important parameters within the total source-risk chain. After an inventory of processes and sources to be included in the source-risk chain, the models presently available in the Netherlands are investigated. The models were screened for completeness, validation and operational status. The investigation made clear that, by choosing for each part of the source-risk chain the most convenient model, a source-risk chain model for radon may be realized. However, the calculation of dose out of the radon concentrations and the status of the validation of most models should be improved. Calculations with the proposed source-risk model will give estimations with a large uncertainty at the moment. For further development of the source-risk model an interaction between the source-risk model and experimental research is recommended. Organisational forms of the source-risk model are discussed. A source-risk model in which only simple models are included is also recommended. The other models are operated and administrated by the model owners. The model owners execute their models for a combination of input parameters. The output of the models is stored in a database which will be used for calculations with the source-risk model. 5 figs., 15 tabs., 7 appendices, 14 refs

  2. A Study on the cardio-metabolic risk factors in vietnamese females with long-term vegan diet

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, Hai Quy Tram

    2017-01-01

    A study of the cardio- metabolic risk factors in Vietnamese females with vegan diet. Background. Numerous studies have shown that vegan diet has beneficial effects on the prevention of cardiovascular diseases. However, the effects of vegan diet on cardio-metabolic risk factors and the association between duration of vegan diet and those risk factors, are still unclear. Objectives. The present study aims to investigate the prevalence and influence of duration of vegan diet on cardio- me...

  3. Cardiovascular Risk and Serum Hyaluronic Acid: A Preliminary Study in a Healthy Population of Low/Intermediate Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papanastasopoulou, Chrysanthi; Papastamataki, Maria; Karampatsis, Petros; Anagnostopoulou, Eleni; Papassotiriou, Ioannis; Sitaras, Nikolaos

    2017-01-01

    Hyaluronic acid (HA) has been found to be an important trigger of atherosclerosis. In this study, we investigate the possible association of serum HA with cardiovascular disease risk in a population of low/intermediate risk for cardiovascular events. We enrolled 200 subjects with low/intermediate risk for developing cardiovascular disease. High specific C-reactive protein (hsCRP) was used as an indicator of preclinical atherosclerosis. The Framingham score was used to calculate the cardiovascular risk. Participants with dyslipidemia had significantly higher levels of serum HA than those without dyslipidemia (t-test, P = 0.05), higher levels of hsCRP (Kruskal-Wallis test, P = 0.04), and higher cardiovascular risk according to the Framingham score (Kruskal-Wallis test, P = 0.05). Serum HA concentration correlated significantly with the Framingham score for risk for coronary heart disease over the next 10 years (Spearman r = 0.152, P = 0.02). Diabetic volunteers had significantly higher HA than those without diabetes (t-test, P = 0.02). Participants with metabolic syndrome had higher serum HA levels and higher hsCRP (Kruskal-Wallis test, P = 0.01) compared to volunteers without metabolic syndrome (t-test, P = 0.03). Serum HA should be explored as an early marker of atheromatosis and cardiovascular risk. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Adolescent perceptions of orthodontic treatment risks and risk information: A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, John; Johnson, Ilona; Popat, Hashmat; Morgan, Maria Z; Gill, Paul

    2018-04-24

    For effective risk communication, clinicians must understand patients' values and beliefs in relation to the risks of treatment. This qualitative study aimed to explore adolescent perceptions of orthodontic treatment risks and risk information. Five focus groups were carried out with 32 school/college pupils aged 12-18 in Wales, UK. Participants were purposively selected and had all experienced orthodontic treatment. A thematic approach was used for analysis and data collection was completed at the point of data saturation. Four themes emerged from the data; (a) day-to-day risks of orthodontic treatment, (b) important orthodontic risk information, (c) engaging with orthodontic risk information and (d) managing the risks of orthodontic treatment. Day-to-day risks of orthodontic treatment that were affecting participants "here and now" were of most concern. Information about preventing the risks of treatment was deemed to be important. Participants did not actively seek risk information but engaged passively with information from convenient sources. Perceptions of risk susceptibility influenced participants' management of the risks of orthodontic treatment. This study demonstrates that adolescent patients can understand information about the nature and severity of orthodontic treatment risks. However, adolescent patients can have false perceptions if the risks are unfamiliar, perceived only to have a future impact or if seen as easy to control. Adolescent patients must be provided with timely and easily accessible risk information and with practical solutions to prevent the risks of treatment. The views and experiences gathered in this study can assist clinicians to better understand their young patients' beliefs about treatment risks, facilitate effective risk communication and contribute to improved patient-centred care. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Long-term increased risk of unemployment after young stroke: A long-term follow-up study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maaijwee, N.A.M.M.; Rutten-Jacobs, L.C.A.; Arntz, R.M.; Schaapsmeerders, P.; Schoonderwaldt, H.C.; Dijk, E.J. van; Leeuw, F.E. de

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the prevalence, excess risk, and risk factors of unemployment in patients after a TIA, ischemic stroke, or intracerebral hemorrhage at ages 18 through 50 years, compared with nationwide controls. METHODS: We performed a hospital-based cohort study among 694 patients, aged

  6. Periodontal Disease and Incident Lung Cancer Risk: A Meta-Analysis of Cohort Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Xian-Tao; Xia, Ling-Yun; Zhang, Yong-Gang; Li, Sheng; Leng, Wei-Dong; Kwong, Joey S W

    2016-10-01

    Periodontal disease is linked to a number of systemic diseases such as cardiovascular diseases and diabetes mellitus. Recent evidence has suggested periodontal disease might be associated with lung cancer. However, their precise relationship is yet to be explored. Hence, this study aims to investigate the association of periodontal disease and risk of incident lung cancer using a meta-analytic approach. PubMed, Scopus, and ScienceDirect were searched up to June 10, 2015. Cohort and nested case-control studies investigating risk of lung cancer in patients with periodontal disease were included. Hazard ratios (HRs) were calculated, as were their 95% confidence intervals (CIs) using a fixed-effect inverse-variance model. Statistical heterogeneity was explored using the Q test as well as the I(2) statistic. Publication bias was assessed by visual inspection of funnel plots symmetry and Egger's test. Five cohort studies were included, involving 321,420 participants in this meta-analysis. Summary estimates based on adjusted data showed that periodontal disease was associated with a significant risk of lung cancer (HR = 1.24, 95% CI = 1.13 to 1.36; I(2) = 30%). No publication bias was detected. Subgroup analysis indicated that the association of periodontal disease and lung cancer remained significant in the female population. Evidence from cohort studies suggests that patients with periodontal disease are at increased risk of developing lung cancer.

  7. Bullying involvement and adolescent substance use: A multilevel investigation of individual and neighbourhood risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambe, Laura J; Craig, Wendy M

    2017-09-01

    Youth involved with school bullying are vulnerable to many negative outcomes, including substance use. Research has yet to examine how this vulnerability operates in the context of other individual and neighbourhood differences. The current study aimed to fill this gap by using multilevel modeling to investigate both the individual and neighbourhood risk factors associated with frequent drunkenness and frequent cannabis use among adolescents. Data from the 2010 Canadian Health Behaviours in School-Aged Children (HBSC) survey were analyzed. Participants consisted of 8971 students from 173 neighbourhoods across Canada. Multilevel modeling was used to examine both individual (age, gender, bullying, victimization, peer deviancy, negative affect) and neighbourhood (socioeconomic status, crime, physical neighbourhood disorder, residential instability) risk factors. We tested whether the links between bullying involvement and frequent substance use were mediated by other risk factors. Both individual and neighbourhood risk factors were associated with an increased likelihood of frequent substance use. Specifically, bullying served as a unique risk factor for frequent substance use over and above more traditional risk factors. A cross-level interaction was observed between residential instability and peer deviancy, such that the link between peer deviancy and frequent drunkenness was stronger in more residentially-unstable neighbourhoods. Peer deviancy partially mediated the link between bullying and both types of frequent substance use, whereas both peer deviancy and negative affect mediated the link between victimization and both types of frequent substance use. Youth who bully others are vulnerable to frequent substance use across peer and neighbourhood contexts. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Descriptive study of risk factors and working conditions of public train drivers, 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahyara de León

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This investigation seeks to determine the working conditions and the possible risk factors of train drivers of the Administración de Ferrocarriles del Estado in Montevideo, Uruguay in the period comprised between July and September, 2015. The importance of this investigation lies in the fact that this is the first time that an evaluation of risk factors is done on these train drivers and its purpose is to pose a health surveillance project for this group in a near future. This is a cross-sectional, descriptive study. Data were obtained through personal interviews to key informants; individual surveys of morbidity and risk factors, as well as LEST and ISTAS-21 methods applied to the target population, and an observational strategy through photographic and video documentation. The results of the present study suggest that the main risk factors for this group are: noise, vibrations, perceived employment instability, time away from family, unexpected monthly changes of the shift schedule, accident in the railways as well as perceived lack of institutional support after them. Therefore, these aspects are proposed as targets for a future project of specific health surveillance.

  9. Uncertainty studies and risk assessment for CO2 storage in geological formations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walter, Lena Sophie

    2013-01-01

    aquifers. The uncertainties on all three levels are investigated in three approaches with different focus. The concept can also be applied to CO 2 leakage or hazards related to other technologies in the subsurface such as methane storage or atomic waste disposal. In the second part of this thesis, uncertainty studies for two realistic storage formations (the pilot site Ketzin (Germany) and a realistic storage formation in the North German Basin) are performed to investigate the related uncertainties and to reduce them as much as possible. For the Ketzin site, history matching of the measurement data, is an important task for dynamic modeling and essential for future risk assessment. A systematic approach to fit the data set using inverse modeling is presented in this work. For future risk assessment for realistic sites, e.g. for the Ketzin site, the uncertainty studies and the history matching approach provide important information. Finally, CCS is discussed in the context of risk perception and the possible input of the risk assessment concept presented in this work is discussed. This work is a first attempt to connect the technical risk assessment for CO 2 storage to the social science approach for risk assessment. It is bridging the gap between engineering and social sciences by integrating the technical quantification of risk into the wider context of a comprehensive risk governance model.

  10. Investigation of the prevalence of Cognitive Impairment and its risk factors within the elderly population in Shanghai, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Longbing; Zheng, Yongtao; Wu, Lezhou; Gu, Yijun; He, Yusheng; Jiang, Bo; Zhang, Jie; Zhang, Lijuan; Li, Jue

    2018-02-23

    To investigate the prevalence of cognitive impairment and its risk factors among Chinese elders aged over 80 years, a community-based, cross-sectional study was conducted from May to June 2016 in Shanghai, China. Cognitive function was measured by using Mini-Mental Status Examination. Multiple logistic regression assessed associations between risk factors and cognitive impairment. Of 480 participants, 30% were diagnosed with cognitive impairment. Women [adjusted odds ratio (AOR): 1.71, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.03-2.83], solitary life (AOR: 3.15, 1.89-5.26), monthly income less than 2000 Chinese yuan (AOR: 3.47, 1.18-10.23) were significantly associated with increased risk of cognitive impairment, compared with men, non-solitary life, and monthly income greater than 4000 Chinese yuan, respectively. Overweight (AOR: 0.59, 0.36-0.97), being physically active at least 60 minutes per day (AOR: 0.59, 0.35-0.95), antihypertensive drugs users (AOR: 0.45, 0.28-0.72), and lipid lowering drugs users (AOR: 0.21, 0.06-0.76) significantly lowered the risk of cognitive impairment, compared with normal weight, inadequate outdoor activity, and non-medication users, respectively. Accordingly, this study found that women, solitary life, lower income was associated with increased risk of cognitive impairment, while overweight, being physically active, and antihypertensive and lipid lowering drugs usage might lower the risk.

  11. The @RISK Study: Risk communication for patients with type 2 diabetes: design of a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welschen, Laura M C; Bot, Sandra D M; Dekker, Jacqueline M; Timmermans, Daniëlle R M; van der Weijden, Trudy; Nijpels, Giel

    2010-08-05

    Patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) have an increased risk to develop severe diabetes related complications, especially cardiovascular disease (CVD). The risk to develop CVD can be estimated by means of risk formulas. However, patients have difficulties to understand the outcomes of these formulas. As a result, they may not recognize the importance of changing lifestyle and taking medication in time. Therefore, it is important to develop risk communication methods, that will improve the patients' understanding of risks associated with having diabetes, which enables them to make informed choices about their diabetes care.The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of an intervention focussed on the communication of the absolute 10-year risk to develop CVD on risk perception, attitude and intention to change lifestyle behaviour in patients with T2DM. The conceptual framework of the intervention is based on the Theory of Planned Behaviour and the Self-regulation Theory. A randomised controlled trial will be performed in the Diabetes Care System West-Friesland (DCS), a managed care system. Newly referred T2DM patients of the DCS, younger than 75 years will be eligible for the study. The intervention group will be exposed to risk communication on CVD, on top of standard managed care of the DCS. This intervention consists of a simple explanation on the causes and consequences of CVD, and possibilities for prevention. The probabilities of CVD in 10 year will be explained in natural frequencies and visualised by a population diagram. The control group will receive standard managed care. The primary outcome is appropriateness of risk perception. Secondary outcomes are attitude and intention to change lifestyle behaviour and illness perception. Differences between baseline and follow-up (2 and 12 weeks) between groups will be analysed according to the intention-to-treat principle. The study was powered on 120 patients in each group. This innovative risk

  12. Blood pressure and kidney cancer risk: meta-analysis of prospective studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidayat, Khemayanto; Du, Xuan; Zou, Sheng-Yi; Shi, Bi-Min

    2017-07-01

    Globally, kidney cancer is the twelfth most common cancer, accounting for 337 860 cases recorded in 2012. By 2020, this number has been estimated to reach 412 929 or increase by 22%. Over the past few decades, a number of prospective studies have investigated the association between blood pressure (BP) and risk of kidney cancer, using either recorded BP levels or reported hypertension as the principal exposure variable. However, the relation of BP to kidney cancer remains incompletely understood, and the data on sex-specific differences in risk estimates have been inconsistent. PubMed and Web of Science databases were searched for studies assessing the association between BP and kidney cancer through July 2016. The summary relative risk with 95% confidence intervals was calculated using a random-effects model. A total of 18 prospective studies with 8097 kidney cancer cases from 3 628 479 participants were included in our meta-analysis. History of hypertension was associated with 67% increased risk of kidney cancer. Significant heterogeneity and evidence of publication bias were observed. However, the results remain unchanged after introducing the trim and fill method to correct the publication bias. Accordingly, each 10-mmHg increase in SBP and DBP was associated with 10 and 22% increased risk of kidney cancer. Collectively, the present meta-analysis of 18 prospective studies provides further support for a positive association between hypertension and kidney cancer risk.

  13. How meaningful are risk determinations in the absence of a complete dataset? Making the case for publishing standardized test guideline and ‘no effect’ studies for evaluating the safety of nanoparticulates versus spurious ‘high effect’ results from single investigative studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warheit, David B.; Donner, E. Maria

    2015-06-01

    A recent review article critically assessed the effectiveness of published research articles in nanotoxicology to meaningfully address health and safety issues for workers and consumers. The main conclusions were that, based on a number of flaws in study designs, the potential risk from exposures to nanomaterials is highly exaggerated, and that no ‘nano-specific’ adverse effects, different from exposures to bulk particles, have been convincingly demonstrated. In this brief editorial we focus on a related tangential issue which potentially compromises the integrity of basic risk science. We note that some single investigation studies report specious toxicity findings, which make the conclusions more alarming and attractive and publication worthy. In contrast, the standardized, carefully conducted, ‘guideline study results’ are often ignored because they can frequently report no adverse effects; and as a consequence are not considered as novel findings for publication purposes, and therefore they are never considered as newsworthy in the popular press. Yet it is the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) type test guideline studies that are the most reliable for conducting risk assessments. To contrast these styles and approaches, we present the results of a single study which reports high toxicological effects in rats following low-dose, short-term oral exposures to nanoscale titanium dioxide particles concomitant with selective investigative analyses. Alternatively, the findings of OECD test guideline 408, standardized guideline oral toxicity studies conducted for 90 days at much higher doses (1000 mg kg-1) in male and female rats demonstrated no adverse effects following a very thorough and complete clinical chemical, as well as histopathological evaluation of all of the relevant organs in the body. This discrepancy in study findings is not reconciled by the fact that several biokinetic studies in rats and humans demonstrate little or

  14. How meaningful are risk determinations in the absence of a complete dataset? Making the case for publishing standardized test guideline and ‘no effect’ studies for evaluating the safety of nanoparticulates versus spurious ‘high effect’ results from single investigative studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warheit, David B; Donner, E Maria

    2015-01-01

    A recent review article critically assessed the effectiveness of published research articles in nanotoxicology to meaningfully address health and safety issues for workers and consumers. The main conclusions were that, based on a number of flaws in study designs, the potential risk from exposures to nanomaterials is highly exaggerated, and that no ‘nano-specific’ adverse effects, different from exposures to bulk particles, have been convincingly demonstrated. In this brief editorial we focus on a related tangential issue which potentially compromises the integrity of basic risk science. We note that some single investigation studies report specious toxicity findings, which make the conclusions more alarming and attractive and publication worthy. In contrast, the standardized, carefully conducted, ‘guideline study results’ are often ignored because they can frequently report no adverse effects; and as a consequence are not considered as novel findings for publication purposes, and therefore they are never considered as newsworthy in the popular press. Yet it is the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) type test guideline studies that are the most reliable for conducting risk assessments. To contrast these styles and approaches, we present the results of a single study which reports high toxicological effects in rats following low-dose, short-term oral exposures to nanoscale titanium dioxide particles concomitant with selective investigative analyses. Alternatively, the findings of OECD test guideline 408, standardized guideline oral toxicity studies conducted for 90 days at much higher doses (1000 mg kg −1 ) in male and female rats demonstrated no adverse effects following a very thorough and complete clinical chemical, as well as histopathological evaluation of all of the relevant organs in the body. This discrepancy in study findings is not reconciled by the fact that several biokinetic studies in rats and humans demonstrate

  15. Lycopene and risk of cardiovascular diseases: A meta-analysis of observational studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Bo; Liu, Kai; Gao, Yuan; Zhao, Lu; Fang, Hui; Li, Yusheng; Pei, Lulu; Xu, Yuming

    2017-09-01

    The aim of current meta-analysis was to investigate the relation between lycopene and risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Studies concerning about the association between lycopene and risk of CVD were searched on Pubmed, Embase, and Web of Science from inception to October 2016. A total of 14 eligible studies were identified. A significantly inverse association with a pooled risk ratio (RR) of 0.83 (95% CI: 0.76-0.90) was shown between lycopene exposure and risk of CVD. Findings were similar restricting to dietary studies (RR = 0.87, 95% CI = 0.79-0.96) and biomarker studies (RR = 0.74, 95% CI = 0. 62-0.87).Dietary lycopene intake was statistically significant for coronary heart disease (CHD) (RR: 0.87; 95% CI: 0.76-0.98) and stroke (RR: 0.83; 95% CI: 0.69-0.96).The pooled risk estimate was generally similar for lycopene biomarker concentrations, but the association was only statistically significant for stroke (RR: 0.65; 95% CI: 0.42-0.87). Subgroup analyses showed that retrospective and low quality studies were statistically significant sources of heterogeneity. Higher lycopene exposure is inversely associated with a lower risk of CVD. Further well-designed randomized clinical trials are required to assess the role of lycopene on CVD. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Sleep apnea and risk of vertigo: A nationwide population-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Ming-Shao; Lee, Li-Ang; Tsai, Yao-Te; Yang, Yao-Hsu; Liu, Chia-Yen; Lin, Meng-Hung; Hsu, Cheng-Ming; Chen, Chin-Kuo; Li, Hsueh-Yu

    2018-03-01

    To investigate the risk of vertigo in patients with sleep apnea. Retrospective cohort study. This study used data from the National Health Insurance Research Database of Taiwan, a population-based database. A total of 5,025 patients who were newly diagnosed with sleep apnea between January 1, 1997, and December 31, 2012, were identified from the Longitudinal Health Insurance Database 2000, a nationally representative database of 1 million randomly selected patients. Moreover, 20,100 patients without sleep apnea were matched at a 1:4 ratio by age, sex, socioeconomic status, and urbanization level. Patients were followed up until death or the end of the study period (December 31, 2013). The primary outcome was the occurrence of vertigo. Patients with sleep apnea had a significantly higher cumulative incidence of vertigo than those without sleep apnea (P vertigo (hazard ratio, 1.71; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.48-1.97; P diabetes mellitus, hypertension, stroke, and obesity. Sleep apnea was demonstrated to be an independent risk factor for vertigo. This is the first nationwide population-based cohort study to investigate the association between sleep apnea and vertigo. The findings strongly support that sleep apnea is an independent risk factor for vertigo. Based on the study results, physicians should be aware of potential vertigo occurrence following sleep apnea. 4. Laryngoscope, 128:763-768, 2017. © 2017 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  17. Holistic stakeholder-oriented and case study-based risk analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heisterkamp, Tobias

    2013-04-01

    Case studies of storm events in the Berlin conurbation demonstrate the chance of a holistic approach and its potential data sources. Data sets of population, but also data provided by insurance and transport companies, and operating data provided by fire brigades, are used. Various indicators for risk analysis are constructed to identify hot spots. These hot spots can be shortcomings or critical aspects in structure, communication, the warning chain, or even in the structure of potentially affected stakeholders or in the civil protection system itself. Due to increasing complexity of interactions and interdependencies in or between societies and nature, it is important to choose a holistic approach. For risk analyses like the storms in Berlin, it captures many important factors with their effects. For risk analyses, it is important to take potential users into concern: The analysis gets important due to its use later on. In addition to a theoretical background, a focus on the application should be set from the beginning on. To get usable results, it is helpful to complement the theoretical meta-level by a stakeholder-oriented level. An iterative investigation and combination of different layers for the risk analysis explores important influencing factors and allows a tailoring of results to different stakeholder groups. Layers are indicators, gained from data sets like losses from insurance data. Tailoring is important, because of different requirements e.g. by technical or medical assistance. Stakeholders' feedback in the iterative investigation also shows structural limitations for later applications, like special laws the fire brigades have to deal with. Additionally, using actors' perspectives offers the chance to convince practitioners of taking part in the analysis. Their participation is an essential component in applied science. They are important data suppliers, whose goodwill is needed to ensure good results. Based on their experience, they can also help

  18. A Prospective Study of Dairy Consumption in Relation to Changes in Metabolic Risk Factors: The Hoorn Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snijder, M.B.; Dam, van R.M.; Stehouwer, C.D.A.; Hiddink, G.J.; Heine, R.J.; Dekker, J.M.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Higher dairy consumption has been suggested to reduce the risk of obesity and metabolic disturbances. The aim of our study was to investigate the prospective association between dairy consumption and changes in weight and metabolic disturbances. Methods and Procedures: Baseline dairy

  19. The impact of risk studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansson, B.

    The report is a summary of the reports of various subprojects on nuclear safety. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the role and usefulness of major risk studies in societal opinion forming and decision making processes. The primary research material consisted in seven major risk studies, three of which were concerned with radioactive waste handling, two with reactor safety and two with comparative studies of various sources of energy. Special attention was given to the following four aspects: a) the way in which the studies were interpreted b)the extent to which these studies have clarified the risks they analyse c) the extent to which these studies have narrowed the scientific debate d) the degree to which these studies have actually influenced safety measures and regulatory policy. The picture which emerges is one of success in relation to the effects on the nuclear establishment and largely a failure as attempts at settling disputes and informing the public. (G.B.)

  20. Association between phytosterol intake and colorectal cancer risk: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jing; Xu, Ming; Fang, Yu-Jing; Lu, Min-Shan; Pan, Zhi-Zhong; Huang, Wu-Qing; Chen, Yu-Ming; Zhang, Cai-Xia

    2017-03-01

    A study in rodent models showed that phytosterols protected against colon carcinogenesis, probably by inhibiting dysregulated cell cycle progression and inducing cellular apoptosis. However, epidemiological studies on the relationship between phytosterols and colorectal cancer risk are quite limited. The aim of this study was to investigate dietary phytosterol intake in relation to colorectal cancer risk in the Chinese population. A case-control study was conducted from July 2010 to June 2016, recruiting 1802 eligible colorectal cancer cases plus 1813 age (5-year interval) and sex frequency-matched controls. Dietary information was collected by using a validated FFQ. The OR and 95 % CI of colorectal cancer risk were assessed by multivariable logistic regression models. A higher total intake of phytosterols was found to be associated with a 50 % reduction in colorectal cancer risk. After adjusting for various confounders, the OR of the highest quartile intake compared with the lowest quartile intake was 0·50 (95 % CI 0·41, 0·61, P trendphytosterols. An inverse association was also found between the consumption of β-sitosterol, campesterol, campestanol and colorectal cancer risk. However, stigmasterol intake was related to an increased risk of colorectal cancer. No statistically significant association was found between β-sitostanol and colorectal cancer risk. Stratified analysis by sex showed that the positive association of stigmasterol intake with colorectal cancer risk was found only in women. These data indicated that the consumption of total phytosterols, β-sitosterol, campesterol and campestanol is inversely associated with colorectal cancer risk in a Chinese population.

  1. Remedial investigation/feasibility study for the David Witherspoon, Inc., 901 Site, Knoxville, Tennessee: Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-10-01

    This remedial investigation (RI)/feasibility study (FS) supports the selection of remedial actions for the David Witherspoon, Inc. 901 Maryville Pike Site in Knoxville, Tennessee. Operations at the site, used as a recycling center, have resulted in past, present, and potential future releases of hazardous substances in to the environment. This Site is a Tennessee Superfund site. A phased approach was planned to (1) gather existing data from previous investigations managed by the Tenn. Dept. of Environment and Conservation; (2) perform a preliminary RI, including risk assessments, and an FS with existing data to identify areas where remedial action may be necessary; (3) gather additional field data to adequately define the nature and extent of risk-based contaminants that present identifiable threats to human and/or ecological receptors; and (4) develop remedial action alternatives to reduce risks to acceptable levels.

  2. Remedial investigation/feasibility study for the David Witherspoon, Inc., 901 Site, Knoxville, Tennessee: Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-10-01

    This remedial investigation (RI)/feasibility study (FS) supports the selection of remedial actions for the David Witherspoon, Inc. 901 Maryville Pike Site in Knoxville, Tennessee. Operations at the site, used as a recycling center, have resulted in past, present, and potential future releases of hazardous substances in to the environment. This Site is a Tennessee Superfund site. A phased approach was planned to (1) gather existing data from previous investigations managed by the Tenn. Dept. of Environment and Conservation; (2) perform a preliminary RI, including risk assessments, and an FS with existing data to identify areas where remedial action may be necessary; (3) gather additional field data to adequately define the nature and extent of risk-based contaminants that present identifiable threats to human and/or ecological receptors; and (4) develop remedial action alternatives to reduce risks to acceptable levels

  3. Student nurse perceptions of risk in relation to international placements: a phenomenological research study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Debra A

    2012-11-01

    International nursing electives have been identified as a positive learning experience for students. However, whilst there are risks associated with international student placements in general, there is a scarcity of research specifically relating to student nurse's experiences of risk. This study aimed to investigate UK undergraduate student nurse experiences of risk during an international placement. A phenomenological methodology was applied and semi-structured interviews were conducted with student nurses who had recently returned from an international clinical placement abroad. Ten, second year student nurses, studying on a pre-registration diploma/BSc (Hons) Nursing Studies/Registered Nurse programme from one UK University participated in the study. Findings from the study highlighted that students felt that three types of risk existed; physical risk, clinical-professional risk and socio-cultural risk. Perceptions of risk were influenced by sociological theory relating to the concept of 'the other' and students attempted to reduce risk by employing strategies to reduce 'Otherness'. They also applied psychological theory relating to heuristics such as 'safety in numbers.' It also emerged from the study that exposure to perceived risk enhanced learning as students reported that it encouraged personal and professional development in particular and so assisted students in their move toward self-actualisation. It is suggested, and intended, that findings from this study can be applied to the preparation of students to further enhance their safety and learning experience during international placements abroad. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Toenail selenium status and the risk of Barrett's esophagus: The Netherlands Cohort Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steevens, J.; Schouten, L.J.; Driessen, A.L.C.; Huysentruyt, C.J.R.; Keulemans, Y.C.A.; Goldbohm, R.A.; Brandt, P.A. van den

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the association between selenium and the risk of Barrett's esophagus (BE), the precursor lesion of esophageal adenocarcinoma. Methods: Data from the prospective Netherlands Cohort Study were used. This cohort study was initiated in 1986, when 120,852 subjects aged 55-69

  5. Risks in major innovation projects, a multiple case study within a world's leading company in the fast moving consumer goods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keizer, J.A.; Halman, J.I.M.

    2009-01-01

    This paper investigates which risks characterise radical innovation projects. In-dept case studies were carried out via interviews and a questionnaire. The risk concept applied in this study includes three dimensions: certainty, controllability and impact. Three structural or unambiguous risks were

  6. Cataract surgery and the risk of aging macula disorder: The Rotterdam study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Ho (Lintje); S. Boekhoorn (Sharmila); A. Liana (Alin); P. Tikka-Kleemola (Päivi); A.G. Uitterlinden (André); A. Hofman (Albert); P.T.V.M. de Jong (Paulus); Th. Stijnen (Theo); J.R. Vingerling (Hans)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractPURPOSE. To investigate still-controversial associations between prior cataract surgery and aging macula disorder (AMD) in a general population. METHODS. Baseline lens status and risk of incident AMD (iAMD) were examined in participants of the prospective population-based Rotterdam Study

  7. Study of International Standards of Risk Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dykan Volodymyr L.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the article lies in the study of existing international standards of risk management, an important factor of improvement of risk management in domestic corporations and enterprises and development of recommendations on application of international standards in Ukraine, in particular, within the framework of building corporate systems of risk management. The conducted study shows that approaches on organisation of the process of risk management, used in standards of risk management, are of general character and differ with the degree of detailing. Their undoubted value in development of risk management in Ukraine is identification of a general direction of building corporate systems of risk management in practice. The said approaches at the national and corporate levels of standardisation in Ukraine within the framework of building corporate systems of risk management would allow improvement of risk management in corporations and enterprises. The prospect of further studies of domestic specialists in the field of risk management is development of the domestic standard of risk management with consideration of modern domestic specific features of development of risk management in Ukraine and leading foreign experience.

  8. Relationship of zolpidem and cancer risk: a Taiwanese population-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Chia-Hung; Sun, Li-Min; Liang, Ji-An; Chang, Shih-Ni; Sung, Fung-Chang; Muo, Chih-Hsin

    2012-05-01

    To evaluate the relationship between the use of zolpidem and subsequent cancer risk in Taiwanese patients. We used data from the National Health Insurance system of Taiwan to investigate whether use of zolpidem was related to cancer risk. For the study cohort, we identified 14,950 patients who had received a first prescription for zolpidem from January 1, 1998, through December 31, 2000. For each zolpidem user, we selected randomly 4 comparison patients without a history of using zolpidem who were frequency-matched by sex, age, and year of the index date. Incidence rates of all cancers and selected site-specific cancers were measured by the end of 2009, and related hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of the cancer were measured as well. The risk of developing any cancer was greater in patients using zolpidem than in nonusers (HR, 1.68; 95% CI, 1.55-1.82). The stratified analysis showed that the overall HR for high-dosage zolpidem (≥300 mg/y) was 2.38. The site-specific cancer risk was the highest for oral cancer (HR, 2.36; 95% CI, 1.57-3.56), followed by kidney cancer, esophageal cancer, breast cancer, liver cancer, lung cancer, and bladder cancer (HR, 1.60; 95% CI, 1.06-2.41). Men were at higher risk than women. This population-based study revealed some unexpected findings, suggesting that the use of zolpidem may be associated with an increased risk of subsequent cancer. Further large-scale and in-depth investigations in this area are warranted. Copyright © 2012 Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Allergic conditions and risk of hematological malignancies in adults: a cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schwartzbaum Judith

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Two contradictory hypotheses have been proposed to explain the relationship between allergic conditions and malignancies, the immune surveillance hypothesis and the antigenic stimulation hypothesis. The former advocates that allergic conditions may be protective against development of cancer, whereas the latter proposes an increased risk. This relationship has been studied in several case-control studies, but only in a few cohort studies. Methods The association between allergic conditions and risk of developing leukemia, Hodgkin's disease, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and myeloma was investigated in a cohort of 16,539 Swedish twins born 1886–1925. Prospectively collected, self-reported information about allergic conditions such as asthma, hay fever or eczema was obtained through questionnaires administered in 1967. The cohort was followed 1969–99 and cancer incidence was ascertained from the Swedish Cancer Registry. Results Hives and asthma tended to increase the risk of leukemia (relative risk [RR] = 2.1, 95% Confidence Interval [CI] 1.0–4.5 and RR = 1.6, 95% CI 0.8–3.5, respectively. There was also an indication of an increased risk of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma associated with eczema during childhood (RR = 2.3, 95% CI 1.0–5.3. Conclusion In contrast to most previous studies, our results do not indicate a protective effect of allergic conditions on the risk of developing hematological malignancies. Rather, they suggest that allergic conditions might increase the risk of some hematological malignancies.

  10. Risk factors for violence in psychosis: systematic review and meta-regression analysis of 110 studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrina Witt

    Full Text Available Previous reviews on risk and protective factors for violence in psychosis have produced contrasting findings. There is therefore a need to clarify the direction and strength of association of risk and protective factors for violent outcomes in individuals with psychosis.We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis using 6 electronic databases (CINAHL, EBSCO, EMBASE, Global Health, PsycINFO, PUBMED and Google Scholar. Studies were identified that reported factors associated with violence in adults diagnosed, using DSM or ICD criteria, with schizophrenia and other psychoses. We considered non-English language studies and dissertations. Risk and protective factors were meta-analysed if reported in three or more primary studies. Meta-regression examined sources of heterogeneity. A novel meta-epidemiological approach was used to group similar risk factors into one of 10 domains. Sub-group analyses were then used to investigate whether risk domains differed for studies reporting severe violence (rather than aggression or hostility and studies based in inpatient (rather than outpatient settings.There were 110 eligible studies reporting on 45,533 individuals, 8,439 (18.5% of whom were violent. A total of 39,995 (87.8% were diagnosed with schizophrenia, 209 (0.4% were diagnosed with bipolar disorder, and 5,329 (11.8% were diagnosed with other psychoses. Dynamic (or modifiable risk factors included hostile behaviour, recent drug misuse, non-adherence with psychological therapies (p values<0.001, higher poor impulse control scores, recent substance misuse, recent alcohol misuse (p values<0.01, and non-adherence with medication (p value <0.05. We also examined a number of static factors, the strongest of which were criminal history factors. When restricting outcomes to severe violence, these associations did not change materially. In studies investigating inpatient violence, associations differed in strength but not direction.Certain dynamic risk

  11. Dietary flavonoid, lignan and antioxidant capacity and risk of hepatocellular carcinoma in the European prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zamora-Ros, Raul; Fedirko, Veronika; Trichopoulou, Antonia

    2013-01-01

    Limited epidemiological evidence suggests a protective role for plant foods rich in flavonoids and antioxidants in hepatocellular cancer (HCC) etiology. Our aim was to prospectively investigate the association between dietary intake of flavonoids, lignans and nonenzymatic antioxidant capacity (NEAC......) and HCC risk. Data from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort including 477,206 subjects (29.8% male) recruited from ten Western European countries, was analyzed. Flavonoid, lignan and NEAC intakes were calculated using a compilation of existing food composition......, 191 incident HCC cases (66.5% men) were identified. Using Cox regression, multivariable adjusted models showed a borderline nonsignificant association of HCC with total flavonoid intake (highest versus lowest tertile, HR = 0.65, 95% CI: 0.40-1.04; ptrend  = 0.065), but not with lignans. Among...

  12. Childhood and adolescent energy restriction and subsequent colorectal cancer risk: Results from The Netherlands cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hughes, L.A.E.; Brandt, P.A. van den; Goldbohm, R.A.; Goeij, A.F.P.M. d; Bruïne, A.P. de; Engeland, M. van; Weijenberg, M.P.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Energy restriction during childhood and adolescence is suggested to lower colorectal cancer (CRC) risk. We investigated this in the Netherlands Cohort Study. Methods: Information on diet and other risk factors was collected by a baseline questionnaire in 1986 when cohort members were

  13. Hyperthyroidism and thyroid cancer risk: a population-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, N-C; Chou, C-W; Weng, S-F; Yang, C-Y; Yen, F-C; Lee, S-Y; Wang, J-J; Tien, K-J

    2013-07-01

    Thyroid hormones regulate the rate of metabolism and affect the differentiation and growth of many tissues in the body. We investigated the association between hyperthyroidism and cancer risk in Taiwan. A random sample of 1 000 000 individuals from Taiwan's National Health Insurance database was enrolled. We found 17 033 patients to have newly diagnosed hyperthyroidism between 2000 and 2005. These patients were recruited along with a match cohort of 34 066 patients without hyperthyroidism. Starting from index date, we followed up all patients for 4 years to identify those who developed cancer. During the 4-year follow-up study, cancer was diagnosed in 1.23% of patients with hyperthyroidism and 1.02% of the member of the comparison cohort. Regression analysis showed that patients with hyperthyroidism were at greater risk of cancer incidence, especially thyroid cancer, compared the comparison cohort (HR: 1.213; 95% CI: 1.022-1.440; phyperthyroidism remained at increased risk of cancer incidence and thyroid cancer (Adjusted HR: 1.206; 95% CI: 1.015-1.433 and 6.803; 95% CI: 3.584-12.91, respectively) (both phyperthyroidism, the greater the risk of thyroid cancer. This 4-year follow up study suggests that patients with hyperthyroidism are at increased risk of cancer, especially thyroid cancer. © J. A. Barth Verlag in Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  14. A Cohort Study on Risk Factors of Lung Cancer in Yunnan Tin Miners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong JIANG

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective Smoking is a major cause of lung cancer. Studies of lung cancer among miners have shown that occupational exposure also played an important role. The aim of this study is to investigate radon, cigarette use and other risk factors of lung cancer in Yunnan tin miners and to provide a scientific basis for the prevention and control of occupational lung cancer. Methods A prospective cohort study was conducted among Yunnan tin miners, the associations between potential risk factors for lung cancer were analyzed by multivariate Cox regression model. Effects of age at first radon exposure and radon exposure rate on lung cancer risk were analyzed. The relationship between cumulative working level month and lung cancer was analyzed according to smoking status. The joint effect of tobacco use and cumulative radon exposure was analyzed based on additive and multiplicative models. Results Increased risk of lung cancer was associated with age at enrollment, tobacco use, prior bronchitis, and cumulative arsenic and radon exposure, while higher education level was associated with decreased lung cancer risk. An inverse effect of radon exposure rate was observed. There was no significant association between lung cancer risk and first radon exposure age. There was a significant additive interaction between tobacco use and radon exposure on lung cancer risk. Conclusion Several risk factors may contribute to the high incidence of lung cancer in Yunnan tin miners. Further studies are warranted to evaluate joint effect of different risk factors.

  15. Debris Flow Risk Management Framework and Risk Analysis in Taiwan, A Preliminary Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsao, Ting-Chi; Hsu, Wen-Ko; Chiou, Lin-Bin; Cheng, Chin-Tung; Lo, Wen-Chun; Chen, Chen-Yu; Lai, Cheng-Nong; Ju, Jiun-Ping

    2010-05-01

    Taiwan is located on a seismically active mountain belt between the Philippine Sea plate and Eurasian plate. After 1999's Chi-Chi earthquake (Mw=7.6), landslide and debris flow occurred frequently. In Aug. 2009, Typhoon Morakot struck Taiwan and numerous landslides and debris flow events, some with tremendous fatalities, were observed. With limited resources, authorities should establish a disaster management system to cope with slope disaster risks more effectively. Since 2006, Taiwan's authority in charge of debris flow management, the Soil and Water Conservation Bureau (SWCB), completed the basic investigation and data collection of 1,503 potential debris flow creeks around Taiwan. During 2008 and 2009, a debris flow quantitative risk analysis (QRA) framework, based on landslide risk management framework of Australia, was proposed and conducted on 106 creeks of the 30 villages with debris flow hazard history. Information and value of several types of elements at risk (bridge, road, building and crop) were gathered and integrated into a GIS layer, with the vulnerability model of each elements at risk applied. Through studying the historical hazard events of the 30 villages, numerical simulations of debris flow hazards with different magnitudes (5, 10, 25, 50, 100 and 200 years return period) were conducted, the economic losses and fatalities of each scenario were calculated for each creek. When taking annual exceeding probability into account, the annual total risk of each creek was calculated, and the results displayed on a debris flow risk map. The number of fatalities and frequency were calculated, and the F-N curves of 106 creeks were provided. For F-N curves, the individual risk to life per year of 1.0E-04 and slope of 1, which matched with international standards, were considered to be an acceptable risk. Applying the results of the 106 creeks onto the F-N curve, they were divided into 3 categories: Unacceptable, ALARP (As Low As Reasonable Practicable) and

  16. Prospective cohort study of tea consumption and risk of digestive system cancers: results from the Shanghai Women's Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nechuta, Sarah; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Li, Hong-Lan; Yang, Gong; Ji, Bu-Tian; Xiang, Yong-Bing; Cai, Hui; Chow, Wong-Ho; Gao, Yu-Tang; Zheng, Wei

    2012-11-01

    Data from in vitro and animal studies support a protective role for tea in the etiology of digestive system cancers; however, results from prospective cohort studies have been inconsistent. In addition, to our knowledge, no study has investigated the association of tea consumption with the incidence of all digestive system cancers in Chinese women. We investigated the association of regular tea intake (≥3 times/wk for >6 mo) with risk of digestive system cancers. We used the Shanghai Women's Health Study, a population-based prospective cohort study of middle-aged and older Chinese women who were recruited in 1996-2000. Adjusted HRs and associated 95% CIs were derived from Cox regression models. After a mean follow-up of 11 y, 1255 digestive system cancers occurred (stomach, esophagus, colorectal, liver, pancreas, and gallbladder/bile duct cancers) in 69,310 nonsmoking and non-alcohol-drinking women. In comparison with women who never drank tea, regular tea intake (mostly green tea) was associated with reduced risk of all digestive system cancers combined (HR: 0.86; 95% CI: 0.74, 0.98), and the reduction in risk increased as the amount and years of tea consumption increased (P-trend = 0.01 and P-trend digestive system cancers combined (HR: 0.79; 95% CI: 0.63, 0.99). The inverse association was found primarily for colorectal and stomach/esophageal cancers. In this large prospective cohort study, tea consumption was associated with reduced risk of colorectal and stomach/esophageal cancers in Chinese women.

  17. Sugars, sucrose and colorectal cancer risk: the Fukuoka colorectal cancer study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhenjie; Uchida, Kazuhiro; Ohnaka, Keizo; Morita, Makiko; Toyomura, Kengo; Kono, Suminori; Ueki, Takashi; Tanaka, Masao; Kakeji, Yoshihiro; Maehara, Yoshihiko; Okamura, Takeshi; Ikejiri, Koji; Futami, Kitaroh; Maekawa, Takafumi; Yasunami, Yohichi; Takenaka, Kenji; Ichimiya, Hitoshi; Terasaka, Reiji

    2014-05-01

    A diet high in sugars may promote colorectal carcinogenesis, but it remains uncertain whether high intake of sugars or sucrose confers increased risk of colorectal cancer. The authors investigated the associations of sugars and sucrose intake with colorectal cancer risk in a community-based case-control study in Japan. The study subjects comprised 816 incident cases of colorectal cancer and 815 community controls. Consumption frequencies and portion sizes of 148 food and beverage items were ascertained by a computer-assisted interview. The authors used the consumption of 29 food items to estimate sugars and sucrose intake. The odds ratios of colorectal cancer risk according to intake categories were obtained using a logistic regression model with adjustment for potential confounding variables. Overall, intakes of sugars and sucrose were not related to colorectal cancer risk either in men or women. The association between sugars intake and colorectal cancer risk differed by smoking status and alcohol use in men, but not in women. In men, sugars intake tended to be associated with colorectal cancer risk inversely among never-smokers and positively among male ever-smokers (interaction p=0.01). Sugars intake was associated with an increased risk among men with no alcohol consumption, but was unrelated to the risk among male alcohol drinkers (interaction p=0.02). Body mass index did not modify the association with sugars intake in either men or women. Sugars intake was associated with increased risk of colorectal cancer among smokers and non-alcohol drinkers in men selectively.

  18. Not all risks are equal: the risk taking inventory for high-risk sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodman, Tim; Barlow, Matt; Bandura, Comille; Hill, Miles; Kupciw, Dominika; Macgregor, Alexandra

    2013-10-01

    Although high-risk sport participants are typically considered a homogenous risk-taking population, attitudes to risk within the high-risk domain can vary considerably. As no validated measure allows researchers to assess risk taking within this domain, we validated the Risk Taking Inventory (RTI) for high-risk sport across four studies. The RTI comprises seven items across two factors: deliberate risk taking and precautionary behaviors. In Study 1 (n = 341), the inventory was refined and tested via a confirmatory factor analysis used in an exploratory fashion. The subsequent three studies confirmed the RTI's good model-data fit via three further separate confirmatory factor analyses. In Study 2 (n = 518) and in Study 3 (n = 290), concurrent validity was also confirmed via associations with other related traits (sensation seeking, behavioral activation, behavioral inhibition, impulsivity, self-esteem, extraversion, and conscientiousness). In Study 4 (n = 365), predictive validity was confirmed via associations with mean accidents and mean close calls in the high-risk domain. Finally, in Study 4, the self-report version of the inventory was significantly associated with an informant version of the inventory. The measure will allow researchers and practitioners to investigate risk taking as a variable that is conceptually distinct from participation in a high-risk sport.

  19. Study on Communication System of Social Risk Information on Nuclear Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hidekazu Yoshikawa; Toshio Sugiman; Yasunaga Wakabayashi; Hiroshi Shimoda; Mika Terado; Mariko Akimoto; Yoshihiko Nagasato

    2004-01-01

    As a new risk communication method for the construction of effective knowledge bases about 'safety and non-anxiety for nuclear energy', a study on new communication method of social risk information by means of electronic communication has been started, by noticing rapid expansion of internet usage in the society. The purpose of this research is to enhance the public acceptance to nuclear power in Japan by the following two aspects. The first is to develop the mutual communication system among the working persons involved in both the operation and maintenance activities for nuclear power plant, by which they will exchange their daily experiences to improve the safety conscious activities to foster 'safety culture' attitude. The other is the development of an effective risk communication system between nuclear society and the general publics about the hot issues of 'what are the concerned involved in the final disposal of high-level radioactive waste?' and 'what should we do to have social consensus to deal with this issue in future'. The authors' research plan for the above purpose is summarized as shown in Table 1. As the first step of the authors' three year research project which started from August 2003, social investigation by questionnaires by internet and postal mail, have been just recently conducted on their risk perception for the nuclear power for the people engaged in nuclear business and women in the metropolitan area, respectively, in order to obtain the relevant information on how and what should be considered for constructing effective risk communication methods of social risk information between the people within nuclear industries and the general public in society. Although there need to be discussed, the contrasting risk images as shown in Fig.1, can be depicted between the nuclear people and general public these days in Japan, from the results of the social investigation. As the conclusion of the authors' study thus far conducted, the

  20. Estimation of Hypertension Risk from Lifestyle Factors and Health Profile: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhuoyuan Zheng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Hypertension is a highly prevalent risk factor for cardiovascular disease and it can also lead to other diseases which seriously harm the human health. Screening the risks and finding a clinical model for estimating the risk of onset, maintenance, or the prognosis of hypertension are of great importance to the prevention or treatment of the disease, especially if the indicator can be derived from simple health profile. In this study, we investigate a chronic disease questionnaire data set of 6563 rural citizens in East China and find out a clinical signature that can assess the risk of hypertension easily and accurately. The signature achieves an accuracy of about 83% on the external test dataset, with an AUC of 0.91. Our study demonstrates that a combination of simple lifestyle features can sufficiently reflect the risk of hypertension onset. This finding provides potential guidance for disease prevention and control as well as development of home care and home-care technologies.

  1. Prospective cohort study of tea consumption and risk of digestive system cancers: results from the Shanghai Women's Health Study123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nechuta, Sarah; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Li, Hong-Lan; Yang, Gong; Ji, Bu-Tian; Xiang, Yong-Bing; Cai, Hui; Chow, Wong-Ho; Gao, Yu-Tang

    2012-01-01

    Background: Data from in vitro and animal studies support a protective role for tea in the etiology of digestive system cancers; however, results from prospective cohort studies have been inconsistent. In addition, to our knowledge, no study has investigated the association of tea consumption with the incidence of all digestive system cancers in Chinese women. Objective: We investigated the association of regular tea intake (≥3 times/wk for >6 mo) with risk of digestive system cancers. Design: We used the Shanghai Women's Health Study, a population-based prospective cohort study of middle-aged and older Chinese women who were recruited in 1996–2000. Adjusted HRs and associated 95% CIs were derived from Cox regression models. Results: After a mean follow-up of 11 y, 1255 digestive system cancers occurred (stomach, esophagus, colorectal, liver, pancreas, and gallbladder/bile duct cancers) in 69,310 nonsmoking and non–alcohol-drinking women. In comparison with women who never drank tea, regular tea intake (mostly green tea) was associated with reduced risk of all digestive system cancers combined (HR: 0.86; 95% CI: 0.74, 0.98), and the reduction in risk increased as the amount and years of tea consumption increased (P-trend = 0.01 and P-trend tea/mo (∼2–3 cups/d) had a 21% reduced risk of digestive system cancers combined (HR: 0.79; 95% CI: 0.63, 0.99). The inverse association was found primarily for colorectal and stomach/esophageal cancers. Conclusion: In this large prospective cohort study, tea consumption was associated with reduced risk of colorectal and stomach/esophageal cancers in Chinese women. PMID:23053557

  2. The association of gastric cancer risk with plasma folate, cobalamin, and Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase polymorphisms in the European prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vollset, Stein Emil; Igland, Jannicke; Jenab, Mazda; Fredriksen, Ase; Meyer, Klaus; Eussen, Simone; Gjessing, Hakon K.; Ueland, Per Magne; Pera, Guillem; Sala, Nuria; Agudo, Antonio; Capella, Gabriel; Del Giudice, Giuseppe; Palli, Domenico; Boeing, Heiner; Weikert, Cornelia; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. Bas; Carneiro, Fatima; Pala, Valeria; Vineis, Paolo; Tumino, Rosario; Panico, Salvatore; Berglund, Goran; Manjer, Jonas; Stenling, Roger; Hallmans, Goran; Martinez, Carmen; Dorronsoro, Miren; Barricarte, Aurelio; Navarro, Carmen; Quiros, Jose R.; Allen, Naomi; Key, Timothy J.; Bingham, Sheila; Linseisen, Jakob; Kaaks, Rudolf; Overvad, Kim; Tjonneland, Anne; Buchner, Frederike L.; Peeters, Petra H. M.; Numans, Mattijs E.; Clavel-Chapelon, Francoise; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Lund, Eiliv; Slimani, Nadia; Ferrari, Pietro; Riboli, Elio; Gonzalez, Carlos A.

    Previous studies have shown inconsistent associations of folate intake and polymorphisms of the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene with gastric cancer risk. Our nested case-control study within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort is the first

  3. The association of gastric cancer risk with plasma folate, cobalamin, and methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase polymorphisms in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vollset, S.E.; Igland, J.; Jenab, M.; Fredriksen, A.; Meyer, K.; Eussen, S.; Gjessing, H.K.; Ueland, P.M.; Pera, G.; Sala, N.; Agudo, A.; Capella, G.; Giudice, G. Del; Palli, D.; Boeing, H.; Weikert, C.; Bueno-De-Mesquita, H.B.; Carneiro, F.; Pala, V.; Vineis, P.; Tumino, R.; Panico, S.; Berglund, G.; Manjer, J.; Stenling, R.; Hallmans, G.; Martinez, C.; Dorronsoro, M.; Barricarte, A.; Navarro, C; Quiros, J.R.; Allen, N.; Key, T.J.; Bingham, S.; Linseisen, J.; Kaaks, R.; Overvad, K.; Tjonneland, A.; Buchner, F.L.; Peeters, P.H.; Numans, M.E.; Clavel-Chapelon, F.; Boutron-Ruault, M.C.; Trichopoulou, A.; Lund, E.; Slimani, N.; Ferrari, P.; Riboli, E.; Gonzalez, C.A.

    2007-01-01

    Previous studies have shown inconsistent associations of folate intake and polymorphisms of the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene with gastric cancer risk. Our nested case-control study within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort is the first

  4. Probabilistic relationships in acceptable risk studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benjamin, J.R.

    1977-01-01

    Acceptable risk studies involve uncertainties in future events; consequences and associated values, the acceptability levels, and the future decision environment. Probabilistic procedures afford the basic analytical tool to study the influence of each of these parameters on the acceptable risk decision, including their interrelationships, and combinations. A series of examples are presented in the paper in increasing complexity to illustrate the principles involved and to quantify the relationships to the acceptable risk decision. The basic objective of such studies is to broaden the scientific basis of acceptable risk decision making. It is shown that rationality and consistency in decision making is facilitated by such studies and that rather simple relationships exist in many situations of interest. The variation in criteria associated with an increase in the state of knowledge or change in the level of acceptability is also discussed. (Auth.)

  5. Probabilistic relationships in acceptable risk studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benjamin, J.R.

    1977-01-01

    Acceptable risk studies involve uncertainties in future events: consequences and associated values, the acceptability levels, and the future decision environment. Probabilistic procedures afford the basic analytical tool to study the influence of each of these parameters on the acceptable risk decision, including their interrelationships, and combinations. A series of examples are presented in the paper in increasing complexity to illustrate the principles involved and to quantify the relationships to the acceptable risk decision. The basic objective of such studies is to broaden the scientific basis of acceptable risk decision making. It is shown that rationality and consistency in decision making is facilitated by such studies and that rather simple relationships exist in many situations of interest. The variation in criteria associated with an increase in the state of knowledge or change in the level of acceptability is also discussed

  6. Longitudinal investigation of the relationship between family history of psychosis and affective disorders and Child Behavior Checklist ratings in clinical high-risk adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simeonova, Diana I; Lee, Frances J; Walker, Elaine F

    2015-08-01

    This is the first study to investigate whether positive family history (FH) of psychosis and affective disorders moderates the relationship between child diagnostic status and parent-reported social and behavioral problems on the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) in clinical high-risk adolescents. This longitudinal investigation assessed 122 participants (mean age=14.25±1.8years) from three groups (at-risk, other personality disorders, non-psychiatric controls) at baseline and one year follow-up. As predicted, there was a main effect of FH for a number of CBCL scales indicating higher scores for adolescents with positive FH. The findings also demonstrate a significant Diagnostic Status×Family History interaction for several behavioral scales providing support for FH as a concurrent and longitudinal moderator of the relationship between diagnostic status and CBCL scales. The moderating effect is present for areas of functioning associated with depression, anxiety, social adjustment, thought problems, attention problems, and aggressive behavior. The findings also indicate that both positive and negative symptoms are related to the genetic vulnerability for developing psychosis in clinical high-risk individuals, particularly those symptoms reflective of emotional, attentional, and interpersonal functioning. The present findings are novel and have significant clinical and research implications. This investigation provides a platform for future studies to clarify further the role of FH in clinical high-risk individuals and contributes to integration of this knowledge in the development of early intervention and prevention approaches in at-risk populations for the emergence of severe mental illness. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Using the Job Demands-Resources model to investigate risk perception, safety climate and job satisfaction in safety critical organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Morten Birkeland; Mearns, Kathryn; Matthiesen, Stig Berge; Eid, Jarle

    2011-10-01

    Using the Job Demands-Resources model (JD-R) as a theoretical framework, this study investigated the relationship between risk perception as a job demand and psychological safety climate as a job resource with regard to job satisfaction in safety critical organizations. In line with the JD-R model, it was hypothesized that high levels of risk perception is related to low job satisfaction and that a positive perception of safety climate is related to high job satisfaction. In addition, it was hypothesized that safety climate moderates the relationship between risk perception and job satisfaction. Using a sample of Norwegian offshore workers (N = 986), all three hypotheses were supported. In summary, workers who perceived high levels of risk reported lower levels of job satisfaction, whereas this effect diminished when workers perceived their safety climate as positive. Follow-up analyses revealed that this interaction was dependent on the type of risks in question. The results of this study supports the JD-R model, and provides further evidence for relationships between safety-related concepts and work-related outcomes indicating that organizations should not only develop and implement sound safety procedures to reduce the effects of risks and hazards on workers, but can also enhance other areas of organizational life through a focus on safety. © 2011 The Authors. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology © 2011 The Scandinavian Psychological Associations.

  8. Risk factor investigation for cardiovascular health through WHO STEPS approach in Ardabil, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mashadi-Abdollahi H

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available H Sadeghi-Bazargani1,2, H Jafarzadeh3, M Fallah4, S Hekmat3, J Bashiri3, GH Hosseingolizadeh3, MS Soltanmohammadzadeh3, A Mortezazadeh3, A Shaker3, M Danehzan3, A Zohouri3, O Khosravi3, R Nasimidoust3, N Malekpour3, E Kharazmi4, M Babaei3, M Nadirmohammadi3, H Mashhadi-Abdollahi51Neuroscience Research Center, 2Statistics and Epidemiology Department, Faculty of Health and Nutrition, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran; 3Public Health Department, Ardabil University of Medical Sciences, Ardabil, Iran; 4Tampere School of Public Health, University of Tampere, Tampere, Finland; 5National Public Health Management Center (NPMC, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, IranObjectives: Reliable evidence is the keystone for any noncommunicable disease (NCD prevention plan to be initiated. In this study we carried out a risk factor investigation based on the WHO Stepwise approach to Surveillance (STEPS.Methods: The study was conducted out on 1000 adults between 15 and 64 years of age living in Ardabil province, north-west Iran during 2006, based on the WHO STEPS approach to surveillance of risk factors for NCD. At this stage only the first and second steps were carried out. Data were collected through standard questionnaires and methods analyzed using STATA version 8 statistical software package.Results: 29.0% of men and 2.6% of women were current daily tobacco smokers. The mean number of manufactured cigarettes smoked per day was 18.9 among current daily smokers. Smoking was most prevalent among men of low-income families and those of lower education. The mean body mass index (BMI was 26.6 kg/m2, and was significantly correlated with systolic blood pressure. 58.9% were overweight or obese; 18.0% had raised blood pressure and 3.7% had isolated systolic hypertension. The mean number of servings of fruit consumed per day was 1.1; 33.1% had low levels of activity. Combined risk factor analysis showed that 4.1% of participants were in the

  9. A prospective study of dairy consumption in relation to changes in metabolic risk factors: the Hoorn Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snijder, Marieke B; van Dam, Rob M; Stehouwer, Coen D A; Hiddink, Gerrit J; Heine, Robert J; Dekker, Jacqueline M

    2008-03-01

    Higher dairy consumption has been suggested to reduce the risk of obesity and metabolic disturbances. The aim of our study was to investigate the prospective association between dairy consumption and changes in weight and metabolic disturbances. Baseline dairy intake (servings/day) was assessed by a semi-quantitative food-frequency questionnaire in 1,124 participants of the Hoorn Study. Linear and logistic regression analyses were performed to investigate the association between dairy intake and 6.4-year change in weight, fat distribution, and metabolic risk factors (glucoses, lipids, blood pressure) and the incidence of metabolic syndrome (MS). Baseline dairy consumption was not associated with changes in fasting and post-load glucose concentrations, serum lipid levels (high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, and triglycerides), or blood pressure, nor with the risk of developing the MS in 6.4 years (odds ratio with 95% confidence interval was 0.86 (0.52-1.42) comparing highest with lowest quartile of dairy consumption). In subjects with BMI consumption was significantly associated with an increase in BMI, weight, waist, and a decrease in high-density lipoprotein. Our results do not support the hypothesis that a higher dairy consumption protects against weight gain and development of metabolic disturbances in a Dutch elderly population.

  10. Statin treatment and risk of recurrent venous thromboembolism: a nationwide cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen, Cu Dinh; Andersson, Charlotte; Jensen, Thomas Bo; Gjesing, Anne; Schjerning Olsen, Anne-Marie; Malta Hansen, Carolina; Büller, Harry; Torp-Pedersen, Christian; Gislason, Gunnar H.

    2013-01-01

    Statins may decrease the risk of primary venous thromboembolism (VTE), that is, deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE) but the effect of statins in preventing recurrent VTE is less clear. The aim of this study was therefore to investigate the association between statin therapy and

  11. The Terrestrial Investigation Model: A probabilistic risk assessment model for birds exposed to pesticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    One of the major recommendations of the National Academy of Science to the USEPA, NMFS and USFWS was to utilize probabilistic methods when assessing the risks of pesticides to federally listed endangered and threatened species. The Terrestrial Investigation Model (TIM, version 3....

  12. Seismic risk analysis in the German risk study phase B

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasser, D.; Liemersdorf, J.

    1989-01-01

    The paper discusses some aspects of the seismic risk part of the German risk study for nuclear power plants, phase B. First simplified analyses in phase A of the study allowed a rough classification of structures and systems of the PWR reference plant according to their seismic risk contribution. These studies were extended in phase B using improved models for the dynamic analyses of buildings, structures and components as well as for the probabilistic analyses of seismic loading, failure probabilities and event trees. The methodology of deriving probabilistic seismic load descriptions is explained and compared with the methods in phase A of the study and in other studies. Some details of the linear and nonlinear dynamic analyses of structures are reported, in order to demonstrate the influence of different assumptions for material behavior and failure criteria. The probabilistic structural and event tree analyses are discussed with respect to the distribution assumptions, acceptable simplifications, special results for the PWR reference plant and, finally, the influence of model uncertainties

  13. Seismic risk analyses in the German Risk Study, phase B

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosser, D.; Liemersdorf, H.

    1991-01-01

    The paper discusses some aspects of the seismic risk part of the German Risk Study for Nuclear Power Plants, Phase B. First simplified analyses in Phase A of the study allowed only a rough classification of structures and systems of the PWR reference plant according to their seismic risk contribution. These studies were extended in Phase B using improved models for the dynamic analyses of buildings, structures and components as well as for the probabilistic analyses of seismic loading, failure probabilities and event trees. The methodology of deriving probabilistic seismic load descriptions is explained and compared with the methods in Phase A of the study and in other studies. Some details of the linear and nonlinear dynamic analyses of structures are reported in order to demonstrate the influence of different assumptions for material behaviour and failure criteria. The probabilistic structural and event tree analyses are discussed with respect to distribution assumptions, acceptable simplifications and model uncertainties. Some results for the PWR reference plant are given. (orig.)

  14. A pilot audit of a protocol for ambulatory investigation of predicted low-risk patients with possible pulmonary embolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, A H; Murphy, R

    2011-09-01

    Patients with possible pulmonary embolism (PE) commonly present to acute medical services. Research has led to the identification of low-risk patients suitable for ambulatory management. We report on a protocol designed to select low-risk patients for ambulatory investigation if confirmatory imaging is not available that day. The protocol was piloted in the Emergency Department and Medical Assessment Area at the Royal Infirmary of Edinburgh. We retrospectively analysed electronic patient records in an open observational audit of all patients managed in the ambulatory arm over five months of use. We analysed 45 patients' records. Of these, 91.1% required imaging to confirm or refute PE, 62.2% received a computed tomography pulmonary angiogram (CTPA). In 25% of patients, PE was confirmed with musculoskeletal pain (22.7%), and respiratory tract infection (15.9%) the next most prevalent diagnoses. Alternative diagnoses was provided by CTPA in 32% of cases. We identified no adverse events or readmissions but individualised follow-up was not attempted. The data from this audit suggests this protocol can be applied to select and manage low-risk patients suitable for ambulatory investigation of possible PE. A larger prospective comparative study would be required to accurately define the safety and effectiveness of this protocol.

  15. Pilot case-control investigation of risk factors for hip fractures in the urban Indian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malhotra Nidhi

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the reported high prevalence of osteoporosis in India, there have been no previous studies examining the risk factors for hip fracture in the Indian population. Methods We carried out a case control investigation comprising 100 case subjects (57 women and 43 men admitted with a first hip fracture into one of three hospitals across New Delhi. The 100 controls were age and sex matched subjects who were either healthy visitors not related to the case patients or hospital staff. Information from all subjects was obtained through a questionnaire based interview. Results There was a significant increase in the number of cases of hip fracture with increasing age. There were significantly more women (57% than men (43%. Univariate analysis identified protective effects for increased activity, exercise, calcium and vitamin supplements, almonds, fish, paneer (cottage cheese, curd (plain yogurt, and milk. However, tea and other caffeinated beverages were significant risk factors. In women, hormone/estrogen therapy appeared to have a marginal protective effect. For all cases, decreased agility, visual impairment, long term medications, chronic illnesses increased the risk of hip fracture. The multivariate analysis confirmed a protective effect of increased activity and also showed a decrease in hip fracture risk with increasing body mass index (odds ratio (OR 0.024, 95% confidence interval (CI 0.006-0.10 & OR 0.81, 95% CI 0.68-0.97 respectively. Individuals who take calcium supplements have a decreased risk of hip fracture (OR 0.076; CI 0.017-0.340, as do individuals who eat fish (OR 0.094; CI 0.020-0.431, and those who eat paneer (OR 0.152; 0.031-0.741. Tea drinkers have a higher risk of hip fracture (OR 22.8; 95% CI 3.73-139.43. Difficulty in getting up from a chair also appears to be an important risk factor for hip fractures (OR 14.53; 95% CI 3.86-54.23. Conclusions In the urban Indian population, dietary calcium, vitamin D

  16. Uncertainty studies and risk assessment for CO{sub 2} storage in geological formations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walter, Lena Sophie

    2013-07-01

    drinking water aquifers. The uncertainties on all three levels are investigated in three approaches with different focus. The concept can also be applied to CO{sub 2} leakage or hazards related to other technologies in the subsurface such as methane storage or atomic waste disposal. In the second part of this thesis, uncertainty studies for two realistic storage formations (the pilot site Ketzin (Germany) and a realistic storage formation in the North German Basin) are performed to investigate the related uncertainties and to reduce them as much as possible. For the Ketzin site, history matching of the measurement data, is an important task for dynamic modeling and essential for future risk assessment. A systematic approach to fit the data set using inverse modeling is presented in this work. For future risk assessment for realistic sites, e.g. for the Ketzin site, the uncertainty studies and the history matching approach provide important information. Finally, CCS is discussed in the context of risk perception and the possible input of the risk assessment concept presented in this work is discussed. This work is a first attempt to connect the technical risk assessment for CO{sub 2} storage to the social science approach for risk assessment. It is bridging the gap between engineering and social sciences by integrating the technical quantification of risk into the wider context of a comprehensive risk governance model.

  17. Equine grass sickness in Scotland: a case-control study of signalment- and meteorology-related risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wylie, C E; Shaw, D J; Fordyce, F M; Lilly, A; McGorum, B C

    2014-01-01

    Equine grass sickness (EGS) remains a frequently fatal disease of equids in Britain. Since previous investigations of signalment- and meteorology-related risk factors for EGS have yielded some conflicting data, further investigation is warranted. To identify signalment- and meteorology-related risk factors for EGS in Scotland. Retrospective time-matched case-control study. This study was undertaken using data for 455 EGS cases and 910 time-matched controls that were referred to the Royal (Dick) School of Veterinary Studies, and average UK Meteorological Office weather station meteorological values from the month of admission of the animal, from the 3, 6 and 12 months prior to admission, and for the entire 1990-2006 period. Signalment-related risk factors associated with an increased risk of EGS were native Scottish pure breeds compared with crossbreeds (odds ratio [OR] = 3.56, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.43-5.43) and animals living on premises located further north within the study region (OR = 1.08, 95% CI 1.06-1.10). There was a decreased risk of EGS in animals aged 11-20 years compared with animals 2-10 years (OR = 0.32, 95% CI 0.22-0.45), non-native Scottish pure breeds compared with crossbreeds (OR = 0.71, 95% CI 0.54-0.94), and stallions compared with mares (OR = 0.43, 95% CI 0.22-0.86). Meteorology-related risk factors associated with an increased risk of EGS were (if Ordnance Survey northing is excluded) more sun hours (OR>1.43) and more frost days (OR>1.13), while there was a decreased risk of EGS with higher average maximum temperature (ORmeteorological risk factors may assist studies on the aetiology of EGS. © 2013 EVJ Ltd.

  18. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug use and breast cancer risk in a European prospective cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cairat, Manon; Fournier, Agnès; Murphy, Neil

    2018-01-01

    Experimental studies have shown a protective effect of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) on breast cancer development. However, results from epidemiological cohort studies are less consistent. Our objective was to assess the association between NSAID use and breast cancer risk within...... effect modification of MHT use on the association between use of NSAIDs and breast cancer risk which deserves in-depth investigation in studies with accurate data on both NSAID and MHT use. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved....... the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). EPIC is a prospective cohort study initiated in 1992 in 10 European countries. Self-reported information on NSAID use at baseline has been collected in five EPIC countries. Multivariable Cox regression models were used to estimate hazard...

  19. 21 CFR 50.52 - Clinical investigations involving greater than minimal risk but presenting the prospect of direct...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... minimal risk but presenting the prospect of direct benefit to individual subjects. 50.52 Section 50.52... investigations involving greater than minimal risk but presenting the prospect of direct benefit to individual... prospect of direct benefit for the individual subject, or by a monitoring procedure that is likely to...

  20. A qualitative investigation of perceptions of violence risk factors in low-income African American children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reese, L E; Vera, E M; Thompson, K; Reyes, R

    2001-06-01

    Conducted a qualitative investigation to identify the perceptions of risk factors for violence in a sample of inner-city African American youth. Using ethnographic analyses, themes emerging from these data included concerns about the reciprocity between drugs and violence, familial quality of life issues, gender differences in the experience of violence and risk for violence, community safety concerns, and fears about managing peer relationships specific to violence. These data are interpreted relative to the risk factors the violence prevention literature has identified among youth residing in urban environments. Findings are discussed in terms of their potential contribution to generating hypotheses for the development of theory and effective violence prevention practice.

  1. Cognitive predictors and risk factors of PTSD following stillbirth: a short-term longitudinal study.

    OpenAIRE

    Horsch, A.; Jacobs, I.; McKenzie-McHarg, K.

    2015-01-01

    This short-term longitudinal study investigated cognitive predictors and risk factors of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in mothers following stillbirth. After a stillbirth at ≥ 24 weeks gestational age, 65 women completed structured clinical interviews and questionnaires assessing PTSD symptoms, cognitive predictors (appraisals, dysfunctional strategies), and risk factors (perceived social support, trauma history, obstetric history) at 3 and 6 months. PTSD symptoms decreased between 3 a...

  2. Symptoms of anxiety or depression and risk of fracture in older people: the Hertfordshire Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gale, Catharine R; Dennison, Elaine M; Edwards, Mark; Sayer, Avan Aihie; Cooper, Cyrus

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the prospective association between symptoms of anxiety and depression and risk of fracture in older people. Results showed that men, but not women, with probable anxiety at baseline had an increased risk of fracture. The use of psychotropic drugs has been linked with an increased risk of fracture in older people, but there are indications that the conditions for which these drugs were prescribed may themselves influence fracture risk. The aim of this study was to investigate the relation between symptoms of anxiety and depression and risk of fracture in older people. The study design is a prospective cohort study. One thousand eighty-seven men and 1,050 women aged 59-73 years completed the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). Data on incident fracture during an average follow-up period of 5.6 years were collected through interview and a postal questionnaire. Compared to men with no or few symptoms of anxiety (score ≤7 on the HADS anxiety subscale), men with probable anxiety (score ≥11) had an increased risk of fracture: After adjustment for age and potential confounding factors, the odds ratio (OR) (95 % confidence interval) was 4.03 (1.55, 10.5). There were no associations between levels of anxiety and fracture risk in women. Few men or women had probable depression at baseline (score ≥11 on the HADS depression subscale). Amongst men with possible depression (score 8-10), there was an increased risk of fracture that was of borderline significance: multivariate-adjusted OR 3.57 (0.99, 12.9). There was no association between possible depression and fracture risk in women. High levels of anxiety in older men may increase their risk of fracture. Future research needs to replicate this finding in other populations and investigate the underlying mechanisms.

  3. Peripheral blood eosinophil counts and risk of colorectal cancer mortality in a large general population-based cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taghizadeh, N.; Vonk, J.M.; Boezen, H.M.

    2011-01-01

    1583 Background: Few epidemiological studies have investigated the association between blood eosinophil counts and colorectal cancer incidence. The current prospective cohort study aims to investigate the association between peripheral blood eosinophils and colorectal cancer mortality risk. METHODS:

  4. Acute Pancreatitis and Pancreatic Cancer Risk: A Nationwide Matched-cohort Study in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegård, Jakob; Cronin Fenton, Deirdre; Heide-Jørgensen, Uffe

    2018-01-01

    . Pancreatic cancer risk was expressed as hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% CIs, calculated using the Cox proportional hazards model. Cox models were stratified by age, sex, and year of pancreatitis diagnosis and adjusted for alcohol- and smoking-related conditions, and Charlson Comorbidity Index score. Results We...... included 41,669 patients diagnosed with incident acute pancreatitis and 208,340 comparison individuals. Patients with acute pancreatitis had an increased risk of pancreatic cancer compared with the age- and sex-matched general population throughout the follow-up period. The risk decreased over time......Background & Aims Acute pancreatitis may be a risk factor for pancreatic cancer. However, findings from studies on this association are conflicting. We investigated the association between acute pancreatitis and increased risk of pancreatic cancer. Methods We conducted a nationwide, population...

  5. Heat and nuclear radiation as risk factors for male infertility: results of a French case-control study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thonneau, P.F.; Rachou, E.; Ducot, B.; Multigner, L.; Velez de la Calle, J.P.; Le Martelot, M.T.

    1998-01-01

    Very few studies have investigated the possible effects of environmental radiation and heat exposure on male reproductive function. We conducted a case control study to evaluate the various infertility risk factors in the military population of the french town of Brest to investigate an apparently high incidence of infertility in couples in which the man may have been exposed to occupational nuclear radiation. These findings suggest that in addition to well known medical factors, 'potential' exposure to heat or nuclear radiation could also be risk factors for infertility. (N.C.)

  6. Quantifying links between stroke and risk factors: a study on individual health risk appraisal of stroke in a community of Chongqing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yazhou; Zhang, Ling; Yuan, Xiaoyan; Wu, Yamin; Yi, Dong

    2011-04-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the risk factors of stroke in a community in Chongqing by setting quantitative criteria for determining the risk factors of stroke. Thus, high-risk individuals can be identified and laid a foundation for predicting individual risk of stroke. 1,034 cases with 1:2 matched controls (2,068) were chosen from five communities in Chongqing including Shapingba, Xiaolongkan, Tianxingqiao, Yubei Road and Ciqikou. Participants were interviewed with a uniform questionnaire. The risk factors of stroke and the odds ratios of risk factors were analyzed with a logistic regression model, and risk exposure factors of different levels were converted into risk scores using statistical models. For men, ten risk factors including hypertension (5.728), family history of stroke (4.599), and coronary heart disease (5.404), among others, were entered into the main effect model. For women, 11 risk factors included hypertension (5.270), family history of stroke (4.866), hyperlipidemia (4.346), among others. The related risk scores were added to obtain a combined risk score to predict the individual's risk of stoke in the future. An individual health risk appraisal model of stroke, which was applicable to individuals of different gender, age, health behavior, disease and family history, was established. In conclusion, personal diseases including hypertension, diabetes mellitus, etc., were very important to the prevalence of stoke. The prevalence of stroke can be effectively reduced by changing unhealthy lifestyles and curing the positive individual disease. The study lays a foundation for health education to persuade people to change their unhealthy lifestyles or behaviors, and could be used in community health services.

  7. Identification of a dietary pattern characterized by high-fat food choices associated with increased risk of breast cancer: the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-Potsdam Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Mandy; Hoffmann, Kurt; Weikert, Cornelia; Nöthlings, Ute; Schulze, Matthias B; Boeing, Heiner

    2008-11-01

    Epidemiological studies conducted thus far have mainly used a single-nutrient approach which may not be sufficient in detecting diet-cancer relationships. The aim of the study was to examine the association of a food pattern based on explained variations in fatty acid intake by means of reduced rank regression with breast cancer risk. Study participants were female subjects (n 15,351) of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-Potsdam Study free of cancer at baseline and with complete dietary and outcome information followed for an average of 6.0 years. Among those, 137 incident cases of invasive breast cancer were identified. We identified a food pattern characterized by low consumption of bread, and fruit juices, and high consumption of processed meat, fish, butter and other animal fats, and margarine explaining >42 % of total variation in fatty acid intake (SFA, MUFA, n-3 PUFA, n-6 PUFA). Intake of all four fatty acid fractions was positively associated with the pattern score. Adherence to this food pattern adjusted for covariates was associated with a two-fold risk (hazard ratio 2.00; 95 % CI 1.30, 3.09) of breast cancer comparing extreme tertiles of the pattern score. There was no evidence of effect modification by menopausal status, overweight status and use of hormone replacement therapy, respectively. In conclusion, a food pattern characterized by high-fat food choices was significantly associated with increased risk of breast cancer. Given that the food pattern was high in all fatty acid fractions, we found evidence for total dietary fat rather than for specific fatty acids to be associated with breast cancer risk.

  8. Maternal smoking and risk of obesity in school children: Investigating early life theory from the GRECO study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuella Magriplis

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Based on the Early Life Theory, maternal smoking may be a factor affecting child weight status, adiposity level and blood pressure later in life. The purpose of this study was primarily to examine the risk of maternal smoking during pregnancy with overweight and obesity, central and total adiposity in school children. Secondarily, to assess the effect of maternal smoking, with children's blood pressure (BP.Data from the Greek Childhood Obesity cross sectional study (GRECO, conducted from October 2008 to May 2009, were used. A total of 2400 questionnaires gathered from children and their parents were analysed. Maternal and gestational data were gathered by a self-administered questionnaire. Women were categorized as non-smokers or smokers if they smoked ≥1 cigarettes/day during pregnancy. Children's body weight, height, waist circumference and BP were measured. Multiple logistic and linear regression analysis was conducted, adjusting for covariates. Four models were used in the process.The study found that children of maternal-smokers were more likely to be overweight or obese (OR: 1.6 to 1.82 and to have a larger waist circumference (OR: 1.73 to 1.85, compared to children of non-smokers in all models used. Total fat percentage was not significantly associated with maternal smoking when adjusted. Systolic and diastolic BP was not associated with maternal smoking. Results of this study strengthen the need for smoking cessation during pregnancy in order to possibly reduce the childhood obesity epidemic. Creating public health awareness of the potential risk of maternal-smoking on children's weight status later in life is warranted. Keywords: Maternal smoking, Central adiposity, Childhood obesity, Blood pressure, Public health

  9. Risk management study for the retired Hanford Site facilities: Qualitative risk evaluation for the retired Hanford Site facilities. Volume 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coles, G.A.; Shultz, M.V.; Taylor, W.E.

    1993-09-01

    This document provides a risk evaluation of the 100 and 200 Area retired, surplus facilities on the Hanford Site. Also included are the related data that were compiled by the risk evaluation team during investigations performed on the facilities. Results are the product of a major effort performed in fiscal year 1993 to produce qualitative information that characterizes certain risks associated with these facilities. The retired facilities investigated for this evaluation are located in the 100 and 200 Areas of the 1,450-km{sup 2} (570-mi{sup 2}) Hanford Site. The Hanford Site is a semiarid tract of land in southeastern Washington State. The nearest population center is Richland, Washington, (population 32,000) 30-km (20 mi) southeast of the 200 Area. During walkdown investigations of these facilities, data on real and potential hazards that threatened human health or safety or created potential environmental release issues were identified by the risk evaluation team. Using these findings, the team categorized the identified hazards by facility and evaluated the risk associated with each hazard. The factors contributing to each risk, and the consequence and likelihood of harm associated with each hazard also are included in this evaluation.

  10. Predictors for readmission risk of new patients : the Nordic Comparative Study on Sectorized Psychiatry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oiesvold, T; Saarento, O; Sytema, S; Vinding, H; Gostas, G; Lonnerberg, O; Muus, S; Sandlund, M; Hansson, L

    Objective: Predictors for readmission risk were investigated in this study, which forms part of the Nordic Comparative Study on Sectorized Psychiatry. Method: Included were a total of 837 consecutive 'new' patients (not in contact with the psychiatric services for at least 18 months) admitted to

  11. Pelvic Inflammatory Disease and the Risk of Ovarian Cancer and Borderline Ovarian Tumors: A Pooled Analysis of 13 Case-Control Studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rasmussen, C.B.; Kjaer, S.K.; Albieri, V.; Bandera, E.V.; Doherty, J.A.; Hogdall, E.; Webb, P.M.; Jordan, S.J.; Rossing, M.A.; Wicklund, K.G.; Goodman, M.T.; Modugno, F.; Moysich, K.B.; Ness, R.B.; Edwards, R.P.; Schildkraut, J.M.; Berchuck, A.; Olson, S.H.; Kiemeney, L.A.L.M.; Massuger, L.F.A.G.; Narod, S.A.; Phelan, C.M.; Anton-Culver, H.; Ziogas, A.; Wu, A.H.; Pearce, C.L.; Risch, H.A.; Jensen, A.

    2017-01-01

    Inflammation has been implicated in ovarian carcinogenesis. However, studies investigating the association between pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) and ovarian cancer risk are few and inconsistent. We investigated the association between PID and the risk of epithelial ovarian cancer according to

  12. Physical activity in middle-aged women and hip fracture risk: the UFO study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Englund, U; Nordström, P; Nilsson, J; Bucht, G; Björnstig, U; Hallmans, G; Svensson, O; Pettersson, U

    2011-02-01

    In a population-based case-control study, we demonstrate that middle-aged women who were active with walking or in different physical spare time activities were at lower risk of later sustaining a hip fracture compared to more sedentary women. In middle-aged women participating in the Umeå Fracture and Osteoporosis (UFO) study, we investigated whether physical activity is associated with a subsequent decreased risk of sustaining a hip fracture. The UFO study is a nested case-control study investigating associations between bone markers, lifestyle, and osteoporotic fractures. We identified 81 female hip fracture cases that had reported lifestyle data before they sustained their fracture. Each case was compared with two female controls who were identified from the same cohort and matched for age and week of reporting data, yielding a total cohort of 237 subjects. Mean age at baseline was 57.2 ± 5.0 years, and mean age at fracture was 65.4 ± 6.4 years. Conditional logistic regression analysis with adjustments for height, weight, smoking, and menopausal status showed that subjects who were regularly active with walking or had a moderate or high frequency of physical spare time activities (i.e. berry/mushroom picking and snow shovelling) were at reduced risk of sustaining a hip fracture (OR 0.14; 95% CI; 0.05-0.53 for walking and OR 0.19; 95% CI; 0.08-0.46, OR 0.17, 95% CI; 0.05-0.64 for moderate and high frequency of spare time activities, respectively) compared to more sedentary women. An active lifestyle in middle age seems to reduce the risk of future hip fracture. Possible mechanisms may include improved muscle strength, coordination, and balance resulting in a decreased risk of falling and perhaps also direct skeletal benefits.

  13. Alcohol consumption and dementia risk: a dose–response meta-analysis of prospective studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Wei; Wang, Huifu; Wan, Yu; Tan, Chenchen; Li, Jieqiong; Tan, Lan; Yu, Jin-Tai

    2017-01-01

    It is widely believed that light-to-moderate alcohol intake may protect against dementia while excessive drinking may instead increase the risk. Nonetheless, these findings need cautious interpretations due to varying methodologies and lack of standard definition, which hindered our transferring into preventative practice. The objective of this study is to investigate the potential dose–response association between alcohol consumption and risk of dementia. A systematic search was conducted in electronic databases to identify relevant studies. Risk estimates were combined using a random-effect model. Eleven studies with 73,330 participants and 4586 cases for all-cause dementia (ACD), five studies with 52,715 participants and 1267 cases for Alzheimer’s dementia (AD) and four studies with 49,535 participants and 542 cases for vascular dementia were included. We observed a nonlinear association between alcohol consumption and ACD risk (p_n_o_n_l_i_n_e_a_r_i_t_y < 0.05). The alcohol dose associated with lower risk of dementia was confined to at most 12.5 g/day, with the risk hitting bottom (RR ≈ 0.9) at roughly 6 g/day. Of note, the ACD risk seemed to be elevated (≈10%) when the dose surpasses certain levels: 23 drinks/week or 38 g/day. For the alcohol type, recommendation for wine is prioritized. The subgroup analysis further indicated that the effect of alcohol may be greater in younger adults (<60 years old) with regard to fighting against dementia. Modest alcohol consumption (≤12.5 g/day) is associated with a reduced risk of dementia with 6 g/day of alcohol conferring a lower risk than other levels while excessive drinking (≥38 g/day) may instead elevate the risk.

  14. Estudio del riesgo cardiovascular en la infancia a través de un modelo clínico-investigativo Study of cardiovascular risk in infancy through a clinical-investigative model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro E Durán

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Antecedentes: desde el 2004, el Área de Investigación en Pediatría de la Fundación Cardiovascular de Colombia, ha desarrollado la línea de investigación: factores de riesgo cardiovascular en la infancia, a través del planteamiento de un modelo clínico investigativo. Objetivo: describir la experiencia de la Fundación Cardiovascular de Colombia en el desarrollo de actividades clínico-investigativas orientadas al estudio y la prevención primaria de las enfermedades cardiovasculares. Método: no aplica. Resultados: no aplican. Conclusiones: a partir de este modelo se han desarrollado diversas actividades de investigación encaminadas a la cuantificación de la magnitud del problema que representan estos factores de riesgo en la población pediátrica de Bucaramanga, pasando de estudios de tamizaje a estudios de carácter poblacional, y derivando de sus resultados la creación de programas clínicos y comunitarios enfocados a la sensibilización de la población general y a la prevención e intervención oportuna de las enfermedades cardiovasculares.Antecedents: since 2004, the Pediatric Area of Research from the Colombian Cardiovascular Foundation has developed the investigation line: cardiovascular risk factors in infancy, through a clinical-investigative model. Objective: to describe the Colombian Cardiovascular Foundation experience in the development of clinical-investigative activities oriented to the study and primary prevention of cardiovascular diseases. Method: does not apply. Results: do not apply. Conclusions: several investigative activities have been developed based on this model, tending to quantify the magnitude of the problem represented by these risk factors in the pediatric population of Bucaramanga, passing from screening studies to population-based studies, allowing by its results the creation of clinical and communitarian programs focused in the awareness of the general population and the prevention and opportune

  15. Adoptive paternal age and risk of psychosis in adoptees: a register based cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mats Ek

    Full Text Available The association between advancing paternal age and increased risk of schizophrenia in the off-spring is well established. The underlying mechanisms are unknown. In order to investigate whether the psychosocial environment associated with growing up with an aged father explains the increased risk we conducted a study of all adoptive children in Sweden from 1955-1985 (n =31 188. Their risk of developing schizophrenia or non-affective psychosis in relation to advancing age of their adoptive fathers' was examined. We found no association between risk of psychoses and advancing adoptive paternal age. There was no support of psychosocial environmental factors explaining the "paternal age effect".

  16. Psychological attitudes and risk of breast cancer in Japan: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakai, Kenji; Kojima, Masayo; Nishio, Kazuko; Suzuki, Sadao; Niwa, Yoshimitsu; Lin, Yingsong; Kondo, Takaaki; Yatsuya, Hiroshi; Tamakoshi, Koji; Yamamoto, Akio; Tokudome, Shinkan; Toyoshima, Hideaki; Tamakoshi, Akiko

    2007-04-01

    To examine the association between psychological factors and the risk of breast cancer prospectively in a non-Western population. Data from the Japan Collaborative Cohort (JACC) study were analyzed. From 1988 to 1990, 34,497 women aged 40-79 years completed a questionnaire on medical, lifestyle and psychosocial factors. The rate ratios (RRs) of their responses were computed by fitting to proportional hazards models. During the mean follow-up period of 7.5 years, 149 breast cancer cases were documented. Those individuals who possessed "ikigai" (Japanese term meaning something that made one's life worth living) showed a significantly lower risk of breast cancer (multivariate-adjusted RR=0.66; 95% confidence interval [CI]=0.47-0.94). Those who perceived themselves as able to make decisions quickly also had a lower risk of breast cancer (multivariate-adjusted RR=0.56; 95% CI=0.36-0.87). The other factors investigated, including ease of anger arousal and self-perceived stress of daily life were not associated with breast cancer risk. Although further studies will be necessary to verify these findings, our results suggest that having "ikigai" and being decisive decrease an individual's subsequent risk of breast cancer.

  17. Dietary and circulating lycopene and stroke risk: a meta-analysis of prospective studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    LI, Xinli; XU, Jiuhong

    2014-01-01

    Epidemiological studies support a protective role of lycopene against stroke occurrence or mortality, but the results have been conflicting. We conducted a meta-analysis to assess the relationship between dietary or circulating lycopene and stroke risk (including stroke occurrence or mortality). Relevant papers were collected by screening the PubMed database through October 2013. Only prospective studies providing relative risk estimates with 95% confidence intervals for the association between lycopene and stroke were included. A random-effects model was used to calculate the pooled estimate. Subgroup analysis was conducted to investigate the effects of various factors on the final results. The pooled analysis of seven prospective studies, with 116,127 participants and 1,989 cases, demonstrated that lycopene decreased stroke risk by 19.3% (RR = 0.807, 95% CI = 0.680–0.957) after adjusting for confounding factors. No heterogeneity was observed (p = 0.234, I2 = 25.5%). Circulating lycopene, not dietary lycopene, was associated with a statistically significant decrease in stroke risk (RR = 0.693, 95% CI = 0.503–0.954). Lycopene could protect European, or males against stroke risk. Duration of follow-up had no effect on the final results. There was no evidence of publication bias. Lycopene, especially circulating lycopene, is negatively associated with stroke risk. PMID:24848940

  18. Estimation of fatality and injury risk by means of in-depth fatal accident investigation data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yannis, George; Papadimitriou, Eleonora; Dupont, Emmanuelle; Martensen, Heike

    2010-10-01

    In this article the factors affecting fatality and injury risk of road users involved in fatal accidents are analyzed by means of in-depth accident investigation data, with emphasis on parameters not extensively explored in previous research. A fatal accident investigation (FAI) database is used, which includes intermediate-level in-depth data for a harmonized representative sample of 1300 fatal accidents in 7 European countries. The FAI database offers improved potential for analysis, because it includes information on a number of variables that are seldom available, complete, or accurately recorded in road accident databases. However, the fact that only fatal accidents are examined requires for methodological adjustments, namely, the correction for two types of effects on a road user's baseline risk: "accident size" effects, and "relative vulnerability" effects. Fatality and injury risk can be then modeled through multilevel logistic regression models, which account for the hierarchical dependences of the road accident process. The results show that the baseline fatality risk of road users involved in fatal accidents decreases with accident size and increases with the vulnerability of the road user. On the contrary, accident size increases nonfatal injury risk of road users involved in fatal accidents. Other significant effects on fatality and injury risk in fatal accidents include road user age, vehicle type, speed limit, the chain of accident events, vehicle maneuver, and safety equipment. In particular, the presence and use of safety equipment such as seat belt, antilock braking system (ABS), and electronic stability program (ESP) are protection factors for car occupants, especially for those seated at the front seats. Although ABS and ESP systems are typically associated with positive effects on accident occurrence, the results of this research revealed significant related effects on accident severity as well. Moreover, accident consequences are more severe

  19. The role of nutrition as risk factor for polyneuropathy : a case-control study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, Nora A.; Notermans, Nicolette C.; de Vries, Jeanne H.M.; van den Berg, Leonard H.; Vrancken, Alexander F.J.E.

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this case–control study is to investigate the role of nutrition as risk factor for polyneuropathy. Three hundred eighteen patients with chronic idiopathic axonal polyneuropathy and 636 matched controls completed a validated food frequency questionnaire that covered nutrient intake and

  20. Stroke Risk Perception in Atrial Fibrillation Patients is not Associated with Clinical Stroke Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fournaise, Anders; Skov, Jane; Bladbjerg, Else-Marie; Leppin, Anja

    2015-11-01

    Clinical risk stratification models, such as the CHA2DS2-VASc, are used to assess stroke risk in atrial fibrillation (AF) patients. No study has yet investigated whether and to which extent these patients have a realistic perception of their personal stroke risk. The purpose of this study was to investigate and describe the association between AF patients' stroke risk perception and clinical stroke risk. In an observational cross-sectional study design, we surveyed 178 AF patients with a mean age of 70.6 years (SD 8.3) in stable anticoagulant treatment (65% treatment duration >12 months). Clinical stroke risk was scored through the CHA2DS2-VASc, and patients rated their perceived personal stroke risk on a 7-point Likert scale. There was no significant association between clinical stroke risk assessment and patients' stroke risk perception (rho = .025; P = .741). Approximately 60% of the high-risk patients had an unrealistic perception of their own stroke risk, and there was no significant increase in risk perception from those with a lower compared with a higher risk factor load (χ(2) = .010; P = .522). Considering possible negative implications in terms of lack of motivation for lifestyle behavior change and adequate adherence to the treatment and monitoring of vitamin K antagonist, the apparent underestimation of risk by large subgroups warrants attention and needs further investigation with regard to possible behavioral consequences. Copyright © 2015 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Combining Climate Scenarios and Risk Management Approach—A Finnish Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riitta Molarius

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Climate change impacts on nature and the environment have been widely discussed and studied. Traditionally, a company’s continuity management is based on risk analysis. There are also attempts to implement scenario-based methods in the risk management procedures of companies. For industrial decision makers, it is vital to acknowledge the impacts of climate change with regards to their adaptation strategies. However, a scenario-based approach is not always the most effective way to analyze these risks. This paper investigates the integration of scenario and risk-based methods for a company’s adaptation planning. It considers the uncertainties of the climate change scenarios and the recognized risks as well as suitable adaptation strategies. The paper presents the results of climate risk analysis prepared for two Finnish hydropower plants. The introduced method was first piloted in 2008 and then again in 2015. The update of the analysis pointed out that at the company level, the climate risks and other risks originating from governmental or political decisions form an intertwined wholeness where the origin of the risk is difficult to outline. It seems that, from the business point of view, the main adaptation strategies suggested by the integrated risk and scenarios approach are those that support buying “safety margins” in new investments and reducing decision time horizons. Both of these adaptation strategies provide an advantage in the circumstances where also political decisions and societal changes have a great effect on decision making.

  2. An empirical study on open position risk assessment using VAR and regression analysis: A case study of Iranian banking industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elmira Mahmoudzadeh

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available During the past few years, there have been tremendous fluctuations on different currencies. For instance, European common currency, Euro, has be fluctuated between 0.60 to 0.9 against US dollar. Therefore, it is important to study the behavior of currency valuations using different techniques. In this paper, we present an empirical study to measure the impact of different items on risk of foreign currency using value at risk (VaR and regression methods. The proposed model of this paper investigates whether the risk of open positions of six foreign currencies including US dollar, Euro, British Pound, Switzerland Frank, Norwegian Kroner and United Emirate Dirham increase during the time horizon. The proposed study of this paper uses historical daily prices of these currencies for a fiscal year of 2011 in one of private banks located in Iran and measures the relative risk. The results of the implementation of two methods of VaR and linear regression indicate that the risk of open positions increases during the time horizon.

  3. Canine diabetes mellitus risk factors: A matched case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pöppl, Alan Gomes; de Carvalho, Guilherme Luiz Carvalho; Vivian, Itatiele Farias; Corbellini, Luis Gustavo; González, Félix Hilário Díaz

    2017-10-01

    Different subtypes of canine diabetes mellitus (CDM) have been described based on their aetiopathogenesis. Therefore, manifold risk factors may be involved in CDM development. This study aims to investigate canine diabetes mellitus risk factors. Owners of 110 diabetic dogs and 136 healthy controls matched by breed, sex, and age were interviewed concerning aspects related to diet, weight, physical activity, oral health, reproductive history, pancreatitis, and exposure to exogenous glucocorticoids. Two multivariate multivariable statistical models were created: The UMod included males and females without variables related to oestrous cycle, while the FMod included only females with all analysed variables. In the UMod, "Not exclusively commercial diet" (OR 4.86, 95%CI 2.2-10.7, Pdiet" (OR 4.14, 95%CI 1.3-12.7, P=0.01), "Table scraps abuse" (OR 3.62, 95%CI 1.1-12.2, P=0.03), "Overweight" (OR 3.91, 95%CI 1.2-12.6, P=0.02), and "Dioestrus" (OR 5.53, 95%CI 1.9-16.3, P=0.002) were statistically significant. The findings in this study support feeding not exclusively balanced commercial dog food, overweight, treats abuse, and diestrus, as main CDM risk factors. Moreover, those results give subside for preventive care studies against CDM development. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Safety risks with investigational drugs: Pharmacy practices and perceptions in the veterans affairs health system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Jennifer L; Brown, Jamie N

    2015-06-01

    Rigorous practices for safe dispensing of investigational drugs are not standardized. This investigation sought to identify error-prevention processes utilized in the provision of investigational drug services (IDS) and to characterize pharmacists' perceptions about safety risks posed by investigational drugs. An electronic questionnaire was distributed to an audience of IDS pharmacists within the Veteran Affairs Health System. Multiple facets were examined including demographics, perceptions of medication safety, and standard processes used to support investigational drug protocols. Twenty-one respondents (32.8% response rate) from the Northeast, Midwest, South, West, and Non-contiguous United States participated. The mean number of pharmacist full-time equivalents (FTEs) dedicated to the IDS was 0.77 per site with 0.2 technician FTEs. The mean number of active protocols was 22. Seventeen respondents (81%) indicated some level of concern for safety risks. Concerns related to the packaging of medications were expressed, most notably lack of product differentiation, expiration dating, barcodes, and choice of font size or color. Regarding medication safety practices, the majority of sites had specific procedures in place for storing and securing drug supply, temperature monitoring, and prescription labeling. Repackaging bulk items and proactive error-identification strategies were less common. Sixty-seven percent of respondents reported that an independent double check was not routinely performed. Medication safety concerns exist among pharmacists in an investigational drug service; however, a variety of measures have been employed to improve medication safety practices. Best practices for the safe dispensing of investigational medications should be developed in order to standardize these error-prevention strategies.

  5. Effect of standardized training on the reliability of the Cochrane risk of bias assessment tool: a study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Costa, Bruno R; Resta, Nina M; Beckett, Brooke; Israel-Stahre, Nicholas; Diaz, Alison; Johnston, Bradley C; Egger, Matthias; Jüni, Peter; Armijo-Olivo, Susan

    2014-12-13

    The Cochrane risk of bias (RoB) tool has been widely embraced by the systematic review community, but several studies have reported that its reliability is low. We aim to investigate whether training of raters, including objective and standardized instructions on how to assess risk of bias, can improve the reliability of this tool. We describe the methods that will be used in this investigation and present an intensive standardized training package for risk of bias assessment that could be used by contributors to the Cochrane Collaboration and other reviewers. This is a pilot study. We will first perform a systematic literature review to identify randomized clinical trials (RCTs) that will be used for risk of bias assessment. Using the identified RCTs, we will then do a randomized experiment, where raters will be allocated to two different training schemes: minimal training and intensive standardized training. We will calculate the chance-corrected weighted Kappa with 95% confidence intervals to quantify within- and between-group Kappa agreement for each of the domains of the risk of bias tool. To calculate between-group Kappa agreement, we will use risk of bias assessments from pairs of raters after resolution of disagreements. Between-group Kappa agreement will quantify the agreement between the risk of bias assessment of raters in the training groups and the risk of bias assessment of experienced raters. To compare agreement of raters under different training conditions, we will calculate differences between Kappa values with 95% confidence intervals. This study will investigate whether the reliability of the risk of bias tool can be improved by training raters using standardized instructions for risk of bias assessment. One group of inexperienced raters will receive intensive training on risk of bias assessment and the other will receive minimal training. By including a control group with minimal training, we will attempt to mimic what many review authors

  6. A case-control study to assess the impact of mammographic density on breast cancer risk in women aged 40-49 at intermediate familial risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assi, Valentina; Massat, Nathalie J; Thomas, Susan; MacKay, James; Warwick, Jane; Kataoka, Masako; Warsi, Iqbal; Brentnall, Adam; Warren, Ruth; Duffy, Stephen W

    2015-05-15

    Mammographic density is a strong risk factor for breast cancer, but its potential application in risk management is not clear, partly due to uncertainties about its interaction with other breast cancer risk factors. We aimed to quantify the impact of mammographic density on breast cancer risk in women aged 40-49 at intermediate familial risk of breast cancer (average lifetime risk of 23%), in particular in premenopausal women, and to investigate its relationship with other breast cancer risk factors in this population. We present the results from a case-control study nested with the FH01 cohort study of 6,710 women mostly aged 40-49 at intermediate familial risk of breast cancer. One hundred and three cases of breast cancer were age-matched to one or two controls. Density was measured by semiautomated interactive thresholding. Absolute density, but not percent density, was a significant risk factor for breast cancer in this population after adjusting for area of nondense tissue (OR per 10 cm(2) = 1.07, 95% CI 1.00-1.15, p = 0.04). The effect was stronger in premenopausal women, who made up the majority of the study population. Absolute density remained a significant predictor of breast cancer risk after adjusting for age at menarche, age at first live birth, parity, past or present hormone replacement therapy, and the Tyrer-Cuzick 10-year relative risk estimate of breast cancer. Absolute density can improve breast cancer risk stratification and delineation of high-risk groups alongside the Tyrer-Cuzick 10-year relative risk estimate. © 2014 UICC.

  7. Risk factors for wheezing during infancy. A study of 5,953 infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisgaard, H; Dalgaard, P; Nyboe, J

    1987-01-01

    --particularly environmental. Poor social environment increases the risk of wheezing, as does the mother's smoking, and placement of the baby in day-care. Boys experienced wheezing more often than girls. Premature infants are more liable to develop wheezing than mature children. Remarkably, children born in the period April......Risk factors for the development of wheezing during infancy were studied in 5,953 children. The data for the study were collected from a large prospective investigation of children born in 1959-61, who had attended a one-year follow-up examination. Wheezing was diagnosed when the symptom had been...... through September develop wheezing, but not bronchitis, more often than children born in October through March....

  8. Diet, intermediate risk markers and risk of type 2 diabetes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sluijs, I.

    2011-01-01

    This thesis aimed to study the relation of diet with risk of type 2 diabetes and intermediate risk markers of diabetes. We investigated the effect of cis9, trans11 conjugated linoleic acid (c9,t11 CLA) supplementation on pulse wave velocity and cardiovascular risk factors in a randomized, controlled

  9. Prospective study of major dietary patterns and colorectal cancer risk in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry, P; Hu, F B; Hansen, H; Wolk, A

    2001-12-15

    A number of prospective cohort studies have examined the relations of individual dietary variables to risk of colorectal cancer. Few studies have addressed the broader eating patterns that reflect many dietary exposures working together. Using data from a prospective study of 61,463 women, with an average follow-up period of 9.6 years (between 1987 and 1998) and 460 incident cases of colorectal cancer, the authors conducted a factor analysis to identify and examine major dietary patterns in relation to colorectal cancer risk. Using proportional hazards regression to estimate relative risks, the authors found no clear association between a "Western," "healthy," or "drinker" dietary pattern and colorectal cancer risk. However, the data suggested that consuming low amounts of foods that constitute a "healthy" dietary pattern may be associated with increased risks of colon and rectal cancers. An inverse association with the "healthy" dietary pattern was found among women under age 50 years, although the number of cancers in this age group was limited and interpretation of this finding should be cautious. In this age group, relative risks for women in increasing quintiles of the "healthy" dietary pattern, compared with the lowest quintile, were 0.74 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.41, 1.31), 0.69 (95% CI: 0.39, 1.24), 0.59 (95% CI: 0.32, 1.07), and 0.45 (95% CI: 0.23, 0.88) (p for trend = 0.03). The role of overall eating patterns in predicting colorectal cancer risk requires further investigation.

  10. Risk and protective factors for spasmodic dysphonia: a case-control investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner, Kristine; Roy, Nelson; Merrill, Ray M; Kimber, Kamille; Sauder, Cara; Houtz, Daniel R; Doman, Darrin; Smith, Marshall E

    2011-01-01

    Spasmodic dysphonia (SD) is a chronic, incurable, and often disabling voice disorder of unknown pathogenesis. The purpose of this study was to identify possible endogenous and exogenous risk and protective factors uniquely associated with SD. Prospective, exploratory, case-control investigation. One hundred fifty patients with SD and 150 medical controls (MCs) were interviewed regarding their personal and family histories, environmental exposures, illnesses, injuries, voice use patterns, and general health using a previously vetted and validated epidemiologic questionnaire. Odds ratios and multiple logistic regression analyses (α<0.15) identified several factors that significantly increased the likelihood of having SD. These factors included (1) a personal history of mumps, blepharospasm, tremor, intense occupational and avocational voice use, and a family history of voice disorders; (2) an immediate family history of meningitis, tremor, tics, cancer, and compulsive behaviors; and (3) an extended family history of tremor and cancer. SD is likely multifactorial in etiology, involving both genetic and environmental factors. Viral infections/exposures, along with intense voice use, may trigger the onset of SD in genetically predisposed individuals. Future studies should examine the interaction among genetic and environmental factors to determine the pathogenesis of SD. Copyright © 2011 The Voice Foundation. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Quantifying the underestimation of relative risks from genome-wide association studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Spencer

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Genome-wide association studies (GWAS have identified hundreds of associated loci across many common diseases. Most risk variants identified by GWAS will merely be tags for as-yet-unknown causal variants. It is therefore possible that identification of the causal variant, by fine mapping, will identify alleles with larger effects on genetic risk than those currently estimated from GWAS replication studies. We show that under plausible assumptions, whilst the majority of the per-allele relative risks (RR estimated from GWAS data will be close to the true risk at the causal variant, some could be considerable underestimates. For example, for an estimated RR in the range 1.2-1.3, there is approximately a 38% chance that it exceeds 1.4 and a 10% chance that it is over 2. We show how these probabilities can vary depending on the true effects associated with low-frequency variants and on the minor allele frequency (MAF of the most associated SNP. We investigate the consequences of the underestimation of effect sizes for predictions of an individual's disease risk and interpret our results for the design of fine mapping experiments. Although these effects mean that the amount of heritability explained by known GWAS loci is expected to be larger than current projections, this increase is likely to explain a relatively small amount of the so-called "missing" heritability.

  12. Occupation and risk of upper aerodigestive tract cancer: the ARCAGE study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Richiardi, Lorenzo

    2012-05-15

    We investigated the association between occupational history and upper aerodigestive tract (UADT) cancer risk in the ARCAGE European case-control study. The study included 1,851 patients with incident cancer of the oral cavity, oropharynx, hypopharynx, larynx or esophagus and 1,949 controls. We estimated odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for ever employment in 283 occupations and 172 industries, adjusting for smoking and alcohol. Men (1,457 cases) and women (394 cases) were analyzed separately and we incorporated a semi-Bayes adjustment approach for multiple comparisons. Among men, we found increased risks for occupational categories previously reported to be associated with at least one type of UADT cancer, including painters (OR = 1.74, 95% CI: 1.01-3.00), bricklayers (1.58, 1.05-2.37), workers employed in the erection of roofs and frames (2.62, 1.08-6.36), reinforced concreters (3.46, 1.11-10.8), dockers (2.91, 1.05-8.05) and workers employed in the construction of roads (3.03, 1.23-7.46), general construction of buildings (1.44, 1.12-1.85) and cargo handling (2.60, 1.17-5.75). With the exception of the first three categories, risks both increased when restricting to long duration of employment and remained elevated after semi-Bayes adjustment. Increased risks were also found for loggers (3.56, 1.20-10.5) and cattle and dairy farming (3.60, 1.15-11.2). Among women, there was no clear evidence of increased risks of UADT cancer in association with occupations or industrial activities. This study provides evidence of an association between some occupational categories and UADT cancer risk among men. The most consistent findings, also supported by previous studies, were obtained for specific workers employed in the construction industry.

  13. Use of statins and risk of glioma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaist, David; Andersen, L; Hallas, Jesper

    2013-01-01

    Laboratory studies and a single case-control study have suggested a protective effect of statins on the risk of glioma. We wished to investigate the influence of statin use on the risk of glioma in a population-based setting.......Laboratory studies and a single case-control study have suggested a protective effect of statins on the risk of glioma. We wished to investigate the influence of statin use on the risk of glioma in a population-based setting....

  14. Active commuting reduces the risk of wrist fractures in middle-aged women-the UFO study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Englund, U; Nordström, P; Nilsson, J; Hallmans, G; Svensson, O; Bergström, U; Pettersson-Kymmer, U

    2013-02-01

    Middle-aged women with active commuting had significantly lower risk for wrist fracture than women commuting by car/bus. Our purpose was to investigate whether a physically active lifestyle in middle-aged women was associated with a reduced risk of later sustaining a low-trauma wrist fracture. The Umeå Fracture and Osteoporosis (UFO) study is a population-based nested case-control study investigating associations between lifestyle and fragility fractures. From a cohort of ~35,000 subjects, we identified 376 female wrist fracture cases who had reported data regarding their commuting habits, occupational, and leisure physical activity, before they sustained their fracture. Each fracture case was compared with at least one control drawn from the same cohort and matched for age and week of reporting data, yielding a total of 778 subjects. Mean age at baseline was 54.3 ± 5.8 years, and mean age at fracture was 60.3 ± 5.8 years. Conditional logistic regression analysis with adjustments for height, body mass index, smoking, and menopausal status showed that subjects with active commuting (especially walking) were at significantly lower risk of sustaining a wrist fracture (OR 0.48; 95 % CI 0.27-0.88) compared with those who commuted by car or bus. Leisure time activities such as dancing and snow shoveling were also associated with a lower fracture risk, whereas occupational activity, training, and leisure walking or cycling were unrelated to fracture risk. This study suggests that active commuting is associated with a lower wrist fracture risk, in middle-aged women.

  15. Prevalence and risk factors of childhood allergic diseases in eight metropolitan cities in China: A multicenter study

    OpenAIRE

    Jin Xingming; Jiang Fan; Zhou Yingchun; Li Shenghui; Li Fei; Yan Chonghuai; Tian Ying; Zhang Yiwen; Tong Shilu; Shen Xiaoming

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Several studies conducted during the past two decades suggested increasing trend of childhood allergic diseases in China. However, few studies have provided detailed description of geographic variation and explored risk factors of these diseases. This study investigated the pattern and risk factors of asthma, allergic rhinitis and eczema in eight metropolitan cities in China. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional survey during November-December 2005 in eight metropolitan ...

  16. Perceived risk vs. intention to adopt e-commerce - a pilot study of potential moderators

    OpenAIRE

    Patricea Elena Bertea; Adriana Zait

    2013-01-01

    E-commerce continues to develop as an important channel for consumer purchases. This explains the growing interest in determining the most important variables which affect online consumer behavior, especially perceived risk as a well-known behavioral deterrent. Previous studies have proved a negative influence of perceived risk on the intention to adopt e-commerce. However, depending on the type of product and the population investigated, results were often contradictory and this relationship...

  17. A case study for evaluating ecological risks at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, S.; Brewer, R.; Morris, R.; VanHorn, R.

    1994-01-01

    A case study was conducted as a component of the development of guidance for ecological risk assessment at the Department of Energy's Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The INEL is a large facility in southeastern Idaho, encompassing expanses of sagebrush-steppe that harbor numerous wildlife species. Nuclear research and waste disposal activities have resulted in releases of radionuclides at various sites. Due to the size and number of potentially contaminated areas, a cost-effective method was needed to evaluate ecological risks and to identify data needs for remedial investigations. Screening-level assessment approaches were developed to evaluate data collected from previous site investigations. Above-background concentrations of radionuclides and other contaminants in media were compared to risk-based criteria, which were derived from sources such as recent publications of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP). Site-specific risks to plants and wildlife were estimated for contaminants exceeding criteria. Dose rates derived using various estimation methods were compared to reference doses for wildlife obtained from IAEA, NCRP, and other publications

  18. Obesity and Cardiovascular Risk: Variations in Visfatin Gene Can Modify the Obesity Associated Cardiovascular Risk. Results from the Segovia Population Based-Study. Spain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Teresa Martínez Larrad

    Full Text Available Our aim was to investigate if genetic variations in the visfatin gene (SNPs rs7789066/ rs11977021/rs4730153 could modify the cardiovascular-risk (CV-risk despite the metabolic phenotype (obesity and glucose tolerance. In addition, we investigated the relationship between insulin sensitivity and variations in visfatin gene.A population-based study in rural and urban areas of the Province of Segovia, Spain, was carried out in the period of 2001-2003 years. A total of 587 individuals were included, 25.4% subjects were defined as obese (BMI ≥30 Kg/m2.Plasma visfatin levels were significantly higher in obese subjects with DM2 than in other categories of glucose tolerance. The genotype AA of the rs4730153 SNP was significantly associated with fasting glucose, fasting insulin and HOMA-IR (Homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance after adjustment for gender, age, BMI and waist circumference. The obese individuals carrying the CC genotype of the rs11977021 SNP showed higher circulating levels of fasting proinsulin after adjustment for the same variables. The genotype AA of the rs4730153 SNP seems to be protective from CV-risk either estimated by Framingham or SCORE charts in general population; and in obese and non-obese individuals. No associations with CV-risk were observed for other studied SNPs (rs11977021/rs7789066.In summary, this is the first study which concludes that the genotype AA of the rs4730153 SNP appear to protect against CV-risk in obese and non-obese individuals, estimated by Framingham and SCORE charts. Our results confirm that the different polymorphisms in the visfatin gene might be influencing the glucose homeostasis in obese individuals.

  19. Perinatal risk factors for strabismus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torp-Pedersen, Tobias; Boyd, Heather A; Poulsen, Gry

    2010-01-01

    Little is known about the aetiological factors underlying strabismus. We undertook a large cohort study to investigate perinatal risk factors for strabismus, overall and by subtype.......Little is known about the aetiological factors underlying strabismus. We undertook a large cohort study to investigate perinatal risk factors for strabismus, overall and by subtype....

  20. Total, caffeinated and decaffeinated coffee and tea intake and gastric cancer risk : Results from the EPIC cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanikini, Harinakshi; Dik, Vincent K.; Siersema, Peter D.; Bhoo-Pathy, Nirmala; Uiterwaal, Cuno S. P. M.; Peeters, Petra H. M.; Alez, Carlos A. Gonz; Zamora-Ros, Raul; Overvad, Kim; Nneland, Anne Tj; Roswall, Nina; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Fagherazzi, Guy; Racine, Antoine; Kuehn, Tilman; Katzke, Verena; Boeing, Heiner; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Lagiou, Pagona; Palli, Domenico; Grioni, Sara; Vineis, Paolo; Tumino, Rosario; Panico, Salvatore; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Skeie, Guri; Braaten, Tonje; Huerta, Jose Maria; Sanchez-Cantalejo, Emilio; Barricarte, Aurelio; Sonestedt, Emily; Wallstrom, Peter; Nilsson, Lena Maria; Johansson, Ingegerd; Bradbury, Kathryn E.; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nick; Huybrechts, Inge; Freisling, Heinz; Cross, Amanda J.; Riboli, Elio; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. B(as)

    2015-01-01

    Prospective studies examining the association between coffee and tea consumption and gastric cancer risk have shown inconsistent results. We investigated the association between coffee (total, caffeinated and decaffeinated) and tea consumption and the risk of gastric cancer by anatomical site and

  1. Dietary habits and stomach cancer risk in the JACC Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokui, Noritaka; Yoshimura, Takesumi; Fujino, Yoshihisa; Mizoue, Tetsuya; Hoshiyama, Yoshiharu; Yatsuya, Hiroshi; Sakata, Kiyomi; Kondo, Takaaki; Kikuchi, Shogo; Toyoshima, Hideaki; Hayakawa, Norihiko; Kubo, Tatsuhiko; Tamakoshi, Akiko

    2005-06-01

    Despite a declining incidence, stomach cancer is still a dominant cancer in Japan. The association between dietary habits and stomach cancer risk was investigated in a large prospective study in Japan. Data were obtained using a self-administered questionnaire from 1988 through 1990. Food frequency questionnaire was used to evaluate the consumption of 33 selected food items. Proportional hazard model was used to determine the hazard ratios (HRs) and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of stomach cancer for different levels of the dietary intakes. A western style breakfast showed an inverse association with stomach cancer risk in males (HR=0.49, 95% CI: 0.35-0.70). Women who consumed liver three to four times per week and more than once per day had a significant increased risk, respectively (HR=2.02, 95% CI: 1.12-3.63, HR=3.16, 95% CI: 1.16-8.62 ). A clear dose-response relationship between the intake of liver and stomach cancer risk was observed. We found no association between stomach cancer mortality and the consumption of fruit such as mandarin orange, and vegetables such as carrots and spinach in both men and women. The consumption of high salt foods such as miso soup and pickles was also not significantly associated with the mortality of stomach cancer in both sexes. This prospective study suggested that a western-style breakfast is associated with a lower risk of stomach cancer, although some differences in the association were seen between men and women.

  2. Risk factors for unsuccessful dog ownership: an epidemiologic study in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Hsin-Yi; Kass, Philip H; Hart, Lynette A; Chomel, Bruno B

    2006-11-17

    This retrospective study of 259 Taiwanese dog owners in 2004 addressed one of the major contributors to dog overpopulation in Taiwan: unsuccessful dog ownership. We found an inverse association between age of the dog at acquisition and risk of unsuccessful dog ownership: the younger the dog at acquisition the higher the risk. The incidence-proportion ratios (IPRs) of unsuccessful dog ownership for the owners who had a history of pet abandonment or losing a pet compared with those without such a history were 1.8 (95% confidence interval (CI)=1.1, 3.0) and 2.1 (95% CI=1.3, 3.3), respectively. Soiling (IPR=2.0, 95% CI=1.3, 3.1) and barking (IPR=1.6, 95% CI=1.0, 2.6) problems had the strongest effects on unsuccessful dog ownership among the post-acquisition variables studied. Preventing owners with a history of unsuccessful dog ownership from acquiring dogs was predicted to yield the largest reduction of risk of unsuccessful dog ownership among the investigated variables (population attributable fraction=33%, 95% CI=11%, 50%).

  3. An overview of the fire risk scoping study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nowlen, S.P.; Lambright, J.A.; Nicolette, V.F.; Bohn, M.P.

    1989-01-01

    The Fire Risk Scoping Study was sponsored by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission and performed at Sandia National Laboratories. The study was initiated as a result of previous USNRC-sponsored fire research efforts that had identified certain fire risk issues that had not been addressed in previously completed commercial nuclear power plant fire risk analyses. The specific objectives of this study were (1) to review and requantify fire risk scenarios from four fire probabilistic risk assessments in light of updated data bases made available as a result of USNRC-sponsored Fire Protection Research Program and updated computer fire modeling capabilities, (2) to identify potentially significant fire risk issues that have not been previously addressed in a fire risk context and to quantify the potential impact of those identified fire risk issues where possible, and (3) to review current fire regulations and plant implementation practices for relevance to the identified unaddressed fire risk issues. 9 refs., 3 tabs

  4. Family aggregation and risk factors of obsessive-compulsive disorders in a nationwide three-generation study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steinhausen, Hans-Christoph; Bisgaard, Charlotte; Munk-Jørgensen, Povl

    2013-01-01

    This nationwide register-based study investigates how often obsessive-compulsive disorders (OCD) with different age at diagnosis occur in affected families compared to control families. Furthermore, the study addresses the impact of certain risk factors, that is, sex, degree of urbanization, year...

  5. Investigation of a Developmental Model of Risk for Depression and Suicidality Following Spousal Bereavement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Jeffrey G.; Zhang, Baohui; Prigerson, Holly G.

    2008-01-01

    Data from a community-based multi-wave investigation were used to examine a developmental model of risk for depression and suicidality following the death of a spouse. Measures of perceived parental affection and control during childhood were administered to 218 widowed adults 11 months after the death of the spouse. Self-esteem, spousal…

  6. Eating disorder-specific risk factors moderate the relationship between negative urgency and binge eating: A behavioral genetic investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racine, Sarah E; VanHuysse, Jessica L; Keel, Pamela K; Burt, S Alexandra; Neale, Michael C; Boker, Steven; Klump, Kelly L

    2017-07-01

    Theoretical models of binge eating and eating disorders include both transdiagnostic and eating disorder-specific risk factors. Negative urgency (i.e., the tendency to act impulsively when distressed) is a critical transdiagnostic risk factor for binge eating, but limited research has examined interactions between negative urgency and disorder-specific variables. Investigating these interactions can help identify the circumstances under which negative urgency is most strongly associated with binge eating. We examined whether prominent risk factors (i.e., appearance pressures, thin-ideal internalization, body dissatisfaction, dietary restraint) specified in well-established etiologic models of eating disorders moderate negative urgency-binge eating associations. Further, we investigated whether phenotypic moderation effects were due to genetic and/or environmental associations between negative urgency and binge eating. Participants were 988 female twins aged 11-25 years from the Michigan State University Twin Registry. Appearance pressures, thin-ideal internalization, and body dissatisfaction, but not dietary restraint, significantly moderated negative urgency-binge eating associations, with high levels of these risk factors and high negative urgency associated with the greatest binge eating. Twin moderation models revealed that genetic, but not environmental, sharing between negative urgency and binge eating was enhanced at higher levels of these eating disorder-specific variables. Future longitudinal research should investigate whether eating disorder risk factors shape genetic influences on negative urgency into manifesting as binge eating. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. Coordination of International Risk-Reduction Investigations by the Multilateral Human Research Panel for Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, John B.; Bogomolov, Valery V.

    2015-01-01

    Effective use of the unique capabilities of the International Space Station (ISS) for risk reduction on future deep space missions involves preliminary work in analog environments to identify and evaluate the most promising techniques, interventions and treatments. This entails a consolidated multinational approach to biomedical research both on ISS and in ground analogs. The Multilateral Human Research Panel for Exploration (MHRPE) was chartered by the five ISS partners to recommend the best combination of partner investigations on ISS for risk reduction in the relatively short time available for ISS utilization. MHRPE will also make recommendations to funding agencies for appropriate preparatory analog work. In 2011, NASA's Human Research Program (HRP) and the Institute of Biomedical Problems (IBMP) of the Russian Academy of Science, acting for MHRPE, developed a joint US-Russian biomedical program for the 2015 one-year ISS mission (1YM) of American and Russian crewmembers. This was to evaluate the possibilities for multilateral research on ISS. An overlapping list of 16 HRP, 9 IBMP, 3 Japanese, 3 European and 1 Canadian investigations were selected to address risk-reduction goals in 7 categories: Functional Performance, Behavioral Health, Visual Impairment, Metabolism, Physical Capacity, Microbial and Human Factors. MHRPE intends to build on this bilateral foundation to recommend more fully-integrated multilateral investigations on future ISS missions commencing after the 1YM. MHRPE has also endorsed an on-going program of coordinated research on 6-month, one-year and 6-week missions ISS expeditions that is now under consideration by ISS managers. Preparatory work for these missions will require coordinated and collaborative campaigns especially in the psychological and psychosocial areas using analog isolation facilities in Houston, Köln and Moscow, and possibly elsewhere. The multilateral Human Analogs research working group (HANA) is the focal point of those

  8. Nationwide Study on the Risk of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms in Patients With Psoriasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khalid, Usman; Egeberg, Alexander; Ahlehoff, Ole

    2016-01-01

    inflammatory disease and in view of potentially overlapping inflammatory mechanisms, we investigated the risk of AAA in patients with psoriasis in a nationwide cohort. APPROACH AND RESULTS: The study comprised all Danish residents aged ≥18 years followed up from January 1, 1997, until diagnosis of AAA...

  9. History of Severe Sunburn and Risk of Skin Cancer Among Women and Men in 2 Prospective Cohort Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shaowei; Cho, Eunyoung; Li, Wen-Qing; Weinstock, Martin A; Han, Jiali; Qureshi, Abrar A

    2016-05-01

    Few studies have assessed the relationship between sunburn and risk of different skin cancers (melanoma, squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), and basal cell carcinoma (BCC)) in prospective studies simultaneously, and little is known about the association of severe sunburns at different body sites with skin cancer risk. We used data on 87,166 women in the Nurses' Health Study (1982-2010) and 32,959 men in the Health Professionals Follow-up Study (1992-2010) to investigate skin cancer risk associated with history of severe sunburns at different body sites (face/arms, trunk, and lower limbs). After adjustment for other risk factors, overall baseline history of severe sunburn was more apparently associated with risk of melanoma than with risk of SCC and BCC in men (multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios were 2.41 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.32, 4.41) for melanoma, 1.48 (95% CI: 1.08, 2.03) for SCC, and 1.18 (95% CI: 1.06, 1.32) for BCC) but not in women. Sunburn on the trunk appeared to be more closely associated with melanoma risk, but not risk of SCC and BCC, when compared with sunburns at other body sites (face/arms and lower limbs). These differences were more apparent in men than in women. Pending further investigation, our findings add novel insights to the existing literature on sunburn history and skin cancer risk. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Genetic variability of the mTOR pathway and prostate cancer risk in the European Prospective Investigation on Cancer (EPIC.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Campa

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin signal transduction pathway integrates various signals, regulating ribosome biogenesis and protein synthesis as a function of available energy and amino acids, and assuring an appropriate coupling of cellular proliferation with increases in cell size. In addition, recent evidence has pointed to an interplay between the mTOR and p53 pathways. We investigated the genetic variability of 67 key genes in the mTOR pathway and in genes of the p53 pathway which interact with mTOR. We tested the association of 1,084 tagging SNPs with prostate cancer risk in a study of 815 prostate cancer cases and 1,266 controls nested within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC. We chose the SNPs (n = 11 with the strongest association with risk (p<0.01 and sought to replicate their association in an additional series of 838 prostate cancer cases and 943 controls from EPIC. In the joint analysis of first and second phase two SNPs of the PRKCI gene showed an association with risk of prostate cancer (OR(allele = 0.85, 95% CI 0.78-0.94, p = 1.3 x 10⁻³ for rs546950 and OR(allele = 0.84, 95% CI 0.76-0.93, p = 5.6 x 10⁻⁴ for rs4955720. We confirmed this in a meta-analysis using as replication set the data from the second phase of our study jointly with the first phase of the Cancer Genetic Markers of Susceptibility (CGEMS project. In conclusion, we found an association with prostate cancer risk for two SNPs belonging to PRKCI, a gene which is frequently overexpressed in various neoplasms, including prostate cancer.

  11. Depression and risk of fracture and bone loss: an updated meta-analysis of prospective studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Q; Liu, B; Tonmoy, S

    2018-03-12

    This meta-analysis pooled results from 23 qualifying individual cohort studies and found that depression was significantly associated with an increased risk of fractures and bone loss. The association between depression and risk of fracture remains controversial. We conducted a comprehensive meta-analysis to examine the effect of depression on the risk of osteoporotic fractures and bone loss. We searched databases and reviewed citations in relevant articles for eligible cohort studies. Two investigators independently conducted study selection, appraisal, and data abstraction through the use of a standardized protocol. Random effect models were used for meta-analysis. Cochrane Q and I 2 statistics were used to assess heterogeneity. Funnel plots and rank correlation tests were used to evaluate publication bias. Twenty-three studies were included for meta-analysis. In studies that reported hazard ratio (HR) as the outcome (nine studies [n = 309,862]), depression was associated with 26% increase in fracture risk (HR = 1.26, 95% CI, 1.10-1.43, p meta-analysis having modified inclusion criteria and in different subgroup analyses as well. Significant heterogeneity was observed in the meta-analysis; however, no significant publication bias was detected. Depression is associated with a significant increased risk in fracture and bone loss. Effective prevention may decrease such risk.

  12. Dietary inflammation potential and postmenopausal breast cancer risk in a German case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Isabell; Rudolph, Anja; Shivappa, Nitin; Flesch-Janys, Dieter; Hébert, James R; Chang-Claude, Jenny

    2015-08-01

    Unhealthy dietary habits can increase the risk for serious medical conditions, such as cancer, yet the association between diet and breast cancer remains unclear. We investigated whether individual diets based on their inflammatory potential are associated with postmenopausal breast cancer risk by employing an energy-adjusted dietary inflammation index. In a German population-based case-control study, 2887 postmenopausal breast cancer patients (aged 50-74 years, first diagnosed between 2002 and 2005) and 5512 healthy age-matched controls provided information on dietary habits for the year prior to diagnosis (cases) or recruitment (controls) using a 176-items food frequency questionnaire. Associations between the energy-adjusted dietary inflammation index (E-DII) score (both as continuous variable and in quintiles) and risk for breast cancer were assessed using conditional logistic regression adjusted for potential confounders. No significant associations between the E-DII score and postmenopausal breast cancer risk were observed (adjusted OR Q5 vs Q1: 1.01, 95% CI: 0.86-1.17). Associations did not differ by estrogen receptor/progesterone receptor status (ER + PR+: adjusted OR Q5 vs Q1: 1.06, 95% CI: 0.88-1.27; ER + or PR+: OR Q5 vs Q1: 1,07, 95% CI: 0.79-1.45; ER-PR-: OR Q5 vs Q1: 0.87 95% CI: 0.63-1.20). Our results regarding E-DII are consistent with previous studies reporting a lack of association between C-reactive protein, a marker of systemic inflammation, and postmenopausal breast cancer risk. The findings may reflect a real absence of association between dietary inflammatory potential and postmenopausal cancer risk or an underestimation of association due to recall bias. Further investigation is warranted in cohort studies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Introduction to CRRIS: a computerized radiological risk investigation system for assessing atmospheric releases of radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baes, C.F. III; Miller, C.W.; Kocher, D.C.; Sjoreen, A.L.; Murphy, B.D.

    1985-08-01

    The CRRIS is a Computerized Radiological Risk Investigation System consisting of eight fully integrated computer codes which calculate environmental transport of atmospheric releases of radionuclides and resulting doses and health risks to individuals or populations. Each code may also be used alone for various assessment applications. Radionuclides are handled by the CRRIS either in terms of the released radionuclides or the exposure radionuclides which consist of both the released nuclides and decay products that grow in during environmental transport. The CRRIS is not designed to simulate short-term effects. 51 refs

  14. A prospective investigation of injury incidence and injury risk factors among Army recruits in military police training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapik, Joseph J; Graham, Bria; Cobbs, Jacketta; Thompson, Diane; Steelman, Ryan; Jones, Bruce H

    2013-01-17

    United States Army military police (MP) training is a 19-week course designed to introduce new recruits to basic soldiering skills, Army values and lifestyle, and law enforcement skills and knowledge. The present investigation examined injury rates and injury risk factors in MP training. At the start of training, 1,838 male and 553 female MP recruits were administered a questionnaire containing items on date of birth, height, weight, tobacco use, prior physical activity, injury history, and menstrual history. Injuries during training were obtained from electronic medical records and the training units provided data on student graduation and attrition. Successfully graduating from the course were 94.3% of the men and 83.7% of the women. Experiencing at least one injury during training were 34.2% of the men and 66.7% of the women (risk ratio (women/men) = 1.95, 95% confidence interval = 1.79-2.13). Recruits were at higher injury risk if they reported that they were older, had smoked in the past, or had performed less frequent exercise or sports prior to MP training. Men were at higher injury risk if they reported a prior injury and women were at higher risk if they reported missing at least six menstrual cycles in the last year or had previously been pregnant. The present investigation was the first to identify injury rates and identify specific factors increasing injury risk during MP training.

  15. A case–control study of occupation/industry and renal cell carcinoma risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karami, Sara; Rothman, Nathanial; Chow, Wong-Ho; Purdue, Mark P; Colt, Joanne S; Schwartz, Kendra; Davis, Faith G; Ruterbusch, Julie J; Munuo, Stella S; Wacholder, Sholom; Stewart, Patricia A; Graubard, Barry I

    2012-01-01

    The role of occupation in the etiology of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is unclear. Here, we investigated associations between employment in specific occupations and industries and RCC, and its most common histologic subtype, clear cell RCC (ccRCC). Between 2002 and 2007, a population-based case–control study of Caucasians and African Americans (1,217 cases; 1,235 controls) was conducted within the Detroit and Chicago metropolitan areas to investigate risk factors for RCC. As part of this study, occupational histories were ascertained through in-person interviews. We computed odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) relating occupation and industry to RCC risk using adjusted unconditional logistic regression models. Employment in the agricultural crop production industry for five years or more was associated with RCC (OR = 3.3 [95% CI = 1.0-11.5]) and ccRCC in particular (OR = 6.3 [95% CI = 1.7-23.3], P for trend with duration of employment = 0.0050). Similarly, RCC risk was elevated for employment of five years or longer in non-managerial agricultural and related occupations (OR RCC = 2.1 [95% CI = 1.0-4.5]; OR ccRCC = 3.1 [95% CI = 1.4-6.8]). Employment in the dry-cleaning industry was also associated with elevated risk (OR RCC = 2.0 [95% CI = 0.9-4.4], P for trend = 0.093; OR ccRCC = 3.0 [95% CI = 1.2-7.4], P for trend = 0.031). Suggestive elevated associations were observed for police/public safety workers, health care workers and technicians, and employment in the electronics, auto repair, and cleaning/janitorial services industries; protective associations were suggested for many white-collar jobs including computer science and administrative occupations as well employment in the business, legislative, and education industries. Our findings provide support for an elevated risk of RCC in the agricultural and dry-cleaning industries and suggest that these associations may be stronger for the ccRCC subtype. Additional studies are needed to confirm

  16. A questionnaire study of associations between potential risk factors and salmonella status in Swedish dairy herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ågren, Estelle C C; Frössling, Jenny; Wahlström, Helene; Emanuelson, Ulf; Sternberg Lewerin, Susanna

    2017-08-01

    In this study associations between potential risk factors and salmonella status in Swedish dairy herds were investigated. A case-control study design was used, including existing as well as new cases. Herds were assigned a salmonella status on the basis of antibody analysis of bulk milk samples. Information on potential risk factors was collected from registry data and from farmers via a questionnaire. Univariable and multivariable logistic regression analyses were used to investigate associations between salmonella status and potential risk factors. In addition, multivariate analysis with Additive Bayesian Network (ABN) modelling was performed to improve understanding of the complex relationship between all the variables. Because of the difficulty in identifying associations between potential risk factors and infections with low prevalence and a large regional variation, exposure of potential risk factors in the high-prevalence region (Öland) were compared to exposure in other regions in Sweden. In total 483 of 996 (48%) farmers responded to the questionnaire, 69 herds had test-positive bulk milk samples. The strongest association with salmonella status was 'presence of salmonella test-positive herds pastures and providing protective clothing for visitors. The latter is probably a reflection of increased disease awareness in Öland. The ABN model showed associations between herd size and housing as well as several management procedures. This provides an explanation why herd size frequently has been identified as a risk factor for salmonella by other studies. The study confirms the importance of local transmission routes for salmonella, but does not identify specific components in this local spread. Therefore, it supports the use of a broad biosecurity approach in the prevention of salmonella. In Öland, some potential risk factors are more common than in other parts of Sweden. Theoretically these could contribute to the spread of salmonella, but this was not

  17. Risk assessment of girls: are there any sex differences in risk factors for reoffending and in risk profiles?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Put, C.E.; Deković, M.; Hoeve, M.; Stams, G.J.J.M.; van der Laan, P.H.; Langewouters, F.E.M.

    2014-01-01

    The aims of this study were (a) to investigate sex differences in risk factors for re-offending and (b) to provide a risk assessment model for girls. The data of 1,396 adolescents who committed a criminal offense were examined. Both generic and sex-specific risk factors for re-offending were found.

  18. Hypotheses and fundamental study design characteristics for evaluating potential reduced-risk tobacco products. Part I: Heuristic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murrelle, Lenn; Coggins, Christopher R E; Gennings, Chris; Carchman, Richard A; Carter, Walter H; Davies, Bruce D; Krauss, Marc R; Lee, Peter N; Schleef, Raymond R; Zedler, Barbara K; Heidbreder, Christian

    2010-06-01

    The risk-reducing effect of a potential reduced-risk tobacco product (PRRP) can be investigated conceptually in a long-term, prospective study of disease risks among cigarette smokers who switch to a PRRP and in appropriate comparison groups. Our objective was to provide guidance for establishing the fundamental design characteristics of a study intended to (1) determine if switching to a PRRP reduces the risk of lung cancer (LC) compared with continued cigarette smoking, and (2) compare, using a non-inferiority approach, the reduction in LC risk among smokers who switched to a PRRP to the reduction in risk among smokers who quit smoking entirely. Using standard statistical methods applied to published data on LC incidence after smoking cessation, we show that the sample size and duration required for a study designed to evaluate the potential for LC risk reduction for an already marketed PRRP, compared with continued smoking, varies depending on the LC risk-reducing effectiveness of the PRRP, from a 5-year study with 8000-30,000 subjects to a 15-year study with <5000 to 10,000 subjects. To assess non-inferiority to quitting, the required sample size tends to be about 10 times greater, again depending on the effectiveness of the PRRP. (c) 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Sugars in diet and risk of cancer in the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasevska, Nataša; Jiao, Li; Cross, Amanda J; Kipnis, Victor; Subar, Amy F; Hollenbeck, Albert; Schatzkin, Arthur; Potischman, Nancy

    2012-01-01

    Prospective epidemiologic data on the effects of different types of dietary sugars on cancer incidence have been limited. In this report, we investigated the association of total sugars, sucrose, fructose, added sugars, added sucrose and added fructose in the diet with risk of 24 malignancies. Participants (n = 435,674) aged 50-71 years from the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study were followed for 7.2 years. The intake of individual sugars was assessed using a 124-item food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Cox proportional hazards regression was used to estimate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) in multivariable models adjusted for confounding factors pertinent to individual cancers. We identified 29,099 cancer cases in men and 13,355 cases in women. In gender-combined analyses, added sugars were positively associated with risk of esophageal adenocarcinoma (HR(Q5 vs. Q1) : 1.62, 95% CI: 1.07-2.45; p(trend) = 0.01), added fructose was associated with risk of small intestine cancer (HR(Q5 vs. Q1) : 2.20, 95% CI: 1.16-4.16; p(trend) = 0.009) and all investigated sugars were associated with increased risk of pleural cancer. In women, all investigated sugars were inversely associated with ovarian cancer. We found no association between dietary sugars and risk of colorectal or any other major cancer. Measurement error in FFQ-reported dietary sugars may have limited our ability to obtain more conclusive findings. Statistically significant associations observed for the rare cancers are of interest and warrant further investigation. Copyright © 2011 UICC.

  20. Sugars in diet and risk of cancer in the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasevska, Nataša; Jiao, Li; Cross, Amanda J.; Kipnis, Victor; Subar, Amy F.; Hollenbeck, Albert; Schatzkin, Arthur; Potischman, Nancy

    2012-01-01

    Prospective epidemiologic data on the effects of different types of dietary sugars on cancer incidence have been limited. In this report, we investigated the association of total sugars, sucrose, fructose, added sugars, added sucrose and added fructose in the diet with risk of 24 malignancies. Participants (n = 435,674) aged 50–71 years from the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study were followed for 7.2 years. The intake of individual sugars was assessed using a 124-item food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Cox proportional hazards regression was used to estimate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) in multivariable models adjusted for confounding factors pertinent to individual cancers. We identified 29,099 cancer cases in men and 13,355 cases in women. In gender-combined analyses, added sugars were positively associated with risk of esophageal adenocarcinoma (HRQ5 vs. Q1: 1.62, 95% CI: 1.07–2.45; Ptrend = 0.01); added fructose was associated with risk of small intestine cancer (HRQ5 vs. Q1: 2.20, 95% CI: 1.16–4.16; Ptrend = 0.009); and all investigated sugars were associated with increased risk of pleural cancer. In women, all investigated sugars were inversely associated with ovarian cancer. We found no association between dietary sugars and risk of colorectal or any other major cancer. Measurement error in FFQ-reported dietary sugars may have limited our ability to obtain more conclusive findings. Statistically significant associations observed for the rare cancers are of interest and warrant further investigation. PMID:21328345

  1. Man, technology and risk: a study on intuitive risk assessment and attitudes towards nuclear energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renn, O

    1981-06-01

    Using the instruments of empirical social sciences, a cross-section study was conducted comprising experiments on qualitative risk characteristics, in-depth interviews on mechanisms of risk perception and representative surveys of the public on technical risk sources, in particular with regard to nuclear energy. The results of these studies show that person-related expectations in respect of risk consequences, the possibility of personal influencing control, the severeness of risk consequences and one's own risk propensity play a significant role in the evaluation of risks.

  2. individual vs. collective behavior: an experimental. investigation of risk and time preferences in couples

    OpenAIRE

    Abdellaoui, Mohammed; l'Haridon, Olivier; Paraschiv, Corina

    2010-01-01

    Author's abstract. This paper study decision-making under risk and decision-making over time made by couples. We performed a joint experimental elicitation of risk and time preferences both for couples and for their individual members. We used general behavioral models of decision under risk and over time and measured utility, probability weighting, and discounting. Under risk, our main result is that probabilistic risk attitude for couples lay within the boundaries of individual attitudes: c...

  3. Risk factors of coercion among psychiatric inpatients: a nationwide register-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomsen, Christoffer; Starkopf, Liis; Hastrup, Lene Halling; Andersen, Per Kragh; Nordentoft, Merete; Benros, Michael Eriksen

    2017-08-01

    Reducing the use of coercion among patients with mental disorders has long been a political priority. However, risk factors for coercive measures have primarily been investigated in smaller studies. To reduce the use of coercion, it is crucial to identify people at risk which we aim to do in this first large-scale study. A cohort study was conducted among all psychiatric inpatients in Denmark, following 112,233 individuals during 1999-2014. Data from Danish registers were analysed using logistic regression for repeated measures. 24,594 inpatients were exposed to a coercive measure (21.9%). Clinical characteristics were the foremost predictors of coercion and patients with organic mental disorder had the highest increased risk of being subjected to a coercive measure (OR = 5.56; 95% CI = 5.04, 6.14). The risk of coercion was the highest in the first admission and decreased with the number of admissions (all p < 0.001). The following socioeconomic variables were associated with an increased risk of coercion: male sex, unemployment, lower social class and immigrants from low and middle income countries (all p < 0.001). Early retirement and social relations, such as being married and having children, reduced the risk of being subjected to coercive measure (all p < 0.05). From our nationwide data, we identified a broad range of risk factors associated with coercive measures. Our findings can assist researchers in identifying patients at risk of coercion and thereby help targeting new coercion reduction programs.

  4. Physical activity, metabolic syndrome, and coronary risk: the EPIC-Norfolk prospective population study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broekhuizen, Lysette N.; Boekholdt, S. Matthijs; Arsenault, Benoit J.; Despres, Jean-Pierre; Stroes, Erik S. G.; Kastelein, John J. P.; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nicholas J.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: We investigated the association between physical activity, metabolic syndrome (MS), and the risk of future coronary heart disease (CHD) and mortality due to CHD in middle-aged men and women. Design: Prospective cohort study. Subjects: A total of 10,134 men and women aged 45-79 years at

  5. Foetal Radiation Dose and Risk from Diagnostic Radiology Procedures: A Multinational Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osei, Ernest K.; Darko, Johnson

    2012-01-01

    In diagnostic radiology examinations there is a benefit that the patient derives from the resulting diagnosis. Given that so many examinations are performed each year, it is inevitable that there will be occasions when an examination(s) may be inadvertently performed on pregnant patients or occasionally it may become clinically necessary to perform an examination(s) on a pregnant patient. In all these circumstances it is necessary to request an estimation of the foetal dose and risk. We initiated a study to investigate fetal doses from different countries. Exposure techniques on 367 foetuses from 414 examinations were collected and investigated. The FetDoseV4 program was used for all dose and risk estimations. The radiation doses received by the 367 foetuses ranges: <0.001–21.9 mGy depending on examination and technique. The associated probability of induced hereditary effect ranges: <1 in 200000000 (5 × 10 −9 ) to 1 in 10000 (1 × 10 −4 ) and the risk of childhood cancer ranges <1 in 12500000 (8 × 10 −8 ) to 1 in 500 (2 × 10 −3 ). The data indicates that foetal doses from properly conducted diagnostic radiology examinations will not result in any deterministic effect and a negligible risk of causing radiation induced hereditary effect in the descendants of the unborn child

  6. Association Between Zolpidem Use and Glaucoma Risk: A Taiwanese Population-Based Case-Control Study

    OpenAIRE

    Ho, Yi-Hao; Chang, Yue-Cune; Huang, Wei-Cheng; Chen, Hsin-Yi; Lin, Che-Chen; Sung, Fung-Chang

    2015-01-01

    Background To date, the relationship between zolpidem use and subsequent risk of glaucoma in a Taiwanese population has not been assessed. Methods We used data from the National Health Insurance system to investigate whether zolpidem use was related to glaucoma risk. A 1:4 matched case-control study was conducted. The cases were patients newly diagnosed with glaucoma from 2001 to 2010. The controls were randomly selected non-glaucoma subjects matched by sex and age (?5 years). Zolpidem exposu...

  7. A study on decision-making framework for developing risk-informed technical specifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Beom Seock

    2002-02-01

    The utility and the nuclear research institutes in Korea have conduct research for improving inefficient requirements in technical specifications using the results of probability risk assessments and information associated with risk. However, the guidance for reviewing the improved technical specifications has not been developed. Thus, the objective of this study is to develop a decision-making framework for investigating and reviewing the documents associated with the changes of technical specifications. This work has been done for helping the regulation agency to review the improved technical specifications as well as to make decisions whether the remedy is accepted or not. The contents of this study include: 1. Surveys on Technical Specification regulations in foreign countries as well as those in Korea 2. Surveys on the state- of- the- art methodology for Risk Informed Technical Specifications and their uses in Korea 3. Development of a decision-making framework in both the licensee and the regulation agency position 4. Development and applications of a decision-making framework using Influence Diagrams. The decision-making framework for RITS using Influence Diagrams are developed and applied to an example problem in this study. This work might contribute to developing the risk informed regulation guidance for improving the quality of the current technical specifications

  8. Ferritin levels and risk of heart failure-the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvestre, Odilson M; Gonçalves, Alexandra; Nadruz, Wilson; Claggett, Brian; Couper, David; Eckfeldt, John H; Pankow, James S; Anker, Stefan D; Solomon, Scott D

    2017-03-01

    Severe iron overload is associated with cardiac damage, while iron deficiency has been related to worse outcomes in subjects with heart failure (HF). This study investigated the relationship between ferritin, a marker of iron status, and the incidence of HF in a community-based cohort. We examined 1063 participants who were free of heart failure from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study in whom ferritin serum levels were measured at baseline (1987-1989). The participants (mean age 52.7 ± 5.5 years, 62% women), were categorized in low (200 ng/mL in women and >300 ng/mL in men; n = 247) ferritin levels. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards models were used to evaluate the relationship between ferritin and incident HF. After 21 ± 4.6 years of follow-up, HF occurred in 144 (13.5%) participants. When compared with participants with normal ferritin levels, participants with low ferritin levels had a higher risk of HF [hazard ratio (HR) = 2.24, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.15-4.35; P = 0.02] as did those with high ferritin levels (HR = 1.81, 95% CI 1.01-3.25; P = 0.04), after adjusting for potential confounders. Notably, low ferritin levels remained associated with incident HF even after excluding subjects with anaemia (HR = 2.28, 95% CI 1.11-4.68; P = 0.03). Derangements in iron metabolism, either low or high ferritin serum levels, were associated with higher risk of incident HF in a general population, even without concurrent anaemia. These findings suggest that iron imbalance might play a role in the development of HF. © 2016 The Authors. European Journal of Heart Failure © 2016 European Society of Cardiology.

  9. Serum Calcium and the Risk of Breast Cancer: Findings from the Swedish AMORIS Study and a Meta-Analysis of Prospective Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wahyu Wulaningsih

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the association between serum calcium and risk of breast cancer using a large cohort and a systematic review with meta-analysis. From the Swedish Apolipoprotein Mortality Risk (AMORIS Study we included 229,674 women who had baseline measurements of serum total calcium and albumin. Multivariable Cox regression was used to assess the association between total and albumin-corrected calcium and breast cancer risk. For the systematic review, an electronic search of MEDLINE and EMBASE databases was performed to identify other prospective cohorts assessing the relationship between serum calcium and breast cancer risk. We pooled the results of our AMORIS cohort with other eligible studies in a meta-analysis using a random effects model. I2 test was used to assess heterogeneity. In the AMORIS study, 10,863 women were diagnosed with breast cancer (mean follow-up: 19 years. We found an inverse association between total serum calcium and breast cancer when comparing the fourth quartile to the first quartile (HR: 0.94, 95% CI: 0.88–0.99, p value for trend 0.04 and similar results using albumin-corrected calcium. In the systematic review, we identified another two prospective cohorts evaluating pre-diagnostic serum total calcium and breast cancer. Combining these studies and our findings in AMORIS in a meta-analysis showed a protective effect of serum calcium against breast cancer, with a summary RR of 0.80 (95% CI: 0.66–0.97. No substantial heterogeneity was observed. Our findings in AMORIS and the meta-analysis support an inverse association between serum calcium and breast cancer risk, which warrants mechanistic investigations.

  10. Assessment on the pedestrian risk during floods based on numerical simulation - A case study in Jinan City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, T.; Xu, Z.; Hong, S.

    2017-12-01

    Flood disasters frequently attack the urban area in Jinan City during past years, and the city is faced with severe road flooding which greatly threaten pedestrians' safety. Therefore, it is of great significance to investigate the pedestrian risk during floods under specific topographic condition. In this study, a model coupled hydrological and hydrodynamic processes is developed in the study area to simulate the flood routing process on the road for the "7.18" rainstorm and validated with post-disaster damage survey information. The risk of pedestrian is estimated with a flood risk assessment model. The result shows that the coupled model performs well in the rainstorm flood process. On the basis of the simulation result, the areas with extreme risk, medium risk, and mild risk are identified, respectively. Regions with high risk are generally located near the mountain front area with steep slopes. This study will provide scientific support for the flood control and disaster reduction in Jinan City.

  11. Study of radiological risk in breast cancer screening programme at Comunidad Valenciana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villaescusa, J.I.; Leon, A.; Verdu, G.; Cuevas, M.D.; Salas, M.D.

    2001-01-01

    It is demonstrated that screening mammography programmes reduce breast cancer mortality considerably. Nevertheless, radiology techniques have an intrinsic risk being the most important late somatic effect the induction of cancer. This study is made in order to evaluate the risk produced into the population by the Cimadon Valenciana Breast Screening Programme. All the calculations are carried out for two risk models, UNSCEAR 94 and NRPB 93. On the one hand, screening series detriment are investigated as a function of doses delivered and other parameters related to population structure and X-ray equipment. And on the other hand, radiation induced cancer probability for a woman who starts at 45 years and remains into the programme until 65 years old is calculated as a function of mammography unit's doses and average compression breast thickness. (author)

  12. Fruits and vegetables consumption and the risk of histological subtypes of lung cancer in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buchner, F.L.; Bueno-De-Mesquita, H.B.; Linseisen, J.; Boshuizen, H.C.; Kiemeney, L.A.L.M.; Ros, M.M.; Overvad, K.; Hansen, L.; Tjonneland, A.; Raaschou-Nielsen, O.; Clavel-Chapelon, F.; Boutron-Ruault, M.C.; Touillaud, M.; Kaaks, R.; Rohrmann, S.; Boeing, H.; Nothlings, U.; Trichopoulou, A.; Zylis, D.; Dilis, V.; Palli, D.; Sieri, S.; Vineis, P.; Tumino, R.; Panico, S.; Peeters, P.H.M.; Gils, C.H. van; Lund, E.; Gram, I.T.; Braaten, T.; Martinez, C.; Agudo, A.; Arriola, L.; Ardanaz, E.; Navarro, C; Rodriguez, L.; Manjer, J.; Wirfalt, E.; Hallmans, G.; Rasmuson, T.; Key, T.J.; Roddam, A.W.; Bingham, S.; Khaw, K.T.; Slimani, N.; Bofetta, P.; Byrnes, G.; Norat, T.; Michaud, D.; Riboli, E.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between fruit and vegetable consumption and risk of different histological subtypes of lung cancer among participants of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition study. METHODS: Multivariable Cox proportional hazard models were used to

  13. Risk for unemployment of cancer survivors: A Danish cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsen, Kathrine; Dalton, Susanne Oksbjerg; Diderichsen, Finn

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To investigate whether cancer survivors are at an increased risk for unemployment after cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cohort of 65,510 patients who were part of the workforce in the year before diagnosis and a random sample of 316,925 age and gender-matched controls were followed for up...... that the risk for unemployment was highest amongst persons aged 50-60 years at time of diagnosis. Risk factors for unemployment were found to be manual work, medium income and vocational education. CONCLUSION: Generally, cancer patients were at a small increased risk for unemployment and low socioeconomic...

  14. Risk-taking, peer-influence and child maltreatment: a neurocognitive investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Ferdinand; Puetz, Vanessa B; Viding, Essi; Sethi, Arjun; Palmer, Amy; McCrory, Eamon J

    2018-01-01

    Maltreatment is associated with increased risk of a range of psychiatric disorders, many of which are characterized by altered risk-taking propensity. Currently, little is known about the neural correlates of risk-taking in children exposed to maltreatment, nor whether their risk-taking is atypically modulated by peer influence. Seventy-five 10- to 14-year-old children [maltreated (MT) group: N = 41; non-maltreated Group (NMT): N = 34] performed a Balloon Analogue Risk Task (BART), under three different peer influence conditions: while alone, while being observed by a peer and while being encouraged by a peer to take risks. The MT group engaged in less risk-taking irrespective of peer influence. There was no differential effect of peer influence on risk-taking behaviour across groups. At the neural level, the right anterior insula (rAI) exhibited altered risk sensitivity across conditions in the MT group. Across groups and conditions, rAI risk sensitivity was negatively associated with risk-taking and within the MT group greater rAI risk sensitivity was related to more anxiety symptoms. These findings suggest that children with a history of maltreatment show reduced risk-taking but typical responses to peer influence. Abnormal rAI functioning contributes to the pattern of reduced risk-taking and may predispose children exposed to maltreatment to develop future psychopathology. © The Author (2017). Published by Oxford University Press.

  15. Risk-taking, peer-influence and child maltreatment: a neurocognitive investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Ferdinand; Puetz, Vanessa B; Viding, Essi; Sethi, Arjun; Palmer, Amy

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Maltreatment is associated with increased risk of a range of psychiatric disorders, many of which are characterized by altered risk-taking propensity. Currently, little is known about the neural correlates of risk-taking in children exposed to maltreatment, nor whether their risk-taking is atypically modulated by peer influence. Seventy-five 10- to 14-year-old children [maltreated (MT) group: N = 41; non-maltreated Group (NMT): N = 34] performed a Balloon Analogue Risk Task (BART), under three different peer influence conditions: while alone, while being observed by a peer and while being encouraged by a peer to take risks. The MT group engaged in less risk-taking irrespective of peer influence. There was no differential effect of peer influence on risk-taking behaviour across groups. At the neural level, the right anterior insula (rAI) exhibited altered risk sensitivity across conditions in the MT group. Across groups and conditions, rAI risk sensitivity was negatively associated with risk-taking and within the MT group greater rAI risk sensitivity was related to more anxiety symptoms. These findings suggest that children with a history of maltreatment show reduced risk-taking but typical responses to peer influence. Abnormal rAI functioning contributes to the pattern of reduced risk-taking and may predispose children exposed to maltreatment to develop future psychopathology. PMID:29069467

  16. Sensitivity analysis of the meteorological model applied in the German risk study (DRS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vogt, S.

    1982-01-01

    In the first part of this paper it will be shown how the influence of uncertainties in estimation on risk statements is determined using methods of the probability theory. In particular the parameters contained in the dispersion model are studied more thoroughly. In the second part, based on the knowledge gathered in the previous investigations, new and more realistic best estimate values will be proposed for four selected parameters to be used in future work. The modifications in the risk statements by these new parameter values will be commented upon

  17. Risk modelling study for carotid endarterectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhan, G; Gardiner, E D; Abidia, A F; Chetter, I C; Renwick, P M; Johnson, B F; Wilkinson, A R; McCollum, P T

    2001-12-01

    The aims of this study were to identify factors that influence the risk of stroke or death following carotid endarterectomy (CEA) and to develop a model to aid in comparative audit of vascular surgeons and units. A series of 839 CEAs performed by four vascular surgeons between 1992 and 1999 was analysed. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to model the effect of 15 possible risk factors on the 30-day risk of stroke or death. Outcome was compared for four surgeons and two units after adjustment for the significant risk factors. The overall 30-day stroke or death rate was 3.9 per cent (29 of 741). Heart disease, diabetes and stroke were significant risk factors. The 30-day predicted stroke or death rates increased with increasing risk scores. The observed 30-day stroke or death rate was 3.9 per cent for both vascular units and varied from 3.0 to 4.2 per cent for the four vascular surgeons. Differences in the outcomes between the surgeons and vascular units did not reach statistical significance after risk adjustment. Diabetes, heart disease and stroke are significant risk factors for stroke or death following CEA. The risk score model identified patients at higher risk and aided in comparative audit.

  18. The radiation factor 'hot particles': origin, methods of investigation, characterization and risk factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonchev, Ts.; Vapirev, E.; Yanev, Y.

    1993-01-01

    The problem of hot particles (HP) is reviewed chronologically following published data. The term appeared in the 50-s when HP have been found in fallout as a result of nuclear explosions in the atmosphere. After the Chernobyl accident there is a growing interest in HP. In 1986 HP have been discovered in American nuclear power plants (NPP) and in 1992 some have been found at Kozloduy NPP in Bulgaria as well. Detection and collection methods and different approaches for HP investigation are discussed. The direct and indirect risks from HP are described. It is concluded that the problem deserves further investigation and the discovery of HP inside NPP is of special interest

  19. The radiation factor `hot particles`: origin, methods of investigation, characterization and risk factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonchev, Ts; Vapirev, E; Yanev, Y

    1994-12-31

    The problem of hot particles (HP) is reviewed chronologically following published data. The term appeared in the 50-s when HP have been found in fallout as a result of nuclear explosions in the atmosphere. After the Chernobyl accident there is a growing interest in HP. In 1986 HP have been discovered in American nuclear power plants (NPP) and in 1992 some have been found at Kozloduy NPP in Bulgaria as well. Detection and collection methods and different approaches for HP investigation are discussed. The direct and indirect risks from HP are described. It is concluded that the problem deserves further investigation and the discovery of HP inside NPP is of special interest.

  20. Allergies and risk of head and neck cancer: an original study plus meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, Jenn-Ren; Ou, Chun-Yen; Lo, Hung-I; Huang, Cheng-Chih; Lee, Wei-Ting; Huang, Jehn-Shyun; Chen, Ken-Chung; Wong, Tung-Yiu; Tsai, Sen-Tien; Yen, Chia-Jui; Wu, Yuan-Hua; Hsueh, Wei-Ting; Yang, Ming-Wei; Wu, Shang-Yin; Chang, Jang-Yang; Chang, Kwang-Yu; Lin, Chen-Lin; Wang, Fang-Ting; Wang, Yi-Hui; Weng, Ya-Ling; Yang, Han-Chien; Chang, Jeffrey S

    2013-01-01

    Although the relationship between allergy and cancer has been investigated extensively, the role of allergy in head and neck cancer (HNC) appears less consistent. It is not clear whether allergies can independently influence the risk of HNC in the presence of known strong environmental risk factors, including consumption of alcohol, betel quid, and cigarette. THE CURRENT PAPER REPORTS RESULTS FROM: 1) an original hospital-based case-control study, which included 252 incident cases of HNC and 236 controls frequency-matched to cases on sex and age; and 2) a meta-analysis combining the results of the current case-control study and 13 previously published studies (9 cohort studies with 727,569 subjects and 550 HNC outcomes and 5 case-control studies with 4,017 HNC cases and 10,928 controls). In the original case-control study, we observed a strong inverse association between allergies and HNC [odds ratio = 0.41, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.27-0.62]. The meta-analysis also indicated a statistically significant inverse association between HNC and allergies [meta-relative risk (RR) = 0.76, 95% CI: 0.63-0.91], particularly strong for allergic rhinitis (meta-RR = 0.55, 95% CI: 0.40-0.76). In addition, the inverse association between allergies and HNC was observed only among men (meta-RR = 0.67, 95% CI: 0.54-0.84) but not among women (meta-RR = 0.98, 95% CI: 0.81-1.18). These findings suggest that immunity plays an influential role in the risk of HNC. Future studies investigating immune biomarkers, including cytokine profiles and genetic polymorphisms, are warranted to further delineate the relationship between allergies and HNC. Understanding the relationship between allergies and HNC may help devise effective strategies to reduce and treat HNC.

  1. A prospective study of Trichomonas vaginalis and prostate cancer risk among African American men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowke, Jay H; Han, Xijing; Alderete, J F; Moses, Kelvin A; Signorello, Lisa B; Blot, William J

    2016-04-18

    African Americans (AA) have a higher prevalence of Trichomonas vaginalis (Tv) infection and a higher prostate (PC) risk. Past studies suggest an association between Tv seropositivity and PC, and therefore we prospectively investigated this association among AA men. Incident PC cases were individually matched to controls in a nested case-control study within the Southern Community Cohort Study (SCCS). Primary analysis included 296 PC cases and 497 race-matched controls. Levels of Tv antibody response were measured by ELISA in serum collected at baseline. Tv antibody response did not significantly differ between cases and controls overall or within AA participants (253 AA cases). There were no significant associations or trends between levels of Tv response and PC risk or the diagnosis of aggressive PC. We found no evidence of a prospective association between baseline Tv infection and PC risk in AA men. Tv infection in men may have substantial health implications in HIV transmission and reproductive outcomes, but may not impact future PC risk in AA men at high-risk for PC. Further efforts need to define past vs. present Tv infection and to separate pathophysiology from PC detection.

  2. Review on the present status of the German Risk Study: plant design analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoertner, H.

    1982-01-01

    The influences of the plant design on the core melt accidents and the corresponding release categories are discussed. The assessed frequencies are compared with the relative figures evaluated by WASH-1400. Additional investigations which are planned or already underway in the Phase B of the German Risk Study are mentioned

  3. A case-control study of risk of leukaemia in relation to mobile phone use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, R; Laing, S; Swerdlow, A J

    2010-11-23

    Mobile phone use is now ubiquitous, and scientific reviews have recommended research into its relation to leukaemia risk, but no large studies have been conducted. In a case-control study in South East England to investigate the relation of acute and non-lymphocytic leukaemia risk to mobile phone use, 806 cases with leukaemia incident 2003-2009 at ages 18-59 years (50% of those identified as eligible) and 585 non-blood relatives as controls (provided by 392 cases) were interviewed about mobile phone use and other potentially aetiological variables. No association was found between regular mobile phone use and risk of leukaemia (odds ratio (OR)=1.06, 95% confidence interval (CI)=0.76, 1.46). Analyses of risk in relation to years since first use, lifetime years of use, cumulative number of calls and cumulative hours of use produced no significantly raised risks, and there was no evidence of any trends. A non-significantly raised risk was found in people who first used a phone 15 or more years ago (OR=1.87, 95% CI=0.96, 3.63). Separate analyses of analogue and digital phone use and leukaemia subtype produced similar results to those overall. This study suggests that use of mobile phones does not increase leukaemia risk, although the possibility of an effect after long-term use, while biologically unlikely, remains open.

  4. The relationship between risk attitude and strength of preference: A test of intrinsic risk attitude

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Smidts (Ale)

    1997-01-01

    textabstractIn a field study, the concept of intrinsic, risk attitude is investigated. Intrinsic risk attitude concerns the relationship between risk attitude, measured by the utility function u(x), and strength of preference, measured by the value function v(x). We study farmers' decision-making

  5. Action planning as predictor of health protective and health risk behavior: an investigation of fruit and snack consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Osch, Liesbeth; Beenackers, Mariëlle; Reubsaet, Astrid; Lechner, Lilian; Candel, Math; de Vries, Hein

    2009-10-13

    Large discrepancies between people's intention to eat a healthy diet and actual dietary behavior indicate that motivation is not a sufficient instigator for healthy behavior. Research efforts to decrease this 'intention - behavior gap' have centered on aspects of self-regulation, most importantly self-regulatory planning. Most studies on the impact of self-regulatory planning in health and dietary behavior focus on the promotion of health protective behaviors. This study investigates and compares the predictive value of action planning in health protective behavior and the restriction of health risk behavior. Two longitudinal observational studies were performed simultaneously, one focusing on fruit consumption (N = 572) and one on high-caloric snack consumption (N = 585) in Dutch adults. Structural equation modeling was used to investigate and compare the predictive value of action planning in both behaviors, correcting for demographics and the influence of motivational factors and past behavior. The nature of the influence of action planning was investigated by testing mediating and moderating effects. Action planning was a significant predictor of fruit consumption and restricted snack consumption beyond the influence of motivational factors and past behavior. The strength of the predictive value of action planning did not differ between the two behaviors. Evidence for mediation of the intention - behavior relationship was found for both behaviors. Positive moderating effects of action planning were demonstrated for fruit consumption, indicating that individuals who report high levels of action planning are significantly more likely to translate their intentions into actual behavior. The results indicate that the planning of specific preparatory actions predicts the performance of healthy dietary behavior and support the application of self-regulatory planning in both health protective and health risk behaviors. Future interventions in dietary modification may

  6. Perceived risk vs. intention to adopt e-commerce - a pilot study of potential moderators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricea Elena Bertea

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available E-commerce continues to develop as an important channel for consumer purchases. This explains the growing interest in determining the most important variables which affect online consumer behavior, especially perceived risk as a well-known behavioral deterrent. Previous studies have proved a negative influence of perceived risk on the intention to adopt e-commerce. However, depending on the type of product and the population investigated, results were often contradictory and this relationship was found to be stronger, weaker or even inconclusive. This led us to conclude that, besides direct influence factors, there could be moderating effects for the analyzed relationship. Moderators are qualitative or quantitative variables which modify a relationship, and affect the direction and/or strength of that relationship between an independent and a dependant variable. The purpose of our research was to investigate potential moderator variables which could change the relationship between perceived risk and the intention to buy online. We used three observable variables – gender, experience in using the Internet and experience with online shopping – and three latent, psychological variables – fear of uncertainty, trust in e-commerce and materialism. The research consisted of a survey conducted on a sample of 481 business students, followed by a Structural Equation Modeling approach. Although no moderation effect was proved, partly due to the homogeneity of the investigated pilot population, fear of uncertainty and trust in e-commerce were found to be antecedents of perceived risk in e-commerce, making perceived risk a mediator between these two variables and the intention to buy online.

  7. Benefit and risk information in prescription drug advertising: review of empirical studies and marketing implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopp, S W; Bang, H K

    2000-01-01

    As pharmaceutical companies began to advertise prescription drugs directly to consumers as well as to physicians, understanding the impact of benefit and risk information in drug advertising on physicians and consumers has become more critical. This paper reviews previous empirical studies that examined the content of benefit and risk information in drug advertising and its potential effects on physicians' subsequent prescribing behaviors. It also reviews studies that investigated how consumers process information on a drug's efficacy and side effects. Based on the findings of these studies, implications are discussed for effective marketing information development as well as for government regulation.

  8. Social desirability and self-reported health risk behaviors in web-based research: three longitudinal studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Göritz Anja S

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background These studies sought to investigate the relation between social desirability and self-reported health risk behaviors (e.g., alcohol use, drug use, smoking in web-based research. Methods Three longitudinal studies (Study 1: N = 5612, 51% women; Study 2: N = 619, 60%; Study 3: N = 846, 59% among randomly selected members of two online panels (Dutch; German using several social desirability measures (Marlowe-Crowne Scale; Balanced Inventory of Desirable Responding; The Social Desirability Scale-17 were conducted. Results Social desirability was not associated with self-reported current behavior or behavior frequency. Socio-demographics (age; sex; education did not moderate the effect of social desirability on self-reported measures regarding health risk behaviors. Conclusions The studies at hand provided no convincing evidence to throw doubt on the usefulness of the Internet as a medium to collect self-reports on health risk behaviors.

  9. Risk Assessment of Girls : Are There Any Sex Differences in Risk Factors for Re-offending and in Risk Profiles?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Put, Claudia E.; Dekovic, Maja; Hoeve, Machteld; Stams, Geert Jan J. M.; van der Laan, Peter H.; Langewouters, Femke E. M.

    2014-01-01

    The aims of this study were (a) to investigate sex differences in risk factors for re-offending and (b) to provide a risk assessment model for girls. The data of 1,396 adolescents who committed a criminal offense were examined. Both generic and sex-specific risk factors for re-offending were found.

  10. Workplace road safety risk management: An investigation into Australian practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warmerdam, Amanda; Newnam, Sharon; Sheppard, Dianne; Griffin, Mark; Stevenson, Mark

    2017-01-01

    In Australia, more than 30% of the traffic volume can be attributed to work-related vehicles. Although work-related driver safety has been given increasing attention in the scientific literature, it is uncertain how well this knowledge has been translated into practice in industry. It is also unclear how current practice in industry can inform scientific knowledge. The aim of the research was to use a benchmarking tool developed by the National Road Safety Partnership Program to assess industry maturity in relation to risk management practices. A total of 83 managers from a range of small, medium and large organisations were recruited through the Victorian Work Authority. Semi-structured interviews aimed at eliciting information on current organisational practices, as well as policy and procedures around work-related driving were conducted and the data mapped onto the benchmarking tool. Overall, the results demonstrated varying levels of maturity of risk management practices across organisations, highlighting the need to build accountability within organisations, improve communication practices, improve journey management, reduce vehicle-related risk, improve driver competency through an effective workplace road safety management program and review organisational incident and infringement management. The findings of the study have important implications for industry and highlight the need to review current risk management practices. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Quantifying the benefits of achieving or maintaining long-term low risk profile for cardiovascular disease: The Doetinchem Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulsegge, Gerben; Smit, Henriëtte A; van der Schouw, Yvonne T; Daviglus, Martha L; Verschuren, W M Monique

    2015-10-01

    Studies investigating the relation between risk profiles and cardiovascular disease have measured risk at baseline only. We investigated maintenance and changes of risk profiles over time and their potential impact on incident cardiovascular disease. Population-based cohort study. Risk factors were measured at baseline (1987-1991) among 5574 cardiovascular disease-free adults aged 20-59 years. They were classified into four risk categories according to smoking status, presence of diabetes and widely accepted cut-off values for blood pressure, total cholesterol/HDL-ratio and body mass index. Categories were subdivided (maintenance, deterioration, improvement) based on risk factor levels at six and 11 years of follow-up. Multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) for cardiovascular disease incidence 5-10 years following the risk-change period were fitted using Cox proportional hazards models. Only 12% of participants were low risk at baseline, and only 7% maintained it. Participants who maintained a low risk profile over 11 years had seven times lower risk of cardiovascular disease (HR: 0.14, 95% CI: 0.05-0.41) than participants with long-term high risk profile, whereas those low risk at baseline whose profile deteriorated had three times lower risk (HR: 0.36, 95% CI: 0.18-0.71). Our results suggest that, within each baseline risk profile group, compared with a stable profile, improving profiles may be associated with up to two-fold lower HRs, and deteriorating profiles with about two-fold higher HRs. Our study, using long-term risk profiles, demonstrates the full benefits of low risk profile. These findings underscore the importance of achieving and maintaining low risk from young adulthood onwards. © The European Society of Cardiology 2014.

  12. Breast Density and Risk of Breast Cancer in Asian Women: A Meta-analysis of Observational Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Jong-Myon; Kim, Eun Hee

    2016-11-01

    The established theory that breast density is an independent predictor of breast cancer risk is based on studies targeting white women in the West. More Asian women than Western women have dense breasts, but the incidence of breast cancer is lower among Asian women. This meta-analysis investigated the association between breast density in mammography and breast cancer risk in Asian women. PubMed and Scopus were searched, and the final date of publication was set as December 31, 2015. The effect size in each article was calculated using the interval-collapse method. Summary effect sizes (sESs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated by conducting a meta-analysis applying a random effect model. To investigate the dose-response relationship, random effect dose-response meta-regression (RE-DRMR) was conducted. Six analytical epidemiology studies in total were selected, including one cohort study and five case-control studies. A total of 17 datasets were constructed by type of breast density index and menopausal status. In analyzing the subgroups of premenopausal vs. postmenopausal women, the percent density (PD) index was confirmed to be associated with a significantly elevated risk for breast cancer (sES, 2.21; 95% CI, 1.52 to 3.21; I 2 =50.0%). The RE-DRMR results showed that the risk of breast cancer increased 1.73 times for each 25% increase in PD in postmenopausal women (95% CI, 1.20 to 2.47). In Asian women, breast cancer risk increased with breast density measured using the PD index, regardless of menopausal status. We propose the further development of a breast cancer risk prediction model based on the application of PD in Asian women.

  13. Motoric Cognitive Risk Syndrome and Falls Risk: A Multi-Center Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callisaya, Michele L.; Ayers, Emmeline; Barzilai, Nir; Ferrucci, Luigi; Guralnik, Jack M.; Lipton, Richard B.; Otahal, Petr; Srikanth, Velandai K.; Verghese, Joe

    2016-01-01

    Background The Motoric Cognitive Risk Syndrome (MCR) is characterized by slow gait speed and cognitive complaints. Objectives The objective of this study was to determine if the presence of MCR increases the risk of falls in older people. Methods Individual participant data (n = 6,204) from five longitudinal studies from three countries were used for this analysis. MCR diagnosis was defined as both the presence of objectively measured slow gait speed and subjective cognitive complaints in those without dementia or mobility disability. Falls were prospectively ascertained using phone calls or questionnaires. Log binomial regression was performed to determine if MCR increased the risk of falls separately in each cohort. Random effects meta-analysis was used to pool results from all cohorts. Results The mean age of participants was 74.9 (SD 6.8) years and 44% (n = 2728) were male. Overall 33.9% (n = 2104) reported a fall over follow-up. Pooled relative risk of MCR with any falls was RR 1.44 95% CI 1.16, 1.79. The components of MCR, slow gait (RR 1.30 95% CI 1.14, 1.47) and cognitive complaint (RR 1.25, 95% CI 1.07, 1.46) were also associated with an increased risk of any falls. In sub-analyses MCR was associated with any fall independent of previous falls (RR 1.29 95% CI 1.09, 1.53) and with multiple falls (RR 1.77, 95% CI 1.25, 2.51). Conclusion MCR is associated with an increased risk of falls. The increase in risk was higher than for its individual components. The simplicity of the MCR makes it an attractive falls risk screening tool for the clinic. PMID:27340851

  14. German risk study for nuclear power plants. Vol. 5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bracht, K.F.; Javeri, V.; Keusenhoff, J.; Meier, S.; Roehrs, W.; Scharfe, A.; Tiltmann, M.; Mayinger, F.

    1980-01-01

    This appendix contains the analyses on core melt accidents carried out for the German risk study. These accidents constitute a major portion of the event sequences relevant to the risk. It deals, in particular, with the processes involved in the reactor core melt, the behaviour of the containment vessel including the possible types of failures, and the consequences of possible steam explosions. The investigations were performed for limiting cases for which a complete failure of the emergency core cooling and residual heat removal system is anticipated. Under these conditions, the reactor core melts down and penetrates the reactor pressure vessel bottom. In the course of the following interaction between core melt and concrete foundation, the melt is assumed to come into contact with the sump water. The evaporation of the sump water leads to an overpressure failure of the containment vessel within approximately one day after accident initiation. A destruction of the containment as a consequence of a steam explosion is considered highly unprobable. (orig.) [de

  15. 'Well, It's the Risk of the Unknown… Right?': A Qualitative Study of Perceived Risks and Benefits of HIV Cure Research in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubé, Karine; Taylor, Jeff; Sylla, Laurie; Evans, David; Dee, Lynda; Burton, Alasdair; Willenberg, Loreen; Rennie, Stuart; Skinner, Asheley; Tucker, Joseph D; Weiner, Bryan J; Greene, Sandra B

    2017-01-01

    Biomedical research towards an HIV cure is advancing in the United States and elsewhere, yet little is known about perceptions of risks and benefits among potential study participants and other stakeholders. We conducted a qualitative study to explore perceived risks and benefits of investigational HIV cure research among people living with HIV (PLWHIV), biomedical HIV cure researchers, policy-makers and bioethicists. We conducted a qualitative research study using in-depth interviews with a purposive sample of PLWHIV, biomedical HIV cure researchers, policy-makers and bioethicists in 2015-2016. We analysed interview transcripts using thematic analysis anchored in grounded theory. We conducted and analyzed 36 key informant interviews. Qualitative analysis revealed four main findings. 1) Potential HIV cure study volunteers noted needing more information and education about the potential risks of HIV cure research. 2) Biomedical HIV cure researchers, policy-makers and bioethicists showed less awareness of social and financial risks of HIV cure research than PLWHIV. 3) Most respondents across the different categories of informants identified some risks that were too great to be acceptable in HIV cure research, although a subset of PLWHIV did not place an upper limit on acceptable risk. 4) PLWHIV showed a better awareness of potential psychological benefits of participating in HIV cure research than other groups of stakeholders. Our research suggests that PLWHIV have a variable understanding of the individual risks, sometimes substantial, associated with participating in biomedical HIV cure research studies. Community engagement and increased research literacy may help improve community understanding. Intensive informed consent procedures will be necessary for ethical study implementation. The current state of HIV cure research offers greater potential benefits to society than to participants. There is likely to be disagreement among regulators, researchers, clinicians

  16. 'Well, It's the Risk of the Unknown… Right?': A Qualitative Study of Perceived Risks and Benefits of HIV Cure Research in the United States.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karine Dubé

    Full Text Available Biomedical research towards an HIV cure is advancing in the United States and elsewhere, yet little is known about perceptions of risks and benefits among potential study participants and other stakeholders. We conducted a qualitative study to explore perceived risks and benefits of investigational HIV cure research among people living with HIV (PLWHIV, biomedical HIV cure researchers, policy-makers and bioethicists.We conducted a qualitative research study using in-depth interviews with a purposive sample of PLWHIV, biomedical HIV cure researchers, policy-makers and bioethicists in 2015-2016. We analysed interview transcripts using thematic analysis anchored in grounded theory.We conducted and analyzed 36 key informant interviews. Qualitative analysis revealed four main findings. 1 Potential HIV cure study volunteers noted needing more information and education about the potential risks of HIV cure research. 2 Biomedical HIV cure researchers, policy-makers and bioethicists showed less awareness of social and financial risks of HIV cure research than PLWHIV. 3 Most respondents across the different categories of informants identified some risks that were too great to be acceptable in HIV cure research, although a subset of PLWHIV did not place an upper limit on acceptable risk. 4 PLWHIV showed a better awareness of potential psychological benefits of participating in HIV cure research than other groups of stakeholders.Our research suggests that PLWHIV have a variable understanding of the individual risks, sometimes substantial, associated with participating in biomedical HIV cure research studies. Community engagement and increased research literacy may help improve community understanding. Intensive informed consent procedures will be necessary for ethical study implementation. The current state of HIV cure research offers greater potential benefits to society than to participants. There is likely to be disagreement among regulators, researchers

  17. Dietary patterns and the risk of colorectal adenomas: the Black Women's Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makambi, Kepher H; Agurs-Collins, Tanya; Bright-Gbebry, Mireille; Rosenberg, Lynn; Palmer, Julie R; Adams-Campbell, Lucile L

    2011-05-01

    Colorectal adenomas are benign lesions that may be precursors to colorectal cancer. No studies of African American women have investigated dietary patterns and the risk of developing colorectal adenomas. We examined data from the Black Women's Health Study to determine whether dietary patterns are associated with the risk of developing colorectal adenomas. This is a prospective cohort study of 59,000 participants followed biennially since 1995. During 155,414 person-years of follow-up from 1997 to 2007 among women who had had at least one screening colonoscopy, 620 incident cases of colorectal adenomas were identified. By using Cox regression models, we obtained incidence rate ratios (IRR) for colorectal adenoma in relation to quintiles of each of two dietary patterns, adjusting for other colorectal adenoma risk factors. Two dietary patterns, Western and prudent, were utilized to assess the association between dietary intake and adenoma risk. The highest quintile of prudent diet, relative to the lowest quintile, was significantly associated with 34% lower colorectal adenoma risk overall (IRR = 0.66; 95% CI, 0.50-0.88; P(trend) pattern were associated with a higher risk of developing colorectal adenoma (IRR = 1.42; 95% CI, 1.09-1.85 for the highest quintile relative to the lowest; P(trend) = 0.01). Our findings suggest that African American women may be able to reduce their risk of developing colorectal adenomas by following a prudent dietary pattern and avoiding a more Western pattern. A dietary modification could have a strong impact in colorectal adenoma prevention in African American women. ©2011 AACR.

  18. Risk of Ventricular Arrhythmia with Citalopram and Escitalopram: A Population-Based Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Qirjazi

    Full Text Available The risk of ventricular arrhythmia with citalopram and escitalopram is controversial. In this study we investigated the association between these two drugs and the risk of ventricular arrhythmia.We conducted a population-based retrospective cohort study of older adults (mean age 76 years from 2002 to 2012 in Ontario, Canada, newly prescribed citalopram (n = 137 701 or escitalopram (n = 38 436, compared to those prescribed referent antidepressants sertraline or paroxetine (n = 96 620. After inverse probability of treatment weighting using a propensity score, the baseline characteristics of the comparison groups were similar. The primary outcome was a hospital encounter with ventricular arrhythmia within 90 days of a new prescription, assessed using hospital diagnostic codes. The secondary outcome was all-cause mortality within 90 days.Citalopram was associated with a higher risk of a hospital encounter with ventricular arrhythmia compared with referent antidepressants (0.06% vs. 0.04%, relative risk [RR] 1.53, 95% confidence intervals [CI]1.03 to 2.29, and a higher risk of mortality (3.49% vs. 3.12%, RR 1.12, 95% CI 1.06 to 1.18. Escitalopram was not associated with a higher risk of ventricular arrhythmia compared with the referent antidepressants (0.03% vs. 0.04%, RR 0.84, 95% CI 0.42 to 1.68, but was associated with a higher risk of mortality (2.86% vs. 2.63%, RR 1.09, 95% CI 1.01 to 1.18.Among older adults, initiation of citalopram compared to two referent antidepressants was associated with a small but statistically significant increase in the 90-day risk of a hospital encounter for ventricular arrhythmia.

  19. Risk of Ventricular Arrhythmia with Citalopram and Escitalopram: A Population-Based Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qirjazi, Elena; McArthur, Eric; Nash, Danielle M; Dixon, Stephanie N; Weir, Matthew A; Vasudev, Akshya; Jandoc, Racquel; Gula, Lorne J; Oliver, Matthew J; Wald, Ron; Garg, Amit X

    2016-01-01

    The risk of ventricular arrhythmia with citalopram and escitalopram is controversial. In this study we investigated the association between these two drugs and the risk of ventricular arrhythmia. We conducted a population-based retrospective cohort study of older adults (mean age 76 years) from 2002 to 2012 in Ontario, Canada, newly prescribed citalopram (n = 137 701) or escitalopram (n = 38 436), compared to those prescribed referent antidepressants sertraline or paroxetine (n = 96 620). After inverse probability of treatment weighting using a propensity score, the baseline characteristics of the comparison groups were similar. The primary outcome was a hospital encounter with ventricular arrhythmia within 90 days of a new prescription, assessed using hospital diagnostic codes. The secondary outcome was all-cause mortality within 90 days. Citalopram was associated with a higher risk of a hospital encounter with ventricular arrhythmia compared with referent antidepressants (0.06% vs. 0.04%, relative risk [RR] 1.53, 95% confidence intervals [CI]1.03 to 2.29), and a higher risk of mortality (3.49% vs. 3.12%, RR 1.12, 95% CI 1.06 to 1.18). Escitalopram was not associated with a higher risk of ventricular arrhythmia compared with the referent antidepressants (0.03% vs. 0.04%, RR 0.84, 95% CI 0.42 to 1.68), but was associated with a higher risk of mortality (2.86% vs. 2.63%, RR 1.09, 95% CI 1.01 to 1.18). Among older adults, initiation of citalopram compared to two referent antidepressants was associated with a small but statistically significant increase in the 90-day risk of a hospital encounter for ventricular arrhythmia.

  20. Is an unfavourable cardiovascular risk profile a risk factor for vasomotor menopausal symptoms? Results of a population-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Berg, M J; Herber-Gast, G C M; van der Schouw, Y T

    2015-08-01

    Evidence suggests an association between vasomotor menopausal symptoms (VMSs), i.e. hot flushes and night sweats, and cardiovascular disease. However, the causal pathway is unclear. We investigated whether an unfavourable cardiovascular risk profile is a risk factor for VMS later in life. Retrospective cohort study. Women aged 50-70 from the general population. The Prospect-European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (Prospect-EPIC) cohort is a population-based cohort of women who enrolled between 1993 and 1997. Follow-up questionnaires were sent at 5-year intervals for 15 years. Women who returned the third questionnaire, answered questions regarding lifetime VMS and did not report VMS prior to baseline were included in this study (n = 1295). At baseline, the Framingham Risk Score (FRS) was determined. We used logistic regression analysis to calculate odds ratios (ORs) for the association between baseline FRS and incident VMS. Incident VMS. At baseline (mean age ± standard deviation, 52.2 ± 3.6 years), 21.2% had a FRS > 10%. During follow-up, 40.2% of women reported the onset of VMS. Adjusted for body mass index, physical activity, education and alcohol consumption, each point increase in FRS was associated with a decreased incidence of VMS [OR, 0.94 (95% CI, 0.91-0.97)]. Additional adjustment for menopausal status attenuated the OR to null [OR, 0.98 (95% CI, 0.95-1.01)]. None of the separate FRS variables were associated with VMS after adjustment for age. In our cohort, an unfavourable cardiovascular risk profile was not associated with VMS, and therefore we found no evidence for the involvement of a vascular mechanism in the etiology of VMS. © 2014 Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  1. Food consumption and cardiovascular risk factors in European children: the IDEFICS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bel-Serrat, S; Mouratidou, T; Börnhorst, C; Peplies, J; De Henauw, S; Marild, S; Molnár, D; Siani, A; Tornaritis, M; Veidebaum, T; Krogh, V; Moreno, L A

    2013-06-01

    Few studies addressing the relationship between food consumption and cardiovascular disease or metabolic risk have been conducted in children. Previous findings have indicated greater metabolic risk in children with high intakes of solid hydrogenated fat and white bread, and low consumption of fruits, vegetables and dairy products. In a large multinational sample of 2 to 9 years old children, high consumption of sweetened beverages and low intake of nuts and seeds, sweets, breakfast cereals, jam and honey and chocolate and nut-based spreads were directly associated with increased clustered cardiovascular disease risk. These findings add new evidence to the limited literature available in young populations on the role that diet may play on cardiovascular health. To investigate food consumption in relation to clustered cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. Children (n = 5548, 51.6% boys) from eight European countries participated in the IDEFICS study baseline survey (2007-2008). Z-scores of individual CVD risk factors were summed to compute sex- and age-specific (2-chocolate and nut-based spreads (boys: OR = 0.46; 95% CI = 0.32-0.69; girls: OR = 0.60; 95% CI = 0.42-0.86), jam and honey (girls: OR = 0.45; 95% CI = 0.26-0.78) and sweets (boys: OR = 0.69; 95% CI = 0.48-0.98). OR of being at risk significantly increased with the highest consumption of soft drinks (younger boys) and manufactured juices (older girls). Concerning CVD risk score B, older boys and girls in the highest tertile of consumption of breakfast cereals were 0.41 (95% CI = 0.21-0.79) and 0.45 (95% CI = 0.22-0.93) times, respectively, less likely to be at risk than those in tertile 1. High consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages and low intake of breakfast cereals, jam and honey, sweets and chocolate and nut-based spreads seem to adversely affect clustered CVD risk. © 2012 The Authors. Pediatric Obesity © 2012 International Association for the Study of

  2. Consumption of Whole-Grain Bread and Risk of Colorectal Cancer among Norwegian Women (the NOWAC Study)

    OpenAIRE

    Bakken, Toril; Braaten, Tonje; Olsen, Anja; Kyrø, Cecilie; Lund, Eiliv; Skeie, Guri

    2016-01-01

    Published version. Source at http://doi.org/10.3390/nu8010040. License CC BY 4.0. There is evidence that consumption of foods containing dietary fiber decreases the risk of colorectal cancer (CRC). Whole grains contain dietary fiber, as well as a range of micronutrients and bioactive compounds, but the association between the consumption of whole grains and the risk of CRC remains less studied. The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between whole-grain bread con...

  3. A Nested Case-Control Study of Metabolically Defined Body Size Phenotypes and Risk of Colorectal Cancer in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil Murphy

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is positively associated with colorectal cancer. Recently, body size subtypes categorised by the prevalence of hyperinsulinaemia have been defined, and metabolically healthy overweight/obese individuals (without hyperinsulinaemia have been suggested to be at lower risk of cardiovascular disease than their metabolically unhealthy (hyperinsulinaemic overweight/obese counterparts. Whether similarly variable relationships exist for metabolically defined body size phenotypes and colorectal cancer risk is unknown.The association of metabolically defined body size phenotypes with colorectal cancer was investigated in a case-control study nested within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC study. Metabolic health/body size phenotypes were defined according to hyperinsulinaemia status using serum concentrations of C-peptide, a marker of insulin secretion. A total of 737 incident colorectal cancer cases and 737 matched controls were divided into tertiles based on the distribution of C-peptide concentration amongst the control population, and participants were classified as metabolically healthy if below the first tertile of C-peptide and metabolically unhealthy if above the first tertile. These metabolic health definitions were then combined with body mass index (BMI measurements to create four metabolic health/body size phenotype categories: (1 metabolically healthy/normal weight (BMI < 25 kg/m2, (2 metabolically healthy/overweight (BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2, (3 metabolically unhealthy/normal weight (BMI < 25 kg/m2, and (4 metabolically unhealthy/overweight (BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2. Additionally, in separate models, waist circumference measurements (using the International Diabetes Federation cut-points [≥80 cm for women and ≥94 cm for men] were used (instead of BMI to create the four metabolic health/body size phenotype categories. Statistical tests used in the analysis were all two-sided, and a p-value of <0.05 was

  4. Sweet-beverage consumption and risk of pancreatic cancer in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarrete-Muñoz, Eva M; Wark, Petra A; Romaguera, Dora; Bhoo-Pathy, Nirmala; Michaud, Dominique; Molina-Montes, Esther; Tjønneland, Anne; Olsen, Anja; Overvad, Kim; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Fagherazzi, Guy; Katzke, Verena A; Kühn, Tilman; Steffen, Annika; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Klinaki, Eleni; Papatesta, Eleni-Maria; Masala, Giovanna; Krogh, Vittorio; Tumino, Rosario; Naccarati, Alessio; Mattiello, Amalia; Peeters, Petra H; Rylander, Charlotta; Parr, Christine L; Skeie, Guri; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Quirós, J Ramón; Duell, Eric J; Dorronsoro, Miren; Huerta, José María; Ardanaz, Eva; Wareham, Nick; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Travis, Ruth C; Key, Tim; Stepien, Magdalena; Freisling, Heinz; Riboli, Elio; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas

    2016-09-01

    The consumption of sweet beverages has been associated with greater risk of type 2 diabetes and obesity, which may be involved in the development of pancreatic cancer. Therefore, it has been hypothesized that sweet beverages may increase pancreatic cancer risk as well. We examined the association between sweet-beverage consumption (including total, sugar-sweetened, and artificially sweetened soft drink and juice and nectar consumption) and pancreatic cancer risk. The study was conducted within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort. A total of 477,199 participants (70.2% women) with a mean age of 51 y at baseline were included, and 865 exocrine pancreatic cancers were diagnosed after a median follow-up of 11.60 y (IQR: 10.10-12.60 y). Sweet-beverage consumption was assessed with the use of validated dietary questionnaires at baseline. HRs and 95% CIs were obtained with the use of multivariable Cox regression models that were stratified by age, sex, and center and adjusted for educational level, physical activity, smoking status, and alcohol consumption. Associations with total soft-drink consumption were adjusted for juice and nectar consumption and vice versa. Total soft-drink consumption (HR per 100 g/d: 1.03; 95% CI: 0.99, 1.07), sugar-sweetened soft-drink consumption (HR per 100 g/d: 1.02; 95% CI: 0.97, 1.08), and artificially sweetened soft-drink consumption (HR per 100 g/d: 1.04; 95% CI: 0.98, 1.10) were not associated with pancreatic cancer risk. Juice and nectar consumption was inversely associated with pancreatic cancer risk (HR per 100 g/d: 0.91; 95% CI: 0.84, 0.99); this association remained statistically significant after adjustment for body size, type 2 diabetes, and energy intake. Soft-drink consumption does not seem to be associated with pancreatic cancer risk. Juice and nectar consumption might be associated with a modest decreased pancreatic cancer risk. Additional studies with specific information on juice and

  5. Supplementary guidance for the investigation and risk-assessment of potentially contaminated sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, K.; Spadaro, P.; Starr, J.; Thomas, J. [Arcadis, Arnhem (Netherlands); Hildenbrand, B. [Energy Institute, London (United Kingdom); Smith, J.W.N.; Dunk, M.; Grosjean, T.; De Ibarra, M.; Medve, A.; Den Haan, K.

    2013-11-15

    This report provides guidance on the investigation and assessment of potentially contaminated sediments, focusing on the inland, estuarine and coastal environments. It is designed as a complementary, technical companion document to Energy Institute and CONCAWE (2013) report 'Guidance on characterising, assessing and managing risks associated with potentially contaminated sediments' (Report E1001). It highlights a number of significant challenges associated with assessing the aquatic and water bottom environment, which means that a sediment assessment should not be undertaken lightly. Where a decision is taken to undertake a site assessment, this report promotes the use of an iterative process of Conceptual Site Model (CSM) development, data collection, data evaluation and a continuous CSM refinement, taking into account the results obtained. Risk-based assessment is described throughout the report, entailing four tiers of assessment, which progress from a qualitative assessment (Tier 0) through to a detailed cause-attribution assessment (Tier 3), in which the decrease in uncertainty in the assessment process is balanced against the increased costs and timescales with progress to a higher tier assessment. The application of this evidence-driven risk-based approach to sediment site management, including remedial control measures, should help to overcome at least some of the challenges associated with contaminants in sediment sites in Europe, and promote a sustainable approach to sediment management on a case-by-case basis.

  6. Use of Fall-Risk Inducing Drugs in Patients Using Anti-Parkinson Drugs (APD: A Swedish Register-Based Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ylva Haasum

    Full Text Available Many drugs increase the risk of falls in old age. Although persons with Parkinson's disease (PD are at increased risk of experiencing falls and fractures, the use of fall-risk inducing drugs (FRIDs in this population has not previously been investigated. The objective of this study was to investigate the burden of use of FRIDs in older persons treated with anti-Parkinson drugs (APD; used as a proxy for PD, compared to persons without APD.We analyzed individual data on age, sex, type of housing and drug use in 1 346 709 persons aged ≥ 65 years in the Swedish Prescribed Drug Register on the date of 30 September 2008. Main outcome measure was the use of FRIDs.FRIDs were used by 79% of persons with APD and 75% of persons without APD. Persons with APD were more likely to use ≥ 1 FRIDs compared to persons without APD (adjusted OR: 1.09; 95% CI: 1.06-1-12. The association was stronger for concomitant use of ≥ 5 FRIDS (adjusted OR: 1.49; 95% CI: 1.44-1.55.The high use of FRIDs among persons with APD indicates that these patients may be at increased risk of drug-induced falls. Further studies are needed to investigate how these drugs affect the risk of falling in persons with PD.

  7. Low dose irradiation and risk of leukaemia: A case-control study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chobanova, N.; Bayrakova, A.

    1997-01-01

    The effect of low dose irradiation (medical X-ray diagnostic) on the developing of leukaemias in adults is investigated. The influence of non-radiation agents (occupational exposure to chemical carcinogens, past viral infections, family aggregations) to leukaemias are considered also. During this retrospective study 228 patients have been examined with the following diagnosis: acute myeloid leukaemia, chronic myelogenous leukaemias, myelodisplastic syndrome and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (diagnosed between 1991-1993). Each case has been matched with two controls. Statistically significant increase has been found in the risk of developing leukaemias after X-ray diagnostic irradiation (OR = 1.98, 95% CI = 1.14 ./. 3.46). Exposure to chemical agents is also associated with significant increase in the risk (OR = 1.98, 95% CI = 1.25 ./. 2.86). (author)

  8. Pneumonia risk in asthma patients using inhaled corticosteroids: a quasi-cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Christina J; Coulombe, Janie; Suissa, Samy; Ernst, Pierre

    2017-09-01

    Studies have linked the use of inhaled corticosteroids (ICSs) to excess pneumonia risk in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients. The risk in asthma patients remains unclear. The objective of the present study was to examine the risk of pneumonia with ICSs in asthma patients aged 12-35 years. We formed a cohort of asthma patients treated from 1990 to 2007 using Quebec health insurance databases. Subjects were considered currently exposed if they had had an ICS dispensed within the 60 days prior to their pneumonia index event or matched person-moment. Secondary analyses investigated the risk of pneumonia according to ICS dose and type. Rate ratios (RRs) and rate differences (RDs) were both estimated through a quasi-cohort approach. The cohort included 152 412 subjects, of whom 1928 had a pneumonia event during follow-up. There was an increased risk of pneumonia associated with current use of ICSs [RR 1.83; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.57, 2.14] or an excess risk of 1.44 cases per 1000 person-years (RD 1.44; 95% CI 1.03, 1.85). There was an excess pneumonia risk with low doses (RR 1.60; 95% CI 1.06, 2.45), moderate doses (RR 1.53; 95% CI 1.12, 2.08) and high doses (RR 1.96; 95% CI 1.64, 2.34) of ICSs, and with budesonide (RR 2.67; 95% CI 2.05, 3.49) and fluticasone (RR 1.93; 95% CI 1.58, 2.36), specifically relative to no use. When accounting for potential protopathic bias, the risk with current use of ICSs was attenuated (RR 1.48; 95% CI 1.22, 1.78). ICS use in asthma patients appears to be associated with an increased risk of pneumonia and is present for both budesonide and fluticasone. © 2017 The British Pharmacological Society.

  9. Analgesic use and the risk of kidney cancer: a meta-analysis of epidemiologic studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choueiri, Toni K.; Je, Youjin; Cho, Eunyoung

    2013-01-01

    Analgesics are the most commonly used over-the-counter drugs worldwide with certain analgesics having cancer prevention effect. The evidence for an increased risk of developing kidney cancer with analgesic use is mixed. Using a meta-analysis design of available observational epidemiologic studies, we investigated the association between analgesic use and kidney cancer risk. We searched the MEDLINE and EMBASE databases to identify eligible case-control or cohort studies published in English until June 2012 for 3 categories of analgesics: acetaminophen, aspirin or other Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs). Study-specific effect estimates were pooled to compute an overall relative risk (RR) and its 95% confidence interval (CI) using a random effects model for each category of the analgesics. We identified 20 studies (14 with acetaminophen, 13 with aspirin, and 5 with other NSAIDs) that were performed in 6 countries, including 8,420 cases of kidney cancer. Use of acetaminophen and non-aspirin NSAIDs were associated with an increased risk of kidney cancer (pooled RR, 1.28; 95% CI, 1.15 to 1.44 and 1.25; 95% CI, 1.06 to 1.46, respectively). For aspirin use, we found no overall increased risk (pooled RR, 1.10; 95% CI, 0.95 to 1.28), except for non-US studies (5 studies, pooled RR=1.17, 95% CI, 1.04 to 1.33). Similar increases in risks were seen with higher analgesic intake. In this largest meta-analysis to date, we found that acetaminophen and non-aspirin NSAIDs are associated with a significant risk of developing kidney cancer. Further work is needed to elucidate biologic mechanisms behind these findings. PMID:23400756

  10. Investigating the role of electronic insurance on decreasing exporting charges risks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farideh MosallaiZade

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, the electronic insurance (EI is one the electronic services, which is used in most countries, and that is one effective factor in developing the exporting products and services. On the other hand, the incurrence industry and very especially EI represent their importance both domestically and internationally. One of the ways for transferring the exporting risks is to transfer the risks to the insurer. This paper examines the characteristics of EI and the effects of decreasing the exporting risk charges. The proposed study designs a questionnaire in the form of Likert scale, the validity of the questionnaire is validated by some the experts' viewpoints and the Cronbach' alpha is measure as 0.794. The results of applying Freedman test have disclosed that facilitating export activities was the most important factor followed by access to target export market information.

  11. Postmenopausal Serum Sex Steroids and Risk of Hormone Receptor-Positive and -Negative Breast Cancer : a Nested Case-Control Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    James, Rebecca E.; Lukanova, Annekatrin; Dossus, Laure; Becker, Susen; Rinaldi, Sabina; Tjonneland, Anne; Olsen, Anja; Overvad, Kim; Mesrine, Sylvie; Engel, Pierre; Clavel-Chapelon, Francoise; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Vrieling, Alina; Boeing, Heiner; Schuetze, Madlen; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Lagiou, Pagona; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Palli, Domenico; Krogh, Vittorio; Panico, Salvatore; Tumino, Rosario; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Rodriguez, Laudina; Buckland, Genevieve; Sanchez, Maria-Jose; Amiano, Pilar; Ardanaz, Eva; Bueno-de-Mesquita, Bas; Ros, Martine M.; van Gils, Carla H.; Peeters, Petra H.; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nick; Key, Timothy J.; Allen, Naomi E.; Romieu, Isabelle; Siddiq, Afshan; Cox, David; Riboli, Elio; Kaaks, Rudolf

    2011-01-01

    Prediagnostic endogenous sex steroid hormone levels have well established associations with overall risk of breast cancer. While evidence toward the existence of distinct subtypes of breast cancer accumulates, few studies have investigated the associations of sex steroid hormone levels with risk of

  12. Postmenopausal serum sex steroids and risk of hormone receptor-positive and -negative breast cancer: a nested case-control study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    James, R.E.; Lukanova, A.; Dossus, L.; Becker, S.; Rinaldi, S.; Tjonneland, A.; Olsen, A.; Overvad, K.; Mesrine, S.; Engel, P.; Clavel-Chapelon, F.; Chang-Claude, J.; Vrieling, A.; Boeing, H.; Schutze, M.; Trichopoulou, A.; Lagiou, P.; Trichopoulos, D.; Palli, D.; Krogh, V.; Panico, S.; Tumino, R.; Sacerdote, C.; Rodriguez, L.; Buckland, G.; Sanchez, M.J.; Amiano, P.; Ardanaz, E.; Bueno-de-Mesquita, B.; Ros, M.M.; Gils, C.H. van; Peeters, P.H.M.; Khaw, K.T.; Wareham, N.; Key, T.J.; Allen, N.E.; Romieu, I.; Siddiq, A.; Cox, D.; Riboli, E.; Kaaks, R.

    2011-01-01

    Prediagnostic endogenous sex steroid hormone levels have well established associations with overall risk of breast cancer. While evidence toward the existence of distinct subtypes of breast cancer accumulates, few studies have investigated the associations of sex steroid hormone levels with risk of

  13. Investigating and evaluating the influcence of supply chain structure on supply chain risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayed, Zehran

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Supply chains are exposed to disruptions resulting from internal or external factors that hinder the performance of one or more of their constituent entities. An exploratory study was conducted to determine whether supply chain structure (SCS influences supply chain risk (SCR, in the context of small and medium enterprises (SMEs in South Africa. Thematic content analysis was applied to the case data of four Gauteng-based manufacturing SMEs (SMMEs, and summarised in a literature-developed, conceptual structure-risk framework. Results indicate that SCS does influence SCR. Investment in facility infrastructure and supplier relationships appear to be the most influential features. SCS also affects the operational and financial risk of an enterprise. These risks drive the SMEs’ strategy and reputation, and consequently drive the corresponding risk dimensions (i.e., strategic and reputation risks. These findings are limited, and should not be generalised to all South African SMEs.

  14. Risk factors of suicide attempt among people with suicidal ideation in South Korea: a cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Soo Beom Choi; Wanhyung Lee; Jin-Ha Yoon; Jong-Uk Won; Deok Won Kim

    2017-01-01

    Background Suicide is a serious public health concern worldwide, and the fourth leading cause of death in Korea. Few studies have focused on risk factors for suicide attempt among people with suicidal ideation. The aim of the present study was to investigate the risk factors and develop prediction models for suicide attempt among people with suicidal ideation in the Korean population. Method This study included 1567 men and 3726 women aged 20?years and older who had suicidal ideation from the...

  15. Sugars and risk of mortality in the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasevska, Natasha; Park, Yikyung; Jiao, Li; Hollenbeck, Albert; Subar, Amy F; Potischman, Nancy

    2014-05-01

    Although previous studies have linked intake of sugars with incidence of cancer and other chronic diseases, its association with mortality remains unknown. We investigated the association of total sugars, added sugars, total fructose, added fructose, sucrose, and added sucrose with the risk of all-cause, cardiovascular disease, cancer, and other-cause mortality in the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study. The participants (n = 353,751), aged 50-71 y, were followed for up to 13 y. Intake of individual sugars over the previous 12 mo was assessed at baseline by using a 124-item NIH Diet History Questionnaire. In fully adjusted models (fifth quartile compared with first quartile), all-cause mortality was positively associated with the intake of total sugars [HR (95% CI): 1.13 (1.06, 1.20); P-trend sugars (P-trend = 0.04), sucrose (P-trend = 0.03), and added sucrose (P-trend = 0.006). Investigation of consumption of sugars by source showed that the positive association with mortality risk was confined only to sugars from beverages, whereas the inverse association was confined to sugars from solid foods. In this large prospective study, total fructose intake was weakly positively associated with all-cause mortality in both women and men, whereas added sugar, sucrose, and added sucrose intakes were inversely associated with other-cause mortality in men. In our analyses, intake of added sugars was not associated with an increased risk of mortality. The NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00340015.

  16. An empirical investigation on ranking financial risk factors using AHP method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Ghodrati

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper determines and ranks financial risk factors in Iranian corporations, using analytical hierarchy process (AHP. The present research includes one main question and four sub- questions. Its universe population includes managers, production and financial personnel of great corporations activating in Tehran Stock Exchange, who were selected to explain importance and weight of economic risks indices. The source of great corporations recognition is the Companies Registration Organization in Tehran Province, and according to this, there are 120 corporations. The results have indicated that financing risk maintains the highest priority followed by credit risk, liquidity risk, inflation risk and exchange risk. In terms of different risks associated with financing risk, risk of profit per share has been the number one priority followed by the risk of divisional profit per share, the risk of recessionary or boom and the risk of increasing partial pay profit rate. In terms of credit risk, the risk of loan has been number one priority followed by the risk of inability of loan payment and interest payment. Liquidity risk is another risk factor where demand has been the most important factor followed by rules and regulations and inflation risk. In terms of inflation, producers price risk has been the most important factor followed by consumer price risk, gross domestic product and producers price risk. Finally, in terms of different factors influencing exchange risk, export related issues are considered as the most important factors.

  17. Underlying—Disease Risk for Antispasmodic Premedication in Older Patients Undergoing Investigations of the Gastrointestinal Tract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noboru Saito

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose Improve risk management of patients undergoing investigations of the gastrointestinal (GI tract, in regard to underlying diseases and choice of premedication. According to a nationwide survey in Japan, 74% of the deaths associated with premedication were patients aged 60 years or over. Methods Subjects were 418 patients undergoing investigations of the GI tract (367 endoscopy, 51 barium contrast radiography between October 2001 and January 2004. Age distribution peaked in the 65-69 years group, and 40% of subjects were aged 65 years and over. Using a questionnaire, each subject was interviewed prior to the investigation to determine contraindications for anticholinergic agents or glucagon preparations. To confirm the risk associated with antispasmodic agents in elderly subjects, the group was subdivided into those aged under 65 years and those aged 65 and over, and compared. Results Anticholinergic agents were contraindicated in more than 50% of subjects aged 65 years and over, and glucagon was contraindicated in 11% of subjects aged 65 years and over. The proportion of elderly subjects in whom antispasmodic agents, including anticholinergics and glucagon, were contraindicated was significantly greater than for subjects aged under 65 years. Conclusions Using a written questionnaire at the time of obtaining informed consent facilitates the identification of underlying diseases and selection of appropriate premedication.

  18. Risk management strategies by Australian farmers: two case studies

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, Nam C.; Wegener, Malcolm K.; Russell, Iean W.; Cameron, Donald; Coventry, David; Cooper, Ian M.

    2007-01-01

    Australian farmers operate in one of the most risky farming environments in the world. They have to cope with numerous sources of risk including weather uncertainty, variable market prices, and institutional changes in their business management. This paper reports results from two case studies undertaken to examine the issues of farming risks and risk management strategies in Australia. The first case study found that unpredictable weather, financial risk, marketing risk, and personal risk we...

  19. Risk of bipolar disorder among adolescents with allergic rhinitis: A nationwide longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Mu-Hong; Lan, Wen-Hsuan; Hsu, Ju-Wei; Huang, Kai-Lin; Chen, Ying-Sheue; Li, Cheng-Ta; Lin, Wei-Chen; Chang, Wen-Han; Chen, Tzeng-Ji; Pan, Tai-Long; Su, Tung-Ping; Bai, Ya-Mei

    2015-12-01

    Previous studies have suggested an immunological dysfunction in bipolar disorder, but none has investigated the temporal association between allergic rhinitis (AR) and bipolar disorder. Using Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database, 9506 adolescents aged 12-18 years with allergic rhinitis were enrolled between 2000 and 2008 and compared to 38,024 age-and gender-matched (1:4) control groups. Subjects of bipolar disorder that occurred up to the end of follow-up (December 31, 2011) were identified. Adolescents with AR had a significantly higher incidence of developing bipolar disorder (0.77 vs. 0.18 per 1000 person-years, pAdolescents with AR had an increased risk (hazard ratio [HR]: 4.62, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 3.17-6.75) of developing bipolar disorder in their later life compared to the control group after adjusting for demographic data and comorbid allergic diseases. This is the first study showing a temporal association between AR and bipolar disorder, in that patients who had AR in adolescence exhibited an increased risk of developing bipolar disorder in later life. Further study would be required to investigate the underlying mechanism about this association. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Black swan protection: an experimental investigation

    OpenAIRE

    Morone, Andrea; Ozdemir, Ozlem

    2012-01-01

    This experimental study investigates insurance decisions in low-probability, high-loss risk situations. Results indicate that subjects consider the probability of loss (loss size) when they make buying decisions (paying decisions). Most individuals are risk averse with no specific threshold probability.

  1. Risk Assessment Stability: A Revalidation Study of the Arizona Risk/Needs Assessment Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwalbe, Craig S.

    2009-01-01

    The actuarial method is the gold standard for risk assessment in child welfare, juvenile justice, and criminal justice. It produces risk classifications that are highly predictive and that may be robust to sampling error. This article reports a revalidation study of the Arizona Risk/Needs Assessment instrument, an actuarial instrument for juvenile…

  2. Prospective study of caffeine consumption and risk of Parkinson's disease in men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ascherio, A; Zhang, S M; Hernán, M A; Kawachi, I; Colditz, G A; Speizer, F E; Willett, W C

    2001-07-01

    Results of case-control studies and of a prospective investigation in men suggest that consumption of coffee could protect against the risk of Parkinson's disease, but the active constituent is not clear. To address the hypothesis that caffeine is protective against Parkinson's disease, we examined the relationship of coffee and caffeine consumption to the risk of this disease among participants in two ongoing cohorts, the Health Professionals' Follow-Up Study (HPFS) and the Nurses' Health Study (NHS). The study population comprised 47,351 men and 88,565 women who were free of Parkinson's disease, stroke, or cancer at baseline. A comprehensive life style and dietary questionnaire was completed by the participants at baseline and updated every two to four years. During the follow-up (10 years in men, 16 years in women), we documented a total of 288 incident cases of Parkinson's disease. Among men, after adjustment for age and smoking, the relative risk of Parkinson's disease was 0.42 (95% CI: 0.23-0.78; p for trend coffee (p for trend = 0.004), caffeine from noncoffee sources (p for trend coffee. Among women, the relationship between caffeine or coffee intake and risk of Parkinson's disease was U-shaped, with the lowest risk observed at moderate intakes (1-3 cups of coffee/day, or the third quintile of caffeine consumption). These results support a possible protective effect of moderate doses of caffeine on risk of Parkinson's disease.

  3. An investigation on the effects of financial management skills, wealth and financial intelligence on investors’ risk tolerance: Empirical evidence from Tehran Stock Exchange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saied Aghasi

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available During the past few years, Tehran Stock Exchange (TSE has been changed into one of the most popular places to invest and index has been quadrupled in fewer than three years. As a result, many people have been attracted to invest on TSE market. This paper presents an empirical investigation to study the effects of investors’ personal characteristics including financial management skills, wealth and financial intelligence on investors’ risk tolerance among 384 randomly chosen investors who were active on TSE market in city of Esfahan, Iran. Using structural equation modeling, the study has determined that financial management skills, wealth and financial intelligence influence positively on investors’ risk tolerance.

  4. Unilateral Vocal Fold Paralysis and Risk of Pneumonia: A Nationwide Population-Based Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Ming-Shao; Yang, Yao-Hsu; Liu, Chia-Yen; Lin, Meng-Hung; Chang, Geng-He; Tsai, Yao-Te; Li, Hsueh-Yu; Tsai, Ying-Huang; Hsu, Cheng-Ming

    2018-05-01

    Objective To investigate pneumonia risk among patients with unilateral vocal fold paralysis (UVFP). Study Design Retrospective population-based cohort study. Setting This study used data from the National Health Insurance Research Database of Taiwan, a nationwide population-based database. Subjects and Methods A total of 419 patients newly diagnosed with UVFP between January 1, 1997, and December 31, 2013, were identified from the Longitudinal Health Insurance Database 2000, a nationally representative database of 1 million randomly selected patients. Moreover, 1676 patients without UVFP were matched to patients with UVFP at a 1:4 ratio based on age, sex, socioeconomic status, urbanization level, and site-specific cancers. Patients were followed up until death or the end of the study period (December 31, 2013). The primary outcome was the occurrence of pneumonia. Results The cumulative incidence of pneumonia was significantly higher for patients with UVFP than those without UFVP ( P < .001). The adjusted Cox proportional hazard model showed that UVFP was significantly associated with a higher incidence of pneumonia (hazard ratio, 1.97; 95% CI, 1.35-2.86; P < .001). Subgroup analyses demonstrated that UVFP was an independent risk factor of pneumonia for 4 subgroups: young (18-50 years), older (≥51 years), male, and cancer. Conclusion This is the first nationwide population-based cohort study to investigate the association between UVFP and pneumonia. The findings indicate that UVFP is an independent risk factor of pneumonia. Given the study results, physicians should be aware of the potential for pneumonia occurrence following UVFP.

  5. A case–control study of occupation/industry and renal cell carcinoma risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karami Sara

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The role of occupation in the etiology of renal cell carcinoma (RCC is unclear. Here, we investigated associations between employment in specific occupations and industries and RCC, and its most common histologic subtype, clear cell RCC (ccRCC. Methods Between 2002 and 2007, a population-based case–control study of Caucasians and African Americans (1,217 cases; 1,235 controls was conducted within the Detroit and Chicago metropolitan areas to investigate risk factors for RCC. As part of this study, occupational histories were ascertained through in-person interviews. We computed odds ratios (ORs and 95% confidence intervals (CIs relating occupation and industry to RCC risk using adjusted unconditional logistic regression models. Results Employment in the agricultural crop production industry for five years or more was associated with RCC (OR = 3.3 [95% CI = 1.0-11.5] and ccRCC in particular (OR = 6.3 [95% CI = 1.7-23.3], P for trend with duration of employment = 0.0050. Similarly, RCC risk was elevated for employment of five years or longer in non-managerial agricultural and related occupations (ORRCC = 2.1 [95% CI = 1.0-4.5]; ORccRCC = 3.1 [95% CI = 1.4-6.8]. Employment in the dry-cleaning industry was also associated with elevated risk (ORRCC = 2.0 [95% CI = 0.9-4.4], P for trend = 0.093; ORccRCC = 3.0 [95% CI = 1.2-7.4], P for trend = 0.031. Suggestive elevated associations were observed for police/public safety workers, health care workers and technicians, and employment in the electronics, auto repair, and cleaning/janitorial services industries; protective associations were suggested for many white-collar jobs including computer science and administrative occupations as well employment in the business, legislative, and education industries. Conclusions Our findings provide support for an elevated risk of RCC in the agricultural and dry-cleaning industries and

  6. Animal products, calcium and protein and prostate cancer risk in the Netherlands Cohort Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuurman, A.G.; Brandt, P.A. van den; Dorant, E.; Goldbohm, R.A.

    1999-01-01

    Prostate cancer risk in relation to consumption of animal products, and intake of calcium and protein was investigated in the Netherlands Cohort Study. At baseline in 1986, 58,279 men aged 55-69 years completed a self-administered 150-item food frequency questionnaire and a questionnaire on other

  7. Validation of reported genetic risk factors for periodontitis in a large-scale replication study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaefer, A.S.; Bochenek, G.; Manke, T.; Nothnagel, M.; Graetz, C.; Thien, A.; Jockel-Schneider, Y.; Harks, I.; Staufenbiel, I.; Wijmenga, C.; Eberhard, J.; Guzeldemir-Akcakanat, E.; Cine, N.; Folwaczny, M.; Noack, B.; Meyle, J.; Eickholz, P.; Trombelli, L.; Scapoli, C.; Nohutcu, R.; Bruckmann, C.; Doerfer, C.; Jepsen, S.; Loos, B.G.; Schreiber, S.

    2013-01-01

    Aim Many studies investigated the role of genetic variants in periodontitis, but few were established as risk factors. We aimed to validate the associations of recent candidate genes in aggressive periodontitis (AgP). Material and Methods We analysed 23 genes in 600 German AgP patients and 1441

  8. Validation of reported genetic risk factors for periodontitis in a large-scale replication study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaefer, Arne S.; Bochenek, Gregor; Manke, Thomas; Nothnagel, Michael; Graetz, Christian; Thien, Anneke; Jockel-Schneider, Yvonne; Harks, Inga; Staufenbiel, Ingmar; Wijmenga, Cisca; Eberhard, Joerg; Guzeldemir-Akcakanat, Esra; Cine, Naci; Folwaczny, Mathias; Noack, Barbara; Meyle, Joerg; Eickholz, Peter; Trombelli, Leonardo; Scapoli, Chiara; Nohutcu, Rahime; Bruckmann, Corinna; Doerfer, Christof; Jepsen, Soren; Loos, Bruno G.; Schreiber, Stefan

    Aim Many studies investigated the role of genetic variants in periodontitis, but few were established as risk factors. We aimed to validate the associations of recent candidate genes in aggressive periodontitis (AgP). Material and Methods We analysed 23 genes in 600 German AgP patients and 1441

  9. Pelvic Inflammatory Disease and the Risk of Ovarian Cancer and Borderline Ovarian Tumors: A Pooled Analysis of 13 Case-Control Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Christina B.; Kjaer, Susanne K.; Albieri, Vanna; Bandera, Elisa V.; Doherty, Jennifer A.; Høgdall, Estrid; Webb, Penelope M.; Jordan, Susan J.; Rossing, Mary Anne; Wicklund, Kristine G.; Goodman, Marc T.; Modugno, Francesmary; Moysich, Kirsten B.; Ness, Roberta B.; Edwards, Robert P.; Schildkraut, Joellen M.; Berchuck, Andrew; Olson, Sara H.; Kiemeney, Lambertus A.; Massuger, Leon F. A. G.; Narod, Steven A.; Phelan, Catherine M.; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Ziogas, Argyrios; Wu, Anna H.; Pearce, Celeste L.; Risch, Harvey A.; Jensen, Allan

    2017-01-01

    Inflammation has been implicated in ovarian carcinogenesis. However, studies investigating the association between pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) and ovarian cancer risk are few and inconsistent. We investigated the association between PID and the risk of epithelial ovarian cancer according to tumor behavior and histotype. We pooled data from 13 case-control studies, conducted between 1989 and 2009, from the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium (OCAC), including 9,162 women with ovarian cancers, 2,354 women with borderline tumors, and 14,736 control participants. Study-specific odds ratios were estimated and subsequently combined into a pooled odds ratio using a random-effects model. A history of PID was associated with an increased risk of borderline tumors (pooled odds ratio (pOR) = 1.32, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.10, 1.58). Women with at least 2 episodes of PID had a 2-fold increased risk of borderline tumors (pOR = 2.14, 95% CI: 1.08, 4.24). No association was observed between PID and ovarian cancer risk overall (pOR = 0.99, 95% CI: 0.83, 1.19); however, a statistically nonsignificantly increased risk of low-grade serous tumors (pOR = 1.48, 95% CI: 0.92, 2.38) was noted. In conclusion, PID was associated with an increased risk of borderline ovarian tumors, particularly among women who had had multiple episodes of PID. Although our results indicated a histotype-specific association with PID, the association of PID with ovarian cancer risk is still somewhat uncertain and requires further investigation. PMID:27941069

  10. Measurement of predictive validity in violence risk assessment studies: a second-order systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Jay P; Desmarais, Sarah L; Van Dorn, Richard A

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the present review was to examine how predictive validity is analyzed and reported in studies of instruments used to assess violence risk. We reviewed 47 predictive validity studies published between 1990 and 2011 of 25 instruments that were included in two recent systematic reviews. Although all studies reported receiver operating characteristic curve analyses and the area under the curve (AUC) performance indicator, this methodology was defined inconsistently and findings often were misinterpreted. In addition, there was between-study variation in benchmarks used to determine whether AUCs were small, moderate, or large in magnitude. Though virtually all of the included instruments were designed to produce categorical estimates of risk - through the use of either actuarial risk bins or structured professional judgments - only a minority of studies calculated performance indicators for these categorical estimates. In addition to AUCs, other performance indicators, such as correlation coefficients, were reported in 60% of studies, but were infrequently defined or interpreted. An investigation of sources of heterogeneity did not reveal significant variation in reporting practices as a function of risk assessment approach (actuarial vs. structured professional judgment), study authorship, geographic location, type of journal (general vs. specialized audience), sample size, or year of publication. Findings suggest a need for standardization of predictive validity reporting to improve comparison across studies and instruments. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. How to achieve safe, high-quality clinical studies with non-Medicinal Investigational Products? A practical guideline by using intra-bronchial carbon nanoparticles as case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, M; Kooyman, P J; Makkee, M; van der Zee, J S; Sterk, P J; van Dijk, J; Kemper, E M

    2016-08-19

    Clinical studies investigating medicinal products need to comply with laws concerning good clinical practice (GCP) and good manufacturing practice (GMP) to guarantee the quality and safety of the product, to protect the health of the participating individual and to assure proper performance of the study. However, there are no specific regulations or guidelines for non-Medicinal Investigational Products (non-MIPs) such as allergens, enriched food supplements, and air pollution components. As a consequence, investigators will avoid clinical research and prefer preclinical models or in vitro testing for e.g. toxicology studies. 1) briefly review the current guidelines and regulations for Investigational Medicinal Products; 2) present a standardised approach to ensure the quality and safety of non-MIPs in human in vivo research; and 3) discuss some lessons we have learned. We propose a practical line of approach to compose a clarifying product dossier (PD), comprising the description of the production process, the analysis of the raw and final product, toxicological studies, and a thorough risk-benefit-analysis. This is illustrated by an example from a human in vivo research model to study exposure to air pollutants, by challenging volunteers with a suspension of carbon nanoparticles (the component of ink cartridges for laser printers). With this novel risk-based approach, the members of competent authorities are provided with standardised information on the quality of the product in relation to the safety of the participants, and the scientific goal of the study.

  12. Alcohol consumption and risk of microvascular complications in type 1 diabetes patients; the EURODIAB Prospective Complications study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beulens, J.W.J.; Kruidhof, J.S.; Grobbee, D.E.; Chaturvedi, N.; Fuller, J.H.; Soedamah-Muthu, S.S.

    2008-01-01

    AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: The aim of this study was to investigate the association between alcohol consumption and risk of microvascular complications (retinopathy, neuropathy, nephropathy) in type 1 diabetes mellitus patients in the EURODIAB Prospective Complications Study. METHODS: The EURODIAB Prospective

  13. Polymorphisms in NFkB, PXR, LXR and risk of colorectal cancer in a prospective study of Danes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersen, Vibeke; Christensen, Jane; Overvad, Kim; Tjønneland, Anne; Vogel, Ulla

    2010-01-01

    Transcription factors and nuclear receptors constitute a link between exposure to heterocyclic amines and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from meat and tobacco smoke and colorectal cancer (CRC) risk. The aim of this study was to investigate if polymorphisms in nuclear factor kappa-B, pregnane X receptor, and liver X receptor were associated with risk of CRC, and to investigate possible interactions with lifestyle factors such as smoking, meat consumption, and NSAID use. The polymorphisms nuclear factor kappa-B (NFkB, NFKB1) -94 insertion/deletion ATTG (rs28362491), pregnane X receptor (PXR, NR1I2) A-24381C (rs1523127), C8055T (rs2276707), A7635G (rs6785049), liver X receptor (LXR-β, NR1H3) C-rs1405655T, T-rs2695121C were assessed together with lifestyle factors in a nested case-cohort study of 378 CRC cases and 756 random participants from the Danish prospective Diet, Cancer and Health study of 57,053 persons. Carriers of NFkB -94deletion were at 1.45-fold higher risk of CRC than homozygous carriers of the insertion allele (incidence rate ratio (IRR) = 1.45, 95% confidence interval (95% CI): 1.10-1.92). There was interaction between this polymorphism and intake of red and processed meat in relation to CRC risk. Carriers of NFkB -94deletion were at 3% increased risk pr 25 gram meat per day (95% CI: 0.98-1.09) whereas homozygous carriers of the insertion were not at increased risk (p for interaction = 0.03). PXR and LXR polymorphisms were not associated with CRC risk. There was no interaction between use of nonsteroid antiinflammatory drugs (NSAID) or smoking status and NFkB, PXR or LXR polymorphisms. A polymorphism in NFkB was associated with CRC risk and there was interaction between this polymorphism and meat intake in relation to CRC risk. This study suggests a role for NFkB in CRC aetiology

  14. Polymorphisms in NFkB, PXR, LXR and risk of colorectal cancer in a prospective study of Danes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andersen Vibeke

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Transcription factors and nuclear receptors constitute a link between exposure to heterocyclic amines and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from meat and tobacco smoke and colorectal cancer (CRC risk. The aim of this study was to investigate if polymorphisms in nuclear factor kappa-B, pregnane X receptor, and liver X receptor were associated with risk of CRC, and to investigate possible interactions with lifestyle factors such as smoking, meat consumption, and NSAID use. Methods The polymorphisms nuclear factor kappa-B (NFkB, NFKB1 -94 insertion/deletion ATTG (rs28362491, pregnane X receptor (PXR, NR1I2 A-24381C (rs1523127, C8055T (rs2276707, A7635G (rs6785049, liver X receptor (LXR-β, NR1H3 C-rs1405655T, T-rs2695121C were assessed together with lifestyle factors in a nested case-cohort study of 378 CRC cases and 756 random participants from the Danish prospective Diet, Cancer and Health study of 57,053 persons. Results Carriers of NFkB -94deletion were at 1.45-fold higher risk of CRC than homozygous carriers of the insertion allele (incidence rate ratio (IRR = 1.45, 95% confidence interval (95% CI: 1.10-1.92. There was interaction between this polymorphism and intake of red and processed meat in relation to CRC risk. Carriers of NFkB -94deletion were at 3% increased risk pr 25 gram meat per day (95% CI: 0.98-1.09 whereas homozygous carriers of the insertion were not at increased risk (p for interaction = 0.03. PXR and LXR polymorphisms were not associated with CRC risk. There was no interaction between use of nonsteroid antiinflammatory drugs (NSAID or smoking status and NFkB, PXR or LXR polymorphisms. Conclusions A polymorphism in NFkB was associated with CRC risk and there was interaction between this polymorphism and meat intake in relation to CRC risk. This study suggests a role for NFkB in CRC aetiology.

  15. Social Amplification of Risk and Crisis Communication Planing - Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanciugelu, I.; Frunzaru, V.; Armas, I.; Duntzer, A.; Stan, S.

    2012-04-01

    Risk management has become a dominant concern of public policy and the ability of government to anticipate the strength and focus of public concerns remains weak. The Social Amplification of Risk Framework (SARF) was designed to assist in this endeavor. It aims to facilitate a greater understanding of the social processes that can mediate between a hazard event and its consequences. SARF identifies categories of mediator/moderator that intervene between risk event and its consequences and suggests a causal and temporal sequence in which they act. Information flows first through various sources and then channels, triggering social stations of amplification, initiating individual station of amplification and precipitating behavioral reactions. The International Risk Governance Council Framework is an interdisciplinary and multilevel approach, linking risk management and risk assessment sphere through communication. This study aims to identify categories of mediator/moderator that intervene between the risk event and its consequences, using a survey on earthquake risk perception addressing population of Bucharest city. Romania has a unique seismic profile in Europe, being the country with the biggest surface affected in case of a serious earthquake. Considering the development of the urban area that took place in the last two decades and the growing number of inhabitants, Bucharest is the largest city in Romania and is exposed to extensive damages in case of an earthquake. The sociological survey has been conducted in December 2009 on a representative sample of the Bucharest population aged 18 and over (N=1376) using one stage sampling design. We used a stratified sample method shearing the investigated populations in six layers according to the six sectors of Bucharest. The respondents were selected using random digit dialling method (RDD) and the questionnaires were administered by research staff with computer assisted telephone interviewing method (CATI). The

  16. Adherence to Mediterranean-style dietary pattern and risk of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma: a case-control study in Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    The benefit of adherence to a Mediterranean-style dietary pattern in relation to the risk of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) has not been investigated among non-Mediterranean high-risk populations. The objective of the present study was to examine the association of compliance with the Med...

  17. Case-control study of toenail cadmium and prostate cancer risk in Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vinceti, Marco; Venturelli, Marianna; Sighinolfi, Chiara; Trerotoli, Paolo; Bonvicini, Francesca; Ferrari, Angela; Bianchi, Giampaolo; Serio, Gabriella; Bergomi, Margherita; Vivoli, Gianfranco

    2007-01-01

    A role of cadmium exposure in prostate cancer etiology has been suggested by epidemiologic and laboratory studies, but conclusive evidence on this topic is still lacking. We investigated the relation between cadmium exposure, estimated by determining toenails cadmium levels, and prostate cancer risk in forty patients newly diagnosed with prostate cancer and fifty-eight hospital controls recruited in two provinces from southern and northern Italy. We found an excess cancer risk in subjects in the third and fourth (highest) quartiles of toenail cadmium concentration (odds ratio 1.3 and 4.7, respectively) compared with subjects in the bottom quartile. Results were basically unchanged when limiting the analysis to each province or entering toenail cadmium concentrations as continuous values in the regression model (P = 0.004). Despite the limited statistical stability of the point estimates, these findings appear to support the hypothesis that cadmium exposure increases prostate cancer risk

  18. Physical activity and risk of ovarian cancer: Results from the Netherlands Cohort Study (The Netherlands)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biesma, R.G.; Schouten, L.J.; Dirx, M.J.M.; Goldbohm, R.A.; Brandt, P.A. van den

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the association between nonoccupational physical activity and the risk of ovarian cancer among post-menopausal women. Methods: The Netherlands Cohort Study on Diet and Cancer consists of 62,573 women aged 55-69 years at baseline. Information regarding baseline

  19. Hormonal contraceptive use and risk of glioma among younger women a nationwide case-control study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lene; Friis, Søren; Hallas, Jesper

    2015-01-01

    AIM: Oral contraceptive use influences the risk for certain cancers; however, few studies have examined any link with risk of central nervous system tumors. We investigated the association between hormonal contraceptive use and glioma risk among premenopausal women in a population-based setting...... risk set sampling. Based on prescription data, exposure until 2 years prior to the index date was categorized according to hormonal contraceptive type, i.e., combined estrogen-progestagen or progestagen-only, and duration of use (... to compute odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for glioma associated with hormonal contraceptive use, adjusting for potential confounders. RESULTS: We identified 317 cases and 2,126 controls. Ever use of hormonal contraceptive was associated with an OR of 1.5 (95% CI: 1...

  20. Study on the risk-informed regulation of NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Chaogui

    2007-01-01

    The risk-informed regulation is a modern type of NPP safety management mode using both deterministic and probabilistic approaches. It is necessary to entirely and systematically study the associated regulations, standards and practices in order to promote the developments of risk-informed regulations in China. This paper introduces the risk-informed regulation, gives out the basic principles, method and acceptance risk criteria of risk-informed decision,making, discusses the PSA requirements for risk-informed decision-making and makes some suggestions about the application of risk-informed regulations in Chinese NPP. (authors)

  1. Common vaccinations among adults do not increase the risk of developing rheumatoid arthritis: results from the Swedish EIRA study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bengtsson, Camilla; Kapetanovic, Meliha C; Källberg, Henrik; Sverdrup, Berit; Nordmark, Birgitta; Klareskog, Lars; Alfredsson, Lars

    2010-10-01

    To investigate the association between vaccinations in adults and the risk of developing rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Data from the Swedish population-based Epidemiological Investigation of RA case-control study encompassing 1998 incident cases of RA aged 18-70 years and 2252 randomly selected controls matched for age, sex and residency were analysed. Those vaccinated within 5 years before disease onset were compared with those not vaccinated by calculating OR with 95% CI. Vaccinations neither increased the risk of RA overall (OR 1.0, 95% CI 0.9 to 1.1) nor the risk of two major subgroups of RA (antibodies to citrullinated peptide-positive (ACPA-positive) and ACPA-negative disease). Furthermore, vaccinations did not increase the risk of RA in smokers or carriers of HLA-DRB1 shared epitope alleles, two groups with established risk factors for RA. In this case-control study of incident cases of newly diagnosed RA, no increased risk of RA following immunisation was observed for vaccinations overall or for any specific vaccination. This indicates that immunological provocation of adults with commonly used vaccines in their present form carries no risk of RA. These findings should be implemented among public healthcare providers in order to encourage vaccinations according to recommended national vaccination schedules.

  2. Beyond Framingham risk factors and coronary calcification: does aortic valve calcification improve risk prediction? The Heinz Nixdorf Recall Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kälsch, Hagen; Lehmann, Nils; Mahabadi, Amir A; Bauer, Marcus; Kara, Kaffer; Hüppe, Patricia; Moebus, Susanne; Möhlenkamp, Stefan; Dragano, Nico; Schmermund, Axel; Stang, Andreas; Jöckel, Karl-Heinz; Erbel, Raimund

    2014-06-01

    Aortic valve calcification (AVC) is considered a manifestation of atherosclerosis. In this study, we investigated whether AVC adds to cardiovascular risk prediction beyond Framingham risk factors and coronary artery calcification (CAC). A total of 3944 subjects from the population based Heinz Nixdorf Recall Study (59.3±7.7 years; 53% females) were evaluated for coronary events, stroke, and cardiovascular disease (CVD) events (including all plus CV death) over 9.1±1.9 years. CT scans were performed to quantify AVC. Cox proportional hazards regressions and Harrell's C were used to examine AVC as event predictor in addition to risk factors and CAC. During follow-up, 138 (3.5%) subjects experienced coronary events, 101 (2.6%) had a stroke, and 257 (6.5%) experienced CVD events. In subjects with AVC>0 versus AVC=0 the incidence of coronary events was 8.0% versus 3.0% (pAVC scores (pAVC scores (3rd tertile) remained independently associated with coronary events (HR 2.21, 95% CI 1.28 to 3.81) and CVD events (HR 1.67, 95% CI 1.08 to 2.58). After further adjustment for CAC score, HRs were attenuated (coronary events 1.55, 95% CI 0.89 to 2.69; CVD events 1.29, 95% CI 0.83 to 2.00). When adding AVC to the model containing traditional risk factors and CAC, Harrell's C indices did not increase for coronary events (from 0.744 to 0.744) or CVD events (from 0.759 to 0.759). AVC is associated with incident coronary and CVD events independent of Framingham risk factors. However, AVC fails to improve cardiovascular event prediction over Framingham risk factors and CAC. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  3. Correlates of alcohol abstinence and at-risk alcohol consumption in older adults with depression: the NESDO study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, J.F.; Kok, R.M.; van Marwijk, H.W.J.; van der Mast, R.C.; Naarding, P.; Voshaar, R.C.O.; Stek, M.L.; Verhaak, P.F.M.; de Waal, M.W.M.; Comijs, H.C.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To compare alcohol use between depressed and nondepressed older adults, and to investigate correlates of alcohol abstinence and at-risk alcohol consumption in depressed older adults. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting Netherlands Study of Depression in Older Persons (NESDO).

  4. Correlates of alcohol abstinence and at-risk alcohol consumption in older adults with depression : the NESDO study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, Julia F.; Kok, Rob M.; van Marwijk, Harm W. J.; van der Mast, Roos C.; Naarding, Paul; Oude Voshaar, Richard C.; Stek, Max L.; Verhaak, Peter F. M.; de Waal, Margot W. M.; Comijs, Hannie C.

    OBJECTIVES: To compare alcohol use between depressed and nondepressed older adults, and to investigate correlates of alcohol abstinence and at-risk alcohol consumption in depressed older adults. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: Netherlands Study of Depression in Older Persons (NESDO).

  5. Correlates of Alcohol Abstinence and At-Risk Alcohol Consumption in Older Adults with Depression: the NESDO Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, J. van den; Kok, R.M.; Marwijk, H.W.J. van; Mast, R.C. van der; Naarding, P.; Oude Voshaar, R.C.; Stek, M.L.; Verhaak, P.F.; Waal, M.W. de; Comijs, H.C.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To compare alcohol use between depressed and nondepressed older adults, and to investigate correlates of alcohol abstinence and at-risk alcohol consumption in depressed older adults. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: Netherlands Study of Depression in Older Persons (NESDO).

  6. Correlates of alcohol abstinence and at-risk alcohol consumption in older adults with depression: the NESDO Study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, J.F. van den; Kok, R.M.; Marwijk, H.W.J. van; Mast, R.C. van der; Naarding, P.; Oude Voshaar, R.C.; Stek, M.L.; Verhaak, P.F.M.; Waal, M.W.M. de; Comijs, H.C.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To compare alcohol use between depressed and nondepressed older adults, and to investigate correlates of alcohol abstinence and at-risk alcohol consumption in depressed older adults. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Netherlands Study of Depression in Older Persons (NESDO).

  7. Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome in Santa Cruz, Bolivia: Outbreak Investigation and Antibody Prevalence Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Joel M.; Blair, Patrick J.; Carroll, Darin S.; Mills, James N.; Gianella, Alberto; Iihoshi, Naomi; Briggiler, Ana M.; Felices, Vidal; Salazar, Milagros; Olson, James G.; Glabman, Raisa A.; Bausch, Daniel G.

    2012-01-01

    We report the results of an investigation of a small outbreak of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in 2002 in the Department of Santa Cruz, Bolivia, where the disease had not previously been reported. Two cases were initially reported. The first case was a physician infected with Laguna Negra virus during a weekend visit to his ranch. Four other persons living on the ranch were IgM antibody-positive, two of whom were symptomatic for mild hantavirus pulmonary syndrome. The second case was a migrant sugarcane worker. Although no sample remained to determine the specific infecting hantavirus, a virus 90% homologous with Río Mamoré virus was previously found in small-eared pygmy rice rats (Oligoryzomys microtis) trapped in the area. An antibody prevalence study conducted in the region as part of the outbreak investigation showed 45 (9.1%) of 494 persons to be IgG positive, illustrating that hantavirus infection is common in Santa Cruz Department. Precipitation in the months preceding the outbreak was particularly heavy in comparison to other years, suggesting a possible climatic or ecological influence on rodent populations and risk of hantavirus transmission to humans. Hantavirus infection appears to be common in the Santa Cruz Department, but more comprehensive surveillance and field studies are needed to fully understand the epidemiology and risk to humans. PMID:23094116

  8. Birth order and childhood type 1 diabetes risk: a pooled analysis of 31 observational studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cardwell, Chris R; Stene, Lars C; Joner, Geir

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The incidence rates of childhood onset type 1 diabetes are almost universally increasing across the globe but the aetiology of the disease remains largely unknown. We investigated whether birth order is associated with the risk of childhood diabetes by performing a pooled analysis...... and after adjustment for confounders, and investigate heterogeneity. RESULTS: Data were available for 6 cohort and 25 case-control studies, including 11¿955 cases of type 1 diabetes. Overall, there was no evidence of an association prior to adjustment for confounders. After adjustment for maternal age...... at birth and other confounders, a reduction in the risk of diabetes in second- or later born children became apparent [fully adjusted OR¿=¿0.90 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.83-0.98; P¿=¿0.02] but this association varied markedly between studies (I(2)¿=¿67%). An a priori subgroup analysis showed...

  9. Pituitary tumor risk in relation to mobile phone use: A case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Mithila; Raitanen, Jani; Salminen, Tiina; Lahkola, Anna; Auvinen, Anssi

    2015-01-01

    The number of mobile phone users has grown rapidly, which has generated mounting public concern regarding possible health hazards. This study aims to assess pituitary tumor risk, as it has rarely been investigated. A case-control study was conducted with 80 eligible cases identified from all five university hospitals in Finland and frequency-matched 240 controls from the national population register. Controls were matched to cases by age, sex, region of residence and date of interview. A detailed history of mobile phone use was obtained using a structured interview. Several indicators of mobile phone use were assessed using conditional logistic regression. A reduced odds ratio was seen among regular mobile phone users [OR 0.39, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.21, 0.72] relative to never/non-regular users, possibly reflecting methodological limitations. Pituitary tumor risk was not increased after 10 or more years since first use (OR 0.69, 95% CI 0.25, 1.89). The risk was not increased in relation to duration, cumulative hours of use, or cumulative number of calls. The results were similar for analog and digital phones. We found no excess risk associated with self-reported short- or medium-term use of mobile phones. This is consistent with most of the published studies. However, uncertainties remained for longer duration of use, as a very small proportion of study participants reported use beyond 10 years.

  10. Investigating the Association Between Sociodemographic Factors and Lung Cancer Risk Using Cyber Informatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Hong-Jun; Tourassi, Georgia

    2016-02-01

    Openly available online sources can be very valuable for executing in silico case-control epidemiological studies. Adjustment of confounding factors to isolate the association between an observing factor and disease is essential for such studies. However, such information is not always readily available online. This paper suggests natural language processing methods for extracting socio-demographic information from content openly available online. Feasibility of the suggested method is demonstrated by performing a case-control study focusing on the association between age, gender, and income level and lung cancer risk. The study shows stronger association between older age and lower socioeconomic status and higher lung cancer risk, which is consistent with the findings reported in traditional cancer epidemiology studies.

  11. Serum iron levels and the risk of Parkinson disease: a Mendelian randomization study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Pichler

    Full Text Available Although levels of iron are known to be increased in the brains of patients with Parkinson disease (PD, epidemiological evidence on a possible effect of iron blood levels on PD risk is inconclusive, with effects reported in opposite directions. Epidemiological studies suffer from problems of confounding and reverse causation, and mendelian randomization (MR represents an alternative approach to provide unconfounded estimates of the effects of biomarkers on disease. We performed a MR study where genes known to modify iron levels were used as instruments to estimate the effect of iron on PD risk, based on estimates of the genetic effects on both iron and PD obtained from the largest sample meta-analyzed to date.We used as instrumental variables three genetic variants influencing iron levels, HFE rs1800562, HFE rs1799945, and TMPRSS6 rs855791. Estimates of their effect on serum iron were based on a recent genome-wide meta-analysis of 21,567 individuals, while estimates of their effect on PD risk were obtained through meta-analysis of genome-wide and candidate gene studies with 20,809 PD cases and 88,892 controls. Separate MR estimates of the effect of iron on PD were obtained for each variant and pooled by meta-analysis. We investigated heterogeneity across the three estimates as an indication of possible pleiotropy and found no evidence of it. The combined MR estimate showed a statistically significant protective effect of iron, with a relative risk reduction for PD of 3% (95% CI 1%-6%; p = 0.001 per 10 µg/dl increase in serum iron.Our study suggests that increased iron levels are causally associated with a decreased risk of developing PD. Further studies are needed to understand the pathophysiological mechanism of action of serum iron on PD risk before recommendations can be made.

  12. Insomnia and the risk of incident heart failure: a population study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laugsand, Lars E; Strand, Linn B; Platou, Carl; Vatten, Lars J; Janszky, Imre

    2014-06-01

    Insomnia is highly prevalent among heart failure patients, but only a few small studies have investigated insomnia symptoms and risk of heart failure. We aimed to assess the prospective association between self-reported insomnia symptoms and the risk of incident heart failure in a large Norwegian cohort. Baseline data on insomnia symptoms, including difficulty initiating sleep, difficulty maintaining sleep and having non-restorative sleep, socio-demographic variables, and health status, including established cardiovascular risk factors, were collected from 54 279 men and women 20-89 years of age who participated in the Nord-Trøndelag Health study (HUNT) between 1995 and 1997 and were free from known heart failure at baseline. The cohort was followed for incident heart failure from baseline through 2008. We used Cox proportional hazard models to assess the association of baseline insomnia symptoms with the risk of heart failure. A total of 1412 cases of heart failure occurred during a mean follow-up of 11.3 years (SD = 2.9 years), either identified at hospitals or by the National Cause of Death Registry. There was a dose-dependent association between the number of insomnia symptoms and risk of heart failure. The multi-adjusted hazard ratios were 0.96 (0.57-1.61), 1.35 (0.72-2.50), and 4.53 (1.99-10.31) for people with one, two, and three insomnia symptoms, compared with people with none of the symptoms (P for trend 0.021). Insomnia is associated with an increased risk of incident heart failure. If our results are confirmed by others and causation is proved, evaluation of insomnia symptoms might have consequences for cardiovascular prevention. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2013. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Nutrition, hormones and prostate cancer risk: results from the European prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Key, Timothy J

    2014-01-01

    Nutritional factors may influence the risk of developing prostate cancer, but understanding of this topic is poor. This chapter discusses research on this subject, mostly from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC), a cohort which includes 150,000 men recruited in the 1990s in eight European countries. So far the EPIC collaborators have published analyses of the relationship of prostate cancer risk with the intake of a range of foods and nutrients, and with blood-based markers of nutritional factors, on up to nearly 3,000 incident cases of prostate cancer. Most of the results of these analyses have been null, with no clear indication that the risk for prostate cancer is related to intakes of meat, fish, fruit, vegetables, fibre, fat or alcohol or with blood levels of fatty acids, carotenoids, tocopherols, B vitamins, vitamin D, or selenium. There is some evidence from EPIC that risk may be increased in men with a high intake of protein from dairy products, and analyses of hormone levels have shown that risk is higher in men with relatively high blood levels of insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I). More research is needed to better describe the relationships of prostate cancer risk with IGF-I and related hormones, and to better understand whether nutritional factors may influence risk through hormones or perhaps by other mechanisms.

  14. Opium use during pregnancy and risk of preterm delivery: A population-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maghsoudlou, Siavash; Cnattingius, Sven; Montgomery, Scott; Aarabi, Mohsen; Semnani, Shahriar; Wikström, Anna-Karin; Bahmanyar, Shahram

    2017-01-01

    Use of narcotic or "recreational" drugs has been associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes such as preterm delivery. However, the associations might be confounded by other factors related to high-risk behaviours. This is the first study to investigate the association between traditional opium use during pregnancy and risk of preterm delivery. We performed a population-based cohort study in the rural areas of the Golestan province, Iran between 2008 and 2010. We randomly selected 920 women who used (usually smoked) opium during pregnancy and 920 women who did not. Logistic regression models were used to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the associations between the opium use during pregnancy and preterm delivery and adjustment was made for potential confounding factors. This study shows compared with non-use of opium and tobacco, use of only opium during pregnancy was associated with an increased risk of preterm delivery (OR = 1.56; 95% CI 1.05-2.32), and the risk was more than two-fold increased among dual users of opium and tobacco (OR = 2.31; 95% CI 1.37-3.90). We observed that opium use only was associated with a doubled risk for preterm caesarean delivery (OR = 2.05; 95% CI 1.10-3.82) but not for preterm vaginal delivery (OR = 1.25; 95% CI 0.75-2.07). Dual use of opium and tobacco was associated with a substantially increased risk of vaginal preterm delivery (OR = 2.58; 95% CI 1.41-4.71). Opium use during pregnancy among non-tobacco smokers is associated with an increased risk of preterm caesarean delivery, indicating an increased risk of a compromised foetus before or during labour. Women who use both opium and smoked during pregnancy have an increased risk of preterm vaginal delivery, indicating an increased risk of spontaneous preterm delivery.

  15. On the complementary presentation of results of risk studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehrhardt, J.; Bayer, A.

    1983-01-01

    The presentation of the loss of years of life provides the opportunity to illustrate in complementary way the mortality risks evaluated as part of risk studies. As phase A of the DRS (German risk study nuclear power plants) bears upon the results of the American ''Reactor Safety Study'' (WASH 1400) it does not contain that factor of failure which has only been determined in subsequent studies. Phase B intends to present the results of risk assessments increasingly in form of abridged lifetime. (orig.) [de

  16. A case-control study of risk factors for bovine cysticercosis in Danish cattle herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calvo Artavia, Francisco Fernando; Nielsen, Liza Rosenbaum; Dahl, J.

    2013-01-01

    than in countries with few lightly infected cases per year. The aim of the present case-control study was to quantify associations between potential herd-level risk factors and BC in Danish cattle herds. Risk factors can be used in the design of a risk-based meat inspection system targeted towards...... a questionnaire and register data from the Danish Cattle Database were grouped into meaningful variables and used to investigate the risk factors for BC using a multivariable logistic regression model. Case herds were almost three times more likely than control herds to let all or most animals out grazing. Case...... the animals with the highest risk of BC. Cases (n = 77) included herds that hosted at least one animal diagnosed with BC at meat inspection, from 2006 to 2010. Control herds (n = 231) consisted of randomly selected herds that had not hosted any animals diagnosed with BC between 2004 and 2010. The answers from...

  17. Investigating risk and robustness measures for supply chain network design under demand uncertainty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Govindan, Kannan; Fattahi, Mohammad

    2017-01-01

    to obtain risk-averse and robust solutions, respectively. Computational results are presented on a real-life case study to illustrate the applicability of the proposed approaches. To compare these different decision-making situations, a simulation approach is used. Furthermore, by several test problems......-variable demands. To deal with the stochastic demands, a Latin Hypercube Sampling method is applied to generate a fan of scenarios and then, a backward scenario reduction technique reduces the number of scenarios. Weighted mean-risk objectives by using different risk measures and minimax objective are examined...

  18. Consumption of Whole-Grain Bread and Risk of Colorectal Cancer among Norwegian Women (the NOWAC Study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakken, Toril; Braaten, Tonje; Olsen, Anja; Kyrø, Cecilie; Lund, Eiliv; Skeie, Guri

    2016-01-13

    There is evidence that consumption of foods containing dietary fiber decreases the risk of colorectal cancer (CRC). Whole grains contain dietary fiber, as well as a range of micronutrients and bioactive compounds, but the association between the consumption of whole grains and the risk of CRC remains less studied. The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between whole-grain bread consumption and CRC incidence among Norwegian women, using data from a prospective cohort study (the Norwegian Women and Cancer Study). Dietary intake was estimated from the food-frequency questionnaires of 78,254 women in the cohort (median age: 55 years), and these women were then followed up for CRC incidence. During the 9 years of median follow-up, 795 women were diagnosed with CRC (316 proximal, 193 distal, 218 rectal). Associations between whole-grain bread consumption and the risk of CRC (including colorectal subsites) were investigated using Cox proportional hazards regression models. When compared to the low consumption group, the hazard ratio for CRC was 0.89 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.72-1.09) for the high consumption group and 0.86 (95% CI: 0.72-1.02) for the medium consumption group in a multivariable model. Overall, no association between whole-grain bread consumption and CRC was found.

  19. Prevalence and associated risk factors of dyslexic children in a middle-sized city of China: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Zhao; Zou, Li; Zhang, Jiajia; Mo, Shengnan; Shao, Shanshan; Zhong, Rong; Ke, Juntao; Lu, Xuzai; Miao, Xiaoping; Song, Ranran

    2013-01-01

    There are many discussions about dyslexia based on studies conducted in western countries, and some risk factors to dyslexia, such as gender and home literacy environment, have been widely accepted based on these studies. However, to our knowledge, there are few studies focusing on the risk factors of dyslexia in China. Therefore, the aim of our study was to investigate the prevalence of dyslexia and its potential risk factors. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Qianjiang, a city in Hubei province, China. Two stages sampling strategy was applied to randomly selected 5 districts and 9 primary schools in Qianjiang. In total, 6,350 students participated in this study and there were 5,063 valid student questionnaires obtained for the final analyses. Additional questionnaires (such as Dyslexia Checklist for Chinese Children and Pupil Rating Scale) were used to identify dyslexic children. The chi-square test and multivariate logistic regression were employed to reveal the potential risk factors to dyslexia. Our study revealed that the prevalence of dyslexia was 3.9% in Qianjiang city, which is a middle-sized city in China. Among dyslexic children, the gender ratio (boys to girls) was nearly 3∶1. According to the P-value in the multivariate logistic regression, the gender (Pdyslexia. The prevalence rate of dyslexic children in middle-sized cities is 3.9%. The potential risk factors of dyslexic children revealed in this study will have a great impact on detecting and treating dyslexic children in China as early as possible, although more studies are still needed to further investigate the risk factors of dyslexic children in China.

  20. Cardiovascular disease risk factors in HIV patients--association with antiretroviral therapy. Results from the DAD study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis-Møller, Nina; Weber, Rainer; Reiss, Peter

    2003-01-01

    , a prospective multinational cohort study initiated in 1999. METHODS: Cross-sectional analyses of CVD risk factors at baseline. The data collected includes data on demographic variables, cigarette smoking, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, dyslipidaemia, body mass index, stage of HIV infection, antiretroviral......OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD) among HIV-infected persons, and to investigate any association between such risk factors, stage of HIV disease, and use of antiretroviral therapies. DESIGN: Baseline data from 17,852 subjects enrolled in DAD...... therapy. RESULTS: Almost 25% of the study population were at an age where there is an appreciable risk of CVD, with those receiving a protease inhibitor (PI) and/or non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) tending to be older. 1.4% had a previous history of CVD and 51.5% were cigarette...

  1. Risk and Protective Factors for Intimate Partner Violence Against Women: Systematic Review and Meta-analyses of Prospective-Longitudinal Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakubovich, Alexa R; Stöckl, Heidi; Murray, Joseph; Melendez-Torres, G J; Steinert, Janina I; Glavin, Calla E Y; Humphreys, David K

    2018-07-01

    The estimated lifetime prevalence of physical or sexual intimate partner violence (IPV) is 30% among women worldwide. Understanding risk and protective factors is essential for designing effective prevention strategies. To quantify the associations between prospective-longitudinal risk and protective factors and IPV and identify evidence gaps. We conducted systematic searches in 16 databases including MEDLINE and PsycINFO from inception to June 2016. The study protocol is registered with PROSPERO (CRD42016039213). We included published and unpublished studies available in English that prospectively analyzed any risk or protective factor(s) for self-reported IPV victimization among women and controlled for at least 1 other variable. Three reviewers were involved in study screening. One reviewer extracted estimates of association and study characteristics from each study and 2 reviewers independently checked a random subset of extractions. We assessed study quality with the Cambridge Quality Checklists. When studies investigated the same risk or protective factor using similar measures, we computed pooled odds ratios (ORs) by using random-effects meta-analyses. We summarized heterogeneity with I 2 and τ 2 . We synthesized all estimates of association, including those not meta-analyzed, by using harvest plots to illustrate evidence gaps and trends toward negative or positive associations. Of 18 608 studies identified, 60 were included and 35 meta-analyzed. Most studies were based in the United States. The strongest evidence for modifiable risk factors for IPV against women were unplanned pregnancy (OR = 1.66; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.20, 1.31) and having parents with less than a high-school education (OR = 1.55; 95% CI = 1.10, 2.17). Being older (OR = 0.96; 95% CI = 0.93, 0.98) or married (OR = 0.93; 95% CI = 0.87, 0.99) were protective. To our knowledge, this is the first systematic, meta-analytic review of all risk and

  2. Decision making under risk : a study of models and measurement procedures with special reference to the farmer's marketing behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smidts, A.

    1990-01-01

    The objectives of the study were: a) to review, discuss and test a number of theories on individual decision making under risk; much attention is specifically given to the definition and empirical testing of the concept of relative risk attitude, b) to investigate in a large scale survey

  3. Decision making under risk. A study of models and measurement procedures with special reference to the farmers' marketing behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Smidts (Ale)

    1990-01-01

    textabstractThe objectives of the study were: a) to review, discuss and test a number of theories on individual decision making under risk; much attention is specifically given to the definition and empirical testing of the concept of relative risk attitude, b) to investigate in a large scale survey

  4. Psychological and sociological approaches to study risk perception

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renn, O [Kernforschungsanlage Juelich G.m.b.H. (Germany, F.R.). Programmgruppe Technik und Gesellschaft; Swaton, E [International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria). Joint IAEA-IIASA Risk Assessment Group

    1984-01-01

    Technological progress and its impacts on humankind has caused an increasing awareness of risk, and objective, statistical estimations are often inadequate to alleviate the public's fright and fear. Research on risk perception using psychological and sociological approaches is trying to bridge this gap. As a first step, a distinction must be made between the technical definition of risk (probability x consequences) and the social definition, in which additional parameters (source, dimensions, timeframe, exposure) need to be included. The methodology of risk assessment, though objective by design, is limited in the interpretability of its results, if the calculation of consequences does not take public perceptions and social effects into account. The problems and advantages of risk assessment are discussed, and the key questions for risk perception research are presented. Various techniques are available to study risk perception and attitudes towards risk; selection of a specific technique is determined by the objective of the research, namely sociological implications or psychological cognitions. Several empirical studies in both areas are presented and the results discussed.

  5. Psychological and sociological approaches to study risk perception

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renn, O.; Swaton, E.

    1984-01-01

    Technological progress and its impacts on humankind has caused an increasing awareness of risk, and objective, statistical estimations are often inadequate to alleviate the public's fright and fear. Research on risk perception using psychological and sociological approaches is trying to bridge this gap. As a first step, a distinction must be made between the technical definition of risk (probability x consequences) and the social definition, in which additional parameters (source, dimensions, timeframe, exposure) need to be included. The methodology of risk assessment, though objective by design, is limited in the interpretability of its results, if the calculation of consequences does not take public perceptions and social effects into account. The problems and advantages of risk assessment are discussed, and the key questions for risk perception research are presented. Various techniques are available to study risk perception and attitudes towards risk; selection of a specific technique is determined by the objective of the research, namely sociological implications or psychological cognitions. Several empirical studies in both areas are presented and the results discussed. (author)

  6. Context dependency and consumer acceptance of risk reducing strategies - a choice experiment study on salmonella risks in pork

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørkbak, Morten Raun; Christensen, Tove; Gyrd-Hansen, Dorte

    2012-01-01

    The paper investigates to what extent context dependency is present, when consumers are introduced to different risk reducing technologies and how this will affect their preferences for reductions in food risks. In particular, choice experiments are used to elicit consumer preferences for reducin...... findings of bad news having greater effect than good news – now applied to context dependency of preferences for food safety technologies....

  7. ABO Blood Group and Dementia Risk--A Scandinavian Record-Linkage Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senthil K Vasan

    Full Text Available Dementia includes a group of neuro-degenerative disorders characterized by varying degrees of cognitive impairment. Recent data indicates that blood group AB is associated with impaired cognition in elderly patients. To date there are no large-scale studies that have examined the relationship between ABO blood group and dementia-related disorders in detail.We used data from the SCANDAT2 database that contains information on over 1.6 million blood donors from 1968 in Sweden and 1981 from Denmark. The database was linked with health outcomes data from nationwide patient and cause of death registers to investigate the relationship between blood groups and risk of different types of dementia. The incident rate ratios were estimated using log-linear Poisson regression models.Among 1,598,294 donors followed over 24 million person-years of observation we ascertained 3,615 cases of Alzheimer's disease, 1,842 cases of vascular dementia, and 9,091 cases of unspecified dementia. Overall, our study showed no association between ABO blood group and risk of Alzheimer's disease, vascular dementia or unspecified dementia. This was also true when analyses were restricted to donors aged 70 years or older except for a slight, but significantly decreased risk of all dementia combined in subjects with blood group A (IRR, 0.93; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.88-0.98, compared to those with blood group O.Our results provide no evidence that ABO blood group influences the risk of dementia.

  8. Risk of bipolar disorder in patients with COPD: a population-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Pei-Jung; Liao, Yin-To; Lee, Charles Tzu-Chi; Hsu, Chung-Yao; Hsieh, Ming-Hong; Tsai, Chia-Jui; Hsieh, Ming-Han; Chen, Vincent Chin-Hung

    2016-01-01

    Few studies have investigated the relationship between chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and bipolar outcomes in the world. We sought to investigate the association between COPD and risk of bipolar disorder in a large national sample. The insured aged 15 years or more with a new primary diagnosis of COPD (ICD-9: 491, 492, 494 and 496) between 2000 and 2007 were identified from Taiwan's National Health Insurance Research Database. We included individuals with an inpatient diagnosis of COPD and/or at least 1 year of two diagnoses of COPD in outpatient services. These 35,558 cases were compared to 35,558 sex-, age-, residence- and insurance premium-matched controls. We followed both groups until the end of 2008 for incidence of bipolar disorder, defined as ICD-9 codes 296.0-296.16, 296.4-296.81 and 296.89. Competing risk-adjusted Cox regression analyses were applied with adjusting for sex, age, residence, insurance premium, prednisone use, Charlson comorbidity index, diabetes, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, cardiovascular diseases, hospital admission days, outpatients' visits and mortality. Of the total 71,116 subjects, 202 were newly diagnosed with bipolar disorder during the study period. The mean follow-up time was 6.0 (SD=2.2) years. COPD, younger age, lower economic status, lower dose of prednisone use, higher hospital admission days and higher outpatient visits were independent predictors of bipolar disorder. COPD was associated with increased risk of bipolar disorder independent of a number of potential confounding factors in this study. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. AN EMPIRICAL STUDY ON THE BENEFITS AND THE RISKS OF OUTSOURCING LOGISTICS IN THE ROMANIAN INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mureºan Ioana

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Logistics outsourcing is considered to be an excellent source of competitive advantage for companies. Its benefits are long praised about in the specialty literature, but its risks are often briefly described. We believe that both the benefits and the risks of outsourcing logistics extremely important and must be regarded as a source of success or failure as it will be described in this paper. Our research objectives refer to investigating the main outsourcing risks and benefits in the contemporary Romanian industry sector, in order to be able to identify which are the most threatening risks and also the most wanted benefits in the opinion of the production companies. We regard logistics outsourcing as an exceedingly captivating and up-to-date topic, because it provides a satisfactory solution to various company issues that pertain to increased specialization, collaboration and integration in efficient and effective supply chains. The management of this activity with its main functions including the benefits and the risks will be approached in our research. The outsourcing of logistic services is a complex concept that our paper undertakes to discuss in some costs, access to new and costly technologies, scale economies, of its aspects. Our study is developed on 108 Romanian companies that have more than 50 employees. Based on our previous studies in Romanian industry, we decided that our research is best based mainly on quantitative methods. The instrument of our research is the structured questionnaire. The general goal of our research is to investigate the way in which companies manage the risks and the benefits both expected and attained in the process of outsourcing logistics. The implications of our research for the field of logistics refer to the fact that we were able to identify which are the most important and attainable outsourcing logistics benefits out of the large number stated in the international literature. Furthermore, we

  10. Participation in the management of occupational health and safety improvement : workers'investigation as active risk analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buitelaar, W.L.

    1989-01-01

    In this report the initiating involvement of workers on health and safety at the workplace and on the quality of working life has been underlined. Workers' investigation in this matter is viewed as an additional form of risk management. Covering: occupational health and safety as a social

  11. Accumulated environmental risk determining age at schizophrenia onset: a deep phenotyping-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepniak, Beata; Papiol, Sergi; Hammer, Christian; Ramin, Anna; Everts, Sarah; Hennig, Lena; Begemann, Martin; Ehrenreich, Hannelore

    2014-11-01

    Schizophrenia is caused by a combination of genetic and environmental factors, as first evidenced by twin studies. Extensive efforts have been made to identify the genetic roots of schizophrenia, including large genome-wide association studies, but these yielded very small effect sizes for individual markers. In this study, we aimed to assess the relative contribution of genome-wide association study-derived genetic versus environmental risk factors to crucial determinants of schizophrenia severity: disease onset, disease severity, and socioeconomic measures. In this parallel analysis, we studied 750 male patients from the Göttingen Research Association for Schizophrenia (GRAS) dataset (Germany) with schizophrenia for whom both genome-wide coverage of single-nucleotide polymorphisms and deep clinical phenotyping data were available. Specifically, we investigated the potential effect of schizophrenia risk alleles as identified in the most recent large genome-wide association study versus the effects of environmental hazards (ie, perinatal brain insults, cannabis use, neurotrauma, psychotrauma, urbanicity, and migration), alone and upon accumulation, on age at disease onset, age at prodrome, symptom expression, and socioeconomic parameters. In this study, we could show that frequent environmental factors become a major risk for early schizophrenia onset when accumulated (prodrome begins up to 9 years earlier; p=2·9×10(-10)). In particular, cannabis use-an avoidable environmental risk factor-is highly significantly associated with earlier age at prodrome (p=3·8×10(-20)). By contrast, polygenic genome-wide association study risk scores did not have any detectable effects on schizophrenia phenotypes. These findings should be translated to preventive measures to reduce environmental risk factors, since age at onset of schizophrenia is a crucial determinant of an affected individual's fate and the total socioeconomic cost of the illness. German Research Foundation

  12. A Simplified Approach to Risk Assessment Based on System Dynamics: An Industrial Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garbolino, Emmanuel; Chery, Jean-Pierre; Guarnieri, Franck

    2016-01-01

    Seveso plants are complex sociotechnical systems, which makes it appropriate to support any risk assessment with a model of the system. However, more often than not, this step is only partially addressed, simplified, or avoided in safety reports. At the same time, investigations have shown that the complexity of industrial systems is frequently a factor in accidents, due to interactions between their technical, human, and organizational dimensions. In order to handle both this complexity and changes in the system over time, this article proposes an original and simplified qualitative risk evaluation method based on the system dynamics theory developed by Forrester in the early 1960s. The methodology supports the development of a dynamic risk assessment framework dedicated to industrial activities. It consists of 10 complementary steps grouped into two main activities: system dynamics modeling of the sociotechnical system and risk analysis. This system dynamics risk analysis is applied to a case study of a chemical plant and provides a way to assess the technological and organizational components of safety. © 2016 Society for Risk Analysis.

  13. Risk markers for affective disorder, a seven-years follow up study of a twin cohort at low and high risk for affective disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinberg, Maj; Miskowiak, Kamilla; Kessing, Lars Vedel

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to investigate whether: familial history of affective disorder, subclinical depressive symptoms and life events (LEs) are predictive of a later development of mood disorder (onset). In a high-risk study, 234 healthy monozygotic and dizygotic twins with and without a co-twin history...... of affective disorder (high and low risk twins, respectively) were identified through nationwide registers and assessed from 2002 to 2005. Participants were followed longitudinally at 6-months intervals for up to nine years and finally reassessed with a personal interview to obtain information on whether...... they had an onset. During the follow-up period (mean time 7.0 years), 36 participants (15.4%) developed onset. Onset was significantly associated with risk status (Hazard ratio (HR) = 1.38, 95% CI 1.08-1.76), female sex, HR = 2.70, 95% CI 1.19-6.97, age HR = 0.97, 95% CI 0.93-0.99), and also with baseline...

  14. Remedial investigation/feasibility study of the Clinch River/Poplar Creek operable unit. Volume 1: Main text

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-06-01

    This report presents the findings of an investigation into contamination of the Clinch River and Poplar Creek near the US Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) in eastern Tennessee. For more than 50 years, various hazardous and radioactive substances have been released to the environment as a result of operations and waste management activities at the ORR. In 1989, the ORR was placed on the National Priorities List (NPL), established and maintained under the federal Comprehensive environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA). Under CERCLA, NPL sites must be investigated to determine the nature and extent of contamination at the site, assess the risk to human health and the environment posed by the site, and, if necessary, identify feasible remedial alternatives that could be used to clean the site and reduce risk. To facilitate the overall environmental restoration effort at the ORR, CERCLA activities are being implemented individually as distinct operable units (OUs). This document is the combined Remedial Investigation and Feasibility Study Report for the Clinch River/Poplar Creek OU.

  15. Investigation of mammographic breast density as a risk factor for ovarian cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wernli, Karen J; O'Meara, Ellen S; Kerlikowske, Karla; Miglioretti, Diana L; Muller, Carolyn Y; Onega, Tracy; Sprague, Brian L; Henderson, Louise M; Buist, Diana S M

    2014-01-01

    Endogenous hormones and growth factors that increase mammographic breast density could increase ovarian cancer risk. We examined whether high breast density is associated with ovarian cancer risk. We conducted a cohort study of 724,603 women aged 40 to 79 years with 2,506,732 mammograms participating in the Breast Cancer Surveillance Consortium from 1995 to 2009. Incident epithelial ovarian cancer was diagnosed in 1373 women. We used partly conditional Cox regression to estimate the association between breast density and 5-year risk of incident epithelial ovarian cancer overall and stratified by 10-year age group. All statistical tests were two-sided. Compared with women with scattered fibroglandular densities, women with heterogeneously dense and extremely dense breast tissue had 20% and 18% increased 5-year risk of incident epithelial ovarian cancer (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.20, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.06 to 1.36; HR = 1.18, 95% CI = 0.93 to 1.50, respectively; P(trend) = .01). Among women aged 50 to 59 years, we observed a trend in elevated risk associated with increased breast density (P(trend) = .02); women with heterogeneously and extremely dense breast tissue had 30% (HR = 1.30; 95% CI = 1.03 to 1.64) and 65% (HR = 1.65; 95% CI = 1.12 to 2.44) increased risk, respectively, compared with women with scattered fibroglandular densities. The pattern was similar but not statistically significant at age 40 to 49 years. There were no consistent patterns of breast density and ovarian cancer risk at age 60 to 79 years. Dense breast tissue was associated with a modest increase in 5-year ovarian cancer risk in women aged 50 to 59 years but was not associated with ovarian cancer at ages 40 to 49 or 60 to 79 years.

  16. Travel health risk perceptions and prevention behaviors of US study abroad students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartjes, Laurie B; Baumann, Linda C; Henriques, Jeffrey B

    2009-01-01

    The number of American study abroad students increased more than 150% in the past decade, along with growth in destinations with increased health risks. This study investigated travel health risk perceptions and prevention behaviors to guide interventions that address the emerging health needs of US study abroad students. A cross-sectional design was used to collect data from 318 American study abroad students using a Web-based survey. The primary source of travel health information was youth-oriented travel guidebooks (85%). The grand mean risk perception score for 18 travel health threats was 1.7 on a 1 to 4 scale, with top-rated threats being contaminated food/water, psychological distress, personal assault, and excessive sun exposure. Predeparture advice was received from primary care providers (52%) and travel health specialists (18%). Additional prevention measures were vaccines (42%) and medication (24%). Of 114 students listing their travel vaccinations, 11% described receiving a malaria vaccine and 4% a hepatitis C vaccine, although no such vaccines exist. Most respondents were confident/very confident in their ability to engage in prevention behaviors (94%). Health problems were primarily infectious disease (70%), psychological distress (10%), and injuries (8%). When asked if prior travel destinations involved areas where malaria transmission occurs, 20% responded, "Don't know." Identified gaps in travel health knowledge and prevention behaviors may produce hazardous consequences when combined with low-perceived risk, reliance on travel guidebooks for health information, and high ratings for prevention self-efficacy. Future research is needed to test the effectiveness of educational interventions designed for student travelers who would benefit from guided practice with destination-specific risk appraisal and prevention planning. Web-based educational resources are a good fit for this population because they are easily updated, available in all phases of

  17. Action planning as predictor of health protective and health risk behavior: an investigation of fruit and snack consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Candel Math

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Large discrepancies between people's intention to eat a healthy diet and actual dietary behavior indicate that motivation is not a sufficient instigator for healthy behavior. Research efforts to decrease this 'intention - behavior gap' have centered on aspects of self-regulation, most importantly self-regulatory planning. Most studies on the impact of self-regulatory planning in health and dietary behavior focus on the promotion of health protective behaviors. This study investigates and compares the predictive value of action planning in health protective behavior and the restriction of health risk behavior. Methods Two longitudinal observational studies were performed simultaneously, one focusing on fruit consumption (N = 572 and one on high-caloric snack consumption (N = 585 in Dutch adults. Structural equation modeling was used to investigate and compare the predictive value of action planning in both behaviors, correcting for demographics and the influence of motivational factors and past behavior. The nature of the influence of action planning was investigated by testing mediating and moderating effects. Results Action planning was a significant predictor of fruit consumption and restricted snack consumption beyond the influence of motivational factors and past behavior. The strength of the predictive value of action planning did not differ between the two behaviors. Evidence for mediation of the intention - behavior relationship was found for both behaviors. Positive moderating effects of action planning were demonstrated for fruit consumption, indicating that individuals who report high levels of action planning are significantly more likely to translate their intentions into actual behavior. Conclusion The results indicate that the planning of specific preparatory actions predicts the performance of healthy dietary behavior and support the application of self-regulatory planning in both health protective and health

  18. RISK CONCEPT AND RISK ASSESSMENT IN EPIDEMIOLOGIC STUDIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gamze CAN

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Basic aim of an epidemiological study is to quantify the association between the exposure and the outcome of interest. To achieve this, the incidence of disease in a group of individuals exposed to the putative risk factors must be compared with the incidence in a group of persons not exposed. This comparison can be summarized by calculating either the ratio of the measures of disease occurrence for the two groups, which indicates the likelihood of developing the disease in the exposed individuals relative to those unexposed, or the difference between the two, which provides information about the absolute effect of the exposure in those exposed compared with those unexposed. Some terms about relative risk were explained and examine with samples in this article. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2006; 5(5.000: 374-381

  19. Vegetarianism, low meat consumption and the risk of colorectal cancer in a population based cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gilsing, A.M.J.; Schouten, L.J.; Goldbohm, R.A.; Dagnelie, P.C.; Brandt, P.A. van den; Weijenberg, M.P.

    2015-01-01

    To study how a vegetarian or low meat diet influences the risk of colorectal cancer compared to a high meat diet, and to assess the explanatory role of factors associated with these diets. In the Netherlands Cohort Study – Meat Investigation Cohort (NLCS-MIC) (cohort of 10,210 individuals including

  20. Intake of dietary saturated fatty acids and risk of type 2 diabetes in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition-Netherlands cohort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Shengxin; Schouw, van der Yvonne T.; Soedamah-Muthu, Sabita S.; Spijkerman, Annemieke M.W.; Sluijs, Ivonne

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: The association between dietary saturated fatty acids (SFA) intake and type 2 diabetes (T2D) remains unclear. This study aimed at investigating the association between SFA intake and T2D risk based on (1) individual SFA (differing in carbon chain length), (2) food sources of SFA and (3) the

  1. Risk of psoriasis in patients with childhood asthma: a Danish nationwide cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egeberg, A; Khalid, U; Gislason, G H; Mallbris, L; Skov, L; Hansen, P R

    2015-07-01

    Psoriasis and asthma are disorders driven by inflammation. Psoriasis may carry an increased risk of asthma, but the reverse relationship has not been investigated. To investigate the risk of psoriasis in subjects with childhood asthma in a nationwide Danish cohort. Data on all Danish individuals aged 6-14 years at study entry between 1 January 1997 and 31 December 2011 (n = 1,478,110) were linked at an individual level in nationwide registers. Incidence rates per 10,000 person-years were calculated, and incidence rate ratios (IRRs) adjusted for age, sex, concomitant medication and comorbidity were estimated by Poisson regression models. There were 21,725 cases of childhood asthma and 6586 incident cases of psoriasis. There were 5697 and 889 incident cases of mild and severe psoriasis, respectively. The incidence rates of overall, mild and severe psoriasis were 4.49, 3.88 and 0.61 for the reference population, and 5.95, 5.18 and 0.83 for subjects with childhood asthma, respectively. The IRRs for overall, mild and severe psoriasis were 3.94 [95% confidence interval (CI) 2.16-7.17], 5.03 (95% CI 2.48-10.21) and 2.27 (95% CI 0.61-8.42) for patients with childhood asthma. Childhood asthma was associated with a significantly increased risk of psoriasis. Further studies are warranted to determine the clinical significance and effects of therapeutic interventions on this association. © 2015 British Association of Dermatologists.

  2. Investigating risk factors and possible infectious aetiologies of mummified fetuses on a large piggery in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dron, N; Hernández-Jover, M; Doyle, R E; Holyoake, P K

    2014-12-01

    To investigate risk factors and potential infectious aetiologies of an increased mummification rate (>2%) identified over time on a 1200-sow farrow-to-finish farm in Australia. Association of potential non-infectious risk factors and the mummification rate was investigated using 15 years of breeding herd data (40,940 litters) and logistic regression analysis. Samples from a limited number of mummified fetuses were taken to identify potential infectious aetiologies (porcine parvovirus, Leptospira pomona, porcine circovirus type 2, Bungowannah virus and enterovirus). Logistic regression analysis suggested that the mummification rate was significantly associated with sow breed and parity, year and total born and stillborn piglets per litter. The mummification rate was lower (P < 0.001) in Landrace (3.4%) and Large White (2.6%) sows than in Duroc sows (4.9%). Gilts (2.9%) had a lower (P < 0.001) mummification rate than older sows. The mummification rate increased with total born litter size and decreased with the number of stillborn piglets (P < 0.001). A clustering effect within individual sows was identified, indicating that some sows with mummified fetuses in a litter were more likely to have repeated mummifications in subsequent litters. No infectious agents were identified in the samples taken. Results from this study suggest that the increased mummification rate identified over time on this farm is likely to be a non-infectious multifactorial problem predisposing the occurrence of mummification. Further research is required to better understand the pathophysiology of mummification and the role that different non-infectious factors play in the occurrence of mummified fetuses. © 2014 Australian Veterinary Association.

  3. Recurrent urinary tract infection and risk of bladder cancer in the Nijmegen bladder cancer study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, S.; Hanum, N.; Grotenhuis, A.J.; Castano-Vinyals, G.; Heijden, A.G. van der; Aben, K.K.H.; Mysorekar, I.U.; Kiemeney, L.A.L.M.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Controversy exists on whether urinary tract infection (UTI) is a risk factor for urinary bladder cancer (UBC). Here, the association is investigated using data from one of the largest bladder cancer case-control studies worldwide. METHODS: Information on (i) history and age at onset of

  4. Antiepileptic drugs and risk of suicide: a nationwide study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, J.B.; Hansen, Peter Riis; Erdal, Jesper

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Patients with epilepsy or psychiatric diseases have increased risk of suicide, but whether the risk is influenced by antiepileptic drug (AED) treatment is unclear. Studies have suggested that AEDs in general increase the risk of suicidal behaviour shortly after initiation. This study inve...

  5. Environmental Comparative Risk Assessment: A Case Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, M.M.

    2007-01-01

    Health and environmental impacts associated with energy production and industrial activities as well as food production and agricultural activities have had great concern in the last decades. Early activities emerged in late 80s of the last century through an Inter- Agency project (lAEA, UNDY, WHO, ... ) on the comparative risk assessment from energy systems and industrial complexes. A work-shop on Risk Assessment and Management in large industrial areas was held in Alexandria Egypt on 20-33 Det 1993, sponsored by IAEA. Several conferences, experts work groups and workshops were held there of Recent trends in determining risks are: 1. Use of probabilistic risk assessment approach to identify hazardous activities and accident scenario. 2. development of data base on failure probabilities and appropriate physical models. 3. Development of related directives and regulations and criteria Comparative risk assessment case study as a tool for comparing risk is emphasized Criteria of exposure to human and ecological risks are addressed

  6. Association between zolpidem use and glaucoma risk: a Taiwanese population-based case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Yi-Hao; Chang, Yue-Cune; Huang, Wei-Cheng; Chen, Hsin-Yi; Lin, Che-Chen; Sung, Fung-Chang

    2015-01-01

    To date, the relationship between zolpidem use and subsequent risk of glaucoma in a Taiwanese population has not been assessed. We used data from the National Health Insurance system to investigate whether zolpidem use was related to glaucoma risk. A 1:4 matched case-control study was conducted. The cases were patients newly diagnosed with glaucoma from 2001 to 2010. The controls were randomly selected non-glaucoma subjects matched by sex and age (± 5 years). Zolpidem exposure and/or the average dosage of zolpidem used (mg/year) were evaluated. Medical comorbidities were considered as confounding factors. Multiple logistic regression models were used to evaluate the potential risk of zolpidem exposure on glaucoma with/without adjustment for the effects of confounding variables. The exposure rate of zolpidem use in the glaucoma group was significantly higher than that of the control group (2.8% vs. 2.0%, P zolpidem use vs. those without was 1.19 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.02-1.38). Compared to non-zolpidem users, zolpidem users with an average dose of more than 200 mg/year had significantly increased risk of glaucoma (OR 1.31, 95% CI 1.03-1.68). This study suggests that the use of zolpidem might increase the risk of subsequent glaucoma. Further confirmatory studies are recommended to clarify this important issue.

  7. A study on the social risk-judgment for nuclear energy : development of the risk-judgment model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Young Sung

    1999-02-01

    Despite the fact that nuclear power has become a major energy source in Korea, the public attitude toward it shows a typical NIMBY (Not In My Back Yard) phenomenon. In order for designing an effective policy, it is essential to obtain reliable knowledge about how the public perceive and judge the risks and benefits of nuclear energy. A public risk judgment model was developed through both constructing the perception variables by Latent Class Analysis and quantifying the relationship between acceptance and perception variables by Logistic Regression. Two independent sets of nation-wide survey data provided the parameter estimates and the validity of the model. As a result, the perception level of risks and benefits could be quantified and National Acceptance and Local Acceptance could be modeled by the perception variables. While lay people judge the risks and benefits through the process of perception, experts have relevant knowledge and information about nuclear energy and depend on the scientific facts or inferences in judgment process. Thus their opinion and consensus should be examined and taken into account during policy formulation process. For the purpose of eliciting expert's opinion, the web-based on-line survey system (eBOSS) was developed. The Web provides an easy graphical user interface that enables users to complete the survey at their own convenience and answer questions in a low-overhead fashion. Using the survey system, experts' views were tallied, analyzed and compared with the public. While there were differences in the perception of risks as well as benefits between the public and expert, similar preferences on alternative policies appeared. This study is one of the first attempts to statistically examine the nexus between the perception and the acceptance of nuclear energy. The methodologies may give the basis for investigating the structure of the public attitude on new technologies and the results can be useful to design public

  8. A nation-wide study of the family aggregation and risk factors in anorexia nervosa over three generations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steinhausen, Hans-Christoph; Jakobsen, Helle; Helenius, Dorte

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This nation-wide register-based study investigated how often anorexia nervosa (AN) and co-morbid disorders occur in affected families compared with control families. Furthermore, the study addressed the impact of sex, year of birth, and degree of urbanization in terms of risk factors...

  9. Prevalence of self-reported finger deformations and occupational risk factors among professional cooks: a cross-sectional study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nagasu, M.; Sakai, K.; Ito, A.; Feskens, E.J.M.; Tomita, S.; Temmyo, Y.; Ueno, M.; Miyagi, S.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Previous studies have pointed out that the school lunch workers in Japan are suffering from work-related disorders including finger deformations. The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of self-reported finger deformations and the association with job-related risk

  10. Remedial investigation/feasibility study for the Clinch River/Poplar Creek operable unit. Volume 4. Appendix F

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-09-01

    This section contains ecotoxicological profiles for the COPECs for the combined Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study Report for the Clinch River/Poplar Crack (CR/PC) Operable Unit (OU). The ecotoxicological information is presented for only those endpoints for which the chemicals are COPECs. The CR/PC OU is located in Anderson and Roane Counties, Tennessee and consists of the Clinch River and several of its embayments in Melton Hill and Watts Bar Reservoirs. These waters have received hazardous substances released over a period of 50 years from the US Department of Energy's Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR), a National Priority List site established under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act. A remedial investigation has been conducted to determine the current nature and extent of any contamination and to assess the resulting risk to human health and the environment. The feasibility study evaluates remedial action alternatives to identify any that are feasible for implementation and that would effectively reduce risk. Historical studies had indicated that current problems would likely include 137 Cs in sediment of the Clinch River, mercury in sediment and fish of Poplar Creek and PCBs and pesticides in fish from throughout the OU. Peak releases of mercury and 137 Cs occurred over 35 years ago, and current releases are low. Past releases of PCBs from the ORR are poorly quantified, and current releases are difficult to quantify because levels are so low. The site characterization focused on contaminants in surface water, sediment, and biota. Contaminants in surface water were all found to be below Ambient Water Quality Criteria. Other findings included the following: elevated metals including cesium 137 and mercury in McCoy Branch sediments; PCBs and chlordane elevated in several fish species, presenting the only major human health risk, significant ecological risks in Poplar Creek but not in the Clinch River

  11. Remedial investigation/feasibility study for the Clinch River/Poplar Creek operable unit. Volume 4. Appendix F

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    This section contains ecotoxicological profiles for the COPECs for the combined Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study Report for the Clinch River/Poplar Crack (CR/PC) Operable Unit (OU). The ecotoxicological information is presented for only those endpoints for which the chemicals are COPECs. The CR/PC OU is located in Anderson and Roane Counties, Tennessee and consists of the Clinch River and several of its embayments in Melton Hill and Watts Bar Reservoirs. These waters have received hazardous substances released over a period of 50 years from the US Department of Energy`s Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR), a National Priority List site established under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act. A remedial investigation has been conducted to determine the current nature and extent of any contamination and to assess the resulting risk to human health and the environment. The feasibility study evaluates remedial action alternatives to identify any that are feasible for implementation and that would effectively reduce risk. Historical studies had indicated that current problems would likely include {sup 137}Cs in sediment of the Clinch River, mercury in sediment and fish of Poplar Creek and PCBs and pesticides in fish from throughout the OU. Peak releases of mercury and {sup 137}Cs occurred over 35 years ago, and current releases are low. Past releases of PCBs from the ORR are poorly quantified, and current releases are difficult to quantify because levels are so low. The site characterization focused on contaminants in surface water, sediment, and biota. Contaminants in surface water were all found to be below Ambient Water Quality Criteria. Other findings included the following: elevated metals including cesium 137 and mercury in McCoy Branch sediments; PCBs and chlordane elevated in several fish species, presenting the only major human health risk, significant ecological risks in Poplar Creek but not in the Clinch River.

  12. Remedial investigation/feasibility study for the Clinch River/Poplar Creek operable unit. Volume 3. Appendix E

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    This document contains Appendix E: Toxicity Information and Uncertainty Analysis, description of methods, from the combined Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study Report for the Clinch River/Poplar Crack (CR/PC) Operable Unit (OU). The CR/PC OU is located in Anderson and Roane Counties, Tennessee and consists of the Clinch River and several of its embayments in Melton Hill and Watts Bar Reservoirs. These waters have received hazardous substances released over a period of 50 years from the US Department of Energy`s Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR), a National Priority List site established under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act. A remedial investigation has been conducted to determine the current nature and extent of any contamination and to assess the resulting risk to human health and the environment. The feasibility study evaluates remedial action alternatives to identify any that are feasible for implementation and that would effectively reduce risk. Historical studies had indicated that current problems would likely include {sup 137}Cs in sediment of the Clinch River, mercury in sediment and fish of Poplar Creek and PCBs and pesticides in fish from throughout the OU. Peak releases of mercury and {sup 137}Cs occurred over 35 years ago, and current releases are low. Past releases of PCBs from the ORR are poorly quantified, and current releases are difficult to quantify because levels are so low. The site characterization focused on contaminants in surface water, sediment, and biota. Contaminants in surface water were all found to be below Ambient Water Quality Criteria. Other findings included the following: elevated metals including cesium 137 and mercury in McCoy Branch sediments; PCBs and chlordane elevated in several fish species, presenting the only major human health risk, significant ecological risks in Poplar Creek but not in the Clinch River.

  13. Remedial investigation/feasibility study for the Clinch River/Poplar Creek operable unit. Volume 1. Main text

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    This is the combined Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study Report for the Clinch River/Poplar Crack (CR/PC) Operable Unit (OU). The CR/PC OU is located in Anderson and Roane Counties, Tennessee and consists of the Clinch River and several of its embayments in Melton Hill and Watts Bar Reservoirs. These waters have received hazardous substances released over a period of 50 years from the US Department of Energy`s Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR), a National Priority List site established under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act. A remedial investigation has been conducted to determine the current nature and extent of any contamination and to assess the resulting risk to human health and the environment. The feasibility study evaluates remedial action alternatives to identify any that are feasible for implementation and that would effectively reduce risk. Historical studies had indicated that current problems would likely include {sup 137}Cs in sediment of the Clinch River, mercury in sediment and fish of Poplar Creek and PCBs and pesticides in fish from throughout the OU. Peak releases of mercury and {sup 137}Cs occurred over 35 years ago, and current releases are low. Past releases of PCBs from the ORR are poorly quantified, and current releases are difficult to quantify because levels are so low. The site characterization focused on contaminants in surface water, sediment, and biota. Contaminants in surface water were all found to be below Ambient Water Quality Criteria. Other findings included the following: elevated metals including cesium 137 and mercury in McCoy Branch sediments; PCBs and chlordane elevated in several fish species, presenting the only major human health risk, significant ecological risks in Poplar Creek but not in the Clinch River.

  14. Remedial investigation/feasibility study for the Clinch River/Poplar Creek operable unit. Volume 3. Appendix E

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-09-01

    This document contains Appendix E: Toxicity Information and Uncertainty Analysis, description of methods, from the combined Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study Report for the Clinch River/Poplar Crack (CR/PC) Operable Unit (OU). The CR/PC OU is located in Anderson and Roane Counties, Tennessee and consists of the Clinch River and several of its embayments in Melton Hill and Watts Bar Reservoirs. These waters have received hazardous substances released over a period of 50 years from the US Department of Energy's Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR), a National Priority List site established under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act. A remedial investigation has been conducted to determine the current nature and extent of any contamination and to assess the resulting risk to human health and the environment. The feasibility study evaluates remedial action alternatives to identify any that are feasible for implementation and that would effectively reduce risk. Historical studies had indicated that current problems would likely include 137 Cs in sediment of the Clinch River, mercury in sediment and fish of Poplar Creek and PCBs and pesticides in fish from throughout the OU. Peak releases of mercury and 137 Cs occurred over 35 years ago, and current releases are low. Past releases of PCBs from the ORR are poorly quantified, and current releases are difficult to quantify because levels are so low. The site characterization focused on contaminants in surface water, sediment, and biota. Contaminants in surface water were all found to be below Ambient Water Quality Criteria. Other findings included the following: elevated metals including cesium 137 and mercury in McCoy Branch sediments; PCBs and chlordane elevated in several fish species, presenting the only major human health risk, significant ecological risks in Poplar Creek but not in the Clinch River

  15. Remedial investigation/feasibility study for the Clinch River/Poplar Creek operable unit. Volume 1. Main text

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-09-01

    This is the combined Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study Report for the Clinch River/Poplar Crack (CR/PC) Operable Unit (OU). The CR/PC OU is located in Anderson and Roane Counties, Tennessee and consists of the Clinch River and several of its embayments in Melton Hill and Watts Bar Reservoirs. These waters have received hazardous substances released over a period of 50 years from the US Department of Energy's Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR), a National Priority List site established under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act. A remedial investigation has been conducted to determine the current nature and extent of any contamination and to assess the resulting risk to human health and the environment. The feasibility study evaluates remedial action alternatives to identify any that are feasible for implementation and that would effectively reduce risk. Historical studies had indicated that current problems would likely include 137 Cs in sediment of the Clinch River, mercury in sediment and fish of Poplar Creek and PCBs and pesticides in fish from throughout the OU. Peak releases of mercury and 137 Cs occurred over 35 years ago, and current releases are low. Past releases of PCBs from the ORR are poorly quantified, and current releases are difficult to quantify because levels are so low. The site characterization focused on contaminants in surface water, sediment, and biota. Contaminants in surface water were all found to be below Ambient Water Quality Criteria. Other findings included the following: elevated metals including cesium 137 and mercury in McCoy Branch sediments; PCBs and chlordane elevated in several fish species, presenting the only major human health risk, significant ecological risks in Poplar Creek but not in the Clinch River

  16. Self-perceived facture risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rothmann, M J; Ammentorp, J; Bech, M

    2015-01-01

    , and self-rated heath) and self-perceived fracture risk. Although women recognized the importance of some fracture risk factors, a number of significant risk factors appeared to be less well known. INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study is to investigate women's self-perceived fracture risk and potential...... factors associated with this and to compare self-perceived risk with absolute fracture risk estimated by FRAX® in women aged 65-80 years. METHODS: Data from 20,905 questionnaires from the ROSE study were analyzed. The questionnaire included 25 items on osteoporosis, risk factors for fractures, and self...... their fracture risk significantly higher than their peers. No correlation between self-perceived risk and absolute risk was found. The ordered logistic regression model showed a significant association between high self-perceived fracture risk and previous fragility fracture, parental hip fracture, falls, self...

  17. Sugars and risk of mortality in the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study1234

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasevska, Natasha; Park, Yikyung; Jiao, Li; Hollenbeck, Albert; Subar, Amy F; Potischman, Nancy

    2014-01-01

    Background: Although previous studies have linked intake of sugars with incidence of cancer and other chronic diseases, its association with mortality remains unknown. Objective: We investigated the association of total sugars, added sugars, total fructose, added fructose, sucrose, and added sucrose with the risk of all-cause, cardiovascular disease, cancer, and other-cause mortality in the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study. Design: The participants (n = 353,751), aged 50–71 y, were followed for up to 13 y. Intake of individual sugars over the previous 12 mo was assessed at baseline by using a 124-item NIH Diet History Questionnaire. Results: In fully adjusted models (fifth quartile compared with first quartile), all-cause mortality was positively associated with the intake of total sugars [HR (95% CI): 1.13 (1.06, 1.20); P-trend sugars (P-trend = 0.04), sucrose (P-trend = 0.03), and added sucrose (P-trend = 0.006). Investigation of consumption of sugars by source showed that the positive association with mortality risk was confined only to sugars from beverages, whereas the inverse association was confined to sugars from solid foods. Conclusions: In this large prospective study, total fructose intake was weakly positively associated with all-cause mortality in both women and men, whereas added sugar, sucrose, and added sucrose intakes were inversely associated with other-cause mortality in men. In our analyses, intake of added sugars was not associated with an increased risk of mortality. The NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00340015. PMID:24552754

  18. Adherence to a Vegetarian Diet and Diabetes Risk: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Observational Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yujin Lee

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available We quantitatively assessed the association between a vegetarian diet and diabetes risk using pooled estimates from observational studies. Electronic database searches for articles published from January 1980 to May 2016 were independently performed by two investigators, and 13 articles (14 studies were identified. The pooled odds ratio (OR for diabetes in vegetarians vs. non-vegetarians was 0.726 (95% confidence interval (CI: 0.608, 0.867. In the subgroup analyses, this inverse association was stronger for the studies conducted in the Western Pacific region (OR 0.514, 95% CI: 0.304, 0.871 and Europe/North America (OR 0.756, 95% CI: 0.589, 0.971 than studies conducted in Southeast Asia (OR 0.888, 95% CI: 0.718, 1.099. No study had a substantial effect on the pooled effect size in the influence analysis, and the Egger’s (p = 0.465 and Begg’s tests (p = 0.584 revealed no publication bias. This meta-analysis indicates that a vegetarian diet is inversely associated with diabetes risk. Our results support the need for further investigations into the effects of the motivations for vegetarianism, the duration of the adherence to a vegetarian diet, and type of vegetarian on diabetes risk.

  19. Adherence to a Vegetarian Diet and Diabetes Risk: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Observational Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yujin; Park, Kyong

    2017-01-01

    We quantitatively assessed the association between a vegetarian diet and diabetes risk using pooled estimates from observational studies. Electronic database searches for articles published from January 1980 to May 2016 were independently performed by two investigators, and 13 articles (14 studies) were identified. The pooled odds ratio (OR) for diabetes in vegetarians vs. non-vegetarians was 0.726 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.608, 0.867). In the subgroup analyses, this inverse association was stronger for the studies conducted in the Western Pacific region (OR 0.514, 95% CI: 0.304, 0.871) and Europe/North America (OR 0.756, 95% CI: 0.589, 0.971) than studies conducted in Southeast Asia (OR 0.888, 95% CI: 0.718, 1.099). No study had a substantial effect on the pooled effect size in the influence analysis, and the Egger’s (p = 0.465) and Begg’s tests (p = 0.584) revealed no publication bias. This meta-analysis indicates that a vegetarian diet is inversely associated with diabetes risk. Our results support the need for further investigations into the effects of the motivations for vegetarianism, the duration of the adherence to a vegetarian diet, and type of vegetarian on diabetes risk. PMID:28613258

  20. Postnatal risk factors for testicular cancer: The EPSAM case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moirano, Giovenale; Zugna, Daniela; Grasso, Chiara; Mirabelli, Dario; Lista, Patrizia; Ciuffreda, Libero; Segnan, Nereo; Merletti, Franco; Richiardi, Lorenzo

    2017-11-01

    Testicular cancer is considered to originate from an impaired differentiation of fetal germ cells, but puberty could represent another time window of susceptibility. Our study aimed at investigating the association between environmental exposures acting during puberty/adolescence (13-19 years of age) and the risk of testicular cancer. We used data of the EPSAM study, a case-control study on germ-cell testicular cancer conducted in the province of Turin, Italy, involving cases diagnosed between 1997 and 2008. Histologically confirmed cases (n = 255) and controls (n = 459) completed a postal questionnaire focusing in particular on the pubertal period (namely age 13 years) with questions on physical activity (competitive sports, gardening), lifestyle (alcohol consumption, smoking), occupational history and medical conditions. All analyses were adjusted for the matching variables, cryptorchidism and educational level. Having done at least one competitive sport during puberty (odds ratio [OR]: 0.72, 95% confidence interval: 0.52-1.00), gardening activities during puberty (OR: 0.62, 0.42-0.94) and having a lower weight than peers during puberty (OR: 0.64, 0.42-0.97) were all inversely associated with the risk of testicular cancer. No evidence of association between smoking or alcohol consumption during puberty and the risk of testicular cancer was observed. Regarding agriculture-related occupations, we found an association with the risk of testicular cancer both for occasional jobs during puberty (OR: 2.40, 95% CI: 1.08-5.29) and ever employment in adolescence (OR: 2.59, 95% CI: 0.83-8.10). Our results suggest that postnatal exposures could play a role in testicular cancer aetiology, at least when acting in puberty or adolescence. © 2017 UICC.

  1. Terminal illness and the increased mortality risk of conventional antipsychotics in observational studies: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luijendijk, Hendrika J; de Bruin, Niels C; Hulshof, Tessa A; Koolman, Xander

    2016-02-01

    Numerous large observational studies have shown an increased risk of mortality in elderly users of conventional antipsychotics. Health authorities have warned against use of these drugs. However, terminal illness is a potentially strong confounder of the observational findings. So, the objective of this study was to systematically assess whether terminal illness may have biased the observational association between conventional antipsychotics and risk of mortality in elderly patients. Studies were searched in PubMed, CINAHL, Embase, the references of selected studies and articles referring to selected studies (Web of Science). Inclusion criteria were (i) observational studies that estimated (ii) the risk of all-cause mortality in (iii) new elderly users of (iv) conventional antipsychotics compared with atypical antipsychotics or no use. Two investigators assessed the characteristics of the exposure and reference groups, main results, measured confounders and methods used to adjust for unmeasured confounders. We identified 21 studies. All studies were based on administrative medical and pharmaceutical databases. Sicker and older patients received conventional antipsychotics more often than new antipsychotics. The risk of dying was especially high in the first month of use, and when haloperidol was administered per injection or in high doses. Terminal illness was not measured in any study. Instrumental variables that were used were also confounded by terminal illness. We conclude that terminal illness has not been adjusted for in observational studies that reported an increased risk of mortality risk in elderly users of conventional antipsychotics. As the validity of the evidence is questionable, so is the warning based on it. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Pre-test probability risk scores and their use in contemporary management of patients with chest pain: One year stress echo cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demarco, Daniela Cassar; Papachristidis, Alexandros; Roper, Damian; Tsironis, Ioannis; Byrne, Jonathan; Monaghan, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To compare how patients with chest pain would be investigated, based on the two guidelines available for UK cardiologists, on the management of patients with stable chest pain. The UK National Institute of Clinical Excellence (NICE) guideline which was published in 2010 and the European society of cardiology (ESC) guideline published in 2013. Both guidelines utilise pre-test probability risk scores, to guide the choice of investigation. Design We undertook a large retrospective study to investigate the outcomes of stress echocardiography. Setting A large tertiary centre in the UK in a contemporary clinical practice. Participants Two thirds of the patients in the cohort were referred from our rapid access chest pain clinics. Results We found that the NICE risk score overestimates risk by 20% compared to the ESC Risk score. We also found that based on the NICE guidelines, 44% of the patients presenting with chest pain, in this cohort, would have been investigated invasively, with diagnostic coronary angiography. Using the ESC guidelines, only 0.3% of the patients would be investigated invasively. Conclusion The large discrepancy between the two guidelines can be easily reduced if NICE adopted the ESC risk score. PMID:26673458

  3. Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study Work Plan for the 200-UP-1 Groundwater Operable Unit, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    This work plan identifies the objectives, tasks, and schedule for conducting a Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study for the 200-UP-1 Groundwater Operable Unit in the southern portion of the 200 West Groundwater Aggregate Area of the Hanford Site. The 200-UP-1 Groundwater Operable Unit addresses contamination identified in the aquifer soils and groundwater within its boundary, as determined in the 200 West Groundwater Aggregate Area Management Study Report (AAMSR) (DOE/RL 1992b). The objectives of this work plan are to develop a program to investigate groundwater contaminants in the southern portion of the 200 West Groundwater Aggregate Area that were designated for Limited Field Investigations (LFIs) and to implement Interim Remedial Measures (IRMs) recommended in the 200 West Groundwater AAMSR. The purpose of an LFI is to evaluate high priority groundwater contaminants where existing data are insufficient to determine whether an IRM is warranted and collect sufficient data to justify and implement an IRM, if needed. A Qualitative Risk Assessment (QRA) will be performed as part of the LFI. The purpose of an IRM is to develop and implement activities, such as contaminant source removal and groundwater treatment, that will ameliorate some of the more severe potential risks of groundwater contaminants prior to the RI and baseline Risk Assessment (RA) to be conducted under the Final Remedy Selection (FRS) at a later date. This work plan addresses needs of a Treatability Study to support the design and implementation of an interim remedial action for the Uranium- 99 T c -Nitrate multi-contaminant IRM plume identified beneath U Plant

  4. Common risk indicators for oral diseases and obesity in 12-year-olds: a South Pacific cross sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Tubert-Jeannin, Stéphanie; Pichot, Hélène; Rouchon, Bernard; Pereira, Bruno; Hennequin, Martine

    2018-01-01

    Background Despite the increasing need to prevent obesity and oral diseases in adolescents worldwide, few studies have investigated the link existing between these conditions and their common risk factors. This study aims to evaluate the oral health and weight status of New Caledonian Children (aged 6,9,12 years) and to identify, amongst 12-year-olds, risk indicators that may characterize the groups of children affected by oral diseases, obesity or both diseases. Methods This survey evaluated...

  5. Putting risk analysis into perspective: a comparative review of major societal risk studies of nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dooley, J.E.; Hansson, B.; Kaspersson, R.; ORiordan, T.; Paschen, H.

    1983-04-01

    The emphasis in this final report of the project Evaluation of major Swedish energy risk assessments in an international perspective is shifted towards the comparative aspect. The comprehensive nuclear risk study has been used as an instrument to satisfy many needs simultaneously. The research consisted of an examination of existing risk studies of five nations, namely West Germany, UK, US, Canada and Sweden. The effect of nuclear risk studies on society at large and on public attitude towards nuclear power in particular is discussed. Finally, the effect on the nuclear establishment is analysed. (G.B.)

  6. Estimated drinking water fluoride exposure and risk of hip fracture: a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Näsman, P; Ekstrand, J; Granath, F; Ekbom, A; Fored, C M

    2013-11-01

    The cariostatic benefit from water fluoridation is indisputable, but the knowledge of possible adverse effects on bone and fracture risk due to fluoride exposure is ambiguous. The association between long-term (chronic) drinking water fluoride exposure and hip fracture (ICD-7-9: '820' and ICD-10: 'S72.0-S72.2') was assessed in Sweden using nationwide registers. All individuals born in Sweden between January 1, 1900 and December 31, 1919, alive and living in their municipality of birth at the time of start of follow-up, were eligible for this study. Information on the study population (n = 473,277) was linked among the Swedish National In-Patient Register (IPR), the Swedish Cause of Death Register, and the Register of Population and Population Changes. Estimated individual drinking water fluoride exposure was stratified into 4 categories: very low, hip fracture. The risk estimates did not change in analyses restricted to only low-trauma osteoporotic hip fractures. Chronic fluoride exposure from drinking water does not seem to have any important effects on the risk of hip fracture, in the investigated exposure range.

  7. Risk of stroke among patients with post-traumatic stress disorder: nationwide longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Mu-Hong; Pan, Tai-Long; Li, Cheng-Ta; Lin, Wei-Chen; Chen, Ying-Sheue; Lee, Ying-Chiao; Tsai, Shih-Jen; Hsu, Ju-Wei; Huang, Kai-Lin; Tsai, Chia-Fen; Chang, Wen-Han; Chen, Tzeng-Ji; Su, Tung-Ping; Bai, Ya-Mei

    2015-04-01

    Previous evidence has shown positive associations between post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and hypertension, dyslipidaemia and diabetes mellitus, which are all risk factors for stroke, but the role of PTSD in the subsequent development of stroke is still unknown. To investigate the temporal association between PTSD and the development of stroke. Identified from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database, 5217 individuals aged ≥18 years, with PTSD but with no history of stroke, and 20 868 age- and gender-matched controls were enrolled between 2002 and 2009, and followed up until the end of 2011 to identify the development of stroke. Individuals with PTSD had an increased risk of developing any stroke (hazard ratio (HR) 3.37, 95% CI 2.44-4.67) and ischaemic stroke (HR = 3.47, 95% CI 2.23-5.39) after adjusting for demographic data and medical comorbidities. Sensitivity tests showed consistent findings (any stroke HR = 3.02, 95% CI 2.13-4.28; ischaemic stroke HR = 2.89, 95% CI 1.79-4.66) after excluding the first year of observation. Individuals with PTSD have an increased risk of developing any stroke and ischaemic stroke. Further studies are required to investigate the underlying mechanisms. Royal College of Psychiatrists.

  8. Comprehensive review of genetic association studies and meta-analyses on miRNA polymorphisms and cancer risk.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kshitij Srivastava

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNAs are small RNA molecules that regulate the expression of corresponding messenger RNAs (mRNAs. Variations in the level of expression of distinct miRNAs have been observed in the genesis, progression and prognosis of multiple human malignancies. The present study was aimed to investigate the association between four highly studied miRNA polymorphisms (mir-146a rs2910164, mir-196a2 rs11614913, mir-149 rs2292832 and mir-499 rs3746444 and cancer risk by using a two-sided meta-analytic approach.An updated meta-analysis based on 53 independent case-control studies consisting of 27573 cancer cases and 34791 controls was performed. Odds ratio (OR and 95% confidence interval (95% CI were used to investigate the strength of the association.Overall, the pooled analysis showed that mir-196a2 rs11614913 was associated with a decreased cancer risk (OR = 0.846, P = 0.004, TT vs. CC while other miRNA SNPs showed no association with overall cancer risk. Subgroup analyses based on type of cancer and ethnicity were also performed, and results indicated that there was a strong association between miR-146a rs2910164 and overall cancer risk in Caucasian population under recessive model (OR = 1.274, 95%CI = 1.096-1.481, P = 0.002. Stratified analysis by cancer type also associated mir-196a2 rs11614913 with lung and colorectal cancer at allelic and genotypic level.The present meta-analysis suggests an important role of mir-196a2 rs11614913 polymorphism with overall cancer risk especially in Asian population. Further studies with large sample size are needed to evaluate and confirm this association.

  9. Underage drinking on saturday nights, sociodemographic and environmental risk factors: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galasso Laura

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Excessive alcohol consumption in underage people is a rising phenomenon. A major proportion of the disease burden and deaths of young people in developed nations is attributable to alcohol abuse. The aim of this study was to investigate social, demographic and environmental factors that may raise the risk of Saturday night drinking and binge drinking among Italian school students. Methods The study was conducted on a sample of 845 Italian underage school students, by means of an anonymous, self-test questionnaire. Multivariate logistic regression was applied to identify independent risk factors for alcohol drinking and binge drinking. Ordered logistic regression was used to identify independent risk factors for harmful drinking patterns. Results The independent variables that confer a higher risk of drinking in underage students are older age classes, male sex, returning home after midnight, belonging to a group with little respect for the rules, or to a group where young people are not seen as leaders. The higher the perception of alcohol consumption by the group, the higher the risk. Spending time in bars or discos coincides with a two-fold or four-fold increase, respectively, in the risk of alcohol consumption. Conclusion Our findings show that certain environmental and social risk factors are associated with underage drinking. The most important role for preventing young people's exposure to these factors lies with the family, because only parents can exert the necessary control and provide a barrier against potentially harmful situations.

  10. Feasibility study of component risk ranking for plant maintenance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ushijima, Koji; Yonebayashi, Kenji; Narumiya, Yoshiyuki; Sakata, Kaoru; Kumano, Tetsuji

    1999-01-01

    Nuclear power is the base load electricity source in Japan, and reduction of operation and maintenance cost maintaining or improving plant safety is one of the major issues. Recently, Risk Informed Management (RIM) is focused as a solution. In this paper, the outline regarding feasibility study of component risk ranking for plant maintenance for a typical Japanese PWR plant is described. A feasibility study of component risk raking for plant maintenance optimization is performed on check valves and motor-operated valves. Risk ranking is performed in two steps using probabilistic analysis (quantitative method) for risk ranking of components, and deterministic examination (qualitative method) for component review. In this study, plant components are ranked from the viewpoint of plant safety / reliability, and the applicability for maintenance is assessed. As a result, distribution of maintenance resources using risk ranking is considered effective. (author)

  11. Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma risk derived from exposure to organic solvents: a review of epidemiologic studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rêgo Marco Antônio V.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The rate of non-Hodgkin's lymphomas (NHL has increased around the world during the last decades. Apart from the role of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection in the development of NHL, exposure to chemical agents like phenoxyacetic pesticides, hair dyes, metal fumes and organic solvents are suspected to be involved. The present review evaluates the results of studies that directly or indirectly searched for an association between solvent exposure and NHL. The selected studies comprised those published from 1979 to 1997, designed to investigate risk factors for NHL, whether specifically looking for solvent exposure or for general risks in which solvent exposure could be included. In 25 of the 45 reviewed studies (55.5%, fifty-four statistically significant associations between NHL and solvent exposure related occupations or industries were reported. Statistical significance was more frequently shown in studies where solvent exposure was more accurately defined. In eighteen of such studies, 13 (72.2% defined or suggested organic solvents as possible risk factors for NHL.

  12. Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma risk derived from exposure to organic solvents: a review of epidemiologic studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Antônio V. Rêgo

    Full Text Available The rate of non-Hodgkin's lymphomas (NHL has increased around the world during the last decades. Apart from the role of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection in the development of NHL, exposure to chemical agents like phenoxyacetic pesticides, hair dyes, metal fumes and organic solvents are suspected to be involved. The present review evaluates the results of studies that directly or indirectly searched for an association between solvent exposure and NHL. The selected studies comprised those published from 1979 to 1997, designed to investigate risk factors for NHL, whether specifically looking for solvent exposure or for general risks in which solvent exposure could be included. In 25 of the 45 reviewed studies (55.5%, fifty-four statistically significant associations between NHL and solvent exposure related occupations or industries were reported. Statistical significance was more frequently shown in studies where solvent exposure was more accurately defined. In eighteen of such studies, 13 (72.2% defined or suggested organic solvents as possible risk factors for NHL.

  13. A Comparison Study on the Integrated Risk Estimation for Various Power Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Tae Woon; Ha, J. J.; Kim, S. H.; Jeong, J. T.; Min, K. R.; Kim, K. Y.

    2007-06-01

    The objective of this study is to establish a system for the comparative analysis of the environmental impacts, risks, health effects, and social acceptance for various electricity generation systems and a computational framework and necessary databases. In this study, the second phase of the nuclear research and development program(2002-2004), the methodologies for the comparative analysis of the environmental impacts, risks, and health effects for various electricity generation systems was investigated and applied to reference power plants. The life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology as a comparative analysis tool for the environmental impacts was adopted and applied to fossil-fueled and nuclear power plants. The scope of the analysis considered in this study are the construction, operation/fuel cycle), and demolition of each power generation system. In the risk analysis part, the empirical and analytical methods were adopted and applied to fossil-fueled and nuclear power plants. In the empirical risk assessment part, we collected historical experiences of worldwide energy-related accidents with fatalities over the last 30 years. The scope of the analysis considered in this study are the construction, operation (fuel cycle), and demolition stages of each power generation systems. The risks for the case of nuclear power plants which have potential releases of radioactive materials were estimated In a probabilistic way (PSA) by considering the occurrence of severe accidents and compared with the risks of other electricity generation systems. The health effects testimated as external cost) resulting from the operation of nuclear, coal, and hydro power systems were estimated and compared by using the program developed by the IAEA. Regarding a comprehensive comparison of the various power systems, the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) method is introduced to aggregate the diverse information under conflicting decision criteria. Social aspect is treated by a web

  14. Birthweight and the risk of childhood-onset type 1 diabetes: a meta-analysis of observational studies using individual patient data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cardwell, C R; Stene, L C; Joner, G

    2010-01-01

    relevant data were contacted and asked to provide individual patient data or conduct pre-specified analyses. Risk estimates of type 1 diabetes by category of birthweight were calculated for each study, before and after adjustment for potential confounders.Meta-analysis techniques were then used to derive......AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: We investigated whether children who are heavier at birth have an increased risk of type 1 diabetes. METHODS: Relevant studies published before February 2009 were identified from literature searches using MEDLINE, Web of Science and EMBASE. Authors of all studies containing...... combined ORs and investigate heterogeneity between studies. RESULTS: Data were available for 29 predominantly European studies (five cohort, 24 case-control studies), including 12,807 cases of type 1 diabetes. Overall, studies consistently demonstrated that children with birthweight from 3.5 to 4 kg had...

  15. Blood pressure and risk of renal cell carcinoma in the European prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weikert, Steffen; Boeing, Heiner; Pischon, Tobias

    2007-01-01

    in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). Blood pressure was measured in 296,638 women and men, recruited in eight European countries during 1992-1998, 254,935 of whom provided information on antihypertensive medication. During a mean follow-up of 6.2 years, 250 cases of RCC were...... interval: 1.54, 3.55). Risk estimates did not significantly differ according to sex or use of antihypertensive medication. Individuals taking antihypertensive drugs were not at a significantly increased risk unless blood pressure was poorly controlled. These results support the hypothesis that hypertension...

  16. Welding, a risk factor of lung cancer: the ICARE study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matrat, Mireille; Guida, Florence; Mattei, Francesca; Cénée, Sylvie; Cyr, Diane; Févotte, Joëlle; Sanchez, Marie; Menvielle, Gwenn; Radoï, Loredana; Schmaus, Annie; Woronoff, Anne-Sophie; Luce, Danièle; Stücker, Isabelle

    2016-04-01

    We investigated the relationship between lung cancer and occupational exposure to welding activity in ICARE, a population-based case-control study. Analyses were restricted to men (2276 cases, 2780 controls). Welding exposure was assessed through detailed questionnaires, including lifelong occupational history. ORs were computed using unconditional logistic regression, adjusted for lifelong cigarette smoking and occupational exposure to asbestos. Among the regular welders, welding was associated with a risk of lung cancer (OR=1.7, 95% CI 1.1 to 2.5), which increased with the duration (OR=2.0, 95% CI 1.0 to 3.9 when duration >10 years), and was maximum 10-20 years since last welding. The risk was more pronounced in case of gas welding (OR=2.0, 95% CI 1.2 to 3.3), when the workpiece was covered by paint, grease, or other substances (OR=2.0, 95% CI 1.2 to 3.4) and when it was cleaned with chemical substances before welding. No statistically significant increase in lung cancer risk was observed among occasional welders. Although these results should be confirmed, we showed that type of welding and mode of workpiece preparation are important determinants of the lung cancer risk in regular welders. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  17. An Investigation of Suicide Risk and Counseling Participation among College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Carli H.

    2010-01-01

    College suicide research consistently shows that fewer than 20 percent of college students who commit suicide were clients at their university counseling centers. Counseling participation is a known protective factor from suicide. However, to date, few studies have examined the differences between college students at risk of suicide who…

  18. Investigation of gene-environment interactions between 47 newly identified breast cancer susceptibility loci and environmental risk factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rudolph, Anja; Milne, Roger L.; Truong, Thérèse; Knight, Julia A.; Seibold, Petra; Flesch-Janys, Dieter; Behrens, Sabine; Eilber, Ursula; Bolla, Manjeet K.; Wang, Qin; Dennis, Joe; Dunning, Alison M.; Shah, Mitul; Munday, Hannah R.; Darabi, Hatef; Eriksson, Mikael; Brand, Judith S.; Olson, Janet; Vachon, Celine M.; Hallberg, Emily; Castelao, J. Esteban; Carracedo, Angel; Torres, Maria; Li, Jingmei; Humphreys, Keith; Cordina-Duverger, Emilie; Menegaux, Florence; Flyger, Henrik; Nordestgaard, Børge G.; Nielsen, Sune F.; Yesilyurt, Betul T.; Floris, Giuseppe; Leunen, Karin; Engelhardt, Ellen G.; Broeks, Annegien; Rutgers, Emiel J.; Glendon, Gord; Mulligan, Anna Marie; Cross, Simon; Reed, Malcolm; Gonzalez-Neira, Anna; Arias Perez, José Ignacio; Provenzano, Elena; Apicella, Carmel; Southey, Melissa C.; Spurdle, Amanda; Häberle, Lothar; Beckmann, Matthias W.; Ekici, Arif B.; Dieffenbach, Aida Karina; Arndt, Volker; Stegmaier, Christa; McLean, Catriona; Baglietto, Laura; Chanock, Stephen J.; Lissowska, Jolanta; Sherman, Mark E.; Brüning, Thomas; Hamann, Ute; Ko, Yon-Dschun; Orr, Nick; Schoemaker, Minouk; Ashworth, Alan; Kosma, Veli-Matti; Kataja, Vesa; Hartikainen, Jaana M.; Mannermaa, Arto; Swerdlow, Anthony; Giles, Graham G.; Brenner, Hermann; Fasching, Peter A.; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Hopper, John; Benítez, Javier; Cox, Angela; Andrulis, Irene L.; Lambrechts, Diether; Gago-Dominguez, Manuela; Couch, Fergus; Czene, Kamila; Bojesen, Stig E.; Easton, Doug F.; Schmidt, Marjanka K.; Guénel, Pascal; Hall, Per; Pharoah, Paul D. P.; Garcia-Closas, Montserrat; Chang-Claude, Jenny

    2015-01-01

    A large genotyping project within the Breast Cancer Association Consortium (BCAC) recently identified 41 associations between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and overall breast cancer (BC) risk. We investigated whether the effects of these 41 SNPs, as well as six SNPs associated with estrogen

  19. A case-control study on risk of changing food consumption for colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bing; Li, Xiangping; Nakama, Hidenori; Zhang, Xing; Wei, Ning; Zhang, Xiulan; Zhang, Leshan

    2002-01-01

    To investigate the relative risk factor of food items for colorectal cancer in four time periods through a case-control study in a Chinese rural area. Colorectal cancer patients diagnosed at a county cancer center, Hebei Province, China, and non-cancer outpatients with similar age, sex, and place of residence were selected for cases and controls, respectively. There were 102 (93.6%) colorectal cancer patients and 99 (90.8%) outpatients being the cases and controls, respectively in the present investigation, who agreed to be interviewed about their food intake, during a 20-year period, through a food frequency questionnaire. The risks of intake of different food items and lifestyle for colorectal cancer were compared between cases and controls. During the 20-year period, diets of both cases and controls changed with increase in intake of animal foods and fruits, and alcohol consumption tended to increase. In the food items, milk intake showed a protective effect in both males and females, and the odds ratios were 0.38 (95% CI 0.16-0.90) and 0.28 (95% CI 0.10-0.81) for males and females, respectively. A reduced risk of fruit intake could be seen in males, while a reduced risk of vegetables could be observed in females. Meat intake and saturated fats were the prominent risk factors for colorectal cancer in males and females, respectively. A comparison of life habits, showed that tea drinking had a consistent protective effect in females, and the odds ratios were 0.21 (0.08-0.58), 0.23 (0.08-0.67), 0.25 (0.10-0.64), and 0.11 (0.04-0.30) for periods of 20-, 10-, 5-years ago, and current time, respectively. These findings indicate that change in food consumption is strongly associated with a change in risk of colorectal cancer, and dietary meat has increased the risk of colorectal cancer. Increase in the consumption of milk and fruits may be a significant measure for colorectal cancer prevention in low-incidence areas.

  20. Driving behaviours, traffic risk and road safety: comparative study between Malaysia and Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Saif ur Rehman; Khalifah, Zainab Binti; Munir, Yasin; Islam, Talat; Nazir, Tahira; Khan, Hashim

    2015-01-01

    The present study aims to investigate differences in road safety attitude, driver behaviour and traffic risk perception between Malaysia and Singapore. A questionnaire-based survey was conducted among a sample of Singaporean (n = 187) and Malaysian (n = 313) road users. The data was analysed using confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modelling applied to measure comparative fit indices of Malaysian and Singaporean respondents. The results show that the perceived traffic risk of Malaysian respondents is higher than Singaporean counterparts. Moreover, the structural equation modelling has confirmed perceived traffic risk performing the role of full mediation between perceived driving skills and perceived road safety for both the countries, while perceived traffic skills was found to perform the role of partial mediation between aggression and anxiety, on one hand, and road safety, on the other hand, in Malaysia and Singapore. In addition, in both countries, a weak correlation between perceived driving skills, aggression and anxiety with perceived road safety was found, while a strong correlation exists with traffic risk perception. The findings of this study have been discussed in terms of theoretical, practical and conceptual implications for both scholars and policy-makers to better understand the young drivers' attitude and behaviour relationship towards road safety measures with a view to future research.

  1. Prospective cohort study of soy food intake and colorectal cancer risk in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Gong; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Li, Honglan; Chow, Wong-Ho; Cai, Hui; Zhang, Xianglan; Gao, Yu-Tang; Zheng, Wei

    2009-02-01

    Soy and some of its constituents, such as isoflavones, have been shown to have cancer-inhibitory activities in experimental studies. Data from epidemiologic studies linking usual soy food intake with colorectal cancer are limited and inconsistent. The objective was to investigate whether soy food intake is associated with colorectal cancer risk. We prospectively examined 68,412 women aged 40-70 y and free of cancer and diabetes at enrollment. Usual soy food intake was assessed at baseline (1997-2000) and reassessed during the first follow-up (2000-2002) through in-person interviews with a validated food-frequency questionnaire. We excluded the first year of observation to minimize lifestyle changes related to preclinical disease. During a mean follow-up of 6.4 y, 321 incident colorectal cancer cases were identified. After adjustment for potential confounding factors, total soy food intake was inversely associated with colorectal cancer risk. Each 5-g/d increment in intake of soy foods as assessed by dry weight [equivalent to approximately 1 oz (28.35 g) tofu/d] was associated with an 8% reduction in risk (95% CI: 3%, 14%). Women in the highest tertile of intake had a multivariate relative risk of 0.67 (95% CI: 0.49, 0.90) compared with those in the lowest tertile (P for trend = 0.008). This inverse association was primarily confined to postmenopausal women. Similar results were also found for intakes of soy protein and isoflavones. This prospective study suggests that consumption of soy foods may reduce the risk of colorectal cancer in postmenopausal women.

  2. Study of operational risk-based configuration control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vesely, W E [Science Applications International Corp., Dublin, OH (United States); Samanta, P K; Kim, I S [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1991-08-01

    This report studies aspects of a risk-based configuration control system to detect and control plant configurations from a risk perspective. Configuration control, as the term is used here, is the management of component configurations to achieve specific objectives. One important objective is to control risk and safety. Another is to operate efficiently and make effective use of available resources. PSA-based evaluations are performed to study configuration to core-melt frequency and core-melt probability for two plants. Some equipment configurations can cause large core-melt frequency and there are a number of such configurations that are not currently controlled by technical specifications. However, the expected frequency of occurrence of the impacting configurations is small and the core-melt probability contributions are also generally small. The insights from this evaluation are used to develop the framework for an effective risk-based configuration control system. The focal points of such a system and the requirements for tools development for implementing the system are defined. The requirements of risk models needed for the system, and the uses of plant-specific data are also discussed. 18 refs., 25 figs., 10 tabs.

  3. On the perceived usefulness of risk descriptions for decision-making in disaster risk management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Lexin; Nilsson, Anders; Sjölin, Johan; Abrahamsson, Marcus; Tehler, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    Managing risk using an “all-hazards” and “whole of society”-approach involves extensive communication of risk descriptions among many stakeholders. In the present study we investigate how professionals working with disaster risk management in such contexts perceive the usefulness of different descriptions of risk. Empirical data from the Swedish disaster risk management system were used in an attempt to investigate the aspects of a risk description that affect its usefulness (as perceived by professionals). Thirty-three local municipal risk and vulnerability assessments (RVA documents) produced in the region of Scania in 2012 were analyzed in terms of six variables. The documents were then ranked by professionals based on their perceived usefulness for decision-making. Statistical analysis was conducted to identify any possible correlations between the overall ranking of the usefulness of the municipal RVA:s and each of the variables. We conclude that the way the likelihood and consequences of scenarios are described influence the perceived usefulness of a risk description. Furthermore, whether descriptions of scenarios are included in a risk description or not, and whether background information concerning the likelihood of scenarios are included also influence perceived usefulness of risk descriptions. - Highlights: • Written communication of risk between professionals is investigated. • The way likelihood is described influences a risk description's usefulness. • The way consequences are described influence a risk description's usefulness. • Whether background information is included in a risk description influences its usefulness

  4. Consumption of Whole-Grain Bread and Risk of Colorectal Cancer among Norwegian Women (the NOWAC Study)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakken, Toril; Braaten, Tonje; Olsen, Anja; Kyrø, Cecilie; Lund, Eiliv; Skeie, Guri

    2016-01-01

    There is evidence that consumption of foods containing dietary fiber decreases the risk of colorectal cancer (CRC). Whole grains contain dietary fiber, as well as a range of micronutrients and bioactive compounds, but the association between the consumption of whole grains and the risk of CRC remains less studied. The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between whole-grain bread consumption and CRC incidence among Norwegian women, using data from a prospective cohort study (the Norwegian Women and Cancer Study). Dietary intake was estimated from the food-frequency questionnaires of 78,254 women in the cohort (median age: 55 years), and these women were then followed up for CRC incidence. During the 9 years of median follow-up, 795 women were diagnosed with CRC (316 proximal, 193 distal, 218 rectal). Associations between whole-grain bread consumption and the risk of CRC (including colorectal subsites) were investigated using Cox proportional hazards regression models. When compared to the low consumption group, the hazard ratio for CRC was 0.89 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.72–1.09) for the high consumption group and 0.86 (95% CI: 0.72–1.02) for the medium consumption group in a multivariable model. Overall, no association between whole-grain bread consumption and CRC was found. PMID:26771634

  5. Consumption of Whole-Grain Bread and Risk of Colorectal Cancer among Norwegian Women (the NOWAC Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toril Bakken

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available There is evidence that consumption of foods containing dietary fiber decreases the risk of colorectal cancer (CRC. Whole grains contain dietary fiber, as well as a range of micronutrients and bioactive compounds, but the association between the consumption of whole grains and the risk of CRC remains less studied. The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between whole-grain bread consumption and CRC incidence among Norwegian women, using data from a prospective cohort study (the Norwegian Women and Cancer Study. Dietary intake was estimated from the food-frequency questionnaires of 78,254 women in the cohort (median age: 55 years, and these women were then followed up for CRC incidence. During the 9 years of median follow-up, 795 women were diagnosed with CRC (316 proximal, 193 distal, 218 rectal. Associations between whole-grain bread consumption and the risk of CRC (including colorectal subsites were investigated using Cox proportional hazards regression models. When compared to the low consumption group, the hazard ratio for CRC was 0.89 (95% confidence interval (CI: 0.72–1.09 for the high consumption group and 0.86 (95% CI: 0.72–1.02 for the medium consumption group in a multivariable model. Overall, no association between whole-grain bread consumption and CRC was found.

  6. Use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and risk of re-operation due to post-surgical bleeding in breast cancer patients: a Danish population-based cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gärtner, Rune; Cronin-Fenton, Deirdre; Hundborg, Heidi Holmager

    2010-01-01

    Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI) decrease platelet-function, which suggests that SSRI use may increase the risk of post-surgical bleeding. Few studies have investigated this potential association.......Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI) decrease platelet-function, which suggests that SSRI use may increase the risk of post-surgical bleeding. Few studies have investigated this potential association....

  7. Physical activity and time spent sitting as a risk factor for low-back pain: longitudinal data from the HUNT study

    OpenAIRE

    Venseth, Torje Bragstad

    2014-01-01

    Background: Low back pain (LBP) is the most common pain condition with a lifetime prevalence of 70 %. One of the most investigated risk factor for LBP is sedentary lifestyle. This is of great interest as sitting is the more dominant occupational activity in today’s society. Aim: The aim of this study was to prospectively investigate if the risk of chronic LBP is associated with time spent sitting, leisure time physical activity, and occupational activity. We also examined the combined eff...

  8. Impact of high-intensity concurrent training on cardiovascular risk factors in persons with multiple sclerosis - pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keytsman, Charly; Hansen, Dominique; Wens, Inez; O Eijnde, Bert

    2017-10-27

    High-intensity concurrent training positively affects cardiovascular risk factors. Because this was never investigated in multiple sclerosis, the present pilot study explored the impact of this training on cardiovascular risk factors in this population. Before and after 12 weeks of high-intense concurrent training (interval and strength training, 5 sessions per 2 weeks, n = 16) body composition, resting blood pressure and heart rate, 2-h oral glucose tolerance (insulin sensitivity, glycosylated hemoglobin, blood glucose and insulin concentrations), blood lipids (high- and low-density lipoprotein, total cholesterol, triglyceride levels) and C-reactive protein were analyzed. Twelve weeks of high-intense concurrent training significantly improved resting heart rate (-6%), 2-h blood glucose concentrations (-13%) and insulin sensitivity (-24%). Blood pressure, body composition, blood lipids and C-reactive protein did not seem to be affected. Under the conditions of this pilot study, 12 weeks of concurrent high-intense interval and strength training improved resting heart rate, 2-h glucose and insulin sensitivity in multiple sclerosis but did not affect blood C-reactive protein levels, blood pressure, body composition and blood lipid profiles. Further, larger and controlled research investigating the effects of high-intense concurrent training on cardiovascular risk factors in multiple sclerosis is warranted. Implications for rehabilitation High-intensity concurrent training improves cardiovascular fitness. This pilot study explores the impact of this training on cardiovascular risk factors in multiple sclerosis. Despite the lack of a control group, high-intense concurrent training does not seem to improve cardiovascular risk factors in multiple sclerosis.

  9. Heart diseases and long-term risk of dementia and Alzheimer's disease: a population-based CAIDE study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusanen, Minna; Kivipelto, Miia; Levälahti, Esko; Laatikainen, Tiina; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Soininen, Hilkka; Ngandu, Tiia

    2014-01-01

    Many cardiovascular risk factors are shown to increase the risk of dementia and Alzheimer's disease (AD), but the impact of heart disease on later development of dementia is still unclear. The aim of the study was to investigate the long-term risk of dementia and Alzheimer's disease (AD) related to midlife and late-life atrial fibrillation (AF), heart failure (HF), and coronary artery disease (CAD) in a population-based